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Traditional Food Security

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021669/00001

Material Information

Title: Traditional Food Security Tohono O'ohdam Traditional Foods in Transition
Physical Description: 1 online resource (239 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agriculture, arizona, border, culutral, diabetes, farming, food, health, indigenous, law, native, oodham, papago, policy, revitalization, security, systems, tohono, traditional, traditions
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In the last decade, there has been a movement on the Tohono O'odham Nation (TON)to revitalize traditional foods as a bioregional response to high rates of diabetes. This research was conducted on and around the TON from July 2004 to December 2006. Methods included participant observation and semi-structured interviews with TON members (N=48) and non-TON members associated with regional food production (N=7). These interviews add quantitative and qualitative data to research and efforts to revitalize the TON's traditional food system. Tohono O'odham perceive a variety of foods to be traditional, from pre-Contact foods gathered, grown and hunted in the desert to contemporary Pan-Indian foods such as fry bread and Indian tacos. In total 133 responses were recorded, 31 responses were significant and 7 particularly significant. There were large differences between young adult (20 to 39 years old) and elder (over 60) perceptions of traditional foods. These differences suggest a further decline in knowledge and consumption of pre-Contact traditional foods. There is currently an unmet demand for traditional foods on the TON. The major factors that limit traditional food consumption are lack of both convenience and availability. Safety during traditional food collection and cost were other factors which limited an individual's ability to access traditional foods. Tohono O'odham individuals cite health-related issues coupled with tradition-preservation as the main reasons why they currently consume traditional foods. Most respondents reported that they had collected and grown traditional foods in the past, but currently only 25% collect and only 11% grow traditional foods. Through an examination of US and global food security policy and food delivery systems coupled with an historical analysis of transitions in Tohono O?odham food systems; this research explores dimensions of food insecurity on the Tohono O'odham Nation. This research suggests policy recommendations as a means to more effectively support the revitalization of Tohono O'odham food systems. This research suggests and develops the traditional food security concept as a means to empower communities, such as the Tohono O'odham, which are struggling with diseases of affluence and community degradation.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Magnarella, Paul J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021669:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021669/00001

Material Information

Title: Traditional Food Security Tohono O'ohdam Traditional Foods in Transition
Physical Description: 1 online resource (239 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agriculture, arizona, border, culutral, diabetes, farming, food, health, indigenous, law, native, oodham, papago, policy, revitalization, security, systems, tohono, traditional, traditions
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In the last decade, there has been a movement on the Tohono O'odham Nation (TON)to revitalize traditional foods as a bioregional response to high rates of diabetes. This research was conducted on and around the TON from July 2004 to December 2006. Methods included participant observation and semi-structured interviews with TON members (N=48) and non-TON members associated with regional food production (N=7). These interviews add quantitative and qualitative data to research and efforts to revitalize the TON's traditional food system. Tohono O'odham perceive a variety of foods to be traditional, from pre-Contact foods gathered, grown and hunted in the desert to contemporary Pan-Indian foods such as fry bread and Indian tacos. In total 133 responses were recorded, 31 responses were significant and 7 particularly significant. There were large differences between young adult (20 to 39 years old) and elder (over 60) perceptions of traditional foods. These differences suggest a further decline in knowledge and consumption of pre-Contact traditional foods. There is currently an unmet demand for traditional foods on the TON. The major factors that limit traditional food consumption are lack of both convenience and availability. Safety during traditional food collection and cost were other factors which limited an individual's ability to access traditional foods. Tohono O'odham individuals cite health-related issues coupled with tradition-preservation as the main reasons why they currently consume traditional foods. Most respondents reported that they had collected and grown traditional foods in the past, but currently only 25% collect and only 11% grow traditional foods. Through an examination of US and global food security policy and food delivery systems coupled with an historical analysis of transitions in Tohono O?odham food systems; this research explores dimensions of food insecurity on the Tohono O'odham Nation. This research suggests policy recommendations as a means to more effectively support the revitalization of Tohono O'odham food systems. This research suggests and develops the traditional food security concept as a means to empower communities, such as the Tohono O'odham, which are struggling with diseases of affluence and community degradation.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Magnarella, Paul J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021669:00001


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TRADITIONAL FOOD SECURITY:
TOHONO O'ODHAM TRADITIONAL FOODS INT TRANSITION





















By

DAVID V. FAZZINTO II


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008






































O 2008 David V. Fazzino II



































To the men and women who have gone before and to
those that continue to work fields and pray for rain.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

There were many who have helped to make this writing possible, providing me with

necessary guidance, inspiration, kind words, and criticism when it was needed. I would like to

start by thanking my Ph.D. advisor, Paul Magnarella for his support through my years at the

University of Florida and throughout this process. Allyson Flournoy, Hugh Popenoe and John

Richard Stepp, the members of my Ph.D. committee, were also supportive. Of course I would

have never arrived to study anthropology without the early guidance of my undergraduate

anthropology instructors, particularly Esther Skirboll. I thank key contributors to my knowledge

of food security and food systems: Jeff Gold, Peter Matlon, Larry Patrick, and my former fellow

students at the Harmony House in Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania.

Several individuals and organizations deserve my thanks for enhancing my understanding

of food and culture on and around the Tohono O'odham Nation. The Tohono O'odham

Community College staff, fellow students and particularly professors Ronald Geromino, Barbara

Kahn, Danny Lopez and Monica Lopez deserve mention for teaching me about Tohono

O'odham language, culture and the multiple levels and scales of knowledge concerning diabetes

on the Tohono O'odham Nation. Alicia Davis, Lance Gravlee, Danny Lopez and Kenneth

Madsen were helpful in the final stages of this proj ect. I thank Frances Conde, the Agriculture

and the Cultural Preservation Committees of the Legislative Branch of the Tohono O'odham

Nation for guiding me in the process of gaining permission and their insights informing both

myself and this work. The following organizations and individuals also deserve my thanks: Alex

Beeshligaii, Paul Buseck, Kevin Dahl, Bill Lopez, William Leonard Mattias, Peter McCrohan,

Native Seeds/SEARCH, Suzanne Nelson, Renee Reddog, San Lucy Elders Program, Sells Elders

Program, David Shaul, San Xavier Cooperative Farm, Regina Siqueros, Tohono O'odham

Community Action, Tohono O'odham Community College and Bill Worthy. Particularly,









Ernestine Marquez of the San Lucy District deserves mention for her efforts in promoting this

research within the San Lucy District, making space and time available for interviews, and great

conversations. I also extend my thanks for the support and love of my family, including my

wife, Dana Davis, during an extended period of research and writing.

I hope that you will all find your name here, but if I have omitted mention here, please

consider it an oversight and accept my apologies.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ................ ...............9............ ....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............12....


LI ST OF AB BREVIAT IONS ................. ................. 14......... ....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 15...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............17.......... ......


Food Security Law and Policy ................. ...............17........... ...
Diseases of Affluence ................. ...............27........... ....
Obesity ................. ...............27.................
D iabetes .................. ... .......... ........... ...............29_
Community Foods, Community Health .............. ...............30....
Food Security Revi sited ............... ...............3
Situating the Research .............. ...............38....
Goals of the Research .................. .. ............ .. .......... ............4
Research Approvals and Methods of Gathering Data .............. ...............48....
Limitations to This Study .............. ...............52....


2 THE TOHONO O'ODHAM ................. ...............58.......... ....


The Desert People ................. ...............58........... ....
T ohono O' odham Land s ................. ...............6.. 1......... ..
Eco-Biological Factors .............. ......... ..............6
Economies of the Tohono O'odham Nation ................. ................ ......... ........ .64
Casino ................. ...............64.................
M ining .............. ...............65....
Ranching .................. ...............66......_ ._ .....
Agricultural Production ................. ...............68........ ......
Professional and Administrative............... .............7
Inform al Economy ................... ... ... ._ ...... ............. ... ..............7
Entities Involved with Tohono O'odham Agriculture, Health and Tradition ................... ......74
San Xavier Cooperative Farm ........................... ..............7
Tohono O'odham Community Action (TOCA) ................ .............. ......... .....77
Healthy O'odham Promotion Program (HOPP) ................. .............. ......... .....80
Tohono O'odham Community College ......__....._.__._ ......._.. ............8
Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S) .............. ...............81....














3 FOOD: LOCAL, GLOBAL, OTHER .............. ...............91....


Arizona Agriculture ................. ...............91.................
Global and Local Bioregionalism ................. ...............92........... ...
Sustainable and Industrial Agriculture .............. ...............96....
Taste and the Exotic Other .............. ...............100...
Genes, Property and Intellectual Currents ................ ...............105........... ...

4 TOHONO O'ODHAM FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGES ................. ............. .......110


What are Traditional Foods? ............... ... .. ...._ ........... ...........11
Hi stori cal Shifts in Tohono O'odham F ood Sy stem s.....__ ............. ...... .........__11 1
Negotiating Tohono O'odham Traditional Foods ................. .......................__113
Traditional Foods by Gender............... ...............117
Traditional Foods by District ................. ...............118...............
Traditional foods by Age ................... ....... ........ .. .......... ...........11
Consumption of Traditional Foods in the Past, Present and Future ................. ................. 123
Factors Limiting Traditional Foods Consumption .............. ...............126....
Convenience of Traditional Foods .................. ........ ..... ................ 129
Safety and Security of Collecting Along the U. S.-Mexico Borderlands ................... ....133
Alcohol, Drugs and Gangs .............. ...............136....
Cost of Traditional Foods ................. ........... ...............139 ....
The Health of Eating Traditional Foods ................. ...............141..............
Contamination .............. ...............143....
Land Access............... ...............144


5 WORKING NEW FIELDS .............. .....................168


Reasons Why Tohono O'odham Consume Traditional Foods ................. ........._.. .......168
Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by Age ........_................. ...............170
Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by Gender ................. .......................172
Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by District ................. ............ .........173
The Current Traditional Food System ............ ......__ ...............174 ...
Growing Traditional Food ................. ...............174...... ......
Collecting Traditional Food .............. ...............177....
Cooking Traditional Foods ................. ...............179......._ ....
Hope............... ...............182.

6 FOOD SECURITY'S FUTURE ................. ...............194............


Paradigms of Food Security ............... ........._._ ....... ...............195.
Traditional Food Security on the Tohono O'odham Nation ................. ........_._..........196
Tohono O'odham Nation Policy Recommendations ................. ........... ................ ...196
US Policy Recommendations to Promote Traditional Food Security .............. .................199











APPENDIX

A RESEARCH APPROVAL DOCUMENTS .............. ...............201....


B LIST OF QUESTIONS RESEARCHER ASKED TOHONO O'ODHAM
INDIVIDUA LS ............. ...............213....

C AB STRACT IN O'ODHAM ................. ...............214........... ..

LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............216................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............239....










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1-1 Change in acreage farmed over time for the Tohono O'odham Nation, excluding San
Xavier and San Lucy Districts. ............. ...............57.....

1-2 Change in acreage farmed over time for San Xavier District ................. ......._._. ......57

1-3 Number of people interviewed by Tohono O'odham District............_._._ ........_._. .....57

3-1 Top agriculture commodities in Arizona in 2006. ............. ...............109....

4-1 Free list descriptive statistics for domain of traditional foods (N=48). ................... ........148

4-2 Responses to "What foods do you consider to be traditional foods?" question (free
list data sorted by difference between male and female (fem) percentage) ................... ..149

4-3 Responses to "What foods do you consider to be traditional foods?" question (free
list data sorted by difference between San Lucy (SL) and Non-SL percentage).............151

4-4 Young adult and elder responses to "What foods do you consider to be traditional
foods?" question (free list data sorted by difference between young adult and elders
for 31 most mentioned responses). ............. ...............153....

4-5 Young adult and middle age responses to "What foods do you consider to be
traditional foods?" question (free list data sorted by difference between young adults
and middle age)............... ...............155.

4-6 Middle age and elder responses to "What foods do you consider to be traditional
foods?" question (free list data sorted by difference between middle age and elders)....157

4-7 Self-reported change in traditional food consumption by gender. .............. ..............158

4-8 Self-reported change in traditional food consumption by age. .............. ...................158

4-9 Self-reported change in traditional food consumption by area. ............. .............. .158

4-10 Reported consumption versus desired consumption in 2002............... .................15

4-11 Reported consumption versus desired traditional food consumption for Nation. ...........159

4-12 Limiting factors for traditional foods consumption in 2002..........._.._.. .........._ .....159

4-13 Chi-square of limiting factors to traditional food consumption and age. ......................160

4-14 Cross tabulation of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption by age. ................160










4-15 Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between elder and young
adult (YA) percentage). ............. ...............161....

4-16 Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between elder and middle
age (M A) percentage). ............. ...............161....

4-17 Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between middle age
(MA) and young adult (YA) percentage)............... ..............16

4-18 Chi-square of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption and gender. ................. 162

4-19 Cross tabulation of limiting factors to traditional food consumption and gender. ..........163

4-20 Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between males and
females percentage). ............. ...............163....

4-21 Chi-square of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption and district. ................. 164

4-22 Cross tabulation of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption and district..........1 65

4-23 Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between San Lucy (SL)
and non-SL percentage). ............. ...............166....

5-1 Chi-square of age and reasons why traditional foods are consumed. .............. ............... 187

5-2 Cross tabulation of reasons why traditional foods are consumed by age. .................. .....187

5-3 Responses to the question, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" (summarized
coded responses sorted by difference between elder and young adult (YA)
percentage) ................. ...............188................

5-4 Responses to the question, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" (summarized
coded responses sorted by difference between middle age (MA) and young adult
(YA) percentage). ............. ...............188....

5-5 Responses to the question, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" (summarized
coded responses sorted by difference between elder and middle age (MA)
percentage) ................. ...............188................

5-6 Chi-square of gender and traditional foods consumption ................. ............ .........189

5-7 Cross tabulation of reasons why traditional foods are consumed by gender. ..................1 90










5-8 Responses to the question, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" (summarized
coded responses sorted by difference between males and female percentage). ..............190

5-9 Chi-square of district and traditional foods consumption ................. ............ .........191

5-10 Cross tabulation of reasons why traditional foods are consumed by district. ..................1 92

5-11 Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between San Lucy (SL)
and Non-SL percentage). ............. ...............192....

5-12 Responses to question, "What can be done to promote traditional foods?" for San
Lucy District and Nation as a whole. ................. ...............193....._... ..










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 Picture of buckhorn cholla (Cylindropunita acanthocarpa (Engelmann & Bigelow)
K nuth). ............. ...............55.....

1-2 Picture of saguaro cactus (Carnegica gigan2tean (Engelmann) Britton & Rose)...............55

1-3 Picture of mesquite (Prosopis velutina Wooton) ................. ...............55........... ..

1-4 Picture of Santa Rita prickly-pear (Opunita violacea var. santa-rita (Griffiths &
Hare) Rose (syn., O. violacea Engelmann)). ............. ...............56.....

1-5 Picture of Engelmann prickly-pear (Opunita engelmanni Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann). ...56

2-1 Map of Tohono O'odham lands in the U. S.A. and Mexico. Copied with permission
from Arizona Daily Star, Duarte (2001). ................ ....___ ...............87..

2-2 Map of the 11 Districts of the Tohono O'odham Nation. (Map courtesy of Kenneth
D. Madsen.)............... ...............88

2-3 This is a picture series of landscapes and vegetation in the Sonoran Desert. ..................89

2-4 Picture of organ pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelman) Buxbaum) .....................89

3-1 Digital photo of picture of Indian exhibit at rodeo,Tucson, Arizona. .............. ..... ..........109

4-1 Scree plot of percentage of responses to "What foods do you consider to be
traditional foods?"........... ...............146.

4-2 Scree plot of Smith' s S for 31 most mentioned traditional foods ................. ................147

4-3 Scatter plot of women' s and men's frequency of responses to "What foods do you
consider to be traditional foods?" question ................. ...............150..............

4-4 Scatter plot of San Lucy and Non-San Lucy frequency of responses to "What foods
do you consider to be traditional foods?" question ................. ............................152

4-5 Picture of golden hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus engelmannii). ............. ................1 52

4-6 Scatter plot of young adult elder frequency of 3 1 highest responses to "What foods
do you consider to be traditional foods?" question ................. ............................154

4-7 Scatter plot of young adult and middle age frequency of responses to "What foods do
you consider to be traditional foods?" question ................. ...........__ ..... 156__._...

4-8 Scatter plot of middle age and elder frequency of responses to "What foods do you
consider to be traditional foods?" question ................. ........._.__......158.__ ...











4-9 Limiting factors to traditional foods consumption by age. ............... ....................6

4-10 Limiting factors to traditional foods consumption for males and females. .....................164

4-11 Limiting factors to traditional food consumption by region ................. ........_.._._......166

4-12 Picture of Tohono O'odham Community Action (TOCA) foods ................. ................167

5-1 Reasons why traditional foods are consumed by age. ............. ...............189....

5-2 Reasons why traditional foods are consumed by gender. ................ ...................9

5-3 Reasons why traditional foods are consumed by district ................. .......................193









LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CBD Convention on Biological Diversity

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

GMO genetically modified organism

IA industrial agriculture

IHS Indian Health Services

NGO non-government organization

NS/S Native Seeds/SEARCH (Southwestern Endangered Arid-lands Resource
Clearing House)

SXCF San Xavier Cooperative Farm

TOCA Tohono O'odham Community Action

TOCC Tohono O'odham Community College

TON Tohono O'odham Nation

USDA United States Department of Agriculture

UN United Nations

WHO World Health Organization









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

TRADITIONAL FOOD SECURITY:
TOHONO O'ODHAM TRADITIONAL FOODS INT TRANSITION

By

David V. Fazzino II

May 2008

Chair: Paul J Magnarella
Major: Anthropology

In the last decade, there has been a movement on the Tohono O'odham Nation (TON) to

revitalize traditional foods as a bioregional response to high rates of diabetes. This research was

conducted on and around the TON from July 2004 to December 2006. Methods included

participant observation and semi-structured interviews with TON members (N=48) and non-

TON members associated with regional food production (N=7). These interviews add

quantitative and qualitative data to research and efforts to revitalize the TON's traditional food

system. Tohono O'odham perceive a variety of foods to be traditional, from pre-Contact foods

gathered, grown and hunted in the desert to contemporary Pan-Indian foods such as fry bread and

Indian tacos. In total 133 responses were recorded, 31 responses were significant and 7

particularly significant. There were large differences between young adult (20-39 years old) and

elder (over 60) perceptions of traditional foods. These differences suggest a further decline in

knowledge and consumption of pre-Contact traditional foods.

There is currently an unmet demand for traditional foods on the TON. The maj or factors

that limit traditional food consumption are lack of both convenience and availability. Safety

during traditional food collection and cost were other factors which limited an individual's









ability to access traditional foods. Tohono O'odham individuals cite health-related issues

coupled with tradition-preservation as the main reasons why they currently consume traditional

foods. Most respondents reported that they had collected and grown traditional foods in the past,

but currently only 25% collect and only 11% grow traditional foods.

Through an examination of US and global food security policy and food delivery systems

coupled with an historical analysis of transitions in Tohono O'odham food systems; this research

explores dimensions of food insecurity on the Tohono O'odham Nation. This research suggests

policy recommendations as a means to more effectively support the revitalization of Tohono

O'odham food systems. This research suggests and develops the traditional food security

concept as a means to empower communities, such as the Tohono O'odham, which are

struggling with diseases of affluence and community degradation.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

"Tell me what you eat and I'll tell you who you are." (from the French) and "You are

what you eat" (from the German) (Messer 1984). Food, in all of its manifestations and

meanings, ranks third behind air and water for meeting the imperative needs of our species,

shelter or security is arguably the fourth essential need. The twinning of food and security in

international and US policy has heretofore been primarily concerned with the movement of food

surpluses across boundaries, be they political, economic or moral. The concept of 'food security'

continues to be re-conceptualized by NGOs, governmental and international bodies. At the heart

of the various instruments for measuring food security is the notion that everyone has access to

foods that will maintain and perhaps enhance their health.

My research argues for an expansion of the food security concept to more holistically

address the growing incidence of diseases of affluence, particularly type 2 diabetes, by

examining community food revitalization efforts on the Tohono O'odham Nation in southern

Arizona. The current international and U.S. definitions and concepts of food security will first

be discussed. This will be followed by sections on: diseases of affluence, food security in lieu of

increasing incidence of dietary diseases, literature review, goals of the research, research

approvals and methods of gathering data and finally limitations to this study.

Food Security Law and Policy

The UN standard definition of food security is the Rome Declaration on Food Security, a

product of the 1996 World Food Summit. According to the Rome Declaration, "Food security

exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and

nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life."

This food security conceptualization considers that adequate food must be not only produced but










also distributed. This definition allows for a consideration of the preferences of people as

individuals to access foods according to their preferences so that they can live active and healthy

lives. It allows for a qualitative, if partial, discussion of what food security means for differently

situated individuals. This definition in itself fails to specifically account for cultural factors in

determining food consumption at the household and community level, however there are several

sections within the Rome Declaration on Food Security which expand the notion of food security

beyond the individual, to situate food security with indigenous peoples' approaches to economic

and social development and utilization of traditional foods. The Rome Declaration on Food

Security, like other international policy statements, conventions and declarations offers a broad


1 Specifically within the Rome Declaration on Food Security the following sections expand the food security
concept to specifically address food security for indigenous peoples: Objective 1.1 of the Rome Declaration on Food
Security states,

To prevent and resolve conflicts peacefully and create a stable political environment, through respect for all
human rights and fundamental freedoms, democracy, a transparent and effective legal framework,
transparent and accountable governance and administration in all public and private national and
international institutions, and effective and equal participation of all people, at all levels, in decisions and
actions that affect their food security. To this end, governments, in partnership, as appropriate, with all
actors of civil society, will where not already accomplished...(d) Recognize and support indigenous people
and their communities in their pursuit of economic and social development, with full respect for their
identity, traditions, forms of social organization and cultural values."

Objective 2.3 of the Rome Declaration on Food Security states,

To ensure that food supplies are safe, physically and economically accessible, appropriate and adequate to
meet the energy and nutrient needs of the population. To this end, governments, in partnership with all
actors of civil society, as appropriate, will...(c) "Encourage, where appropriate, the production and use of
culturally appropriate, traditional and underutilized food crops, including grains, oilseeds, pulses, root
crops, fruits and vegetables, promoting home and, where appropriate, school gardens and urban agriculture,
using sustainable technologies, and encourage the sustainable utilization of unused or underutilized fish
resources."

Objective 3.1 of the Rome Declaration on Food Security states,

To pursue, through participatory means, sustainable, intensified and diversified food production, increasing
productivity, efficiency, safety gains, pest control and reduced wastes and losses, taking fully into account
the need to sustain natural resources. To this end, governments, in partnership with all actors of civil
society, and with the support of international institutions, will, as appropriate...(b) ) Promote policies and
programmes which encourage appropriate input technologies, farming techniques, and other sustainable
methods, such as organic farming, to assist farming operations to become profitable, with the goal of
reducing environmental degradation, while creating financial resources within the farming operation; such
programmes should, when relevant, build upon farmers' own experiences and indigenous knowledge.










normative framework within which governments may act "as appropriate" to implement such

policies at the State level. Hence although the Rome Declaration on Food Security addresses

several aspects of food security for indigenous peoples, however the extent to which these are

implemented is left to the discretion of individual States within which the indigenous

communities must continually negotiate degrees of "appropriate" autonomy and access to

resources. The Rome Declaration on Food Security also cites other international human rights

(UN Convention on the Rights of the Child2 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social

and Cultural Rights3) and environmental instruments4 as imperative to confront challenges to the








SObjective 1.4 of the Rome Declaration on Food Security states,

To encourage national solidarity and provide equal opportunities for all, at all levels, in social, economic
and political life, particularly in respect of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups and persons. To this end,
governments, in partnership with all actors of civil society, will, as appropriate...(d) Give special attention
to promoting and protecting the interests and needs of the child, particularly the girl child, in food security
programmes, consistent with the World Summit for Children Convention on the Rights of the Child, New
York 1990.

SObjective 7.4 of the Rome Declaration on Food Security states,

To clarify the content of the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from
hunger, as stated in the Intemnational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other relevant
international and regional instruments, and to give particular attention to implementation and full and
progressive realization of this right as a means of achieving food security for all. To this end, governments,
in partnership with all actors of civil society, will, as appropriate...(a) Make every effort to implement the
provisions of Article 11 of the Intemnational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (the
Covenant) and relevant provisions of other international and regional instruments.

4 Objective 3.2 of the Rome Declaration on Food Security states,

To combat environmental threats to food security, in particular, drought and desertification, pests, erosion
of biological diversity, and degradation of land and aquatic-based natural resources, restore and rehabilitate
the natural resource base, including water and watersheds, in depleted and overexploited areas to achieve
greater production. To this end, governments, in partnership with all actors of civil society, and with the
support of international institutions, will, as appropriate...(j) Promote early ratification and implementation
of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought
and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, 1994, and implement the Convention on Biological Diversity,
1992, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987, and the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992.










realization of food security. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) also addresses

food security at the genetic level.'

Although there is not an internationally recognized definition of the right to food agreed to

by all States,6 human rights instruments have offered varying degrees of commitment to food

security for differently situated individuals and groups of people. These instruments include not

only the aforementioned International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights' but




5 The three objectives of the 1992 CBD according to Article 1 are,

the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable
sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to
genetic resources and by appropriate use of its technologies, taking into account all rights over those
resources and technologies, and by appropriate funding.

According to Article 15(1) of the CBD States have sovereign rights over their resources and thus they control access
to genetic resources through national legislation. Thus, the authority to control access is not guaranteed to local
communities or indigenous peoples by the CBD, but this power may be granted to a community where a genetic
resource is found. Under the CBD it is ultimately the State which will decide on a fair appropriation of the reward
between the government and the 'its' indigenous peoples. However, the CBD does provide some guidelines in
Article 8, which states that,

Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and appropriate: (j) Subject to its national legislation,
respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local
communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the
holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the
benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices.

By prefacing Article 8(j), with 'as far as possible and appropriate' the CBD does not require Contracting Parties to
make any concessions to indigenous and local communities. Options to implement article 8(j) include granting
rights to indigenous or local communities that may include: the right to control physical access and the right to
control subsequent use of genetic resources (Glowka 1998). According to Glowka (1998:15),

the explicit guarantee of these rights will help individuals and communities maintain their knowledge,
innovations and practices, clarify rights over access and benefits sharing and help insure that those who
profit from using their knowledge and innovations share equitably and fairly the benefits from that use.

6For the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Mr. Jean Ziegler,

[T]he right to food is the right to have regular, permanent and unrestricted access, either directly or by
means of financial purchases, to quantitatively and qualitatively adequate and sufficient food corresponding
to the cultural traditions of the people to which the consumer belongs, and which ensure a physical and
mental, individual and collective, fulfilling and dignified life free of fear (Special Rapporteur on the right to
food 2007).

SArticle 1(2) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights states,










also the Declaration on the Right to Developments and the Universal Declaration of Human

Rights.9 The recently adopted UN Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples also

addresses aspects of food security. 10



All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to
any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation based upon the principle of mutual benefit,
and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.

Article 11 of the ICESCR states,

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard
of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the
continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure
the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-
operation based on free consent.

2. The States Parties to the present Covenant, recognizing the fundamental right of everyone to be free
from hunger, shall take, individually and through international co-operation, the measures, including
specific programmes, which are needed:

(a) To improve methods of production, conservation and distribution of food by making full use of
technical and scientific knowledge, by disseminating knowledge of the principles of nutrition and by
developing or reforming agrarian systems in such a way as to achieve the most efficient
development and utilization of natural resources:

(b) Taking into account the problems of both food-importing and food-exporting countries, to
ensure an equitable distribution of world food supplies in relation to need.

SArticle 8(1) of the Declaration on the Right to Development states,

States should undertake, at the national level, all necessary measures for the realization of the right to
development and shall ensure, inter alia, equality of opportunity for all in their access to basic resources,
education, health services, food, housing, employment and the fair distribution of income... .Appropriate
economic and social reforms should be carried out with the view to eradicating all social injustices.

9 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 25(1) states,

Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being of himself and his family,
including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security
in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in
circumstances beyond his control.

'O The following articles of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People address food
security: Article 20 states,

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their political, economic and social systems or
institutions, to be secure in the enjoyment of their own means of subsistence and development, and to
engage freely in all their traditional and other economic activities.

2. Indigenous peoples deprived of their means of subsistence and development are entitled to just and fair
redress.

Article 26 of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People states:










These international conceptualizations of food security are adapted "as appropriate" by the

United States. One operational definition for measuring food security in the United States was

formulated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (Nord et al. 2004).

According to the USDA food security is, "access, at all times, to enough food for an active,

healthy life for all household members" (Nord et al. 2004). By utilizing this definition the

USDA determined that, "Many U.S. households have consistent, dependable access to enough

food for active, healthy living they are food secure" (Nord et al. 2004). According to the

United States Agency for International Cooperation and Development (USAID) food security is,

"When all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet

their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life" (USAID 1992). 1

The current food security policy of the United States both nationally, through the USDA,

and internationally, through the USAID, focuses primarily on quantitative measures of food

security in terms of physical and economic access to enough foods without consideration of



1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally
owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired.

Article 29 states,

3. States shall also take effective measures to ensure, as needed, that programmes for monitoring,
maintaining and restoring the health of indigenous peoples, as developed and implemented by the peoples
affected by such materials, are duly implemented.

11The USAID policy determination (USAID 1992) lists the four previous international and national definitions that
were utilized in the formulation of the USAID definition of food security:

1. "Access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life." (World Bank).

2. "All people at all times have both physical and economic access to the basic food they need." (FAO
Committee on World Food Security)

3. "Access by all people at all times to sufficient food and nutrition for a healthy and productive life." (The
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1990 {P.L.480})

4. "When all people at all times have access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive
and healthy life." (USAID Bureau for Africa, 1986)










actual household utilization of these foods or psychological and cultural values attached to food

consumption and preparation. The current US President, George W. Bush, reflects the food

security policy of the US in his speeches. In his address to the Future Farmers of America on

July 27, 2001, he noted the high importance of producing enough food to feed people in the

United States and linked this to national security and freedom from international pressure (Office

of the Press Secretary 2001). He stated:

It's important for our nation to build -- to grow foodstuffs, to feed our people. Can you
imagine a country that was unable to grow enough food to feed the people? It would be a
nation that would be subj ect to international pressure. It would be a nation at risk. And so
when we're talking about American agriculture, we're really talking about a national
security issue (Office of the Press Secretary 2001).

This concern over the relationship between food security and national security by the

President is obvious considering that the United States has utilized food as a weapon; perhaps the

most notable example of this is the embargo on Cuba. The Cuban embargo has forced individual

families and the Cuban government to make due with fewer ties to global circuits of food

production and distribution (see Funes et al. 2002). This has led to an increase in the number of

policies, programs and measures to enhance food security by relying on local and national food

production programs (Nieto and Delgado 2002:49-56). 12 Similarly the U.S. has been responsible

for the imposition of Coalition Provisional Authority Order 81 in Iraq, which imposes World

Trade Organization friendly intellectual property rights, including potential limitations on the

rights of farmers to use seeds from the previous season's harvest (Administrator of the Coalition

Provisional Authority 2004). Coalition Provisional Authority Order 81 could undermine food




12 These include structural measures in agriculture: the creation of basic units of cooperative production, new type
state farms, distribution of coffee and tobacco land to peasant families, distribution of plots for food production,
encouraging food self-provisioning, urban agriculture, agricultural production cooperatives, credit and service
cooperatives. For more on current policies and future measures see Nieto and Delgado (2002:49-56).










security for farmers who might not be able to afford seed purchases that would be required when

patented material is found amongst seeds which have been saved from the previous season. 13

When the operational definitions of food security are limited to how much food is created

and distributed then the US emerges as a superior nation in terms of its overall food security and

food surpluses. At the same time the relative inability of so-called less developed countries to

meet the caloric needs of their populace due to chronic or acute instability in various sectors:

environmental, economic or political is reflective of their inferiority. Those in international

development circles would also point to the poor transportation infrastructure in these less

developed countries, which limits the distribution of food to areas that may be in the greatest

need of food assistance. In the West, the temporal unfolding of science and technology is

perceived as leading directly to the continual emergence of progress (Escobar 1994). Notions of

this superiority are reflected in the literature concerning food production and food security where

the locus of food insecurity is again and again placed in the so-called less developed world while

the 'breadbasket of the world' is in the United States. The superiority of the international agro-

industrial complex is intimately connected with economics and politics; it is a historically

produced discourse (Escobar 1999). When former US Agriculture Secretary Earl L. Butz

challenged US farmers to plant from "fence row to fence row" and "get big or get out" most, with

encouragement of agriculture law and policy, listened. The industrialization of agriculture has


13 COmbe (2003) notes that the U.S. patent system is designed to protect investment first and as a secondary
consideration it rewards innovation or creativity. Indeed the development of patents law as applied to plants in the
U.S. was written by seed industry lawyers to protect the interests of the seed industry (Fowler 1994 and Fowler
1997). If the 2002 Canadian case of Percy Schmeiser and Schmeiser Enterprises Ltd v Monsanto Canada, Inc. and
similar US cases such as Monsanto Company v Homan McFarling, 302 F.3d 1291 (Fed. Cir. 2002), are any
indication, it is conceivable that Monsanto, or another similar situated agri-business will be successful in seeking
compensation and an injunction of continued seed saving for farmers in the developing world. Such utilization of
IPR, would have dire ramifications on food security for the "1.4 billion people who live in farm families that are still
largely self-provisioning in terms of seed" (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1998).









condensed the processes of production into fewer hands via market forces. In the US this

reduction in the number of agricultural workers is strikingly apparent as 137 hectares are farmed

by the average American agricultural worker (Daily and Ehrlich 1996). This decrease in the

number of farmers and increase in the adoption of Green Revolution technologies was successful

in increasing grain yields from 1.1 tons per hectare in 1950 to 2.8 tons per hectare in 1992

(Conko and Smith 1999). At one point in the 1970s the UN' s Food and Agriculture

Organization estimated that the Earth could support 157 billion people through Green Revolution

technologies (Levenstein 2003:147). This technological optimism and belief in the ability of the

United States to act as a compassionate nation to help to feed the world, despite degradation of

soils and communities throughout the Great Plains, diminishing water supplies in the west, and

chemical and genetic contamination throughout the United States. Nonetheless, the United

States reemerges time and again in self-congratulatory discourses as the exemplar of not only a

big brother offering a less fortunate sibling assistance in time of need but also the global center

of innovation. This optimism, sense of superiority and patriotism were recently reaffirmed in

another speech by US President, George W. Bush:

Millions suffer from hunger and poverty and disease in this world of ours. Many nations
lack the capacity to meet the overwhelming needs of their people. Alleviating this suffering
requires bold action from America. It requires America's leadership and requires the action
of developed nations, as well...

We are a compassionate nation. When Americans see suffering and know that our country
can help stop it, they expect our government to respond. I believe in the timeless truth, and
so do a lot of other Americans, to whom much is given, much is required. We're blessed to
live in this country. We're blessed to live in the world's most prosperous nation. And I
believe we have a special responsibility to help those who are not as blessed. It is the call
to share our prosperity with others, and to reach out to brothers and sisters in need. (Office
of the Press Secretary 2007).

Despite this optimism and the tremendous growth in US agriculture production there are

still numerous health and nutritional disparities in the US. Both urban and rural populations









suffer form a lack of food security as defined by various policy instruments. As part of a policy

of assimilation many Native American tribes had their food systems decimated with the intention

of eliminating Native Americans as a unique cultural group or with the intent of providing for

more appropriate and efficient food systems (Lewis 1994:11). Outsiders have, since the first

contact with the Spanish, attempted to refashion the food systems of the Tohono O'odham in

order to make them more productive. Spanish crops were adapted by the Tohono O'odham and

incorporated into the food system, which relied on floodwater farming, hunting and gathering. It

was not until the 1940s that outside factors made the continuance of traditional styles of farming

a more difficult choice or even a non-option for many Tohono O'odham individuals. These

factors included: the implementation of food security programs such as food assistance on the

Tohono O'odham Nation (TOCA and TOCC 2002), work opportunities in mining and

agriculture at time of the year when attention was needed in their own Hields, relocations to cities

and boarding schools, and increased availability and relative low cost of purchased food items.

These factors combined in varying intensities over the course of several decades to bring about a

steady decline in traditional food production on the Tohono O'odham Nation. In the late 1910s

estimates of 9,177 to 16,000 acres of floodwater farming existed on Tohono O'odham lands

(Clotss 1915:27 and McDowell 1920:279 in Nabhan 1986). See Table 1-1 and Table 1-2 for

change in acreage farmed for the contiguous Tohono O'odham Nation and the San Xavier

District respectively. TOCA and TOCC (2002) estimated that production utilizing floodwater

faming declined from over 20,000 acres in the late 1920s to 2,500 by 1949 and then to less than

25 in 2002. There were mere remnants of these floodwater Hields in 1986 (Nabhan 1986) and

only a handful of farmers who still practiced farming in this manner when I conducted my Hield

research. The production of traditional foods has also dramatically declined with tepary bean










(Pha~seolus acutifolius A. Gray) production on the Tohono O'odham Nation falling to less than

100 pounds in 2001 from approximately 1.8 million pounds in the 1930s (TOCA and TOCC

2002). Although floodwater farming has nearly disappeared from the Tohono O'odham Nation

tepary bean production on the Tohono O'odham Nation has begun to rebound in the last six

years .

Diseases of Affluence

Obesity

From a biomedical perspective, an individual's own decision making regarding caloric

consumption and activity levels are key factors in determining whether someone will gain weight

and eventually become overweight or obese. 14 This has been reproduced in public health

discourse (Rock 2003; Saldivar 2007). Anthropologists and others have challenged the primacy

of self-responsibility inherent in this discourse and instead highlighted the uneven distribution of

healthy foods based on income and ethnicity (Winson 2004; McGuire 2007).

Popular media accounts have recently examined the environmental, health and societal

risks posed by the vertical integration of food production. This has been illustrated most clearly

in the 2004 Academy Award nominated film Supersize M~e and in the non-fiction book and film

Fast Food Nation. Supersize M~e traces the path of Morgan Spurlock as he embarks on a month-

long diet consisting only of items found on McDonalds' menus throughout the United States

(Spurlock 2004). During the same time he measures his activity levels to mirror what the

average person in the United States does for exercise (Spurlock 2004). The film points out the

dangers of fast-food consumption coupled with a sedentary lifestyle (Spurlock 2004). Despite



14 Body Mass Index (BMI), the ratio of an adult' s height and weight, is one measure of determining if an individual
is to be classified as either overweight or obese. An individual with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered to be
overweight. An individual with a BMI over 30 is considered to be obese.









challenges by the fast food industry to the validity of Spurlock' s claims given his regimented diet

(eat only McDonald's three times a day and supersizee' when asked), a recent study suggests a

connection between fast food consumption and obesity (Pereira et al. 2005). The study, which

followed 3,031 subjects (18-30 years old in 1985-1986) for 15 years, found that, "Fast-food

consumption has strong positive associations with weight gain and insulin resistance, suggesting

that fast food increases the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes" (Pereira et al. 2005). The Fa~st

FoodNation film based on the book by the same name provides accounts of a fictionalized fast

food company's production through the eyes of the company's employees, associates and former

employees (Linklater 2006). This film gives some indication of the dangers faced by those

involved in fast food production (workers in feedlots, slaughterhouses and restaurants) and

consumption (Linklater 2006). These accounts may raise awareness amongst specific segments

of the population, however mere recognition of potential health consequences does not

necessarily translate into actual dietary modification, particularly for those with neither the time

nor monetary resources to do make dietary modifications.

Despite media campaigns of public health professionals and agencies, the maj ority of

people over 30 in the US are either overweight or obese and the prevalence of overweight or

obese individuals is likely to increase (McCarthy 2004). While 79% of men in the United States

were overweight or obese in 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) (2007a) estimates that

by 2015 87% will be overweight or obese. 1 While 77% of women in the United States were

overweight or obese in 2005, the WHO estimates that by 2015 83% will be overweight or obese

(World Health Organization 2007a). 88% of US deaths a year (2.12 million) are due to chronic



15 Diet, particularly regular consumption of excess calories, is a key factor. However one study suggests a direct
relationship between type of foods consumed, in this case increased red meat consumption, particularly processed
meats, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women (Song et al. 2004).









diseases (World Health Organization 2007a). The solution offered by the WHO is healthy diet,

regular exercise and avoidance of tobacco products (World Health Organization 2007a). High

rates of obesity amongst Native Americans have been documented for some time (Wiedman

1989; Knowler et al. 1991). In 1991 when the prevalence of diabetes was 9. 1% amongst men

and 8.2% amongst women for the US as a whole, Native Americans had rates of 13.7% for men

and 16.5% for women (Broussard 1991).

Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes presents a serious challenge to community health professionals worldwide

as the incidence rate of diabetes continues to rise in third world countries (Prasad and Srivastava

2001). This will lead to an increase in the overall number of people living with type 2 diabetes

in the coming decades (Prasad and Srivastava 2001). Currently the highest incidence rates are in

developed countries such as the United States (World Health Organization 2007b). According to

the WHO (2007b) the United States in 2000 had a prevalence of 17.7 million cases of diabetes,

compared to 33 million for all of the Americas. In 2005, the total prevalence of diabetes in the

United States was 20.8 million people or seven percent of the population (CDC 2005). Of these

20.8 million people, 14.6 million were aware that they had diabetes or about 70%, while 6.2

million or about 30% had diabetes but had not been diagnosed (CDC 2005). The incidence of

diabetes, those who had been diagnosed with diabetes, was 1.5 million people for those over 20

years of age (CDC 2005). In 2002 diabetes was the sixth leading cause of death in the United

States and the total costs of diabetes were $132 billion in medical costs, disability, work loss and

premature mortality (CDC 2005). In addition to the high number of deaths and economic costs,

individuals, families and communities all suffer from the diminished quality of life experienced

by individuals who have type 2 diabetes (Weiss et al. 1989). These include loss of










vision/blindness, nephropathy, atherosclerosis, foot problems, neuropathy, and dialysis (Weiss et

al. 1989). 16

Populations at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes include African Americans, Native

Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans; hence programs that target these populations will be

essential in slowing the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (Kulkarni 2004). Diabetes was

virtually unknown amongst Native Americans prior to 1940 (West 1974, de Cora 2001). The

increase in levels of obesity in Native Americans has made this population more susceptible to

type 2 diabetes (Wiedman 1989; Knowler et al. 1991; Welty 1991). Amongst Native Americans,

aged 20 and over, who receive care from Indian Health Services (IHS), 12.8% or 99,500 had

been diagnosed with diabetes (CDC 2005). There are a total of 1 18,000 or 15.1% of those who

receive care from IHS that have diabetes, although 18,500 have yet to be diagnosed with it (CDC

2005). The highest prevalence rate for type 2 diabetes, after adjustment for age differences, is in

southern Arizona at 27.6% (CDC 2005).

The increased exposure of Native American youth in the southwest to factors which

contribute to diabetes and subsequent weight gain (Knowler et al. 1991) will translate into

increased levels of mortality and end-stage renal disease as this population reaches middle age

(Pavkov et al. 2006). This will lower overall quality of life for individuals suffering from the

disease, impacting families and communities in which these individuals live.

Community Foods, Community Health

Many individuals and entities that I spoke with over the course of research expressed

concern that despite 30 years of research from a biomedical perspective little has been done to


16 Dialysis may also be indicated for patients who have lost the functioning of their kidneys, currently there are 171
Tohono O'odham people who require dialysis (Throssell 2007a). This can have profoundly effects on family life for
Tohono O'odham individuals (Throssell 2007b). A new dialysis center, located in Sells, AZ, opened on August 19,
2007, and will eventually have the capacity to have 40 treatment stations (Throssell 2007a).









curb the ever increasing rates of diabetes. A recent study on obesity amongst Native American

adolescents concluded by stating that, "intervention programs need to place less emphasis on

convincing Native American youth of the importance of weight control, and more emphasis on

enabling them to successfully modify their lifestyles to prevent excessive weight gain"

(Neumark-Sztainer 2007). Native American communities in general and the Tohono O'odham

in particular are addressing this through the development of initiatives such as the Healthy

O'odham Promotion Program and Soccer for Nations, which encourage individuals to become

more active and through TOCA and SXCF through the development of greater access to pre-

Contact foods.

Traditional diets and the time and energy required for procurement and processing have

been effective in maintaining the health of populations in the ecosystems within which they have

co-existed and co-created (Pieroni and Price 2006:2, Hegwood 1990; Grivetti and Ogle 2000).

Although substantiated with primarily circumstantial information, TOCA (2000), the increase in

the incidence rate of type 2 diabetes began with the departure from a traditional diet to a more

Western diet (TOCA and TOCC 2002). Underhill (1933) touched on increased disease when the

shift to the grocery-store economy was beginning. During this transition it was not merely the

diet that was changing but also other aspects of the Tohono O'odham lifestyle (see Chapter 2).

Studies have shown that consumption of a traditional Indian diet, in conjunction with

exercise, and subsequent weight loss assists in improving the condition of patients with type 2

diabetes (O'Dea 1984; Swinburn et al. 1991). While O'Dea worked with Australian indigenous

peoples, Swinburn's research was on the Pima, who are closely related to the Tohono O'odham.

Swinburn's study used traditional foods collected from the Sonoran Desert or grown utilizing

floodwater farming methods. These foods were buds of the cholla cactus (Cylindropunita









acanthocarpa Knuth) (Figure 1-1), fruits of the saguaro cactus (Carnegica gigantean

(Engelmann) Britton & Rose) (Figure 1-2) and tepary beans. This research has been cited by

Nabhan (2003) who advocates for the strong connections between place, people and health. He

writes,

Boyd Swinburn demonstrated in a clinical experiment at the Phoenix Indian School that a
complete diet of these foods was sufficient to control diabetes without the supplemental
use of medications or altered exercise regimes. Conversely, he determined that a diet
consisting of convenience store foods with the same number of calories and the same
fat/protein/carbohydrate ratio was all that was needed to trigger diabetes.

Another study primarily on Pima but also on Tohono O'odham suggests that the incidence

rate of type 2 diabetes may be lowered by a dietary preference for traditional foods including

post-Contacts foods, when compared to an Anglo dietary preference (Williams et al. 2001). Pre-

contact Tohono O'odham foods are high in dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates that slowly

release sugar leading to a more gradual rise in blood sugar (Balick and Cox 1996:67). Nabhan

further notes that the, "Mucilage present in mesquite pods and cactus pads also dramatically

lowers the insulin response by slowing the digestion and absorption of starches" (Balick and Cox

1996:67). See Buseck (2003:57-59) and Hodgson (2001) for a listing of nutritional studies on

Tohono O'odham traditional foods.

Although I did not specifically mention the connection between traditional foods and

diabetes, diabetes was seen as connected to the issues of traditional foods by over half of the

respondents. 29 individuals (60.4%) mentioned diabetes over the course of interviews

concerning traditional foods. Of these, although only 4 individuals (8.3%) maintained that the

prevention or management of diabetes was a reason why they consumed traditional foods, 14

(29.2%) stated a positive relationship between traditional food consumption and diabetes

prevention or diabetes management. 13 (27.1%) individuals disclosed that they were diabetic

over the course of interviews. 14 individuals (29.2%) mentioned that someone in their family









was a diabetic. Only 8 individuals (16.7%) who mentioned diabetes did not mention that they or

someone in their family had diabetes. Hence, regardless of whether there is definitive

biomedical proof of the relationship between decreased traditional food consumption and

increased incidence of type 2 diabetes, there is: (1) A number of studies documenting the

nutritional quality of food, traditional and contemporary; (2) A belief amongst organizations in

Native American communities and particularly the Tohono O'odham that there is a strong link

between declining traditional food consumption and increased incidence of diabetes; and (3) The

importance of diabetes as a maj or issue in the lives of individuals and families of Tohono

O'odham.

This section has also suggested that the current US paradigm of food security, which

focuses primarily on quantitative measures of food security, may not meet the unique needs of

Native Americans in general and the Tohono O'odham in particular.

Food Security Revisited

For local communities and indigenous peoples such as the Tohono O'odham the food

security concept as it is put into the practice in the United States is woefully inadequate to

consider cultural appropriateness of foods and diseases of affluence which plague community

members. TOCA has brought attention to the need to revise the concept of food security to more

effectively consider the unique challenges that the Tohono O'odham face (Kirschenmann 2005).

The Community Food Security Coalition (2004), a California based NGO has extended the food

security concept as "all persons in a community having access to culturally acceptable,

nutritionally adequate food through local non-emergency sources at all times."

According to the USDA (2002: 101) community food security extends the household food

security concept and, "focuses on the underlying social, economic, and institutional factors

within a community that affect the quantity and quality of food available and its affordability or









price relative to the sufficiency of financial resources available to acquire it." The community

food security concept can be addressed through policies and programs that include,

...participation in and access to Federal food assistance programs, economic opportunity
and job security, community development and social cohesion, ecologically sustainable
agricultural production, farmland preservation, economic viability of rural communities,
direct food marketing, diet-related health problems, and emergency food assistance access
(USDA 2002: 101).

Quite different from the internationally formulated definition of food security put forth by

USAID, the Community Food Security Toolkit was developed at the 1999 Community Food

Security Assessment Conference and was designed for local organizations and individuals in the

private, public and third sectors. The toolkit provides a much broader definition of food security

at the community level such that community food insecurity may manifest if any of the

following are present:

There are inadequate resources from which people can purchase foods;

The available food purchasing resources are not accessible to all community members;

The food available through the resources is not sufficient in quantity or variety;

The food available is not competitively priced and thus is unaffordable to low-income
households;

There are inadequate food assistance resources to help low-income people purchase foods
at retail markets;

There are no local food production resources;

Locally produced food is not available to community members;

There is no support for local food production resources; and

There is any substantial level of household food insecurity within the community.

These criteria offer a much more realistic point of departure than US government measures

for examining the current state of food insecurity on the Tohono O'odham Nation. Certainly










large scale agricultural production and distribution systems are capable of offering immediate

solutions for food insecurity crisis management, but as the preceding section on diseases of

affluence demonstrates, these systems do not address the unique needs of indigenous peoples

who have co-created the landscapes which they have historically occupied. Small scale

agricultural production and distribution systems, while not as capable in short term crisis

management offer the potential for long term food security by taking into account the unique

nutritional needs of the populations that they serve. Critics of small scale agricultural systems as

a primary means for ensuring food security point to the increasing advancements in applications

of chemical, breeding and biotechnology technologies which have allowed for increasing gains

in the production of foods for the ever increasing global population. This 'common sense'

notion has some O'odham, whom I interviewed, note the importance of industrial systems of

food production while at the same time drawing very clear distinctions between what the masses

need to eat in order to survive and what O'odham need to eat to be strong and healthy O'odham

people. In this sense the conception of some Tohono O'odham that they are living in two worlds

is extended to agricultural production methods. These two worlds are one world that needs

industrial methods of food manufacture that are chemically intensive and another where

O'odham people need to farm traditional foods and scour the desert in search of wild animal and

plant foods which sustain life. The following quotes highlight perceived differences between

O'odham traditional foods, industrial produced foods, fast foods and health foods. These quotes

give a better understanding of foods that are considered healthy. The words of these Tohono

O'odham stress that the bioregional production of foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation imbues

these foods with life nurturing qualities while production of foods outside of the Nation in









industrial contexts imbues the foods with additives which trick the body such that individuals

will become addicted to them. As Larry, a middle age Akimel O'odham, notes:

These traditional foods are right there and they don't need to go down the road to the store
to purchase these food items and...a lot of it is also for them to grow their own food
because you know when you think about it today because of so many people in the world
the population has probably quadrupled so many times and so now they have to
manufacture food and a lot of it is done through chemicals and so this is one of the things
that we teach them is that a lot of the foods that are out here are natural it' s a lot healthier
and you know traditionally when we talk about our ancestors they are more fit, better shape
than we are today because of the foods that they ate and a lot of nourishment that came
from them not only that but there are certain kinds of foods that we use...not only for
food but also for medicine. "

This O'odham man notes the overlap between food and medicine, with certain foods

having specific associations with curing aliments and food as preventative medicine, ensuring

good health and vitality by drawing connections between what those ancestors that have come

before have eaten and what the O'odham today should eat in order to reclaim a sense of wellness

and health ascribed to their ancestors. Over the course of the same interview with Larry when I

asked about the health of eating wild game from the desert he replied:

Well you know, like I kind of mentioned earlier, a lot of the foods produced today are
processed because...the mass people that they have to feed and so a lot of them has to be
chemically produced and that goes from everything from the plants into the animals
because like the beef they have to fatten up the beef because there's so many people to
feed and so when you take the young people out the young men you take them out
when you go hunting and I explain to them that these foods these animals that we go
after like the j ackrabbits, the deer, all that come to us different birds and you tell them
that these animals are a lot healthier to eat these they are a lot healthier because on some
of the bigger game you don't see any fat on them, because they have to eat the foods, the
greens, and they don't [eat] anything that would harm us they eat all the good greens -
everything that' s good out there. That' s what they eat and that' s why we eat the animals
for meat and [the] same with the different buds and flowers...they are healthy and so that' s
what we ingest. But one of the things that they are still not understanding is why you
know we can go down to Burger King and I say yeah you can do that but a lot of that is not
real it is just a thing that they feed in your mouth that they say is the best you can have.
And so the reason that we explain a lot of these things to them is that the foods that we eat,


"7 I have not made grammatical or other modifications during the transcription process with the exception of words
placed in brackets for implied words where the interview was difficult to transcribe.









the fast foods and some of the supermarket' s meat and vegetables that we eat why they
taste that way and that' s because of the chemicals. Our system is getting used to the
chemicals and so when they eat the wild game and the wild foods they taste different
because it's all natural and so they question, "Well how come it tastes like this and this
tastes like that?"...and I said, "That' s because your system is getting used to chemicals and
it' s not used to natural, natural.

In describing the health of the animals and the health of the meat that they provide for the

O'odham this man discusses how O'odham youth have different choices of foods than those in

previous generations. This feeling that foods grown locally are more healthy than foods

produced outside of the region was shared by Jordan, a middle age male from the San Xavier

District, when I aksed him, "What's been your experience with traditional foods? What have

you typically eaten, how has that changed over time?" He responded quickly noting difference

in food quality between the foods of today and traditional foods,

I guess it is a lot tastier it doesn't taste anything like I guess the food that you eat today -
there is a lot more flavor to eat and I guess it' s more of what' s supposed to help you grow
in a good way...to know where it came from and where it was grown at and how it was
harvest and all the way to you eating it. Whereas today you don't know where it was
grown and what kinds of chemicals were used to grow it or what the idea or where the land
is or who the people were or anything about it, it' s just there and you can enj oy it or you
either have suspicions about oh what have I eaten or what am I going to give to my
children- have they put insecticides or pesticides, is it grown in land that was
contaminated, or is the water pure or not, or was it misused or were the people...clean
when they harvest it or how did they do it and all those things I guess nobody knows.

Here knowledge of place and process provides a knowing of the overall quality of foods

including taste and nutrition. These three O'odham critiques of food systems mirror those of

proponents of sustainable and bioregional-based agriculture who note the difference in food

quality between local whole foods and distant foods. Eating locally for some O'odham, much

like for proponents of sustainable agriculture becomes a way to eat 'natural' and real eat 'real'

foods that are not tarnished with the chemical residues typical of foods available in most

supermarkets and fast food restaurants.









Eating local also allows for a greater sense of security in a world of increasing uncertainty

and potential terrorist attacks. For Jordan, a middle age man in San Xavier District, the link

between developing local resources of food production and distribution is key in establishing

long-term food security in a world of increasing uncertainty, an uncertainty that pervades, for

one O'odham man in even the most banal of occurrences like interstate commerce which carries

foods past one another as truckers move the products through the commodity chain:

One of these days you know terrorists or whatever, those trucks stop going you know,
who' s going to...where are the people going to find food to feed themselves in Tucson?
...(T)he price of gas it' s going up and up and some of the truck drivers are folding up
because they can't afford diesel or gas to run their trucks. You know how are they going
to get food into Tucson...we're a farm and we're hoping that at least our people aren't
going to be the ones that are going to starve that at least if something happens like that
we'll be open to sell whatever it is that we are growing to our community first before the
non-Indians but and it is the same thing with the water.

The above reflects the importance of preparedness concerning food access and availability

in light of increased uncertainty of security and rising gasoline prices. His line of thought is that

terrorist attacks to destabilize centralized systems of production and consumption or increasing

gas prices to increase food prices or decrease food transport would lead to a maj or shift in food

distribution and production strategies for the Tucson region. Yet even in this collapse of the

supporting infrastructure of capitalist production the focus remains on selling "whatever it is that

that we are growing to our community first before the non-Indians." Nevertheless, the San

Xavier Cooperative Farm is viewed as a potential generator of regional food security and

stability within the San Xavier District in the face of potential instability in the food security of

Tucson.

Situating the Research

The most recent anthropological work on type 2 diabetes and the O'odham Smith-

Morris's work (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007) which facilitates knowledge exchange between the










Pimas or Akimel O'odham (closely related to the Tohono O'odham) and biomedical

practitioners. She notes that gestational diabetes leads to higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes

both the mother and the infant later in life (Smith-Morris 2005). Based on this increased risk she

views pregnant women as sites of key educational interventions to reduce prevalence rates of

type 2 diabetes. Her methods are participant observation and formal interviews with 63 women.

Smith-Morris (2005) notes that "there has been quite a bit of disagreement over the diagnosis of

GDM" in the biomedical community which contributes in part to Piman understandings of

GDM. She finds that many women do not differentiate between type 2 diabetes which is a

permanently diagnosed and GDM where the diagnosis is retracted post-pregnancy'" (Smith-

Morris 2005). Pima women view GDM not as a warning sign for increased risk of being

diagnoses with type 2 diabetes but rather either a borderline case of diabetes or a inability of the

biomedical practitioners to determine diagnosis. Pima women use the term "borderline" to

define what biomedical professionals classify as GDM and pre-diabetes (Smith-Morris 2005).

Pima perceptions of biomedical research are not positive after 40 years of biomedical

research (Smith-Morris 2007). Smith-Morris (2007) lists three concerns Pima have with diabetes

research:

1. A cure or reasonable control mechanism will never materialize.

2. Research done by outsiders is a fake or exploitative scheme.

3. Benefits are primarily for non-Pima and non-Indian people.

Certainly if there have been 40 years of biomedical approaches with continuing epidemic

and now endemic rates of type 2 diabetes (Smith-Morris 2007) then perhaps alternative

1s If blood sugar levels are above the threshold for diagnosis with type 2 diabetes then the individual would be
reclassified as a type 2 diabetic. According to the American Diabetes Association, Fasting Plasma Glucose Test
(FPG) is the preferred method utilized to determine if the patient presents with type 2 diabetes. An FPG of 126
mg/dl indicates diabetes. A FPG of 100-125 mg/dl indicates pre-diabetes. This pre-diabetes condition may be
partially responsible for Pima understandings of "borderline" diabetes (Smith-Morris 2005).










approaches might be more acceptable to Native American communities. 19 One alternative

approach is TOCA' s which focuses on prevention by including community revitalization efforts

that have as one component the increased availability of not only traditional foods through

farming operations but also the ability to collect traditional foods in the desert. Smith-Morri s

grossly underestimates the importance of pre-Contact traditional foods for individuals and

dismisses any possibility and relevance for a "strict attempt" to bring dietary preference in line

with traditionalism (Smith-Morris 2004). She states,

Clearly, a strict attempt to unify traditionalism with dietary preference is increasingly
irrelevant and impossible. Changing foods on the reservation, just like changing clothes,
language and healing practices, should not be viewed as a "loss" of culture.

Smith-Morris (2004) misses the fact that many O'odham people are concerned about

changing material culture, including food systems, and they do view the changes that have

occurred as a loss of culture. She mentions shifts in agriculture with the diversion of water for

development of Phoenix and increased mechanization in agriculture (Smith-Morris 2004). She

also notes that Gila River Farm is growing a number of foods for market but does even touch on

the notion that traditional foods could be grown on the farm. She views gardening programs at

social centers and schools as "good micro-processes supporting broader change" rather than

possibly effective in and of themselves (Smith-Morris 2002).

Previous research has highlighted the connection between traditional foods and health.

Shifts in dietary consumption coupled with more sedentary lifestyles and concomitant health and

nutritional consequences have been well documented by social scientists and others (Pieroni and


19 If there is a high level of skepticism amongst Native American communities in regards to biomedicine then social
scientists should not only seek to facilitate a greater level of information and knowledge exchange between
biomedical practitioners and Native Americans in order to improve the quality of life for individuals and
communities as Smith-Morris has done, but also facilitate alternative approaches which integrate cultural
understandings of the body, health and well being.










Quave 2006:101-128; Ogoye-Ndegwa and Aagaard-Hansen 2006; LaDuke:2006; Ayerza and

Coates 2005; Pilcher 2005:235-250; Komlos, 2003; Pottier 1999; Turner 1995; Nabhan 1989).

As Calloway, Giauque and Costa (1974) have shown, some of the traditional foods of both the

Hopi and the Tohono O'odham are nutritionally superior to foods provided to these two groups

through the US government's commodity program. Many times these studies note that either

assimilation or acculturation are occurring to the point where there is little recognizable of the

original cultural form of food consumption. Food remains for the Tohono O'odham an essential

component of identity, relationship and place. This research demonstrates how individuals are

attempting to engage historical processes which have either occurred over the course of their

lifetimes or even before they were born in order to answer questions such as what it means to be

traditional and specifically eat traditionally in a world of accelerating "global flows" (Appadurai

1996). The re-emergence of some of the traditional foods of the Tohono O'odham bridges the

past with the present as well as hope for the future. This research documents cultural memories

of ordinary individuals on the Tohono O'odham Nation and examines reasons for the

consumption of traditional foods in the present.

Social scientists have long been concerned with inequities in resources utilization and the

processes that underlie these inequities. Mintz (1996: 11) called on anthropologists and others to

root out the connections between power and hunger. Sengupta (2003) has drawn connections

between international political and economic forces of globalization, consumerist culture and

disparities of health care and food security. Belasco (2007) has demonstrated how consumer

preferences and the "counterculture movement" have helped to reorient portions of the

agriculture sector towards more sustainable production strategies in the United States. Abel and

Stepp (2003) have stressed the need to study human-environment problems such as food









production which has linked biotic and physical aspects. Buck (2001) demonstrates how race,

class and power interweave to form webs of entitlement in the rural southern United States. The

relationship between agriculture and culture has been analyzed by Pretty (2003) who notes

differences between large scale agri-business operations which siphon off wealth from rural

regions, to local based agri-culture which increases economic viability and food security while at

the same time offers greater opportunities for connection between people within the community

as well as the natural world in which the community is situated. In the realm of systems of food

production some social scientists have sought to give "both sides now" in debates concerning

food production paradigms, particularly genetically modified organisms (Stone 2002), while

others advocate for third world farmers and consumers who they see as benefiting from adoption

of genetic engineering technologies (Paarlberg 2005:276-85). Researchers from other

disciplines including agro-ecology (Alteiri 1995, Alteiri 1999a and Alteiri 1999b) and

ethnobotany (Nabhan and Felger 1978; Felger and Nabhan 1978) argue that ecological and

biological resources are being under-utilized and indeed destroyed by chemical intensive mono-

cultures characteristic of industrial approaches to agriculture.

Non-social scientists have also contributed much concerning the political nature of food

production and consumption in the United States, most notably Nestle (2002), who provides

accounts of how nutrition of vulnerable populations, particularly children, is compromised by

corporate interests. Diseases of affluence or over-nutrition are increasing, as mass marketed

processed foods are more readily available than more nutritious, less processed foods, to

sedentary populations (Scheder 1988). Diabetes is among these diseases of affluence for

vulnerable populations (Scheder 1988). A 30-year longitudinal study on the Gila River Indian

Community, which included some Tohono O'odham individuals has demonstrated the critical









need to delay and prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes as youth offers no protections against the

progression of type 2 diabetes (Pvkov et al. 2006). This study concluded that youth onset type 2

diabetes leads to increased complications and mortality in middle age than for those who are

diagnosed with diabetes later in life (Pvkov et al. 2006).

There have been several ethnobotanical accounts of the O'odham which have focused on

plant classification and utilization (Castetter and Underhill 1978; Castetter and Bell 1942; Rea

1997). These books have been useful to a certain extent within the Tohono O'odham Nation as

educational tools including the utilization of Rea (1997) to teach a class entitled, "Tohono

O'odham Food Systems," at Tohono O'odham Community College. Recent work by Buseck

(2003) discusses the loss of floodwater farming as well as connections between traditional foods

and diabetes while Madsen (2005) discusses the impact of the international border on the Tohono

O'odham with mention of impacts of migration on safety concerns of collecting traditional

foods. In addition to this work by academics, Tohono O'odham Community Action (TOCA), a

NGO based in the Nation's capitals, Sells, Arizona, has produced a number of reports which

discuss written survey responses to questions concerning traditional foods and make

recommendations on steps to restore traditional foods into contemporary food systems of the

Tohono O'odham Nation (TOCA and TOCC 2001; 2002; 2003).

This research adds to the work of TOCA and TOCC (2001; 2002; 2003) and academics

to enhance understanding of knowledge concerning and desire for traditional foods on the

Tohono O'odham Nation. This research adds to a greater understanding of Native American

conceptions of "tradition" in the contemporary world. This research shows that while some

Tohono O'odham individuals classify traditional foods along a spectrum of pre-contact to post-










commodity foods others uncritically lump all foods which they have consumed at community

and family events as "traditional."

Smith-Morris (2007) discussed the need for presenting the findings of research in a final

report to Native American communities in order to support tribal self-determination. This

research has resulted in a separate report on access and availability of traditional foods to

governmental and non-governmental bodies of the Tohono O'odham Nation. This separate

report complements the previous research efforts of TOCA while adding more qualitative data

concerning individual Tohono O'odham perceptions of, access to, and desires for traditional

foods. The presentation of this report to various entities within the Tohono O'odham Nation and

the processes of this research may perhaps begin to open up: (1) more collective imagination

(See Anderson 1991) and dialogue concerning traditional foods20; (2) increased rapport between

'outsiders' and researchers in general and members of the Tohono O'odham Nation; (3) the

notion that anthropologists and other social scientists may have to defend their research agendas

and rationales in terms of benefits to the community in a non-abstract, visceral way at all stages

of research and writing, in order to ensure anthropology in the next seven generations; (4) that

anthropologists and other social scientists continue to challenge where the "field" is for our

respective disciplines (See Gupta and Ferguson 1997).





20 This was apparent when I was initially presenting my proposed research before various Tohono O'odham entities
and at the conclusion of my research when I presented an extensive report, including excerpts of interviews and
summary data, some of which is included in this writing. This created a focus group situation wherein information
was disseminated, traditional foods were discussed and a greater sense of collective identity was fostered as
individuals fondly and readily recalled their own individual and familial experiences with traditional food
production, processing and consumption. As I write this the Tohono O'odham Nation is disseminating tlus separate
report in schools, libraries, museums and to other O'odham communities outside the Nation to be utilized as a tool
for continued discussion and exploration of traditional food knowledge. Hence, although this research was initially
intended to produce an academic work, it has also potentially created applied anthropological projects and
explorations sans anthropologists. This process of facilitation challenges the immediate product oriented results
sometimes called for by anthropologists, those entities funding research and others in the development community.









Goals of the Research

The goals of this research are to answer the following questions: (1) What foods do

contemporary Tohono O'odham consider to be traditional foods? (2) Is there an unmet demand

for traditional foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation? (3) What are some of the factors that limit

an individual's or family's increased involvement with traditional foods (gathering, growing,

cooking and consuming)? (4) Why do contemporary Tohono O'odham consume traditional

foods? (5) What is the current involvement of individuals and organizations in traditional foods

collection, growing and collecting? (6) How can the food security concept be extended and

altered in order to allow for the unique position of Native American and other marginalized

communities to more holistically address diseases of affluence, particularly type 2 diabetes?

The first research question is: What foods do contemporary Tohono O'odham consider to

be traditional foods? This research has determined that, these foods include foods from Mexico,

demonstrating the Spanish-Mexican influence as well as from the United States, demonstrating

the influence of US government assistance programs. Tohono O'odham consider a wide variety

of foods that to be traditional foods, however there are a number of foods which are shared by a

high number of respondents. Foods listed by 25% or more of respondents are: beans, tepary

beans, squash, tortillas, cholla buds, pinto beans, fry bread/popover, bahidaj, mesquite (Prosopis

velutina Wooton) (Figure 1-3), prickly-pear (Figures 1-4 and 1-5), cactus food/fruit, wild spinach

(M~onolepis nuttalliana Greene), corn, deer and rabbits. For more detailed information on what

foods respondents perceived as traditional see chapter 4.

The second research question is: Is there an unmet demand for traditional foods on the

Tohono O'odham Nation? This research has determined that there is an unmet demand for

traditional foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation, as only 4 individuals reported that they were










satisfied with their current consumption of traditional foods. For more on current consumption

of traditional foods versus desired consumption of traditional foods see chapter 4.

The third research question is: What are some of the factors that limit an individual or

family's increased involvement with traditional foods (gathering, growing, cooking and

consuming)? This research has determined that the main factors which limit participation are

convenience issues of traditional foods versus non-traditional foods. For more on these issues

and other factors which limit traditional food gathering, growing, cooking and consuming see

chapter 4.

The fourth research question is: Why do contemporary Tohono O'odham consume

traditional foods? This research indicates that there is a significant difference in overall

responses to the question "Why do you consume traditional foods?" between different age

groups. While young adults and middle age adults cite "to keep tradition" as the main reason to

consume traditional foods, elders cite "health" as the maj or reason that they consume traditional

foods. For more on reasons why individuals consume traditional foods see Chapter 5.

The fifth research question is: What is the current involvement of individuals and

organizations in traditional foods collection, growing and collecting? This research shows that

the maj ority of Tohono O'odham do not currently garden or collect traditional foods on a regular

basis. However a maj ority reported that they have at some point in their lives participated in

each of these activities. Current cooking of traditional foods is reported by over half of the

respondents. For more on current growing, collecting and cooking efforts by the Tohono

O'odham see Chapter 5.

The Einal research question is: How can the food security concept be extended and altered

in order to allow for the unique position of Native American and other marginalized










communities to more holistically address diseases of affluence, particularly type 2 diabetes?

This research will point out the deficiencies in current US policy regarding food security and call

for an extension of the US food security concept. Chapter 2 will highlight the efforts of various

entities in increasing consumption of traditional foods for individual Tohono O'odham.21 The

emergence of two main producers and distributors of traditional foods on the Tohono O'odham

Nation offers challenges and opportunities for greater food security of Tohono O'odham.22 It is

my intention to illuminate how local local food needs to be in order to support a revitalized

traditional food security within the Tohono O'odham Nation. Key issues in food security will be

highlighted in chapter 3 with discussion on how these issues relate to the Tohono O'odham.

Chapters 4 and 5 will examine traditional foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation through analysis

of research questions 1-5. Interviews of Tohono O'odham help us to understand the relative

importance, continued need for and improvement in services offered to Tohono O'odham

individuals in order to ensure a wider distribution and consumption of traditional foods. Chapter

6 will include a reformulation of food security policy in the US with special consideration for the

unique historical, ecological, and economic positioning of the Tohono O'odham. I will conclude

21 I will be examining how differently situated organizations and governments utilize and attempt to control the
diabetes epidemic that has taken a heavy toll on the Tohono O'odham people. The production, promotion and
distribution of traditional foods is one of the most examined and considered aspects of efforts to address the
epidemic of type 2 diabetes amongst Tohono O'odham organizations such as Healthy O'odham Promotion Program,
Tohono O'odham Community Action, San Xavier Cooperative Farm, and non-O'odham organizations such as
Native Seeds/SEARCH. As cultural objects, foods make multiple journeys in their progression from 'fields' to their
ultimate consumption points. This research engages some of the dynamic that is behind this process, i.e. to trace the
'life' of these traditional foods. These traditional foods also have a value as plant genetic resources. To meet the
need to conserve these plants for future generations Native Seeds/SEARCH has developed an in situ seed
conservation program that propagates seeds and distributes them to Native American and other peoples. Native
Seeds/SEARCH free seed program to Native American farmers, gardeners and educators has seen a marked increase
in the number of seed packets that they have distributed from 1513 in 2004 to 3400 through 2007 (Nelson 2007:4).
This research will briefly examine some of the issues of how the crops are being preserved and used and for what
ends.


22In addition to farming and ranching on the Nation, the Tohono O'odham people continue to collect foods from the
Sonoran desert both within the Nation and its bordering natural reserves.









by arguing that food security measurements as they have been developed for international

application and at the State level are too coarse-grained to allow for necessary adjustments to

ensure the health of local populations. Only through addressing food security at the community

level will the unique needs of indigenous peoples be met in terms of subsistence. Stopgap

mechanisms including food aid from distant lands or centralized food distribution centers will

only further disparities in health and wellness in indigenous communities.

The initial intention of the research was to interview ten Tohono O'odham, selected

randomly, from each of the Nation' s 11 Districts. However, a systematic study of O'odham

attitudes and beliefs concerning traditional foods was not possible given the constraints of the

research (see below) although this research adds quantitative and qualitative data to earlier

research concerning Tohono O'odham perceptions of traditional foods.

Research Approvals and Methods of Gathering Data

My field research began with an initial visit to the area in 2002 when I formally met with

staff of Native Seeds/SEARCH and Tohono O'odham Community Action (TOCA) and

informally with San Xavier Cooperative Farm. I relocated to Tucson, Arizona in the summer of

2004 and even as I write this through 2006 and 2007 when my formal data collection period has

ended I look forward to continued post-dissertation interactions with members of the Tohono

O'odham Nation who continue to promote health and wellness through fitness and nutrition

education as an alternative to the diseases of affluence particularly type 2 diabetes.

My background and studies in development, sustainable agriculture, community-

supported agriculture and other local approaches to ensuring food security, genetically modified

organisms and intellectual property rights acted as a point of departure for examining the Tohono

O'odham food system. As I am interested in the processes which go into creating and recreating

locally-based sustainable food systems rooted to a place and a culture I began my explorations of










Tohono O'odham traditional foods exploring the 'source' of many of the traditional seeds for

both the Tohono O'odham Nation as well as other Native communities in the Greater Southwest

region of the United States and into Sonora Mexico. From July 2004 to September 2004 I was a

Pollinator Intern at Native Seeds/SEARCH Conservation Farm in Patagonia, Arizona. While

performing the day-to-day tasks of growing out accessions, or crop varieties, in the Native

Seeds/SEARCH collection I was also exposed to several of the current issues with which the

organization was dealing, including presentations on the importance of genetic conservation

work and facilities of the organization. I was also able to formally interview some staff members

and Board of Directors members to get a better idea of the organization' s approach to genetic

resources conservation and the possible directions that the organization might take in the future

in response to concerns of tribal sovereignty and intellectual property rights. Staff members of

Native Seeds/SEARCH allowed me to access to their archives of the organizations' newsletter,

The Seedhead News.

Smith-Morris (2007) discusses how contemporary research protocols contribute to

acculturation by forcing researchers to receive informed consent from the individual "at the

expense of communal forms of consent," noting that this contributes to acculturation. When I

was seeking permission to conduct research on the Tohono O'odham Nation; the process for

attaining permission to conduct research on the Tohono O'odham Nation was not clarified. I

was directed by TOCA staff to visit the Tohono O'odham Nation' s Legislative Council and then

directed to meet with both the Cultural Preservation Committee and the Natural Resources

Committee of that Legislative Council.23 I was directed to schedule and attend meetings with



23See Juan (1992) for historical background on the development of the Tohono O'odham Constitution, the revisions
to the Constitution in 1986, and the structure of power balance between the three branches of the Tohono O'odham
Nation's political structure: Executive, Legislative and Judiciary.









each of the Nation' s eleven districts to ask permission to conduct my research within the District

before meeting with the full Legislative Council to seek permission to conduct my research. My

initial research plan called for ten interviews in each of the Nation' s eleven districts in order to

compare and contrast individual and familial perceptions of traditional foods over the vast

Nation. I utilized meetings with the District Councils and the Cultural Preservation and

Agricultural Committees to ask for feedback on the questions and to allow the districts to

subtract or add to the questions that I would ask members of the Tohono O'odham Nation. I also

met with staff from both TOCA and the San Xavier Cooperative Farm to allow each of these

organizations the opportunity to shift the questions that I was asking in order to better suit their

own particular needs. My intention was to allow questions to be altered based on the knowledge

and experience of individuals and organizations that have a vested interest in such research.

Through this process I received some valuable input from each of the entities, either directly or

indirectly, which translated into some modifications in the questions. Particularly, individuals in

several of the Districts recommended that I ask more specific questions concerning livestock

operations as well as the role of hunting in household food procurement strategies.

After attending meetings with nine of the eleven District Councils over the course of Hyve

months from February-June 2005, I was able to bring my proposal before the Legislative

Council. At the District Council level I was initially approved in four districts: San Xavier, San

Lucy, Pisinimo, and Schuk Toak. I was also later approved in the Sells Community. I met with

the Legislative Council in June 2005 and was approved in June 2005. This approval was vetoed

by the Chairwoman of the Nation due to the lack of a universal policy and procedure in place for

researchers to conduct research within the Nation. This veto was subsequently overturned by the

Legislative Council allowing me the opportunity to conduct formal interviews with members of










the Tohono O'odham Nation within those districts that had accepted my research. See Appendix

A for documents related to informed consent and research approval.

Due to the movement of many Tohono O'odham people through several districts on a

regular, sometimes daily basis, for family, work or other commitments I was able to interview

several people from other districts. Interviews only took place in districts where permission was

granted. Although I was invited to several homes to conduct interviews I did not conduct these

interviews because I wanted to respect the district or community decision of not having

researchers active in their regions. Interviews varied in length from less than thirty minutes to

over four hours and in some cases took place over the course of several days. I conducted 48

interviews with members of the Tohono O'odham Nation24 fTOm July 2005 to December 2006.

For the list of questions asked to Tohono O'odham see Appendix B. In December 2006 my

University of Florida Institutional Review Board approval lapsed and I ceased formal research.

For the interview process a series of questions was loosely followed allowing for a more

conversational approach to discussing traditional foods. Most of the interviews were digitally

recorded and then transcribed. Some of the interviewees preferred not to have an audio

recording made so hand-written notes were made. A total of 49 people were interviewed,

including two individuals at the same time. There were 33 females (67.3%) and 16 males

(32.7%) interviewed. Age categories included young adults (20-39) (7 individuals, 14.3%)

middle age adults (40-59) (29 individuals, 59.2) and elders (60 or older) (13 individuals, 26.5%).

Tohono O'odham individuals who were interviewed officially live in 8 of the 11 districts of the




24 My Studies and explorations of the Tohono O'odham Nation' s food system have taken place on the United States
or Arizona portion of Tohono O'odham lands with interviews and site visits being conducted in an area larger than
the federally designated United States reservation, from Tucson on the east Gila Bend on the North, Ajo on the West
and into Sonora, Mexico.










Tohono O'odham Nation. Table 1-3 gives a summary of the number of respondents from each

of the districts, along with the percentage of the total.

I also engaged in participant observation to the extent possible given the constraints of

my site25 and my own scheduling difficulties. I was able to volunteer to a limited extent for

Tohono O'odham Community Action at events that they hosted as well as participate in saguaro

cactus fruit harvesting in multiple venues, volunteer for the Healthy O'odham Promotion

Program (HOPP) and Indian Health Services as a Licensed Massage Therapist at fun run/walk

events, as a presenter and guest at several of the annual Diabetes Health Fairs sponsored by the

HOPP, as a volunteer to assist with the growing efforts at the Sells Elderly Center garden, as a

vendor of traditional foods grown by TOCA and San Xavier Cooperative Farm as well as casual

interactions in various research processes on the Nation.

Limitations to This Study

There were two main factors that contributed to the low number of people who were

willing to be formally interviewed, although from informal discussion with other researchers

(both O'odham and non-O'odham) the number of interviews that I was able to conduct was

relatively high. First, was the size of the Nation which enhanced my own time constraints. In

some instances I was given the opportunity like many of the O'odham people to participate in

two or even three simultaneous activities sometimes more than a hundred miles apart that would

have enhanced my understanding of O'odham culture either through participant observation or

by increasing the number of interviews. There were occasions when I was supposed to meet

with either political bodies or individuals that the meeting was canceled, sometimes at the last



25 It is common practice that a non-O'odham shall not live on the Nation unless they are either married to an
O'odham person or employed by the Nation. Although I have heard of non-O'odham who currently live on the
Tohono O'odham Nation, I chose not to pursue these options in order to respect this practice.










moment because something had come up at work or more frequently within a family, community

or District, that needed to be dealt with immediately. As I was unfunded through the length of

this research I was also working three or four days a week in Tucson in order to meet the

everyday considerations of food, shelter and tanks upon tanks of gasoline that enabled me to

traverse the Nation.

Second, I was reminded constantly of my position as an outsider as well as the historical

disparities of outside research and writing in Native American communities.26 I found that

many Tohono O'odham would discuss issues on an informal basis but were not comfortable with

being part of a research study, particularly one that is not being conducted by an entity or

individual from outside the Tohono O'odham Nation. Although I had sought approval at the

district, legislative and community levels as appropriate and discussed my proj ect with TOCA

and San Xavier Cooperative Farm members, I always mentioned to potential interviewees that

this was an independent proj ect whose results would be shared with each of the entities. As was

pointed out to me in several contexts over the course of the approval process and afterwards,

researchers will come and go earning a degree and improving their lives but what remains for the

O'odham are many of the same issues that the research was purporting to assist the O'odham

with. At the maj ority of the meetings that I attended with political representatives of the Tohono

O'odham Nation I was made aware of the general perception that researchers are viewed as

takers, getting what they need by any means necessary. Some of the more frequently mentioned

researcher transgressions included stories of researchers extending beyond what they initially

said that they would do, not respecting decisions of the political bodies of the Tohono O'odham



26 See Mihesuah (1998 and 2005) for approaches on writing and researching in Native American communities. See
Seivertson (1999:14) for another researcher's account of challenges related to internal dynamics in the Nation as
well as the historical relationship between the Tohono O'odham and outside researchers.









Nation, visiting areas or people unannounced and not following through on promises that they

have made. I was surprised to learn how strong these feelings were, particularly towards those

who had formerly done research on the Nation whom I highly respected for the depth of their

scholarship. I have attempted to build goodwill for myself and future researchers within the

Nation perhaps at the cost of probing and prodding which might have yielded more data in the

short-term. As such questions that I asked informants remained consistent over the course of the

interviews with the questions that I presented to the Tohono O'odham Legislative Council when I

was asking for the final authority to conduct research. This limited the complexity of my

research as I asked only open-ended questions over the course of my research. As such the data

that I collected was descriptive in nature and this limited my ability to quantitatively analyze the

data utilizing software analysis programs such as ANTHROPAC (Borgatti 1998) to run cultural

consensus analysis and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS).

I also have a limited knowledge of both Spanish and Tohono O'odham so I required an

interpreter for two of my interviews; in both cases the interpreter was a family member who

translated O'odham into English. The rest of the interviews were conducted in English, although

in at least two cases informants specifically mentioned that they would feel more comfortable

and knowledgeable if the interview was conducted in O'odham. 27













27 In an attempt to share this information in the O'odham language the original abstract of this dissertation was
translated into the Tohono O'odham language. See Appendix C for the abstract in O'odham.























gure 1-1. Picture of buckhorn cholla (Cylindropunita acanthocarpa (Engelmann & Bigelow)
Knuth) .


Figure 1-2. Picture of saguaro cactus (Carnegica gigan2tean (Engelmann) Britton & Rose).


Figure 1-3. Picture of mesquite (Prosopis velutina Wooton).





























gure 1-4. Picture of Santa Rita prickly-pear (Opunita violacea var. santa-rita (Griffiths &
Hare) Rose (syn., O. violacea Engelmann)).


Figure 1-5. Picture of Engelmann prickly-pear (Opunita engelmanni Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann).












Table 1-1. Change in acreage farmed over time for the Tohono O'odham Nation, excluding San
Xavier and San Lucy Districts.
Date Acreage Water Source Source
1910s 9, 177 to 16,000 Floodwater (Clotss 1915:27 and McDowell 1920:279
acres in Nabhan 1986)
Late 1920s 20,000 Floodwater TOCA and TOCC (2002)
1949 2,500 Floodwater TOCA and TOCC (2002)
2002 Less than 25 Floodwater TOCA and TOCC (2002)
2003 7,000 Irrigation (USDA-NRCS 2003)
Groundwater

Table 1-2. Change in acreage farmed over time for San Xavier District
Date Acreage Water Source Source
Early 1900s 1,580 Irrigation (Olberg and Schank 1913:5 in Fontana
River (1960:4)
1957 371 by TO Irrigation (Lewis 1994:165)
271 leased Well
1960 Approximately Irrigation Fontana (1960:4)
1500 possible Well
1960 88 by TO Irrigation (Lewis 1994:165)
871 leased Well
2004 -2006 300 Irrigation SXCF personal communication
CAP
2008 (estimate) 1000 Irrigation SXCF personal communication
CAP

Table 1-3. Number of people interviewed by Tohono O'odham District.
District Number of People Percentage of Total
Baboquivari 3 6
Chukut Kuk 2 4
Gu Achi 5 10
San Lucy 32 65
San Xavier 2 4
Schuk Toak 2 4
Sells 2 4
Sif Oidak 1 2










CHAPTER 2
THE TOHONO O'ODHAM

The Desert People

The Tohono O'odham are well known for: 1. the extent to which they have been

researched by outsiders28 and 2. having one of the highest rates of type 2 diabetes amongst any

people (TOCA and TOCC 2002, Matthews 2006). Early anthropological studies of the region

include the work of Underhill (1934, 1939, 1946, 1985, 2000), Fontana (1960) and Waddell

(1966). More recent scholarship includes anthropologists (Fontana 1989; Griffith 1992; Cudel

1994), geographers (Seivertson 1999; Madsen 2005), agricultural scientists (Buseck 2002),

ethnobiologists (Nabhan 1982, 1983, 1985) as well as partnership publications by academics and

Tohono O'odham individuals (Kozak and Lopez 1999) and Tohono O'odham academics

including Zepeda (1983, 1985) and Juan (1992). The Tohono O'odham Tribal Council has also

endorsed an introductory textbook (Erickson 1994), which outlines the political, social and

economic events that have impacted the tribe.

A favorite topic of many academics has been the level of acculturation for Native

American peoples29 (See Thompson 1948; Fontana 1960; Spicer 1962; Waddell 1966; Stull

1974; Jackson 2002). Recent studies have examined the resurgence of Native American pan-

Indian culture or individual tribal manifestations of culture (See Nagel 1996, LaDuke 1999,

Treat 2003). Perceived levels of acculturation vary across the Tohono O'odham Nation. From


28For an idea of the extent of research and writing on the Tohono O'odham see Fontana (2I r'4).

29 See Madsen (2005: 69,78) for a discussion of varying acculturation patterns between O'odham living on the
Mexican side of the border and O'odham living on the United States border. Although Madsen notes that the
O'odham living on the Mexican side of the U.S. Mexico border are more acculturated due to greater contacts and
connections between O'odham and Mexican people as well as the lack of a reservation system which provided a
buffer, many of the O'odham living in the United States that I spoke with referred to O'odham living in Mexico as
being less acculturated and more traditional than those living in the United States. The continuum of acculturation
has been described by Taylor (21 1 14 29) as providing, "insight into the worldviews and self-perception, which are
key to providing appropriate and efficacious rehabilitation services."










conversations and meetings that I have had with those from the "west side"30 Of the Nation there

is a widely held belief that they are more traditional and less acculturated than those on the "east

side." At the same time there appears to be a belief among those in the Sells area that they are

less acculturated than those living in the San Xavier District which is just to the south of Tucson.

Interestingly I have heard little discussion from those in either Sells, San Xavier, or the 'west

side' of the Nation as to where they believe the San Lucy District, located adj acent to Gila Bend,

Arizona, falls in the continuum from traditional to acculturated. This could change in the future;

however, as some of those living in San Lucy District expressed a degree of concern over the

growth and northwards expansion of the city of Gila Bend with one individual describing the

temporally proximate and probable encirclement of the compound where the Tohono O'odham

living in the San Lucy District reside. Many individuals in San Lucy District perceived

themselves as more acculturated than the rest of the Nation, referring to themselves as "Indians"

or "urban Indians" and the rest of the Nation as the "reservation" or the "main reservation."

The O'odham, like other Native American peoples, have to constantly work to maintain

their identity and culture in light of challenges that they face as individuals, families,

communities and Nations. As Nagel notes:

The knowledge that Native American ethnicity is historically based, however, must not
obscure the fact that Indian ethnic boundaries and identities are continually socially
constructed and negotiated. It is important to note that for both traditional and emergent
Indian communities, the work of social and cultural survival represents an ongoing
challenge. There is nothing "automatic" or "natural" about Native American tribal or
supra-tribal ethnicity. No matter how deeply rooted in tradition, Indian ethnicity, like all
cultures and identities, must be sustained and strengthened (1996:9).



30 Although the Districts were never specifically mentioned by any informants my understanding of 'west side'
Districts is based on who was speaking. I believe that Hickiwan, Pisinimo, Gu Vo, and Chukut Kuk (although this
District comprises a portion of the eastern border of the Nation and also the majority of the US-Mexico international
border) as well as possibly Gu Achi could be considered to be 'west side' Districts. For more on the Districts see
Ch. 2: Tohono O'odham Lands.










Many O'odham who work in urban areas make greater efforts to maintain their sense

of connection to place and culture while balancing conflicting commitments in their

schedules. There is also a sense for some of the O'odham that they are living in two

worlds, having to balance commitments in both. The geography of the Nation amplifies

these conflicting commitments as getting to an event in a home district after work can

entail a three hour commute covering well over one hundred miles on roads of varying

conditions.

The imposition of industrial agricultural production of crops to be sold on far away

markets perpetuates reliance on the grocery store for most Tohono O'odham. From my

experience of walking through the grocery store in Sells, Arizona, the Nation' s capital, as in

many grocery stores, most of the foods were highly processed foods and there was an absence of

any traditional or locally grown foods in 2001. Over the course of my research the amount of

traditional foods, particularly tepary beans, that were available in the grocery store increased.

Through discussion with grocery store managers I have come to further realize the extent to

which money determines what is on the shelves. Not only do high profit products such as cokes,

candies, and chips dominate grocery store end caps, islands and displays (with greater intensity

in poor neighborhoods: see Winson 2004)31 but also how food companies pay to occupy shelf

space. The grocery-store economy, which currently dominates the Tohono O'odham Nation, has

been associated with the loss of ethnobotanical nomenclature and associated ecological

knowledge, which in turn undermines cultural integrity at the individual level (Hill 2001). I will

describe more pertinent cultural details and particularly food production and consumption later.




31 For more on the overall availability of healthy foods in at Navajo convenience stores and trading posts see Pareo
et al. (2000).









Tohono O'odham Lands

The Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona has approximately 24,000 enrolled members

(Tohono O'odham Community College, 2003), with 18,000 of them, living in the nine

contiguous Districts of the Nation in south central Arizona, see Figures 2-1 and 2-2 for maps of

the Nation. The districts of the contiguous Tohono O'odham Nation are the: Chukut Kuk

District, Gu Achi District, Gu Vo District, Hickiwan District, Pisinemo District, Schuk Toak

District, Sells District, and Sif Oidak District. These nine contiguous districts comprise the

largest section of the Nation, which is approximately 2.8 million acres, or roughly the size of

Connecticut. There are two districts outside of the main portion of the Nation: San Xavier and

San Lucy. Both of these districts are in close proximity to higher concentrations of non-

O'odham people. San Xavier or Wa:k is located approximately twelve miles south of Tucson,

Arizona, on Interstate 19. The San Xavier District contains the San Xavier Mission de la Bac, a

functioning mission and church of the Franciscans that serves as a center of worship not only for

the Tohono O'odham living in the district but also for Hispanic and Anglo-American Catholics

in the area (Fontana 1996:56). The mission is surrounded by the fields of the San Xavier

Cooperative Farm which is a main source of traditional foods for Tohono O'odham in San Xavier

District, the Tucson region, and eastern regions of the nine contiguous Districts of the Tohono

O'odham Nation. The Cooperative is even well known and respected by tribal members located

nearly 140 miles away in the San Lucy District.

The San Lucy District is located adj acent to Gila Bend, Arizona, on the intersections of

Interstate 8 and Route 85. It is located further from the contiguous Tohono O'odham Nation

than San Xavier. San Lucy residents are thus the most isolated from the rest of the Nation in

terms of geographic distance. They are also the furthest removed from the two main farms









which grow traditional foods. The originally San Lucy village or the 'old village' as it is referred

to by San Lucy District members was tragically destroyed in a flood.

The districts are political units within the Nation, functioning similarly to states in the

United States. Decisions concerning economic development, use of federal and tribal funds, and

whether or not to allow researchers to work within the District are made at the District level with

varying degrees of consultation with the communities within the District.32 The Legislative

Council for the Tohono O'odham Nation, which has two representatives from each of the

Districts (with voting weight based on membership) will often defer to Districts regarding certain

matters. Thus, deference to the village as the traditional unit of decision making is a value that is

still followed by many Tohono O'odham.

Eco-Biological Factors

Natural resource utilization by indigenous peoples in what is now the southwestern United

States has acted as de facto biodiversity conservation and creation (Doolittle 1992). Home

gardens have been an essential feature in the southwestern US since 2,000 BC, providing areas

where plants could be individually cared for (Doolittle 1992). Home gardens served as focus

areas for household genetic diversity conservation efforts and acted as a backup should field

crops fail, making them integral to food security in indigenous agro-ecosystems (Doolittle 1992).

The maintenance and cultivation of agro-biodiversity over this 4,000-year time have functioned

to assure long-term food security in the region (Doolittle 1992). Information on available plant

resources within the Nation is well documented in the ethnobotanical (Curtin 1992, Nabhan

1985, Rea 1997) and natural history (Phillips et al. 2000; Felger and Broyles 2007) literature.

There are also written accounts describing the utilization of semi-domesticated (weedy) crop



32 In the case of San Lucy and San Xavier the district is comprised of only one conununity.









relatives and landraces of crop species, such as Hodgson (2001). For pictures showing the

landscape and vegetation of the Sonoran Desert region see Figure 2-3.

From an ecologist' s viewpoint the Tohono O'odham Nation is composed of several biotic

communities within the Sonoran Desert. Much of the change in vegetation within the Nation is

due to changes in elevation, from 2000 feet on the desert floor to the 7,730 foot sacred peak of

the Tohono O'odham, Baboquivari Peak. The biotic communities of the Nation include Sonoran

Desert scrub (Lower Colorado River Subdivision, Arizona Upland Subdivision), Grassland

Formation (Plains and Great Basin Grassland) and Woodland Formation (Madrean Evergreen

Woodland) (for more on biotic communities of the Tohono O'odham Nation see Brown 1994).

The nine contiguous districts of the Tohono O'odham Nation are located between Tucson

and Saguaro National Park to the east, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, an International

Biosphere Reserve, to the west, and Sonoran Desert National Monument to the north. The

Tohono O'odham Nation thus serves as a critical area for the preservation of ecological and

biological diversity (Felger and Broyles 2007). The Nation is located in the Sonoran Desert,

which has the highest concentration of pollinator diversity in the world (Allen-Wardell et al.

1998). Pollinators, some of which are intimately associated with only one plant species and

hence highly susceptible to extinction, perform essential functions not only in the maintenance of

biological diversity, but also in the enhancement of yield for several crops (Allen-Wardell, et al.

1998; Nabhan and Buchmann 1997; Nabhan et al. 1996). The Tohono O'odham are key actors

in conserving biodiversity not only within the confines of the Nation, but also in conservation

efforts of adj oining parklands (Nabhan 1995; Orlove and Brush, 1996). Some Tohono O'odham

families have the rights to harvest saguaro fruit in the western section of Saguaro National Park.

A saguaro harvesting or bahidaj camp takes place in an area designated by the National Park










Service. The camp lasts from two to six weeks in June and July33 depending upon the season.

The collection begins in Saguaro National Park begins with the first appearance of the saguaro

fruit en masse and the completion of the annual permit procedure that is needed in order to

collect within the Park' s boundaries. In Organ Pipe National Monument the fruits of the organ

pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelman) Buxbaum) (See Figure 2-4) and saguaro cactus are

both collected.

Economies of the Tohono O'odham Nation

Casino

Casino operations both on and off reservation offer anthropologists and others rich sites for

analyzing competing discourses on the appropriateness of utilizing casino revenues to bolster

economies (American Indian Gaming Association 2007). Recent anthropological work has

looked at contemporary gaming, particularly the right and "appropriateness" of utilizing gaming

as a source of income for and by Native American communities (see Darian-Smith 2004). The

Tohono O'odham Nation began its casino operations in October 1993 and currently operates

three casinos, two in San Xavier and a much smaller operation of approximately twenty five slot

machines located in a gas station at the western edge of the Nation along Route 86. The Nation

has recently completed a $120 million casino resort which is intended to increase potential

profits as well as serve to assist other businesses by attracting a greater number of tourists to the

Tucson region (Long 2006). The Nation is the ninth largest employer in Southern Arizona, with

over $10 million paid out in wages annually (Touzeau 2005).




33 Historically, the first rains of summer mark the beginning of the year for the O'odham. This occurs in June which
is known in O'odham as Ha:saii Bak ~asad which can be translated as "Saguaro Cactus Fruit Ripens Month." The
season last until the rains starts fall with greater intensity in July or Jukiabig Masad which can be translated as "Big
Rains Month."









The revenues of the casino were estimated to be over $50 million in the late 1990s

(Hackenberg 1997). The revenues from the casino are shared with the state of Arizona to and

assist with agreed to spending imperatives for the state. The casino revenues are disbursed

annually to support programs on the Tohono O'odham Nation including college scholarships,

nursing homes, small business grants, Tohono O'odham Community College, fire and police

services (Francisco 2002), annual distributions to each of the Nation's 11 districts, and are

available to individuals members of the Tohono O'odham Nation as disbursements of $2000 on a

periodic basis. Additional income from the casino is earned by Tohono O'odham who work as

employees of the casino. Casino revenues provide much needed funds for human services and

once these high priority needs are met, the Tohono O'odham Nation may be in a position to

allocate additional funding for proj ects that specifically address traditional food security.

Mining

Mining has at various times accounted for livelihoods for many O'odham, although there

are fewer O'odham actively involved in these economic pursuits today. Evidence of mining is

apparent even while driving along the main roads of the Tohono O'odham Nation. Many

O'odham have worked in mining operations not only on the Nation but also in mining towns like

Aj o, a once prosperous copper-mining town. Given the extent of copper mining in the southern

Arizona region there has been relatively little benefit to the Tohono O'odham. Adamson

(2001:21) goes so far as to state, "the southern Arizona copper belt, yielding fully 2/3 of all US

copper ore, has not economically benefited the Tohono O'odham tribe, which lost its lands and

gained nothing in return."

Mining operations began in earnest after the United States Civil War (Sonnichsen

1982:49). The Arizona Mining and Trading Company, an American mining company, initiated

development of the mines in the Southern Arizona including Aj o, Arizona (Sonnichsen 1982:49).









In the 1870s and 1880s there was a massive influx of non-O'odham miners into the mountainous

regions of O'odham lands. Several mining towns emerged and some, such as Logan City, grew

into small cities of the time, with as many as 2000 buildings and populations of 10,000 (Erikson

2003:95). Although the scale of operations was relatively large there was little long-term impact

of the operations on the Tohono O'odham of that time (Erickson 1994:95). However, there are

currently concerns over the potential groundwater contamination that open-pit mining operations

can result in (Adamson 2001:25). Indeed, this contamination has already occurred in the San

Xavier District (Lewis 1994: 167).

Although most of the larger scale mining has left the Nation, many of the male informants

I interviewed mentioned some sort of connection with mining operations. How deep this

connection is felt for some contemporary O'odham is evident by a Tohono O'odham Language

and Culture class field trip I took with Tohono O'odham Community College. The class was

taken to several old mining sites throughout the Nation, which varied in scale from exploratory

pits to the remains of old mining towns. We were able to quickly and easily access these various

operations from the roads adj acent to them. I noticed rusted out old tins and open mining pits,

remnants of former mining camps, as we continued our field trip. We ended the mining portion

of our trip at the site of a large mining town, complete with portions of an old railroad ascending

a nearby ridge and a large pit, perhaps seventy-five in diameter and fifty feet deep where wood

was burned to process ore. To this day, mining operations on the land of the Tohono O'odham

Nation have left visible scars on the landscape, a glaring reminder of past economic and

livelihood ventures for Tohono O'odham.

Ranching

The districts of the Nation were divided according to the grazing districts that were

imposed by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. Although a few O'odham families have









been able to utilize cattle ranching to meet all of their economic needs, for many of the Tohono

O'odham cattle ranching was a means to bring some supplemental income or provide meat for

the family (Erickson 1994:109). According to a male elder from the Schuk Toak District,

The ranching business or the cattle business was primarily how people survived, at least in
my time, my dad's time. We got a little money off it. Food, meat we were able to trade
meat for other things that we used. And it is hard work.

The overall size of the herds that graze within the Tohono O'odham Nation is severely

limited by the amount of forage available, which is directly related to the amount of rainfall. In

periods of drought fewer cattle will be capable of surviving and growing. The actual number of

cattle still grazing on the Nation remains unknown. One factor that contributes to this is that

many people are new to cattle management, having inherited the cattle from a relative. Many

times these new comers entrust their herds to cowboys who will, on occasion, take one of the

owner' s cattle as payment for maintaining the herd. Over the course of years or decades people

are unsure of the actual number of cattle that they still own. Another issue, according to Jordan,

a middle age male from the San Xavier District, who was involved extensively with rangeland

management, is that asking ranchers how many cattle they have is equivalent to asking them how

much money they have and therefore is not answered with a lot of specifics. This indicates that

for at least some of the ranchers within the Nation, cattle still serve essential and very economic

functions in and of themselves.

One of the key issues with rangeland management in the Sonoran Desert is overgrazing,

which is putting too many cattle units on a given area of land. However, not all Tohono

O'odham believe that the cattle management strategies that have been used in the past resulted in

overgrazing. According to Blaine (1981:78), a former Chairman of the Papago Tribe of Arizona:

Sometimes the winter rains were too late and sometimes too early to help the grass on the
range. I say that we never overgrazed! The thing that cut down our cattle was drought. If
the drought hits, grass dies...We didn't get rid of our cattle just because someone told us









to...We didn't see any sense in cutting our cattle down, we took our chances with the rain.
If it rains, good. If not, then we are hurt. If cattle are going to die, let them die. But they
will die right here on their reservation. Right here in their home country. That was the
answer that we gave the white man and his Agency. I fought my boss all the way on this
cutting down of Papago cattle on the reservation. The white man never understood this.

Ranching was a way of life; the cowboy lifestyle became an integral part of life for

generations of O'odham (See Kozak and Lopez 1999). This can still be seen today with the

importance of the rodeo for many of the O'odham, the distribution of charcos (ponds)

throughout the Nation, the network of fences in various states of repair and cattle grazing

available forage on the range and in communities. Ranching provides both benefits and

challenges to food security on the Tohono O'odham Nation. Ranching provides not only income

from sales of cattle but also a local source of lean meat that is valued by O'odham individuals as

health promoting. The recent development of horse camps is directly related to the cowboy

lifestyle of previous generations of Tohono O'odham. These camps are designed to teach youth

values, respect and traditions and offer an alternative to substance abuse and violence. In

contrast, some respondents reported that ranching could be detrimental to food security when

cattle wander through broken fences into areas that are being farmed and gardened.

Agricultural Production

As was previously mentioned, the acreage in traditional flood water farming diminished

throughout the 20th century from 20,000 in the 1920s to less than 25 in 2002 (TOCA and TOCC

2002). The Spanish and the Anglos both made efforts, with varying degrees of success, to

establish "proper" agriculture within the Nation (Lewis 1994:11-12). This led to the introduction

of new crops as well as techniques (Lewis 1994: 11-12). This coupled with government

programs of economic assistance diminished reliance on the traditional agricultural system as

well as the crops it produced. Crops were initially brought in by the Spanish in concentrated

areas around mission sites such as San Xavier. There was a marked decline from 1957 to 1960









in land farmed by the Tohono O'odham, whereas in 1957 371 acres were farmed by Tohono

O'odham and 271 were leased, by 1960 only 88 acres were worked while 871 were leased

(Lewis 1994:165).

Jordan remembers how cotton was the Nation' s maj or crop when he was growing up in the

1950s. The production of cotton not only necessitates large amounts of water to grow but can

also create barren landscapes where dust and pesticide mix. The conditions at the fields of San

Xavier are recalled by Jordan:

I remember way back in the fifties the Co-op was growing nothing but cotton and I
remember when I was going to elementary school I'd be in front of our house and a plane
would zoom by and you could smell all these chemicals it was coming down and spraying
it was what do you call it cotton fields and then too I remember a lot of our people
would be out there harvesting the cotton and they'd have some of these planes even flying
by on top of some of the people that were working in these fields.

These conditions resulted from industrial agricultural with a monoculture of cotton held

up by intensive utilization of chemicals. With the increasing industrialization a greater amount

of agricultural products can be produced per human worker, leading to a steady decline in the

number of people working in agriculture. According to the same middle age male from San

Xavier, the economic rationality of trade offs between market production and human health was

something that was challenged by transnational farm worker activists, leading to a paradigm shift

concerning food production within the San Xavier District:

I remember that' s where Ceasar Chavez came and started talking about the farm workers
and the way they were unpaid and their living conditions and all this other stuff, but not
only did he help the Mexican people, but he helped also the Native American people that
were out there...harvesting the cotton...and so today...we don't want to be out there doing
that kind of stuff...there is no way that we want to hire any kind company to come in and
use their airplanes to spray [their] products here on the Co-op but to be more organic...
[that] is [what] they call it organic farming.

Since most current agriculture operations are in one way or another subsidized by the U.S.

government, it is crucial to examine the recent decision-making regarding allocation of funding










for agriculture in the region. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) favors, in

terms of overall assistance given to the Tohono O'odham, an industrial approach to agriculture

on the Nation. The USDA did promote what it refers to as a culturally-appropriate system to

revitalize traditional cultural practices and reduce the incidence and severity of diabetes among

Tribal members through a 1997 $80,000 competitive grant (Community Food Security Coalition

2004)34 and 2001 $135,000 grant both awarded to TOCA (Harrison and Bynum 2001). While

these figures may sound significant it is crucial to consider the competitive nature of securing

this funding for the short term as well as consider these monies in relation to the expenditure on

the promotion of industrial styles of agriculture production. In 2003 alone $1,642,351 in cotton

subsidies were paid in Pima County, Arizona (Environmental Working Group 2007). These

subsidies not only have severe impacts on biodiversity (Badgley 2002) but also on water

resources sustainability, which is increasingly recognized as the largest threat to continued

agricultural production (Postel 1999). Currently the Nation uses groundwater to irrigate nearly

7,000 acres of cropland (USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service 2003). This is in sharp

contrast to the farmers in the traditional food system, which relied on traditional floodwater

farming methods including ak chin irrigation (Nabhan 1983; Rea 1997). Floodwater farming

while effectively utilizing scarce water resources requires at least seven inches of rain in order to

produce a crop and hence crops grown in this manner would fail in the event of an extended

drought (Lewis 1994:126).35 These methods may still be in use on approximately 10-15 acres of

the Tohono O'odham Nation. Some of the Tohono O'odham elders believe that the only true

34 This competitive grant was through the Community Food Projects Competitive Grants Program, administered
through the Cooperative State Research Education, and Extension Service of the USDA. It was established in in
1996 as a part of the Farm Bill entitled the Community Food Security Act. Total funding between the programs
inception in 1996 and 2003 was $22 million to 166 programs (Community Food Security Coalition 2004).
35 For extensive coverage of the diversity of techniques and cropping systems utilized by farmers in the early 1980s
in floodwater fields see Nabhan (1983:43-66).










agriculture occurs when water falls from the sky and is diverted to fields. For these elders, water

brought from wells or pumped to the area create a agricultural production system which they do

not recognize as farming. With an ever dwindling land base, it may soon be that the younger

generations will not be able to recognize floodwater farming as a agricultural production system.

Indeed with the over-reliance on groundwater and canal water in Arizona, these methods of

production, while diminishing may be the only long-term options for continued agriculture in the

region.

Professional and Administrative

The annual movements of the Tohono O'odham between mountain villages and field

villages and in some cases the sea to meet subsistence needs were replaced by seasonal

migrations to trade or assist in cash crop production. This is now replaced by a new migration

pattern, daily or weekly movements from home to the workplace located perhaps 60 to 100 or

more miles away. Most of the people employed in Sells work indoors and are government

employees (US Census Bureau 2000). The major occupations are service occupations (183

people or 28.8%), sales and office occupations (159 people or 25.0%) and management,

professional and related occupations (157 or 24.7%) (US Census Bureau 2000). In my own

movements through O'odham lands I realized how difficult such daily movement can be. In

addition several of the areas of the Nation are open range which means that one has to exercise

caution that animals are not on the road. This has to be coupled with the high concentration of

heavily armed law enforcement personnel, 'illegals' or migrants, and drug runners. The thought

or frequent sighting of these individuals makes it difficult to fully enj oy the beauty of the

Sonoran Desert and the varied programming of the Nation's radio station, KOHN 91.9: "The

Voice of the Tohono O'odham Nation," while driving on the Nation. For many O'odham

commuting for several hours of each weekday to or from these cities to the Nation for home or









income earning opportunities becomes tiresome. Strategies for avoiding this commute include

relocating to the maj or city where the individual is working, moving back to the village or town

where family is located, seeking the geographically closest employment optionss, renting a

place in towns and cities surrounding the Nation and making the commute home for weekends

and special events as time allows. Some O'odham have chosen to live in the urban environments

despite the relative proximity of their homes on the reservation for reasons such as convenience

and better educational options for their children. Some who have made this journey for reasons

of increased educational or financial opportunities feel as if they are missing out on the cultural

activities and everyday life on the Nation. One middle age professional woman related,

So we moved [to the city] and we've been here ever since. I miss the reservation, I miss
all the events and ceremonies and what have you and if I am able to, I go, but, our
connection to family is what my daughter missed the most.

Although there is this movement or its more common automobile analogue, commuting,

these actions produce continuities where an individual or family can have two or three homes.

Most individuals whom I spoke with would always identify with the District that their family is

originally from even if they have never lived there. This impacts food procurement strategies

particularly when the season comes to collect some of the popular traditional foods from the

desert. As an example, a middle-aged women who lives in Gila Bend and has a home in the

Hickiwan District will go from time to time to Hickiwan District in order to collect traditional

foods with relatives she has there. Similarly there are some instances in which the O'odham will

think of multiple connections to their Nation's lands particularly in the first week or two of

November, around All Soul's Day, when many O'odham will visit a number of graveyards to

pay respects to those family members who have gone before them. For some this means going to

as many as four or more different sites to pay respects.










Many O'odham working in urban centers see themselves living a dual life, one on the

reservation as an O'odham and another in various professional activities off the reservation.

Much like the migration of many indigenous peoples the O'odham recognize the need to live in

two worlds the traditional and the modern. Mobility allows this traverse between the two

worlds on a daily basis, but even in their speeding cars on the way back through the Nation's

roads they might not be able to get back to where time slows down, as modernity's presence in

the form of increased US Homeland Security patrols and sirens, migrant demands and desires,

drug trafficking and use intersect to create a very different landscape than the one that their

ancestors knew. It is in this landscape that some contemporary O'odham, recognized as

unemployed or underemployed in official accounts earn a living or to supplement family

incomes.

Informal Economy

Running drugs and people has become an economically viable source of livelihood for

some O'odham.36 Madsen (2005:164) estimates that the total payments for these efforts to be

over $1,000 tax free income annually per Nation resident. This has become such a regular

occurrence within the Nation that individuals will make rounds to pick up "illegals" asking

community members openly whether they have "illegals" to be picked up, as German describes

the situation,

A car that was coming by and he was looking to pick up people. He came in our village, in
our yard he was saying, "you got any people." I didn't know what he was talking about,
"do you have any people, any illegals?" He couldn't talk O'odham, he was O'odham
though. I finally understood him I said no, not here. And I guess people come in to just
pick up illegals...cars will drive real fast around our community or you see a car driving
around honking their horn you know they are trying to pick up illegals.



36 There has recently been am increase in the number of Tohono O'odham who have been arrested for drug
trafficking (Throssell 2004),









While there are some economic benefits for some individuals of the Tohono O'odham

Nation, the attempted and successful crossing of the border between the United States and

Mexico by those seeking economic opportunities in the United States has very real consequences

for the Tohono O'odham. Indeed the entire Nation with is subj ect to smuggling operations of

networks of both coyotes who traffic people and smugglers who traffic drugs. This is

particularly true of those southern districts of the Nation: Chukut Kuk District, Baboquivari

District and Gu Vo District. In these districts of the Nation one need not look far for the constant

reminders of the flow of people, tattered clothing left in the middle of the desert, shrines where

migrants stop to ask for the blessings for a safe j ourney, and water bottles left on the side of the

roads by religious groups in order to prevent death by dehydration in the searing Sonoran

Desert's sun. The temperatures can reach over 100 degrees Fahrenheit from May through

September. Alternatively those migrants who make the trek through the mountain ranges of and

surrounding the Nation may face hypothermia in the winter months.

In addition to assisting with the movement of people and drugs through the border region

another source of income that could be considered as a part of the informal economy is selling

goods from furniture to fruit to prepared foods on the Nation. This is particularly present in Sells

in designated parking lots or near businesses buildings or outside of shopping plazas where both

O'odham and non-O'odham sell their products. Sales also occur frequently in San Xavier,

adj acent the mission and in San Lucy District.

Entities Involved with Tohono O'odham Agriculture, Health and Tradition

Economic opportunities are also emerging which deal with holistic approaches to health as

well as revitalization of agriculture within the Tohono O'odham Nation. The following is a

partial list of entities currently active in the fields of agriculture, health and tradition on and

around the Tohono O'odham Nation. This is a partial list as the entities mentioned are the ones









that were most easily accessible and visible to an outside researcher. As production of traditional

foods and traditional food processing increases on the Tohono O'odham Nation there may be

new opportunities for employment and livelihood.

San Xavier Cooperative Farm

The San Xavier District has a long history of farming. Fontana (1960:4) estimated that

approximately 1,500 acres in San Xavier were under cultivation at the time of his research. This

is similar to the cultivation in San Xavier in the early part of the 1900s as 1,580 acres were under

irrigation, with 6,400 additional mesquite covered acres which were thought to have the potential

for irrigated agriculture (Olberg and Schank 1913:5 in Fontana (1960:4). Historically, the San

Xavier community was able to utilize water from the Santa Cruz River in order to irrigate its

crops, hence unlike much of the main reservation there was not a complete reliance on the rains

in order to plant. Before the creation of the Nation in the late 1800s and through 1959, outside

'farmers' oversaw the agricultural production at San Xavier (Fontana 1960: 17).

The San Xavier Cooperative Farm Association, a tribally chartered organization of 189

allottee landowners in San Xavier was formed in 1971. San Xavier is the only District in the

Tohono O'odham Nation that was initially divided by an allotment system. As Fontana

1960(21) notes some of the current landowners own the land because a relative just happened to

be in San Xavier when allotting was done. The farm is operated as a cooperative under the

jurisdiction of the San Xavier District and is bisected by Interstate 19. It is currently operated

and managed by an elected seven member board of allotees. The SXCF is currently working

toward rehabilitating its lands to bring an approximate 700 more acres into production to add to

its current production of 300 acres.37 A rehabilitation costing $23 million was conducted in



37 The vision statement of the San Xavier Cooperative Association, Inc is:










accordance with the 1982 Southern Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act and the 2004 Arizona

Water Settlement Act (U. S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation 2005). The

rehabilitation proj ect included repairing the damage from sinkholes and preventing potential

damage from sinkholes, land subsidence, which are the result of over-drawing water, as well as

installation of a more effective and efficient irrigation sy stem (U. S. Department of Interior,

Bureau of Reclamation 2005). Aside from the sinkholes other barriers to production include

flooding, cattle getting onto the farm and people from Tucson who dump their trash within the

San Xavier District. The District has determined that the operation should be organic in its

operations, and although the farm is not currently USDA organic certified, no pesticides or

herbicides are utilized on the farm and there has been discussion of seeking organic certification.

Factors to consider would include the costs of attaining and maintaining organic certification,

what if any increases in prices they would have in order to cover those additional expenses and

what if any premium in price organic certification would confer.

The main crop of the farm is alfalfa hay which attracts people from large distances

because of its high quality. The San Xavier Cooperative Farm is able to produce high quality

hay because its guaranteed supply of water from the Central Arizona Proj ect (CAP) which was

conferred to the Tohono O'odham Nation as a part of the settlement for the US v Tucson case

(Lewis 1997).38 In addition to alfalfa, the SXCF is also involved in the production of traditional



The San Xavier Cooperative Association envisions a farm committed to sustainable farming practices that
support economic development in the community. The farm will provide meaningful employment and
training as well as raw materials to support self-employment, cottage industries, arts and crafts. There will
be an emphasis on producing traditional food crops to encourage the return to a healthy diet for the O'odham.
Other field and cash crops will be developed with priority given to preserving the natural environment and
promoting the health of the O'odham. The farm's goals are to make sustainable efficient and profitable use
of its resources for the longevity and self-sufficiency...

38The United States was the plaintiff in the case, bringing suit on behalf of the Tohono O'odham Nation against the
City of Tucson.










crops including red and white tepary beans (Pha~seohes acutifolius A. Gray)39, peas (Pisunt

sativunt L.) mesquite (Prosopis vehttina Wooton).which is ground into flour40, 60 Day

O'odham corn (Zea nzays L.)41, devil's claw (Proboscidea parviflora (Wooton) Wooton &

Standley var. hohokantianakkk~~~kkk~~~kk Bretting), squash and pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.L.), melons

including O'odham ke:1i baso (Cucuntis nzelo L.) and wheat (Triticunt aestivunt L.). My


involvement with SXCF included some brief volunteer work at their farm as well as selling some

of their produce in Gila Bend.

Tohono O'odham Community Action (TOCA)

Tohono O'odham Community Action (TOCA) was established in 1996 as a non-

government association. Its main office is located in Sells, Arizona. Until mid 200742 TOCA

had one small building they which served as there center of operations and store. The one room

store contains native foods that they produced on their farms, paintings, basketry, silver j ewelry,

books and tapes dealing with Tohono O'odham language, culture and foods. They use the office

building as their central hub of activity where everyone becomes involved in tasks as mundane


39 IH One of my first visits in to the SXCF in September 2004 I was informed that in 2003 the SXCF produced
23,000 pounds of tepary beans, approximately one pound for every member of the Tohono O'odham Nation.
Although I was unable to get sales information from SXCF or TOCA I was able to get sales information for the
Coyote Store, located on State Route 86, which sells tepary beans from the San Xavier Cooperative Farm. The store
sells tepary beans and ga 'iwsa from SXCF. Current sales of tepary beans are estimated by the owner to be 400
pounds a month or 4800 pounds/year. At the current sales rate of $3.99/pound the Coyote Store sells approximately
$19,152 worth of tepary beans every year. The owner reports that he is able to maintain a continuous supply of the
tepary beans. The ga 'iwsa is a seasonal product which is sold primarily for All Soul's Day on November 2.

40 Traditional grinding was done with grinding stones (Underhill 2000). Respondents who discussed traditional
foods processing frequently mentioned hand cranked mills or mils to grind wheat and mesquite. A contemporary
means to grind mesquite for individuals living in southern Arizona is a portable mill. The mill is operated by Desert
Harvesters, a Tucson-based NGO. The movable mill (Figure 2-5) allows for onsite milling to occur for both
individuals and organizations, including the San Xavier Cooperative Farm.

41 Tohono O'odham 60 Day comn is a flour comn which is named for its short growing season, an adaptation of many
desert agricultural plants, including tepary beans, to effectively utilize available water resources, which are available
for only a short time during the growing seasons.

42TOCA's main product sales on the Tohono O'odham Nation now take place at the newly opened Cultural Center
and Museum in Topawa, Arizona.









as cleaning beans. This has become a major source of income for TOCA. In additional to sales

of traditional foods and other products, TOCA has been successful in attracting funding

including competitive grants from a variety of sources including the United States Department of

Agriculture, Ford Foundation, the Kellogg Foundation and Oxfam America.

TOCA' s food production has taken many forms. TOCA has assisted many individuals

and entities start community gardens for small scale food production including elder centers in a

number of the Nation' s districts. It has also operated an ak chin or floodwater farm in Cowlic,

Arizona, which relies on flooding from the rains to supply its crops. This has in recent years

been underutilized due to TOCA' s small staff and the number of programs that they operate

including farming at Papago Farms. Papago Farms was established in the late 1950s. In 1957,

12,000 acres was leased by two Phoenix firms, with a term of 25 years after which the farm

would be managed by the Nation, however the lease was canceled by the Chairman of the Nation

in 1961 after the firms failed to produce the 5,600 irrigated acres and 18 wells as promised

(Lewis 1994:165). Since this time there were several proposals and leases for use of Papago

Farms, but these were of a short duration (Lewis 1994: 165). Papago Farms was formerly

managed by the Tohono O'odham Farming Authority, but is now under the control of the Chukut

Kuk District from whom TOCA leases the farm. Since the time that I have begun my research

TOCA has worked on developing the fields at Papago Farms which rely on diesel pumps to bring

up the necessary groundwater. Despite efforts towards development of the fields, only a small

portion of the massive farmland has been developed and is currently in production by TOCA.

There are plans to continue to develop these lands to increase the acreage under cultivation,

however this may be limited by the diminished soil fertility that has resulted from monocultures

of cotton and other market crops historically produced on the farm. The farm is bisected by a










road that carries a steady flow of Homeland Security-Border Patrol vehicles speeding to and

from the U.S.-Mexico border. Despite the proximity to the international border there have been

few issues with the flow of migrants through the farm, save some cut fences which allow cattle

access to the farm. In order to mitigate potential grazing damage to crops TOCA has a fenced

area within the farm where crops (squash and melons) that are most susceptible to damage from

grazing animals are grown. The main crop at the farm is tepary beans which in 2006 were grown

in three adj oining 20 acre plots. TOCA also utilizes the farm to hold several events including its

annual saguaro fruit collection camp or Bahidaj Camp in June, a planting ceremony with a fun

run/walk around the farm, and a harvest celebration along with traditional games including toka,

ball and basket races in late October.43 The TOCA sponsored events bring hundreds of

individuals and groups from Arizona including the Gila River Indian Community as well as

journalists and national NGO representatives interested in telling TOCA' s successes and funding

its initiatives.

TOCA has several other initiatives to increase capacity and understanding of traditions

among and between community members.44 They host workshops on a variety of topics,

including traditional foods change over time, how to operate a digital camera, and how to

prepare traditional foods in new ways. They also hold workshops for basket weavers and run an

annual Basket weaver' s Conference at the Heard Museum in December which attracts

indigenous peoples from all over the United States to Phoenix for a week of meetings and


43 For an anthropological account of the form of the harvest festival in the early 1900s see Mason (1920).

44 TOCA's program areas have included: Community Food System (traditional farming, home garden assistance,
distribution and marketing, nutrition education, wild food harvesting), Basket weavers Organization (marketing
cooperative, youth basketry classes, basket weavers blessing ceremony, fiber collecting, celebration of
basketweaving), Youth & Elder Outreach (youth/elder mentoring, leadership development, youth internships,
multigenerational cultural activities, youth committee) and Arts and Culture Preservation (traditional dance group,
summer arts program, audio/visual documentation, traditional storytelling, ceremonial revitalization) (TOCA and
TOCC 2001).









marketing.45 This allows NGOs and individuals from several tribes to network and share stories,

art and traditional foods.

Healthy O'odham Promotion Program (HOPP)

HOPP is focused on providing the motivation and facilities to allow O'odham people to

exercise in a safe and supportive environment. HOPP maintains facilities and teaches classes in

several districts of the Nation, organizes community events focusing on exercises in several

districts of the Nations, attends local conferences on wellness and health offering demonstrations

and classes, and sponsors an annual Diabetes Health Fair. Their annual Diabetes Health Fair is

held at the Livestock Center located approximately three miles west of the capital of Sells. It

offers a series of concurrent workshops which discuss health, well-being, traditions, success

stories and accomplishments related to preventing, managing and living with type 2 diabetes.

My interaction with HOPP has been as a patron, utilizing their facilities on occasion and as a

volunteer, supervising several groups of massage therapy students from a technical college in

Tucson and as a speaker on holistic approaches to health and stress management at the annual

Diabetes Health Fair.

Tohono O'odham Community College

Tohono O'odham Community College (TOCC), which was established on the Nation in

1998 continues to work to advance students academically while remaining strongly rooted to the

O'odham Himdag or way of life. In addition to offering trade skills, associates degrees and

general education requirements, TOCC also offers a series of classes on Tohono O'odham

Language and Culture, Tohono O'odham History, Community Resources for Diabetes. The

classroom is augmented by both class field trips and TOCC field trips which highlight key



45 This year's conference will be held at recently opened Tohono O'odham Cultural Center in Topawa, Arizona.










aspects of Tohono O'odham culture. There is also an Agriculture and Natural Resources

Program which TOCC has established. TOCC was added to the USDA' s 1994 Land Grant

institutions in 2004 (Office of the Chairwoman & Vice Chairman 2004). This designation will

allow for an expansion of the Agriculture and Natural Resources program at TOCC as well as the

development of an experimental organic farm with community involvement (Office of the

Chairwoman & Vice Chairman of the Tohono O'odham Nation 2004). TOCC also offers

Community Resources for Diabetes as an online course. The course covers nutrition with a focus

on diabetes and diabetes prevention through lifestyle modification. In the past the course

included face to face meetings, an orientation and a weekend retreat. The course structure

offered the advantage of being able to complete most of the required work outside of a traditional

classroom setting. This allowed several students to take this course that might not otherwise be

able to due to work and family commitments coupled with long commute times to the Sells

campus.

Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S)

Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S) is a Tucson-based non-Native American NGO which was

established in 1983 to conserve agriculture resources in the greater southwest region, including

Sonora, Mexico. I am discussing Native Seeds/SEARCH because of its importance in

redistribution of seeds to Native American peoples and particularly the Tohono O'odham. In

this section I hope to discuss Native Seeds/SEARCH's unique positioning and how it is

attempting to preserve native seeds in the United States southwest and northern Mexico. I will

also highlight some areas of concern that have been expressed within the NGO and outside of it.

Many of the seeds in NS/S's collection are readily available for purchase from Native

Seed/SEARCH (NS/S) online or through their store in Tucson. The collection has been acquired

through purchases, exchange and gifts from indigenous communities in the region. NS/S









currently grows the seeds out at their Conservation Farm in Patagonia, Arizona. In order to

ensure that the integrity of the collection is maintained the staff at Native Seeds/SEARCH

perform closed pollinations. This involves controlling the flow of pollen so that one accession,

or seed from a particular farmer' s field which exhibits unique characteristics, will only have its

pollen distributed to other individuals of the same accession.

The main purpose of the Conservation Farm is to allow Native Seeds/SEARCH to continue

its work to develop a complete and viable collection of crop plant germplasm in the United

States Southwest and Northern Mexico regions. The farm allows for the collection at the Native

Seeds/SEARCH' s seed bank to be grown out on a regular basis. These grow outs are essential to

insure the continued viability of the seeds in their collection. Some of the plants in the collection

that Native Seeds/SEARCH was growing out during the summer of 2004 had not been grown out

since they were collected nearly twenty years previous.

Despite the essential work that NS/S engages in it has been critiqued by Pinel and Evans

(1994) who contend that although there is some reciprocity by giving Native Americans who live

in the greater southwest area free seeds and assisting in the creation of tribal seed banks, there is

no protection for the long term rights of the farmers from whom NS/S originally obtained the

seeds. According to the 2005 version of the NS/S website (2005):

NS/S was founded in 1983 as a result of requests from Native Americans on the Tohono
O'odham reservation near Tucson who wished to grow traditional crops but could not
locate seeds. Since then, we have become a maj or regional seed bank and a leader in the
heirloom seed movement. Our seed bank is a unique resource for both traditional and
modern agriculture. It includes 1800 collections, many of them rare or endangered; more
than 90% of these crop varieties are not being systematically preserved elsewhere. Beside
the expected drought tolerance of desert plants, many of these crops are resistant to rusts,
insects, chemicals, and other stresses. They provide an irreplaceable "genetic library" to
draw upon to ensure sustainable, environmentally safe agriculture in the future.

From the above description it seems as if some Tohono O'odham originally










requested an institution or mechanism that would assist them in locating seeds of traditional

crops, which would mean some plant genetic resources were either not present on the Tohono

O'odham Nation or very narrowly distributed, perhaps in Sonora, Mexico. At the same time

Native Seed/SEARCH has done much to condense the knowledge of plants which the Tohono

O'odham have historically utilized and make this available for use by the public without

developing legal protections for the collective intellectual property of Tohono O'odham. Indeed,

when I asked about this at an informational meeting for Pollinator Interns, I was told that this

was indeed something that was thought about, but NS/S had yet to develop a policy regarding

intellectual property rights. Early editions of The SeedheadNews have addressed a variety of

intellectual property rights concerns, from the seed to cultural property in the form of symbols.

When the organization was initially established in 1983, the economic value of plants as genetic

resources was not fully realized. This was before the utilization of genes in genetic modification

technologies and also in the face of a perceived near eradication of the community's traditional

seed source for its food system. NS/S, a non-profit organization, has used its profits to work in

collaboration with the Tohono O'odham and other indigenous peoples, as well as with NGO's

such as TOCA, Tohono O'odham Community Action, for the revitalization of the traditional

community food systems. From my Hieldwork individuals from both the Tohono O'odham

Nation and Native Seeds/SEARCH are more concerned about using seeds, not as plant genetic

resources to be marketed to biotechnology firms, but rather as a source for rebuilding a

community food system that promotes cultural identity and health.

While NS/S continues its work to promote these lofty goals, it is important to consider

that the entity exists as a non-government organization (NGO), and as such has a tendency










towards self-preservation. When I asked one NS/S staff member whether the organization could

be turned over to a series of smaller tribal organizations I was told:

Probably not...What I do see though is more involvement by tribal groups and you could
have an autonomy there where you say here's all our information here's our seeds -
anything you want to do do it. I mean that's the good thing about a non-profit
organization they can give that away... because that' s their mission. And if there was a
group in Sonora Mexico or some place in the southwest that wanted all the information, all
the germplasm and samples of the seeds great that would be wonderful but to hand
over the organization like that that' s more of a stretch because the organization is
running now it' s developing now. It seems a whole lot easier just to get more and more
Native Americans involved in the organization and find out what' s missing. You know
start asking ourselves start asking Native Americans why is it we have so few people that
come and want to be a part of the organization.

There are a number of relevant points that this statement highlights. First, there is a sense

that the organization will always exist. Second, there is a sense that the organization should

always exist. Third, the organization will always provide free information and seeds collected to

Natives.46 Fourth, Native American involvement or lack thereof is problematized. The lack of a

single Native American working on staff of Native Seeds/SEARCH was something that was

viewed as a crisis within the organization in 2004. It was only remedied by the hiring of a

Navajo as the Native American Outreach Coordinator.

The idea that need for Native Seeds/SEARCH needs to continue indefinitely is a thought

shared by all Native Seeds/SEARCH staff and members of the Board of Directors with whom I

spoke. The NGO has taken on a life of its own outside of the dictates of its mission. It is a never

ending mission, to safeguard and protect biodiversity. Giving the responsibility to outside

organizations, the government, international organizations or even Native communities from




46 While this remains true for the peoples of the regions from which NS/S's collections were initially gathered, the
policy changed in 1998 to exclude Native Americans living outside of the region from free membership due in part
to the increased costs and projected increase in free membership requests from Native Americans outside of the
region (Joaquin 1998).










which the seed originated is not something that even seems to be in the realm of possibility for

those involved in NS/S.

Despite my own critiques of NS/S many Tohono O'odham that I discussed Native

Seeds/SEARCH with had positive things to say about the organization. According to Sally, a

middle age woman from Gu Achi District:

Well Native Seeds we went there and of course they just give it to us because we say that
we are going to plant and that' s how we started our garden was the seeds from Native
Seeds. So I have a lot of respect for them they really try to promote getting back into
those foods versus the other that' s so available

Lionel, who lives on the main reservation, explains the role of Native Seeds/SEARCH in

his gardening efforts a they provided much of the necessary tools and information to make his

garden a reality, if not an overall success. He explained that one Native Seeds/SEARCH

employee had the job to:

...get the O'odham interested in getting a garden going. She would provide everything -
you know the seeds and plants...to help make it be [fertile with] the mulch and we made a
garden and the only thing that came out really good was the squash. And we ate it it was
surprising.

For others, Native Seeds/SEARCH is one of many sites of seed exchange. Larry, an

Akimel O'odham, notes

I get some of the seeds from Native Seeds/SEARCH and not only that but some of the
families that grow some of the traditional foods I get some seeds from them also it' s
kind of like we all work together like if I have a bunch of seeds I'll pass them down to
someone and so on so that we plant those and that' s the whole idea of it is that we keep
those seeds going keep those foods going because when they stop they are hard to come
back.

Native Seeds/SEARCH will likely continue to work well into the future to maintain and

deepen the agricultural diversity of the region in the face of a number of legal, ethical and moral

issues which have endured and recently emerged in agriculture. These issues are discussed in









some detail in the next chapter as well as the potential implications of these issues for traditional

food security on the Tohono O'odham Nation.











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Figure 2-1. Map of Tohono O'odham lands in the U.S.A. and Mexico. Copied with permission
from Arizona Daily Star, Duarte (2001).


Tohorne O'odham

Lands












San Lucy


Figure 2-2. Map of the 11 Districts of the Tohono O'odham Nation. (Map courtesy of Kenneth
D. Madsen.)



































Figure 2-3. This is a picture series of landscapes and vegetation in the Sonoran Desert.
Although these pictures represent the vegetation and land forms of the Tohono
O'odham Nation, they were taken in other locations because I had not sought out
permission to take pictures as part of my research. These lands are however well
within lands that the Tohono O'odham have utilized: A) was taken at Saguaro
National Park B) was taken at Tohono Chul Botanical Park in Tucson C) was taken
from Catalina Highway in Corando National Forest D) was taken from Catalina
Highway in Corando National Forest.


















Figure 2-4. Picture of organ pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelman) Buxbaum)































Figure 2-5. Picture of Desert Harvesters volunteers preparing to grind mesquite pods in central
Tucson.









CHAPTER 3
FOOD: LOCAL, GLOBAL, OTHER

Only by building strong, self-sufficient local communities will people in every country be
able to withstand the forces of technological displacement and market globalization that
are threatening the livelihoods and survival of much of the human family. (Rifkin
1995:250).

As I make my way back to my home in Tucson from conducting an interview in Gila

Bend, I nearly run out of gas and diverge from Interstate 10 and pass miles of barren fields

destined for yet more water-intensive cotton production and for several miles, a cattle feeding

operation. I think about the irrigators and laborers, who have worked these fields, see the

massive machinery that breaks the earth and watch clouds of chemical-laden dust thrown about.

I think about how aspects of these operations have existed, with varying intensities, within the

Tohono O'odham Nation. I think of how these cattle and cotton products as well as products of

the Tohono O'odham Nation are brought into the larger circuits of production and consumption.

In this chapter I will discuss key aspects of agriculture and development. I will contrast

styles of approaches to agriculture and trace some of the key political issues currently

surrounding food, revealing some of the side-effects of maintaining policies at the state and

national level which give paramount importance to large-scale monocultures rather than diverse

polycultures. I will discuss how production for far away markets offers opportunities for and

challenges to traditional food security on the Tohono O'odham Nation. I will begin with a

discussion of Arizona' s agricultural economy, focusing on the counties that comprise and

surround the Tohono O'odham Nation.

Arizona Agriculture

The state of Arizona' s top agriculture commodities in 2006 were: cattle and calves, dairy

products, lettuce, cotton and hay (USDA 2007). Table 3-1 lists these commodities in descending

level of economic importance. According to the 2002 Census of Agriculture, produced by the









National Agricultural Statistics Service of the USDA in the three counties that in part comprise

the Tohono O'odham Nation, Pima, Pinal and Maricopa, there were 75, 67, and 53 farmers

respectively (U. S. Department of Agriculture 2004). Maricopa County annually produces over

$792 million in agricultural products including cattle and calves, sheep, 100,000 bales of cotton,

44,000 tons of Durum wheat, 39,000 tons of barley and 610,000 tons of alfalfa, citrus, lettuce,

broccoli, cauliflower, onions, carrots, honeydew, cantaloupe, watermelon, potatoes cabbage

(Arizona Department of Agriculture 2005a). Pima County annually produces over $51 million in

agricultural products including 25,000 bales of cotton, 20,000 pounds of Durum wheat, with

most exported to Italy, and cattle and calves (Arizona Department of Agriculture 2005b). Spinal

County annually produces over $448 million in agricultural products including honeydew,

cantaloupe, watermelons, chili peppers, 256,000 bales of Upland cotton, sheep and cattle and

calves (Arizona Department of Agriculture 2005c). Arizona agriculture, like much of agriculture

across America is concerned primarily with the production of large quantities of commodities for

national and international markets. Agriculture for the Tohono O'odham was one component in

regional food production and procurement strategies prior to the arrival of outsiders.

Global and Local Bioregionalism

Native American communities in the United States were informed by European and

American colonizers that their attempts to develop and cultivate lands were a far cry from the

ideal models of production suggested by European-Americans. The destruction of Native

American systems of food procurement and production is a product of historical and

contemporary racism wherein indigenous systems of economic production are marginalized and

read as inferior to their European counterparts. Current approaches to development on the

Tohono O'odham Nation can emerge from local initiatives or from attempts to court faraway

markets in an attempt to build and maintain economic stability. As explained in Chapter 2









"Economies of the Tohono O'odham Nation," for the Tohono O'odham as individuals and

collectively both of these economic strategies are currently being utilized. Casinos, in particular,

offer the Tohono O'odham new opportunities, as well as challenges, in attempts to build solid

support services for themselves which reflect deep O'odham values or Himdag. The Tohono

O'odham are profoundly affected both positively and negatively by their continued interactions

with outsiders. As the Nation continues to build its own capacity and economic resources it will

have opportunities to choose services and economic initiatives which will better suit the needs of

the Tohono O'odham such as recreational centers which promote physical exercise.

Anthropology as a discipline has been struggling to come to terms with multi-sited and

scaled phenomena (Kearney 1995). I will utilize the terms "bioregionalist" and "globalists"

throughout the next sections to highlight key ideological and stylistic divergences between those

who gravitate towards having the whole world as their home and those who gravitate towards a

place in attempts to maintain or create deeply rooted meanings of connection. I will situate the

Tohono O'odham within this continuum.

Most globalists would look for solutions to food security issues within current political-

economic frameworks by utilizing economic indicators and mutli-lateral arrangements to

leverage win-win situations (Tweeten 1999). Most bioregionalists believe environmental issues

cannot be resolved within the current political-economic systems that have been constructed.

For bioregionalists it is necessary to create new organizational systems that de-emphasize the

market as well as the individualistic nature of consumerism (Mollison 1990).

The bioregional model of development, based on optimization of local resources to

confront local resource demands before they become defined as problems, offers what some may

consider an idyllic or even escapist stance to the approach of global environmental issues or the










quest for sustainability (Andersen 1996). The argument against bioregionalism comes from

those who are positioned to personally and professionally benefit from current political and

economic arrangements, perhaps dismissing bioregionalists as merely playing with sticks and

mud unable to initiate or envision true change that can only come with shifting consumer

preferences or fabricated scales of corporate responsibility (Bruno and Karliner 2002).

One of the obvious reasons for targeting bioregional development is that it is explicitly a

rej section of the nation-state and multi-national corporations to govern the lives of individuals and

community members. Depending upon the context it may also be a rej section of international

forms of governance including the United Nations. Bioregionalist communities subvert the

dominant industrial-consumeri st paradigm which situates power with the state and the consumer

by the development of a worldview balancing a locally appropriate mix of biocentrism and

anthropocentrism. Biocentrism offers individuals the opportunity to integrate as fundamental

players into the maintenance of their own ecosystems.47 As bioregionalism is centered upon

community interdependence with locally available natural resources, agriculture becomes the

essential cornerstone of bioregionally based cultures (see Mollison, 1990; Bell, 1992 and 1994;

Altieri, 1995; Altieri 1999a; Altieri 1999b; Shapiro and Harrison 2000). Thus bioregionalism is

fertile ground to work with local materials and resources: to sow the seeds of local sustainable

agriculture, particularly traditional foods, development and utilization of local cuisine, gathering

of foods and building materials.

Harrison (2000:85) raises important policy-related problems with the bioregional

movement. First, the movement proposes a common goal (sense of consciousness) without

describing how that will be met. Second, it fails to create political activism to make wholesale


47 For more on regional and world biocentric development see Mollison (1990), Bell (1992 and 1994) and Harrison
2000:89-90).









changes in values. Third, it is opposed to individualism, which as Gramsci points out is at the

heart of the capitalist system within which bioregional movements in the United States are

embedded. Harrison (2000:85) continues, claiming that the social, mutually-supportive networks

which are needed to fully realize the potential of place is very different from historic human

nature. Harrison' s critique is not applicable to the Tohono O'odham who have a common

identity as Tohono O'odham and recognize a shared set of beliefs and traditions interwoven with

the lands that they occupy. This is not to say that the relative importance of these beliefs and

traditions are static and fully shared as they are indeed contested and negotiated (Nagel 1996:9).

Bioregionalism allows for an integrated realization of social, economic and

environmental aspects of sustainability. However, bioregionalists have for the most part failed to

express their conceptualization of sustainability in general and sustainable development in

particular. Historically, bioregionalists have failed to offer realistic solutions to concerns of

population size and urban distribution; large-scale ecological disturbances which will simply not

return to some natural state; and the material deconstruction of large cities. Bioregional

communities are addressing these issues not only at the local level through direct action, but

through their written works (Mollison, 1990; Bell 1992 and 1994) they have created a

transnational citizen of the earth rooted in place identity. These bioregionalists have created a

global network of 'sister communities,' by utilizing the tools of modernity (Escobar 1999). If

bioregional communities were to proliferate much of the need to discuss political organization on

larger-scales would be eliminated (Mollison, 1990:516).

There are many manifestations of bioregional concepts in action on the Tohono O'odham

Nation. Bioregional design principles were integral in the creation of the master plan for the

rehabilitation and development of the San Xavier Cooperative Farm. Some Tohono O'odham










are engaging in ranching, farming and gardening, although in numbers dramatically less than

previously (See Chapter 5 for current rates of participation in collecting and gardening). Some

are actively involved in the political processes at not only the National and District levels but

also the community level. Some are creating art, poetry and music inspired by the landscape or

by those that have come through and those that remain. Some individuals are working to restore

the traditional language of the O'odham to see the landscape and relations with it in a unique

manner.

In the past Tohono O'odham as a people were reliant on the land to make their living, they

were bioregionalists of essence. Tohono O'odham needed to procure food resources from the

landscape in various settings or face food insecurity. Recently these food resources are again

being sought out for survival but rather than meet the minimum caloric requirements they are

now viewed as ideal foods by entities within the Nation (TOCA, SXCF, TOCC, and HOPP) to

cope with the epidemic rates of diabetes brought about by excessive caloric intake. These foods

are viewed as intimately linked with what it means to be an O'odham and what it means to be

healthy. Recent bioregional initiatives which focus on enhancing capacities of production,

procurement and processing of these foods have emerged in the last decade through a network of

governmental and non-governmental organizations. These entities have been responsible for a

revitalization of traditional food products within the Nation and are an important step in building

traditional food security for the Tohono O'odham who may again become bioregionalists of

essence. See Chapter 5 for more on current growing, collecting and cooking of foods.

Sustainable and Industrial Agriculture

Since the inception of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent over 10,000 years ago humans

have been dramatically altering ecosystems and species in order to increase the food available.

With an increase in globalization and commoditization of food the processes of ensuring that









food resources are available has become entangled in a web of social, political and economic

interactions which divert food through complex markets to reach the mouths of most of the

world's population. With the advent of global bioregional movements an increasing number of

critiques of industrial production systems continue to emerge. As Boll (1995) has noted,

The longing for a better world will need to arise at the imagined meeting place of many
movements of resistance, as many as there are sites of enclosure and exclusion. The
resistance will be as transnational as capital. Because enclosure takes myriad forms, so
shall resistance to it.

Activist engagement in the anti-globalization movement does not homogenize actors in

their imaginations of what the world could be. The slow food, organic food and indigenous food

movements which continue to emerge serve as foils to industrial agricultural production to the

extent that they remain discrete from the very structures that they by their essence critique.

Individuals and entities within these movements may imagine links of varying intensities to a

more sustainable form of food production, distribution and consumption.

Some features of a sustainable agriculture systems include (adopted from Bonny

2000:436):

Environmentally sound, preserving resources and maintaining production potential;

Profitable for farmers and workable on a long term basis;

Providing food quality and sufficiency for all people;

Socially acceptable (including ethics);

Socially equitable, between different countries and within each country.

Embedded in sustainable agricultural systems is agro-biodiversity, or the diversity that is

inherent in polycultures in relation to monocultures (see Thrupp 1999:3 18 for list of benefits of

agro-bi diversityy.









"Technosub stiution," wherein technological innovations progressively alter biological

relations within human ecosystems has been characteristic of agricultural intensification (Stepp

et al. 2002). The increased "imposition of biostructure by technostructure" (Stepp et al. 2002)

has led to an industrialization of agriculture wherein, according to Bartlett (2000:255) there is:

Increased use of complex technology and the technology treadmill.

Increased substitution of capital for labor.

Increased energy use.

Increased influence of the state.

A tendency toward competition, specialization, and overproduction.

Increased interdependence between farm units and agribusinesses that control inputs,
machinery, product sales, processing and transport.

Whereas sustainable agriculture techniques are synergistic, relying upon local knowledge

and varieties, industrial agriculture techniques (IA) rely upon technologies being imposed which

work to the detriment of one another (UNDP 1995). For example, tractors while allowing a

farmer to work a relatively large amount of land will compact the soil, resulting in an increase in

irrigation efforts to attain similar results, which, in turn has its own negative effects (Postel

1999). Application of agro-industrial chemicals may decrease productivity by killing off soil

microorganisms that play a key role in the cycling of nutrients. Additionally the increase in

inputs into the system are unlikely to lead to an increase in humus or organic matter (OM)

content and may, in fact, lower OM and thus productivity of the soil. The industrial approach to

agriculture can have dramatic, impacts on environmental systems at the: global level, (impacting

climate change) (Tilman, Tamanini, van der Horst, and Okamura 2001), regional level (the

creation of 'ecological sacrifice zones' such as the zone of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico)










(Jackson 2002; DeVore 2002) and local level (threats to pollinator populations) (Suzan et al.

1994).

Biotechnology has improved the quality of seed grains and the ability to produce bigger

harvests in optimal areas for crop production. This has led to the overproduction of grains in the

United States which has direct consequences on farmers in other countries. For example,

Mexican farmers are unable to compete with corn that is imported from the US at thirty percent

below the cost of production (Dawkins 2003). Equally important, increased yields and reduced

chemical and labor costs can represent increased income for some farmers utilizing industrial

agriculture techniques. Finally, farmers can save in the cost of bringing their product to market

with crops that require less handling, are easier to store, need no refrigeration, and have a longer

shelf-life.

IA did indeed boost production for specific crops, while eliminating others that had crucial

roles for the maintenance of food security. The indicators of production have been too coarse-

grained to realize the broad-scale implications for food security. Official estimates by States

rarely consider the total output of a polyculture system of agriculture, rather only the grain yields

are considered (Shiva 1988:154-56). If total production were to be considered, then polyculutres

would prove to be superior to monocultures that emphasize only the yield of one crop (for cost-

benefit analysis in several agro-ecosystems see United Nations Development Program 1992).

Current production of traditional foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation combines

elements of both industrial and sustainable agriculture. The work to rehabilitate the SXCF

utilizes specialized technologies in addition to this special process laser Hield leveling is typically

utilized in order to ensure the proper flow of water across the Hields at SXCF. Both farms rely on

water non-sustainable water supplies, TOCA on groundwater from diesel pumps and SXCF on









Central Arizona Proj ect water as part of the settlement from US v Tucson (increased reliance on

the state). Both farms rely on farm equipment such as tractors which can compact the soil over

time and replace human labor, however hand labor can still be intensive since no pesticides or

herbicides are utilized. SXCF has a master plan which includes protection of environmental

sensitive areas and relies on cropping strategies to maintain soil fertility. Both TOCA and SXCF

are working to provide high quality traditional food products in adequate quantities for the

Nation's residents: SXCF is based in San Xavier District and acts to distribute food in the

community, TOCA hosts events sharing fruits of the desert and harvests from their farm.

For the Tohono O'odham reduction in dietary diversity is related to the decline in

diversity of their agro-ecosystems which were once much more complex (see Nabhan 1983).

Still the foods that these farms produce are valued and cherished both within the Nation by most

individuals with whom I spoke. These traditional foods are seen as re-connecting them to family

and tradition. These same products, marketed outside the Nation, offer something different,

exotic and yet familiar in the shared sense of responsibility in the preservation of agro-

biodiversity .

Taste and the Exotic Other

On any given day in Sells or San Xavier one can find food vendors selling anything from

cupcakes, to fry bread, to Indian tacos. These vendors will move from building to building in

more urban areas of the Nation or set up shop in front of shopping plazas, parking lots, or in

homes with advertisement consisting of simple signage pointing down dusty drives. These

endeavors, despite the regular presence of many of these vendors are informal. More formal

sales of foods occur at grocery stores, gas stations, markets, trading posts or shops within the

Nation. Pre-Contact traditional foods are regularly available at the San Xavier Cooperative Farm

(tepary beans (year round), squash and corn (seasonally)), TOCA's office in Sells and TOCA' s









store in the Tohono O'odham Museum and Cultural Center in Topawa (tepary beans (year

round), sitol, cholla buds and SXCF ga 'iwsa (seasonally)). SCXF goods (tepary beans (year

round) and ga 'iwsa (seasonally)) are also sold at the Coyote Store in Schuk Toak District.

Bashas' supermarket in Sells was carrying TOCA tepary beans but is not currently carrying any

traditional foods. Prepared foods are available in the grocery store in Sells, gas stations and

trading posts. Individual are also involved in cooking traditional foods for their own families

(See Chapter 5). Tohono O'odham and non-Tohono O'odham people distribute these pre-

Contact foods outside of Tohono O'odham kitchens, meals and events so that they become

available far from their origin.

The production and consumption of traditional foods outside of Native American

communities, reservation or non-reservation, although currently blossoming in both non-Native

and Native marketing operations is nothing new. Tohono O'odham farm products have

historically been marketed for non-O'odham in the Tucson region, as have the O'odham

themselves (see Figure 3-1). Exchange of foods between non-Native and Native peoples is as

old in the United States as the story of Thanksgiving. More recent incursions and iterations

include the Silverbird Company of New York which sold native American foods including

Navajo Fry Bread, Buffalo Burgers, Blue Corn Pudding, and Rabbit Stew (Levenstein

2003:25 1). The mass production of blue corn chips is perhaps the best known utilization of a

food blue corn meal in an industrial context that was initially produced by the Anasazi (Tewa,

Zuni and Hopi) (Pinel and Evans 1994; Soleri and Cleveland 1994).

As many Native Americans live in two worlds, working and living both on and off the

reservation, they are constantly blending elements of global flows and local, community or

native flows of ideology and goods. Certainly food, traditional foods, indigenous foods, native









foods, offers a window by which one can examine the hybrids which emerge through a blending

of 'two worlds'. The emergence and production of a consciousness of cuisine of Native

American communities has created new food combinations which combine elements of

traditional foods which have been produced by particular groups for cons with prepackaged,

industrially produced products to create a new cuisine such as Buffalo Burgers mentioned above

(Levenstein 2003:251) or the creation of new dishes which utilize traditional foods in new

arrangements which promote health and wellness and hence directly answer challenges of type 2

diabetes and other diseases of affluence. An example of this in the local context of the Tohono

O'odahm Nation is a salad which utilizes prepackaged spinach, pineapples and cholla buds

(ciolim) tossed with a light dressing. This dish has been prepared and served for health

conferences by TOCA staff members who will discuss the quick and easy preparation of the

salad and the healthy nutritious alternative that the new cuisine offers as the food demonstration

is given. TOCA staff suggest that wild spinach (M~onolepis nuttalliana (Shult.) E. Greene) could

be collected after the first rains of spring when it grows on the Tohono O'odham Nation

(Hodgson 2001:153) and incorporated into the salad, however, in the cooking demonstrations

that I witnessed the pre-packaged spinach was utilized. This is much healthier than

contemporary and recent historical preparations of cholla buds which include boiling perhaps

adding salt and oil or lard, boiling and then frying with rabbit meat and rabbit fat, boiling then

frying with onions in either vegetable oil or lard. Other dishes which have incorporated

traditional foods include tepary bean hummus and chia seed smoothies.

The cholla bud salad as a product is something that could easily appear in health food

stores across the United States, offering an opportunity to both eat healthy and taste genuine

Native American foods, connecting perhaps with an unexpressed need for someone seeking









connection in urban centers. Currently the foods that are produced from this region include

j ams, juices and j ellies which are made from the prickly-pear cacti. There are also a variety of

dry foods including grains, beans, teas and spices which either are indigenous to Native

American communities or produced by Native Americans.

Unlike tourist obj ects which take elements of Native American designs and iconography

and are mass produced and shipped trans-Pacific to the southwest to be sold as "genuine Indian

art" in shopping malls or the side of the road in popular tourist shopping grounds, the foods that

are produced by non-Natives and Natives are essentially the same product genetically, and

depending on the growing conditions will offer the same life-sustaining combination of nutrients

and minerals. Here the distinction between Native American produced and non-Native

American produced becomes even more critical and yet less recognized or acknowledged. While

Native Seeds/SEARCH has been integral to the re-dissemination of traditional foods in many

contexts, they have operated by sourcing their beans and other products which are named after

Native American groups through non-Native producers as Native American sources are either

unavailable or not economically feasible. By doing so the organization seems to be giving

paramount importance to continuing its mission to promote the dissemination and thus

preservation of foods which are indigenous or native to the southwest with the idea that if these

foods are being produced and consumed outside of this region by greater numbers of people then

there will be less likelihood that this will lead to an extinction of the individual species of plant.

Monies generated from the store and catalogue sales also bring much needed revenue to the

organization to continue its mission and also make free seeds available for Native Americans

living in the greater Southwest region of the United States.









Heritage Foods USA is another entity through which 'collects' Native American foods and

sells this via the Internet. Heritage Foods 2001 was created in 2001 "as the sales and marketing

arm for Slow Food USA, a non-profit which "celebrates regional cuisines and products"

(Heritage Foods USA, n.d.a). According to the Heritage Foods USA website foods must be

eaten in order to save them. The website does not make a mention of why the foods are being

eaten or by whom. Simply, the foods need to be eaten to save the foods themselves. The

subtext here is that the foods must be purchased on the website to infuse cash into various

farming operations and allow an increased production of diverse agriculture products. The

Heritage Foods USA website states the importance of their own actions of re-selling products

and opening new market opportunities for foods including traditional foods of Native American

peoples and the Tohono O'odham in particular by stating, "We are committed to sticking with

each and every breed of animal and plant until they have reached a point that they can survive on

their own, without our assistance." (Heritage Foods USA n.d.c). According to this statement

domesticated plants and animals have the capacity to survive on their own without assistance.

The tepary bean seems to be surviving quite well, increasing in its popularity and one of

"America' s Top Ten Success Stories" for renewal of a food tradition (Nabhan and Rood

2004:38-39).

Tohono O'odham traditional foods have entered new niche markets where they command

a price much higher than currently sold for on the Nation. TOCA has been active in selling

tepary beans and other products to Heritage Foods USA so that they can be resold via the

internet. Heritage Foods USA offers a Tohono O'odham foods sampler gift basket for $76. The

gift basket includes two pounds of brown tepary beans, two pounds of white tepary beans, four










ounces of dried cholla buds, and a one and a half ounce bottle of saguaro syrup (Heritage Foods

USA n.d.b).

As the marketing efforts of traditional foods continue by non-governmental organizations

and corporations such as Native Seeds/SEARCH, Heritage Foods, TOCA and San Xavier

Cooperative Farm and as more people are exposed to the possibility of eating like a "real Indian"

the value of these crops in economic terms will also increase.48 This spike in value and

opportunity for profit may attract larger corporations back into the fold of producing prepared

foods from Native American communities including the Tohono O'odham. It may price local

consumers out of the market for foods that are increasingly rare and seem to be occupying a

specialty niche like sitol, saguaro cactus syrup, which currently sells for $2.50 an ounce from

individuals who have collected the bahidaj and processed it into sitol an ounce in Sells. This

same produce with appropriate packaging and marketing sells for $10 an ounce or more off of

the Nation.

Genes, Property and Intellectual Currents

In some cases the economic value that plants and animals have as food products has been

somewhat overshadowed by recent utilization of the genes which these plants contain (Fowler

1994 and 1997). Agro-biodiversity is the cornerstone of sustainable agriculture providing a

multitude of benefits not only to small-scale/indigenous farmers in situ but also to the

maintenance of the industrial approach to agriculture through utilization of ex situ collections

(Thrupp 1999 and Brokensha 1999). Whereas the industrial system of agriculture has been

incredibly productive in increasing the grain yield and thereby assuring food security for billions,

48 Although consumer rationale is beyond the scope of this dissertation, consumers have reported a preference for
place-based foods particular in-state foods which feed the local economy (DeCarlo, Franck and Pirog 2005) as well
as for products that are connected to a certain geograplw, culture and tradition (Aurier, Fort and Siriex 2005).
Certainly collection of Native American goods has a long and dubious history in the United States, including
photography in the late nineteenth century (Jenkins 1993).









through international distribution systems, small-scale producers, estimated at 1.4 billion by the

Food and Agriculture Organization, have also played a key role in assuring household food

security in less centralized regions of the world. Genetic improvements, which rely on plant

genetic resources, account for nearly half of the increase in yields in the industrialized

production system of the United States (Frisvold et al. 1999). Kloppenburg (in Frisvold et al.

1999) notes, "It is no exaggeration to say that the plant genetic resources received as free goods

from the Third World have been worth untold billions of dollars to the advanced capitalist

nations." This failure to compensate indigenous farmers for the genetic resources found in their

Shields only serves to undermine the ability of these farmers to produce, hence de-localizing food

production and increasing the risk of food insecurity.

The valuable contributions of biodiversity to agriculture was recognized in National

Association of Home Builders v Babbit, 130 F.3d 1041 (D.C. 1997), wherein the court, in

determining that endangered species deserved protection, quoted Amici Curiae that explained:

Fortifying the genetic diversity of US crops played a large part in the explosive
growth in farm production since the 1930s, accounting for at least one half of
the doubling of yields of rice, soybeans, wheat, and sugarcane, and a three fold
increase in corn and potatoes. Genetic diversity provided by wild plants also
protects domestic crops from disease and pest damage.

Biotechnology has been defined in Article 2 of Convention on Biological Diversity as "any

technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to

make or modify products or processes for specific use" (Convention on Biological Diversity

1992). This definition is problematic as it is overly broad and obfuscates the dramatic

differences that the utilization of GMO technologies present when compared to other methods of

production and modification. It further serves to legitimize the technology by viewing this









particular intervention in the natural world as business as usual; similar to how the GMO

technologies have historically been regulated (Eubanks 2002).

While proponents of the GMOs promise great future benefits for all (Avery 2000;

Burkhardt 2001), it seems unlikely that these benefits will emerge for all farmers in a vertically

integrated and profit motivated industry (Kneen 2002; Altieri and Rossett 1999a and 1999b).

The promise of greater yields was not realized for most biotechnology agricultural products in

the early 2000s, with diminished profits for Bacillus 1/##l ingil'nti\(Bt)49 COrn (pest resistant)

(Benbrook 2001a), decreased yield for Roundup Ready Soybeans (herbicide resistant) (Benbrook

2001b) and with the only affirmative increase in yields and profits for GM cotton (Fernandez-

Cornej o and McBride 2002). A more recent report highlights research indicating wide farmer

adoption of GM5o, particularly Bt cotton which is planted on over 80% of total US cotton

acreage (Fernandez-Cornej o and Caswell 2006). This report also highlights decreased pesticide

utilization, an overall increase in yields and mixed results related to farmer profits of GM versus

non-GM varieties in an industrial agriculture setting (Fernandez-Cornej o and Caswell 2006).

For Native Americans the hybridization of blue corn initially produced by the Anasazi

(Hopi, Tewa and Zuni) and now marketed by non-Indian serves as an example of how Native

American food products can enter markets with massive distribution and no benefit to the

cultures which initially developed them (Pinel and Evans 1994; Soleri and Cleveland 1994).

There has also been much work on developing indigenous intellectual property rights to genetic

as well as other resources, however when I mentioned intellectual property rights issues to

TOCA, San Xavier Cooperative Farm and Native Seeds/SEARCH in regards to plant materials at



49 BGClilllS ;,l,,, ?*;ha? ** iS a bacterium that produces an insecticidal toxin to specific insects.
"0 The main reason given by farmers for GM variety adoption was to increase yields (Fernandez-Cornej and
Caswell 2006).









the formulating stages of my research there seemed to be little concern or consideration of the

utilization or potential negative ramifications that intellectual property rights law might present.

Unlike intellectual property rights issues of health related to the consumption of traditional foods

compared with commodity foods was a common theme among each of the organizations.









Table 3-1. Top agriculture commodities in Arizona in 2006.
Agricultural % of state total % of U. S. value Value of receipts ($1000)
Commodities
Cattle and calves 25 2 773,700
Dairy products 18 2 555,621
Lettuce 16 25 500,749
Cotton 6 3 186,969
Hay 5 3 152,097
All commodities 1 3,105,621
Source: United States Department of Agriculture, 2007 Arizona Fact Sheets: Top 5 Agricultural
Commodities in 2006, 2007. Electronic document,
http://www.ers .usda.gov/StateFacts/AZ .htm#TCEC, accessed June 20, 2007.


.~ hlC*L~~ ~""""` --'


Figure 3-1. Digital photo of picture of Indian exhibit at rodeo,Tucson, Arizona. Date unknown.
No. BN 41281 Buehman Collection- Arizona Historical Society Tucson, Arizona.
Taken with Permission. This material may be protected by U.S. Copyright Code.









CHAPTER 4
TOHONO O'ODHAM FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGES

This chapter will answer the first three research questions: (1) What foods do

contemporary Tohono O'odham consider to be traditional foods? (2) Is there an unmet demand

for traditional foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation? (3) What are some of the factors that limit

an individual or family's increased involvement with traditional foods (gathering, growing,

cooking and consuming)?

What are Traditional Foods?

When approaching the issue of traditional food access and availability on the Tohono

O'odham Nation, the first question to consider is what foods are Tohono O'odham traditional

foods. This is important for those entities which are working with revitalizing traditional foods

on the Nation as well as health care providers who are looking to make effective health care

interventions in order to mitigate the effects of type 2 diabetes on the Tohono O'odham.

Kulkarni (2004) and Urdaneta and Krehbiel (1989) have demonstrated the importance of

determining what foods are considered to be traditional foods, or foods that hold symbolic and

cultural value for individuals, in tailoring suggestions for dietary modifications to African-

American, Asian-Indian, and Mexican-American patients with diabetes.

When TOCA and TOCC conducted a survey on traditional foods in 2002 they listed 22

traditional foods and asked respondents the frequency (daily, often, sometimes, rarely, never)

with which they consumed traditional foods and the frequency with which they would like to

consume traditional foods. The foods listed in that survey as traditional foods include: tepary

beans (bawT), O'odham squash (ha:1), O'odham corn (hull), O'odham watermelon (milon),

O'odham sugarcane (ka:no), O'odham melons (ke:1i ba:so), garbanzo beans (kabra~s), O'odham

spinach ('i:wagl), lentils (lIlli), O'odham peas (wihol), O'odham pink beans (s-wegi mu:n),









black-eyed peas (u 'us mu:n), chiltepines (a 'l ko 'okol), acorns (wiyi:di), cholla buds (ciolim),

saguaro fruit (bahidaj), prickly-pear fruit (i 'ipai), banana yucca fruit (howij), mesquite beans

(wihog), deer meat (huaw/i cuhug), rabbit (cu:wT), and j avelina (ko~ji). This list contains foods

which are both indigenous and introduced to the region.

Historical Shifts in Tohono O'odham Food Systems

Historically, the Tohono O'odham developed a two village system of residence coupled

with collecting in different regions of their traditional lands to meet their dietary needs before

Spanish contact. In the summers, the Tohono O'odham lived in field villages which enabled

easy access to their floodwater fields. They also collected the fruits of many species of cacti

during these months. The summer months, marked by the first summer or monsoon rains and the

harvesting of bahidaj, were a time of relative plenty in the desert. After the harvesting was

completed the Tohono O'odham moved to their winter "well" or spring villages where they

relied on hunting and gathering as well as on foods that they had stored from the previous season

to get them through the winter months. The maj ority of food was either hunted or gathered pre-

Contact (Castetter and Bell 1942:57). Foods included in this group are documented by Rea

(1997). During this time there was trade in the Sonoran Desert with the Tohono O'odham

trading labor, salt and foods that they hunted and gathered from their homelands for corn, beans

and tools not only with neighboring tribes, but also with the more distant Hopi and Zuni

(Erickson 1994:18). Hence, Tohono O'odham were consuming at least some foods regionally

produced pre-Spanish contact.

Contact with the Spanish slowly but dramatically altered the foods that were considered to

be O'odham foods. Father Eusebio Kino, an Italian born Jesuit priest, through his missions in

the Pimeria Alta, had introduced several Old World cultigens by 1710. These crops included:

wheat, barley, chick peas (garbanzo beans), lentils, kidney beans, cabbage, onions, lettuce,










garlic, anise, and grape (Lewis 1994:134). Animals were also introduced at the missions

including cattle, horses, sheep, goats and domestic fowl (Lewis 1994:134). Many of these foods

which originally moved into this area through the Columbian Exchange (Crosby 1972) have

become well integrated into Tohono O'odham conceptions of traditional foods. TOCA, which as

previously mentioned promotes traditional foods, has included some post-Contact foods on the

survey with TOCC (TOCA and TOCC 2002) on their list of traditional foods mentioned above.

SXCF also promotes post-Contact foods by growing wheat and producing roasted wheat for sale

within the Nation.

The further and continued contact with the United States brought still more food choices

and possibilities into the lives of the Tohono O'odham. As the economies of the Tohono

O'odham Nation and the US became more intertwined (see Chapter 2, Economies of the Tohono

O'odham Nation) Tohono O'odham individuals came to increasingly rely on wage labor in

cotton camps and mines as well as other off-reservation employment. As these processes

continued Tohono O'odham relied less and less on the floodwater fields in which they grew

corn, beans and squash and the suite of subsistence strategies which had historically sustained

them including collection of cacti, mesquite and screwbeans and hunting for deer, quail,

packrats. See Tables 1-1 and 1-2 for decreased utilization of traditional farming throughout the

Nation and the San Xavier District. As transportation networks increased through the region and

a wage economy supplanted a subsistence economy, grocery stores, convenience marts and fast

food restaurants emerged in relatively convenient locations on and around the Tohono O'odham

Nation.

Foods that are considered to be traditional foods today come from all three periods.

Although TOCA listed none of the foods from the US period of Tohono O'odham history, many










of the respondents in this research noted that for them traditional foods included things such as

potato salad, commodity foods, fry bread, Indian tacos and fast foods. While official

representations of traditional foods from Tohono O'odham Nation representatives and entities

include foods from pre-Contact and in some instances the pre-US, this research shows that

contemporary Tohono O'odham perceive that traditional foods are from all three time periods:

pre-Spanish, Spanish contact and U.S. interactions.

Negotiating Tohono O'odham Traditional Foods

Given the overlapping religious, political and economic incursions into the region it is no

wonder that some contemporary O'odham reflexively negotiate traditional O'odham foods. In

some instances individuals would denote "true traditional foods" or "traditional traditional

foods" as those that historic Tohono O'odham were consuming pre-Spanish contact. Lionel, a

middle age male from Chukut Kuk District, ponders the changing nature of foods consumed by

his people,

As far as the food I am sure things have changed. You know no one ever sat me down and
said "okay this is a traditional food, this is a Mexican food." So whenever Father Kino,
whenever the Spanish came and started teaching or introducing us they brought the cattle
and the horses, but who knows how we ate at the time when we were fighting the Apaches.
...What did we eat at the time before there were treaties?"

For other informants there were clear distinctions between "Mexican foods" and "Indian

foods." In contemporary times there has been an increased utilization of commodity foods to the

extent that three respondents noted that commodity foods are traditional foods. For some

Tohono O'odham, the adoption of traditional foods as traditional may result from the integration

of commodity foods into family recipes. Despite this integration, Samantha, a young woman

from the San Lucy District, believes that commodity foods are poor substitutes to foods that have

been collected from the desert. She explains:









Nowadays they have...the spinach in the can but it doesn't taste the same as it did...we get
those and I try to do that to get the way my grandmother had, it a little bit tastes like that
but not as good.... We would pick it and ...we would help her clean it and everything and
then she'd boil it...and she would cut up onions and fry it and she would put it in there and
it tasted it really good.

Commodity foods also led to the increased prevalence of the key ingredients for making

fry bread, the pan-Indian food par excellence, and for at some Tohono O'odham an important

part of culture. Most businesses and food vendors which sell fry bread plain or as the shell of an

"Indian Taco" within the Nation maintain that it is a traditional food. Indeed "Mexican foods"

and fry bread are relatively easy to attain at most community events and family gatherings as

well as available for purchase in many locations throughout the Nation. With all of these

overlapping sources of food and cuisine, individuals I spoke with give a variety of answers to the

question of "What foods do you consider to be traditional foods?"

The most frequently mentioned traditional foods were: bahidaj, beans, cholla buds, fry

bread/popover, pinto beans, squash, tepary beans and tortillas (cemait). Elders and middle age

individuals mentioned each of these foods. Young adults made no mention of bahidaj (saguaro

fruit) or cholla buds, although they did mention the generic categories of cactus food/fruit and

cactus jam/syrup. This may indicate that the youth are unfamiliar with the food revitalization

efforts within the Nation that have focused on increased production of tepary beans and

collection and sales of saguaro fruit and cholla buds. Young adults also made no mention of the

generic category, "foods from the desert." Twice as many young adults recognized fry bread as a

traditional food compared with elders. Nonetheless, acceptance of fry bread as a traditional food

was not without reflection. Mike, a young adult man from Sells District, when asked if fry bread

was a traditional food answered, "Sometimes they are. My grandmother would make it a long

time ago and serve it with the foods that she made." The maker or preparer of the food

transformed fry bread into a traditional food for this young adult. Peggie, a middle age woman









from Baboquivari District, when asked if fry bread and tortillas were traditional foods,

responded, "Yeah...up to a certain extent...especially the cemait because I remember my

grandmother making it." Similarly an elder woman recalls eating fry bread when she was a little

girl and hence she considers fry bread to be a traditional food. Ernie, a middle age man from the

San Lucy District, expressed the problematic nature of classifying foods as belonging to one

domain. In his self-negotiations of determining the appropriate categorization for fry bread and

tortillas he notes the qualities, work to prepare and taste preference, which may transform a food

into a traditional food. When asked if he considers fry bread and tortillas traditional he explains:

Well I guess in a way it kind of is traditional but it is not really native food it is kind of -
fry bread maybe, but tortillas is more like Mexican but you do have to work at it to make
it, but. Yeah I mean I like it a lot. I guess that I would consider it traditional or like I said
it is maybe a little more Mexican than what I consider to be Native American. It is one of
the things that you have to make fresh well you don't have to but desire fresh.

Other individuals differentiated between the regular flour popovers and the whole wheat

tortillas. Marlene, a young adult woman from San Lucy District, classified yeast bread, potato

salad and fry bread as a "my modern traditional foods." At the same time Walter, a middle age

man from San Lucy District, who describes himself as half Mexican and half Indian, views the

popovers as the only distinct food that he has had in Native American culture in comparison with

Mexican foods.

I elected not to offer a list form which participants could choose as TOCA and TOCC

(2002) had done and instead left the question open-ended by asking individuals, "What foods do

you consider to be traditional foods?" This style of questioning allowed the opportunity to see

convergences and divergences in beliefs concerning what traditional foods are. Asking this

simple question to each informant allowed for all participants to list all the traditional foods

which they are aware of. This structured interviewing technique is known as free-listing.









Free list data can be collected by asking respondents to write out all the words and

concepts which belong in a domain or alternatively can be verbal if all respondents are not

literate. I collected the free list data verbally since language issues were a concern several of my

informants (See Chapter 1). I provided a piece of paper and pen if respondents asked for these.

Free listing enabled me to determine the contents and boundaries of the cultural domain

"traditional foods" from the emic perspective of contemporary Tohono O'odham. Weller and

Romney (1998:9) defined a cultural domain as, "an organized set of words, concepts, or

sentences, all on the same level of contrast, that jointly refer to a single conceptual sphere." Free

listing has been utilized in several anthropology studies including Gravlee (2002) who examined

the domain of skin color in southeastern Puerto Rico, Grant (2005) who examined the domain of

sexuality for women over 44 in north Florida, and Rosado (2007) who examined the domain hair

via hairstyles and textures of African-descended women.

Free listing exercises provide a diversity of responses including idiosyncratic responses

which are listed by only on informant. The domain "traditional foods" is marked by 52 (39%)

idiosyncratic responses and 80 (61%) responses given by at least two respondents. These

responses are shown with their frequencies in, Figure 4-1. This plot shows that at the 31st

response there is a leveling off in the scree plot. If frequency of mention indicates which foods

are the most important or salient, then seven of the foods (tepary beans, squash, beans, cholla

buds, tortillas, fry bread and pinto beans) can be considered core traditional foods. The structure

of this domain follows a core-periphery structure typical of most domains, wherein a few core

items are mentioned by most informants and many peripheral items are mentioned by a single

informant (Borgatti 1996:5).









Salience or importance of an item can also be measured in terms of how soon

respondents bring up an item. The assumption here is the more salient items are mentioned prior

to the less salient items (Romney and D'Andrade 1964). Smith's S is a measure which considers

both frequency and how soon items were mentioned. Smith's S was computed automatically by

ANTHROPAC after all free list data was entered in the order each respondent gave the

information (Borgatti 1996). The highest salience scores are for the first three foods: beans,

tepary beans and squash. There were somewhat lower scores for cholla buds, tortillas, pinto

beans and fry bread. Figure 4-2 shows Smith's S plotted with data labels for the first 8 items.

Table 4-1 lists frequency, percentage of population, rank and Smith' s S for the 3 1 most

mentioned foods. Interestingly corn which was mentioned by 18 respondents had a higher

Smith's S than pinto beans and fry bread which each were mentioned by 23 respondents. This

indicates that corn is very important to those who listed it as a food. Whereas over half of the

elders asked mentioned corn and over a third of middle age individuals only one young adult

mentioned corn. Through a comparison of the data between different subsets of the population

there were other clear differences in frequency of responses between different age groups,

genders, and districts.

Traditional Foods by Gender

There was little divergence in the responses that men and women gave to the question,

"What foods do you consider to be traditional foods?" The most interesting response was that

women mentioned specific beans (tepary, pinto and lima beans) much more than men, although

men mentioned the generic category "beans" 16% more than women. This may reflect women's

greater overall knowledge of beans as a result of being the primary cook in many households in

recent times.










Women mentioned tepary beans 38% more than men, pinto beans 25% more, lima beans

22% more and squash and cheese 22% more. In regards to the squash and cheese however, men

mentioned both squash and cheese 22% of the time, although separately rather than as one item.

Men also mentioned corn 28% more than women and mesquite 25% more. Table 4-2 shows

differences in responses amongst men and women for the 31 most mentioned responses for the

total population. Figure 4-3 shows this relationship in a scatter plot based on frequency of

responses. Despite these differences this research suggests that overall men and women

generally agree on what foods are considered to be traditional.

Traditional Foods by District

There were some pronounced differences between San Lucy District respondents and non-

San Lucy District respondents.51 One difference is that although fry bread is mentioned 44%

more by San Lucy District members than non-district members, tortillas are mentioned 38%

more by non-district members than district members. Another difference was the use of generic

categories by both San Lucy and non-San Lucy respondents. San Lucy respondents mentioned

cactus food/fruit 28% more than Non-San Lucy respondents. Conversely non-San Lucy

respondents mentioned cactus jam/syrup 25% more than San Lucy respondents. There was

however a 38% greater mention of a specific cactus, saguaro (bahidaj), in non-San Lucy

compared to San Lucy. Non-San Lucy individuals also mentioned mesquite 34% more than San

Lucy individuals, deer 31% more, squash 31% more, corn 28% more and rabbits 25% more. In

contrast San Lucy individuals mentioned chili stew 25% more than Non-San Lucy individuals

and squash and cheese 22% more. Table 4-3 shows differences in responses amongst San Lucy




51 Since the majority of interviews occurred with individuals from the San Lucy District (See Table 1-3) I have
classified respondents as from San Lucy District or from non-San Lucy Districts.









and non-San Lucy District members for the 31 most mentioned responses for the total

population. Figure 4-4 shows this relationship in a scatter plot based on frequency of responses.

Several of the individuals that I spoke with in the San Lucy District mentioned potato salad

as being a traditional food as well as one individual outside of the district. Potato salad is

something that is regularly served with beans and red chili stew at feasts, celebrations and to

mark the anniversary of someone' s death so it did not surprise me that this was considered to be

a traditional food by several of the young adults and younger middle aged people that I spoke

with. What was surprising was that a few individuals mentioned things like commodity foods

and fast foods as being traditional foods. For these few individuals the ubiquitous and constant

presence of these foods ever since they can remember is a defining element in construction of

what tradition is considered.

This research suggests differences in San Lucy and non-San Lucy District member' s

conceptions of what foods are traditional foods. These differences may be accounted for by the

unique history and geography of the San Lucy District. San Lucy District members live in

closest proximity to a population of non-O'odham, have been relocated from their former village

site and have had their traditional hunting and collecting grounds contaminated. More research

is needed in order to determine the extent of differences between San Lucy and Non-San Lucy

residents, but also between other districts within the Nation. This would allow for more targeted

traditional food interventions on the Tohono O'odham Nation.

Traditional foods by Age

Several foods were given by only one age group. Foods listed by elders and no one from

another age groups were: agave heart, barrel cactus, butter, cottage cheese, cucumbers, fish,

garlic, greens, hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus engelmannii) (See Figure 4-5) hogs, melon,

organ pipe cactus, posole, pumpkins, ram, red beans, saguaro cactus seed soup, seafood, trees,









turtles, wild banana, wild onions, wild potato, and yucca. Many of these foods were foods that

elders grew up eating for at least a portion of their childhood spent on rural regions of the

Tohono O'odham Nation where the store was impossible to access on a regular basis. As a result

many families relied on what could be had from the land in terms of hunting, gathering and

agriculture/gardening. Young adults were the only age group to list rice, mesquite bread, Indian

corn, fast foods, and cowboy tortillas. Middle age individuals were the only age group to list

barley, biscuits, calabash, candy off the trees, commodity foods, cream of wheat, foods eaten at

gatherings/celebrations/events, flour, fry beans, hamburger, Indian foods, Indian tacos, lentils,

liver, oatmeal, packrats, peanut butter, pigeon, short ribs, spinach and onions, split peas, tamales,

things that are hard to prepare, what was here what our elders grew/planted, whatever came

along, wheat bread, and white corn.

The widest divergence in responses between different age groups came between young

adults and elders who have very different considerations of what foods they consider to be

traditional foods. Young adults listed more recent traditional foods compared to elders. Fry

bread was mentioned 61% more by young adults than elders, potato salad 43% more, tortillas

38% more, red chili 35% more and squash and cheese 35% more. Conversely, elders mentioned

cholla buds 75% more than young adults, prickly-pear 52% more, bahidaj 50% more, tepary

beans 46% more, mesquite 44% more, corn 44% more, mesquite sap 42% more and rabbits 33%

more. Table 4-4 shows differences in responses amongst young adults and elders for the 31 most

mentioned responses for the total population. Figure 4-6 shows this relationship in a scatter plot

based on frequency of responses. Mesquite flour was the only food mentioned by both elders and

young adults which was not mentioned by middle age individuals, although middle age

individuals did mention mesquite. The difference in traditional foods between elders and young









adults has been noticed on the Tohono O'odham Nation. Many of the elders that I spoke with

mentioned the importance of working with the youth to introduce them to the traditional foods.

According Jordan, a man in his late 50s from the San Xavier District,

...traditionally what the O'odham are about today our younger generation don't understand
it or don't see it and some of the foods that we were traditionally supposed to be eating are
not here anymore because it' s (the younger generation) used to be get a hamburger or pizza
or whatever off the reservation than really eating the foods that are supposed to be,
traditionally, supposed to be eaten by us.

Tohono O'odham individuals of all ages are incredibly humble with the vast amounts of

information that they have about the culture and history of the Tohono O'odham. Younger and

middle age individual would often note that their knowledge of tradition was inferior to that of

older relatives. Even elders would constantly reference someone who was older than them or a

deceased relative who knew more about the culture or the foods. Some, despite their

encyclopedic knowledge, would go so far as to apologize for not knowing more about the topics

that we were discussing explaining that those in previous generations knew more. Others

lamented about the loss of traditional knowledge that could only be partially salvaged through

current traditional food revitalization efforts. These reactions mirror those of the Salish and

Pend d'Oreilles peoples of the Flathead Reservation in Montana who believe that those who

were "Really Indians" existed in the past (O'Nell 1996:56-57). This created an "empty center"

of identity which was one cause of depressive experiences amongst the Salish and Pend

d'Oreilles according to O'Nell (1996:56-57). Although most of the non-elders that I spoke with

sited the location of traditional ways of knowing and being or the O'odham Himdag with the

elders, this was not universal as some noted that the elders probably didn't know how to collect

or prepare the traditional foods.

Some elders in fact may not know how to collect the foods of the desert. This may be

because of their lack of experience with these foods as a result of individual choices/ preferences,









career/occupation, family commitments both on and off the reservation or a myriad of other

circumstances unique to each individual. The assumption that all elders would automatically

know how to collect, grow and make traditional pre- Spanish contact or contact traditional foods

- that they could and would, in an instant, if provided with the resources and tools, lead a

resurgence of traditional forms of food collection and production would be not only incorrect but

also potentially detrimental for food security. This assumption also implies that the skill and

knowledge that go along with traditional systems of food production are innate and an inherent

part of being an O'odham, a true O'odham, an elder. In this sense it devalues these skills and

obliterates the processes of adaptation to and learning from one's elders and environment

through rituals, experiences and just plain work under the desert sun. At the same time this

reflects the notion of progress the arrow of progress continuing on into the future of

tomorrow' s promises (see Escobar 1999) with all previously acquired knowledge as obsolete,

inferior or below a certain group of people but always easily accessible to another group.

Middle age individuals and young adults also had divergent responses. Middle age

individuals mentioned cholla buds 52% more than young adults, bahidaj 41% more, rabbits 31%

and tepary beans 27% more. Conversely young adults mentioned fry bread 37% more than

middle age individuals, squash and cheese 33% more, potato salad 29% and lima beans 26%

more. Table 4-5 shows differences in responses amongst middle age individuals and young

adults for the 31 most mentioned responses for the total population. Figure 4-7 shows this

relationship in a scatter plot based on frequency of responses. Young adults and middle age

individuals mentioned foods that the elders did not, these include: yeast bread, wheat popovers,

potato salad and menudo.










Middle age individuals and elders maintained the greatest agreement in their listing of

traditional foods. Middle age individuals mentioned fry bread 23% more than elders.

Conversely, elders mentioned prickly-pear 46% more than middle age individuals and mesquite

31% more. Table 4-6 shows differences in responses amongst middle age individuals and elders

for the 31 most mentioned responses for the total population. Figure 4-8 shows this relationship

in a scatter plot based on frequency of responses.

These results indicate a very clear shift or transition in the conceptualization of traditional

foods across generations. The differences are most striking between young adults and elders.

The traditional foods for the elders are those that were mostly pre-Contact foods that have been

hunted and gathered from the desert. In contrast, young adults mentioned post-US foods as

being traditional foods with much greater frequency than elders. These foods are fry bread,

tortillas, cheese (with squash) and potato salad. These shifting generational definitions of

traditional foods may be accounted for by the decreased availability of pre-Contract Tohono

O'odham traditional foods.

Consumption of Traditional Foods in the Past, Present and Future

Despite divergences in conceptions of traditional foods, all subsets of the population

(gender, age and district) reported a decline in their consumption of traditional food (See Tables

4-7, 4-8, and 4-9 respectively). There have been declines in traditional food consumption52 and

production since the 1930s. Some of the reasons for this include increased acculturation,

including shifts in dietary preference and household and individual economic strategies, and

decreased knowledge of traditions, including traditional foods. Despite this loss, or perhaps



52 This decline in traditional food consumption was experienced by 33 informants. Five answered that they consume
about the same amount of traditional foods now as in the past and one had no contact with the foods growing up.
Nine people were not asked the question or did not answer the question.










because of it, Tohono O'odham have a strong desire as individuals, communities and

organizations to reconnect with traditional practices, including a desire to eat traditional food on

a more frequent basis. TOCA and TOCC (2002) found 62% of respondents wanted to eat

traditional foods "often," 28% "sometimes," and only 6% "rarely." The frequency with which

respondents were actually consuming traditional foods in 2002 was 23% "often," 42%

sometimes, 28% rarely, and 5% "never" (TOCA and TOCC 2002). Hence TOCA and TOCC

(2002) found that the maj ority of O'odham desire to consume more traditional foods than they

are currently consuming. The responses from TOCA and TOCC (2002) are summarized in

Table 4-10. Most Tohono O'odham individuals whom I interviewed also reported that they

wanted to consume more traditional foods than they currently do. All of the respondents who

gave a specified time frame wanted to be consuming foods at least once a week. There were

only a handful of individuals who were happy with their consumption of traditional foods and

most of these individuals were already consuming the traditional foods at least once a week. No

one that I spoke with expressed a desire to eat less traditional foods. The responses for current

consumption and desired consumption are summarized in Table 4-11.53

Consumption of traditional foods is uneven over the course of the year. Well over half of

the individuals who were asked, "Is there a time of the year that you tend to consume the

traditional foods the most?" reported eating traditional foods during holidays and family events,

rather than consistently throughout the year. Some respondents answered the question, "How

often do you eat traditional foods?" by taking the sum of all traditional foods consumed during

events over the course of the year to come up with answers such as "once a month." Others



53 It is also crucial to consider that for purposes of this research I allowed for individuals to self-define traditional
foods so the traditional foods under discussion include a wide variety of foods from cholla buds, tepary beans and
saguaro to tortillas and fry bread to conunodity foods (see above section, "What are traditional foods?" ).










stated that if there were traditional foods available they would comprise only a portion of the

mea s. 5

The following responses demonstrate the variability and relative rarity of traditional food

consumption for three individuals. Francine, a middle age woman from San Lucy, shows that

although she celebrates US holidays such as Thanksgiving with turkey, she does not consider

turkey to be a traditional food. She shares that on holidays and special days for her family there

are usually traditional foods:

The special occasions like an anniversary, birthday or like the holidays. I would say I
probably eat it once a month because there is always something going like an anniversary,
birthday party and of course now that we're nearing the holidays I'll be eating a lot of that.
Even on Thanksgiving we'll have our turkey but we still have that traditional food too -
and (on) Christmas and New Year' s Eve (too).

Shelly, a middle age woman from Gu Achi, explains how she usually finds traditional

foods at family gatherings and then only as a side dish. She wonders if it is even possible for her

to eat a whole meal consisting of just traditional foods:

...once in a while when they have gatherings I will see something like cholla buds on the
table and then I'll see this drink that they had which comes out of the mesquite beans when
they are mashed together I forget what they call it but I'll see that there but rarely will
you see a whole entree of just traditional foods I've never seen it before I'd probably
have to go back 150 or 200 years to see what was there.

Mike, a young adult man from Sells, readily mentions All Soul's Day, which is

commemorated by the preparation and offering of traditional foods for the family's departed. He

then discusses how an individual can request traditional foods for their birthday and how his

homecoming from the military would be marked by a meal consisting of traditional foods:


54 Griffith (1992:81-82) notes that village feasts are typically comprised of traditional Sonora, Mexico foods while
Catholic feasts are heavily dominated by Anglo-American foods such as Kool-Aid and potato salad paired only on
seldom basis with cacti. In the last decade annual fundraising events have been held in Tucson by Ha: safi Prepatory
School, Pheonix area by Tohono O'odham Community Action (Boren 1995) and San Xavier by the Reservation
Women's Circle Charitable Trust. The San Xavier event has featured primarily traditional foods including red chili
and Indian tamales as well as traditional foods from other Native American cultures including buffalo, salmon and
wild rice soup (Throssell 2006).










On All Soul's Day or on anyone's birthday upon that person's request for me I
requested it a couple of times for my birthday. Usually for birthdays we would have
hamburgers or hot dogs because it is plain and simple. We would just ask mom. When I
was serving in the military every time I would come home they would have it ready for me
requested or not.

Despite the desire to consume traditional foods, however, Tohono O'odham individuals

face several limitations in consuming traditional foods.

Factors Limiting Traditional Foods Consumption

There are several reasons for why Tohono O'odham individuals do not eat more traditional

foods. TOCA and TOCC (2002) asked respondents, "Why don't you eat more traditional

O'odham foods?" Respondents selected answers from a pre-determined list and were able to

mark as many answers as applied. The study found that 1% of the respondents marked "I don't

like the way they taste," 33% marked "I don't have time to cook them," 12% marked "It is too

much work to prepare them," 27% marked "I cannot buy them anywhere," no respondents

marked "I am embarrassed to feed them to my friends and family," 13% marked "I don't know

what they are," and 20% marked "Other." These responses from TOCA and TOCC (2002) are

summarized in Table 4-12 in order from the most common response to the least common with

some individuals responding with more than one reason.

In my research, I asked respondents, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional

foods?" rather than providing respondents a list of factors which limit their consumption of

traditional foods. The responses provided more ethnographic detail on factors that limit

traditional food consumption by contemporary Tohono O'odham. Some of these responses are

included in the subsections below. These responses were shortened into summary responses"


55 The initial summarized responses were: Cannot find it/hard to find, cost, don't like them, foods are not healthy,
lack of animals, lack of knowledge, lack of seeds, not as convenient as other foods/time, only seasonally available,
safety not one to collect with, some family members don't like, transportation/distance, vandalism (destruction of
gardens/theft), none, health hard to collect, not enough collecting is done and contamination.









and then coded into six distinct themes. These themes are "availability," "cost," "not liked by

self/family," "convenience," "safety issues" and "none."

Interestingly, the most frequently cited factors for all age groups were availability and

convenience of traditional foods. The largest difference between age groups was between young

adults and elders as elders were 42% more likely to list safety as a limiting factor to accessing

traditional foods than young adults. There was not a statistically significant difference in

responses between different age groups to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting

traditional foods?" (p = .264, Table 4-13). There are other notable differences which can be

seen in Tables 4-14, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17 and Figure 4-9 as well as in the personal accounts that have

been included in the following sub-sections on factors which limit traditional food consumption.

For men the main limitation to traditional foods consumption is related to issues of

convenience. This was followed by availability, safety issues and then and a non-preference for

traditional food consumption. Women also felt that both availability and convenience were the

primary factors which limited their consumption of traditional foods. This was followed by

issues of cost, safety, and an aversion to traditional food consumption. The largest difference in

response between men and women is in relation to cost. Women were 30% more likely than

men to list cost as a limiting factor to traditional food consumption. Although not tested for or

systematically addressed over the course of interviews, female perceptions of the cost of

traditional foods may be more refined than males as many respondents reported that women in

most households were in charge of procuring and preparing food on a regular basis. There was

not a statistically significant difference in responses between men and women to the question,

"What are the limiting factors in getting traditional foods?" (p = 0.480, Table 4-18). There are









other notable differences which can be seen in Tables 4-19, 4-20 and Figure 4-10 as well as in

the personal accounts that have been included in the following sub-sections.

Convenience is the maj or limiting factor to traditional food consumption in San Lucy. San

Lucy District members also noted (in descending order): availability, cost, safety issues and non-

preference for traditional foods. For individuals from other districts of the Tohono O'odham

Nation the primary reason was availability of the foods. This reason was followed by safety

issues, convenience and cost and finally a non-preference for traditional food consumption. The

differences in limitations to traditional food consumption between San Lucy and Non-San Lucy

districts of the Tohono O'odham Nation, although not highly significant, can be explained, in

part, by the uniqueness of the San Lucy District. As the San Lucy District is located in greatest

proximity to a town that offers several fast food restaurants, grocery stations and convenience

stores individuals within this District may have become more accustomed to consuming foods

that are convenient. This was evident in several stories shared with me by members of the San

Lucy District who noted that they either work or have worked at fast food restaurants or frequent

fast food restaurants during the work week in order to break up their work day.

There was not a statistically significant difference in responses between San Lucy District

members and non-San Lucy District members to the question, "What are the limiting factors in

getting traditional foods?" (p = .206, Table 4-21). There are other notable differences which can

be seen in Tables 4-22, 4-23 and Figure 4-11 as well as in the personal accounts that have been

included in this section.

A common theme in many of these responses is the notion of convenience of consuming

traditional foods whether by purchase or other means. The traditional foods were considered by

some to be inconvenient in terms of cost and availability for purchase. Others felt that the










gathering, growing and cooking of the foods was also something that was not always convenient.

As mentioned above, the following sub sections will highlight factors which limit traditional food

consumption.

Convenience of Traditional Foods

Food, in one from or another, is ubiquitous. Throughout the US and the world, food is

increasingly being pre-assembled and packaged for quick consumption with minimal or no

processing time. Food is becoming more convenient and this has been of paramount importance

for many people in the United States since 1950 (Levenstein 2003:116) and for the Tohono

O'odham as they became more integrated into the cash economy. It became important after long

days at work to make effective use of time, and as mentioned above Tohono O'odham traditional

foods, like many foods prepared in the past by other groups, are time and labor-intensive to

procure and prepare.

This section will discuss how convenient it is for O'odham people to collect, produce,

prepare and or consume traditional foods. In addition some of the foods may take a long time to

grow, collect and process. As the Tohono O'odham continue to sell their labor in the

contemporary cash economy, the amount of time available for working with foods in a manner

that 'our elders would have' becomes infeasible on a daily basis. Sometimes between work and

other commitments people with diabetes may eat meals infrequently. Olphelia, a diabetic middle

age woman from Sif Oidak District, who recognizes the importance of eating regular meals to

maintain her blood sugar, shared with me, "( Some days I) eat one meal a day. It is a matter of

not having enough time and being really busy." If fast foods are the ideal for those on the go,

traditional foods are slow foods which take a long time to find or collect and prepare. Hence,

traditional foods become 'inconvenient' for the lifestyles of many contemporary Tohono

O'odham.










People who live in cities far removed from the Nation may not have traditional foods

readily available.56 Yet, some individuals persist in their collection and preparation of traditional

foods. Michelle, a Tucson resident and Tohono O'odham woman, has been annually collecting

saguaro fruit at a saguaro camp in Saguaro National Park since she was a young girl. The Hia

C'ed O'odham57, or Sand People, also collect annually in Organ Pipe Cactus National

Monument west of the Tohono O'odham Nation and south of Aj o, Arizona.

Sally, a middle age woman from Gu Achi, notes the balance between eating foods that are

readily available in Tucson and more traditional foods, "we still eat burgers and pizza but we

really, in our family, try to think twice about having our traditional foods still being a part of our

diet." One strategy utilized is to cook the foods over the weekends when there is more time to do

so. She notes that this is no easy task given the professional and personal commitments of all her

family members.

Gender is also critical to consider as many women were not only the sole cooks for the

household but also the sole shoppers with some men not even minimally involved in the process.

German, an elder man from Sells, connected the lack of cooking traditional foods to women's

increasing involvement in work and commitments outside of the home, which diminished the




56Consider this Navajo account, "Another thing missing in my city life is accessibility to foods such as that
important staple, mutton. Mutton is a Navajo delicacy. It is difficult to get good mutton in Albuquerque. We have
to go to the reservation, and it's a long drive. Even the nearest reservation doesn't have it. They get theirs from
Gallup. In Albuquerque, you can go to any of the grocery stores and buy what they have, but it doesn't taste right. I
think they are grain-fed or they are fed differently. We like meat from animals that just roam around the desert to
eat whatever they find there. That's the best kind. You can't get Navajo mutton. You can't get Navajo sheep in
Albuquerque. It's also hard not being able to get the flour that you need to make fry bread. You can't use Pillsbury
or anything like that. It doesn't come out right. You have to have a specific flour. These are some of the nitty-
gritty difficulties of living in the city for a Navajo person." (Tapahonso 1994:82)

57 The Hia C'ed O'odham, or Sand People, are an indigenous people which are not federally recognized by the US
government. Historically they interacted with the O'odham and lived to the west and south of what today is the
Tohono O'odham Nation. Today some are enrolled members and live on the Tohono O'odham Nation.









time available to fulfill what he perceived to be appropriate gender roles within the household.

He explains,

You know for women who stay home that don't have j obs they should be cooking that. I
guess because women have to work today they want to do something fast whether it' s the
microwave, or open the can, or open the beans or something.

The maj ority of individuals that I spoke with mentioned that women were the maj or cooks

of the household. This was regardless of a woman' s outside commitments. In some cases

women were not only the primary cook but also the only shopper.

Despite the aforementioned issues of convenience when accessing traditional foods,

individuals may consume what they consider to be traditional foods through vendors selling fry

bread or tortillas with an assortment of toppings or fillings around Sells or at District Council

meetings. On occasion these will include tepary beans rather than pinto beans. As reliance on

outside wages continues to meet, to a greater or lesser extent, household and individual needs

and desires, some Tohono O'odham believe that they are better able to access traditional foods

because they are working full-time. Those who commute to full-time jobs in Sells may have

greater access to what they perceive to be traditional foods than those who are not commuting or

working in Sells. According to Charles, a middle age man from the Gu Achi who works in Sells,

But I think that when, when you're not working you kind of eat more modern food and...
if you're just home and you have groceries in your 'frigerator bolognas and you have
cold cuts and stuff that you bought from your last trip to town you plan to cook that you
pop it in the microwave or what have you versus if you're out working and you go, come
out and you go out for lunch and you see all these vendors that are offering all these
contemporary traditional foods and some are even offering traditional foods... there's
more availability and you purchase it.

The limited network of improved roads throughout the Nation coupled with great distances

between collection sites and stores and where individuals reside and work are also barriers to

accessing traditional foods. Although most stores on the Nation sell brown or white tepary

beans, there are few places to get a wider assortment of traditional foods including saguaro









cactus and cholla cactus products. At the same time an individual may be located fairly far away

from collection sites. An individual's ability to collected traditional foods can be impaired by

distance, coupled with limited options for transportation, need for others to come collecting and

multiple social commitments. Individuals will usually collect in family groups of two or more

people, thus there are additional constraints of scheduling so that all people can go and collect at

the same time. In addition, collectors must wait until the product is ready to be collected.

According to several individuals that I spoke with the presence of cholla buds varies from season

to season.

Geographic proximity to available traditional foods does not necessarily determine where

individuals will get their traditional foods. Some of the individuals that I spoke with chose to go

to the SXCF rather than TOCA to attain their traditional foods despite the relative proximity of

TOCA. The reasons for going to San Xavier rather than TOCA included a preference for the

packaging (clear plastic rather than TOCA's brown paper bag (Figure 4-12), more convenient

because of frequent trips to Tucson or San Xavier for other purposes, more availability of the

foods, and greater familiarity with SXCF.

TOCA and other groups offer cooking classes to promote healthier meals, which include

some traditional foods. In my observation of these classes, speed and ease of preparation are

presented as key components in utilization of traditional foods. These programs and

demonstrations have taken place at district offices as well as at conferences such as the Native

American Health Fair in Tucson or Healthy O'odham Promotion Program Diabetes Health Fair

in Sells. These demonstrations are specifically designed to address the issue that most O'odham

today are constrained by work or family commitments. These commitments do not allow for

spending all day preparing traditional foods in the traditional manner. Demonstrators prepare a









number of "hybrid" or "traditional in transition foods" which have emerged to meet the time

constraints of contemporary Tohono O'odham. These include cholla bud, spinach, and

pineapple salad or chia seed smoothies. Cooking classes and demonstrations were featured as

part of the spring 2006 Community Resources for Diabetes course that I took through Tohono

O'odham Community College. Even the very format of the class, online instruction with two

meetings over the course of the semester stressed the convenience of being able to work at your

own pace without having to go to class in Sells. For more on cooking of traditional foods see

Chapter 5.

Safety and Security of Collecting Along the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

While the aforementioned issues of convenience touch on a familial and individual

survival strategies, familial survival strategies of those from south of the United States-Mexico

border also impact how Tohono O'odham people can access traditional foods. In a sense the

U. S.-Mexico borderlands has created a geography of inconvenience for the Tohono O'odham.

While the national media continue to cover the importance of immigration issues, particularly the

burden that immigrants bring to state and local economies, the nativist Minutemen who are

drawing on retirees and others to come down from other states and police the border in attempts

to embarrass the federal and state governments into further action, relatively little national media

attention has focused on the impact this increased policing and trafficking is having on the

Tohono O'odham Nation's people and ecology (see Madsen 2005).

When considering convenience in this region it is essential to mention the effects of the

international border on Tohono O'odham efforts to collect traditional foods. A geography of

inconvenience has been created with both the increasing traffic of both people and drugs as well

as the increased presence of the Border Patrol and National Guard on and around the Tohono

O'odham Nation. Driving towards Arivaca south of Three Points on Arizona State Route 286 an










out of town guest I traveled with in January 2007 mentions how he is always hearing about the

border issues and is fascinated to see the more of the interactions between the Border Patrol and

those 'illegal aliens' making their way through the Sonoran Desert. We pass a pull out with

three Border Patrol vehicles and what appear to be three local ranchers. In the middle of these

two trios are approximately 40 people who have attempted and failed to make it through what

can be described as a semi-permeable sieve of surveillance. We pass a Border Patrol bus which

is en route to the scene. Later on the day trip we pass two immigrants on a dusty U.S. National

Forest Service road who will likely be apprehended by the Arizona State Patrol vehicle we soon

pass. My out of town guest comments on how unbelievably easy it is to see the process of

attempted movement and attempts to thwart said movement in this region. While this is an

estimated 1,500 'illegals'" 5on the Nation at any one time (Madsen 2005:141) these movements

do not offer much mystery, but have, for some Tohono O'odham, dramatically impacted the

manner in which they believe they can and should attempt to collect traditional foods. The

movement of individuals through the Tohono O'odham Nation is likely to increase according to

former Attorney General John Ashcroft who noted at a January 2002 U.S. Border Patrol-Native

American Border Security Conference, "as we succeed in protecting routine entry points along

our borders, we may expect greater challenges in these remote areas, as persons who wish to

enter illegally look for new places with lower visibility" (Butts 2004).

I am still shocked and awed by the sight of a dehydrated and confused woman along State

Route 86 being ordered to get down on the desert landscape by two Border Patrol agents one of

5 Illegals" is a term that is typical used by O'odham to describe those who are attempting to cross into the United
States from Mexico and points south. Mark, a male elder from Baboquivari District, has his humanity and
connection with those who are crossing the border tempered by stories of plwsical harm and his own personal
material losses, "I feel sorry for them sometimes they are hungry and thirsty but they also come and break into
houses they did harm to some of the O'odham. They broke in to nw house two times they took food, clothing
and loose change and then they leave their old stuff there. One time I left the laundry out there for a few hours and
some of them were gone."









whom was pointing an automatic weapon at her. Whether or not this action was warranted by

the agent, the extent of militarization on the Nation particularly by those that are attempting to

move drugs across this region and those whose job it is to stop them has a conditioning effect on

Tohono O'odham perceptions of self, other and safety. Lionel, a middle age man from Chukut

Kuk, believes that collecting traditional foods where his family used to is not possible given the

safety concerns. He explains,

We used to go every summer and pick acorns...that is one thing that we did out in Arivaca
it is down this way we would go out and camp for about a week. Of course I was a kid
then, it was mostly my grandparents, my aunt, my mom, my grandfather would go out and
find an area where there was a lot of acorns that would drop and go out there all day and
pick and pick and I think I am not sure how many gunnysacks we would fill but that
we would eat them and I keep telling my girlfriend that we could go out there and gather
acorns and, but now it is more dangerous than it was before because it is an area where
there is smuggling and stuff like that and so now I will just go and buy either sometimes at
the swap meet or sometimes at the store out there.

The border creates instabilities and uncertainties for many contemporary O'odham who

must take proper precautions to avoid become victims in their homelands. The border has also

created instabilities of identity and citizenship. For some Tohono O'odham, including those that

have served in the US armed forces, citizenship remains unachievable due to a lack of birth

records (Tohono O'odham Nation, Executive Branch 2001). Over the course of interviews

conducted on the Nation individuals shared their concerns about citizenship and rights that result

directly from the circumstances of their birth. For Mandy, an elderly woman in San Lucy

District, the relative isolation of the Nation in the mid 1900s coupled with proximity to the

international border hampers her ability to move freely through the traditional homeland of the

Tohono O'odham, "I was born in my village. There was no need to go to the hospital because I

was already born so there never was a record of my birth. I have a tribal identity card but I

worry about crossing the (U.S.-Mexico) border (paraphrase)." This increasing concern over

international border issues gives some O'odham pause when planning a trip across the









international border, impacting individual and family movement across the international border,

and in some instances diminishing ties between relatives on different sides of the U. S.-Mexico

border. Restrictions on the free-flow of Tohono O'odham across the international boundary,

limiting cultural exchanges and diminishing potential access to traditional foods for O'odham is

a denial of "fundamental human rights" (Austin 1991).

However, as mentioned in (Chapter 2: Economies of the Tohono O'odham Nation,

Informal Economy) some O'odham do economically benefit by assisting in the flow of drugs and

people through the Nation. In a sense these flows create alternative livelihood potentials to

reservation life and city life. The emergence of gang activity and the continued issues with

substance abuse and violence on the Tohono O'odham Nation have also created greater

instabilities and uncertainties for many contemporary O'odham.

Alcohol, Drugs and Gangs

Recent years have seen an increase in gang activity with a concomitant near tripling of

youths being charged with serious crimes according to the Indian Health Service and Tohono

O'odham police department (TOCA and TOCC 2001).59 When I asked German, an elder man

from Sells District, what has been changing with the culture he wove a rich tapestry, connecting

culture including community efforts with food, the rains, community participation and health.

He explains,

Recently the rain ceremony has not been good from our own people. Years ago it seemed
like the whole village helped. Today we don't get that much help. It was special then, but
people don't look at it that way anymore. Before medicine people and singers would put a
lot of work into this. It is still a lot of work to dance part of the night. TOCA has made a
big effort, but with the planting or the rain ceremony we have to do it ourselves. If we let
our culture go, then in the future things such as diabetes, drugs, violence and gangs will be
worse. Kids have nothing to hold on to since we have gotten away from the culture. We


59 According to the same report, "The homicide rate is nearly three times the national average and twice the average
for all Native American communities."









need to get back to that. A lot of young people have problems and give up to easily
(suicide). There is value in work: sharing and helping others. Maybe the canned foods
and the tepary beans that you buy in the store are the same because you do not have to do
the work, it is already there. We used to...our ancestors would work in groups to do
things. Maybe it' s the same idea-somebody's doing it for you. Young people are not
listening, they are forming gangs and going around Sells and beating up people at night.

As German's comments demonstrate there is a connection between the idea of

participating in the growing of the foods as a family or community and cultural preservation.

The idea of 'somebody's. doing it for you' relates to the much celebrated movement away from

toil on the land to free up time for other pursuits. In the past youth would previously have been

engaged in working in cotton camps, subsistence collection or growing, with a sense of place and

connectedness to the land and community. Now with the departure from land, work and culture

there is nothing for the youth to hold on to. 60 This need to identify with a larger group is for

many youth now being partially met through increased activity with utilization of drugs or gang

activity, "going around Sells and beating up people at night."61 For German even the tepary

bean which has become a key food in linking the Tohono O'odham of the present to their

ancestors is not, in and of itself, an important component of maintaining an O'odham identity

connected to the place and community. The process whereby the tepary bean comes into

existence is of paramount importance. For German, it is the work that Tohono O'odham must do

as communities that makes traditional foods culturally meaningful. There is a transformative

power in work.

Substance abuse, particularly drinking has both functional and dysfunctional aspects in

American Indian communities, as individuals, "see it simultaneously as something that is

embedded in certain important relationships, but also something that is destructive of much that

60 See Underhill(1934) for an example of youth involvement in cultural events.

61 IH One Native American youth survey, the idea that the youth are lacking a sense of place and identity was true of
1/3 of the high school and college age students who felt that their generation was confused. (Ewen 1997).










they value" (Spicer 1997). The Tohono O'odham have traditionally ceremonially consumed

wine derived from the saguaro cactus fruit in order to bring the monsoon rains that allowed

floodwater farming to flourish in the Sonoran Desert. These cactus wine drinking ceremonies

are increasingly rare within the Nation and some of the elders with whom I spoke mentioned the

increased consumption of outside alcohol during the events, such that individuals would become

highly intoxicated.62 In Order to mitigate the incidence of violence at various events throughout

the Nation some Districts have decided to end religious and secular events earlier in the morning

hours.

Several elder respondents expressed concern that amongst youth and young adults, the

traditions of old are being replaced by other "traditions," such as abuse of alcohol or drugs or

involvement with gangs. The creates of a new culture and lens through which to view the world

for today's youth, is explained well by a young woman from San Lucy, Sierra, who stated,

"Trouble is always going to be around that' s the way that it' s always been it' s never going to

get it' s never going to go away. It' s mostly the gang violence." The rise or presence of these

issues is explained by O'odham leaders in education and government as resulting from one or a

combination of the following: lack of education from older generations concerning respect for

self, other people and the natural world, lack of responsibility, and inter-generational gang

activity within families. The following are interview excerpts highlighting the concerns

community members have with the prevalence of substance abuse in their communities and

Nation.




62 The saguaro wine or tiswin has a relatively low concentration of alcohol with the fermentation process lasting
only four days in some instances, nonetheless the tiswin was consumed in such large quantities that vomiting
resulted, recognized ceremonially as "throwing up the clouds" (Lewis 1994: 128, La Barre 1938). Underhill
(1985:25) notes changes in production of the tiswin as, "...now the ceremony is less formal or at least the
fermentation is encouraged with boughtenn' liquor."










the youth we don't teach them these things with planting, looking at horses for a better, for
a healthier life because the gangs have caused problems out here too you know shooting
each other, destroying property, the tagging by some of the kids or they don't have that
respect for people, for the plants, for mother nature it means nothing to them as it did to
us when we were small if we were told to leave something alone we left it alone and
it' s not a lot of the kids don't have no I guess you know we could say no family, no
grandpa maybe grandpa' s a drunk or he' s already deceased or he lives way over in
another community because they don't have that family structure that we had (German,
elder man Sells District).

no one wants to take responsibility kids nowadays 20 years old plus stay home do
nothing live with the parent, mother, grandparent that' s the way this goes here -
drinking all the time here in the morning it's hard to see what's happened to some of
these people (Omar, middle age man San Lucy).

it was depressing for me to think about it or see our own people and not just those hard
drugs but the alcohol abuse that is happening within our Nation from what that article said
to think of people like grandmas or great grandmas that are involved in this drug, drug
ring or whatever it is that' s even sadder yeah it' s of all ages and now our young
children are getting involved at an earlier age which is also depressing the gangs that are
that gang movement that is taking place...it' s not just one generation of gangs it' s
several generations now maybe two or three generations and it' s hard to try to help the
one that' s the youngest because it's acceptable to the other generations before them and it's
kind of like you want to continue to hope for good things you want to continue to hope
for that reverse action to take place but sometimes it looks very dim and when you think
about that the foods is that same situation our traditions our language (Sally, middle
age woman Gu Achi).

it can happen anywhere not just in the big city with the O'odham will all these gangs
and want to be gangs that anything can happen and I told them what I used to be doing
way back then when I was growing up way before I got into that alcohol scene you know
because back then it wasn't really dangerous I guess you could say it wasn't really that
bad. (Now you) can't even go outside and if you do you have to be cautious you can't
even leave your door open you never know what' s going to happen (Georgia, middle age
woman San Lucy).

Cost of Traditional Foods

There are opportunities to buy some traditional foods for those who cannot afford the time

to go out and collect or grow traditional foods or are worried about the uncertainties of these

propositions given safety concerns (border and health related). These foods are marketed both

within the Nation and off the Nation. The pricing at Heritage Foods USA, Inc would be too

expensive for those without large amounts of disposable income. At the same time, decreases in










the prices of traditional foods produced on farms, such as tepary beans, squash and corn, may

mean that individuals and families who were previously involved in the collection and growing

of traditional foods will opt to simply buy their foods from a vendor.

The price of traditional foods is influenced by the current availability which is reliant on a

very limited number of people involved in collecting the foods. Regarding the price of

traditional foods Lionel, a middle age man from Chukut Kuk, connected his fear of illegal

activity on the Nation with the number of people collecting and the price of sitol, the syrup

processed from saguaro,

A lot of people are not doing it. A lot of people have said that they don't go out because it
is kind of scary out there anymore, to be out there alone or picking, [because of] illegals,
crossers and border criminals.

Whereas the cost of traditional foods collected from the desert and sold in various markets

will likely remain high in the coming years due aforementioned reasons, the cost of other

traditional foods may decline. Traditional foods grown on farms, particularly tepary beans and

other Hield crops could potentially decline over the long term as the processes of preparing these

foods for sale is increasingly mechanized. Cleaning the tepary beans by removing sticks, rocks,

insects and unfit beans is a maj or expenditure for both TOCA and SXCF. Currently all members

of TOCA will assist with the bean cleaning when there is a large order to fill. In contrast at the

SXCF there are specific individuals, mostly women, whose job it is to clean the tepary beans. In

both situations people who work for these organizations will gather around a table and work

together meticulously sorting through the beans in front of them while sharing stories and

discussing topics of interest. Both men and women in TOCA will sort beans. This allows an

opportunity to brainstorm possibilities as well as plan for future events which focus on

revitalizing the culture of the Tohono O'odham. The current labor cost of cleaning the beans

and the wheat at SXCF is about two dollars a pound. According to one individual at SXCF,









utilization of machines to clean the beans will lead to an increase in efficiency while at the same

time will create more job opportunities:

[W]e can clean 50 times that using a machine and only have one or two people there. And
we're going to the mechanical side to cut costs but we're also looking at other areas where
we even though we have reduced our labor costs we can bring other people in and for
example if we start cleaning our own beans then we well bag them too. So we won't send
them out to have them pre-cleaned and have them bagged so we'll be creating more job
opportunities as we become mechanized.

While there is an increase in efficiency with mechanization in terms of overall labor

expenditure, there is a decrease in the number of people who are working in agriculture. Sorting

through beans might not be considered the most interesting of occupations, yet it provides

revenue for women at SXCF and an opportunity to work in an intimate setting with other Tohono

O'odham women.

The Health of Eating Traditional Foods

Many O'odham people note that traditional foods grown, collected or hunted in the

Nation have superior qualities of nutrition and hence health to 'grow up the way we should.'

This is reproduced in the words of publicly vocal elders who speak regularly about maintaining

tradition and eating traditional foods and organizations such as TOCA, which work to provide

knowledge concerning traditions and traditional foods. Contrary to this, other O'odham

individuals believe that traditional foods are not healthy options. This discrepancy may be

accounted for, in part, by divergent conceptions of what foods are considered to be traditional

foods (See Chapter 4) and how these foods are to be prepared. The discourse between what is

healthy and what is not healthy can also negatively affect an individual's attitudes towards

traditional foods.

For many of the Tohono O'odham that I spoke with a series of individual choices is one

of the prime factors in determining whether an individual will develop Type 2 Diabetes. Still









other Tohono O'odham note the political-economic effects that outsiders have had on the food

system of the Tohono O'odham. Diagnosis with type 2 diabetes or another chronic illness

brought about in part due to obesity, challenges individuals to change their diets. Educational

programs sponsored in biomedical settings both within and outside of the Tohono O'odham

Nation provide a means to learn what changes are needed in order to effectively manage

diabetes. Some will accept what is posed to them as a personal challenge by making changes to

eliminate certain foods altogether, others will suggest a gradual reduction in consumption of

foods, while still others will substitute ingredients so that the traditional foods that they consume

are healthier. People who are diagnosed with diabetes and are seeking treatment within a

biomedical context must remain ever vigilant regulators of themselves. Olphelia, a middle age

woman from Sif Oidak, shares her thoughts on the importance of self-regulation as a diabetic,

I was doing really bad with the diabetes and then I got back on track. I can do it if I really
want to but it takes a lot of determination. Diabetes can easily destroy you it happens so
fast. You do it to yourself sometimes. The reason that a lot of people become diabetic is
because they are having too much alcohol. When I think about eating something I wonder
if it is really going to hurt me. I love fry bread and tell myself that I'll eat just one.
Sometimes I eat one.

One of the suggestions that I have heard made in several contexts, including the TOCC

Community Resources for Diabetes class, would be to eliminate the consumption of lard. This is

not always something that is preferred. Although individuals recognize that utilization of lard in

cooking can lead to health issues, some will use it on occasion or for only certain foods. Akimel

O'odham women who have heard about health risk of lard have also been substituting vegetable

oil for lard while continuing to prepare foods such as fry bread (Smith-Morris 2005). Francine, a

middle aged woman from San Lucy, who has made the switch away from lard, still has a

preference for continuing to use lard:

Well we found out the lard is no good for you it' s got too much cholesterol or whatever
which is too bad but every now and then I would rather use lard in my tortillas and fry









bread because it comes out more softer than the oil. The oil, when you use it, it' s hard to
tell how much you put in there so sometimes when you cook it the dough is kind of tough
like I'd rather use the lard.

Contamination

Some individuals worry about the health of the land and particularly the health of eating

traditional foods that are growing close to roads. German believes that although traditional foods

are ideal foods for his people, the increased influx of cars on the Nation means that traditional

foods might not always be a healthy or safe option. He explains,

Well because it's there and because they tell me the more healthy healthier they haven't
got things sprayed on them different chemicals preservatives. The ones that you get
right here in the desert, but of course today with a lot of vehicles that may make a change
in the future you know with the pollution you know like along the road, 86. Somebody
said that they would not gather anything along the road because of...you know form the
vehicles you know the smoke. To me it seems like that' s what made people healthy back
then the foods that they ate off the land you know.

The pollutants come not only from vehicles but also industry that has existed within and

beyond the Nation's borders. Jordan, a San Xavier middle age man, has seen a lot of dumping

within the San Xavier District. He explains that San Xavier' s close proximity to Tucson and

location off of Interstate 19, have made it an ideal location for illegal dumping of everything

from Toyota Trucks, to unidentified barrels or waste, to mining wastes, to dogs and dead bodies.

To individuals who are aware of this contamination and the fact that the perpetrators may be out

in the desert at this very moment conditions O'odham to believe that the desert is not a safe

place. The risks highlighted by Jordan may be mitigated by remaining close to roadways,

although as German explained above this strategy presents issues of contamination and safety.

Industrial incidents can disrupt all aspects of the food system including agriculture efforts, during

the late 1980's and early 1990's floodwater farming was still practiced as a demonstration in the

San Xavier District. According to Jordan, these operations were ceased when it became apparent

that the soil was becoming contaminated from mining runoff









...we started looking at that (the affect of mining tailings runoff) and we got Indian,
Indian Health Services to come down to do an assessment of what that stuff was and where
it was coming from and so they found out I guess that it would be best to have those
squash and those tepary beans to be analyzed and so they took them and they analyzed
them and they said that I guess that it was that the human body is able to take something
like .02 parts per million of lead in our bodies but that the squash was listed about 68 or 67
parts per million of lead in those vegetables and they were saying that they would
recommend that that we not eat those vegetables.

Land Access

Some individuals may not even be able to access lands which contain traditional foods.

The foods that the Tohono O'odham have traditionally accessed are located both inside and

outside the Tohono O'odham Nation. Access to the land on which these plants are growing is

not an inherent right for Tohono O'odham individuals both within and outside of the Tohono

O'odham Nation. Several people that I spoke with mentioned either some type of delay or

refusal in accessing traditional foods that were growing either off the Nation or in another

district. Individuals and groups from one district have been refused access to collect traditional

foods in other districts. TOCA' s BahBBBBBBBB~~~~~~~~~idaj Camp can only occur because they have made

arrangements with the district where the saguaro cactus harvesting occurs.

Kelly, a middle age woman living in Tucson, whose family has historically harvested

Saguaro in what is now Saguaro National Park must fill out forms every year with the National

Park Service in order to have access to lands which are well within the range of traditional

O'odham lands. Kelly and those whom she invites to collect with her must wait until all the

paperwork has been completed before they begin collection. This is an area which is visited by

up to several groups a day from both on and off the Nation. There have been issues with the

smooth functioning of Kelly's BahBBBBBBBB~~~~~~~~~idaj camp including delays in the processing of the paperwork

which led to a loss of almost half of the collecting season in at least one year. There has been









some discussion within the park of moving the location of the camp in order to preserve the

park' resources.

Basket weavers have also been impacted by the enclosure of lands that were historically

well within the range of the Tohono O'odham. Jordan explains how basket weavers must search

out new sites of collection for materials, "I know that a lot of the basket weavers tell us places

that they used to harvest the yucca and the beargrass is that now they see fences go up and no

trespassing signs." At the same time, there seems to be commitment from the US government

which is working with the Tohono O'odham to allow for greater access and targeted programs

for the Tohono O'odham. This is in line with current United States Forest Service (2004) policy

which recognizes the traditional access rights of Native American. The United States Forest

Service (2004) states,

Community identity and survival are dependent on continued access to National Forest
System lands and other public lands for many Tribes. The maintenance of traditional
gathering, hunting, fishing, and other activities; and use of certain landscapes, sites, and
locations that contain important natural and cultural resources should be considered in
Forest Service land management planning and research activities.


























1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121 129
Food


40-


2 30

20


10

0


1. TEPARY BEANS
2. SQUASH
3. BEANS
4. CHOLLA BUDS
(CIOLOM)
5. TORTILLAS
6. FRY BREAD
7. PINTOS
8. BAHIDAJ
9. CORN
10. MESQUITE
11. PRICKLY-PEAR
12. RABBITS
13. WILD SPINACH
14. CACTUS
FOOD/FRUIT
15. DEER
16. WATERMELONS
17. CACTUS
JAM/SYRUP
18. GA'IWSA
19. LIMA BEANS
20. RED CHILI
21. USABI
22. CHICKEN
23. RABBIT STEW
24. WHAT WE
GREW,
/COLLECTED
25. WHEAT
26. CHEESE
27. CHILI (STEW)
28. BLACK-EYED
BEAN/PEAS


29. FOOD FROM
THE DESERT
30. POTATO SALAD
31. SQUASH AND
CHEESE
32. COW (MEAT)
33. EGGS
34. JAVELINA
35. PALO VERDE
36. QUAIL
37. SUGARCANE
38. WHAT WE
GREW UP ON
39. CATTLE
(RESERVATION)
40. DOVE
41. GREEN BEANS
42. POTATO
43. STEW/SOUP
44. WHEAT
TORTILLAS
45. YEAST BREAD
46. GARBONZO BEANS
47. JACKRABBITS
48. MENUDO
49. MILK
50. TAMALES
51. WHEAT
POPOVER
52. CABBAGES
53. CANTELOUPE
54. MEAT (HUNTED)
55. MESQUITE
FLOUR


56. ONIONS
57. PACKRATS
58. TOMATO
59. WHAT WAS
HERE WHAT
OUR ELDERS
GREW/
60. WILD ONIONS
61. BARLEY
62. CHILI (PLANT)
63. COMMODITY
FOODS
64. EATEN AT
GATHERINGS,
CELEBRATIONS
65. FRUITS
66. GREENS
67. HEDGEHOG
CACTUS
68. HONEYDEW
69. INDIAN TACO
70. LETTUCE
71. MAKKUM
72. PINK BEANS
73. PlEMPEI'.5
74. RED BEANS
75. SEEDS
76. SO:BA
77. STRING BEAN
78. TURTLES
79. VEGETABLES
80. WHITE BEANS
81. YUCCA
82. AGAVE HEART


83. BARREL
CACTUS
84. BELL PEPPERS
85. BERRIES
86. BISCUITS
87. BUGS
88. BUTTER
89. CALABASH
90. CANDY OFF THE
TREES
91. CANNED
TOMATOES
92. COTTAGE
CHEESE
93. CREAM OF
WHEAT
94. CUCUMBERS
95. FAST FOODS
96. FISH
97. FLOUR
98. FRY BEANS
99. GARLIC
100.GREEN CHILIES
101.GROCERY
STORE FOODS
102. HA:L MAMMAD
(LITTLE SQUASH)
102.HAMBURGER
103.HOGS
104.HOME- GROWN
105.HOMINY
106.INDIAN CORN
107.INDIAN FOODS
108.LENTILS


109.LIVER
110.MELON
111.ME QUITE
BREAD
112.0ATMEAL
113.0RGAN PIPE
114. PEANUT BUTTER
115.PIGEON
116.POSOLE
117. RAM
118.RICE
119. SAGUARO CACTUS
SEED SOUP
120.SEAOOD
121.SHORT RIBS
122.SMALL ONIONS
123.SPINACH WITH
ONIONS
124.SPLIT PEAS
125.THINGS THAT ARE
HARD TO PREPARE
126.TREES
127.WHATEVER CAME
ALONG
128.WHEAT BREAD
129.WHITE CORN
130.WILD CHILI
131.WILD BANANA
132.WILD POTATO


Figure 4-1. Scree plot of percentage of responses to "What foods do you consider to be
traditional foods?"












0.45
0.4 -1 *1 !".'l' IveC.ms'
u, 0.35 Ml~l


e 0.2

0.15 -** e
S0.15 **No
.Q) ***
0.05 *****



0 10 20 30 40

Food



Figure 4-2. Scree plot of Smith's S for 31 most mentioned traditional foods.





Table 4-1. Free list descriptive statistics for domain of traditional foods (N=48).


Nation
Freq.__
27
26
25
24
24
23
23
18
18
16
15
13
13
12
11
11
10
10
10
10
10
9
9
9
9
8
8
7
7
7
7


Nation Average
% Rank
56 5.63
54 5.62
52 3.72
50 6.75
50 6.54
48 7.39
48 7.30
38 8.94
38 5.67
33 9.31
31 8.07
27 7.46
27 8.23
25 3.83
23 9.18
23 5.64
21 8.90
21 8.50
21 7.90
21 7.50
21 11.30
19 13.89
19 7.67
19 3.00
19 12.67
17 13.13
17 6.38
15 11.00
15 6.57
15 8.86
15 6.86


Response
Tepary beans
Squash (ha:1)
Beans
Cholla buds (cioloim, hana~ni)
Tortillas (cemait)
Fry bread/popover
Pinto beans
Bahidaj~BBB~~~~BBB~~~BBB (saguaro)
Corn
Mesquite
Prickly-pear ('i:bhai, gisogi)
Rabbits
Wild spinach
Cactus food/fruit
Deer
Watermelons
Cactus Jam/Syrup
Ga 'iwsa
Lima beans
Red Chili
Usabi (mesquite sap)
Chicken
Rabbit stew
What we grew, planted, collected
Wheat (roasted or flour)
Cheese
Chili (stew)
Black-eyed bean/peas
Food from the desert
Potato salad
Squash and cheese


Smith's S
0.40
0.38
0.42
0.31
0.28
0.24
0.27
0.18
0.27
0.16
0.18
0.14
0.14
0.20
0.13
0.15
0.09
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.09
0.05
0.09
0.15
0.07
0.06
0.09
0.06
0..10
0.06
0.07










Table 4-2. Responses to "What foods do you consider to be traditional foods?" question (free
list data sorted by difference between male and female (fem) percentage).
Fem.
%-


Nation Nation Nation Fem.


Fem.
Freq.
22
18
9
7
18

12
17
7


Fem. Male Male Male Male
%o Rank Freq. % %


Food Rank
Tepary beans 1
Pinto beans 5
Lima beans 12
Squash and cheese 15
Tortillas (cemait) 4
Prickly-pear
('i:bhai, gisogi) 8
Fry bread/popover 5
Chili (stew) 14
Usabi (mesquite
sap) 12
Black-eyed
bean/peas 15
Potato salad 15
Cholla buds
(cioloim, hanami) 4
Cactus food/fruit 10
Rabbits 9
Wild spinach 9
Cactus Jam/Syrup 12
Ga'iwsa 12
Red Chili 12
Bahidaj (saguaro) 6
Chicken 13
Rabbit stew 13
What we grew,
planted, collected 13
Wheat (roasted or
flour) 13
Deer 11
Food from the
desert 15
Watermelons 11
Beans 3
Squash (ha:1) 2
Cheese 14
Mesquite 7
Corn 6


Freq.
27
23
10
7
24

15
23
8


% Rank
56 1
48 2
21 6
15 8
50 2


69 7
56 7
28 11
22 12
56 6

38 9
53 6
22 11


5 31
5 31
1 6
0 0
6 38

3 19
6 38
1 6


10 21 7 8 25 10


2 13 13


19 11
19 11

53 5
28 9
28 8
28 8
22 9
22 9
22 9
38 6
19 9
19 9


7 44
3 19
4 25
4 25
3 19
3 19
3 19
6 38
3 19
3 19

3 19

3 19
4 25

3 19
5 31
10 63
11 69
5 31
8 50
9 56


9 19 9 6 19 9


19 9
22 8

13 9
19 7
47 2
47 1
9 7
25 4
28 3













12



08 *



4 -1 *




** *


0 5 10 15 20 25

Female Frequency


Figure 4-3. Scatter plot of women's and men' s frequency of responses to "What foods do you
consider to be traditional foods?" question.


















Food
Fry bread/ popover
Cactus food/fruit
Chili (stew)
Beans
Squash and cheese
Cholla buds
(cioloim, hanami)
Ga'iwsa
Black-eyed
bean/peas
Wheat (roasted or
flour)
Red Chili
Tepary beans
Chicken
What we grew,
planted, collected
Rabbit stew
Watermelons
Wild spinach
Lima beans
Usabi (mesquite sap)
Food from the desert
Potato salad
Prickly-pear ('i:bhai,
gisogi)
Pinto beans
Cheese
Rabbits
Cactus Jam/Syrup
Corn
Squash (ha:1)
Deer
Mesquite
Tortillas (cemait)
Bahidaj (saguaro)


Table 4-3. Responses to "What foods do you consider to be traditional foods?" question (free
list data sorted by difference between San Lucy (SL) and Non-SL percentage).
Non- Non-
Total SL SL SL SL SL Non- SL -


Rank Total %
5 23 48
10 12 25
14 8 17
3 25 52
15 7 15


Rank Frey. % Rank Frey.


SL % Non SL %


63 8
34 10
25 11
59 5
22 11

56 5
25 9


19 44
6 28
0 25
38 22
0 22

38 19
13 13


24 50
10 21


15 7 15 10 6 19 10


1 6 13


3 9 19
2 10 21
127 56
3 9 19

3 9 19
3 9 19
1 11 23
9 13 27
2 10 21
2 10 21
5 7 15
5 7 15

8 15 31
5 23 48
4 8 17
9 13 27
2 10 21
6 18 38
2 26 54
111 23
7 16 33
4 24 50
6 18 38


22 9
22 8
56 3
19 8

19 8
19 8
22 7
25 6
19 7
19 7
13 8
13 8

28 5
44 3
13 7
19 4
13 5
28 3
44 1
13 4
22 3
38 1
25 2


13 9
19 3
56 0
19 0

19 0
19 0
25 -3
31 -6
25 -6
25 -6
19 -6
19 -6

38 -9
56 -13
25 -13
44 -25
38 -25
56 -28
75 -31
44 -31
56 -34
75 -38
63 -38





14


10 1






S4

o 2
0


*~liil



**


San Lucy Frequency


Figure 4-4. Scatter plot of San Lucy and Non-San Lucy frequency of responses to "What foods
do you consider to be traditional foods?" question.


Figure 4-5. Picture of golden hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus engelmannii).










Table 4-4. Young adult and elder responses to "What foods do you consider to be traditional
foods?" question (free list data sorted by difference between young adult and elders


for 31 most mentioned responses).
Nation Nation YA YA % Elder
Freq. % Rank Freq. YA Rank


Elder Elder
Freq. %
3 25
0 0
4 33
18
1 8
2 17
6 50
1 8
6 50
6 50
18
3 25


Food


YA Elder %
61
43
38
35
35
26
21
20
7
7
6
4

4
-2
-5
-11
-11


Fry bread/popover
Potato salad
Tortillas (cemait)
Red Chili
Squash and cheese
Lima beans
Beans
Chili (stew)
Squash (ha:1)
Pinto beans
Rabbit stew
Wild spinach
Black-eyed
bean/peas
Watermelons
Cactus food/fruit
Ga'iwsa
Chicken
What we grew,
planted, collected
Wheat (roasted or
flour)
Cheese
Food from the
desert
Deer
Cactus Jam/Syrup
Rabbits
Usabi (mesquite
sap)
Com
Mesquite
Tepary beans
Bahidaj (saguaro)
Prickly-pear
('i:bhai, gisogi)
Cholla buds
(cioloim, hanami)


6 86
3 43
5 71
3 43
3 43
3 43
5 71
2 29
4 57
4 57
114
2 29

2 29
114
2 29
114
1 14


9 19 7 0 0 7 3 25 -25


0 0
1 14
1 14
0 0

0 0
114
114
2 29
0 0


15 31 6 1 14 2 8 67 -52

24 50 7 0 0 1 9 75 -75











10


8- *


S6 *I ;cen,!


L 4 lortill..
2 3 *


1 *


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Young Adult Frequency

Figure 4-6. Scatter plot of young adult elder frequency of 3 1 highest responses to "What foods
do you consider to be traditional foods?" question.





































154










Table 4-5. Young adult and middle age responses to "What foods do you consider to be
traditional foods?" question (free list data sorted by difference between young adults
and middle age).


Nation
Nation %
23 48
7 15
7 15
10 21
25 52
10 21


YA YA YA MA MA MA
Rank Freq. % Rank Freq. %
1 6 86 3 14 48
4 3 43 13 3 10
4 3 43 12 4 14
4 3 43 11 5 17
2 5 71 3 14 48
4 3 43 10 6 21

5 2 29 14 2 7
2 5 71 2 15 52
3 4 57 4 13 45
5 2 29 11 5 17
5 2 29 10 6 21
3 4 57 1 16 55
5 2 29 8 8 28
6 1 14 12 4 14
6 1 14 11 5 17
6 1 14 11 5 17


YA MA %
37
33
29
26
23
22

22
20
12
11
8
2
1
0
-3
-3

-6
-6
-10
-13
-13


Fry bread/popover
Squash and cheese
Potato salad
Lima beans
Beans
Red Chili
Black-eyed
bean/peas
Tortillas (cemait)
Pinto beans
Chili (stew)
Cactus food/fruit
Squash (ha:1)
Wild spinach
Cactus Jam/Syrup
Deer
Chicken
Prickly-pear
('i:bhai, gisogi)
Ga'iwsa
Rabbit stew
Mesquite
Watermelons
Food from the
desert
Usabi (mesquite
sap)
Cheese
Com
What we grew,
planted, collected
Wheat (roasted or
flour)
Tepary beans
Rabbits
Bahidaj (saguaro)
Cholla buds
(cioloim, hanami)


1 14 10
114 10
114 9
1 14 8
114 8


6 21
6 21
7 24
8 28
8 28


7 15 7 0 0 12


4 14 -14


0 0 11 5 17
0 0 11 5 17
1 14 6 10 34


9 19 7 0 0 10 6 21


0 0 10 6 21
2 29 1 16 55
0 0 7 9 31
0 0 5 12 41


24 50 7 0 0 2 15 52











18
16 *1 Intral1.1s

a 14 *

a 10
LI.

< *






0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Young Adult Frequency

Figure 4-7. Scatter plot of young adult and middle age frequency of responses to "What foods
do you consider to be traditional foods?" question.










Table 4-6. Middle age and elder responses to "What foods do you consider to be traditional
foods?" question (free list data sorted by difference between middle age and elders).


Nation
Nation %
23 48
24 50
9 19
7 15
10 21
11 23
8 17
26 54
13 27
7 15
10 21
25 52
13 27
10 21


MA
Rank
3
2
9
12
10
8
11
1
8
12
11
3
7
10


MA MA
Freq. %
14 48
15 52
7 24
4 14
6 21
8 28
5 17
16 55
8 28
3 10
5 17
14 48
9 31
6 21


Elder Elder Elder
Rank Freq. %


Food
Fry bread/popover
Tortillas (cemait)
Rabbit stew
Potato salad
Red Chili
Watermelons
Chili (stew)
Squash (ha:1)
Wild spinach
Squash and cheese
Lima beans
Beans
Rabbits
Ga 'iwsa
What we grew,
planted, collected
Wheat (roasted or
flour)
Pinto beans
Chicken
Cheese
Bahidaj (saguaro)
Food from the
desert
Cactus food/fruit
Black-eved
bean/peas
Tepary beans
Cholla buds
(cioloim, hanami)
Com
Deer
Usabi (mesquite
sap)
Cactus Jam/Syrup
Mesquite
Prickly-pear
('i:bhai, gisogi)


MA-E %


9 19 10 6 21


7 3 25 -4


9 19
!3 48
9 19
8 17
8 38


6 21
13 45
5 17
5 17
12 41

4 14
6 21

2 7
16 55

15 52
10 34
5 17

5 17
4 14
8 28


15 31 10 6 21


2 8 67 -46











10
Chlolla budls
9 -**
8 Tipar beanrs
a 7 *


95 ~
S4 ..uu






0 5 10 15 20
M iddle Age Freque ncy

Figure 4-8. Scatter plot of middle age and elder frequency of responses to "What foods do you
consider to be traditional foods?" question.


Table 4-7. Self-reported change in traditional food consumption by gender.
Male Female
More Growing Up 10 24
About the Same 1 4
Not around when
younger 0 1
No response/question 5 3

Table 4-8. Self-reported change in traditional food consumption by age.
Young adult Middle age Elder
More Growing Up 6 20 8
About the Same 1 3 1
Not around when younger 0 1 0
No response/question 0 5 3

Table 4-9. Self-reported change in traditional food consumption by area.
San Lucy Non-San Lucy
More then 23 11
About the same 3 2
Not around when younger 1 0
No response/question 4 4









Table 4-10. Reported consumption versus desired consumption in 2002.
Frequency Reported Desired Consumption
Consumption
Often 29 (23%) 79 (62%)
Sometimes 54 (42%) 42 (33%)
Rarely 36 (28%) 4 (3%)
Never 6 (5%) 2 (2%)
Source: Tohono O'odham Community Action and Tohono O'odham Community College
(2002:35) Community Attitudes toward Traditional Tohono O'odham Foods. Sells, AZ: Tohono
O'odham Community Action, Tohono O'odham Community College.

Table 4-11. Reported consumption versus desired traditional food consumption for Nation.
Reported
Response Consumption Desired Consumption
Every day 2 (4%) 8 (17%)
More than once a week 11 (23%) 5 (10%)
Once a week 3 (6%) 5 (10%)
Every 1-2 weeks 9 (19%) 0 (0%)
Every month 6 (13%) 0 (0%)
Every 1-2 months 2 (4%) 0 (0%)
A few times a year 2 (4%) 0 (0%)


Seldom
More than now
As much as possible
Same as now
Don't have it anymore


(6%)
(0%)
(0%)
(0%)
(2%)


0 (0%)
11 (23%)
0 (0%)
4 (8%)
0 (0%)


Table 4-12. Limiting factors for traditional foods consumption in 2002.
Reason Number Percentage
I don't have the time to cook them 42 33
I cannot buy them anywhere 35 27
Other (not specified) 25 20
I don't know what they are 17 13
It is too much work to prepare them 15 12
I don't like the way they taste 1 1
Source: Tohono O'odham Community Action and Tohono O'odham Community College
(2002:35) Community Attitudes Toward Traditional Tohono O'odham Foods. Sells, AZ: Tohono
O'odham Community Action, Tohono O'odham Community College.










Table 4-13. Chi-square of limiting factors to traditional food consumption and age.


Value df
12.316 10
12.005 10

.088 1


Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
.264
.285

.766


Pearson Chi-Square
Likelihood Ratio
Linear-by-Linear
Association
N of Valid Cases


Table 4-14. Cross tabulation of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption by age.


Middle
Elder Age


Young
Adult


Elder


Limiting Availability
Factors



Cost




Not liked by
Family / Self



Convenience




Safety Issues



None


Count


6 15 2 23


Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count

Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors


13.0 3.0


23.0

100.0%

12
12.0

100.0%


26% 65% 9%


4
3.6

33%


6
6.8

50%


2
1.6

17%


0 3


1.2

0%

8
7.9

31%

5
3.0


2.3

75%

14
14.7

54%

5
5.7


.5 4.0


25%

4
3.4

15%

0
1.3


100.0%

26
26.0

100.0%

10
10.0


50% 50% .0% 100.0%


0% 0%


100% 100.0%


Total


23
23.0

30%


43
43.0

57%


10
10.0

13%


76
76.0

100.0%










Table 4-15. Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between elder and young
adult (YA) percentage).
Nation Nation Elder Elder YA YA
Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Elder YA %
Safety issues 10 23 5 42 0 0 42
Availability 23 52 6 50 2 33 17
Cost 12 27 4 33 2 33 0
Convenience 26 59 8 67 4 67 0


Don't like
(family/self)
None


1 17 -17
1 17 -17


Table 4-16. Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between elder and middle
age (MA) percentage).
Nation Nation Elder Elder MA MA
Freq % Freq. % Freq. % Elder MA%


Safety issues
Convenience
Cost
None
Availability
Don't like
(family/self)


4 9 0 0 3 12 -12


Table 4-17. Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between middle age (MA)


and young adult (YA) percentage).
Nation Nation MA
Freq % Freq.
ity 23 52 15
ues 10 23 5


YA
Freq.
2
0

1
2
4
1


MA %
58
19


YA %
33
0

17
33
67
17


MA YA %
24
19

-5
-10
-13
-17


lIf)

nce


Availabilj
Safety iss
Don't like
(family/se
Cost
Convenie
None


3 12
6 23
14 54
0 0


















15-I Age
Elder
g Middle Age
[] Young Adult


















Availability Cost Don't Like Convenience Safety Issues None
(Family / Self)
Limiting Factors

Figure 4-9. Limiting factors to traditional foods consumption by age.


Table 4-18. Chi-square of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption and gender.

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.499 5 .480
Likelihood Ratio 5.431 5 .366
Linear-by-Linear
.861 1 .353
Association
N of Valid Cases
76










Table 4-19. Cross tabulation of limiting factors to traditional food consumption and gender.
Male Female Total


Limiting Availability
Factors


Count


Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count

Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within Limiting
Factors


7.0

30%


16.0


23.0


70% 100%


Cost




Don't Like ( Family /
Self )



Convenience




Safety Issues



None


11
8.4

92%


12
12.0

100%


1.2

25%
10
7.9

39%
4
3.0

40%


2.8

75%
16
18.1


4.0

100.0%
26
26.0


62% 100.0%


10
10.0


60% 100.0%


1
.7 1.0


0%
23
23.0

30%


100%

53
53.0

70%


100%
76
76.0

100.0%


Total


Table 4-20. Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between males and


females percentage).
Nation Nation
Freq %
Convenience 26 59
Safety issues 10 23
Don't like
(family/self) 4 9
Availability 23 52
None 1 2
Cost 12 27


Males
Freq.
10
4

1
7
0
1


Males

71
29

7
50
0
7


Females
Freq.
16
6

3
16
1
11


Females

53
20

10
53
3
37


Males-Females %
18
9

-3
-3
-3
-30

































Figure 4-10. Limiting factors to traditional foods consumption for males and females.




Table 4-21. Chi-square of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption and district.


20-



15-



S1-



5-


1 J J M
Availabllty Cost Don't Like ( Convenience Safety Issues
Family / Self )
Limiting Factors


.


Value
7.206(a)
7.689


Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
.206
.174


Pearson Chi-Square
Likelihood Ratio
Linear-by-Linear
Association
N of Valid Cases


.558


.455


Gender
g Male
Female


I
None
















































V


Table 4-22.


Limiting
Factors


Cross tabulation of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption and district.


San
Lucy
13


Non San
Lucy
10


Total

23

23.0

100.0%

12
12.0

100.0%

4

4.0

100.0%

26
26.0


Availability





Cost




Don't Like ( Family /
Self )



Convenience




Safety Issues



None


Count


Expected Count
% within
Limiting Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within
Limiting Factors
Count

Expected Count
% within
Limiting Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within
Limiting Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within
Limiting Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within
Limiting Factors
Count
Expected Count
% within
Limiting Factors


14.8

57%

7
7.7

58%

3

2.6

75%

21
16.8

81%

4
6.4

40%

1
.6

100%

49
49.0

65%


8.2

44%

5
4.3

42%

1

1.4

25%

5
9.2


19% 100.0%


10
10.0


60% 100.0%


1
1.0

100.0%

76
76.0

100.0%


.4

0%

27
27.0

36%


Total










Table 4-23. Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between San Lucy (SL)
and non-SL percentage).
Nation Nation SL SL Non- SL Non-
Frey % Frey % Freq. SL % SL Non-SL %


26 59 21 78 5


29 48


Convenience
Don't like
(family/self)
None
Cost
Availability
Safety issues


10 23 4 15 6


35 -20


Availabllty Cost Don't Like ( Convenience Safety Issues
Family / Self )
Limiting Factors


0


Figure 4-11. Limiting factors to traditional food consumption by region.


Region
San Lucy
g Non San Lucy


None



































Figure 4-12. Picture of Tohono O'odham Community Action (TOCA) foods.









CHAPTER 5
WORKING NEW FIELDS

This chapter will address research questions 4 and 5. Research question 4 is "Why do

contemporary Tohono O'odham consume traditional foods?" This section will include

quantitative and qualitative data from subsets of the population. Research question 5 is, "What is

the current involvement of individuals and organizations in traditional foods collection, growing

and cooking?" This section is organized thematically and will discuss each element of the

Tohono O'odham traditional food system (growing, collecting and cooking) in terms of

individual rates of participation by subsets of the population. Integrated within these topics is a

discussion of the involvement of TOCA and SXCF in the overall food system of the Tohono

O'odham Nation. The chapter will conclude with a discussion of Tohono O'odham perspectives

on hope for the future of the Tohono O'odham traditional food system.

Reasons Why Tohono O'odham Consume Traditional Foods

If entities and organizations wish to make nutritional interventions within a population it is

important to know what motivates individuals to select certain foods to consume or why they

value the consumption of certain foods. This research shows that there are two main reasons

(health and tradition) why Tohono O'odham desire to consume traditional foods in greater

quantities than they currently do because of accessibility, convenience and a number of other

limiting factors discusses in the previous chapter (see Chapter 4).

Individuals expressed several reasons for wanting to consume traditional foods. Most

respondents, when asked, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" focused on the health that

eating traditionally provides or traditional aspects of food consumption. These responses

qualitatively demonstrate why contemporary Tohono O'odham consume traditional foods. The

responses to detailed interviews I conducted as part of my research (see Chapter 1) were










shortened into summary responseS63 to present these to the Tohono O'odham Nation. These

responses were then coded into four distinct themes in order to quantitatively analyze the data.

These themes are "health," "to keep tradition," "none-can't/don't eat," and "food quality for self

and others." The quantitative differences between subsets of the population in the primacy each

gave to the two main reasons ("health" and "to keep tradition") will be discussed in the

sub sections below.

The coding of responses does little to demonstrate the strong connections that individuals

have with traditional foods. For example, the theme "health" included responses ranging from

acknowledging nutritional aspects of particular plants to general statements regarding

maintaining personal health. Kendra, an elder woman from San Lucy, and Regina, a young adult

woman from San Lucy, answered that they could not eat the foods because it would be unhealthy

because of their diabetes. Tracie, a middle age woman from the San Lucy District, noted that

while some of the foods were healthy some of them were unhealthy. Several individuals

mentioned the health of eating traditionally, particularly in comparison to commodity foods.

Taste and individual choice also appeared in responses, for example Sierra, a young adult woman

from San Lucy stated that she simply did not care for the foods.

As a vendor of traditional foods I saw a genuine sense of excitement and a sense of awe as

some individuals purchased foods from me that they had not seen in years. The following

responses indicate this strong connection as well as the sense of loss that many feel with the

decrease in traditional food consumption.


63 The initial summarized responses were: health, to keep tradition, food is healthier than other foods, purity of the
food, grew up on it, tastes better/good, told by an older relative/medicine person, prevent diabetes/help with
diabetes, live longer, desert food, keep me active-have to get the foods, pass it on to children, spiritual aspects, crave
for it, help you grow in a good way, last longer than other foods, necessity with no stores, people expect to eat it,
relative likes it, respect for older family members, variety in the diet.









Part of living a long life is eating getting, eating healthy foods. Now my dad is 85 years
old now why is he 85 years old and my uncle' s would be living this long if they didn't
drink you know one dies in accident, two of cirrhosis and probably my dad would have
been the same but he quit drinking years ago. So I got to believe that there is something in
their diet that' s helped them to live this long. (Frank, middle age male Schuk Toak).

I believe that the person that is eating the white man's food will become sicker than the
one that is eating the traditional. The reason it' s important is...to keep up your own
language, traditional things, you've got to remember your traditional language and your
way of life and the food is if it' s meant...for Indians to know how to survive in the desert
and they can understand that they can live longer without eating the white man's food -
and put all this [system] into their body. I think that they will have more chance to live -
better healthy wise instead of going to a Doctor everyday, doing this and that or and taking
medication... medicine doesn't help you. See when I was growing up, my grandparents
they never went to the doctor. When I was sick they never took me to the doctor...my
grandmother took care of me just the way she would herself, she always gave me wild tea
to drink when I was sick something that helped me out and I never had to go to the
doctor...When you live on the reservation you eat pure food...if you find your own food
it' s pure, there' s no fertilizer or nothing, it's just water and then it' s right there you don't
add nothing to it you're not adding nothing into your system it' s just pure. (Chuck,
middle age male San Lucy).

For [us] it is healthy, it grows out in the wild and that' s how I grew up eating traditional
foods. I wish we were back then because we hardly [ate] any meat...and they say red meat
isn't that good [for health]. When we were living on vegetables we were always healthy,
never sick, but now they have too much junk food. [Supermarket foods] taste different,
they are not as good as the ones that you grow or get. (Pauline, elder female San Lucy).

The above interview excerpts demonstrate the strong feelings individuals have concerning

the importance of traditional food consumption.

Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by Age

There was a statistically significant difference (p =.06, Table 5-1, Table 5-2 and Figure 5-

1) between different age groups responses to the question, "Why do you eat traditional foods?"

The differences among age groups for reasons to consume traditional foods are centered on

frequency of responses in the "health" and "tradition" categories. The primary reason that young

adults consumed traditional foods was "to keep tradition." Young adults also mentioned health

reasons as well as showed a preference for not eating the foods. The maj or reason that

traditional foods are consumed by middle age individuals is also "to keep tradition." This was









followed by health reasons and food quality for both self and others. The maj or reason elders

cited for consumption of traditional foods was "health." Secondary reasons include traditional

aspects of the food, food quality issues and an indication that an individual chooses not to eat

traditional foods. Margaret, a young adult woman from San Lucy, gives primacy to traditional

aspects of the food as well as mentioning health aspects of traditional food consumption.

Why would I consume traditional foods? Because I feel that in consuming I get to taste it
and actually experience what it is as far as traditional what some of the people back then
got to were eating and everything like that and to keep it basically the tradition and
have some particular knowledge of what was eaten back then and actually experience you
know what because nowadays there is all kinds of varieties of food and you know I am
the type of person that I like to try something before even judging it and saying I don't, I
dislike it. I'd rather try it first my understanding I get is back then the food was healthy
and everything.

Elders mentioned health 47% more than young adults and food quality issues 20% more.

Young adults mentioned that they do not eat the foods 23% more than elders and to keep

tradition 17% more. See Table 5-3 for more on frequency and percentages of responses on

limiting factors for young adults and elders.

There were also differences in responses between middle age individuals and young

adults. Middle age individuals mentioned food quality 31% more than young adults and health

21% more. Young adults mentioned that they do not eat the foods 33% more than middle age

individuals and to keep tradition 5% more. See Table 5-4 for more on frequency and

percentages of responses on limiting factors for middle age individuals and young adults.

Elders and middle age individuals had the most agreement as to why they consume

traditional foods. Elders mentioned health 26% more than middle age individuals and that the do

not eat the foods 10% more. Young adults mentioned to they wanted to keep tradition 12% more

than elders and food quality issues 11% more. See Table 5-5 for more on frequency and

percentages of responses on limiting factors for elders and middle age individuals.










Only a third of young adults shared that health was a reason that they consume traditional

foods. This may be related to young adult perceptions of which foods are considered to be

traditional. Young adults are more likely than other age groups to list foods such as fry bread,

tortillas and potato salad as traditional (see Tables 4-1 and 4-5).

Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by Gender

Although there was not a statistically significant difference in responses between men

and women to the question, "Why do you eat traditional foods?" (p = .31, Table 5-6), there are

other notable differences which can be seen in Tables 5-7, 5-8 and Figure 5-2 as well as in the

personal accounts that have been included in this section. Men mentioned health as a primary

reason why they choose to consume traditional foods, followed by responses of keeping tradition

and then food quality. Women viewed tradition as the main reason why they chose to consume

traditional foods, followed by health, food quality and then the choice not to consume the

traditional foods. Men mentioned health 28% more than women and food quality 21% more.

Women mentioned that they do not eat the foods 10% more than men and to keep tradition 8%

more. See Table 5-8 for more on frequency and percentages of responses on limiting factors for

men and women. I am unsure as to the reason in discrepancy between men and women in

regards to health and food quality, it is an area that deserves further study.

The following responses from middle age individuals in the San Lucy District

demonstrate clearly why individuals choose to consume traditional foods. Both of these

responses were classified within the themes "food quality" and "tradition." Chuck discusses the

importance of eating traditional foods in terms of culture and tradition he relates the loss of both

to a decline in health for his people. He relates the importance of food quality in terms of purity

of traditional foods. Ronnie remembers the way things used to be and notes that the quality of









food is related to its ability to sustain men who do hard work. She contrasts this with the

inability of more recently introduced foods to stave off hunger.

I believe that the person that is eating the white man's food will become sicker than the
one that is eating the traditional. The reason it' s important is it' s like it' s like important
to keep up your own language traditional things you've got to remember your
traditional language and your way of life and the food is like I say food is if it' s meant
for Indians to like know how to survive in the desert and they can understand that they can
live longer without eating the white man's food and put all this (system) into their body -
I think that they will have more chance to live better healthy wise instead of going to a
Doctor everyday doing this and that or and taking medication back to the office -
medicine doesn't help you. See when I was growing up my grandparents they never went
to the doctor. When I was sick they never took me to the doctor when I was sick they
never took me to the doctor they always my grandmother took care of me just the way
she would herself she always gave me wild tea to drink when I was sick something that
helped me out and I never had to go to the doctor. When you live on the reservation you
eat pure food like if you find your own food it' s pure there' s no fertilizer or nothing -
it' just water and then it's right there you don't add nothing to it you're not adding
nothing into your system it' just pure. (Chuck, middle age male San Lucy).

I guess when we were small every since we can remember we've always had them. See
when you're out on the reservation you just don't go across the street to go to the store -
it' s a long ways to Ajo from down there. So all these things what we what we plant
during the summer and for instance people have cattles so at the time when they're
gathering foods they would also kill one of their cattle their cow and then they would dry
the meat hang them you know and dry them all store them I guess the only time I
remember what we would need at the store is salt, sugar, coffee, other than that we have -
we store all the food that we planted in big containers they all go in there different the
stuff goes in there and the dried meat would be hanging in a big storehouse so we just go
and pick whatever we want to cook today so we don't we've always had those kind of
stuff it' s always there to us that' s we we have to you know we like this kind of food
and they say that you don't go hungry when you eat this kind of food some food that is
hard but it' s cooked instead of now you run to the store and you get a burger and you get
done and in the next hour you are hungry. These can carry you on -I guess that' s called
the man eating more of this out there because they do hard work. (Ronnie, middle age
female San Lucy).

Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by District

Although there was not a statistically significant difference in responses, "Why do you

eat traditional foods?" between San Lucy District members and non-San Lucy District members

(p = .199, Table 5-9), there are other noteworthy differences (Table 5-10, 5-11 and Figure 5-3).

San Lucy respondents noted that keeping tradition was the maj or reason for them to consume










traditional foods. This was followed by health concerns, food quality issues and choosing not to

eat the foods. People living in other districts said that health was the maj or motivating factor in

consuming traditional foods. This was followed by keeping tradition and then food quality

concerns.

San Lucy District members mentioned tradition 15% more than non-San Lucy District

members and they the do not eat the foods 12% more. Non-San Lucy District members

mentioned health 39% more than San Lucy District members. See Table 5-11 for more on

frequency and percentages of responses on limiting factors for San Lucy and non-San Lucy

District members.

The Current Traditional Food System

Food systems are hybrid in nature. The hybrid nature of foods systems include: hybrid

farming systems and cosmology which incorporate market crops in the northern sierra of Oaxaca

(Gonzalez 2001), changing patterns of traditional food consumption in Japan (Whitelaw 2006),

and hunger foods transforming into heritage foods in commodity chains extending from Lao

PDR to Europe and North America (Esterik 2006). In this section I will discuss the individual

and collective involvement in the hybrid nature of growing traditional foods, collecting

traditional foods and cooking traditional foods.

Growing Traditional Food

The agriculture which is continuing to emerge on the Tohono O'odham Nation is a

hybrid of two past agriculture which had previously dominated the landscape. Whereas the

sustainable utilization of floodwater fields has subsided over the last century to mere remnants,

due in part because of the decrease in rainfall that many Tohono O'odham believe is happening










within the Nation64 and the creation and management of water diversion. At the same time the

industrial approaches to agriculture have also withered in some areas from the desert's heat.

What is emerging from the Tohono O'odham Nation is a hybrid agriculture which combines

elements of both industrial and sustainable agriculture. To return to the previously mentioned

characteristics of industrial and sustainable agriculture (Chapter 3) we can see that contemporary

Tohono O'odham agriculture combines elements of what have historically been regarded as two

discrete approaches to food production.

According to the TOCA and SXCF both of their farms operate organically, without

pesticides or fertilizers, although neither has formally sought organic certification status. The

products are marketed as being produced by the Tohono O'odham, hence it is likely that this is

designation is enough to ensure that these products are purchased at a premium equal to if not

greater than that of the price premium that organic products receive. If the pricing at Heritage

Foods USA is an indication then this is surely the case, although more systematic research is

needed on Native American foods consumption.65 Their Hields would be considered relatively

small by today's standards with one of the largest Hields of traditional foods being 60 acres of

tepary beans at TOCA' s farm. The maj ority of acreage at the SXCF is dedicated to alfalfa with

much smaller parcels in traditional foods. Another feature of the farms is the heavy reliance on

external resources: fuel for farm equipment and water pumps. Both farming operations are also

reliant on unsustainable water resources.

There are mere traces remaining of the floodwater farming agricultural food system due

not only to acculturation and an increase in wage earning, particularly working with cotton

64 Individuals with whom I spoke offered a variety of explanations for this including shifts in climate at the local and
global levels.
65 Although this may be difficult as my attempt to attain information on sales figures from Heritage Foods USA was
denied.









which conflicted with cultivation in their own fields, but also in part to shifting hydrologic

conditions on the Tohono O'odham Nation and the limited economic revenue potential of such

operations. In 2001 TOCA was active in floodwater farming. However, once TOCA began to

operate Papago Farms the focus began to shift from producing traditional foods in a traditional

way to the utilization of larger scale operations and external resources in order to produce larger

quantities of foods. The increased production of tepary beans and the forthcoming decrease in

price of tepary beans makes it unlikely that floodwater farming agriculture will regain a strong

foothold within the Nation. There are a few active farmers who still utilize floodwaters as their

primary means of irrigation; I was unable to locate any of the farmers over the course of this

research. The increased production of traditional foods and their increased availability at an

affordable price may also decrease an individual's decision to begin gardening, particularly for

those whose interest in gardening derives from a desire to eat more traditional foods.

TOCA and TOCC (2002) found that 1 1% of the population was engaged in gardening.

This research finds that the percentage involved in food production to also be 11% or about 5

individuals. The majority of food producers were male and from San Lucy. Respondents from

all three age groups indicated that they are currently growing traditional foods. It is also

important to mention that of those respondents who indicated are not currently gardening 20

mentioned that they had grown foods in the past. This indicates that approximately half of the

population has been involved with growing foods at some point in their lives. The story Peggie,

a middle age women from Baboquivari, shares typifies the experience of many middle age

individuals that I spoke with. Peggy was involved in the growing of traditional foods at a young

age on her relative's land. A smile came to her face when she fondly recalled the memory of

taking a break from work to enj oy a snack:









Where I lived at where I was born my uncle was living there with his family and he did a
lot of planting he had his own fields I'd say like maybe a quarter of a mile from their
house they found an area that was close to water like wash you know during the rainy
seasons they'd be able to detour the water to the field. They'd go out and he'd do the -
he' d do the planting of the tepary beans, pinto beans, he would do that too of course
sugar cane and watermelon too and my cousin and, I, we helped out in the fields. We
would go out chop weeds get rid of the weeds and of course we would end up in the
sugar cane patch and the watermelon patch and feast on those for a while

For many youth of today an uncle's or grandfather' s floodwater field simply does not

exist, yet some young adults recall working with an older relative in a garden. Regina, a young

adult in San Lucy, remembers working with her grandfather in his garden and expresses dismay

that the opportunities to garden are not as widespread in the San Lucy District:

I would watch my grandfather and sometimes I would get interested and them help him
out. We had squash, tomato, cucumbers, watermelon, cantaloupe and onions in that
garden. You cannot plant anything now the soil will not work my grandfather is the
one that used to do the planting. Everybody (has forgotten) about the traditional ways I
wish it would just come back. It' s not like it is up there on the main reservation.

Despite the likely scenario of increased elements of industrial agricultural production,

involving fewer individuals who are intimately working with the earth and people to produce

foods, the desert still offers non-cultivated pre-Contact food resources which need to be harvest

by hand.

Collecting Traditional Food

Tohono O'odham individuals and organizations look to the saguaro cactus each June as

its fruits begin to ripen. Despite large collection camps, such as the one at Papago Farms,

sponsored by TOCA where over 100 people gather for the last weekend in June, the supply of

saguaro cactus fruit products is still relatively limited within the Nation. The limited quantities

of saguaro cactus fruit products and the labor intensive nature of picking and processing the

fruits means that the price will likely remain high in the future. If individual families rely on this

collection by non-family members it is unlikely that they will consume large amounts of the










traditional foods collected from the desert. This is due, in part, to the increased cost of these

foods as they are sold in distant markets (See Chapter 3). Thus the desire to eat these foods on a

regular basis will likely be met through collection and processing by individual families.

TOCA and TOCC (2002) found that majority of Tohono O'odham do not participate

regularly in traditional foods collection. Only 6% of the population was engaged in collecting

often in the last year with 26% collected traditional foods "sometimes," 34% "rarely," and 33%

"never." The maj or barriers to collection were not having the time to collect the foods and a lack

of knowledge on how, when and where to collect traditional foods (TOCA and TOCC 2002).

My research found lower rates of participation than TOCA and TOCC (2002).

Traditional foods are collected by 25% of the population. Males and females both engage

equally in traditional foods collection. Collection varied by age with one young adult, eight

middle age and three elders currently involved in collection. Collection also varied by district

with individuals from the San Lucy District less likely to collect traditional foods.66 Foods that

were recently collected included saguaro (bahidaj), cholla buds, prickly-pear cactus, organ pipe

cactus, wild spinach and hunting for animals. Most Tohono O'odham have collected traditional

foods at some point in their lives. Only five women reported that they had never participated in

the collection of traditional foods.





66There are two plausible reasons for the relatively low rates of participation in traditional food collection by San
Lucy members. First, internalized acculturation wherein individuals from the San Lucy District often referred to
themselves as 'urb~ans,' 'Indians,' or 'Urban Indians' and the rest of the Nation as the 'main reservation' or the
'reservation.' Another reason that individuals mentioned for the current lack of traditional food collection in the San
Lucy District is the contamination of lands, particularly with the 1993 breach of the Gillespie Dam. It is important
to note that this left not only contamination not only in the physical sense but also emotionally with the destruction
of graveyards and the scattering of bodies over the area as well.










Historical records indicate there is a vast untapped potential for saguaro harvesting

(Lewis 1994: 150-51). In the 1930s, at a time of drought in the Sonoran desert, 450,000 pounds

of saguaro fruit were harvested; most of this was utilized to produce saguaro wine (tiswin) at a

time when Tohono O'odham were being warned and arrested for the production of tiswin (Lewis

1994: 150-51). The production and ritual consumption of tiswin during this era could be read as

an act of resistance as much as a continuity of cultural form and offered hope for future rains and

harvests to the Tohono O'odham.

Cooking Traditional Foods

The hybrid nature of agriculture continues into the realm of cuisine. The Tohono O'odham

were exposed to a series of new foods with the arrival of the Spanish and again with the arrival

of the US. Commodity food programs and boarding schools sponsored and encouraged by the

US government have, for better or worse left indelible marks on what it means to eat like a

Tohono O'odham (See Chapter 4). Fry bread, the quintessential example of a recently

introduced and integrated food amongst Native Americans, is eaten by most of my informants on

a regular basis and. Many people, however, are still unwilling to consider fry bread to be a

traditional food.67 The variety of foods available on the Nation through the supermarket, trading

posts, gas stations, restaurants and food vendors offer the potential to eat like a Tohono

O'odham. As indicated in Chapter 4, contemporary Tohono O'odham cuisine is an

amalgamation of many intersecting cultures, cuisines and time periods. Variety is important for



67 It is interesting to notes that despite this regular consumption of fry bread many who acknowledged fry bread as a
traditional food reflexively engaged themselves in order to make this determination. At the same time other
informants indicated that for some Tohono O'odham bologna sandwiches as well as potato salad would be
considered to be traditional foods. I accepted all answers that I received and did not attempt to construct categories
such as "traditional traditional" or "contemporary traditional" for my respondents as I wanted only categories that
respondents felt it necessary to explain will producing a list of what foods they considered to be traditional.
Therefore some individuals may have had a variety of potential categories within which to place traditional foods
that they mentioned that I purposely did not explore in this research (See Chapter 4)










many who would enj oy eating more traditional foods while at the same time have opportunities

to eat a diversity of foods. According to Charles, a middle age man from Gu Achi District, there

is a balance between eating both 'modem' and 'traditional' foods:

You get tired of eating modern foods well I do at least, so sometimes I'll grab something
different and the traditional foods in the same token you get tired of eating traditional
foods too and then you want to get something more contemporary.

Given that the original land base of the Tohono O'odham bridges the U. S.-Mexico border

and the early contact with the Spanish and Mexicans there are strong elements of Sonoran

(northwestern Mexican) cuisine for many of the Tohono O'odham that I interviewed. Many

Tohono O'odham consider these foods to be traditional foods. At the same time the influence of

fast food restaurants and proximity to grocery stores, particularly in Gila Bend has resulted in the

belief of some informants that industrially produced and prepared foods are traditional in nature.

Some drew distinctions reserving for things such as the tepary bean and saguaro fruit as being

the 'traditional, traditional food'. Although there has been a net increase in the number of these

traditional foods being produced on the Tohono O'odham Nation, notably tepary beans, this has

not lead to an increase in consumption by many families and individuals that I interviewed. The

marketing mentioned in Chapter 3 diverts traditional food products off of the Tohono O'odham

Nation, well away from the reach of those whose grandparents harvested and ate these desert

foods and whose ancestors adapted to the unique biota of this region while at the same time

claiming to save these foods. It is at the same time used to make 'yuppie food' at internationally

acclaimed five star resorts while in its less adulterated form allows for the opportunity to 'go

native' (Crowe 2007; Aurier, Fort and Sirieix 2005). The promotion of traditional foods both

inside and outside of the Tohono O'odham Nation has included newspaper articles and cooking

classes which introduce modem twists to traditional foods.









Many of the individuals I spoke with drew connections between commodity and other

convenience foods and alcohol and drugs in that they are all substances that the white people

have brought and with these a litany of diseases which have compromised the health of Native

Americans as individuals and communities. Others accepted commodity foods either directly or

indirectly as being a part of Tohono O'odham traditional foods. Regardless, community

organizations and governmental entities which focus on health, culture and agriculture will need

to consider that many Tohono O'odham believe in multiple levels of traditional foods and that

the cuisine continues to change incorporating a variety of foods from the multiple contacts that

the Tohono O'odham have had and continue to have with outsiders.

This has been acknowledged to an extent in the efforts of TOCA which continues to

promote traditional fusion or hybrid traditional dishes which combine traditional foods with

other 'healthy food' to prepare convenient and healthy meals such as chia raspberry smoothies

and spinach salad with cholla buds and pineapple. These hybrid forms of food are for some

Tohono O'odham a way to transition from contemporary to more traditional ways of not only

eating but also of being. None of the individuals that I spoke with mentioned these traditional

fusion or hybrid traditional dishes as being traditional in nature. However, their constituent parts

are certainly considered to be traditional foods by many of Tohono O'odham that I interviewed.

TOCA and TOCC(2002) found that most Tohono O'odham had minimal knowledge of

cooking traditional foods as most respondents (89%) indicated that they knew how to cook only

"a few," "one or two" or no traditional foods. The advantage of providing a pre-determined list

of traditional foods, as done by TOCA and TOCC(2002), is that it allows for more definitive

statements to be made regarding cooking of a particular group of pre-Contact and post-Spanish

traditional foods. As highlighted above, my research demonstrates contemporary Tohono









O'odham understandings of traditional foods extend beyond pre-Contact and Spanish influence

to include more contemporary traditional foods. This research found that 74% of individuals are

currently involved in cooking traditional foods. The largest difference between population

subsets was between men and women. 86% of women reported cooking traditional foods while

only 50% of men reported cooking traditional foods. There were slightly lower cooking rates for

middle age individuals due to work commitments.

Hope

I have my mother she is like 75 and she's teaching us, still a lot about traditions and
especially how to discipline ourselves and my grandchildren look up to us as grandmas and
grandpas and yet the times before you know elders, you could tell they were elder. Right
now it seems like the times have really changed where the elders are not as old as you
know they should be. But, but I understand in many ways that if you don't take care of
yourself it' s going to deteriorate your health and it' s going to show your age and all that
stuff even though some people at our age it' s there they're already disabled and not in
good health so for me that' s my way of telling my family, my kids that we need to take
care of our self and especially eating right, exercising you know just being with people that
communicate and maybe get support and encouragement from [them] (Shelly, middle age
female Gu Achi)

Despite what appears like a decrease in the number of elders overall, and declining health

of many as they age, Shelly connects with tradition and maintains the continuity through her

mother who is still actively teaching both her and her children. She knows that there is hope for

her family's health and a support network to accomplish this. She makes her family aware of the

risks of not taking care of the self through "eating right (and) exercising". Health, for Shelly, can

be achieved with the resources available and is a matter of disciplining the self through a

regiment of diet and exercise as well as offering mutual encouragement to one another.

When individuals were asked what work could be done within the Nation to promote

traditional foods many stressed the importance of education, particularly between the elders and

younger generations, either through programs such as HOPP, TOCA or Indian Health Services

or through interfamilial transmission of cultural information including traditional foods. Some









stated that while programs were available within the Nation to assist with knowledge of

traditional food attainment and preparation the impetus needed to come from the family to

encourage youth to at least "try it." According to a Leslie, an elder woman in the San Lucy

District, families need to strongly encourage and perhaps force participation in traditional food

collection, particularly for younger family members who have become too accustomed to the

ease of food procurement in the grocery store economy. At the same time she notes her own

reluctance to participate in traditional foods collection when she was a child. She mentions the

challenges of traditional foods collection and the lessons learned by participating in bahidaj

collection as a youth. Leslie believes that the responsibility for pushing youth to participate in

traditional food collection activities and away from the TV is the responsibility of the family.

She suggests that families should seek out knowledge concerning traditional food collection

through organizations such as TOCA. She speaks passionately about her involvement with

traditional foods:

Well I I don't think it should be a group I would think that if the people in the Nation
truly believed that the foods they used to eat it is much better for them they have to make a
personal choice of getting out there if they don't know how to, how to or how to cook
certain things then they need to find out and there are certain groups in Sells like TOCA
that can teach them how to do all that stuff and then the responsibility is on them to get
their families involved, get their families away from their TVs and get them out there in
the desert and start doing the things that there elders used to do. I know it' s very difficult -
I had two nieces and a granddaughter [in their] teens that I took out...there' s a bunch of us
that I had taken out to [a village] one year. The looks on their faces, that they didn't want
to do it, the mumblings I heard from them. I just ignore it, I just told them to get out and
do it they went out and do it they didn't like it they haven't been back but at least
they have the experience of doing it. Hopefully one of these years when they come to their
right senses they'll get out and do it. But at least they have the experience. I, as a kid
growing up, hated it because you were out in the middle of the desert and you carried
buckets and you have to carry those buckets full, they used to, she used to, depending on
how big you were was how big your bucket was. There was a big bucket to the little
bucket, the little larger tin bucket, those were my buckets. They used to fill them, pull
down the saguaro [then] you fill up the buckets. You walk home. You are supposed to
walk in a certain way, not you know- you are supposed to walk in a certain way I was
angry and I didn't want to do it but the thing of it was that the more I misbehaved the more










I spilled the more times I had to stop and fill my bucket, so it took longer, it was hotter
because of my behavior and somewhere along the line it taught you patience, it took a long
time for patience for me to learn patience but I realized all that was learning experience for
me, also not only learning how to do things but also trying to preserve or protect all that,
all the work.

The most frequent answer given by respondents to the question, "What work would you

like to see be done to promote traditional foods and who would be the best people to do this

work?" was that more educational efforts need to be made on the Nation. Educational efforts

that individuals would like to see more of include getting information on gardening, cooking and

collecting traditional foods. There was also a strong desire expressed by many individuals to see

foods more consistently available in multiple venues, particularly stores for purchase or

alternatively vendors who would come to the village and regularly sell traditional foods. Others

expressed a desire to have an increase in collection and food production within a particular

district and community through an increase in food collection groups, gardens or farms.

Responses to the question: "What work would you like to see be done to promote traditional

foods within the Nation?" are summarized in Table 5-12.

The Einal words of this chapter are of a Tohono O'odham woman who has worked to

promote her culture both for her own people and others. In her statements we can see the hope

of the future and the promise of organizations that are working within the Tohono O'odham

Nation to deal with a number of health and other issues as well as the potential that the future of

food and culture. The story of traditional food resurgence will continue to unfold with each of

the overlapping seasons and this will be 'written' by those who continue to believe in the past to

save the future. This research on local efforts to develop a food system based on culture and

tradition utilizing a variety of technologies and products, or traditional food security which

connects people, specifically the Tohono O'odham, with place and with one another serves as a

model for other communities in the United States and throughout the world. The United States









must act in light of more inclusive and multi-dimensional aspects of food security as the Tohono

O'odham continue to work so that issues of food can be connected through a food security

framework wherein diseases of affluence, such as type 2 diabetes can be addressed. When I

asked Sally about her thoughts on traditional fusion or hybrid traditional foods she laid out a

transformative vision of remembering the past to create a bioregional future,

...our young people have already moved so far towards this end of the spectrum that in
order to transition backwards they would have to have a little bit of that mixed in, in order
to acquire that taste you know where I came from where it was just solely that, not mixed
with anything but just cooked and when you think about it it was pretty...bland, but yet it
was good and you know I still think about it that way. When they mix it with other things
it is kind of weird for me because I remember when it was just the cholla buds cooked in,
with onions and with the juices and that' s and people say that it' s really bland but I still
like it, and so it just depends. So that is, that mixing the new in with the old is kind of like
transitioning them back, backwards to maybe a point where they will...acquire that taste
and with the information that they learn that they will get to a point where they will use it
and that' s what you want them to do, for them to use it and for it to become a part of them,
part of their lifestyle. But it' s hard because when in working with young people and we
were doing all these things, maybe native foods you know the culture all the parts of our
culture, it's like they don't like it but, I have to tell you about this experience we had this
event way out in the middle of nowhere at the traditional homelands of the people that are
in...Hickiwan...it was an old village and nobody lives there anymore it' s way out there
and the road to get there is really, really rough and only trucks and vans can go through.
We had a camp there for I think it was three days. Yeah. And all we did out there was
traditional [things], we had traditional games, we had stories with kind of a setting where it
would be typically of a [village] setting way back and there as no soda no of these other
kinds of foods and no radios, no nothing it was just living, being a part of the desert. And
the students that went just really thought that it was the best, and they had time to talk and
it was families that were invited but they had time to talk as a family you know they had
time to do things together like it was in the past and I think that' s why we had such
cohesive family units and then from there you had a cohesive community [with] that it.
And so we provided that experience and we thought and it' s so far away that they couldn't
leave anyway, a lot of the vans or trucks had to bring them back, but they loved it and we
had this elder that went with us and she was just good at interacting with the students [that]
we had. I believe we had somewhere between 200 or 300 people there we were like a
little village for three days and it was exciting. It was so good and people didn't want it to
end. And I think that it was just so tranquil you know it was just such peace and
everybody was, felt that balance, they felt that spiritualness. They felt all these things that
I remember as a child being in the village and being with family and everybody was right
and they went to do chores and stuff but they came right back. That' s the nicest...nicest
moment I guess that I like to reminisce back to because it was so peaceful, it was calm, it
was you could feel that closeness you could fell that love that existed among everybody









and so I guess like doing those kinds of things is another transitional way of getting them
to experience to move back to that balance I guess. That was really... a neat experience
and you know because I've experienced it and I watch things and I just observe people and
I can just feel with them what they're feeling and it' s just amazing, it' s really amazing and
I was really happy with they way they turned out. And we did that with TOCA.












Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.109 6 .060
Likelihood Ratio 11.842 6 .066
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.037 1 .309
N of Valid Cases
62


Table 5-2. Cross tabulation of reasons why traditional foods are consumed by age.
Middle Young
Elder Age Adult Total
Reason Health Count 8 14 2 24


Table 5-1. Chi-sqluare of age and reasons why traditional foods are consumed.


Expected
Count
% within
Reason
Count

Expected
Count
% within
Reason
Count

Expected
Count
% within
Reason
Count
Expected
Count
% within
Reason
Count
Expected
Count
% within
Reason


14.7 3.1 24.0


33% 58% 8%


100.0%


None Can't/don't
eat





Food quality for
self and others





To Keep tradition


1

.8

33%

2

2.6


02 3

1.8 .4 3.0

.0% 67% 100.0%


6.1 1.3 10.0


20% 80% .0% 100.0%


16 4 25

15.3 3.2 25.0


20% 64% 16.0% 100.0%

16 38 8 62


Total


16.0 38.0 8.0


62.0


26% 61% 13% 100.0%









Table 5-3. Responses to the question, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" (summarized
coded responses sorted by difference between elder and young adult (YA)
percentage).
Nation Nation Elder Elder YA YA
Reason Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Elder YA %
Health 24 57 8 80 2 33 47
Food Quality for Self and
Others (not health) 10 24 2 20 0 0 20
To keep tradition 25 60 5 50 4 67 -17
None can't/don't eat 3 7 1 10 2 33 -23

Table 5-4. Responses to the question, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" (summarized
coded responses sorted by difference between middle age (MA) and young adult
(YA) percentage).
Nation Nation MA MA YA
Reason Freq. % Freq. % Freq. YA % MA YA %
Health 24 57 14 54 2 33 21
None can't/don't eat 3 7 0 0 2 33 -33
Food Quality for Self and
Others (not health) 10 24 8 31 0 0 31
To keep tradition 25 60 16 62 4 67 -5

Table 5-5. Responses to the question, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" (summarized
coded responses sorted by difference between elder and middle age (MA)
percentage).
Nation Nation Elder Elder MA MA
Reason Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Elder MA %
Health 24 57 8 80 14 54 26
None can't/don't eat 3 7 1 10 0 0 10
Food Quality for Self and
Others (not health) 10 24 2 20 8 31 -11
To keep tradition 25 60 5 50 16 62 -12











20- Age
Elder
Middle Age
[] Young Adult



















Health None Can't/don't Food quality for self To Keep tradition
eat and others
Reason

Figure 5-1. Reasons why traditional foods are consumed by age.

Table 5-6. Chi-square of gender and traditional foods consumption.

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-
3.583 3 .310
Square
Likelihood Ratio 4.537 3 .209
Linear-by-Linear
.541 1 .462
Association
N of Valid Cases
62










Table 5-7. Cross tabulation of reasons why traditional foods are consumed by gender.
Male Female Total
Reason Health Count 10 14 24
Expected
8.5 15.5 24.0


Count
% within
Reason
Count

Expected
Count
% within
Reason
Count

Expected
Count
% within
Reason
Count
Expected
Count
% within
Reason
Count
Expected
Count
% within
Reason


42%


58% 100%


None Can't/don't
eat





Food quality for
self and others


0% 100% 100%


3.5

50%

7

8.9

28%

22

22.0

36%


10.0


50% 100%


To Keep tradition


18

16.1


25

25.0


72% 100%


Total


40

40.0


62

62.0


65% 100%


Table 5-8. Responses to the question, "Why do you consume traditional foods?" (summarized
coded responses sorted by difference between males and female percentage).
Nation Nation Male Male Female Female Males % -
Reason Freq. % Freq % Freq. % Females %
Health 24 57 10 77 14 48 29


Food Quality for Self
and Others (not health)
To keep tradition
None can't/don't eat


5 17











20- Gender
g Male
g Female








O10











Health None Can't/don't Food quality for self To Keep tradition
eat and others
Reason

Figure 5-2. Reasons why traditional foods are consumed by gender.

Table 5-9. Chi-square of district and traditional foods consumption.

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.659 3 .199
Likelihood Ratio 5.705 3 .127
Linear-by-Linear 2021.5
Association
N of Valid Cases
62









































Table 5-11. Responses to the question, "What are the limiting factors in getting traditional
foods?" (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between San Lucy (SL)
and Non-SL percentage).
Non-
Nation Nation SL SL SL Non-
Reason Freq. % Freq. % Freq. SL % SL Non SL %
To keep tradition 25 60 17 65 8 50 15
None can't/don't eat 3 7 3 12 0 0 12
Food Quality for Self
and Others (not health) 10 24 6 23 4 25 -2
Health 24 57 11 42 13 81 -39


Table 5-10. Cross tabulation of reasons why traditional foods are consumed by district.


San
Luc
11
14.3

46%


Non San
Lucy
13
9.7

54%


Total
24
24.0

100%


Reasons Health




None Can't/don't
eat




Food quality for
self and others




To Keep tradition


Count
Expected Count
% within
Reasons
Count

Expected Count
% within
Reasons
Count

Expected Count
% within
Reasons
Count
Expected Count
% within
Reasons
Count
Expected Count
% within
Reasons


1.8

100%

6

6.0

60%

17
14.9

68%

37
37.0

60%


1.2

0%

4

4.0

40%

8
10.1

32%

25
25.0

40%


3.0

100%

10

10.0

100%

25
25.0

100%

62
62.0

100.0%


Total










20-




15-




O 10-




5-


0


i I
None Can't/don't Food quality for self To Keep tradition
eat and others


Health


Reasons

Figure 5-3. Reasons why traditional foods are consumed by district.


Table 5-12. Responses to question, "What can be done to promote traditional foods?" for San
Lucy District and Nation as a whole.


Efforts to Be Made
Educational efforts
Get gathering groups together
Have more to buy (stores, vendors,
cafeterias)
Family/individual choice
More farms
More gardens
No response/question
Speak O'odham
Political and Spiritual Leaders Work to
Promote
More water available
Youth active


San Lucy
22 (71%)
4 (13%)
10 (32%)

3 (10%)
9 (29%)
10 (32%)
3 (10%)
0 (0%)
5 (16%)

1 (3%)
1 (3%)


Nation
31 (65%)
6 (13%)
11 (23%)

9 (19%)>
9 (19%)>
14 (29%)
4 (8%)
1 (2%)
7 (15%)

1 (2%)
1 (2%)


Region
San Lucy
Non San Lucy









CHAPTER 6
FOOD SECURITY'S FUTURE

This research explored dimensions of Tohono O'odham traditional food security

including (1) Contemporary Tohono O'odham recognize a variety of foods as traditional, from

foods that they Tohono O'odham consumed pre-Contact to more recently introduced foods from

the Spanish-Mexican and US eras. The domain of traditional foods is shifting to include fewer

foods from the pre-Contact era to more foods from the post-Contact era. (2) There is an unmet

demand for traditional foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation coupled with declines in

consumption rates of traditional foods over the course of respondent' s lifetime. (3) There are a

number of factors which limit consumption of traditional foods, especially a lack of availability

and a lack of convenience. (4) Tohono O'odham view traditional foods as intimately connected

with their well-being in terms of both physical health and cultural maintenance. (5) Current rates

of individual and family involvement in traditional food collection and production are low,

although SXCF and TOCA are both working to ensure a more readily available supply.

This final chapter will build on the previous chapters to suggest a shift in the US food

security policy to consider primarily qualitative aspects of food production rather than

quantitative aspects of food production. This shift would allow for a more systematic approach

to qualitative aspects of food security. This shift would assist in the mitigation community

degradation and diseases of affluence.68 On the Tohono O'odham Nation the efforts of HOPP,

NS/S, TOCA and SXCF have at the very minimum created a sense of hope on the Tohono

O'odham Nation (See Chapter 5). TOCA, SXCF, and NS/S have increased the supply of

68By eliminating many of the price supports that make the excess production of grains and low costs of grain
possible, their subsequent use in food production would decline. Comn is typically grown in the US through massive
price supports. A product derived from comn, high fructose comn syrup has replaced sugar because of its lower costs.
Elliott et al. (2002) have suggested a link between high fructose comn syrup consumption and obesity. The link
between obesity and diseases of affluence is well-established (See Chapter 2).









traditional foods. However more systematic, programmatic and legal acceptance of traditional

food security would allow for greater access to and availability of traditional foods, greater

autonomy for individual communities and the potential for reversal of trends of increased

incidence of type 2 diabetes, gang activity and substance abuse.

Paradigms of Food Security

Food security has been addressed by multiple institutions -- non-governmental

organizations, governmental organization, intergovernmental organizations and multi-lateral

organizations. The definitions of food security have mostly focused on bringing the proper

quantity of food into the home (See Chapter 1). Still more coarse grain approaches in

'developing countries' call for a measurement of variables which are only peripheral to actual

food security of individual households (Coates et al. 2006). The recent debates surrounding the

newest version of the US Farm Bill highlight the increased concern over the role of government

policies in maintaining health of individuals and ecosystems.

This research is an example of how anthropologists can engage the community initiatives

of Native Americans which are working towards the reintroduction of traditional foods as a part

of cultural revitalization programs. Anthropologists can make valuable contributions to not only

understanding these social movements of revitalization in context but also establish the

connections between agricultural policy and community health. Anthropologists may also be

effective in disseminating more information to policy makers on the current state of traditional

food security and the development of effective measures of food security for indigenous

communities. This should be done not only to promote the health within these communities by

addressing health, disease and wellness disparities in the US but also to realign food systems to

address the economic, social and environmental causes and effects of diseases of affluence.

Based on this research, I list measures of traditional food security on the Tohono O'odham









Nation and policy suggestions below. Traditional food security, an extension of the community

food security concept, draws on the rich history of indigenous peoples' interactions with the

landscape. The Tohono O'odham view food as intimately connected not only with identity but

also health and well-being. Acts of procurement, preparation and sharing of traditional foods

amongst the Tohono O'odham are moments of intimacy with the human and the non-human

worlds.

Traditional Food Security on the Tohono O'odham Nation

This research has shown that for the Tohono O'odham Nation traditional food security

would be present if all of the following conditions were true

* Availability of not only local and healthy foods but also traditional foods which enhance
the overall health and well being of individuals and communities.
* Revitalization, redevelopment and maintenance of traditional farming systems (in the
case of the Tohono O'odham this would be floodwater farming including ak chin farming) to
serve as sites of interaction of individuals with their environmental companions.
* Enhancement and spread of household and community knowledge concerning traditional
foods, including the knowledge of where to find these foods and how to prepare them.
* Adequate time or financial resources available to engage in procurement and preparation
of traditional foods, at the household and community levels.
* Equivalence of desired consumption of traditional foods and actual consumption of
traditional foods.

Tohono O'odham Nation Policy Recommendations

Tohono O'odham challenges to and opportunities for creating traditional food security

stem from their unique history, geography and political positioning. Vast lands, CAP water and

a steady stream of casino revenues offer opportunities for further revitalization of traditional

foods. Challenges include a lack of infrastructure including a widely available and reliable water

supply for farming, violence, substance abuse and the current state of the U. S.-Mexico border.

These are challenges that the Nation, districts, families and individuals must confront in

addressing traditional food security.









Although traditional food security can certainly be promoted through the implementation

of federal policies as outlined below, there is also action that the Tohono O'odham Nation can

take in order to begin to develop traditional food security. The following are opportunities that

may be taken to enhance the traditional food security of the Nation including

1. Encourage the formalization of a youth program focused on traditional food production,

collection and cooking. This would build on work that is already being done by the

schools on the Tohono O'odham Nation.

2. Encourage the growing of traditional foods in each of the Nation' s districts through the

development of a fund to establish and maintain a growing coordinator in each district.

3. Allow collection rights for traditional foods across district boundaries, particularly when

it involves youth or elder collection of traditional foods for subsistence. In order for this

to be acceptable it would have to be arranged at the district level and each district would

have to agree to let Tohono O'odham from other districts access to traditional foods.

4. Develop markets for traditional foods. This could be done through subsidizing the

purchase of these foods by the Nation for lower income individuals who would otherwise

be unable to purchase traditional foods. Funds to subsidize the purchase of these foods

could be allocated from the casino revenues. The Nation could purchase these foods and

pay retailers to sell these foods in close proximity to where residents live so that the

retailers would be compensated for the shelf space they allocate for traditional foods.

Alternatively the Nation could subsidize vendors to regularly visit districts such as the

San Lucy District which do not always have a ready supply of a variety of traditional

foods. This would build on the efforts of the San Xavier Cooperative Farm which on

occasion sells their foods in San Lucy District.









5. The aforementioned sale of traditional foods could be coupled with cooking and

collecting classes and demonstrations.

6. Districts could develop collection groups and provide transportation to these groups so

individuals who would otherwise not collect would have the opportunity to collect

traditional foods with a group of people. This would alleviate concerns some respondents

had about safety as well as transportation and distance.

7. Consider commercialization of traditional foods as a potential source of income once the

created markets within the Nation have been fully supplied. This could include the

development of high quality prepared traditional foods designed for both O'odham and

non-O'odham individuals. Tohono O'odham traditional foods are already being utilized

in world class spas in the region and there remains an as yet untapped potential in income

generation from the commercialization of these foods. However care must be taken to

ensure that low-income O'odham are not priced out of the market and that nutritional

quality is retained.

8. Consider allowing additional research to be done on traditional food security and the

efficacy of traditional foods consumption in addressing type 2 diabetes, to build on

research that has already been done by this researcher as well as TOCA and TOCC.

9. Negotiate agreements to allow O'odham greater access to gathering traditional desert

foods on adjacent government-managed lands.

These policy recommendations, if implemented, would likely lead to greater traditional

food security for Tohono O'odham individuals by enhancing availability of and access to

traditional foods, providing educational opportunities for the collection, growing and preparation

of traditional foods.









US Policy Recommendations to Promote Traditional Food Security

A shift towards a food security framework in the United States would pave the way for

other policy shifts which would promote the health of not only Native American Nations but also

other rural communities and improperly nourished populations. Policy recommendations which

would support and advance traditional food security include:

1. Restructure the US Farm Bill to shift away from mass production of commodities to a

qualitative approach to food security including traditional food security which promotes

health and community.

2. Increase funding to institutional cafeterias to allow for on-site food production. This will

allow traditional and local foods to be incorporated into meals (adapted from Jagodinsky

et al. 2006).

3. Include locally grown foods (including Tohono O'odham traditional foods) in federal

food programs. This will allow low-income families the opportunity to access traditional

foods, support local growers and the local economy (adapted from Jagodinsky et al.

2006).

4. Grant US citizenship for all Tohono O'odham and allow for the free flow of O'odham

peoples across the US-Mexico international border so that cultural and social ties and

traditions can be maintained.

5. Increase and provide systematic funding at the national level to Native Americans to fund

traditional food projects. Currently this funding is sporadic and requires tribal entities to

compete with other communities at risk of dietary diseases such as type 2 diabetes for a

relatively meager pool of resources relative to overall US food security funding.

Much work has already been done by Native American communities towards restoring

their traditional food systems, including the Tohono O'odham, Zuni, Hopi, Navajo, Anishinaabe









and others. See Buseck (2002) and LaDuke and Alexander (2005) for projects and contact

information regarding revitalization efforts of traditional foods and food systems amongst Native

Americans. These current efforts and new initiatives will be fostered through a paradigm shift in

US food security policy. This shift would allow for acceptance of the aforementioned policy

recommendations. It will assist not only the Tohono O'odham but other Native American

groups and other communities in developing their own initiatives to deal with issues of cultural

degradation, violence and diseases of affluence.











APPENDIX A
RESEARCH APPROVAL DOCUMENTS

INFOR~MED CONSENT FORMv

Sy signTing below i allow the researcher, David Fazzir~o, a graduate student: at the
University of Florida in Gain~esville, ~Florida permission to (1) interviewv me. (2) make a
digital audior rec~ording of the interview and (3) uLtilize the ~informaon given in the
interview.

I may choose to r~efain ~fromn answe~~ring any quesr ions that make me uncomfortable in any
way. (Y~ou do nor have to anSwer anty qUestion you do nlot wishz to answer.) Furher, I
azn ~free to withdraw may ~consent: and to discontinue participation in the interview at any
time without coanseqluence. There are no direct risks to me for partic~saipating in this study.

I wTill receive a $20 g- cift crtiiae to utrilize at a local store as a bene~fit ofm~y
participation in this research. Intenriew timeP wiR~U vary between 30 minutes and 90
minutes.

David Fazzmo will not release the digital recording of the inteview to anyrone. D~avid
Fazzmow will conduct the transcript (wrhiti out the words spoken during the
interview) himself and that at no time will anyone else have access to the information.
After the transcr orion has been co~mpl~eted the digital recording will be deleted. The
intforrarti~on I give that is utiized by the researche fr~ wil be ttrbuted to mre uzsizz the
descriptive infozznation I have are~ed upn.. The researcher will ask me at the end of the
interview hfow he can actribue ~t~he information to me (brough use of my name or
descibing characteristics). XIy idemp.i will be kept confidential to the extent provided
by law.,

If I have any questions about the research I may contact the researcher, David Fazzino
(dfa-arnoT~uttedu) or the project supervisor, Pant Euiaguarella (magnareT~u~.flded. at:
Department of .4nthooolop.Unit~aversijty of Florida Turlinton HalL Roorn I 112 ; PO
1173 05; Gaine~sville, IFL 32611-73D. Phone:I 3 j52. 392-2253. If I have qucestiorns or
concerns abou r my rights as a research participant, I can ask the: UFIRB Otlice (Box
1 12250, University of Florida, Gainesvdle FL 32611--2250 or by email at TIRB2@uil edu )



I have read the procedure described above. I agree to Iparticipate In the procedure
and I have received a copy of this descrip-tion.



Signatulres of Participant 5tgnzzd On (MNI;LDI~rT')



Signazure of Pr-tcipal Inestigator Signed On (MMI~ TODAT"I~

Aqpproed iBy
University of Florida
In*Mitutional Review B3oard 02
Protocol & 200+-U-0976i
IFor uJse ruq 1({20











ii UNIVERSITY OF

SFLORIDA

Institutional Review Board 98A Psychology Bldg.
PO Box 112250
Gainesvilic, FL 326 L1-2250
Phone: (352) 392-0433
Fax: (352) 392-9234
E-mail: irb2@ufl.edu
http//rgp.uf1.edulirb/irb02
DATE: December 2, 2004

TO: David Fazzino
2631 N. Tucson Blvd.
Tucson, AZ 85716

FROM: Ira S. Fischler, Ph.D., ChairiNk
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02

SUB3ECT: Approval of Protocol #2004-U-976

TITE: Tohono O'odham T~raditional Fboos: Conservation and Ul~ization of Seeds as Sourcs of
Identity, M~eaning, Health and Culture

SPONSOR: Unfunded


I am pleased to advise you that the University of Florida Institutional Review Board has recommended
approval of this protocol. Based on its review, the tJFIRB determined that this research presents no
more than minimal risk to participants. Given your protocol, it is essential that you obtain signed
documentation of informed consent from each participant. Enclosed is the dated, IRB-approved
informed consent to be used when recruiting participants for the research.

It is essential that each of your participants sign a copy of your approved informed
consent that bears the IRB stamp and expiration date.

If you wish to make any changes to this protocol, including the need to increase the number of
participants authorized, you must disclose your plans before you implement them so that the Board
can assess their impact on your protocol. In addition, you must report to the Board any unexpected
complications that affect your participants.

If you have not completed this protocol by December 1, 2005, please telephone our office (392-0433),
and we will discuss the renewal process with you. It is important that you keep your Department Chair
informed about the status of this research protocol.

IF:di





Eqtual Opportunity/Affinnaivrie Action Insitut~ion


















98A Psychology Bldg.
PO Box 11 2250
Gainesville, FL 32611-2250
Phone: (352) 392-0433
Fax: (352) 392-9234
Email: irb2@nfl.edu
http //irb.ufl~edu


UNIVER~ROSITY OF


To: David Fazino
2631 N. Tucson Blvd.
Tucson, AZ 85716

Ira S. Ffschler, Ph.D.,Chr
From: University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02

Subject: Reapproval of Protocorl #2004-U-0976
Tohono O'odham Traditional Foods: Conservation and Utilization of Seeds
as Sources of Identity, Meaning, H~ealthi, and Culture

Funding: None



Your request to continue your research protocol involving human participants has been approved.
Participants are not placed at more than minimal risk by the research. You are reminded that any
changes, including the need to increase the number of participants authorized, must be
approved by resubmission of the protocol to the Board.

Reapproval of this protocol extends for one year from the date of the review, the maximum duration
permitted by the Office for H-uman R~esearch Protection. If this project will not be completed by
December 1, 2006, please telephone our office (392-0433) at least six weeks in advance so we can
advise you how to reapply.

It is important that you keep your Department Chair Informed about the status of this research project.
Also, if your project is funded, you should send a request to extend your grant along with a copy ofthis
project renewal notification to D5R, Awards Administartion, P.O. Box 115500.

ISF: dl


PAX:352+39?~9234 P. 001


mOB-30-20~j W~D !0:!3 AM ]~STITUT IO~hirEev i e~tS:a rd


z p~*se"/


November 17, 20035


Equal OppmamitylAf~rmative Action Insitution

















..'-~~S~-SAN XAVI[ER DISTRICT
,, OF THE
TTO.H ON O O'ODHAM NATION
2018 WEST SAN XAVIER ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85746
TELEPHONE: (520) 573-4000 FAX: (520) 573-4089)
a RESOLUTION OF THE SAN XA4VIER DISTRICT COL 'LCEL,
Amun M[3.LL br/T David F zzUli to Conduct a Researi h Study on Native Seeds and Foods 5y- t Tn within the Distri r,

Resolution No. SXDIC 03-05-12

WiHERF..AS Mrr. David Fazzino is a student at the University of Florida approached the San Xavier D~istrict Council at its
regular meeting held on March 15, 2005 to request permission to conduct research within the DItrict: and,

LV E RF S.Mr. Fazzino is currently a law and ar throp allogy student who plans to do his dissertation on community food
systems, and trainanal iFod desiringr tro pproa~h each District for his pro~posed re~stan.11 Iring a questionnaire,
and consent form for his interviews; acid,

W11iICERI.1S Mr. Fazzina met with the Tohono O'odahm Cultural Comrmittee on February 16, 2005 and with Ithe Tohano
O'odhamn Agricultural Commaittee on February 25, 2005, and is scheduled to meet with the San Xavier Farm Co-
op on March 21. 2005 and TOCA at a future date.

NOW THIEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED, that the San Xavier District Council hereby agrees to allow~hl~r. David Fazzino to
conduct research within the District and to work under tbe direction of Administration.

BE' IT PURHTE~R RESOLVED, that information be shared with all entities involved and an update be provided to the Council
when needed.

CERTIFICATION

The fort going resolution was passed by~ the San Xavier District Count~illl a meeting held on the 15m day of Mnarch, 2005, at
which time a quoru was present with a vote of 5 J-f)r 0 (AGAINST; 0 NOT VOTING; 0 .UBSEh T. Pursuant to the powers
vested in the Council by the Tahono O'odham Constitution, Article IX, Section 5, as adopted and approved on 6 March 1986.


San Xavi~r Dsr



Aus~tin G. Nunez, Chairman



Llse Rele< secrtLary / MOTION: Janice Felix-
San Xavier District Council SECOND. Edward Encinas









RESOLUrTION OF THE SCHT;K; T:OAK DISTRICT CO~rUNCE
(Pennitting David Fazz7ino to Conduct Interviews Within the District on Tradlitional
Community Food Systems)

Resolution No. ST-04-23-05-18

'HTER~EAS;S the Schuk Toalk District Co~uncilJ held their regular meeting on April 23,
2005O, at which a quorum was present, and;


WHEREAS;



HTII-EREAS;


David Fazzino presented a proposal to do research in the Schuk T~oak
District involving interviews dealing with Community Foodl slstem~s
mainly traditional foods writhl District Mecmbers. and:

the Schuk; Toak District Council have received the proposal, recognizing
the benefits of the research project to the member of the~ Districts and The
Nation, and is supportivec of the research project,


NOW` THERE~FORE IT BE RESOLVED; that the Schuk Toak District Council supports
Mr. Fazzino's request to do interviews within the Schuk "Toak District and
gives its approval and permission for the same.

BE IT FINALLY RESOLVED; that the foregoing resolution was enacted by the Schuki
Toak Distnct Council, w~ith a vote of fl for; 00 against; 01 not vot-ing: 06
absent; pursuant to the powers vested in the GCouncil by Section 5, Article
IX of the Constitution of the~ Tohono O'odhamn Nation.

ATT EST:


Je ua r


,,- Amb-rlt~c s~E- EninsiRc. C~hairmann


CERTIFICATION: This is a true and correct
copy of the original Resolution adopted by
the Schuk Toak Dist let Council on
thel~ th day of Jhl I / 20 _CiZ:

Sc C ecretaryT














Pisinemo District
TOHONO O'ODH(AM NATION lb(
-*i P. O, BOX 3047
SELLS, ARIZONA 85834
Telephone: (520) 362-2442or (520) 362-2203
Fax: (520) 362-2730


RESOLUTION OF THE PISINEMlO DISTRICTS COUlNCIL
(A~pprov~ing Mr. David Fazzino's Research Proposal)

Resolution No. 2005-1 1


WHEREAS,



'WH~EREAS,



WHEREAS,



WHISEREAS,


In Febnr~uar 200 Pisinemo District received a letter dated February 12,
2005 flrom Mr. David Faizzino requesting for time on our District Council
meeting to present a proposal and

on May 31, Ic005he came before the District Council to ask permission to
do interviews with about 10 pe~ople fbr his dissertation an Community
fbod system he is a student of the University of' Flalnd3, and

the District Council discussed with him their concerns about the
information that he'll obtain from the interviews. and what assurance do
we have that this inibrmalion stays with him, and

the Council did approve of M~r David Fazzino to do this research and
interviews with in the district and if an interrprter is needed the district
will provide him one.


NO T THEREFORE BE IT RESOLIT D that the Pisianeo District Council did
approve for Mlr. David Fazzino to do his research interviews with in the Pismnemol
District

CERTIFICATION

The foregoing resolution was discussed and approved at a meeting held on Meis 3, 2005i
where a quorum was present with a vote of 10 FOR, O AGAINST. O NO)T V'(jNG. and 1
.?BSENTLT.


PISINEMO0 DISTRICT COUNCIL


ATTEST:


Veronica L. Lopez, Ser~cre


Jdhnson M. Jose, Chjirman











I SOLUTION OIF THEE TOHONO O'OD)HAM LEG;ISL~ITIVE COUNCIL
(Approval of M~r. David Pazzino's proposal entitled Tahonea O'odhtam Traditonall~oods:
Conserv~ation anrd t 'rilizaion ofSeeds as Sourcets ofldentLitr. .H~eaning, Health and Cuolture)


RT:SOLUtTION NO. 05-338

1 W(H'I:RL4S, Darid Eazzino iscurrentla studentat theliniverlitsofFloridatn GainesvilleFlorida

2 completing his Docttorate in Anthropology and his Law degree. of which the final

3 requ ire men t is a dlisse rtat ion. M~r. Pazzino would like te conduct approximately one

4 hundred face-to-face interviews in the Tohono O'odham Nation in order to assess

5 community me mbers' historical and current knowledge of desire for and access to

6 traditional foods; and

7 WHBEREAS, Mr. Fazzine w~ill re imburse e ach p artic~ipa nt a1 520 gill ce rtifica te or the equis alent in

8 traditional foods in exchange fo r the approximatelyr one half to one and a half hours

9 spent speaking with him; and

II0 WH~EREAS Mr. Famine will pay an interpreter recommended by each of the Districts for all

11 interviewiers wherein English is not the primary language of the laterviewee; and

12 WHEREIBIAS, Mlr. Fa zzino has and will continue to conduct lurerviews of Native 5PcdnSt SARCH stall'

13 and Board Members to assess the organization's historical an~d cunrre~nt role in the

14 production, consumption and marketing of traditional foods: and

15 IWHEREEAS, the persons interviewed by Mr. Fazzino will bare the whi~mate choice as to howr they

115 wish the information to be attributed to them (District, Village, Gender, Age,

17 Occupation. Name) and shall not be used in any manner other than to support his

18 Doctoral dissertation and academic publications for which he receives no

19 compensation: and

20 WHEREAS, Mr. ]Fazzine is aware of current inequities in mass publication and distribution of'

21 information wherein the comnmunities and Nations from which th~e Information is

22 gathered receive little in the way of compensation: and

23 WHlYEEREALS, Mr. Fazzine will contact the Nation at a future date If he plans on publishing

24 informa tion gathered within the Nation i n order to arrange a mutually agreed upon

25 profit-sharing arrangement supportfing: traditional food production within the

26 Nation; and

27 WHER~lEAS, the information gathered from the interviews will be made av~ailalble to each of the

28 Districts that have approved Mr. 1 azzino's proposal. and










fRESOL[UTION NO. 05-338
(Approval of Mr. David Fazino's proporsal enatkled To~hanurO'odhamlra~ditional~oods:CGonseraton
and LE~atu of feedr as SourceS madendt~r. .Hepaning, HTeal and Cultre
Page 2 of4

1 'HEF.HF.1, the information will also be shared with the San Xavier Cooperarire Farm and

2 11Tohono O'odham Commuanity Action to assist in their allorts to supply tradit ional

3 foods throughout the Nation, and

4 WclERL4S. r. Fazzino's proposal has beecn reviewed and supporled hJ the I~egislathre standing

5 Commitices Cnurural Preservation ~ammilleeand Agr-icultuaral Committeeanmdthe

6 San Xavier CooperativeFarm; and

7 54'HE RLAS, the statusj of the remaining Districts are still pending. but if approved by the Districts,

8 M r. Fami~ne requests permission to begin his later views:

9 Baboqunivari District Council Meeting Date* Mlrarch 19, 2005
10 referred to community representatives for approval
1'1
11 Chunka Kak Changed Meeting Date, New Date: July 9, 2005
13
14 Gn Achi District Council Meeting Date: 'March 19, 2005;
15 referred to community representatives for appror al
16
17 Gun Vo Distrit Coanuci Meeting Date: Mlay 21, 2005
18
19 Hickiwan District Council Meeting Date: April 20. 2005
20 referred to community representatives for approval
21
22 iiSells discussed, but no actioni'fuH agedali
23
24 SirOidak Di~strict Council Meeting Date: April 9.2005.

25 NOW, THEREFORE. BE IT RESOLVED that the Tohone O'odham L~egislative Council does

26 give permission to Mnr. Fazzine to conduct interviews la the Iollowing Districts that

27 have provided Distbrict CouncIl approval:

28 Pisinemo District Council Meeting Date: Ma~y 3, 2005
29 (per Resolution No. 2005-11)
30
31 San Lucy District Council M~eeting Date- Mlarch 24, 2005
32
33 1 San Xavier District: Council Meceting Date: March l5, 2005
34 (per Resolution No. SXDC 03-05-1 2)
35
36 Schuk Toak District Council IMeeting Date: April 23. 2005
37 (per Resolution No. ST-04-23-05-18)
311










RESOLUTION NO. 05-338
(Approval of Mdr. David Fa zzio's proposal entitled Tolhano O'adhama Tradldfonalk~oods: Conservtadon
and L ri~lizeon of Seeds as Sources ofldenry:i~ Meaning, He~alrbi and Culmure)
Page 3 of4

1 BE6 IT FINAlLEY RESOLVED that:

2 1. The Legislativ~e Council has reviewed, approved and authorized MVr. David

3 Fazzino's proposal entitled Tahonn O'odhlanrr Traditional Fo~ods: Conservation

4 and Utfltlarato orSeeds as Sourcesr ofrldentirr. Meaning. Healt and C ultureP.

5 112. Mr. Famzine will provide a copy of thie final report to the lshono O'odamltr

6 Legislative CounocsL

7 The foregoning Rtesoluition w'as passed b? the Tohano O'od ham Leg~islative Council on thec 010N. Day
8 of TUNE,_2005 at a meting al which a qoramu was present with a vote of 1,534.25 ZOR, 421.0
9 AGAINST: 485.55 NOT VOTING; and [011.1BSE rT pursuant to the powers tested In the C~ouncil by
10 Section I (lof~rtile VI ofthe Constitution ofth eTobon oO'Od hm Uam ion, adopted by thelohone
11 O'Odh~am Natio n on anuary is, 1986; and approved by the Acting Depaoty A~ssistlant Secretary -
12 Indian Affalirs (Operations) on March 6, 1986, pursuant to Section 16 of the Act of lune 18, 1934 (48
13 nStat. 954).
14
15 TOIIONO O'ODFL4M LEGlIS.4TIVE COUNCIL
116



19 Evelyn Juan n~del, Legislative Chaiarworman

ay f 2005

23
24 ATTEST:
25

27 ~ .:
28 EIncille Loper. .4~c igegslative Secretary
29
30 1/.-' day of '~ ,205.
31
32 Said Resolutiorn was submitted for approw lto the office of the Chairwoman of thie Tokena
33 O'Odham N~ation on the ,'n day of 2005 at ef,'V2. o'clocki,
34 Ih.M..pursuant to theprovisions ofet 5 nfnrticle Vll of he C onstitution and will become
35 effectircuopon herapprovalorupon her ailurr eloither approsea r disapprove itwrithiu 48 hours
36 ofsubmaittal.
37
38 TOIIONO O'ODHIAM LEGCISL4IIVT: COUNCIL
39


42 Evelyn Iunn Ma ~el, Le~gislativre Chairwoman
43










RESOLETIO~n NO. 05-338
(Approval of Mr. David Fazzina's proposal entitled Tboho oO'od~am Traditional Foods: Conservation
and Ctidizad~onr ofSeerds asourzrces oildentirr Meaning, Health and C~ulture)


1 I ] ArPPRrlT on the Clday of ~My 2005
2
3 I ] DISAPPROVED at o~. lock, ~.M .



7 1'IVIAN Ilit9N-S HINDERS, CHAIRWOMANlr
8 TOHONO O'OD 115~ NATON
9
10

12 IReturned to the egislative Seretary on the 6.~ day of
13 11 --7
14 1 20015, at ._ i. -' o'clock, v".M.
15
16 .J
17 -
18 'Lucille Lnpez, Acting Legislative Secretary
19
20
21
12

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
412
43
44
415I











JUL-21-2005 THU 11:28 AM LEGISLATIVE MODULAR FAX EI0. 5203835246 P. 02/03


RESOLUTION OF THE TOHONO O'ODHAM6 I~GISIATIVE COUNCIL~
(Override of Vetoed Resolution No. 05-338, "Approval of A~r. David Fazzino's proposal
entitled TohDnrO O'odhiam Traditional foods: Conservation and Utilization of Seeds
ase Sources of Idenrtity, Meantag, Bealth and Culture'}

RESOLITIMON NO. 85-351

1 WHEREAS, duaring the June 10l, 1005 General Session of the Tohano O'odhamr Legisltive Council,

2 the Conncildid pass Resolation No. 05;-338 "Approval ofMr. Darld ]Fazzine's Proposal

3 entitled T ohone O'odham Traditionalfooods Conservation and Utilization ofSeeds as

4 Sources of ldentity. Meaning. Health and Culture"; and

5 IIWHERBAS, upon presentatlan of Resolution No. 05-338 to the Chrairwomcan of the Tohaono

6 O'odham Nation, she did disapprove thereof and returned it to the Council with her

7 objlections in accordane with the provideoas of Artice VII, Section 5 of the
3 Constittartio of the Tobono O'odhamn Nations tad

9 WHEREAS, during the lnne 7, 26005 Special Session, the Chairwoman presented to the Legris~ative

10 Conacil her justification in veto~ng ResolutionNo. 0S-338, a copy ofwhichis aitached

11 hereto; and

12 WHEREAl~S, the Legislative Connell reviewed the Chairwoman's objections and alter

13 contsidertion, again voted to pass Resolu~tion No. 0 5-338.

14 NOW, THEREFOREI BE IT RESOLVEDO that the Tahono O'odham XLegsltitve Conacil does hereby

15 override the Chairwomran's veto by a vote oftwothirds of the votes castia accordance

16 with the provisions ofLrtice VII Section 5 ofthe Constiturtion of the Tehone O'odha;m

17 Nation.

18 The foregning Resolution was presented to the Toahno O'odham Legislative Council on the 27rg
19 day of TUNE. 200 5 at a meeting at which a quornmwas present, and by a vote of~l,3 9 FOR: 13.
20 IAGAIN~uST; 69. NOT VOTIG;; and 169110 (2I BBSENT, was passed by a vote of two-thirds (214)
21 ]1 048.41a ofthe votes cast as required by Section S of Articl IIn of the Conbsitution of the' Thone
22 O'Odham Nation.
23
24 TOHONO o'o~DHAM rLEGSITIVE COUNCIL
23



28 Evelyn B. Jnan 1 wael. Legislative Chairwoman
29
30 AITTEST:
31
32

34 ILufille Lopez, s egislative Secretrar










IUL-21-C005 THUr 11:28 FSM LEGISLATIVE MODULA~R FFRX NO, 5203835248 P. 03/G3


RESOLUTION NO. 85-~351
(Override nf t'oted Besoriluti No. 08-338. "Approrval of Mr. Davd ~azlno'sProposalenrtitled lahono
O'odham traditional Foods: Eoaservation and Utilization of Seeds as Soureen of Identity, MWeaning,
Health and Conture9)
Pagel 02of

1 ISIGNED this lc-dayof ,y~ 2005 In accordance with the provisions of
2 A)rticle VII, Seetion 5 ofthe Co Btation oftethe Teheno O)'odhamn Nation.
3


6 mVIVaN JUAN- iAUNDERS, CHAIRWOMAN
7 TOHOND O'ODI3AM NATIONb
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35~
361

38
39
40
41

413









APPENDIX B
LIST OF QUESTIONS RESEARCHER ASKED TOHONO O'ODHAM INDIVIDUALS

* What foods do you consider to be traditional foods?
* What is your favorite traditional food?
* Why do you consume traditional foods?
* Over the last 24 hours have you consumed traditional foods?
o If yes, which foods?
* Over the last week have you consumed traditional foods?
o If yes, which foods?
* Over the last month have you consumed traditional foods?
o If yes, which foods?
* On average how often do you consume traditional foods?
* On average how often would you like to consume traditional foods?
* When do you tend to consume traditional foods the most?
* When compared with your consumption of traditional foods in the past would you say
that you consume less traditional foods now, more traditional foods now, or about the
same amount of traditional foods?
o How would your consumption this year compare with your consumption
10 years ago?
20 years ago?
*40 years ago?
* What do you think accounts for this shift?
* Do you currently grow, collect or make traditional foods?
o Which ones?
o What is your experience with these crops/plants?
* Have you grown, collected or made traditional foods in the past?
o Which ones?
o What was your experience with these crops/plants?
* Have you worked on a farm in the past?
o (If yes, I would then ask the "Tohono O'odham Farmer" questions)
* Where can you get traditional foods today?
* Where do you get your supply of traditional foods?
* What are the limiting factors in getting traditional foods?
o Cost
o Availability
Location of Sales?
*Only Seasonally Available?
* What work would you like to see be done to promote traditional foods and who would be
the best people to do this work?
* Can I attribute this information to you through the use of your name and/or descriptive
characteristics such as age, sex, occupation, District Name, Village Name, regularly
consume traditional foods?
o Are there any descriptive characteristics that you would not like me to utilize?









APPENDIX C
ABSTRACT IN O'ODHAM

Ha'icu Hugi N;u:kuda ab Amjid1 Hegai Mo Wud Si Tohono O'odham Ha'icu Huki
Mo has masam 'e-kamialtahim g Tohono O'odham Ha'icu Hugi

Mo has masma 'am 'e-himcud g ha'icu huki flu:kuda 'am Milga:n Jewed da:m mac hab
'a' aga United States mat has masma s-duakogam 'o 'e-gegusidat g hemajkam mat 'o ku'ad g s-
duakogam ha'icu hugi 'o 'as huhugim. Heg'o hekaj huhugim g s-duakog ha'icu huki mo heg
ba'ic 'i-e-taccu mat g liai 'o mu'i 'e'-natol k g s-duakog ha'icu huki pi 'am hu cekito. Hegai mo
huhugim g ha'icu huki flu:kuda 'o pi 'am hu si taso 'a:gas, wa:m'am Milga:n cihafiig,'ed1 mo
heg 'am si 'oicug ha'icu huki mac hab lasan kc pi'am hu cekito g 'asukal mumkidag, wa:m hegai
asukal mumkidag mo hab 'a'aga type 2. Heg'o hekaj hab pi tas duakog hemu g hemajkam c pi'
ape g ha-ki:dag, wa:m 'amai mo pi'am hu haicug g lial c duakog 'i-we:mta. Heg 'e:p mac hemu
pi hab masma cikpan mo g huki hu hemajkam c'e:p mac pi ku'a g s-ke:g ha'icu huki k hegaj
'asge'edahim g'asukal mumkidag. Mu'i na:nko ma:s hemajkam 'o 'am fieicug mo has masma
hab 'e-wua g ha'icu hugi c has masma 'an wesko 'e-tu'aw c has masma 'e-ku'a.
Idam na:nko ma:s hemajkam 'o 'am hia cem fieidacug c flu:kud g s-duakog ha'icu hugi,
mat 'o 'e-e'esa k 'an 'o we:sko 'e-tu'awad g s-duakogam ha'icu hugi kc 'am 'o has 'i-ju mat
pi'an wuas 'o dadak g hemajkam, k 'eda 'as kia si ge'ej g 'asukal mumkidag 'am ha-wehejed g
Tohono O'odham. I:da ha'icu ma:cig 'at 'am hab 'e-ju 'am Tohono O'odham ha-jewedga da:m
wenog Ha:safi Ba:k Masad 2004 'am hugkam Ge'e S-he:pjig Masad 2006. Hegam mo wud
O'odham c hegam mo pi wud O'odham 'ant 'am ha-we:m flio k 'ab ha'icu ha-kakke 'ab 'amjid g
ha'icu hugi wenog Ha:safi Ba:k Masad 2005 'am hugkam Ge'e S-hepjig Masad 2006. I:da
ha'icu kakkaida 'at 'am si' 'e-tasogi 'i:da cikpan 'ab 'amjid g ha'icu hugi c 'e:p mat 'am 'ep 'o
'i-e-himc k 'o 'e-ku'ad g s-dukogam ha'icu huki. Mo has masma wud si has ha'icu g s-
duakogam ha'icu hugi 'am ha-wehejid g na:nko ma:s O:bi c Tohono O'odham 'o 'am si taso 'ab
ha-fli'oki 'amjid1 hegam mo'am cem 'e-nakog mat'o 'u'ad g himdag c fli'oki c s-duakogam
ha'icu huki c'eda s-hasig hemu mac has masma ki:dag.
Bo masma hab cu'ig 'i:da 'ohona: We:peg 'o'ohona 'o heg 'am 'a'aga mo has masma
'ab cu'ig g ha'icu hugi 'o'ohona 'am jewed da;m c'am Milga:n jewed da:m. Mo 'a' aga mant has
masma hab ju'i:da cikpan, c 'e:p mant has masma 'am bei g fi-sel mant 'am hab'o ju'i:da cikpan
am Tohono O'odham jewed da:m. Go:k O'ohona 'o heg 'am 'a'aga cihafiig mo gewsc g ha'icu
huki c ha'icu huki flu:kuda 'am we:sko jewed da:m c 'e:p mo hasma masma 'ab ha-gewsc g
Tohono O'odham. Waikk 'o'ohona 'o heg 'am 'a'aga TON ha'icu huki. Am 'o ha-aga hegam
hemajkam mo 'am cem si 'e-nakog c himcud g Tohono O'odham ha'icu huki. Gi'ikk O'ohona
'o heg 'am 'a'aga mo hascu 'an ha-so:bic g Tohono O'odham mat 'o ku'ad g Tohono O'odham
ha'icu huki. Mo hia woho mo hemu ba'ic 'i mu'i 'e'esa g Tohono O'odham ha'icu huki, k 'eda
mu'i g hemajkam pi 'e-nakog, 'a pi taccu mat 'o 'ui, 'o pi taccu mat 'o ha-nolawr g Tohono










O'odham ha'icu juki. Kutp hems heg hekaj mo pi ha-lialga, 'o pi ha-ma:gina mat 'am 'o medlk
'o ha-nolawt g ha'icu huki, 'o'atp hems mumku, 'o 'atp hems pi 'an hu ha'icug g Tohono
O'odham ha'icu huki, 'o 'atp hems heg hekaj mo g Jujkam ha-cicliliho s-ha-e:bid c 'e:p mo si
ha-flukud 'an O'odham-Sono:1a kolhai hugid 'an c heg 'e:p mo s-ta-e:bidma hekam mo g
Malihuama i-momto. Hetasp O'ohona 'o heg 'am 'a'aga ha'icu huki kaij mo hemu 'an 'e-e'esa
c 'e:p mo has masma g heki hu ha'icu kc hemu ha'icu huki c 'e:p mo has masma 'e-hekaj.
Cu:dp O'ohona 'o heg 'am 'a'aga mat has masma 'ab 'ep 'o 'i-fiei g ha'icu huki flu:kuda 'i:ya
Milga:n ha-j ewedlga da:m c 'e:p mat has masma 'o hekaj g Tohono O'odham ha'icu huki
flu: kuda.
I:da cikpan mo 'ab si gewsap g Tohono O'odham ha'icu hugi flu:kuda, 'o 'ab fieid g
duakog flu:kuda kc cihafiig kc ha'icu huki mascama.









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

David Victor Fazzino II was born in 1973 in New Britain, Connecticut. The oldest of

four children, he grew up living in several towns and small cities in Connecticut, Alabama and

Pennsylvania. He graduated from Delaware Valley High School in 1992. He earned his B.S. in

environmental studies with anthropology as a second maj or from Slippery Rock University in

1996. He received his M. S. in sustainable systems with a focus in agroecology from Slippery

Rock University in 1999. He has worked on several farms in Pennsylvania, Florida, West

Virginia and Arizona which allowed him to gain practical experience in agriculture. He worked

in international agricultural development for a year with the United Nations Development

Program, Sustainable Energy and Environment Division, as a Program Assistant with the Global

Program for Food Security and Agriculture and volunteered as a permaculture consultant with

the NGO CRESP (Center of Resources for the Emergence of Social Participation) in Yoff,

Senegal. Also, he graduated from the Utah College of Massage Therapy in 2000 and has been a

licensed massage therapist for seven years. His areas of specialization include food systems,

agro-ecology, food security and sustainable development.





PAGE 1

TRADITIONAL FOOD SECURITY: TOHONO OODHAM TR ADITIONAL FOODS IN TRANSITION By DAVID V. FAZZINO II A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 David V. Fazzino II 2

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To the men and women who have gone before and to those that continue to work fields and pray for rain. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There were many who have helped to make this writing possible, providing me with necessary guidance, inspiration, kind words, and criticism when it was n eeded. I would like to start by thanking my Ph.D. advisor, Paul Magna rella for his support th rough my years at the University of Florida and throughout this process. Allyson Flournoy, Hugh Popenoe and John Richard Stepp, the members of my Ph.D. committee, were also supportive. Of course I would have never arrived to study anthropology without the early guidance of my undergraduate anthropology instructors, particularly Esther Sk irboll. I thank key contributors to my knowledge of food security and food system s: Jeff Gold, Peter Matlon, Larry Patrick, and my former fellow students at the Harmony House in Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania. Several individuals and organizations deserv e my thanks for enhancing my understanding of food and culture on and around the Tohono Oodham Nation. The Tohono Oodham Community College staff, fellow students and particularly professors Ronald Geromino, Barbara Kahn, Danny Lopez and Monica Lopez deserve mention for teaching me about Tohono Oodham language, culture and the multiple levels and scales of knowledge concerning diabetes on the Tohono O'odham Nation. Alicia Davis, Lance Gravlee, Danny Lopez and Kenneth Madsen were helpful in the final stages of this project. I thank Frances Conde, the Agriculture and the Cultural Preservation Committees of the Legislative Branch of the Tohono Oodham Nation for guiding me in the process of gaini ng permission and their insights informing both myself and this work. The following organizations and individuals also deserve my thanks: Alex Beeshligaii, Paul Buseck, Kevin Dahl, Bill Lopez, William Leonard Mattias, Peter McCrohan, Native Seeds/SEARCH, Suzanne Nelson, Renee Reddog, San Lucy Elders Program, Sells Elders Program, David Shaul, San Xavier Cooperative Farm, Regina Siqueros, Tohono Oodham Community Action, Tohono Oodham Community College and Bill Worthy. Particularly, 4

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5 Ernestine Marquez of the San Lucy District dese rves mention for her efforts in promoting this research within the San Lucy District, making sp ace and time available for interviews, and great conversations. I also extend my thanks for th e support and love of my family, including my wife, Dana Davis, during an extended period of research and writing. I hope that you will all find your name here, bu t if I have omitted mention here, please consider it an oversight and accept my apologies.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........9 LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................................12 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................................14 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .17 Food Security Law and Policy................................................................................................17 Diseases of Affluence.......................................................................................................... ...27 Obesity........................................................................................................................ .....27 Diabetes....................................................................................................................... ....29 Community Foods, Community Health..........................................................................30 Food Security Revisited..........................................................................................................33 Situating the Research............................................................................................................38 Goals of the Research.......................................................................................................... ...45 Research Approvals and Me thods of Gathering Data............................................................48 Limitations to This Study...................................................................................................... .52 2 THE TOHONO OODHAM..................................................................................................58 The Desert People.............................................................................................................. .....58 Tohono Oodham Lands.........................................................................................................61 Eco-Biological Factors......................................................................................................... ..62 Economies of the Tohono O'odham Nation...........................................................................64 Casino..............................................................................................................................64 Mining.............................................................................................................................65 Ranching..........................................................................................................................66 Agricultural Production...................................................................................................68 Professional and Administrative......................................................................................71 Informal Economy...........................................................................................................73 Entities Involved with Tohono O'odham Ag riculture, Health and Tradition.........................74 San Xavier Cooperative Farm.........................................................................................75 Tohono Oodham Community Action (TOCA)..............................................................77 Healthy Oodham Promo tion Program (HOPP)..............................................................80 Tohono Oodham Community College...........................................................................80 Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S).......................................................................................81 6

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3 FOOD: LOCAL, GLOBAL, OTHER....................................................................................91 Arizona Agriculture................................................................................................................91 Global and Local Bioregionalism...........................................................................................92 Sustainable and Industrial Agriculture...................................................................................96 Taste and the Exotic Other...................................................................................................10 0 Genes, Property and Intellectual Currents............................................................................105 4 TOHONO OODHAM FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGES.............................................110 What are Traditional Foods?................................................................................................110 Historical Shifts in Tohono Oodham Food Systems....................................................111 Negotiating Tohono Oodham Traditional Foods.........................................................113 Traditional Foods by Gender.........................................................................................117 Traditional Foods by District.........................................................................................118 Traditional foods by Age...............................................................................................119 Consumption of Traditional Foods in the Past, Present and Future.....................................123 Factors Limiting Traditional Foods Consumption...............................................................126 Convenience of Traditional Foods................................................................................129 Safety and Security of Collecti ng Along the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands.......................133 Alcohol, Drugs and Gangs............................................................................................136 Cost of Traditional Foods..............................................................................................139 The Health of Eating Traditional Foods........................................................................141 Contamination...............................................................................................................143 Land Access...................................................................................................................144 5 WORKING NEW FIELDS..................................................................................................168 Reasons Why Tohono Oodham Consume Traditional Foods.............................................168 Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by Age.....................................................170 Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by Gender................................................172 Reasons for Traditional Food Consumption by District................................................173 The Current Traditional Food System..................................................................................174 Growing Traditional Food.............................................................................................174 Collecting Traditional Food..........................................................................................177 Cooking Traditional Foods............................................................................................179 Hope......................................................................................................................................182 6 FOOD SECURITYS FUTURE...........................................................................................194 Paradigms of Food Security..................................................................................................195 Traditional Food Security on the Tohono Oodham Nation.................................................196 Tohono Oodham Nation Polic y Recommendations............................................................196 US Policy Recommendations to Promote Traditional Food Security..................................199 7

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8 APPENDIX A RESEARCH APPROVAL DOCUMENTS.........................................................................201 B LIST OF QUESTIONS RESEAR CHER ASKED TOHONO OODHAM INDIVIDUALS ................................................................................................................... 213 C ABSTRACT IN OODHAM................................................................................................214 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................216 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................239

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1 Change in acreage farmed over time for the Tohono O'odham Nation, excluding San Xavier and San Lucy Districts...........................................................................................57 1-2 Change in acreage farmed ove r time for San Xavier District............................................57 1-3 Number of people intervie wed by Tohono Oodham District...........................................57 3-1 Top agriculture commodities in Arizona in 2006............................................................109 4-1 Free list descriptive statistics for domain of traditional foods ( N =48)............................148 4-2 Responses to What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? question (free list data sorted by difference between male and female (fem) percentage).....................149 4-3 Responses to What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? question (free list data sorted by difference between Sa n Lucy (SL) and Non-SL percentage).............151 4-4 Young adult and elder responses to What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? question (free list data sorted by difference between young adult and elders for 31 most mentioned responses)...................................................................................153 4-5 Young adult and middle age responses to What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? question (free list data sorted by difference between young adults and middle age)................................................................................................................ 155 4-6 Middle age and elder responses to What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? question (free list data sorted by difference between middle age and elders)....157 4-7 Self-reported change in traditio nal food consumption by gender....................................158 4-8 Self-reported change in trad itional food consumption by age.........................................158 4-9 Self-reported change in trad itional food consumption by area........................................158 4-10 Reported consumption versus desired consumption in 2002...........................................159 4-11 Reported consumption versus desired traditional food consumption for Nation............159 4-12 Limiting factors for traditional foods consumption in 2002............................................159 4-13 Chi-square of limiting factors to traditional food consumption and age.........................160 4-14 Cross tabulation of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption by age.................160 9

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4-15 Responses to the question, What are the limiting factors in getting traditional foods? (summarized coded responses sort ed by difference between elder and young adult (YA) percentage)....................................................................................................161 4-16 Responses to the question, What are the limiting factors in getting traditional foods? (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between elder and middle age (MA) percentage)......................................................................................................161 4-17 Responses to the question, What are the limiting factors in getting traditional foods? (summarized coded responses so rted by difference between middle age (MA) and young adult (YA) percentage).........................................................................161 4-18 Chi-square of limiting factors to tr aditional foods consumption and gender..................162 4-19 Cross tabulation of limiting factors to traditional food consumption and gender...........163 4-20 Responses to the question, What are the limiting factors in getting traditional foods? (summarized coded responses so rted by difference between males and females percentage).........................................................................................................163 4-21 Chi-square of limiting factors to traditional foods consumption and district..................164 4-22 Cross tabulation of limiting factors to tr aditional foods consumption and district..........165 4-23 Responses to the question, What are the limiting factors in getting traditional foods? (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between San Lucy (SL) and non-SL percentage)...................................................................................................166 5-1 Chi-square of age and reasons why traditional foods are consumed...............................187 5-2 Cross tabulation of reasons why traditional foods are consumed by age........................187 5-3 Responses to the question, Why do you c onsume traditional f oods? (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between elder and young adult (YA) percentage).................................................................................................................... ...188 5-4 Responses to the question, Why do you c onsume traditional f oods? (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between middle age (MA) and young adult (YA) percentage).............................................................................................................18 8 5-5 Responses to the question, Why do you c onsume traditional f oods? (summarized coded responses sorted by difference between elder and middle age (MA) percentage).................................................................................................................... ...188 5-6 Chi-square of gender and traditional foods consumption................................................189 5-7 Cross tabulation of reasons why trad itional foods are consumed by gender...................190 10

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11 5-8 Responses to the question, Why do you c onsume traditional f oods? (summarized coded responses sorted by difference be tween males and female percentage)...............190 5-9 Chi-square of district an d traditional foods consumption................................................191 5-10 Cross tabulation of reasons why tradi tional foods are consumed by district...................192 5-11 Responses to the question, What are the limiting factors in getting traditional foods? (summarized coded responses sort ed by difference between San Lucy (SL) and Non-SL percentage)..................................................................................................192 5-12 Responses to question, What can be done to promote traditional foods? for San Lucy District and Nation as a whole ...............................................................................193

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Picture of buckhorn cholla ( Cylindropunita acanthocarpa (Engelmann & Bigelow) Knuth)................................................................................................................................55 1-2 Picture of saguaro cactus ( Carnegiea gigantean (Engelmann) Britton & Rose)...............55 1-3 Picture of mesquite ( Prosopis velutina Wooton)...............................................................55 1-4 Picture of Santa Rita prickly-pear ( Opunita violacea var. santa-rita (Griffiths & Hare) Rose (syn., O. violacea Engelmann))......................................................................56 1-5 Picture of Engelmann prickly-pear ( Opunita engelmanni Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann)....56 2-1 Map of Tohono Oodham lands in the U.S.A. and Mexico. Copied with permission from Arizona Daily Star, Duarte (2001)............................................................................87 2-2 Map of the 11 Districts of the Tohono O' odham Nation. (Map courtesy of Kenneth D. Madsen.)........................................................................................................................88 2-3 This is a picture series of landscapes and vegetation in the Sonoran Desert. ..................89 2-4 Picture of organ pipe cactus ( Stenocereus thurberi (Engelman) Buxbaum).....................89 3-1 Digital photo of picture of Indian exhibit at rodeo,Tucson, Arizona...............................109 4-1 Scree plot of percenta ge of responses to What foods do you consider to be traditional foods?............................................................................................................ 146 4-2 Scree plot of Smiths S for 31 most mentioned traditional foods....................................147 4-3 Scatter plot of women s and mens frequency of responses to What foods do you consider to be tradit ional foods? question......................................................................150 4-4 Scatter plot of San Lucy and Non-San Lucy frequency of responses to What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? question..........................................................152 4-5 Picture of golden hedgehog cactus ( Echinocereus engelmannii )....................................152 4-6 Scatter plot of young adult elder frequenc y of 31 highest responses to What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? question..........................................................154 4-7 Scatter plot of young adult and middle age frequency of responses to What foods do you consider to be trad itional foods? question...............................................................156 4-8 Scatter plot of middle age and elder fr equency of responses to What foods do you consider to be tradit ional foods? question......................................................................158 12

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13 4-9 Limiting factors to traditi onal foods consumption by age...............................................162 4-10 Limiting factors to traditional foods consumption for males and females......................164 4-11 Limiting factors to traditi onal food consumption by region............................................166 4-12 Picture of Tohono Oodham Comm unity Action (TOCA) foods....................................167 5-1 Reasons why traditional foods are consumed by age......................................................189 5-2 Reasons why traditional f oods are consumed by gender.................................................191 5-3 Reasons why traditional foods are consumed by district.................................................193

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CBD Convention on Biol ogical Diversity FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations GMO genetically modified organism IA industrial agriculture IHS Indian Health Services NGO non-government organization NS/S Native Seeds/SEARCH (Southweste rn Endangered Arid-lands Resource Clearing House) SXCF San Xavier Cooperative Farm TOCA Tohono Oodham Community Action TOCC Tohono Oodham Community College TON Tohono O'odham Nation USDA United States Department of Agriculture UN United Nations WHO World Health Organization 14

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Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy TRADITIONAL FOOD SECURITY: TOHONO OODHAM TR ADITIONAL FOODS IN TRANSITION By David V. Fazzino II May 2008 Chair: Paul J Magnarella Major: Anthropology In the last decade, there has been a m ovement on the Tohono Oodham Nation (TON) to revitalize traditional foods as a bioregional response to high rates of diabetes. This research was conducted on and around the TON from July 2004 to December 2006. Methods included participant observation and semi-structured interviews with TON members (N=48) and nonTON members associated with regional food production (N=7). These interviews add quantitative and qualitative data to research and efforts to revi talize the TONs traditional food system. Tohono Oodham perceive a variety of foods to be traditional, from pre-Contact foods gathered, grown and hunted in the desert to cont emporary Pan-Indian foods such as fry bread and Indian tacos. In total 133 responses were recorded, 31 responses we re significant and 7 particularly significant. Ther e were large differences betwee n young adult (20-39 years old) and elder (over 60) perceptions of tr aditional foods. These differences suggest a further decline in knowledge and consumption of pre-Contact traditional foods. There is currently an unmet demand for trad itional foods on the TON. The major factors that limit traditional food consumption are lack of both convenience and av ailability. Safety during traditional food collection and cost were other factors which limited an individuals 15

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16 ability to access traditional foods. Tohono Oodham individuals cite health-related issues coupled with tradition-preservation as the main reasons why they currently consume traditional foods. Most respondents reported that they had co llected and grown traditional foods in the past, but currently only 25% collect and only 11% grow traditional foods. Through an examination of US and global food security policy and food delivery systems coupled with an historical analysis of transitions in Tohono Oodham food systems; this research explores dimensions of food insecurity on th e Tohono Oodham Nation. This research suggests policy recommendations as a means to more ef fectively support the revitalization of Tohono Oodham food systems. This research suggests and develops the traditional food security concept as a means to empower communities, such as the Tohono Oodham, which are struggling with diseases of afflue nce and community degradation.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Tell me what you eat and Il l tell you who you are. (fro m the French) and You are what you eat (from the German) (Messer 1984). Food, in all of its manifestations and meanings, ranks third behind air and water for meeting the imperative needs of our species, shelter or security is arguably the fourth esse ntial need. The twinning of food and security in international and US policy has heretofore been primarily concerned with the movement of food surpluses across boundaries, be they political, economic or moral. The concept of food security continues to be re-conceptualized by NGOs, gover nmental and internationa l bodies. At the heart of the various instruments for m easuring food security is the no tion that everyone has access to foods that will maintain and pe rhaps enhance their health. My research argues for an expansion of the food security concept to more holistically address the growing incidence of diseases of affluence, par ticularly type 2 diabetes, by examining community food revitalization effo rts on the Tohono O'odham Nation in southern Arizona. The current international and U.S. defi nitions and concepts of food security will first be discussed. This will be followed by sections on: diseases of affluence, food security in lieu of increasing incidence of dietary diseases, literature review, goa ls of the research, research approvals and methods of gather ing data and finally limitations to this study. Food Security Law and Policy The UN standard definition of food security is the Rome Declara tion on Food Security, a product of the 1996 World Food Summit. Accordi ng to the Rome Declar ation, Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physic al and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and f ood preferences for an active and healthy life. This food security conceptualizat ion considers that adequate f ood must be not only produced but 17

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also distributed. This definition allows for a consideration of the pr eferences of people as individuals to access foods according to their prefer ences so that they can live active and healthy lives. It allows for a qua litative, if partial, discussion of wh at food security means for differently situated individuals. This definition in itself fails to specifically account for cultural factors in determining food consumption at the household and community leve l, however there are several sections within the Rome Declaration on Food S ecurity which expand the notion of food security beyond the individual, to situate food security with indigenous peoples a pproaches to economic and social development and uti lization of traditional foods.1 The Rome Declaration on Food Security, like other intern ational policy statements, conventions and declarations offers a broad 1 Specifically within the Rome Declar ation on Food Security the following sections expand the food security concept to specifically address food security for indigenous peoples: Objective 1.1 of the Rome Declaration on Food Security states, To prevent and resolve conflicts peacef ully and create a stable political en vironment, through respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, democracy, a transparent and effective legal framework, transparent and accountable governance and admini stration in all public and private national and international institutions, and effective and equal participation of all people, at all levels, in decisions and actions that affect their food security. To this end, governments, in partnership, as appropriate, with all actors of civil society, will where not already accomplished(d) Recogni ze and support indigenous people and their communities in their pursuit of economic and social development, with full respect for their identity, traditions, forms of social organization and cultural values." Objective 2.3 of the Rome Declar ation on Food Security states, To ensure that food supplies are safe, physically and economically accessible, ap propriate and adequate to meet the energy and nutrient needs of the population. To this end, governments, in partnership with all actors of civil society, as appropriate, will(c) E ncourage, where appropriate the production and use of culturally appropriate, traditional and underutilized food crops, including grains, oilseeds, pulses, root crops, fruits and vegetables, promoting home and, where appropriate, school gardens and urban agriculture, using sustainable technologies, and encourage the sustainable utilization of unused or underutilized fish resources. Objective 3.1 of the Ro me Declaration on Food Security states, To pursue, through participatory means, sustainable, intensified and diversified food production, increasing productivity, efficiency, safe ty gains, pest control and reduced wast es and losses, taking fully into account the need to sustain natural resources. To this end, governments, in partnership with all actors of civil society, and with the support of international institutions, will, as appropriate(b) ) Promote policies and programmes which encourage appropriate input technologies, farming techniques, and other sustainable methods, such as organic farming, to assist farming operations to become profitable, with the goal of reducing environmental degradation, while creating financial resources within the farming operation; such programmes should, when relevant, build upon farmers' own experiences and indigenous knowledge. 18

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normative framework within which governments may act as appropriate to implement such policies at the State level. Hence although the Rome Declarat ion on Food Security addresses several aspects of food security for indigenous peoples, however the extent to which these are implemented is left to the discretion of i ndividual States within which the indigenous communities must continually negotiate degr ees of appropriate autonomy and access to resources. The Rome Declara tion on Food Security also cites other international human rights (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child2 and the International Cove nant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights3) and environmental instruments4 as imperative to confront challenges to the 2 Objective 1.4 of the Rome Declar ation on Food Security states, To encourage national solidarity and provide equal opport unities for all, at all levels, in social, economic and political life, particularly in respect of vulnerable and disadvantaged gr oups and persons. To this end, governments, in partnership with all actors of civil so ciety, will, as appropriate(d) Give special attention to promoting and protecting the interests and needs of the child, particularly the girl child, in food security programmes, consistent with the World Summit for Children Convention on the Rights of the Child, New York 1990. 3 Objective 7.4 of the Rome Declar ation on Food Security states, To clarify the content of the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger, as stated in the In ternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other relevant international and regional instruments, and to give particular attention to implementation and full and progressive realization of this right as a means of achiev ing food security for all. To this end, governments, in partnership with all actors of civil society, will, as appropriate(a) Make every effort to implement the provisions of Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (the Covenant) and relevant provisions of other international and regional instruments. 4 Objective 3.2 of the Rome Declar ation on Food Security states, To combat environmental threats to food security, in particular, drought and desertification, pests, erosion of biological diversity, and degradation of land and aq uatic-based natural resources, restore and rehabilitate the natural resource base, including water and watershe ds, in depleted and overexploited areas to achieve greater production. To this end, governments, in partnership with all actors of civil society, and with the support of international institutions, will, as approp riate(j) Promote early ratification and implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, 1994, and implement the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992. 19

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realization of food security. The UN Conventi on on Biological Diversity (CBD) also addresses food security at the genetic level.5 Although there is not an internationally recogniz ed definition of the right to food agreed to by all States,6 human rights instruments have offered varying degrees of commitment to food security for differently situated individuals and groups of people. These instruments include not only the aforementioned International Covena nt on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights7 but 5 The three objectives of the 1992 CBD according to Article 1 are, the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate use of its technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and technologies, and by appropriate funding. According to Article 15(1) of the CBD States have sovereign rights over their resources and thus they control access to genetic resources through national le gislation. Thus, the authority to co ntrol access is not guaranteed to local communities or indigenous peoples by the CBD, but this power may be granted to a community where a genetic resource is found. Under the CBD it is ultimately the State which will decide on a fair appropriation of the reward between the government and the its indigenous peoples. However, the CBD does provide some guidelines in Article 8, which states that, Each Contracting Party shall, as fa r as possible and appropriate: (j) Su bject to its national legislation, respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation an d sustainable use of biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of su ch knowledge, innovations and practices. By prefacing Article 8(j), with as far as possible and appr opriate the CBD does not require Contracting Parties to make any concessions to indigenous and local communities. Options to implement article 8(j) include granting rights to indigenous or local commun ities that may include: the right to co ntrol physical access and the right to control subsequent use of genetic resources (Glowka 1998). According to Glowka (1998:15), the explicit guarantee of these rights will help individuals and communities maintain their knowledge, innovations and practices, clarify ri ghts over access and benefits sharing and help insure that those who profit from using their knowledge and innovations share equitably and fairly the benefits from that use. 6 For the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Mr. Jean Ziegler, [T]he right to food is the right to have regular, permanent and unr estricted access, either directly or by means of financial purchases, to quantitatively and qua litatively adequate and sufficient food corresponding to the cultural traditions of the people to which the consumer belongs, and which ensure a physical and mental, individual and collective, fulfilling and dignified life free of fear (Special Rapporteur on the right to food 2007). 7 Article 1(2) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights states, 20

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also the Declaration on th e Right to Development8 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.9 The recently adopted UN Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples also addresses aspects of food security.10 All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of th eir natural wealth and reso urces without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co -operation based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence. Article 11 of the ICESCR states, 1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international cooperation based on free consent. 2. The States Parties to the present Covenant, recogni zing the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger, shall take, individually and through international co-operation, the measures, including specific programmes, which are needed: (a) To improve methods of production, conservation and distribution of food by making full use of technical and scientific knowledge, by disseminating knowledge of the principles of nutrition and by developing or reforming agrarian systems in such a way as to achieve the most efficient development and utilization of natural resources; (b) Taking into account the probl ems of both food-importing an d food-exporting countries, to ensure an equitable distribution of world food supplies in relation to need. 8 Article 8(1) of the Declaration on the Right to Development states, States should undertake, at the national level, all n ecessary measures for the r ealization of the right to development and shall ensure, inter alia, equality of opp ortunity for all in their access to basic resources, education, health services, food, housing, employment and the fair distribution of income.Appropriate economic and social reforms should be carried out with the view to eradicating all social injustices. 9 The Universal Declaration of Huma n Rights, Article 25(1) states, Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 10 The following articles of the United Nations Declara tion on the Rights of Indigenous People address food security: Article 20 states, 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their political, economic and social systems or institutions, to be secure in the enjoyment of thei r own means of subsistence and development, and to engage freely in all their traditional and other economic activities. 2. Indigenous peoples deprived of their means of subs istence and development are entitled to just and fair redress. Article 26 of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People states: 21

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These international conceptualiz ations of food security are adapted as appropriate by the United States. One operational definition for meas uring food security in the United States was formulated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (Nord et al. 2004). According to the USDA food security is, access, at all times, to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members (Nord et al. 2004). By utilizi ng this definition the USDA determined that, Many U.S. households have consistent, de pendable access to enough food for active, healthy living they are food secure (Nord et al. 2004). According to the United States Agency for International Cooperation and Development (USA ID) food security is, When all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy li fe (USAID 1992).11 The current food security policy of the Unite d States both nationally, through the USDA, and internationally, through the USAID, focuse s primarily on quantitat ive measures of food security in terms of physica l and economic access to enough foods without consideration of 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired. Article 29 states, 3. States shall also take effective measures to ensure, as needed, that programmes for monitoring, maintaining and restoring the health of indigenous peoples, as developed and implemented by the peoples affected by such material s, are duly implemented. 11 The USAID policy determination (USAID 1992) lists the four previous international and national definitions that were utilized in the formulation of the USAID definition of food security: 1. "Access by all people at all ti mes to enough food for an activ e, healthy life." (World Bank). 2. "All people at all times have both physical and economic access to the basic food they need." (FAO Committee on World Food Security) 3. "Access by all people at all times to sufficient food and nutrition for a health y and productive life." (The Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Ac t of 1990 {P.L.480}) 4. "When all people at all times have access to sufficie nt food to meet their di etary needs for a productive and healthy life." (USAID Bureau for Africa, 1986) 22

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actual household utilization of th ese foods or psychological and cultural values a ttached to food consumption and preparation. The current US Pr esident, George W. Bush, reflects the food security policy of the US in his speeches. In his address to the Future Farmers of America on July 27, 2001, he noted the high importance of producing enough food to feed people in the United States and linked this to national security and freedom from international pressure (Office of the Press Secretar y 2001). He stated: It's important for our nation to build -to grow foodstuffs, to feed our people. Can you imagine a country that was unable to grow enough food to feed the people? It would be a nation that would be subject to international pressure. It woul d be a nation at risk. And so when we're talking about American agriculture, we're really talking about a national security issue (Office of the Press Secretary 2001). This concern over the relationship between food security and national security by the President is obvious considering that the United St ates has utilized food as a weapon; perhaps the most notable example of this is the embargo on Cuba. The Cuban embargo has forced individual families and the Cuban government to make due with fewer ties to global circuits of food production and distribution (see Funes et al. 2002). This has led to an incr ease in the number of policies, programs and measures to enhance f ood security by relying on local and national food production programs (Nieto and Delgado 2002:49-56).12 Similarly the U.S. has been responsible for the imposition of Coalition Provisional Au thority Order 81 in Iraq, which imposes World Trade Organization friendly intellectual property rights, including potential limitations on the rights of farmers to use seeds from the previous seasons harvest (Administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority 2004). Coalition Provisional Authorit y Order 81 could undermine food 12 These include structural measures in agriculture: the creation of basic units of cooperative production, new type state farms, distribution of coffee and tobacco land to peasant families, distribution of plots for food production, encouraging food self-provisioning, urban agriculture, agricultural production cooperatives, credit and service cooperatives. For more on current policies and fu ture measures see Nieto and Delgado (2002:49-56). 23

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security for farmers who might not be able to a fford seed purchases that would be required when patented material is found amongst seeds which have been saved from the previous season.13 When the operational definitions of food securi ty are limited to how much food is created and distributed then the US emerges as a superior nation in terms of its overall food security and food surpluses. At the same time the relative in ability of so-called less developed countries to meet the caloric needs of their populace due to chr onic or acute instability in various sectors: environmental, economic or political is reflectiv e of their inferiority. Those in international development circles would also point to the poo r transportation infrastructure in these less developed countries, which limits the distribution of f ood to areas that may be in the greatest need of food assistance. In the West, the temporal unfolding of sc ience and technology is perceived as leading directly to the continual emergence of pr ogress (Escobar 1994). Notions of this superiority are reflected in the literature concerning food production and food security where the locus of food insecurity is again and again placed in the so-called less developed world while the breadbasket of the world is in the United St ates. The superiority of the international agroindustrial complex is intimately connected with economics a nd politics; it is a historically produced discourse (Escobar 1999). When former US Agriculture Secretary Earl L. Butz challenged US farmers to plant from "fence row to fence row" and "get big or get out" most, with encouragement of agriculture la w and policy, listened. The industrialization of agriculture has 13 Combe (2003) notes that the U.S. patent system is designed to protect investment first and as a secondary consideration it rewards innovation or creativity. Indeed the development of patents law as applied to plants in the U.S. was written by seed industry lawyers to protect the interests of the seed industry (Fowler 1994 and Fowler 1997). If the 2002 Canadian case of Percy Schmeiser and Schmeiser Enterp rises Ltd v Monsanto Canada, Inc and similar US cases such as Monsanto Company v Homan McFarling 302 F.3d 1291 (Fed. Cir. 2002), are any indication, it is conceivable that Monsanto, or another si milar situated agri-business will be successful in seeking compensation and an injunction of continued seed saving for farmers in the developing world. Such utilization of IPR, would have dire ramifications on food security for the .4 billion people who live in farm families that are still largely self-provisioning in terms of seed (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1998). 24

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condensed the processes of production into fewer hands via market forces. In the US this reduction in the number of agricult ural workers is strikingly appare nt as 137 hectares are farmed by the average American agricultural worker (D aily and Ehrlich 1996). This decrease in the number of farmers and increase in the adoption of Green Revolution tech nologies was successful in increasing grain yields from 1.1 tons per hectare in 1950 to 2.8 tons per hectare in 1992 (Conko and Smith 1999). At one point in the 1970s the UNs Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that the Earth could s upport 157 billion people through Green Revolution technologies (Levenstein 2003:147). This technological optimism and belief in the ability of the United States to act as a compassionate nation to help to feed the world, despite degradation of soils and communities throughout the Great Plains, diminishing water supplies in the west, and chemical and genetic contamination throughout the United States. Nonetheless, the United States reemerges time and again in self-congratulatory discourses as the exemplar of not only a big brother offering a less fortunate sibling assistance in time of need but also the global center of innovation. This optimism, sense of superiority and patriotism were recently reaffirmed in another speech by US President, George W. Bush: Millions suffer from hunger and poverty and disease in this world of ours. Many nations lack the capacity to meet the overwhelming need s of their people. Alle viating this suffering requires bold action from America. It requires America's leadership and requires the action of developed nations, as well... We are a compassionate nation. When Americ ans see suffering and know that our country can help stop it, they expect our government to respond. I believe in the timeless truth, and so do a lot of other Americans, to whom much is given, much is required. We're blessed to live in this country. We're blessed to live in the world's most prosperous nation. And I believe we have a special responsibility to help those who are not as blessed. It is the call to share our prosperity with others, and to reach out to brothe rs and sisters in need. (Office of the Press Secretary 2007). Despite this optimism and the tremendous grow th in US agriculture production there are still numerous health and nutriti onal disparities in the US. Both urban and rural populations 25

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suffer form a lack of food security as defined by va rious policy instruments. As part of a policy of assimilation many Native American tribes had their food systems decimated with the intention of eliminating Native Americans as a unique cultur al group or with the intent of providing for more appropriate and efficient food systems (Lew is 1994:11). Outsiders have, since the first contact with the Spanish, attempted to refashion the food systems of the Tohono Oodham in order to make them more productive. Spanis h crops were adapted by the Tohono O'odham and incorporated into the food system, which relied on floodwater farming, hunting and gathering. It was not until the 1940s that outside factors made the continuance of traditional styles of farming a more difficult choice or even a non-opti on for many Tohono O'odham individuals. These factors included: the implementa tion of food security programs such as food assistance on the Tohono Oodham Nation (TOCA and TOCC 2002), work oppor tunities in mining and agriculture at time of the year when attention was needed in their own fiel ds, relocations to cities and boarding schools, and increased availability and relative low cost of purchased food items. These factors combined in varying intensities over the course of several decades to bring about a steady decline in traditional food production on the Tohono Oodham Nation. In the late 1910s estimates of 9,177 to 16,000 acres of floodwater farming existed on Tohono Oodham lands (Clotss 1915:27 and McDowell 1920:279 in Nabhan 1986). See Table 1-1 and Table 1-2 for change in acreage farmed for the contiguous Tohono Oodham Nation and the San Xavier District respectively. TOCA and TOCC (2002) estimated that production utilizing floodwater faming declined from over 20,000 acres in the la te 1920s to 2,500 by 1949 and then to less than 25 in 2002. There were mere remnants of thes e floodwater fields in 1986 (Nabhan 1986) and only a handful of farmers who still practiced fa rming in this manner when I conducted my field research. The production of traditional foods has also dramatically declined with tepary bean 26

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( Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) production on the Tohono Oodha m Nation falling to less than 100 pounds in 2001 from approximately 1.8 million pounds in the 1930s (TOCA and TOCC 2002). Although floodwater farming has nearly disappeared from the Tohono O'odham Nation tepary bean production on the Tohono O'odham Nation has begun to rebound in the last six years. Diseases of Affluence Obesity From a biomedical perspective, an indivi duals own decision ma king regarding caloric consumption and activity levels are key factors in determining whether someone will gain weight and eventually become overweight or obese.14 This has been reproduced in public health discourse (Rock 2003; Saldivar 2007). Anthropologists and others have challenged the primacy of self-responsibility inherent in this discourse and instead highlighted the uneven distribution of healthy foods based on income and ethni city (Winson 2004; McGuire 2007). Popular media accounts have recently examined the environmental, health and societal risks posed by the vertical integr ation of food production. This ha s been illustrated most clearly in the 2004 Academy Award nominated film Supersize Me and in the non-fiction book and film Fast Food Nation Supersize Me traces the path of Morgan Spurlock as he embarks on a monthlong diet consisting only of items found on McD onalds menus throughout the United States (Spurlock 2004). During the same time he m easures his activity levels to mirror what the average person in the United States does for ex ercise (Spurlock 2004). The film points out the dangers of fast-food consumption coupled with a sedentary lifestyle (Spurlock 2004). Despite 14 Body Mass Index (BMI), the ratio of an adults height and weight, is one measure of determining if an individual is to be classified as either overweight or obese. An individual with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered to be overweight. An individual with a BMI over 30 is considered to be obese. 27

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challenges by the fast food industry to the validity of Spurlocks claims given his regimented diet (eat only McDonalds three times a day and supersize wh en asked), a recent study suggests a connection between fast food consumption and obesity (Pereira et al. 2005). The study, which followed 3,031 subjects (18-30 years old in 1985-1986) for 15 years, found that, Fast-food consumption has strong positive associations with weight gain and insulin resistance, suggesting that fast food increases the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes (Per eira et al. 2005). The Fast Food Nation film based on the book by the same name provides accounts of a fictionalized fast food companys production through the eyes of the companys employees, associates and former employees (Linklater 2006). This film gives some indication of the dangers faced by those involved in fast food production (workers in feedlots, slaughterhouses and restaurants) and consumption (Linklater 2006). These accounts ma y raise awareness amongst specific segments of the population, however mere recognition of potential health consequences does not necessarily translate into actual dietary modification, particular ly for those with neither the time nor monetary resources to do make dietary modifications. Despite media campaigns of public health pr ofessionals and agencies, the majority of people over 30 in the US are either overweight or obese and the prevalence of overweight or obese individuals is likely to increase (McCart hy 2004). While 79% of men in the United States were overweight or obese in 2005, the World Hea lth Organization (WHO) (2007a) estimates that by 2015 87% will be overweight or obese.15 While 77% of women in the United States were overweight or obese in 2005, the WHO estimates th at by 2015 83% will be overweight or obese (World Health Organization 2007a). 88% of US deaths a year (2.12 million) are due to chronic 15 Diet, particularly regular consumption of excess calories, is a key factor. However one study suggests a direct relationship between type of foods consumed, in this case increased red meat consumption, particularly processed meats, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women (Song et al. 2004). 28

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diseases (World Health Organi zation 2007a). The solution offere d by the WHO is healthy diet, regular exercise and avoidance of tobacco produ cts (World Health Organization 2007a). High rates of obesity amongst Native Americans have been documented for some time (Wiedman 1989; Knowler et al. 1991). In 1991 when the prevalence of diabetes was 9.1% amongst men and 8.2% amongst women for the US as a whole, Native Americans had rates of 13.7% for men and 16.5% for women (Broussard 1991). Diabetes Type 2 diabetes presents a serious challenge to community health professionals worldwide as the incidence rate of diabetes continues to rise in third world countries (Prasad and Srivastava 2001). This will lead to an increas e in the overall number of peopl e living with type 2 diabetes in the coming decades (Prasad and Srivastava 2001) Currently the highest incidence rates are in developed countries such as the United States (World Health Organiza tion 2007b). According to the WHO (2007b) the United States in 2000 had a prevalence of 17.7 million cases of diabetes, compared to 33 million for all of the Americas. In 2005, the total prevalence of diabetes in the United States was 20.8 million people or seven pe rcent of the population (CDC 2005). Of these 20.8 million people, 14.6 million were aware that they had diabetes or about 70%, while 6.2 million or about 30% had diabetes but had not been diagnosed (CDC 2005). The incidence of diabetes, those who had been diagnosed with diabetes, was 1.5 million people for those over 20 years of age (CDC 2005). In 2002 diabetes was the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the total cost s of diabetes were $132 billion in medi cal costs, disability, work loss and premature mortality (CDC 2005). In addition to the high number of deaths and economic costs, individuals, families and communities all suffer fr om the diminished quality of life experienced by individuals who have type 2 diabetes (Weiss et al. 1989). These include loss of 29

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vision/blindness, nephropathy, atherosclerosis, f oot problems, neuropathy, and dialysis (Weiss et al. 1989).16 Populations at high risk of de veloping type 2 diabetes incl ude African Americans, Native Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans; hence programs that target these populations will be essential in slowing the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (Kulkarni 2004). Diabetes was virtually unknown amongst Native Americans pr ior to 1940 (West 1974, de Cora 2001). The increase in levels of obesity in Native Americans has made this population more susceptible to type 2 diabetes (Wiedman 1989; Knowler et al 1991; Welty 1991). Amongst Native Americans, aged 20 and over, who receive care from Indian Health Services (IH S), 12.8% or 99,500 had been diagnosed with diabetes (CDC 2005). Th ere are a total of 118,000 or 15.1% of those who receive care from IHS that have diabetes, although 18,500 have yet to be diagnosed with it (CDC 2005). The highest prevalence rate for type 2 diabetes, after adjust ment for age differences, is in southern Arizona at 27.6% (CDC 2005). The increased exposure of Native American youth in the southwest to factors which contribute to diabetes and subsequent weight gain (Knowler et al. 1991 ) will translate into increased levels of mortality and end-stage re nal disease as this population reaches middle age (Pavkov et al. 2006). This will lower overall qual ity of life for individuals suffering from the disease, impacting families and communitie s in which these individuals live. Community Foods, Community Health Many individuals and entities th at I spoke with over the c ourse of research expressed concern that despite 30 years of research from a biomedical perspective little has been done to 16 Dialysis may also be indicated for patients who have lost the functioning of their kidneys, currently there are 171 Tohono Oodham people who require dialysis (Throssell 2007a). This can have profoundly effects on family life for Tohono Oodham individuals (Throssell 2007b). A new dialysis center, located in Sells, AZ, opened on August 19, 2007, and will eventually have the capacity to have 40 treatment stations (Throssell 2007a). 30

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curb the ever increasing rates of diabetes. A recent study on obesity amongst Native American adolescents concluded by stati ng that, intervention programs need to place less emphasis on convincing Native American youth of the importa nce of weight control, and more emphasis on enabling them to successfully modify their lif estyles to prevent excessive weight gain (Neumark-Sztainer 2007). Native American communities in general and the Tohono Oodham in particular are addressing this through the development of initiatives such as the Healthy Oodham Promotion Program and Soccer for Nations which encourage individuals to become more active and through TOCA a nd SXCF through the developmen t of greater access to preContact foods. Traditional diets and the time and energy requ ired for procurement and processing have been effective in maintaining the health of popula tions in the ecosystems within which they have co-existed and co-created (Pieroni and Pri ce 2006:2, Hegwood 1990; Grivetti and Ogle 2000). Although substantiated with prim arily circumstantial informati on, TOCA (2000), th e increase in the incidence rate of type 2 diabetes began with the departure from a traditional diet to a more Western diet (TOCA and TOCC 2002). Underhill (1933) touched on increased disease when the shift to the grocery-store economy was beginning. During this tr ansition it was not merely the diet that was changing but also other aspects of the Tohono Oodham lifestyle (see Chapter 2). Studies have shown that consumption of a tr aditional Indian diet in conjunction with exercise, and subsequent weight loss assists in improving the c ondition of patients with type 2 diabetes (ODea 1984; Swinburn et al. 1991). While ODea worked with Australian indigenous peoples, Swinburns research was on the Pima, w ho are closely related to the Tohono Oodham. Swinburns study used traditional foods collected from the Sonoran Desert or grown utilizing floodwater farming methods. These foods were buds of the cholla cactus ( Cylindropunita 31

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acanthocarpa Knuth) (Figure 1-1), fruits of the saguaro cactus ( Carnegiea gigantean (Engelmann) Britton & Rose) (Figur e 1-2) and tepary beans. Th is research has been cited by Nabhan (2003) who advocates for the strong connections between place, people and health. He writes, Boyd Swinburn demonstrated in a clinical expe riment at the Phoenix Indian School that a complete diet of these foods was sufficient to control diabetes without the supplemental use of medications or altered exercise regime s. Conversely, he determined that a diet consisting of convenience store foods with th e same number of calories and the same fat/protein/carbohydrate ratio was all that was needed to trigger diabetes. Another study primarily on Pima but also on Tohono Oodham suggests that the incidence rate of type 2 diabetes may be lowered by a di etary preference for traditional foods including post-Contacts foods, when compared to an Angl o dietary preference (Willia ms et al. 2001). Precontact Tohono Oodham foods are high in dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates that slowly release sugar leading to a more gradual rise in blood sugar (Balick and Cox 1996:67). Nabhan further notes that the, Mucilage present in mesquite pods and cactus pads also dramatically lowers the insulin response by slowing the digest ion and absorption of starches (Balick and Cox 1996:67). See Buseck (2003:57-59) and Hodgson ( 2001) for a listing of nutritional studies on Tohono Oodham traditional foods. Although I did not specifically mention th e connection between traditional foods and diabetes, diabetes was seen as connected to the issues of traditional foods by over half of the respondents. 29 individuals (60.4%) mentioned diabetes over the course of interviews concerning traditional foods. Of these, although only 4 individuals (8.3%) maintained that the prevention or management of diabetes was a reason why they consumed traditional foods, 14 (29.2%) stated a positive relationship between traditional food consumption and diabetes prevention or diabetes management. 13 (27.1%) i ndividuals disclosed that they were diabetic over the course of interviews. 14 individuals ( 29.2%) mentioned that someone in their family 32

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was a diabetic. Only 8 individuals (16.7%) who me ntioned diabetes did not mention that they or someone in their family had diabetes. Hence, regardless of whether there is definitive biomedical proof of the relationship between decreased traditional food consumption and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes, there is: (1) A number of studies documenting the nutritional quality of food, traditional and cont emporary; (2) A belief amongst organizations in Native American communities and particularly the Tohono Oodham that there is a strong link between declining traditional f ood consumption and increased incidence of diabetes; and (3) The importance of diabetes as a major issue in th e lives of individuals and families of Tohono Oodham. This section has also suggested that the current US paradigm of food security, which focuses primarily on quantitative measures of food security, may not meet the unique needs of Native Americans in general and th e Tohono Oodham in particular. Food Security Revisited For local communities and indigenous peoples such as the Tohono Oodham the food security concept as it is put in to the practice in the United Stat es is woefully inadequate to consider cultural appropriatene ss of foods and diseases of a ffluence which plague community members. TOCA has brought attention to the need to revise the concept of food security to more effectively consider the unique challenges th at the Tohono Oodham face (Kirschenmann 2005). The Community Food Security Coalition (2004), a California based NGO has extended the food security concept as all pers ons in a community having access to culturally acceptable, nutritionally adequate food through local non-emergency sources at all times. According to the USDA (2002:101) community food security extends the household food security concept and, focuses on the underlying social, economic, and institutional factors within a community that affect the quantity and quality of food available and its affordability or 33

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price relative to the sufficiency of financial re sources available to acquire it. The community food security concept can be addressed through policies and programs that include, participation in and access to Federal f ood assistance programs, economic opportunity and job security, community development and social cohesion, ecologically sustainable agricultural production, farmland preservation, economic viability of rural communities, direct food marketing, diet-related health pr oblems, and emergency food assistance access (USDA 2002:101). Quite different from the internationally formul ated definition of food security put forth by USAID, the Community Food Security Toolkit was developed at the 1999 Community Food Security Assessment Conference and was designed for local organizations and individuals in the private, public and third sectors. The toolkit provides a much broader definition of food security at the community level such that community food insecurity may manifest if any of the following are present: There are inadequate resources fr om which people can purchase foods; The available food purchasing resources are not accessible to all community members; The food available through the resources is not sufficient in qua ntity or variety; The food available is not competitively priced and thus is unaffordable to low-income households; There are inadequate food assistance resources to help low-income people purchase foods at retail markets; There are no local food production resources; Locally produced food is not available to community members; There is no support for local food production resources; and There is any substantial level of househol d food insecurity within the community. These criteria offer a much more realistic point of departure than US government measures for examining the current state of food ins ecurity on the Tohono O'odham Nation. Certainly 34

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large scale agricultural producti on and distribution systems are capable of offering immediate solutions for food insecurity crisis management, but as the preceding section on diseases of affluence demonstrates, these systems do not ad dress the unique needs of indigenous peoples who have co-created the landscapes which they have historically o ccupied. Small scale agricultural production and distribu tion systems, while not as capable in short term crisis management offer the potential for long term fo od security by taking into account the unique nutritional needs of th e populations that they se rve. Critics of small s cale agricultural systems as a primary means for ensuring food security point to the increasing advancements in applications of chemical, breeding and biot echnology technologies which have allowed for increasing gains in the production of foods for the ever increasing global population. This common sense notion has some Oodham, whom I interviewed, not e the importance of industrial systems of food production while at the same time drawing ve ry clear distinctions between what the masses need to eat in order to survive and what Oodha m need to eat to be strong and healthy Oodham people. In this sense the con ception of some Tohono O'odham that they are living in two worlds is extended to agricultural pr oduction methods. These two worl ds are one world that needs industrial methods of food manuf acture that are chemically intensive and another where Oodham people need to farm traditional foods and sc our the desert in search of wild animal and plant foods which sustain life. The following qu otes highlight perceive d differences between O'odham traditional foods, industrial produced foods, fast foods and health foods. These quotes give a better understanding of f oods that are considered healthy. The words of these Tohono O'odham stress that the bioreg ional production of foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation imbues these foods with life nurturing qualities while production of foods outside of the Nation in 35

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industrial contexts imbues the foods with additives which tric k the body such that individuals will become addicted to them. As Larry, a middle age Akimel Oodham, notes: These traditional foods are righ t there and they dont need to go down the road to the store to purchase these food items anda lot of it is also for them to grow their own food because you know when you think about it today because of so many people in the world the population has probably quadrupled so many times and so now they have to manufacture food and a lot of it is done through chemicals and so this is one of the things that we teach them is that a lo t of the foods that are out here are natural its a lot healthier and you know traditionally when we talk about our ancestors they are more fit, better shape than we are today because of the foods that they ate and a lot of nourishment that came from them not only that but there are certa in kinds of foods that we usenot only for food but also for medicine.17 This O'odham man notes the overlap between food and medicine, with certain foods having specific associations with curing alimen ts and food as preventative medicine, ensuring good health and vitality by drawi ng connections between what thos e ancestors that have come before have eaten and what the Oodham today s hould eat in order to recl aim a sense of wellness and health ascribed to their ancestors. Over the course of the same interview with Larry when I asked about the health of eating wild ga me from the desert he replied: Well you know, like I kind of men tioned earlier, a lot of the foods produced today are processed because...the mass people that they have to feed and so a lot of them has to be chemically produced and that goes from ever ything from the plants into the animals because like the beef they have to fatten up the beef because theres so many people to feed and so when you take the young peopl e out the young men you take them out when you go hunting and I explain to them that these foods these animals that we go after like the jackrabbits, the deer, all that co me to us different birds and you tell them that these animals are a lot heal thier to eat these they are a lot healthier because on some of the bigger game you dont see any fat on them because they have to eat the foods, the greens, and they dont [eat] a nything that would harm us they eat all the good greens everything thats good out there. Thats what they eat and thats why we eat the animals for meat and [the] same with the different buds and flowersthey are healthy and so thats what we ingest. But one of the things that they are still not understanding is why you know we can go down to Burger King and I say y eah you can do that but a lot of that is not real it is just a thi ng that they feed in your mouth that they say is the best you can have. And so the reason that we explain a lot of these th ings to them is that the foods that we eat, 17 I have not made grammatical or other modifications during the transcription process with the exception of words placed in brackets for implied words where th e interview was difficult to transcribe. 36

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the fast foods and some of the supermarkets meat and vegetables that we eat why they taste that way and thats because of the chem icals. Our system is getting used to the chemicals and so when they eat the wild ga me and the wild foods they taste different because its all natural and so they question, Well how come it tastes like this and this tastes like that?and I said, T hats because your system is getting used to chemicals and its not used to natural, natural. In describing the health of the animals and the health of the meat that they provide for the O'odham this man discusses how O'odham youth have different choices of foods than those in previous generations. This feeling that foods grown locally are more healthy than foods produced outside of the region was shared by Jordan, a middle age male from the San Xavier District, when I aksed him, Whats been your experience with traditional foods? What have you typically eaten, how has that changed over time? He responded quickly noting difference in food quality between the foods of today and traditional foods, I guess it is a lot tastier it doesnt taste anything like I guess the food that you eat today there is a lot more flavor to eat and I guess its more of wh ats supposed to help you grow in a good wayto know where it came from an d where it was grown at and how it was harvest and all the way to you eating it. Whereas today you dont know where it was grown and what kinds of chemicals were used to grow it or what the idea or where the land is or who the people were or anything about it its just there and you can enjoy it or you either have suspicions about oh what have I eaten or what am I going to give to my childrenhave they put insecticides or pesticides, is it grown in land that was contaminated, or is the water pure or not, or was it misused or were the peopleclean when they harvest it or how did they do it and all those thi ngs I guess nobody knows. Here knowledge of place and process provide s a knowing of the overa ll quality of foods including taste and nutrition. These three O' odham critiques of food systems mirror those of proponents of sustainable and bi oregional-based agriculture w ho note the difference in food quality between local whole foods and distant foods. Eating locally for some Oodham, much like for proponents of sustainable agriculture beco mes a way to eat natural and real eat real foods that are not tarnished w ith the chemical residues typica l of foods available in most supermarkets and fast food restaurants. 37

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Eating local also allows for a gr eater sense of security in a world of increa sing uncertainty and potential terrorist attacks. For Jordan, a middle age man in San Xavier District, the link between developing local resources of food production and distribution is key in establishing long-term food security in a world of increasing uncertainty, an uncertainty that pervades, for one O'odham man in even the most banal of occu rrences like interstate commerce which carries foods past one another as truckers move the products through the commodity chain: One of these days you know terrorists or whatever, those trucks stop going you know, whos going towhere are the people going to find food to feed themselves in Tucson? (T)he price of gas its going up and up and some of the truck drivers are folding up because they cant afford diesel or gas to run their trucks. You know how are they going to get food into Tucsonwere a farm and were hoping that at least our people arent going to be the ones that are goi ng to starve that at least if something happens like that well be open to sell whatever it is that we are growing to our community first before the non-Indians but and it is the sa me thing with the water. The above reflects the importance of prepare dness concerning food access and availability in light of increased uncer tainty of security and ri sing gasoline prices. His line of thought is that terrorist attacks to destabilize centralized systems of production and consumption or increasing gas prices to increase food prices or decrease food transport woul d lead to a major shift in food distribution and production strategi es for the Tucson region. Yet ev en in this collapse of the supporting infrastructure of capita list production the focus remains on selling "whatever it is that that we are growing to our community first before the non-Indians." Nevertheless, the San Xavier Cooperative Farm is viewed as a pot ential generator of regi onal food security and stability within the San Xavier Di strict in the face of potential in stability in the food security of Tucson. Situating the Research The most recent anthropological work on type 2 diabetes and the Oodham SmithMorriss work (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007) which facil itates knowledge exchange between the 38

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Pimas or Akimel Oodham (c losely related to the Tohono Oodham) and biomedical practitioners. She notes that gest ational diabetes leads to higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes both the mother and the infant la ter in life (Smith-Morri s 2005). Based on this increased risk she views pregnant women as sites of key educationa l interventions to reduc e prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes. Her methods are participant obs ervation and formal interviews with 63 women. Smith-Morris (2005) notes that there has been qu ite a bit of disagreement over the diagnosis of GDM in the biomedical community which contri butes in part to Piman understandings of GDM. She finds that many wome n do not differentiate between type 2 diabetes which is a permanently diagnosed and GDM where the diagnosis is retracted post-pregnancy18 (SmithMorris 2005). Pima women view GDM not as a warning sign for increased risk of being diagnoses with type 2 diabetes but rather either a borderline case of diabetes or a inability of the biomedical practitioners to determine diagnosis. Pima women use the term borderline to define what biomedical professiona ls classify as GDM and pre-diabet es (Smith-Morris 2005). Pima perceptions of biomedical research are not positive after 40 years of biomedical research (Smith-Morris 2007). Smith-Morris (2007) lists three concerns Pima have with diabetes research: 1. A cure or reasonable control mechanism will never materialize. 2. Research done by outsiders is a fake or exploitative scheme. 3. Benefits are primarily for nonPima and non-Indian people. Certainly if there have been 40 years of biom edical approaches with continuing epidemic and now endemic rates of type 2 diabetes (Smith-Morris 2007) then perhaps alternative 18 If blood sugar levels are above the threshold for diagnosis with type 2 diabetes then the individual would be reclassified as a type 2 diabetic. According to the Amer ican Diabetes Association, Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG) is the preferred method utilized to determine if the patient presents with type 2 diabetes. An FPG of 126 mg/dl indicates diabetes. A FPG of 100-125 mg/dl indicat es pre-diabetes. This pre-diabetes condition may be partially responsible for Pima understandings of borderline diabetes (Smith-Morris 2005). 39

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approaches might be more acceptable to Native American communities.19 One alternative approach is TOCAs which focu ses on prevention by including co mmunity revitalization efforts that have as one component the increased ava ilability of not only traditional foods through farming operations but also the ability to collect traditional foods in th e desert. Smith-Morris grossly underestimates the importance of pre-C ontact traditional foods for individuals and dismisses any possibility and relevance for a strict attempt to bring dietary preference in line with traditionalism (Smith-M orris 2004). She states, Clearly, a strict attempt to unify traditiona lism with dietary preference is increasingly irrelevant and impossible. Changing foods on th e reservation, just li ke changing clothes, language and healing practices, should not be viewed as a loss of culture. Smith-Morris (2004) misses the fact that many Oodham people are concerned about changing material culture, incl uding food systems, and they do view the changes that have occurred as a loss of culture. She mentions shifts in agriculture with the diversion of water for development of Phoenix and increased mechaniza tion in agriculture (Sm ith-Morris 2004). She also notes that Gila River Farm is growing a number of foods for market but does even touch on the notion that traditional foods could be grown on the farm. She views gardening programs at social centers and schools as good micro-processes supporting broader change rather than possibly effective in and of themselves (Smith-Morris 2002). Previous research has highlighted the conn ection between traditional foods and health. Shifts in dietary consumption coupled with more sedentary lifest yles and concomitant health and nutritional consequences have been well documented by social scien tists and others (Pieroni and 19 If there is a high level of skepticism amongst Native American communities in regards to biomedicine then social scientists should not only seek to facilitate a greater level of information and knowledge exchange between biomedical practitioners and Native Americans in order to improve the quality of life for individuals and communities as Smith-Morris has done, but also facilitate alternative approaches which integrate cultural understandings of the body, health and well being. 40

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Quave 2006:101-128; Ogoye-Ndegwa and Aagaard-Hansen 2006; LaDuke:2006; Ayerza and Coates 2005; Pilcher 2005:235-250; Komlos, 2003; Pottier 1999; Turner 1995; Nabhan 1989). As Calloway, Giauque and Costa (1974) have shown, some of the traditional foods of both the Hopi and the Tohono Oodham are nut ritionally superior to foods provided to these two groups through the US government's comm odity program. Many times these studies note that either assimilation or acculturation are occurring to the point where there is lit tle recognizable of the original cultural form of food consumption. Food remains for the Tohono O'odham an essential component of identity, relationship and place. Th is research demonstrates how individuals are attempting to engage historical processes which have either occurred over the course of their lifetimes or even before they were born in order to answer questions such as what it means to be traditional and specifically eat traditionally in a world of accelerating global flows (Appadurai 1996). The re-emergence of some of the traditional foods of the Tohono O'odham bridges the past with the present as well as hope for the futu re. This research documents cultural memories of ordinary individuals on the Tohono Oodham Nation and examines reasons for the consumption of traditional foods in the present. Social scientists have long been concerned w ith inequities in resour ces utilization and the processes that underlie these inequities. Mintz (1996:11) called on anthro pologists and others to root out the connections betw een power and hunger. Sengupta (2003) has drawn connections between international po litical and economic forces of gl obalization, consumer ist culture and disparities of health care a nd food security. Belasco (2007) has demonstrated how consumer preferences and the counterculture movement have helped to reorient portions of the agriculture sector towards more sustainable produc tion strategies in the Un ited States. Abel and Stepp (2003) have stressed the need to st udy human-environment problems such as food 41

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production which has linked biotic and physical aspects. Buck (2001) demonstrates how race, class and power interweave to form webs of entitlement in the rural southern United States. The relationship between agriculture and culture ha s been analyzed by Pretty (2003) who notes differences between large scale agri-business operations which siphon off wealth from rural regions, to local based agri-culture which increases economic viabil ity and food security while at the same time offers greater oppor tunities for connection between people within the community as well as the natural world in which the community is situated. In the realm of systems of food production some social scientists have sought to give both sides now in debates concerning food production paradigms, particularly genetica lly modified organisms (Stone 2002), while others advocate for third world farmers and cons umers who they see as benefiting from adoption of genetic engineering tec hnologies (Paarlberg 2005:276-85). Researchers from other disciplines including agro-ecology (Alteir i 1995, Alteiri 1999a and Alteiri 1999b) and ethnobotany (Nabhan and Felger 1978; Felger and Nabhan 1978) argue that ecological and biological resources are being under-utilized and indeed destroyed by chemical intensive monocultures characteristic of industr ial approaches to agriculture. Non-social scientists have al so contributed much concerning the political nature of food production and consumption in the United States most notably Nestle (2002), who provides accounts of how nutrition of vul nerable populations, particularly children, is compromised by corporate interests. Diseases of affluence or over-nutrition are increas ing, as mass marketed processed foods are more readily available th an more nutritious, le ss processed foods, to sedentary populations (Scheder 1988). Diabetes is among these diseases of affluence for vulnerable populations (Scheder 1988). A 30-year longitudinal study on the Gila River Indian Community, which included some Tohono Oodham i ndividuals has demonstrated the critical 42

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need to delay and prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes as youth offers no protections against the progression of type 2 diabetes (Pvkov et al. 2006). This study c oncluded that youth onset type 2 diabetes leads to increased complications and mortality in middle age than for those who are diagnosed with diabetes late r in life (Pvkov et al. 2006). There have been several et hnobotanical accounts of the O odham which have focused on plant classification and utilization (Castetter a nd Underhill 1978; Caste tter and Bell 1942; Rea 1997). These books have been useful to a certai n extent within the Tohono Oodham Nation as educational tools incl uding the utilization of Rea (1997) to teach a class entitled, "Tohono O'odham Food Systems," at T ohono O'odham Community College. Recent work by Buseck (2003) discusses the loss of floodwater farming as well as connections be tween traditional foods and diabetes while Madsen (2005) discusses th e impact of the internat ional border on the Tohono Oodham with mention of impacts of migration on safety concerns of collecting traditional foods. In addition to this work by academ ics, Tohono Oodham Commun ity Action (TOCA), a NGO based in the Nations capital s, Sells, Arizona, has produced a number of reports which discuss written survey responses to questions concerning traditi onal foods and make recommendations on steps to restore traditional foods into contemporary food systems of the Tohono Oodham Nation (TOCA and TOCC 2001; 2002; 2003). This research adds to the work of TO CA and TOCC (2001; 2002; 2003) and academics to enhance understanding of knowledge concerning and desire for traditional foods on the Tohono Oodham Nation. This research adds to a greater understandin g of Native American conceptions of tradition in the contemporary world. This research shows that while some Tohono Oodham individuals classify traditional f oods along a spectrum of pre-contact to post43

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commodity foods others uncritica lly lump all foods which they have consumed at community and family events as "traditional." Smith-Morris (2007) discussed the need for pres enting the findings of research in a final report to Native American communities in orde r to support tribal self-determination. This research has resulted in a separate report on access and availability of traditional foods to governmental and non-governmental bodies of the Tohono Oodham Nation. This separate report complements the previous research effort s of TOCA while adding more qualitative data concerning individual Tohono Oodham perceptions of, access to, and desires for traditional foods. The presentation of this report to va rious entities wi thin the Tohono Oodham Nation and the processes of this research may perhaps be gin to open up: (1) more collective imagination (See Anderson 1991) and dialogue concerning traditional foods20; (2) increased rapport between outsiders and researchers in general and members of the Tohono Oodham Nation; (3) the notion that anthropologists and ot her social scientists may have to defend their research agendas and rationales in terms of benefits to the commun ity in a non-abstract, vis ceral way at all stages of research and writing, in order to ensure anthropol ogy in the next seven generations; (4) that anthropologists and other social scientists continue to challenge where the field is for our respective disciplines (See Gupta and Ferguson 1997). 20 This was apparent when I was initially presenting my proposed research before various Tohono Oodham entities and at the conclusion of my research when I presented an extensive report, including excerpts of interviews and summary data, some of which is included in this writing. This created a focus group situation wherein information was disseminated, traditional foods were discussed and a greater sense of collective identity was fostered as individuals fondly and readily recalled their own individual and familial experiences with traditional food production, processing and consumption. As I write this the Tohono Oodham Nation is disseminating this separate report in schools, libraries museums and to other Oodham communities outside the Nation to be utilized as a tool for continued discussion and exploration of traditional food knowledge. Hence, althoug h this research was initially intended to produce an academic work, it has also pote ntially created applied an thropological projects and explorations sans anthropologists. This process of facilitation challenges the immediate product oriented results sometimes called for by anthropologists, those entities funding research and others in the development community. 44

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Goals of the Research The goals of this research are to answer the following questions: (1) What foods do contemporary Tohono Oodham consider to be tradit ional foods? (2) Is there an unmet demand for traditional foods on the Tohono Oodham Nation? (3) What are some of the factors that limit an individuals or familys in creased involvement with tradi tional foods (gathering, growing, cooking and consuming)? (4) Why do cont emporary Tohono Oodham consume traditional foods? (5) What is the current involvement of individuals and or ganizations in traditional foods collection, growing and collecting? (6) How can the food security concept be extended and altered in order to allow for the unique positi on of Native American and other marginalized communities to more holistically address diseases of affluence, particularly type 2 diabetes? The first research question is: What foods do contemporary Tohono Oodham consider to be traditional foods? This rese arch has determined that, these foods include foods from Mexico, demonstrating the Spanish-Mexican influence as well as from the United States, demonstrating the influence of US government assistance progr ams. Tohono Oodham cons ider a wide variety of foods that to be traditional foods, however there are a number of foods which are shared by a high number of respondents. Foods listed by 25% or more of respondents are: beans, tepary beans, squash, tortillas, cholla buds, pinto beans, fry bread/popover, bahidaj mesquite ( Prosopis velutina Wooton) (Figure 1-3), prickly-pear (Figures 14 and 1-5), cactus food/ fruit, wild spinach ( Monolepis nuttalliana Greene), corn, deer and rabbits. For more detailed information on what foods respondents perceived as traditional see chapter 4. The second research question is: Is there an unmet demand for traditional foods on the Tohono Oodham Nation? This research has determ ined that there is an unmet demand for traditional foods on the Tohono Oodham Nation, as onl y 4 individuals reported that they were 45

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satisfied with their current consumption of traditional foods. For more on current consumption of traditional foods versus desired consumption of traditional foods see chapter 4. The third research question is: What are some of the factors that li mit an individual or familys increased involvement with trad itional foods (gathering, growing, cooking and consuming)? This research has determined that the main factors which limit participation are convenience issues of traditional foods versus no n-traditional foods. For more on these issues and other factors which limit tr aditional food gathering, growi ng, cooking and consuming see chapter 4. The fourth research question is: Why do contemporary Tohono Oodham consume traditional foods? This research indicates that there is a significant difference in overall responses to the question Why do you consume traditional foods? between different age groups. While young adults and middle age adults cite to keep tradition as the main reason to consume traditional foods, elders cite health as the major reason that they consume traditional foods. For more on reasons why individuals consume traditional foods see Chapter 5. The fifth research question is: What is th e current involvement of individuals and organizations in traditional foods collection, growi ng and collecting? This research shows that the majority of Tohono Oodham do not currently ga rden or collect tradit ional foods on a regular basis. However a majority reported that they have at some point in their lives participated in each of these activities. Current cooking of traditional foods is reported by over half of the respondents. For more on current growi ng, collecting and cooking efforts by the Tohono Oodham see Chapter 5. The final research question is: How can the f ood security concept be extended and altered in order to allow for the unique position of Native American and other marginalized 46

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communities to more holistically address diseases of affluence, particularly type 2 diabetes? This research will point out the deficiencies in current US policy regarding food security and call for an extension of the US food security concept. Chapter 2 will highlight the efforts of various entities in increasing consumption of tr aditional foods for individual Tohono Oodham.21 The emergence of two main producers and distribut ors of traditional foods on the Tohono O'odham Nation offers challenges and opportunities fo r greater food security of Tohono Oodham.22 It is my intention to illuminate how local local food needs to be in order to support a revitalized traditional food security within the Tohono O'odham Nation. Key issu es in food security will be highlighted in chapter 3 with discussion on how these issues relate to the Tohono Oodham. Chapters 4 and 5 will examine traditional foods on the Tohono Oodham Nation through analysis of research questions 1-5. Interviews of T ohono Oodham help us to und erstand the relative importance, continued need for and improve ment in services offered to Tohono Oodham individuals in order to ensure a wider distribution and consumpti on of traditional foods. Chapter 6 will include a reformulation of food security polic y in the US with special consideration for the unique historical, ecological, and economic posi tioning of the Tohono Oodham. I will conclude 21 I will be examining how differently situated organiza tions and governments utilize and attempt to control the diabetes epidemic that has taken a heavy toll on the Tohono Oodham people. The production, promotion and distribution of traditional foods is one of the most exam ined and considered aspects of efforts to address the epidemic of type 2 diabetes amongst Tohono Oodham organizations such as Healthy O'odham Promotion Program, Tohono O'odham Community Action, San Xavier Cooperative Farm, and non-O'odham organizations such as Native Seeds/SEARCH. As cultural objects, foods make multiple journeys in their progression from fields to their ultimate consumption points. This resear ch engages some of the dynamic that is behind this process, i.e. to trace the life of these traditional foods. Thes e traditional foods also have a value as plant genetic resources. To meet the need to conserve these plants for future generations Native Seeds/SEARCH has developed an in situ seed conservation program that propagates seeds and distributes them to Native American and other peoples. Native Seeds/SEARCH free seed program to Na tive American farmers, gardeners and educators has seen a marked increase in the number of seed packets that they have distributed from 1513 in 2004 to 3400 through 2007 (Nelson 2007:4). This research will briefly examine some of the issues of how the crops are being preserved and used and for what ends. 22 In addition to farming and ranching on the Nation, the Tohono Oodham people continue to collect foods from the Sonoran desert both within the Nation and its bordering natural reserves. 47

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by arguing that food security measurements as they have been developed for international application and at the State level are too coarse -grained to allow for necessary adjustments to ensure the health of local populations. Only through addressing food secu rity at the community level will the unique needs of indigenous peoples be met in terms of subsistence. Stopgap mechanisms including food aid fr om distant lands or centralized food distribution centers will only further disparities in health an d wellness in indigenous communities. The initial intention of th e research was to interview ten Tohono Oodham, selected randomly, from each of the Nations 11 District s. However, a systematic study of Oodham attitudes and beliefs concerning traditional foods was not possibl e given the constraints of the research (see below) although this research adds quantitative and qualitative data to earlier research concerning Tohono Oodham pe rceptions of trad itional foods. Research Approvals and Methods of Gathering Data My field research began with an initial visit to the area in 2002 when I formally met with staff of Native Seeds/SEARCH and T ohono Oodham Community Action (TOCA) and informally with San Xavier Cooperative Farm. I relocated to Tucson, Arizona in the summer of 2004 and even as I write this through 2006 and 2007 when my formal data collection period has ended I look forward to continued post-dissert ation interactions with members of the Tohono O'odham Nation who continue to promote hea lth and wellness through fitness and nutrition education as an alternative to the diseases of affluence particularly type 2 diabetes. My background and studies in developmen t, sustainable agriculture, communitysupported agriculture and other local approaches to ensuring food security, genetically modified organisms and intellectual propert y rights acted as a point of de parture for examining the Tohono Oodham food system. As I am interested in th e processes which go into creating and recreating locally-based sustainable food systems rooted to a place and a culture I began my explorations of 48

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Tohono Oodham traditional foods exploring the s ource of many of the traditional seeds for both the Tohono Oodham Nation as well as other Native communities in the Greater Southwest region of the United States and into Sonora Me xico. From July 2004 to September 2004 I was a Pollinator Intern at Native Seeds/SEARCH Conser vation Farm in Patagonia, Arizona. While performing the day-to-day tasks of growing out accessions, or crop varieties, in the Native Seeds/SEARCH collection I was also exposed to several of the current issues with which the organization was dealing, including presentati ons on the importance of genetic conservation work and facilities of the organization. I was also able to formally interview some staff members and Board of Directors members to get a better idea of the organization s approach to genetic resources conservation and the possible directions that the organization might take in the future in response to concerns of tribal sovereignty a nd intellectual property righ ts. Staff members of Native Seeds/SEARCH allowed me to access to their archives of the organizations newsletter, The Seedhead News Smith-Morris (2007) discusses how contempor ary research protocols contribute to acculturation by forcing researchers to receive in formed consent from the individual at the expense of communal forms of consent, noting th at this contributes to acculturation. When I was seeking permission to conduct research on the Tohono Oodham Nation; the process for attaining permission to conduct research on the Tohono Oodham Nation was not clarified. I was directed by TOCA staff to visit the Tohono O'odham Nations Legislative Council and then directed to meet with both the Cultural Preservation Committee and the Natural Resources Committee of that Legislative Council.23 I was directed to schedul e and attend meetings with 23 See Juan (1992) for historical background on the development of the Tohono Oodham Constitution, the revisions to the Constitution in 1986, and the structure of power ba lance between the three branches of the Tohono Oodham Nations political structure: Executive, Legislative and Judiciary. 49

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each of the Nations eleven districts to ask permi ssion to conduct my research within the District before meeting with the full Legislative Council to seek permission to conduct my research. My initial research plan called for ten interviews in each of the Nations eleven districts in order to compare and contrast individual and familial pe rceptions of traditional foods over the vast Nation. I utilized meetings with the Distri ct Councils and the Cultural Preservation and Agricultural Committees to ask for feedback on the questions and to allow the districts to subtract or add to the questi ons that I would ask members of the Tohono O'odham Nation. I also met with staff from both TOCA and the San Xavi er Cooperative Farm to allow each of these organizations the opportunity to shift the questions that I was asking in or der to bette r suit their own particular needs. My intention was to al low questions to be alte red based on the knowledge and experience of individuals and organizations that have a vested interest in such research. Through this process I received some valuable input from each of the entities, either directly or indirectly, which translated into some modifications in the questions Particularly, individuals in several of the Districts recomme nded that I ask more specific questions concerning livestock operations as well as the role of hunting in household food procurement strategies. After attending meetings with ni ne of the eleven District Counc ils over the course of five months from February-June 2005, I was able to bring my proposal before the Legislative Council. At the District Council level I was initially approved in four districts: San Xavier, San Lucy, Pisinimo, and Schuk Toak. I was also late r approved in the Sells Community. I met with the Legislative Council in June 2005 and was approved in June 2005. This approval was vetoed by the Chairwoman of the Nation due to the lack of a universal policy and procedure in place for researchers to conduct research within the Nation. This veto was subsequently overturned by the Legislative Council allowi ng me the opportunity to conduct form al interviews with members of 50

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the Tohono O'odham Nation within t hose districts that had accepte d my research. See Appendix A for documents related to informed consent and research approval. Due to the movement of many Tohono O' odham people through several districts on a regular, sometimes daily basis, for family, work or other commitments I was able to interview several people from other distri cts. Interviews only took place in districts where permission was granted. Although I was invited to several homes to conduct interviews I did not conduct these interviews because I wanted to respect the di strict or community de cision of not having researchers active in their regions. Interviews vari ed in length from less than thirty minutes to over four hours and in some cases took place over the course of several days. I conducted 48 interviews with members of the Tohono Oodham Nation24 from July 2005 to December 2006. For the list of questions asked to Tohono O odham see Appendix B. In December 2006 my University of Florida Institutional Review Board approval lapsed and I ceased formal research. For the interview process a series of questi ons was loosely followed allowing for a more conversational approach to discussing traditional foods. Most of the interviews were digitally recorded and then transcribed. Some of the interviewees preferred not to have an audio recording made so hand-written notes were ma de. A total of 49 people were interviewed, including two individuals at the same time. There were 33 females (67.3%) and 16 males (32.7%) interviewed. Age categor ies included young adults ( 20-39) (7 individuals, 14.3%) middle age adults (40-59) (29 individuals, 59.2) and elders (60 or older) ( 13 individuals, 26.5%). Tohono Oodham individuals who were interviewed offi cially live in 8 of the 11 districts of the 24 My studies and explorations of the Tohono Oodham Nations food system ha ve taken place on the United States or Arizona portion of Tohono Oodham lands with interviews and site visits being conducted in an area larger than the federally designated United States reservation, from Tucs on on the east Gila Bend on the North, Ajo on the West and into Sonora, Mexico. 51

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Tohono Oodham Nation. Table 1-3 gives a summary of the number of respondents from each of the districts, along with th e percentage of the total. I also engaged in participant observation to the extent possible given the constraints of my site25 and my own scheduling difficulties. I wa s able to volunteer to a limited extent for Tohono O'odham Community Action at events that they hosted as we ll as participate in saguaro cactus fruit harvesting in multiple venues, vol unteer for the Healthy Oodham Promotion Program (HOPP) and Indian Health Services as a Licensed Massage Ther apist at fun run/walk events, as a presenter and guest at several of the annual Diabetes Health Fairs sponsored by the HOPP, as a volunteer to assist w ith the growing efforts at the Se lls Elderly Center garden, as a vendor of traditional foods grown by TOCA and San Xavier Cooperative Farm as well as casual interactions in various research processes on the Nation. Limitations to This Study There were two main factors that contribu ted to the low number of people who were willing to be formally interviewed, although from informal discussion with other researchers (both Oodham and non-Oodham) the number of in terviews that I was able to conduct was relatively high. First, was the size of the Nation which enhanced my own time constraints. In some instances I was given the opportunity like many of the Oodham people to participate in two or even three simultaneous activities sometimes more than a hundred miles apart that would have enhanced my understanding of Oodham culture either through participant observation or by increasing the number of interviews. There were occasions when I was supposed to meet with either political bodies or individuals that the meeting was canceled, sometimes at the last 25 It is common practice that a non-Oodham shall not liv e on the Nation unless they are either married to an Oodham person or employed by the Nation. Although I have heard of non-Oodham who currently live on the Tohono Oodham Nation, I chose not to pursue these options in order to respect this practice. 52

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moment because something had come up at work or more frequently within a family, community or District, that needed to be dealt with im mediately. As I was unfunded through the length of this research I was also working three or four days a week in Tucson in order to meet the everyday considerations of food, shelter and tanks upon tanks of gasoline that enabled me to traverse the Nation. Second, I was reminded constantly of my position as an outsider as well as the historical disparities of outside research and writing in Native American communities.26 I found that many Tohono O'odham would discuss issues on an in formal basis but were not comfortable with being part of a research study, particularly one that is not being conducted by an entity or individual from outside the Tohono O'odham Nation. Although I had sought approval at the district, legislative and community levels as ap propriate and discussed my project with TOCA and San Xavier Cooperative Farm members, I alwa ys mentioned to potenti al interviewees that this was an independent project whose results woul d be shared with each of the entities. As was pointed out to me in several contexts over the course of the approval process and afterwards, researchers will come and go earning a degree and improving their lives but what remains for the Oodham are many of the same issues that the research was purporting to assist the Oodham with. At the majority of the m eetings that I attended with political repres entatives of the Tohono Oodham Nation I was made aware of the general perception that researchers are viewed as takers, getting what they need by any means nece ssary. Some of the more frequently mentioned researcher transgressions include d stories of researchers extend ing beyond what they initially said that they would do, not respecting decisi ons of the political bodi es of the Tohono Oodham 26 See Mihesuah (1998 and 2005) for approaches on writin g and researching in Native American communities. See Seivertson (1999:14) for another researchers account of ch allenges related to internal dynamics in the Nation as well as the historical relationship between the Tohono Oodham and outside researchers. 53

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Nation, visiting areas or people unannounced and not following through on promises that they have made. I was surprised to learn how strong these feelings were, par ticularly towards those who had formerly done research on the Nation wh om I highly respected for the depth of their scholarship. I have attempted to build goodwill for myself and future researchers within the Nation perhaps at the cost of pr obing and prodding which might have yielded more data in the short-term. As such questions that I asked informants remained consistent over the course of the interviews with the questions that I presente d to the Tohono O'odham Legislative Council when I was asking for the final authority to conduct rese arch. This limited the complexity of my research as I asked only open-ended questions over the course of my research. As such the data that I collected was descriptive in nature and th is limited my ability to quantitatively analyze the data utilizing software analysis programs su ch as ANTHROPAC (Borga tti 1998) to run cultural consensus analysis and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS). I also have a limited knowledge of both Sp anish and Tohono O'odham so I required an interpreter for two of my interviews; in both cases the interpreter was a family member who translated Oodham into English. The rest of the interviews were c onducted in English, although in at least two cases informants specifically me ntioned that they would feel more comfortable and knowledgeable if the interview was conducted in Oodham.27 27 In an attempt to share this information in the Oodham language the original abstract of this dissertation was translated into the Tohono Oodham language. Se e Appendix C for the abstract in Oodham. 54

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Figure 1-1. Picture of buckhorn cholla ( Cylindropunita acanthocarpa (Engelmann & Bigelow) Knuth). Figure 1-2. Picture of saguaro cactus ( Carnegiea gigantean (Engelmann) Britton & Rose). Figure 1-3. Picture of mesquite (Prosopis velutina Wooton). 55

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Figure 1-4. Picture of Sa nta Rita prickly-pear (Opunita violacea var. santa-rita (Griffiths & Hare) Rose (syn., O. violacea Engelmann)). Figure 1-5. Picture of E ngelmann prickly-pear ( Opunita engelmanni Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann). 56

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57 Table 1-1. Change in acreage farmed over time for the Tohono O'odham Nation, excluding San Xavier and San Lucy Districts. Date Acreage Water Source Source 1910s 9,177 to 16,000 acres Floodwater (Clotss 1915:27 and McDowell 1920:279 in Nabhan 1986) Late 1920s 20,000 Floodwater TOCA and TOCC (2002) 1949 2,500 Floodwater TOCA and TOCC (2002) 2002 Less than 25 Floodwater TOCA and TOCC (2002) 2003 7,000 Irrigation Groundwater (USDA-NRCS 2003) Table 1-2. Change in acreage farmed over time for San Xavier District Date Acreage Water Source Source Early 1900s 1,580 Irrigation River (Olberg and Schank 1913:5 in Fontana (1960:4) 1957 371 by TO 271 leased Irrigation Well (Lewis 1994:165) 1960 Approximately 1500 possible Irrigation Well Fontana (1960:4) 1960 88 by TO 871 leased Irrigation Well (Lewis 1994:165) 2004 -2006 300 Irrigation CAP SXCF personal communication 2008 (estimate) 1000 Irrigation CAP SXCF personal communication Table 1-3. Number of people inte rviewed by Tohono Oodham District. District Number of Pe ople Percentage of Total Baboquivari 3 6 Chukut Kuk 2 4 Gu Achi 5 10 San Lucy 32 65 San Xavier 2 4 Schuk Toak 2 4 Sells 2 4 Sif Oidak 1 2

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CHAPTER 2 THE TOHONO OODHAM The Desert People The Tohono O'odham are well known for: 1. the extent to which they have been researched by outsiders28 and 2. having one of the highest ra tes of type 2 diabetes amongst any people (TOCA and TOCC 2002, Matthews 2006). Earl y anthropological st udies of the region include the work of Underhill (1934, 1939, 1946, 1985, 2000), Fontana (1960) and Waddell (1966). More recent scholarship includes anth ropologists (Fontana 1989; Griffith 1992; Cudel 1994), geographers (Seivertson 1999; Madsen 2005), agricultural scien tists (Buseck 2002), ethnobiologists (Nabhan 1982, 1983, 1985) as well as partnership publications by academics and Tohono O'odham individuals (Kozak a nd Lopez 1999) and Tohono Oodham academics including Zepeda (1983, 1985) and Juan (1992). The Tohono Oodham Tribal Council has also endorsed an introductory textbook (Erickson 1994) which outlines the political, social and economic events that have impacted the tribe. A favorite topic of many academics has been the level of acculturation for Native American peoples29 (See Thompson 1948; Fontana 1960; Spicer 1962; Waddell 1966; Stull 1974; Jackson 2002). Recent studies have examined the resurgence of Native American panIndian culture or individual tribal manife stations of culture (S ee Nagel 1996, LaDuke 1999, Treat 2003). Perceived levels of accultura tion vary across the Tohono Oodham Nation. From 28 For an idea of the extent of research and wr iting on the Tohono O'odham see Fontana (2004). 29 See Madsen (2005: 69,78) for a discussion of varying acculturation patterns between Oodham living on the Mexican side of the border and Oodham living on the United States border. Although Madsen notes that the Oodham living on the Mexican side of the U.S. Mexico border are more acculturated due to greater contacts and connections between Oodham and Mexican people as well as the lack of a reservation system which provided a buffer, many of the Oodham living in the United States that I spoke with referred to Oodham living in Mexico as being less acculturated and more traditional than those livin g in the United States. The continuum of acculturation has been described by Taylor (2004: 29) as providing, insight into the worldviews and self-perception, which are key to providing appropriate and efficacious rehabilitation services. 58

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conversations and meetings that I have had with those from the west side30 of the Nation there is a widely held belief that they are more trad itional and less acculturated than those on the east side. At the same time there appears to be a belief among those in the Sells area that they are less acculturated than thos e living in the San Xavier District which is just to the south of Tucson. Interestingly I have heard little discussion from those in either Sells, Sa n Xavier, or the west side of the Nation as to where they believe the San Lucy Distri ct, located adjacen t to Gila Bend, Arizona, falls in the continuum from traditional to acculturated. This could change in the future; however, as some of those living in San Lucy Di strict expressed a degree of concern over the growth and northwards expansion of the city of Gila Bend with one i ndividual describing the temporally proximate and probable encircle ment of the compound where the Tohono Oodham living in the San Lucy District reside. Many indivi duals in San Lucy District perceived themselves as more acculturated than the rest of the Nation, referring to themselves as "Indians" or "urban Indians" and the rest of the Nation as the "reserva tion" or the "main reservation." The Oodham, like other Native American peoples, have to constantly work to maintain their identity and culture in light of challenges that they face as individuals, families, communities and Nations. As Nagel notes: The knowledge that Native American ethnicity is historically based, however, must not obscure the fact that Indian ethnic boundaries and identities are continually socially constructed and negotiated. It is important to note that for both traditional and emergent Indian communities, the work of social and cultural survival represents an ongoing challenge. There is nothing automatic or natural about Native American tribal or supra-tribal ethnicity. No matter how deeply rooted in tradit ion, Indian ethnicity, like all cultures and identities, must be sustained and strengthened (1996:9). 30 Although the Districts were never specifically mentioned by any informants my understanding of west side Districts is based on who was speaking. I believe that Hickiwan, Pisinimo, Gu Vo, and Chukut Kuk (although this District comprises a portion of the eastern border of the Nation and also the majority of the US-Mexico international border) as well as possibly Gu Achi could be considered to be west side Districts. Fo r more on the Districts see Ch. 2: Tohono O'odham Lands. 59

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Many Oodham who work in urban areas make greater efforts to maintain their sense of connection to place and cu lture while balancing conflicting commitments in their schedules. There is also a sense for some of the Oodham that they are living in two worlds, having to balance commitments in both. The geography of the Nation amplifies these conflicting commitments as getting to an event in a home district after work can entail a three hour commute covering well over one hundred miles on roads of varying conditions. The imposition of industrial ag ricultural production of crops to be sold on far away markets perpetuates reliance on the grocery store for most Tohono Oodham. From my experience of walking through the grocery store in Sells, Arizona, the Nations capital, as in many grocery stores, most of the foods were high ly processed foods and there was an absence of any traditional or locally grown foods in 2001. Over the course of my research the amount of traditional foods, particularly tepa ry beans, that were available in the grocery store increased. Through discussion with grocery store managers I have come to further realize the extent to which money determines what is on the shelves. Not only do high profit products such as cokes, candies, and chips dominate grocery store end caps, islands and displays (with greater intensity in poor neighborhoods: see Winson 2004)31 but also how food companies pay to occupy shelf space. The grocery-store economy, which currently dominates the Tohono Oodham Nation, has been associated with the loss of ethnobotanical nomenclature and associated ecological knowledge, which in turn undermines cultural integrit y at the individual leve l (Hill 2001). I will describe more pertinent cultura l details and particularly food production and consumption later. 31 For more on the overall availability of healthy foods in at Navajo convenience stores and trading posts see Pareo et al. (2000). 60

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Tohono Oodham Lands The Tohono Oodham Nation of Arizona ha s approximately 24,000 enrolled members (Tohono O'odham Community College, 2003), w ith 18,000 of them, living in the nine contiguous Districts of the Nation in south central Arizona, see Figures 2-1 and 2-2 for maps of the Nation. The districts of the conti guous Tohono Oodham Nation are the: Chukut Kuk District, Gu Achi Distri ct, Gu Vo District, Hickiwan Distri ct, Pisinemo District, Schuk Toak District, Sells District, and Sif Oidak District. These nine contiguous districts comprise the largest section of the Nation, wh ich is approximately 2.8 million acres, or roughly the size of Connecticut. There are two distri cts outside of the main portion of the Nation: San Xavier and San Lucy. Both of these districts are in cl ose proximity to higher concentrations of nonOodham people. San Xavier or Wa:k is located approximately tw elve miles south of Tucson, Arizona, on Interstate 19. The San Xavier District contai ns the San Xavier Mission de la Bac, a functioning mission and church of th e Franciscans that serves as a center of worship not only for the Tohono Oodham living in the district but also for Hispanic and Anglo-American Catholics in the area (Fontana 1996:56). The mission is surrounded by the fields of the San Xavier Cooperative Farm which is a main source of tr aditional foods for Tohono O'odham in San Xavier District, the Tucson region, and eastern regions of the nine contiguous Districts of the Tohono Oodham Nation. The Cooperative is even well know n and respected by tribal members located nearly 140 miles away in the San Lucy District. The San Lucy District is located adjacent to Gila Bend, Arizona, on the intersections of Interstate 8 and Route 85. It is located further from the contiguous Tohono Oodham Nation than San Xavier. San Lucy residents are thus th e most isolated from the rest of the Nation in terms of geographic distance. They are also the furthest removed from the two main farms 61

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which grow traditional foods. The originally San Lucy village or the old village as it is referred to by San Lucy District members was tr agically destroyed in a flood. The districts are political units within the Nation, functioning similarly to states in the United States. Decisions concer ning economic development, use of federal and tribal funds, and whether or not to allow researchers to work within the District are made at the District level with varying degrees of consultation with the communities within the District.32 The Legislative Council for the Tohono Oodham Nation, which has two representatives from each of the Districts (with voting weight base d on membership) will often defe r to Districts regarding certain matters. Thus, deference to the village as the traditional unit of decision making is a value that is still followed by many Tohono O'odham. Eco-Biological Factors Natural resource utilization by indigenous peoples in what is now the southwestern United States has acted as de facto biodiversity conservation and creation (Doolittle 1992). Home gardens have been an essential feature in th e southwestern US since 2,000 BC, providing areas where plants could be individua lly cared for (Doolittle 1992). Home gardens served as focus areas for household genetic diversity conservati on efforts and acted as a backup should field crops fail, making them integral to food security in indigenous agro-ecosystems (Doolittle 1992). The maintenance and cultivation of agro-biodi versity over this 4,000-year time have functioned to assure long-term food security in the region (Doolittle 1992). Information on available plant resources within the Nation is well document ed in the ethnobotanical (Curtin 1992, Nabhan 1985, Rea 1997) and natural history (Phillips et al 2000; Felger and Broyles 2007) literature. There are also written account s describing the utilization of semi-domesticated (weedy) crop 32 In the case of San Lucy and San Xavier the district is comprised of only one community. 62

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relatives and landraces of crop species, such as Hodgson (2001). For pictures showing the landscape and vegetation of the Sonoran Desert region see Figure 2-3. From an ecologists viewpoint the Tohono Oodha m Nation is composed of several biotic communities within the Sonoran Dese rt. Much of the change in vegetation within the Nation is due to changes in elevation, from 2000 feet on the desert floor to the 7,730 foot sacred peak of the Tohono O'odham, Baboquivari Peak. The biotic communities of the Nation include Sonoran Desert scrub (Lower Colorado River Subdivi sion, Arizona Upland Subdivision), Grassland Formation (Plains and Great Basin Grassland) and Woodland Formation (Madrean Evergreen Woodland) (for more on biotic communities of the Tohono Oodham Nation see Brown 1994). The nine contiguous districts of the T ohono Oodham Nation are located between Tucson and Saguaro National Park to the east, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, an International Biosphere Reserve, to the west, and Sonoran Desert National Monument to the north. The Tohono Oodham Nation thus serves as a critical area for the preservation of ecological and biological diversity (Felger and Broyles 2007). The Nation is located in the Sonoran Desert, which has the highest concentration of pollinator diversity in the world (Allen-Wardell et al. 1998). Pollinators, some of which are intimate ly associated with onl y one plant species and hence highly susceptible to extinction, perform esse ntial functions not only in the maintenance of biological diversity, but also in the enhancement of yield for seve ral crops (Allen-Wardell, et al. 1998; Nabhan and Buchmann 1997; Nabhan et al 1996). The Tohono Oodham are key actors in conserving biodiversity not only within the confines of the Nation, but also in conservation efforts of adjoining parklands (Nabhan 1995; Orlove and Brush, 1996). Some Tohono Oodham families have the rights to harvest saguaro fruit in the western section of Saguaro National Park. A saguaro harvesting or bahidaj camp takes place in an area designated by the National Park 63

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Service. The camp lasts from two to six weeks in June and July33 depending upon the season. The collection begins in Saguaro National Park be gins with the first appe arance of the saguaro fruit en masse and the completion of the annual permit pr ocedure that is needed in order to collect within the Parks boundaries. In Organ Pipe National Monument the fruits of the organ pipe cactus ( Stenocereus thurberi (Engelman) Buxbaum) (See Figure 2-4) and saguaro cactus are both collected. Economies of the Tohono O'odham Nation Casino Casino operations both on and off reservation offer anthropologist s and others rich sites for analyzing competing discourses on the appropriateness of utiliz ing casino revenues to bolster economies (American Indian Gaming Association 2007). Recent anthropological work has looked at contemporary gaming, par ticularly the right and appropr iateness of utilizing gaming as a source of income for and by Native Am erican communities (see Darian-Smith 2004). The Tohono O'odham Nation began its casino operations in October 1993 and currently operates three casinos, two in San Xavier and a much sma ller operation of approximately twenty five slot machines located in a gas station at the west ern edge of the Nation along Route 86. The Nation has recently completed a $120 million casino reso rt which is intended to increase potential profits as well as serve to assist other businesses by attracting a gr eater number of tourists to the Tucson region (Long 2006). The Nation is the ninth largest employer in S outhern Arizona, with over $10 million paid out in wages annually (Touzeau 2005). 33 Historically, the first rains of summer mark the beginning of the year for the Oodham. This occurs in June which is known in Oodham as Ha:sa Bak Maad which can be translated as Saguaro Cactus Fruit Ripens Month. The season last until the rains starts fall with greater intensity in July or Jukiabig Maad which can be translated as Big Rains Month. 64

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The revenues of the casino were estimated to be over $50 million in the late 1990s (Hackenberg 1997). The revenues from the casino are shared with the state of Arizona to and assist with agreed to spending imperatives for the state. The casino revenues are disbursed annually to support programs on the Tohono O'o dham Nation including college scholarships, nursing homes, small business grants, Tohono O odham Community College, fire and police services (Francisco 2002), annual distributions to each of the Nations 11 districts, and are available to individuals members of the T ohono O'odham Nation as disbursements of $2000 on a periodic basis. Additional income from the casino is earned by Tohono Oodham who work as employees of the casino. Casino revenues provide much needed funds for human services and once these high priority needs are met, the Tohono O'odham Nation may be in a position to allocate additional funding for projects that speci fically address traditiona l food security. Mining Mining has at various times accounted for livelihoods for many Oodham, although there are fewer Oodham actively involved in these eco nomic pursuits today. Evidence of mining is apparent even while driving along the main roads of the Tohono O'odham Nation. Many Oodham have worked in mining operations not onl y on the Nation but also in mining towns like Ajo, a once prosperous copper-mining town. Given the extent of copper mi ning in the southern Arizona region there has been relatively l ittle benefit to the Tohono Oodham. Adamson (2001:21) goes so far as to state, the southern Arizona copper belt, yiel ding fully 2/3 of all US copper ore, has not economically benefited the Tohono Oodham tribe, which lost its lands and gained nothing in return. Mining operations began in earnest after the United States Civil War (Sonnichsen 1982:49). The Arizona Mining a nd Trading Company, an American mining company, initiated development of the mines in the Southern Ar izona including Ajo, Ariz ona (Sonnichsen 1982:49). 65

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In the 1870s and 1880s there was a massive infl ux of non-Oodham miners into the mountainous regions of Oodham lands. Several mining towns em erged and some, such as Logan City, grew into small cities of the time, with as many as 2000 buildings and populations of 10,000 (Erikson 2003:95). Although the scale of opera tions was relatively large ther e was little long-term impact of the operations on the Tohono O'odham of that time (Erickson 1994:95). However, there are currently concerns over the potential groundwater contamination that open-pit mining operations can result in (Adamson 2001:25). I ndeed, this contamination has already occurred in the San Xavier District (Lewis 1994:167). Although most of the larger scale mining has le ft the Nation, many of the male informants I interviewed mentioned some sort of connection with mining operations. How deep this connection is felt for some contemporary O odham is evident by a Tohono O'odham Language and Culture class field trip I took with Tohono Oodham Community College. The class was taken to several old mining site s throughout the Nation, which varied in scale from exploratory pits to the remains of old mining towns. We were able to quickly and easily acce ss these various operations from the roads adjacent to them. I noticed rusted out old tins and open mining pits, remnants of former mining camps, as we contin ued our field trip. We ended the mining portion of our trip at the site of a large mining town, complete with portions of an old railroad ascending a nearby ridge and a large pit, perhaps seventy-fi ve in diameter and fifty feet deep where wood was burned to process ore. To this day, mi ning operations on the land of the Tohono Oodham Nation have left visible scar s on the landscape, a glaring re minder of past economic and livelihood ventures for Tohono Oodham. Ranching The districts of the Nation were divided acco rding to the grazing districts that were imposed by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. Although a fe w Oodham families have 66

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been able to utilize cattle ranching to meet all of their economic needs, for many of the Tohono Oodham cattle ranching was a means to bring so me supplemental income or provide meat for the family (Erickson 1994:109). According to a male elder from the Schuk Toak District, The ranching business or the cattle business was primarily how people survived, at least in my time, my dads time. We got a little money off it. Food, meat we were able to trade meat for other things that we used. And it is hard work. The overall size of the herds that graze within the Tohono Oodham Nation is severely limited by the amount of forage available, which is directly related to the amount of rainfall. In periods of drought fewer cattle will be capable of surviving and growing. The actual number of cattle still grazing on the Nation remains unknown. One factor that contributes to this is that many people are new to cattle management, having inherited the cattle from a relative. Many times these new comers entrust their herds to cowboys who will, on occasion, take one of the owners cattle as payment for maintaining the her d. Over the course of years or decades people are unsure of the actual number of cattle that they still own. Another issue, according to Jordan, a middle age male from the San Xavier Distri ct, who was involved extensively with rangeland management, is that asking ranchers how many cattle they have is equivalent to asking them how much money they have and therefore is not answered with a lot of specifics. This indicates that for at least some of the ranchers within the Na tion, cattle still serve es sential and very economic functions in and of themselves. One of the key issues with rangeland manage ment in the Sonoran Desert is overgrazing, which is putting too many cattle units on a gi ven area of land. However, not all Tohono Oodham believe that the cattle manage ment strategies that have been used in the past resulted in overgrazing. According to Blaine (1981:78), a former Chairman of the Papago Tribe of Arizona: Sometimes the winter rains were too late and sometimes too early to help the grass on the range. I say that we never overgrazed! The th ing that cut down our ca ttle was drought. If the drought hits, grass diesWe didnt get rid of our cattle just because someone told us 67

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toWe didnt see any sense in cutting our cat tle down, we took our chances with the rain. If it rains, good. If not, then we are hurt. If cattle are going to die, let them die. But they will die right here on their reservation. Right here in their home country. That was the answer that we gave the white man and his Agency. I fought my boss all the way on this cutting down of Papago cattle on the reservation. The white man never understood this. Ranching was a way of life; the cowboy lifesty le became an integral part of life for generations of Oodham (See Kozak and Lopez 1999). This can still be seen today with the importance of the rodeo for many of the Oodham, the distribution of charcos (ponds) throughout the Nation, the network of fences in various states of repair and cattle grazing available forage on the range and in communitie s. Ranching provides both benefits and challenges to food security on the Tohono O'odham Nation. Ranching provides not only income from sales of cattle but also a local source of le an meat that is valued by O'odham individuals as health promoting. The recent development of horse camps is directly related to the cowboy lifestyle of previous generations of Tohono O'od ham. These camps are designed to teach youth values, respect and traditions a nd offer an alternative to subs tance abuse and violence. In contrast, some respondents reported that ranching could be detr imental to food security when cattle wander through broken fences in to areas that are being farmed and gardened. Agricultural Production As was previously mentioned, the acreage in traditional flood water farming diminished throughout the 20th century from 20,000 in the 1920s to less than 25 in 2002 (TOCA and TOCC 2002). The Spanish and the Anglos both made e fforts, with varying de grees of success, to establish proper agriculture within the Nation (Lewis 1994: 11-12). This led to the introduction of new crops as well as techniques (Lewis 1994:11-12). This coupled with government programs of economic assistance di minished reliance on the traditional agricultural system as well as the crops it produced. Crops were initia lly brought in by the Spanish in concentrated areas around mission sites such as San Xavier. There was a marked decline from 1957 to 1960 68

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in land farmed by the Tohono Oodham, wher eas in 1957 371 acres were farmed by Tohono Oodham and 271 were leased, by 1960 only 88 ac res were worked while 871 were leased (Lewis 1994:165). Jordan remembers how cotton was the Nations major crop when he was growing up in the 1950s. The production of cotton not only necessita tes large amounts of wa ter to grow but can also create barren landscapes where dust and pestic ide mix. The conditions at the fields of San Xavier are recalled by Jordan: I remember way back in the fifties the Co-op was growing nothing but cotton and I remember when I was going to elementary school Id be in front of our house and a plane would zoom by and you could smell all these chemicals it was coming down and spraying it was what do you call it cotton fields a nd then too I remember a lot of our people would be out there harvesting the cotton and theyd have some of these planes even flying by on top of some of the people that were working in these fields. These conditions resulted from industrial agri cultural with a monocu lture of cotton held up by intensive utilization of chemicals. With the increasi ng industrialization a greater amount of agricultural products can be produced per hum an worker, leading to a steady decline in the number of people working in agriculture. A ccording to the same mi ddle age male from San Xavier, the economic rationality of trade offs between market production and human health was something that was challenged by transnational farm worker activists, leading to a paradigm shift concerning food production within the San Xavier District: I remember thats where Ceasar Chavez came and started talking about the farm workers and the way they were unpaid and their living conditions and a ll this other stuff, but not only did he help the Mexican pe ople, but he helped also th e Native American people that were out thereharvesting the cottonand so todaywe dont want to be out there doing that kind of stuffthere is no way that we wa nt to hire any kind company to come in and use their airplanes to spray [their] products here on the Co-op but to be more organic [that] is [what] they ca ll it organic farming. Since most current agriculture operations are in one way or another subsidized by the U.S. government, it is crucial to examine the recent decision-making regarding allocation of funding 69

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for agriculture in the region. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) favors, in terms of overall assistance given to the Tohono O odham, an industrial appr oach to agriculture on the Nation. The USDA did promote what it refers to as a culturally-appropriate system to revitalize traditional cultural practices and redu ce the incidence and severity of diabetes among Tribal members through a 1997 $80,000 competitive gr ant (Community Food Security Coalition 2004)34 and 2001 $135,000 grant both awarded to TO CA (Harrison and Bynum 2001). While these figures may sound significant it is crucial to consider the competitive nature of securing this funding for the short term as well as consider these monies in relation to the expenditure on the promotion of industrial styles of agri culture production. In 2003 alone $1,642,351 in cotton subsidies were paid in Pima County, Ariz ona (Environmental Working Group 2007). These subsidies not only have severe impacts on bi odiversity (Badgley 2002) but also on water resources sustainability, which is increasingly recognized as the largest threat to continued agricultural production (Postel 1999). Currently the Nation uses groundwater to irrigate nearly 7,000 acres of cropland (USDA-Natu ral Resources Conservation Serv ice 2003). This is in sharp contrast to the farmers in the traditional food system, which relied on traditional floodwater farming methods including ak chin irrigation (Nabhan 1983; R ea 1997). Floodwater farming while effectively utilizing scarce water resources re quires at least seven inches of rain in order to produce a crop and hence crops grown in this ma nner would fail in the event of an extended drought (Lewis 1994:126).35 These methods may still be in use on approximately 10-15 acres of the Tohono Oodham Nation. Some of the Tohono O odham elders believe that the only true 34 This competitive grant was through the Community Food Projects Competitive Grants Program, administered through the Cooperative State Research Education, and Extension Service of the USDA. It was established in in 1996 as a part of the Farm Bill entitled the Community Fo od Security Act. Total funding between the programs inception in 1996 and 2003 was $22 million to 166 programs (Community Food Security Coalition 2004). 35 For extensive coverage of the diversity of techniques and cropping systems utilized by farmers in the early 1980s in floodwater fields see Nabhan (1983:43-66). 70

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agriculture occurs when water falls from the sky a nd is diverted to fields. For these elders, water brought from wells or pumped to the area create a agricultural production system which they do not recognize as farming. With an ever dwi ndling land base, it may s oon be that the younger generations will not be able to recognize floodwat er farming as a agricultural production system. Indeed with the over-reliance on groundwater and canal water in Arizona, these methods of production, while diminishing may be the only long-te rm options for continued agriculture in the region. Professional and Administrative The annual movements of the Tohono O'odham between mountain villages and field villages and in some cases the sea to meet subsistence needs were replaced by seasonal migrations to trade or assist in cash crop production. This is now replaced by a new migration pattern, daily or weekly movements from home to the workplace located perhaps 60 to 100 or more miles away. Most of the people empl oyed in Sells work indoors and are government employees (US Census Bureau 2000). The major occupations are serv ice occupations (183 people or 28.8%), sales and office occupa tions (159 people or 25.0%) and management, professional and related occupa tions (157 or 24.7%) (US Census Bureau 2000). In my own movements through Oodham lands I realized how difficult such daily movement can be. In addition several of the areas of the Nation are op en range which means that one has to exercise caution that animals are not on the road. This has to be coupled with the high concentration of heavily armed law enforcement personnel, illegal s or migrants, and drug runners. The thought or frequent sighting of these individuals make s it difficult to fully enjoy the beauty of the Sonoran Desert and the varied programming of the Nations radio stat ion, KOHN 91.9: The Voice of the Tohono O'odham Nation, while driving on the Nation. For many Oodham commuting for several hours of each weekday to or from these cities to the Nation for home or 71

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income earning opportunities becomes tiresome. Strategies for avoiding this commute include relocating to the major city wher e the individual is working, movi ng back to the village or town where family is located, seeking the geographi cally closest employment option(s), renting a place in towns and cities surrounding the Nati on and making the commute home for weekends and special events as time allows Some Oodham have chosen to live in the urban environments despite the relative proximity of their homes on the reservation for reasons such as convenience and better educational options fo r their children. Some who have made this journey for reasons of increased educational or financial opportunities feel as if they are missing out on the cultural activities and everyday life on the Nation. On e middle age professional woman related, So we moved [to the city] and weve been here ever since. I miss the reservation, I miss all the events and ceremonies and what have you and if I am able to, I go, but, our connection to family is what my daughter missed the most. Although there is this movement or its mo re common automobile analogue, commuting, these actions produce continuities where an indivi dual or family can have two or three homes. Most individuals whom I spoke with would always identify with the District that their family is originally from even if they have never lived th ere. This impacts food procurement strategies particularly when the season comes to collect some of the popular trad itional foods from the desert. As an example, a middle-aged women who lives in Gila Bend and has a home in the Hickiwan District will go from time to time to Hi ckiwan District in order to collect traditional foods with relatives she has there. Similarly there are some instances in which the Oodham will think of multiple connections to their Nations lands particularly in the first week or two of November, around All Souls Day, when many Oodha m will visit a number of graveyards to pay respects to those family members who have gone before them. For some this means going to as many as four or more different sites to pay respects. 72

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Many Oodham working in urban centers see themselves living a dual life, one on the reservation as an Oodham and a nother in various professional activities off the reservation. Much like the migration of many indigenous peoples the Oodha m recognize the need to live in two worlds the traditional and the modern. Mobility allows this traverse between the two worlds on a daily basis, but even in their sp eeding cars on the way back through the Nations roads they might not be able to get back to wh ere time slows down, as modernitys presence in the form of increased US Homeland Security patrols and sirens, migrant demands and desires, drug trafficking and use intersect to create a very different land scape than the one that their ancestors knew. It is in this landscape that some cont emporary Oodham, recognized as unemployed or underemployed in official acco unts earn a living or to supplement family incomes. Informal Economy Running drugs and people has become an ec onomically viable source of livelihood for some Oodham.36 Madsen (2005:164) estimates that the to tal payments for these efforts to be over $1,000 tax free income annually per Nation resi dent. This has become such a regular occurrence within the Na tion that individuals will make rounds to pick up illegals asking community members openly whether they have illeg als to be picked up, as German describes the situation, A car that was coming by and he was looking to pick up people. He came in our village, in our yard he was saying, you got any people. I didnt know what he was talking about, do you have any people, any illegals? He couldnt talk Oodham, he was Oodham though. I finally understood him I said no, not here. And I guess people come in to just pick up illegalscars will drive real fast around our community or you see a car driving around honking their horn you know they are trying to pick up illegals. 36 There has recently been am increase in the number of Tohono Oodham who have been arrested for drug trafficking (Throssell 2004), 73

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While there are some economic benefits for some individuals of the Tohono O'odham Nation, the attempted and successful crossing of the border between the United States and Mexico by those seeking economic opportunities in the United States has very real consequences for the Tohono Oodham. Indeed the entire Nation with is subject to smuggling operations of networks of both coyotes who traffic people and smugglers who traffic drugs. This is particularly true of those sout hern districts of the Nation: Ch ukut Kuk District, Baboquivari District and Gu Vo District. In these districts of the Nation one need not look far for the constant reminders of the flow of people, tattered clothi ng left in the middle of the desert, shrines where migrants stop to ask for the blessings for a safe journey, and water bottles left on the side of the roads by religious groups in or der to prevent death by dehydra tion in the searing Sonoran Deserts sun. The temperatures can reach over 100 degrees Fahrenheit from May through September. Alternatively those migrants who make the trek through the mountain ranges of and surrounding the Nation may face hypotherm ia in the winter months. In addition to assisting with the movement of people and drugs through the border region another source of income that could be considered as a part of the informal economy is selling goods from furniture to fruit to pr epared foods on the Nation. This is particularly present in Sells in designated parking lots or near businesses buildings or outside of shopping plazas where both Oodham and non-Oodham sell their products. Sale s also occur frequently in San Xavier, adjacent the mission and in San Lucy District. Entities Involved with Tohono O'odham Agriculture, Health and Tradition Economic opportunities are also em erging which deal with holisti c approaches to health as well as revitalization of agriculture within the Tohono Oodham Nation. The following is a partial list of entities currently active in the fields of agricult ure, health and tradition on and around the Tohono Oodham Nation. This is a partial list as the entities mentioned are the ones 74

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that were most easily accessible and visible to an outside researcher. As production of traditional foods and traditional food processing increa ses on the Tohono Oodham Nation there may be new opportunities for employm ent and livelihood. San Xavier Cooperative Farm The San Xavier District has a long history of farming. F ontana (1960:4) estimated that approximately 1,500 acres in San Xavier were under cultivation at the time of his research. This is similar to the cultivation in San Xavier in the early part of the 1900s as 1,580 acres were under irrigation, with 6,400 additional mesquite covered acr es which were thought to have the potential for irrigated agriculture (Olber g and Schank 1913:5 in Fontana ( 1960:4). Historically, the San Xavier community was able to utilize water from the Santa Cruz River in order to irrigate its crops, hence unlike much of the main reservatio n there was not a complete reliance on the rains in order to plant. Before the creation of the Nation in the late 1800s and through 1959, outside farmers oversaw the agricu ltural production at San Xavi er (Fontana 1960:17). The San Xavier Cooperative Farm Association, a tribally chartere d organization of 189 allottee landowners in San Xavier was formed in 1971. San Xavier is th e only District in the Tohono Oodham Nation that was initially divide d by an allotment system. As Fontana 1960(21) notes some of the current landowners own the land because a relative just happened to be in San Xavier when allotting was done. The farm is operated as a cooperative under the jurisdiction of the San Xavier Dist rict and is bisected by Interstate 19. It is currently operated and managed by an elected seven member board of allotees. The SXCF is currently working toward rehabilitating its lands to bring an appr oximate 700 more acres into production to add to its current production of 300 acres.37 A rehabilitation costi ng $23 million was conducted in 37 The vision statement of the San Xavier Cooperative Association, Inc is: 75

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accordance with the 1982 Southern Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act and the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act (U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation 2005). The rehabilitation project included repairing the damage from sinkholes and preventing potential damage from sinkholes, land subsidence, which are the result of over-drawi ng water, as well as installation of a more effective and efficient ir rigation system (U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation 2005). Aside from the sinkholes other barriers to production include flooding, cattle getting onto the farm and people fr om Tucson who dump th eir trash within the San Xavier District. Th e District has determined that the operation should be organic in its operations, and although the farm is not currently USDA organic certifie d, no pesticides or herbicides are utilized on the farm and there has been discussion of seeki ng organic certification. Factors to consider would include the costs of attaining and maintaini ng organic certification, what if any increases in prices they would have in order to cover those additional expenses and what if any premium in price or ganic certificatio n would confer. The main crop of the farm is alfalfa hay which attracts people from large distances because of its high quality. The San Xavier Coope rative Farm is able to produce high quality hay because its guaranteed supply of water from the Central Arizona Project (CAP) which was conferred to the Tohono Oodham Nation as a part of the settlement for the US v Tucson case (Lewis 1997).38 In addition to alfalfa, the SXCF is also involved in the production of traditional The San Xavier Cooperative Association envisions a fa rm committed to sustainable farming practices that support economic development in the community. The farm will provide meaningful employment and training as well as raw materials to support self-empl oyment, cottage industries, ar ts and crafts. There will be an emphasis on producing traditional food crops to encourage the return to a healthy diet for the Oodham. Other field and cash crops will be developed with prior ity given to preserving the natural environment and promoting the health of the Oodham. The farms goals are to make sustainable efficient and profitable use of its resources for the longevity and self-sufficiency 38 The United States was the plaintiff in the case, bringing suit on behalf of the Tohono Oodham Nation against the City of Tucson. 76

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crops including red and white tepary beans ( Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray)39, peas ( Pisum sativum L.) mesquite ( Prosopis velutina Wooton).which is ground into flour40, 60 Day Oodham corn ( Zea mays L.)41, devils claw ( Proboscidea parviflora (Wooton) Wooton & Standley var. hohokamiana Bretting), squash and pumpkins ( Cucurbita spp.L.), melons including Oodham ke:li ba(Cucumis melo L.) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) My involvement with SXCF included some brief volunteer work at their farm as well as selling some of their produce in Gila Bend. Tohono Oodham Community Action (TOCA) Tohono Oodham Community Action (TOCA) was established in 1996 as a nongovernment association. Its main office is located in Sells, Arizona. Until mid 200742 TOCA had one small building they which served as there center of operations and store. The one room store contains native foods that they produced on their farms, pa intings, basketry, silver jewelry, books and tapes dealing with Tohono Oodham language, culture and foods. They use the office building as their central hub of activity where everyone becomes involved in tasks as mundane 39 In one of my first visits in to the SXCF in September 2004 I was informed that in 2003 the SXCF produced 23,000 pounds of tepary beans, approximately one pound for every member of the Tohono Oodham Nation. Although I was unable to get sales information from SXCF or TOCA I was able to get sales information for the Coyote Store, located on State Route 86, which sells tepary beans from the San Xavier Cooperative Farm. The store sells tepary beans and gaiwsa from SXCF. Current sales of tepary beans are estimated by the owner to be 400 pounds a month or 4800 pounds/year. At the current sales rate of $3.99/pound the Coyote Store sells approximately $19,152 worth of tepary beans every year. The owner reports that he is able to maintain a continuous supply of the tepary beans. The gaiwsa is a seasonal product which is sold primar ily for All Souls Day on November 2. 40 Traditional grinding was done with grinding stones (U nderhill 2000). Respondents who discussed traditional foods processing frequently mentioned hand cranked mills or mils to grind wheat and mesquite. A contemporary means to grind mesquite for individuals living in southern Ar izona is a portable mill. Th e mill is operated by Desert Harvesters, a Tucson-based NGO. The movable mill (Figure 2-5) allows for onsite milling to occur for both individuals and organizations, including the San Xavier Cooperative Farm. 41 Tohono Oodham 60 Day corn is a flour corn which is named for its short growing season, an adaptation of many desert agricultural plants, including tepary beans, to eff ectively utilize available water resources, which are available for only a short time during the growing seasons. 42 TOCAs main product sales on the Tohono Oodham Na tion now take place at the newly opened Cultural Center and Museum in Topawa, Arizona. 77

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as cleaning beans. This has become a major sour ce of income for TOCA. In additional to sales of traditional foods and other products, TOCA has been successful in attracting funding including competitive grants from a variety of s ources including the United States Department of Agriculture, Ford Foundation, the Kell ogg Foundation and Oxfam America. TOCAs food production has taken many form s. TOCA has assisted many individuals and entities start commun ity gardens for small scale food pro duction including elder centers in a number of the Nations district s. It has also operated an ak chin or floodwater farm in Cowlic, Arizona, which relies on flooding fr om the rains to supply its crops This has in recent years been underutilized due to TOCAs small staff and the number of programs that they operate including farming at Papago Farms. Papago Fa rms was established in the late 1950s. In 1957, 12,000 acres was leased by two Phoenix firms, with a term of 25 years after which the farm would be managed by the Nation, however the lease was canceled by the Chairman of the Nation in 1961 after the firms failed to produce the 5,600 irrigated acres and 18 wells as promised (Lewis 1994:165). Since this time there were several proposals and leases for use of Papago Farms, but these were of a short duration (Lewis 1994:165). Papago Farms was formerly managed by the Tohono Oodham Farm ing Authority, but is now unde r the control of the Chukut Kuk District from whom TOCA leases the farm. Since the time that I have begun my research TOCA has worked on developing the fields at Pa pago Farms which rely on diesel pumps to bring up the necessary groundwater. Despite efforts to wards development of the fields, only a small portion of the massive farmland has been develo ped and is currently in production by TOCA. There are plans to continue to develop these lands to increa se the acreage under cultivation, however this may be limited by the diminished soil fertility that has re sulted from monocultures of cotton and other market crops historically pr oduced on the farm. The farm is bisected by a 78

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road that carries a steady flow of Homeland Security-Border Patr ol vehicles speeding to and from the U.S.-Mexico border. Despite the proxim ity to the international border there have been few issues with the flow of migrants through th e farm, save some cut fences which allow cattle access to the farm. In order to mitigate potentia l grazing damage to crops TOCA has a fenced area within the farm where crops (squash and melons) that are most suscep tible to damage from grazing animals are grown. The main crop at the fa rm is tepary beans which in 2006 were grown in three adjoining 20 acre plots. TOCA also uti lizes the farm to hold se veral events including its annual saguaro fruit collection camp or Bahidaj Camp in June, a planting ceremony with a fun run/walk around the farm, and a harvest cele bration along with traditional games including toka ball and basket races in late October.43 The TOCA sponsored events bring hundreds of individuals and groups from Ariz ona including the Gila River Indian Community as well as journalists and national NGO repres entatives interested in tel ling TOCAs successes and funding its initiatives. TOCA has several othe r initiatives to increase capacity and understandin g of traditions among and between community members.44 They host workshops on a variety of topics, including traditional foods change over time, how to operate a digital camera, and how to prepare traditional foods in new ways. They al so hold workshops for basket weavers and run an annual Basket weavers Confer ence at the Heard Museum in December which attracts indigenous peoples from all over the United States to Phoenix for a week of meetings and 43 For an anthropological account of the form of the harvest festival in the early 1900s see Mason (1920). 44 TOCAs program areas have included: Community Food System (traditional farming, home garden assistance, distribution and marketing, nutrition education, wild f ood harvesting), Basket weavers Organization (marketing cooperative, youth basketry classes, basket weavers blessing ceremony, fiber collecting, celebration of basketweaving), Youth & Elder Outreach (youth/elder mentoring, leadership development, youth internships, multigenerational cultural activities, youth committee) and Arts and Culture Preservation (traditional dance group, summer arts program, audio/visual documentation, traditional storytelling, ceremonial revitalization) (TOCA and TOCC 2001). 79

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marketing.45 This allows NGOs and individuals from seve ral tribes to network and share stories, art and traditional foods. Healthy Oodham Promotion Program (HOPP) HOPP is focused on providing the motivati on and facilities to a llow Oodham people to exercise in a safe and supportive environment. HOPP maintains facilities and teaches classes in several districts of the Nation, organizes comm unity events focusing on exercises in several districts of the Nations, attends local conferences on wellness and health offering demonstrations and classes, and sponsors an annual Diabetes Health Fair. Their a nnual Diabetes Health Fair is held at the Livestock Center locat ed approximately three miles west of the capital of Sells. It offers a series of concurrent workshops wh ich discuss health, well-being, traditions, success stories and accomplishments related to preventi ng, managing and living with type 2 diabetes. My interaction with HOPP has been as a patron, u tilizing their facilities on occasion and as a volunteer, supervising several gr oups of massage therapy students from a technical college in Tucson and as a speaker on holistic approaches to health and stress management at the annual Diabetes Health Fair. Tohono Oodham Community College Tohono Oodham Community College (TOCC), wh ich was established on the Nation in 1998 continues to work to advance students academi cally while remaining strongly rooted to the Oodham Himdag or way of life. In addition to offering trade skills, associates degrees and general education requirements, TOCC also offers a series of classes on Tohono O'odham Language and Culture, Tohono Oodham History, Community Resources for Diabetes. The classroom is augmented by both class field tr ips and TOCC field trip s which highlight key 45 This years conference will be held at recently opened Tohono Oodham Cultural Center in Topawa, Arizona. 80

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aspects of Tohono Oodham culture. There is al so an Agriculture and Natural Resources Program which TOCC has established. TO CC was added to the USDAs 1994 Land Grant institutions in 2004 (Office of the Chairwoman & Vice Chairman 2004). This designation will allow for an expansion of the Agriculture and Na tural Resources program at TOCC as well as the development of an experimental organic farm with community involvement (Office of the Chairwoman & Vice Chairman of the T ohono Oodham Nation 2004). TOCC also offers Community Resources for Diabetes as an online course. The cour se covers nutrition with a focus on diabetes and diabetes prevention through lifes tyle modification. In the past the course included face to face meetings, an orientation and a weekend retreat. The course structure offered the advantage of being able to complete mo st of the required work outside of a traditional classroom setting. This allowed se veral students to take this course that might not otherwise be able to due to work and family commitments coupled with long commute times to the Sells campus. Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S) Native Seeds/SEARCH (NS/S) is a Tucson-based non-Native American NGO which was established in 1983 to conserve agriculture resources in the gr eater southwest region, including Sonora, Mexico. I am discussing Native S eeds/SEARCH because of its importance in redistribution of seeds to Native American pe oples and particularly the Tohono Oodham. In this section I hope to discuss Native Seed s/SEARCHs unique positioning and how it is attempting to preserve native seeds in the United States southwest and northern Mexico. I will also highlight some areas of concern that have been expressed within th e NGO and outside of it. Many of the seeds in NS/Ss collection are readily available for purchase from Native Seed/SEARCH (NS/S) online or through their store in Tucson. The collection has been acquired through purchases, exchange and gifts from indigenous communities in the region. NS/S 81

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currently grows the seeds out at their Conservation Farm in Patagonia, Arizona. In order to ensure that the integrity of the collection is maintained the staff at Native Seeds/SEARCH perform closed pollinations. This involves co ntrolling the flow of polle n so that one accession, or seed from a particular farmers field which e xhibits unique characteristics, will only have its pollen distributed to other indi viduals of the same accession. The main purpose of the Conservation Farm is to allow Native Seeds/SEARCH to continue its work to develop a complete and viable collection of crop plant ge rmplasm in the United States Southwest and Northern Mexico regions. The farm allows for the collection at the Native Seeds/SEARCHs seed bank to be grown out on a re gular basis. These grow outs are essential to insure the continued viabili ty of the seeds in their collection. Some of the plants in the collection that Native Seeds/SEARCH was growing out during the summer of 2004 had not been grown out since they were collected nearly twenty years previous. Despite the essential work that NS/S engage s in it has been critiqued by Pinel and Evans (1994) who contend that although there is some reciprocity by gi ving Native Americans who live in the greater southwest area free se eds and assisting in the creation of tribal seed banks, there is no protection for the long term rights of the farmers from whom NS/S originally obtained the seeds. According to the 2005 vers ion of the NS/S website (2005): NS/S was founded in 1983 as a result of requests from Native Americans on the Tohono O'odham reservation near Tucson who wished to grow traditional crops but could not locate seeds. Since then, we have become a major regional seed bank and a leader in the heirloom seed movement. Our seed bank is a unique resource for both traditional and modern agriculture. It includes 1800 collections, many of them rare or endangered; more than 90% of these crop varieties are not being systematically preserved elsewhere. Beside the expected drought tolerance of desert plants many of these crops ar e resistant to rusts, insects, chemicals, and other stresses. They provide an irreplaceable "genetic library" to draw upon to ensure sustainable, environm entally safe agriculture in the future. From the above description it seems as if some Tohono Oodham originally 82

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requested an institution or mechanism that woul d assist them in locating seeds of traditional crops, which would mean some plant genetic re sources were either not present on the Tohono Oodham Nation or very narrowly distributed, perhaps in Sonora, Mexico. At the same time Native Seed/SEARCH has done much to condens e the knowledge of plants which the Tohono Oodham have historically uti lized and make this availabl e for use by the public without developing legal protections for the collective in tellectual property of Tohono Oodham. Indeed, when I asked about this at an informational meeting for Pollinator Interns, I was told that this was indeed something that was thought about, bu t NS/S had yet to develop a policy regarding intellectual property righ ts. Early editions of The Seedhead News have addressed a variety of intellectual property rights concerns from the seed to cultural property in the form of symbols. When the organization was initially established in 1983, the economic value of plants as genetic resources was not fully realized. This was before the utilization of genes in genetic modification technologies and also in the face of a perceived near eradication of the communitys traditional seed source for its food system. NS/S, a non-prof it organization, has used its profits to work in collaboration with the Tohono Oodham and othe r indigenous peoples, as well as with NGOs such as TOCA, Tohono Oodham Community Acti on, for the revitalization of the traditional community food systems. From my fieldw ork individuals from both the Tohono Oodham Nation and Native Seeds/SEARCH are more concer ned about using seeds, not as plant genetic resources to be marketed to biotechnology fi rms, but rather as a source for rebuilding a community food system that promot es cultural identi ty and health. While NS/S continues its work to promote th ese lofty goals, it is important to consider that the entity exists as a non-government or ganization (NGO), and as such has a tendency 83

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towards self-preservation. When I asked one NS/S staff member whether the organization could be turned over to a series of sma ller tribal organizations I was told: Probably notWhat I do see though is more involvement by tribal groups and you could have an autonomy there where you say heres all our information heres our seeds anything you want to do do it. I mean thats the good thing about a non-profit organization they can give that away becau se thats their mission. And if there was a group in Sonora Mexico or some place in the so uthwest that wanted all the information, all the germplasm and samples of the seeds great that would be wonderful but to hand over the organization like that thats more of a stretch because the organization is running now its developing now. It seems a w hole lot easier just to get more and more Native Americans involved in the organiza tion and find out whats missing. You know start asking ourselves start as king Native Americans why is it we have so few people that come and want to be a part of the organization. There are a number of relevant points that this statement highli ghts. First, there is a sense that the organization will always exist. Sec ond, there is a sense that the organization should always exist. Third, the organization will always provide free information and seeds collected to Natives.46 Fourth, Native American involvement or l ack thereof is problema tized. The lack of a single Native American working on staff of Na tive Seeds/SEARCH was something that was viewed as a crisis within the organization in 2004. It was only remedi ed by the hiring of a Navajo as the Native American Outreach Coordinator. The idea that need for Native Seeds/SEARCH n eeds to continue indefinitely is a thought shared by all Native Seeds/SEARCH staff and members of the Boar d of Directors with whom I spoke. The NGO has taken on a life of its own outside of the dictates of its mission. It is a never ending mission, to safeguard and protect biodiversity. Giving the respon sibility to outside organizations, the government, international orga nizations or even Native communities from 46 While this remains true for the peoples of the regions from which NS/Ss collections were initially gathered, the policy changed in 1998 to exclude Native Americans living outside of the region from free membership due in part to the increased costs and projected increase in free membership requests from Native Americans outside of the region (Joaquin 1998). 84

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which the seed originated is not something that ev en seems to be in the realm of possibility for those involved in NS/S. Despite my own critiques of NS/S ma ny Tohono Oodham that I discussed Native Seeds/SEARCH with had positive things to say about the organization. According to Sally, a middle age woman from Gu Achi District: Well Native Seeds we went there and of course th ey just give it to us because we say that we are going to plant and thats how we st arted our garden was the seeds from Native Seeds. So I have a lot of re spect for them they really tr y to promote getting back into those foods versus the other thats so available Lionel, who lives on the main reservation, expl ains the role of Native Seeds/SEARCH in his gardening efforts a they provi ded much of the necessary tool s and information to make his garden a reality, if not an ove rall success. He explained that one Native Seeds/SEARCH employee had the job to: get the Oodham interested in getting a gard en going. She would provide everything you know the seeds and plantsto help make it be [fertile with] the mulch and we made a garden and the only thing that ca me out really good was the squa sh. And we ate it it was surprising. For others, Native Seeds/SEARCH is one of many sites of seed exchange. Larry, an Akimel Oodham, notes I get some of the seeds from Native Seeds/ SEARCH and not only that but some of the families that grow some of th e traditional foods I get some seeds from them also its kind of like we all work together like if I have a bunch of seeds Ill pass them down to someone and so on so that we plant those and th ats the whole idea of it is that we keep those seeds going keep those foods going becaus e when they stop they are hard to come back. Native Seeds/SEARCH will likely continue to work well into the future to maintain and deepen the agricultural diversity of the region in the face of a number of legal, ethical and moral issues which have endured and recently emerged in agriculture. These issues are discussed in 85

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some detail in the next chapter as well as the poten tial implications of these issues for traditional food security on the Tohono Oodham Nation. 86

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Figure 2-1. Map of Tohono Oodham lands in the U. S.A. and Mexico. Copied with permission from Arizona Daily Star, Duarte (2001). 87

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Figure 2-2. Map of the 11 Districts of the T ohono O'odham Nation. (Map courtesy of Kenneth D. Madsen.) 88

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A B C D Figure 2-3. This is a picture series of lands capes and vegetation in the Sonoran Desert. Although these pictures re present the vegetation a nd land forms of the Tohono Oodham Nation, they were taken in other locations because I had not sought out permission to take pictures as part of my research. These lands are however well within lands that the Tohono Oodham have utilized: A) was taken at Saguaro National Park B) was taken at Tohono Chul Botanical Park in Tucson C) was taken from Catalina Highway in Corando National Forest D) was taken from Catalina Highway in Corando National Forest. Figure 2-4. Picture of organ pipe cactus ( Stenocereus thurberi (Engelman) Buxbaum) 89

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Figure 2-5. Picture of Desert Harvesters volunteers pr eparing to grind mesquite pods in central Tucson. 90

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CHAPTER 3 FOOD: LOCAL, GLOBAL, OTHER Only by building strong people in every country be able to withstand the forces of technological displacement and market globalization that y way back to my home in Tucson from conducting an interview in Gila Bend, I g bout. styles o and rse zona Agriculture The state of Arizonas top agr 2006 were: cattle and calves, dairy produc self-sufficient local communities will are threatening the livelihoods and survival of much of the human family. (Rifkin 1995:250). As I make m nearly run out of gas and diverge from Interstate 10 and pass miles of barren fields destined for yet more water-intensive cotton prod uction and for several miles, a cattle feedin operation. I think about the irrigators and labor ers, who have worked these fields, see the massive machinery that breaks th e earth and watch clouds of chemical-laden dust thrown a I think about how aspects of these operations have existed, with varying intensities, within the Tohono O'odham Nation. I think of how these catt le and cotton products as well as products of the Tohono O'odham Nation are brought into the larg er circuits of production and consumption. In this chapter I will discuss key aspects of agriculture and development. I will contrast f approaches to agriculture and trac e some of the key political issues currently surrounding food, revealing some of the side-effects of maintaining polic ies at the state national level which give paramount importance to large-scale monoculture s rather than dive polycultures. I will discuss how production for far away markets offers opportunities for and challenges to traditional food security on the Tohono Oodham Nation. I will begin with a discussion of Arizonas agricultural economy, focusing on the counties that comprise and surround the Tohono Oodham Nation. Ari iculture comm odities in ts, lettuce, cotton and hay (USDA 2007). Ta ble 3-1 lists these commodities in descending level of economic importance. According to the 2002 Census of Agriculture, produced by the 91

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National Agricultural Statistics Service of the USDA in the three counties that in part comprise the Tohono O'odham Nation, Pima, Pinal and Mari copa, there were 75, 67, and 53 farmers respectively (U.S. Department of Agriculture 2004). Maricopa County annually produces o $792 million in agricultural products including ca ttle and calves, sheep, 100,000 bales of cotton, 44,000 tons of Durum wheat, 39,000 tons of barley and 610,000 tons of alfalfa, citrus, lettuce, broccoli, cauliflower, onions, carrots, honeydew, cantaloupe, watermelon, potatoes cabbage (Arizona Department of Agriculture 2005a). Pi ma County annually produces over $51 millio agricultural products includi ng 25,000 bales of cotton, 20,000 pounds of Durum wheat, with most exported to Italy, and cattl e and calves (Arizona Department of Agriculture 2005b). Pin County annually produces over $448 million in agricultural products including honeydew, cantaloupe, watermelons, chili peppers, 256,000 bale s of Upland cotton, sheep and cattle an calves (Arizona Department of Ag riculture 2005c). Arizona agricu lture, like much of agricult across America is concerned primarily with the production of large quantities of commodities for national and international markets. Agricult ure for the Tohono Oodham was one component in regional food production and procurement strategi es prior to the arrival of outsiders. Global and Local Bioregionalism ver n in al d ure Native American comm rmed by European and Americ e alized and y unities in the United States were info an colonizers that their attempts to deve lop and cultivate lands were a far cry from th ideal models of production suggested by Europ ean-Americans. The destruction of Native American systems of food procurement and production is a product of historical and contemporary racism wherein indigenous systems of economic production are margin read as inferior to their European counterpar ts. Current approaches to development on the Tohono Oodham Nation can emerge from local initiatives or from attempts to court farawa markets in an attempt to build and maintain economic stability. As explained in Chapter 2 92

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Economies of the Tohono Oodham Nation, fo r the Tohono Oodham as individuals and collectively both of these economic strategies ar e currently being utilized. Casinos, in partic offer the Tohono Oodham new opportunities, as well as challenges, in attempts to build solid support services for themselves whic h reflect deep Oodham values or Himdag. The Tohono Oodham are profoundly affected both positively a nd negatively by their continued interaction with outsiders. As the Nation co ntinues to build its own capacity and economic resources it will have opportunities to choose services and economic initiatives which will better suit the needs of the Tohono Oodham such as recreational cent ers which promote phys ical exercise. Anthropology as a discipline ha s been struggling to come to terms with multi-s ular, s ited and scaled ose tions to food security issues with in current politicaleconom issues esources to confron may phenomena (Kearney 1995). I will utiliz e the terms bioregionalist and globalists throughout the next sections to hi ghlight key ideological and sty listic divergences between th who gravitate towards having the whole world as their home and those who gravitate towards a place in attempts to maintain or create deeply ro oted meanings of connection. I will situate the Tohono Oodham within this continuum. Most globalists would look for solu ic frameworks by utilizing economic i ndicators and mutli-lateral arrangements to leverage win-win situations (Tweeten 1999). Most bioregionalists believe environmental cannot be resolved within the current politicaleconomic systems that have been constructed. For bioregionalists it is necessary to create new organizational systems that de-emphasize the market as well as the individualistic natu re of consumerism (Mollison 1990). The bioregional model of development, base d on optimization of local r t local resource demands before they beco me defined as problems, offers what some consider an idyllic or even escap ist stance to the approach of global environmental issues or the 93

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quest for sustainability (Andersen 1996). Th e argument against bioregionalism comes from those who are positioned to pers onally and professionally benef it from current political and economic arrangements, perhaps dismissing bioregi onalists as merely playing with sticks and mud unable to initiate or envision true change that can only come with shifting consumer preferences or fabricated s cales of corporate responsibility (Bruno and Karliner 2002). One of the obvious reasons for targeting bioregio nal development is that it is expli citly a reject d mer l ; mportant polic y-related problems w ith the bioregional movem t le ion of the nation-state and multi-national corporations to govern the lives of individuals an community members. Depending upon the context it may also be a rejection of international forms of governance including the United Nation s. Bioregionalist communities subvert the dominant industrial-consumerist paradigm which s ituates power with the state and the consu by the development of a worldview balancing a locally appropriate mix of biocentrism and anthropocentrism. Biocentrism offers individua ls the opportunity to in tegrate as fundamenta players into the maintenan ce of their own ecosystems.47 As bioregionalism is centered upon community interdependence with locally available natural resources, agriculture becomes the essential cornerstone of bioregionally base d cultures (see Mollison, 1990; Bell, 1992 and 1994 Altieri, 1995; Altieri 1999a; Altieri 1999b; Shapir o and Harrison 2000). Thus bioregionalism is fertile ground to work with local materials and resources: to sow the seeds of local sustainable agriculture, particularly traditional foods, developm ent and utilization of lo cal cuisine, gathering of foods and building materials. Harrison (2000:85) raises i ent. First, the movement proposes a common goal (sense of consciousness) withou describing how that will be met. Second, it fails to create political activ ism to make wholesa 47 For more on regional and world biocentric developmen t see Mollison (1990), Bell (1992 and 1994) and Harrison 2000:89-90). 94

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changes in values. Third, it is opposed to indi vidualism, which as Gramsci points out is at the heart of the capitalist system within which bioregional movements in the United States are embedded. Harrison (2000:85) cont inues, claiming that the social mutually-supportive netw which are needed to fully realize the potential of place is very different from historic human nature. Harrisons critique is not applicable to the Tohono Oodham who have a common identity as Tohono Oodham and recognize a shared set of beliefs and traditions interwoven the lands that they occupy. This is not to say that the relative importance of these beliefs and traditions are static and fully shared as they ar e indeed contested and negotiated (Nagel 1996:9 Bioregionalism allows for an integr ated realization of social, economic and orks with ). enviro part failed to not but eated a on pts in action on the Tohono Oodham Nation. nmental aspects of sustainability. However, bioregionalists have for the most express their conceptualization of sustainability in general and sustainable development in particular. Historically bioregionalists have failed to offer realistic solutions to concerns of population size and urban distribution; large-scale ecological disturbances which will simply return to some natural state; and the material deconstruction of larg e cities. Bioregional communities are addressing these issues not only at the local level thr ough direct action, through their written works (M ollison, 1990; Bell 1992 and 1 994) they have created a transnational citizen of the earth rooted in pla ce identity. These bioregionalists have cr global network of sister communities, by utilizi ng the tools of modernity (Escobar 1999). If bioregional communities were to proliferate much of the need to discuss political organization larger-scales would be eliminated (Mollison, 1990:516). There are many manifestations of bioregi onal conce Bioregional design principl es were integral in the creation of the master plan for the rehabilitation and development of the San Xavier Cooperative Farm Some Tohono Oodham 95

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are engaging in ranching, farming and garden ing, although in numbers dramatically less than previously (See Chapter 5 for current rates of pa rticipation in collecting and gardening). Some are actively involved in the politic al processes at not only the National and District levels but also the community level. Some are creating ar t, poetry and music inspired by the landscape o by those that have come through and those that re main. Some individuals are working to restore the traditional language of the Oodham to see th e landscape and relations with it in a unique manner. In the r past Tohono Oodham as a people were relia nt on the land to make their living, they were rk of Since the inception of 00 years ago humans have bioregionalists of essence. Tohono Oodham needed to procure food resources from the landscape in various settings or face food insecu rity. Recently these food resources are again being sought out for survival but rather than meet the minimum caloric requirements they are now viewed as ideal foods by entities within the Nation (TOCA, SXCF, TOCC, and HOPP) to cope with the epidemic rates of diabetes brough t about by excessive caloric intake. These foods are viewed as intimately linked with what it m eans to be an Oodham and what it means to be healthy. Recent bioregional in itiatives which focus on enhancing capacities of production, procurement and processing of these foods have emerged in the last decade through a netwo governmental and non-governmental organizations. These entities have been responsible for a revitalization of traditio nal food products within th e Nation and are an impor tant step in building traditional food security for the Tohono Oodham who may again become bioregionalists of essence. See Chapter 5 for more on current grow ing, collecting and cooking of foods. Sustainable and Industrial Agriculture agriculture in the Fertile Crescen t over 10,0 been dramatically altering ecosystems and species in order to increase the food available. With an increase in globaliza tion and commoditization of food th e processes of ensuring that 96

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food resources are available has become entangled in a web of social, political and economic interactions which divert food through complex markets to reach the mouths of most of the worlds population. With the advent of global bioregional movements an increasing number critiques of industrial production systems con tinue to emerge. As Boll (1995) has noted, The longing for a better world will need to ar ise at the imagined meeting place of ma of ny movements of resistance, as many as there are sites of enclosure and exclusion. The t in the anti-globalizati on movement does not homogenize actors in their im onny 2000: onmentally sound, pres erving resources and mainta ining production potential; untries and within each country. E iversity that is inhere resistance will be as transnational as capital. Because enclosure takes myriad forms, so shall resistance to it. Activist engagemen aginations of what the world could be The slow food, organic food and indigenous food movements which continue to emerge serve as fo ils to industrial agricult ural production to the extent that they remain discrete from the very structures that they by their essence critique. Individuals and entities within these movements may imagine links of varying intensities to a more sustainable form of food production, dist ribution and consumption. Some features of a sustainable agricu lture systems include (adopted from B 436): Envir Profitable for farmers and wo rkable on a long term basis; Providing food quality and sufficiency for all people; Socially acceptable (including ethics); Socially equitable, between different co mbedded in sustainable agricultural systems is agro-biodiversity, or the d nt in polycultures in re lation to monocultures (see Thrupp 1999:318 for list of benefits of agro-biodiversity). 97

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Technosubstiution, wherein technological in novations progressively alter biological relations within human ecosystems has been char acteristic of agricultural intensification (Stepp et al. 2002). The increased imposition of biostructure by technostructure (Stepp et al 2002) has led to an industrialization of agriculture wherein, according to Bartlett (2000:255) there is: Increased use of complex technology and the technology treadmill. Increased substitution of capital for labor. Increased energy use. Increased influence of the state. A tendency toward competition, sp ecialization, and overproduction. Increased interdependence between farm un its and agribusinesses that control inputs, machinery, product sales, processing and transport. Whereas sustainable agricultu re techniques are synergistic, relying upon local knowledge and varieties, industrial agriculture techniques (IA) rely upon technologies being imposed which work to the detriment of one another (UNDP 199 5). For example, tractors while allowing a farmer to work a relatively large amount of land will compact the soil, resulting in an increase in irrigation efforts to attain similar results, whic h, in turn has its own negative effects (Postel 1999). Application of agro-industrial chemical s may decrease productivity by killing off soil microorganisms that play a key role in the cyc ling of nutrients. Additionally the increase in inputs into the system are unlikely to lead to an increase in humus or organic matter (OM) content and may, in fact, lower OM and thus productivity of the so il. The industrial approach to agriculture can have dramatic, impacts on environm ental systems at the: global level, (impacting climate change) (Tilman, Tamanini, van der Horst, and Okamura 2001), regional level (the creation of ecological sacrifice zones such as the zone of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico) 98

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(Jackson 2002; DeVore 2002) and local level (thr eats to pollinator populations) (Suzan et al. 1994). Biotechnology has improved the quality of seed grains and the ability to produce bigger harvests in optimal areas for crop production. This has led to the overproduction of grains in the United States which has direct consequences on farmers in other countries. For example, Mexican farmers are unable to compete with corn th at is imported from the US at thirty percent below the cost of production (Dawkins 2003). Equally important, increased yields and reduced chemical and labor costs can represent increased income for some farmers utilizing industrial agriculture techniques. Finally, farmers can save in the cost of bringing their product to market with crops that require less handlin g, are easier to store, need no refrigeration, and have a longer shelf-life. IA did indeed boost production for specific crops, while eliminating others that had crucial roles for the maintenance of food security. Th e indicators of production have been too coarsegrained to realize the broad-scale implications for food security. Offici al estimates by States rarely consider the total output of a polyculture system of agri culture, rather only the grain yields are considered (Shiva 1988:154-56). If total production were to be considered, then polyculutres would prove to be superior to monocultures that emphasize only the yield of one crop (for costbenefit analysis in several agro-ecosystems see United Nations Development Program 1992). Current production of traditional fo ods on the Tohono Oodham Nation combines elements of both industrial and sustainable agri culture. The work to rehabilitate the SXCF utilizes specialized technologies in addition to this sp ecial process laser field leveling is typically utilized in order to ensure the pr oper flow of water acr oss the fields at SXCF. Both farms rely on water non-sustainable water supplies, TOCA on groundwater from diesel pumps and SXCF on 99

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Central Arizona Project water as part of the settlement from US v Tucson (increased reliance on the state). Both farms rely on farm equipmen t such as tractors which can compact the soil over time and replace human labor, however hand labor can still be intensive since no pesticides or herbicides are utilized. SXCF has a master pl an which includes protection of environmental sensitive areas and relies on cropping strategies to main tain soil fertility. Both TOCA and SXCF are working to provide high quality traditional food products in adequate quantities for the Nations residents: SXCF is ba sed in San Xavier District a nd acts to distribute food in the community, TOCA hosts events sharing fruits of the desert and harvests from their farm. For the Tohono Oodham reduction in dietary di versity is related to the decline in diversity of their agro-ecosystems which were once much more complex (see Nabhan 1983). Still the foods that these farms produce are valu ed and cherished both within the Nation by most individuals with whom I spoke. Th ese traditional foods ar e seen as re-connecting them to family and tradition. These same products, marketed outside the Nation, offer something different, exotic and yet familiar in the shared sense of responsibility in the preservation of agrobiodiversity. Taste and the Exotic Other On any given day in Sells or San Xavier one can find food vendors selling anything from cupcakes, to fry bread, to Indian tacos. Thes e vendors will move from building to building in more urban areas of the Nation or set up shop in front of shopping plazas parking lots, or in homes with advertisement consisting of simple signage pointing down dusty drives. These endeavors, despite the regular presence of many of th ese vendors are informal. More formal sales of foods occur at grocery stores, gas stations, markets, trading posts or shops within the Nation. Pre-Contact traditional foods are regularly available at the San Xavier Cooperative Farm (tepary beans (year round), squash and corn (s easonally)), TOCAs office in Sells and TOCAs 100

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store in the Tohono Oodham Museum and Cultura l Center in Topawa (tepary beans (year round), sitol cholla buds and SXCF gaiwsa (seasonally)). SCXF goods (tepary beans (year round) and gaiwsa (seasonally)) are also sold at the C oyote Store in Schuk Toak District. Bashas supermarket in Sells was carrying TOCA tepary beans but is not currently carrying any traditional foods. Prepared foods are available in the grocery store in Sells, gas stations and trading posts. Individual are also involved in cooking traditional foods for their own families (See Chapter 5). Tohono Oodham and nonTohono Oodham people distribute these preContact foods outside of Tohono Oodham kitchens meals and events so that they become available far from their origin. The production and consumption of traditi onal foods outside of Native American communities, reservation or non-reservation, although currently blossoming in both non-Native and Native marketing operations is nothing new. Tohono Oodham farm products have historically been marketed for non-Oodham in the Tucson region, as have the Oodham themselves (see Figure 3-1). Exchange of foods between non-Native and Native peoples is as old in the United States as the story of Thanks giving. More recent incursions and iterations include the Silverbird Company of New York which sold native American foods including Navajo Fry Bread, Buffalo Burgers, Blue Corn Pudding, and Rabbit Stew (Levenstein 2003:251). The mass production of blue corn chips is perhaps the best known utilization of a food blue corn meal in an indus trial context that was initially produced by the Anasazi (Tewa, Zuni and Hopi) (Pinel and Evans 1994; Soleri and Cleveland 1994). As many Native Americans live in two worlds, working and living both on and off the reservation, they are constantly blending elements of global flows and local, community or native flows of ideology and goods. Certainly food, traditional foods, indigenous foods, native 101

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foods, offers a window by which one can examin e the hybrids which emerge through a blending of two worlds. The emergence and producti on of a consciousness of cuisine of Native American communities has created new food co mbinations which combine elements of traditional foods which have been produced by particular groups for eons with prepackaged, industrially produced products to create a new cu isine such as Buffalo Burgers mentioned above (Levenstein 2003:251) or the creation of new dishes which utilize trad itional foods in new arrangements which promote health and wellness and hence directly answer challenges of type 2 diabetes and other diseases of affluence. An example of this in the local context of the Tohono Oodahm Nation is a salad which utilizes prep ackaged spinach, pineapples and cholla buds ( ciolim ) tossed with a light dressing. This dish has been prepared and served for health conferences by TOCA staff members who will di scuss the quick and easy preparation of the salad and the healthy nutritious alternative that the new cuisine offers as the food demonstration is given. TOCA staff sugge st that wild spinach ( Monolepis nuttalliana (Shult.) E. Greene) could be collected after the firs t rains of spring when it gr ows on the Tohono Oodham Nation (Hodgson 2001:153) and incorporated into the salad, however, in the co oking demonstrations that I witnessed the pre-packaged spinach was utilized. This is much healthier than contemporary and recent historical preparations of cholla buds which include boiling perhaps adding salt and oil or lard, boiling and then frying with rabbit m eat and rabbit fat, boiling then frying with onions in either vegetable oil or lard. Other dishes which have incorporated traditional foods include tepary bean hummus and chia seed smoothies. The cholla bud salad as a product is somethi ng that could easily appear in health food stores across the United States, offering an opportunity to both eat healthy and taste genuine Native American foods, connecting perhaps with an unexpressed need for someone seeking 102

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connection in urban centers. Currently the foods that are produced fr om this region include jams, juices and jellies which are made from the prickly-pear cacti. There are also a variety of dry foods including grains, beans, teas and spices which either are indigenous to Native American communities or produced by Native Americans. Unlike tourist objects which take elements of Native American designs and iconography and are mass produced and shipped trans-Pacific to the southwest to be sold as genuine Indian art in shopping malls or the side of the road in popular tourist shoppi ng grounds, the foods that are produced by non-Natives and Natives are essentially the same product genetically, and depending on the growing conditions will offer the same life-sustaining combination of nutrients and minerals. Here the distinction between Native American produced and non-Native American produced becomes even more critical and ye t less recognized or acknowledged. While Native Seeds/SEARCH has been in tegral to the re-dissemination of traditional foods in many contexts, they have operated by sourcing their beans and other products which are named after Native American groups through non-Native producers as Native American sources are either unavailable or not economically feasible. By doing so the organization seems to be giving paramount importance to continuing its mission to promote the dissemination and thus preservation of foods which are i ndigenous or native to the southwes t with the idea that if these foods are being produced and consumed outside of this region by greater numbers of people then there will be less likelihood that th is will lead to an extinction of the individual species of plant. Monies generated from the store and catalogue sales also bring much needed revenue to the organization to continue its mission and also make free seeds available for Native Americans living in the greater Southwest re gion of the United States. 103

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Heritage Foods USA is another entity through which collects Native American foods and sells this via the Internet. Heritage Foods 2001 was created in 2001 as the sales and marketing arm for Slow Food USA, a non-profit which c elebrates regional cuisines and products (Heritage Foods USA, n.d.a). According to th e Heritage Foods USA we bsite foods must be eaten in order to save them. The website does not make a mention of why the foods are being eaten or by whom. Simply, the foods need to be eaten to save the foods themselves. The subtext here is that the foods must be purchased on the website to infuse cash into various farming operations and allow an increased production of diverse agri culture products. The Heritage Foods USA website states the importan ce of their own actions of re-selling products and opening new market opportunities for foods including traditional foods of Native American peoples and the Tohono Oodham in particular by stating, We are comm itted to sticking with each and every breed of animal and plant until they have reached a point that they can survive on their own, without our as sistance. (Heritage Foods USA n.d.c ). According to this statement domesticated plants and animals have the capacity to survive on their own without assistance. The tepary bean seems to be surviving quite well, increasing in its popularity and one of Americas Top Ten Success Stories for rene wal of a food tradition (Nabhan and Rood 2004:38-39). Tohono Oodham traditional foods have entere d new niche markets where they command a price much higher than currently sold for on the Nation. TOCA has been active in selling tepary beans and other products to Heritage F oods USA so that they can be resold via the internet. Heritage Foods USA offers a Tohono Oodham foods sampler gift basket for $76. The gift basket includes two pounds of brown tepary beans, two pounds of white tepary beans, four 104

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ounces of dried cholla buds, and a one and a half ounce bottle of saguaro syrup (Heritage Foods USA n.d.b). As the marketing efforts of traditional f oods continue by non-governmental organizations and corporations such as Native Seeds/SEA RCH, Heritage Foods, TO CA and San Xavier Cooperative Farm and as more people are exposed to the possibility of eating like a real Indian the value of these crops in economic terms will also increase.48 This spike in value and opportunity for profit may attract la rger corporations back into the fold of producing prepared foods from Native American communities includ ing the Tohono O'odham. It may price local consumers out of the market for foods that ar e increasingly rare and seem to be occupying a specialty niche like sitol saguaro cactus syrup, which currently sells for $2.50 an ounce from individuals who have collected the bahidaj and processed it into sitol an ounce in Sells. This same produce with appropriate packaging and ma rketing sells for $10 an ounce or more off of the Nation. Genes, Property and Intellectual Currents In some cases the economic value that plants and animals have as food products has been somewhat overshadowed by recent utilization of the genes which these plants contain (Fowler 1994 and 1997). Agro-biodiversity is the cornerstone of sustainable agriculture providing a multitude of benefits not only to small-scale /indigenous farmers in situ but also to the maintenance of the industrial approach to agriculture through utilization of ex situ collections (Thrupp 1999 and Brokensha 1999). Whereas the i ndustrial system of agriculture has been incredibly productive in increasi ng the grain yield and thereby assu ring food security for billions, 48 Although consumer rationale is beyond the scope of this dissertation, consumers have reported a preference for place-based foods particular in-state foods which feed th e local economy (DeCarlo, Fran ck and Pirog 2005) as well as for products that are conn ected to a certain geography, culture and tradition (Aurier, Fort and Siriex 2005). Certainly collection of Native American goods has a long and dubious history in the United States, including photography in the late nineteenth century (Jenkins 1993). 105

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through international distribution systems, small-scale producers, estimated at 1.4 billion by the Food and Agriculture Organization, have also played a key role in assuring household food security in less centralized regions of the world. Genetic improvements, which rely on plant genetic resources, account for n early half of the increase in yields in the industrialized production system of the United States (Frisvol d et al. 1999). Kloppenbur g (in Frisvold et al. 1999) notes, It is no exaggeration to say that th e plant genetic resources received as free goods from the Third World have been worth untold bi llions of dollars to the advanced capitalist nations. This failure to compensate indigenous farmers for the genetic resources found in their fields only serves to undermine the ability of these farmers to produce, hence de-localizing food production and increasing the risk of food insecurity. The valuable contributions of biodivers ity to agriculture was recognized in National Association of Home Builders v Babbit 130 F.3d 1041 (D.C. 1997), wherein the court, in determining that endangered spec ies deserved protection, quoted Amici Curiae that explained: Fortifying the genetic diversity of US crops played a large part in the explosive growth in farm production since the 1930s accounting for at least one half of the doubling of yields of rice, soybeans, wheat, and sugarcane, and a three fold increase in corn and potatoes. Genetic diversity provided by wild plants also protects domestic crops from disease and pest damage. Biotechnology has been defined in Article 2 of Convention on Biological Diversity as any technological application that uses biological systems, living organism s, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for sp ecific use (Convention on Biological Diversity 1992). This definition is problematic as it is overly broad and obfuscates the dramatic differences that the utilization of GMO technolog ies present when compared to other methods of production and modification. It fu rther serves to legitimize th e technology by viewing this 106

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particular intervention in the natural world as business as usual; similar to how the GMO technologies have historically b een regulated (Eubanks 2002). While proponents of the GMOs promise great future benefits for all (Avery 2000; Burkhardt 2001), it seems unlikely that these benefits will emerge for all farmers in a vertically integrated and profit motivated industry (K neen 2002; Altieri and Rossett 1999a and 1999b). The promise of greater yields was not realized for most biotechnology ag ricultural products in the early 2000s, with diminished profits for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)49 Corn (pest resistant) (Benbrook 2001a), decreased yield for Roundup Rea dy Soybeans (herbicide resistant) (Benbrook 2001b) and with the only affirma tive increase in yields and pr ofits for GM cotton (FernandezCornejo and McBride 2002). A more recent report highlights research i ndicating wide farmer adoption of GM50, particularly Bt cotton which is pl anted on over 80% of total US cotton acreage (Fernandez-Cornejo and Caswell 2006). This report also highlights decreased pesticide utilization, an overall increase in yields and mixed results related to farmer profits of GM versus non-GM varieties in an industria l agriculture setting (FernandezCornejo and Caswell 2006). For Native Americans the hybridization of bl ue corn initially produced by the Anasazi (Hopi, Tewa and Zuni) and now marketed by non -Indian serves as an example of how Native American food products can enter markets with massive distribution and no benefit to the cultures which initially develope d them (Pinel and Evans 1994; Soleri and Cleveland 1994). There has also been much work on developing in digenous intellectual property rights to genetic as well as other resources, however when I me ntioned intellectual pr operty rights issues to TOCA, San Xavier Cooperative Fa rm and Native Seeds/SEARCH in regards to plant materials at 49 Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium that produces an inse cticidal toxin to specific insects. 50 The main reason given by farmers for GM variety adoption was to increase yields (Fernandez-Cornejo and Caswell 2006). 107

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the formulating stages of my research there seemed to be little concern or consideration of the utilization or potential negative ramifications that intellectual property rights law might present. Unlike intellectual property rights issues of health related to the consumption of traditional foods compared with commodity foods was a common theme among each of the organizations. 108

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Table 3-1. Top agriculture comm odities in Arizona in 2006. Agricultural Commodities % of state total % of U.S. va lue Value of receipts ($1000) Cattle and calves 25 2 773,700 Dairy products 18 2 555,621 Lettuce 16 25 500,749 Cotton 6 3 186,969 Hay 5 3 152,097 All commodities 1 3,105,621 Source: United States Department of Agriculture, 2007 Arizona Fact Sheets: Top 5 Agricultural Commodities in 2006, 2007. Electronic document, http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/AZ.htm#TCEC, accessed June 20, 2007. Figure 3-1. Digital photo of pict ure of Indian exhibit at ro deo,Tucson, Arizona. Date unknown. No. BN 41281 Buehman Collection Arizona Historical Society Tucson, Arizona. Taken with Permission. This material ma y be protected by U.S. Copyright Code. 109

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CHAPTER 4 TOHONO OODHAM FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGES This chapter will answer the first three research questions: (1) What foods do contemporary Tohono Oodham consider to be tradit ional foods? (2) Is there an unmet demand for traditional foods on the Tohono Oodham Nation? (3) What are some of the factors that limit an individual or familys increased involveme nt with traditional f oods (gathering, growing, cooking and consuming)? What are Traditional Foods? When approaching the issue of traditiona l food access and ava ilability on the Tohono O'odham Nation, the first question to consider is what foods are Tohono Oodham traditional foods. This is important for those entities whic h are working with revita lizing traditional foods on the Nation as well as health care providers w ho are looking to make effective health care interventions in order to mitig ate the effects of type 2 diabetes on the Tohono Oodham. Kulkarni (2004) and Urdaneta and Krehbiel (1989) have de monstrated the importance of determining what foods are considered to be traditional foods, or foods that hold symbolic and cultural value for individuals, in tailoring s uggestions for dietary modifications to AfricanAmerican, Asian-Indian, and Mexican-A merican patients with diabetes. When TOCA and TOCC conducted a survey on traditional foods in 2002 they listed 22 traditional foods and asked respondents the freq uency (daily, often, sometimes, rarely, never) with which they consumed trad itional foods and the frequency with which they would like to consume traditional foods. The foods listed in that survey as traditional foods include: tepary beans ( baw ), Oodham squash ( ha:l ), Oodham corn ( hu), Oodham watermelon ( milon ), Oodham sugarcane (ka:no), Oodham melons ( ke:li ba:so ), garbanzo beans (kalwas ), Oodham spinach ( i:wag ), lentils ( laji ), Oodham peas ( wihol ), Oodham pink beans ( s-wegi mu:n ), 110

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black-eyed peas (uus mu:n ), chiltepines ( aal kookol ), acorns (wiyi:di ), cholla buds ( ciolim ), saguaro fruit ( bahidaj ), prickly-pear fruit ( iipai ), banana yucca fruit ( howij ), mesquite beans ( wihog), deer meat ( huawi cuhug ), rabbit (cu:w ), and javelina ( ko:ji ). This list contains foods which are both indigenous and introduced to the region. Historical Shifts in Tohono Oodham Food Systems Historically, the Tohono O'odham developed a tw o village system of residence coupled with collecting in different regions of their trad itional lands to meet th eir dietary needs before Spanish contact. In the summers, the Tohono O odham lived in field villages which enabled easy access to their floodwater fields. They also collected the fruits of many species of cacti during these months. The summer months, marked by the first summer or monsoon rains and the harvesting of bahidaj were a time of relative plenty in the desert. After the harvesting was completed the Tohono Oodham moved to their wint er well or spring villages where they relied on hunting and gathering as well as on foods that they had stored from the previous season to get them through the winter months. The majo rity of food was either hunted or gathered preContact (Castetter and Bell 1942 :57). Foods included in this group are documented by Rea (1997). During this time there was trade in the Sonoran Desert with the Tohono Oodham trading labor, salt and foods th at they hunted and gathered from their homelands for corn, beans and tools not only with neighboring tribes, but also with the more distant Hopi and Zuni (Erickson 1994:18). Hence, Tohono Oodham were consuming at least some foods regionally produced pre-Spanish contact. Contact with the Spanish slowly but dramatically altered the foods that were considered to be Oodham foods. Father Euse bio Kino, an Italian born Jesuit priest, through his missions in the Pimera Alta, had introduced several Old World cultigens by 1710. These crops included: wheat, barley, chick peas (garbanzo beans), lentils, kidney beans, cabbage, onions, lettuce, 111

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garlic, anise, and grape (Lewis 1994:134). An imals were also intr oduced at the missions including cattle, horses, sheep, goats and domestic fowl (Lewis 1994:134). Many of these foods which originally moved into this area thr ough the Columbian Exchange (Crosby 1972) have become well integrated into Tohono Oodham con ceptions of traditional foods. TOCA, which as previously mentioned promotes traditional foods has included some post-Contact foods on the survey with TOCC (TOCA and TOCC 2002) on their li st of traditional foods mentioned above. SXCF also promotes post-Contact foods by grow ing wheat and producing roasted wheat for sale within the Nation. The further and continued contact with the Un ited States brought still more food choices and possibilities into the liv es of the Tohono Oodham. As the economies of the Tohono Oodham Nation and the US became more intert wined (see Chapter 2, Economies of the Tohono Oodham Nation) Tohono Oodham indi viduals came to increasingl y rely on wage labor in cotton camps and mines as well as other off-re servation employment. As these processes continued Tohono Oodham relied less and less on th e floodwater fields in which they grew corn, beans and squash and the suite of subsiste nce strategies which had historically sustained them including collection of cacti, mesquite and screwbeans and hunting for deer, quail, packrats. See Tables 1-1 and 1-2 for decreased utilization of traditi onal farming throughout the Nation and the San Xavier District. As transportation networks increased through the region and a wage economy supplanted a subsistence econom y, grocery stores, convenience marts and fast food restaurants emerged in relatively conveni ent locations on and around the Tohono Oodham Nation. Foods that are considered to be traditional foods today come from all three periods. Although TOCA listed none of the foods from the US period of Tohono Oodham history, many 112

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of the respondents in this research noted that for them traditional foods included things such as potato salad, commodity foods, fry bread, Indi an tacos and fast foods. While official representations of traditional foods from Tohono Oodham Nation representatives and entities include foods from pre-Contact and in some in stances the pre-US, this research shows that contemporary Tohono Oodham perceive that traditio nal foods are from all three time periods: pre-Spanish, Spanish contact and U.S. interactions. Negotiating Tohono Oodham Traditional Foods Given the overlapping religious, political and economic incursions into the region it is no wonder that some contemporary Oodham reflexiv ely negotiate traditio nal Oodham foods. In some instances individuals would denote true tr aditional foods or traditional traditional foods as those that historic Tohono Oodham were consuming preSpanish contact. Lionel, a middle age male from Chukut Kuk District, ponde rs the changing nature of foods consumed by his people, As far as the food I am sure things have changed. You know no one ever sat me down and said okay this is a traditi onal food, this is a Mexican food. So whenever Father Kino, whenever the Spanish came and started teachi ng or introducing us they brought the cattle and the horses, but who knows how we ate at the time when we were fighting the Apaches. What did we eat at the time before there were treaties? For other informants there were clear distin ctions between Mexi can foods and Indian foods. In contemporary times there has been an increased utilization of commodity foods to the extent that three respondents noted that co mmodity foods are traditional foods. For some Tohono Oodham, the adoption of traditional foods as traditional may result from the integration of commodity foods into family recipes. Despite this integration, Samantha, a young woman from the San Lucy District, believes that commodity foods are poor substitutes to foods that have been collected from the desert. She explains: 113

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Nowadays they havethe spinach in the can bu t it doesnt taste the same as it didwe get those and I try to do that to get the way my grandmother had, it a little bit tastes like that but not as good. We would pick it and we would help her clean it and everything and then shed boil itand she would cut up onions and fry it and she would put it in there and it tasted it really good. Commodity foods also led to the increased prevalence of the key ingredients for making fry bread, the pan-Indian food par excellence, and for at some Tohono Oodham an important part of culture. Most businesses and food vendors wh ich sell fry bread plain or as the shell of an Indian Taco within the Nation maintain that it is a traditional food. Indeed Mexican foods and fry bread are relatively easy to attain at most community events and family gatherings as well as available for purchase in many locati ons throughout the Nation. With all of these overlapping sources of food and cuisine, individuals I spoke with gi ve a variety of answers to the question of What foods do you consid er to be traditional foods? The most frequently menti oned traditional foods were: bahidaj beans, cholla buds, fry bread/popover, pinto beans, squas h, tepary beans and tortillas ( cemait ). Elders and middle age individuals mentioned each of these foods Young adults made no mention of bahidaj (saguaro fruit) or cholla buds, although th ey did mention the generic cate gories of cactus food/fruit and cactus jam/syrup. This may indicate that the youth are unfamiliar with the food revitalization efforts within the Nation that have focused on increased production of tepary beans and collection and sales of saguaro fr uit and cholla buds. Young adults also made no mention of the generic category, foods from the desert. Twice as many young adults recognized fry bread as a traditional food compared with elders. Nonethele ss, acceptance of fry br ead as a traditional food was not without reflection. Mike, a young adult man from Sells District, when asked if fry bread was a traditional food answered, Sometimes they are. My grandmother would make it a long time ago and serve it with the foods that she made. The maker or preparer of the food transformed fry bread into a traditional food fo r this young adult. Peggie, a middle age woman 114

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from Baboquivari District, when asked if fr y bread and tortillas were traditional foods, responded, Yeahup to a certain extentespecially the cemait because I remember my grandmother making it. Similarly an elder woman recalls eating fry bread when she was a little girl and hence she considers fry bread to be a traditional food. Ernie, a middle age man from the San Lucy District, expressed the problematic na ture of classifying foods as belonging to one domain. In his self-negotiations of determining the appropriate categorization for fry bread and tortillas he notes the qualities, work to prepar e and taste preference, wh ich may transform a food into a traditional food. When asked if he consider s fry bread and tortillas traditional he explains: Well I guess in a way it kind of is traditional but it is not really native food it is kind of fry bread maybe, but tortillas is more like Mexican but you do have to work at it to make it, but. Yeah I mean I like it a lot. I guess that I would consider it tr aditional or like I said it is maybe a little more Mexican than what I co nsider to be Native American. It is one of the things that you have to make fresh well you dont have to but desire fresh. Other individuals differentiated between the regular flour popovers and the whole wheat tortillas. Marlene, a young adu lt woman from San Lucy District classified yeast bread, potato salad and fry bread as a my modern traditional foods. At the same time Walter, a middle age man from San Lucy District, who describes himsel f as half Mexican and half Indian, views the popovers as the only distinct food that he has had in Native American culture in comparison with Mexican foods. I elected not to offer a list form which pa rticipants could choose as TOCA and TOCC (2002) had done and instead left the question open-ended by asking individuals, What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? This style of questioni ng allowed the opportunity to see convergences and divergences in beliefs concerning what traditional foods are. Asking this simple question to each informant allowed for a ll participants to list all the traditional foods which they are aware of. This structured in terviewing technique is known as free-listing. 115

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Free list data can be collected by asking re spondents to write out all the words and concepts which belong in a domain or alternativ ely can be verbal if all respondents are not literate. I collected the free list data verbally since language issu es were a concern several of my informants (See Chapter 1). I provid ed a piece of paper and pen if res pondents asked for these. Free listing enabled me to determine the c ontents and boundaries of the cultural domain traditional foods from the emic perspectiv e of contemporary Tohono Oodham. Weller and Romney (1998:9) defined a cultu ral domain as, an organized set of words, concepts, or sentences, all on the same level of contrast, that jointly refer to a single conceptual sphere. Free listing has been utilized in se veral anthropology studies includi ng Gravlee (2002) who examined the domain of skin color in southeastern Puerto Rico, Grant (2005) who examined the domain of sexuality for women over 44 in north Florida, an d Rosado (2007) who examined the domain hair via hairstyles and textures of African-descended women. Free listing exercises provide a diversity of responses incl uding idiosyncra tic responses which are listed by only on informant. The domai n traditional foods is marked by 52 (39%) idiosyncratic responses and 80 (61%) responses given by at least two respondents. These responses are shown with their frequencies in, Figure 4-1. This plot shows that at the 31st response there is a leveling off in the scree plot. If frequency of menti on indicates which foods are the most important or salient, then seven of the foods (tepary beans, squash, beans, cholla buds, tortillas, fry bread and pinto beans) can be considered core traditional foods. The structure of this domain follows a core-per iphery structure typical of mo st domains, wherein a few core items are mentioned by most informants and many peripheral items are mentioned by a single informant (Borgatti 1996:5). 116

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Salience or importance of an item can al so be measured in terms of how soon respondents bring up an item. The assumption here is the more salient items are mentioned prior to the less salient items (Romney and DAndrade 1964). Smiths S is a measure which considers both frequency and how soon items were mentioned. Smiths S was computed automatically by ANTHROPAC after all free list data was entere d in the order each respondent gave the information (Borgatti 1996). The highest salien ce scores are for the fi rst three foods: beans, tepary beans and squash. There were somewhat lower scores for cholla buds, tortillas, pinto beans and fry bread. Figure 4-2 shows Smiths S pl otted with data labels for the first 8 items. Table 4-1 lists frequency, pe rcentage of population, rank a nd Smiths S for the 31 most mentioned foods. Interestingly corn which was mentioned by 18 respondents had a higher Smiths S than pinto beans and fry bread which each were mentioned by 23 respondents. This indicates that corn is very important to those who listed it as a food. Whereas over half of the elders asked mentioned corn a nd over a third of middle age i ndividuals only one young adult mentioned corn. Through a comparison of the da ta between different subsets of the population there were other clear differences in frequenc y of responses between different age groups, genders, and districts. Traditional Foods by Gender There was little divergence in the responses that men and women gave to the question, What foods do you consider to be traditional foods? The most interesting response was that women mentioned specific beans (tepary, pinto and lima beans) much more than men, although men mentioned the generic catego ry beans 16% more than wome n. This may reflect womens greater overall knowledge of beans as a result of being the primary cook in many households in recent times. 117

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Women mentioned tepary beans 38% more th an men, pinto beans 25% more, lima beans 22% more and squash and cheese 22% more. In regards to the squash and cheese however, men mentioned both squash and cheese 22% of the time, although separately rather than as one item. Men also mentioned corn 28% more than wome n and mesquite 25% more. Table 4-2 shows differences in responses amongst men and women for the 31 most mentioned responses for the total population. Figure 4-3 shows this relationship in a scatte r plot based on frequency of responses. Despite these differences this research suggests that overall men and women generally agree on what f oods are considered to be traditional. Traditional Foods by District There were some pronounced differences between San Lucy District respondents and nonSan Lucy District respondents.51 One difference is that alt hough fry bread is mentioned 44% more by San Lucy District members than non-di strict members, tortillas are mentioned 38% more by non-district members than district members. Another di fference was the use of generic categories by both San Lucy and non-San Lucy respondents. San Lucy respondents mentioned cactus food/fruit 28% more than Non-San Lucy respondents. Conversely non-San Lucy respondents mentioned cactus jam/syrup 25% more than San Lucy respondents. There was however a 38% greater mention of a specific cactus, saguaro ( bahidaj ), in non-San Lucy compared to San Lucy. Non-San Lucy individuals also mentioned mesquite 34% more than San Lucy individuals, deer 31% more, squash 31% mo re, corn 28% more and rabbits 25% more. In contrast San Lucy individuals mentioned chili stew 25% more than Non-San Lucy individuals and squash and cheese 22% more. Table 4-3 shows differences in responses amongst San Lucy 51 Since the majority of interviews occurred with indivi duals from the San Lucy Dist rict (See Table 1-3) I have classified respondents as from San Lucy District or from non-San Lucy Districts. 118

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and non-San Lucy District members for the 31 most mentioned responses for the total population. Figure 4-4 shows this relati onship in a scatter plot based on fr equency of responses. Several of the individuals that I spoke with in the San Lucy District mentioned potato salad as being a traditional food as we ll as one individual outside of the district. Potato salad is something that is regularly served with beans an d red chili stew at feasts, celebrations and to mark the anniversary of someones death so it did not surprise me that this was considered to be a traditional food by several of the young adults and younger middl e aged people that I spoke with. What was surprising was that a few indi viduals mentioned things like commodity foods and fast foods as being traditional foods. For th ese few individuals the ub iquitous and constant presence of these foods ever since they can remember is a defining element in construction of what tradition is considered. This research suggests differences in San Lucy and non-San Lucy District members conceptions of what foods are traditional foods. These differences may be accounted for by the unique history and geography of the San Lucy District. San Lucy District members live in closest proximity to a population of non-Oodham, ha ve been relocated from their former village site and have had their traditional hunting and collecting grounds contaminated. More research is needed in order to determine the extent of differences between San Lucy and Non-San Lucy residents, but also between other districts within the Nation. This would allow for more targeted traditional food interventions on the Tohono Oodham Nation. Traditional foods by Age Several foods were given by only one age gr oup. Foods listed by elde rs