<%BANNER%>

Comparing the Use of Humor to Other Coping Mechanisms in Relation to Maslach's Theory of Burnout

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021661/00001

Material Information

Title: Comparing the Use of Humor to Other Coping Mechanisms in Relation to Maslach's Theory of Burnout
Physical Description: 1 online resource (128 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: burnout, cope, coping, depersonalization, disengagement, exhaustion, hsq, humor, incongruity, laughing, laughter, maslach, mbi, principal, stress, stressor
Educational Administration and Policy -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Educational Leadership thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study compared the use of humor to other coping mechanisms in relation to Maslach's theory of burnout. Data were analyzed to determine statistically significant relationships among humor dimensions, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school principals' level of burnout. The school principal's job has become more challenging. The literature supported the use of humor as a means of coping. Humor can be used as a form of communication in organizations to promote cohesiveness, build consensus, deliver messages across power and authority, make situations less threatening, and promote change. The sample for this study included a random sampling of 400 public elementary school principals from across Florida. Participants in this study used the Maslach Burnout Inventory to rate their level of burnout on the scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Achievement; the Humor Styles Questionnaire to rate their self-perceived use of humor; and the COPE Inventory to rate their self-perceived use of humor compared to other coping mechanisms. Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to incongruities in life and using humor as a coping mechanism, and was supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associated with making funny comments and telling jokes which facilitate relationships while reducing tension among others, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Aggressive Humor is related to the use of humor to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Self-Defeating Humor is identified with the use of humor at an individual's own expense through excessive humorous self-ridicule, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. This study can aid principals in understanding the coping mechanisms they use to deal with stressors. This study can help principals realize that the use of specific types of humor, along with other coping mechanisms within the workplace, can help reduce their level of burnout.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Clark, Phillip A.
Local: Co-adviser: Hagedorn, Linda.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021661:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021661/00001

Material Information

Title: Comparing the Use of Humor to Other Coping Mechanisms in Relation to Maslach's Theory of Burnout
Physical Description: 1 online resource (128 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: burnout, cope, coping, depersonalization, disengagement, exhaustion, hsq, humor, incongruity, laughing, laughter, maslach, mbi, principal, stress, stressor
Educational Administration and Policy -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Educational Leadership thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study compared the use of humor to other coping mechanisms in relation to Maslach's theory of burnout. Data were analyzed to determine statistically significant relationships among humor dimensions, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school principals' level of burnout. The school principal's job has become more challenging. The literature supported the use of humor as a means of coping. Humor can be used as a form of communication in organizations to promote cohesiveness, build consensus, deliver messages across power and authority, make situations less threatening, and promote change. The sample for this study included a random sampling of 400 public elementary school principals from across Florida. Participants in this study used the Maslach Burnout Inventory to rate their level of burnout on the scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Achievement; the Humor Styles Questionnaire to rate their self-perceived use of humor; and the COPE Inventory to rate their self-perceived use of humor compared to other coping mechanisms. Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to incongruities in life and using humor as a coping mechanism, and was supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associated with making funny comments and telling jokes which facilitate relationships while reducing tension among others, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Aggressive Humor is related to the use of humor to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Self-Defeating Humor is identified with the use of humor at an individual's own expense through excessive humorous self-ridicule, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. This study can aid principals in understanding the coping mechanisms they use to deal with stressors. This study can help principals realize that the use of specific types of humor, along with other coping mechanisms within the workplace, can help reduce their level of burnout.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Clark, Phillip A.
Local: Co-adviser: Hagedorn, Linda.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021661:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101117_AAAACY INGEST_TIME 2010-11-18T02:49:44Z PACKAGE UFE0021661_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 2720 DFID F20101117_AABYTT ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH hawkins_d_Page_111.txt GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
73f943906400fa345af4d0b5b012facd
SHA-1
65da7569f04251d5ddeb1d88f40b1d18a516ac55
57198 F20101117_AABZAC hawkins_d_Page_048.pro
5f53817886d271dfe983f8811982031a
f6973877f13dc7af2f0e7331de8ae33d49f01d96
4256 F20101117_AABYUH hawkins_d_Page_009.pro
7fb5284b6ac902b9e00f3334215192c3
033936dd21ebdefb4eb9a3856553a1bc8f481583
52240 F20101117_AABZAD hawkins_d_Page_049.pro
c2f189556aa39a82caab354e1f116b30
604dac8653143019326e264b9fafccacfcea3ba0
88845 F20101117_AABYUI hawkins_d_Page_045.jpg
6da0b599ba79d4dc7a2f2234105e951e
7a5bfed8ed530855ac3e449da9e41a1aa12f81ae
1051966 F20101117_AABYTU hawkins_d_Page_066.jp2
dc75c3b30584233a2e8753bfbd565331
d2712a75fb28570e7a4f5ec7e51e5821187ea688
52712 F20101117_AABZAE hawkins_d_Page_050.pro
bee131ad779938fb60d4428396694d73
dffe53ba6cf49bcd5e83501a35287e6c4fd30128
2076 F20101117_AABYUJ hawkins_d_Page_019.txt
4476825eea924392cb9c476619dfce01
462d08986401f570f975c0bd26006af75b61395d
22509 F20101117_AABYTV hawkins_d_Page_026.jpg
7d15938eaf05c7c885d788cf310a50be
c36bf4b482d545c43acd33a138aa35e3f0159e7d
53772 F20101117_AABZAF hawkins_d_Page_051.pro
a7ccb6c5380c176ab4ae71063a63047c
0be208d8f1d53abba080e00663695895d939aaa2
90865 F20101117_AABYUK hawkins_d_Page_035.jpg
088e1f5a56932f2d1e14e25f502d5907
fcfc18f68b1e140d0c2f5f51d07dd91c97edbf5a
629 F20101117_AABYTW hawkins_d_Page_110thm.jpg
9a4471225e24d40390665d1f3b18e4cb
ac3c3b1ce064939643128727bdfa8030e90ee26f
54479 F20101117_AABZAG hawkins_d_Page_055.pro
862d592c6e470ae7e5bc6b5d12a05e15
4b6145c8e45f088d91c3239607d4a4983e7ce5e7
83163 F20101117_AABYVA hawkins_d_Page_027.jpg
c491ef5b792a77093f11c964958b10a0
8ef91353918b4f4d03d6118b019b5cf9659b476f
4014 F20101117_AABYUL hawkins_d_Page_089thm.jpg
62a21716e4fb5a7d2edd10422fd1e60b
0c505e41998cbc5f399ed6d8c6ff2b67dc478b7c
86651 F20101117_AABYTX hawkins_d_Page_049.jpg
802ae37ee0a4d6fac6b09dd6aa92cdc7
f633c7f50fcec3ea112d7ca15a21880bf95116a9
52866 F20101117_AABZAH hawkins_d_Page_059.pro
2aa62931affe2f59b64a99f782e9020c
c33fed2382e5a74dafd27364072ef2fd9f96fa17
1051983 F20101117_AABYVB hawkins_d_Page_008.jp2
9424f078a55422bc6bc71276df604ecc
032371f45b1f60bd3b9413ad6bf2656031fcc52a
1051973 F20101117_AABYUM hawkins_d_Page_075.jp2
07030986a0f1483829e0dabde807deac
57759aa41ef16a957cd275479ec222ecfb71e63b
1051984 F20101117_AABYTY hawkins_d_Page_054.jp2
d801c53b325954430e0597b351d6a6bf
a1e946f65ae748602a124deeb06fe39bfdc17cbc
56755 F20101117_AABZAI hawkins_d_Page_060.pro
1b2c55c5af044a7c1a746bb3db8d78fd
31f98084d257e0fa80199a6d3e5913d9f12038d7
25271604 F20101117_AABYVC hawkins_d_Page_125.tif
637373c80a1b168cf1e23fc921487223
9805ffb25cccd28a73ceb2bbad5d91fdc67896c7
27032 F20101117_AABYUN hawkins_d_Page_112.jpg
183fa258899e1698a98e6ea88dd5eeb3
3c34fbd9aa16d291147737a45f4a4d41943fe835
28307 F20101117_AABYTZ hawkins_d_Page_099.QC.jpg
ff8737fe3e5684da3c81de6946c8493c
7961c9780360268a33d3415fc8d0e32fb6a69f8f
39303 F20101117_AABZAJ hawkins_d_Page_064.pro
a31ed775a3f6f2ed5068d9135aaa82ad
07ca50f29153508c3579317d69e1832024217432
85311 F20101117_AABYVD hawkins_d_Page_076.jpg
b06a025d415ffe4972fd120167f1fbb7
97dfe5bfa15248f561ef17de41022ea34fabded9
6079 F20101117_AABYUO hawkins_d_Page_024thm.jpg
b3606bd2d113f22a30a8b287a2610a99
87477b48c1d4776597abf6b33137f3f2c6626e30
55997 F20101117_AABZAK hawkins_d_Page_070.pro
946463b60481708ec535bdc55f840cb0
88c54c405db75a780e97206ee3bcf89779b4cb37
6499 F20101117_AABYVE hawkins_d_Page_103thm.jpg
41b9a32786e4355bd389f481404e486c
c0ea093c245332188b3e3cdce759f3721e228dfc
2189 F20101117_AABYUP hawkins_d_Page_056.txt
d76dee194bd2d7382d2e26a7c660418a
c9e0318b08c4fff6624f1b50284c359b45a03d58
55480 F20101117_AABZAL hawkins_d_Page_071.pro
722f515fee9b10ab3bc812666ecb86ea
0e209d88da9953d95b8f9ac004c01268b08605d7
6673 F20101117_AABYVF hawkins_d_Page_048thm.jpg
4e3c8170c9ee57b16435d41ecc5f2ca7
0aeb74f078b84fc4de1cca7d2a3e9f15e3297a58
53079 F20101117_AABYUQ hawkins_d_Page_072.pro
b5054313853397d85217dab674ec7562
371bf3a20402a97752d257f64849727e239ba916
46828 F20101117_AABZAM hawkins_d_Page_078.pro
6e841d7d4db59530978b8aa3a85e454d
f82ea5781a2b64485eb7a9709fc9eac9e9f9c2f2
1051972 F20101117_AABYVG hawkins_d_Page_094.jp2
98a983dda760da33a09ca5303ebd4ca4
1b7682b87cdddd7cb4accb5f2c721055ce5251f0
64 F20101117_AABYUR hawkins_d_Page_106.txt
fc52345c2ad90cfaa6365f183e8f49e2
26667f7ecada0c92e86233cb40d952badde34f29
61893 F20101117_AABZBA hawkins_d_Page_122.pro
7109f5851619dc041902fea512ad427c
3e591cfbab23c780faf5dcac758a38f9aa1e2f53
50232 F20101117_AABZAN hawkins_d_Page_079.pro
39cef09a77f62d21922ef45ad7c0b26a
8d15b452e0296cf5789a1c625705f83389df6ae2
54023 F20101117_AABYVH hawkins_d_Page_120.pro
0ca6e0743d73a624b7b58960f46e9abf
64202259747101c5f91e0d47aa4b97cb2208ecb5
53383 F20101117_AABYUS hawkins_d_Page_069.pro
17e9c03c7c8f4b59f9714f1c8f108bba
9cfc554d4fdfd47b8bb41717a40e258a51d41bb3
54333 F20101117_AABZBB hawkins_d_Page_126.pro
8ad0389c2bfed2fb0b3bf09bf65c8c4f
9c1523ff07a5c24e905095346e7172167cdcb6c3
52980 F20101117_AABZAO hawkins_d_Page_082.pro
e068262a796a4fd78be1af3ca81503ba
4ff710391d7c00895a5b7b4fd452a9dd368bbc68
F20101117_AABYUT hawkins_d_Page_102.tif
7a4cc2c2c50825bc8110f0c12062494f
c4e6221d86d26c7f8d7e2f78681f7a018c49ac6c
480 F20101117_AABZBC hawkins_d_Page_001.txt
8869418378bec5a929bec9f526f78ff7
95e6a0fb6338ccba0aac942f259db430c6298e75
55035 F20101117_AABZAP hawkins_d_Page_085.pro
75cf22b92e62e9eb978873e046b222ff
46c8c061ed272bebf1bd43f5dfc4ac4365362810
53968 F20101117_AABYVI hawkins_d_Page_029.pro
196a2f41c12f8abbf080b70630ef0363
804805deb637fa8be24645bb59286e39e33d7293
1051924 F20101117_AABYUU hawkins_d_Page_053.jp2
55e3954cc50a5d6410d636f307f94139
8fc1c11d753a3cbef3b020e54e0003a8aa1a20d9
93 F20101117_AABZBD hawkins_d_Page_002.txt
2fe3ce54aa4a54edf9e8ce34b9680003
0c82c2daf4f291dd15f5bb9880b478a2534cb583
14548 F20101117_AABZAQ hawkins_d_Page_086.pro
55f397bc613bb5755291353331de4c4a
fba374ea6d90867d8c33567b4fc3a4b986fcd88f
2139 F20101117_AABYVJ hawkins_d_Page_045.txt
50da1c3e9f509f965df20e27b7ba9475
00015777fe77366e69f78d56b0677a8ae49e0455
F20101117_AABYUV hawkins_d_Page_030.tif
c9957774ed8148c7a531130448ec1b57
4e83ec99b373e494463c8b3c67f4a2020f87dd1f
4045 F20101117_AABZBE hawkins_d_Page_007.txt
346c39d8abcddcb3875fe7e906f3b2cf
888e654429b8597879b4632232ee9bc0330f2a00
2181 F20101117_AABZBF hawkins_d_Page_015.txt
1bc5a4b9e531a70b53bd212375d3b06c
a94fe9537dd753e434338cbde55f0ff4401eb1b8
29890 F20101117_AABZAR hawkins_d_Page_093.pro
8f51fffea6bd696493171519080e62a6
b8ded60dd149c1d3291799f3c1e1f3791ff4f31e
38954 F20101117_AABYVK hawkins_d_Page_010.pro
e180e7ba65d6b3e64cf9d350bb28dc8a
05c839ca714ac32cc4661dbaa0ad688edd6f5167
742 F20101117_AABYUW hawkins_d_Page_005.txt
78dc867017431a6db275b3a59c96b788
873667c5f0b34a9680c968bcbbae822d6ca7bdbb
2123 F20101117_AABZBG hawkins_d_Page_016.txt
f358cd006f304a771775bffbc84dbfeb
9584471c2ade9d5999834d8848f8c37b86ff0b37
192964 F20101117_AABYVL UFE0021661_00001.xml FULL
f374c7420a0fa106ee56d44ea39190c8
777da5944c04b648e63b2b35a953d34e3d09caa9
F20101117_AABYUX hawkins_d_Page_046.tif
58e381d00321caff4fe455ba8ba4955d
bfbba617784b32e4529632ca7dd4a4ee154c4e39
85200 F20101117_AABYWA hawkins_d_Page_062.jpg
60e4780f22568b973ddc4e0450b28915
a51df912b86be18e8ab9908997a513b9764776da
1902 F20101117_AABZBH hawkins_d_Page_021.txt
4e716978c6f0d5df4f37e06ab5aa552b
acd487575dccbcee258dd89e0e7c908e6c287a47
101520 F20101117_AABYUY hawkins_d_Page_117.jpg
6c889a59b3fb76c4407cd5ca5a33db5a
a87524512db9274cad3f3d2fa7fe094252636891
67052 F20101117_AABYWB hawkins_d_Page_064.jpg
1bf486855d06f8beee3608b98fc87093
ccd9a35a2f3d91f0b6497405f9856ad73c94e4ac
53227 F20101117_AABZAS hawkins_d_Page_101.pro
ff184bf910f6fca2aa07d89895912c0b
e2c794ca0dda1f705ad618ef77ced4d508eb75af
458 F20101117_AABZBI hawkins_d_Page_026.txt
39b721efd9144fb6b1365cc0de3b4f61
63d72bc70b9938b2cf75c8950e888f0fa6f13bf3
5814 F20101117_AABYUZ hawkins_d_Page_078thm.jpg
6228492e08b58c71e4781729122b4c77
cb4e02ae458b8eaa91b94fab8136db104081ac8c
88930 F20101117_AABYWC hawkins_d_Page_069.jpg
3cc856b498e52cf4ac9b70981bb68a86
3553bccebe4cdb34125cc39f109456c5959502a8
47969 F20101117_AABZAT hawkins_d_Page_102.pro
f46ae6fc50ea433744522527883d460d
a855afb47515d4bf2bbf86cc65d587e2cfa92323
2105 F20101117_AABZBJ hawkins_d_Page_030.txt
8e1d11778d96780a2d05dedecb21e688
89ebb0e848eb7a0b6ca0217d68425fbe0a5faf93
22674 F20101117_AABYVO hawkins_d_Page_001.jpg
d1f1dd720201acf798093c1a13a8911f
4188dd877ff8c1d5f8b415322ee393ded21e2ccc
91847 F20101117_AABYWD hawkins_d_Page_070.jpg
0ade4b25d3f774edd03101d5615c9767
e583179f8e082e25b453cb74e65dd4d7ca80b775
17208 F20101117_AABZAU hawkins_d_Page_105.pro
ecf5079270439cd93bc3f00427d0549b
211f0f1d95eaaa9340631f841f3e1d594e0dbcc3
2332 F20101117_AABZBK hawkins_d_Page_032.txt
debf795c93dfbffcde1ffcdacda2d831
1870ad86dfec8705aeeb18a7ebf2167ba8800659
4316 F20101117_AABYVP hawkins_d_Page_003.jpg
5477836a0fa2595c2239c2c573277f2b
54722ee1e9844846a9cd16b60593dd97e7eca751
94102 F20101117_AABYWE hawkins_d_Page_074.jpg
27c61e269d8a5278f43c4f25a8056732
424debb4f8548f6f5a65a33ba9359f7bef3336c8
2097 F20101117_AABZAV hawkins_d_Page_113.pro
dd3995d827529dd6d39c9f6b6326b187
6e22ad39f33ccb7d17e3ff81d20588956f07bac4
1975 F20101117_AABZBL hawkins_d_Page_034.txt
6ae799d29108ba1befd1fdc24bf9b282
044d53e75fcbf4607885321ac9b7e76ad709fd67
87276 F20101117_AABYVQ hawkins_d_Page_006.jpg
60bbcf8a9f39053366dd95d2e3c8b4f5
426490b4680a1424c82898f216551d2c4a456161
84242 F20101117_AABYWF hawkins_d_Page_079.jpg
0a322ed2977512b638de61f0b39d0f25
d2e8b39bdd2e82ca2f843cb4a5aa2b70012f5985
1031 F20101117_AABZAW hawkins_d_Page_115.pro
9ac7857f2d5726c0ea9390750a697f8e
4f6a89a55986cd3f22ac45342df74a0a96c8a6cb
2079 F20101117_AABZCA hawkins_d_Page_072.txt
f528c6f5f507a8723c538fe535cbfd2e
4c12cd880cfb817f145a9404249d273305ba1ae6
2146 F20101117_AABZBM hawkins_d_Page_037.txt
4b95b1d63d5a27288c2a0d09e60a360b
8c7e30436529c92ef70fd3bb558dcabd1f516f2a
86679 F20101117_AABYVR hawkins_d_Page_007.jpg
2a502dd6e7df2e751992a4b6d95dec82
e7d88a8e1f74491eba3fb7c3c0d50f225f8725e2
89616 F20101117_AABYWG hawkins_d_Page_080.jpg
665cdb3e7370537e7f967bb3098d0443
054b40f000239868d2411bb9d578a845cf3613da
60480 F20101117_AABZAX hawkins_d_Page_117.pro
2d3626f8576a906d3dfa8b05737ba052
19d035763f11d40a593fc05be69258fb78916391
2213 F20101117_AABZCB hawkins_d_Page_074.txt
f5e373b2d330529cec5d23c2fc1497d5
e4f0e01b6de2fc9f70a2bf31bc76af47209095e3
2386 F20101117_AABZBN hawkins_d_Page_038.txt
465bf6bee7ffaac5dfee5b6b70436e06
7f3672d9e9b58c2b13f39725bcfef0ccfefded4c
69589 F20101117_AABYVS hawkins_d_Page_010.jpg
14e555da78575536ade6a237bc350677
1f4b6fd7ec5708dcaaf0835d3fe54095c330e9ae
84841 F20101117_AABYWH hawkins_d_Page_081.jpg
8ab96cb49133796f7403729e67ee7007
69527968d19a78f14ead6fbf31782fc583dadac0
59290 F20101117_AABZAY hawkins_d_Page_118.pro
7a821c9f650b17999d9fac317ccff942
c8313d4380afda0865ca1fab3f1bac22005a16e3
2017 F20101117_AABZCC hawkins_d_Page_076.txt
a3f486705b158b3924bfef620601b026
b0bd85293d9434c7552babb018a0d2489188f2b6
2206 F20101117_AABZBO hawkins_d_Page_041.txt
ca2ee5e875df99cf5be155cedce879b8
06d8c1d0db8ddbb6e5c91b0031e349a850492b78
85929 F20101117_AABYVT hawkins_d_Page_017.jpg
eb111fbcd1ae510bbdaa47e0b9f57877
59f6130cb37aa2e98eead0e12c966df7b3b40826
90856 F20101117_AABYWI hawkins_d_Page_083.jpg
e14ae0dd6067e48be756f1fa1496b82b
4ed1b350f29d5f8653f74764017a699f248bc2f4
60749 F20101117_AABZAZ hawkins_d_Page_119.pro
700df09a5d9a888b68a067ddf764e6f4
0069e6fbd4ca74aa5076718a7b402e9aeb7c6dfb
1009 F20101117_AABZCD hawkins_d_Page_077.txt
b7ca4830ccd677a8d0c0221eb8ac04cb
9690e059c5cbf23bf0f07368c4b8a67a0e5f6569
2167 F20101117_AABZBP hawkins_d_Page_044.txt
0bd0fe4b0b1982b422a207d897d62cf8
64bdbb99f740360d26c79574ef98fe950b9a352a
64880 F20101117_AABYVU hawkins_d_Page_022.jpg
bbdb9788cd37e8d673207de859f40ee9
1b60a00b068036512783a03bee53dd34416581b6
2103 F20101117_AABZCE hawkins_d_Page_080.txt
98df4b19b879595abd9b989dd6dd8440
d7f002387ff5961a736aeef6046b0fa145a4594f
2268 F20101117_AABZBQ hawkins_d_Page_048.txt
2ca60475a7ce48e1e5305167755b806f
8ca3cc55896400ec0a74edf026af78b8f2c2ab94
78837 F20101117_AABYVV hawkins_d_Page_024.jpg
a4b150d43c0b19b10d547954121a44c6
259e752b3fb589d08501ff3ff5a45f9abbf48ae3
92166 F20101117_AABYWJ hawkins_d_Page_085.jpg
3c33c18f1e09b9c813b60b0d902d93ec
f6a311d0623ace70442e528d5808988bc2a84957
2088 F20101117_AABZCF hawkins_d_Page_082.txt
c5bb872989ea3c1037d46d18a8850a98
61e2ebe073e874acc43f37e0692061b6940be60e
2259 F20101117_AABZBR hawkins_d_Page_054.txt
b07db5c0b1e6a60394acb18e21cf7ce2
f7056ae29c2e2c63ee783da0b8c1f977950865de
88346 F20101117_AABYVW hawkins_d_Page_039.jpg
bb4bce087641641bf24aacc620931317
601c7e063121623efead1e28a1004836f0b186c2
28452 F20101117_AABYWK hawkins_d_Page_086.jpg
b7ef3c4939f1b653a31441c21ab59582
5d99eb9480f49d7da972402843941da6d0c95027
2161 F20101117_AABZCG hawkins_d_Page_085.txt
4155a6b6376c295d7bd4faed3e023d46
6b13ed89365603dad843f6ddfbc7a88b76b504ba
2121 F20101117_AABZBS hawkins_d_Page_057.txt
0392b71d567e9366448a381b8d6c33bf
723325614657936b7a98aaa2805f442f28bec4ed
87791 F20101117_AABYVX hawkins_d_Page_046.jpg
304b68b6f7239ac7c6d686ff2d3acd62
4b0500e084a108085d58a2bd461b8ff0214d8d2a
1051970 F20101117_AABYXA hawkins_d_Page_038.jp2
39f7e25c70cc861386c99ca4625b64a8
36894d8291505dfab5b15a5b8deb61081eedfd5e
64639 F20101117_AABYWL hawkins_d_Page_089.jpg
caef6d8b9c4a00e0c6061b6a49b869fb
e7c407a4d1e412fbcb8db0c7c51e264a15d9cb9d
1296 F20101117_AABZCH hawkins_d_Page_091.txt
6be949f8a9158f15ad03bc943fb2714c
66fc2c9d79ad75248e8a4228cb684f8a6ef024ac
94858 F20101117_AABYVY hawkins_d_Page_048.jpg
cec4d84ee35550e65cde1147aa7255c6
03e1bea3fbb70a43cb2723642b478029409b3e3d
1051958 F20101117_AABYXB hawkins_d_Page_042.jp2
038e3aa4d9f7f469bc4211229028828f
6328b06c67866eaf95914bcb61da574eeafad2ad
89199 F20101117_AABYWM hawkins_d_Page_094.jpg
770a1bea8583d6cbad6878916405d0c2
4a49d0c9c1b629691da7baf22233ed167ad60eba
2608 F20101117_AABZCI hawkins_d_Page_094.txt
7066f807d8cfde9a5740805fefe524ad
23a620b27e11121ac5af0d3430f274593b08e52d
2205 F20101117_AABZBT hawkins_d_Page_058.txt
9935eefa94d54c982ed99520687c8b46
02b53d625bf4c0fb5ead192af5bac04ef1fac456
90145 F20101117_AABYVZ hawkins_d_Page_056.jpg
3117e82abd7ca1ca0eed78f1ec92c46c
7aed325cc9ee28a1423553eedfc3d2199eda54a2
F20101117_AABYXC hawkins_d_Page_047.jp2
b6bf23939bfa1bb673e1e176a07f276a
b013ff9de9f18bb665d93306c36fae9f99d8671a
85741 F20101117_AABYWN hawkins_d_Page_097.jpg
0e8e509d40f8eba8024ad56378f39795
746ed924420e51f4cde0d2c87d59d2282184a406
1963 F20101117_AABZCJ hawkins_d_Page_100.txt
44d943a4e81c0058980649e1a0bc98e7
9b70e2d8d0e5d725168ade284e16bdc764ca9bf8
2057 F20101117_AABZBU hawkins_d_Page_062.txt
87c79ee6f7f5f55b0afd626e6adc6aef
a4c1a77ca6ffbda69b860e5623bf656edad42b41
1051942 F20101117_AABYXD hawkins_d_Page_048.jp2
3c9798cfea20a04c0ca29262ef350ef7
2d10a7ba5aebb7b9fa4b365bdf9c9555ea9eb327
89283 F20101117_AABYWO hawkins_d_Page_098.jpg
36df0e117325971dfb10144a0b48e255
7d18595e47c27e3d632e37c147ba54e6e8d97dfa
1903 F20101117_AABZCK hawkins_d_Page_102.txt
b65743aad5f5b8557494eb525bf21407
6def4e70996f98e56ff950c0c30ad2765d9b0b79
1691 F20101117_AABZBV hawkins_d_Page_064.txt
83794a9db5ec23097d87742621a5b6d4
f48078d424ddbc804cd0cf1abeb6ce69797a164f
1051969 F20101117_AABYXE hawkins_d_Page_057.jp2
0dd25b16901190b21361cf23132c9e89
c63e091480099af85d4f3a1f0264b0817e851334
4666 F20101117_AABYWP hawkins_d_Page_108.jpg
a1feb900c3937f598ccb1bb5e733620e
b45ec1ca6bb7f8db161e68ccf7a3a17be87c46f6
2579 F20101117_AABZCL hawkins_d_Page_103.txt
928a7d5b4f268712d3e642fe2270ce4c
984648edee46290a66b886efe98131c5960837af
2126 F20101117_AABZBW hawkins_d_Page_067.txt
3cfbc3423815d6c096dcde477540cf78
f64cd714474eb904e19830fab9269b293cc705d4
F20101117_AABYXF hawkins_d_Page_065.jp2
32d4a4b00688851c879d4cf26b36ec83
18ea938928999a99126de3fc92d1b5bc59ecbd6c
7008 F20101117_AABYWQ hawkins_d_Page_110.jpg
4c55498e9af66916dc9194ac575b5510
e90e9810c87166f0d23c3ce90fba251de9408282
2728 F20101117_AABZDA hawkins_d_Page_009.QC.jpg
476097e8fef9a91cb962b9ca198f8600
99c22c154aba9c14d36f4a17d5777fb9e9d1a2a5
2241 F20101117_AABZCM hawkins_d_Page_104.txt
d5afcaff17e20f0ae96a2f9a1723ee92
b9538a7d8d4ef50bfd97e249ecaeadc633f45fc1
2169 F20101117_AABZBX hawkins_d_Page_068.txt
e06609f145681a718c8b0c4bf6f70b92
9b2807069a3a6f1ec7de7154c36b615036818989
F20101117_AABYXG hawkins_d_Page_067.jp2
d41a67f88b24bc9aac0500d6c0ab9cac
d1f3fb0f5c002da283d62d1b99a93542a124bbaf
101361 F20101117_AABYWR hawkins_d_Page_111.jpg
affd278353d3cea2661a3e37945bad9d
77655425c825cca4e26a330cbc7491d6414e55d9
5040 F20101117_AABZDB hawkins_d_Page_010thm.jpg
0304a719cf25abc87e518a4a6a38b389
496f08b6aad744ec08aa9c21fdc7cf183b469c98
110 F20101117_AABZCN hawkins_d_Page_113.txt
7c6a1f43b5b3f4fcd9ed884a5c0cd681
705fb76ed1a93ad9c29717c8e8d24be639b073c4
F20101117_AABZBY hawkins_d_Page_069.txt
ac85237718943753738ec744b34cd506
b7b4ea33d1179f395a96a9a06e26303143f59fbc
1051961 F20101117_AABYXH hawkins_d_Page_068.jp2
fc266ed2491d61c8174de0e299d88399
d05bb72c4f34214db6eb8fe743e5aa52b641d171
99210 F20101117_AABYWS hawkins_d_Page_125.jpg
6a38d1b787a6ec3eab5807c75e52e983
65e217725a84605164abf7684ddf5e4b63fdbfb2
16509 F20101117_AABZDC hawkins_d_Page_011.QC.jpg
020e10987ad76266a3b06bf99ae3ea19
392f879c68c3f2aa26caa12b7f5a036f2767c4db
50 F20101117_AABZCO hawkins_d_Page_115.txt
4cbc6013dd97a49d602415d5d0988273
7e5b9d349bf497482e8365ebd50de87202159c45
2170 F20101117_AABZBZ hawkins_d_Page_071.txt
8ef606ceb2c339f457a4c8ec63048c38
abc00d5b024061172961fcc2d4110147822fcc24
1051986 F20101117_AABYXI hawkins_d_Page_073.jp2
6dfa21c1bb94bd14839ecd7339af2f57
efa9355a9037f874968a09bcd5aa06d2ec75c11f
261546 F20101117_AABYWT hawkins_d_Page_001.jp2
513d8005320fa2409110de3d476cb3fb
5a4e37efa732b216d55c6d7ab4244da8da8b1f99
1020 F20101117_AABYAA hawkins_d_Page_063thm.jpg
4c1c2d1a4e1686c375f5daa83dbc1458
070ecb44af4568d9fe1d164e4c2cbf4c4ff83403
27985 F20101117_AABZDD hawkins_d_Page_014.QC.jpg
1b02c49b4dddc039d5e8173df8afba6a
83bfd89f102f39a71f2c00a4b9ba4aa019bef06f
2461 F20101117_AABZCP hawkins_d_Page_117.txt
5293ebd995cd2cf229c7113c11da7520
d08e2859df6f6d3fa33c9a8a239dbf5c91c43d5a
F20101117_AABYXJ hawkins_d_Page_083.jp2
d4c037394990ede85c81c7e571244d85
64e3ed203f93fd1265c7b157408ff5b37d228ea9
1051952 F20101117_AABYWU hawkins_d_Page_007.jp2
3b6fd57e9cd14ee9154699f16c9674f9
9c9b6115ae40eb7150e95bebbcb92fd9ba026c89
241081 F20101117_AABYAB hawkins_d_Page_091.jp2
e6763ae9fb7c363ba89660e404e60471
8f002ffa8160955d24e7e619573fe247e978b0d8
6270 F20101117_AABZDE hawkins_d_Page_017thm.jpg
d129a4f1a3fe1cc67097696c71dfe1f4
793e1520f174b5b3b8073be6ffd36a30c0fb8fba
2138 F20101117_AABZCQ hawkins_d_Page_121.txt
fe0eada41625ccce05f7f6a04d5d80f8
18c782427a9b25d9159ca8c186735710eaff3da3
1050297 F20101117_AABYWV hawkins_d_Page_021.jp2
c7bd1f982ead2d2749fbbc90dcba5176
54260d6dc78ec3bf80fadf8a0e6011a0f4b3a08f
F20101117_AABYAC hawkins_d_Page_023.tif
64df1b7e351640e8c7bd492cd8f6c78c
74179bbe4e71ef5eaa1b2b35c11b9e14bb6bc376
27989 F20101117_AABZDF hawkins_d_Page_019.QC.jpg
4a48eafdad28b6b6fcb92b3b39fe2944
1d2ed08d7433b9d483ace723a6263463ec4e4119
2517 F20101117_AABZCR hawkins_d_Page_122.txt
5df53c1a4dcb2ff17d5009cd45c989ce
d8195f412ff5d47465b1139d58667ea19203bddd
829248 F20101117_AABYXK hawkins_d_Page_089.jp2
c93318d64a78a2f71ace4e00abc85dbb
a68371ca1241f673cd9cf60f6030960a51080ea5
1051931 F20101117_AABYWW hawkins_d_Page_024.jp2
a91aeb57a5384a9767e2742c44c7dc21
39c544cfd2c7dcc6136e2ffef6a76313fabd8426
F20101117_AABYAD hawkins_d_Page_065.tif
8d5d1ffc8e47a045919ad48b6a576695
75f6d3e929648a9898c7e1c49d5756c9519ab511
27761 F20101117_AABZDG hawkins_d_Page_020.QC.jpg
8958b46534c2c7aa135c4ab29e7e1350
0e7c33562f5f9718b02e89deae1bd9cb11df93d0
587954 F20101117_AABZCS hawkins_d.pdf
529b02ae9da9ee30eb50af0f65acdcfe
9f0f0e6e374d62b4099d19992fdd04cf7a7ef37f
F20101117_AABYYA hawkins_d_Page_022.tif
c404afd627311a19a861eaa70477f7ef
bc8680916ff8a9642781e196ca9e5c31d275f580
1051904 F20101117_AABYXL hawkins_d_Page_097.jp2
ff2be140d3d9eac6517cb5bd16c00347
d594a6c6835f1fe85a4501155c117977634232ed
250663 F20101117_AABYWX hawkins_d_Page_026.jp2
a084201ce7e7cd807395ecf0a0ca5a83
3ff6a435a828bc9e4bf79388cacee0703648ec64
420702 F20101117_AABYAE hawkins_d_Page_005.jp2
aeb2bde435e929863a730e83787f3ace
3463c2b21cc98e9d32f08fb33198cc43b9a89167
5678 F20101117_AABZDH hawkins_d_Page_021thm.jpg
9e6e9500fa35e7148871d75997ce58fd
d0d3af5a0d943b264054763ff41912a78eb6ad0c
6697 F20101117_AABZCT hawkins_d_Page_001.QC.jpg
63e09ce1683fa5787708a776f0262e99
4aeaee53b4466c96944e444aad06bfc46a20a9ef
F20101117_AABYYB hawkins_d_Page_027.tif
eb0fc7db0f8c24ff9190e3399a412693
a9615fea2db4277602fafa7836d82bfa94e37269
1051945 F20101117_AABYXM hawkins_d_Page_098.jp2
ebf5a0d06a25bcffedb95cde2da94d5f
08c2bac0977158823a434553fe26974ae2cfe382
1051982 F20101117_AABYWY hawkins_d_Page_031.jp2
2d046c5aceb13f9c909a0458442b0a33
b32f0d292de99fc592be5bbe758537da2a19077a
9843 F20101117_AABYAF hawkins_d_Page_092.QC.jpg
126914e48dad89a5c301cc3aa63a529c
b23878b94d26baf6af603ea6ad60670b4e76a145
22349 F20101117_AABZDI hawkins_d_Page_021.QC.jpg
0eae33d84aa0334d90410c8ae71f7c89
7a8d8066cbc9b0959b3a0fcbe9516e4bd0cebac1
F20101117_AABYYC hawkins_d_Page_033.tif
91c9134d26aa26d41914b96272e71f13
5a7b9e4a7b4a04ca9cf9b86597bc6315f45bc733
1051944 F20101117_AABYXN hawkins_d_Page_103.jp2
7a4b0c2a415f2804b79f0c679b8ef323
60805fcda2e3a9161ffc899bb6837635f313c81b
1051925 F20101117_AABYWZ hawkins_d_Page_035.jp2
237d4df104b5ac117c13810544a53ff7
7a224fb9b22882312995b8ed8f65c23ee1c05444
6866 F20101117_AABYAG hawkins_d_Page_031thm.jpg
874414be9d128e44ad3965bf3e7b6fdf
d00b91c7f716a8bbcb6119f261c7020079860c45
1408 F20101117_AABZDJ hawkins_d_Page_026thm.jpg
0270333d6bfe4589489f0677da6fabc6
11a3415ccb7485214e0a33b884d07619739e6130
1206 F20101117_AABZCU hawkins_d_Page_003.QC.jpg
0198b323524a66e79197e7391aecc4d4
544de73fb1620b639fea5bbee6c6cbba9a14a944
F20101117_AABYYD hawkins_d_Page_034.tif
6aad18c4a5e2932a1dcd868172a6548d
d9676a0e2b0b1c84136926c50991f123df50290e
F20101117_AABYXO hawkins_d_Page_104.jp2
105af4b5e06aa63bf4ff009ebcbb8c9a
41dc88d53bfeaeb80684280a241e8797569bda2e
733 F20101117_AABYAH hawkins_d_Page_105.txt
685f1f4224cf38a6570897b738117ba4
77716582445ed531bcc95141d19424580601c06a
5833 F20101117_AABZDK hawkins_d_Page_026.QC.jpg
2bc29a35957c4a0b9abd16d2d56f7734
d38097a864f631cc9b714a810102c4c832c78d1b
27750 F20101117_AABZCV hawkins_d_Page_004.QC.jpg
59ff8d613392968ce62ed3648bf987f2
116a6407cf769c9c06f85570bffebbed5560a66d
F20101117_AABYYE hawkins_d_Page_041.tif
fa3343d11faf633f990c7b3d625bb2e2
50cd2646fcdfb81aa7cf548d58f370792814e340
833090 F20101117_AABYXP hawkins_d_Page_105.jp2
380cb253684b54e217808f2c3a4b3ab2
3403177c4af2b903dc724f2bee863e5e3029855d
54497 F20101117_AABYAI hawkins_d_Page_083.pro
badb3af156d815c593aa0c1902804d12
ea493ceef56206fd5bae2eb068577a687414402e
26040 F20101117_AABZDL hawkins_d_Page_027.QC.jpg
af5541a20b93a59474ea317db814f483
8978aad5fe3dac5062fa5972e02d1f0c98967ec5
17306 F20101117_AABZCW hawkins_d_Page_006.QC.jpg
18b1d20071973ef792bd527bdf50f003
ca7604208dace1e5d7b11dbf7f1afb30c8c8087e
F20101117_AABYYF hawkins_d_Page_043.tif
2b39b2728d655de429a53bc8e2a3f396
c1eaebab7bc3bc1997ccaa1d637e03a60dc518d3
44038 F20101117_AABYXQ hawkins_d_Page_106.jp2
d9cc6108d0e8fa1632ccf56e10f15f8a
85ffb84e5bf22acfb4e81d0ff1d071f7646124a6
1051929 F20101117_AABYAJ hawkins_d_Page_044.jp2
320efa8e79df688ef22961eec7774f1f
b6be763b6fbc67f6393caef890643642ec5784d8
6812 F20101117_AABZEA hawkins_d_Page_058thm.jpg
156143abde333862179a8ccfd34851ca
0ba9fc6c68dfd9025f4fbfeda25e2d7751e4cb4b
28818 F20101117_AABZDM hawkins_d_Page_032.QC.jpg
4f0bed2a5d4a065f7e95ab227e7ed528
80a2078a34960ef3b133ede96881550a19465b5f
4779 F20101117_AABZCX hawkins_d_Page_008thm.jpg
8308175e3373e26f71fcf44bb1d0b38c
f4e894ec28afe9e5e4a0378514d973bd61519a29
F20101117_AABYYG hawkins_d_Page_044.tif
261fa384816b33eefe89782490cdbde9
7d7293cd301eb9f33ac8aa72cc469def9c671390
1051948 F20101117_AABYXR hawkins_d_Page_114.jp2
039b235585ecd1d1c1095a499c320cf0
b52c02ce08f435149cfc73addd5a4b8e7fade72d
30644 F20101117_AABYAK hawkins_d_Page_011.pro
9ceafaaab25fa9f5a098f848048b180c
d6b91ab2aabda25a539c3c02047045ab0f244b2d
28802 F20101117_AABZEB hawkins_d_Page_058.QC.jpg
d082867627ff9bd2b17b517626372bbd
09af6173433e5a792dd5ba9dcd56ed04ac5e698e
6868 F20101117_AABZDN hawkins_d_Page_036thm.jpg
00dc6d2ffe0c3104fa13b1a88af29c36
778091679ad079646faa4bca82f6d8ea075bf942
19955 F20101117_AABZCY hawkins_d_Page_008.QC.jpg
70d24ebbe2c3a5dbea7b7c3640f8e893
49eb621041e5b48e76ee50cff10cdb8e09f07410
F20101117_AABYYH hawkins_d_Page_049.tif
41eb7538e19c08738d1dbb4057e1aff7
e796499e2956d419ab96983b8a5ae461f379c237
36564 F20101117_AABYXS hawkins_d_Page_115.jp2
2887ed43f7e1595b1e524113f48598ff
4950536bde0cd48448ca132a50370ec5c0cefcc7
1051974 F20101117_AABYAL hawkins_d_Page_072.jp2
853be8f40423d7bfa92d786c40ea2cf7
45ced741f398d15bc7224ec4556dfdb4156d9ff7
28535 F20101117_AABZEC hawkins_d_Page_061.QC.jpg
9bdf79093b487b434931ef97b4a338e7
878f75db22542c46752953525f62ca2594347dc1
28080 F20101117_AABZDO hawkins_d_Page_037.QC.jpg
66b483b69c047c01bc4c80c10adcea8a
5e612818394fe98cbecc959e2eb9948733c7441f
1053 F20101117_AABZCZ hawkins_d_Page_009thm.jpg
30d499d7e269e9ed25eb380bb5eca33a
743161f1d1975ce1dec75568d0cec613ed551493
F20101117_AABYYI hawkins_d_Page_050.tif
d6b09a02c26d4806de543308608842ed
72abb418e0601400c6863450cdaf12c0365fbd09
F20101117_AABYXT hawkins_d_Page_125.jp2
29d1e9e282a2575a7228117f5483eed1
ab0e2a6a94813e78446f7c5f167de7ef6149d991
F20101117_AABYBA hawkins_d_Page_083.tif
b598d8cb9f7ac876dbb5216dbace215d
0a9b7925400629e75c0d665d1e198ca5f109b188
2238 F20101117_AABYAM hawkins_d_Page_060.txt
ab4d95316195ed243bc8c7618bc0c504
afd11ef7cf8d2e841eb5e2471935227390a52d05
19839 F20101117_AABZED hawkins_d_Page_064.QC.jpg
faf9712bc54ad4325472fe5543843c93
b3f3dcd55ee625cd3645904dd759b34c3784862d
6814 F20101117_AABZDP hawkins_d_Page_042thm.jpg
572767b9549fb96ac10f7d8252b1331c
182e3e19636727d821b676f3f173ebc8ea263c06
F20101117_AABYYJ hawkins_d_Page_052.tif
09ae7615c3500e44361b4247395eb692
7853ca46e138f356896305c8cd149b255f669c03
F20101117_AABYXU hawkins_d_Page_001.tif
4e14f1d96617be02425fc8df477d8806
cf72cfbc4ae5a4f962f75b5a372982fe5eb7bd13
2234 F20101117_AABYBB hawkins_d_Page_086thm.jpg
baf0534b4eeffa2c9420a2a24cc05247
6eec334cb36a63b2703700cf3864bbdc6a04fbdf
F20101117_AABYAN hawkins_d_Page_028.jp2
6a3c4ea0b5603ec9e2916faa02415107
8397d2dc319a36f7b88b1924a52c4cd64dd72238
6344 F20101117_AABZEE hawkins_d_Page_066thm.jpg
9902b4c5701232753d12e076a2b827d4
39acec6ae95dff7bea5111499f3a305d9fbf2454
29145 F20101117_AABZDQ hawkins_d_Page_042.QC.jpg
35210ad40603b7e8c6bd33d4c9da7a5d
2c75886f06a2c59ffbc45c21420dbaa721becf12
F20101117_AABYYK hawkins_d_Page_057.tif
9174a463438c89d2595e9eb9db047e76
6f3efdc85e8a906bd0e763006c68eb161d5fa57f
F20101117_AABYXV hawkins_d_Page_006.tif
9830637b172edb840690f6902d06dd69
004d9c078170a2f0475a37a73c10153f4551dcad
90160 F20101117_AABYBC hawkins_d_Page_099.jpg
db839c9ea353c15a149d7f91e10fc037
e0d8487587fbef848cec37f30440f50fd8d6aca6
64955 F20101117_AABYAO hawkins_d_Page_109.pro
0d4968f2ca10c4a8f84c287d8b789de2
0314c9dd285c5a7bee6e3ac7c2c0fb3404afc016
25447 F20101117_AABZEF hawkins_d_Page_066.QC.jpg
51b3d45a0d5def7423ba6417dacf4e8b
e0ce460ea92cbe2ec672514ef24d3acc9367ef7f
6483 F20101117_AABZDR hawkins_d_Page_046thm.jpg
2686626d0fecc9a12393948191a75e9b
d314c925923bf2ae8e06741764a8c10ca1c837b2
F20101117_AABYXW hawkins_d_Page_007.tif
e2e9d491e9406c4f3778243d885d5aee
6450825edf044b4838307073e5793d7288b3dc56
F20101117_AABYBD hawkins_d_Page_040.tif
d193c25e5a45dd2530be6f280a9e5d4f
cfd5bb35414aa3d7f070594935b0b83040b0ede1
F20101117_AABYAP hawkins_d_Page_116.tif
7024583e50fee79227467bb995c518b6
1fff05c96fb461aadb021c279cdba04d15316b9c
6723 F20101117_AABZEG hawkins_d_Page_067thm.jpg
e3ef4cb949a890d6e302934d86c4f005
0c7c42be9873fbbc44e224daa722871c61e6d960
6508 F20101117_AABZDS hawkins_d_Page_047thm.jpg
18b0d04ced47bef3b55dc7fb85e928fe
21a789e88dca7a615980bb75032d3e4de65a733d
F20101117_AABYYL hawkins_d_Page_058.tif
daf1908bd7750f1ded294a51025cd36f
0aa5ddeac0222ed75dda9bd145d826af9ccff47e
F20101117_AABYXX hawkins_d_Page_008.tif
902763112fa6ae0934a39acfc00f9ae1
2f46048b9d0b0ed14f2c30eec5f9c2f099f4999d
3717 F20101117_AABYBE hawkins_d_Page_109thm.jpg
c7df9c11b71f84e38068f75cfea9ae6d
b5ba2d719ec422cb19bd978338b98f8f2dec2d59
95042 F20101117_AABYAQ hawkins_d_Page_032.jpg
9683ba309ae0489afa14c415dbacb92a
9d9b3b13345579f1574a22bdf7feeb648b057d1f
F20101117_AABYZA hawkins_d_Page_101.tif
78b280b18d73619fa9cfc07eebde61ef
2120234e07fcdffe419250acda3e04f8cd755b1d
27846 F20101117_AABZEH hawkins_d_Page_067.QC.jpg
474b3858be6f990fab0606752f174d5c
1324fddc42d81f63c55b80dc51b0e283848b4650
6746 F20101117_AABZDT hawkins_d_Page_050thm.jpg
53bbf1d6fddf0a926d3ecf4d0fc05a0e
074ab3f9b6147ad3cb34cf9a50f7ddf2b483f954
F20101117_AABYYM hawkins_d_Page_060.tif
8ed9bd1247cb8b34884f042810a93fb7
3478822de2074750a9333cba4636ff84ebd17a61
F20101117_AABYXY hawkins_d_Page_015.tif
ae60772d2c15887109c34af2255b69c2
692f784c38a10621207b969112cc2cfb94301808
F20101117_AABYBF hawkins_d_Page_006.jp2
24c914077b41051c0960eba00e5f47a9
b6a004a6561a453f2f3b4165d60dae459432e260
6734 F20101117_AABYAR hawkins_d_Page_040thm.jpg
b0c6702609a51b54f4803fd1fdacbc6e
0858146001933ea7c1524665622d47574dd2aba5
F20101117_AABYZB hawkins_d_Page_103.tif
1efda125a5a0abaa958ef7dbd4eeb73a
6caa0f9ff3d4bb82a5e82a0cfbdd51b2715db9e8
6671 F20101117_AABZEI hawkins_d_Page_068thm.jpg
ead36ba1834015c202aabae745597b9e
50d2029ea3f6dcd0e199cf83daadd8855ce43dde
6614 F20101117_AABZDU hawkins_d_Page_051thm.jpg
40aa5ae4091ab331913c588b15983dc7
5ce822ae3b47c2d00e3dec4a9ca614edb3f86cec
F20101117_AABYYN hawkins_d_Page_063.tif
7af8ef385f9e7fdc6f0e79cb5373d2f2
a8d1871856b088fe4e9e36dedaaff42d86a84b48
F20101117_AABYXZ hawkins_d_Page_020.tif
140da0772f3a04617f77a52a58f14402
057dc0b4380c5fc3db1ac0bebcd9d93035383a2e
1401 F20101117_AABYBG hawkins_d_Page_116.txt
9623afde87f6bb0b25de7a3ea1b2f607
1793922e3f0d8ed2e91f3ce038a6329c61dd47d2
77927 F20101117_AABYAS hawkins_d_Page_021.jpg
4ef95696b8c402376461b65446a4723c
96a8c4fa02bc931f3080648af9a3ecdcb3a91cd3
F20101117_AABYZC hawkins_d_Page_104.tif
1c654eb83a9daef3ed498a58553f1981
991387b0a016178fd68db3f6bba08353fc27c832
27958 F20101117_AABZEJ hawkins_d_Page_068.QC.jpg
1582dfc612285db4d2c1d48a67cbc220
6fca718be075d3e14396b8fe90b4b2322074a70c
F20101117_AABYYO hawkins_d_Page_064.tif
aa1929068bba608548714fad19daf225
04227c39dcabce13386d81900890b4a3b8c74912
29140 F20101117_AABYBH hawkins_d_Page_071.QC.jpg
a7b33c232e765d95b4fe0fac816a4d03
dc73241de6bd4552c330494d525adfc8ed98e438
F20101117_AABYZD hawkins_d_Page_105.tif
8db6ea219df1346e8748ada59731bdd6
6c8ce52c1801ba309a91ae7beff80f2be263bb53
6833 F20101117_AABZEK hawkins_d_Page_070thm.jpg
f8df4771e4462acdd512924bd044f4fe
2ee43a371fad178f30a3c3d009d95bca8fdbe31e
6647 F20101117_AABZDV hawkins_d_Page_053thm.jpg
b8b216a2e77453fa6972345221249c74
941dc3d578109d6b17a19b21109ff9ea07f5d2b8
F20101117_AABYYP hawkins_d_Page_067.tif
86e3735f14e52d6903ceba4655d909d6
2eebf0682d6130dacbd6207010940d373306b2dc
86119 F20101117_AABYBI hawkins_d_Page_033.jpg
c21929d46d960be2f5e35d263e7e8260
bcf6d8edc048a5434f6636d925c41946970c10bb
1051964 F20101117_AABYAT hawkins_d_Page_081.jp2
9975b506e7893d7be86d92df82aabf13
ccb5311ce916913cec800a33fc2061ce06f8a85d
F20101117_AABYZE hawkins_d_Page_109.tif
2d9a3affaf32f8a72bb4a2215474aa31
5da697c5afb3b28ce31827c1a3e75148bb8a5200
6875 F20101117_AABZEL hawkins_d_Page_072thm.jpg
332bdca38edb4ede16317a44e94eaba3
c4044d90d2a4d957dc01dcde759e68e00e68baaf
6437 F20101117_AABZDW hawkins_d_Page_054thm.jpg
10bc226565f2db22f79a52008fa33d15
f5ed6413b8283b196ae2264b2b59e55cfb2b7565
F20101117_AABYYQ hawkins_d_Page_069.tif
8581db53e1c3a1ee0823caa2a00c2f0f
63f4bd431195ce273b5560e5519a39a37e97c725
F20101117_AABYBJ hawkins_d_Page_094.tif
1ba910a8ebdacbf9c23df197b8c8ca91
1b668df8658b541143b59b8f07e8919617edb08c
27849 F20101117_AABYAU hawkins_d_Page_041.QC.jpg
2d5c0972ee0c7f2ea3083a7c9bb45462
86db669da2e1da0881b7582765f2088d27fb9443
F20101117_AABYZF hawkins_d_Page_113.tif
63997cc68204c706a957564d644b9e1f
9da0371cdfafca8e4562bd4f1d711aa76864940d
24613 F20101117_AABZFA hawkins_d_Page_102.QC.jpg
0db04d8bf9a5c26231febd66a1c3a27a
e4d521277c67ab0be6ad5c9a63f3f8743a0a4cc2
28349 F20101117_AABZEM hawkins_d_Page_072.QC.jpg
e65643e60d2b9af66128b6eeade13d96
7fdd8770aeb2efe881533c22c2adddd588e8269e
6675 F20101117_AABZDX hawkins_d_Page_056thm.jpg
24259e426039d6009a04691e7b699275
acff9d4ddbe5293dde5ba1b28053ffa127231b8c
1074 F20101117_AABYBK hawkins_d_Page_002.QC.jpg
285e2b1fcfbf6e72fe40c3f9e896e72d
4447e54575497231c8ba77fc1a5d292cadd606a1
28096 F20101117_AABYAV hawkins_d_Page_046.QC.jpg
adfa914db6a660b86ebb1e62d41f4178
4043012f8c53ed1a097f25203c466dcbeb42a696
F20101117_AABYZG hawkins_d_Page_115.tif
87f71da8e6fb1f87a18f413e6a941f3c
0e3b2cb6eb73c8397d6045cdc5891ef32be5db9d
F20101117_AABYYR hawkins_d_Page_071.tif
dfeeb020eee7df6882ab9daedc4a4a9f
94f9b612a4713638f1d1711518e0d1c508858dcb
27181 F20101117_AABZFB hawkins_d_Page_103.QC.jpg
14ed3743fb324be0d8d05ee4a3f8b8f4
2e6c9d60a8ad830b358a27f80d03f20f00f37679
6872 F20101117_AABZEN hawkins_d_Page_075thm.jpg
4900ca6928c151a0483a91029f7a3f0a
6b26de7e93d632370636b58a212ba3d4ea75a160
28102 F20101117_AABZDY hawkins_d_Page_056.QC.jpg
f80bbf32e419a4f502bbbc0f9dd7f204
5117a64bd05b6b52087bbcfdc5a3239bec71e9d9
5373 F20101117_AABYBL hawkins_d_Page_104thm.jpg
8f54c280b68afbdbb4bc44e6b25b564f
d14aba8429dc2d2c018484da5e03aa3ac02e04f3
3044 F20101117_AABYAW hawkins_d_Page_116thm.jpg
682a8c1b9ab6fc66902724c4cb8901e2
975acc9a5e02126f5d6dac8234b3404062489015
F20101117_AABYZH hawkins_d_Page_117.tif
5f8825b396b49f99296a5306143ddf83
ed17a2ce167acaf7310d4cd928a0bb79e71e9057
F20101117_AABYYS hawkins_d_Page_075.tif
ac00ff26a066501524f3f4cc4700b672
568e2bd34ab2379f2db19e9c65ca35eb47a6f733
23131 F20101117_AABZFC hawkins_d_Page_104.QC.jpg
247ee95ec22d6b7391bab14eaae47758
c40adade7936cdb4e7f77532ccda7941ed8e61ae
6192 F20101117_AABZEO hawkins_d_Page_076thm.jpg
0e92f0bcd23344d87f44216dfcdbbb25
9b3385e06794366b54140a16ca6b9d6b1907df5e
26359 F20101117_AABZDZ hawkins_d_Page_057.QC.jpg
91b7e4f5d963a1008c8aa8fc06ea7d02
461dcb6f42e63bc4ea079f53cdf5c0c1de92c4a2
2101 F20101117_AABYCA hawkins_d_Page_018.txt
e1404590aea5116d6c6b8a5e9dff7fb7
ce6f4ba231e715f69cf62b90351c9ad5e33279a4
26507 F20101117_AABYBM hawkins_d_Page_049.QC.jpg
413fbb75f78b9b3a6b3f563ded3e0e9e
ca0d48aa437599ee8f9ef9d3bda37a682ab0a233
49369 F20101117_AABYAX hawkins_d_Page_107.jpg
f235e5b0f724977a4df4fb3273a0ef00
4e1951b20a24ea69a4c05eb5aa32c773996be699
F20101117_AABYZI hawkins_d_Page_119.tif
10b6acaaada427f031e0f772e5573c73
f14fb973f9d4adbf16b376484ad84eb72acc2f48
F20101117_AABYYT hawkins_d_Page_076.tif
bd7789e0f776706873297f27c19e167f
33dea8cb5108e386343e34369743c344fea0685a
13540 F20101117_AABZFD hawkins_d_Page_107.QC.jpg
e687984b3df49da4b1a79cada3a87563
30de0afa2321d964ee6526f71fa8e460fec5c843
26059 F20101117_AABZEP hawkins_d_Page_079.QC.jpg
680c3c05cde3b2ab7ebaebaa2e79cedf
847fe5e89d45ce6c2786549e10f2973c18b5558a
749 F20101117_AABYCB hawkins_d_Page_090.txt
c5ea47c5dc49184df190eb7c731508f4
f6a2a415c49bfe8518a99cb520bbe42fef97d052
54789 F20101117_AABYBN hawkins_d_Page_124.pro
10aee36b3647e0685eda95b7214f524e
f7abb2e8d899ebad888375a268833c52189fb202
F20101117_AABYAY hawkins_d_Page_019.jp2
ce5eea5351facd5312239fb8a8caf007
6ef55d225d0509f09a43db4f611a1c086bb55a84
F20101117_AABYZJ hawkins_d_Page_121.tif
d30ef354d223b449e863de4bfd6ca6b6
95d4cea020c2320a37db22ed694df40a1d26885b
F20101117_AABYYU hawkins_d_Page_084.tif
a1167f9468d4b1b8758990f0e4bf33ca
f526e242ab143d669d44127bc2c146e8e2d4ee82
14458 F20101117_AABZFE hawkins_d_Page_109.QC.jpg
225acc1558333707bfe2e44306847c2e
1c45510db569c977117208285caed92239a56eac
28203 F20101117_AABZEQ hawkins_d_Page_080.QC.jpg
9fa664727760a19bcd483cf24edca9ae
01b0a61aa37c6749e9b5a322c49a727399ee28ba
F20101117_AABYCC hawkins_d_Page_036.tif
b18ee5ebfdce4d33af9ee9d4160de1ee
6ac14cc54876d0b5c86a42bdb08a4d71339b1884
27718 F20101117_AABYBO hawkins_d_Page_030.QC.jpg
98eced80338f934ed3f7c2af6dcca09d
db788c9562492973fe3312fd17e3ebc183052a27
26323 F20101117_AABYAZ hawkins_d_Page_025.QC.jpg
e8a26cbdaef0fb704b9d91806c46de55
12f973a39a94752b87b5951de7f0149965efacac
F20101117_AABYZK hawkins_d_Page_123.tif
c8673c1bca99209c9a6a6ee696703d96
f615184789575061f4e39e39661e8ffdf3ba3a17
F20101117_AABYYV hawkins_d_Page_087.tif
7337cfa9d3354a253d8692c2f8239e75
253742303f3706286a3affde1329a3eace724cde
26248 F20101117_AABZFF hawkins_d_Page_111.QC.jpg
9600c16399b7d1c5fc7219f57eec314b
f7e249bad2dee8be1f0117f13e9518cbd98db0ca
6782 F20101117_AABZER hawkins_d_Page_082thm.jpg
6cde7cf6f8af3d766f99192ee10a10e0
670a5309e1f9823c81dbda898158f9514ff29f3b
F20101117_AABYCD hawkins_d_Page_062.tif
e0864204a9d727096488706d9351f354
a332bcee8d3d70a2866dd94b5263493530bf55f8
1051978 F20101117_AABYBP hawkins_d_Page_118.jp2
2b54dddd2ad2a0afb2ce1b28ddd77e78
d23e1df7e76745e59288ed5095bd140ea694b4ec
F20101117_AABYZL hawkins_d_Page_124.tif
a16c604902c22f7dc45749db15189fda
69cebc6170604e4d28ecb3498ebb8faadc5f754f
F20101117_AABYYW hawkins_d_Page_089.tif
d16ff7510bbe07a5585a4bbe6274f28e
49c3d6cb3301d67a6a63cbc25e0e209e1f7d9f39
481 F20101117_AABZFG hawkins_d_Page_115thm.jpg
06714ab3fb43c0e1ab5b45bd52d6d7a2
4e5c0d9c4d223193365a1cbfa3a54a20bd284129
28341 F20101117_AABZES hawkins_d_Page_083.QC.jpg
97bc4b2484175539f1a2d77308716c4c
fdc54788c9129ea167b2ec63894e54c519a906b6
1051976 F20101117_AABYBQ hawkins_d_Page_029.jp2
5493d0b957ce4e3f2b89203abb09b6e2
22dbc489c2b11226b7adc135b491cb692f3609f7
F20101117_AABYYX hawkins_d_Page_092.tif
cf198a1494430b1b2f7a6d1046a4ae27
cf2db7a0cb5f1750157b044de351e9ff3f6b6bf2
178 F20101117_AABYCE hawkins_d_Page_009.txt
5c298e543641d6141a4697bfdded0201
81c118aaf4d3b1e74ffec51665732d7336ba53c3
6988 F20101117_AABZFH hawkins_d_Page_117thm.jpg
79647cdaf343d21b8ca6b4c95d181139
1ad2dbac6a5a19be14c3ad4e3d80500f9ce6b0ef
1523 F20101117_AABZET hawkins_d_Page_090thm.jpg
dbd82b7a77956987e2c2346ea7f16e54
8f37e0002dc0e1056e5414d06065a402a8113054
27319 F20101117_AABYBR hawkins_d_Page_054.QC.jpg
323bb19535662919b40fa793991700ee
e67ef21d1851b2f6727f3ab1fc5ff141cffbad90
8638 F20101117_AABYZM hawkins_d_Page_001.pro
421c95a6f8e58acc59999d4ac752cf14
f33698689b7fd81b8bd086cba5c457fd18555bd2
F20101117_AABYYY hawkins_d_Page_097.tif
7575bb03d9e6b1c359c1a215b8ee78b8
83626b8076145e8c438eb32dbf338e545ed3650b
17527 F20101117_AABYCF hawkins_d_Page_089.QC.jpg
b6a5ade41bab9d4ea60bf7c67ab789a7
1ceb4d41ee8fb30bda5de4ea8e66b414cb938b9f
28741 F20101117_AABZFI hawkins_d_Page_122.QC.jpg
b7848c4dcc23e155238f9e54de44908d
0facdce359cd503c1670dbd474f06e008d310159
9786 F20101117_AABZEU hawkins_d_Page_093.QC.jpg
2545ecc756c0fc738e71740881b32fa2
0e230f47b95dfbed293df8fe342d2d5c309eea1f
4521 F20101117_AABXXA hawkins_d_Page_007thm.jpg
66f6716c6ddeaa83f4ca1987b2903bd2
da0eb228c99710d04dc5a68254df67f4f25adf3b
27451 F20101117_AABYBS hawkins_d_Page_016.QC.jpg
aea9be7a2eda7fc3dddfef833028d322
26cb9e1dbb14860004167d17b475f735e2ada31e
862 F20101117_AABYZN hawkins_d_Page_002.pro
d784e2616f57f6332e854255afd379ad
a9307daa9988018f73988e343c6351f9e9e18e92
F20101117_AABYYZ hawkins_d_Page_100.tif
ecefaa84914572d120668c53c90cfadc
c756bd193aa4621094287abfd0f1275680054141
2118 F20101117_AABYCG hawkins_d_Page_098.txt
9cb0893a3bc351981c74ccb426386881
7a746e46f0d946552aa2765e754f0c506a9e2450
6201 F20101117_AABZFJ hawkins_d_Page_123thm.jpg
e4d9e185783be0918425519651f1fd86
de567b167a693788204491a947af39c3803f98e9
6220 F20101117_AABZEV hawkins_d_Page_097thm.jpg
23bee9d85462359c07b06ded0157de16
08b955f4db0f82bd68d3d754074428471b2ef5ee
25929 F20101117_AABXXB hawkins_d_Page_034.QC.jpg
f487e07280abf79e0ac52c505ca2564c
062a4150e5b610bb4a92fc02925cb653c86cbf33
6541 F20101117_AABYBT hawkins_d_Page_055thm.jpg
0c577a58eff387ada55c073f93b481e8
4a3fddaa5437ae697e198f2ae96c15513da24db8
116437 F20101117_AABYZO hawkins_d_Page_006.pro
b4eb232f18a9eba9cd86c1d42dae1893
94d9c55cddcad37688d63ac97d011b9d99c87d00
7012 F20101117_AABYCH hawkins_d_Page_122thm.jpg
3d87f7afd37ed84638da30baa27759b9
6a7be18762837401e972a5b252d36ae9ae511282
25580 F20101117_AABZFK hawkins_d_Page_123.QC.jpg
a1bd74bbda5664203e99adde201afea7
5195d6b6c78372c375e95f59e401da8b9f834c66
20217 F20101117_AABXXC hawkins_d_Page_022.QC.jpg
7ab60e2fb4af8610deb5c483055c87ce
6e96515e93de1b35d6b7381ffb9f3733c53ffabf
100505 F20101117_AABYZP hawkins_d_Page_007.pro
78e1be292d8187f7baea79bd3101cdfa
ccc6d36470db3e271eb35089803877c9c6cc1082
2115 F20101117_AABYCI hawkins_d_Page_039.txt
7cd2fe168b1b21eb4d37e3ac27303ca3
37035692759089bd68fd49ec7cf41c64a121c95a
6904 F20101117_AABZFL hawkins_d_Page_125thm.jpg
c9ddc13d11c9a44651ea220bb0e5bfa9
6d0df9ed34b9d0832bf229ab79c0dc11316305a0
6733 F20101117_AABZEW hawkins_d_Page_098thm.jpg
0a668d6b9fda3676ce257f065ffb734d
db5f9d4f71a0da41ac916e5a294da957ab2a0393
29031 F20101117_AABXXD hawkins_d_Page_028.QC.jpg
976dbb4f43f74ddbd98186770a6fcc12
e63b23717dff4a006cfc7617c679a67283ff4aed
1051968 F20101117_AABYBU hawkins_d_Page_017.jp2
d0b782507590daaaf50fd53d54dcae19
a4572a649ed7695f54a23f0e97e21bd5f4f4aad0
52832 F20101117_AABYZQ hawkins_d_Page_008.pro
3ea7a5bc25c0f1b61bf8abbccc3c69e5
47984f930ea624c0c071eb3c4fec6065c9889a72
6807 F20101117_AABYCJ hawkins_d_Page_061thm.jpg
ea74898f5411c79854e927e422f25ca0
630ecbc7627ea83f52596e964f06d210c419969a
27720 F20101117_AABZFM hawkins_d_Page_125.QC.jpg
59c02c805b7e8928d75346ee17c3220a
7f71aa9886e3ffaad074306514a3aa8f2ab8adb6
6520 F20101117_AABZEX hawkins_d_Page_101thm.jpg
23fb5f753b2fe80e70f9ed975465080e
01604e038058750ed54337917544082a98186240
F20101117_AABXXE hawkins_d_Page_048.tif
d5aa3a19651b8287483360ce15cfebfd
0732daa54dcbb11de29c1c588af88587f322561e
119796 F20101117_AABYBV hawkins_d_Page_063.jp2
3b8c0a125844b7d6cfa990dab6c363d2
6033e958671ce9367bc6760785e2841ce175e2ec
49341 F20101117_AABYZR hawkins_d_Page_012.pro
af5135a6b81561ea6d22b2ee286d2835
4afbe7ad40125da08956be97d4af6a1d5873efee
53456 F20101117_AABYCK hawkins_d_Page_080.pro
fcf70536eab65693d0b2612d37d1749f
326313cbb13d0944624a051ce7ab612205cc8636
6809 F20101117_AABZFN hawkins_d_Page_126thm.jpg
eb1780ef98f54a107899486ab918a6a3
cf7dd9ad65064c400828b87303bb2cb1a3156ee6
28367 F20101117_AABZEY hawkins_d_Page_101.QC.jpg
74d3a520490f4d98ca79ab367bdadb0b
9ab0495808032a8911df6f50495d85c569ba60fe
50728 F20101117_AABXXF hawkins_d_Page_081.pro
13b20899e2dee8d26a61977c8a27c369
1b0cc1956711c37a88490b39a1f772cdba7fbd6f
24015 F20101117_AABYBW hawkins_d_Page_116.pro
5e738197623afb66bb9bb623342ec001
d8a6635ab17ba38180f6587086886a70fac578de
53103 F20101117_AABYZS hawkins_d_Page_016.pro
54021681921841255a66e107a23fdb89
cb4182a5822fe3fe43cc589e66132a87233a0be2
27679 F20101117_AABYCL hawkins_d_Page_051.QC.jpg
17248b4c19b0fc53fce6bf2bbd865428
aa1492edc56f8ba878a6250aa4d778936dcb1aff
765 F20101117_AABZFO hawkins_d_Page_127thm.jpg
fad263e0125881066d2f636ebd09b5cc
750617a29139eaf757e705b29a477c813a7b42e6
6093 F20101117_AABZEZ hawkins_d_Page_102thm.jpg
3d4b30b88f0f998c7b6b73019a0adb45
1393065ece61bdd567b12aa1dbbc47582fadb30c
25534 F20101117_AABXXG hawkins_d_Page_114.QC.jpg
45ba0ef5d586de6554ae59869d38896a
a80830a6833157cc7bab247791e67a7f78e7e633
92764 F20101117_AABYBX hawkins_d_Page_060.jpg
d82ec719b214bac0e133cf5dcabf262f
a6edafba3e9260f976e2b26896a812f2dd9d0e28
53230 F20101117_AABYZT hawkins_d_Page_018.pro
aa1e15f93ebb947b60f35b1ae7046897
c0dc8c8fdb7532e2ac38566d58c14bb5d673b37e
F20101117_AABYDA hawkins_d_Page_055.tif
86e9f64ce67d1339a7cb926e3a0c97c1
24798d8495ab34c8a67a3791a47751cff05faa8d
779350 F20101117_AABYCM hawkins_d_Page_095.jp2
98b4f774e835e6114e3b84082fffedc2
5419df3987ab343310a074408d2b5681ced97504
149066 F20101117_AABZFP UFE0021661_00001.mets
42f0cee83bb1c7571ef75873b082600e
658cc4283386a3a61e311fab810dcd90726c6469
3941 F20101117_AABXXH hawkins_d_Page_063.QC.jpg
fd19d44d817d8713d1286e5a3bfcfb9e
32ba931bc4c1c5eaf0118bef597897ebd65b1d6b
53797 F20101117_AABYBY hawkins_d_Page_052.pro
f8fe3ff1c7118939b09a540bdc726824
5ec60e67902cdadbb9c4214285599cdf7e36c744
46104 F20101117_AABYZU hawkins_d_Page_021.pro
d806a13d9111553d9ece429f2c132ece
531f32f70b7ccf5e4eadd3fa4b26563bed1cb55b
1051919 F20101117_AABYDB hawkins_d_Page_045.jp2
13530f9a65a0c592f3ae6ea3af7d2525
3905ab9e0b8231e5f8661efe256d36a059c0d800
18591 F20101117_AABYCN hawkins_d_Page_095.QC.jpg
b88b4c9d5e06abae9cf7a55f6de2b525
7bc632e16cc3ceb8ca39598a307f863187afd6a2
F20101117_AABXXI hawkins_d_Page_081.tif
32101e04387126c9aa80d97fb29bbe6f
e36e2f5af507c57a982579940ded9a7e57bf8dd5
87099 F20101117_AABYBZ hawkins_d_Page_123.jpg
55a9ebd65a5e5c10a6e679867d2ca58e
39b895faa90f89e2a6e9aa1cf5721ccafa92c05b
10923 F20101117_AABYZV hawkins_d_Page_026.pro
f86dd0300a79fb7a30d442e3736efdab
560dc4252fabb48ed7753e4d612b8bf2632f8dac
1053954 F20101117_AABYDC hawkins_d_Page_096.tif
442edaacf2d41234ffaa35b5199b4423
dd180e823d0a310e0306e1a0d9b24d994d213248
1889 F20101117_AABYCO hawkins_d_Page_106.QC.jpg
36c6e356ca3bd6baa846b5db2c9f1408
c62d7fd9c3c283f027252e4a96474ec52d21a180
1051965 F20101117_AABXXJ hawkins_d_Page_101.jp2
b35ab9f255fd964aec7f513f6f474850
5860566845f0960c883e624490d45e2ce2f6d5ec
55943 F20101117_AABYZW hawkins_d_Page_031.pro
33552efbfeae7940e615ef3a912d6581
4b93f519a6c687a6056b83a5da8a73f15f78ec1e
42154 F20101117_AABYDD hawkins_d_Page_095.pro
82235cd025e7e747f15b142c1e65a13d
8dedb92b18eeaafcb07794ff6f17f2f65ea91064
78090 F20101117_AABYCP hawkins_d_Page_128.jpg
c47fbaf8ea78a9ba38e5036f3baa9c18
d009936f2632fd8c49f8a2cc31f0da80c08a154b
4783 F20101117_AABXXK hawkins_d_Page_006.txt
f2f378b01e2748a27420dd7e66d697b3
26cd64c8dbacd1c7a9d251186ecc3d24b4d665dd
58797 F20101117_AABYZX hawkins_d_Page_032.pro
aaec29d3e88bad9f2e4ea36d48a74226
2514f639f9d1058826c0c74ff4e2ffb7b3bca933
948720 F20101117_AABYDE hawkins_d_Page_107.jp2
783aeedb30ac345d13e0eba170659f8b
22ad5f59536bb5d913e02991b3526004c0c30c82
2026 F20101117_AABYCQ hawkins_d_Page_079.txt
b7889e4116ddaf11eab239b5d929979c
c4bcb8641223125edbbe38103ef20d517b7a6b90
55063 F20101117_AABYZY hawkins_d_Page_035.pro
1bef977f94aeef0b58adc7d483e9d096
4f710511e8e1fb85868b6ab8249ccaf1cc4e959f
6572 F20101117_AABYDF hawkins_d_Page_052thm.jpg
44c412b34da8b11167a26a3e4c47fecc
34bdb7e7a925b3bda37283e1a9075d6d4ae13049
2072 F20101117_AABYCR hawkins_d_Page_017.txt
def1e9ca45fb6b9328043eee308bcba4
e11aae8bb99dc192b87b0fbe24839c58cd661e14
91902 F20101117_AABXXL hawkins_d_Page_054.jpg
4ee040472b92c034a4c0e7ba9c7ebe53
d2ce1b328e4c84f5e8d53298ba49c2d68f0b8f1d
53122 F20101117_AABYZZ hawkins_d_Page_037.pro
4a8df88783fe93d981586367247a0107
8a8772026957faef4862ea69d86d43ca7cd78feb
88982 F20101117_AABYDG hawkins_d_Page_101.jpg
031f62efcb8b232a91d9f17d06478843
940acbd69a431ba72a70694c18f978518765b71b
F20101117_AABXYA hawkins_d_Page_031.tif
bde2347573ae6d10f9109e66c75efaad
e5639d8fe9ba585fb1b079428c6e6c9c80ea657e
F20101117_AABYCS hawkins_d_Page_107.tif
bf1289caab6441d9ae563b370e1420d4
be9c1579df7744c1d18ae1e68ad7f411b64fbd31
27474 F20101117_AABXXM hawkins_d_Page_033.QC.jpg
716dba25c02415d4874a80bb1f3e9bf5
a2f1e96d44fafab6f398ac34aad113337c7ce996
1291 F20101117_AABYDH hawkins_d_Page_106.pro
41d2a3e76c8084d88377667e9d3149b7
56d337ab5fa59155fd8a175a26b8387757b5e59b
145 F20101117_AABXYB hawkins_d_Page_127.txt
3f4c5db84d09d5bff739968eb5a15c09
adc052d5b451973b447475681775643e4f27fa78
3588 F20101117_AABYCT hawkins_d_Page_105thm.jpg
628297d37e78149b15489bd760cbdeb7
611a90a84ea5369b244632457a72fd725dda09ce
2187 F20101117_AABXXN hawkins_d_Page_099.txt
e9d6b21b8a0ca5dd4a0d605f8dad024d
2e1a396c28c6118b02bf2f6f99f3063cd26ef31d
F20101117_AABXWZ hawkins_d_Page_016.tif
28a066da33e26ce6fb91468b551560ca
1357fb5fdff71f2727a2a08f11c62fb2767d2d00
F20101117_AABYDI hawkins_d_Page_120.tif
7e0c6e2eb45e089cce180064364789ac
aef2b1dc1b73d8d0fc3b42eb5f4e25d11021fb7c
59740 F20101117_AABXYC hawkins_d_Page_087.pro
c126efb3acf1ffdbda2cb7d44640ead8
720df28eb01d5b07c62c9bd25bda644b5b215074
1972 F20101117_AABYCU hawkins_d_Page_088.txt
b8e9237a2b5c3afb08600580ed1cbf9c
92b6cce4ed9d6bfb166bc97b9e53699e0adb9733
6425 F20101117_AABXXO hawkins_d_Page_034thm.jpg
2a1874301c724e58c40b4d24bc05d682
d88840bcdb16b499937ff86e215e6c1dadeb6cd9
50541 F20101117_AABYDJ hawkins_d_Page_097.pro
94cfa9113a42ffe95e1bcba801fcf47d
f2677002fdf99a475c35c20d29eeb3fa64aba401
1953 F20101117_AABXYD hawkins_d_Page_078.txt
3732b0b50a8d5c721a2cf0c741627cde
74e42154cc3fe03306ab1a8a4b6a257f070ce24f
1928 F20101117_AABXXP hawkins_d_Page_066.txt
9ca8cc1350e3585026ac692d69f533a0
c515284b18bdc40bc5a5b5661c0ab4051f757580
27265 F20101117_AABYDK hawkins_d_Page_039.QC.jpg
de868041fd270575e95f40341210d375
f654ea2516dba9094ba08852f6570d4af881f7f3
26731 F20101117_AABXYE hawkins_d_Page_076.QC.jpg
e8df6fa6afd1b69377a208bead440735
1c34233bd1daece3493c4ae120dc75a10539236d
912116 F20101117_AABYCV hawkins_d_Page_023.jp2
232057d28c46a7f225f1088b93a813ad
017a159269e9b28a172cda5f9561a54e952c8b23
1051920 F20101117_AABXXQ hawkins_d_Page_124.jp2
d70fe3368a93a74b91cb3a447da44650
70950ea70fe53a0e900ce9285ab03d0b637ce52c
2244 F20101117_AABYDL hawkins_d_Page_028.txt
83823418d845ebddb947a751a83940e9
af5e8d3adada79d10ad97c771a0104fa21f497aa
43148 F20101117_AABXYF hawkins_d_Page_088.pro
30c2061d580f7b441e37d5670995a2a9
ba737c3f0d13f661f2d8c2875e4d7b7c7c8bf4cf
6496 F20101117_AABYCW hawkins_d_Page_004thm.jpg
aeed7e7340185889e77a47b6b80f5f07
9817b73d7728f5863f8151d238f5062f8e228860
27468 F20101117_AABXXR hawkins_d_Page_053.QC.jpg
8b2ea79a0dea1f4bc48b61b6f7701b25
6dc94a8b793e39e2032558774c67d571cd537670
83485 F20101117_AABYEA hawkins_d_Page_034.jpg
5f92cdd086c3b69d0628c198b72fa462
24ab30a7b4d6fd9833f00dd7fbc786dfce96a357
1051953 F20101117_AABYDM hawkins_d_Page_030.jp2
ee29b69bdce57634e1e8b83161691b8a
27864ddf2188fa675e0e06d438e9e2586ce181ed
28672 F20101117_AABXYG hawkins_d_Page_084.QC.jpg
fb701a9ebc2a6d81f663c7d63c44c61f
6cce0c2b498ea98dd9dc562151cb1c589463da5a
F20101117_AABYCX hawkins_d_Page_042.tif
7e03d7586067581c69c2b0b1f3a3f376
8c3993d8504c5d7b7ac90c820a78c001c7a2fdb7
49612 F20101117_AABXXS hawkins_d_Page_100.pro
522adede14342aff7e39707ec062285c
3f57b7adb534016e16540ee8956ad457113cacd2
F20101117_AABYEB hawkins_d_Page_029.tif
01ff45db8bc9e79159b7732684bed97f
fb5a79ba33f3bc1ad21300f48bd9a2a060e62a4c
7211 F20101117_AABYDN hawkins_d_Page_118thm.jpg
0b2a8fd3d893dc0433d8211041d5fe98
68c7a9238f6fa4aa0699929cefe0dddebe3a1ae2
20755 F20101117_AABXYH hawkins_d_Page_010.QC.jpg
ac9f15e6a718d4afd292a73343fa32d0
dc2e99e3ca28ce28e422cef17799a24b87c45fc7
515 F20101117_AABYCY hawkins_d_Page_003thm.jpg
b30f0fb6c4ec441c45b3e2b6f9d2d0ac
b3658f7f8317fc7af1012c57d5f8250a3037221d
22056 F20101117_AABXXT hawkins_d_Page_091.jpg
c3d90482cb60107a5c38d8f6e00ac46e
a27187413e50190429806a9e1088bbc0290a5e2a
6813 F20101117_AABYEC hawkins_d_Page_065thm.jpg
6632d339adca15d50e6e8c5f058f85cb
82f705496e1681daf8147c7c750f3ae01fe9cdc5
57050 F20101117_AABYDO hawkins_d_Page_094.pro
3e70bdf3f4706b6c526a1b00cfeef9bb
cc3ace430df11e5081a99dd9765e1c95412e3d8c
F20101117_AABXYI hawkins_d_Page_108.tif
8871cc11cba2b9dc8df3748fd2ca5d94
c559ba28422c7bc2c4c9373aa701709480939acd
1224 F20101117_AABYCZ hawkins_d_Page_003.pro
35e1edfe4e64933b796d6e204ca36f87
bd39881fedd7fbf25a823ccb016904bc7e0cfc8f
6842 F20101117_AABXXU hawkins_d_Page_060thm.jpg
6005fd47b438905445485399823415e0
e81616c0e9d987b0c52056f14683cafecb50513c
12780 F20101117_AABYED hawkins_d_Page_090.pro
b2d22b76c7b161782c7a56108c22dd41
b8dc0cbddb66344a81f476877d66e0289d19a639
2197 F20101117_AABYDP hawkins_d_Page_070.txt
d1f24a9ca3f39691ae6dd1e30b7735ca
9d97ac3abaa19d589105aff76e87c3913a1f44cf
777829 F20101117_AABXYJ hawkins_d_Page_109.jp2
f99c53c227a1e17afc3a2d02261f6cf9
af351f52fe2ae8669aa32d3ac7d0ff4fdb68df30
F20101117_AABXXV hawkins_d_Page_033.jp2
c76f7bc444ff4daff7b6c5916fdf74e6
7b4fa94e1f457e8a2bf9ebd5d060885ba367d95c
351318 F20101117_AABYEE hawkins_d_Page_092.jp2
8d72dae719795da9f25f896176f7292d
9833a8f18d3a5ebce4064c4e5bd582cb3ef76985
90802 F20101117_AABYDQ hawkins_d_Page_068.jpg
ec175e008384b25e8d04f9aac3427012
5cf77afc137e5459539b3e024f49279b50e6cc11
170988 F20101117_AABXYK hawkins_d_Page_090.jp2
daece6a33ff12ab9373a8960849baaa3
4a53ceca254337badcc5e0c91e23f9a4b607a320
F20101117_AABXXW hawkins_d_Page_037thm.jpg
5e8ba65198a57bc49ab835eb385bd3c0
1d32b9121d5be3826b4a706fefbef3db8489727c
28887 F20101117_AABYEF hawkins_d_Page_043.QC.jpg
a91e51009a06fdfba48959da5606ebc0
d930fc6c9b29789c69cdd1da0c62c2ee043aa74a
26724 F20101117_AABYDR hawkins_d_Page_100.QC.jpg
c366ee599673e96b5e46c5f2738b43c1
3f08607465a558611168f9198e74df4c7c737ac0
32522 F20101117_AABXYL hawkins_d_Page_003.jp2
123ea0674597f657e76716f45dec5c4b
10762e686f9ba31b1d9acea7767ae0e6c60d27c5
2532 F20101117_AABXXX hawkins_d_Page_114.txt
0c09a5b8ad85f071db58ff0ee91dd7ff
c5201561895e9fa82bc96bb88040312d19257179
62174 F20101117_AABYEG hawkins_d_Page_096.jpg
072d6a14f9675c71c662df9d1487585e
adc871947e27889f762759e3acd5fb8b05f214cf
16508 F20101117_AABXZA hawkins_d_Page_096.QC.jpg
8097acba920749402c28644e7fa9e659
f5fb718c9a92f6486e637f3d07114dfa68890887
F20101117_AABYDS hawkins_d_Page_061.tif
258a9d831fafebd5e059780b17bfd681
e89164daf4db162ff9c16eecb8e21181bc6dc6dd
96512 F20101117_AABXXY hawkins_d_Page_038.jpg
d2c209db27bd72734671d5e843da9da9
0156c3c65d9317153de512cbf8802becbfba25d0
54018 F20101117_AABYEH hawkins_d_Page_109.jpg
c6d23bd68f9982c6820c16cce58364cc
095c5da48678f4974d9d8b4c2a166d1470058cf4
1837 F20101117_AABXZB hawkins_d_Page_107.txt
ab9c986ccce4dec99167accbaa4c1fe2
a290f6ce8121de8fb93ba62d0a685e82a96c5cd3
53944 F20101117_AABYDT hawkins_d_Page_067.pro
6468f3095eab75eac52b639ee9a92291
d91e8e3f5fb3566fbd7a743e913b55ebc24515e2
6284 F20101117_AABXYM hawkins_d_Page_033thm.jpg
5d64629db1330ba7130e4f0550ebd4c0
f75faca883c4db920ecae36bb87badc468c263af
1051975 F20101117_AABXXZ hawkins_d_Page_060.jp2
5fcd661b8b732072c0b8536c9f5f9ed8
af6fb39705df3a304dbc199864fe3e11b388569b
96003 F20101117_AABYEI hawkins_d_Page_042.jpg
24510ae261ad6aa64fe95774a8cc3636
62abe52c509c3e6bea3cfc66ded2aa68735f9a70
53484 F20101117_AABXZC hawkins_d_Page_030.pro
03fadd8dc8afc28349de6ab11cb6cc02
efd6f5e1912b3aceb8967444016b61d9bb748816
F20101117_AABYDU hawkins_d_Page_091.tif
852daf6ba0228d85c86f5ea179832742
be624b681d679e557fbb68a17f5ae1122e612cc0
59280 F20101117_AABXYN hawkins_d_Page_125.pro
4d6aee8dfe3c77593e319d9be854909b
dbc63f026ae8ca20f8e50e745f5e7c503977ede8
53823 F20101117_AABYEJ hawkins_d_Page_065.pro
5229755ac28032a94b71e3a3feb86cb7
77ec3fb3ccdcf1b551d61ea6286dedc5b35908fc
50211 F20101117_AABXZD hawkins_d_Page_027.pro
261716a24cdf7b11d7aa7466f1a41f81
34c089c1cdb32ed46f9288de9b7e899914479221
6538 F20101117_AABYDV hawkins_d_Page_018thm.jpg
068d385cf67502b62ed5fbe130f6fb38
32998ffc42299abe7f8a90ed8d24d21de27ae05f
88259 F20101117_AABXYO hawkins_d_Page_051.jpg
2722f02d28279fa53998ca35a4303d5a
d475c0b3d3391356fa70bdb3353c2402696660ad
2140 F20101117_AABYEK hawkins_d_Page_101.txt
06ffd068afdf81527c681cd057292aae
598f61445351ac269b7db8aac7eb9b05b7806e43
F20101117_AABXZE hawkins_d_Page_038.tif
182e8e60583b439b0f3d0e994de5b2f0
61f2fab8471569d959e467815fb1cb0225fe52a4
88693 F20101117_AABXYP hawkins_d_Page_057.jpg
96ca03a5a823ecc84832f12894aa7cd9
af799d5cabba7e19b5a387fc495df5b7651824c2
F20101117_AABYEL hawkins_d_Page_121.jp2
bb852857a5d93ddab4eab1f78be98ec2
82b1d2be1ac5cba49ea92007db21ca46eb02e7fe
52564 F20101117_AABXZF hawkins_d_Page_121.pro
9485e0051e30dc9e13880e5946727ffa
de68f4a48d49362aedf3833a20284d44c959662b
40356 F20101117_AABYDW hawkins_d_Page_116.jpg
681f8c3879903bc8387783631e617c57
17a2fc4c910235b707a9ef396e573de009edbfb9
54608 F20101117_AABXYQ hawkins_d_Page_044.pro
f7f9704ea23f6c7e03a90ad29a914f43
a461d69a7c5a7364e52c9ce25ed51725f0cf16f9
82749 F20101117_AABYEM hawkins_d_Page_012.jpg
87e584f6f5ac95e944897ea79251c0ae
295201a3b63c492f8e8568ed415d925d9df4cf44
43789 F20101117_AABXZG hawkins_d_Page_089.pro
2b0cdeb1a505275db3b1e6242db5dd54
c2f5d5c983627a505a35a5a319ccd5f3119ed424
95 F20101117_AABYDX hawkins_d_Page_110.txt
91034cbd0fd21005b1bc15bfdfda512e
b3a576b719e6ea8366f9611830b7c34e685017ac
92034 F20101117_AABXYR hawkins_d_Page_061.jpg
0e65fa77d37ee3e9ad9789e5e4e63d95
a762910a4ec8f964dbf9b03f51800ff0e160f97b
89066 F20101117_AABYFA hawkins_d_Page_055.jpg
90e5e5aa977a472c17a6d91ff408e174
a6e07469cbaba8c10543ebde4acc4426f5d42471
F20101117_AABYEN hawkins_d_Page_002.tif
0d7cd56cc99fe3ebe7a0d5cd0c3d2a6c
f0fc4fce9e6a8cbb7d007b6dee480b838212ba76
21194 F20101117_AABXZH hawkins_d_Page_023.QC.jpg
ff21df8542ac97e629fc5533c2f35ca0
82ffffb55edba539d97d5c096985c1366245bd0b
2055 F20101117_AABYDY hawkins_d_Page_046.txt
ee12025e9ffe9772e1754614cd6b2d39
aca472e2518661ec43983a1933879796287b38ef
2721 F20101117_AABXYS hawkins_d_Page_092thm.jpg
8075f7178e47d1f744713aa545414a9e
c936c228aae737595fe476833ae586dfb9998b6f
52340 F20101117_AABYFB hawkins_d_Page_033.pro
a79cb6a34be2ad754c3cc20d2ae8aec5
204fa9a7c5cb33670a20c942511dff4e56e77242
87835 F20101117_AABYEO hawkins_d_Page_052.jpg
1f7d18861ea32e0b8ea55f9d14528199
f3bc40895340145cdbe32eb8ecf03e90d63f4ece
46943 F20101117_AABXZI hawkins_d_Page_107.pro
7d5c457ab22a96ea89ccb4bf974b9f8c
3ce34406f9b4912eac5eaf7bb437452c55616fce
2150 F20101117_AABYDZ hawkins_d_Page_065.txt
a58366441c00662650f484a7a855a16f
64bfbe9feeb8093c236f79e5b1a26ac67f6eb599
6283 F20101117_AABXYT hawkins_d_Page_027thm.jpg
ea38a4429f80ccd16766be18c09eeb30
e4652e95fbc3c55927fff0766346cfbc40b0f439
478 F20101117_AABYFC hawkins_d_Page_108thm.jpg
72155fa4d2b84fef95b6e685e1868dba
da97b370966349666727092dbcddeca60300bdee
2151 F20101117_AABYEP hawkins_d_Page_040.txt
05bb0ac71b77f88c20dc9eea23ca135f
58dba71aa1d14d21da95e3efb78db36115d4ffbf
53280 F20101117_AABXZJ hawkins_d_Page_004.pro
faf9f230b7ab0941c8be04072972f1c1
836f2108433a57fe1731bf63b46919ffed095fd8
26376 F20101117_AABXYU hawkins_d_Page_126.QC.jpg
6d3d1d7f34382001c079e267fdc8ce0c
9b1a8d8a5f8c076e7477e77727ab1236da2a023a
55283 F20101117_AABYFD hawkins_d_Page_015.pro
3d70332dad9b769964a5b105844289b5
eed821840776987184c40d3409313723bcc6236b
28822 F20101117_AABYEQ hawkins_d_Page_074.QC.jpg
f4a40fe34691b0aea96e7cfcc511832c
9f79dea8b9d4d7fca1caf866cee708643d32117d
52897 F20101117_AABXZK hawkins_d_Page_019.pro
e6822e39c3b3457cf22fe4cab1dc0185
406895cfa238f4a0d63f2d346ba9baae683ecd25
F20101117_AABXYV hawkins_d_Page_082.tif
60c3d72d00488f8bb5041925fef0f705
74bd97b4006667a10386be079bfc892a994a5dda
7372 F20101117_AABYFE hawkins_d_Page_112.QC.jpg
450b95e0a633be23e62c7411c8cd92ba
4f7fb84220f1e479d660cd0f8b75e16d8eadc9aa
6786 F20101117_AABYER hawkins_d_Page_043thm.jpg
a854c64458857fa13a2541d6c4d29aa9
068d7383901c05603d35cc07b43dc5335c871e87
55424 F20101117_AABXZL hawkins_d_Page_047.pro
1620805caf56989062b5053d211367e4
a18a73536bc579c147fd6d6c585e9f7e80172bd4
F20101117_AABXYW hawkins_d_Page_040.jp2
c3cd42a64c48bc2798de01ed51d3cbda
3b66453f6ff7f31bfb9b550a4735837af25ce5fe
1051934 F20101117_AABYFF hawkins_d_Page_025.jp2
dc5f5efa4bfceca21e7747ab0e20603f
31fad845414641f43dd526ac14fdfb386fd36d62
684 F20101117_AABYES hawkins_d_Page_113thm.jpg
0580d126ede356a2d3d8979eda756316
7488795a710202aba5c21e3fa59a2f29ab2d2a44
F20101117_AABXZM hawkins_d_Page_128.tif
f97e3d5e497e8125161b787fb46e8267
c6df62b7b5b78caf522e2373f36b83d7d0b8c110
6870 F20101117_AABXYX hawkins_d_Page_035thm.jpg
b9f0413ce58cd5ccd6f6b104efbcfb33
e3cdfc1c6dd0bf88e25b6bfc262e188f7ae3d793
2130 F20101117_AABYFG hawkins_d_Page_004.txt
8ffd36c5355e84c145823ad2cf92deda
e7fd4fbd6b86913ccb6ef8dcfce3c6cd4bdf7721
6578 F20101117_AABYET hawkins_d_Page_124thm.jpg
14b1d12bc997d654dc7d3eae3bedb554
145dab03ed6fac1d0388323fcd16e0f9833147a5
2523 F20101117_AABXYY hawkins_d_Page_110.QC.jpg
9c8b3f4e269c4f94499d7eec13d74a81
d70727d8b1ffe8516ac7e3dcf0fabdda94c15f9d
F20101117_AABYFH hawkins_d_Page_037.tif
15a901a3a50f39c4829bb4d416873fe6
6b39843687da6170e42f262a6a4aab6cd51a52b0
1584 F20101117_AABYEU hawkins_d_Page_108.QC.jpg
8eafd60bbd89666fb87df74de002eda8
cde8a24ead545ed1936881989a6fb501bdbacfaa
704556 F20101117_AABXZN hawkins_d_Page_011.jp2
2434e550cf60c64ca9ed60b8c31fae6f
47f7ae1972c091b2e729f17fb1e1015cf3f91d5d
6487 F20101117_AABXYZ hawkins_d_Page_041thm.jpg
86fbb5c2c5c47f8fa552c31dd8e986da
fe22e850b6cc65f0eff68bca97d7bf13cad31883
F20101117_AABYFI hawkins_d_Page_083.txt
01513c11ba45a9effdf55bb98cf64afb
a2e81c8a334c155ba737d3ddad3d1f1bc60d393a
F20101117_AABYEV hawkins_d_Page_111.tif
7f7ef73b109e2c17ee559ce40cff2d2c
c5c3a71a944325a4634f5edee85cc9906cfe7827
F20101117_AABXZO hawkins_d_Page_019.tif
8f7645f78fc3c7215b1eb324b423e9de
9e460a7af8f98b4cf7a3dfcecf47b1ed00a2669a
90339 F20101117_AABYFJ hawkins_d_Page_014.jpg
c865597d2945959f72ad114b62edb1ec
4968f702aee19ec8998595a1f2a3045c2a5e1725
89185 F20101117_AABYEW hawkins_d_Page_030.jpg
c337017bd82b71bd6d42044bf56e52e1
83048a65dbdb3efba7419f1098d535e6cee19dd7
54186 F20101117_AABXZP hawkins_d_Page_053.pro
df8f4640b187e66c28ad5e08b8c54e40
7b92ba144b3a008918f94f473578f8c103503bd5
54210 F20101117_AABYFK hawkins_d_Page_104.pro
be2d755afa04e01209eb56e90983c8f6
495da810fd9e64e727cb5f13bba81ff157c3ee15
F20101117_AABXZQ hawkins_d_Page_059.tif
8dda2a5a895bc698c121aaec976b87b9
2189c1d3c7916c35bfc9bd51fcea98af6e2441ad
F20101117_AABYFL hawkins_d_Page_077.tif
ea7d82668ca33d75656311da8476a27f
a20cef2466576fab8973ccc1bd5b38c90b54204f
52299 F20101117_AABYEX hawkins_d_Page_123.pro
6d14b34f9a945a65d5e14fcf4dcaf800
585d0cd3ee19d1a9311f5a93f604fb76951e33fc
87908 F20101117_AABXZR hawkins_d_Page_050.jpg
5351bd5b9cf8b268d7cbebd969edd02a
4b470b30f502134c7bfc658829d9d6fbea7bf82a
6826 F20101117_AABYGA hawkins_d_Page_080thm.jpg
774fc40a8035e6ab282bb60aeb22f5fc
c92b9842cf0290405332c76617b56656ce9c5e8b
59598 F20101117_AABYFM hawkins_d_Page_038.pro
471a6b78b55d8e879822f563fa79fe64
6644109784f2430d2864ed0ab7a45789c7e5b575
580 F20101117_AABYEY hawkins_d_Page_086.txt
7c2e9d6459fcca1c4ff03022fa43b407
65c3bc1e8d1d151dfe236843636d5eb0d0d14195
6925 F20101117_AABXZS hawkins_d_Page_028thm.jpg
b20b33e423b9db5d6e032f09d8a649f1
dd9d57500ff89019a1aec637256a1b02296c7115
28717 F20101117_AABYGB hawkins_d_Page_093.jpg
283ca4e0b24d6f4234ff248f0b84c643
10c8863787895ee443c1c9c88c1c44436b3cedff
1051939 F20101117_AABYFN hawkins_d_Page_102.jp2
abea13a090867a495f9cc6d0107f9ea7
23a42bb9c0bdf55717bfa2747761603aec79628c
8875 F20101117_AABYEZ hawkins_d_Page_009.jpg
3a5547b68bafee9bcdde5ccfd107a5e0
47face511170e600b755c5d31146a87bbe7c44b5
1041230 F20101117_AABXZT hawkins_d_Page_128.jp2
3c6e0b6fa06ff08fb08d13d12a87c890
526b84de612a653cc92a01434604b9bcf9f4efea
6536 F20101117_AABYGC hawkins_d_Page_049thm.jpg
dcb60a1eee477f8230b4df1ca28ede47
dc95efcbd9df0d75ca27ad36e0af479ee21725eb
5597 F20101117_AABYFO hawkins_d_Page_022thm.jpg
8ba5c9a6a0836a112ae9285548407e01
0c3a9db6b23dad3886d942e715bd05f82c72d62c
878771 F20101117_AABXZU hawkins_d_Page_022.jp2
808ecf1c9f516082bbae5e378a286b61
7b87fe3ae45be5bbc3ddb876f4a9dc62b99beb9e
28283 F20101117_AABYGD hawkins_d_Page_048.QC.jpg
0fd412efc455e9eeabf406753ec3b9c7
c5a702d74433cd3bba1c3c95595d791609958565
28012 F20101117_AABYFP hawkins_d_Page_069.QC.jpg
3551e0b843cb6d6405cd9c16fd69a9f3
d2f5ba1fb7d8f8741d71103398ec5199cfba2a3b
54645 F20101117_AABXZV hawkins_d_Page_014.pro
90d78a447ee2407e2070b6f05b021f8a
a6e9e05554ae8dde64635cccd432ff2e32c9cc11
1905 F20101117_AABYGE hawkins_d_Page_093.txt
37edeaf029f03b60bee203a92c863d1c
664c3c49e9cd8a090edc462e6da20aa920fa8081
81524 F20101117_AABYFQ hawkins_d_Page_066.jpg
4e30ef7f74907c73f89a7bbdab3b1a47
3a6e4af068834e86d25b7802fa4a5b8a6fa50643
6393 F20101117_AABXZW hawkins_d_Page_079thm.jpg
55459c74db3f43f2aefc758ccafbc77a
d2fa37e02c84c6c691c6f7c96bd86a8082f0a44a
92648 F20101117_AABYGF hawkins_d_Page_071.jpg
f590ef1527aeb3e045ffd951486c4dac
0c0e936c27c89f30c3821e50237172c2c35244fa
53778 F20101117_AABYFR hawkins_d_Page_039.pro
ce61548b4e406a21185d6cfa483bdf15
ff80e105d954a4e2967ed0d8c9113279e222f600
2638 F20101117_AABXZX hawkins_d_Page_093thm.jpg
3032239bd5968071b70f95bff0437cc8
642ffdf6e60eb928f23cac84314d63b15e9028a7
100915 F20101117_AABYGG hawkins_d_Page_122.jpg
8c16e7299390efaeab505c1af681da10
d15c27246fff5d5197add12c710dd2c5eb41d70a
16203 F20101117_AABYFS hawkins_d_Page_112.pro
13d23d35d63744e5f481c09d378cf7e3
771d8a5d7d85024329e1270e00607a5682627917
F20101117_AABXZY hawkins_d_Page_068.tif
3334d4ac05d9d55d136eea8d50443c8d
2bffdc5d615b5f9697edf5842900b4ef1394809b
91182 F20101117_AABYGH hawkins_d_Page_025.jpg
19854f810fcf6e5f71910502f0ce0142
7fdbc81219b263715f5bf3f30c3cf16ba23604a6
1656 F20101117_AABYFT hawkins_d_Page_023.txt
756ced9e6796ff3d2df35411a95948d0
80362c7426a9f6aabdd2031c11286bd6201b6ce2
73105 F20101117_AABXZZ hawkins_d_Page_088.jpg
7fb184b62327a84c9936ba2673f12f4a
a4f7d2c0c93a2c2f0062e7fbd4b5c48d6906df17
F20101117_AABYGI hawkins_d_Page_014.tif
426223e3ae2e5161b96398c5f2dd673c
e9894870bf35e8e102942f391249a532e17c3faf
6938 F20101117_AABYFU hawkins_d_Page_071thm.jpg
e9db3fa2b16a45e46d27921ea401df4b
2be40a2efdabb7ab732f957a1a153536281e2151
336410 F20101117_AABYGJ hawkins_d_Page_093.jp2
805f6c36aacc6f56ad8c6a162da98d6f
6c2ee17fd8408763a40e3f2601c4e7c5829475a7
7904 F20101117_AABYFV hawkins_d_Page_091.QC.jpg
a4e81bf8ada49f35121ff7cfbd364924
85aee4d0c8e29709f4ac71e3219cbcdf5618178f
2192 F20101117_AABYGK hawkins_d_Page_120.txt
b2d53121f567b4fad7ccc9d65c8c92f4
b78f75dd9c1ff6dd134ce1c3bb2f6e1457a764ab
F20101117_AABYFW hawkins_d_Page_004.jp2
59890d06e20f74b3f23590e106573d3e
1843513b80792004caeb562963979ec0b71867c3
88758 F20101117_AABYGL hawkins_d_Page_067.jpg
e937c36d06141bc8ef9d031419223acf
adc4b2705c815ed8260aed127b8167a2bf6da2f9
54633 F20101117_AABYFX hawkins_d_Page_073.pro
b0b1d784de451aa51496bb6ae3fb4b84
919bfff020cbba205e5289333ffb0f6f4c525282
47823 F20101117_AABYHA hawkins_d_Page_066.pro
ec0bffefa635304db3f679dab7258828
5d5901e579d5de8d631099f8c37d3f997a41e969
F20101117_AABYGM hawkins_d_Page_028.tif
8cbd4d2413d066bc2fe7ecb0a52c541f
21cbca4948459ccb26350688a9f35373c065b264
1917 F20101117_AABYGN hawkins_d_Page_024.txt
85b3c7ae0ab5bbc79c20f9a003641d85
6a68e9ceb7bb296db79bc98a3f026eceb0bd0d88
2071 F20101117_AABYFY hawkins_d_Page_050.txt
e07faf12457b82049209f21d2c878711
92f891291f18a1d08f66487307a902bfd2f287ab
5921 F20101117_AABYHB hawkins_d_Page_111thm.jpg
091f78e18a97fb8b9906dd799d8e7220
eb1f65f38c164d300b97af210b28d733dd0e6ca2
F20101117_AABYGO hawkins_d_Page_026.tif
cb4ebeb4456091e63104917f69478073
f5d1a09c342e05e0c1ea12748fd80e6fa2d3fb37
90615 F20101117_AABYFZ hawkins_d_Page_073.jpg
0c8ea47bd2a921ccc4920ddc623feeee
a8fae8ae4247285a028c355bd7467aeb8dde621e
F20101117_AABYHC hawkins_d_Page_124.jpg
78755d61faeb17a7ef9a85a22ab14b96
913d829bf3ea960548b5634a08e2cba9c92e6f06
512109 F20101117_AABYGP hawkins_d_Page_116.jp2
2a5608291c4e44255f4dbe330e52b92a
36fd26ef8247a556ce35f7a238cc2e0de9d342d5
1850 F20101117_AABYHD hawkins_d_Page_128.txt
24bc584def8a416c12f5065cc3ea7ddf
e7cdd83330f4a8dae0da3aa6f6cf013047bc884c
6094 F20101117_AABYGQ hawkins_d_Page_087thm.jpg
a4f7470b20dbfceb25299242a40c3c4d
deaeef6779b1ad506648132896ef6452a2899931
1051963 F20101117_AABYHE hawkins_d_Page_027.jp2
c640c6ba72b9e8b90be64430655ed450
554a346bf38bda1f6f96f358e0b46cb3f10d0c0b
6535 F20101117_AABYGR hawkins_d_Page_044thm.jpg
8e0df4417ec8aecccea2aae53a5644ce
46584b33e06333b84be01aa3c9765de1d2ec0175
57182 F20101117_AABYHF hawkins_d_Page_028.pro
ed7b4c4954b45cae52c48235f1c707bc
7e2ccad489ff59c5d7b3ea548d913d7a961e74a9
27996 F20101117_AABYGS hawkins_d_Page_050.QC.jpg
b1a190fe665a050456a6e4b9bf3ffacd
b1a9a1ec4f63d1ca7ae8fe391455ee3c09d8ddbc
2185 F20101117_AABYHG hawkins_d_Page_061.txt
a2924153d184694908b26869474f5bbe
21024dbfe3caf3f2c040ae041bdf8d30ed57dadb
55714 F20101117_AABYGT hawkins_d_Page_036.pro
e286df390777156152aa688a2cee8299
5e9041f64dbc2750987ce4e5028ea1819b102e94
88534 F20101117_AABYHH hawkins_d_Page_016.jpg
6b38e0e5eefab4459e8c74b0da84bdc9
25f9c588705de8f4d7b186cfd52200e02750e1f7
1051868 F20101117_AABYGU hawkins_d_Page_085.jp2
48bff27aa90be5813b3722804844013b
7b9835ea46220416c1aef92a72ee862241c2b1ef
91661 F20101117_AABYHI hawkins_d_Page_058.jpg
dfa7f8816468b1fee0acb07ca948eff3
6f17acaebaafd99382f6704c0262efe9448c7c2b
F20101117_AABYGV hawkins_d_Page_032.tif
04512c61adc859aae90feb4b8489b3f7
f6febbd204134d005971bf9fe90fdf275a24c070
2007 F20101117_AABYHJ hawkins_d_Page_013.txt
8edf6b53076fbd479937327cdcf68180
d842a981b61100e4218e0d1275f0cac6c9f553c6
F20101117_AABYGW hawkins_d_Page_098.tif
3296d22db2346849b763e7eabf637f39
7b59573f2d64b4f17cd3c8337f9d3642fadf2a85
28707 F20101117_AABYHK hawkins_d_Page_036.QC.jpg
6fd58ec037ac65206995fb661e2766a4
156c929d45251ddd0563fb4fbacae777efe814a7
6819 F20101117_AABYGX hawkins_d_Page_045thm.jpg
20ecf56e791b41505f3bd87ca9cedabe
33b5a236edd658146212a32af16ecb6195bd9761
27876 F20101117_AABYHL hawkins_d_Page_082.QC.jpg
e56f2a6b1a2be1b7e65f5c337a1cc8ef
7cdb91becc17c2b7728686cb1edb7ef4c9ebd09a
50259 F20101117_AABYGY hawkins_d_Page_076.pro
6b932d96e050ce2ad4be79545c4000f2
a6ac70010da92527dda6c49d3797690b2594d152
348718 F20101117_AABYIA hawkins_d_Page_086.jp2
e681fabda2f4a4b7623dac1f3a70a02f
c6a6f877ddd8bd8e849fefabf6a1d90c7054ae20
48 F20101117_AABYHM hawkins_d_Page_108.txt
b48ca3b9fe56c7c03de1c5540940eae9
0717352f26041076d3ac348dc74b2b64009f0746
87288 F20101117_AABYIB hawkins_d_Page_104.jpg
1c9aacf9ab0c4bafe180f0f58c4ceaef
7eb2c81140e0f0ce2ca40a0770bd29abb61aa924
1051971 F20101117_AABYHN hawkins_d_Page_087.jp2
574bc6ee67e5bc903f6b6bc0edb758f2
e425bd953df14b1479547499d6a7c10001adf239
F20101117_AABYGZ hawkins_d_Page_014.jp2
cfbb362e94c6d7aa006fe18e6fa9760f
aef910949d1810ae163d5dc90da260c55e142ce3
54962 F20101117_AABYIC hawkins_d_Page_068.pro
2fb342e0f9f962da5368c42f65f9f5a5
de2a781d3b889fc36fedc300e7552ab172147519
1051936 F20101117_AABYHO hawkins_d_Page_018.jp2
024d46c63a1a3808bf0c7148ddc6b32e
7cd4262d0958b8f503ca51bff2d4b53f57f21db4
5609 F20101117_AABYID hawkins_d_Page_114thm.jpg
a96cc14a55957e389db320e13596301a
59ad77cdcf1a317c469952d87f12d1a99424ad3d
6848 F20101117_AABYHP hawkins_d_Page_085thm.jpg
b9385c702724bb3462ea3609201cb081
86cf56e4db555cb7656d75d82e8e38b9749cfc25
1051950 F20101117_AABYIE hawkins_d_Page_058.jp2
350b303d20e12bc1cc442d9d8d945886
e84d864baddf710b556f9b6d55602e843f02e36e
26044 F20101117_AABYHQ hawkins_d_Page_013.QC.jpg
9bd727faf898741df71533092734715b
c5ace5dd2932595f3ca5f9222a5a7035b0f3b887
29070 F20101117_AABYIF hawkins_d_Page_015.QC.jpg
0b8e569e8b5b2dabaf115b01bdd77a54
54048b1631f742acf620925b088f773fe6e0ef4e
1051981 F20101117_AABYHR hawkins_d_Page_056.jp2
7b67e8aa7eaa60d1ab66ba60df1b3949
c706335e4913087b39f19081f5debc5b421865f8
87088 F20101117_AABYIG hawkins_d_Page_100.jpg
5fdd3d76ba194b3a61a60f71a66fe755
d1583bcbe2560963cb230a4c073edd864ed720da
F20101117_AABYHS hawkins_d_Page_066.tif
e087df0dfc5fcf684dc520e44eaa5321
4f7d8996ace85923db6d09c82bb5a40074afca88
56908 F20101117_AABYIH hawkins_d_Page_054.pro
a05c99e9d02422bb53b424e3322c3347
264a1d505458c41bf1bb66bc13762e87f943cd29
3301 F20101117_AABYHT hawkins_d_Page_077thm.jpg
2bde44030651b3969380919c7e4d3343
a49657ee1d1c28764545a358f9c22afca24ef025
76754 F20101117_AABYII hawkins_d_Page_008.jpg
4b9488bcee025f4896bb5c1e54040c29
0cfb5d17614bb844f89642200e98324d4126fc4a
F20101117_AABYHU hawkins_d_Page_024.tif
01fca69595914919ffd0e99319a3f79f
3df2e3e5b9623f1e0ee02f4c30a77d9808d6bf0b
58089 F20101117_AABYIJ hawkins_d_Page_042.pro
68b4000f145f7f2b387887ce56ce1e85
01b582b393aa1d4682e7886ff5fc0e80a5de8257
F20101117_AABYHV hawkins_d_Page_073.txt
67023570d0e16c672a17ec9d52c9d157
6d9f8e4a3f568a9a617a3d917d4eb598414f2e97
465 F20101117_AABYIK hawkins_d_Page_002thm.jpg
fbb1329290ac430b60b376be1820768f
0675ab8e847364e7d67f4db0e6eefec4d11c9134
6957 F20101117_AABYHW hawkins_d_Page_119thm.jpg
b291fea08728b1bb3da7c9eb0d3f40e3
f0331002be5baca16e7ad83a308f94e18f3b6b4d
1051933 F20101117_AABYIL hawkins_d_Page_076.jp2
cf1be711ab54d7002fe737efa7e4a298
af3a09e650348819c7feb7a9c829afcf5b7db4e0
89542 F20101117_AABYHX hawkins_d_Page_072.jpg
b39d7c779df5f88f6a3eb79814d49119
dfac948515f54fd0e868ba1f98f1f48a2cda6f67
87770 F20101117_AABYJA hawkins_d_Page_053.jpg
2e2faa0dacc67cdf8a4194d650ba2828
4ad5a0dd061813d4a7b2eba3adcb86a76d974c25
46813 F20101117_AABYIM hawkins_d_Page_024.pro
a28a504a7f0f940b29fcc28bc3f5ba59
186aa693e88e643efa79c03347e535d52484850d
2171 F20101117_AABYHY hawkins_d_Page_095.txt
e586f3c32a4b27e4afb6e54d7d968c11
59152bc6f3928b067164206599c403502d10a7ce
F20101117_AABYJB hawkins_d_Page_039.tif
1d80405094fcc49ded63b8bd6df04f80
d667ab02001fae479aa74534ef12849f12fefb0e
53620 F20101117_AABYIN hawkins_d_Page_098.pro
ee9a1ef3cfc9fd53aa5544d9f3a4cccf
cff9f39fd689bbdb99e9eededd12023e80f5f6cf
1051967 F20101117_AABYHZ hawkins_d_Page_051.jp2
990af875f32d406d0377a573d3c15796
b2cbcf0470fc59d37f39e7ecab382ca6335330f9
92233 F20101117_AABYJC hawkins_d_Page_126.jpg
6166917a03cc01ca6ddb55851d54f887
4dddcbede47a602c9ba88b2d18af9142d1f6073e
F20101117_AABYIO hawkins_d_Page_088.tif
19c89f057f7c1ac464ec73c742f37abd
cd5e22a5bb31a46b0424823eab56cab993f9ea6b
1051956 F20101117_AABYJD hawkins_d_Page_120.jp2
8034bc06b7e9befbfcca121cf9195935
35dbe3553ee1a1af1a55efd3ce09585984e10a23
14163 F20101117_AABYIP hawkins_d_Page_077.QC.jpg
b0a903bced932636062aa0917d49f4e7
b34e108a4f55765bc81c3413852db2217a017751
F20101117_AABYJE hawkins_d_Page_034.jp2
dd14a33d3864ef9dc1cbec50264c90ab
6fd83caa1a874a7f512cd17c9ca7accdc92cb3ad
24523 F20101117_AABYIQ hawkins_d_Page_078.QC.jpg
da8acf7310363981cda11ebf00a59e4d
263d5d6d16d658933c5c6149537ba902f6924687
27813 F20101117_AABYJF hawkins_d_Page_045.QC.jpg
b0ca86eff865e680cd4cdfe981b20e36
285dd8316aa708dc4089252ea01d654014399813
6459 F20101117_AABYIR hawkins_d_Page_057thm.jpg
94fd7432b7b584a92220d2529329ba44
3e27173029c3eaf43ea88c2da2aa9c4f1f63d0aa
F20101117_AABYJG hawkins_d_Page_110.tif
ad0ee8e4fec1c7adc8d5eee93b72d820
3893d46ce8b5e6428d60df430fa8556bbc714270
28716 F20101117_AABYIS hawkins_d_Page_031.QC.jpg
3e5a5003093e394f2a33edcb846da093
5884144d21c9814ba10f6cd60248e4a03991ffa4
6477 F20101117_AABYJH hawkins_d_Page_029thm.jpg
a90966baa4587b78f40a3e5b0980c911
ce3679c3dde4e56837dd0837b39f20b40fbf2be0
6547 F20101117_AABYIT hawkins_d_Page_020thm.jpg
98c8cfacfd959ee78d013bb36ea85fc8
cb159c0c6ef9a906c3f24e6801a12ca6063bb0a8
1051979 F20101117_AABYJI hawkins_d_Page_111.jp2
b25b7b44ef082fdad8c281f4b25b025b
498816a420706e86d3188be266a7d9111c2b1e9a
1228 F20101117_AABYIU hawkins_d_Page_011.txt
911b9729c96b0b56797e82177b7a80f9
e5800408c2d7a1ff71e4ea0c998cdef20b466247
F20101117_AABYJJ hawkins_d_Page_012.jp2
4625cc59e1e9b18f9ee0bae875ff4090
74e52aa106ec36ae952a4d6e040bf14326f5be14
F20101117_AABYIV hawkins_d_Page_045.tif
78c2700ab68642195cb81ab68fb7857c
2d536cb8093538e1a810e6bd93e0c656cc9a67bb
28656 F20101117_AABYJK hawkins_d_Page_055.QC.jpg
48277f110189ff332a3eb25bf758b49e
4677acba0cd4b6d7ee4150837912a2e868a9a50d
6594 F20101117_AABYIW hawkins_d_Page_030thm.jpg
2634fd31616ee5e1928b115819a71611
6e01c4fa3f0ca4c34e9361c0c597306b357d14ce
F20101117_AABYJL hawkins_d_Page_095.tif
4135576d4f0f771589bb9bd57924ec3e
1e72701fd4a7130250a04e2aefe8710efe48209e
F20101117_AABYIX hawkins_d_Page_031.txt
9e39691a34cc4f371f1cfdebd628352d
0c5e4455e31e5c34d7da11a06426bc39c9945bfa
28122 F20101117_AABYJM hawkins_d_Page_047.QC.jpg
e01bf87d27a4fc9458b581ef56148971
03eb8c0a3945336b37c050a156b4343b3569093d
30369 F20101117_AABYIY hawkins_d_Page_075.QC.jpg
6e873085c47276873ee60121ef53d4c4
6a128dc0395da170896f69f06ef739e5382a1820
2136 F20101117_AABYKA hawkins_d_Page_020.txt
bf322e7283a62578d6c765e9641d2860
beb8ea02d4cd0062feb0498a202e149e517db2e7
54114 F20101117_AABYJN hawkins_d_Page_045.pro
7f4590c65da3a561a86292736eff259d
79b3b62fabd450e2eb653161dc81141c9699423b
5375 F20101117_AABYIZ hawkins_d_Page_106.jpg
1a6f90b2fc736120229393d80eb0fe58
e96e4c21fedfa99170a93a34ce6328f195fab9e0
F20101117_AABYKB hawkins_d_Page_080.tif
11e9272515a564726c0eda4a54699306
cf513b6c9830fe791588e3b1b2b9eea48bc7bd75
1051911 F20101117_AABYJO hawkins_d_Page_123.jp2
17148701f0a247422232c4a394013287
325a905123f29d34b89b1ce7a51fe66296acf2c7
1605 F20101117_AABYKC hawkins_d_Page_022.txt
83a95e2f6160ea061d5dae74d2be25bd
c2b6cbbf4d4c9185241e3a78cad7fcb0e4c79841
200 F20101117_AABYJP hawkins_d_Page_063.txt
d999d1bd7cbc7ec44a2745372389c4a4
3e7fd57b42f0189a9090bbbba28fbdbf14e41e47
6732 F20101117_AABYKD hawkins_d_Page_083thm.jpg
675440dcce7d0eeb34014110fc7aee9d
631b53f025c6baee7551cc2a87faafca61c06029
26684 F20101117_AABYJQ hawkins_d_Page_062.QC.jpg
20d42f5888ae9bc68dca001b60ac3033
10d56c15040760ba742a461c90b3df1fb68c3e01
F20101117_AABYKE hawkins_d_Page_078.tif
fb4040136a03e73903a527074ab2f047
ae1ccab7eb4240707ce3280c647aa65206f29b6e
F20101117_AABYJR hawkins_d_Page_072.tif
1574b29029e2340902d79964890c5743
920163cabebf93a4c68cec60f51070b781132db4
19448 F20101117_AABYKF hawkins_d_Page_007.QC.jpg
6934d544d0e815d26b95d077bf2afed8
20401614431ef0dc841247ed6eba44699b6c90ab
56442 F20101117_AABYJS hawkins_d_Page_025.pro
3ca4235a84a48fe50119adffdd871fe4
850e5a73f8610331824db89c60eb385475f2f4cb
6581 F20101117_AABYKG hawkins_d_Page_062thm.jpg
a5cedfd4df3bb47196ccdfdeb34244b3
bbd58bf6aae95f3893448165d443f7aacda8ce6b
4853 F20101117_AABYJT hawkins_d_Page_063.pro
27837462745ffb6b89f2b7251430b959
098940fcdc039ecd85316ffceb974a661502753d
52323 F20101117_AABYKH hawkins_d_Page_062.pro
456f0474e6c825d052b2c67fe1906513
8326160bf0b250aa7f60c818ef0bb99745d023b4
2485 F20101117_AABYJU hawkins_d_Page_119.txt
5a996756d63c9a4796a79deb5f5a0e6d
2450f81b5ab073d69aef6ff3746ca7b13cf303ec
99635 F20101117_AABYKI hawkins_d_Page_118.jpg
5bf5353dc06360a1c5336546ba86096e
ae10a001b2837103ba0ca42e423e9a18c048458f
2327 F20101117_AABYJV hawkins_d_Page_042.txt
570cd4e9895187ab435829e9ab7a471e
471ad3a3a187812e93cc32034a65e019ba7a3835
F20101117_AABYKJ hawkins_d_Page_012.tif
55b14152633b7670ec531d75780ba479
2cd9aaf0aa4468596bfd8ed522a8ca1840abf3f6
35662 F20101117_AABYJW hawkins_d_Page_108.jp2
d71b80e6f992407112d116bba7f75bee
5352817a33f2b1e6185f98a14db176ab6da395d1
87311 F20101117_AABYKK hawkins_d_Page_019.jpg
4bf3c9316d78d123cf4225e12b6dd916
f0a752df43e4f3d516900c988c556f9addbf0ba8
906918 F20101117_AABYJX hawkins_d_Page_010.jp2
6fdd0d3c17eb87437afc2dce239a4186
bbcae6bdf7dcd44ea24f07b375941534bf311c34
27901 F20101117_AABYKL hawkins_d_Page_018.QC.jpg
eed58d5b59ff4faff00727724953bc54
a0fa161ac092b68a08a0df4fcbade93b7a3f81e1
2208 F20101117_AABYJY hawkins_d_Page_075.txt
5ece52fa18d5f4f591da494d219e5800
be27f69abd4de2e13d2f08bb610be9e1c3017048
21780 F20101117_AABYLA hawkins_d_Page_091.pro
60e7f51bcc222ed6302dd0f09e2fae52
7ee8e57bcc86d8fb0bffaba4d1984f34eec77937
946252 F20101117_AABYKM hawkins_d_Page_088.jp2
9c986eba71803702143902eb25d959e3
004edd355dd855e4c34101b0e283f5e3e4f7509d
50857 F20101117_AABYJZ hawkins_d_Page_017.pro
a9ef971d3a73a594eb73e7bccba41795
181f98798a52c564a2734065e878d833d08c4749
11345 F20101117_AABYLB hawkins_d_Page_116.QC.jpg
0f2a4851d27431ff81cd937e9fc23cf0
a8585adefd85e8df148a184a45347b740e3cc05c
89365 F20101117_AABYKN hawkins_d_Page_020.jpg
c627a242020a5082761750a69126fedd
75845e4487d7658fbbb516d9eb7646a614d07502
26687 F20101117_AABYLC hawkins_d_Page_097.QC.jpg
5d95cb13248db1bfb9ff7db1a6df4c63
7f937e879b9d3b0971603709beeed3b9859ff6ce
5527 F20101117_AABYKO hawkins_d_Page_094thm.jpg
a0f25491b8379abc1d2d316a2ecffd12
1c5aa98fe96188f086c2a1453df7ec829a3aff2b
2416 F20101117_AABYLD hawkins_d_Page_125.txt
759b7e79999d8269d61887b6c88af132
29df170c62e432cd495b4e4c933105cb128fd28d
87230 F20101117_AABYKP hawkins_d_Page_059.jpg
a07befa3957915c7b808ec4317a02501
9d1601d17e40c6e2e41fc56b38f8145f7b6dac4e
89218 F20101117_AABYLE hawkins_d_Page_018.jpg
98883367dfec3bd28713ff962436c517
26775b8480f54290bc8d5d1f879a3bbdf3953367
27398 F20101117_AABYKQ hawkins_d_Page_059.QC.jpg
e7df705c091031ab97e7faa53c7bd3c4
83b739b6999b6219c16ec254ac9b583da53bfc74
122208 F20101117_AABYLF hawkins_d_Page_009.jp2
28c68a0111953a034fa26a33026bb3a8
7f174b2c942000cc6f9a3e34b2c8d4ff4be8251f
2060 F20101117_AABYKR hawkins_d_Page_033.txt
14cc2ed394c4f20b40c5d73965f96784
7cefbe9f0766d4222264e23767c9d1856a6dd34b
F20101117_AABYLG hawkins_d_Page_070.tif
ea360e90e8bd30a9769b2758dc1435eb
8dfd8213dbed844fe869fe2d5ec995795ce3da3e
103 F20101117_AABYKS hawkins_d_Page_003.txt
63cd0abbe39a302d4d5d7b08e479ac70
2a427051ba0e4130113831609eb1cba7591952ea
1998 F20101117_AABYLH hawkins_d_Page_081.txt
f682101ab9f4dc8421817df2f5870dc2
54060cc681dc9f044664dc89b594b1de9423744d
1051949 F20101117_AABYKT hawkins_d_Page_122.jp2
f28b1558c5c2332670158fe1fcd66bb1
389049f02e0be7b0789079ad9b35dbc97eee3ee6
54642 F20101117_AABYLI hawkins_d_Page_099.pro
5e97b513b2caa99447b254e279877de2
74dce98a7f9ceafbe40034c63731c2b5c3cc030b
28354 F20101117_AABYKU hawkins_d_Page_118.QC.jpg
de7768eab47614811cdc698e5bfb0b9e
ed4efd7e88da0f956cf335e18110b62caf15e090
F20101117_AABYLJ hawkins_d_Page_036.jp2
e19eb86e8fc91c056bbef602e4c726d1
dc73d88867252126924d0c5b0ded810e5b7ef072
89137 F20101117_AABYKV hawkins_d_Page_037.jpg
a1d635f61107ffcbc9e1ff4ec5c259da
533793ecb5b618331c73248eece003a8c2088d37
45547 F20101117_AABYLK hawkins_d_Page_128.pro
9511b3d2409b9b1e3f83d60622dd97fa
d9170b008296e1724c720dbd69869bea3968ca18
6588 F20101117_AABYKW hawkins_d_Page_073thm.jpg
e301256ad26959abfac090b733384b4b
c5f059068f70ac704a74b12e3e53143060ce2e1a
F20101117_AABYLL hawkins_d_Page_062.jp2
81521cf039c781e4952661683bb8c7fa
f9eb09cb373f645a867644c066968b503f0109e4
7793 F20101117_AABYKX hawkins_d_Page_113.jpg
98a9d1810283a10f342d9b460656d657
9ac40961ef2126774380b1361ae001cfdacd9268
F20101117_AABYLM hawkins_d_Page_053.tif
080f018a78cf267814b66b49f068d4a3
81cfcc7fea94954dedc36610940052247b8e84b6
549 F20101117_AABYKY hawkins_d_Page_106thm.jpg
94831b0010fda5d05055bcf62da5a36d
9cb6f5257f01775a68f8deaecea2bf6ed6f4a407
21397 F20101117_AABYMA hawkins_d_Page_088.QC.jpg
d9d6885c9afa3591b4a454ca95cd5ce7
2bc0c7c0a668de313e33441a618f80e7b04f2c0f
55520 F20101117_AABYLN hawkins_d_Page_061.pro
0073026e0e80fab0d817159c296a3539
03dde90597c1ddabcaf29b7de247479a97ddf30a
F20101117_AABYKZ hawkins_d_Page_086.tif
511b5d9b72e8f2a1d1fd58c66f3f3c4b
415ce9fc7c53d4cdd2f3958143ce44482f55d924
6651 F20101117_AABYMB hawkins_d_Page_059thm.jpg
85656d184d8e2b6bd69a16608ae59aab
8b9747a75b88998bb00ed6f91ce3d6d2fe0907b0
F20101117_AABYLO hawkins_d_Page_035.txt
b0990f211fc60f53e9132619265de8df
43a195d3f22a8e1e3bcca059b3628d28a34a48fe
2173 F20101117_AABYMC hawkins_d_Page_089.txt
adb704bf51ca9644e969981713e4347c
e618f0aad42ddc1dd6f2cf8c34eeab925ffae36b
102989 F20101117_AABYLP hawkins_d_Page_114.jpg
e0a2e4741217953b564f4b70bea26f44
afb58d8358db408d5b8aee3607f8799c88fdabf3
1746 F20101117_AABYMD hawkins_d_Page_010.txt
30fdb2ae6a18915d3d1bf4c712b06403
e5b40bcd60837dc961b72e7e4df12975a2cba98d
49301 F20101117_AABYLQ hawkins_d_Page_105.jpg
f2809a924f2b223c7769f74bd9cdbb22
bb7d0e80463670c9e9a0a6e7460386845ef1ba35
2154 F20101117_AABYME hawkins_d_Page_008.txt
a280999154ce24d7b726f4029a555545
50e0acc25415aa78fa6479f573a567d512151719
F20101117_AABYLR hawkins_d_Page_011.tif
9252247d2055fc7786e53436b61c568e
3df84755a169d893639699ed441eed96547f23c3
F20101117_AABYMF hawkins_d_Page_043.jp2
fa6a642d1a5d30ef9fd1ed4e5e1011a8
274e471916747126a7ca1484a47313f4e5f4e57f
33560 F20101117_AABYLS hawkins_d_Page_005.jpg
525d2accf1318884f9f3e9da19a3155c
ada4b76c1826ae6057945fea6ef3c428e082fa38
28239 F20101117_AABYMG hawkins_d_Page_044.QC.jpg
a2a886f44ac77a3e23405c54c357ed31
37190992510cee8fb95305d0d38e3bbe6fc245b6
83255 F20101117_AABYLT hawkins_d_Page_013.jpg
2dd4509b7e5eecea10d695a356bc17dc
4338419f71c0a48ffb8b1196d51610ed858ce0f1
1051985 F20101117_AABYMH hawkins_d_Page_119.jp2
ee694efd12bd9d620dabb626fd019712
e3a2085a57a0f8262702d10b0401ed7a04400352
26063 F20101117_AABYLU hawkins_d_Page_012.QC.jpg
01ea63fa592cc74a3cb9d5a4aef340e7
470b1fd3865eb51f8b8db9f87ca58887fd3dab2d
2059 F20101117_AABYMI hawkins_d_Page_012.txt
6def129f4c188be8769670bcdf92d733
3810fc92e06e10d723a631f35ef557a5b1c1184d
1051900 F20101117_AABYLV hawkins_d_Page_069.jp2
64c082eb295d320bcfc37f557b02849d
df1aa2466931f4f77cc96c05d16f1a65e234ee4a
6641 F20101117_AABYMJ hawkins_d_Page_069thm.jpg
fec38c1aadb90d6b4fd45470d04558c1
911609563d6a967d3c87243afd09e4cc45a95611
25109 F20101117_AABYLW hawkins_d_Page_087.QC.jpg
e873016aed14faab75777d6872698cd5
ee03ec0c0589bfcddf2d7e930ce645dca79b6af4
54220 F20101117_AABYMK hawkins_d_Page_020.pro
59d0a0a842255262ce965690b27f9177
4c9872b2b35822a9632db1269d7b5e73dc46af49
11132 F20101117_AABYLX hawkins_d_Page_063.jpg
e3d3828be515300cc2a914d982421597
f76527b223208bd7fef081b60ba2da8a48470dcd
28740 F20101117_AABYML hawkins_d_Page_038.QC.jpg
ce3cf590ed99580bfa415132e0fb94ec
ad3ce125a97559d33812aaa7732c1a460f9f059c
1051923 F20101117_AABYLY hawkins_d_Page_061.jp2
e13af060c8e949a502ea4c0dd8f9899a
4681bfd2f25400389fc445e744b02ce51c77b9dd
F20101117_AABYNA hawkins_d_Page_051.tif
c2b4edf679eece96ddb5e06f61afc909
6deb4b2c2ab501b435c2d17632a48e957e5cf31e
92545 F20101117_AABYMM hawkins_d_Page_084.jpg
18e037611a0f585f87399c79a78eec35
e086fe46584d154702e7e1229db816472eba6fe9
1051977 F20101117_AABYLZ hawkins_d_Page_071.jp2
340c9c474ee54d2cdaec6c76089740c9
ade4a9e805166b0b0da7aa35b320b17e3cbf6ec6
28683 F20101117_AABYNB hawkins_d_Page_085.QC.jpg
3eefb4911b3cac91775411256ddb8ca0
199c64b4dc7e715028765badf0ca299cd80aed09
18385 F20101117_AABYMN hawkins_d_Page_005.pro
bebe33a99672d7c00e61c7ec1a0004eb
162f3e1674033c4e9d12cef46280e86ffdafa0b6
F20101117_AABYNC hawkins_d_Page_052.jp2
5c073bf1dbd6216305559b9c4672d734
2318873efeda555b446cc4495ccc00f5caa6cbc4
2112 F20101117_AABYMO hawkins_d_Page_052.txt
80767e3cf19fea78b636059e972debef
8842ff031a98a8f2648cdd903514c8045b913e1d
8172 F20101117_AABYND hawkins_d_Page_127.jpg
f06cadfda7fd6d3839ffd1ccb3cf5fd3
cbf6af6f7b0d81dbd0fbbd1e709e35a4d690a1b6
28969 F20101117_AABYMP hawkins_d_Page_065.QC.jpg
f2f2ecb8602b1224b061f414b77d3c59
9ba70201def62880c5aa66a60e436a28cc52fd09
28634 F20101117_AABYNE hawkins_d_Page_117.QC.jpg
00e7cabd833fa4b097f8a3f86f05650d
167d1640dd3a574c8e6cc0950f7f3e7947801932
69888 F20101117_AABYMQ hawkins_d_Page_111.pro
6fd502ab1e208919eb930a2f954e80b1
0997aff1c644a854956f1061507b99a514de4d79
F20101117_AABYNF hawkins_d_Page_015.jp2
c60d0aaabd7d2479e00c195feac744ae
0981e9396abdbb17d8641f259b81cc679a15868c
2301 F20101117_AABYMR hawkins_d_Page_025.txt
3b79ddb932a3b9db8c1be90f46618956
0c4c7e1dd9e0a08c86cc6ce3176b350706f73223
F20101117_AABYNG hawkins_d_Page_126.jp2
a32ca83e262a6f6557bfc5d2283d43c6
f0bdece604f5a0c41b6a4d96d9bb521c087910f6
54922 F20101117_AABYMS hawkins_d_Page_056.pro
d9088505cfa004c93cb168eda23175f2
bd50e60254c73bca4fa76f8f9d9be5667ab9be34
90903 F20101117_AABYNH hawkins_d_Page_040.jpg
294ac0544fbda575717ca116252febd9
dcf5373c745f78d47323f0668cca40e29b244d09
6595 F20101117_AABYMT hawkins_d_Page_019thm.jpg
702268714c96378784767fc8002e73e5
aaa6d1b7553ac7273b2644bfb21b7fbe9ae88399
28590 F20101117_AABYNI hawkins_d_Page_060.QC.jpg
cd0bd739437e5a19580b4ac6cc816af3
dfcc8be08c9140697d27578a0b53254b6ec80c40
92665 F20101117_AABYMU hawkins_d_Page_031.jpg
474ca2109c335bcf074780c6e4190ec5
de3aa14809d21298773e0e10346616af224ed6f9
1051940 F20101117_AABYNJ hawkins_d_Page_100.jp2
20f250071d617acf03584d3dc421754f
6977a96e7ce61b6ddac20b87e771b9d799e3b527
80745 F20101117_AABYMV hawkins_d_Page_096.jp2
06871a534eb081d227c2bf7b4ff7773c
a6996ea363e902e9b8979c65b0556b718ecd689e
96063 F20101117_AABYNK hawkins_d_Page_043.jpg
35f02a6d98520682cf2c982f3e735dd9
0573218d843681d452456aeef00aeee0312bd687
F20101117_AABYMW hawkins_d_Page_082.jp2
6e854eecb6353285cb5558fb692d5a1d
1f2a9eb3788d2bb55d42c12c798428e6a095c780
6166 F20101117_AABYOA hawkins_d_Page_025thm.jpg
7f5c4e79ec0f54dd0ae187d49662f375
e231ae9ef8bc285fe87caf5fde7bb284a462cc4a
F20101117_AABYNL hawkins_d_Page_085.tif
28fcedfd91fd26b4c741b10d8369fcef
2300f4f7fcbc996290d589ded940a2df19a70f68
F20101117_AABYMX hawkins_d_Page_070.jp2
f3a08eabd8d1d1bc60c91e97386a28a4
4282ebdc24732d2f86e1e38ca1c17954f62ff26c
59109 F20101117_AABYNM hawkins_d_Page_043.pro
e5142df6457c364bf993200d9da0a6e8
f5994addb3ea03ce150c7688bd443a93d31bf9f7
2125 F20101117_AABYMY hawkins_d_Page_029.txt
e172a14d44adb099593902bd3b526a5c
3113f2e05fc6cae2274f85460e20a14b901c782d
44341 F20101117_AABYOB hawkins_d_Page_077.jpg
ccdad98178638cd682724d3ae2569c79
ff74f8cec7750dde313a80f97c5f080b89b9ef51
25904 F20101117_AABYNN hawkins_d_Page_124.QC.jpg
b42923339a06089480d00987b08ebec4
dc94c0852a56afa1ee96533dbed46cd0ff4b0922
F20101117_AABYMZ hawkins_d_Page_091thm.jpg
c8dab3584995f9c3e3d1f29a4247c947
d96180432d1c7d47cab1da28ce47915afdae24ce
2196 F20101117_AABYOC hawkins_d_Page_014.txt
0bcb1013287d43e10332c7e9d99fd220
1c52e3e8cf4c054884d67cf89a0d1511f9516e3c
1821 F20101117_AABYNO hawkins_d_Page_112thm.jpg
de959c27547710f78683436485ac71aa
d3a10a308c3d5b7cd14342836f92b0b5a15f83f4
49902 F20101117_AABYOD hawkins_d_Page_013.pro
b52b431f656e0008aed895a6f24be07f
e0d34345fe337db7495025ef713590cb6cb0be74
5575 F20101117_AABYNP hawkins_d_Page_090.QC.jpg
a28efae47705d0bccbde565ec8beae1b
31b240a812b204b00f5372cf2ca9a2479a0a9b78
2607 F20101117_AABYOE hawkins_d_Page_005thm.jpg
581db17ddfd16646b3eb80af14d44c42
c896eb45342fef7cca9509b28343b229b6a5db1d
26474 F20101117_AABYNQ hawkins_d_Page_002.jp2
d14c53f7a8e25dd707c6163549a70c10
af39a754fe49b184cfcdbd9e377b3beb00bbae6a
89492 F20101117_AABYOF hawkins_d_Page_047.jpg
03430bd26840d9013b8af126ab078357
9e2dbc67850b9fc09a164d51d43e08be0304c95f
4692 F20101117_AABYNR hawkins_d_Page_115.jpg
8c62658659b147bc6915f6281a57b76f
5c0ac6ba6939f9b49c542ddd34bb70c9b67b7f89
1005 F20101117_AABYOG hawkins_d_Page_108.pro
2bff92af72ec1b5a29859a107212a67d
37605cd8a7f945b4b72657f2261e90d3d8a45d33
F20101117_AABYNS hawkins_d_Page_009.tif
5d816230c646d88df88ee41cd62f5f3f
ad281875230fd5f3e7e3ffe39a88ebc012a2bb25
3425 F20101117_AABYOH hawkins_d_Page_127.pro
f9bb59cd3641174087688910114ba018
411bd520d2242a6353358f29daf23b1e70b4a1fb
F20101117_AABYNT hawkins_d_Page_055.jp2
21166194b222ef93396a4706e0eb54b7
a199eaa35c9c24075f33ba31e1b06c9bb71dae9a
6064 F20101117_AABYOI hawkins_d_Page_013thm.jpg
477ab81636a7b59935cbc9506b9596bb
e6430c242a99bbba44263e0aef124859e5e5673b
90399 F20101117_AABYNU hawkins_d_Page_121.jpg
ef137caccbf9b9ae90b68207f3f0bdfa
b7ae31c8cc2db30c1cf5b9a1b26a1679e3540231
28487 F20101117_AABYOJ hawkins_d_Page_040.QC.jpg
2fc343f7f54d3b8f49b9caa59441b2a3
b1cdbd15ec1a21f28287150c369f7fd399a27441
98783 F20101117_AABYNV hawkins_d_Page_119.jpg
1f75f9dd90fb29ab53cf53da36cd349b
539c013808c2e4a51341ea42ddb0dbc79d6d20b0
6571 F20101117_AABYOK hawkins_d_Page_014thm.jpg
cde31b86adf08003cd4a7092638ca8ca
03ea29fb9120bb3b30fac81336e00aaa8734b41e
F20101117_AABYNW hawkins_d_Page_018.tif
efdbc12194cf3359ee48bd90b7affefb
34759d162e2ae2d1911cd0f3bdbbb220cfdc5049
F20101117_AABYOL hawkins_d_Page_016.jp2
a4bef0e6e70d562f23f6d62caf2f6f72
7a35a3e2270ba9a3e76cf34621deb98621ebfa8d
27745 F20101117_AABYNX hawkins_d_Page_119.QC.jpg
297193f971db7f57383fef9332329093
f94e7aa538bd2510335d7ce90d584ee426a823e1
28540 F20101117_AABYPA hawkins_d_Page_073.QC.jpg
3e340fecf613764974c1057b202f68eb
a18b938eac6dc661c87c55c3ecf0c7242ad860fd
55604 F20101117_AABYOM hawkins_d_Page_075.pro
6d8235c6a7c09aef9fb887ae9d120609
5bd76fcbaef2f5ad99f39291917605b2bdd51f3e
2848 F20101117_AABYNY hawkins_d_Page_113.QC.jpg
a9a493c594d350b63426fd54f767bdb8
e3c022008cd12794f5b381979c709bf104cc8f8d
F20101117_AABYPB hawkins_d_Page_004.tif
e1a55805b4db95a3b0abbf9526e9491f
362af41a2780bf85c99b508388ff92a8c7823ff8
F20101117_AABYON hawkins_d_Page_013.tif
de365cade9c00b215d97e51eafa083ed
85b51138934b19d92bafacd2ea8cb9e0f23934ab
13185 F20101117_AABYNZ hawkins_d_Page_105.QC.jpg
a3b396df45e664f2554ec5261b4fac52
36f4056fa229b9d7cdc7dd77a4bb103729fd2b0c
5842 F20101117_AABYOO hawkins_d_Page_128thm.jpg
6b2f952f105791cf229c650d467547e7
3ed7c32fdea51a0e79e8be9e6da61a2bc389d2c6
25295 F20101117_AABYPC hawkins_d_Page_077.pro
a40190414af99f6b14a4aaaba8a70ab1
f89fcea4a2172e854556f443e9f7b8c8ccbffdb2
F20101117_AABYOP hawkins_d_Page_127.tif
8783a00f73947112662de58df84230c0
87ecab89e23652328bcacc428d15f56119e2b5d5
2172 F20101117_AABYPD hawkins_d_Page_055.txt
099b3a73ed90b4198e97a6054164fea9
5b74b64d63927cec4e6447a68dd4d5f0320a018e
F20101117_AABYOQ hawkins_d_Page_078.jp2
7e9edfb000dde0373bd355d5ac731cd3
35c5dc3d4f9df91c111815714b77decaad80e2af
6476 F20101117_AABYPE hawkins_d_Page_100thm.jpg
14f81475ab770e42511fc8e75866d530
48c7f822b71f4b1f8e2435ffbaf4eed245dc28a3
26693 F20101117_AABYOR hawkins_d_Page_120.QC.jpg
0095caaa7221680bc7ebd282ee615033
af1dec32149a4704331f2794e2efa701197b4e26
F20101117_AABYPF hawkins_d_Page_050.jp2
343cc1b7cc3f7713e244f0ce656f8d4a
36de8849e1c730086918b7a182385ebca7e0e9a0
568843 F20101117_AABYOS hawkins_d_Page_077.jp2
43fc239a0faa4cced518253be6ffcee5
9ccb1941ed55ea5416fac3e26b4880e87a273d9f
2216 F20101117_AABYPG hawkins_d_Page_126.txt
a37b8e88b29fa568c877b0f8ef4aa527
bf2f5c68ee6441e18b25e652baa1ff4939a95d63
F20101117_AABYOT hawkins_d_Page_079.tif
7069581c70ba4d1656a96cab19f3ae6f
7edab6d282178e968ff4a1713f60654874b2d433
2134 F20101117_AABYPH hawkins_d_Page_053.txt
c37cdfe6d24b63ee214b0b2ab8732999
004dc004b31101fd44b503d5505e3aae2a3b3c9f
88576 F20101117_AABYOU hawkins_d_Page_082.jpg
b958bfcc407196087024636b7cc681cc
3d8927e1eee4ae2c1b3ef48c61dd283e320420b2
F20101117_AABYPI hawkins_d_Page_126.tif
a709edfa1276f5b50dd9fe0ef57d79fe
fb421f9dc3fc52af2e0413a7be0c20f91253bb0a
17103 F20101117_AABYOV hawkins_d_Page_092.pro
e1d20f293f4de63f331062efabbe2a41
5b155df92565347daff9857ce43597a1b564f7fd
2133 F20101117_AABYPJ hawkins_d_Page_049.txt
9556767eddd5d50a8e9874d3efabcfd2
e806ffbc74d9b53f66a32124af57057067333250
63212 F20101117_AABYOW hawkins_d_Page_103.pro
7621922288a9e1a2195a6b92acfafc46
b74f42fd3f04701578c5faaf905eefdb9d2c841c
F20101117_AABYPK hawkins_d_Page_020.jp2
bd764da4e8c7e8f806eda6e2dc34317b
72adbfebf464bec170d0ff3d5d8be1587bb65741
6861 F20101117_AABYQA hawkins_d_Page_032thm.jpg
90d3ffc2b9bdc0322e0cced1f4c0516a
d169c08074825679ceabcc497168c9bb189c4666
F20101117_AABYPL hawkins_d_Page_010.tif
38bd7194e9f47a9ec13c4893a14eca12
89674f56f8cfe45d8d1d6535ec9ac6726c7cbd11
27194 F20101117_AABYOX hawkins_d_Page_052.QC.jpg
e16581d633e45215388eaee69e515868
a0ea3e2fa5d9d2dad3b699198407d71e6f9c6145
639 F20101117_AABYQB hawkins_d_Page_112.txt
fd54febe2dc25eb2270b645eb5c5c39c
586754e51f403518841995f35c6c0929145d2c0b
F20101117_AABYPM hawkins_d_Page_096.txt
da84f74fdafe3f2c60711e9232d8b521
31734391e4ac2cbcb3042179b6a848a0d574bac5
F20101117_AABYOY hawkins_d_Page_041.jp2
6b4bd52311b8b9711daeec71f71c079b
8d2abbd1cf29591cf84001331ff33225885cfd60
24135 F20101117_AABYQC hawkins_d_Page_024.QC.jpg
c4a17ca2ceccb2162852ae8f95efa00b
f706219b70efe26b5fdc57827ef02066ccba03dc
F20101117_AABYPN hawkins_d_Page_021.tif
c8bd3027dacdc195a39d381b0795ef07
8ed17979c5ebce372e8e8756f6fe805bf1590209
F20101117_AABYOZ hawkins_d_Page_084.jp2
f6e3f3d333391d6feec8eabc8c39da93
5d294640ce20e4b96f683638ddeee8578fc680f8
69022 F20101117_AABYPO hawkins_d_Page_023.jpg
a836e3d057d46b200d26da8f726f0c27
d391445ca6877a12e54965def578684c6356af51
F20101117_AABYQD hawkins_d_Page_106.tif
9d36f27f25bed757e2b0987337b3cf29
b538ed5b0abd0facdd9509039c1efb195bf7b3bc
6618 F20101117_AABYPP hawkins_d_Page_074thm.jpg
10315b8f4c4712cb307640903a52ade2
21e1305a39afba916048de8b733cd20cd563b8b3
6946 F20101117_AABYQE hawkins_d_Page_084thm.jpg
55a8fff9d245afed9d9f17b1980bcb38
06ca9e917037964561fd61abdf941c612ba7bbc3
2117 F20101117_AABYPQ hawkins_d_Page_051.txt
376ee157c8f21e6d6aa0cafb1b7dc082
1cf01aff5775ed1f5ae088dadeeaeceb7ba98fe6
1051980 F20101117_AABYQF hawkins_d_Page_032.jp2
918b685fa46b6f083f8889c18e92f305
040f16e9d8a16f5e426d58a4692ffce1b3a86fcd
65111 F20101117_AABYPR hawkins_d_Page_114.pro
915c1277794bcdd6239ab529b06bbd12
b17b36138035c5fd3262fd03c3d8d540afe8d3b9
6795 F20101117_AABYQG hawkins_d_Page_038thm.jpg
78e9c405177b8d4968f963536d8a6d3f
e244808d46d130f011f4806c7355ba47ed247c36
2193 F20101117_AABYPS hawkins_d_Page_036.txt
e66ee93c2fec190aa9881042b9942eb0
c3451619a09b29a5f312517f0cbe98b4eceb8f5d
93433 F20101117_AABYQH hawkins_d_Page_028.jpg
c8be71aaab460f1278257d1a2949d930
a7c0e7da1322aa9c330dc17e6ea6eaa8cce7aaa6
28984 F20101117_AABYPT hawkins_d_Page_070.QC.jpg
a428575322b325e59930889030f6c114
d24cb83c8718f0182088ca87a5777f8826068130
F20101117_AABYQI hawkins_d_Page_122.tif
db1cfd7598e65d1d5413f1d8543ac51f
e09cf7fe98e082dae0daeaa7a9216aae61328550
F20101117_AABYPU hawkins_d_Page_118.txt
2edef423240c243eef09f52c80b27e44
d3e98877e217ae6f0065a5e135d3ef73df68eaa0
53330 F20101117_AABYQJ hawkins_d_Page_057.pro
634bec81a85b362dd32ec1d074ef0fdd
bb4e9e523ce9a183a5d68a4203068ddeac3e92bf
24389 F20101117_AABYPV hawkins_d_Page_094.QC.jpg
e333c6816b4042c82eb90cf1e422893b
57e537144a20f3a2a1482606724a2e29c5c86f22
85427 F20101117_AABYQK hawkins_d_Page_087.jpg
91dcfce728e81310a47d388c663e29b2
cb2caf94e0faf623b1274ead114de08ce9678005
6624 F20101117_AABYPW hawkins_d_Page_099thm.jpg
2373e5bf1a8ab090216db457ef548f74
6f5033ea0f027a8f3e73ca1c3c6894f2262a9290
1609 F20101117_AABYQL hawkins_d_Page_001thm.jpg
eca3766da68f8ec34348a2cee00b64bd
1fd56e62c535bcc8cb37f79e23356a5f93286723
38124 F20101117_AABYPX hawkins_d_Page_022.pro
4eb607b2b0fed52f265a9c8dac2a2298
7a2746c897805adcd4dce65434b34e9e112891b1
F20101117_AABYRA hawkins_d_Page_118.tif
abccfd34683fb940749a9159e5ee076f
7ed5c1cea9d165cace405d036bcbc51ee39b50be
1051888 F20101117_AABYQM hawkins_d_Page_049.jp2
0cec196f4449d86553a0ccff5e993786
adf6b1a3f1700267d2de67dca577ab13242664cb
F20101117_AABYPY hawkins_d_Page_074.jp2
69db45b02fe548e32084b21ba45f63f4
02678ee986861415dfeff1151607656f8f04af57
F20101117_AABYRB hawkins_d_Page_079.jp2
fb0d0641e911f8c18a4f6d32052e2a74
fb71431f5e9d2682b08ebd72ba3b387976e641f0
F20101117_AABYQN hawkins_d_Page_056.tif
f30e730fb1a1271a110445301f71ca63
a186f0cb48d46bbd5708b609138e9d969d618f47
F20101117_AABYPZ hawkins_d_Page_112.tif
ef2e1969e0e9644e473e3491c21d8734
895d42a10a6a916dd000badcac8760dabae029b7
56002 F20101117_AABYRC hawkins_d_Page_041.pro
27954c602b871633a59da201880ec503
54fb9dba824d209630bee553718f0f233c2cdb78
6604 F20101117_AABYQO hawkins_d_Page_081thm.jpg
aba37e58932a828d3f1d319e93f13b57
29387e8f35bdb183a8ed8dcf20f2cd60ad3400cb
335041 F20101117_AABYRD hawkins_d_Page_112.jp2
24e1f6a680f76d49d1f615b80367962b
611fc8c4c15cc29a9e8a9b73e1fe43bb3cc24986
F20101117_AABYQP hawkins_d_Page_003.tif
5207606747a53ba8daa6f7dfc4c86ba3
e5771b9ac2db9c1cbe69a719acb9285ef74109b5
27429 F20101117_AABYQQ hawkins_d_Page_081.QC.jpg
95abbdeae6f0831065ee943e3793a5b1
e8dd406063f0edcd98191a04a8c80f0413e7c42f
91681 F20101117_AABYRE hawkins_d_Page_036.jpg
e08786be2236d0bd0ab07455d29f6a70
10724e0debe296a351ca75917f5e6b7931ee936e
6690 F20101117_AABYQR hawkins_d_Page_120thm.jpg
91b1641fc121cd3dac1eb1d6a6f6157d
e04cb86f5f908a450cfa9065883d30db5fe11dca
F20101117_AABYRF hawkins_d_Page_093.tif
3c416cbff221e0a912e1170c20c0dbfd
6120e0847f03cc5d88906e8c8cc6d178a93c103f
F20101117_AABYQS hawkins_d_Page_059.txt
9fe2a1d8ff4df2d64d2bd6e904392fc6
bc6dcbe98ccceec0b056a5135919e21dacf99810
80424 F20101117_AABYRG hawkins_d_Page_078.jpg
4c2ad68259a77692d31556e2fafef1e8
c2fd060d371cdf4abbcc11f795fee0f8591e54c7
4036 F20101117_AABYQT hawkins_d_Page_011thm.jpg
8a61254f8f72246a1355b774a2677efe
b5b2334b75680ad257eca706d70fc9f26a57cc84
F20101117_AABYRH hawkins_d_Page_117.jp2
6eb1326d97fec5523a0e5a03ed0cbde8
a71bb2c2a9504e57d6cf2e3cff41b74538ef1c33
F20101117_AABYQU hawkins_d_Page_059.jp2
f27913dd5247cc76bd1b299ac0e55f93
25f3c273818b17445ea4ac599c3b4e45268beed7
89792 F20101117_AABYRI hawkins_d_Page_041.jpg
5654a344e4f50bb72b55c2946dc05655
73f60b1cb9daf65cca432cdb90bad1fee07243fc
2345 F20101117_AABYQV hawkins_d_Page_043.txt
9535202004f4075a49fd91d720563ff5
7d3f83cdaef6579bce56196bdf882abcb1ab7177
91296 F20101117_AABYRJ hawkins_d_Page_120.jpg
ae020ccd0af2171b76674c3c874050a9
f8e44be340b0cda6195c21d8a24a4775db1e598d
F20101117_AABYQW hawkins_d_Page_074.tif
fecfc550b0ea4b316efff85bbfd12544
dcbd14d4f56f08a621d110d07ef04ea69f9a2c9b
1592 F20101117_AABYRK hawkins_d_Page_115.QC.jpg
ea0f059382c840d5f398ef21f1e5aebd
9d220dd55ac2ef275d27b7add028b79a49824325
85044 F20101117_AABYQX hawkins_d_Page_127.jp2
f293e0186066696cefba4070a67ea641
844c33522558550677191ca743d3fc58c1aa0581
10735 F20101117_AABYSA hawkins_d_Page_005.QC.jpg
283237c1a034416918d5f06f5ded5f49
3fe512dcdc4584e4951ca6416311f7ecac8d3cc1
86868 F20101117_AABYRL hawkins_d_Page_029.jpg
cabd2f1541e6d94ae1d0f8789dc9c104
be5b97c035008bf7740b7137c968db2bf3d602c2
F20101117_AABYQY hawkins_d_Page_099.tif
678546c07fc9b33d661f8da8f5923af2
3010c89326f4e21e3b828e43c6eb1ebee0696a21
F20101117_AABYSB hawkins_d_Page_054.tif
8a9c3fdc55e6d06235190c96933e9b96
82e1c4cc3f79a0bf1932411cb8e182bff4a5fbd4
F20101117_AABYRM hawkins_d_Page_013.jp2
cbdb16e165419e01b94de463c8cb0a29
7d6b5785c6ae81125ee9b390790cb62da56a6f05
56749 F20101117_AABYQZ hawkins_d_Page_084.pro
e7d977e410a9e74398ece98f0eaefc48
202ab205a107e12ae4e0f2be09166424a9acd93c
53669 F20101117_AABYSC hawkins_d_Page_011.jpg
e0019b6d65b3f08f4153ba4ad92129dd
7b8bd3a4858283555f1d06bafca03836c9d50de2
F20101117_AABYRN hawkins_d_Page_114.tif
31d4014c72dfda3e18c1430ddc456d3f
cdb660dd29865c8709eb013d69102bfa3c7cf49c
2195 F20101117_AABYSD hawkins_d_Page_047.txt
24a086f2ded9b13666466065f2b14fe5
1f3a4778e4cbb974fa777e0872fd9d30d0d88c53
28166 F20101117_AABYRO hawkins_d_Page_035.QC.jpg
117e1477c536be3c05f973c2b475835b
daaba3931800b08a1268d4bcff0d04d01e5f3bf5
876 F20101117_AABYSE hawkins_d_Page_092.txt
d3c29ba6ddce5af89d53b55185200110
b7f8872219c52b83ef33dfe53a7bb1ec7ed17417
3295 F20101117_AABYRP hawkins_d_Page_109.txt
f1beadfc8403bcc39a8a71087284ae5a
307a653b2f9218b587ed5a2a70dceac40c65287e
26212 F20101117_AABYRQ hawkins_d_Page_017.QC.jpg
15d81b4775a95f855e6444302a2eecee
0474b32e51f4fd2d6752e56f6708315ef9769401
6513 F20101117_AABYSF hawkins_d_Page_039thm.jpg
a79df06f334d5aa77c9562b986b2119e
aa3ac7365f92d0fce922200f6e246b61bfa5c673
89344 F20101117_AABYRR hawkins_d_Page_004.jpg
5e7c8dfe6ad053055f5f79c7303cacdc
f215766b16c8bb8e33363de7d214b8b628ce34ae
F20101117_AABYSG hawkins_d_Page_016thm.jpg
6f84ec9ced2c8d6f4b121a70dc4ac5cd
2b13bab510a1ce56092ea8069931f9cc7af3ec82
26976 F20101117_AABYRS hawkins_d_Page_121.QC.jpg
e4776544e824c8d1073331cba6512d74
04f703e8c37ab958c184ef0277115053044742da
5466 F20101117_AABYSH hawkins_d_Page_023thm.jpg
95ed3c8bbae18cfbe0d1fa272887d23d
0d9934fc71cc0e57b6dc23996f5a85eefdc616fe
49944 F20101117_AABYRT hawkins_d_Page_034.pro
eff5227484f907761e218884d28a50fb
ff5bddde449a6a91e7e97d05bfafb7f02d6e1f51
4344 F20101117_AABYSI hawkins_d_Page_006thm.jpg
1bc57d9e07c3a4ea91eb708af76bc156
17d04f65a2c8141701706b68222c80863dca7ad0
27666 F20101117_AABYRU hawkins_d_Page_029.QC.jpg
533a4e8ccd29368dd544d72d0210ba9d
25f0bcf464b4b912049b4900a554f7ec914454a5
3659 F20101117_AABYSJ hawkins_d_Page_096thm.jpg
8fbfebd3ce7bd98996b0f96e7ea5d8be
ee27d5d122b02a6240dcb2e71073dc6b16bfe5c9
F20101117_AABYRV hawkins_d_Page_037.jp2
bfc2526e81a169b8af3afc007bb172e4
0ef4389874f775134eef097b94a61b71fe55a773
29652 F20101117_AABYSK hawkins_d_Page_092.jpg
500fe2d413795e243632666a91af1dcd
d9044b259c3f1b2e849c86de1be34abe001b6e9d
1051860 F20101117_AABYRW hawkins_d_Page_099.jp2
9cbb3e54d848266fd74fbf114c8d3a02
2c65ae345ccd644960bb4132a19e5934b7e1cec6
907412 F20101117_AABYTA hawkins_d_Page_064.jp2
85675eb9577f92915e7068d84d935736
54210d2b71b674684b8b12ece773fcf409237b81
90329 F20101117_AABYSL hawkins_d_Page_044.jpg
4ee0e721895561b302be3a8108f7ecd6
87e6077fef4a9759161c9b0d6c9ab5930ebfb6fa
93264 F20101117_AABYRX hawkins_d_Page_015.jpg
4fc1a1c918f8ce3ed4788db44bda37fb
dde7a3006f865a0daeb9db780ca9a2a0b5d32874
5190 F20101117_AABYTB hawkins_d_Page_088thm.jpg
81b13906b5b43edfc6ca56471b15c070
0722b9ee521e361384a4b026edabbc8cb64b4941
F20101117_AABYSM hawkins_d_Page_025.tif
afa7e9d6ac057c6d510f48d3b077e30c
6359648d6d11372526392be6111e51d545f5f345
63847 F20101117_AABYRY hawkins_d_Page_110.jp2
5e8b8a185bab2d79785be2c6f6f7b9dc
b92925861e1c8adccf57b50903aa040a625ed96b
96451 F20101117_AABYTC hawkins_d_Page_075.jpg
b166e3972308a814cd3716e8b02e6332
b840c7f9a71208a07238f2ac97e63eca3dda8c64
81173 F20101117_AABYSN hawkins_d_Page_102.jpg
3b0748b63bcd83051002a45139996dc6
d9d95403b7cefe9199cae3431e98be9ae2871d45
F20101117_AABYRZ hawkins_d_Page_005.tif
615435ec3476d386507dcf9704d9e215
0734a07529a470d64914aac3823cbb40926f9c72
2064 F20101117_AABYTD hawkins_d_Page_097.txt
ff55573cc2576f3eac3c69d0d5dc7ba5
fe854d3317ef04d58411f7f309314901dbd6c86b
73522 F20101117_AABYSO hawkins_d_Page_113.jp2
6ae5d7a454be065883578d56a15ef2b4
5c220930a28fc67b8b0b03178e77c346f7580cf9
27402 F20101117_AABYTE hawkins_d_Page_098.QC.jpg
ee9ceddd30142f2e11760b71ec0b163d
d88c22bdaa8d073aa2fdce5a542139bff14c0b88
F20101117_AABYSP hawkins_d_Page_090.tif
926c1ea92dbecfa9eada76657d2a17ce
c82485f3998921c433db480bbaaf4fbb3201103e
3663 F20101117_AABYTF hawkins_d_Page_002.jpg
0e543e768b099dcdb81e818c6e56229e
73cbca8c518dfb201d537addbe5c002a8f7440be
6801 F20101117_AABYSQ hawkins_d_Page_015thm.jpg
59195796be6380f76be4d4a62a208d25
acf0360ecbb8b0fe275f646d3c426b3e3df30131
F20101117_AABYSR hawkins_d_Page_039.jp2
9208f737a0e48273c25713ab628ed69e
791a0ccf90f534b7793f91063823228f76bba954
55562 F20101117_AABYTG hawkins_d_Page_074.pro
aea1f076f4c8a4225bfd2f76c92ed515
6d0e9498bb1506320e433081f214e622bd4d7ee4
3958 F20101117_AABYSS hawkins_d_Page_107thm.jpg
e71b3c23a87491930daa83c334e2211e
e6f0754194ff4e2ecbbb39e1aa168dadd90c5d9a
63822 F20101117_AABYTH hawkins_d_Page_095.jpg
81e19ab30658494f7af5e0e061ba8c39
c3bcaa014cd1345ca86b9507f8ea9820e1244da1
24037 F20101117_AABYST hawkins_d_Page_128.QC.jpg
71a0db47b6eb9a6332c3306f6d0437d7
592b6092d844b5aad5c5352d19646b59e6848d2a
40239 F20101117_AABYTI hawkins_d_Page_023.pro
b548d1577360728be181ecee4a0ac29c
87b022567a22d58006c112c347d91bde815e3923
9274 F20101117_AABYSU hawkins_d_Page_086.QC.jpg
caa4c47b71d581b549231159a188ba1e
d16b4e33f5e7be578f2adadcbe607771c5e41882
53641 F20101117_AABYTJ hawkins_d_Page_096.pro
cd641084058f5e4ad1c8596694f87e5e
322a1826783c9e3394e086078b6545bcbeb3fb97
93034 F20101117_AABYSV hawkins_d_Page_065.jpg
72dbed3bf1d45288bf48cbd423d3166a
3399caefa96169ff31cd96a0a97f6a5c3985e088
F20101117_AABYTK hawkins_d_Page_046.jp2
05280ab86ea4b974aab625b85d76e217
0ba9fc3efa61f79cd19e20cbf7ac443e17c2294a
F20101117_AABYSW hawkins_d_Page_073.tif
a37d0787b0d808352089ba04e464b811
02f3b57bd90967e64fb3eb1d45ffd217b4f6c095
F20101117_AABYTL hawkins_d_Page_017.tif
5010f8014edb45675af1969c8781cbe6
3b058d6e392ac5204cb592431fc1ee646532b5ba
F20101117_AABYSX hawkins_d_Page_035.tif
d605888b60e803775c8f1c3f03d79c47
852956053d1a4acd0a30094cde607300fdf27930
2837 F20101117_AABYUA hawkins_d_Page_127.QC.jpg
dd9c52841058ec48d49180cc95a4efc6
88a667493d1fde30db3b974ceeb4896191970cae
6016 F20101117_AABYTM hawkins_d_Page_012thm.jpg
95abc752a9ffd3b7583abfe83e141b83
9f47789a4dc4ec1f5d1a6e6c38ed06d96dfde52e
4585 F20101117_AABYSY hawkins_d_Page_095thm.jpg
30bf52fa01dd5869ddf43d9495449845
bdfe4842fe61f81025b5ebd5d6e6275b3744bc88
F20101117_AABYUB hawkins_d_Page_047.tif
433191b527ba6b36870fb570572963a9
c4f82cb177467368f44ed1fffa30e8480f4621d3
3069 F20101117_AABYTN hawkins_d_Page_087.txt
4d81f26b0dccfb0dfa7e1fba20fec7b7
2aa329a675582275fab581b59c134ceb54818099
55522 F20101117_AABYSZ hawkins_d_Page_058.pro
9bfb1163e9f8d8c413bdcad1f2807de9
a027239650fa0f9f9c71382e560453c19e918722
1051937 F20101117_AABYUC hawkins_d_Page_080.jp2
6e42cda95b6c844c2445abcae44ff00a
7a776366f1d416bdc78779782d8af8c06ef84f6b
F20101117_AABYTO hawkins_d_Page_110.pro
8315dc6f546daea69adf87516dad1556
88b71494a0f6fa894e2ceed7652af9d2e00181d0
2144 F20101117_AABYUD hawkins_d_Page_123.txt
afa08ca2029b39b9423370766a8c720e
b693f0a81b07bf79621c2d5dde0859e34bb4359d
5550 F20101117_AABYTP hawkins_d_Page_064thm.jpg
6b559d2e80dc0f95ea6359fa9da4f04d
1c1ef730ecb5918e3fbfb82bddc067300a0aa418
16196 F20101117_AABYUE hawkins_d_Page_090.jpg
02ee8eab6d7318694ac915241e8fd274
e07902500dcf9dc479d23a7e5612b7c1cf3aa5e2
2246 F20101117_AABYTQ hawkins_d_Page_124.txt
00eb6346707d4f1393857c83a409a0bb
7e1d7e5e919d791a60e8068f68062a8235226976
2232 F20101117_AABYUF hawkins_d_Page_084.txt
6003b27f5a070d848a06df50c0516610
1fb52b1e2087a78cd5fe4a3019f23eb862de2156
99773 F20101117_AABYTR hawkins_d_Page_103.jpg
06256c39f457f3d47af7fa209f4715f3
707e602e9368aedd150ed7773d13e3586478223b
54668 F20101117_AABZAA hawkins_d_Page_040.pro
58515fc9613beff3164f18b67bd59b4a
861340f37e5c7ea71355742fa9db4900a83199c2
F20101117_AABYUG hawkins_d_Page_121thm.jpg
14692160bfa3618af4cd41f6371c3b08
368f6dea901a4ea2e7e00c562daddefc8147f1e7
2087 F20101117_AABYTS hawkins_d_Page_027.txt
f0f02520d0951dda6bbd74b22a929d94
fdf8b5b243f60d702846d6b4f280dfc02513aa3f
52282 F20101117_AABZAB hawkins_d_Page_046.pro
9fe6d3981387808dcb5d2b4eb8539f0f
4b9fc33980bf84251edcc54eb989687988088c10







COMPARING THE USE OF HUMOR TO OTHER COPING MECHANISMS
IN RELATION TO MASLACH'S THEORY OF BURNOUT





















By

DREW A. HAWKINS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008



































2008 Drew A. Hawkins


































To my family, for the humor we share









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Writing a dissertation and completing a doctoral program are not undertakings done in a

void. They come together through the support and help from many people. I express my love

and appreciation to the most important people in my life: my wife, Phyllis, for her patience; my

children, Jay and Sarah, for their encouragement; my parents, Wayne and Carole, for their

support and faith in me; my brothers and their spouses, Derryl and Christine, and David and

Linda, for keeping me grounded; and for my in-laws, George and Norvelle for their prayers.

I am grateful to my doctoral committee members for everything they have done to help me

achieve my goal. I thank Dr. Phillip Clark for chairing my committee. At the start of the

program, he indicated this would be a marathon, not a sprint, and I appreciate his support in

helping me through this marathon. I thank Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn for co-chairing my

committee and spending time with me reviewing SPSS procedures and calculations. I thank Dr.

James Doud for helping me learn to reflect and think differently than I had ever done before. I

thank Dr. David Honeyman for his insight, which helped my project evolve. I thank Dr. John

Kranzler for his persistence in expecting my best.

My sincere appreciation goes to Angela Rowe, the secretary in the Department of

Educational Administration & Policy, for her assistance in keeping me on schedule with the

required procedures, forms, and paperwork. Thanks go to my editor, Diane Fischler, for her

expertise with quality revisions.

I express gratitude to my cohort members. It was an honor to work with them. Their

knowledge and experiences taught me so much. I enjoyed "checking in" every weekend,

working together in groups, then "checking out" and going home to my family. Together, we

experienced births, deaths, illnesses, and celebrations. I took pleasure in the many trips to and

from Gainesville with my fellow members--trips that produced memories to last a lifetime.









Much appreciation also goes to the following friends and family members who gave their

encouragement: Don and Chris, John and Jeanne, Henry and Pam, Pete and Jo, Mark, and Joe

and Mary. I thank my friend, Phil, who always supported my progress, and who unfortunately

passed away before this project was completed. I am grateful to my supervisors, Norma and

Brenda, for their flexibility in allowing me to use leave time to travel to Gainesville for the

classes and trips I needed to complete this doctoral program.

With a project of this magnitude, there is always the risk of not including everyone. For

those people I have unintentionally not cited, I offer my deep appreciation and thanks.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S .................................................................. ..................................... ....... 4

T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S .................................................. ..................................................6.......

L IS T O F T A B L E S ................................................................................................. ..................... 8

LIST OF FIGURES ................................................... .. .......... ...........................9

A B S T R A C T ............... ................................................................ .......................................... 10

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION .................................. .. ........... ..................................... 12

B u rn o u t ................................................................................................................ .. ............. 1 2
Burnout Research .............................. .. .......... ............................. 12
B urnout and O organizations ...................................................................... ............... 13
Humor ............................................................................... 13
H um or R research .............. ..................................................................... ......13
H um or and O organizations ...................................................................... ............... 15
School Principal Job D em ands .................... ............................................................... 16
State ent of the Problem ............. .. .................. .................. .. ......................... ............... 17
Instrum entation ....................................................................... .............. ..................... 17
M aslach Burnout Inventory .................................................................. ............... 18
H um or Styles Q uestionnaire........................................... ......................... ............... 18
C O PE Inventory ............... ........................ .......................... ........................... .... .... 19
P u rp o se o f th e S tu d y ...............................................................................................................2 1
Q u e stio n 1 ............................................................................................... ..................... 2 1
Question 2 ..................................................................... 21
Question 3 ........................................................................... 21
G lo ssa ry ............................................................................................................... .. ............2 2
S ig n ifican ce of th e Stu dy ........................................................................................................2 4
Delimitations and Limitations of the Study.........................................................................25
D e lim ita tio n s ...................................................................................................................2 5
Limitations ............................................................................ 25

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................. 27

B u rn o u t ................................................................................................................ .. ............. 2 7
B u rn o u t R e se arch ............................................................................................................2 7
B urnout and O organizations ...........................................................................................33
H u m o r ................................................................................................................. . ...........3 7
H um or R research ............................................................................................. . 37
H um or and O organizations .............................................................................................46


6









School Principal Job D em ands .................... ................................................................ 49
H um or as a C oping M echanism .................................................................... ................ 55
M aslach B turnout Inventory .................................................. ............................................ 56
H um or Styles Q uestionnaire... ........................................................................ ................ 58
COPE Inventory .......................................... ............. .................. 59

3 M ETHODOLOGY ......... ........................... .. .......... .............................64

Research Questions ........... .................... .. ........... ............................... 64
Q u e stio n 1 ............................................................................................... ..................... 6 4
Question 2 ................................................... .................. 64
Q u estion 3 ............................................................................. ............. .................. 64
S a m p le .......................................................................................................... ......... . ....... 6 5
Instrum entation ....................................................................... .............. ..................... 66
M aslach Burnout Inventory .......................................................................................66
H um or Styles Q questionnaire .........................................................................................69
C O PE Inventory .................................................................................... ......73
D ata C o llectio n ............................................................................................ ..................... 7 5
D ata A n a ly se s .........................................................................................................................7 6

4 RESULTS AND ANALYSES OF DATA ..........................................................................78

Response Rate ............................................................................ 78
D ata A n a ly se s .........................................................................................................................7 9

5 SUM M ARY AND DISCU SSION ......................................................................................97

Su m m ary of F in din g s ............................................................................................ ......... ....... 9 9
Conclusions ........................... .......................... ..................... 101
Suggestions for Further R research ...................................................................................103

UF IRB APPROVAL OF PROTOCOL ....................... .......................................... ...............106

IN F O R M E D C O N SE N T ............................................................................................................. 108

PERMISSION TO USE THE HUMOR STYLES QUESTIONNAIRE ..................................... 110

PERMISSION TO USE COPE INVENTORY ON COPE INVENTORY WEBSITE ...............113

D E M O G R A P H IC SH E E T ........................................................................................................... 115

R E F E R E N C E L IS T .....................................................................................................................1 17

B IO G R A P H IC A L SK E T C H .......................................................................................................128







7









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1. Means and standard deviations for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions with the
dem graphic v ariab les ....................................................................................................... 87

4-2. Descriptive statistics for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions, the Humor Styles
Questionnaire dimensions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions ................................88

4-3. Correlations among burnout and demographic variables, Humor Styles Questionnaire
variables, and COPE Inventory variables..................................................... ................ 88

4-4. Cronbach alphas for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions, the Humor Styles
Questionnaire dimensions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions ............................... 89

4-5. Confirmatory factor loadings for the Maslach Burnout Inventory scales ..........................90

4-6. Confirmatory factor loadings for Humor Styles Questionnaire scales...............................91

4-7. Confirmatory factor loadings for COPE Inventory scales................................................92

4 -7 C ontinu ed ............................................................................................................ ........ .. 9 3

4-8. Regression model summary for dependent variable Burnout (Emotional Exhaustion +
Depersonalization) ............................... ............ ............................. 94

4-9. Regression ANOVA for dependent variable Burnout (Emotional Exhaustion +
Depersonalization) ............................... ............ ............................. 94

4-10. Regression analysis coefficients for dependent variable Burnout (Emotional
Exhaustion + D epersonalization)....................................... ....................... ................ 95

4-11. Correlation m atrix for regression m odel variables......................................... ................ 96










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


5-1. Theorized regression m odel of burnout .................................................................. 105


page









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

COMPARING THE USE OF HUMOR TO OTHER COPING MECHANISMS
IN RELATION TO MASLACH'S THEORY OF BURNOUT

By

Drew A. Hawkins

May 2008

Chair: Phillip A. Clark
Cochair: Linda Serra Hagedorn
Major: Educational Leadership

This study compared the use of humor to other coping mechanisms in relation to

Maslach's theory of burnout. Data were analyzed to determine statistically significant

relationships among humor dimensions, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school

principals' level of burnout.

The school principal's job has become more challenging. The literature supported the use

of humor as a means of coping. Humor can be used as a form of communication in

organizations to promote cohesiveness, build consensus, deliver messages across power and

authority, make situations less threatening, and promote change.

The sample for this study included a random sampling of 400 public elementary school

principals from across Florida. Participants in this study used the Maslach Burnout Inventory to

rate their level of burnout on the scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and

Personal Achievement; the Humor Styles Questionnaire to rate their self-perceived use of humor;

and the COPE Inventory to rate their self-perceived use of humor compared to other coping

mechanisms.









Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing

amusement to incongruities in life and using humor as a coping mechanism, and was supported

by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Affiliative Humor is

associated with making funny comments and telling jokes which facilitate relationships while

reducing tension among others, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping

mechanism. The dimension of Aggressive Humor is related to the use of humor to show

superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement, and was not supported by this

study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Self-Defeating Humor is identified

with the use of humor at an individual's own expense through excessive humorous self-ridicule,

and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism.

This study can aid principals in understanding the coping mechanisms they use to deal

with stressors. This study can help principals realize that the use of specific types of humor,

along with other coping mechanisms within the workplace, can help reduce their level of

burnout.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Burnout

Burnout Research

Burnout is defined by Freudenberger (1980) as "someone in a state of fatigue or frustration

brought about by devotion to a cause, way of life, or relationship that failed to produce the

expected reward" (p. 13). Those suffering from burnout do not perceive themselves as angry,

rigid, or cynical, but believe they have worked harder, given more, and are unappreciated

(Freudenberger, 1977). Maslach's (1982) research delved into the world of human services

workers and the coping strategies utilized for professional identity and job behavior.

Burnout is a continuous variable, ranging from low to high degrees of feeling (Maslach,

Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Burnout is not viewed as a dichotomous variable being either present

or absent, but is exhibited somewhere within the range from low to high degrees of feeling.

Maslach (1982) found three elements to describe her model of burnout: (a) emotional

exhaustion; (b) depersonalization; and (c) personal accomplishment. These elements coexist

while being viewed individually as a step-by-step process, with emotional exhaustion being the

key variable in assessing burnout (Carruth, 1997). Burnout does not occur in one dramatic

episode, but is progressive, prolonged, and appears in stages (Brock & Grady 2002).

Stress was defined by Selye (1974) as "the nonspecific response of the body to any

demand made upon it" (p. 14). Stress occurs when demands are placed on an organism,

challenging the status quo. All activities, pleasurable or otherwise, generate stress. Burnout is

different from stress in that burnout is chronic and has specific behavioral indicators (Cherniss,

1980). Stress may also be chronic, but it does not necessarily produce emotional exhaustion,

depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment as burnout produces.









Burnout and Organizations

Seven early warning signs of burnout include: (a) feeling exhausted; (b) feeling

overwhelmed; (c) feeling out of control; (d) feeling increased negativity; (e) dreading going to

work; (f) experiencing declining productivity; and (g) feeling increased isolation from family,

friends, and colleagues (Brock & Grady, 2002). Work overload, loss of control, and conflicting

values have contributed to the increase in burnout among public school administrators (Maslach

& Leiter, 1997). It is important for organizations to understand burnout because it can have a

serious impact on the overall effectiveness of the organization. Burnout can also affect more

than just individuals; it can impede the performance of teams and groups that are part of the

organization.

Humor

Humor Research

The significance of laughter has been recognized by such luminaries as Aristotle, Kant,

Darwin, Bergson, and Freud (Provine, 1996). Nilsen's (1993) work titled Humor Scholarship

listed a bibliography of 3,850 humor studies, 24 humor journals and magazines, 96 humor

organizations, and 106 humor scholars with humor courses and/or humor programs. Interest in

the study of humor can be tracked through the database PsycINFO, which lists 4,228 studies

involving humor since 1887 (Roeckelein, 2002).

The three basic theories regarding humor include the incongruity theory, the superiority

theory, and the relief theory. The incongruity theory, developed by Kant (1790), proposed the

hypothesis that humor occurs as an intellectual reaction to incongruous perceptions occurring

simultaneously. Kant wrote: "Something absurd must be present in whatever is to raise a hearty

convulsive laugh. Laughter is an all action arising from a strained expectation being suddenly

reduced to nothing" (p. 132). An incongruity is a mismatch between what actually happens to









what is expected to happen (Perlmutter, 2002). In order for an incongruity to be funny, a joke

has to be a logical compromise, has to arouse a sense of fun, and must observe social rules

(Matte, 2001). Philbrick (1989) showed resolution to be the aspect of incongruity that is

necessary to distinguish humor from nonsense.

The superiority theory of humor was originated by Hobbes (1651), who proposed the

hypothesis that humor results when those joking feel superior to those they are joking about.

Sudden glory is the passion which maketh those grimaces called LAUGHTER; and is
caused either by some sudden act of their own, that pleaseth them; or by the apprehension
of some deformed thing in another, by comparison whereof they suddenly applaud
themselves. And it is incident most to them, that are conscious of the fewest abilities in
themselves; who are forced to keep themselves in their own favour, by observing the
imperfections of other men. (p. 38)

Humor might be used aggressively toward an individual with lower status, thereby stressing an

individual's own superiority (Ehrenberg, 1995). Joking patterns could be used to preserve social

structure in an organization by maintaining distance between leaders and other members of the

organization (Yarwood, 1995).

The relief theory was developed by Spencer (1860). He proposed the hypothesis that

humor occurs from the release of energy and feelings that have been suppressed. Freud (1960)--

original work published in 1905--regarded humor to be the highest of defensive processes in

preventing the generation of internal unpleasure.

Although the three theory humor groups compete with one another, they supplement each

other by dealing with different aspects of the process. An individual who perceives an

incongruity expresses laughter through release and feels superior to the object of humor (Davis,

1993).

Two forms of coping strategies linked to humor include: (a) finding humor in a situation

and using humor to reduce negative emotions, and (b) using humor to alter the situation itself









(Lefcourt, Davidson, Prkachin, & Mills, 1997). Nilsen (1993) listed four functions of humor:

(a) physiological, (b) psychological, (c) education, and (d) social. Four psychological benefits of

humor were discussed by Klein (1989): (a) humor gives us power; (b) humor helps us cope with

change and uncertainty; (c) humor provides perspective, and (d) humor gives us balance.

Good leaders put people at ease and maintain group morale through the use of humor

(Priest & Swain, 2002). Humor is often used as a means of coping (Hay, 2001). In a study of

prisoners of war (POWs) humor was important to those who were held captive in Vietnam

(Henman, 2001). The POWs would risk torture to joke through the walls when another prisoner

needed cheering up. People who use humor to cope help provide support to others dealing with

problems and ease their burdens (Nezlek & Derks, 2001).

A good sense of humor can help relax muscles, control pain and discomfort, promote

positive mood states, and help overall psychological health (Abel, 2002). Humor decreases

stress hormones while increasing activity within the immune system (Wycoff, 1999), and it is an

important attribute for an effective leader to possess (Bolinger, 2001).

Cousins (1979) equated laughing to internal jogging. Twenty seconds of robust laughing

is similar to three minutes of hard-rowing for the heart (Rahmani, 1994). Humor acts as a buffer

to the negative effects of stress (Abel, 1998). It can be used to restructure a situation so that it is

less threatening. Individuals with increased senses of humor can deal with situations in a more

positive way than their counterparts can deal with them (Kuiper, McKenzie, & Belanger, 1995).

Humor and Organizations

Humor is considered as serious communication in organizations (Yarwood, 1995). It can

be used to promote change (Nilsen, 1993), can aid communication, and can foster long-lasting

relationships (Bolinger, 2001). "Humor provides a way of sharing common frustrations which in

turn can promote cohesiveness among colleagues" (Talbot & Lumden, 2000, p. 420).









Humor is a communication tool that has been hypothesized to prevent burnout (Talbot &

Lumden, 2000). Humor is a useful strategy for delivering a negative or critical message across

differences in power and authority (Holmes & Marra, 2002). It could be used to make orders or

reprimands more palatable (Yarwood, 1995). Humor also provides a means for subordinates to

challenge or criticize their superiors (Holmes, 1998).

Promoting the well-being of employees should increase organizational productivity and

profitability (Keyes, Hysom, & Lupo, 2000). People who report higher levels of well-being are

more productive, are less prone to using leave time, and have a higher rate of employee

retention.

School Principal Job Demands

Because of the rapid changes in society, the school principal's job has become more

challenging and demanding (Shumate, 1999). Schools are performing more tasks than in past

decades. Vollmer (2000) pointed out that the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay established schools

in 1640 to teach basic skills in reading, writing, arithmetic, and to develop democratic values for

society. At the beginning of the 20th century, additional responsibilities began to be assigned to

schools. Vollmer indicated that from 1900 to the 1990s, 61 new academic and social programs

were added to the list of school responsibilities. More recently, demands for performance and

demands for improved student, teacher, and administrative accountability have further

heightened the demands on the principal.

Four categories of situations that administrators find stressful include: (a) administrator's

perception of his role in the school, (b) tasks and daily activities, (c) external issues, and

(d) handling conflicts related to the operations of the school (Gmelch & Torelli, 1993). Ten

administrative stressors identified include: (a) teacher attitudes and behavior, (b) teacher

absences, (c) meetings, (d) student behavior, (e) parents and parent organizations, (f) policy and









curriculum, (g) equipment and supplies, (h) building and grounds, (i) workload, and (j) time

pressures (Whan & Thomas, 1996). Brock and Grady (2002) recognized 11 other common

stressors: (a) paperwork, (b) interruptions, (c) activities after hours, (d) complaints, (e) decisions

affecting others, (f) evaluations, (g) terminating employees, (h) rumor control, (i) lack of support,

(j) salary issues, and (k) dissatisfaction with career advancement. Administrators experience

stress due to the high public visibility of their jobs, and their actions and decisions are subject to

scrutiny and criticism. The five highest stress factors of public elementary school principals

identified by Shumate (1999) include: (a) school activities outside normal working hours,

(b) workload that was too heavy, (c) meetings taking up too much time, (d) compliance with

state and federal policies, and (e) high personal expectations.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of humor compared to other coping

mechanisms in relation to Maslach's (1982) theory of burnout. The effects of burnout are

serious for individuals and organizations in the education profession (Waugh & Judd, 2003).

Potter (1987) listed the following six conditions as common symptoms of job burnout:

(a) negative emotions, (b) interpersonal problems, (c) health problems, (d) declining

performance, (e) substance abuse, and (f) feelings of meaninglessness.

Instrumentation

Participants in this study rated their level of burnout on the scales of Emotional

Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Achievement, as measured by the Maslach Burnout

Inventory. Participants in this study rated their self-perceived use of humor, as measured by the

Humor Styles Questionnaire. Participants in this study rated their self-perceived use of humor

compared to other coping mechanisms, as measured by the COPE Inventory.









Maslach Burnout Inventory

The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a 22-item measure that was initially published by

Maslach and Jackson in 1981 to measure burnout based on subscales of emotional exhaustion,

depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The MBI is recognized as the leading burnout

measure (Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996; Richardsen & Martinussen, 2004). High scores on

the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales, along with low scores on the personal

accomplishment subscale, show a high degree of burnout. Low scores on the emotional

exhaustion and depersonalization subscales, along with high scores on the personal

accomplishment subscale, reflect a low degree of burnout. Average scores on all three subscales

reflect an average degree of burnout.

Humor Styles Questionnaire

The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) was developed to assess four dimensions of the

function of humor in daily life. Two of the dimensions are considered to be positively related to

well-being, while the two other dimensions are considered to be negatively related to well-being.

The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associated with making funny comments and telling

jokes which facilitates relationships while reducing tension among others. The dimension of

Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing

amusement to incongruities in life, and using humor as a coping mechanism. The dimension of

Aggressive Humor is associated with the use of humor to show superiority over others by

ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement. The dimension of Self-Defeating Humor is associated

with the use of humor at an individual's own expense through excessive, humorous self-ridicule.

During the initial development of the scale, a pool of 111 items was generated and

examined in a study involving 117 psychology students at the University of Western Ontario.

Participants in the study also completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability (MCSD) Scale









to assess response to test items in a desirable manner. Standard deviations were reviewed

resulting in the removal of one item. Item correlations were examined resulting in the removal

of 16 items from the scale. Items were then compared with total correlation to the other three

humor scale totals, as well as being compared with the MCSD. These comparisons were done to

minimize intercorrelations among the four humor scales. Thirty-seven items were eliminated

based on the analysis of item correlation. Additional items were generated resulting in a new

pool of 96 items. These items were examined in a study involving two samples of participants.

The first sample consisted of 165 introductory psychology students, and the second sample

consisted of 93 organizational members in a senior continuing education program. Analysis

from this study resulted in choosing 15 items to measure each of the four humor scales. The

Cronbach alpha reliability on these scales ranged from .82 to .88. Scale refinement samples were

conducted with 485 participants, with the goal of refining the 60 items to 8 items per scale.

Items were retained with high corrected item-total correlation with the designated scale and weak

correlation with the other three scales. Redundancy among items was reduced while retaining

specific negatively keyed items. Internal consistencies of the four scales showed Cronbach

alphas ranging from .77 to .81, and test-retest correlations of .80 to .85.

COPE Inventory

The COPE Inventory is a 60-item survey that measures 15 coping strategies. They

include: (a) Active Coping, (b) Planning, (c) Suppression of Competing Activities, (d) Restraint

Coping, (e) Seeking Social Support--Instrumental, (f) Seeking Social Support--Emotional,

(g) Focus on and Venting of Emotions, (h) Behavioral Disengagement, (i) Mental

Disengagement, (j) Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, (k) Denial, (1) Acceptance,

(m) Turning to Religion, (n) Alcohol-Drug Disengagement, and (o) Humor.









Active Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves taking direct action to remove

the stressor. Planning is a problem-focused strategy that involves thinking about the stressor and

how to cope with it. Suppression of Competing Activities is a problem-focused strategy that

involves putting aside or avoiding other tasks to be able to deal with the stressor. Restraint

Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves holding back for a more appropriate

opportunity to deal effectively with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Instrumental

Reasons is a problem-focused strategy of seeking outside assistance to deal with the stressor.

Seeking Social Support for Emotional Reasons is an emotion-focused strategy that involves

support from others to cope with the stressor. Positive Reinterpretation and GI ,n th/i is an

emotion-focused strategy where the individual manages emotional distress rather than the

stressor itself. Denial is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is ignored altogether.

Acceptance is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is accepted. Turning to Religion is

an emotion-focused strategy where the individual turns to religion as a means of coping with a

stressor. Focusing on and Venting of Emotions is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on

the stressor, and vents his emotions. Behavioral Disengagement is a strategy that involves an

individual reducing effort to deal with the stressor. Mental Disengagement is a strategy

involving the use of mental distractions and activities to distract an individual from thinking

about the stressor, such as daydreaming or escaping through television. Alcohol-Drug

Disengagement is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on escaping the stressor. Humor is a

strategy whereby an individual focuses on relief from the stressor (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub,

1989).

Through the process of developing the COPE Inventory, item sets were administered to

several hundred subjects, with revisions due to items with weak loadings, new items being









written, and the inventory readministered. In addition to items being changed, factor structure

was revised due to items loading on specific scales. The final item set was completed by group

sessions consisting of 978 undergraduates at the University of Miami. Test-retest reliability was

completed by 89 students in an initial session and in a retest session eight weeks later.

The undergraduates who completed the COPE Inventory were also given personality

measures to determine the differences in coping between optimism and pessimism. Carver,

Scheier, & Weintraub, (1989) stated:

Because optimists have favorable expectations for their future, optimism should be
associated with Active Coping efforts and with making the best of whatever is
encountered. Because pessimists have unfavorable expectations for the future, pessimism
should be associated with focus on emotional distress and with disengagement (p. 274).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of humor compared to other coping

mechanisms in relation to Maslach's (1982) theory of burnout. Specifically, this study addressed

the following questions.

Question 1

Do statistically significant relationships exist between humor, other coping mechanisms,

and public elementary school principals' level of burnout?

Question 2

Do statistically significant relationships exist between Self-Enhancing Humor, Affiliative

Humor, Aggressive Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, other coping mechanisms, and public

elementary school principals' level of burnout?

Question 3

Do statistically significant relationships exist between humor, other coping mechanisms,

and public elementary school principals' level of burnout when compared to the following









demographic variables: gender; level of completed degree; number of students in school;

number of Years as a Principal; number of Years as an Educator; English to Speakers of Other

Languages/Limited English Proficiency (ESOL/LEP) status of school; ESE (Exceptional Student

Education) status of school; and socioeconomic status of school as determined by the percent of

students enrolled in the Free and Reduced Lunch program.

Glossary

Acceptance is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is accepted.

Active Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves taking direct action to remove

the stressor.

Affiliative Humor is humor expressed by making funny comments and telling jokes that

facilitate relationships while reducing tension among others.

Aggressive Humor is the use of humor to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-

downs, and disparagement.

Alcohol-Drug Disengagement is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on escaping the

stressor.

Behavioral Disengagement is a strategy that involves one reducing effort to deal with the

stressor.

Coping is contending with demands and acting to overcome them.

Denial is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is ignored altogether.

Depersonalization is the transformation from a positive to negative attitude that the

subject develops toward his clients.

Emotional Exhaustion is the feeling of fatigue that develops as emotional energy is

drained.









Focusing on and Venting of Emotions is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on the

stressor, and vents his emotions.

Humor is a form of communication that is intended to result in or bring forth amusement

or laughter; and/or is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on relief from the stressor.

Incongruity is a mismatch between what actually happens and what is expected to happen.

Inurement is becoming accustomed to something undesirable by frequent repetition or

prolonged exposure.

Mental Disengagement is a strategy involving the use of mental distractions and activities

to distract an individual from thinking about the stressor, such as daydreaming, or escaping

through television.

Personal Accomplishment is the feeling the subject receives from the perception that the

subject is making a difference with the clients.

Planning is a problem-focused strategy that involves thinking about the stressor and how

to cope with it.

Positive Reinterpretation and Growth is an emotion-focused strategy where the

individual manages emotional distress rather than the stressor itself.

Restraint Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves holding back for a more

appropriate opportunity to deal effectively with the stressor.

Seeking Social Support for Emotional Reasons is an emotion-focused strategy that

involves support from others to cope with the stressor.

Seeking Social Support for Instrumental Reasons is a problem-focused strategy of

seeking outside assistance to deal with the stressor.









Self-Defeating Humor is the use of humor at an individual's own expense through

excessive humorous self-ridicule.

Self-Enhancing Humor is humor expressed by having a humorous outlook on life,

showing amusement to incongruities in life, and using humor as a coping mechanism.

Stress is the physical, chemical, and emotional process that produces tension.

Stressor is any demand that causes stress.

Suppression of Competing Activities is a problem-focused strategy that involves putting

aside or avoiding other tasks to be able to deal with the stressor.

Turning to Religion is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual turns to religion

as a means of coping with a stressor.

Significance of the Study

It is important for organizations to understand burnout because its effects could seriously

impact individuals and organizations (Waugh & Judd, 2003). The effects of burnout are

reflected in high rates of absenteeism, turnover, and complaints about staff performance

(Maslach, 1982). The ability to identify the level of burnout in administrators could provide

advance warning, which would signal a developing problem. Principals experiencing high stress

levels reduce productivity throughout the school and contribute to a negative work environment

(Pahnos, 1990). When demands and pressure at work become overwhelming and exceed the

ability to cope, an individual is likely to reach a breaking point (Pines & Kafry, 1978).

An investigation into the use of humor as a coping mechanism in the workplace is

important because Talbot and Lumden (2000) showed that humor has been identified as a tool

used to prevent burnout and create resiliency to stress, thus reducing its impact. Nilsen (1993)

indicated that change could be promoted using humor.









This study should provide knowledge that will help principals determine the relationship

between the use of humor as a coping mechanism and the level of burnout being experienced.

Promoting the well-being of employees should increase organizational productivity and

profitability (Keyes, Hysom, & Lupo, 2000). People who report higher levels of well-being are

more productive, are less prone to using leave time, and have a higher rate of employee

retention.

Delimitations and Limitations of the Study

This section identifies the delimitations and limitations for this study.

Delimitations

1. Data for this study were collected from public elementary school principals. No
conclusions from this study were generalized to other educational administrators.

2. For the purposes of this study, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal
accomplishment were defined using the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

3. For the purposes of this study, the self-perceived use of humor was defined using the
Humor Styles Questionnaire and the COPE Inventory.

4. For the purposes of this study, the self-perceived use of other coping mechanisms was
defined using the COPE Inventory.

5. This study was limited to data gathered during the 2006-2007 school year. No conclusions
from this study were generalized to other time periods.

6. Data for this study were gathered using random sampling of public elementary school
principals in Florida. No results from this study were generalized to other states.

7. Data for this study were gathered using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Humor Styles
Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory.

Limitations

1. This study was conducted with the assumption that public elementary school principals
had a common understanding of the terminology used in the Maslach Burnout Inventory,
the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory.

2. This study was conducted with the assumption that public elementary school principals
accurately responded on the self-rating of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and
personal accomplishment on the Maslach Burnout Inventory.









3. This study was conducted with the assumption that public elementary school principals
accurately responded on the self-perceived use of humor as a coping mechanism on the
Humor Styles Questionnaire and the COPE Inventory.

4. This study was conducted with the assumption that public elementary school principals
accurately responded on the self-perceived use of coping mechanisms on the COPE
Inventory.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Burnout

Burnout Research

The word burnout was first defined by Freudenberger (1980). He indicated that "a burnout

is someone in a state of fatigue or frustration brought about by devotion to a cause, way of life,

or relationship that failed to produce the expected reward" (p. 13). Those suffering from burnout

do not perceive themselves as angry or cynical, but believe they work harder than others and that

they are unappreciated. Freudenberger (1980) added, "Burnout is a chronic condition, something

a person has been working toward over a period of weeks, months, even years" (p. 13). Burnout

seldom is acute. It is the consequence of a work situation where an idealistic individual feels he

is batting his head against the wall day after day, hoping to have an impact on his associates.

Burnout is inevitable when the individual persists in trying to reach an expectation level that is

dramatically opposed to reality.

"Job burnout is an impairment of motivation to work" (Potter, 1987, p. 2). Burnout begins

with warning signals such as frustration, emotional outbursts, health problems, and the use of

drugs or alcohol. The helping professions, including social workers, nurses, teachers, and police

officers, are prone to burnout. Human service work began to emerge for the first time in the

1920's. At that time, no governmental policies existed to regulate services. During the

Depression in the early 1930s and into the late 1930s, government projects and programs

increased dramatically to help people in need. These programs continued well into the post-

World War II era where governmental influence and interference set the stage for burnout to

occur through institutional constraints and unrealistic expectations (Farber, 1983). Complaints

that are common among all human service professionals include: long hours, isolation, lack of









independence, client needs, public perception, lack of resources, insufficient criteria for

measuring accomplishments, productivity demands, lack of training, administrative interference,

and apathy. Primary stressors on caregivers include: activities of daily living; cognitive

functioning of the dependent; and behaviors of the dependent that pose a threat to safety. When

the caregiver begins to succumb to the primary stressors, secondary stressors then become

prevalent. Secondary stressors include: family roles; occupational roles; social activities; and

loss of self. Coping strategies may be protective because they alter an individual's response to

stressors, and they help develop resiliency to later stressors (Stevens & Higgins, 2002). Coping

mechanisms are used to mediate and buffer the effects of the stress that is accumulating. "Since

different kinds of coping are appropriate for different kinds of stressors, no single form of coping

may be the most useful as a mediator of stressful outcomes" (McCrae, 1984, p. 927).

Personality traits may influence the appraisal of situations as being stressful or not being

stressful. Some caregivers may be more likely to perceive a situation as stressful. Two specific

personality traits linked to positive health outcomes are optimism and mastery. On the other

hand, caregivers who have high levels of anger report high levels of burden. Personal resources

that are drawn upon include physical health, personality variables, and coping strategies (Katz,

2005). Social workers use a variety of practical and psychological means to help people who

have to deal with reduced autonomy and reduced resources. Risk factors associated with burnout

among social workers include: lack of challenge; low work autonomy; difficulty of providing

services; and low professional self-esteem (Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, 2002).

Potter (1987) also reported other professions prone to burnout which require or involve:

rigorous attention; life or death decisions; demanding time schedules; detailed work; and social

criticism. In a study of medical oncologists, with a response of 660 out of 1,000, 56% of the









respondents indicated they were burned out. Failure, frustration, and depression were suffered

by more than half of the respondents. One in five respondents said he lost interest, 18%

indicated they were totally bored, and 85% stated their personal and social life were being

affected. When given options to help reduce burnout, 70% of the respondents chose time away

from the office instead of the choices of administration, teaching, clinical research, research, and

treating nonmalignant disease. Caregiver burnout can impair the quality of care given to the

patient. A proactive approach to train caregivers in reasonable expectations for patient care can

be very productive in providing them with the means to cope with the stressors associated with

caring for critically ill patients (Penson, Dignan, Canellos, Picard, & Lynch, 2000).

High stress levels among psychiatrists may impact their effectiveness with clients. In

order to avoid psychological problems, psychiatrists need coping strategies to deal with the

personal stresses that occur after a situation involving patient suicide (Fothergill, Edwards, &

Burnard, 2004).

Journalism is a stressful profession with a combination of competition, deadlines, long

hours, and low pay. What makes this kind of stress unhealthy is that journalism carries

responsibility, but with a lack of personal control. Those journalists most at-risk to burnout are

usually the best and brightest at what they do. They are dedicated and ambitious, and they work

the hardest while facing frustration. They do not back off in the face of adversity, but instead

double their efforts to succeed (Kalter, 1999).

Cherniss (1980) stated, "Burnout refers to a process in which a professional's attitudes and

behavior change in negative ways in response to job strain" (p. 5). Many new public

professionals lose their idealism within the first year of their careers. They become less trusting,

less sympathetic toward clients, and less committed to their jobs. Cherniss indicated that those









who worked in jobs that were demanding, frustrating, or boring tended to show more negative

change than those who worked in jobs that were interesting, supportive, and stimulating.

Maslach's (1982) research focused on coping strategies that service workers use for

professional identity and job behavior. Burnout is not a new phenomenon, according to Maslach

(1982). In the mid-1970s, concern regarding burnout focused on employees working in service

and caregiving occupations (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). These authors reported that

initial articles focused on the clinical and social psychological perspectives. The clinical articles

focused on the symptoms of burnout and mental health. The social articles focused on the

relationship between the provider and recipient of the service occupations. Work on burnout

shifted to empirical research in the 1980s (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). The research

was quantitative, making use of questionnaires and surveys. The focus shifted to the assessment

of burnout and several measures were developed.

The increase of professionalism, bureaucratization, and isolation leads to increased

pressures on social service providers (Cherniss, 1980). These are conditions that were

experienced differently in past generations. We are living in times of rapid change

(Freudenberger, 1980). The impact of change has given us the dilemma of dealing with two

conflicting cultures: (a) the culture of the past, which was more puritanical; and (b) the culture of

the present, which is more hedonistic. This rapid change has put pressure on trying to determine

our standards. Credit debt is increasing, social restraints and taboos have changed, sexual

behaviors have changed, divorce has become common, and technology has given us new ways to

perform tasks. Education has moved us to higher levels while at the same time creating

discontent with simpler lifestyles. As we place more demands on ourselves to keep up with

society's changes, we exhaust our energy.









Not all personality types are susceptible to burnout, according to Freudenberger (1980),

who stated that "it would be virtually impossible for the underachiever to get into that state"

(p. 20). Burnout is limited to dynamic, charismatic, goal-oriented idealists who want everything

to be ideal. An individual with low self-esteem is more likely to be overwhelmed by emotional

pressures experienced among administrators (Brock & Grady, 2002). The greatest victims of

burnout are those with high expectations and a sense of purpose. Professionals in medicine,

religion, law, education, law enforcement, and social work give of themselves to those who are

often physically and emotionally ill. These professionals seldom receive gratitude or recognition

from those they help, which can lead to burnout (Helliwell, 1981).

Burnout ranges from low to high degrees of feeling as a continuous variable (Maslach et

al., 1996). Burnout is not viewed as being present or absent, but exists within the range of low to

high degrees of feeling. Maslach's (1982) model of burnout uses three elements: (a) emotional

exhaustion, (b) depersonalization, and (c) personal accomplishment. These elements coexist

although all three can be viewed individually in a step-by-step process (Carruth, 1997). Carruth

believed emotional exhaustion to be the key variable in assessing burnout.

Burnout occurs in stages and is progressive and prolonged (Brock & Grady, 2002).

Burnout does not occur spontaneously in one dramatic episode. Physical symptoms common to

burnout are illness, weight problems, blood pressure changes, stomach problems, and intestinal

distress. Burnout is a chronic condition that can occur over a period of weeks, months, and even

years (Freudenberger, 1980). Exhaustion is the first stage of burnout and denial the second stage

of burnout. Denial drains an individual's energy and then burnout becomes self-generating.

Selye (1974), a medical doctor and researcher, defined stress as "the nonspecific response

of the body to any demand made upon it (p. 14). Selye (1976) noted the term stress was used in









engineering "to denote the effects of a force acting against a resistance" (p. 45). Selye

researched in the area of biology to determine nonspecific response to noxious agents. He called

the response general adaptation syndrome, involving three stages: (a) the alarm reaction, (b) the

stage of resistance, and (c) the stage of exhaustion.

I called this syndrome general, because it is produced only by agents which have a general
effect upon large portions of the body. I called it adaptive because it stimulates defense
and thereby helps in the acquisition and maintenance of a stage of inurement. I called it a
syndrome because its individual manifestations are coordinated and even partly dependent
upon each other. (p. 38)

Selye was the first to author a paper on the stress syndrome. The article, published on July

4, 1936, in the British journal Nature, was titled A Syndrome Produced by Diverse Nocuous

Agents. All activities generate stress whether or not the activities are pleasurable. When

demands are placed on an organism, stress occurs. There are differences between stress and

burnout (Cherniss, 1980). Burnout is chronic and has specific behavioral indicators. Stress is

not chronic--but it can be. Stress does not necessarily produce increased emotional exhaustion,

increased depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment as burnout produces.

Stress consists of three processes: primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, and coping

(Lazarus, 1966). Primary appraisal involves the perception of a threat. Secondary appraisal

involves the formulation of a potential response to the threat. Coping puts the formulated

response into action. The availability of an adequate coping response may cause an individual to

reassess the actual threat as being less than first perceived. The cognitive appraisal process is an

evaluative process through which an individual views encounters with the environment as

perhaps being relevant to his well-being. In primary appraisal, the individual evaluates the

encounter for potential benefits or detriments. In secondary appraisal, the individual evaluates

what can be done to overcome or prevent harm or improve benefits. Coping is the individual's









efforts to manage demands, whether or not the efforts are successful (Folkman, Lazarus, Dunkel-

Schetter, DeLongis, & Gruen, 1986, p. 993).

Lazarus and Folkman (1984) discussed two types of coping: problem-focused coping and

emotion-focused coping. Problem-focused coping is used when an individual feels that

something can be done to solve the problem. Emotion-focused coping is used when a situation

cannot be changed.

Five categories for sources of stress include: (a) survival, (b) internally generated stress,

(c) environmental stress, (d)job stress, and (e) overwork (Brock & Grady, 2002). It is important

to understand the following characteristics regarding staff stress: organizational characteristics,

resident characteristics, and staff characteristics (Mitchell & Hastings, 2001). Warning signs of

stress-related problems include: feeling overwhelmed, feeling out of control, being worried, and

being indecisive. Personal circumstances can contribute to feelings of work-related stress.

Stress can motivate performance, but too much stress can cause burnout. Seven early warning

signs of burnout include: (a) feeling exhausted; (b) feeling overwhelmed; (c) feeling out of

control; (d) feeling increased negativity; (e) dreading going to work; (f) experiencing declining

productivity; and (g) feeling increased isolation from family, friends, and colleagues (Brock &

Grady, 2002).

Burnout and Organizations

It is important for organizations to understand burnout because burnout can have a serious

impact on the overall effectiveness of the organization (Maslach & Leiter, 1997). Burnout

affects more than just individuals; it can hinder group and team performance within an

organization. Examining burnout and factors contributing to burnout can lead to determining

strategies to minimize the potential for worker burnout (Zellmer, 2003). Understanding and

preventing burnout are important to organizations because turnover and decreased worker









effectiveness from burnout can put a drain on limited resources. This drain is especially true

today with so much demand for health and human services workers.

Palmer (1983) examined paramedics' strategies for dealing with death and dying, and

found their coping mechanisms to be some of the same mechanisms used by doctors and nurses.

The principal coping aids that were observed included: (a) desensitizing oneself from the visual

discomfort of physical trauma by turning the trauma into signs to be analyzed; (b) using humor

to provide relief from working under extreme conditions and situations; (c) using technical

language in referring to death; (d) viewing the patient as a machine to be treated, thereby

removing emotional or affectionate attachments to the patient; (e) rationalizing that the patient is

better off dead or that the patient had a zero chance of surviving without help from the

emergency medical services.

Work overload, loss of control, and conflicting values have contributed to the increase in

burnout among public school administrators (Maslach & Leiter, 1997). Increasing demands are

being confronted without end by school principals (Thomas & Ayres, 1998). Tuuli & Karisalmi

(1999) showed that conflicts in the workplace, job demands, and monotony on the job are all

related to burnout, and they also stated that psychological job demands and conflicts have the

strongest relationship.

Leiter and Maslach (2001) developed a focus on six areas of work life: (a) workload,

(b) control, (c) reward, (d) community, (e) fairness, and (f) values. Engagement with work is

promoted when an individual matches any of these areas of work life. Building job engagement

may be more effective than focusing on reducing burnout. Job engagement consists of energy,

involvement, and sense of efficacy. Job engagement is a state of fulfillment in employees that is









characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (Maslach, 2003). When an individual has a

mismatch in any of these areas of worklife, burnout is promoted.

Technology is bringing an increasing intensity to work. As the pace of work intensifies,

the balance of control between individuals and the organization is strained. Work infringes on

the individual's ability to enjoy personal rewards. Greater connectivity reduces the time

available to spend with family and friends. As the pace of work increases, the opportunity to be

treated unfairly increases. With the intensification of work, individuals may become unaligned

with the values of their organization, and then they may question their employment relationship.

Employees were more likely to leave their positions if their feelings of burnout increased

(Norton, 2004). As an individual's values are strained, the individual experiences an alteration

in his overall perception of the organization. Limits need to be considered when dealing with

greater demands. If their limits are exceeded on a regular basis, exhaustion becomes a serious

problem (Leiter & Maslach, 1999). Physical exhaustion can make an employee prone to

accidents and vulnerable to illness. Emotional exhaustion brings along feelings of depression

and hopelessness. Mental exhaustion leads to negative attitudes that can affect all aspects of an

individual's life (Weisberg & Sagie, 1999).

When leaders occupy a position of authority but are not serving legitimately, they are

likely to be controlling and territorial, and they may generate negative feelings among employees

(Keyes, Hysom, & Lupo, 2000). On the contrary, managers authorized with legitimacy are more

open to innovation and suggestions from employees, and they are able to exert influence without

negative consequences. These authors described leadership legitimacy as leading with support

from individuals, peers, and subordinates. Legitimate leaders delegate authority, provide

autonomy to subordinates, and share information. Effective leaders promote and sustain their









employees' well-being and mental health, thereby creating sustainable businesses that are

constructive, productive, and profitable. An employee's sense of personal growth, purpose in

life, and sense of social contribution should be bolstered by organizational outcomes, provided

the employee's ideas and effort are recognized as a factor in the company's success.

It is important for organizations to understand burnout because its effects could seriously

impact individuals and organizations (Waugh & Judd, 2003). The effects of burnout are

reflected in high rates of absenteeism, turnover, and complaints about staff performance

(Maslach, 1982). The ability to identify the level of burnout in administrators could provide

advance warning, which would signal a developing problem. Principals experiencing high stress

levels reduce productivity throughout the school and contribute to a negative work environment

(Pahnos, 1990). When demands and pressure at work become overwhelming and exceed the

ability to cope, an individual is likely to reach a breaking point (Pines & Kafry, 1978).

The best way to beat burnout is to take action to prevent it from appearing. "Burnout can

be dealt with more effectively in its formative stages than when it is full-blown" (Maslach, 1982,

p. 132). Other people, such as friends and colleagues, are the best early warning system for

burnout. They may be able to help the principals recognize what is happening and do something

about it. Three major reasons that qualified applicants are not applying for principal positions

are low pay, job stress, and long hours (Cushing, Kerrins, & Johnstone, 2003).

The greatest protection against burnout is self-awareness (Freudenberger, 1980): "People

who bum out seldom take time for that quality of aloneness" (p. 125). When people are alone,

they seldom think about their feelings and shut themselves out of their own minds. He added,

"Just as other-directedness and distance are the allies of burnout, so closeness and

inner-directedness are its foes" (p. 123). Energy, involvement, and efficacy are the direct









opposites of the three dimensions of burnout (Maslach & Leiter, 1997). In a study to predict

burnout among HIV-AIDS and oncology healthcare workers, Planning and Restraint Coping

strategies were found to be protective factors from burnout and predictive factors for personal

accomplishment (Dorz, Novara, Sica, & Sanavio, 2003). In a study involving clinical research

coordinators, those with high levels of burnout reported dissatisfaction with their profession.

Personality characteristics were found to be associated with burnout. Those clinical research

coordinators who demonstrated the characteristics of high endurance and nurturance traits

seemed to be protected from burnout. The data collected in this study showed burnout levels for

clinical research coordinators to be comparable to other healthcare professionals (Gwede,

Johnson, Roberts, & Cantor, 2005).

Some preventative measures to prevent burnout include: make sure to include some

variation in your job; limit the number of hours you work; take time off when you feel you need

it; share your experiences with other members of your organization; get involved in a learning

experience, such as a workshop, to recharge your batteries; delegate some of the workload to

others for help; and get plenty of exercise (Freudenberger, 1974). Unaddressed burnout will

affect nonprofessional areas of an individual's life (Gold, 2001).

Humor

Humor Research

Humor was defined by Martin (1996) as "the frequency with which a person smiles,

laughs, and otherwise displays mirth in a wide variety of life situations" (p. 255). The American

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. (2000)

(http://www.bartleby.com/61/29/H0322900.html), defined humor as:

The quality that makes something laughable or amusing; Funniness; That which is
intended to induce laughter or amusement; The ability to perceive, enjoy, or express what
is amusing, comical, incongruous, or absurd; One of the four fluids of the body, blood,









phlegm, choler, and black bile, whose relative proportions were thought in ancient and
medieval physiology to determine a person's disposition and general health.

Humor was described as "a form of communication in which a complex mental stimulus

illuminates or amuses, or elicits the reflex of laughter" (Roeckelein, 2002, p. 17). The term

humor could be used to refer to a stimulus, a mental process, or a response (Martin, 2001). Four

conditions associated with the full support of humor include: (a) recognizing the humor,

(b) understanding the humor, (c) appreciating the humor, and (d) agreeing with the humor's

message (Hay, 2001).

Aristotle, Kant, Darwin, Bergson, and Freud recognized the significance of laughter

(Provine, 1996). Nilsen's (1993) work titled Humor Scholarship listed a bibliography of 3,850

humor studies, 24 humor journals and magazines, 96 humor organizations, and 106 humor

scholars with humor courses and/or humor programs. Roeckelein (2002) commented about this

interest in the study of humor:

Overall interest in the study of humor in the discipline of psychology in the last 114 years
from 1887 through 2000 may be assessed quantitatively, decade by decade, by consulting
the computer database PsycINFO. This source indicates that three psychological studies
on humor were conducted in 1887-1900; three studies conducted in 1901-1910; four
studies in 1911-1920; 45 studies in 1921-1930; 101 studies in 1931-1940; 93 studies in
1941-1950; 105 studies in 1951-1960; 171 studies in 1961-1970; 464 studies in 1971-
1980; 945 studies in 1981-1990; and 1,156 studies in 1991-2000. (p. 3)

"More research in humor physiology has been conducted during the final quarter of the

20th century than during any previous recorded period in the human adventure" (Fry, 2002,

p. 305). Until the early 1990s, the only procedures available to study the central nervous system

were to examine the brain in ablation cases (traumatic loss of removal of central nervous system

tissue), direct stimulation during operations where the skull was open, and

electroencephalography (EEG). But some limitations occur in these procedures. The

opportunity for ablation case studies is very limited. Open-skull operations give information on









the site in the brain that is being stimulated, but no information is revealed about the location,

configuration and continuity of the network involved in humor behavior. The EEG uses multiple

electrodes that receive and transmit electrochemical signals from the adjacent central nervous

system (CNS) tissues. The EEG is limited in not having differentiation in the breadth, depth or

relative strengths of the composite messages regarding the strengths of the signals from each

contributing electrode.

Better methods are now available to study tissue function. One of these methods involves

bombarding living tissue with radio waves. Radiomagnetic signals are received and converted to

three-dimensional images. This method is called Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). An

enhancement of this method is called the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). This

method can be used as a rapid scanner to view activity in different areas of the brain. Another

method of studying central nervous system activity is through Positron Emission Tomography

(PET) in which a small amount of radioactive substance is injected into the subject. The

radioactive substance combines with glucose molecules, which are a primary food for neuron

cells. Neurons that are active will consume more of the glucose. Through continuous scanning,

neurons will present themselves through the signals sent from the radioactive substance that is

combined with the glucose. Another method is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS).

Magnetic rays are finely focused on specific areas of the brain, and the stimulation provided by

the magnetic rays temporarily renders the tissue inactive. By isolating specific tissue from

activity, temporary ablation is provided for study.

The traditional procedures of ablation, direct stimulation, and EEGs led to the conclusion

that a humor center exists in the brain. The newer technologies are changing that conclusion,

showing that the brain is comprised of a network architecture. In a functional magnetic









resonance imaging (fMRI) study, it was found that separate and different networks in the brain

are activated according to the type of humor to which a subject is exposed (Goel & Dolan, 2001).

The fMRI shows images of the brain that register blood flow to functioning areas. Humor

involving semantic juxtaposition, or incongruity, showed up on the fMRI throughout a bilateral

temporal lobe network. But humor involving puns, or phonological juxtaposition, showed up on

the fMRI in the left hemisphere network centered around speech production regions.

Dillon, Minchoff, and Baker (1985) examined subjects' perception of their use of humor as

a coping device. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), which appears to defend against viral

infection of the upper respiratory tract, "can vary as a function of both personality and situational

variables" (p. 14). In their study, they measured immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations in

saliva and changes in IgA concentrations after viewing humorous videotapes and control

videotapes. Subjects were randomly assigned to view a humorous videotape, Richard Pryor

Live, and a control tape, The Thin Edge: Anxiety. Each subject viewed each tape for 30 minutes

with a 10-minute intermission between viewings. Before and after viewing each video, subjects

were asked to salivate into a test tube. After the viewings, subjects were asked to complete a

humor scale. Scores on the scale were correlated with IgA concentrations before and after

viewing each videotape. The average concentration of IgA after viewing the humorous

videotape was significantly greater than before viewing; the concentration of IgA did not change

significantly with the viewing of the control videotape. The results were positively related and

suggested that salivary IgA concentrations are directly related to subjects' perception of their use

of humor as a coping device.

The three recognized theories regarding humor include the incongruity theory, the

superiority theory, and the relief theory. The incongruity theory was developed by Kant (1790).









He proposed that humor occurs as a reaction to incongruous perceptions occurring

simultaneously. Kant wrote: "Something absurd must be present in whatever is to raise a hearty

convulsive laugh. Laughter is an all action arising from a strained expectation being suddenly

reduced to nothing" (p. 132). An incongruity is a mismatch between what actually happens to

what is expected to happen (Perlmutter, 2002). In order for an incongruity to be funny, a joke

has to be a logical compromise, has to arouse a sense of fun, and has to observe social rules

(Matte, 2001).

In order to distinguish humor from nonsense, resolution is the aspect that needs to be

present (Philbrick, 1989). "The philosophical concept of incongruity, the simultaneous

occurrence of normally incompatible elements, is retained as a central feature of psychological

humor theory" (Staley & Derks, 1995, p. 97). "Incongruity is emphasized as the primary

concept in cognitive views of humor because the particular presentation of incongruity

constitutes the structure of the humorous stimulus" (p. 98). Beyond comprehension of the

incongruity, cognitive, emotional, and social factors will determine whether or not the

incongruity is found to be amusing.

Incongruity can be found in different forms, such as in a speaker's presentation,

mannerisms, emphasis, and facial expressions.

Not only can the humor response be different for each hearer, but it can even differ for a
given hearer, depending on how he or she chooses to interpret the script and in particular
how much one's critical faculties are allowed to come into play. (Perlmutter, 2002, p. 156)

Determining specific sayings that generate incongruities is based on the logic of semantics and

pragmatics (Cave, 2005). Some forms of humor use paradox to create an incongruity. Cave

added, "Moore's conjunction" is a method used to create incongruity. Moore's conjunction uses

the form "p, but I don't believe that p" (p. 136). Another method used in creating incongruity is

the use of a Machiavelli Puzzle. Creating incongruity with this method is dependent upon how









the deliverer of the message thinks the message will be taken by the hearer, either as truth or as

falsehood. Cave stated that the incongruity is built upon "what he thinks we think he thinks we

think (and so on)" (p. 140). Another method used to create incongruity is the way the joke is

told or presented. The delivery of the message can make the difference between whether or not

the incongruity is perceived.

The superiority theory of humor was originated by Hobbes (1651). He proposed the

hypothesis that humor results when those joking feel superior to those they are joking about.

Sudden glory is the passion which maketh those grimaces called LAUGHTER; and is
caused either by some sudden act of their own, that pleaseth them; or by the apprehension
of some deformed thing in another, by comparison whereof they suddenly applaud
themselves. And it is incident most to them, that are conscious of the fewest abilities in
themselves; who are forced to keep themselves in their own favour, by observing the
imperfections of other men. (p. 38)

The superiority theory was further developed by Bergson (1921) who stated that man is

defined as "an animal which laughs" (p. 3). He indicated that a deformity that a normally built

individual could successfully imitate may become comic. Bergson added, "Certain deformities

undoubtedly possess over others the sorry privilege of causing some persons to laugh" (p. 23).

One may stress superiority by using humor aggressively toward an individual with lower

status (Ehrenberg, 1995). Humor can be used to belittle oneself in order to protect oneself from

the anticipation of being belittled by others (Hay, 2001). Social structure in an organization

could be preserved using joking patterns to maintain distance between leaders and other

members of the organization (Yarwood, 1995). "Laughter is an expression of a person's feelings

of superiority over other people" (Morreall, 1983, p. 4). Aristotle agreed with Plato that laughter

is a form of derision.

The relief theory of humor was developed by Spencer (1860). The hypothesis of the relief

theory is that humor occurs from the release of energy and feelings that have been suppressed.









In humor, joking, and laughter, the energy--normally used for emotion, thinking, and suppression

of forbidden feelings--is saved and builds up and is then released. Humor was regarded to be the

highest of defensive processes to prevent the generation of internal discomfort (Freud, 1960,

original work published in 1905).

A joke has quite outstandingly the characteristic of being a notion that has occurred to us
"involuntarily." What happens is not that we know a moment beforehand what joke we are
going to make, and that all it then needs is to be clothed in words. We have an indefinable
feeling, rather, which I can best compare with an "absence" a sudden release of intellectual
tension, and then all at once the joke is there--as a rule ready clothed in words. (p. 167)

Although the three theory humor groups compete with one another, they supplement each

other by dealing with different aspects of the process (Davis, 1993). An individual who

perceives an incongruity expresses laughter through release and feels superior to the object of

humor.

Jones (2006) stated, "The theory of humour needs more than an account of the content of

finding funny. We need to know what is accomplished when we find something funny, what

function it serves, and what role it plays in our lives" (p. 130). Jones noted that the superiority

theory and relief theory are not rivals regarding the content of humor. They are instead

complements to the incongruity theory by describing the tendencies of behavior in what happens

when we find an incongruity to be funny. Jones showed that as a result of this incongruity, either

theory "might fit into a comprehensive theory of humor by providing us with a functional role

for the state of finding funny" (p. 130).

Two forms of coping strategies linked to humor were proposed by Lefcourt, Davidson,

Prkachin, & Mills, (1997). The first form involves finding humor in a situation and using humor

to reduce negative emotions. The second form includes the use of humor to alter the situation

itself. The four functions of humor include: (a) physiological, (b) psychological, (c) education,

and (d) social (Nilsen, 1993). Physiological functions include exhilaration, relaxation, and









healing. Psychological functions contain relief, ego defense, coping, and gaining status.

Educational functions consist of alertness, arguing and persuading, teaching effectively, and

long-term memory learning. Social functions include: bonding with people who are like us,

promoting social stability, and promoting social change. The four psychological benefits of

humor include: (a) humor gives us power, (b) humor helps us cope with change and uncertainty,

(c) humor provides perspective, and (d) humor gives us balance (Klein, 1989).

Good leaders use humor to put people at ease and maintain group morale (Priest & Swain,

2002). Humor is often used as a means of coping (Hay, 2001). Henman (2001) conducted a

study of 566 prisoners of war (POW) who were held captive in Vietnam. He discovered the

importance of humor among these POWs--they would risk torture to joke through the walls when

another prisoner needed cheering up. People who use humor to cope help ease burdens

experienced by others, and humor also provides support to deal with problems (Nezlek & Derks,

2001).

In a study on humor and depression, Deaner and McConatha (1993) stated:

A person who was more emotionally stable tended to laugh and smile more, use humor
more as a coping mechanism, be more able to notice humor in the environment, and report
more enjoyment of humor. Emotional stability appears to be strongly related to the humor
construct. (p. 762)

Individuals whose scores on measures of sense of humor were higher tended to be more

extroverted and emotionally stable (Cann & Calhoun, 2001). "Humor seemed to carry special

weight with regard to social competence, which in turn we would expect to be positively

associated with resilience in stressful social situations" (Lefcourt, 2001, p. 13).

Woods (1983) stated, "Above all, humor is power. It protects and invigorates the self in

the constant interplay between determined and determining forces. It provides strength that

enables the individual to adapt to situations, and on occasions to change them" (p. 112).









Stimulation was found to be the general physiological effect of mirthful laughter on the

respiratory, muscular, cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems (Fry, 2002). A good

sense of humor can help relax muscles, can control pain and discomfort, can promote positive

mood states, and can aid overall psychological health (Abel, 2002). Humor can decrease stress

hormones while increasing activity within the immune system (Wycoff, 1999). Berlyne (1972)

wrote, "Nevertheless, laughter seems clearly to be capable of a cathartic effect. People often feel

better and more relaxed after it" (p. 52). Martin and Lefcourt (1983) found that individuals who

laugh and smile in a wide variety of situations, who place a high value on humor, and who use

humor to cope with stress show less pronounced negative effects of stress than those who do not

value or use humor.

It is important for an effective leader to possess the attribute of humor (Bolinger, 2001).

Bolinger stated, "Not only is laughter good for the body and mind but the use of humor resulting

in laughter aids in effective communication, facilitates the building of long-lasting, trusting,

relationships, and helps foster creativity" (p. 1). Twenty seconds of robust laughing is similar to

three minutes of hard rowing for the heart (Rahmani, 1994). Kline (1907) stated, "No stimulus,

perhaps, more mercifully and effectually breaks the surface tension of consciousness, thereby

conditioning it for a new forward movement, than humor" (p. 421).

Humor acts as a buffer to the negative effects of stress (Abel, 1998). Humor can be used to

make a situation less threatening by restructuring the situation. Situations can be handled in a

more positive way by those with increased senses of humor when compared to their counterparts

who possess decreased senses of humor (Kuiper et al., 1995).

Cousins (1979) equated laughing to internal jogging. Cousins was diagnosed in 1964 with

ankylosing spondylitis, a disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. Cousins wrote









that "the will to live is not a theoretical abstraction, but a physiologic reality with therapeutic

characteristics" (p. 44). His treatment consisted of massive doses of ascorbic acid, or vitamin C,

and a daily regimen of humor films. At the time, three grams of vitamin C given by

intramuscular injection were considered a high dose. Cousins's treatment consisted of a four-

hour intravenous drip initially started with 10 grams of vitamin C, then gradually moved up to 25

grams of vitamin C. The humor portion of his treatment consisted of watching Candid Camera

and Marx Brothers movies. Cousins indicated that 10 minutes of genuine laughter would act as

an anesthetic, and would give him two hours of pain-free sleep. When the effect would wear off,

he would watch the films again, providing more laughter, which led to more pain-free sleep

intervals. Cousins believed the humor treatment to be an important factor as part of the healing

process.

Humor and Organizations

Humor can be used to promote change (Nilsen, 1993). Humor is considered as serious

communication in organizations (Yarwood, 1995). Yarwood stated "The path taken by a

humorous story or insight may even define the parameters of social interaction within an

organization" (p. 81). Humor aids communication and fosters long-lasting relationships

(Bolinger, 2001). Humor can promote cohesiveness among colleagues by providing a way of

sharing common frustrations (Talbot & Lumden, 2000). Good leaders put people at ease through

the use of good-natured humor (Priest & Swain, 2002). These kinds of leaders use humor to

maintain group morale, are able to see the point of jokes, and are funny instead of lacking in

humor.

The use of humor by organizational leaders is positively related to performance by

individuals and units in the organization (Avolio, Howell, & Sosik, 1999). Humor can be used

for consensus-building and control (Hay, 2001) and "reduce the face threat of a directive, a









challenge or a criticism" (Holmes & Marra, 2002, p. 66). Humor expands organizational as well

as personal energy, and it is a valuable management tool (Rahmani, 1994).

Humor can be used for delivering a negative or critical message across power and authority

differences (Holmes & Marra, 2002). Humor can make orders or reprimands more palatable

(Yarwood, 1995). Subordinates can use humor to challenge or criticize their superiors (Holmes,

1998).

Humor which reinforces the status quo is termed reinforcing humor, and is used to control

others and keep them in their place (Holmes & Marra, 2002). Humor that challenges the status

quo is termed subversive humor, which can challenge an individual, a group, or the entire

organization. Subversive humor is found in greater proportions in business meetings rather than

in friendship groups. Joking patterns maintain distance between leaders and subordinates, and

they contribute to preserving social structures by promoting cohesion of organizations and

groups (Yarwood, 1995).

Organizational productivity and profitability can increase by promoting the well-being of

employees (Keyes et al., 2000). Employees are more productive, less prone to taking leave, and

have a higher rate of retention when reported to having higher levels of well-being. Humor is a

communication tool that can prevent burnout (Talbot & Lumden, 2000).

Burnout signals not despair but hope. Recognized and attended to, it can become a positive
energy force, signifying that the time has come for a cease and desist action, a hard look at
yourself, and a change to something new. (Freudenberger, 1980, p. xxi)

The effects of burnout are serious for individuals and organizations in the education

profession (Waugh & Judd, 2003). Six common symptoms of job burnout include: (a) negative

emotions, (b) interpersonal problems, (c) health problems, (d) declining performance,

(e) substance abuse, and (f) feelings of meaninglessness (Potter, 1987). Freudenberger (1980)

listed the following 13 symptoms to check for burnout: (a) exhaustion, (b) detachment,









(c) boredom, (d) cynicism, (e) impatience, (f) heightened irritability, (g) a sense of omnipotence,

(h) a sense of being unappreciated, (i) paranoia, (j) disorientation, (k) psychosomatic complaints,

(1) depression, and (m) denial of feelings. "Where burnout exists, the sufferer unwittingly selects

a cure which intensifies the burn-out, spreading it faster and further" (p. 104).

Five humor groups were defined by Babad (1974): (a) nonhumorous, (b) appreciators,

(c) producer, (d) reproducer, and (e) producer-reproducer. Nonhumorous individuals were those

with no readiness to laugh, tell jokes or create humor, and they never search for humorous

situations or laugh at other people's humor. Appreciators were those who show readiness to

laugh, look for humorous situations, and enjoy other people's humor, but they do not tell jokes or

make up jokes or humor themselves. Producers invent humor, make up jokes and humorous

stories, or create humorous situations. Reproducers do not invent their own humor, but they

retell jokes or humorous stories and situations. Producers-reproducers are those individuals who

not only invent humor, but they retell other people's jokes and humorous stories.

To obtain a valid measure of humor, we must penetrate the social context, and measure
directly how the person behaves in his daily interactions with others. This can be done by
natural observations, by self-report, and by sociometric measurement. (Babad, 1974, p.
619)

Philbrick (1989) revised Babad's (1974) list for her study to include only four humor

groups: (a) nonhumorous, (b) appreciator, (c) producer, and (d) reproducer. Her definitions were

the same as Babad's for the nonhumorous, appreciator, producer and reproducer groups.

Philbrick did not include a producer-reproducer as a group in her study. She indicated that

school administrators might gain effectiveness from the use of humor by following the example

of business executives and political leaders whose use of humor has worked for them. Philbrick

noted: "Organizations are enhanced by leaders who are effective, and leader effectiveness may

be enhanced by a sense of humor" (p. 5).









Humor competence can be impeded by individual religious beliefs, politics, sexual

orientation, and so forth (Hay, 2001). Racial or ethnic jokes will often be accepted by those who

enjoy the humor, even though they would be embarrassed to voice the same attitude in a serious

discussion (Perlmutter, 2002).

The listener's sacrifice is more than the ordinary suspension of disbelief; he or she is
prepared to suspend a wide variety of every-day prerogatives that may include expressing
opinions about immoral behavior or taking positions on political issues alluded to in the
story presented by the jokester. (p. 158)

Yarwood (1995) stated, "Humor is culture and time specific. Behaviors which were

accepted as appropriate or at least tolerated a decade ago may be considered sexual harassment

today and can cost offenders their jobs" (p. 83). Humor is part of everyday life, is often taken for

granted, and is not recognized as having serious impact (Linstead, 1985).

Readiness to respond to funny events differs from one individual to another and that

people laugh for different reasons (Lefcourt, 2001). Timing, verbal and nonverbal signals, and

appropriate relationships are all factors in determining whether or not participants find humor in

a potentially funny situation.

It is possible for humor to offend and amuse someone simultaneously (Hay, 2001). A

hearer may find the humor funny, while disagreeing with the message. "Especially in examples

such as ethnic or sexist humor, if the hearer doesn't share a certain belief about the group in

question, the joke may fall completely flat" (p. 76). Bolinger (2001) stated, "There are

drawbacks to the use of humor by leaders. Inappropriate or offensive humor can do permanent

damage to relationships" (p. 15).

School Principal Job Demands

The school principal's job has become more challenging and demanding due to rapid

transformations in society (Shumate, 1999). Society is rapidly changing, causing schools to









perform more tasks than in past decades. The Puritans of Massachusetts Bay established schools

in 1640 to teach basic skills in reading, writing, arithmetic, and to develop democratic values for

society (Vollmer, 2000). The Puritans, according to Vollmer, believed that families and

churches bore the responsibility of raising the children. At the beginning of the 20th century,

additional responsibilities began to be assigned to schools. With the influx of immigrants and

the rise of the Industrial Age, policymakers saw schools as the mechanism for providing training

to accommodate social engineering.

From 1900 to the 1990s, 61 new academic and social programs were added to the list of

school responsibilities (Vollmer, 2000). Health and nutrition programs were included between

1900 and 1910. Vocational education and art education programs were started between 1920

and 1940. Safety and driver's education programs were added between 1950 and 1960.

Consumer, career, and leisure and recreational programs were included between 1960 and 1970.

Special education, drug and alcohol abuse programs, and character education were started

between 1970 and 1980. Schools saw the influx of computer education and multicultural

programs between 1980 and 1990. Programs were appended to the curriculum to include gun

and gang education, sex education, and before-school and after-school programs between 1990

and 2000.

With the change of programs have come added responsibilities for school principals. Two

studies in 1988 and 1998 compared principal profiles from 1988 and 1998 that showed additional

responsibilities for school principals (Doud & Keller, 1998; Doud, 1989). Principals in 1988

were responsible for 29 professional and support staff, while principals in 1998 were responsible

for 44 professional and support staff. Principals in 1988 typically worked with an 11-month

contract, whereas principals in 1998 worked year round. The typical hours a principal worked in









1988 were 45 hours per week, with an additional 6 hours of school-related activities, whereas

principals in 1998 worked 50 hours per week, with an additional 8 hours of school-related

activities.

Compared with teachers, the school principal is also considered to be a service provider--

but in a way a service provider is quite different from the teacher. The principal is required to

complete a larger number of assignments. He is subject to more interruptions and must deal with

more varied issues. Burned-out principals show physical, mental, and cognitive exhaustion.

They experience emotional and personal detachment from the recipients of their services.

Comparing school principal burnout to burnout among other primary service providers and

professionals, school principals sense similar, internally focused experiences such as exhaustion.

Differences in externally focused experiences were more pronounced among principals. They

showed stronger negative feelings toward others, a strong sense of discontentment, and a desire

for distance from service recipients (Friedman, 1995).

The four categories of situations that administrators find stressful are: (a) the

administrator's perception of his role in the school, (b) tasks and daily activities, (c) external

issues, and (d) handling conflicts related to the operations of the school (Gmelch & Torelli,

1993). Motivated clients contribute to professional gratification because they make success

more likely, are more stimulating to work with, and require less effort by the professional

(Cherniss, 1980). Those who are apathetic and who do nothing to help themselves are seen as

less deserving from the professional, and they generate a negative reaction and source of strain.

Lack of control over an individual's work, lack of reward for contributions on the job, lack

of fairness, and losing positive connections with others in the workplace are all important

indicators that a mismatch exists between an individual and his job (Maslach & Leiter, 1997).









Six conditions related to burnout include: (a) conflicting demands, (b) procedures and policies,

(c) hopelessness of clients' life conditions, (d) workload, (e) negative attitudes, and (f) the

inability of workers to achieve objectives (Minahan, 1980).

Brock and Grady (2002) stated, "The high public visibility of an administrator's job

underscores it with stress. Every action and decision is subject to scrutiny, suspicion, and

misunderstanding. Criticism of public schools and demands for change are increasing" (p. 21).

More recently, demands for performance and demands for improved student, teacher, and

administrative accountability have further heightened the demands on the principal. Principals

leaving the field were most likely to do so because of frustration brought on by politics,

bureaucracy, and unreasonable demands for higher standards and accountability (Stricherz,

2001).

The greatest source of strain for the professional is the structure of the job and the work

setting (Cherniss, 1980). Administrators experience stress due to the high public visibility of

their jobs, and they see that their actions and decisions are subject to scrutiny and criticism

(Brock & Grady, 2002). Stressful administrative tasks of administrators include: (a) finding

substitutes, (b) staff meetings, (c) working with uncooperative parents, (d) implementing

mandates, (e) equipment problems, (f) vandalism, (g) work overload, (h) time constraints,

(i) meetings outside of school hours, (j) lack of resources, (k) isolation, (1) lack of control,

(m) lack of appreciation, (n) paperwork, (o) interruptions, (p) complaints, (q) student

misbehavior, (r) after-hours activities, (s) making decisions that affect others, (t) evaluations,

(u) negative staff members, (v) terminating employees, (w) rumor control, (x) lack of support,

(y) salary issues, and (z) dissatisfaction with career advancement (Whan & Thomas, 1996; Brock

& Grady, 2002). Blaydes (2004) identified the following stressors that affect the principal:









(a) pressures related to the district office, (b) mandates from the state level, (c) federal mandates,

(d) student learning and testing, (e) special education, (f) discipline, (g) contract management,

(h) hiring, (i) supervision, (j) evaluation, (k) parent demands and expectations, and (1) personal

and family issues.

Shumate (1999) identified the five highest stress factors of public elementary school

principals. The highest stress factor was participating in school activities outside normal

working hours. The second highest stress factor was having a workload that was too heavy. The

third highest stress factor was having meetings take up too much time. The fourth highest stress

factor was having to comply with policies at the state and federal levels. The fifth highest stress

factor was having high personal expectations.

Participants in a study by Doud and Keller (1998) listed 11 major concerns that principals

face. Those concerns were: (a) fragmentation of administrator's time, (b) financial resources,

(c) student assessment, (d) students not performing to their potential, (e) professional

development and retraining of staff, (f) instructional practices, (g) inadequate availability of staff

training for technology, (h) inadequate availability of technology support services, (i) curriculum

development, (j) parental involvement level, and (k) management of student behavior.

Examining a random sample of 107 principals for causes of principal burnout, Whitaker

(1996) focused on characteristics and attitudes contributing to high scores in emotional

exhaustion and depersonalization. Thirteen principals scored high in both emotional exhaustion

and depersonalization, and they indicated that emotional exhaustion was a significant problem.

Factors contributing to emotional exhaustion include: (a) dealing with teacher and student

problems, (b) parent concerns, (c) difficulties with the central office, (d) multitasking,

(e) constant interruptions, (f) night meetings, (g) increased paperwork, (h) budget cuts,









(i) greater demands for accountability, (j) new reporting procedures to comply with state

mandates, and (k) implementing higher standards for students. Whitaker contacted these

principals to interview them regarding their high scores in emotional exhaustion and

depersonalization. Four of the 13 principals had already left the principal position, leaving nine

principals to interview. Eight out of nine principals were not planning to remain until retirement.

The average age of these 13 principals ranged from 35 to 44. Most participants were male, all

were married, and most had children. One of the high school principals indicated that he had

spent two days in the hospital with a heart arrhythmia that the doctor diagnosed as stress related.

The principals in Whitaker's study indicated that to improve the principal's role, there was a

greater need for support systems to be built into the job to deal with conflict, feeling

overwhelmed, and being under constant pressure.

If the data concerning the number of principals who will exit their jobs in the next few
years are accurate, districts may have a critical need to attract and retain high quality
individuals for these roles. As pressure to improve schools continues at a time of shrinking
resources and education bashing, we cannot afford to overlook the vital role principals play
in the education of our children. The costs are too high. (p. 70)

Allison (1997) reported that a substantial number of school administrators in several

Canadian districts took medical leave due to stress-related illness. In one district alone, four

principals suffered heart attacks, three of which were fatal. Identifying effective coping

strategies may provide tools to moderate the effects of stress on the individual. In a study

including 1,455 public elementary and secondary school principals in British Columbia, the most

common coping techniques found included: (a) practicing good human relation skills,

(b) maintaining a sense of humor, (c) approaching problems optimistically and objectively,

(d) maintaining regular sleep habits, (e) setting realistic goals while recognizing limitations,









(f) delegating, (g) talking with family members or close friends, (h) engaging in active

recreational activities, (i) engaging in less active non-work activities such as dining out or

listening to music, and (j) working harder to be more productive.

Humor as a Coping Mechanism

An investigation into the use of humor as a coping mechanism in the workplace is

important because humor has been identified as a tool used to prevent burnout and create

resiliency to stress, thus reducing its impact (Talbot & Lumden, 2000). Change could be

promoted using humor (Nilsen, 1993). Research supporting the use of humor as a coping

strategy in the prevention of burnout is increasing (Cade, 1992). Being mentioned in almost all

reports on the prevention of burnout is an indication of humor's potential as a coping strategy. In

a study regarding burnout and community college nursing faculty members, humor was found to

promote job satisfaction, foster relationships, and provide a relaxed and comfortable work

atmosphere. Talbot (2000) stated, "It is not a situation that is stressful, but the individual's

interpretation of that situation" (p. 360).

Coping strategies can be viewed as active or inactive. Active coping strategies involve

confronting the stress, changing the source of stress, confronting oneself, or changing oneself. In

active coping, strategies involve avoiding or denying the stress cognitively or physically.

Reactive humor involves humor that is produced by the environment. An individual using

reactive humor effectively perceives and responds to humorous stimuli. Productive humor refers

to the ability to produce and construct humor, and it does not rely on the environment to provide

the humor (Lehman, Burke, Martin, Sultan, & Czech, 2001).

The quality of an individual's own humor appreciation is the most important element for

self-rating. Although an individual is self-judgmental, self-rating is done in relation to stimuli

produced by others (Fine, 1975). Subjects with high scores on the humor measures are assumed









to use humor as a means of coping with the stressful experiences that they encounter in their

everyday lives (Martin & Lefcourt, 1983). In order for humor to moderate the effects of stress, a

high value must be placed on humor along with the ability to produce humor in stressful

situations that are encountered in daily life. Humor reduces the impact of stress.

Humor is an important attribute for an effective leader to possess (Bolinger, 2001). It

provides relief and distance from problems (Brock & Grady, 2002). Several ways to incorporate

humor into the workday include: read and post cartoons in the office; include humor in

newsletters; spend time with people who like to laugh; look for the funny side of annoying

situations; laugh with others but never at them; and include a full five minutes of hearty

laughter every day.

Humor in organizations promotes and maintains employee wellness and health (Nason,

2005). Promoting the well-being of employees should increase organizational productivity and

profitability (Keyes et al., 2000). People who report higher levels of well-being are more

productive, are less prone to using leave time, and have a higher rate of employee retention.

Cherniss (1980) listed eight interventions that could be put into place to reduce professional

burnout: (a) provide orientation programs, (b) provide periodic appraisal and evaluation,

(c) provide individual counseling, (d) provide staff support groups, (e) restructure the job,

(f) modify the workload, (g) increase feedback in the job, and (h) reduce social isolation.

Maslach Burnout Inventory

The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a 22-item measure that was initially published in

1981. The MBI measures levels of burnout based on three subscales: (a) emotional exhaustion

(9 items), (b) depersonalization (5 items), and (c) personal accomplishment (8 items). A high

degree of burnout is reflected in high scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization

subscales and in low scores on the personal accomplishment subscale. An average degree of









burnout is reflected in average scores on the three subscales. A low degree of burnout is

reflected in low scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales, and it is

reflected in high scores on the personal accomplishment subscale.

The Maslach Burnout Inventory focuses on personal experiences with people's work

(Maslach & Leiter, 1997).

The close association between burnout and work differentiates it from more general
emotional states, such as depression, which pervade every aspect of life without being tied
to a specific domain of life. Thus, the MBI assesses burnout as the result of problems at
work, not as a psychiatric syndrome. (Maslach & Leiter, 1997, p. 156)

Boles, Dean, Ricks, Short, and Wang (2000) conducted a study to examine the generalizability of

the MBI to populations other than human service workers. They compared two samples from

educators and small business owners, analyzing data and relating the burnout dimensions to

stress-related variables identified in the literature. The first sample consisted of 183 elementary

and high school teachers and administrators. The second sample consisted of 162 small business

owners.

The three dimensions of burnout were measured with the MBI, with some modification in

wording on the depersonalization dimension to reflect interaction with employees and students

for the respective samples. Coefficient alphas of the Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization,

and Personal Accomplishment dimensions for the educators/ business owners were .89/.90,

.80/.70, and .76/.78, respectively. The results of the study support the generalization of the MBI

to occupational groups other than human services workers. The research suggests that even

though personnel in different fields have dissimilar stressors, the results appear to be similar.

The Maslach Burnout Inventory can be generalized to occupational groups other than human

services groups (Boles et al., 2000). Although the stressors among educators and small business









owners were different, the patterns of correlations among the burnout dimensions of emotional

exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment were found to be similar.

Humor Styles Questionnaire

Humor can be viewed as a multifaceted construct that consists of cognitive ability,

aesthetic response, habitual behavior patterns, emotion-related traits, positive attitude, and

perspective during adversity. The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) was developed to assess

four dimensions of the function of humor in daily life. Two of the dimensions are considered to

be positively related to well-being: Affiliative Humor and Self-Enhancing Humor. The other

two dimensions are considered to be negatively related to well-being: Aggressive Humor and

Self-Defeating Humor.

The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associated with making funny comments and telling

jokes, which facilitate relationships while reducing tension among others. Martin, Puhlik-Doris,

Larsen, Gray, & Weir (2003) stated, "Individuals with high scores on this measure appear to be

socially extraverted, cheerful, emotionally stable, and concerned for others" (p.71). The

dimension of Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life,

showing amusement to incongruities in life, and using humor as a coping mechanism. They

added, "It is also positively correlated with cheerfulness, self-esteem, optimism, psychological

well-being, and satisfaction with social support, and negatively related to depression, anxiety,

and bad mood" (p. 71). The dimension of Aggressive Humor is associated with the use of humor

to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement. The authors said,

"This scale was positively related to measures of hostility and aggression and negatively related

to seriousness" (p. 71). The dimension of Self-Defeating Humor is associated with the use of

humor at an individual's own expense through excessive humorous self-ridicule. "It is also

positively correlated with depression, anxiety, hostility, aggression, bad mood, psychiatric









symptoms, and undesirable masculine traits and negatively related to self-esteem, psychological

well-being, intimacy, satisfaction with social supports, and femininity" (p. 71).

COPE Inventory

The COPE Inventory is a 60-item survey that measures 15 coping strategies. They

include: (a) active coping, (b) planning, (c) suppression of competing activities, (d) restraint

coping, (e) seeking social support--instrumental, (f) seeking social support--emotional, (g) focus

on and venting of emotions, (h) behavioral disengagement, (i) mental disengagement, (j) positive

reinterpretation and growth, (k) denial, (1) acceptance, (m) turning to religion, (n) alcohol-drug

disengagement, and (o) humor.

In developing the COPE Inventory, Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) looked at the

research conducted by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). Lazarus (1966) stated, "For threat to occur,

an evaluation must be made of the situation, to the effect that a harm is signified. The

individual's knowledge and beliefs contribute to this" (p. 44). Appraisal of threat is a judgment

of assimilated data with ideas and expectations, and relies on the stimulus as well as the

psychological makeup of the individual. "Observable threat and stress reactions are reflections

or consequences of coping processes intended to reduce threat" (p. 152). He added, "Threat

leads to processes of coping with the threat" (p. 153). While primary appraisal is concerned with

determining threat and amount of danger, secondary appraisal is concerned with the form of

coping to use and to what extent any form of action will relieve the threat. "More adaptive and

reality-oriented forms of coping are most likely when the threat is comparatively mild; under

severe threat, pathological extremes become more prominent" (p. 162). The higher the degree of

threat, the more primitive reaction or solution to it. When threat becomes great, cognitive

functioning is impaired, resulting in the choice of the more primitive action.









Strategies that are chosen for coping are based on the capability of the action in reducing or

eliminating the threat. Three factors thought to influence coping include the location of threat,

the viability of actions to prevent harm, and situational constraints that inhibit the coping action.

Personality traits may influence coping by affecting how the situation will be appraised. Lazarus

(1966) looked at two categories of coping: direct action tendencies and defensive reappraisal.

Direct action tendencies include strengthening an individual's resources against threat.

Defensive reappraisal refers to reappraising the threat as less harmful.

The concept of coping was found in literature regarding animal experimentation and

psychoanalytic ego psychology. In the Darwinian approach, survival for an animal is dependent

upon the animal being able to avoid, escape, or overcome threats in the environment. In the

psychological model, coping is defined as the ability to solve problems to reduce stress. Coping

is defined as "constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external

and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person"

(Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p. 141). Coping can help to reduce the perceived threat of situations,

but stress occurs when inappropriate coping mechanisms are used (van Dick & Wagner, 2001).

Lazarus and Folkman (1984) described two types of coping: emotion-focused and

problem-focused. The authors stated that emotion-focused strategies that that are used to lessen

emotional distress include: "avoidance, minimization, distancing, selective attention, positive

comparisons, and wrestling positive value from negative events" (p. 150). Some emotion-

focused strategies are directed at increasing emotional distress to mobilize for dealing with the

threat. Reappraisal is an emotion-focused strategy that involves reappraising the level of threat.

Problem-focused coping strategies are directed at "defining the problem, generating

alternative solutions, weighting the alternatives in terms of their costs and benefits, choosing









among them, and acting" (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p. 152). Problem-focused strategies

directed toward the environment involve altering pressures, barriers, resources, and procedures.

Problem-focused strategies can also be directed inward, involving motivational and cognitive

changes, developing new behaviors, and learning new skills. Lazarus and Folkman conducted a

study involving 1,332 stressful episodes. Nearly everyone used both emotion-focused and

problem-focused strategies, with only 18 individuals showing use of just one of the strategies.

Burnout was studied among teacher coaches. Problem-focused coping was found to be

correlated to low levels of depersonalization and high levels of personal accomplishment.

Tension-releasing coping was found to be positively correlated to the intensity and frequency of

emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The more that negative behaviors such as getting

mad, smoking, and worrying are relied upon, the more likely that burnout will increase.

Morale-maintaining coping was found to be positively related to the frequency of

depersonalization. The more frequent these strategies are used, the more times these feelings of

depersonalization will occur. Strategies to reduce and help eliminate burnout among teacher-

coaches include subscribing to educational journals and magazines and attending stress-

management seminars to widen the knowledge base of burnout (Kosa, 1990).

Constraints to using coping include: personal constraints such as cultural values or beliefs;

environmental constraints such as competing demands for the same resources; and threat levels

ranging from minimal to extreme. Personality characteristics can influence how an individual

copes and adapts to situations (Folkman, Lazarus, Gruen, & DeLongis, 1986). Using a passive

or submissive approach in dealing with conflict at work can lead to health problems because the

conflict and stress continue (De Dreu, Dierendonck, & Dijkstra, 2002). Empathic concern,

communicative responsiveness, and validation are factors of active listening that can reduce









stress and burnout. Disagreements, verbal abuse, criticism, and rudeness are types of

communication that can have negative impact, thereby reducing coping resources of an

individual (Johnson & Indvik, 1990).

Active Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves taking direct action to remove

the stressor. Planning is a problem-focused strategy that involves thinking about the stressor and

how to cope with it. Suppression of Competing Activities is a problem-focused strategy that

involves putting aside or avoiding other tasks to be able to deal with the stressor. Restraint

Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves holding back for a more appropriate

opportunity to deal effectively with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Instrumental

Reasons is a problem-focused strategy of seeking outside assistance to deal with the stressor.

Seeking Social Support for Emotional Reasons is an emotion-focused strategy that involves

support from others to cope with the stressor. Positive Reinterpretation and GI thi1i is an

emotion-focused strategy where the individual manages emotional distress rather than the

stressor itself. Denial is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is ignored altogether.

Acceptance is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is accepted. Turning to Religion is

an emotion-focused strategy where the individual turns to religion as a means of coping with a

stressor.

Carver et al. (1989) found the following three coping strategies appear to be less useful as

coping strategies: Focusing on and Venting of Emotions, a strategy whereby an individual

focuses on the stressor, and vents his emotions; Behavioral Disengagement, a strategy that

involves one reducing effort to deal with the stressor; and Mental Disengagement, a strategy

involving the use of mental distractions and activities to distract an individual from thinking

about the stressor, such as daydreaming, or escaping through television.









Alcohol-Drug Disengagement is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on escaping the

stressor. Humor is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on relief from the stressor.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes the methodology used to conduct the research study. It includes the

description of the sample studied, instrumentation used to measure the dependent and

independent variables, procedures used to collect the data, and the analysis that was conducted

after the data were collected.

Research Questions

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of humor as a coping mechanism

among public elementary school principals in relation to Maslach's (1982) theory of burnout. In

this study, the Maslach Burnout Inventory measured the dependent variable--the level of

burnout. The Humor Styles Questionnaire and the COPE Inventory measured the independent

variable--the self-perceived use of humor. The COPE Inventory also measured the

self-perceived use of other coping mechanisms. The following research questions were the focus

of the study:

Question 1

Do statistically significant relationships exist between humor, other coping mechanisms,

and public elementary school principals' level of burnout?

Question 2

Do statistically significant relationships exist between Self-Enhancing Humor, Affiliative

Humor, Aggressive Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, other coping mechanisms, and public

elementary school principals' level of burnout?

Question 3

Do statistically significant relationships exist between humor, other coping mechanisms,

and public elementary school principals' level of burnout when compared to the following









demographic variables: gender; level of completed degree; number of students in school; number

of Years as a Principal; number of Years as an Educator; English to Speakers of Other

Languages/Limited English Proficiency (ESOL/LEP) status of school; Exceptional Student

Education (ESE) status of school; and socioeconomic status of school as determined by the

percent of students enrolled in the Free and Reduced Lunch program?

Sample

The sample for this study was a random sampling of public elementary schools generated

from a list of 759 elementary schools obtained from the Florida Department of Education (DOE)

website http://www.fldoe.org. The random sample of 400 principals from across Florida was

generated from this list by using a random integer generator. The random integer generator

website was: http://www.random.org/nform.html. Four hundred numbers were generated and

matched to schools on the DOE list. A list of public elementary school principals matching this

list of schools was obtained from the website for the Florida Department of Education. Surveys

were mailed to 399 participants instead of the original 400 because one school had to be omitted

from the study. The researcher gave each participant the following items: an explanation of the

study; a statement of confidentiality; instructions for completing the study instruments; the

survey instruments; and a self-addressed stamped envelope for returning the completed

instruments.

According to the instructions, study participants completed the demographic sheet, the

Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory.

Participants were asked to submit their responses within two weeks. Participants were told that

by completing the survey, they agreed to take part in the study. Each participant was assigned a

random code that was printed on the return envelope included with the survey instruments. This

random code was used to track survey responses. After the deadline date passed to complete the









survey, an additional mailing was sent to those participants who failed to respond. The random

codes were stored separately from the survey responses to maintain the participants'

confidentiality and anonymity.

The elementary schools in this sampling varied in size and demographics. The population

per elementary school in this sampling ranged from 281 to 1,704 students. Students classified as

having a primary mild, moderate, and/or severe disability ranged from 4.4% to 39.4%. Students

eligible for free or reduced-price lunch ranged from 0% to 100%. Limited English Proficient

students who participated in English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programs, ranged

from 0.1% to 52.7%.

Instrumentation

Participants in this study rated their level of burnout on the scales of Emotional

Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Achievement, as measured by the Maslach Burnout

Inventory. Participants also rated their self-perceived use of humor, as measured by the Humor

Styles Questionnaire. Participants' self-perceived use of humor compared to other coping

mechanisms was measured by the COPE Inventory.

Maslach Burnout Inventory

The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a 22-item measure that was initially published in

1981. The MBI measures levels of burnout based on subscales of emotional exhaustion

(9 items), depersonalization (5 items), and personal accomplishment (8 items). A high degree of

burnout is reflected in high scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales

and in low scores on the personal accomplishment subscale. An average degree of burnout is

reflected in average scores on the three subscales. A low degree of burnout is reflected in low

scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales, and it is reflected in high









scores on the personal accomplishment subscale. The survey is measured by rating each item

within a range from "0" for never to "6" for every day.

Three versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were developed to measure burnout for

different occupations: (a) the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS),

for use with human services professionals; (b) the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey

(MBI-ES), for use with educators; and (c) the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-

GS), for use with workers in other occupations (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). The

Maslach Burnout Inventory used in this study was the Educator Survey version, which uses the

same questions, but uses the term students instead of recipients.

The validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were supported in two

studies by Iwanicki and Schwab (1981), and Gold (1984). Both factor analysis studies

conducted supported the three-factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Iwanicki and

Schwab conducted a cross-validational study of the Maslach Burnout Inventory with 469

teachers from Massachusetts as participants. Construct validity was examined using principal

components and principal factors approaches to factor analysis, with both orthogonal and oblique

rotations. "A rotation which requires the factors to remain uncorrelated is an orthogonal rotation,

while others are oblique rotations" (Darlington, 1997, 61).

In principal components analysis, all variability of an item is used in the analysis, whereas

in principal factor analysis, only the variability of an item in common with other items is used

(StatSoft, 2006). "For both the frequency and intensity dimensions, the principal components

and principal factors approaches both resulted in four factor solutions with eigenvalues greater

than one which accounted for 55% of the total variance" (Iwanicki & Schwab, 1981, p. 1169).

Comparing the two approaches, the principal factors approach resulted in subscales which were









more conceptually meaningful and reliable. Iwanicki and Schwab's examination broke the

factor of depersonalization into two factors: job-related and student-related. The authors stated,

"Because of the low correlations among the axes of the four factors derived through the principal

factors solution for both the frequency (r = .29) and intensity (r = .26) dimensions, there were no

major differences in factor loadings between the orthogonal and oblique rotations" (p. 1170).

The MBI measures the same basic constructs of emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment,

and depersonalization as those identified through studies in the helping professions.

Gold (1984) conducted a factorial validity study of the Maslach Burnout Inventory with

462 teachers from southern California as participants. In studying teachers, Gold found that

teachers experiencing "negative perceptions associated with burnout could have detrimental

effects on their students, their colleagues, their schools, and their own families" (p. 1011).

Gold (1984) indicated that construct validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was

supported as the factor structure in the sample of California teachers, which was found to be

basically invariant from the sample of Massachusetts teachers in the Iwanicki and Schwab study.

Gold concluded in her study that the MBI "demonstrates factorial validity consistent with the

rationale for its three subscales" (p. 1016). Iwanicki and Schwab (1981) reported Cronbach

alpha reliability estimates of .90 for emotional exhaustion, .76 for depersonalization, and .76 for

personal accomplishment. Gold (1984) reported Cronbach alpha reliability estimates of .88, .74,

and .72, respectively. Factor loadings in the Gold study were consistent with the factor loadings

in the Iwanicki and Schwab study.

Boles, Dean, Ricks, Short, & Wang (2000) conducted a study to examine the

generalizability of the MBI to populations other than human services workers. They compared

two samples from educators and small business owners, analyzing data and relating the burnout









dimensions to stress-related variables identified in the literature. The first sample consisted of

183 elementary and high school teachers and administrators. The second sample consisted of

162 small business owners.

The three dimensions of burnout were measured with the MBI, with some modification in

wording on the depersonalization dimension to reflect interaction with employees and students

for the respective samples. Coefficient alphas of the Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization,

and Personal Accomplishment dimensions for the educators/ business owners were .89/.90,

.80/.70, and .76/.78, respectively. The results of the study support the generalization of the MBI

to occupational groups other than human services workers. The research suggests that even

though personnel in different fields have dissimilar stressors, the results appear to be similar.

The Maslach Burnout Inventory can be generalized to occupational groups other than human

service groups (Boles et al., 2000). Although the stressors among educators and small business

owners were different, the patterns of correlations among the burnout dimensions of emotional

exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment were found to be similar.

Humor Styles Questionnaire

Humor can be viewed as a multifaceted construct that consists of cognitive ability,

aesthetic response, habitual behavior patterns, emotion-related traits, positive attitude, and

perspective during adversity. The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) was developed to assess

four dimensions of the function of humor in daily life. Two of the dimensions are considered to

be positively related to well-being: Affiliative Humor and Self-Enhancing Humor. The other

two dimensions are considered to be negatively related to well-being: Aggressive Humor and

Self-Defeating Humor.

During the initial development of the scale, a pool of 111 items was generated and

examined in a study involving 117 psychology students at the University of Western Ontario.









Participants in the study also completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability (MCSD) Scale

to assess response to test items in a desirable manner. Standard deviations were reviewed,

resulting in the removal of one item. Item correlations were examined resulting in the removal

of 16 items from the scale. Items were then compared with total correlation to the other three

humor scale totals, as well as being compared with the MCSD. This comparison was done to

minimize intercorrelations among the four humor scales. Thirty-seven items were eliminated

based on the analysis of item correlation. Additional items were generated resulting in a new

pool of 96 items. These items were examined in a study involving two samples of participants.

The first sample consisted of 165 introductory psychology students; the second sample consisted

of 93 organizational members in a senior continuing education program. Analysis from this

study resulted in choosing 15 items to measure each of the four humor scales. The Cronbach

alpha reliability on these scales ranged from .82 to .88.

Additional scale refinement was conducted based on data collected from 485 participants.

Each participant was administered the 60 items with the goal to refine the instrument to 8 items

per scale. Items were retained with high corrected item-total correlation with the designated

scale and weak correlation with the other three scales. Redundancy among items was reduced

while retaining specific negatively keyed items. Internal consistencies of the four scales showed

Cronbach alphas ranging from .77 to .81 and test-retest correlations of .80 to .85.

Two additional samples of participants were chosen to replicate the factor structure of the

final version. Participants included 300 students (131 male, 169 female, mean age of 19.7 years)

from the Introductory Psychology subject pool, and 152 participants (46 male, 106 female, mean

age of 39.1 years) from the general community. This created a total of 452 participants (177

male, 275 female) to be used for cross-validation. Affiliative Humor showed a mean of 46.4 with









a standard deviation of 7.17. Self-Enhancing Humor showed a mean of 37.3 with a standard

deviation of 8.33. Aggressive Humor showed a mean of 28.5 with a standard deviation of 8.79.

Self-Defeating Humor showed a mean of 25.9 with a standard deviation of 9.22. Factor analysis

was conducted from all participants in all the samples who had completed the final set of 32

items during the scale development samples (n = 1,195). The factor loadings supported the four

dimensions of humor. Internal consistencies of the four scales showed Cronbach alphas ranging

from .77 to .81. Test-retest correlations ranged from .80 to .85.

Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir (2003) presented correlations studied between

the HSQ subscales and other humor-related measures. Significant multiple R correlations were

found, indicating that the subscales of the Humor Styles Questionnaire are strongly related to the

other existing measures of sense of humor. The Situational Humor Response Questionnaire

(SHRQ) measures the tendency to smile and laugh at a variety of situations (Martin & Lefcourt,

1984), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .47, p < .001. The Coping Humor Scale (CHS)

measures the tendency to use humor as a coping mechanism (Martin & Lefcourt, 1983), and was

correlated with the HSQ at r =.62, p < .001. The Sense of Humor Questionnaire (SHQ-6)

measures the tendency to notice and enjoy humor in daily life (Svebak, 1996), and was

correlated with the HSQ at r = .63, p < .001. The Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale

(MSHS) measures a range of behaviors and attitudes that are related to humor (Thorson &

Powell, 1993), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .67, p < .001. The COPE Inventory

(Carver et al., 1989) measures the degree to which participants utilize different coping strategies

to deal with life stress. The humor dimension on the COPE Inventory was correlated with the

HSQ at r = .61, p < .001. The State-Trait Cheerfulness Inventory (STCI) measures cheerfulness,

seriousness, and bad mood, (Ruch, Kohler, & van Thriel, 1996). The cheerfulness dimension









was correlated with the HSQ at r = .75, p < .001. The serious dimension was correlated with the

HSQ at r = .47, p < .001. The bad mood dimension was correlated with the HSQ at r = .56,

p <.001.

Martin et al., (2003) also showed the relationships that the Humor Styles Questionnaire has

with other measures of aspects of psychological health and well-being. The Center for

Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale is a 20-item measure of symptoms of

depression (Radloff, 1977), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .43, p < .001. The Cook-

Medley Hostility (CMHS) Scale is a 50-item measure of anger, resentment, and hostility (Cook

& Medley, 1954), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .43, p < .001. The Symptom

Checklist-90-R (SCL-90R) is a 90-item inventory measuring psychological and physical

symptoms (Derogatis, 1977), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .35, p < .001. The Social

Support Questionnaire (SSQ) is a 6-item measure reporting satisfaction with social support

(Sarason, Levine, Basham, & Sarason, 1983), and was correlated with the HSQ at

r = .38, p < .001. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is a 20-item measure of tendencies

for experiencing anxiety and nervousness (Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1969), and was

correlated with the HSQ at r = .46, p < .001. The Index of Self-Esteem (ISE) is a 25-item

measure of self-esteem (Hudson, 1982), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .51, p < .001.

The Miller Social Intimacy Scale (MSIS) is a 17-item scale that measures closeness and intimacy

with another individual (Miller & Lefcourt, 1982), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .33,

p < .001. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSEI) is a 10-item measure of positive self-

esteem (Rosenberg, 1965), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .49, p < .001. The Buss-Perry

Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) is a 29-item measure of physical aggression, verbal

aggression, anger, and hostility (Buss & Perry, 1992), and was correlated with the HSQ at









r = .47, p < .001. The Life Orientation Test (LOT) is a 12-item measure of optimism (Scheier &

Carver, 1985), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .43, p < .001. The Ryff measure of

psychological well-being is an 84-item inventory with scales for self-acceptance, positive

relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose, and personal growth (Ryff,

1989), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .61, p < .001. Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray,

& Weir (2003) found that the correlations for the HSQ were considerably stronger than those

found using previous humor scales. Assessing both harmful and favorable uses of humor

appears to result in greater proportion of variance with the various aspects of psychological well-

being.

COPE Inventory

The COPE Inventory is a 60-item survey that measures 15 coping strategies. They

include: (a) active coping, (b) planning, (c) suppression of competing activities, (d) restraint

coping, (e) seeking social support--instrumental, (f) seeking social support--emotional, (g) focus

on and venting of emotions, (h) behavioral disengagement, (i) mental disengagement, (j) positive

reinterpretation and growth, (k) denial, (1) acceptance, (m) religion, (n) alcohol-drug

disengagement, and (o) humor. The instrument was subdivided into multiple factors because

Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) believed that coping was more complex and a variety of

ways exists to solve problems and regulate emotions (Schwarzer & Schwarzer, 1996).

Through the process of developing the COPE Inventory, item sets were administered to

several hundred subjects, with revisions due to items with weak loadings, new items being

written, and the inventory readministered. In addition to items being revised, factor structure

was changed due to items loading on specific scales. The final item set was completed by group

sessions consisting of 978 undergraduates at the University of Miami. Test-retest reliability was

completed by 89 students in an initial session and in a retest session eight weeks later.









The undergraduates who completed the COPE Inventory were also given personality

measures to determine the differences in coping between optimism and pessimism. Carver,

Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) stated:

Because optimists have favorable expectations for their future, optimism should be
associated with Active Coping efforts and with making the best of whatever is
encountered. Because pessimists have unfavorable expectations for the future, pessimism
should be associated with focus on emotional distress and with disengagement. (p. 274)

In a study of female counselors who work with sexual violence survivors, the four

strategies most often used for coping by counselors included: (a) seeking emotional support;

(b) planning; (c) seeking instrumental social support; and (d) humor. Those most often used

were also associated with lower levels of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

The three strategies least often used for coping included: (a) using alcohol or drugs; (b) denial;

and (c) behavioral disengagement (Schauben & Frazier, 1995).

Phelps and Jarvis (1994) conducted a study using the COPE Inventory with 484

participants (male = 260, female = 224) including high school students ranging from 9th through

12th grades. Their study extended the work of Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) by reporting

internal reliability, factorial validity, and normative data on the COPE Inventory. The means on

the 15 dimensions ranged from 10.71 for females and 10.00 for males on the Acceptance

dimension to 5.26 for males and 4.35 for females on the Alcohol-Drug Disengagement

dimension. Standard deviations ranged from 4.03 on the Religion dimension for females to 1.32

on the Alcohol-Drug Disengagement dimension for males. Cronbach alphas on the dimensions

ranged from .87 on the Religion dimension to .51 on the Mental Disengagement dimension. The

Cronbach alpha for the Humor dimension was .82.

Cronbach and Meehl (1955) stated, "If two tests are presumed to measure the same

construct, a correlation between them is predicted" (p. 287). Benson and Hagtvet (1996) noted









that validity studies are "continually needed as our interpretation of the trait can change due to

changes in social or cultural conditions. Thus, for a scale to remain valid over time, its validity

must be reestablished periodically" (p. 84). Clark, Bormann, Cropanzano, and James (1995)

conducted a study to investigate the construct validity of three coping scales: the Coping Strategy

Indicator ([CSI]; Amirkhan, 1990); the Ways of Coping-Revised ([WOC]; Folkman & Lazarus,

1985); and the COPE Inventory ([COPE]; Carver et al., 1989). Three scales across the measures

were evaluated for relationships: Problem-Solving; Seeking Social Support; and Avoidance. The

analysis of their results indicated "that the three measures contain factors which tap similar

constructs showing high levels of congruence" (Clark et al., 1995, p. 446). Upon examination of

the COPE Inventory, Clark, Bormann, Cropanzano, & James found that the 15-factor structure

was supported, and fit better than the alternative model with the 3-factor structure: Active

Coping and Planning; Seeking Emotional Social Support; and Seeking Instrumental Social

Support.

Data Collection

The sample for this study was a random sampling of public elementary schools generated

from a list of 759 elementary schools obtained from the Florida Department of Education (DOE)

website http://www.fldoe.org. The random sample of 400 principals from across Florida was

generated from this list by using a random integer generator. The random integer generator

website was: http://www.random.org/nform.html. Four hundred numbers were generated and

matched to schools on the DOE list. A list of public elementary school principals matching this

list of schools was obtained from the website for the Florida Department of Education. Surveys

were mailed to 399 participants instead of the original 400 because one school had to be omitted

from the study. The researcher gave each participant the following items: an explanation of the

study; a statement of confidentiality; instructions for completing the study instruments; the









survey instruments; and a self-addressed stamped envelope for returning the completed

instruments.

According to the instructions, study participants completed the demographic sheet, the

Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory.

Participants were asked to submit their responses within two weeks. Participants were told that

by completing the survey, they agreed to take part in the study. Each participant was assigned a

random code that was printed on the return envelope included with the survey instruments. This

random code was used to track survey responses. After the deadline date passed to complete the

survey, an additional mailing was sent to those participants who failed to respond. The random

codes were stored separately from the survey responses to maintain the participants'

confidentiality and anonymity.

Data Analyses

The computer software used in analyzing the data was Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences (SPSS) (Norusis, 1990). The dependent variable--the level of burnout among public

elementary school principals--was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The

independent variable--the self-perceived use of humor as a coping mechanism--was measured by

the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the COPE Inventory. Other coping mechanisms were

measured with the COPE Inventory.

To answer the research questions, means and standard deviations were calculated between

the three Maslach Burnout Dimensions and the demographic variables. Correlations were

computed between the dependent variable burnout, the demographic variables, the COPE

Inventory variables, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire variables. Cronbach alphas for this

study were calculated for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions, the Humor Styles

Questionnaire dimensions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis









was conducted for the Maslach Burnout Inventory scales, the Humor Styles Questionnaire scales,

and the COPE Inventory scales.

Regression analysis was conducted using the forward block entry method to analyze three

different models. In the forward block entry method, a block of variables is entered as a block

for the independent variable. After this block is entered, a separate block of variables is then

entered as another independent variable. The blocks of variables are entered into the regression

model to predict variance in the dependent variable. The first block calculates variance in the

dependent variable, and then the next block of variables is entered into the analysis. This results

in another prediction of the variance in the dependent variable. The procedure is repeated until

all chosen variable blocks are entered into the regression model. Collinearity information was

analyzed to determine correlation between independent variables.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND ANALYSES OF DATA

This chapter presents the data analyses based on the research questions. This study

investigated the use of humor as a coping mechanism among public elementary school principals

in relation to Maslach's (1982) theory of burnout. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to

measure the dependent variable--the level of burnout. The Humor Styles Questionnaire and the

COPE Inventory were used to measure the independent variable--the self-perceived use of

humor. The COPE Inventory was also employed to measure the self-perceived use of other

coping mechanisms.

Response Rate

The computer software used in analyzing the data was Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences (SPSS). Surveys were mailed to 399 participants instead of the original 400 because

one school had to be omitted from the study. Each participant was assigned a random code that

was printed on the return envelope included with the survey instruments. This random code was

used to track survey responses. After the deadline date passed to complete the survey, an

additional mailing was sent to those participants who failed to respond. A total of 136 surveys

were returned for a response rate of 34%. The participants who identified their demographic

information totaled 135 (Table 4-1). Demographic information included: gender, degree status,

the number of years as a school principal, the number of years as an educator, student population

within the school, the percentage of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) students in the

participants' schools, the percentage of Exceptional Student Education (ESE) students in the

participants' schools, and the percentage of students enrolled in the Free and Reduced Lunch

program at the participants' schools.









One survey had missing responses for demographic information. Eight surveys had a

missing response for one item. Two surveys had missing responses for three items. One survey

had missing responses for the second page of the COPE Inventory. Two surveys had no

responses for the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

Downey and King (1998) indicated that researchers can increase power and accuracy of

the analyses by replacing missing survey data. Listwise deletion eliminates all data from a

participant having missing data for any one test. Pairwise deletion excludes cases involving

variables for which data are missing, while still using information for other variables with data

collected. Roth (1994) found that "mean substitution can be more accurate than listwise deletion

and, as often as not, is as accurate as pairwise deletion" (p. 541). Roth and Switzer (1995)

indicated that the mean substitution approach preserves data that would otherwise be lost to both

listwise deletion and pairwise deletion. The series mean data replacement function in SPSS was

used to generate values for all items missing responses, with the exception of the missing

demographic information in one survey.

Data Analyses

Table 4-1 lists the means and standard deviations between the three Maslach Burnout

Dimensions and the demographic variables. Higher levels of Emotional Exhaustion and

Depersonalization, combined with lower levels of Personal Accomplishment suggest higher

burnout levels. Lower levels of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, combined with

higher levels of Personal Accomplishment suggest lower burnout levels.

The Humor Styles Questionnaire dimensions are presented in Table 4-2. Using the mean

scores that were reported by participants, humor styles were used in the following order from

most frequent to least frequent: Affiliative Humor, Self-Enhancing Humor, Self-Defeating









Humor, and Aggressive Humor. Affiliative Humor and Self-Enhancing Humor were reported as

being used more than Aggressive Humor and Self-Defeating Humor.

According to the descriptive statistics for the COPE Inventory, Planning, Positive

Reinterpretation and Growth, and Active Coping were the three most reported coping

mechanisms used (Table 4-2). Denial, Behavioral Disengagement, and Substance Use were the

three least reported coping mechanisms used. Using the mean scores that were reported by

participants, coping mechanisms were used in the following order from most frequent to least

frequent: Planning, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, Active Coping, Instrumental Social

Support, Restraint, Acceptance, Religious Coping, Suppression of Competing Activities,

Emotional Social Support, Humor, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Mental Disengagement,

Behavioral Disengagement, Denial, and Substance Use.

Correlations were computed between the dependent variable burnout, the demographic

variables, the COPE Inventory variables, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire variables

(Table 4-3). The only significant correlations with burnout were: the demographic variables ESE

Population (r = .18, p = .04) and Free/Reduced Population (r = .18, p = .03); the Humor Styles

Questionnaire variables Self-Enhancing Humor (r = -.22, p = .01), Aggressive Humor (r = .27,

p = .00), and Self-Defeating Humor (r = .25, p = .00); and the COPE Inventory variables Mental

Disengagement (r = .21, p = .02), Focus on and Venting of Emotions (r = .36, p = .00),

Behavioral Disengagement (r = .20, p = .02), and Substance Use (r =. 17, p = .04). All of the

correlations are positive, with the exception of the correlation between Self-Enhancing Humor

and Burnout. The correlations are weak, possibly affected by the small sample size of this study.

Cronbach alphas for this sample were calculated for the Maslach Burnout Inventory

dimensions, the Humor Styles Questionnaire dimensions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions,









and are shown in Table 4-4. The alphas for the Maslach Burnout Inventory ranged from a = .92

for Emotional Exhaustion to a = .65 for Depersonalization. Through confirmatory factor

analysis, the Depersonalization scale was reduced by removing items 5, 15, and 22, resulting in

an improved alpha, a = .75. The Personal Accomplishment scale had an alpha of a= .70, but

formed two dimensions through factor analysis. Scale reduction by removing items 4, 7, and 21,

improved the alpha to a = .71, with factors loading on one dimension.

Cronbach alphas for the Humor Styles Questionnaire dimensions ranged from a = .82 for

Affiliative Humor to a = .64 for Aggressive Humor. The Self-Enhancing Humor scale was

reduced by removing items 2 and 22, increasing the alpha from a= .80 a= .81. The Aggressive

Humor dimension loaded onto two separate dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated

that no items could be removed to improve the alpha. Self-Defeating Humor scale was reduced

by removing items 16 and 28, resulting in items loading on one scale while maintaining an alpha

of a =.80.

Cronbach alphas for the COPE Inventory Dimensions ranged from a = .97 for Religious

Coping to a = .23 for Mental Disengagement. Scale reduction for the dimension Positive

Reinterpretation and Growth by removing items 1 and 59 improved the alpha from a = .66 to

a =.70.

The scales Mental Disengagement, Active Coping, Denial, Behavioral Disengagement,

Acceptance, and Suppression of Competing Activities were eliminated from further analysis and

not used in the regression model due to the reliability levels indicated by the Cronbach alphas.

Scale reduction for the dimension Mental Disengagement by the removal of items 2 and 31

resulted in the alpha increasing from .23 to .38. Scale reduction for the dimension Active

Coping by the removal of item 47 resulted in the alpha increasing from .39 to .47. Removal of









any of the other items resulted in the alpha going back down to .42. Scale reduction for the

dimension Denial by the removal of item 27 resulted in the alpha increasing from .48 to .52.

Removal of item 6 increased the alpha from .52 to .56. Removal of any more items from this

scale did not increase the alpha any further. Scale reduction for the dimension Behavioral

Disengagement by the removal of any items only resulted in the alpha going down from .54 to

.51. Scale reduction for the dimension Acceptance by the removal of item 44 only resulted in the

alpha increasing from .60 to .61. Removal of any further items resulted in the alpha decreasing

from .61 to .58. Scale reduction for the dimension Suppression of Competing Activities by the

removal of item 15 resulted in the alpha increasing from .36 to .41. Removal of item 42 resulted

in the alpha increasing from .41 to .49. Removal of any more items from the scale did not result

in the alpha increasing any further.

Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for the Maslach Burnout Inventory scales, the

Humor Styles Questionnaire scales, and the COPE Inventory scales (Tables 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, and

4-7). Scale reduction resulted in the following altered scales: Depersonalization scale reduced by

removing items 5, 15, and 22; Personal Accomplishment scale reduced by removing items 4, 7,

and 21; Self-Enhancing Humor scale reduced by removing items 2 and 22; Self-Defeating

Humor scale reduced by removing 16 and 28. The Positive Reinterpretation and Growth scale

was combined with the Planning scale with the reduction of removing item 29, resulting in a

higher alpha (a = .76). The Instrumental Social Support scale was joined with the Emotional

Social Support scale with the reduction of removing item 14, resulting in a higher alpha

(a =.84).

Regression analysis was conducted using the forward block entry method to analyze three

different models (Table 4-8). In the forward block entry method, a block of variables is entered









as a group of independent variables. After this block is entered, a second block of variables is

then entered as another set of independent variables. The blocks of variables are entered into the

regression model to predict variance in the dependent variable. The first block contributes to

explaining a proportion of variance in the dependent variable, and then the next block of

variables is entered into the analysis. This results in additional variance explained in the

dependent variable. The procedure is repeated until all variable blocks have been entered into

the regression model. The first block of variables chosen to be entered into the regression model

were the demographic variables. These were chosen first to determine if they could significantly

predict variance in the dependent variable burnout. The following demographic variables were

included in the block: Free/Reduced Population, Degree, Gender, ESE Population, Years as a

Principal, Student Population, LEP Population, and Years as an Educator. The first block entry

did not significantly explain the variance in the dependent variable burnout.

The second block entry of variables added into the regression model were the following

COPE Inventory variables: Substance Use, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with

Planning, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Restraint, Instrumental Social Support joined with

Emotional Social Support, and Religious Coping. These COPE Inventory variables were chosen

to be included in the regression model due to the alpha levels that were described in Table 4-4.

This regression model resulted in an r2 change of .12 with a significance level of .01, with the

predictors in this model responsible for explaining 21% of the variance in the dependent variable

burnout.

The third block of variables added into the regression model was the Humor variable from

the COPE Inventory, and the following Humor Style Questionnaire variables: Self-Enhancing

Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, Humor, Affiliative Humor, and Aggressive Humor. This model









resulted in an r2 change of. 10 with a significance level of .01, with the predictors in the whole

model responsible for explaining 31% of the variance in the dependent variable burnout.

The ANOVA table (Table 4-9) supports the significant findings reported in Table 4-8.

Both the second and third model showed that the blocks of independent variables are

significantly predicting the variance in the dependent variable burnout. The high residual values

found in this table indicate that despite the significance found for the predictors in model 2 and

model 3, much of the variance is not explained by the predictors in the model. This could be a

result of: the limitation of the small sample size of this study, the removal of some of the scales

from the study, the limitation of possible inaccuracies in self-reporting found in social science

research, and the limitation of other predictors not easily measured.

Collinearity information is presented in Table 4-10. "Collinearity refers to the situation in

which there is a high multiple correlation when one of the independent variables is regressed on

the others (i.e., when there is a high correlation between independent variables) (Norusis, 1990,

p. 50). After finding collinearity in the regression, several scales that provided similar

information were combined, resulting in higher alphas (Table 4-4). The COPE Inventory scale

Positive Reinterpretation and Growth (a = .70) was joined with the scale Planning (a = .68),

resulting in a higher alpha (a = .76). The COPE Inventory scale Independent Social Support

(a = .72) was joined with the scale Emotional Social Support (a = .82), resulting in a higher

alpha (a = .84). After combining the scales, a principal components regression was performed.

The tolerance of the variables is used to measure collinearity. Small tolerance measures

indicate linear combination of other independent variables. The variance inflation factor (VIF) is

the reciprocal of the tolerance. High variance inflation factor measures indicate linear

combination of other independent variables. The variance inflation factors supported combining









the COPE Inventory scales: Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning; and

Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social Support.

The beta value indicates the relative ability to predict the amount of change in the

dependent variable based on one standard deviation of change in an independent variable. The

beta value of statistically significant variables in Table 4-10 was used to determine the relative

importance of each variable in the regression model. The individual dimensions of Humor,

Affiliative Humor, and Aggressive Humor were not found to be significant based on the beta

value, however, Self-Enhancing Humor and Self-Defeating Humor were shown to be significant

in predicting burnout. Self-Enhancing Humor was found to be the strongest variable in

predicting burnout, 0 = -.28. The prediction made by this independent variable indicates that as

Self-Enhancing Humor is used a coping mechanism, burnout level scores are predicted to

decrease. The second strongest variable in predicting burnout is Focus on and Venting of

Emotions, 0 = .26. The prediction made by this independent variable indicates that as Focus on

and Venting of Emotions is used as a coping mechanism, burnout level scores are predicted to

increase. The third strongest independent variable in predicting burnout was Self-Defeating

Humor, 0 = .19. The prediction made by this independent variable indicates that as Self-

Defeating Humor is used as a coping mechanism, burnout level scores are predicted to increase.

Correlations between the independent variables in the regression model were presented in

Table 4-11. Significant correlations were found between the demographic variables and the

other variables in the regression model: Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Free/Reduced

Population, Religious Coping, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning,

Restraint, Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, and Aggressive Humor. Significant correlations were

found between the COPE Inventory variables in the regression model and the other variables:









ESE Population, Free/Reduced Population, Gender, LEP Population, Years as an Educator, Self-

Enhancing Humor, Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, Aggressive Humor, and Affiliative Humor.

Significant correlations were found between the Humor Styles Questionnaire variables in the

regression model and the other variables: Gender, Degree, Years as an Educator, Student

Population, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Support, Positive

Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, and

Religious Coping.









Table 4-1. Means and standard deviations for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions with
the demographic variables
Emotional Personal
Exhaustion Depersonalization Accomplishment
n Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Overall 136 15.55 10.63 2.52 3.00 42.85 4.64
Gender
Male 30 15.70 12.24 3.33 3.70 41.70 5.38
Female 105 15.54 10.23 2.30 2.76 43.14 4.39
Degree
Master 82 14.96 11.03 2.10 2.69 43.16 4.64
Specialist 22 18.68 12.08 4.32 4.05 40.32 4.95
Doctorate 31 15.00 8.27 2.42 2.54 43.71 3.94
Student Population
Less than 500 19 20.32 15.78 3.74 4.45 41.53 6.63
501 to 750 50 14.44 9.28 2.10 2.27 42.58 4.27
751 to 1,000 47 14.47 9.07 2.04 2.52 43.47 3.74
1,001 to 1,500 17 16.94 10.99 4.00 3.71 42.76 5.51
1,501 or more 2 13.50 14.85 1.00 1.41 46.50 0.71
Years as a Principal
Less than 5 years 46 17.13 10.88 3.17 3.26 42.93 4.19
5 to 10years 47 15.38 10.16 1.94 2.24 42.96 5.20
11 to 15 years 22 15.41 11.81 2.41 2.54 42.50 4.43
16 to 20 years 7 13.29 7.95 .57 .79 45.00 2.71
More than 20 years 13 12.31 11.37 3.69 4.85 41.31 5.31
Years as an Educator
5 to 10years 5 13.40 4.16 1.60 1.14 41.80 2.95
11 to 15 years 13 20.38 12.64 4.46 3.69 41.77 5.17
16 to 20 years 19 18.89 10.96 2.84 3.61 42.79 4.44
More than 20 years 98 14.41 10.36 2.27 2.78 43.02 4.72
LEP Population
0% to25% 78 15.82 11.15 2.63 3.06 42.40 5.22
26% to 50% 42 14.45 9.16 1.93 2.47 43.67 3.44
51% to 75% 11 20.73 12.47 4.73 3.98 41.82 4.45
76% to 100% 4 8.50 6.03 1.00 0.82 45.00 3.56
ESE Population
0% to 25% 106 14.47 9.46 2.25 2.79 42.75 4.91
26% to 50% 28 20.18 13.58 3.64 3.58 42.93 3.55
51% to 75% 1 4.00 ---- 1.00 ---- 48.00 ----
Free/Reduced Population
0% to 25% 24 13.25 8.75 2.21 2.77 43.58 4.98
26% to 50% 30 13.60 8.23 2.33 2.71 43.53 4.44
51% to 75% 39 15.28 10.24 2.36 3.08 43.33 4.99
76% to 100% 42 18.60 12.96 3.02 3.30 41.40 4.08









Table 4-2. Descriptive statistics for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions, the Humor
Styles Questionnaire dimensions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions
n Mean SD


Maslach Burnout Inventory Dimensions
Emotional Exhaustion
Depersonalization
Personal Accomplishment
Humor Styles Questionnaire Dimensions
Affiliative Humor
Self-Enhancing Humor
Aggressive Humor
Self-Defeating Humor
COPE Inventory Dimensions
Positive Reinterpretation and Growth
Mental Disengagement
Focus on and Venting of Emotions
Instrumental Social Support
Active Coping
Denial
Religious Coping
Humor
Behavioral Disengagement
Restraint
Emotional Social Support
Substance Use
Acceptance
Suppression of Competing Activities
PlanninQ


15.55
2.52
42.85

45.47
41.90
21.77
22.71

13.66
7.52
7.89
12.58
12.91
4.73
10.65
9.79
4.97
10.79
10.31
4.30
10.78
10.36
1443


10.63
3.00
4.64

8.05
7.88
7.60
9.25

1.83
1.76
2.57
2.30
1.86
1.27
4.67
3.29
1.41
2.57
2.98
.88
2.31
1.90
1 64


Table 4-3. Correlations among burnout and demographic variables, Humor Styles Questionnaire
variables, and COPE Inventory variables
Burnout
Variable r Sig.


n=135
ESE Population
Free/Reduced Population
n=136
Self-Enhancing Humor
Aggressive Humor
Self-Defeating Humor
Mental Disengagement
Focus on and Venting of Emotions
Behavioral Disengagement
Substance Use
Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level
0.05 level (2-tailed).


.04*
.03*


-.22 .01**
.27 .00**
.25 .00**
.21 .02*
.36 .00**
.20 .02*
.17 .04*
(2-tailed). *Correlation is significant at the









Table 4-4. Cronbach alphas for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions, the Humor Styles
Questionnaire dimensions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions

Maslach Burnout Inventory Dimensions
Emotional Exhaustion .92
Depersonalizationa .75
Personal Accomplishmentb .70
Humor Styles Questionnaire Dimensions
Affiliative Humor .82
Self-Enhancing Humor' .81
Aggressive Humord .64
Self-Defeating Humore .80
COPE Inventory Dimensions
Positive Reinterpretation and Growthf .70
Mental Disengagementd .23
Focus on and Venting of Emotions .78
Instrumental Social Support .72
Active Copingd .39
Deniald .48
Religious Coping .97
Humor .90
Behavioral Disengagementd .54
Restraint .71
Emotional Social Support .82
Substance Use .78
Acceptance .60
Suppression of Competing Activitiesd .39
Planning .68
Positive Reinterpretation and Growth .76
joined with Planningg
Instrumental Social Support joined with .84
Emotional Social Supporth
Note. aScale reduction removed items 5, 15, and 22; bScale reduction removed items 4, 7, and
21; cScale reduction removed items 2 and 22; dScale was removed from further analysis due to
the reliability indicated by the alpha level; eScale reduction removed items 16 and 28; fScale
reduction removed items 29 and 38; gCombined the two scales. Scale reduction removed item 29.
hCombined the two scales. Scale reduction removed item 14.









Table 4-5. Confirmatory factor loadings for the Maslach Burnout Inventory scales
Item 1 2 3
Emotional Exhaustion
1 .84
2 .77
3 .83
6 .76
8 .88
13 .79
16 .76
20 .82
Depersonalization
10 .89
11 .89
Personal Accomplishment
9 .74
12 .67
17 .69
18 .56
19 .74









Table 4-6. Confirmatory factor loadings for Humor Styles Questionnaire scales
Item 1 2 3 4
Affiliative Humor
1 .59
5 .71
9 .62
13 .75
17 .78
21 .72
25 .70
29 .60
Self-Enhancing Humor
2 .59
6 .68
10 .74
14 .67
18 .72
22 .50
26 .69
30 .67
Aggressive Humor
3 .49
7 .47
11 .58
15 .48
19 .51
23 .60
27 .59
31 .58
Self-Defeating Humor
4 .73
8 .82
12 .69
16 .46
20 .77
24 .58
28 .46
32 .72









Table 4-7. Confirmatory factor loadings for COPE Inventory scales
COPE Inventory Dimensions
Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Positive Reinterpretation and Growth
1 .88
59 .88
Mental Disengagement
16 .79


12 13 14 15


Focus on and Venting of Emotions
3 .77
17 .82
28 .76
46 .75
Instrumental Social Support
4 .76
14 .68
30 .70
45 .80
Active Coping
5 .7
25 .6!
58 .7'
Denial
40
57
Religious Coping
7
18
48
60
Humor
8
20
36
50
Behavioral Disengagement
9
24
37
51
Restraint
10
22
41
49









Table 4-7. Continued
COPE Inventory Dimensions
Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Emotional Social Support
11 .78
23 .85
34 .74
52 .86
Substance Use
12 .74
26 .88
35 .84
53 .71
Acceptance
13 .64
21 .74
44 .54
54 .77
Suppression of Competing Activities
33 .81
55 .81
Planning
19 .70
32 .77
39 .59
56 .78
Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning
1 .70
38 .64
59 .73
19 .66
32 .62
39 .62
56 .68
Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social Support
4 .66
30 .63
45 .68
11 .75
23 .77
34 .64
52 .86









Table 4-8. Regression model summary for dependent variable Burnout (Emotional Exhaustion +
Depersonalization)
Std.
Error R Sig
Adjusted of Square of F F
Model R R Square R Square Estimate Change Change dfl df2 Change
1 .306a .09 .04 12.43 .09 1.63 8 126 .122
2 .461b .21 .12 11.87 .12 3.01 6 120 .009**
3 .555c .31 .19 11.37 .10 3.17 5 115 .010**
Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). apredictors: (Constant),
Free/Reduced Population, Degree, Gender, ESE Population, Years as a Principal, Student
Population, LEP Population, Years as an Educator. bPredictors: apredictors combined with
Substance Use, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning, Focus on and
Venting of Emotions, Restraint, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social
Support, Religious Coping. PPredictors: bPredictors combined with Self-Enhancing Humor, Self-
Defeating Humor, Humor, Affiliative Humor, Aggressive Humor.

Table 4-9. Regression ANOVA for dependent variable Burnout (Emotional Exhaustion +
Depersonalization)
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 2016.69 8 252.09 1.63 .122a
Residual 19456.64 126 154.42
Total 21473.33 134
2 Regression 4564.40 14 326.03 2.31 .007b**
Residual 16908.94 120 140.91
Total 21473.33 134
3 Regression 6612.92 19 348.05 2.69 .001c**
Residual 14860.41 115 129.22
Total 21473.33 134
Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). apredictors: (Constant),
Free/Reduced Population, Degree, Gender, ESE Population, Years as a Principal, Student
Population, LEP Population, Years as an Educator. bPredictors: apredictors combined with
Substance Use, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning, Focus on and
Venting of Emotions, Restraint, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social
Support, Religious Coping. PPredictors: bPredictors combined with Self-Enhancing Humor, Self-
Defeating Humor, Humor, Affiliative Humor, Aggressive Humor.









Table 4-10. Regression analysis coefficients for dependent variable Burnout (Emotional
Exhaustion + Depersonalization)
Unstandardized Standardized Colline
Coefficients Coefficients Statisti
Model B Std. Beta t Sig. Toleranc
3 (Constant) -4.55 16.12 -.28 .78
Gender -1.22 2.76 -.04 -.44 .66 .73
Degree -.31 1.26 -.02 -.25 .80 .87
Student Population -.71 1.22 -.05 -.58 .56 .74
Years as a Principal -.48 .96 -.05 -.50 .62 .67
Years as an Educator .22 1.58 .01 .14 .89 .58
LEP Population .15 1.65 .01 .09 .93 .60
ESE Population 4.14 2.36 .14 1.75 .08 .91
Free/Reduced .44 1.24 .04 .35 .73 .53
Population


Focus on and
Venting of Emotions
Religious Coping
Restraint
Substance Use


1.28 .49

.18 .26
.13 .45
2.27 1.30


Instrumental and -.19
Emotional Social Support
Positive .28
Reinterpretation
and Growth joined
with Planning
Self-Enhancing -.45
Humor
Self-Defeating .26
Humor
Affiliative Humor .00


arity
cs
e VIF


1.38
1.15
1.35
1.49
1.72
1.67
1.09
1.89


2.64 .01** .62 1.62


.70
.29
1.75
-.72


.26


1.53
1.37
1.19
1.56


.62 .54 .62 1.62


-2.78 .01**

1.95 .05*


.16


Humor .38 .38
Aggressive Humor .18 .17
Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01
0.05 level (2-tailed).


.00
.10
.11
level (2-tailed).


.59 1.68

.65 1.53


.02 .98 .60 1.68
1.00 .32 .62 1.61
1.06 .29 .59 1.70
*Correlation is significant at the











Table 4-11. Correlation matrix for regression model variables
Variable
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
1 1.00
2 .01 1.00
3 .17 .18* 1.00
4 .08 .19* .05 1.00
5 -.12 .03 .06 -.03 1.00
6 .03 .28** .49** -.06 .20* 1.00
7 .34** .21* .38** .09 -.02 .29** 1.00
8 .21* .42** .10 .15 .00 .02 .30** 1.00
9 .09 .12 -.17 .12 -.28** -.18* -.05 .13 1.00
10 .27** -.01 -.13 .10 .00 -.28** .07 .28** .34** 1.00
11 .10 .00 .10 .00 -.01 .05 .22* .07 -.15 .02 1.00
12 .07 -.08 -.07 -.02 -.01 -.10 -.06 -.10 -.05 -.03 .07 1.00
13 .03 .15 -.20* .03 .03 -.22* -.04 .16 .17* .22* -.06 -.09 1.00
14 -.09 .20* .01 .08 .12 .06 .04 .00 .20* -.08 -.30** -.08 -.02 1.00
15 .14 -.09 -.11 -.02 -.04 -.13 -.06 11 .13 .37** -.12 -.08 .12 -.22* 1.00
16 .04 .05 .13 -.06 .05 .20* .26** -.02 -.01 .02 .11 .06 -.01 .01 -.01 1.00
17 .07 -.13 -.11 -.06 -.03 -.22* -.16 -.05 -.06 .05 -.04 .46** .28** -.18* .19* .02 1.00
18 .12 .05 -.11 .03 -.05 -.07 .12 .15 .21* .06 .09 -.13 .07 .48** -.12 -.06 -.12 1.00
19 .46** .25** .16 .01 -.10 .13 .34** .26** -.10 -.04 .12 .03 .02 -.02 -.18* .04 -.13 .12 1.00
Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *Correlation is significant at the
0.05 level (2-tailed). Numbers represent the following variables: 1 is Self-Enhancing Humor
(n=136); 2 is Focus on and Venting of Emotions (n=136); 3 is Self-Defeating Humor (n=136);
4 is ESE Population (n=135); 5 is Substance Use (n=136); 6 is Aggressive Humor (n=136); 7 is
Humor (n=136); 8 is Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Support (n=136); 9 is
Religious Coping (n=136); 10 is Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning
(n=136); 11 is Student Population (n=135); 12 is Years as a Principal (n=135); 13 is Gender
(n=135); 14 is Free/Reduced Population (n=135); 15 is Restraint (n=136); 16 is Degree (n=135);
17 is Years as an Educator (n=135); 18 is LEP Population (n=135); and 19 is Affiliative Humor
(n=136).









CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of humor compared to other coping

mechanisms in relation to Maslach's (1982) theory of burnout. Because of the rapid changes in

society, the school principal's job has become more challenging and demanding (Shumate,

1999). Schools are performing more tasks than in past decades. It is important for organizations

to understand burnout because its effects could seriously impact individuals and organizations

(Waugh & Judd, 2003). The ability to identify the level of burnout in administrators could

provide advance warning, signaling a developing problem. Principals experiencing high stress

levels reduce productivity throughout the school and contribute to a negative work environment

(Pahnos, 1990). When demands and pressure at work become overwhelming and exceed the

ability to cope, an individual is likely to reach a breaking point (Pines & Kafry, 1978).

This study provided knowledge that will help principals determine the relationship

between the use of humor as a coping mechanism and the level of burnout being experienced.

Promoting the well-being of employees should increase organizational productivity and

profitability (Keyes, Hysom, & Lupo, 2000). People who report higher levels of well-being are

more productive, are less prone to using leave time, and have a higher rate of employee

retention.

The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is recognized as the leading burnout measure.

High scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales, along with low scores

on the personal accomplishment subscale, show a high degree of burnout. Low scores on the

emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales, along with high scores on the personal

accomplishment subscale, reflect a low degree of burnout. Average scores on all three subscales

indicate an average degree of burnout.









The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) was developed to assess four dimensions of the

function of humor in daily life. Two of the dimensions are considered to be positively related to

well-being; the two other dimensions are considered to be negatively related to well-being.

The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associated with making funny comments and telling

jokes which facilitate relationships while reducing tension among others. The dimension of Self-

Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to

incongruities in life and using humor as a coping mechanism. The dimension of Aggressive

Humor is related to the use of humor to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and

disparagement. The dimension of Self-Defeating Humor is identified with the use of humor at

an individual's own expense through excessive humorous self-ridicule.

The COPE Inventory measures 15 coping strategies. They include: (a) active coping,

(b) planning, (c) suppression of competing activities, (d) restraint coping, (e) seeking social

support--instrumental, (f) seeking social support--emotional, (g) focus on and venting of

emotions, (h) behavioral disengagement, (i) mental disengagement, (j) positive reinterpretation

and growth, (k) denial, (1) acceptance, (m) religion, (n) alcohol-drug disengagement, and

(o) humor.

Active Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves taking direct action to remove

the stressor. Planning is a problem-focused strategy that involves thinking about the stressor and

how to cope with it. Suppression of Competing Activities is a problem-focused strategy that

involves putting aside or avoiding other tasks to be able to deal with the stressor. Restraint

Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves holding back for a more appropriate

opportunity to deal effectively with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Instrumental

Reasons is a problem-focused strategy of seeking outside assistance to deal with the stressor.









Seeking Social Support for Emotional Reasons is an emotion-focused strategy that involves

support from others to cope with the stressor. Positive Reinterpretation and GI thi1i is an

emotion-focused strategy where the individual manages emotional distress rather than the

stressor itself. Denial is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is ignored altogether.

Acceptance is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is accepted. Turning to Religion is

an emotion-focused strategy where the individual turns to religion as a means of coping with a

stressor.

Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) found the following three coping strategies appear to

be less useful as coping strategies: Focusing on and Venting of Emotions, a strategy whereby an

individual focuses on the stressor, and vents his emotions; Behavioral Disengagement, a strategy

that involves one reducing effort to deal with the stressor; and Mental Disengagement, a strategy

involving the use of mental distractions and activities to distract an individual from thinking

about the stressor, such as daydreaming or escaping through television.

Alcohol-Drug Disengagement is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on escaping the

stressor. Humor is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on relief from the stressor.

Summary of Findings

The results of this study indicate that participants perceive themselves to use the positive

dimensions of humor (Affiliative Humor, Self-Enhancing Humor) more than the negative

dimensions of humor (Self-Defeating Humor, Aggressive Humor). While the individual humor

scales showed low significance univariately, the block of humor scales together was significant,

with an r2 change indicating that humor was responsible for 10% of the variance in the dependent

variable burnout. Humor in general was found to be significant in predicting burnout.

Mean scores reported by participants in this study suggest coping mechanisms in the

COPE Inventory were used in the following order from most to least frequent: Planning, Positive









Reinterpretation and Growth, Active Coping, Instrumental Social Support, Restraint,

Acceptance, Religious Coping, Suppression of Competing Activities, Emotional Social Support,

Humor, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Mental Disengagement, Behavioral Disengagement,

Denial, and Substance Use, which shows some similarities to the study conducted by Phelps and

Jarvis (1994).

The following scales were reduced through scale reduction: Depersonalization, Personal

Accomplishment, Self-Enhancing Humor, and Self-Defeating Humor. Positive Reinterpretation

and Growth was combined with the Planning scale. The Instrumental Social Support scale was

joined with the Emotional Social Support scale. The scales Mental Disengagement, Active

Coping, Denial, Behavioral Disengagement, Acceptance, and Suppression of Competing

Activities were eliminated from further analysis and not used in the regression model because of

the reliability indicated by the Cronbach alpha levels.

In addition to Humor, Self-Enhancing Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, Aggressive Humor,

and Affiliative Humor, the following demographic variables were included in the regression

calculation: Free/Reduced Lunch Population, Degree, Gender, ESE Population, Years as a

Principal, Student Population, LEP Population, and Years as an Educator. The following COPE

Inventory variables were included in the regression calculation: Substance Use, Positive

Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Restraint,

Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social Support, and Religious Coping.

The COPE Inventory scale Positive Reinterpretation and Growth was joined with the scale

Planning after finding collinearity between these two variables in the regression calculation.

Both scales provided similar information, so the scales were combined. The COPE Inventory









scale Independent Social Support was joined with the scale Emotional Social Support after

finding collinearity in the regression calculation.

The beta value indicates the relative ability to predict the amount of change in the

dependent variable based on one standard deviation of change in an independent variable. The

beta value of statistically significant variables in Table 4-10 was used to determine the relative

importance of each variable in the regression model. Self-Enhancing Humor and Self-Defeating

Humor were shown to be significant in predicting burnout. Self-Enhancing Humor was found to

be the strongest variable in predicting burnout, 0 = -.28. The prediction made by this

independent variable indicates that as Self-Enhancing Humor is used a coping mechanism,

burnout level scores are predicted to decrease. The second strongest independent variable in

predicting burnout is Focus on and Venting of Emotions, 0 = .26. The prediction made by this

independent variable indicates that as Focus on and Venting of Emotions is used as a coping

mechanism, burnout level scores are predicted to increase. The third strongest independent

variable in predicting burnout was Self-Defeating Humor, 0 =. 19. The prediction made by this

independent variable indicates that as Self-Defeating Humor is used as a coping mechanism,

burnout level scores are predicted to increase.

This study had some limitations. Weak correlations could have been caused by the small

sample size of the study. The removal of some of the scales could have weakened the study.

There could have been possible inaccuracies in self-reporting that could affect the study. Other

predictors that are not easily measured could affect the study.

Conclusions

Data presented in the principal components regression resulted in the development of a

theoretical model for predicting burnout (Figure 5-1). A doughnut graph was created in

Microsoft Excel using the beta value data found in Table 4-10. Each independent variable is









represented by a proportional section based on the beta value measure. The center of the

doughnut graph is represented by the dependent variable, burnout, which was formulated through

the sum of the Emotional Exhaustion scale and the Depersonalization scale. The Personal

Accomplishment dimension has an inverse relationship to the Emotional Exhaustion and

Depersonalization dimensions. Maslach's theory indicated that all three dimensions are part of

the burnout construct. The model in Figure 5-1 proposes a revision in Maslach's theory:

Increasing burnout as measured by the combination of Emotional Exhaustion and

Depersonalization leads to a decline in Personal Accomplishment; decreasing burnout as

measured by the combination of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization leads to an

increase in Personal Accomplishment.

Each independent variable has an arrow pointing either toward the center or away from the

center. Arrows pointing away from the center indicate those variables that predict decreasing

burnout scores based on the use of those variables as coping mechanisms. Arrows pointing

toward the center indicate those variables that predict increasing burnout scores based on the use

of those variables as coping mechanisms.

Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing

amusement to incongruities in life and using humor as a coping mechanism. Self-Enhancing

Humor was the independent variable having the most significance in the regression model in

predicting decreasing levels of burnout. This study supports the use of Self-Enhancing Humor as

an effective coping mechanism.

Affiliative Humor is associated with making funny comments and telling jokes which

facilitate relationships while reducing tension among others. Affiliative Humor was found to









have a slight impact in predicting increasing levels of burnout. This study did not support the

use of Affiliative Humor as an effective coping mechanism.

Aggressive Humor is related to the use of humor to show superiority over others by

ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement. Aggressive Humor was found to predict increasing

levels of burnout. This study did not support the use of Aggressive Humor as an effective coping

mechanism.

Self-Defeating Humor is identified with the use of humor at an individual's own expense

through excessive humorous self-ridicule. Self-Defeating Humor was found to predict

increasing levels of burnout. This study did not support the use of Self-Defeating Humor as an

effective coping mechanism.

Suggestions for Further Research

1. In this study, the sample size for males was small. Males reported higher means for
burnout levels than females. Replication of this study with a larger sample size including
more males could be conducted to determine if burnout levels are different between males
and females. If so, why?

2. In this study, participants holding a specialist degree reported higher means for burnout
levels than those with a master's or doctorate degree. Research is needed with a larger
sample size to determine if degree type is related to burnout levels. If so, why?

3. In this study, principals with 16 to 20 years of principal experience reported the lowest
means for burnout levels, and those principals with 11 to 15 years of educator experience
reported the highest means for burnout levels. Research is needed to determine the
variables responsible for decreasing the likelihood of burnout as experienced educators
become experienced principals.

4. In this study, principals working in schools with 51% to 75% of their entire student
population identified as Limited English Proficiency (LEP) reported higher means for
levels of burnout than those in schools with less than 51% or more than 75% of their
students identified as LEP. Research is needed to determine factors related to levels of
burnout in Limited English Proficiency schools.

5. In this study, principals working in schools with 26% to 50% of their entire student
population identified as Exceptional Student Education (ESE) reported higher means for
levels of burnout than those in schools with less than 26% or more than 50% of their









students identified as ESE. Research is needed to determine factors related to levels of
burnout in Exceptional Student Education schools.

6. In this study, principals working in schools with 76% to 100% of their entire population
qualifying to participate in the Free and Reduced Lunch program as determined by the
percent of students enrolled in the Free and Reduced Lunch program reported higher
means for levels of burnout than those in schools with less than 76% of their students
identified as Free/Reduced Population. Research is needed to determine the factors related
to levels of burnout in this setting.

7. This study was conducted with the following assumptions: participants had a common
understanding of the terminology used in the survey instruments; and, participants
accurately self-rated on all of the survey instruments. Replicate this study to determine if
the data collected shows similar results in the correlations among variables.

8. The small sample size of this study could have affected the data analysis results.
Replication of this study with a larger sample size could be conducted to confirm or
disprove the results of this study.

9. Humor was shown to be significant in predicting burnout. Conduct this study with a larger
sample size using only the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Humor Styles
Questionnaire to confirm or disprove the significance of the use of humor in predicting
burnout.

10. Humor was found to be significant in predicting burnout. Conduct a study to ascertain if a
maximum limit in the use of humor exists, and, if reaching or surpassing that limit,
determine if the linear correlation between the use of humor and the prediction of burnout
ceases to show linearity.

11. A new theoretical model was presented in this study. Conduct a study using the Maslach
Burnout Inventory and other instruments to test the relationship of principal burnout to
Personal Accomplishment.

12. Conduct a study to determine if the use of humor is more prevalent in some personality
types over other personality types.


















Positive Reinterpretation
and Growth joined with
Pl liiin

Inverse Ru'iario1ilp

InstrumentaVlEmotional
Social Support


Personal i
Accomplishment


Figure 5-1. Theorized regression model of burnout
Note. Predictors: Self-Enhancing Humor, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Self-Defeating
Humor, ESE Population, Substance Use, Aggressive Humor, Humor, Instrumental Social
Support joined with Emotional Social Support, Religious Coping, Positive Reinterpretation and
Growth joined with Planning, Student Population, Years as a Principal, Gender, Free/Reduced
Population, Restraint, (Constant), Degree, Years as an Educator, LEP Population, and Affiliative
Humor.









APPENDIX A
UF IRB APPROVAL OF PROTOCOL














UI JnsitOuional Review Board
L1UNIVRSITY of FLORIDA


PO 1iTo 12150
<.;irnviiele, HI 32011-22W
3r'2-':2 -0431 ( ,l,,


February 21, 2007

Drew A. Hawkins
427 Woodcrest Street
Winter Springs, FL 32708 I' /'
Ira S. Fis.nter, PhD; Chair -/
University of Florida
Irii ltijcaonaL Review Board


SUBJECT: Approval of Protocol #2007-U-0164


The Use of Humor Compared to Other
Mastach's Theory of Burnout


Coping Mechanisms in Relation to


SPONSOR: None

I am pleased to advise you that the Unwersi[y of Florida Institutional Review Board has
recommended approval of this protocol Based on its review, the UFIR8 determined that this
research presents no more than minimal risk to participants. Given your protocol, it is
essential that you obtain signed documentation of informed consent from each participant.
Enclosed is the dated, IRB-approved informed consent to be used when recruiting participants
for the research.

It is essertial that each r,, your participants sarn copy Of 'yourr approved inTormed
consent that bears the IRB approval stamp and expiration date.


If you wish to make any changes to this protocol, 'n..u.in-e the need to increase the number
of p.a :i,c,'X m s authorized, you must disclose your plans before you implement them so that
the Board can assess their impact on your protocol. In addition, you must report to the Board
any unexpected camplic.ations that affect your participants

If you have not completed this protocol by February 14 2008. please telephone our office
(392-0433), and we will discuss the renewal process with you. It is important that you keep
your Department Chair informed about the status of this research protocol.

ISF:dt


A. ''ii I


DATE:


FROM:


TITLE:









APPENDIX B
INFORMED CONSENT


















Department of Educational Administration and Polley
College of Education
University of Florida
PO Box 117049
Gainessille. FL 32611 -'049
Phone: (352) 392-2391

Informed Consent

Dear School Principal:

I am a doctoral ,sudeni at the UniiersitN of Florida. and as part of my degree requirements. I am conducting a
research study on the use of humor compared1 to other renping mechanL.0me in relation to Maslach's thcor of
burnout

A random sample of 400 principals in schools across Florida was generated. Each participant will be asked to
complete the demographic Jdiet. the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Humor St) les Questionnaire. and the COPE
Inventory. Your identity %iIll be kept confidential io the exewrii pron ided by law Each participant v ii be assigned
a random code that will be pruned on the return en% elope included %ith the sure>) uistrurrenu. This random code
will be used to track survey responses. The random codes will be stored separately from the surve% responses to
maintain the participants' confidennalit) and anonymity. When the stud) is completed and the data have been
analyzed, the list and codes will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report.

The Eint required to complete partlic ipanon in thu study is 20 minutes. There are no anticipated risks or potential
benefits thai 'ou will receive as a result of participating ir this study. No compinsanon will be provided for
parTicipation i. thi sndy) Your part.cipaiior in in s study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not
participaiing You have the right io withdraw T'rcm the sindJ. at anytime without consequeni.e.

If you have questions about the study, you may contact me directly at: Drew A. Hawkins (Graduate Student,
University ofrTridal. 427 Woodcrest Street, Winter Springs, FL 32708, or you may contact Dr Phillip A Clark,
SProie,sor Docim-al Committee Chairperson) at University of Florida, 200B Norman Hall, PO Box 117049,
Gainesville FL 32611. If you have any questions about your rights as a research panic ipara in the srudb. you can
contact: 1 nisemlt, of Florida institutional Review BiurJ BL:. I I -2i llriserit[y .f Florida, Gai eille FL
32611-2250. ph 352-3Q2-0433

Agreement:
I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily aree to parniL pate in the pro edure and I have received a
copy ft this description
Participant: Date:
Principal Intesnigator. Date:








Approved by
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02
Protocol # 2007-U-0164
For Use Through 02/14/2008









APPENDIX C
PERMISSION TO USE THE HUMOR STYLES QUESTIONNAIRE










Sender:Rod Martin
To:"Drew A. Hawkins"
CC:
Date:Mon Jan 15 17:52:21 EST 2007
Subject:Re: Permission Request
Hi Drew,
Here is the HSQ, along with scoring instructions. Feel free to use it in your research. All the best in your
research! Hopefully we'll meet at a future ISHS conference.
Best regards,
Rod

On Mon Jan 15 15:49:26 EST 2007, Rod Martin wrote:

Dear Drew,

Glad to hear about your doctoral dissertation on humor! Your research sounds interesting and worthwhile.
I'm happy to give you permission to use the CHS in this study at no cost, as long as the website is
accessible to the participants only, and is not available to the general public.

However, as an alternative to the CHS, I would strongly recommend that you consider a newer measure
that we've developed, called the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ). This measure contains 4 subscales,
one of which is essentially the same as the CHS, but with much better reliability (there were some
problems with low internal consistency on the CHS). In addition, there are 3 other scales measuring other
humor styles of daily life. Two of the 4 scales are considered to be potentially beneficial to well-being,
and two are potentially detrimental. So it gets at negative as well as positive aspects of humor. My guess
is that some styles of humor may actually be positively associated with burnout. I'm attaching a copy of
the article in which we first published this measure. In my own research, I'm no longer using the CHS,
and am using the HSQ instead. Let me know if you'd like to use this measure, and I'll send you a copy of
it.

In case you're not aware of it, I have recently written a book on the psychology of humor, which covers
the research and theory in all areas of this topic. If you're doing your dissertation on humor in psychology,
you will likely find this to be helpful. Here's the publisher's website for this book:

http://books.elsevier.com/us//socsci/us/subindex.asp?isbn=012372564X

Finally, you might also want to consider joining the International Society for Humor Studies (ISHS), a
scholarly society of humor researchers. (One small perk of joining is that members can get my book at a
reduced price!) This summer the annual ISHS conference is in Newport, Rhode Island. It would be great
if you could come and perhaps present a paper on your research and meet many others studying in this
field. Here's the ISHS website: http://www.hnu.edu/ishs/

Good luck with your research!
- Rod Martin


Rod A Martin, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Psychology
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2










Sender: lefcourt@watarts.uwaterloo.ca Add to address book
To:"Drew A. Hawkins"
CC:
Date:Thu Feb 01 02:27:04 EST 2007
Subject:Re: Permission Request
Dear Drew: You have my permission to use the CHS as stated. You might also try contacting Dr. Martin
who is at the University of Western Ontario. Good luck with your research. There is no cost involved but
I would like to know if you find anything of interest. Cordially, H Lefcourt

Dr. Herb Lefcourt
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
N2L 3G1
ATTN: Dr. Herb Lefcourt
lefcourtwatarts.uwaterloo.ca









APPENDIX D
PERMISSION TO USE COPE INVENTORY ON COPE INVENTORY WEBSITE









COPE (complete version)


The COPE Inventory was developed to assess a broad range of coping responses, several of
which had an explicit basis in theory. The inventory includes some responses that are expected to
be dysfunctional, as well as some that are expected to be functional. It also includes at least 2
pairs of polar-opposite tendencies. These were included because each scale is unipolar (the
absence of this response does not imply the presence of its opposite), and because we think
people engage in a wide range of coping during a given period, including both of each pair of
opposites.

The items have been used in at least 3 formats. One is a dispositionall" or trait-like version in
which respondents report the extent to which they usually do the things listed, when they are
stressed. A second is a time-limited version in which respondents indicate the degree to which
they actually did have each response during a particular period in the past. The third is a time-
limited version in which respondents indicate the degree to which they have been having each
response during a period up to the present. The formats differ in their verb forms: the
dispositional format is present tense, the situational-past format is past tense, the third format is
present tense progressive (I am ...) or present perfect (I have been ...).

You are welcome to use all scales of the COPE, or to choose selected scales for use (see below
regarding scoring). Feel free as well to adapt the language for whatever time scale you are
interested in. Be sure to adapt the instructions for completion, as well as the items themselves.
An abbreviated version of the COPE has also been created, if you have time constraints or high
response burden.

If you are interested in assessing in Spanish, the abbreviated version was translated into (western
hemisphere) Spanish by our research group, and can be found here. The full COPE has been
translated (independently) into Spanish Spanish by Dr. Esther Calvete, of the University of
Deusto in Bilbao, Spain. It can be found here. I believe that the COPE has been translated by at
least one team into French. Contact Dr. Lise Fillion at the University Laval in Quebec:
Lise.Fillion@fsi.ulaval.ca

Citation to the full COPE: Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing
coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
56, 267-283. For a copy of the article, click here.









APPENDIX E
DEMOGRAPHIC SHEET










DEMOGRAPHIC SHEET


Please check one response for each category:

Gender:
Male
Female

Level of highest completed degree:
Master
Specialist
Doctorate

Number of students in the school where you are principal:
Less than 500
501 to 750
751 to 1,000
1,001 to 1,500
1,501 or more

Number of years you have been a principal:
Less than 5 years
5 to 10 years
11 to 15 years
16 to 20 years
More than 20 years

Number of years in the education profession:
Less than 5 years
5 to 10 years
11 to 15 years
16 to 20 years
More than 20 years

Percentage of students at your school that are ESOL/LEP:
0% to 25%
26% to 50%
51% to 75%
76% to 100%

Percentage of students at your school that are ESE/Exceptional Students:
0% to 25%
26% to 50%
51% to 75%
76% to 100%

Percentage of students at your school that are enrolled in the Free/Reduced Lunch Program:
0% to 25%
26% to 50%
51% to 75%
76% to 100%









REFERENCE LIST


Abel, M. (1998). Interaction of humor and gender in moderating relationships between stress and
outcomes. The Journal of Psychology, 132, 267-276.

Abel, M. (2002). Humor, stress, and coping strategies. Humor, 15, 365-381.

Allison, D. (1997). Coping with stress in the principalship. Journal of Educational
Administration, 35(1), 39-55.

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.) [Electronic version]. (2000).
Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved November 1, 2004 from
http://www.bartleby.com/61/29/H0322900.html

Amirkhan, J. (1990). A factor analytically derived measure of coping: The coping strategy
indicator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1066-1075.

Avolio, B., Howell, J., & Sosik, J. (1999). A funny thing happened on the way to the bottom
line: Humor as a moderator of leadership style effects. Academy of Management Journal,
42, 219-227.

Babad, E. (1974). A multi-method approach to the assessment of humor: A critical look at humor
tests. Journal of Personality, 42, 618-63 1.

Benson, J. & Hagtvet, K. (1996). The interplay among design, data analysis and theory in the
measurement of coping. In M. Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds.) Handbook of coping:
Theory, research, applications (pp. 83-106). New York: Wiley.

Bergson, H. (1921). Laughter: An essay on the meaning of the comic. Authorized Translation
by Cloudesley Brereton and Fred Rothwell. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Berlyne, D. (1972). Humour and its kin. In J. H. Goldstein & P. E. McGhee (Eds.), The
Psychology of Humour (pp. 101-125). New York: Academic Press.

Blaydes, J. (2004). Survival skills for the principalship. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA

Boles, J., Dean, D., Ricks, J., Short, J., & Wang, G. (2000). The dimensionality of the Maslach
Burnout Inventory across small business owners and educators. Journal of Vocational
Behavior, 56, 12-34.

Bolinger, B. (2001). Humor and leadership: A gender-based investigation of the correlation
between the attribute of humor and effective leadership (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana
State University, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 397.

Brock, B., & Grady, M. (2002). Avoiding burnout: A principal's guide to keeping the fire alive.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.









Buss, A., & Perry, M. (1992).The aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 63, 452-459.

Cade, J. (1992). The relationship between counselor use of interpersonal humor and counselor
burnout. Dissertation Abstracts International 53, 718. (UMI No. 9222588)

Cann, A., & Calhoun, L. (2001). Perceived personality associations with differences in sense of
humor: Stereotypes of hypothetical others with high or low senses of humor. Humor, 14,
117-130.

Carruth, R. (1997). High school principal burnout: A study relating perceived levels of
professional burnout to principal's reliance on social bases of power. Dissertation
Abstracts International 58, 1510. (UMI No. 9731512)

Carver, C., Scheier, M., & Weintraub, J. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically
based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267-283.

Cave, P. (2005). Humour and paradox laid bare. The Monist, 88, 135-153.

Cherniss, C. (1980). Professional burnout in human service organizations. New York: Praeger
Publishers.

Clark, K., Bormann, C., Cropanzano, R., & James, K. (1995). Validation evidence for three
coping measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65, 434-455.

Cook, W., & Medley, D. (1954). Proposed hostility and pharisaic-virtue scales for the MMPI.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 38, 414-420.

Cousins, N. (1979). Anatomy of an illness as perceived by the patient: Reflections on healing
and regeneration. New York: Bantam.

Cronbach, L., & Meehl, P. (1955). Construct validity of psychological tests. Psychological
Bulletin, 52, 281-302.

Cushing, K., Kerrins, J., & Johnstone, T. (2003, May/June). Disappearing principals. Leadership
Magazine. (Available from the Association of California School Administrators, 1029 J
Street, Suite 500, Sacramento, CA 95814), 28-37.

Darlington, R. (1997). Factor analysis. Retrieved September 2, 2007 from Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University website: http://www.psych.cornell.edu/darlington/factor.htm

Davis, M. (1993). What's so funny? The comic conception of culture and society. Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press.

Deaner, S., & McConatha, J. (1993). The relation of humor to depression and personality.
Psychological Reports, 72, 755-763.









De Dreu, C., Dierendonck, D., & Dijkstra, M. (2002). Conflict at work and individual
well-being. International Journal of Conflict Management, 15(1), 6-26.

Derogatis, L. (1977). SCL-90: Administration scoring and procedures manual for the revised
version. Baltimore: Clinical Psychometric Research.

Dillon, K., Minchoff, B., & Baker, K. (1985). Positive emotional states and enhancement of the
immune system. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 15, 13-18.

Dorz, S., Novara, C., Sica, C., & Sanavio, E. (2003). Predicting burnout among HIV-AIDS and
oncology health care workers. Psychology and Health, 18, 677-684.

Doud, J. (1989). The K-8 principal in 1988: Six\ii in a series of research studies launched in
1928. Alexandria, VA: National Association of Elementary School Principals.

Doud, J., & Keller, E. (1998). The K-8 principal in 1998: Seventh in a series of research studies
launched in 1928. Alexandria, VA: National Association of Elementary School
Principals.

Downey, R., & King, C. (1998). Missing data in Likert ratings: A comparison of replacement
methods. The Journal of General Psychology, 125, 175-191.

Ehrenberg, T. (1995). Female differences in creation of humor relating to work. Humor, 8,
349-362.

Farber, B. (Ed.). (1983). Stress and burnout in the human service professions. New York:
Pergamon Press

Fine, G. (1975). Components of perceived sense of humor ratings of self and other.
Psychological Reports, 36, 793-794.

Folkman, S. & Lazarus, R. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: A study of emotion and
coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 48, 150-170.

Folkman, S., Lazarus, R., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, A., & Gruen, R. (1986). Dynamics of
a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 992-1003.

Folkman, S., Lazarus, R., Gruen, R., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Appraisal, coping, health status,
and psychological symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50,
571-579.

Fothergill, A., Edwards, D., & Burnard, P. (2004). Stress, burnout, coping and stress
management in psychiatrists: Findings from a systematic review. International Journal
of Social Psychiatry, 50(1), 54-65.









Freud, S. (1960). Jokes and their relation to the unconscious (James Strachey, Trans.). New
York: Norton & Company. (Original work published 1905)

Freudenberger, H. (1974). Staff bum-out. Journal of Social Issues, 30, 159-165.

Freudenberger, H. (1977). Bum-out: The organizational menace. Training & Development
Journal, 31(7), 26-27.

Freudenberger, H. (1980). Burnout: The high cost of high achievement. Garden City, NY:
Anchor Press.

Friedman, I. (1995). Measuring school principal-experienced burnout. Educational and
Psychological Measurement, 55, 641-651.

Fry, W. (2002). Humor and the brain: A selective review. Humor, 15, 305-333.

Gmelch, W., & Torelli, J. (1993). Occupational stress and burnout in educational administration.
People and Education, 1, 363-381.

Goel, V., & Dolan, R. (2001). The functional anatomy of humor: Segregating cognitive and
affective components. Nature Neuroscience 4, 237-238.

Gold, Y. (1984). The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in a sample of
California elementary and junior high school classroom teachers. Educational and
Psychological Measurement, 44, 1009-1016.

Gold, Y. (2001). Burnout: A major problem for the teaching profession. Education, 104,
271-274.

Gwede, C., Johnson, D., Roberts, C., & Cantor, A. (2005). Burnout in clinical research
coordinators in the United States. Oncology Nursing Forum, 32, 1123-1130.

Hay, J. (2001). The pragmatics of humor support. Humor, 14, 55-82.

Helliwell, T. (1981). Are you a potential burnout? Training and Development Journal, 35(10),
25-29.

Henman, L. (2001). Humor as a coping mechanism: Lessons from POWs. Humor, 14, 83-94.

Hobbes, T. (1651). Leviathan, or the matter, forme, & power of a common-wealth
ecclesiasticall and civil. London: Printed for Andrew Crooke at the Green Dragon in St.
Pauls Church-yard. (accessed at http://www.netlibrary.com)

Holmes, J. (1998). No joking matter! The functions of humour in the workplace. Australian
Linguistic Society Conference. Brisbane, Australia: Griffith University.









Holmes, J., & Marra, M. (2002). Over the edge? Subversive humor between colleagues and
friends. Humor, 15, 65-87.

Hudson, W. (1982). The clinical measurement package: A field manual. Chicago: Dorsey Press.

Iwanicki, E., & Schwab, R. (1981). A cross-validational study of the Maslach Burnout Inventory.
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 41, 1167-1174.

Johnson, P., & Indvik, J. (1990). The role communication plays in developing and reducing
organizational stress and burnout. The Bulletin, 53(1), 5-9.

Jones, W. (2006). The function and content of amusement. SNuth African Journal of
Philosophy, 25, 126-137.

Kalter, J. (1999). The workplace burnout. Columbia Journalism Review, 38(2), 30-33.

Kant, I. (1790). The critique of judgement (Translated by James CreedMeredith.) Raleigh, NC:
Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts. (accessed at http://www.netlibrary.com)

Katz, C. (2005). The impact of sense of humor and other psychosocial variables on caregiver
depression. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Keyes, C., Hysom, S., & Lupo, K. (2000). The positive organization: Leadership legitimacy,
employee well-being, and the bottom line. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 4,
143-153.

Klein, A. (1989). The healing power of humor. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

Kline, L. (1907). The psychology of humor. American Journal of Psychology, 18, 421-441.

Kosa, B. (1990). Teacher-coach burnout and coping strategies. Physical Educator, 47(3),
153-158.

Kuiper, N., McKenzie, S., & Belanger, K. (1995). Cognitive appraisals and individual
differences in sense of humor: Motivational and affective implications. Personality and
Individual Differences, 19, 359-372.

Lazarus, R. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer
Publishing Company.

Lefcourt, H. (2001). Humor: The psychology of living buoyantly. New York: Plenum.









Lefcourt, H., Davidson, K., Prkachin, K., & Mills, D. (1997). Humor as a stress moderator in the
prediction of blood pressure obtained during five stressful tasks. Journal of Research in
Personality 31, 523-542.

Lehman, K., Burke, K., Martin, R., Sultan, J., & Czech, D. (2001). A reformulation of the
moderating effects of productive humor. Humor, 14(2), 131-161.

Leiter, M., & Maslach, C. (1999). Six areas of worklife: A model of the organizational context
of burnout. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 21, 472-489.

Leiter, M., & Maslach, C. (2001). Burnout and quality in a sped-up world. Journal for Quality
& Participation, Summer, 24(2), 48-51.

Linstead, S. (1985). Jokers wild: The importance of humour in the maintenance of organizational
culture. Sociological Review, 33, 741-767.

Lloyd, C., King, R., & Chenoweth, L. (2002). Social work, stress and burnout: A review.
Journal of Mental Health 11, 255-265.

Martin, R. (1996). The situational humor response questionnaire (SHRQ) and coping humor
scale (CHS): A decade of research findings. Humor, 9, 251-272.

Martin, R. (2001). Humor, laughter, and physical health: Methodological issues and research
findings. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 504-519.

Martin, R., & Lefcourt, H. (1983). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relationship between
stressors and moods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1313-1324.

Martin, R., & Lefcourt, H. (1984). Situational humor response questionnaire: Quantitative
measure of the sense of humor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47,
145-155.

Martin, R., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences in
uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the Humor
Styles Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 48-75.

Maslach, C. (1982). Burnout: The cost of caring. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Maslach, C. (2003). Job burnout: New directions in research and intervention. Current
Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 189-192.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of
Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-115.

Maslach, C., Jackson, S., & Leiter, M. (1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual. 3rd ed. Palo
Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.









Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. (1997). The n inll about burnout: How organizations cause personal
stress andwhat to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W., & Leiter, M. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52,
397-422.

Matte, G. (2001). A psychoanalytical perspective of humor. Humor, 14, 223-241.

McCrae, R. (1984). Situational determinants of coping resources: Loss, threat, and challenge.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 919-928.

Miller, R., & Lefcourt, H. (1982). The assessment of social intimacy. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 46, 514-518.

Minahan, A. (1980). "Burnout" and organizational change. Social Work, 25, 87.

Mitchell, G., & Hastings, R. (2001). Coping, burnout, and emotion in staff working in
community services for people with challenging behaviors. American Journal on Mental
Retardation. 106, 448-459.

Morreall, J. (1983). Taking laughter seriously. Albany, NY: State University of New York
Press.

Nason, C. (2005). The fun factor: Your prescription for stress relief at work and at home.
Dallas, TX: Core Publishing and Consulting, Inc.

Nezlek, J., & Derks, P. (2001). Use of humor as a coping mechanism, psychological adjustment,
and social interaction. Humor, 14, 395-413.

Nilsen, D. (1993). Humor scholarship: A research bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press.

Norton, K. (2004). The applicability of Maslach and Leiter's theory of burnout to intended
turnover among disability services staff in four-year colleges and universities in North
Carolina (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 2004). Proquest Dissertations,
AAT 3135209

Norusis, M. (1990). SPSS advanced statistics student guide. Chicago, IL: SPSS, Inc.

Pahnos, M. (1990). The principal as the primary mediator of school stress. Education, 111(1),
125-132.

Palmer, C. (1983). A note about paramedics' strategies for dealing with death and dying. Journal
of Occupational Psychology, 56(1), 83-86.









Penson, R., Dignan, F., Canellos, G., Picard, C., & Lynch, T. (2000). Burnout: Caring for the
caregivers. The Oncologist, 5, 425-434.

Perlmutter, D. (2002). On incongruities and logical inconsistencies in humor: The delicate
balance. Humor, 15, 155-168.

Phelps, S. & Jarvis, P. (1994). Coping in adolescence: Empirical evidence for a theoretically
based approach to assessing coping. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23, 359-371.

Philbrick, K. (1989). The use of humor and effective leadership styles (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Florida, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 1861.

Pines, A., & Kafry, D. (1978). Occupational tedium in the social services. Social Work, 23,
499-507.

Potter, B. (1987). Preventing job burnout: Transforming work pressures into productivity. Palo
Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Priest, R., & Swain, J. (2002). Humor and its implications for leadership effectiveness. Humor,
15, 169-189.

Provine, R. (1996). Laughter: Research on laughter. American Scientist, 84(1), 38-47.

Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general
population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401.

Rahmani, L. (1994). Humor styles and managerial effectiveness (leadership) (Doctoral
dissertation, University of La Verne, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International, 55,
1161.

Richardsen, A., & Martinussen, M. (2004). The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Factorial validity
and consistency across occupational groups in Norway. Journal of Occupational and
Organizational Psychology, 77, 377-384.

Roeckelein, J. (2002). The psychology of humor: A reference guide and annotated
bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University
Press.

Roth, P. (1994). Missing data: A conceptual review for applied psychologists. Personnel
Psychology, 47, 537-560.

Roth, P. & Switzer, F. (1995). A Monte Carlo analysis of missing data techniques in an HRM
setting. Journal of Management, 21, 1003-1023.









Ruch, W., Kohler, G., & van Thriel, C. (1996). Assessing the "humorous temperament":
Construction of the facet and standard trait forms of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-
Inventory--STCI. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9, 303-340.

Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological
well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081.

Sarason, I., Levine, H., Basham, R., & Sarason, B. (1983). Assessing social support: The social
support questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 127-130.

Schauben, L., & Frazier, P. (1995). Vicarious trauma: The effects on female counselors of
working with sexual violence survivors. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 49-64.

Scheier, M., & Carver, C. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of
generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247.

Schwarzer, R. & Schwarzer, C. (1996). A critical survey of coping instruments. In: M. Zeidner &
N. S. Endler (Eds) Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 107-132).
New York: Wiley.

Selye, H. (1974). Stress n iithut distress. New York: Signet.

Selye, H. (1976). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shumate, J. (1999). Stress, burnout, and coping strategies among Washington State high school
principals. Dissertation Abstracts International 60, 2760. (UMI No. 9942736)

Spencer, H. (1860, March). The physiology of laughter. Macmillan'sMagazine. Collected
essays volume II, April 1912, 215, 383-404.

Spielberger, C., Gorsuch, R., & Lushene, R. (1969). State-trait anxiety inventory: Preliminary
test manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Staley, R., & Derks, P. (1995). Structural incongruity and humor appreciation. Humor, 5,
97-134.

StatSoft, Inc. (2006). Electronic statistics textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. (accessed at
http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html)

Stevens, M., & Higgins, D. (2002). The influence of risk and protective factors on burnout
experienced by those who work with maltreated children. Child Abuse Review, 11,
313-331.

Stricherz, M. (2001). School leaders feel overworked, survey finds. [Electronic version].
Education Week, 21, 5.









Svebak, S. (1996). The development of the sense of humor questionnaire: From SHQ to SHQ-6.
Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9, 341-361.

Talbot, L. (2000). Burnout and humor usage among community college nursing faculty
members. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 24, 359-373.

Talbot, L., & Lumden, D. (2000). On the association between humor and burnout. Humor, 13,
419-428.

Thomas, A., & Ayres, J. (1998). A principal's interruptions: Time lost or time gained?
International Journal of Educational Management, 12, 244-249.

Thorson, J., & Powell, F. (1993). Development and validation of a multidimensional sense of
humor scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 13-23.

Tuuli, P., & Karisalmi, S. (1999). Impact of working life quality on burnout. Experimental Aging
Research, 25, 441-449.

van Dick, R., & Wagner, U. (2001). Stress and strain in teaching: A structural equation
approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 243-259.

Vollmer, J. (2000). Building support for America's schools: The burden. Retrieved November
1, 2004 from http://www.jamievollmer.com/burden.html

Waugh, C., & Judd, M. (2003). Trainer burnout: The syndrome explored. Journal of Career
and Technical Education, 19(2), 47-58.

Weisberg, J., & Sagie, A. (1999). Teachers' physical, mental, and emotional burnout: Impact on
intention to quit. The Journal of Psychology, 133, 333-339.

Whan, L., & Thomas, A. (1996). The principalship and stress in the workplace: An observational
and physiological study. Journal of School Leadership, 6, 444-465.

Whitaker, K. (1996). Exploring causes of principal burnout. Journal of Educational
Administration, 34(1), 60-71.

Woods, P. (1983). Coping at school through humour. British Journal of Sociology of
Education, 4, 111-124.

Wycoff, E. (1999). Humor in academia: An international survey of humor instruction. Humor,
12, 437-456.

Yarwood, D. (1995). Humor and administration: A serious inquiry into unofficial organizational
communication. Public Administration Review, 55(1), 81-90.









Zellmer, D. (2003). Teaching to prevent burnout in the helping professions. Journal ofAnalytic
Teacdhiiig. 24(1), 20-25.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Drew A. Hawkins was born in Orlando, Florida, and has lived in central Florida for 45

years. He attended school in the Orange County Public School system, including Azalea Park

Elementary School, Stonewall Jackson Jr. High School, and Colonial High School. While

earning his associate of arts degree at Valencia Community College, he worked at the St.

Stephens Presbyterian Church School, coaching children and working in the daycare center. It

was there he decided he wanted to become a teacher. Upon completing his degree at Valencia,

he then attended the University of Central Florida, where he earned his bachelor's degree in

elementary education. While working on his degree, he substituted in classrooms to gain

teaching experience and to meet school administrators.

Upon completion of his degree in 1984, he taught at Riverside Elementary School in

Orange County, where he gained experience teaching different grade levels, worked with

different principals, and learned different administrative styles. It was also where he met his

wife, Phyllis. They have two children, Jay and Sarah.

While serving as a teacher, he earned his master's degree from the University of Central

Florida in 1988. In 1998, he was promoted to the position of assistant principal, and served at

Waterford Elementary School until 2003. He was then transferred to serve as assistant principal

at Little River Elementary School, where he is currently employed.

In August 2000, Mr. Hawkins started his doctoral program at the University of Florida and

received a Specialist degree in Education in 2002. In May 2008 he was awarded the Doctor of

Philosophy degree in Educational Leadership from the University of Florida.





PAGE 1

1 COMPARING THE USE OF HUMOR TO OTHER COPING MECHANISMS IN RELATION TO MASLACHS THEORY OF BURNOUT By DREW A. HAWKINS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

PAGE 2

2 2008 Drew A. Hawkins

PAGE 3

3 To my family, for the humor we share

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS W riting a dissertation and completing a doctoral program are not undertakings done in a void. They come together through the support and help from many people. I express my love and appreciation to the most important people in my life: my wife, Phyllis, for her patience; my children, Jay and Sarah, for their encouragemen t; my parents, Wayne and Carole, for their support and faith in me; my brothers and thei r spouses, Derryl and Christine, and David and Linda, for keeping me grounded; and for my in-law s, George and Norvelle for their prayers. I am grateful to my doctoral committee members for everything they have done to help me achieve my goal. I thank Dr. Phillip Clark fo r chairing my committee. At the start of the program, he indicated this would be a marathon, not a sprint, a nd I appreciate his support in helping me through this marathon. I thank Dr Linda Serra Hagedorn for co-chairing my committee and spending time with me reviewing SPSS procedures and calculations. I thank Dr. James Doud for helping me learn to reflect and think differently than I had ever done before. I thank Dr. David Honeyman for his insight, which helped my project evolve. I thank Dr. John Kranzler for his persistence in expecting my best. My sincere appreciation goes to Angela Ro we, the secretary in the Department of Educational Administration & Po licy, for her assistance in keeping me on schedule with the required procedures, forms, and paperwork. Tha nks go to my editor, Diane Fischler, for her expertise with quality revisions. I express gratitude to my cohort members. It was an honor to work with them. Their knowledge and experiences taught me so muc h. I enjoyed checki ng in every weekend, working together in groups, then checking out and going home to my family. Together, we experienced births, deaths, illnesses, and celebra tions. I took pleasure in the many trips to and from Gainesville with my fellow members--trips that produced memories to last a lifetime.

PAGE 5

5 Much appreciation also goes to the following friends and family members who gave their encouragement: Don and Chris, John and Jeanne, Henry and Pam, Pete and Jo, Mark, and Joe and Mary. I thank my friend, Phil, who always supported my progress, and who unfortunately passed away before this project was completed. I am grateful to my supervisors, Norma and Brenda, for their flexibility in allowing me to use leave time to travel to Gainesville for the classes and trips I needed to comp lete this doctoral program. With a project of this magnitude, there is al ways the risk of not including everyone. For those people I have unintentionally not cited, I offer my deep appreciation and thanks.

PAGE 6

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 TABLE OF CONTENTS.............................................................................................................. ...6 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 Burnout...................................................................................................................................12 Burnout Research............................................................................................................ 12 Burnout and Organizations.............................................................................................. 13 Humor.....................................................................................................................................13 Humor Research.............................................................................................................. 13 Humor and Organizations................................................................................................ 15 School Principal Job Demands............................................................................................... 16 Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .17 Instrumentation................................................................................................................ .......17 Maslach Burnout Inventory.............................................................................................18 Humor Styles Questionnaire............................................................................................ 18 COPE Inventory.............................................................................................................. 19 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... ....21 Question 1........................................................................................................................21 Question 2........................................................................................................................21 Question 3........................................................................................................................21 Glossary....................................................................................................................... ...........22 Significance of the Study........................................................................................................24 Delimitations and Limitations of the Study............................................................................ 25 Delimitations...................................................................................................................25 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ...25 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................27 Burnout...................................................................................................................................27 Burnout Research............................................................................................................ 27 Burnout and Organizations.............................................................................................. 33 Humor.....................................................................................................................................37 Humor Research.............................................................................................................. 37 Humor and Organizations................................................................................................ 46

PAGE 7

7 School Principal Job Demands............................................................................................... 49 Humor as a Coping Mechanism............................................................................................. 55 Maslach Burnout Inventory....................................................................................................56 Humor Styles Questionnaire................................................................................................... 58 COPE Inventory......................................................................................................................59 3 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 64 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....64 Question 1........................................................................................................................64 Question 2........................................................................................................................64 Question 3........................................................................................................................64 Sample....................................................................................................................................65 Instrumentation................................................................................................................ .......66 Maslach Burnout Inventory.............................................................................................66 Humor Styles Questionnaire............................................................................................ 69 COPE Inventory.............................................................................................................. 73 Data Collection.......................................................................................................................75 Data Analyses.........................................................................................................................76 4 RESULTS AND ANALYS ES OF DATA ............................................................................. 78 Response Rate.................................................................................................................. .......78 Data Analyses.........................................................................................................................79 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION.........................................................................................97 Summary of Findings............................................................................................................ .99 Conclusions...........................................................................................................................101 Suggestions for Further Research......................................................................................... 103 UF IRB APPROVAL OF PROTOCOL...................................................................................... 106 INFORMED CONSENT.............................................................................................................108 PERMISSION TO USE THE HUMOR STYLES QUESTIONNAIRE ..................................... 110 PERMISSION TO USE COPE INVENTORY ON COPE I NVENTORY WEBSITE............... 113 DEMOGRAPHIC SHEET...........................................................................................................115 REFERENCE LIST.....................................................................................................................117 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................128

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1. Means and standard deviations for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dim ensions with the dem ographic variables....................................................................................................... 87 4-2. Descriptive statistics for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dim ensions, the Humor Styles Questionnaire dim ensions, and th e COPE Inventory dimensions.....................................88 4-3. Correlations am ong burnout and demographic va riables, Humor Styles Questionnaire variables, and COPE Inventory variables.......................................................................... 88 4-4. Cronbach alphas for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions the Hum or Styles Questionnaire dimensions, and th e COPE Inventory dim ensions.....................................89 4-5. Confirm atory factor loadings for th e Maslach Burnout Inventory scales.............................90 4-6. Confirmatory factor loadings fo r Hum or Styles Questionnaire scales.................................. 91 4-7. Confirmatory factor loadings for COPE Inventory scales ..................................................... 92 4-7. Continued ..............................................................................................................................93 4-8. Regression model summary for dependent variable Burnout (Em otional Exhaustion + Depersonalization).............................................................................................................94 4-9. Regression ANOVA for dependent vari able Burnout (E motional Exhaustion + Depersonalization).............................................................................................................94 4-10. Regression analysis coefficients fo r dependent variable Burnout (Em otional Exhaustion + Depersonalization)...................................................................................... 95 4-11. Correlation matrix for regression model variables.............................................................. 96

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 5-1. Theorized regression m odel of burnout............................................................................... 105

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy COMPARING THE USE OF HUMOR TO OTHER COPING MECHANISMS IN RELATION TO MASLACHS THEORY OF BURNOUT By Drew A. Hawkins May 2008 Chair: Phillip A. Clark Cochair: Linda Serra Hagedorn Major: Educational Leadership This study compared the use of humor to other coping mechanisms in relation to Maslachs theory of burnout. Data were anal yzed to determine stat istically significant relationships among humor dimensions, other copi ng mechanisms, and public elementary school principals level of burnout. The school principals job has become more ch allenging. The litera ture supported the use of humor as a means of coping. Humor can be used as a form of communication in organizations to promote cohesiveness, build consensus, deliver messages across power and authority, make situations less th reatening, and promote change. The sample for this study included a random sampling of 400 public elementary school principals from across Florida. Participants in this study used the Maslac h Burnout Inventory to rate their level of burnout on the scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Achievement; the Humor Styles Questionnair e to rate their self-per ceived use of humor; and the COPE Inventory to rate their self-perceived use of hum or compared to other coping mechanisms.

PAGE 11

11 Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to incongruities in life and using hum or as a coping mechanism, and was supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associated with making funny comments and telli ng jokes which facilitate relationships while reducing tension among others, a nd was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Aggressive Humo r is related to the use of humor to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. The dimension of Self-Defeati ng Humor is identified with the use of humor at an i ndividuals own expense through exce ssive humorous self-ridicule, and was not supported by this study as an effective coping mechanism. This study can aid principals in understandi ng the coping mechanisms they use to deal with stressors. This study can help principals realize that the use of specific types of humor, along with other coping mechanisms within th e workplace, can help reduce their level of burnout.

PAGE 12

12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Burnout Burnout Research Burnout is defined by Freudenberger (1980) as som eone in a state of fatigue or frustration brought about by devotion to a cause, way of life, or relationship that failed to produce the expected reward (p. 13). Those suffering from burnout do not perceive themselves as angry, rigid, or cynical, but believe they have work ed harder, given more, and are unappreciated (Freudenberger, 1977). Maslachs (1982) research delved into the world of human services workers and the coping strategies utilized fo r professional identity and job behavior. Burnout is a continuous variab le, ranging from low to high degrees of feeling (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Burnout is not viewed as a dichotomous variable being either present or absent, but is exhibited somewhere within the range from low to high degrees of feeling. Maslach (1982) found three elements to de scribe her model of burnout: (a) emotional exhaustion; (b) depersonalization; and (c) pers onal accomplishment. These elements coexist while being viewed individually as a step-by-step process, with emotional exhaustion being the key variable in assessing burnout (Carruth, 1997 ). Burnout does not occur in one dramatic episode, but is progressive, prolonged, and appears in stages (Brock & Grady 2002). Stress was defined by Selye (1974) as the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it (p. 14). Stress occurs when demands are placed on an organism, challenging the status quo. All activ ities, pleasurable or otherwise, generate stress. Burnout is different from stress in that bur nout is chronic and has specific be havioral indicators (Cherniss, 1980). Stress may also be chronic, but it does not necessarily produce emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment as burnout produces.

PAGE 13

13 Burnout and Organizations Seven early warning signs of burnout incl ude: (a) feeling exhausted; (b) f eeling overwhelmed; (c) feeling out of control; (d) feeling increased negativity; (e) dreading going to work; (f) experiencing declining productivity; and (g) feeling incr eased isolation from family, friends, and colleagues (Brock & Grady, 2002). Wo rk overload, loss of control, and conflicting values have contributed to th e increase in burnout among public sc hool administrators (Maslach & Leiter, 1997). It is important for organizations to understand burnout because it can have a serious impact on the overall eff ectiveness of the organization. Burnout can also affect more than just individuals; it can impede the performa nce of teams and groups that are part of the organization. Humor Humor Research The significance of laughter has been recogni zed by such lum inaries as Aristotle, Kant, Darwin, Bergson, and Freud (Provine, 1996). Ni lsens (1993) work titled Humor Scholarship listed a bibliography of 3,850 humor studies, 24 humor journals and magazines, 96 humor organizations, and 106 humor scholars with humor c ourses and/or humor programs. Interest in the study of humor can be tracked through the database PsycINFO, which lists 4,228 studies involving humor since 1887 (Roeckelein, 2002). The three basic theories regarding humor incl ude the incongruity theory, the superiority theory, and the relief theory. The incongruity theory, developed by Kant (1790), proposed the hypothesis that humor occurs as an intellectua l reaction to incongruous perceptions occurring simultaneously. Kant wrote: Somet hing absurd must be present in whatever is to raise a hearty convulsive laugh. Laughter is an all action arising from a strain ed expectation being suddenly reduced to nothing (p. 132). An incongruity is a mismatch between what actually happens to

PAGE 14

14 what is expected to happen (Perlmutter, 2002). In order for an incongruity to be funny, a joke has to be a logical compromise, has to arouse a sense of fun, and must observe social rules (Matte, 2001). Philbrick (1989) showed resoluti on to be the aspect of incongruity that is necessary to distinguish humor from nonsense. The superiority theory of humor was orig inated by Hobbes (1651), who proposed the hypothesis that humor results when those joking feel superior to those they are joking about. Sudden glory is the passion which maketh those grimaces called LAUGHTER; and is caused either by some sudden act of their own, that pleaseth them; or by the apprehension of some deformed thing in another, by comparison whereof they suddenly applaud themselves. And it is incident most to them, that are conscious of the fewest abilities in themselves; who are forced to keep them selves in their own favour, by observing the imperfections of other men. (p. 38) Humor might be used aggressively toward an in dividual with lower status thereby stressing an individuals own superiority (Ehr enberg, 1995). Joking patterns coul d be used to preserve social structure in an organization by maintaining distance between leaders and other members of the organization (Yarwood, 1995). The relief theory was developed by Spencer (1860). He proposed the hypothesis that humor occurs from the release of energy and feel ings that have been suppressed. Freud (1960)-original work published in 1905--regarded humor to be the highest of defensive processes in preventing the generation of internal unpleasure. Although the three theory humor groups compet e with one another, they supplement each other by dealing with different aspects of th e process. An individual who perceives an incongruity expresses laughter thro ugh release and feels superior to the object of humor (Davis, 1993). Two forms of coping strategies linked to hum or include: (a) finding humor in a situation and using humor to reduce negative emotions, an d (b) using humor to alter the situation itself

PAGE 15

15 (Lefcourt, Davidson, Prkachin, & Mills, 1997). Nilsen (1993) liste d four functions of humor: (a) physiological, (b) psychol ogical, (c) education, a nd (d) social. Four psychological benefits of humor were discussed by Klein (1989): (a) humor gives us power; (b) humor helps us cope with change and uncertainty; (c) humor provides pers pective, and (d) humor gives us balance. Good leaders put people at eas e and maintain group morale through the use of humor (Priest & Swain, 2002). Humor is often used as a means of coping (Ha y, 2001). In a study of prisoners of war (POWs) humor was important to those who were held captive in Vietnam (Henman, 2001). The POWs would ri sk torture to joke through th e walls when another prisoner needed cheering up. People who use humor to cope help provide support to others dealing with problems and ease their burde ns (Nezlek & Derks, 2001). A good sense of humor can help relax muscle s, control pain and discomfort, promote positive mood states, and help overall psychological health (Abel, 2002). Humor decreases stress hormones while increasing ac tivity within the immune system (Wycoff, 1999), and it is an important attribute for an effective leader to possess (Bolinger, 2001). Cousins (1979) equated laughing to internal jogging. Twenty sec onds of robust laughing is similar to three minutes of hard-rowing for the heart (Rahmani, 1994). Humor acts as a buffer to the negative effects of stress (Abel, 1998). It ca n be used to restructure a situation so that it is less threatening. Individuals with increased senses of humor can d eal with situati ons in a more positive way than their counterparts can deal w ith them (Kuiper, McKenzie, & Belanger, 1995). Humor and Organizations Hum or is considered as serious communicati on in organizations (Yarwood, 1995). It can be used to promote change (Nilsen, 1993), can aid communication, and can foster long-lasting relationships (Bolinger, 2001). Humor provides a way of sharing common frustrations which in turn can promote cohesiveness among co lleagues (Talbot & Lumden, 2000, p. 420).

PAGE 16

16 Humor is a communication tool that has been hypothesized to prevent burnout (Talbot & Lumden, 2000). Humor is a useful strategy for de livering a negative or critical message across differences in power and authority (Holmes & Marra 2002). It could be used to make orders or reprimands more palatable (Yarwood, 1995). Hu mor also provides a means for subordinates to challenge or criticize their superiors (Holmes, 1998). Promoting the well-being of employees s hould increase organizat ional productivity and profitability (Keyes, Hysom, & Lupo, 2000). People who report higher levels of well-being are more productive, are less prone to using leav e time, and have a hi gher rate of employee retention. School Principal Job Demands Because of the rapid changes in society, th e scho ol principals job has become more challenging and demanding (Shumate, 1999). Schools are performing more tasks than in past decades. Vollmer (2000) pointed out that the Pu ritans of Massachusetts Bay established schools in 1640 to teach basic skills in reading, writing, ar ithmetic, and to develop democratic values for society. At the beginning of the 20th century, ad ditional responsibilities began to be assigned to schools. Vollmer indicated that from 1900 to the 1990s, 61 new academic and social programs were added to the list of school responsibilities. More recen tly, demands for performance and demands for improved student, teacher, and ad ministrative accountab ility have further heightened the demands on the principal. Four categories of situations that administrators find stress ful include: (a) administrators perception of his role in the school, (b ) tasks and daily activities, (c) exte rnal issues, and (d) handling conflicts related to the operations of the school (Gmelch & Torelli, 1993). Ten administrative stressors identified include: (a ) teacher attitudes and behavior, (b) teacher absences, (c) meetings, (d) student behavior, (e) parents and parent organizations, (f) policy and

PAGE 17

17 curriculum, (g) equipment and supplies, (h) bui lding and grounds, (i) workload, and (j) time pressures (Whan & Thomas, 1996). Brock and Grady (2002) recognized 11 other common stressors: (a) paperwork, (b) interr uptions, (c) activities after hours, (d) comp laints, (e) decisions affecting others, (f) evaluations, (g) terminating employees, (h) rumo r control, (i) lack of support, (j) salary issues, and (k) dissatisfaction with car eer advancement. Administrators experience stress due to the high public visibility of their jobs, and their actions and decisions are subject to scrutiny and criticism. The five highest stress factors of public elementary school principals identified by Shumate (1999) include : (a) school activities ou tside normal working hours, (b) workload that was too heavy, (c) meetings taking up too much time, (d) compliance with state and federal policies, and (e ) high personal ex pectations. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of hum or compared to other coping mechanisms in relation to Maslachs (1982) th eory of burnout. The effects of burnout are serious for individuals and or ganizations in the education profession (Waugh & Judd, 2003). Potter (1987) listed the following six conditi ons as common symptoms of job burnout: (a) negative emotions, (b) interpersonal prob lems, (c) health problems, (d) declining performance, (e) substance abuse, an d (f) feelings of meaninglessness. Instrumentation Participan ts in this study rated their le vel of burnout on the scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Achiev ement, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Participants in this study rated their self-perceived use of humor, as measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire. Participants in th is study rated their self -perceived use of humor compared to other coping mechanisms as measured by the COPE Inventory.

PAGE 18

18 Maslach Burnout Inventory The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a 22 -item measure that was initially published by Maslach and Jackson in 1981 to measure burnout based on subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The MBI is recognized as the leading burnout measure (Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996; Rich ardsen & Martinussen, 2004). High scores on the emotional exhaustion and depe rsonalization subscales along with low sc ores on the personal accomplishment subscale, show a high degree of burnout. Low scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales along with high sc ores on the personal accomplishment subscale, reflect a low degree of burnout. Average scores on all three subscales reflect an average degree of burnout. Humor Styles Questionnaire The Hum or Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) was deve loped to assess four dimensions of the function of humor in daily life. Two of the dimens ions are considered to be positively related to well-being, while the two other dime nsions are considered to be ne gatively related to well-being. The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associ ated with making funny comments and telling jokes which facilitates relationships while re ducing tension among others The dimension of Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to incongruities in life, and using hu mor as a coping mechanism. The dimension of Aggressive Humor is associated with the use of humor to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement. The di mension of Self-Defeati ng Humor is associated with the use of humor at an individuals own expense through ex cessive, humorous self-ridicule. During the initial developmen t of the scale, a pool of 111 items was generated and examined in a study involving 117 psychology student s at the University of Western Ontario. Participants in the study also completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desi rability (MCSD) Scale

PAGE 19

19 to assess response to test items in a desirabl e manner. Standard deviations were reviewed resulting in the removal of one item. Item co rrelations were examined resulting in the removal of 16 items from the scale. Items were then co mpared with total correlation to the other three humor scale totals, as well as being compared wi th the MCSD. These comparisons were done to minimize intercorrelations among the four humor s cales. Thirty-seven items were eliminated based on the analysis of item correlation. Add itional items were generated resulting in a new pool of 96 items. These items were examined in a study involving two samp les of participants. The first sample consisted of 165 introductory psychology students, and the second sample consisted of 93 organizational members in a seni or continuing education program. Analysis from this study resulted in choosing 15 items to measure each of the f our humor scales. The Cronbach alpha reliability on these scales ranged from .82 to .88. Scale refinement samples were conducted with 485 participants, with the goal of refining the 60 items to 8 items per scale. Items were retained with high corrected item-tota l correlation with the de signated scale and weak correlation with the other thr ee scales. Redundancy among items was reduced while retaining specific negatively keyed items. Internal consis tencies of the four scales showed Cronbach alphas ranging from .77 to .81, and test -retest correlations of .80 to .85. COPE Inventory The COPE I nventory is a 60-item survey th at measures 15 coping strategies. They include: (a) Active Coping, (b) Pl anning, (c) Suppression of Compe ting Activities, (d) Restraint Coping, (e) Seeking Social Support--Instrumental, (f ) Seeking Social Support--Emotional, (g) Focus on and Venting of Emotions, (h) Behavioral Disengagement, (i) Mental Disengagement, (j) Positive Reinterpre tation and Growth, (k) Denial, (l) Acce ptance, (m) Turning to Religion, (n) Alcohol-Drug Disengagement, and (o) Humor.

PAGE 20

20 Active Coping is a problem-focused strategy that i nvolves taking direct action to remove the stressor. Planning is a problem-focused strategy that in volves thinking about the stressor and how to cope with it. Suppression of Competing Activities is a problem-focused strategy that involves putting aside or avoidi ng other tasks to be able to deal with the stressor. Restraint Coping is a problem-focused strategy that i nvolves holding back for a more appropriate opportunity to deal effectiv ely with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Instrumental Reasons is a problem-focused strategy of seeking out side assistance to deal with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Emotional Reasons is an emotion-focused strategy that involves support from others to cope with the stressor. Positive Reinterpretation and Growth is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual manages emotional distress rather than the stressor itself. Denial is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is ignored altogether. Acceptance is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is accepted. Turning to Religion is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual turns to religion as a means of coping with a stressor. Focusing on and Venting of Emotions is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on the stressor, and vents his emotions. Behavioral Disengagement is a strategy that involves an individual reducing effort to deal with the stressor. Mental Disengagement is a strategy involving the use of mental distr actions and activities to distract an individual from thinking about the stressor, such as daydr eaming or escaping through television. Alcohol-Drug Disengagement is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on escaping the stressor. Humor is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on relief fr om the stressor (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Through the process of developing the COPE In ventory, item sets were administered to several hundred subjects, with revisions due to items with weak loadings, new items being

PAGE 21

21 written, and the inventory readmini stered. In addition to items being changed, factor structure was revised due to items loading on specific s cales. The final item set was completed by group sessions consisting of 978 undergraduat es at the University of Miami. Test-retest reliability was completed by 89 students in an initial session and in a retest session eight weeks later. The undergraduates who completed the COPE Inventory were also given personality measures to determine the differences in coping between optimism and pessimism. Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, (1989) stated: Because optimists have favorable expectations for their future, optimism should be associated with Active Coping efforts a nd with making the best of whatever is encountered. Because pessimists have unfavorab le expectations for the future, pessimism should be associated with focus on emotiona l distress and with disengagement (p. 274). Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of hum or compared to other coping mechanisms in relation to Maslachs (1982) theo ry of burnout. Specifically, this study addressed the following questions. Question 1 Do statis tically significant relationships exist between humor, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school pr incipals level of burnout? Question 2 Do statis tically significant relationships exist between Self-Enhancing Humor, Affiliative Humor, Aggressive Humor, Self-Defeating Hu mor, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school principals level of burnout? Question 3 Do statis tically significant relationships exist between humor, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school principals leve l of burnout when compared to the following

PAGE 22

22 demographic variables: gender; level of completed degree; nu mber of students in school; number of Years as a Principal; number of Years as an Educator ; English to Speakers of Other Languages/Limited English Proficiency (ESOL/LEP ) status of school; ESE (Exceptional Student Education) status of school; and socioeconomic status of school as determined by the percent of students enrolled in the Free and Reduced Lunch program. Glossary Acceptance is an em otion-focused strategy where the stressor is accepted. Active Coping is a problem-focused strategy that i nvolves taking direct action to remove the stressor. Affiliative Humor is humor expressed by making funny comments and telling jokes that facilitate relationships while reducing tension among others. Aggressive Humor is the use of humor to show supe riority over others by ridicule, putdowns, and disparagement. Alcohol-Drug Disengagement is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on escaping the stressor. Behavioral Disengagement is a strategy that involves one re ducing effort to deal with the stressor. Coping is contending with demands and acting to overcome them. Denial is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is i gnored altogether. Depersonalization is the transformation from a pos itive to negative attitude that the subject develops toward his clients. Emotional Exhaustion is the feeling of fatigue that develops as emotional energy is drained.

PAGE 23

23 Focusing on and Venting of Emotions is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on the stressor, and vents his emotions. Humor is a form of communication that is intended to result in or bring forth amusement or laughter; and/or is a stra tegy whereby an individual focuses on relief from the stressor. Incongruity is a mismatch between what actually ha ppens and what is expected to happen. Inurement is becoming accustomed to something undesirable by frequent repetition or prolonged exposure. Mental Disengagement is a strategy involving the use of mental dist ractions and activities to distract an individual from thinking about the stressor, such as daydreaming, or escaping through television. Personal Accomplishment is the feeling the subject receiv es from the perception that the subject is making a difference with the clients. Planning is a problem-focused strategy that invo lves thinking about the stressor and how to cope with it. Positive Reinterpretation and Growth is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual manages emotional distress rather than the stressor itself. Restraint Coping is a problem-focused strategy that involves holding back for a more appropriate opportunity to deal e ffectively with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Emotional Reasons is an emotion-focused strategy that involves support from others to cope with the stressor. Seeking Social Support fo r Instrumental Reasons is a problem-focused strategy of seeking outside assistance to deal with the stressor.

PAGE 24

24 Self-Defeating Humor is the use of humor at an individuals own expense through excessive humorous self-ridicule. Self-Enhancing Humor is humor expressed by having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to incongruities in life, and using humor as a coping mechanism. Stress is the physical, chemical, and emotional process that produces tension. Stressor is any demand that causes stress. Suppression of Competing Activities is a problem-focused strategy that involves putting aside or avoiding other tasks to be ab le to deal with the stressor. Turning to Religion is an emotion-focused strategy wh ere the individual turns to religion as a means of coping with a stressor. Significance of the Study It is im portant for organizations to understa nd burnout because its effects could seriously impact individuals and organizations (Waugh & Judd, 2003). The effects of burnout are reflected in high rates of absenteeism, tur nover, and complaints about staff performance (Maslach, 1982). The ability to identify the level of burnout in administrators could provide advance warning, which would signal a developing problem. Principals experiencing high stress levels reduce productivity throughout the school and contribute to a negative work environment (Pahnos, 1990). When demands and pressure at work become overwhelming and exceed the ability to cope, an individua l is likely to reach a breaki ng point (Pines & Kafry, 1978). An investigation into the use of humor as a coping mechanism in the workplace is important because Talbot and Lumden (2000) showed that humor has been identified as a tool used to prevent burnout a nd create resiliency to stress, thus reducing its impact. Nilsen (1993) indicated that change could be promoted using humor.

PAGE 25

25 This study should provide knowledge that will he lp principals determine the relationship between the use of humor as a coping mechan ism and the level of burnout being experienced. Promoting the well-being of employees s hould increase organizat ional productivity and profitability (Keyes, Hysom, & Lupo, 2000). People who report higher levels of well-being are more productive, are less prone to using leav e time, and have a hi gher rate of employee retention. Delimitations and Limitations of the Study This section identifies the delim ita tions and limitations for this study. Delimitations 1. Data for this study were collected from public elem entary school principals. No conclusions from this study were generali zed to other educational administrators. 2. For the purposes of this study, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment were defined using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 3. For the purposes of this study, the self-perceived use of humor was defined using the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the COPE Inventory. 4. For the purposes of this study, the self-perce ived use of other coping mechanisms was defined using the COPE Inventory. 5. This study was limited to data gathered duri ng the 2006-2007 school year. No conclusions from this study were generalized to other time periods. 6. Data for this study were gathered using ra ndom sampling of public elementary school principals in Florida. No results from this study were generalized to other states. 7. Data for this study were gathered using the Maslach Burnout Invent ory, the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory. Limitations 1. This study was conducted with the assum ption that public elementary school principals had a common understanding of the terminology used in the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory. 2. This study was conducted with the assumption that public elementary school principals accurately responded on the se lf-rating of emotional exhaus tion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment on the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

PAGE 26

26 3. This study was conducted with the assumption that public elementary school principals accurately responded on the self-perceived us e of humor as a coping mechanism on the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the COPE Inventory. 4. This study was conducted with the assumption that public elementary school principals accurately responded on the self-perceived use of coping mechanisms on the COPE Inventory.

PAGE 27

27 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Burnout Burnout Research The word burnout was first defined by Freudenberger ( 1980). He indicated that a burnout is som eone in a state of fatigue or frustration brought about by devotion to a cause, way of life, or relationship that failed to produce the expect ed reward (p. 13). T hose suffering from burnout do not perceive themselves as angry or cynical, but believe they wo rk harder than others and that they are unappreciated. Freudenbe rger (1980) added, Burnout is a chronic condition, something a person has been working toward over a period of weeks, months, even year s (p. 13). Burnout seldom is acute. It is the consequence of a work situation where an idealistic individual feels he is batting his head against the wall day after day, hoping to have an impact on his associates. Burnout is inevitable when the individual persists in trying to reach an expectation level that is dramatically opposed to reality. Job burnout is an impairment of motivation to work (Potter, 1987, p. 2). Burnout begins with warning signals such as frustration, emoti onal outbursts, health problems, and the use of drugs or alcohol. The helping professions, including social work ers, nurses, teachers, and police officers, are prone to burnout. Human service work began to emerge for the first time in the 1920s. At that time, no governmental policies existed to regulate services. During the Depression in the early 1930s and into the late 1930s, government projects and programs increased dramatically to help people in nee d. These programs continued well into the postWorld War II era where governmental influence and interference set the stage for burnout to occur through institutional constr aints and unrealistic expectati ons (Farber, 1983). Complaints that are common among all human service professiona ls include: long hours, isolation, lack of

PAGE 28

28 independence, client needs, public perception, lack of resources, insufficient criteria for measuring accomplishments, productivity demands, lack of training, administrative interference, and apathy. Primary stressors on caregivers in clude: activities of daily living; cognitive functioning of the dependent; and be haviors of the dependent that pose a threat to safety. When the caregiver begins to succumb to the primar y stressors, secondary stressors then become prevalent. Secondary stressors include: family roles; occupational roles; social activities; and loss of self. Coping strategies may be protectiv e because they alter an individuals response to stressors, and they help develop resiliency to later stressors (Stevens & Higgins, 2002). Coping mechanisms are used to mediate and buffer the e ffects of the stress that is accumulating. Since different kinds of coping are appropr iate for different kinds of stressors, no single form of coping may be the most useful as a mediator of stressful outcomes (McCrae, 1984, p. 927). Personality traits may influence the appraisal of situations as being stressful or not being stressful. Some caregivers may be more likely to perceive a situation as stressful. Two specific personality traits linked to positive health outcomes are optimism and mastery. On the other hand, caregivers who have high levels of anger re port high levels of burden. Personal resources that are drawn upon include physical health, persona lity variables, and c oping strategies (Katz, 2005). Social workers use a variety of practical and psychological means to help people who have to deal with reduced autonomy and reduced re sources. Risk factors associated with burnout among social workers include: lack of challenge ; low work autonomy; difficulty of providing services; and low professional self -esteem (Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, 2002). Potter (1987) also reported othe r professions prone to burnou t which require or involve: rigorous attention; life or deat h decisions; demanding time schedules; detailed work; and social criticism. In a study of medical oncologists, with a response of 660 out of 1,000, 56% of the

PAGE 29

29 respondents indicated they were burned out. Fail ure, frustration, and de pression were suffered by more than half of the respondents. One in five respondents said he lost interest, 18% indicated they were totally bore d, and 85% stated their personal and social life were being affected. When given options to help reduce burnout, 70% of the res pondents chose time away from the office instead of the choices of admini stration, teaching, clinical research, research, and treating nonmalignant disease. Ca regiver burnout can impair the quality of care given to the patient. A proactive approach to train caregivers in reasonable expectations for patient care can be very productive in providing th em with the means to cope with the stressors associated with caring for critically ill patients (Penson, Dignan, Canellos, Picard, & Lynch, 2000). High stress levels among psychiatrists may impa ct their effectiveness with clients. In order to avoid psychological probl ems, psychiatrists need coping strategies to deal with the personal stresses that occur after a situation i nvolving patient suicide (F othergill, Edwards, & Burnard, 2004). Journalism is a stressful profession with a combination of competition, deadlines, long hours, and low pay. What makes this kind of stress unhealthy is that journalism carries responsibility, but with a lack of personal control. Those journalis ts most at-risk to burnout are usually the best and brightest at what they do. They are dedicated and ambitious, and they work the hardest while facing frustrat ion. They do not back off in the face of adversity, but instead double their efforts to succeed (Kalter, 1999). Cherniss (1980) stated, Burnout refers to a pr ocess in which a profe ssionals attitudes and behavior change in negative ways in res ponse to job strain (p 5). Many new public professionals lose their idealism within the first year of their careers. They become less trusting, less sympathetic toward clients, and less committed to their jobs. Cherniss indicated that those

PAGE 30

30 who worked in jobs that were demanding, frus trating, or boring tended to show more negative change than those who worked in jobs that were interesting, supportiv e, and stimulating. Maslachs (1982) research focused on coping strategies that service workers use for professional identity and job behavior. Burnout is not a new phenomenon, according to Maslach (1982). In the mid-1970s, concern regarding bur nout focused on employees working in service and caregiving occupations (Masla ch, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). These authors reported that initial articles focused on the clinical and social psychological perspectives. The clinical articles focused on the symptoms of burnout and mental health. The social articles focused on the relationship between the provider and recipient of the service occupa tions. Work on burnout shifted to empirical research in the 1980s (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). The research was quantitative, making use of questionnaires and surveys. The focus shifted to the assessment of burnout and several measures were developed. The increase of professionalism, bureaucra tization, and isolation leads to increased pressures on social service providers (Cherniss, 1980). These are conditions that were experienced differently in past generations. We are living in times of rapid change (Freudenberger, 1980). The impact of change ha s given us the dilemma of dealing with two conflicting cultures: (a) the culture of the past, which was more pur itanical; and (b) the culture of the present, which is more hedonistic. This rapi d change has put pressure on trying to determine our standards. Credit debt is increasing, social restraints and taboos have changed, sexual behaviors have changed, divorce has become co mmon, and technology has given us new ways to perform tasks. Education has moved us to higher levels while at the same time creating discontent with simpler lifestyles. As we place more demands on ourselves to keep up with societys changes, we exhaust our energy.

PAGE 31

31 Not all personality types are susceptible to burnout, according to Freudenberger (1980), who stated that it would be virt ually impossible for the underachiever to get into that state (p. 20). Burnout is limited to dynamic, charisma tic, goal-oriented idealists who want everything to be ideal. An individual w ith low self-esteem is more likely to be overwhelmed by emotional pressures experienced among administrators (Bro ck & Grady, 2002). The greatest victims of burnout are those with high expectations and a se nse of purpose. Professionals in medicine, religion, law, education, law enforcement, and soci al work give of themselves to those who are often physically and emotionally i ll. These professionals seldom receive gratitude or recognition from those they help, which can lead to burnout (Helliwell, 1981). Burnout ranges from low to high degrees of f eeling as a continuous variable (Maslach et al., 1996). Burnout is not viewed as being present or absent, but exis ts within the range of low to high degrees of feeling. Maslachs (1982) model of burnout uses three elements: (a) emotional exhaustion, (b) depersonalization, and (c) person al accomplishment. Th ese elements coexist although all three can be viewed i ndividually in a step-by-step pr ocess (Carruth, 1997). Carruth believed emotional exhaustion to be th e key variable in assessing burnout. Burnout occurs in stages and is progre ssive and prolonged (Brock & Grady, 2002). Burnout does not occur spontaneously in one dram atic episode. Physical symptoms common to burnout are illness, weight problems, blood pressu re changes, stomach problems, and intestinal distress. Burnout is a chronic condition that can occur over a pe riod of weeks, months, and even years (Freudenberger, 1980). Exhaustion is the fi rst stage of burnout and denial the second stage of burnout. Denial drains an individuals en ergy and then burnout becomes self-generating. Selye (1974), a medical doctor and researcher, defined stress as t he nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it ( p. 14). Selye (1976) noted the term stress was used in

PAGE 32

32 engineering to denote the effects of a force acting against a resistance (p. 45). Selye researched in the area of biology to determine nonspecific response to noxi ous agents. He called the response general adaptation syndrome involving three stages: (a) the alarm reaction, (b) the stage of resistance, and (c) the stage of exhaustion. I called this syndrome general, because it is produced only by agents which have a general effect upon large portions of the body. I called it adaptive because it stimulates defense and thereby helps in the acquis ition and maintenance of a stage of inurement. I called it a syndrome because its individual manifestations are coordinated and even partly dependent upon each other. (p. 38) Selye was the first to author a paper on the stress syndrome. The article, published on July 4, 1936, in the British jour nal Nature, was titled A Syndrome Produced by Diverse Nocuous Agents All activities generate stre ss whether or not the activiti es are pleasurable. When demands are placed on an organism, stress occu rs. There are differences between stress and burnout (Cherniss, 1980). Burnout is chronic and has specific beha vioral indicators. Stress is not chronic--but it can be. Stress does not necessarily produce increased emotional exhaustion, increased depersonalization, and decreased pe rsonal accomplishment as burnout produces. Stress consists of three processes: primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, and coping (Lazarus, 1966). Primary appraisal involves the perception of a threat. Secondary appraisal involves the formulation of a potential response to the threat. Coping puts the formulated response into action. The availability of an ad equate coping response may cause an individual to reassess the actual thr eat as being less than first perceived. The cognitive appraisal process is an evaluative process through which an individual views encounters with the environment as perhaps being relevant to his we ll-being. In primary appraisal, the individual evaluates the encounter for potential benefits or detriments. In secondary appraisal, th e individual evaluates what can be done to overcome or prevent harm or improve benefits. Coping is the individuals

PAGE 33

33 efforts to manage demands, whether or not the efforts are successful (Folkman, Lazarus, DunkelSchetter, DeLongis, & Gruen, 1986, p. 993). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) discussed two t ypes of coping: problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. Problem-focused copi ng is used when an individual feels that something can be done to solve the problem. Em otion-focused coping is used when a situation cannot be changed. Five categories for sources of stress include: (a ) survival, (b) internally generated stress, (c) environmental stress, (d) job stress, and (e) overwork (Brock & Grady, 2002). It is important to understand the following characteristics regarding staff stress: organiza tional characteristics, resident characteristics, and staff characteristics (Mitchell & Hastings, 2001). Warning signs of stress-related problems include: feeling overwhelm ed, feeling out of cont rol, being worried, and being indecisive. Personal circumstances can co ntribute to feelings of work-related stress. Stress can motivate performance, but too much stress can cause burnout. Seven early warning signs of burnout include: (a) fee ling exhausted; (b) feeling over whelmed; (c) feeling out of control; (d) feeling increased negativity; (e) dr eading going to work; (f) experiencing declining productivity; and (g) feeling incr eased isolation from family, fri ends, and colleagues (Brock & Grady, 2002). Burnout and Organizations It is im portant for organizations to unders tand burnout because burnout can have a serious impact on the overall effectiveness of the or ganization (Maslach & Leiter, 1997). Burnout affects more than just individuals; it can hinder group and t eam performance within an organization. Examining burnout and factors co ntributing to burnout can lead to determining strategies to minimize the potential for worker burnout (Zellmer, 2003) Understanding and preventing burnout are important to organizations because turnover and decreased worker

PAGE 34

34 effectiveness from burnout can put a drain on limited resources. Th is drain is especially true today with so much demand for health and human services workers. Palmer (1983) examined paramedics strate gies for dealing with death and dying, and found their coping mechanisms to be some of the same mechanisms used by doctors and nurses. The principal coping aids that were observed incl uded: (a) desensitizing oneself from the visual discomfort of physical trauma by turning the trau ma into signs to be analyzed; (b) using humor to provide relief from working under extreme c onditions and situations; (c) using technical language in referring to death; (d) viewing the patient as a machine to be treated, thereby removing emotional or affectionate attachments to the patient; (e) rationalizing that the patient is better off dead or that the patient had a zer o chance of surviving without help from the emergency medical services. Work overload, loss of control, and conflicting values have contributed to the increase in burnout among public school administrators (Masl ach & Leiter, 1997). Increasing demands are being confronted without end by school principals (Thomas & Ay res, 1998). Tuuli & Karisalmi (1999) showed that conflicts in the workplac e, job demands, and monotony on the job are all related to burnout, and they also stated that psychological job demands and conflicts have the strongest relationship. Leiter and Maslach (2001) developed a focus on six areas of work life: (a) workload, (b) control, (c) reward, (d) community, (e) fairne ss, and (f) values. Engagement with work is promoted when an individual matches any of thes e areas of work life. Building job engagement may be more effective than focusing on reducin g burnout. Job engagement consists of energy, involvement, and sense of efficacy. Job engagement is a state of fulfillment in employees that is

PAGE 35

35 characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (Maslach, 2003). When an individual has a mismatch in any of these areas of worklife, burnout is promoted. Technology is bringing an increasing intensity to work. As the pace of work intensifies, the balance of control between individuals and the organization is stra ined. Work infringes on the individuals ability to en joy personal rewards. Greater connectivity reduces the time available to spend with family and friends. As the pace of work increases, the opportunity to be treated unfairly increases. With the intensific ation of work, individua ls may become unaligned with the values of their organization, and then they may question their employment relationship. Employees were more likely to leave their posi tions if their feelings of burnout increased (Norton, 2004). As an individual s values are strained, the indi vidual experiences an alteration in his overall perception of the organization. Lim its need to be considered when dealing with greater demands. If their limits are exceeded on a regular basis, exhaustion becomes a serious problem (Leiter & Maslach, 1999). Physical exhaustion can make an employee prone to accidents and vulnerable to illness. Emotional exhaustion brings along feelings of depression and hopelessness. Mental exhaustion leads to negative att itudes that can affect all aspects of an individuals life (Weisb erg & Sagie, 1999). When leaders occupy a position of authority but are not serving legitimately, they are likely to be controlling and terr itorial, and they may generate negative feelings among employees (Keyes, Hysom, & Lupo, 2000). On the contrary, managers authorized with legitimacy are more open to innovation and suggestions from employees, and they are ab le to exert influence without negative consequences. These authors described leadership legitimacy as leading with support from individuals, peers, and subordinates. Legitimate leaders delegate authority, provide autonomy to subordinates, and share information. Effective leaders promote and sustain their

PAGE 36

36 employees well-being and mental health, thereby creating sust ainable businesses that are constructive, productive, and profitable. An employees sense of personal growth, purpose in life, and sense of social contribution should be bolstered by organizational outcomes, provided the employees ideas and effort are recognized as a factor in the companys success. It is important for organizations to understa nd burnout because its effects could seriously impact individuals and organizations (Waugh & Judd, 2003). The effects of burnout are reflected in high rates of absenteeism, tur nover, and complaints about staff performance (Maslach, 1982). The ability to identify the level of burnout in administrators could provide advance warning, which would signal a developing problem. Principals experiencing high stress levels reduce productivity throughout the school and contribute to a negative work environment (Pahnos, 1990). When demands and pressure at work become overwhelming and exceed the ability to cope, an individua l is likely to reach a breaki ng point (Pines & Kafry, 1978). The best way to beat burnout is to take action to prevent it from appearing. Burnout can be dealt with more effectively in its formative stages than when it is full-blown (Maslach, 1982, p. 132). Other people, such as friends and coll eagues, are the best ea rly warning system for burnout. They may be able to help the principa ls recognize what is happening and do something about it. Three major reasons that qualified applicants are not applying for principal positions are low pay, job stress, and long hour s (Cushing, Kerrins, & Johnstone, 2003). The greatest protection against burnout is self-awareness (Freudenberger, 1980): People who burn out seldom take time for that quality of aloneness (p. 125). When people are alone, they seldom think about their f eelings and shut themselves out of their own minds. He added, Just as other-directedness and distance are the allies of burnout, so closen ess and inner-directedness are its foes (p. 123). Ener gy, involvement, and efficacy are the direct

PAGE 37

37 opposites of the three dimensions of burnout (Maslach & Leiter 1997). In a study to predict burnout among HIV-AIDS and oncology healthcare workers, Planning and Restraint Coping strategies were found to be pr otective factors from burnout and predictive factors for personal accomplishment (Dorz, Novara, Sica, & Sanavio, 2003). In a study involving clinical research coordinators, those with high levels of burnout reported dissatisf action with their profession. Personality characteristics were found to be asso ciated with burnout. Those clinical research coordinators who demonstrated the characteristics of high endurance and nurturance traits seemed to be protected from burnout. The data collected in this study showed burnout levels for clinical research coordinators to be compar able to other healthcar e professionals (Gwede, Johnson, Roberts, & Cantor, 2005). Some preventative measures to prevent bur nout include: make sure to include some variation in your job; limit th e number of hours you work; take time off when you feel you need it; share your experiences with other members of your organization; get involved in a learning experience, such as a workshop, to recharge your batteri es; delegate some of the workload to others for help; and get plenty of exercise (Freudenberger, 1974). Unaddressed burnout will affect nonprofessional areas of an individuals life (Gold, 2001). Humor Humor Research Hum or was defined by Martin (1996) as t he frequency with which a person smiles, laughs, and otherwise displays mirth in a wide variety of life situ ations (p. 255). The American American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. (2000) ( http://www.bartle by.com /61/29/H0322900.html ), defined humor as: The quality that makes something laughable or amusing; Funnine ss; That which is intended to induce laughter or amusement; The ab ility to perceive, en joy, or express what is amusing, comical, incongruous, or absurd; One of the four fluids of the body, blood,

PAGE 38

38 phlegm, choler, and black bile, whose rela tive proportions were thought in ancient and medieval physiology to determine a pe rson's disposition and general health. Humor was described as a form of communicat ion in which a complex mental stimulus illuminates or amuses, or elicits the reflex of laughter (Roeckelein, 2002, p. 17). The term humor could be used to refer to a stimulus, a mental process, or a response (Martin, 2001). Four conditions associated with the full support of humor include: (a) recognizing the humor, (b) understanding the humor, (c) appreciating th e humor, and (d) agreeing with the humors message (Hay, 2001). Aristotle, Kant, Darwin, Bergson, and Fre ud recognized the significance of laughter (Provine, 1996). Nilsens (1993) work titled Humor Scholarship listed a bibliography of 3,850 humor studies, 24 humor journals and magazi nes, 96 humor organizations, and 106 humor scholars with humor courses and/or humor progr ams. Roeckelein (2002) commented about this interest in the study of humor: Overall interest in the study of humor in the discipline of psychology in the last 114 years from 1887 through 2000 may be assessed quantit atively, decade by decade, by consulting the computer database PsycINFO. This source indicates that three psychological studies on humor were conducted in 1887-1900; thr ee studies conducted in 1901-1910; four studies in 1911-1920; 45 studi es in 1921-1930; 101 studies in 1931-1940; 93 studies in 1941-1950; 105 studies in 19511960; 171 studies in 1961-1970; 464 studies in 19711980; 945 studies in 1981-1990; and 1,156 studies in 1991-2000. (p. 3) More research in humor physiology has been conducted during the fi nal quarter of the 20th century than during any previo us recorded period in the huma n adventure (Fry, 2002, p. 305). Until the early 1990s, the only procedures available to study the central nervous system were to examine the brain in ablation cases (traumatic loss of removal of central nervous system tissue), direct stimulation during operations where the skull was open, and electroencephalography (EEG). But some limitations occur in these procedures. The opportunity for ablation case studies is very lim ited. Open-skull operations give information on

PAGE 39

39 the site in the brain that is be ing stimulated, but no informati on is revealed about the location, configuration and continuity of the network invo lved in humor behavior. The EEG uses multiple electrodes that receive and transmit electrochemi cal signals from the adjacent central nervous system (CNS) tissues. The EEG is limited in not having differentiation in the breadth, depth or relative strengths of the compos ite messages regarding the strengths of the signals from each contributing electrode. Better methods are now available to study tissu e function. One of these methods involves bombarding living tissue with radio waves. Radiomagnetic signals are received and converted to three-dimensional images. This method is ca lled Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). An enhancement of this method is called the functio nal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). This method can be used as a rapid scanner to view act ivity in different areas of the brain. Another method of studying central nervous system activ ity is through Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in which a small amount of radioactive su bstance is injected in to the subject. The radioactive substance co mbines with glucose molecules, which are a primary food for neuron cells. Neurons that are active will consume more of the glucose. Through continuous scanning, neurons will present themselves through the signals sent from the radioactive substance that is combined with the glucose. Another method is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Magnetic rays are finely focused on specific ar eas of the brain, and the stimulation provided by the magnetic rays temporarily renders the tissue inactive. By isolating specific tissue from activity, temporary ablation is provided for study. The traditional procedur es of ablation, direct stimulati on, and EEGs led to the conclusion that a humor center exists in the brain. The newer technologies are ch anging that conclusion, showing that the brain is comprised of a ne twork architecture. In a functional magnetic

PAGE 40

40 resonance imaging (fMRI) study, it was found that se parate and different ne tworks in the brain are activated according to the type of humor to which a subject is exposed (Goel & Dolan, 2001). The fMRI shows images of the brain that register blood flow to func tioning areas. Humor involving semantic juxtaposition, or incongruity, showed up on th e fMRI throughout a bilateral temporal lobe network. But humor involving pu ns, or phonological juxtaposition, showed up on the fMRI in the left hemisphere networ k centered around speech production regions. Dillon, Minchoff, and Baker (1985) examined subj ects perception of their use of humor as a coping device. Salivary immunoglobulin A (Ig A), which appears to defend against viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, can vary as a function of both personality and situational variables (p. 14). In their study, they measured immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations in saliva and changes in IgA concentrations after viewing humorous videotapes and control videotapes. Subjects were randomly assigne d to view a humorous videotape, Richard Pryor Live and a control tape, The Thin Edge: Anxiety Each subject viewed each tape for 30 minutes with a 10-minute intermission between viewings. Before and after viewing each video, subjects were asked to salivate into a te st tube. After the viewings, s ubjects were asked to complete a humor scale. Scores on the scale were correlat ed with IgA concentrations before and after viewing each videotape. The average concen tration of IgA after viewing the humorous videotape was significantly greater than before viewing; the concen tration of IgA did not change significantly with the viewing of the control vide otape. The results were positively related and suggested that salivary IgA concentr ations are directly related to subjects perception of their use of humor as a coping device. The three recognized theories regarding hu mor include the incongruity theory, the superiority theory, and the relief theory. The incongruity theory was developed by Kant (1790).

PAGE 41

41 He proposed that humor occurs as a reaction to incongruous perceptions occurring simultaneously. Kant wrote: Somet hing absurd must be present in whatever is to raise a hearty convulsive laugh. Laughter is an all action arising from a strain ed expectation being suddenly reduced to nothing (p. 132). An incongruity is a mismatch between what actually happens to what is expected to happen (Perlmutter, 2002). In order for an incongruity to be funny, a joke has to be a logical compromise, has to arouse a sense of fun, and has to observe social rules (Matte, 2001). In order to distinguish humor from nonsense, resolution is the aspect that needs to be present (Philbrick, 1989). The philosophica l concept of incongru ity, the simultaneous occurrence of normally incompatible elements, is retained as a central feature of psychological humor theory (Staley & Derks, 1995, p. 97). Incongruity is emphasized as the primary concept in cognitive views of humor because the particular presentation of incongruity constitutes the structure of the humorous st imulus (p. 98). Beyond comprehension of the incongruity, cognitive, emotional, and social factors will determin e whether or not the incongruity is found to be amusing. Incongruity can be found in different form s, such as in a speakers presentation, mannerisms, emphasis, and facial expressions. Not only can the humor response be different for each hearer, but it can even differ for a given hearer, depending on how he or she chooses to interpret the script and in particular how much ones critical facu lties are allowed to come into play. (Perlmutter, 2002, p. 156) Determining specific sayings that generate incong ruities is based on the logic of semantics and pragmatics (Cave, 2005). Some forms of humor us e paradox to create an incongruity. Cave added, Moores conjunction is a method used to create incongr uity. Moores conjunction uses the form p, but I dont believe that p (p. 136). Another method used in creating incongruity is the use of a Machiavelli Puzzle Creating incongruity with th is method is dependent upon how

PAGE 42

42 the deliverer of the message thinks the message will be taken by the hearer, either as truth or as falsehood. Cave stated that the incongruity is built upon what he thinks we think he thinks we think (and so on) (p. 140). Another method used to create incongruity is the way the joke is told or presented. The delivery of the message can make the difference between whether or not the incongruity is perceived. The superiority theory of humor was orig inated by Hobbes (1651). He proposed the hypothesis that humor results when those joking feel superior to those they are joking about. Sudden glory is the passion which maketh those grimaces called LAUGHTER; and is caused either by some sudden act of their own, that pleaseth them; or by the apprehension of some deformed thing in another, by comparison whereof they suddenly applaud themselves. And it is incident most to them, that are conscious of the fewest abilities in themselves; who are forced to keep them selves in their own favour, by observing the imperfections of other men. (p. 38) The superiority theory was further developed by Bergson (1921) who stated that man is defined as an animal which laughs (p. 3). He indicated that a deformity that a normally built individual could successfully imitate may become comic. Bergson added, Certain deformities undoubtedly possess over others the sorry privilege of causing some persons to laugh (p. 23). One may stress superiority by using humor aggressively toward an individual with lower status (Ehrenberg, 1995). Humor can be used to belittle oneself in order to protect oneself from the anticipation of being belittl ed by others (Hay, 2001). Social structure in an organization could be preserved using joking patterns to maintain distance between leaders and other members of the organization (Yarwood, 1995). Laught er is an expression of a persons feelings of superiority over other people (M orreall, 1983, p. 4). Aristotle ag reed with Plato that laughter is a form of derision. The relief theory of humor was developed by Spencer (1860). The hypothesis of the relief theory is that humor occurs from the release of energy and feelings that have been suppressed.

PAGE 43

43 In humor, joking, and laughter, the energy--normally used for emotion, thinking, and suppression of forbidden feelings--is saved and builds up and is then released. Humor was regarded to be the highest of defensive processes to prevent th e generation of internal discomfort (Freud, 1960, original work published in 1905). A joke has quite outstandingly the characteristic of being a notion that has occurred to us involuntarily. What happens is not that we know a moment beforehand what joke we are going to make, and that all it then needs is to be clothed in words. We have an indefinable feeling, rather, which I can best compare with an absence a sudden release of intellectual tension, and then all at once the joke is ther e--as a rule ready clothed in words. (p. 167) Although the three theory humor groups compet e with one another, they supplement each other by dealing with different aspects of the process (Davis, 1993). An individual who perceives an incongruity expresses laughter through rele ase and feels superior to the object of humor. Jones (2006) stated, The theory of humour needs more than an account of the content of finding funny. We need to know what is accomp lished when we find something funny, what function it serves, and what role it plays in our lives (p. 130). Jones noted that the superiority theory and relief theory are not rivals regard ing the content of humo r. They are instead complements to the incongruity th eory by describing the tendencies of behavior in what happens when we find an incongruity to be funny. Jones s howed that as a result of this incongruity, either theory might fit into a comprehensive theory of humor by providing us with a functional role for the state of finding funny (p. 130). Two forms of coping strategies linked to humor were proposed by Lefcourt, Davidson, Prkachin, & Mills, (1997). The first form invol ves finding humor in a situation and using humor to reduce negative emotions. The second form in cludes the use of humor to alter the situation itself. The four functions of humor include: (a ) physiological, (b) psyc hological, (c) education, and (d) social (Nilsen, 1993). Physiological functions include exhilaration, relaxation, and

PAGE 44

44 healing. Psychological functions contain relief, ego defense, coping, and gaining status. Educational functions consist of alertness, arguing and pers uading, teaching effectively, and long-term memory learning. Social functions include: bonding with people who are like us, promoting social stability, and promoting social change. The four psychological benefits of humor include: (a) humor gives us power, (b) hu mor helps us cope with change and uncertainty, (c) humor provides perspective, and (d) humor gives us balance (Klein, 1989). Good leaders use humor to put people at ease and maintain group morale (Priest & Swain, 2002). Humor is often used as a means of coping (Hay, 2001). Henman (2001) conducted a study of 566 prisoners of war (POW) who were held captive in Vietnam. He discovered the importance of humor among these POWs--they would risk torture to joke through the walls when another prisoner needed cheering up. People who use humor to cope help ease burdens experienced by others, and humor also provides support to deal w ith problems (Nezlek & Derks, 2001). In a study on humor and depression, D eaner and McConatha (1993) stated: A person who was more emotionally stable tended to laugh and smile more, use humor more as a coping mechanism, be more able to notice humor in the environment, and report more enjoyment of humor. Emotional stability appears to be strongl y related to the humor construct. (p. 762) Individuals whose scores on measures of sense of humor were higher tended to be more extroverted and emotionally stable (Cann & Ca lhoun, 2001). Humor seemed to carry special weight with regard to social competence, whic h in turn we would expect to be positively associated with resilience in stressful social situations (Lefcourt, 2001, p. 13). Woods (1983) stated, Above all, humor is power. It protects and invi gorates the self in the constant interplay between de termined and determining forces. It provides strength that enables the individual to adapt to situations, and on occasions to change them (p. 112).

PAGE 45

45 Stimulation was found to be the general physio logical effect of mi rthful laughter on the respiratory, muscular, cardiovascular, endocrine, and imm une systems (Fry, 2002). A good sense of humor can help relax muscles, can c ontrol pain and discomfort, can promote positive mood states, and can aid overall psychological health (A bel, 2002). Humor can decrease stress hormones while increasing activity within the immune system (W ycoff, 1999). Berlyne (1972) wrote, Nevertheless, laughter seem s clearly to be capable of a cat hartic effect. People often feel better and more relaxed after it (p. 52). Martin and Lefcourt ( 1983) found that individuals who laugh and smile in a wide variety of situations who place a high value on humor, and who use humor to cope with stress show less pronounced negative effects of stress than those who do not value or use humor. It is important for an effective leader to po ssess the attribute of hu mor (Bolinger, 2001). Bolinger stated, Not only is laughter good for the body and mind but the use of humor resulting in laughter aids in effective communication, fa cilitates the building of long-lasting, trusting, relationships, and helps foster cr eativity (p. 1). Twenty seconds of robust laughing is similar to three minutes of hard rowing for the heart (Rah mani, 1994). Kline (1907) stated, No stimulus, perhaps, more mercifully and effectually break s the surface tension of consciousness, thereby conditioning it for a new forward movement, than humor (p. 421). Humor acts as a buffer to the negative effects of stress (Abel, 1998). Humor can be used to make a situation less threatening by restructuring the situation. Situations can be handled in a more positive way by those with increased senses of humor when compared to their counterparts who possess decreased senses of humor (Kuiper et al., 1995). Cousins (1979) equated laughing to internal jogging. Cousins was diagnosed in 1964 with ankylosing spondylitis, a disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. Cousins wrote

PAGE 46

46 that the will to live is not a theoretical abst raction, but a physiologic reality with therapeutic characteristics (p. 44). His trea tment consisted of massive doses of ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, and a daily regimen of humor films. At the time, three grams of vitamin C given by intramuscular injection were cons idered a high dose. Cousinss treatment consisted of a fourhour intravenous drip initially started with 10 gr ams of vitamin C, then gradually moved up to 25 grams of vitamin C. The humor portion of his treatment consisted of watching Candid Camera and Marx Brothers movies. Cousins indicated th at 10 minutes of genuine laughter would act as an anesthetic, and would give him two hours of pain-free sleep. When the effect would wear off, he would watch the films again, providing more laughter, which led to more pain-free sleep intervals. Cousins believed the humor treatment to be an important factor as part of the healing process. Humor and Organizations Hum or can be used to promote change (Nils en, 1993). Humor is considered as serious communication in organizations (Yarwood, 1995). Yarwood stated The path taken by a humorous story or insight may even define the parameters of social interaction within an organization (p. 81). Humor aids communicat ion and fosters long-lasting relationships (Bolinger, 2001). Humor can promote cohesi veness among colleagues by providing a way of sharing common frustrations (Talbot & Lumden, 2000). Good leaders put people at ease through the use of good-natured humor (Priest & Swain, 2002). These kinds of leaders use humor to maintain group morale, are able to see the point of jokes, and are funny instead of lacking in humor. The use of humor by organizational leaders is positively related to performance by individuals and units in the or ganization (Avolio, Howell, & So sik, 1999). Humor can be used for consensus-building and control (Hay, 2001) a nd reduce the face threat of a directive, a

PAGE 47

47 challenge or a criticism (Holmes & Marra, 2002, p. 66). Humor expands organizational as well as personal energy, and it is a valuable management tool (Rahmani, 1994). Humor can be used for delivering a negative or critical message acro ss power and authority differences (Holmes & Marra, 2002). Humor can make orders or reprimands more palatable (Yarwood, 1995). Subordinates can use humor to chal lenge or criticize thei r superiors (Holmes, 1998). Humor which reinforces the status quo is termed reinforcing humor and is used to control others and keep them in their place (Holmes & Marra, 2002). Humor that challenges the status quo is termed subversive humor which can challenge an individual, a group, or the entire organization. Subversive humor is found in greate r proportions in business meetings rather than in friendship groups. Joking patt erns maintain distance between leaders and subordinates, and they contribute to preserving social structur es by promoting cohesion of organizations and groups (Yarwood, 1995). Organizational productivity and profitability can increase by promoting the well-being of employees (Keyes et al., 2000). Employees are more productive, less prone to taking leave, and have a higher rate of retention when reported to having higher levels of well-being. Humor is a communication tool that can preven t burnout (Talbot & Lumden, 2000). Burnout signals not despair but hope. Recognize d and attended to, it can become a positive energy force, signifying that the time has come for a cease and desist action, a hard look at yourself, and a change to something new. (Freudenberger, 1980, p. xxi) The effects of burnout are serious for indivi duals and organizations in the education profession (Waugh & Judd, 2003). Six common symp toms of job burnout include: (a) negative emotions, (b) interpersonal problems, (c) hea lth problems, (d) declining performance, (e) substance abuse, and (f) f eelings of meaninglessness (Pot ter, 1987). Freudenberger (1980) listed the following 13 symptoms to check for burnout: (a) exhaustion, (b) detachment,

PAGE 48

48 (c) boredom, (d) cynicism, (e) impa tience, (f) heightened irritabil ity, (g) a sense of omnipotence, (h) a sense of being unappreciated, (i) paranoia, (j ) disorientation, (k) psychosomatic complaints, (l) depression, and (m) denial of feelings. W here burnout exists, the sufferer unwittingly selects a cure which intensifies the burn-out, spr eading it faster and further (p. 104). Five humor groups were defined by Babad (1974): (a) nonhumorous, (b) appreciators, (c) producer, (d) reproducer, and (e) producer-reproducer. Nonhumor ous individuals were those with no readiness to laugh, tell jokes or create humor, and th ey never search for humorous situations or laugh at other peoples humor. Appreciators were those who show readiness to laugh, look for humorous situations, and enjoy other peoples humor, but they do not tell jokes or make up jokes or humor themselves. Producer s invent humor, make up jokes and humorous stories, or create humorous situations. Reproducers do not invent their own humor, but they retell jokes or humorous stories and situations. Producers-reproducers are those individuals who not only invent humor, but they retell other peoples jokes and humorous stories. To obtain a valid measure of humor, we must penetrate the social context, and measure directly how the person behaves in his daily in teractions with others This can be done by natural observations, by self -report, and by sociometric measurement. (Babad, 1974, p. 619) Philbrick (1989) revised Babads (1974) lis t for her study to include only four humor groups: (a) nonhumorous, (b) appreciator, (c) produ cer, and (d) reproducer. Her definitions were the same as Babads for the nonhumorous, appr eciator, producer and reproducer groups. Philbrick did not include a producer-reproducer as a group in her study. She indicated that school administrators might gain effectiveness from the use of humor by following the example of business executives and political leaders whose use of humor ha s worked for them. Philbrick noted: Organizations are enhanced by leaders w ho are effective, and leader effectiveness may be enhanced by a sense of humor (p. 5).

PAGE 49

49 Humor competence can be impe ded by individual religious beliefs, politics, sexual orientation, and so forth (Hay, 2001). Racial or ethnic jokes will often be accepted by those who enjoy the humor, even though they would be embarra ssed to voice the same attitude in a serious discussion (Perlmutter, 2002). The listeners sacrifice is more than the ordi nary suspension of disb elief; he or she is prepared to suspend a wide variety of ever y-day prerogatives that may include expressing opinions about immoral behavior or taking positions on political issues alluded to in the story presented by the jo kester. (p. 158) Yarwood (1995) stated, Humor is culture a nd time specific. Behaviors which were accepted as appropriate or at least tolerated a decade ago may be considered sexual harassment today and can cost offenders their jobs (p. 83). Humor is part of everyday life, is often taken for granted, and is not recognized as having serious impact (Linstead, 1985). Readiness to respond to funny events differs from one individual to another and that people laugh for different reasons (Lefcourt, 2001). Timing, verbal a nd nonverbal signals, and appropriate relationships are all factors in determining whether or not participants find humor in a potentially funny situation. It is possible for humor to offend and am use someone simultaneously (Hay, 2001). A hearer may find the humor funny, while disagreeing with the message. Especially in examples such as ethnic or sexist humor, if the hearer doesn't share a certain belief about the group in question, the joke may fall completely flat ( p. 76). Bolinger (2001) stated, There are drawbacks to the use of humor by leaders. In appropriate or offensive humor can do permanent damage to relationships (p. 15). School Principal Job Demands The school principals job has becom e more challenging and demanding due to rapid transformations in society (Shumate, 1999). Society is rapidly changing, causing schools to

PAGE 50

50 perform more tasks than in past decades. The Puritans of Ma ssachusetts Bay established schools in 1640 to teach basic skills in reading, writing, ar ithmetic, and to develop democratic values for society (Vollmer, 2000). The Puritans, according to Vollmer, believed that families and churches bore the responsibility of raising the children. At the beginning of the 20th century, additional responsibilities began to be assigned to schools. With the influx of immigrants and the rise of the Industrial Age, policymakers sa w schools as the mechanism for providing training to accommodate social engineering. From 1900 to the 1990s, 61 new academic and soci al programs were added to the list of school responsibilities (Vollmer, 2000). Health and nutrition programs were included between 1900 and 1910. Vocational educatio n and art education programs were started between 1920 and 1940. Safety and drivers education programs were added between 1950 and 1960. Consumer, career, and leisure and recreationa l programs were included between 1960 and 1970. Special education, drug and alcohol abuse programs, and charac ter education were started between 1970 and 1980. Schools saw the influx of computer education and multicultural programs between 1980 and 1990. Programs were appended to the curriculum to include gun and gang education, sex education, and before -school and after-school programs between 1990 and 2000. With the change of programs have come adde d responsibilities for school principals. Two studies in 1988 and 1998 compared principal pr ofiles from 1988 and 1998 that showed additional responsibilities for school pr incipals (Doud & Keller, 1998; Doud, 1989). Principals in 1988 were responsible for 29 professi onal and support staff, while prin cipals in 1998 were responsible for 44 professional and support sta ff. Principals in 1988 typically worked with an 11-month contract, whereas principals in 1998 worked year round. The typical hours a principal worked in

PAGE 51

51 1988 were 45 hours per week, with an additional 6 hours of school-related activities, whereas principals in 1998 worked 50 hours per week, wi th an additional 8 hours of school-related activities. Compared with teachers, the school principal is also considered to be a service provider-but in a way a service provider is quite different from the teacher. The principal is required to complete a larger number of assignments. He is s ubject to more interruptions and must deal with more varied issues. Burned-out principals show physical, mental, and cognitive exhaustion. They experience emotional and pe rsonal detachment from the re cipients of th eir services. Comparing school principal bu rnout to burnout among other pr imary service providers and professionals, school principals sense similar, inte rnally focused experiences such as exhaustion. Differences in externally focused experiences were more pronounced among principals. They showed stronger negative feelings toward others, a strong sense of discontentment, and a desire for distance from service recipients (Friedman, 1995). The four categories of situations that ad ministrators find stre ssful are: (a) the administrators per ception of his role in th e school, (b) tasks and daily activities, (c) external issues, and (d) handling conflicts related to th e operations of the school (Gmelch & Torelli, 1993). Motivated clients contribute to professi onal gratification because they make success more likely, are more stimulating to work wit h, and require less effort by the professional (Cherniss, 1980). Those who are apathetic and w ho do nothing to help themselves are seen as less deserving from the professional, and they ge nerate a negative reaction and source of strain. Lack of control over an individua ls work, lack of reward for contributions on the job, lack of fairness, and losing positive connections with others in the workplace are all important indicators that a mismatch exists between an individual and his job (Maslach & Leiter, 1997).

PAGE 52

52 Six conditions related to burnout include: (a) conflicting demands, (b) procedures and policies, (c) hopelessness of clients life conditions, (d) workload, (e) negative attitudes, and (f) the inability of workers to achieve objectives (Minahan, 1980). Brock and Grady (2002) stated, The high public visibility of an administrators job underscores it with stress. Every action and d ecision is subject to sc rutiny, suspicion, and misunderstanding. Criticism of public schools a nd demands for change are increasing (p. 21). More recently, demands for performance and demands for improved student, teacher, and administrative accountability have further heighten ed the demands on the principal. Principals leaving the field were most likely to do so because of frustration brought on by politics, bureaucracy, and unreasonable demands for highe r standards and accountability (Stricherz, 2001). The greatest source of strain fo r the professional is the struct ure of the job and the work setting (Cherniss, 1980). Admini strators experience stress due to the high public visibility of their jobs, and they see that their actions and decisions are subject to scrutiny and criticism (Brock & Grady, 2002). Stressful administrative tasks of admi nistrators include: (a) finding substitutes, (b) staff meetings, (c) working with uncooperative parents, (d) implementing mandates, (e) equipment problems, (f) vandalism, (g) work overload, (h) time constraints, (i) meetings outside of school hours, (j) lack of resources, (k) isolation, (l) lack of control, (m) lack of appreciation, (n ) paperwork, (o) interruptions, (p) complaints, (q) student misbehavior, (r) after-hours activities, (s) making d ecisions that affect others, (t) evaluations, (u) negative staff members, (v) terminating empl oyees, (w) rumor control, (x) lack of support, (y) salary issues, and (z) dissa tisfaction with career advancem ent (Whan & Thomas, 1996; Brock & Grady, 2002). Blaydes (2004) iden tified the following stressors that affect the principal:

PAGE 53

53 (a) pressures related to the district office, (b) ma ndates from the state level, (c) federal mandates, (d) student learning and testing, (e) special education, (f) discip line, (g) contract management, (h) hiring, (i) supervision, (j) ev aluation, (k) parent demands and expectations, and (l) personal and family issues. Shumate (1999) identif ied the five highest stress fact ors of public elementary school principals. The highest stress factor was participating in sc hool activities outside normal working hours. The second highest stress factor was having a workload that was too heavy. The third highest stress factor was having meetings take up too much time. The fourth highest stress factor was having to comply with policies at the state and federal levels. The fifth highest stress factor was having high pe rsonal expectations. Participants in a study by Doud and Keller (1998 ) listed 11 major concerns that principals face. Those concerns were: (a) fragmentation of administrators time, (b) financial resources, (c) student assessment, (d) students not perf orming to their potential, (e) professional development and retraining of staff, (f) instructional practices, (g) inadequate availability of staff training for technology, (h) inadequate availabil ity of technology support se rvices, (i) curriculum development, (j) parental involvement level, and (k) management of student behavior. Examining a random sample of 107 principals for causes of principal burnout, Whitaker (1996) focused on characteristics and attitudes contributing to high scores in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Thirteen principals scored high in both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and they indicated that emotional exhaustion was a significant problem. Factors contributing to emoti onal exhaustion include: (a) dea ling with teacher and student problems, (b) parent concerns, (c) difficulties with the central office, (d) multitasking, (e) constant interruptions, (f) night meetings, (g) increased paperwork, (h) budget cuts,

PAGE 54

54 (i) greater demands for accountability, (j) new reporting procedures to comply with state mandates, and (k) implementing higher standards for students. Whita ker contacted these principals to interview them regarding th eir high scores in em otional exhaustion and depersonalization. Four of the 13 principals had already left the princi pal position, leaving nine principals to interview. Eight out of nine principals were not planning to remain until retirement. The average age of these 13 principals ranged from 35 to 44. Most participants were male, all were married, and most had children. One of th e high school principals indicated that he had spent two days in the hos pital with a heart arrhyt hmia that the doctor dia gnosed as stress related. The principals in Whitakers study indicated that to improve the principals role, there was a greater need for support systems to be built in to the job to deal with conflict, feeling overwhelmed, and being under constant pressure. If the data concerning the number of principa ls who will exit their jobs in the next few years are accurate, districts may have a critical need to attract a nd retain high quality individuals for these roles. As pressure to improve schools co ntinues at a time of shrinking resources and education bashing, we cannot afford to overlook th e vital role pr incipals play in the education of our children. The costs are too high. (p. 70) Allison (1997) reported that a substantial num ber of school administrators in several Canadian districts took medical leav e due to stress-related illness. In one district alone, four principals suffered heart attacks, three of wh ich were fatal. Identifying effective coping strategies may provide tools to moderate the e ffects of stress on the individual. In a study including 1,455 public elementary and secondary school principals in British Columbia, the most common coping techniques found included: (a) practicing go od human relation skills, (b) maintaining a sense of humor, (c) approa ching problems optimistically and objectively, (d) maintaining regular sleep habits, (e) setti ng realistic goals while recognizing limitations,

PAGE 55

55 (f) delegating, (g) talking with family member s or close friends, (h) engaging in active recreational activities, (i) enga ging in less active nonwork activities such as dining out or listening to music, and (j) working harder to be more productive. Humor as a Coping Mechanism An investig ation into the use of humor as a coping mechanism in the workplace is important because humor has been identified as a tool used to preven t burnout and create resiliency to stress, thus re ducing its impact (Talbot & Lu mden, 2000). Change could be promoted using humor (Nilsen, 1993). Resear ch supporting the use of humor as a coping strategy in the preventio n of burnout is increasing (Cade, 1992) Being mentioned in almost all reports on the prevention of burnout is an indicati on of humors potential as a coping strategy. In a study regarding burnout and community colleg e nursing faculty members, humor was found to promote job satisfaction, foster relationships, and provide a relaxed and comfortable work atmosphere. Talbot (2000) stated, It is not a situation that is stressful, but the individuals interpretation of that situation (p. 360). Coping strategies can be viewed as active or inactive. Active coping strategies involve confronting the stress, changing the source of stre ss, confronting oneself, or changing oneself. In active coping, strategies involve avoiding or denying the st ress cognitively or physically. Reactive humor involves humor that is produced by the environment. An individual using reactive humor effectively percei ves and responds to humorous s timuli. Productive humor refers to the ability to produce and c onstruct humor, and it does not rely on the environment to provide the humor (Lehman, Burke, Martin, Sultan, & Czech, 2001). The quality of an individuals own humor a ppreciation is the most important element for self-rating. Although an indi vidual is self-judgmental, self-rating is done in relation to stimuli produced by others (Fine, 1975). Subjects with high scores on the humor measures are assumed

PAGE 56

56 to use humor as a means of coping with the stressful experiences that they encounter in their everyday lives (Martin & Lefcourt, 1983). In order for humor to mode rate the effects of stress, a high value must be placed on humor along with the ability to produ ce humor in stressful situations that are encountered in daily life. Humor reduces the impact of stress. Humor is an important attribute for an eff ective leader to possess (Bolinger, 2001). It provides relief and distance from problems (Brock & Grady, 2002). Several ways to incorporate humor into the workday include: read and pos t cartoons in the office; include humor in newsletters; spend time with people who like to laugh; look for the funny side of annoying situations; laugh with others but never at them; and include a full five minutes of hearty laughter every day. Humor in organizations promotes and main tains employee wellness and health (Nason, 2005). Promoting the well-being of employees s hould increase organizational productivity and profitability (Keyes et al., 2000). People who report higher levels of well-being are more productive, are less prone to using leave time, a nd have a higher rate of employee retention. Cherniss (1980) listed eight interventions that could be put into place to reduce professional burnout: (a) provide orientati on programs, (b) provide periodic apprai sal and evaluation, (c) provide individual counseling, (d) provide staff support groups, (e) restructure the job, (f) modify the workload, (g) increase feedback in the job, and (h) reduce social isolation. Maslach Burnout Inventory The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a 22item measure that was initially published in 1981. The MBI measures levels of burnout based on three subscales: (a) emotional exhaustion (9 items), (b) depersonalizati on (5 items), and (c) personal accomplishment (8 items). A high degree of burnout is reflected in high scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales and in low scores on the personal accomplishment subscale. An average degree of

PAGE 57

57 burnout is reflected in averag e scores on the three subscales A low degree of burnout is reflected in low scores on the emotional exha ustion and depersonalizatio n subscales, and it is reflected in high scores on the personal accomplishment subscale. The Maslach Burnout Inventory focuses on pe rsonal experiences with peoples work (Maslach & Leiter, 1997). The close association between burnout and wo rk differentiates it from more general emotional states, such as depression, which pervade every aspect of life without being tied to a specific domain of life. Thus, the MBI assesses burnout as the result of problems at work, not as a psychiatric syndrome. (Maslach & Leiter, 1997, p. 156) Boles, Dean, Ricks, Short, and Wang (2000) conduc ted a study to examine the generalizability of the MBI to populations other than human service workers. They compared two samples from educators and small business owners, analyzing data and relating the burnout dimensions to stress-related variables identified in the literature. The first sample consisted of 183 elementary and high school teachers and administrators. The second sample consis ted of 162 small business owners. The three dimensions of burnout were measured with the MBI, with some modification in wording on the depersonalization dimension to re flect interaction with employees and students for the respective samples. Coefficient alphas of the Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment dimensions for th e educators/ business owners were .89/.90, .80/.70, and .76/.78, respectively. The results of the study support th e generalization of the MBI to occupational groups other than human services workers. Th e research suggests that even though personnel in different fields have dissimilar stressors, the re sults appear to be similar. The Maslach Burnout Inventory can be generaliz ed to occupational gr oups other than human services groups (Boles et al., 2000). Although the st ressors among educators and small business

PAGE 58

58 owners were different, the patterns of correla tions among the burnout dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomp lishment were found to be similar. Humor Styles Questionnaire Hum or can be viewed as a multifaceted cons truct that consists of cognitive ability, aesthetic response, habitual behavior patterns, emotion-related traits, positive attitude, and perspective during adversity. The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) was developed to assess four dimensions of the function of humor in daily life. Two of th e dimensions are considered to be positively related to well-being: Affiliative Humor and Self-Enhancing Humor. The other two dimensions are considered to be negativel y related to well-being: Aggressive Humor and Self-Defeating Humor. The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associ ated with making funny comments and telling jokes, which facilitate relations hips while reducing tension among others. Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir (2003) state d, Individuals with high scores on this measure appear to be socially extraverted, cheerful, emotionally st able, and concerned for others (p.71). The dimension of Self-Enhancing Humor is associ ated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to incongruities in life, a nd using humor as a coping mechanism. They added, It is also positively corr elated with cheerfulness, sel f-esteem, optimism, psychological well-being, and satisfaction with social support, and negatively related to depression, anxiety, and bad mood (p. 71). The dimension of Aggressi ve Humor is associated with the use of humor to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement. The authors said, This scale was positively related to measures of hostility and aggression and negatively related to seriousness (p. 71). The dimension of Self-D efeating Humor is associated with the use of humor at an individual s own expense through excessive humor ous self-ridicule. It is also positively correlated with depression, anxiet y, hostility, aggression, bad mood, psychiatric

PAGE 59

59 symptoms, and undesirable masculin e traits and negatively related to self-esteem, psychological well-being, intimacy, satisfaction with soci al supports, and femininity (p. 71). COPE Inventory The COPE I nventory is a 60-item survey th at measures 15 coping strategies. They include: (a) active copin g, (b) planning, (c) suppression of co mpeting activities, (d) restraint coping, (e) seeking social support--instrumental, (f) seeking social suppor t--emotional, (g) focus on and venting of emotions, (h) behavioral disengagement, (i) mental disengagement, (j) positive reinterpretation and growth, (k) denial, (l) accepta nce, (m) turning to religion, (n) alcohol-drug disengagement, and (o) humor. In developing the COPE Inventory, Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) looked at the research conducted by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). Lazarus (1966) stated, For threat to occur, an evaluation must be made of the situation, to the effect th at a harm is signified. The individuals knowledge and beliefs co ntribute to this (p. 44). Appr aisal of threat is a judgment of assimilated data with ideas and expectations, and relies on the stimulus as well as the psychological makeup of the individual. Observa ble threat and stress reactions are reflections or consequences of coping processes intended to reduce threat (p. 152) He added, Threat leads to processes of coping with the threat (p. 153). While prim ary appraisal is concerned with determining threat and amount of danger, second ary appraisal is concerned with the form of coping to use and to what extent any form of action will relieve the threat. More adaptive and reality-oriented forms of coping are most likely when the threat is comparatively mild; under severe threat, pathological extr emes become more prominent (p. 162). The higher the degree of threat, the more primitive reaction or solution to it. When threat becomes great, cognitive functioning is impaired, resulting in th e choice of the more primitive action.

PAGE 60

60 Strategies that are chosen for coping are based on the capability of the action in reducing or eliminating the threat. Three factors thought to influence coping include the location of threat, the viability of actions to prevent harm, and situational constr aints that inhibit the coping action. Personality traits may influence coping by affecting how the situation will be appraised. Lazarus (1966) looked at two categories of coping: direct action tendencie s and defensive reappraisal. Direct action tendencies include strengthening an individuals resources against threat. Defensive reappraisal refers to reappraising the threat as less harmful. The concept of coping was found in literatu re regarding animal experimentation and psychoanalytic ego psychology. In the Darwinian a pproach, survival for an animal is dependent upon the animal being able to avoid, escape, or overcome threats in the environment. In the psychological model, coping is defined as the abi lity to solve problems to reduce stress. Coping is defined as constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that ar e appraised as taxing or exceedi ng the resources of the person (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p. 141). Coping can help to reduce the perceived th reat of situations, but stress occurs when inappropriate coping m echanisms are used (van Dick & Wagner, 2001). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) described two types of coping: emotion-focused and problem-focused. The authors stated that emotion-fo cused strategies that that are used to lessen emotional distress include: avoidance, mini mization, distancing, selective attention, positive comparisons, and wrestling positive value from negative events (p. 150). Some emotionfocused strategies are directed at increasing emot ional distress to mobili ze for dealing with the threat. Reappraisal is an emotion-focused strate gy that involves reapprai sing the level of threat. Problem-focused coping strategies are dire cted at defining the problem, generating alternative solutions, weighting the alternatives in terms of their costs and benefits, choosing

PAGE 61

61 among them, and acting (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p. 152). Problem-focused strategies directed toward the environment involve altering pressures, barriers, resources, and procedures. Problem-focused strategies can also be dire cted inward, involving motivational and cognitive changes, developing new behaviors, and learni ng new skills. Lazarus and Folkman conducted a study involving 1,332 stressful episodes. Nearly everyone used both emotion-focused and problem-focused strategies, with only 18 individual s showing use of just one of the strategies. Burnout was studied among teacher coaches. Problem-focused coping was found to be correlated to low levels of depersonalization and high levels of personal accomplishment. Tension-releasing coping was found to be positivel y correlated to the inte nsity and frequency of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The mo re that negative behaviors such as getting mad, smoking, and worrying are relied upon, the more likely that burnout will increase. Morale-maintaining coping was found to be positively related to the frequency of depersonalization. The more freque nt these strategies are used, th e more times these feelings of depersonalization will occur. Strategies to reduce and help eliminate burnout among teachercoaches include subscribing to educational journals and ma gazines and attending stressmanagement seminars to widen the knowledge base of burnout (Kosa, 1990). Constraints to using coping include: personal constr aints such as cultural values or beliefs; environmental constraints such as competing dema nds for the same resour ces; and threat levels ranging from minimal to extreme. Personality characteristics can influence how an individual copes and adapts to situations (Folkman, L azarus, Gruen, & DeLongis, 1986). Using a passive or submissive approach in dealing with conflict at work can lead to health problems because the conflict and stress continue (De Dreu, Dierendonck, & Dijkst ra, 2002). Empathic concern, communicative responsiveness, a nd validation are factors of ac tive listening that can reduce

PAGE 62

62 stress and burnout. Disagreements, verbal abuse, criticism, and rudeness are types of communication that can have negative impact thereby reducing coping resources of an individual (Johnson & Indvik, 1990). Active Coping is a problem-focused strategy that i nvolves taking direct action to remove the stressor. Planning is a problem-focused strategy that in volves thinking about the stressor and how to cope with it. Suppression of Competing Activities is a problem-focused strategy that involves putting aside or avoidi ng other tasks to be able to deal with the stressor. Restraint Coping is a problem-focused strategy that i nvolves holding back for a more appropriate opportunity to deal effectiv ely with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Instrumental Reasons is a problem-focused strategy of seeking outsi de assistance to deal with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Emotional Reasons is an emotion-focused strategy that involves support from others to cope with the stressor. Positive Reinterpretation and Growth is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual manages emotional distress rather than the stressor itself. Denial is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is ignored altogether. Acceptance is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is accepted. Turning to Religion is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual turns to religion as a means of coping with a stressor. Carver et al. (1989) found the following three copi ng strategies appear to be less useful as coping strategies: Focusing on and Venting of Emotions, a strategy whereby an individual focuses on the stressor, and vents his emotions; Behavioral Disengagement a strategy that involves one reducing effort to deal with the stressor; and Mental Disengagement a strategy involving the use of mental distr actions and activities to distract an individual from thinking about the stressor, such as daydream ing, or escaping through television.

PAGE 63

63 Alcohol-Drug Disengagement is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on escaping the stressor. Humor is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on relief from the stressor.

PAGE 64

64 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the m ethodology used to conduct the research st udy. It includes the description of the sample studied, instrumentation used to measure the dependent and independent variables, procedures used to coll ect the data, and the analysis that was conducted after the data were collected. Research Questions The purpose of this study was to investigat e the use of hum or as a coping mechanism among public elementary school principals in relati on to Maslachs (1982) theory of burnout. In this study, the Maslach Burnout Inventory meas ured the dependent variable--the level of burnout. The Humor Styles Ques tionnaire and the COPE Invent ory measured the independent variable--the self-perceived use of humor. The COPE Inventory also measured the self-perceived use of other coping mechanisms. The following research questions were the focus of the study: Question 1 Do statis tically significant relationships exist between humor, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school pr incipals level of burnout? Question 2 Do statis tically significant relationships exist between Self-Enhancing Humor, Affiliative Humor, Aggressive Humor, Self-Defeating Hu mor, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school principals level of burnout? Question 3 Do statis tically significant relationships exist between humor, other coping mechanisms, and public elementary school principals leve l of burnout when compared to the following

PAGE 65

65 demographic variables: gender; level of complete d degree; number of students in school; number of Years as a Principal; numb er of Years as an Educator; English to Speakers of Other Languages/Limited English Proficiency (ESOL/ LEP) status of school; Exceptional Student Education (ESE) status of school; and socioeco nomic status of school as determined by the percent of students enrolled in the Free and Reduced Lunch program? Sample The sam ple for this study was a random sampling of public elementary schools generated from a list of 759 elementary schools obtained fr om the Florida Department of Education (DOE) website http://www.fldoe.org The random sample of 400 principals from across Florida was generated from this list by using a random inte ger generator. The ra ndom integer generator website was: http://www.random.org/nform.html. Four hundred num bers were generated and matched to schools on the DOE list. A list of pub lic elementary school principals matching this list of schools was obtained from the website for the Florida Department of Education. Surveys were mailed to 399 participants instead of the original 400 because one school had to be omitted from the study. The researcher gave each partic ipant the following items: an explanation of the study; a statement of confidentia lity; instructions for completing the study instruments; the survey instruments; and a self-addressed stamped envelope for returning the completed instruments. According to the instructions, study participants completed the demographic sheet, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory. Participants were asked to submit their responses w ithin two weeks. Partic ipants were told that by completing the survey, they agreed to take part in the study. Each pa rticipant was assigned a random code that was printed on the return envelope included with the survey instruments. This random code was used to track survey responses. After the deadline date passed to complete the

PAGE 66

66 survey, an additional mailing was sent to those participants who failed to respond. The random codes were stored separately from the surv ey responses to maintain the participants confidentiality and anonymity. The elementary schools in this sampling vari ed in size and demogr aphics. The population per elementary school in this sampling ranged fro m 281 to 1,704 students. Students classified as having a primary mild, moderate, a nd/or severe disability ranged from 4.4% to 39.4%. Students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch ranged from 0% to 100%. Limited English Proficient students who participated in English for Speak ers of Other Languages (ESOL) programs, ranged from 0.1% to 52.7%. Instrumentation Participan ts in this study rated their le vel of burnout on the scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Achiev ement, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Participants also rated their self-perceived use of humor, as measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire. Participants self-perceived use of humor compared to other coping mechanisms was measured by the COPE Inventory. Maslach Burnout Inventory The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a 22item measure that was initially published in 1981. The MBI measures levels of burnout based on subscales of emotional exhaustion (9 items), depersonalization (5 items), and personal accomplishment (8 items). A high degree of burnout is reflected in high scores on the emotional exhaustion and depe rsonalization subscales and in low scores on the personal accomplishment subscale. An average degree of burnout is reflected in average scores on th e three subscales. A low degree of burnout is reflected in low scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersona lization subscales, and it is reflected in high

PAGE 67

67 scores on the personal accomplishm ent subscale. The survey is measured by rating each item within a range from for never to for every day. Three versions of the Maslach Burnout Inve ntory were developed to measure burnout for different occupations: (a) the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), for use with human services pr ofessionals; (b) the Maslach Bur nout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES), for use with educators; and (c) the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBIGS), for use with workers in other occupa tions (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). The Maslach Burnout Inventory used in this study was the Educator Survey version, which uses the same questions, but uses the term students instead of recipients. The validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were supported in two studies by Iwanicki and Schwab (1981), and Gold (1984). Both factor analysis studies conducted supported the three-factor structure of the Maslach Bur nout Inventory. Iwanicki and Schwab conducted a cross-validational study of the Maslach Burnout Inventory with 469 teachers from Massachusetts as participants. Construct validity was examined using principal components and principal factors approaches to factor analysis, with both orthogonal and oblique rotations. A rotation which requires the factors to remain uncorrelated is an orthogonal rotation, while others are oblique rota tions (Darlington, 1997, 61). In principal components analysis, all variability of an item is used in the analysis, whereas in principal factor analysis, onl y the variability of an item in common with other items is used (StatSoft, 2006). For both the frequency a nd intensity dimensions, the principal components and principal factors approaches bo th resulted in four factor so lutions with eigenvalues greater than one which accounted for 55% of the to tal variance (Iwanicki & Schwab, 1981, p. 1169). Comparing the two approaches, the principal factors approach resu lted in subscales which were

PAGE 68

68 more conceptually meaningful and reliable. Iwanicki and Schwabs examination broke the factor of depersonalization into tw o factors: job-related and studen t-related. The authors stated, Because of the low correlations among the axes of the four factors derived through the principal factors solution for both the fre quency (r = .29) and intensity (r = .26) dimensions, there were no major differences in factor loadings between the orthogonal and oblique rotations (p. 1170). The MBI measures the same basic constructs of emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization as thos e identified through studies in the helping professions. Gold (1984) conducted a factorial validity st udy of the Maslach Burnout Inventory with 462 teachers from southern California as particip ants. In studying teachers, Gold found that teachers experiencing negative perceptions asso ciated with burnout could have detrimental effects on their students, their colleagues, thei r schools, and their own families (p. 1011). Gold (1984) indicated that construct validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was supported as the factor structure in the sample of Ca lifornia teachers, whic h was found to be basically invariant from the sample of Massachus etts teachers in the Iwanicki and Schwab study. Gold concluded in her study that the MBI demonstrates factorial validity consistent with the rationale for its three subscales (p. 1016). Iwanicki and Schwab (1981) reported Cronbach alpha reliability estimates of .90 for emotional exhaustion .76 for depersonalization, and .76 for personal accomplishment Gold (1984) reported Cronbach alpha reliability estimates of .88, .74, and .72, respectively. Factor loadings in the Gold study were consistent with the factor loadings in the Iwanicki and Schwab study. Boles, Dean, Ricks, Short, & Wang (2000) conducted a study to examine the generalizability of the MBI to popul ations other than human servic es workers. They compared two samples from educators and small business owners, analyzing data and relating the burnout

PAGE 69

69 dimensions to stress-related variables identified in the literature. The first sample consisted of 183 elementary and high school teachers and admi nistrators. The second sample consisted of 162 small business owners. The three dimensions of burnout were measured with the MBI, with some modification in wording on the depersonalization dimension to re flect interaction with employees and students for the respective samples. Coefficient alphas of the Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment dimensions for th e educators/ business owners were .89/.90, .80/.70, and .76/.78, respectively. The results of the study support th e generalization of the MBI to occupational groups other than human services workers. Th e research suggests that even though personnel in different fields have dissimilar stressors, the re sults appear to be similar. The Maslach Burnout Inventory can be generaliz ed to occupational gr oups other than human service groups (Boles et al ., 2000). Although the stressors am ong educators and small business owners were different, the patterns of correla tions among the burnout dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomp lishment were found to be similar. Humor Styles Questionnaire Hum or can be viewed as a multifaceted cons truct that consists of cognitive ability, aesthetic response, habitual behavior patterns, emotion-related traits, positive attitude, and perspective during adversity. The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) was developed to assess four dimensions of the function of humor in daily life. Two of th e dimensions are considered to be positively related to well-being: Affiliative Humor and Self-Enhancing Humor. The other two dimensions are considered to be negativel y related to well-being: Aggressive Humor and Self-Defeating Humor. During the initial developmen t of the scale, a pool of 111 items was generated and examined in a study involving 117 psychology student s at the University of Western Ontario.

PAGE 70

70 Participants in the study also completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desi rability (MCSD) Scale to assess response to test items in a desirabl e manner. Standard deviations were reviewed, resulting in the removal of one item. Item co rrelations were examined resulting in the removal of 16 items from the scale. Items were then co mpared with total correlation to the other three humor scale totals, as well as being compared with the MCSD. This comparison was done to minimize intercorrelations among the four humor s cales. Thirty-seven items were eliminated based on the analysis of item correlation. Add itional items were generated resulting in a new pool of 96 items. These items were examined in a study involving two samp les of participants. The first sample consisted of 165 introductory psychology students; the second sample consisted of 93 organizational members in a senior con tinuing education program. Analysis from this study resulted in choosing 15 items to measure e ach of the four humor scales. The Cronbach alpha reliability on these scal es ranged from .82 to .88. Additional scale refinement wa s conducted based on data colle cted from 485 participants. Each participant was administered the 60 items with the goal to refine the instrument to 8 items per scale. Items were retained with high co rrected item-total correlation with the designated scale and weak correla tion with the other three scales. Redundancy among items was reduced while retaining specific negatively keyed items. Internal consistencies of the four scales showed Cronbach alphas ranging from .77 to .81 and test-retest correlations of .80 to .85. Two additional samples of participants were chosen to replicate the factor structure of the final version. Participants included 300 stude nts (131 male, 169 female, mean age of 19.7 years) from the Introductory Psychology subject pool, a nd 152 participants (46 male, 106 female, mean age of 39.1 years) from the general community. This created a total of 452 participants (177 male, 275 female) to be used for cross-validation. Affiliative Humor showed a mean of 46.4 with

PAGE 71

71 a standard deviation of 7.17. Self-Enhancing Humor showed a mean of 37.3 with a standard deviation of 8.33. Aggressive Humor showed a m ean of 28.5 with a standard deviation of 8.79. Self-Defeating Humor showed a m ean of 25.9 with a standard devi ation of 9.22. Factor analysis was conducted from all participan ts in all the samples who had completed the final set of 32 items during the scale development samples (n = 1,195). The factor loadings supported the four dimensions of humor. Internal consistencies of the four scales showed Cronbach alphas ranging from .77 to .81. Test-retest correlations ranged from .80 to .85. Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir (2003) presented correlations studied between the HSQ subscales and other humor-related measures. Significant multiple R correlations were found, indicating that the subscales of the Humor Styles Questionnair e are strongly related to the other existing measures of sense of humor. The Situational Humor Response Questionnaire (SHRQ) measures the tendency to smile and laugh at a variety of situatio ns (Martin & Lefcourt, 1984), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .47, p < .001. The Coping Humor Scale (CHS) measures the tendency to use humor as a copi ng mechanism (Martin & Lefcourt, 1983), and was correlated with the HSQ at r =.62, p < .001. The Sense of Humor Questionnaire (SHQ-6) measures the tendency to notice and enjoy hum or in daily life (Svebak, 1996), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .63, p < .001. The Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS) measures a range of behaviors and at titudes that are related to humor (Thorson & Powell, 1993), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .67, p < .001. The COPE Inventory (Carver et al., 1989) measures the degree to which participants util ize different coping strategies to deal with life stress. The humor dimension on the COPE Inventory wa s correlated with the HSQ at r = .61, p < .001. The State-Trait Cheerful ness Inventory (STCI) measures cheerfulness, seriousness, and bad mood, (Ruch, Kohler, & van Thriel, 1996). The cheerfulness dimension

PAGE 72

72 was correlated with the HSQ at r = .75, p < .001. The serious dimension was correlated with the HSQ at r = .47, p < .001. The bad mood dimension was correlated with the HSQ at r = .56, p < .001. Martin et al., (2003) also s howed the relationships that the Humor Styles Questionnaire has with other measures of aspects of psychologi cal health and well-being. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) S cale is a 20-item measure of symptoms of depression (Radloff, 1977), and was correlate d with the HSQ at r = .43, p < .001. The CookMedley Hostility (CMHS) Scale is a 50-item measure of anger, resentment, and hostility (Cook & Medley, 1954), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .43, p < .001. The Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90R) is a 90-item inventory measurin g psychological and physical symptoms (Derogatis, 1977), and was correlated w ith the HSQ at r = .35, p < .001. The Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) is a 6-item measure reporting satisfaction with social support (Sarason, Levine, Basham, & Sarason, 1983), and was correlated w ith the HSQ at r = .38, p < .001. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventor y (STAI) is a 20-item measure of tendencies for experiencing anxiety and nervousness (Spi elberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1969), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .46, p < .001. Th e Index of Self-Esteem (ISE) is a 25-item measure of self-esteem (Hudson, 1982), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .51, p < .001. The Miller Social Intimacy Scale (MSIS) is a 17 -item scale that measures closeness and intimacy with another individual (Miller & Lefcourt, 1982), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .33, p < .001. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (R SEI) is a 10-item meas ure of positive selfesteem (Rosenberg, 1965), and was correlated w ith the HSQ at r = .49, p < .001. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) is a 29-item measure of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility (Buss & Perry, 1992), and was correlated with the HSQ at

PAGE 73

73 r = .47, p < .001. The Life Orientation Test (LOT ) is a 12-item measure of optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1985), and was correlate d with the HSQ at r = .43, p < .001. The Ryff measure of psychological well-being is an 84-item inventory with scales for self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose, and personal growth (Ryff, 1989), and was correlated with the HSQ at r = .61, p < .001. Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir (2003) found that the correlations for th e HSQ were considerably stronger than those found using previous humor scales. Assessing both harmful and favorable uses of humor appears to result in greater propor tion of variance with the vari ous aspects of psychological wellbeing. COPE Inventory The COPE I nventory is a 60-item survey th at measures 15 coping strategies. They include: (a) active copin g, (b) planning, (c) suppression of co mpeting activities, (d) restraint coping, (e) seeking social support--instrumental, (f) seeking social suppor t--emotional, (g) focus on and venting of emotions, (h) behavioral disengagement, (i) mental disengagement, (j) positive reinterpretation and growth, (k) denial, (l ) acceptance, (m) religion, (n) alcohol-drug disengagement, and (o) humor. The instrument was subdivided into multiple factors because Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) believed that coping was more complex and a variety of ways exists to solve problems and regul ate emotions (Schwarzer & Schwarzer, 1996). Through the process of developing the COPE In ventory, item sets were administered to several hundred subjects, with revisions due to items with weak loadings, new items being written, and the inventory readmini stered. In addition to items being revised, factor structure was changed due to items loading on specific s cales. The final item set was completed by group sessions consisting of 978 undergraduat es at the University of Miami. Test-retest reliability was completed by 89 students in an initial session and in a retest session eight weeks later.

PAGE 74

74 The undergraduates who completed the COPE Inventory were also given personality measures to determine the differences in coping between optimism and pessimism. Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) stated: Because optimists have favorable expectations for their future, optimism should be associated with Active Coping efforts a nd with making the best of whatever is encountered. Because pessimists have unfavorab le expectations for the future, pessimism should be associated with focus on emotiona l distress and with disengagement. (p. 274) In a study of female counselors who work with sexual violence survivors, the four strategies most often used for coping by couns elors included: (a) seeking emotional support; (b) planning; (c) seeking instrumental social support; and (d) humor. Those most often used were also associated with lower levels of Po st-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The three strategies least often used for coping included: (a) usi ng alcohol or drugs; (b) denial; and (c) behavioral disengagem ent (Schauben & Frazier, 1995). Phelps and Jarvis (1994) conducted a st udy using the COPE Inventory with 484 participants (male = 260, female = 224) in cluding high school stude nts ranging from 9th through 12th grades. Their study extended the work of Ca rver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) by reporting internal reliability, factorial validity, and norma tive data on the COPE Inventory. The means on the 15 dimensions ranged from 10.71 for females and 10.00 for males on the Acceptance dimension to 5.26 for males and 4.35 for fe males on the Alcohol-Drug Disengagement dimension. Standard deviations ranged from 4.03 on the Religion dimension for females to 1.32 on the Alcohol-Drug Disengagement dimension fo r males. Cronbach alphas on the dimensions ranged from .87 on the Religion dimension to .51 on the Mental Disengagement dimension. The Cronbach alpha for the Humor dimension was .82. Cronbach and Meehl (1955) stated, If two tests are presumed to measure the same construct, a correlation between them is predicted (p. 287). Benson and Hagtvet (1996) noted

PAGE 75

75 that validity studies are continua lly needed as our interpretation of the trait can change due to changes in social or cultural conditions. Thus, for a scale to remain valid over time, its validity must be reestablished periodi cally (p. 84). Clark, Bormann, Cropanzano, and James (1995) conducted a study to investigate th e construct validity of three coping scales: the Coping Strategy Indicator ([CSI]; Amirkhan, 1990) ; the Ways of Coping-Revised ([WOC]; Folkman & Lazarus, 1985); and the COPE Inventory ([CO PE]; Carver et al., 1989). Three scales across the measures were evaluated for relationships: Problem-Solving; Seeking Social Support; and Avoidance. The analysis of their results indicated that the th ree measures contain factors which tap similar constructs showing high levels of congruence (Clark et al., 1995, p. 446). Upon examination of the COPE Inventory, Clark, Bormann, Cropanzan o, & James found that th e 15-factor structure was supported, and fit better than the alternative model with th e 3-factor structure: Active Coping and Planning; Seeking Emotional Social Support; and Seeking Instrumental Social Support. Data Collection The sam ple for this study was a random sampling of public elementary schools generated from a list of 759 elementary schools obtained fr om the Florida Department of Education (DOE) website http://www.fldoe.org The random sample of 400 principals from across Florida was generated from this list by using a random inte ger generator. The ra ndom integer generator website was: http://www.random.org/nform.html. Four hundred num bers were generated and matched to schools on the DOE list. A list of pub lic elementary school principals matching this list of schools was obtained from the website for the Florida Department of Education. Surveys were mailed to 399 participants instead of the original 400 because one school had to be omitted from the study. The researcher gave each partic ipant the following items: an explanation of the study; a statement of confidentia lity; instructions for completing the study instruments; the

PAGE 76

76 survey instruments; and a self-addressed stamped envelope for returning the completed instruments. According to the instructions, study participants completed the demographic sheet, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory. Participants were asked to submit their responses w ithin two weeks. Partic ipants were told that by completing the survey, they agreed to take part in the study. Each pa rticipant was assigned a random code that was printed on the return envelope included with the survey instruments. This random code was used to track survey responses. After the deadline date passed to complete the survey, an additional mailing was sent to those participants who failed to respond. The random codes were stored separately from the surv ey responses to maintain the participants confidentiality and anonymity. Data Analyses The com puter software used in analyzing the data was Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (Norusis, 1990). The dependent variable--the level of burnout among public elementary school principals--was measured using the Maslach Bur nout Inventory. The independent variable--the self-p erceived use of humor as a coping mechanism--was measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the COPE Inventory. Other coping mechanisms were measured with the COPE Inventory. To answer the research questions, means and standard deviations were calculated between the three Maslach Burnout Dimensions and the demographic variables. Correlations were computed between the dependent variable bur nout, the demographic variables, the COPE Inventory variables, and the Humor Styles Ques tionnaire variables. Cr onbach alphas for this study were calculated for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions, the Humor Styles Questionnaire dimensions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis

PAGE 77

77 was conducted for the Maslach Burnout Inventory s cales, the Humor Styles Questionnaire scales, and the COPE Inventory scales. Regression analysis was conducte d using the forward block en try method to analyze three different models. In the forward block entry me thod, a block of variables is entered as a block for the independent variable. After this block is entered, a separate block of variables is then entered as another independent va riable. The blocks of variable s are entered into the regression model to predict variance in the dependent variab le. The first block calc ulates variance in the dependent variable, and then the ne xt block of variables is entered into the analysis. This results in another prediction of the variance in the depend ent variable. The proced ure is repeated until all chosen variable blocks are entered into the regression model. Collinearity information was analyzed to determine correlation between independent variables.

PAGE 78

78 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSES OF DATA This chapter presents the data analyses based on the research questions. This study investigated the use of hum or as a coping mech anism among public elementary school principals in relation to Maslachs (1982) theory of burnout. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure the dependent variable--the level of bur nout. The Humor Styles Questionnaire and the COPE Inventory were used to measure the inde pendent variable--the se lf-perceived use of humor. The COPE Inventory was also employed to measure the self-perceived use of other coping mechanisms. Response Rate The com puter software used in analyzing the data was Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Surveys were mailed to 399 part icipants instead of th e original 400 because one school had to be omitted from the study. Each participant was assigned a random code that was printed on the return envelope included with the survey instru ments. This random code was used to track survey responses. After the dead line date passed to complete the survey, an additional mailing was sent to t hose participants who failed to respond. A total of 136 surveys were returned for a response rate of 34%. Th e participants who identi fied their demographic information totaled 135 (Table 4-1). Demographi c information included: gender, degree status, the number of years as a school principal, the number of years as an educator, student population within the school, the pe rcentage of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) students in the participants schools, the percen tage of Exceptional Student E ducation (ESE) students in the participants schools, and the percentage of student s enrolled in the Free and Reduced Lunch program at the participants schools.

PAGE 79

79 One survey had missing responses for demogr aphic information. Eight surveys had a missing response for one item. Two surveys had mi ssing responses for three items. One survey had missing responses for the second page of the COPE Inventory. Two surveys had no responses for the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Downey and King (1998) indicated that resear chers can increase pow er and accuracy of the analyses by replacing missing survey data. Listwise deletion eliminates all data from a participant having missing data for any one test. Pairwise deletion excl udes cases involving variables for which data are missing, while still us ing information for other variables with data collected. Roth (1994) found that mean substituti on can be more accurate than listwise deletion and, as often as not, is as accurate as pairwise deletion (p. 541). Roth and Switzer (1995) indicated that the mean substituti on approach preserves data that would otherwise be lost to both listwise deletion and pairwise de letion. The series mean data replacement function in SPSS was used to generate values for all items missi ng responses, with the exception of the missing demographic information in one survey. Data Analyses Table 4-1 lists the m eans and standard devi ations between the three Maslach Burnout Dimensions and the demographic variables. Higher levels of Em otional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, combined with lower levels of Personal Accomplishment suggest higher burnout levels. Lower levels of Emotional E xhaustion and Depersonalization, combined with higher levels of Personal Accomplishmen t suggest lower burnout levels. The Humor Styles Questionnaire dimensions are presented in Table 4-2. Using the mean scores that were reported by part icipants, humor styles were us ed in the following order from most frequent to least frequent: Affiliative Humor, Self-Enhancing Humor, Self-Defeating

PAGE 80

80 Humor, and Aggressive Humor. Affiliative Humor and Self-Enha ncing Humor were reported as being used more than Aggressive Humor and Self-Defeating Humor. According to the descriptive statistics for the COPE Inventory, Planning, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, and Active C oping were the three most reported coping mechanisms used (Table 4-2). Denial, Behavioral Disengagement, and Substance Use were the three least reported coping mechanisms used. Using the mean scores that were reported by participants, coping mechanisms were used in th e following order from mo st frequent to least frequent: Planning, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, Active Coping, Instrumental Social Support, Restraint, Acceptance, Religious C oping, Suppression of Co mpeting Activities, Emotional Social Support, Humor, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Mental Disengagement, Behavioral Disengage ment, Denial, and Substance Use. Correlations were computed between the de pendent variable burnout, the demographic variables, the COPE Inventory variables, and the Humor Styl es Questionnaire variables (Table 4-3). The only significant correlations with burnout were: the demographic variables ESE Population (r = .18, p = .04) and Free/Reduced Population (r = .18, p = .03); the Humor Styles Questionnaire variables Self-E nhancing Humor (r = -.22, p = .01), Aggressive Humor (r = .27, p = .00), and Self-Defeating Humor (r = .25, p = .00) ; and the COPE Invent ory variables Mental Disengagement (r = .21, p = .02), Focus on a nd Venting of Emotions (r = .36, p = .00), Behavioral Disengagement (r = .20, p = .02), and Substance Use (r = .17, p = .04). All of the correlations are positive, with the exception of the correlation between Self-Enhancing Humor and Burnout. The correlations are weak, possibly affected by the small sample size of this study. Cronbach alphas for this sample were calcu lated for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions, the Humor Styles Questionnaire dime nsions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions,

PAGE 81

81 and are shown in Table 4-4. The alphas fo r the Maslach Burnout Inventory ranged from = .92 for Emotional Exhaustion to = .65 for Depersonalization. Through confirmatory factor analysis, the Depersonalization scale was redu ced by removing items 5, 15, and 22, resulting in an improved alpha, = .75. The Personal Accomplis hment scale had an alpha of = .70, but formed two dimensions through factor analysis Scale reduction by removing items 4, 7, and 21, improved the alpha to = .71, with factors lo ading on one dimension. Cronbach alphas for the Humor Styles Qu estionnaire dimensions ranged from = .82 for Affiliative Humor to = .64 for Aggressive Humor. The Self-Enhancing Humor scale was reduced by removing items 2 and 22, increasing the alpha from = .80 = .81. The Aggressive Humor dimension loaded onto two separate dimensi ons. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that no items could be removed to improve the alpha. Self-Defeating Humor scale was reduced by removing items 16 and 28, resulting in items loading on one scale while maintaining an alpha of = .80. Cronbach alphas for the COPE Inve ntory Dimensions ranged from = .97 for Religious Coping to = .23 for Mental Disengagement. Scal e reduction for the dimension Positive Reinterpretation and Growth by removing items 1 and 59 improved the alpha from = .66 to = .70. The scales Mental Disengagement, Active Coping, Denial, Behavi oral Disengagement, Acceptance, and Suppression of Competing Activities were eliminated from further analysis and not used in the regression model due to the reli ability levels indicated by the Cronbach alphas. Scale reduction for the dimension Mental Disengagement by the removal of items 2 and 31 resulted in the alpha increasing from .23 to .38. Scale reduction for the dimension Active Coping by the removal of item 47 resulted in the alpha increasing from .39 to .47. Removal of

PAGE 82

82 any of the other items resulted in the alpha going back down to .42. Scale reduction for the dimension Denial by the removal of item 27 resu lted in the alpha increasing from .48 to .52. Removal of item 6 increased the alpha from .52 to .56. Removal of any more items from this scale did not increase the alpha any further. Scale reduction for the dimension Behavioral Disengagement by the removal of any items only resulted in the alpha going down from .54 to .51. Scale reduction for the dimension Acceptance by the removal of item 44 only resulted in the alpha increasing from .60 to .61. Removal of a ny further items resulted in the alpha decreasing from .61 to .58. Scale reduction for the dimensi on Suppression of Competing Activities by the removal of item 15 resulted in the alpha increasi ng from .36 to .41. Removal of item 42 resulted in the alpha increasing from .41 to .49. Removal of any more items from the scale did not result in the alpha increasing any further. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for the Maslach Burnout Inventory scales, the Humor Styles Questionnaire scales, and the COPE Inventory scales (Table s 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, and 4-7). Scale reduction resulted in the following al tered scales: Depersonalization scale reduced by removing items 5, 15, and 22; Personal Accomplishment scale reduced by removing items 4, 7, and 21; Self-Enhancing Humor scale reduced by removing items 2 and 22; Self-Defeating Humor scale reduced by removing 16 and 28. The Positive Reinterpretation and Growth scale was combined with the Planning scale with the reduction of removing item 29, resulting in a higher alpha ( = .76). The Instrumental Social Suppor t scale was joined with the Emotional Social Support scale with the reduction of removing item 14, resulting in a higher alpha ( = .84). Regression analysis was conducte d using the forward block en try method to analyze three different models (Table 4-8). In the forward block entry method, a block of variables is entered

PAGE 83

83 as a group of independent variables. After this block is entered, a second block of variables is then entered as another set of independent variable s. The blocks of variables are entered into the regression model to predict varian ce in the dependent variable. The first block contributes to explaining a proportion of variance in the dependent variable and then the next block of variables is entered into the analysis. This results in additional vari ance explained in the dependent variable. The procedure is repeated until all variable blocks have been entered into the regression model. The first block of variable s chosen to be entered into the regression model were the demographic variables. These were chosen first to determine if they could significantly predict variance in the dependent variable burnout. The following demographic variables were included in the block: Free/Reduced Populati on, Degree, Gender, ESE Population, Years as a Principal, Student Population, LEP Population, and Years as an Educator. The first block entry did not significantly explain the variance in the dependent variable burnout. The second block entry of variables added in to the regression model were the following COPE Inventory variables: Substance Use, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Restrain t, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social Support, and Religious Coping. These COPE Inventory variables were chosen to be included in the regression model due to the alpha levels that were described in Table 4-4. This regression model resulted in an r2 change of .12 with a signi ficance level of .01, with the predictors in this model responsible for explaini ng 21% of the variance in the dependent variable burnout. The third block of variables added into the regression model was the Humor variable from the COPE Inventory, and the following Humor St yle Questionnaire variables: Self-Enhancing Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, Hu mor, Affiliative Humor, and Aggressive Humor. This model

PAGE 84

84 resulted in an r2 change of .10 with a significance level of .01, with the predic tors in the whole model responsible for explaining 31% of the variance in the dependent variable burnout. The ANOVA table (Table 4-9) supports the significant findi ngs reported in Table 4-8. Both the second and third model showed that the blocks of independent variables are significantly predicting th e variance in the dependent variable burnout. The high residual values found in this table indicate that despite the significance found for the predictors in model 2 and model 3, much of the variance is not explained by the predictors in the model. This could be a result of: the limitation of the small sample size of this study, the removal of some of the scales from the study, the limitation of possible inaccur acies in self-reporting f ound in social science research, and the limitation of othe r predictors not easily measured. Collinearity information is presented in Table 410. Collinearity refers to the situation in which there is a high multiple correlation when one of the independent variables is regressed on the others (i.e., when there is a high correlati on between independent va riables) (Norusis, 1990, p. 50). After finding collinearity in the regre ssion, several scales th at provided similar information were combined, resulting in higher alphas (Table 4-4). The COPE Inventory scale Positive Reinterpretation and Growth ( = .70) was joined with the scale Planning ( = .68), resulting in a higher alpha ( = .76). The COPE Inventory sc ale Independent Social Support ( = .72) was joined with the sc ale Emotional Social Support ( = .82), resulting in a higher alpha ( = .84). After combining th e scales, a principal compone nts regression was performed. The tolerance of the variables is used to m easure collinearity. Sma ll tolerance measures indicate linear combination of ot her independent variables. The va riance inflation factor (VIF) is the reciprocal of the toleran ce. High variance inflation factor measures indicate linear combination of other independent variables. The variance inflation factors supported combining

PAGE 85

85 the COPE Inventory scales: Positive Reinterpre tation and Growth joined with Planning; and Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social Support. The beta value indicates the relative ability to predict the amount of change in the dependent variable based on one standard deviati on of change in an independent variable. The beta value of statistically significant variables in Table 4-10 was used to determine the relative importance of each variable in the regression m odel. The individual dimensions of Humor, Affiliative Humor, and Aggressi ve Humor were not found to be significant based on the beta value, however, Self-Enhancing Humor and Self-D efeating Humor were shown to be significant in predicting burnout. Self-E nhancing Humor was found to be the strongest variable in predicting burnout, = -.28. The prediction made by this in dependent variable indicates that as Self-Enhancing Humor is used a coping mechan ism, burnout level scor es are predicted to decrease. The second strongest variable in pr edicting burnout is Focu s on and Venting of Emotions, = .26. The prediction made by this independe nt variable indicates that as Focus on and Venting of Emotions is used as a coping m echanism, burnout level scores are predicted to increase. The third strongest independent va riable in predicting bur nout was Self-Defeating Humor, = .19. The prediction made by this indepe ndent variable indica tes that as SelfDefeating Humor is used as a coping mechanism, burnout level scores are predicted to increase. Correlations between the independent variables in the regression model were presented in Table 4-11. Significant correlati ons were found between the de mographic variables and the other variables in the regression model: Focu s on and Venting of Emotions, Free/Reduced Population, Religious Coping, Positive Reinterp retation and Growth joined with Planning, Restraint, Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, and Aggressive Humor. Significant correlations were found between the COPE Inventory variables in the regression m odel and the other variables:

PAGE 86

86 ESE Population, Free/Reduced Population, Gender, LEP Population, Years as an Educator, SelfEnhancing Humor, Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, Aggressive Humor, and Affiliative Humor. Significant correlations were f ound between the Humor Styles Questionnaire variables in the regression model and the other variables: Gende r, Degree, Years as an Educator, Student Population, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Support, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Pla nning, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, and Religious Coping.

PAGE 87

87 Table 4-1. Means and standard de viations for the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions with the demographic variables Emotional Personal Exhaustion Depersonalization Accomplishment n Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Overall 136 15.55 10.63 2.52 3.00 42.85 4.64 Gender Male 30 15.70 12.24 3.33 3.70 41.70 5.38 Female 105 15.54 10.23 2.30 2.76 43.14 4.39 Degree Master 82 14.96 11.03 2.10 2.69 43.16 4.64 Specialist 22 18.68 12.08 4.32 4.05 40.32 4.95 Doctorate 31 15.00 8.27 2.42 2.54 43.71 3.94 Student Population Less than 500 19 20.32 15.78 3.74 4.45 41.53 6.63 501 to 750 50 14.44 9.28 2.10 2.27 42.58 4.27 751 to 1,000 47 14.47 9.07 2.04 2.52 43.47 3.74 1,001 to 1,500 17 16.94 10.99 4.00 3.71 42.76 5.51 1,501 or more 2 13.50 14.85 1.00 1.41 46.50 0.71 Years as a Principal Less than 5 years 46 17.13 10.88 3.17 3.26 42.93 4.19 5 to 10 years 47 15.38 10.16 1.94 2.24 42.96 5.20 11 to 15 years 22 15.41 11.81 2.41 2.54 42.50 4.43 16 to 20 years 7 13.29 7.95 .57 .79 45.00 2.71 More than 20 years 13 12.31 11.37 3.69 4.85 41.31 5.31 Years as an Educator 5 to 10 years 5 13.40 4.16 1.60 1.14 41.80 2.95 11 to 15 years 13 20.38 12.64 4.46 3.69 41.77 5.17 16 to 20 years 19 18.89 10.96 2.84 3.61 42.79 4.44 More than 20 years 98 14.41 10.36 2.27 2.78 43.02 4.72 LEP Population 0% to 25% 78 15.82 11.15 2.63 3.06 42.40 5.22 26% to 50% 42 14.45 9.16 1.93 2.47 43.67 3.44 51% to 75% 11 20.73 12.47 4.73 3.98 41.82 4.45 76% to 100% 4 8.50 6.03 1.00 0.82 45.00 3.56 ESE Population 0% to 25% 106 14.47 9.46 2.25 2.79 42.75 4.91 26% to 50% 28 20.18 13.58 3.64 3.58 42.93 3.55 51% to 75% 1 4.00 ---1.00 ---48.00 ---Free/Reduced Population 0% to 25% 24 13.25 8.75 2.21 2.77 43.58 4.98 26% to 50% 30 13.60 8.23 2.33 2.71 43.53 4.44 51% to 75% 39 15.28 10.24 2.36 3.08 43.33 4.99 76% to 100% 42 18.60 12.96 3.02 3.30 41.40 4.08

PAGE 88

88 Table 4-2. Descriptive statisti cs for the Maslach Burnout Inve ntory dimensions, the Humor Styles Questionnaire dimensions, and the COPE Inventory dimensions n Mean SD Maslach Burnout Inventory Dimensions 136 Emotional Exhaustion 15.55 10.63 Depersonalization 2.52 3.00 Personal Accomplishment 42.85 4.64 Humor Styles Questionnaire Dimensions 136 Affiliative Humor 45.47 8.05 Self-Enhancing Humor 41.90 7.88 Aggressive Humor 21.77 7.60 Self-Defeating Humor 22.71 9.25 COPE Inventory Dimensions 136 Positive Reinterpretation and Growth 13.66 1.83 Mental Disengagement 7.52 1.76 Focus on and Venting of Emotions 7.89 2.57 Instrumental Social Support 12.58 2.30 Active Coping 12.91 1.86 Denial 4.73 1.27 Religious Coping 10.65 4.67 Humor 9.79 3.29 Behavioral Disengagement 4.97 1.41 Restraint 10.79 2.57 Emotional Social Support 10.31 2.98 Substance Use 4.30 .88 Acceptance 10.78 2.31 Suppression of Competing Activities 10.36 1.90 Planning 14.43 1.64 Table 4-3. Correlations among burnout and demogra phic variables, Humor Styles Questionnaire variables, and COPE Inventory variables Burnout Variable r Sig. n=135 ESE Population .18 .04* Free/Reduced Population .18 .03* n=136 Self-Enhancing Humor -.22 .01** Aggressive Humor .27 .00** Self-Defeating Humor .25 .00** Mental Disengagement .21 .02* Focus on and Venting of Emotions .36 .00** Behavioral Disengagement .20 .02* Substance Use .17 .04* Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

PAGE 89

89 Table 4-4. Cronbach alphas for the Maslach Bur nout Inventory dimensions, the Humor Styles Questionnaire dimensions, and th e COPE Inventory dimensions Maslach Burnout Inventory Dimensions Emotional Exhaustion .92 Depersonalizationa .75 Personal Accomplishmentb .70 Humor Styles Questionnaire Dimensions Affiliative Humor .82 Self-Enhancing Humorc .81 Aggressive Humord .64 Self-Defeating Humore .80 COPE Inventory Dimensions Positive Reinterpretation and Growthf .70 Mental Disengagementd .23 Focus on and Venting of Emotions .78 Instrumental Social Support .72 Active Copingd .39 Deniald .48 Religious Coping .97 Humor .90 Behavioral Disengagementd .54 Restraint .71 Emotional Social Support .82 Substance Use .78 Acceptanced .60 Suppression of Competing Activitiesd .39 Planning .68 Positive Reinterpretation and Growth .76 joined with Planningg Instrumental Social Supp ort joined with .84 Emotional Social Supporth Note. aScale reduction removed items 5, 15, and 22; bScale reduction removed items 4, 7, and 21; cScale reduction removed items 2 and 22; dScale was removed from further analysis due to the reliability indicated by the alpha level; eScale reduction removed items 16 and 28; fScale reduction removed items 29 and 38; gCombined the two scales. Scale reduction removed item 29. hCombined the two scales. Scale reduction removed item 14.

PAGE 90

90 Table 4-5. Confirmatory factor loadings fo r the Maslach Burnout Inventory scales Item 1 2 3 Emotional Exhaustion 1 .84 2 .77 3 .83 6 .76 8 .88 13 .79 16 .76 20 .82 Depersonalization 10 .89 11 .89 Personal Accomplishment 9 .74 12 .67 17 .69 18 .56 19 .74

PAGE 91

91 Table 4-6. Confirmatory factor loadings for Humor Styl es Questionnaire scales Item 1 2 3 4 Affiliative Humor 1 .59 5 .71 9 .62 13 .75 17 .78 21 .72 25 .70 29 .60 Self-Enhancing Humor 2 .59 6 .68 10 .74 14 .67 18 .72 22 .50 26 .69 30 .67 Aggressive Humor 3 .49 7 .47 11 .58 15 .48 19 .51 23 .60 27 .59 31 .58 Self-Defeating Humor 4 .73 8 .82 12 .69 16 .46 20 .77 24 .58 28 .46 32 .72

PAGE 92

92 Table 4-7. Confirmatory factor loadings for COPE Inventory scales COPE Inventory Dimensions Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Positive Reinterpretation and Growth 1 .88 59 .88 Mental Disengagement 16 .79 43 .79 Focus on and Venting of Emotions 3 .77 17 .82 28 .76 46 .75 Instrumental Social Support 4 .76 14 .68 30 .70 45 .80 Active Coping 5 .71 25 .68 58 .72 Denial 40 .84 57 .84 Religious Coping 7 .95 18 .96 48 .96 60 .94 Humor 8 .78 20 .92 36 .91 50 .87 Behavioral Disengagement 9 .54 24 .66 37 .68 51 .71 Restraint 10 .72 22 .71 41 .76 49 .74

PAGE 93

93 Table 4-7. Continued COPE Inventory Dimensions Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Emotional Social Support 11 .78 23 .85 34 .74 52 .86 Substance Use 12 .74 26 .88 35 .84 53 .71 Acceptance 13 .64 21 .74 44 .54 54 .77 Suppression of Competing Activities 33 .81 55 .81 Planning 19 .70 32 .77 39 .59 56 .78 Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning 1 .70 38 .64 59 .73 19 .66 32 .62 39 .62 56 .68 Instrumental Social Support join ed with Emotional Social Support 4 .66 30 .63 45 .68 11 .75 23 .77 34 .64 52 .86

PAGE 94

94 Table 4-8. Regression model summ ary for dependent variable Bur nout (Emotional Exhaustion + Depersonalization) Std. Error R Sig Adjusted of Square of F F Model R R Square R Square Estimate Change Change df1 df2 Change 1 .306a .09 .04 12.43 .09 1.63 8 126 .122 2 .461b .21 .12 11.87 .12 3.01 6 120 .009** 3 .555c .31 .19 11.37 .10 3.17 5 115 .010** Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). aPredictors: (Constant), Free/Reduced Population, Degree, Gender, ESE Population, Years as a Principal, Student Population, LEP Population, Years as an Educator. bPredictors: aPredictors combined with Substance Use, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Restraint, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social Support, Religious Coping. cPredictors: bPredictors combined with Self-Enhancing Humor, SelfDefeating Humor, Humor, Affiliativ e Humor, Aggressive Humor. Table 4-9. Regression ANOVA for dependent variable Burn out (Emotional Exhaustion + Depersonalization) Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 2016.69 8 252.09 1.63 .122a Residual 19456.64 126 154.42 Total 21473.33 134 2 Regression 4564.40 14 326.03 2.31 .007b** Residual 16908.94 120 140.91 Total 21473.33 134 3 Regression 6612.92 19 348.05 2.69 .001c** Residual 14860.41 115 129.22 Total 21473.33 134 Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). aPredictors: (Constant), Free/Reduced Population, Degree, Gender, ESE Population, Years as a Principal, Student Population, LEP Population, Years as an Educator. bPredictors: aPredictors combined with Substance Use, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Restraint, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social Support, Religious Coping. cPredictors: bPredictors combined with Self-Enhancing Humor, SelfDefeating Humor, Humor, Affiliativ e Humor, Aggressive Humor.

PAGE 95

95 Table 4-10. Regression analysis coefficients for dependent variable Burnout (Emotional Exhaustion + Depersonalization) Unstandardized Standardized Collinearity Coefficients Coefficients Statistics Model B Std. Beta t Sig. Tolerance VIF 3 (Constant) -4.55 16.12 -.28 .78 Gender -1.22 2.76 -.04 -.44 .66 .73 1.38 Degree -.31 1.26 -.02 -.25 .80 .87 1.15 Student Population -.71 1.22 -.05 -.58 .56 .74 1.35 Years as a Principal -.48 .96 -.05 -.50 .62 .67 1.49 Years as an Educator .22 1.58 .01 .14 .89 .58 1.72 LEP Population .15 1.65 .01 .09 .93 .60 1.67 ESE Population 4.14 2.36 .14 1.75 .08 .91 1.09 Free/Reduced .44 1.24 .04 .35 .73 .53 1.89 Population Focus on and 1.28 .49 .26 2.64 .01** .62 1.62 Venting of Emotions Religious Coping .18 .26 .07 .70 .49 .66 1.53 Restraint .13 .45 .03 .29 .78 .73 1.37 Substance Use 2.27 1.30 .15 1.75 .08 .84 1.19 Instrumental and -.19 .26 -.07 -.72 .47 .64 1.56 Emotional Social Support Positive .28 .46 .06 .62 .54 .62 1.62 Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning Self-Enhancing -.45 .16 -.28 -2.78 .01** .59 1.68 Humor Self-Defeating .26 .13 .19 1.95 .05* .65 1.53 Humor Affiliative Humor .00 .16 .00 .02 .98 .60 1.68 Humor .38 .38 .10 1.00 .32 .62 1.61 Aggressive Humor .18 .17 .11 1.06 .29 .59 1.70 Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

PAGE 96

96 Table 4-11. Correlation matrix for regression model variables Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 1.00 2 .01 1.00 3 .17 .18* 1.00 4 .08 .19* .05 1.00 5 -.12 .03 .06 -.03 1.00 6 .03 .28** .49** -.06 .20* 1.00 7 .34** .21* .38** .09 -.02 .29** 1.00 8 .21* .42** .10 .15 .00 .02 .30** 1.00 9 .09 .12 -.17 .12 -.28** -.18* -.05 .13 1.00 10 .27** -.01 -.13 .10 .00 -.28** .07 .28** .34** 1.00 11 .10 .00 .10 .00 -.01 .05 .22* .07 -.15 .02 1.00 12 .07 -.08 -.07 -.02 -.01 -.10 -.06 -.10 -.05 -.03 .07 1.00 13 .03 .15 -.20* .03 .03 -.22* -.04 .16 .17* .22* -.06 -.09 1.00 14 -.09 .20* .01 .08 .12 .06 .04 .00 .20* -.08 -.30** -.08 -.02 1.00 15 .14 -.09 -.11 -.02 -.04 -.13 -.06 11 .13 .37** -.12 -.08 .12 -.22* 1.00 16 .04 .05 .13 -.06 .05 .20* .26** -.02 -.01 .02 .11 .06 -.01 .01 -.01 1.00 17 .07 -.13 -.11 -.06 -.03 -.22* -.16 -.05 -.06 .05 -.04 .46** .28** -.18* .19* .02 1.00 18 .12 .05 -.11 .03 -.05 -.07 .12 .15 .21* .06 .09 -.13 .07 .48** -.12 -.06 -.12 1.00 19 .46** .25** .16 .01 -.10 .13 .34** .26** -.10 -.04 .12 .03 .02 -.02 -.18* .04 -.13 .12 1.00 Note. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Numbers re present the following variables: 1 is Self-Enhancing Humor (n=136); 2 is Focus on and Venting of Emotions (n=136); 3 is Self-Defeating Humor (n=136); 4 is ESE Population (n=135); 5 is Substance Use (n=136); 6 is Aggressive Humor (n=136); 7 is Humor (n=136); 8 is Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Support (n=136); 9 is Religious Coping (n=136); 10 is Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning (n=136); 11 is Student Populati on (n=135); 12 is Years as a Pr incipal (n=135); 13 is Gender (n=135); 14 is Free/Reduced Popul ation (n=135); 15 is Restraint (n =136); 16 is Degree (n=135); 17 is Years as an Educator (n=135); 18 is LEP Population (n=135); and 19 is Affiliative Humor (n=136).

PAGE 97

97 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of hum or compared to other coping mechanisms in relation to Maslachs (1982) theory of burnout. Because of the rapid changes in society, the school principals job has become more challenging a nd demanding (Shumate, 1999). Schools are performing more ta sks than in past decades. It is important for organizations to understand burnout because its effects could se riously impact individuals and organizations (Waugh & Judd, 2003). The ability to identify th e level of burnout in administrators could provide advance warning, signaling a developing problem. Principals experiencing high stress levels reduce productivity throughout the school and contribute to a negative work environment (Pahnos, 1990). When demands and pressure at work become overwhelming and exceed the ability to cope, an individua l is likely to reach a breaki ng point (Pines & Kafry, 1978). This study provided knowledge that will help principals determine the relationship between the use of humor as a coping mechan ism and the level of burnout being experienced. Promoting the well-being of employees s hould increase organizat ional productivity and profitability (Keyes, Hysom, & Lupo, 2000). People who report higher levels of well-being are more productive, are less prone to using leav e time, and have a hi gher rate of employee retention. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is reco gnized as the leading burnout measure. High scores on the emotional exhaustion and depe rsonalization subscales, along with low scores on the personal accomplishment subscale, show a high degree of burnout. Low scores on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subs cales, along with high scores on the personal accomplishment subscale, reflect a low degree of burnout. Average scores on all three subscales indicate an average degree of burnout.

PAGE 98

98 The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) was deve loped to assess four dimensions of the function of humor in daily life. Two of the dimens ions are considered to be positively related to well-being; the two other dimens ions are considered to be negatively related to well-being. The dimension of Affiliative Humor is associ ated with making funny comments and telling jokes which facilitate relationshi ps while reducing tension among ot hers. The dimension of SelfEnhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to incongruities in life and using humor as a copi ng mechanism. The dimension of Aggressive Humor is related to the use of humor to show s uperiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement. The dimension of Self-Defeating Humor is identified with the use of humor at an individuals own expense through ex cessive humorous self-ridicule. The COPE Inventory measures 15 coping strate gies. They include: (a) active coping, (b) planning, (c) suppression of competing activ ities, (d) restraint coping, (e) seeking social support--instrumental, (f) seeking social suppo rt--emotional, (g) focus on and venting of emotions, (h) behavioral disengagement, (i) mental disengagement, (j) positive reinterpretation and growth, (k) denial, (l) acceptance, (m) re ligion, (n) alcohol-drug disengagement, and (o) humor. Active Coping is a problem-focused strategy that i nvolves taking direct action to remove the stressor. Planning is a problem-focused strategy that in volves thinking about the stressor and how to cope with it. Suppression of Competing Activities is a problem-focused strategy that involves putting aside or avoidi ng other tasks to be able to deal with the stressor. Restraint Coping is a problem-focused strategy that i nvolves holding back for a more appropriate opportunity to deal effectiv ely with the stressor. Seeking Social Support for Instrumental Reasons is a problem-focused strategy of seeking outsi de assistance to deal with the stressor.

PAGE 99

99 Seeking Social Support for Emotional Reasons is an emotion-focused strategy that involves support from others to cope with the stressor. Positive Reinterpretation and Growth is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual manages emotional distress rather than the stressor itself. Denial is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is ignored altogether. Acceptance is an emotion-focused strategy where the stressor is accepted. Turning to Religion is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual turns to religion as a means of coping with a stressor. Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub (1989) found the following three coping strategies appear to be less useful as coping strategies: Focusing on and Venting of Emotions a strategy whereby an individual focuses on the stre ssor, and vents his emotions; Behavioral Disengagement a strategy that involves one reducing effort to deal with the stressor; and Mental Disengagement a strategy involving the use of mental distr actions and activities to distract an individual from thinking about the stressor, such as daydr eaming or escaping through television. Alcohol-Drug Disengagement is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on escaping the stressor. Humor is a strategy whereby an individual focuses on relief from the stressor. Summary of Findings The results of this study indica te th at participants perceive themselves to use the positive dimensions of humor (Affiliative Humor, Self-Enhancing Humor) more than the negative dimensions of humor (Self-Defeating Humor, Aggressive Humor). While the individual humor scales showed low significance uni variately, the block of humor s cales together was significant, with an r2 change indicating that humor was responsible for 10% of the variance in the dependent variable burnout. Humor in ge neral was found to be significa nt in predicting burnout. Mean scores reported by partic ipants in this study suggest coping mechanisms in the COPE Inventory were used in the following order from most to least frequent: Planning, Positive

PAGE 100

100 Reinterpretation and Growth, Active Coping, In strumental Social Support, Restraint, Acceptance, Religious Coping, Suppression of Co mpeting Activities, Emotional Social Support, Humor, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Ment al Disengagement, Beha vioral Disengagement, Denial, and Substance Use, which shows some similarities to the study conducted by Phelps and Jarvis (1994). The following scales were reduced through scale reduction: Depe rsonalization, Personal Accomplishment, Self-Enhancing Humor, and Self-Defeating Humor. Positive Reinterpretation and Growth was combined with the Planning scal e. The Instrumental Social Support scale was joined with the Emotional Social Support scal e. The scales Mental Disengagement, Active Coping, Denial, Behavioral Disengagement, Acceptance, and Suppression of Competing Activities were eliminated from further analysis and not used in the regression model because of the reliability indicated by th e Cronbach alpha levels. In addition to Humor, Self-Enhancing Humor, Self-Defeating Humor, Aggressive Humor, and Affiliative Humor, the following demographi c variables were included in the regression calculation: Free/Reduced Lunc h Population, Degree, Gender, ESE Population, Years as a Principal, Student Population, LEP Population, a nd Years as an Educator. The following COPE Inventory variables were included in the regr ession calculation: Substance Use, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Plannin g, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Restraint, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emo tional Social Support, and Religious Coping. The COPE Inventory scale Positive Reinterpre tation and Growth was joined with the scale Planning after finding collinearity between these tw o variables in the regression calculation. Both scales provided similar information, so th e scales were combined. The COPE Inventory

PAGE 101

101 scale Independent Social Support was joined w ith the scale Emotional Social Support after finding collinearity in th e regression calculation. The beta value indicates the relative ability to predict the amount of change in the dependent variable based on one standard deviati on of change in an independent variable. The beta value of statistically significant variables in Table 4-10 was used to determine the relative importance of each variable in the regression m odel. Self-Enhancing Humor and Self-Defeating Humor were shown to be significant in predic ting burnout. Self-Enhancing Humor was found to be the strongest variable in predicting burnout, = -.28. The prediction made by this independent variable indicates that as Self -Enhancing Humor is used a coping mechanism, burnout level scores are predicte d to decrease. The second str ongest independent variable in predicting burnout is Focus on and Venting of Emotions, = .26. The prediction made by this independent variable indicates that as Focus on and Venting of Emotions is used as a coping mechanism, burnout level scores are predicted to increase. The third strongest independent variable in predicting burnout was Self-Defeating Humor, = .19. The prediction made by this independent variable indicates that as Self-D efeating Humor is used as a coping mechanism, burnout level scores are predicted to increase. This study had some limitations. Weak correlations could have been caused by the small sample size of the study. The removal of some of the scales could have weakened the study. There could have been possible in accuracies in self-reporting that could affect the study. Other predictors that are not easily measured could affect the study. Conclusions Data presented in the principal com ponents re gression resulted in the development of a theoretical model for predic ting burnout (Figure 5-1). A doughnut graph was created in Microsoft Excel using the beta va lue data found in Table 4-10. Each independent variable is

PAGE 102

102 represented by a proportional section based on th e beta value measure. The center of the doughnut graph is represented by the dependent va riable, burnout, which was formulated through the sum of the Emotional Exhaustion scale a nd the Depersonalization scale. The Personal Accomplishment dimension has an inverse re lationship to the Emo tional Exhaustion and Depersonalization dimensions. Masl achs theory indicated that all three dimensions are part of the burnout construct. The model in Figure 5-1 proposes a revision in Maslachs theory: Increasing burnout as measured by the co mbination of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization leads to a decline in Pe rsonal Accomplishment; decreasing burnout as measured by the combination of Emotional E xhaustion and Depersonalization leads to an increase in Personal Accomplishment. Each independent variable has an arrow pointi ng either toward the cen ter or away from the center. Arrows pointing away from the center indicate those variables that predict decreasing burnout scores based on the use of those variab les as coping mechanisms. Arrows pointing toward the center indicate thos e variables that predict increasi ng burnout scores based on the use of those variables as coping mechanisms. Self-Enhancing Humor is associated with having a humorous outlook on life, showing amusement to incongruities in life and using hum or as a coping mechanism. Self-Enhancing Humor was the independent vari able having the most significan ce in the regression model in predicting decreasing levels of burnout. This study supports the use of Self-Enhancing Humor as an effective coping mechanism. Affiliative Humor is associated with ma king funny comments and telling jokes which facilitate relationships while reducing tensi on among others. Affiliati ve Humor was found to

PAGE 103

103 have a slight impact in predicting increasing le vels of burnout. This study did not support the use of Affiliative Humor as an effective coping mechanism. Aggressive Humor is related to the use of humor to show superiority over others by ridicule, put-downs, and disparagement. Aggr essive Humor was found to predict increasing levels of burnout. This study did not support the use of Aggressive Humor as an effective coping mechanism. Self-Defeating Humor is identified with the us e of humor at an individuals own expense through excessive humorous self-ridicule. Self-Defeating Humor was found to predict increasing levels of burnout. This study did not support the use of Self -Defeating Humor as an effective coping mechanism. Suggestions for Further Research 1. In this study the sample size for males was small. Males reported higher means for burnout levels than females. Replication of this study with a larger sample size including more males could be conducted to determine if burnout levels are different between males and females. If so, why? 2. In this study, participants holding a speci alist degree reported higher means for burnout levels than those with a maste rs or doctorate degree. Resear ch is needed with a larger sample size to determine if degree type is related to bur nout levels. If so, why? 3. In this study, principals with 16 to 20 years of principal experience reported the lowest means for burnout levels, and those principals with 11 to 15 years of educator experience reported the highest means for burnout levels. Research is needed to determine the variables responsible for decr easing the likelihood of burnout as experienced educators become experienced principals. 4. In this study, principals working in schools with 51% to 75% of their entire student population identified as Limited English Prof iciency (LEP) reported higher means for levels of burnout than those in schools with less than 51% or more than 75% of their students identified as LEP. Research is needed to determine factors related to levels of burnout in Limited English Proficiency schools. 5. In this study, principals working in schools with 26% to 50% of their entire student population identified as Exceptional Student Education (ESE) reported higher means for levels of burnout than those in schools with less than 26% or more than 50% of their

PAGE 104

104 students identified as ESE. Research is needed to determine factors related to levels of burnout in Exceptional Student Education schools. 6. In this study, principals working in school s with 76% to 100% of their entire population qualifying to participate in the Free and Reduced Lunch program as determined by the percent of students enrolled in the Free and Reduced Lunch program reported higher means for levels of burnout than those in schools with less than 76% of their students identified as Free/Reduced Population. Research is needed to determ ine the factors related to levels of burnout in this setting. 7. This study was conducted with the following assumptions: participants had a common understanding of the terminology used in th e survey instruments; and, participants accurately self-rated on all of the survey instruments. Repl icate this study to determine if the data collected shows similar results in the correlations among variables. 8. The small sample size of this study could ha ve affected the data analysis results. Replication of this study with a larger sample size coul d be conducted to confirm or disprove the results of this study. 9. Humor was shown to be significant in predic ting burnout. Conduct this study with a larger sample size using only the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Humor Styles Questionnaire to confirm or disprove the si gnificance of the use of humor in predicting burnout. 10. Humor was found to be significant in predicti ng burnout. Conduct a stud y to ascertain if a maximum limit in the use of humor exists, a nd, if reaching or surpassing that limit, determine if the linear correlation between th e use of humor and the prediction of burnout ceases to show linearity. 11. A new theoretical model was presented in th is study. Conduct a study using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and other instruments to test the relatio nship of principal burnout to Personal Accomplishment. 12. Conduct a study to determine if the use of humo r is more prevalent in some personality types over other personality types.

PAGE 105

105 Figure 5-1. Theorized regressi on model of burnout Note. Predictors: Self-Enhancing Humor, Focu s on and Venting of Emotions, Self-Defeating Humor, ESE Population, Substance Use, Aggre ssive Humor, Humor, Instrumental Social Support joined with Emotional Social Support, Religious Coping, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth joined with Planning, Student Population, Years as a Principal, Gender, Free/Reduced Population, Restraint, (Constant), Degree, Years as an Educator, LEP Population, and Affiliative Humor.

PAGE 106

106 APPENDIX A UF IRB APPROVAL OF PROTOCOL

PAGE 107

107

PAGE 108

108 APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT

PAGE 109

109

PAGE 110

110 APPENDIX C PERMISSION TO USE THE HUMOR STYL ES QUESTIONNAIRE

PAGE 111

111 Sender:Rod Martin To:"Drew A. Hawkins" CC: Date:Mon Jan 15 17:52:21 EST 2007 Subject:Re: Permission Request Hi Drew, Here is the HSQ, along with scoring instructions. Feel free to use it in your research. All the best in your research! Hopefully we'll meet at a future ISHS conference. Best regards, Rod On Mon Jan 15 15:49:26 EST 2007, Rod Martin wrote: Dear Drew, Glad to hear about your doctoral dissertation on humo r! Your research sounds inte resting and worthwhile. I'm happy to give you permission to use the CHS in this study at no cost, as long as the website is accessible to the participants only, and is not available to the general public. However, as an alternative to the CHS, I would st rongly recommend that you consider a newer measure that we've developed, called the Humor Styles Questi onnaire (HSQ). This measure contains 4 subscales, one of which is essentially the same as the CHS, but with much better reliability (there were some problems with low internal consistency on the CHS). In addition, there are 3 other scales measuring other humor styles of daily life. Two of the 4 scales are cons idered to be potentially beneficial to well-being, and two are potentially detrimental. So it gets at negative as well as positive aspects of humor. My guess is that some styles of humor may actually be positive ly associated with burnout. I'm attaching a copy of the article in which we first published this measure. In my own research, I'm no longer using the CHS, and am using the HSQ instead. Let me know if you'd like to use this measure, and I'll send you a copy of it. In case you're not aware of it, I have recently wr itten a book on the psychology of humor, which covers the research and theory in all areas of this topic. If you're doing your dissertation on humor in psychology, you will likely find this to be helpful. He re's the publisher's website for this book: http://books.elsevier.com/us//socsci/us/subindex.asp?i sbn=012372564X Finally, you might also want to consider joining the International Society for Humor Studies (ISHS), a scholarly society of humor researchers. (One small perk of joining is that members can get my book at a reduced price!) This summer the annual ISHS conferen ce is in Newport, Rhode Island. It would be great if you could come and perhaps present a paper on your research and meet many others studying in this field. Here's the ISHS website: http://www.hnu.edu/ishs/ Good luck with your research! Rod Martin ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Rod A Martin, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Psychology University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2

PAGE 112

112 Sender:lefcourt@watarts.uwaterloo.ca Add to address book To:"Drew A. Hawkins" CC: Date:Thu Feb 01 02:27:04 EST 2007 Subject:Re: Permission Request Dear Drew: You have my permission to use the CHS as stated. You might also try contacting Dr. Martin who is at the University of Western Ontario. Good lu ck with your research. There is no cost involved but I would like to know if you find anything of interest. Cordially, H Lefcourt Dr. Herb Lefcourt University of Waterloo 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 ATTN: Dr. Herb Lefcourt lefcourt@watarts.uwaterloo.ca

PAGE 113

113 APPENDIX D PERMISSION TO USE COPE INVENT ORY ON C OPE INVENTORY WEBSITE

PAGE 114

114 COPE (complete version) The COPE Inventory was developed to assess a broad range of coping responses, several of which had an explicit basis in th eory. The inventory includes some responses that are expected to be dysfunctional, as well as some that are expected to be functional. It also includes at least 2 pairs of polar-opposite tendencies. These were included because each scale is unipolar (the absence of this response does not imply the pr esence of its opposite), and because we think people engage in a wide range of coping during a given period, including both of each pair of opposites. The items have been used in at least 3 formats. One is a "dispositional" or trait-like version in which respondents report the exte nt to which they usually do the things listed, when they are stressed. A second is a time-limited version in which respondents indicate the degree to which they actually did have each response during a part icular period in the past. The third is a timelimited version in which respondent s indicate the degree to whic h they have been having each response during a period up to the present. Th e formats differ in their verb forms: the dispositional format is present tens e, the situational-past format is past tense, the third format is present tense progressive (I am ...) or present perfect (I have been ...). You are welcome to use all scales of the COPE, or to choose selected scales for use (see below regarding scoring). Feel free as well to adapt the language for whatever time scale you are interested in. Be sure to adapt the instructions for completion, as well as the items themselves. An abbreviated version of the COPE has also b een created, if you have time constraints or high response burden. If you are interested in assessing in Spanish, the abbreviated versi on was translated into (western hemisphere) Spanish by our research group, and can be found here. The full COPE has been translated (independently) into Spanish Spanish by Dr. Esther Calvete, of the University of Deusto in Bilbao, Spain. It can be found here. I be lieve that the COPE has been translated by at least one team into French. Contact Dr. Lise Fillion at the University Laval in Quebec: Lise.Fillion@fsi.ulaval.ca Citation to the full COPE: Carver, C. S., Scheie r, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approac h. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267-283. For a copy of the article, click here.

PAGE 115

115 APPENDIX E DEMOGRAPHIC SHEET

PAGE 116

116 DEMOGRAPHIC SHEET Please check one response for each category: Gender: Male Female Level of highest completed degree: Master Specialist Doctorate Number of students in the school where you are principal: Less than 500 501 to 750 751 to 1,000 1,001 to 1,500 1,501 or more Number of years you have been a principal: Less than 5 years 5 to 10 years 11 to 15 years 16 to 20 years More than 20 years Number of years in the education profession: Less than 5 years 5 to 10 years 11 to 15 years 16 to 20 years More than 20 years Percentage of students at your school that are ESOL/LEP: 0% to 25% 26% to 50% 51% to 75% 76% to 100% Percentage of students at your school that are ESE/Exceptional Students: 0% to 25% 26% to 50% 51% to 75% 76% to 100% Percentage of students at your school that are enrolled in the Free/Reduced Lunch Program: 0% to 25% 26% to 50% 51% to 75% 76% to 100%

PAGE 117

117 REFERENCE LIST Abel, M. (1998). Interaction of humor and gender in m oderating relationships between stress and outcomes. The Journal of Psychology, 132, 267-276. Abel, M. (2002). Humor, stre ss, and coping strategies. Humor 15, 365-381. Allison, D. (1997). Coping with stress in the principalship. Journal of Educational Administration, 35 (1), 39-55. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.) [Electronic version]. (2000). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retr ieved November 1, 2004 from http://www.bartleby.com/61/29/H0322900.html Am irkhan, J. (1990). A factor analytically de rived measure of coping: The coping strategy indicator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59 1066-1075. Avolio, B., Howell, J., & Sosik, J. (1999). A funny thing happened on the way to the bottom line: Humor as a moderator of leadership style effects. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 219. Babad, E. (1974). A multi-method approach to the assessment of humor: A critical look at humor tests. Journal of Personality, 42 618-631. Benson, J. & Hagtvet, K. (1996). The interplay among design, data analysis and theory in the measurement of coping. In M. Zeidner & N.S. Endler (Eds.) Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 83-106). New York: Wiley. Bergson, H. (1921). Laughter: An essay on the meaning of th e comic. Authorized Translation by Cloudesley Brereton and Fred Rothwell New York: The Macmillan Company. Berlyne, D. (1972). Humour and its kin. In J. H. Goldstein & P. E. McGhee (Eds.), The Psychology of Humour (pp.101-125). New York: Academic Press. Blaydes, J. (2004). Survival skills for the principalship. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA Boles, J., Dean, D., Ricks, J., Short, J., & Wang, G. (2000). The dimensionality of the Maslach Burnout Inventory across small business owners and educators. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 12-34. Bolinger, B. (2001). Humor and leadership: A ge nder-based investigation of the correlation between the attribute of humor and effectiv e leadership (Doctora l dissertation, Indiana State University, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 397. Brock, B., & Grady, M. (2002). Avoiding burnout: A principals guide to keeping the fire alive. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

PAGE 118

118 Buss, A., & Perry, M. (1992).T he aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452. Cade, J. (1992). The relationship between couns elor use of interpersonal humor and counselor burnout. Dissertation Abstract s International 53, 718. (UMI No. 9222588) Cann, A., & Calhoun, L. (2001). Perceived personality associations with diffe rences in sense of humor: Stereotypes of hypot hetical others with high or low senses of humor. Humor 14, 117-130. Carruth, R. (1997). High school principal burnout: A study relating perc eived levels of professional burnout to pr incipals reliance on social bases of power. Dissertation Abstracts International 58 1510. (UMI No. 9731512) Carver, C., Scheier, M., & Weintraub, J. (1989) Assessing coping strategi es: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 267-283. Cave, P. (2005). Humour and paradox laid bare. The Monist, 88, 135-153. Cherniss, C. (1980). Professional burnout in hu man service organizations. New York: Praeger Publishers. Clark, K., Bormann, C., Cropanzano, R., & James, K. (1995). Validation evidence for three coping measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65 434-455. Cook, W., & Medley, D. (1954). Proposed hostility and pharisaicvirtue scales for the MMPI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 38, 414-420. Cousins, N. (1979). Anatomy of an illness as perceived by the patient: Reflections on healing and regeneration. New York: Bantam. Cronbach, L., & Meehl, P. (1955). Constr uct validity of psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52 281-302. Cushing, K., Kerrins, J., & Johnstone, T. (2003, May/June). Disa ppearing principals. Leadership Magazine. (Available from the Association of Ca lifornia School Administrators, 1029 J Street, Suite 500, Sacramento, CA 95814), 28-37. Darlington, R. (1997). Factor analysis. Retrieved September 2, 2007 from Ithaca, NY: Cornell University website: http://www.psych.cornell.edu/darlington/factor.htm Davis, M. (1993). Whats so funny? The comic c onception of culture and society. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Deaner, S., & McConatha, J. (1993). The rela tio n of humor to depression and personality. Psychological Reports, 72 755-763.

PAGE 119

119 De Dreu, C., Dierendonck, D., & Dijkstra, M. (2002). Conflict at work and individual well-being. International Journal of Conflict Management, 15 (1), 6-26. Derogatis, L. (1977). SCL-90: Administration scoring and procedures manual for the revised version. Baltimore: Clinical Psychometric Research. Dillon, K., Minchoff, B., & Baker, K. (1985). Pos itive emotional states and enhancement of the immune system. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 15 13-18. Dorz, S., Novara, C., Sica, C., & Sanavio, E. (2003). Predicting burnout among HIV-AIDS and oncology health care workers. Psychology and Health, 18 677-684. Doud, J. (1989). The K-8 principal in 1988: Sixth in a seri es of research studi es launched in 1928. Alexandria, VA: National Associati on of Elementary School Principals. Doud, J., & Keller, E. (1998). The K-8 principal in 1998: Seventh in a series of research studies launched in 1928 Alexandria, VA: National Asso ciation of Elementary School Principals. Downey, R., & King, C. (1998). Missing data in Likert ratings: A comparison of replacement methods. The Journal of General Psychology, 125 175-191. Ehrenberg, T. (1995). Female differences in creation of humor relating to work. Humor 8, 349-362. Farber, B. (Ed.). (1983). Stress and burnout in the hum an service professions. New York: Pergamon Press Fine, G. (1975). Components of perceived sens e of humor ratings of self and other. Psychological Reports, 36 793-794. Folkman, S. & Lazarus, R. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: A study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 150-170. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeL ongis, A., & Gruen, R. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50 992-1003. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R., Gruen, R., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50 571-579. Fothergill, A., Edwards, D., & Burnard, P. ( 2004). Stress, burnout, coping and stress management in psychiatrists: Findings from a systematic review. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50 (1), 54-65.

PAGE 120

120 Freud, S. (1960). Jokes and their relation to the uncons cious (James Strachey, Trans.). New York: Norton & Company. (Original work published 1905) Freudenberger, H. (1974). Staff burn-out. Journal of Social Issues, 30 159-165. Freudenberger, H. (1977). Burn-out: The organizational menace. Training & Development Journal 31(7), 26-27. Freudenberger, H. (1980). Burnout: The high cost of high achievement. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press. Friedman, I. (1995). Measuring scho ol principal-experienced burnout. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55 641-651. Fry, W. (2002). Humor and the brain: A selective review. Humor 15, 305-333. Gmelch, W., & Torelli, J. (1993). Occupational st ress and burnout in educational administration. People and Education, 1 363-381. Goel, V., & Dolan, R. (2001). The functional an atomy of humor: Segregating cognitive and affective components. Nature Neuroscience 4 237-238. Gold, Y. (1984). The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in a sample of California elementary and junior high school classroom teachers. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 44, 1009-1016. Gold, Y. (2001). Burnout: A major pr oblem for the teaching profession. Education, 104 271-274. Gwede, C., Johnson, D., Roberts, C., & Cantor, A. (2005). Burnout in clinical research coordinators in the United States. Oncology Nursing Forum, 32 1123-1130. Hay, J. (2001). The pragmatics of humor support. Humor 14, 55-82. Helliwell, T. (1981). Are you a potential burnout? Training and Development Journal, 35 (10), 25-29. Henman, L. (2001). Humor as a coping mechanism: Lessons from POWs. Humor 14, 83-94. Hobbes, T. (1651). Leviathan, or the matter, forme, & power of a common-wealth ecclesiasticall and civill. London: Printed for Andrew Crooke at the Green Dragon in St. Pauls Church-yard. (accessed at http://www.netlibrary.com ) Hol mes, J. (1998). No joking matter! The functions of humour in the workplace. Australian Linguistic Society Conference Brisbane, Australia: Griffith University.

PAGE 121

121 Holmes, J., & Marra, M. (2002). Over the ed ge? Subversive humor between colleagues and friends. Humor 15, 65-87. Hudson, W. (1982). The clinical measuremen t package: A field manual. Chicago: Dorsey Press. Iwanicki, E., & Schwab, R. (1981). A cross-valida tional study of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 41, 1167-1174. Johnson, P., & Indvik, J. (1990). The role comm unication plays in developing and reducing organizational stress and burnout. The Bulletin, 53 (1), 5-9. Jones, W. (2006). The function and content of amusement South African Journal of Philosophy, 25, 126-137. Kalter, J. (1999). The workplace burnout. Columbia Journalism Review, 38(2), 30-33. Kant, I. (1790). The critique of judgement (Trans lated by James Creed Meredith.) Raleigh, NC: Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts. (accessed at http://www.netlibrary.com ) Katz, C. (2005). The impact of sense of humor and other psychosocial variables on caregiver depression. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, U niversity of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. Keyes, C., Hysom, S., & Lupo, K. (2000). The positive organization: Leadership legitimacy, employee well-being, and the bottom line. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 4 143-153. Klein, A. (1989). The healing power of humor. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. Kline, L. (1907). The psychology of humor. American Journal of Psychology, 18 421-441. Kosa, B. (1990). Teacher-coach burnout and coping strategies. Physical Educator, 47 (3), 153-158. Kuiper, N., McKenzie, S., & Belanger, K. ( 1995). Cognitive appraisals and individual differences in sense of humor: Motiv ational and affective implications. Personality and Individual Differences 19 359-372. Lazarus, R. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process New York: McGraw-Hill. Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Lefcourt, H. (2001). Humor: The psychology of living buoyantly New York: Plenum.

PAGE 122

122 Lefcourt, H., Davidson, K., Prkachin, K., & Mills, D. (1997). Humor as a stress moderator in the prediction of blood pressure obtained during five stressful tasks. Journal of Research in Personality 31 523-542. Lehman, K., Burke, K., Martin, R., Sultan, J., & Czech, D. (2001). A reformulation of the moderating effects of productive humor. Humor, 14 (2), 131-161. Leiter, M., & Maslach, C. (1999). Six areas of worklife: A model of the organizational context of burnout. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 21, 472-489. Leiter, M., & Maslach, C. (2001). Bur nout and quality in a sped-up world. Journal for Quality & Participation, Summer, 24 (2), 48-51. Linstead, S. (1985). Jokers wild: The importance of humour in the maintenance of organizational culture. Sociological Review 33, 741-767. Lloyd, C., King, R., & Chenoweth, L. (2002). So cial work, stress and burnout: A review. Journal of Mental Health 11 255-265. Martin, R. (1996). The situati onal humor response questionnair e (SHRQ) and coping humor scale (CHS): A decade of research findings. Humor 9, 251-272. Martin, R. (2001). Humor, laugh ter, and physical health: Methodol ogical issues and research findings. Psychological Bulletin 127 504-519. Martin, R., & Lefcourt, H. (1983). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relationship between stressors and moods Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1313-1324. Martin, R., & Lefcourt, H. (1984). Situationa l humor response questionnaire: Quantitative measure of the sense of humor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47 145-155. Martin, R., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J ., & Weir, K. (2003). Indi vidual differences in uses of humor and their rela tion to psychological well-being: Development of the Humor Styles Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 48-75. Maslach, C. (1982). Burnout: The cost of caring. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Maslach, C. (2003). Job burnout: New direct ions in research and intervention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12 189-192. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-115. Maslach, C., Jackson, S., & Leiter, M. (1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual. 3rd ed. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.

PAGE 123

123 Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jo ssey-Bass Publishers. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W., & Leiter, M. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422. Matte, G. (2001). A psychoanalytical perspective of humor. Humor 14, 223-241. McCrae, R. (1984). Situational determinants of coping resources: Loss, th reat, and challenge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 919-928. Miller, R., & Lefcourt, H. (1982). The assessment of social intimacy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46 514-518. Minahan, A. (1980). Burnout and organizational change. Social Work, 25, 87. Mitchell, G., & Hastings, R. (2001). Coping, burnout, and emotion in staff working in community services for people with challenging behaviors. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 106 448-459. Morreall, J. (1983). Taking laughter seriously Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Nason, C. (2005). The fun factor: Your prescription for stress relief at work and at home. Dallas, TX: Core Publishing and Consulting, Inc. Nezlek, J., & Derks, P. (2001). Use of humor as a coping mechan ism, psychological adjustment, and social interaction. Humor 14, 395-413. Nilsen, D. (1993). Humor scholarship: A research bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Norton, K. (2004). The applicability of Maslach and Leiter's theory of burnout to intended turnover among disability services staff in f our-year colleges and universities in North Carolina (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 2004). Proquest Dissertations AAT 3135209 Norusis, M. (1990). SPSS advanced statistics student guide. Chicago, IL: SPSS, Inc. Pahnos, M. (1990). The principal as the primary mediator of school stress. Education, 111 (1), 125-132. Palmer, C. (1983). A note about paramedics' strategies for dealing with death and dying. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56( 1), 83-86.

PAGE 124

124 Penson, R., Dignan, F., Canellos, G., Picard, C., & Lynch, T. (2000). Burnout: Caring for the caregivers. The Oncologist, 5 425-434. Perlmutter, D. (2002). On incongr uities and logical inconsiste ncies in humor: The delicate balance. Humor 15, 155-168. Phelps, S. & Jarvis, P. (1994). C oping in adolescence: Empirical evidence for a theoretically based approach to assessing coping. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23 359-371. Philbrick, K. (1989). The use of humor and effec tive leadership styles (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 1861. Pines, A., & Kafry, D. (1978). Occupationa l tedium in the so cial services. Social Work, 23 499-507. Potter, B. (1987). Preventing job burnout: Transforming work pressures into productivity Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Priest, R., & Swain, J. (2002). Humor and its im plications for leader ship effectiveness. Humor 15, 169-189. Provine, R. (1996). Laughter: Research on laughter. American Scientist, 84 (1), 38-47. Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-repor t depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385. Rahmani, L. (1994). Humor styles and managerial effectiveness (l eadership) (Doctoral dissertation, University of La Verne, 1994). Dissertation Abstract s International, 55, 1161. Richardsen, A., & Martinussen, M. (2004). The Maslach Burnout I nventory: Factorial validity and consistency across occ upational groups in Norway. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 377-384. Roeckelein, J. (2002). The psychology of humor: A reference guide and annotated bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Roth, P. (1994). Missing data: A conceptual review for applied psychologists. Personnel Psychology, 47, 537-560. Roth, P. & Switzer, F. (1995). A Monte Carlo an alysis of missing data techniques in an HRM setting. Journal of Management, 21, 1003-1023.

PAGE 125

125 Ruch, W., Kohler, G., & van Thriel, C. (1996). Assessing the humorous temperament: Construction of the facet and standard trait forms of the State-Trait-CheerfulnessInventory--STCI. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9 303-340. Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is ever ything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081. Sarason, I., Levine, H., Basham, R., & Sarason, B. (1983). Assessing social support: The social support questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44 127-130. Schauben, L., & Frazier, P. (1995). Vicarious tr auma: The effects on female counselors of working with sexual violence survivors. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19 49-64. Scheier, M., & Carver, C. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4 219-247. Schwarzer, R. & Schwarzer, C. (1996) A critical survey of coping in struments. In: M. Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds) Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 107). New York: Wiley. Selye, H. (1974). Stress without distress. New York: Signet. Selye, H. (1976). The stress of life New York: McGraw-Hill. Shumate, J. (1999). Stress, burnout, and coping strategies among Washington State high school principals. Dissertation Abstracts International 60 2760. (UMI No. 9942736) Spencer, H. (1860, March). The physiology of laughter. Macmillans Magaz ine. Collected essays volume II, April 1912, 215 383-404. Spielberger, C., Gorsuch, R., & Lushene, R. (1969). State-trait anxiety inve ntory: Preliminary test manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulti ng Psychologists Press. Staley, R., & Derks, P. (1995). Structur al incongruity and humor appreciation. Humor 5, 97-134. StatSoft, Inc. (2006). Electronic statistics textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. (accessed at http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html) Stevens, M., & Higgins, D. (2002). The influenc e of risk and protective factors on burnout experienced by those who work with m altreated children. Child Abuse Review, 11, 313-331. Stricherz, M. (2001). School l eaders feel overworked, survey fi nds. [Electronic version]. Education Week, 21, 5.

PAGE 126

126 Svebak, S. (1996). The development of the sense of humor questionnaire: From SHQ to SHQ-6. Humor: International Jour nal of Humor Research, 9 341-361. Talbot, L. (2000). Burnout and humor usage among community college nursing faculty members. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 24, 359-373. Talbot, L., & Lumden, D. (2000). On the association between humor and burnout. Humor, 13, 419-428. Thomas, A., & Ayres, J. (1998). A principal s interruptions: Time lost or time gained? International Journal of Educational Management, 12, 244-249. Thorson, J., & Powell, F. (1993). Development and validation of a multidimensional sense of humor scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48 13-23. Tuuli, P., & Karisalmi, S. (1999). Imp act of working life quality on burnout. Experimental Aging Research, 25, 441-449. van Dick, R., & Wagner, U. (2001). Stress and strain in teaching: A structural equation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71 243-259. Vollmer, J. (2000). Building support for America s schools: The burden. Retrieved November 1, 2004 from http://www.jamievollmer.com/burden.html Waugh, C., & Judd, M. (2003). Traine r burnout: The syndrom e explored. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 19(2), 47-58. Weisberg, J., & Sagie, A. (1999). Teachers phys ical, mental, and emotional burnout: Impact on intention to quit. The Journal of Psychology, 133 333-339. Whan, L., & Thomas, A. (1996). The principalship and stress in the workplace: An observational and physiological study. Journal of School Leadership, 6 444-465. Whitaker, K. (1996). Exploring causes of principal burnout. Journal of Educational Administration, 34 (1), 60-71. Woods, P. (1983). Coping at school through humour. British Journal of Sociology of Education 4 111-124. Wycoff, E. (1999). Humor in academia: An in ternational survey of humor instruction. Humor 12, 437-456. Yarwood, D. (1995). Humor and administration: A se rious inquiry into unofficial organizational communication. Public Administration Review, 55(1), 81-90.

PAGE 127

127 Zellmer, D. (2003). Teaching to prevent burnout in the helping professions. Journal of Analytic Teaching, 24 (1), 20-25.

PAGE 128

128 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Drew A. Ha wkins was born in Orlando, Florida, and has lived in cen tral Florida for 45 years. He attended school in the Orange C ounty Public School system, including Azalea Park Elementary School, Stonewall Jackson Jr. Hi gh School, and Colonial High School. While earning his associate of arts degree at Valenc ia Community College, he worked at the St. Stephens Presbyterian Church School, coaching ch ildren and working in the daycare center. It was there he decided he wanted to become a teacher. Upon completing his degree at Valencia, he then attended the University of Central Flor ida, where he earned his bachelors degree in elementary education. While working on his de gree, he substituted in classrooms to gain teaching experience and to meet school administrators. Upon completion of his degree in 1984, he ta ught at Riverside Elementary School in Orange County, where he gained experience te aching different grade levels, worked with different principals, and learned different administrative styles. It was also where he met his wife, Phyllis. They have two children, Jay and Sarah. While serving as a teacher, he earned his masters degree from the University of Central Florida in 1988. In 1998, he was pr omoted to the position of assist ant principal, and served at Waterford Elementary School until 2003. He was then transferred to serve as assistant principal at Little River Elementary School, where he is currently employed. In August 2000, Mr. Hawkins started his doctoral program at th e University of Florida and received a Specialist degree in Education in 2002. In May 2008 he was awarded the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Educational Leadership from the University of Florida.