<%BANNER%>

Housing Energy Efficiency and Affordability Issues Affecting Low-Income Residents in Gainesville, Florida

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021548/00001

Material Information

Title: Housing Energy Efficiency and Affordability Issues Affecting Low-Income Residents in Gainesville, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (90 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Taylor, Nicholas W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: affordability, demand, energy, housing, low, residential
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In partnership with administrators from Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) and the University of Florida?s Program for Resource Efficient Communities (PREC) this project was designed to help identify and overcome the barriers to delivering energy efficiency services in the most cost effective manner to low-income residential customers. The purpose of this thesis was to identify the most significant energy efficiency and subsequent affordability issues affecting the low-income population in Gainesville, Florida and to address the potential for demand-side management (DSM) programs that could reduce occupant operations and maintenance costs, conserve energy resources and protect the environment. A two-fold approach was taken in data collection including an in-depth, in-home customer questionnaire supplemented by GRU?s standard energy conservation audit. Data analysis compared average energy intensity, measured in mega-British Thermal Units per 1000 square foot per year, of low-income customers that exhibit certain efficiency related characteristics with those who do not. Results of this study show that, for the low-income population in Gainesville, Florida attic insulation is the largest energy efficiency problem. The information provided in this report will be useful for identifying housing energy-related deficiencies and identifying DSM products and services that most cost-effectively reduce energy expenses to low-income consumers. For utilities, results of this research will assist in energy demand avoidance and reduction of carbon emissions to the environment and will serve as a basis for future energy efficiency research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Nicholas W Taylor.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Grosskopf, Kevin R.
Local: Co-adviser: Stroh, Robert C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021548:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021548/00001

Material Information

Title: Housing Energy Efficiency and Affordability Issues Affecting Low-Income Residents in Gainesville, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (90 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Taylor, Nicholas W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: affordability, demand, energy, housing, low, residential
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In partnership with administrators from Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) and the University of Florida?s Program for Resource Efficient Communities (PREC) this project was designed to help identify and overcome the barriers to delivering energy efficiency services in the most cost effective manner to low-income residential customers. The purpose of this thesis was to identify the most significant energy efficiency and subsequent affordability issues affecting the low-income population in Gainesville, Florida and to address the potential for demand-side management (DSM) programs that could reduce occupant operations and maintenance costs, conserve energy resources and protect the environment. A two-fold approach was taken in data collection including an in-depth, in-home customer questionnaire supplemented by GRU?s standard energy conservation audit. Data analysis compared average energy intensity, measured in mega-British Thermal Units per 1000 square foot per year, of low-income customers that exhibit certain efficiency related characteristics with those who do not. Results of this study show that, for the low-income population in Gainesville, Florida attic insulation is the largest energy efficiency problem. The information provided in this report will be useful for identifying housing energy-related deficiencies and identifying DSM products and services that most cost-effectively reduce energy expenses to low-income consumers. For utilities, results of this research will assist in energy demand avoidance and reduction of carbon emissions to the environment and will serve as a basis for future energy efficiency research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Nicholas W Taylor.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Grosskopf, Kevin R.
Local: Co-adviser: Stroh, Robert C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021548:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101114_AAAAJH INGEST_TIME 2010-11-15T00:25:24Z PACKAGE UFE0021548_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 6628 DFID F20101114_AADGOD ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH taylor_n_Page_49thm.jpg GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
081ffdb7e9675d4712d42d0ad7f42c89
SHA-1
851838e249cc1c4cbd94f58c6101cb0ceab4d48c
25410 F20101114_AADGNP taylor_n_Page_40.QC.jpg
5fa97c4ed15a4cdd1b783885c25d5617
28b4193ed03282f16f6ffcf8238f46a7a6cefc2b
7113 F20101114_AADGOE taylor_n_Page_57thm.jpg
490216ede916633798750499259b68c5
3a8513f3a4619d44566783ce56edf2e8e833eaa2
25368 F20101114_AADGNQ taylor_n_Page_87.QC.jpg
e055b8e1ecce86779c2c49a9c6835db8
fea96864ac6a7caa1ac356a505af56a16727bef6
4660 F20101114_AADGOF taylor_n_Page_75thm.jpg
708a657ff2fca06f8fff912a3bcb1514
fa2aca69f83f0358b2a942b1c24cd5c06fe7a4a1
3118 F20101114_AADGOG taylor_n_Page_02.QC.jpg
68e0f37682d29dcf358894f5cf7f5384
ff90f6f625e8a4c045d6ad53981225c9c857a7eb
5256 F20101114_AADGNR taylor_n_Page_77thm.jpg
dbae4a723519043d253009518c5aa302
28eb33ed95337ded753abb943112ab44d3bf3a98
25653 F20101114_AADGOH taylor_n_Page_55.QC.jpg
bd8b9ff67dd8978908394c63bb40de0c
285515879dc7d7fb153d5298c8565bf6e790194b
6882 F20101114_AADGNS taylor_n_Page_53thm.jpg
b054232e919b567a0ea9b844bfbbcf8d
2650ec7714b2fc63f1dbdd7275692b19570bde01
2399 F20101114_AADGOI taylor_n_Page_43thm.jpg
4397e2dbc8bc364969cb3b9ba0e08875
1395e4c7b1a7627ca57d9fb036069c417d5e2b0a
13936 F20101114_AADGNT taylor_n_Page_68.QC.jpg
81a7c225227c6bea812be978bb62093d
509523407d64ab2d34cf412d10806b9412dba98a
15765 F20101114_AADGOJ taylor_n_Page_44.QC.jpg
246478cc93968828c60fab80f8c9a468
1590db959f3206ef1c53d9766389f77cfe1e20a4
18969 F20101114_AADGNU taylor_n_Page_05.QC.jpg
218a6ac867ae517936b9fcaa5644ed9f
608db13764b41c24f549ccb29dcb1420f748527c
15070 F20101114_AADGOK taylor_n_Page_35.QC.jpg
2e83694ddb9e5e76a0fe13db59f579e0
cf02458b0f6667430a599f8dc022a33a4356a4c2
7068 F20101114_AADGNV taylor_n_Page_37thm.jpg
1d5b065564032630ff4781e48a0b0c02
66b2f2496ea65a4419fc1c4e4342255cb7e0af6d
7394 F20101114_AADGOL taylor_n_Page_87thm.jpg
0ca8ff13d6cd947d5040f06779291781
eac01c5f06844b09fd7ccbef2b2d30bdf54b0eaa
4179 F20101114_AADGNW taylor_n_Page_82thm.jpg
99cd7d981e5c37aec3c6441f45abc29b
12f4282eccb75ee70dc2771ef8c569231c247119
19339 F20101114_AADGPA taylor_n_Page_65.QC.jpg
0b090a5b1f15ac45bca030976579e80d
5c367d121c4b0319a44bb36b6c85c2c01c8957d9
5005 F20101114_AADGOM taylor_n_Page_70thm.jpg
9405001e2223f0bc8228126bb93dd2f2
498671854f6ab1a0a7f8e09415ef003d059bf661
23858 F20101114_AADGNX taylor_n_Page_62.QC.jpg
442be9f2e814f80b71fbb97108742c98
6693f258fa39cd1bfd85ce92b5eb18def875ecf1
135581 F20101114_AADGPB UFE0021548_00001.xml FULL
de2b52ff6e1c7e10b1f875615aed55fb
1898e9a9310633d43c9556b2059f35599279a328
3081 F20101114_AADGON taylor_n_Page_03.QC.jpg
44da9df5b6d9be1037a548782657f9a6
d6de8919fa26e5df8fe53819c41436672c624b2d
6784 F20101114_AADGNY taylor_n_Page_42thm.jpg
ff2a9d7996ed16570a7d8080d94367e4
b7c7c6bd2095d1f4d7d1ab9b2a392c203ee3e8de
11210 F20101114_AADGPC taylor_n_Page_04.QC.jpg
746e0cb933d88e7f2e61cda2d122368e
90656da6c16926b89b87c1aed38adcd4109c1acc
4002 F20101114_AADGOO taylor_n_Page_07.QC.jpg
811573df1dddc7b68cc39f036c2fcc44
ed92b0eddfae43137aa1c8d3f351b427bee533eb
3750 F20101114_AADGNZ taylor_n_Page_15thm.jpg
12ae39af25fa2f2363caf7cf5c197aad
a92ae7cd43489db28461bd00b4ae3046198249a4
12653 F20101114_AADGPD taylor_n_Page_15.QC.jpg
185fcedefda5887db15d06e8b1f053a1
669b488c57bbe48869391ac9ce9186791bde70b3
3184 F20101114_AADGOP taylor_n_Page_89thm.jpg
da55b8af080ae7c1f0e78e9686ec05c1
adc5d0baf7df6d42821a17badf69d87a318e00c0
5179 F20101114_AADGPE taylor_n_Page_16thm.jpg
4ca9c95252033e45735f20ba479f6755
c20b3b9458050eeee725fa7ec27938c265f773d9
26473 F20101114_AADGOQ taylor_n_Page_21.QC.jpg
c1d95b87acb54fd54a659bacda0ddeb4
44a4b38ab29eb8bb656b868a8b8af2d2b5123274
6625 F20101114_AADGPF taylor_n_Page_20thm.jpg
a3789931a9d326edf92b911af34847bc
ef85690bcadd936174f7b89a0676b22494d0c481
7122 F20101114_AADGOR taylor_n_Page_54thm.jpg
f09c5d5c8182b6c388e30713ffbeca90
0340af5103c520e52446f0be40c8dff3ad9349ba
25197 F20101114_AADGPG taylor_n_Page_24.QC.jpg
b3e69d13c784ff8c1bb9be5d180ce52b
f19ef7d2f99b16e39c4d33887160e48cf1a35a06
6836 F20101114_AADGPH taylor_n_Page_31thm.jpg
b292f430700e6452cd4ea91cde49a48e
b1a0c74788cd314305abe9907c83f5071a276440
3629 F20101114_AADGOS taylor_n_Page_08thm.jpg
5425b13280b57dc9ad334d4f1769467f
3365b6b21709fb156b2165a981284efd77d35db6
24051 F20101114_AADGPI taylor_n_Page_50.QC.jpg
0147947cdb3d38cd1fa55219949c277a
39ee38e8f5c0b84d0eb5c3eaec859becae381e56
5408 F20101114_AADGOT taylor_n_Page_33thm.jpg
06912457f93e26d06d6639a033104701
238855372a686ff508d3ed12405a21dd7f537821
25023 F20101114_AADGPJ taylor_n_Page_61.QC.jpg
0c66357d42bff722dd1c5f64cfdb7322
c94b25e9b7cc51db3293d886391074307496f08d
11293 F20101114_AADGOU taylor_n_Page_90.QC.jpg
14ab9dda251ac38fe9c9d66fd9ce4146
7947e8528b093929703c4ab750f681cb9571679b
4383 F20101114_AADGPK taylor_n_Page_64thm.jpg
a640b300ee6ee20e30e287cf482d5685
c18f788cbb402998470d802769f5f4d2dfc7a71e
2006 F20101114_AADGOV taylor_n_Page_73thm.jpg
b6bf40dd6c1b460982dcb35337bf26c6
7e637ce045c2e3a4f362583bbdac67b48ff9c7c9
4489 F20101114_AADGPL taylor_n_Page_68thm.jpg
43e41ee0a6dff7029915259c656cad5e
d819f60b9a7d3718b2d50c5a9b9593d67e383f2e
4461 F20101114_AADGOW taylor_n_Page_17thm.jpg
b82c6d4202c967b66736f1b70378d268
1389b0238688f1bef5b239f4dd856b10836d64c5
5827 F20101114_AADGPM taylor_n_Page_72thm.jpg
f96d7522e3583db86ae3e3399cbf1532
2efea63b61626e5ebf57a373c93e58db3aa4d445
6910 F20101114_AADGOX taylor_n_Page_58thm.jpg
25b60518751a34216474133a963abfa0
5a17e1ff2313ae8fd87dbc79115d330c6dadfe69
1771 F20101114_AADGPN taylor_n_Page_80thm.jpg
d8d3df6c587790216f7d78ddb8ff646f
ded28476a74c93664a3124018c7aa1b9c7bdcbfe
9094 F20101114_AADGOY taylor_n_Page_25.QC.jpg
5c65f80923cbaa5e3277bd0abf90b81c
bcbbfaf7b46445e4c2da8f209654294b5b45f8c8
15779 F20101114_AADGOZ taylor_n_Page_77.QC.jpg
ccb3851cbe9d551c9fcdac5236bab8df
9c29df936ad3af39e4ed99f8080c2282796f6388
18024 F20101114_AADGPO taylor_n_Page_85.QC.jpg
4976a2e3c12223fd7afcf6549c9e0b33
cbbb6116997823dbcc2e8a4a81477afe4c92cecd
11669 F20101114_AADFRE taylor_n_Page_66.QC.jpg
b7925987930527353fc9cbec6a2d3be3
da6e26a3dd2a329174dce11ccb9926a9d4ad60d9
7250 F20101114_AADFRF taylor_n_Page_21thm.jpg
f3fbe51f5bfcabe549373b74a37b9447
73ae6457c5b7669c06ebed6bba74fca3cdb5837c
637370 F20101114_AADFRG taylor_n_Page_46.jp2
c32bdec98de827f77726266622564cb2
4ac76f3292979e4f33d20f182d24849cb2df6971
25968 F20101114_AADFRH taylor_n_Page_23.QC.jpg
8834eb7280f124f82fcddfdb0bff0195
e43c60bc842f0c8e9c2300ab40101584518fd172
25208 F20101114_AADFRI taylor_n_Page_56.QC.jpg
8d438f912170cede7124f593ad69c80d
996d6e12693befffff31b0907c6dbce3f4d165e7
46303 F20101114_AADFRJ taylor_n_Page_90.jp2
a94ff8f16861f169350eb17a69487777
dc6b2832fa37bac3a7d677a035df15fdc55ee9a4
2083 F20101114_AADFRK taylor_n_Page_55.txt
48c4a27b9326b4f72463af0f19dc2973
3cf1a59dd2a811801f8f87ef0a257d6645f1a714
23852 F20101114_AADFRL taylor_n_Page_27.QC.jpg
60b10b36aea5f5d22b1640a1717c920c
5ccf4082976d29def631e050855fee55854299e7
22721 F20101114_AADFSA taylor_n_Page_06.QC.jpg
bbcd385502aefa06ccb8bfe9a26ed721
acf0842c60cc22d6f66469ae3d7cebd7758c8a7f
16269 F20101114_AADFRM taylor_n_Page_46.QC.jpg
0c23cb2de179b6ff784cac9b05519927
9adc60807c9cd9085cc5c96ba7061e9f52cab274
2209 F20101114_AADFSB taylor_n_Page_52.txt
1684b7ffe4055ade9aaac02d90a0f87c
4f342d1af7024bedbde6cf1d8e713fcc629f950b
3447 F20101114_AADFRN taylor_n_Page_90thm.jpg
6792ddce18045fb10e2fa183d7e733bf
3501b9cfe293772142b746432be419646845003c
120711 F20101114_AADFSC taylor_n_Page_52.jp2
e8d133dc2ee8561bd4d2da341df1017a
bb2e849fa1831d7262567a6a734180ad0f14510e
5584 F20101114_AADFRO taylor_n_Page_84thm.jpg
bb8d6902644b7e8056954ed61090c0a6
208e8d1ce30f04c80cc380d65dc896dd2c2ceae7
123712 F20101114_AADFSD taylor_n_Page_29.jp2
d073715fdfab3e75f93518532a3a3e9d
4a857265b06e3f2b89eb22141731d36cf0c7a350
40089 F20101114_AADFRP taylor_n_Page_85.pro
e00c4015de32d791442c93682b13bf95
36d4be2516daf248cad0882b650298739a569ac3
27545 F20101114_AADFSE taylor_n_Page_46.pro
893c3ed1e914057197380319b45215f1
f7f02962ff799d8a5a39c2c56ab0423517b5a6d6
1053954 F20101114_AADFRQ taylor_n_Page_04.tif
1a9d70f599d71f109d366835ea079a35
e8bf28e7d96a9e940bdbb58521023862d5d240fb
98938 F20101114_AADFSF taylor_n_Page_80.jp2
fa8b8e1d14bce37437af87195667cc24
236f81ad9709f726b85715633db1079e93fd68e5
650952 F20101114_AADFRR taylor_n_Page_70.jp2
96b884acba37f8d36546822cd9def282
a76a9c129574b7137eee0e96f7cf04cf5c37d607
57416 F20101114_AADFSG taylor_n_Page_54.pro
20c1fd50fc4467b79e23594559eb9cbc
3a203584d77ad23d85b854c1dce711be4a2bf680
894485 F20101114_AADFRS taylor_n_Page_66.jp2
a4c95e48de6e46280f7db269f536677c
419b12e04983f96cb363a20daf87864659faccb3
9449 F20101114_AADFSH taylor_n_Page_01.pro
fc5ad7fc7045bcbc6cdd4d59f88ed489
d4427533d1a4ab0f9da8ca4b9307150d3b577fed
48753 F20101114_AADFRT taylor_n_Page_38.pro
2bf339266ac8e45e3b90e7627e955800
b39f15b7f8569745c2e413fea18d391521642bb6
6982 F20101114_AADFSI taylor_n_Page_25.pro
0d265fa2cc3a2a9224a0795528baac7b
cb80475ff42a324d950e8ee5a74e8d78f3b579c8
25271604 F20101114_AADFRU taylor_n_Page_79.tif
b295afb176089f17330bcb4253aad8b6
ee69f683d4411a2095cd9094527d3e41120b15a0
94840 F20101114_AADFSJ taylor_n_Page_88.jpg
626907e3a0432a477564a2b6aa86ad89
574a7d84d8ecf1f41db251cac405e46553dc5da9
50786 F20101114_AADFRV taylor_n_Page_24.pro
0724ee7248626895cb6c7c050be3ba20
d3f15c66150d3b392c4bf334ebc7d85749e83fb5
801856 F20101114_AADFSK taylor_n_Page_72.jp2
3e81cc5d7a1a2fb524d364496dd22a12
6dd254c0fceabadc8c7a6db7675ad1774f556eab
80188 F20101114_AADFSL taylor_n_Page_54.jpg
1db9e6d95bf91f878ef7ab9c309470dc
e3839741e339408b6b65583637792836a8e9a7ac
16272 F20101114_AADFRW taylor_n_Page_45.QC.jpg
d17de38069adaf9eb7b7f6c4e8bc6535
6b806caeec2e895e7e048b0010685a1c86bd5539
15889 F20101114_AADFTA taylor_n_Page_83.jpg
787d77a46874f93b88a0e84591366cfe
eae2c069632a894b046413895b845f89c65b4285
4555 F20101114_AADFSM taylor_n_Page_35thm.jpg
19539bedab4d392679f7621729fa77c2
9b9e80cdedb290928b45d5fa6757ff60b8b555cd
7853 F20101114_AADFRX taylor_n_Page_01.QC.jpg
8e3061f30ffd6db7f1edd3b7eacef701
962d95751601e2521446f59814c181ecd6e01455
5041 F20101114_AADFTB taylor_n_Page_67thm.jpg
4424450edb88214b3a17d1a4d8ee012d
f5ee241139f9df4095e9c7b4b0100c779f96d22b
4426 F20101114_AADFSN taylor_n_Page_35.pro
81063d01adafcd51fffb05a535477af6
6257ed7ab7ae21e3f6af15e301e0b036769c4a0f
27036 F20101114_AADFRY taylor_n_Page_45.pro
b62bb2751d16a56877cce67c6998cff4
e97020de95d2cd4ff5501b98052cf330f5cfe45c
2093 F20101114_AADFTC taylor_n_Page_13.txt
d371280ae3b85bdfa656e4b4767b1ca7
20d3c92049fd3c5b4058a9446afc5c8624c1453a
3405 F20101114_AADFSO taylor_n_Page_04thm.jpg
d65615e5df7c06414be091a902b46d72
42215673679360d960ddfed137b7091ab440d5db
1051963 F20101114_AADFRZ taylor_n_Page_37.jp2
ad93f95b47f66ba69e84a29bde55299d
1fcd2b833867039c15718bfbe1b6e61383093cb6
23073 F20101114_AADFTD taylor_n_Page_10.QC.jpg
5a3285d02362354c14211992f25dcb79
89e555b69742b65f136c68e6fc1a24c7637b5a3c
115409 F20101114_AADFSP taylor_n_Page_49.jp2
cdadbd15394ca387b054d3135c21bc53
ad1457dcc0610ca0a43c65d3d6bb847fce05da58
24050 F20101114_AADFTE taylor_n_Page_42.QC.jpg
67e64cfcae7c0ba045931c0d43e59bf8
093d4cc44a8d7359542cadcbc880c31ac053720e
621 F20101114_AADFSQ taylor_n_Page_89.txt
7836d03a0fc390b4ba4f4083f539d4a7
7a59ae1908fd00930924a28bcb2fa17c36b52aac
23591 F20101114_AADFTF taylor_n_Page_48.QC.jpg
7d0905adee1a01e68f0218b2777b23d2
7ddf5bc5dba21845fbebabc7807061bf085b4826
25606 F20101114_AADFSR taylor_n_Page_15.pro
27dab1bca252367336f6a5ec2ad17c56
db13fd6756fae28575ba571cfe945f7829af637e
1539 F20101114_AADFTG taylor_n_Page_33.txt
e41cfdbd9c2fc43073e253135beb8fc9
5b0f0167240b21854e513000e9232f00fe009481
792575 F20101114_AADFSS taylor_n_Page_69.jp2
1e9e9770591c7218a857b764b0916019
30528eeceb6788b0734c829055d73cf47b06c508
26029 F20101114_AADFTH taylor_n_Page_57.QC.jpg
98e0e0857357112f2dec1cd6b4c8093c
75f3fbae4d6ed8a05b699a97124a776eb97afaf1
30307 F20101114_AADFST taylor_n_Page_81.pro
04af2141eb37a8dca64197bf839af960
ffc0a811d0b19feb78edfa46a309d4d5b777fc51
1332 F20101114_AADFTI taylor_n_Page_03thm.jpg
880ea341783bac046cec05aa7909dd8d
1a602f8ff1205af377406f6ed994f046cda0a391
2061 F20101114_AADFSU taylor_n_Page_87.txt
8bc5b48000d6aefc155ede679b23d2bc
715e6c6c38b73ad1a7bf895c5ab8c8acd00413dc
1958 F20101114_AADFTJ taylor_n_Page_40.txt
be2007dfba67df3c953685b42e058e21
855c35fd67c95d05d9bac3ae3e1011b50ab4daea
40218 F20101114_AADFSV taylor_n_Page_86.jp2
c24f9acfc2752d90a4a63ee808289e3f
0614d23d8bb727aa145c41cea857bb317d9b9505
F20101114_AADFTK taylor_n_Page_77.tif
f54b06e6179e563dcdc5ad856c843bd8
a905e466dd7b5df7bd5e554f0f21a33474d29ced
24763 F20101114_AADFSW taylor_n_Page_58.QC.jpg
50988808572e23340602104a28ca5bc7
f54c52327494291fcc1ea3630dc3e4d4bde798b9
89158 F20101114_AADFTL taylor_n_Page_06.pro
cf1fc536840f72299e5eb0f7b36ccacc
98c8de60e0a2537693e37b3f587e5687b085cb83
46951 F20101114_AADFTM taylor_n_Page_35.jpg
e48c64185a5c223d476e447bf99a6913
4142ca587737f5a6d3bd12fe81982253fc4f223c
1925 F20101114_AADFSX taylor_n_Page_38.txt
76e69415e881a7585c3a4df6188a10b2
2d60c5966b3ed727332822399aeb312c5b9a6ebd
118679 F20101114_AADFUA taylor_n_Page_31.jp2
eb98d6d69188a5dfc22a48114ec98f01
3bc1bdd94dd2af0ac12c97383b0351f7eaaf379a
2129 F20101114_AADFTN taylor_n_Page_19.txt
06bc134678423b4852cc6c0eb5a5a348
b2bbb620080a1d371c29f1845d33eb0c332dd45d
51451 F20101114_AADFSY taylor_n_Page_50.pro
29cf665daeccf78e3de9b66c3846eff8
5ee6cb51937fa5bd17d16956879e76380648a94a
76552 F20101114_AADFUB taylor_n_Page_19.jpg
8421917246ed8d7dcac17ee8979b38ab
f55dd18b70918875da32fef1d7496d9ae80d5295
5657 F20101114_AADFTO taylor_n_Page_73.QC.jpg
2ef9ca8e67584785b99749bd79a67066
a48afbea1bfe1bc99148b210caa907a40b843537
48610 F20101114_AADFSZ taylor_n_Page_27.pro
419cb6edf8575eb1fc8c1f9a7294ab4e
38c0b521ce5a2ff6e6e1d4323db69bff0b7ef744
6406 F20101114_AADFUC taylor_n_Page_10thm.jpg
a3a591514f4656059a2ed0d2659b6de5
f48e80c6d57894f53fc369dd16221011f3b1d045
14989 F20101114_AADFTP taylor_n_Page_89.pro
05b50f8d3a3460f7663fa41b0fee25af
04d51ed69e0f7f2cb408e361f565c2cea5a266f7
15254 F20101114_AADFUD taylor_n_Page_64.QC.jpg
78ab8dc1525a3906a219877b52fd77e2
26fa467ac8c3190d753ca115789ad6eeb038f926
644838 F20101114_AADFTQ taylor_n_Page_47.jp2
67defe4792f3b6ed4f07ee0c7df7f948
ec0e8e9cf03bfca35c8053c7cec5407a2ed5b7d6
23533 F20101114_AADFUE taylor_n_Page_77.pro
09f1f4746cfe3702ca6f7a1128611fb3
c4da5361a17dce37f0f4a68ea17c89f7a9b641eb
27298 F20101114_AADFTR taylor_n_Page_88.QC.jpg
c60fade94a6d0bca63a17bf37fd5c581
3e202003df1aff3b7a55998b407f9e18ec327b73
6109 F20101114_AADGAA taylor_n_Page_41thm.jpg
12d8de165333d9d9b6304de27f0ce7ae
9830078ee793d522c83616ac8f504900c321d809
34214 F20101114_AADFUF taylor_n_Page_71.pro
0a7649d3635d75bdae9d06b74f2f831b
bdc730a98042fe67dac40909bd9d63c0d12ca2ce
25874 F20101114_AADFTS taylor_n_Page_67.pro
bf5e443cb06af76362e62e10321d0e42
098cde80b41d323ddb0cbc86b8497b25511e406c
2215 F20101114_AADGAB taylor_n_Page_57.txt
ea0a2094a3fa52c263cedf31a515861a
6271f07efc331c8209eae0eeb2b2c3f0ceeee928
654571 F20101114_AADFUG taylor_n_Page_74.jp2
4d95b0a874b0b5d904b504e4efd9156a
77ac1db04be6f6d15e8f915f3130e683414ea2b5
26226 F20101114_AADFTT taylor_n_Page_52.QC.jpg
d2c7f3348a3732183d832a5ddd52ac4c
0d3adb9da3f4f82a40fb80da6bcad2801cd5f65f
59272 F20101114_AADGAC taylor_n_Page_85.jpg
8cc29d13b82ffe30bde1b67edbb2c2d9
3ffb4dcab10470b875077e3618539be72ff27bbe
150 F20101114_AADFUH taylor_n_Page_16.txt
b88392806a1a329cdc028c9e1b235419
63dc9e778a54290189005b8bfac2579d9142b1c2
121648 F20101114_AADFTU taylor_n_Page_28.jp2
311dae2ad238e1b40a07377cf21550a7
200f35a0a2d6ba1766040235c79ed98b0af9223a
8046 F20101114_AADGAD taylor_n_Page_26.QC.jpg
877c4b37fe995d4588eafa6bbab8e024
009664b61f2164c83212555ba150bfca101155de
F20101114_AADFUI taylor_n_Page_21.tif
5c198c5270bbed414bc291fac0ddaf69
01e25504c1992de0bb6dc8899b735c86f501fca7
108853 F20101114_AADFTV taylor_n_Page_10.jp2
eb2db1aeed614bde137cd85c13b2268a
abb918c1084ceda30185229aad4e3c0060943f4d
77867 F20101114_AADFUJ taylor_n_Page_23.jpg
2683bb10829bfecd4da237b5d96b9c66
dc9e7f4da0facfb0e5c56d8fa77ead2c41466a61
81412 F20101114_AADFTW taylor_n_Page_40.jpg
aa5c4103b7aa87ee4c63da33869d5f3d
e5fa2b7d0c812922b76dbfaf4572d951454e40a9
F20101114_AADGAE taylor_n_Page_61.tif
97bcf43c01c7ca1267232a2594c115e2
530cdd2478d0af5e277faf2e7fd70932e9fc24d0
6936 F20101114_AADFUK taylor_n_Page_14thm.jpg
cc1699ef0950481292b30bfa0f37409b
5a999cb054d2ed8e8575b0ab4ecbe98510616098
7067 F20101114_AADFTX taylor_n_Page_23thm.jpg
910617f2155f09afe45cc1202c62a4a7
0bd6979fbfe478568005b229f15b22be1a7148c5
61073 F20101114_AADGAF taylor_n_Page_81.jpg
0bdd3dd8a0c3704016a871284142ff2f
a053bdff5e26baa87a8e8cd0eb99b77332843acd
2077 F20101114_AADFUL taylor_n_Page_12.txt
31afb47061d46801ef1601763d59274d
bc24b203b5fc4559adb7233f155c64a9226f7c50
3588 F20101114_AADGAG taylor_n_Page_63thm.jpg
42b8648a38ba9074e048cdd52889af05
dd63095befed751a3ce8e6f63e18956050442217
7267 F20101114_AADFVA taylor_n_Page_30thm.jpg
dfb73d4added25b25d383c02f10f1aa8
d0ee92db42da1a749e6f3f9f8966d56461764862
1051978 F20101114_AADFUM taylor_n_Page_06.jp2
045e603c09f69cc6ab908ec4a16cf073
a76c95e2715ab35796bae7c8b59638e7afd661a8
1980 F20101114_AADGAH taylor_n_Page_42.txt
a5fc6dabd697de04efcebdb0b3bd4ca8
81f527e6c2f5a31f0a72a59b4140304c4b8ba8f1
73681 F20101114_AADFVB taylor_n_Page_84.pro
d35e0c6714398b4d387314d9e795f37a
2376316c8f6429cb38d17e9d6169550be51f9169
110017 F20101114_AADFUN taylor_n_Page_50.jp2
5c57bfde2714b3f1027a176abd6b1a49
040d286609af3a3f9d2c69957d96832386bd150d
2244 F20101114_AADFTY taylor_n_Page_54.txt
41f302538a4b12344cb057ecf5fe2f8e
e89129e4613190c3af6462383782b6416e6017bf
1593 F20101114_AADGAI taylor_n_Page_07thm.jpg
8ee62661ed4fdeb9e4f4217e37fe8973
71c12d61898acbcf375aa24c7c1e0bf91c4f24b9
6476 F20101114_AADFVC taylor_n_Page_27thm.jpg
f73a39e0d4f1305f6eceff71b5b66dd5
974b2978400718005d268ce2eb0d5b4ad7d90a31
14698 F20101114_AADFUO taylor_n_Page_74.QC.jpg
e35d944d384e753e90f4e592d925fbfa
261262f84d78c3545000017cb5a9a2a4a33f0827
722920 F20101114_AADFTZ taylor_n_Page_79.jp2
beb37e9f2a0f45fa61928fbb6d757136
bd5949b1419d42a77e07fd629a6e32b2ddbe1937
2886 F20101114_AADGAJ taylor_n_Page_34thm.jpg
4f6267edba9b1e9ab7c20b94503143ed
3bf242be3d774d4a6f16a9c1698e09e99a818081
1137 F20101114_AADFVD taylor_n_Page_86.txt
04ef45f17cab9c7e0750c3b581871f5c
9efc4afe07c5399667e5afe5db906ce06244462c
50374 F20101114_AADFUP taylor_n_Page_68.jpg
5d268b5462dbeec2461310259eeb0973
d19acfccbe330bcfcd93172b03c731b9ec755e3a
2276 F20101114_AADGAK taylor_n_Page_21.txt
5349f1a724ea7e57d1f1cacb31c7fcc8
478cb7529b1e18744f998adf6d8d189990a12faa
74131 F20101114_AADFVE taylor_n_Page_61.jpg
15f5cdbffe7a42e4f633eec844a9e49d
c8a1319751642c1ab4b3a5545e14b09c5eef832d
2102 F20101114_AADFUQ taylor_n_Page_58.txt
ad360a5019e307b4330c1195581c836c
948378e37ab2e570010c800d29d97b2899405b1a
6793 F20101114_AADGAL taylor_n_Page_56thm.jpg
d30a117aeb87dff8839942b38f9a0d95
8d2d49df9ae98a2437cf36ae18690ab88a92d483
26829 F20101114_AADFVF taylor_n_Page_29.QC.jpg
cdaa91bae975283620e132d29c7ce846
58da34947051adf0b803e7e0fef5496e34b0ae45
2324 F20101114_AADFUR taylor_n_Page_01thm.jpg
2b6a703099b975a4e8243ac8b55b29a6
c69517ce03b226ae87ee5d6257297367885e93a2
F20101114_AADGBA taylor_n_Page_52.tif
da1d21934fa55d69792e14f5d6f6a473
a7980df6ec22188bbb1b76dc174c5abf76156721
1061 F20101114_AADGAM taylor_n_Page_77.txt
0681c2c2de233da381ab01f4f9f15e6d
366490bf72be095ebd433134e32a9004e174eb0f
1924 F20101114_AADFVG taylor_n_Page_65.txt
bc12fde4a34de7bf669ee7ccf4e3102d
8440826e44247f2d8488b96c33367ce054ef998e
33372 F20101114_AADFUS taylor_n_Page_09.jpg
be2962c7a8f414b479ded3c624937856
5496a685f11b4fee669bb150f2709801a97a16db
863553 F20101114_AADGBB taylor_n_Page_71.jp2
52123a4debc39e9ace581a2e8e445b94
bf643ce72cd8d5e191ad3132816c043d4f5fb4b4
227563 F20101114_AADGAN taylor_n_Page_73.jp2
11cb653730b617a611232ad3d3a7a75b
cf3b4afd7c13cb4b3ded5154353478212a89db42
F20101114_AADFVH taylor_n_Page_78.tif
a1e39c8dd99f6acb7ee86c1ff0c8436f
1acb4dc46da4e042458fb18092f478cb7e3ef746
6958 F20101114_AADFUT taylor_n_Page_19thm.jpg
58d4d898b495c5463700ce9029a856d9
b38fa769558670727a482070a62680de82ae263e
3356 F20101114_AADGBC taylor_n_Page_66thm.jpg
03d678a7809aaf9c3d6c91bd847d6bb7
8f3e838a34be7670968517317f870d2ce8128b2d
985 F20101114_AADGAO taylor_n_Page_02.pro
2fbdca3553a8836ccd8a05176899fd48
fad21b2838452923714a6168e539af49859014c2
18954 F20101114_AADFVI taylor_n_Page_16.QC.jpg
524e3f2cb9b69a815bd97ed9f2b6a9ff
1e02670e900b969f446b4577d93dfd83eecb9c16
1051983 F20101114_AADFUU taylor_n_Page_67.jp2
c12aa08f210d81bd0bb86d27d8cb5ee7
9206b249e6282ad032e10b9832adeb96772f5d02
38778 F20101114_AADGBD taylor_n_Page_33.pro
226cb93c0486a7123e5cd45343357500
126c86301dd292b39538620ae00b4913d1e4bb5a
5311 F20101114_AADGAP taylor_n_Page_85thm.jpg
f7e40738e03f220a5df09c0d3b5f1a71
edb77e2f5c308e8310af4efa1f849c0cbdd4393c
74659 F20101114_AADFVJ taylor_n_Page_58.jpg
f401a2400acea807974c60c523300166
7188853f76025052b5114c0a0f937342bbcb6bbd
F20101114_AADFUV taylor_n_Page_02.tif
bf9169db67a8695f436d189e22ba6e78
db227db264e0085ee48ae6954e7a44a73faa2287
6871 F20101114_AADGBE taylor_n_Page_59thm.jpg
e743e984362f06665d09ba6184613c13
9f87f1cca6ef3d53713f09a692df85286107551d
4501 F20101114_AADGAQ taylor_n_Page_80.QC.jpg
4ba9e181d530dd153c30b060dbe9757c
c0770abdef0a59b45558fa81e7940f03998e1075
53912 F20101114_AADFVK taylor_n_Page_74.jpg
8cadd0908b55337eacc438aeb437b330
fbfcf14708b447e2688a8d01bf88653186e1c154
5245 F20101114_AADFUW taylor_n_Page_36thm.jpg
80049bc57ec3f5d9b5450d08b34f255e
b66ec0c1b9aab02d8eeb6ed0b83d05b9fcb6fc97
51887 F20101114_AADGAR taylor_n_Page_63.jp2
09a32a5fb5a1fee11b54049c64198a39
fa8b6280c3fb20726d5f17507723671d8acd81e9
6886 F20101114_AADFVL taylor_n_Page_43.QC.jpg
cf6f78fee83fb375c7a8092674cae904
e459999aa5221166645ecf48a90ee722f2b7f434
18087 F20101114_AADFUX taylor_n_Page_36.QC.jpg
eb7aed2e08dda693ffc6cb51d471b661
ccc639a58c9d6ec26e0d3df4513e965a66abd140
107402 F20101114_AADGBF taylor_n_Page_12.jp2
e5e949961731d5a2c2ba0a6bbd597c07
326ced49244110d7aab03472eb8d2ebae0b78934
5117 F20101114_AADGAS taylor_n_Page_74thm.jpg
c4d51c816daf49584b82ab49b07007ed
9c9154e3c4086ffeea4d9cce05fe979b2fea1726
115868 F20101114_AADFVM taylor_n_Page_55.jp2
531a868721abcc28bb5128f962594fcc
725642d73f31cf00365c3efd0cf1f3ef37fe16e6
6930 F20101114_AADFUY taylor_n_Page_55thm.jpg
0ec9f8f2b20c8f438e10623438e27c41
55352561977b068cb75f1ac9fd7e420f18bab640
1051947 F20101114_AADGBG taylor_n_Page_18.jp2
523bf0b82f1ec6f6e45c29642e0f8106
ba84bcc5ead732c97d5de41be387e0e99cabe718
24157 F20101114_AADFWA taylor_n_Page_39.QC.jpg
840fc8e1f01c86f555fb94865ff3fbc9
ed45daac76171106d9a0f8ee594e5e9f35a5ff08
33527 F20101114_AADGAT taylor_n_Page_89.jpg
4bbe87327a6dafa4d9af3b93edd46d31
886c0ee56a321940831858b96d069ce094805a2f
115552 F20101114_AADFVN taylor_n_Page_13.jp2
f5ba65c27970aeb52df569f183393ea5
c244255ab504c0408723586bbe2b57f3bb6fe4da
6948 F20101114_AADGBH taylor_n_Page_51thm.jpg
e22df7be3c3040a3b818a58f4800d489
bbd2c65107db5dcf5ef8a967e696bec4f9307da2
560940 F20101114_AADFWB taylor_n_Page_64.jp2
4c6302f36811c221090cca4b616c43db
43a7c12276b1b08acdf1780872f6b2717fadc5fd
4995 F20101114_AADGAU taylor_n_Page_73.pro
77d73274824262ad9a3727a5b4484f90
d07bb90169a918c686b0fcce2d5c8c59c2803402
6202 F20101114_AADFVO taylor_n_Page_71thm.jpg
87247b9f08c107100ea603db32021324
454be23cde056b1381e875a2235c03d114c8424d
25359 F20101114_AADFUZ taylor_n_Page_13.QC.jpg
71bf3e447809937d48c089973119ae5b
7a009d779c658b82263ab23052e546961d5bdeb3
24850 F20101114_AADGBI taylor_n_Page_32.QC.jpg
758752f3b430a2a7da824b6608756fff
ac5e877348ad04edb3431ea7859c99b7a05213c3
58463 F20101114_AADFWC taylor_n_Page_15.jp2
3ed19889b064d2b371f1fea0e9d0d71b
adb2ed3bb6d9bd0f0aa6c60c8965e3f2a3ffd3de
5023 F20101114_AADGAV taylor_n_Page_83.QC.jpg
def8174d5a5fb551cbb5ac1a784bdcf4
249454b83b2343a9a26fe717fe3c260549746611
21325 F20101114_AADFVP taylor_n_Page_75.pro
d948473e7b34a1eac226071b5c568e32
459c3ad8e787b809dd01d473d04aefa2fdebec20
54259 F20101114_AADGBJ taylor_n_Page_19.pro
4b69e5157423420d63ba0180401bea75
be3bf2d42ff2d253b61c0b8b4959f9c1bb036a7b
6538 F20101114_AADFWD taylor_n_Page_12thm.jpg
b7e2f4151eb13750ea8f38d7f93fc3dd
03340b8c2a8fcd08ca96bd5928e5c0604c9178d0
5456 F20101114_AADFVQ taylor_n_Page_81thm.jpg
741fb93fb892e3aca7e8d924096405db
221d9a453690f7e19af27ee26014b7317c853dd5
71205 F20101114_AADGBK taylor_n_Page_48.jpg
03d80927dc7eb5381ff85d77a0a129ab
8610828fcf93da6177647b1f70d7000cefc40dee
F20101114_AADFWE taylor_n_Page_18.tif
4d3423d6dbb55414c942c2ae3003465b
17974093c0ff83e878c9a0ab4052b5636824eef4
836998 F20101114_AADGAW taylor_n_Page_09.jp2
157cb20fbb35884cb274f9e9e989a33b
b16c4af59d964ab514e561251cd5690a45c74765
15176 F20101114_AADFVR taylor_n_Page_08.QC.jpg
04ebcf4ef5cb4bae387d13cb4e52fb01
421debf1c77fa5805d4a2c63b775e42375705d16
2046 F20101114_AADGCA taylor_n_Page_61.txt
d667261ec2ce61094ceb379aedf158cb
b5ca5a98802abec0e0663a0885fa40bfa5777cac
27898 F20101114_AADGBL taylor_n_Page_01.jp2
c018778a44d15bb604729bc446709bdb
4434e7babaea209f191f1c66a16ff006fc873bdf
3996 F20101114_AADFWF taylor_n_Page_06.txt
58fad0e8e37077cf2a26122622059ab6
014fd3e096e2d1e2a5f3e3f6894deaf63aefc4df
47462 F20101114_AADGAX taylor_n_Page_64.jpg
e05274213aad4b11b2033675d31b376f
6aa4fc01c059d335d7af40e2f29114a8339b243d
10106 F20101114_AADFVS taylor_n_Page_02.jpg
b1a782ad28c8b212d86c36d3e4ebd977
5c76b0ad426cd2f95c9d7e51e9e3f3e6217110ce
52351 F20101114_AADGCB taylor_n_Page_32.pro
4b03424e52f96f79f2511fb85b99aeeb
69775cd6b79ee8c86adb9dda9f1a8bfb2b4c0f6d
6588 F20101114_AADGBM taylor_n_Page_38thm.jpg
7dcda3412762c52f736ecc63aa2ce80a
0e5be8cae9e0a548d15cb52ccc6573969d10ddc6
53062 F20101114_AADFWG taylor_n_Page_56.pro
3513452f7c14eaf339d173c2a8ef6979
6da760652c4a9077f1b4ca18f4bd9ff791828c21
F20101114_AADGAY taylor_n_Page_23.tif
1a6af0da8e11bad19a37530b768873ca
7eb395582ccacc4c932ddb7dad90a0d92ede269a
F20101114_AADFVT taylor_n_Page_82.tif
4c0c079a155b6be9929b0bbf20448383
d03739232b6ec18692bb1a1df40528c90edfe60a
805 F20101114_AADGCC taylor_n_Page_90.txt
9758cc812a1583d1f22e1311c3409f3b
2d2eb3263a19c390a56da94211ece9ec2181b564
49676 F20101114_AADGBN taylor_n_Page_40.pro
8d90fc378bfd71d60f65bc1014818f8b
4c08507d371d6ac46b45014aa00a8534eeb7424a
933 F20101114_AADFWH taylor_n_Page_03.pro
6e3682fdcbd262b3357f72676ad43c8e
64b8a631ba282a787a7a7aa9f22f5c9ba50ae33d
22207 F20101114_AADGAZ taylor_n_Page_63.pro
4126486fa631fdda91d209b3528e4bcf
824807f791541c2754d5bbf357310fe1b2aa6fd9
701749 F20101114_AADFVU taylor_n_Page_44.jp2
d0ce765184cfd9c89f326d4a41bcc400
b907657cb1e5a760ceac38395371da09a7cb86d1
23445 F20101114_AADGCD taylor_n_Page_26.jpg
65e1864780596004062857cdde2332d5
964a367bca70386d32cad841e42c5ef3b05f7e14
212 F20101114_AADGBO taylor_n_Page_11.txt
d2e3f34bca4e95a1d55d115796298fe1
925a010eb8118dcdf64fb8c74985345ded335bf8
F20101114_AADFWI taylor_n_Page_36.tif
09f39b8218ffa2cd0b3b19b831b5c412
f7b85d3b4852f9aca29682ee7e9cb9d7011e12db
18220 F20101114_AADFVV taylor_n_Page_69.QC.jpg
172f7ab4f29f72456c07827962817be9
c5a761a5ac5ad12db5c0c379bb5c7371f86ed42c
95751 F20101114_AADGCE taylor_n_Page_41.jp2
841b40b7c6c02c7ef390e36127a79fe7
ca01878710b1a96c03923199bc2f3ba2dae74de4
78798 F20101114_AADGBP taylor_n_Page_57.jpg
db75da953bf3accbebccdaa174db6d6a
bcf7a8f099f5b59654d1498b94ff48211326af02
16217 F20101114_AADFWJ taylor_n_Page_47.QC.jpg
33f5d4ac98db6fca42acf77fa7869f83
c5059ffdd5129033792d8cfa7278411a0f430e7f
F20101114_AADFVW taylor_n_Page_38.tif
6a8938b5afd18cb0e0c03215595a8ee5
13bef506a97fe8d657befc24b18e90756fb8411f
74878 F20101114_AADGCF taylor_n_Page_05.jpg
490909c2193eac218e3e90cc1350b529
e95ecc5f85823793d07d90da220e9feb4a9c44ae
9877 F20101114_AADGBQ taylor_n_Page_89.QC.jpg
855644e23803ac036d3bb04a7a3ff631
4555f9059bfe4647443a681d5a8c8117e0106b08
23997 F20101114_AADFWK taylor_n_Page_14.QC.jpg
b6344f2b4346a5f429ce71adfc3da27a
78520059e556af29e64f858afd2dfdbfb3ab2d68
7190 F20101114_AADFVX taylor_n_Page_52thm.jpg
89db7ad5c1181f585e43df6f30cc1c53
4ba7d60293f81a193c398e2489a5cd29f1e7a3e3
52083 F20101114_AADGBR taylor_n_Page_53.pro
9642994f0cd60994b39629058e0a8949
30a630cc57b7f6985fe01d4b654710bc54c4ae14
287 F20101114_AADFWL taylor_n_Page_73.txt
00a3065bc770dd7e634d1ae15a014a83
f5284a1b95eb0aa719712aa57e185ae3329f53b3
8423998 F20101114_AADFVY taylor_n_Page_47.tif
dbb8be6561b4384895cd65bbfb587cfb
971ff903ef3eef292ac3ef02b7a54caeb6430a01
5141 F20101114_AADGCG taylor_n_Page_11.QC.jpg
e4b669c0cbad8d97fc7e3d22b1c8c3f9
d7ebce4b442f13d7bcb44b01e452fcf91c54ee4b
53410 F20101114_AADFXA taylor_n_Page_14.pro
ea7a24db70d3fc69874ea1fdf62b4ea1
648c1a3fe9d90889bb9605880c993864ac668cc7
32757 F20101114_AADGBS taylor_n_Page_72.pro
95b7e5db8a9fb7a006d2e1c0dde06a48
39d08ce5b4d3d798d5e8a7b057b8d21bb57e6718
6853 F20101114_AADFWM taylor_n_Page_18thm.jpg
634449a9f26b81324857f268bb4639c6
a6cb146c0bcc0877daa86b1f4fc01e5c83983408
51613 F20101114_AADFVZ taylor_n_Page_75.jpg
a046f0495a71ea98fe51a162771dbddd
156b892e6567d1c386cf685e6b6c2bba4d32d8fb
2165 F20101114_AADGCH taylor_n_Page_22.txt
101eb6f9c493b7cad3fca5c4481b0d2a
c9a0dc1d46c347579b11ddf6d2c0a40f36095e74
60043 F20101114_AADFXB taylor_n_Page_79.jpg
f9863d70b11249c8e088f5cbd1e04b6b
7120bf7a13f7c3583abf96ce41027eb0f946ddeb
24558 F20101114_AADGBT taylor_n_Page_18.QC.jpg
ccd9ab8d3750a22fb9310cf3e2642841
8bb1467bd2aaee61be636cd34e6c06ea57bdc732
2912 F20101114_AADFWN taylor_n_Page_80.pro
403a8432ad8fd687fdea65f8f9142381
f89e96d2fb0fcbf0e2f538c43ac2424b17d605da
24065 F20101114_AADGCI taylor_n_Page_60.QC.jpg
33aaf9bbe6f41e8458bc01c6e36a80e1
1efe29b8e540bcfd250965d6cb8f52fb0c34eb58
27744 F20101114_AADFXC taylor_n_Page_47.pro
cf900b305a889677a0d1c1b1b6c3acbb
39807e248369c74732c39cf9a223d1d6c1261748
14339 F20101114_AADGBU taylor_n_Page_11.jp2
2f16979de96f45714fe51402c097b317
4464afb203efedf7ef3b265bab998b6cfe4c8adc
500 F20101114_AADFWO taylor_n_Page_76.txt
fdb8cf913d03476c387983d4ff822c46
162f42b61acc9581a7ab6e0cf5474383bf73c839
6638 F20101114_AADGCJ taylor_n_Page_48thm.jpg
a3ab6380e6a9031158e21aed3fa74edb
adf4a54100b484bd484e37207c245d275cf4f6a5
F20101114_AADFXD taylor_n_Page_68.tif
59c1fdec9fa84f79994e5dfc02289bd7
d24d9769590e82cd9713d6080427b559fa984226
525284 F20101114_AADGBV taylor_n_Page_17.jp2
a7ff1eb2e947d2caf10f185679d4117c
8cecfc9f6b41312db34facfc7991aaa6144cb4d2
2062 F20101114_AADFWP taylor_n_Page_48.txt
42197ef95ff6aedcb61a3e18bfe8525c
f7a407f842fbe74a2622885a00417163decce152
3192 F20101114_AADGCK taylor_n_Page_76thm.jpg
d450e2d933167606b2d19a941b014220
c81dcee3ed583548ee743b9442b7fe819104473d
F20101114_AADFXE taylor_n_Page_31.tif
214d8c34a38c526aef3ac137832630c6
925d295d27422a90e7d961e8e1666e3b078ecb12
886 F20101114_AADGBW taylor_n_Page_68.txt
bb589ab709ee3effb17f00d736ace27a
7ffdc2407251846799cebc5203338bcf5b85f7f7
968394 F20101114_AADFWQ taylor_n_Page_16.jp2
9fc7c285f39d487d16cb0c80b1561382
f0cdb7bd21c4c41aca64770fb7c276d051309150
F20101114_AADGCL taylor_n_Page_80.tif
857ac790f4517390c8a0204adc4c5cd7
3ea605acc35698f4bf9ca630b73ab6904b91a0ba
26451 F20101114_AADFXF taylor_n_Page_54.QC.jpg
38d746c0727cab327645dc8bcde9a9ce
3ab8acd448270a474320a2a36b512aa4a97d6b6a
18463 F20101114_AADGBX taylor_n_Page_72.QC.jpg
1f7a4ecc291cd82679802abf5e1c7129
6d0c6e514f16085aca4c3a2a7e8c25e9f2ceae14
1304062 F20101114_AADFWR taylor_n.pdf
385f0880739e8090f60167641db7d667
9673b02e2e3f05046830222488245525ac8844f9
20429 F20101114_AADGDA taylor_n_Page_84.QC.jpg
fe2c9dc351dcbb66a5325d2f090fcf6c
8041bb2115d607d13ca37b573c3c1271927922c0
77521 F20101114_AADGCM taylor_n_Page_22.jpg
7070f540719ca465c1590c659423560a
587337c9fb71aad6b6c8f0ff5cf225cb679aff67
29168 F20101114_AADFXG taylor_n_Page_79.pro
426444a0ca3cd75ac39b8380bad52d8f
e84aa63a8b47c36d7eee5039b686f7958db5c78d
25374 F20101114_AADGBY taylor_n_Page_78.jpg
75632abd1f0d189ee031b190dde37f17
0b4fbda2255f35203d85cbfee3ac1e58ed0d176e
23741 F20101114_AADFWS taylor_n_Page_38.QC.jpg
62aaccde0400023b5bbe34b8e565f663
7e6f061412ccad317a1bbf94f1058b07aa7364c7
20893 F20101114_AADGDB taylor_n_Page_09.pro
36cbb32eaad2504568bc16dea57333c5
ce905516f578f905b12294ba1b127369c6e769fd
26139 F20101114_AADGCN taylor_n_Page_31.QC.jpg
20d51e2dfeab707f8780c0a32ecc80be
e362d32e3bd2a7ccdd1264e2d90e7c347c75237d
5272 F20101114_AADFXH taylor_n_Page_03.jp2
23bd9dd4e9970525a1f3262bcd42ee4f
2befed6ed9df821f86bb8a74a880ce95633c0658
2035 F20101114_AADGBZ taylor_n_Page_24.txt
77265f594de762895fedf6910a0f4104
a3f9099a0491509d336f0ba97bc2a642975d8532
111722 F20101114_AADFWT taylor_n_Page_24.jp2
56ff89aea59bfd1eca7aa8fab9413812
1d4e91e0ae6985015c736e7787464f301b9322b3
66567 F20101114_AADGDC taylor_n_Page_72.jpg
79c6d73e0e77a9cdaadd73112569f5ba
0461f37bec2871fc6814f68b4ef9a0ffb97fcb20
F20101114_AADGCO taylor_n_Page_84.tif
75c9876c5df11443503088b5444f0384
fb2c1b6b5b11d41ed1b0d49a12eddd2ed637200a
3161 F20101114_AADFXI taylor_n_Page_25thm.jpg
e77661791ee419f6565d53a3eb8e6bf8
0d5a4da7524ee2947cc371f97f88b0eeba6689d5
1342 F20101114_AADFWU taylor_n_Page_02thm.jpg
3bc63615371f71cd7644e7f7202bf47b
d49ed3d983c77af0012b9770bd8498387bb68d8c
21710 F20101114_AADGDD taylor_n_Page_43.jpg
b18aa6cf99042fa1f7845d0dc18020b5
41dad40e131e1092351e6290859cd1922a604ed9
115237 F20101114_AADGCP taylor_n_Page_58.jp2
bbe26172bf6e4261426752e4ec1eb8d8
1d92d7edde9d388ea2a80aea1c383056f8fbd6ed
2120 F20101114_AADFXJ taylor_n_Page_10.txt
0f5ffd65d257aacbe3b95f01e74620b4
fe9d1e7d987c69aa2f48f0ce1f19976d9362f762
27837 F20101114_AADFWV taylor_n_Page_69.pro
2e8bdd706c9b760eb719656ecdf901d8
9d672d760a067cb8e536dc02bf43daf9dea335ed
15999 F20101114_AADGDE taylor_n_Page_70.QC.jpg
df9c12750f7f4ac9fd408c413a0da3ab
4a8f61daff4804fd9d415f3d665ab231bfd897a7
74729 F20101114_AADGCQ taylor_n_Page_14.jpg
c23cec8045ec2e89b647f782f1958c29
52a4eee3ad8b68f375b69a5fba698a70315597bb
78854 F20101114_AADFXK taylor_n_Page_31.jpg
b2d58350242beb85017d63396f90d003
84edea6d7e4bcdccdb75d49e037590657e723bda
74211 F20101114_AADFWW taylor_n_Page_10.jpg
e65ac1b60a3b982e23a5e598a790b6e6
3a22b9e091d9a50a50af60996f4ef8fb6aad6fec
F20101114_AADGDF taylor_n_Page_48.tif
91cfc8213879c779dbbb49440f2f14e4
fd98dd5a4f3318aeb3dd78fa464972d451c00317
F20101114_AADGCR taylor_n_Page_28.tif
5fed50f5a4cf7e2fb9d5e7170641cac1
8b216e485450bea8b5efd78029b1fd35c72e5135
24883 F20101114_AADFXL taylor_n_Page_74.pro
a3203c8b951f040c3f0e2dd8690c8131
90c00d0e88d7de1cb070996c677e042e4506eebd
1971 F20101114_AADFWX taylor_n_Page_39.txt
243b559140c676e1c59efd7946fd97c6
c3371d5ce69791dcff9fc13329bf4a42af4f87a5
104913 F20101114_AADGDG UFE0021548_00001.mets
f1262591d0b2b986c0e388b27452cffd
f4683ae422852446a4bcf0aa0ce507b4a7544a30
7544 F20101114_AADFYA taylor_n_Page_88thm.jpg
18e07d70e54005c624c0865ea4b872b1
b0b96e25b5e35fe19942f0d61896f71a86b68611
907 F20101114_AADGCS taylor_n_Page_75.txt
0110895de7a0b849499c64d41fca0ce7
ddb9d64f49e4a483e6c06c1d08eab012e93fcb6e
54709 F20101114_AADFXM taylor_n_Page_23.pro
d38924788eb60a3e52ff1fb1645bfdad
c4436ec9d133de3b6180a17e241575133c5c4ae0
37597 F20101114_AADFWY taylor_n_Page_63.jpg
6a644c7025e5f7e738b6b9b361eef0cc
92ee48fec8e6b918d17a719966c1da90950d3971
14058 F20101114_AADFYB taylor_n_Page_64.pro
de95c12de1d4d493943e30c7dc9197ac
9faa68eaa4af578aeb47a6ef703076cfb91f99bc
32487 F20101114_AADGCT taylor_n_Page_76.jpg
6c5c1913f872ea8d6e6984c9aaa07165
e41d2fd19f13f38ebafe00de54890d05e30428de
68746 F20101114_AADFXN taylor_n_Page_65.jpg
79dbd2916ba5b83e6528f1ae0aff26d4
4dcb7a077550ddc9241dfaecf940703a86caca74
90425 F20101114_AADFWZ taylor_n_Page_06.jpg
ab7157ab283eb164f3d57e3fc62ae4e4
e811bbd1864a9bbb6398af17dcdb7ab642b1484b
6973 F20101114_AADFYC taylor_n_Page_40thm.jpg
01589894128d95630d3ee57fe861dc73
e9d9b796ccfcd88527e26b8c96ff6585262609e0
1051982 F20101114_AADGCU taylor_n_Page_08.jp2
244722574165af5c5d24c4d07b6db473
780151e0cb5b0a4422f03564291b96b20d19e20d
F20101114_AADFXO taylor_n_Page_67.tif
bc65f3fd496480084b8b0d460e447642
ee3c243d180ef4f8e04b14ded305f20531cacb9a
74598 F20101114_AADFYD taylor_n_Page_50.jpg
c551879b44010400b0c5eade1d1a6cc1
8a9313a023c4d9c25a7a063e21e0472669c1759d
1702 F20101114_AADGCV taylor_n_Page_41.txt
e3fbefc7d301627ffe3f2f512a69e11b
a03c82996923006f1dbcb1d2c9a0ce99b65938c5
11896 F20101114_AADFXP taylor_n_Page_76.pro
bf0964619c962f740b10d99bd178de99
d3ce286bedb8c843ba684f70843778e4d4c4336c
25627 F20101114_AADGDJ taylor_n_Page_01.jpg
2d67dd0d37970ae0041885f773bc93a5
5c4d4d598d2e377704d84a5291c70c170a9e2c20
14198 F20101114_AADFYE taylor_n_Page_75.QC.jpg
cb2580f750bd0a7bceb22c78b17ce71c
ef15407ca901907eca72fefae7bb548adac20dcc
7047 F20101114_AADGCW taylor_n_Page_29thm.jpg
f9fcf6a9aa47c65b9c6955a8b117816e
27476f7005c3ab5be40b80d9beeb2c8644722204
9181 F20101114_AADFXQ taylor_n_Page_76.QC.jpg
2dfdb6ec36cb7e3d40d09f4b984fa382
4369eac98e40cab615b274893d9f92903dce88f9
9936 F20101114_AADGDK taylor_n_Page_03.jpg
1119ea4d77340027dd6681dec5be4732
4d13523e89fc7a92ecbc11d6f84ba88bbe28d169
78505 F20101114_AADFYF taylor_n_Page_37.jpg
f38a32d6285e7603ccf101b26405e9e6
a7977449c227adb55bd810dcb844b9f40492b04b
19357 F20101114_AADGCX taylor_n_Page_90.pro
b8713cc28af17c978866de454aac9f33
849cef06d586b07693cf41df1b9078696b118d27
54144 F20101114_AADFXR taylor_n_Page_30.pro
b555074184b5a9697262929df483ec29
1377ac0e11d4b2402e489cfec992b026ff038a4b
27626 F20101114_AADGEA taylor_n_Page_34.jpg
b89066c16810440b05f03320a86087f9
70c63210455da8aeb45d06adf2e1b89a3b99f6a8
34668 F20101114_AADGDL taylor_n_Page_04.jpg
e5adc66e18576c87ff571dc7f6df6e36
fd24f68063d8c0cede07f03244aef7fd11bde926
4367 F20101114_AADFYG taylor_n_Page_44thm.jpg
c72b4d0747965f8a0ca496b632640f2a
d7d107b9ece6efd0d768ce2080cc3977eca9919d
75927 F20101114_AADGCY taylor_n_Page_13.jpg
2b8e66f23288f118692126f34d1cf794
c0b21571b0a9907bdc22810d0a0087adfc29957b
1233 F20101114_AADFXS taylor_n_Page_79.txt
933e1a918697a37a14531e02370105c6
cef6a014bac441da551b8b98639c8e41e5e9dd8d
54581 F20101114_AADGEB taylor_n_Page_36.jpg
7ab5a2e6fcc1936f842fbc8ee4392e06
3a07241c98f54ef87a208b837af857431023e1f5
13166 F20101114_AADGDM taylor_n_Page_07.jpg
e7cd338cacd3d05d32f41219d25921f7
3ca149bf1def5fcb6e653213b490e42f303bbf93
F20101114_AADFYH taylor_n_Page_69.tif
fef486dfb523f565555062d40f404369
ea5196b2f6f45a11539990595705af3d13cfe672
24721 F20101114_AADGCZ taylor_n_Page_20.QC.jpg
ec19babf4ad4aec069732b9d96ce61a8
8e134afd7f44e6bb820a53089304b6e2813552dd
1246 F20101114_AADFXT taylor_n_Page_66.txt
53d4db39dc752413eae945fc99ef8c93
18158d8fa837d09ce397de51d1131a240ed4bda9
70903 F20101114_AADGEC taylor_n_Page_38.jpg
7e7daaf00d7ea4b6b638403fd3909d6a
ef8e54cb03dcdcf4e232efc66845fcf9091fba25
50263 F20101114_AADGDN taylor_n_Page_08.jpg
e69e9b5e38bdc295c3dd8e95659b2c8d
6f221a8eb62026137e3b7799740eaf56cbf17269
F20101114_AADFYI taylor_n_Page_66.tif
3168549af13a684da92b683ffaecabc3
896e6f734530ffb55dcc8b305cc397fb857482fa
1427 F20101114_AADFXU taylor_n_Page_44.txt
87108eb318522a3e147d51decc4fbd36
8280d6c4301c476caa4ac35ed689fd4ead81d5d7
64618 F20101114_AADGED taylor_n_Page_41.jpg
fe34ca7885fe1d87988f26377ea68dce
fa7f7e7917d45bdf905f009d0babdd0bfb38303c
15256 F20101114_AADGDO taylor_n_Page_11.jpg
13f29e2fd7bd53e177bd3c5e8d91e041
9c2ebdc9c96ad7d94ae667029a27a410f2189978
F20101114_AADFYJ taylor_n_Page_13.tif
2cf584337854109e7c8fdf1bf9661448
149209bf71907be58cfb902e0195b5502bdbe910
856 F20101114_AADFXV taylor_n_Page_09.txt
e7cc602158eee64231f73a97f122f44d
5f996125eaa7e37f3b81525f4c648b8f9c5ce606
72824 F20101114_AADGEE taylor_n_Page_42.jpg
6f83f0a13f91b9584396cf16a39de7fa
5c075b2f412e23c5595e30cc3e657f8b2084a74f
39770 F20101114_AADGDP taylor_n_Page_15.jpg
c4b4a78742ec3dac5d9214b3d686aaf3
17284d550d513ddf95c3ae0eb4d53cce7fd6defd
F20101114_AADFYK taylor_n_Page_50.tif
b808e254110d6e5d77499b227c6392d5
875e1471112d446bc1895ecb5abbeb994a1a4298
F20101114_AADFXW taylor_n_Page_71.tif
0515987aa86e6ddca1a55c11be2523ae
7c6d1a3ec4a34bd76efb7a37267562966ea19b4e
54614 F20101114_AADGEF taylor_n_Page_44.jpg
1508fc96cbb824e047710cad74fcdb2f
8bde6fe2305bdefcfa33795d4d776b55087f92f6
65792 F20101114_AADGDQ taylor_n_Page_16.jpg
6169aba843e2a93720f43c1d32f0020a
1f4223baffa25be802c90bddcbf30ce11e6631a8
49856 F20101114_AADFYL taylor_n_Page_39.pro
b769892e4fec41e3d7fc7c134265af8d
9ea310c68bfdccec1e11c9f6e592af9eac3cb45c
6811 F20101114_AADFXX taylor_n_Page_62thm.jpg
27d81c319bb0138a728be18220e81d1f
f0f8d975089ec274912d9fe6000803e2dd6e6eb4
53107 F20101114_AADGEG taylor_n_Page_46.jpg
ea004a7df86236f6cd70604f64073ea3
193f92d2d4578173e6b70743e307cded690e9b60
79519 F20101114_AADGDR taylor_n_Page_18.jpg
7c240660619bd76f0253a6401d694e6a
fb8674b47f62feda643bfe3c1ba870024366ca07
5249 F20101114_AADFYM taylor_n_Page_65thm.jpg
6b7c93b2c3e80ad605e36b96b2edde61
b0a01a90989c11ee5b2b79dcb6e13482fd2085a1
74405 F20101114_AADFXY taylor_n_Page_20.jpg
afa8764cefb43615f83dfd7ca7c13b69
d7bf4195619c1decdd81fc19d6972a0166689cba
53087 F20101114_AADGEH taylor_n_Page_47.jpg
440bac56e26e956c994c4ed8b53737e6
5531ee6503bcfcd7d3d070f6e31b5515501d6851
71553 F20101114_AADFZA taylor_n_Page_12.jpg
ed494094aa4d48ffb9a02e8d14cf6ff8
bcbdda00a6fd1359e9360bb29673f10064632ba1
80793 F20101114_AADGDS taylor_n_Page_21.jpg
2d6d662c431ee70765459a23e7dde3d6
9a5386537b78200d817349fe97fd6873dee9c7b8
23871 F20101114_AADFYN taylor_n_Page_12.QC.jpg
63b6ded796fc84b3916ae216b58e9f85
e661e9b168acaf32225079050c91409241956e93
112956 F20101114_AADFXZ taylor_n_Page_53.jp2
f4f49ac67cd8e2629ef9decc95b196e5
d3672f3f778c9811f85e539e2f05ae92d8672288
73030 F20101114_AADFZB taylor_n_Page_39.jpg
fedda8f9f0d9feec66f678bdc8ac5bd4
c4809541df81b05f89baf1b8d677a8696d40c904
75086 F20101114_AADGDT taylor_n_Page_24.jpg
79774a5091b0de1e8c93957801c9313a
6f773581c747d2ea6d82b6f5b56ab5bf11762b0f
608 F20101114_AADFYO taylor_n_Page_64.txt
80de36455f29a362570a00cbf3c8bd39
9d457eba514ce27d1b53a6aab7eb4f95da19ef59
75319 F20101114_AADGEI taylor_n_Page_49.jpg
332fdbb7523969dded390321ffd523fc
1e7a5b2ea6442cdc96f1e32df64be0b40e17db6b
72078 F20101114_AADFZC taylor_n_Page_62.jpg
81290493e89c33cbf2a7b6628e5821f8
7a1eacb49669de1b25b3c63ca75b69450f4ddbb8
72953 F20101114_AADGDU taylor_n_Page_27.jpg
28e8e706e2a914e27a3804035025956a
d8414db745f48148e89582bcc661276f708c918b
F20101114_AADFYP taylor_n_Page_83.tif
275ef3c60af48f2aaad26abe07d50a7c
f7f702b5cd91cf57372ac4dfd93089490b5f07e0
72548 F20101114_AADGEJ taylor_n_Page_51.jpg
0e5a4d17b2015f6789685b8fc663b44a
7be90d709ebe781bbd07acb1c1ce6f445745736c
59105 F20101114_AADFZD taylor_n_Page_67.jpg
d05db1ed326c91d58f483fa175afd3a8
6a1e872015083ab774c3e51c6d546b866d0d8521
80829 F20101114_AADGDV taylor_n_Page_28.jpg
94b7eecfec3eb0798932f4c54f459c97
7e327bf907d7917e47b645f5129741e74d8938dd
7153 F20101114_AADFYQ taylor_n_Page_28thm.jpg
c7fe623530705ea5c69acb8ad870b873
3c45eb2729f4f795ff108b8bf5350d8d540c64f1
79520 F20101114_AADGEK taylor_n_Page_52.jpg
b4a4216caaa6b64962e7d5874542206b
5d1af866226dcfe3b7d6d0360d0ad4469d04e849
110378 F20101114_AADFZE taylor_n_Page_39.jp2
bb126016c69c27956c54692444e735af
fb887ad471e7bae5cee44fc6cddd7e09d6bb03fd
81120 F20101114_AADGDW taylor_n_Page_29.jpg
feff324e4df80dec927e62ffd9f7080f
29b3505668c5f4a84d9bf41492cca27ff5857959
2352 F20101114_AADFYR taylor_n_Page_78thm.jpg
623467509ac791bdc7e979182e717be1
1c4c88d2f540774a901052e6a6ebc4dff5dee870
35023 F20101114_AADGFA taylor_n_Page_90.jpg
c324e7ec921da6f5f30d035b42b91b76
bada2cdb146f7c4f17ba6be4ddec1f5a6e6eaea1
F20101114_AADGEL taylor_n_Page_53.jpg
1fc935fb3916e87cf9cba57b3420e7eb
92bbf08f953511ba97a2f9ded56ac950a67fdf2b
44392 F20101114_AADFZF taylor_n_Page_17.jpg
7675f12191d259c315a255aee976e735
4aea61801d0a87d88c5f4b6fa16bbbf7ff531398
78972 F20101114_AADGDX taylor_n_Page_30.jpg
5ee1a85e4c8fe3e76fe1b066adfb2489
d23c82c7ad82579802c38f405c25c710ccc90d0f
75169 F20101114_AADFYS taylor_n_Page_59.jpg
847aaa65103251a68758f8662cdb374d
b0cc7c53cbc024ef340b2382cc6fc82e23620f7c
5788 F20101114_AADGFB taylor_n_Page_02.jp2
d4ea98f7d1cd8ee8f1c618a1de2d981e
c13c36d382f6a756d6282ca73b43917c0d0fa6e5
76163 F20101114_AADGEM taylor_n_Page_55.jpg
626ce079512af75f56166a7a52eaed63
3c58eae1dacfbc1fa5bd7ab643128b2bacea228a
5290 F20101114_AADFZG taylor_n_Page_11.pro
7b4730bcc13116a62313c146f5ffc0e7
e265e9740a8f1c4b0c5464213dbf1b73b87ef593
74779 F20101114_AADGDY taylor_n_Page_32.jpg
dff4410a44ebd21947d1efe644629bd4
14d1b0b9888126d25eff61d42adcde4aab25f32a
25168 F20101114_AADFYT taylor_n_Page_59.QC.jpg
779854a64b6fcbf0e702d16fd230cc5c
0432e3f24eb6d6f9f82928afd7fd336ec7afdf6e
45870 F20101114_AADGFC taylor_n_Page_04.jp2
e27d71ae8265e01fdebbbfc50bf02a0a
da8c1c98df71c8a98a6b4355967adf07fa7cd394
74335 F20101114_AADGEN taylor_n_Page_56.jpg
60bb3ad1d5e3070a4b6dfdfddb126cdd
1324e147be7234403806115d889a64f0f00ad134
1480 F20101114_AADFZH taylor_n_Page_69.txt
09cea49c0407a5fb8bf827ff020f1559
618366008e59d90df30a1e8cffe538d96d457352
57802 F20101114_AADGDZ taylor_n_Page_33.jpg
e52bc7a113ff4862b781a6e79bcebc1f
8a291a63648bf4fe53c17056804f88225ef58622
450 F20101114_AADFYU taylor_n_Page_34.txt
d2f6e94ff576c9a2d94bdbad3b2eb0dd
6c4fa8b110fcfda0a600177ccd4833d5d3a32758
1051985 F20101114_AADGFD taylor_n_Page_05.jp2
3d57327dfbb990a69d8a1af1256e73b1
c28a7f66b837e9d2dfe796f32bdd4e58c5eecc02
71411 F20101114_AADGEO taylor_n_Page_60.jpg
25599dfc4d958f061776cb2f33ad4564
82c73dd84cf6fcce8af863e576dc471d982fa5ed
245580 F20101114_AADFZI taylor_n_Page_34.jp2
5ffe883676c4dd9f9906304c36bb9af6
4dff0eb2b6d13afbfdd31fb6081b513e0d6797c6
56174 F20101114_AADFYV taylor_n_Page_88.pro
06d14ae91082d2b4ce8e29d8fa2fbae9
7465625cf73c10937985458eb94656d2abc62782
161343 F20101114_AADGFE taylor_n_Page_07.jp2
6b387fd219ce167ab4d6f6eb49705c33
1a197d5667512dbb22fc1d387497b3a23a6403de
41415 F20101114_AADGEP taylor_n_Page_66.jpg
dfaf1e03ca4442739ce1e7cc34c016da
f86c0a66fa5413653b9737053d118986c37d6bac
23826 F20101114_AADFZJ taylor_n_Page_51.QC.jpg
6995c49beed8eb29e0592688d5f16bf8
80abad0d710868e173aed7b7ee55d6b440230c50
113298 F20101114_AADGFF taylor_n_Page_14.jp2
aa7b5701c98459306398b9a5787c1947
89841aff4a9bc591b3ccf2550c9992448e2fc6f6
60493 F20101114_AADGEQ taylor_n_Page_69.jpg
641c8155b88dcd26bd2cce10a76c777b
657460817efccab8d9a4fca5d530560d3be2befb
52867 F20101114_AADFZK taylor_n_Page_45.jpg
03cbe6cdef69961ad20a910acce46691
17cc8b94ecca7ece779639051f52ff3d25fdeff3
F20101114_AADFYW taylor_n_Page_49.tif
d540880685ad667fcc137d8f1e026159
23fcc898b11ce0b3dfbdf9635d79a85aa44e6a25
115052 F20101114_AADGFG taylor_n_Page_19.jp2
3e44b1c06a9fe0b8700bbe4e05d8030c
cdd316bc687e7be014e38c221eebc7c4bd7c0c4c
52143 F20101114_AADGER taylor_n_Page_70.jpg
dbed61e001540f35c5ddd02408d2aae5
369539abcf68df91035266825862cc9ab57fc067
1166 F20101114_AADFZL taylor_n_Page_67.txt
50a6f9ca390f4fa01ac38e0fa8e26819
0db731cbd735139f47e500578bb571be56f5181e
4981 F20101114_AADFYX taylor_n_Page_46thm.jpg
1427922fe8eb6721503413ff1ac2e9de
37a2034230e07f705ae9090e7774b9916d25b629
112202 F20101114_AADGFH taylor_n_Page_20.jp2
aceeb628bbee54fd5af6c270d71138fc
36db9069710b56a73a205ad3a870a2fd8cf5a4a3
65836 F20101114_AADGES taylor_n_Page_71.jpg
7ea7a2ad7c9627a6036e1e5af7925117
afda1400341580232afcdc690d2c446622c8befa
24013 F20101114_AADFZM taylor_n_Page_37.QC.jpg
e6040b2accccc73aa3a3350fa3b06302
5901bcdb58b39cf4f7859efd16362beef3a4e3b8
F20101114_AADFYY taylor_n_Page_74.tif
2d96f6a57c309c064b8da0cf9cac5577
6ec1bb3a8bae85c0af98880a9dd93f190df5ac50
117349 F20101114_AADGFI taylor_n_Page_22.jp2
d45ad0a5146edd3c014b11afa1caaa48
efa70a5c486724b97871084963816e8d7afc29b7
19538 F20101114_AADGET taylor_n_Page_73.jpg
4ab0c6507d4d73748451b31dbbd65bce
f11acc41db08b97f896ba0414b08ddc3c8e1399b
6867 F20101114_AADFZN taylor_n_Page_50thm.jpg
6cce6fad57eb62d0e431d067a26164bb
cb65e2258d4cdff4035cf84f4ed83132019da629
26961 F20101114_AADFYZ taylor_n_Page_25.jpg
3ce9ad795ada386ece596df946c9d3fa
48a9eba26a503a28854bc1f85ab6788ff74ae0a8
52250 F20101114_AADGEU taylor_n_Page_77.jpg
11170570f7ce868ceb6c43d081f1ba3d
6821a3dc9cd5b99416e10d61ec15d494d0520a3b
277031 F20101114_AADFZO taylor_n_Page_26.jp2
e3435e3e6a60595697e0d72c0b1c1fcf
f835166a28d30ccf42f6f12d5b29fb4dcfddb543
119222 F20101114_AADGFJ taylor_n_Page_23.jp2
e10e429d3f396f22e8c72ab08676a046
4592c478669b5bf2829e70eb2d5875285d3e116a
15472 F20101114_AADGEV taylor_n_Page_80.jpg
b0e80282efc91c154c58739b9f5ed774
a2ac6b9df600e734694aabd434d6aae9761a6dfb
50797 F20101114_AADFZP taylor_n_Page_61.pro
15c13c0e8b4c42b76ba373872ffbcaa7
4f0d42591ffe0e8c23e0835d556ce8348e38deed
330954 F20101114_AADGFK taylor_n_Page_25.jp2
52ff3787c8fe675360f0c72d46e68cb7
2cc556d77fddc24bfbb140c4b6747dba1a22856b
47695 F20101114_AADGEW taylor_n_Page_82.jpg
e358fdccabed84c2b25e82341ef0f320
ef54a8de1d1ecbb39219e92ee95cc952d47a19ba
118726 F20101114_AADFZQ taylor_n_Page_30.jp2
024fc1f8776751da234d9347c67645ae
52436ff364f0ee7b1e4e150467fa47f9058d9fb0
105718 F20101114_AADGFL taylor_n_Page_27.jp2
852ff584216bcb8009e68324eba0955c
de6d3832553245afa05e2fe3649ca65a123c17cc
71293 F20101114_AADGEX taylor_n_Page_84.jpg
507e3aad33539beeb3d337f79af6da84
59f9fcc0f20df1c5ce4cc726833cef298d15a3b7
2059 F20101114_AADFZR taylor_n_Page_27.txt
dc9779a4c7ed8475ebe4fcf385c4c721
8a84d30e17006535ffd2201de0ca331f7f4aaf53
114632 F20101114_AADGGA taylor_n_Page_59.jp2
d45effcd0447b84f8a2ec76135ca6cf9
99102f175c0ce4b47b651bb78ca3cd90d44a90f7
113744 F20101114_AADGFM taylor_n_Page_32.jp2
40dd6cbc04ec257c9e054c462cea8d25
642f7d738812bf7281fe2f2b9942472b89c40f80
34319 F20101114_AADGEY taylor_n_Page_86.jpg
4e3c0a368ce057dd39f19a4c6f7c20fe
a5b85f46ddf186691b7c7a055434ddae9716c404
47020 F20101114_AADFZS taylor_n_Page_65.pro
a973c7abe9716f91bdea4b776f7f43cb
60e922c321f44fa0d6e29cfed042ea129ef00a1a
107278 F20101114_AADGGB taylor_n_Page_60.jp2
50a3fa32cc91482e49f1a1ff96b30535
42090b6f249c5ce486593963d3b508c9ea2410a9
86753 F20101114_AADGFN taylor_n_Page_33.jp2
a7b77cc632d1fed0cd47e5442c88db29
e24ee01dedcf6ee46686b126ce8e507dce1e59b9
85940 F20101114_AADGEZ taylor_n_Page_87.jpg
971ee752a1c536c7bc8a628e1b7635fb
731e7938541f189265eab70dcefba0dacebd5853
1880 F20101114_AADFZT taylor_n_Page_46.txt
8a200d280bb7961c4d56589acaaf9400
1c2eabf33ee9666b85c029ec9666dd93c3bbc983
112105 F20101114_AADGGC taylor_n_Page_61.jp2
9c235c9de87f5f45117f0228e205431b
9ea9c2cb750143ec3c11bf3dc38c7416d52d15df
808763 F20101114_AADGFO taylor_n_Page_35.jp2
170ad9340b0540be4c7df688abaa7e96
e93fe04b3c3dc53c2bcc9f704178e0a48fca48b1
F20101114_AADFZU taylor_n_Page_53.tif
0bad7e67cf8ea04b4266fdc523f50008
289933aebea323213417797aa7dc12d8b9705e53
109178 F20101114_AADGGD taylor_n_Page_62.jp2
758c34d9a5b4f03759e37fd753a0d634
5f9b322bab7e52f7aff107bfd8a430db32fdd044
79772 F20101114_AADGFP taylor_n_Page_36.jp2
b97a3064af73eaa93f3ef2a00bc175e7
ea68f6f6fcf6278dc75af22316e94f89458f79a8
122052 F20101114_AADFZV taylor_n_Page_21.jp2
f929b033fbaf58536de89c74f3d65491
c9c8a1d9096560b011640cb77816f5b69f558fff
90237 F20101114_AADGGE taylor_n_Page_65.jp2
a2bcb87b27ee3e7a3f46f6e112c3bc12
03d0a975c1697661983497791dfbf56f5b7d40e3
106700 F20101114_AADGFQ taylor_n_Page_38.jp2
75589d2df217193c1963f8d206d34f36
fea7ec062fd8def0b8810bcf15a59119aa01ca21
6729 F20101114_AADFZW taylor_n_Page_24thm.jpg
b5b4280844f60d81f353750c9491cc56
0904dc6e7fdbec661c353ee3773fc46588a9c8be
581211 F20101114_AADGGF taylor_n_Page_75.jp2
7ead3467f7994a702ff158f46b86e794
76274ac13afd4eed64191a203485e4b92119f3a4
1051962 F20101114_AADGFR taylor_n_Page_40.jp2
01612b7302d5bef913d5a568eab075be
4161ba8ab878b99fc8ad521828a8487dd94a28da
578032 F20101114_AADFZX taylor_n_Page_68.jp2
2db5cd8dd971561770e79e7cf5c13eb9
b6d72138718828333dd2d688a695b9395f7d0ee2
340714 F20101114_AADGGG taylor_n_Page_76.jp2
1b9563f0ecbebb19d35d96637ccd4d5c
5790d0707db0bbaf84f49ef9fe8e2bec0a139985
109378 F20101114_AADGFS taylor_n_Page_42.jp2
9cd1fc4ff9e8f551dc2c700779a73e09
56c4e17f0920240efb6ef3f9ce29262e5a5ea0db
7552 F20101114_AADFZY taylor_n_Page_78.pro
25d0767b7da090c968acd7619dff55d9
0e60c0b0e3f45c6fc9c227c08cf7064632ac9c63
682631 F20101114_AADGGH taylor_n_Page_77.jp2
7eda02460453c607e751ac5117513484
fbdaebdd25660e548317636f1d2d6751f5954482
6767 F20101114_AADFZZ taylor_n_Page_61thm.jpg
4120f9f274db5aa4951a249c1a6dafba
17185c09030684df8d55b1abcdfb2b33700648df
204116 F20101114_AADGGI taylor_n_Page_78.jp2
ecad799b4d8ce36d7fe226bdccde71fb
e856dc5a1290570881d619a95081212a4e09f33c
25437 F20101114_AADGFT taylor_n_Page_43.jp2
62d126e20cc2f55a84a90723bfbaf5bb
70ec2d6a4e85b982805e094c0b0afbfe069aadf7
775564 F20101114_AADGGJ taylor_n_Page_81.jp2
e74bd1d5d874ed81cc3fd3b918d730ff
7bbd93202d7c7b6912ad2e5326541a8bd80e7719
631680 F20101114_AADGFU taylor_n_Page_45.jp2
342ed3462ae23d4bd34007e99f1ec81a
87a42fee154ce35b172e845e04498297c246e869
107507 F20101114_AADGFV taylor_n_Page_48.jp2
39659b1efa309ec496e9b9484026c43e
2be878339c7b20e8b10136bfc3252c22885db57f
543061 F20101114_AADGGK taylor_n_Page_82.jp2
4e5afb91831c002248e99bf913580c2c
f60e5e42bfe42d539359d9fd673ddc4b14150cea
109691 F20101114_AADGFW taylor_n_Page_51.jp2
d10e9979a7c15dc27169d80ce60d89ce
d0d78ba06339243052b5ce738f39656bc8060b0e
F20101114_AADGHA taylor_n_Page_12.tif
1b8ca4f2be4509d85f935f44b5b16834
ad21467b58c536f55b1ef890c6e828bbf08e69e1
120590 F20101114_AADGGL taylor_n_Page_83.jp2
de2e219a83a92eb899e6c83548782cc4
bd9a87945e08edd8b989da0649ef389e7426bb72
122743 F20101114_AADGFX taylor_n_Page_54.jp2
54315e600bc4044c7e61e2dfae4c17ea
19220bf5f21f523dc37b163c1b73da09866f5e9b
F20101114_AADGHB taylor_n_Page_14.tif
d2822a2b0e374b4381a411bd6bb68195
1fadf7ef5e245fc6a2c7ad0902e9ab14903789d8
110505 F20101114_AADGGM taylor_n_Page_84.jp2
70b76d6a3eba400005919fef53c28aaa
cb9908925a5f13b3725a380fe4e50a9ce6783ebc
113924 F20101114_AADGFY taylor_n_Page_56.jp2
d557db2bb926cc69135c127b0f6ff4b7
569947824a5fbfc6a3926f075e76b38978b68b5f
F20101114_AADGHC taylor_n_Page_15.tif
3bf75ca4ca66fa2a018dcdf2f9fb84c6
651f3541ef037fa84468908c54edbd12d0d31ee3
71821 F20101114_AADGGN taylor_n_Page_85.jp2
7a1131c3840e85d430854cc5ca47009c
16ced868332aa3cf38a0f77b06f6ad92a29412c7
121055 F20101114_AADGFZ taylor_n_Page_57.jp2
0721f741e3bf84bd49bcc9396944aee9
76d0f46d8103a999813738c08b9a6049fe3b8045
F20101114_AADGHD taylor_n_Page_16.tif
442c7c7628e406403dbc9d46166d4271
bda932c159b2837d25c182b1921cbd0212e72577
1051951 F20101114_AADGGO taylor_n_Page_87.jp2
2794d6fe10db3cc4d0bd73ea3073dcd9
cc4a94f26534dc0439a576623cd1f7a18eb9424d
F20101114_AADGHE taylor_n_Page_17.tif
1f8142a2bd76ea3a00df3dc70fc92466
33c019b8337164384a43a5eea638ddfd56007875
1051966 F20101114_AADGGP taylor_n_Page_88.jp2
93291c0a7008fcf779a8730560a3da60
5ab896638f1122eedb298133da1a835c7280fadd
F20101114_AADGHF taylor_n_Page_19.tif
5758670859eecfe7953603d8d91014bf
fef18e16d3c58fbf0494d34816456668e317c922
434600 F20101114_AADGGQ taylor_n_Page_89.jp2
ea74551ed83a0a7300b56ef6f641c278
639758aa78ecfbf39c4479f9fa4bf124decc6a8d
F20101114_AADGHG taylor_n_Page_20.tif
f1e4c080f33953e7ac992ee2347ee713
5ecef7375238316000aabbe87ad8103b6747721c
F20101114_AADGGR taylor_n_Page_01.tif
27dc4370224c01a49ae23821b1824bf9
3585714e82928d3086944c377c9d2f72d813e33e
F20101114_AADGHH taylor_n_Page_22.tif
287a9653db88c472d03458ebd904669f
553448ba09a9798eb1a8ae2d38a80cba223840cd
F20101114_AADGGS taylor_n_Page_03.tif
d13e2fba9454218ed54622ac62458945
f94ff3ede19d1f21105110fa1cbfb4f19e7f20e2
F20101114_AADGHI taylor_n_Page_24.tif
5c65c40202425bbefb9c6220074d975e
75d16910e8b20e29fc809f31da5e9d47b2f4a740
F20101114_AADGGT taylor_n_Page_05.tif
7cfec745a93b75b4a9f71ef8aa5b1653
27cde4da72d8ed227f134ead11f766a17c449940
F20101114_AADGHJ taylor_n_Page_25.tif
70de306f1af7da8434aade3dfdf9f6cd
ad130d4ff5a45156082ba1638876922b5b586d0e
F20101114_AADGGU taylor_n_Page_06.tif
f4cf4e1d454733b076b275287cb61964
d25b1fc5d89d3ed530d1be4692e0667c90fb1625
F20101114_AADGHK taylor_n_Page_26.tif
ba4dcf36382a5c6a10bba4bf0be8519f
65a34d6aff42f378967d6a7075951d89863d66ef
F20101114_AADGGV taylor_n_Page_07.tif
5e7c93e1e5084053fdc192b5d706f772
6f53d94a83618ec446761cbb16078451700821bd
F20101114_AADGGW taylor_n_Page_08.tif
b0e8a121d93e2a47d76ef508e23d80ee
0f1a4b91303e01a39bbd8c5ed7082ddf8be131ae
F20101114_AADGHL taylor_n_Page_27.tif
0a1cfd0894e5e5520ca4d534cf25e755
69795e26388410f191094344c26056caac7e1828
F20101114_AADGGX taylor_n_Page_09.tif
b74ea709d94ba164aa580c28c6039323
fe724509424ba829b34a5348b62fb79bf5d8ee1c
F20101114_AADGIA taylor_n_Page_46.tif
e1f19626c9c3fc951e6dad813fcf0d96
78156054b79d9f2c625a9c8f7b6ff484b3d8e936
F20101114_AADGHM taylor_n_Page_29.tif
58bce1b2ef06c6254346cadd4c86f8d1
2fdba5cde8c49710664762ebd04e75f52946ffbb
F20101114_AADGGY taylor_n_Page_10.tif
0fdc8aad360a7b0cd87497e78afe6e7f
d80a5bd69df2f2073ebecc7933b77da4211fad7b
F20101114_AADGIB taylor_n_Page_51.tif
657d7050d1c381124d7864456dc24a07
db3113d337c8ef2862dfb741321737e2608cb08b
F20101114_AADGHN taylor_n_Page_30.tif
b45e189cf977967504d079fc153b297e
fe62feffdb690fff4f3899860205aa53fa2f59b4
F20101114_AADGGZ taylor_n_Page_11.tif
ed240fd39bd233d77f4f46a1cd5e6db2
e263a17906cb308465a733317ecec4b5b7e19da9
F20101114_AADGIC taylor_n_Page_54.tif
a992de1b40e9889852bae0bc8c11e778
fe09cb7ada12fcb9bc7caca7161533f6d6300403
F20101114_AADGHO taylor_n_Page_32.tif
c6dfa5a350354792a8b9041d0746f57e
70872c1783030a987b36673244c96c05d868c64d
F20101114_AADGID taylor_n_Page_55.tif
34cd78489a518b1b031478327460943d
fa42fdee59412faeaab7ef999e05059be2514360
F20101114_AADGHP taylor_n_Page_33.tif
0d9d390988ef950bcfa3fa475940b70f
7eadd6de682bd2399005c7916823675af1d5f7a2
F20101114_AADGIE taylor_n_Page_56.tif
04c16b3e467bddc48fcbd2350ef64054
490343a566b314d4c4c705f5579b938628712494
F20101114_AADGHQ taylor_n_Page_34.tif
4081643be8118666f309786868059006
71b9afc55c1f719a531187711c6ba8d7e954f014
F20101114_AADGIF taylor_n_Page_57.tif
5d596c256bd1fe8544251fef71367f81
96bc46710334e7141ff5563fc60e76f154ab2657
F20101114_AADGHR taylor_n_Page_35.tif
097e119e6e72417dc4fd26572042b9bc
d9216408b04daa2ae3311540138c5dae320d301e
F20101114_AADGIG taylor_n_Page_58.tif
9942a5267f1ce085fe9dd77c87ddc308
19620b047d32d39f55dbc7682fccb16aa3e2e2be
F20101114_AADGHS taylor_n_Page_37.tif
5e6395c72ab3620131d052d51e5a1715
cdd0ca5c4168f7e65fdad2934e816763929471cd
F20101114_AADGIH taylor_n_Page_59.tif
b7c9507d4e97f747a0dc9212620e1554
54ced25c57bd4acd5b5db1a3fe2093cdabde41e4
F20101114_AADGHT taylor_n_Page_39.tif
bad84333e4626fe8b00ffbcec3fb6d94
1e60fa0b62442c3ef40c0ea3bc49b52d0d587fde
F20101114_AADGII taylor_n_Page_60.tif
8b47760fd1e834f1b38070feee90c8fe
7f057761c75c3d295c71d4b937e4dfc13f613741
F20101114_AADGHU taylor_n_Page_40.tif
331581423f337d8384cabc2177c116b1
e366767f7eecdd37600228745079823a365f281f
F20101114_AADGIJ taylor_n_Page_62.tif
0a8b86025c424a49f54266b81651e96f
3432f85d5845397700f81508d1d4798e5649c237
F20101114_AADGHV taylor_n_Page_41.tif
275f6df085b1fd85fcb119f1125d1ada
8c616dcb47c90ec111bef6a07f9cf9a5e1027f9a
F20101114_AADGIK taylor_n_Page_63.tif
bfbf447489bb512bde86daab140e727e
ead16460e4b636c731deb0966d6b1b057e257f0a
F20101114_AADGHW taylor_n_Page_42.tif
039df39da3c83a6c4da00dfc68a4f5de
60b55a3266aa2861b08b8a4e820125d6cdc09b9c
F20101114_AADGIL taylor_n_Page_64.tif
49f0e566b615a6267945cdcae238110f
7a774850ea0d02b4f40894600b2c9577628d3cc3
F20101114_AADGHX taylor_n_Page_43.tif
f5202d8af2a4f543af5a5b7e5a313f4b
65644ab874d2d9b822663efd70ce4c6f53de5f24
72613 F20101114_AADGJA taylor_n_Page_05.pro
e91b7e87f252d68b2f4146a7f611a6fe
f8c28cc81bb2cd1a2a170c5f41cb1c772e34f0e1
F20101114_AADGHY taylor_n_Page_44.tif
b2e5ddf75a89e1d7621f5e515e94d3aa
5e3f62dd988acc657d92421eb63896967ab7c91e
4668 F20101114_AADGJB taylor_n_Page_07.pro
363faeff323767a61c58484d8f5223b1
31591deaac2e0ba34e18ee20348ba0197237b3c1
F20101114_AADGIM taylor_n_Page_65.tif
6c1284ffd1dac345557b84dd2027361f
752291bd70bf53ba326fc96f621e25a029c5cf87
F20101114_AADGHZ taylor_n_Page_45.tif
ac73350320e8586757f2fa1953190832
60807ded56fdcbca7d3212f473c85920ed0b0458
38878 F20101114_AADGJC taylor_n_Page_08.pro
547a936ab125f757f090f2e3afa125ae
610f2543ddc85604f90e865e83fbde04c74c6070
F20101114_AADGIN taylor_n_Page_70.tif
7e8f644230fde1ca57d3ef9c0d676732
5d45d58fa7c9525c3b64e0dbfe3b9c2acb686601
49376 F20101114_AADGJD taylor_n_Page_10.pro
54487430e1abc765161559b9619ce75f
2b9d1ea5ee0fa695241a18b401ea7ad03d194482
F20101114_AADGIO taylor_n_Page_72.tif
1b7ec3f34f04690c2045c1eb7b787a3e
28ea16ae81c2b1adf1317faa7fd3b1d17f645f54
48859 F20101114_AADGJE taylor_n_Page_12.pro
8ea4b3b5580b5b96d768d68bc1611733
6accf68779fd5184a55f8ab4c6b37ec2116387e1
F20101114_AADGIP taylor_n_Page_73.tif
8b47535e1c71b023cad735bf7d13f2ed
268862a2e59913e0c655b85335d7914271d36769
53057 F20101114_AADGJF taylor_n_Page_13.pro
382d331b1814f00679697a8062fcf317
2decaee7dc9458bb6fa6564d8a7a759ee05b0634
F20101114_AADGIQ taylor_n_Page_75.tif
960a3a54a342c74bab12cdb3c565c69e
c9eb6c44fee60bd4732a93680a275d63ac5bb4af
2285 F20101114_AADGJG taylor_n_Page_16.pro
cf963012461a0bec15280a966d090be4
2a4f8a8ffe333aaf968f1aa0347b921c7ca9e7ee
F20101114_AADGIR taylor_n_Page_76.tif
6660a4c04360490bee6626ba3340d93e
b71b8a911e1d6dfab6f33a7e170803ff468f1018
5416 F20101114_AADGJH taylor_n_Page_17.pro
a6348fa983907160ce3483ee13d0724f
d74b8dea90f4479cddfc131526bc4574a1dbefcd
F20101114_AADGIS taylor_n_Page_81.tif
2796aa3574c87dcc0860e2f7c1ccde2e
f50b6a6cfa20f07e0f71be5d3e5c8ce31346cbff
48744 F20101114_AADGJI taylor_n_Page_18.pro
31806ae7516692af5cc6271df419bfe8
d4ed6f826c0929db949273ef6cfccca88e009ca1
F20101114_AADGIT taylor_n_Page_85.tif
78ca426558141ac374d5a40eacda9a9a
f3ab4e0b151dfd5abe0df72e3013a9fcf1c3362b
52739 F20101114_AADGJJ taylor_n_Page_20.pro
bbd457c82ceabf02efa5e45ede54bb96
7cae5f4424b17b3a1ffa6f7cefed0b834903c71d
F20101114_AADGIU taylor_n_Page_86.tif
a9904dd3687e3d917ede668637649e23
a417f0a974c70c37eb1879ec245bffa6689cd7d1
57426 F20101114_AADGJK taylor_n_Page_21.pro
f4be8f4adb537244f9b60a32eec1e4a9
fdf0cb4ac8f99e4f7e1c70d6fcce695bdf6b6f81
F20101114_AADGIV taylor_n_Page_87.tif
f8d096937f4821e1cf4c333c9c70fbda
ef319f757b43f73cff1217eea1efccfd99a3ff01
54188 F20101114_AADGJL taylor_n_Page_22.pro
38d99bac6747bb90afb136f29de20cc2
1523f6594ca012a05875fd430c9cddcb455b3b37
F20101114_AADGIW taylor_n_Page_88.tif
9d3e023ccde3cb06ddc9dcc1dd142b5f
a6c7bc9954f327903f4feaac61f48ca698c18e90
56379 F20101114_AADGKA taylor_n_Page_52.pro
503fe78c77696ee40d71190d1d4960bc
e207486ea841870872c3474395959b49672adb39
5534 F20101114_AADGJM taylor_n_Page_26.pro
9f0e5b637c02f132d77692f5d5754263
fd66e261b8fd6aaae8a7e43630bed5d9cbbcc639
F20101114_AADGIX taylor_n_Page_89.tif
5f50b32689a6c3f1627bce7d44c5d61f
32fde7843750aef94506e5805953bf59aa4bcfc5
53012 F20101114_AADGKB taylor_n_Page_55.pro
4ec59d2bc194be93c18bad0eecc06d10
2a8ea24a7d0c8e26148d8870016b92692a5ff054
F20101114_AADGIY taylor_n_Page_90.tif
13d63ef09cbdb6ce978affe732bde322
639882fd2574c480283f9403110bed045e6cc063
56539 F20101114_AADGKC taylor_n_Page_57.pro
3f8e50ed068594e4408ab6e15a91550f
f103b053abd570a02ba4c6b5610ef34bd6331162
56562 F20101114_AADGJN taylor_n_Page_28.pro
fd5da43b7171516c8c0bc3317285cc46
fe59d9212de7a829b96440255eb6d6f37b6f2905
20187 F20101114_AADGIZ taylor_n_Page_04.pro
34f22a55dbf2193e59433967cc6df4c7
19bd7c4b86c26b678441fe71268e1b4ee7c7b8fe
53413 F20101114_AADGKD taylor_n_Page_58.pro
79405ae87580a0e5ef4d2c0837a0a7eb
55a6ab8f95e23834d6f5e5e7cc82d3cd6f09426b
56824 F20101114_AADGJO taylor_n_Page_29.pro
c3f80e94e99f1041e50110ca95a156bc
1e68d8a2059839bf3e6d39de1be390c6e095622d
52767 F20101114_AADGKE taylor_n_Page_59.pro
c43331ce9b8c6f93060aecd3c7b3a6c1
b50d15f8a36cea5a27e338f455a9e9ffd1cd8970
55039 F20101114_AADGJP taylor_n_Page_31.pro
762ff91ca30b03eacc30e110633815e7
1a18607449a3ed8f661bf8b39e7ea8c113b516f3
47988 F20101114_AADGKF taylor_n_Page_60.pro
d7db41be387d950ea95524316783f2ec
3ac859f79b96b6439b3ea37281d3df1d4d9fa8f0
7088 F20101114_AADGJQ taylor_n_Page_34.pro
39acee35b1352da119079a243c77c8fa
a3682b616d7b56e47d3a79798c4a6213ffec73d3
49740 F20101114_AADGKG taylor_n_Page_62.pro
e7ae19122871ac0baffee827a09dc426
0a031cb87a33964e769ffa1edb9944e4396749bc
34540 F20101114_AADGJR taylor_n_Page_36.pro
815accdc317f7f94ca5abbe4d0515b7c
00f7458b9389c4510bfcbe251475af06264d6910
28217 F20101114_AADGKH taylor_n_Page_66.pro
fcb1656a32a04ac80c9b7644a47c3029
30ccbf67cdaa5e4c7839fbb6458f4be1913f00ef
48497 F20101114_AADGJS taylor_n_Page_37.pro
cfb9bdbbbba701e15df0e739a39a4aab
2544134033a4674c4d6f6b287abae1ea1fdf9812
20448 F20101114_AADGKI taylor_n_Page_68.pro
895b351a09d8935b48f06c5dc6d168d7
568b324611ade37c156cdeff7e5d8b7426ab0736
42805 F20101114_AADGJT taylor_n_Page_41.pro
4778584c8f637065eb4ba9157fab296d
959c6c07c3dd436914c259f6bdda0861f2160c19
25940 F20101114_AADGKJ taylor_n_Page_70.pro
4acfc8b63ef714df81be7f57363a20d2
a912ebb864c09ee0d8352a596da6c9c1610e0d8f
49106 F20101114_AADGJU taylor_n_Page_42.pro
c61babc385357957df82e6272310f90f
512a11ec12c482d2a5641447c90b20d8b0d93606
19261 F20101114_AADGKK taylor_n_Page_82.pro
8c179862febce09b2462dad6a53943fa
d2551f1b9f5176266ea7f010ad22056f973ae67e
10130 F20101114_AADGJV taylor_n_Page_43.pro
b5ec0d1045412c195b92a4bd847bfc30
0bee301629a6ae47b5e190d73e87b6a72cb00944
3443 F20101114_AADGKL taylor_n_Page_83.pro
d24884a6b4617eb08a12f168558ba74e
7b7fb82243b3beaaa4f79c769cb03011f63f04d9
27859 F20101114_AADGJW taylor_n_Page_44.pro
d2616b2f07df78c7c80f5d602caa5bdc
1597b177bc06ef169a0872bb554d475997bed842
23089 F20101114_AADGKM taylor_n_Page_86.pro
77ad7ccc360f72fcdc2db73cebec775b
5003ea3d5cf0f507b9206cbbfdcbd4b712360b57
49366 F20101114_AADGJX taylor_n_Page_48.pro
e9e3b77fc7f2fbee5a00fe324852b8b3
d94e92c4201da5acdb13e673cdccfba8d0fc54e1
2191 F20101114_AADGLA taylor_n_Page_23.txt
6d3282c26d877eeea0bed1c766214965
44f12258e77ca7170927362cbb17351174e7cbc2
51351 F20101114_AADGKN taylor_n_Page_87.pro
584469fe80495ddcc6ad1e3164ceadac
60e5d33ea96e12e84bc8f3d3c8b1f9c7f52eaa29
52800 F20101114_AADGJY taylor_n_Page_49.pro
02c8713f46c509394e0b2d7c561339fb
7735bfab7dafa11c9ff4ec06063ff0c74f0179fe
317 F20101114_AADGLB taylor_n_Page_25.txt
f884227a644c67648bc1db4e5b160134
f5c16057d2d8ecbf81a2a112b586a8aa6116c2dc
50711 F20101114_AADGJZ taylor_n_Page_51.pro
a7820d2906d3fa590c28d84335790c7c
4440fd3034783d5904e771a9585840d53ca85737
262 F20101114_AADGLC taylor_n_Page_26.txt
9046631880c97251683a4f7653274f4c
7cff3d6b8fed39d543e90a616524cab3799edcda
508 F20101114_AADGKO taylor_n_Page_01.txt
7a9eeb96fb0361d3926d8fcff6903cfe
801e3c5e926744a955efce8d9fe96f98903b180c
2258 F20101114_AADGLD taylor_n_Page_28.txt
873f75165aff768b99e6646c44aaffcd
35baeda3ee213f0334f1db32c18781daf59ef6f5
92 F20101114_AADGKP taylor_n_Page_02.txt
ebe8463af9754f9a00552699f4d05a03
c56e449e7baefd7413bba9938072e918baf0dc23
2217 F20101114_AADGLE taylor_n_Page_29.txt
054de87680a233cbb3ba99a446d34092
c0ed854b9defb151a9cc69d5b0e997a9baf46e0e
2169 F20101114_AADGLF taylor_n_Page_30.txt
6bd9a46350346d42edbdf6311e08a3e0
f22d5ce680573980d4763f921a6cf012fc821ac5
F20101114_AADGKQ taylor_n_Page_03.txt
bc3cadc3798b2072ca4ce5c615735021
218560db61554b061fda0e3e8c7267cac04498da
2190 F20101114_AADGLG taylor_n_Page_31.txt
4f0fda4b3de16c0cfe5c9b844016ee9d
f63bdbeecddd0fc6885aab32d3cb6704b1d03f37
839 F20101114_AADGKR taylor_n_Page_04.txt
90febe2a3e4590dab02eb015d3040514
326a02c9f2042e23548fd9f54d5cea65b94267aa
2101 F20101114_AADGLH taylor_n_Page_32.txt
94563c9edfd07d572a68646cc23eb508
78987eeb5a62d9c99a9d33380658d5fe92bf03a1
3158 F20101114_AADGKS taylor_n_Page_05.txt
a8daa13172f2cee4a5ac09497ecb319e
69462ffefaa8c81d3e173efe9ebb8d4b3778d23f
206 F20101114_AADGLI taylor_n_Page_35.txt
362fff2b07ca6ef2bd1318a94730f8b9
8a86f90870b781509ee8cb349f43436905f15431
186 F20101114_AADGKT taylor_n_Page_07.txt
dd13a15a6724608b2e1d0740fd240c8c
8be1519b0692a2a1bbb7fbc5347fe05fe115a61f
1655 F20101114_AADGLJ taylor_n_Page_36.txt
e9655bdcc3ca7eaeaf0cc2a3cf85c4d0
1443dd16f6b9f71e0bd95d55f214824b28b4397c
1614 F20101114_AADGKU taylor_n_Page_08.txt
a9780464c8cc4b3cfddf93071bd5149f
dddee57be34b1ed89ada11e66e90617e4c002d04
1997 F20101114_AADGLK taylor_n_Page_37.txt
f861e74510cb70e68f9b07d0e921ae40
fcd294f7ab2122f8a5b89792104d23804a925afe
2128 F20101114_AADGKV taylor_n_Page_14.txt
00ae1691b24779c9dd78b6975f2a29d8
c4a71a571ae6d7cc7dec29a84e369ffb52018f13
403 F20101114_AADGLL taylor_n_Page_43.txt
fe7692a774a02e85e32055922858c971
56af66c93685d8008a5e16db3371e5056fa6e207
1080 F20101114_AADGKW taylor_n_Page_15.txt
a921657813e0b7786d96d2549500e336
642edf7c08d74478311ad49861c8373666c5bb36
1020 F20101114_AADGMA taylor_n_Page_74.txt
9460adadd45a4dce4a177d00a228595a
f881583f143644ca19160a856727d414f0753748
1867 F20101114_AADGLM taylor_n_Page_45.txt
f61c4238d916bc06175287ee9f17605a
e8e6510fea4b7ffe84f6fbee40dadba8819dd27d
299 F20101114_AADGKX taylor_n_Page_17.txt
d60ad169dc35f4e77c632ebc89dbaccc
3045de8b1fbb18d5e8ecc107ae1d8c5ef3d8e542
326 F20101114_AADGMB taylor_n_Page_78.txt
0290d7b09b053610dadd424a2c01fe95
90afb0a53f86a93699e27f6df3e996bf74c05b69
1902 F20101114_AADGLN taylor_n_Page_47.txt
42038684f32960565c59b8a852902137
fb43815c5c6dad7312132c4aa3d1fe6f46327bfe
2073 F20101114_AADGKY taylor_n_Page_18.txt
16880e4723082e0708cb1de9208c05c8
ee299ef6240defc0094fd32db78520bff7629005
123 F20101114_AADGMC taylor_n_Page_80.txt
6250fc84c6f57f84373953e166a05451
67f72947f51a5d530c9e7a4cd3b017dd633043e5
2075 F20101114_AADGLO taylor_n_Page_49.txt
ce7ce5a033e1c748306501eb68449e45
86d6b940ed2d4f6d81e4fb9be25a7e5de8cf054d
2126 F20101114_AADGKZ taylor_n_Page_20.txt
3088d22d8f6a727a430969312c0534ea
36e9c50898747e679f5ef320d314326626933920
1269 F20101114_AADGMD taylor_n_Page_81.txt
66ed3b4f70b0c22d92580ab42b4d3a74
1e180091dc051fc19239a3bc7296b8c2d532d267
851 F20101114_AADGME taylor_n_Page_82.txt
4541d0a4bb0f840e82a2e5fa690e149c
fc6865ebc5060f3c63e689a4c450a471f3569f20
2069 F20101114_AADGLP taylor_n_Page_50.txt
920267f89be3a54e6137e86a086bd31b
3b38e9712aeef2e07bb21c3a7d0c8667879820c3
145 F20101114_AADGMF taylor_n_Page_83.txt
f9434abf3537744a0f062a0347936c99
f58277e2347e54688f0f97acea27f5904064f2f3
F20101114_AADGLQ taylor_n_Page_51.txt
74265c97e59217b7f805f1d1af3eb3b5
c02d7c4f249e69a5636861540c5f99523194d45b
F20101114_AADGMG taylor_n_Page_84.txt
5040779f59d6b53c6aece82968792eac
511cc62455a26011aa1bef6e334a9fddc0f63dd4
2055 F20101114_AADGLR taylor_n_Page_53.txt
3bc9ef35b47d7ae7cc1b15bdb7ca580f
c98fededa4797900b920d6b6ad6b3a72c2335c0c
F20101114_AADGMH taylor_n_Page_85.txt
10e3ef4f1eac8ed6b25a9b15809b083d
537d9922c2fd71254445d73379ef5e2c78f87f4b
2092 F20101114_AADGLS taylor_n_Page_56.txt
515aae11838f323b1f121b1bc3facf4d
a8aad7fddf8ad6987567c46199fa004e1509df64
2263 F20101114_AADGMI taylor_n_Page_88.txt
15567d3b82d6a4dc173b134ef951805f
4cbd4d0cd12c3bcf4c0803b9f0d047d9a73ce037
2152 F20101114_AADGLT taylor_n_Page_59.txt
a0725557f6c4bc9094cb73062ac57c41
18deb3b39733b25e269cc33bdd6025ba61aaf34f
22223 F20101114_AADGMJ taylor_n_Page_41.QC.jpg
08b732d2ba07b123d56b2ba2b0d9742e
041db494b42809e13b1fdbd9ab710a00b587eed6
1898 F20101114_AADGLU taylor_n_Page_60.txt
af200c16f69253060e49567d3ab56c03
2a7fd8cdcb45a796f61a3bc3d5c7a301569d2d64
14523 F20101114_AADGMK taylor_n_Page_17.QC.jpg
7f2da28cb8b8d5f03b9db950026037d6
b4bd23db00ab6ded99f3e46f9122a55d5115e4fa
F20101114_AADGLV taylor_n_Page_62.txt
7e4ca08d940432aac6b47425eb1bcdf2
b568035ee9afdc89340f02445303f7100a64f061
16510 F20101114_AADGML taylor_n_Page_79.QC.jpg
c55efd3307813c6b27c7d74cc3182c99
d42e58a3ab7523265be4e6f11f6b553f7a1d8590
888 F20101114_AADGLW taylor_n_Page_63.txt
e92425fe5a4ca815384d72326415139e
d0584b15282e0b06276ec69f37eea222d34f0de1
4936 F20101114_AADGMM taylor_n_Page_47thm.jpg
1a36674c5335da21aa03d803c16628c9
eea8b8af954f60d1da639ec7671bb2ea9b312bf3
1194 F20101114_AADGLX taylor_n_Page_70.txt
9e434fdf82e73933384863fc2a60c0c4
e0a042a212226bef60a9cf56744bb000f0f58035
16887 F20101114_AADGNA taylor_n_Page_81.QC.jpg
c88e6bf7302cc0094a82f04a2982ef82
089d28b55d70d0a916a35c12b590814e73b933fc
5680 F20101114_AADGMN taylor_n_Page_79thm.jpg
10f0c25d8bcb81712075dcee374f8f0a
0b43f5d71d58a9b8cfdff6653b23f76e962a226a
1420 F20101114_AADGLY taylor_n_Page_71.txt
9b065aa9503f985555648840b399985b
d8aa33d11beb9bbe46be102dd248272759ff094e
24893 F20101114_AADGNB taylor_n_Page_53.QC.jpg
6b334df0dbe7aee3761b8ebeba97b6da
c493cca46c52034af58cb05f09067ad40bb6af1a
1807 F20101114_AADGMO taylor_n_Page_11thm.jpg
1cb805cf8f2675715d225d5a33d3a0ea
d60923e0744bacc6ca8ef0c4bfbd933140c9b0d7
1323 F20101114_AADGLZ taylor_n_Page_72.txt
2cf3e44a623d2f442971b4b25d297473
9d21a4042072b6bbbd467f54b240906c55d7279c
7050 F20101114_AADGNC taylor_n_Page_22thm.jpg
a86b90b4a01c20ca927e177a9a3bfd7c
93ebc462a56a624929665807140b7d3e007b03cc
24591 F20101114_AADGMP taylor_n_Page_19.QC.jpg
49eef7a5b323be872e4eee005d68bb2a
f31fbf420b317e81f67c1e7398da562c66c3e7e7
1820 F20101114_AADGND taylor_n_Page_83thm.jpg
16e44b6b90c8addfcfd0d8a55a986971
891fcc8bfd2bf35a4f99a68948b242c717b7175d
5344 F20101114_AADGNE taylor_n_Page_69thm.jpg
efed85dd16b7b14a2eacc1e2a07c189d
3f38bbc8989e9a15f58f839fbe4f67b70b515ba7
26466 F20101114_AADGMQ taylor_n_Page_28.QC.jpg
7145111eb585c7478cdea9ea78bab387
54bbdd8482f49027612abea3ee137dc5bf20d3d5
26200 F20101114_AADGNF taylor_n_Page_22.QC.jpg
3e757bf530473894d990574dd308357f
e90c174d0f619ccac917827bbc1cafd5aa78bb40
4774 F20101114_AADGMR taylor_n_Page_45thm.jpg
5b69c87bdd33a06edae4f9a99c41d608
b64858571bffcd7d5e68371caa48dd3ca6d49a5f
7200 F20101114_AADGNG taylor_n_Page_78.QC.jpg
6a5a79c213a93996ca4cccc7b0347cba
e2da29780d321d62a4f85688e82cb67fff064831
6988 F20101114_AADGMS taylor_n_Page_39thm.jpg
7bdd572e1b62015a4ca10d6520c526b9
5fc32d8ff2b06697d3377d45e65b18818ec428a0
9153 F20101114_AADGNH taylor_n_Page_34.QC.jpg
4bc917dab224efd1e829945014a3a148
1bab2e9e4f4312c92d18436d03e17041ddaa8d23
10901 F20101114_AADGMT taylor_n_Page_86.QC.jpg
9e48d46b56dff4c3ed0ca60716478822
e6437656b55d35f9cb4aa462b2a10cd043188b1f
6685 F20101114_AADGNI taylor_n_Page_60thm.jpg
118cda80f615822404bc2927d3b89488
5c7966b4a50e9e8db7d30c7b7465026edccf196d
19401 F20101114_AADGMU taylor_n_Page_33.QC.jpg
8c5271231f6025c3b77d6af3282c8106
3c5be44dec677a5bb1eb783940885245987e1d73
6850 F20101114_AADGNJ taylor_n_Page_32thm.jpg
7da8746abcbd167619a3179318b30c14
ba29417fc9200e323de60418e5ca4f90595efb53
12227 F20101114_AADGMV taylor_n_Page_63.QC.jpg
c26706c360920a305b9f84cb69fe5d7f
dc9fcb2d3721488491cc076818cf30ca9655de12
19528 F20101114_AADGNK taylor_n_Page_71.QC.jpg
dc4da90c7157058126839492f8553f9a
a229fad30144a9dcdc5f222ca3aa02aa8e5c7626
12976 F20101114_AADGMW taylor_n_Page_82.QC.jpg
f7c5fed43914ef66f718eb5f185641ac
c1479038265325b7fc470a82de4362679d2c0bb2
4851 F20101114_AADGNL taylor_n_Page_05thm.jpg
d827dc0ab15f1dd4382855301b7e7b4f
cd575ff2aae274eaf119665f789db6314db8cd2e
5588 F20101114_AADGMX taylor_n_Page_06thm.jpg
8fd7fae3a46d33a8d07f355b795e1fc4
896bbce85dd29354fd233395c164725d7d3d18f4
2927 F20101114_AADGOA taylor_n_Page_09thm.jpg
faef013e3adf8e9eb61db200cba48879
9f3f4bad5fdc95e8a42495ea612dab37cca2634d
3385 F20101114_AADGNM taylor_n_Page_86thm.jpg
5adb1af4105237acefd3f8e9da668c8e
dacf4ca1ec80b7557f39c5e067c5ceeba02c9cad
9868 F20101114_AADGMY taylor_n_Page_09.QC.jpg
48ce7c7563b4a631f7d6d91c7a0fa79b
571239b249e03037839d25201041a2cd0e0acca6
2895 F20101114_AADGOB taylor_n_Page_26thm.jpg
98c11a34f15971448605ee9b589e59c5
8f2807df8ce4198bdc69918d2da6f76eddb1f0fd
25732 F20101114_AADGNN taylor_n_Page_30.QC.jpg
b169a31e617d7d74ea179e17858a2832
b7f757fd0d81f11fc35cafb419f57d93e869bd49
16206 F20101114_AADGMZ taylor_n_Page_67.QC.jpg
39b43f9add9f0db8b4d53255b237b133
bac84c27619d7b0ea3295a950a53df453c8fe8e8
6892 F20101114_AADGOC taylor_n_Page_13thm.jpg
2ae92b2f57aa7dfb2917069105fff040
acb6ac814cd5d30f632c2e1fc0d6041779b99c39
F20101114_AADGNO taylor_n_Page_49.QC.jpg
b460cc8b686e405eb0370c63e434874a
d510cbf2b3a888d2b4e827e4ab385bedfc31d1ed







HOUSING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND AFFORDABILITY ISSUES AFFECTING
LOW-INCOME RESIDENTS IN GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




















By

NICHOLAS WADE TAYLOR


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































O 2007 Nicholas Wade Taylor


































To my wife and my family.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank Pierce Jones for helping me to set my roots at the University of Florida and giving

me a chance to work with amazing people. I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Kevin

Grosskopf, Dr. Robert Stroh, and all of the faculty and staff at M.E. Rinker School of Building

Construction for their guidance and support. For all of their hard work and dedication to this

proj ect, I would like to thank Bill, Kathy, David, Tara, Amy, and Jim at Gainesville Regional

Utilities Conservation Services. I would like to express my gratitude to Jennison Kipp for

helping to straighten out all the kinks along the way. Lastly, I would like to thank all of the

people who opened their homes to us for the greater good of the Gainesville community.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. ...............4.....


LI ST OF T ABLE S ............. ....._. __ ...............8....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............9.....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 10...


1 INTRODUCTION .............. ...............12....


Proj ect Purpose .........__. ............ ...............12.....
Back ground ........._._.... ...............12..._._.. ......
Research Objectives............... ...............1


2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............. ...............18....


Energy Use. .........__. ............ ...............18.....
Structural ................. ...............18......_._. .....
M echanical ................. ...............20......... ......
Behavioral ......_. ................. ......._._. .........22

D em ographi c ........_................ ............_........2
Current Programs ................. ...............24......... ......


3 METHODS .............. ...............27....


Proj ect Development ................. ...............27..............
Sample Selection .............. ...............27....
Recruitment Survey .............. ...............28....
DEED Survey .............. ...............30....
Data Collection ....._._ ................ ........___..........3
Problems and Solutions .............. ...............32....


4 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS................ ...............36


Typical Participant ................. ...............36........ ......
Initial Analysis............... ...............37
Exclusions ........._... ........... ...............37.....

Secondary Analysis .............. ...............37....

Energy Intensity Significance ................. ...............37..............
Insulation Problems .............. ...............38....

Compact Fluorescent Lighting .............. ...............38....
Dark Roof Color ................. ...............39..............

Refrigerator Coils .............. ...............39....
Hot Water Pipe Insulation .............. ...............39....













Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Leaks ................. .............................39
Weather-stripping ................. ...............40.____.......
W windows ............. ...... ._ ...............40....

HVAC Settings ............. ...... ._ ...............41....
HVAC Filter ............. ...... ._ ...............41....
Attic Access ............. ...... ._ ...............41....

Water Heater Setting .............. ...............42....
Shading ............. ...... ...............42....

Evaporator C oil .............. ...............42....
Conclusions............... ..............4


5 DI SCU SSION ............. ...... ._ ...............48....


Typical Participants .............. ...............48....
People .............. ...............48....
H om es ............. ...... ...............49....

Analytical Results ............. ...... ._ ...............50....
Insulation Problems .............. ...............50....

Compact Fluorescent Lamps .............. ...............50....
Dark Roof Color ............. ...... ._ ...............52....

Refrigerator Coil s .............. ...............53....
Hot Water Pipe Insulation ................ ......... ............5
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Leaks ....._____ ...... ..___ ............__..53
W eather-stripping ............. ...... ._ ...............54....
W indow s ............. ...... ._ ...............55....

HVAC Settings ............. ...... ._ ...............55....
HVAC Filter ............. ...... ._ ...............56....

W ater Heater Setting .............. ...............56....
Shading ............. ...... ...............57....

Evaporator Coil .............. ...............58....
Combined Effect of Results ............. ...... ._ ...............59...

Recent Program s ................... ..__ ...............59....
Low Income Energy Efficiency Program ...._ ......_____ .......___ ...........6
Weatherization for Low-Income .............. ...............60....

Low Interest Loan Program ................. ...............60...___ .....

Compact Fluorescent Giveaway ........._._... .....__ ...............61...
Future .........._.... .. .... ._._. .... ...._. .. .............6

Potential Demand Side Management Program Areas .............. ..... ............... 6
Problem Areas .............. ...............62....
Future Research ........._..._.._ ...............63.._.._._ .....


A RECRUIT MENT MAILING ........._..._.._ ...._._. ...............65....


B DEED IN-HOME QUESTIONNAIRE............... .............6


C GRU ENERGY AUDIT FORM .............. ...............84....













LIST OF REFERENCES ........._.... ....._.. ...............87.....


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............90....












LIST OF TABLES


Table page


3-1: Low-income criteria .............. ...............34....


4-1: Energy efficiency problems based on percentage of survey participants............... ..............4


4-2: Attic insulation problems .............. ...............44....


4-3: Compact fluorescent lamps .............. ...............44....

4-1 1: Dark roof color ................. ...............45.......... ...


4-4: Refrigerator coil s............... ...............45.


4-5: Water pipe insulation............... ...............4

4-6: HVAC leaks............... ...............45.


4-7: Weather-stripping ........._._ ...... .... ...............46...

4-8: Windows............... ...............46


4-9: HVAC settings............... ...............46

4-10: HVAC filter ........._..... ...._... ...............46...


4-11: Attic access ........._..... ...._... ...............47...


4-12: Water heater setting ........._..... ...._... ...............47...


4-13: Shading ........._..... ...._... ...............47...


4-14: Evaporator coil .............. ...............47....


5-1: Demand side management programs for compact fluorescent lamps ........._.._... ........._......64










LIST OF FIGURES


Fiare page

1-1: GIS map created by GRU to show areas of highest energy intensity. ................ ................16

1-2: Map of the Community Development Block Grant areas overlay to show the energy
intense areas as they correlate. ........... ..... .._ ...............17..

2-1: Annual energy end use percentage for North Florida residences as given by the
University of Central Florida' s Florida Solar Energy Center. [21] .............. ................25

2-2: Annual cooling load components .............. ...............26....

4-1: Energy survey sampling and scheduling schematic ................ ...............35........... .

5-1: Central Florida home with mastic roof coating over asphalt shingles. ............. ..................64









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Science

HOUSING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND AFFORDABILITY IS SUES AFFECTING
LOW-INCOME RESIDENTS IN GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
By

Nicholas Wade Taylor

December 2007

Chair: Dr. Kevin Grosskopf
Major: Building Construction

In partnership with administrators from Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) and the

University of Florida' s Program for Resource Efficient Communities (PREC) this proj ect was

designed to help identify and overcome the barriers to delivering energy efficiency services in

the most cost effective manner to low-income residential customers. The purpose of this thesis

was to identify the most significant energy efficiency and subsequent affordability issues

affecting the low-income population in Gainesville, Florida and to address the potential for

demand-side management (DSM) programs that could reduce occupant operations and

maintenance costs, conserve energy resources and protect the environment. A two-fold approach

was taken in data collection including an in-depth, in-home customer questionnaire

supplemented by GRU's standard energy conservation audit. Data analysis compared average

energy intensity, measured in mega-British Thermal Units per 1000 square foot per year, of low-

income customers that exhibit certain efficiency related characteristics with those who do not.

Results of this study show that, for the low-income population in Gainesville, Florida attic

insulation is the largest energy efficiency problem. The information provided in this report will

be useful for identifying housing energy-related deficiencies and identifying DSM products and

services that most cost-effectively reduce energy expenses to low-income consumers. For









utilities, results of this research will assist in energy demand avoidance and reduction of carbon

emissions to the environment and will serve as a basis for future energy efficiency research.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Project Purpose

The purpose of this thesis is to identify the energy efficiency and subsequent affordability

issues affecting the low-income population in Gainesville, Florida. Potential for demand side

management programs that could address these issues as well as the potential costs of retrofits

are secondary obj ectives and will be discussed in Chapter 5.

Background

To gain a better understanding of how diverse GRU' s residential customers are with

respect to their energy use, a 2005 study combined Geographic Information System (GIS) data

with customers' 2004 electric energy use data (measured in average monthly kilowatt-hours per

thousand square feet of conditioned living space) into a color-coded map that displayed where

high-intensity households tend to cluster. Figure 1-1 shows the areas of highest energy intensity

based on kilowatt hours per square foot. Household income eligibility was based on 2005

Housing and Urban Development' s (HUD) Low-Income Criteria for Gainesville, Florida. "Low-

Income" was defined as 80% of the Median Family Income (MFI) which was $53,550 for the

2005 Fiscal Year. Income criteria are also based on the number of residents in the household.

Income eligibility is discussed further in the Methods section.

In examining this map, two important attributes of the customer population were revealed,

both of which motivated GRU to implement an energy survey: First, there was consistency with

GRU billing records indicating that customers in traditionally lower-income neighborhoods

consume, on average, more energy per square foot of household living space (i.e. their "energy

intensity" is higher) than customers in other Gainesville neighborhoods. Second, although

average energy intensity among low-income households is relatively high, some low-income









households also perform relatively well compared to the rest of the low-income household

population (i.e., their energy intensity is relatively low among this population).

There was a profound shift in the results for average customers vs. low-income customers

when total electric energy use is converted to energy intensity. This led GRU to create a study

focused on the service territory areas with high densities of low-income customers and

significant deviations from 'average' energy intensity. The proj ect was designed to use firsthand

data to determine the primary factors contributing to increased energy use and to identify

potential mechanisms appropriate for delivering energy efficiency services to low and Eixed

income Gainesville residents.

Initially, GRU conservation analysts determined low-income areas by making field visits

to these neighborhoods where there were high intensity, red dot clusters and compared these

areas to maps indicating Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) areas. Under the

CDBG housing activities are addressed city wide with income of beneficiaries as the main

determining factor. Infrastructure and public facility improvements are targeted toward Housing

and Urban Development (HUD) low and moderate income neighborhoods within the Gainesville

City limits and to those agencies serving low- and moderate-income clients. In Figure 1-2 the

GRU energy intensity map is overlaid with the Gainesville CDBG map to show the occurrence

of high energy intensity households within the CDBG zones. [29] This was done only as an

indicator of correlation between occurrence of high energy intensity and CDBG zones and was

not the limit of the sample population selection area.

Next, GRU staff interviewed GRU energy conservation representatives who had visited

many of the dwellings in the red-dot cluster areas and asked them to list the factors that they

thought contributed to high bills in these locations. Their responses included a range of potential









factors, from the condition of the building envelope and appliances in the home to the behavior

of residents. At this point in survey development all types of housing, including apartments,

duplexes and detached homes were under consideration. The preliminary list of potential energy

intensity determinants to be investigated in the study included:

* Number of people in the household quite often in low-income areas many individuals
live under the same roof to help reduce costs

* Age and type of structural material used of the dwelling (i.e. wood frame vs. concrete
block)

* Occupancy status (i.e. tenant vs. owner-occupied) little incentive exists for a landlord to
care about energy usage by a tenant, so necessary upgrades to appliances and HVAC
equipment is too often delayed or ignored completely

* Age, condition, and number of appliances- again, potentially tied to the lack of incentive
for absentee landlords to upgrade appliances

* Type of air conditioning/heating and the age of these systems

* Availability of natural gas, which is often a more efficient energy source than electricity

* Lack of tree cover to reduce solar heat gain

* No price signal related to energy use increasing numbers of rental units include utilities
in rent so the occupant never sees the bill or gets the appropriate price signal to modify
behavior

* Lack of knowledge about conservation opportunities and savings

This list was later supplemented after an exhaustive literature review test outlined many other

potential energy determinants.

Given the wide range of factors that are likely to determine energy intensity in low-income

households, GRU decided that the best way to lay the foundation for development of new

conservation programs targeted at these customers was to first learn more about their homes and

households both the structures and the people in them. GRU needed to go beyond billing and

energy use records, into the homes of the customers who are most vulnerable to rising energy









costs and most in need of effective conservation programs. It was in response to this need that

GRU sought funding from the American Public Power Association (APPA) through the

Demonstration of Energy Efficient Developments (DEED) grant and implemented, in

collaboration with the University of Florida' s Program for Resource Efficient Communities

(PREC), a thorough energy survey of low-income customer households in Gainesville.

Research Objectives

To better understand why certain low-income customers perform significantly better than

others in their homes' energy efficiency, the immediate goals of this proj ect were to:

1. Determine maj or structural and soci oeconomi c-b ehavi oral factors that affect resident al
energy use in low-income homes in Gainesville, Florida.

2. Identify necessary cost inputs or behavioral changes to resolve the ten most prevalent
problems, in percentage of respondents, facing low-income Gainesville Regional
Utilities customers





































Figure 1-1: GIS map created by GRU to show areas of highest energy intensity.









































CDBGMHOME Program
Target Areas


4 PearOsl C~ I f*gPoned Su~ts


Figure 1-2. This is the map of the Community Development Block Grant areas overlay to show
the energy intense areas as they correlate.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Energy Use

According to the U. S. Department of Energy' s Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Florida' s per-household consumption of electricity is among the highest in the United States,

largely because the State's hot and humid weather drives up electricity demand for air-

conditioning. Overall Florida' s per household energy use, including all power sources, is 58.9

million BTU while the US average is 94.9 million BTU per household. In 2001 Floridians spent

an average of $1,458 per household on home energy and accounted for 6. 1% of U. S. residential

energy consumption. [30]

Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) is a multi-service utility owned by the City of

Gainesville and is the 5th largest municipal electric utility in Florida. GRU serves Gainesville and

portions of Alachua County, Florida, with electricity, natural gas, water, wastewater, and

telecommunications services and also provides wholesale power to the City of Alachua. The

utility employs over 800 people who help provide one or more of these services to approximately

78,000 residential customers with an annual electric load of 875.3 gigawatt-hours.

Structural

Over the past hundred years residential architecture in Florida has shifted. Earlier homes

were built to passively endure the elements. This meant homes that promoted air movement and

used shade from broad overhangs and trees to reduce ambient temperatures. Most often these

homes were raised floor, wood frame houses with no insulation. A typical example is the Florida

Cracker style architecture. Later homes were built to actively overcome the elements. These

homes were generally built of concrete block on a concrete slab foundation. Forced air air-

conditioning systems and insulation were used to control heat and humidity. Since around the









1970's homes have mainly been constructed with slab-on-grade foundations and insulated wood-

framed walls in northern Florida. Homes are still built this way today and older homes are retro-

fitted with insulation and air-conditioning systems. The integrity of the building envelop is an

important determinant of the heating and cooling load for each type of household. [26] Shell

integrity is a function of the age and type of house, fuel and service types for heating and

cooling, and the environmental conditions to which it is exposed. The sizes of a structure and

wall and floor material are fundamental to energy use. Houses with slab-on-grade floors will be

more efficient than houses with raised wood floors as heat flow between the ground and the slab

moderates home temperature in both summer and winter. Efficiency of differences in wall types

vary based on construction and insulation values. Concrete block walls absorb and store more

heat and therefore, may prevent rapid temperature changes in the home. Wood-frame walls are

generally better insulated but tend to have greater air leakage than concrete block walls. [32] In

addition to the building materials used in the structural envelope, roof color and attic insulation

levels greatly influence the degree to which the interior of a home is protected against excessive

heat gain from solar radiation.

Protecting conditioned interior spaces from the effects of roof solar heat gain is essential to

reducing energy used for cooling. Exterior roof temperatures in Florida can soar to 160oF-170oF

in the mid-summer months. There are several options available for reducing roof solar heat gain

including replacing roofing material with a lighter colored material, painting roofing materials,

or application of light colored, reflective elastomeric roof coating. In a two-year study conducted

by the Florida Solar Energy Center, published in 1994, a Central Florida home with a black

asphalt shingled roof, with no attic insulation and attic ductwork was treated with a reflective









elastomeric roof coating. The change from dark to reflective roof coating resulted in a 43%

decrease in energy required to cool the home. [22]

Attic insulation is one of the largest determinants of energy use. It acts as a barrier to

energy transfer from high temperature attic space to conditioned space. The 2006 supplements to

the Florida Energy Code and Florida Building Code require that R-30 attic insulation be installed

in all new residential construction. [6]

Mechanical

In North Florida's residential housing stock, heating, ventilation and air conditioning

systems typically consume the largest portion of total energy demanded by the home at

approximately 35%. Figure 2-1 shows energy end use by percentage as calculated by the

University of Central Florida' s Energy Gauge program. [7]

With this in mind, it is expected that problems related to mechanical heating,

ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems will increase energy intensity of a home. For

example, improperly sealed ductwork or air-handler closets will cause inefficiencies in HVAC

systems. Conditioned air will not be distributed properly, return air will not be preconditioned,

and the structure will be negatively pressured resulting in outside air infiltration. In a March

2007 report researchers from the Florida Solar Energy Center state that windows in an average

Florida residence account for 30% of the annual cooling load and solar heat gain from the roof

accounts for another 20%. This is illustrated in Figure 2-2. [21]

In the South U.S. Census Region the percentage of homes with central air conditioning

rose by 44 percent from 1978 to 1997. That increase is compounded by an addition of 11 million

homes in the same period. The share of southern homes with central air-conditioning that report

using it "all summer long" was 69 percent and for window/wall air-conditioners 40 percent

reported using it "all summer long". [31] Rented homes, older homes, smaller homes, homes









with no air conditioning, and homes with lower incomes all tend to have fewer ceiling fans

which may indicate that lower income families may resort to more costly and energy intensive

methods of home cooling. [28] It is also worth noting that any energy using devices within the

home, such as it lights, appliances, etc., will not only use energy to operate but will also give off

heat, adding to the load on the air conditioning system. Electricity use (or plug loads) of specific

appliances and devices is supported by hard data tested in a laboratory setting. For instance,

compact fluorescent lamps use considerably less energy than incandescent lamps with the same

light output. Newer, Energy Star rated appliances typically use less energy than older appliances.

Maj or differences in plug loads from household to household are often tied to frequency of use

of these appliances by occupants.

According to information from the Florida Solar Energy Center's 1997 study:

"Simulation analysis suggests that electricity consumption can be reduced up to 40% in
existing Florida homes with judicious use of methods to reduce loads, as well as more
efficient equipment." [20]

The home used in the study was a 1,243 square foot, three bedroom, single-story home that

was selected based on a history of high utility costs. The homes had an uninsulated slab-on-grade

foundation with 8" concrete block walls with R-5 interior insulation on the walls. The study

home' s attic had R-19 blown insulation, limited ventilation, and the roof was covered with black

asphalt shingles. For space conditioning the home contained a 3.5-ton split system air

conditioner with electric strip heat. The indoor air handler unit was located in the unconditioned

garage. The daytime setting for the air conditioning system was normally set to 85oF during

daytime hours using a programmable thermostat.

During the study an attic radiant barrier system, high efficiency HVAC system, high

efficiency refrigerator, high efficiency lighting and additional attic insulation were added. With

an input $6,480, the estimated annual savings from these upgrades was $616 which results in a










payback of just over 10 years. With an initial annual consumption of 20,733 kwh and an annual

savings of 7,265 kwh due to efficiency upgrades, the study home saw a 35% reduction in annual

energy consumption.

Behavioral

Significant differences in energy demand across residential homes are also likely to be tied

to occupants' behavior and energy awareness. How well do customers understand their home's

systems and how to use them effectively? How do customers tend to use energy within their

homes (i.e., what and how intense are the major plug load and HVAC demands)? How can

customers be motivated to pursue more efficient energy use habits or technologies? How

responsive will customers be to new energy efficiency programs? These types of questions along

with what is already know about maj or energy users in Florida homes serve as the foundations

from which the DEED energy survey was developed. Many energy efficiency factors that are

behavioral or knowledge based are associated with routine maintenance. These include things

like cleaning refrigerator coils, changing air filters, scheduling regular HVAC service. According

to GRU energy efficiency data, refrigerators and freezers are among the most significant energy

users in the home. Routine refrigerator maintenance includes cleaning dust and dirt from the

unit' s evaporator coils to insure proper air flow and to allow the unit to cool as efficiently as

possible. Timely replacement and proper installation of HVAC air filters can be an important

factor in the performance of the system. In the short term a clogged air filter will reduce air flow

across the evaporator coil, making the system work harder to cool the home. In the long term an

improperly installed air filter can result in dust and dirt building up on the evaporator coil itself,

again reducing air flow and creating an insulating film around the coil. Scheduling regular

HVAC maintenance service is essential to resolve minor problems before they affect the long-

term performance of the system.










Beyond maintenance issues basic control and use of household appliances and mechanical

equipment can contribute to increased energy use. Proper use of HVAC equipment can insure

economical space conditioning of the home. GRU recommends that HVAC thermostats be set at

78oF while in cooling mode and at 68 oF while in heating mode and cites an energy increase of

up to 4% for every degree set below the cooling recommendation or above the heating

recommendation. In addition, it is recommended that thermostats be adjusted, up during cooling

season or down during heating season, while the home is unoccupied for two or more hours. [26]

Using ceiling fans to increase air circulation can allow home occupants to feel comfortable while

decreasing HVAC use.

Turning off lights, fans, entertainment devices or other appliances while not in use or while

rooms are unoccupied is another method of using behavior to decrease energy use. A similar

approach can be taken to reduce hot water use. This can be done by avoiding washing clothes or

rinsing dishes with hot water, decreasing shower time, or turning off the hot water tap when not

in immediate use. It is estimated that 80% to 85% of energy used to wash clothes is used for

heating water. Adjusting the water heater temperature setting to 120oF will insure that excessive

energy in not being used for water heating. Many, if not all, of the behavioral energy efficiency

issues are based in knowledge of system use and maintenance.

Demographic

Low-income households typically spend a disproportionate amount of their income on

utility bills, and reaching these customers with energy-efficiency improvement programs has

proven more challenging than delivering similar services to higher-income customers. [24] High

energy use and rising utility rates combine to create significant financial burdens for households

constrained by low-incomes: U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) data

indicate that 35 percent of households in Gainesville's municipal service area are housing-cost-









burdened, meaning that they spend 30% or more of their gross income on housing costs, so

addressing the needs of these low-income customers is a critical component of GRU' s

conservation programs [14].

Current Programs

There are currently several programs targeted at low-income energy assistance. The U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services' Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program

(LIHEAP) began in 1982 and was "designed to provide help to low-income households with a

minimum of government bureaucracy and a maximum of involvement by civic institutions [15]."

LIHEAP funds are distributed in Florida by the Division of Housing and Community

Development and in Alachua County by the Central Florida Community Action Agency. The

LIHEAP Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) provides funds for repair or replacement of

inefficient heating and cooling units, windows, doors, and water heaters. They also help to

address air-infiltration issues, install solar screens and install attic insulation and ventilation. To

qualify for assistance household income must not exceed 150% of the HUD low-income level.

The national budget for the LIHEAP program in 2006 was just over two billion dollars which

resulted in 15% of the eligible applicants receiving funds. Beyond LIHEAP the only source of

energy assistance in the Alachua County area is through GRU.

Gainesville Regional Utilities offers energy efficiency upgrade rebates for adding attic

insulation, HVAC maintenance, duct leak repair, and high efficiency air conditioners to name a

few. In addition to GRU' s rebates the federal government offers several efficiency upgrade

rebates. The problem with this type of rebate structure is that low-income customers cannot

afford the initial cost of upgrades. So far there have been few effective low-income energy

assistance programs that were not direct giveaway or weatherization makeover efforts.















Miscellaneous Plug
Load, 13%


Lights, 11%


Stove, 6%


Heating, 15%


Dryer,


Hot Water, 18%


Figure 2-1. Annual energy end use percentage for North Florida residences as given by the
University of Central Florida' s Florida Solar Energy Center. [21]




















lct Leaks/Gains, 22%


Windows, 30%


Appliances, 16%


Roof, 20%


Figure 2-2. Annual Cooling Load Components taken from FSEC "Priorities for Energy
Efficiency for Home Construction in Florida." [21]









CHAPTER 3
METHOD S

Project Development

In July 2005 Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) applied for the American Public Power

Association' s (APPA) Demonstration of Energy-Efficient Developments (DEED) grant to fund

additional research on the topic of energy use in low-income housing. The intent of the research

was to identify the energy efficiency and subsequent affordability issues affecting the low-

income population in Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida' s Program for Resource

Efficient Communities (PREC) started on the project in December 2005 to help develop and

administer the research survey as well as to analyze the forthcoming data. At this point

identification of potential survey participants and development of the initial recruitment

questionnaire began. Because it would not be possible to achieve the DEED research obj ectives

using a survey administered entirely by mail or telephone, the research design led to the

development of two distinct survey instruments: a very brief mail-administered recruiting survey

and an in-depth, in-home energy survey, which was supplemented with GRU's standard

conservation audit form and an appliance checklist.

Sample Selection

The sample population was chosen based on three criteria: income, energy use, and

housing type. The primary criteria used while selecting the research sample was household

income. Household income eligibility was based on 2005 Housing and Urban Development' s

(HIUD) Low-Income Criteria for Gainesville, Florida. "Low-Income" was defined as 80% of the

Median Family Income (MFI) which was $53,550 for the 2005 Fiscal Year. Income criteria are

also based on the number of residents in the household. Table 3-1 shows the upper limits of

household income in relation to household size based on HUD low-income criteria.









After consulting University of Florida' s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

(IFAS) statistical experts it was determined that for the amount of data to be correlated with the

independent variables, statistically significant results could be obtained with a total of 200

participants, including 100 'HL' and 100 'LL'. The households were coded as LL if their

average monthly electric energy intensity in 2005 was less than 454 kWh per 1000 square feet

and were coded as HL if their average monthly electric energy intensity in 2005 was greater than

1096 kWh per 1000 square feet. Information including energy use and conditioned floor area

was retrieved from the GRU customer database. Household income of those to which initial

questionnaires were sent was anticipated based on the home's location and was later verified

with the response given to the initial mailing. The designation of LL and HL groups was

originally intended to create a bimodal comparison between high and low electric energy users

within the low-income sector to identify differences in energy conservation strategies. This was

later changed when participant's natural gas usage was factored in creating a normalized

distribution of energy intensity among the survey sample. This change is discussed further in the

Problems & Solutions section. It was determined that the most appropriate sample population

would be those low-income customers who either own or rent single family, detached residences.

In defining the target population, we opted to recruit only single-family, detached homes as these

have distinct structural characteristics from multi-unit dwellings that affect their energy

performance. The purpose for this was to keep the DEED sample as consistent as possible across

features over which there was some degree of selection control. This also helped to reduce the

required survey sample size needed to provide meaningful results.

Recruitment Survey

On February 17, 2006, recruitment surveys (Appendix A) were distributed to 1000

potential participant households with an anticipated response rate of 20%. These questionnaires









consisted of 4 questions, chosen to qualify households based on the given criteria. The survey

was accompanied by a letter of support and encouragement by City of Gainesville Mayor Pegeen

Hanrahan (Appendix A). Mayor Hanrahan's letter prefaced the recruitment survey to introduce

the goals of the project and explain how interested households could participate. As an incentive

for participation, this letter also informed customers that they would receive three free compact

fluorescent lamps (CFLs). The purpose of the recruiting survey was to invite randomly selected

qualifying households to participate in the in-home energy survey. To verify that households

contacted and scheduled for in-home surveys met HUD's low-income criteria, the mail-

administered survey asked customers two necessary questions about 1) their 2005 gross

household income and 2) the number of people living in their household. Two supplemental

questions gauged respondents' concerns about home energy costs and asked for information

about their current residence tenure. Respondents were asked to share their contact information

(name and phone number, which could be cross-checked with customer records) and the best

time that they could be reached by phone. These components were included so that GRU could

easily follow up to schedule the in-home survey with income-eligible customers. Initially 1000

mailings were sent, including 500 to low energy intensity, low-income (LL) customers and 500

to high energy intensity, low-income (HL) customers. Return service was requested by March 3,

2006. Respondents who indicated a willingness to participate in the in-depth energy survey by

returning the energy survey form were screened for proj ect criteria and were contacted by GRU

staff to schedule survey appointments. Before recruiting surveys were to be sent to new batches

of customers pulled from the low and high energy intensity group database, follow up telephone

calls and replacement surveys (when necessary), were mailed to non-respondents from the

current batch of customers. After receiving and verifying the first round of responses GRU sent









another 3000 mailings, including 2500 to LL customers and 2500 to HL customers. This resulted

in 2497 LL customers and 213 1 HL customers being contacted. A total of 2696 responses were

received including 2075 from the LL category and 1619 from the HL category. Figure 4-1 shows

a schematic of the progression from recruitment to final data collection.

The next step was to contact respondents in order to set appointments for GRU and PREC

staff to administer the surveys. Respondents were contacted between the hours of 8:00am and

7:00pm. After disqualifying customers whose income or contact information was incorrect as

well as those who declined or were unable to participate due to schedule conflicts, a total of 224

surveys were scheduled including 110 LL and 114 HL customers.

DEED Survey

In January 2006 development of the in-home survey instrument began. The in-home

energy surveys were to collect the bulk of data to identify key determinants of energy intensity

among low-income households. This was an extensive survey instrument made up of three core

components: a verbally administered questionnaire developed jointly by GRU and PREC for the

specific purpose of this proj ect (Attachment B), GRU' s standard energy conservation audit form

(Attachment C), and a supplemental GRU appliance checklist. The questionnaire investigated

information about the home as a structure, its occupants and their behavior, heating and cooling

systems, water heating and appliances, lighting, home entertainment systems, and demographics.

Questions were grouped according to subj ect areas which were titled: Information About Your

Home, Keeping Your Home Comfortable, Appliances in Your Home, Lighting in Your Home,

Home Entertainment, and Household Demographics.

Data collected by verbally administering this questionnaire to the respondent were also

supplemented with information recorded by GRU conservation analysts using a standard GRU

Energy Audit form. GRU uses this form as a tool to rapidly assess the integrity of a home's









structure and systems, identify potential interventions to improve its energy efficiency, and give

residents tips for conserving energy and improving the efficiency of their homes. At the

conclusion of the survey an appliance checklist was completed to record accurate counts for the

number of different types of systems, appliances, and other significant energy users in the home.

Each in-home survey was administered by two field interviewers, one administering the

questionnaire and one to complete the inspection audit. Key components of the complete survey

instrument were based on building science and demographic data obtained from the U.S.

Department of Energy' s Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Florida Solar Energy

Center (FSEC) and GRU historical data. The effective term of survey development was four

months, with significant action occurring between December, 2005 and March, 2006. Survey

development was complete in March, 2006 and data collection via in-home surveys began on

April 14, 2006.

Data Collection

Collection of data via implementation of the in home survey began in March, 2006. A

survey session consisted of two surveyors, one GRU auditor and one person to administer the

questionnaire, who spent approximately 90 minutes in a participant' s home collecting data. The

survey administrator would sit to talk with the participant about the various items covered in the

questionnaire survey (see Appendix B) while the GRU auditor inspects physical features of the

home as outlined in the GRU Energy Audit Form (see Appendix C). During the questionnaire

portion of the survey any physical features of the home that were readily apparent were noted by

the administrator and verified with the home owner. These would have include items such as

wall, flooring, and foundation type, roof structure, material, and color, window and door types,

and lighting types. Any questionnaire items that were not readily discernable or that related to

behavior were noted per the participant's response. After both the questionnaire survey









administrator and the GRU auditor had finished data collection the GRU auditor would explain

the findings of home inspection audit. Participants were given tips and suggestions on how to

improve the efficiency of their homes and how to lower their monthly bills. Data collection

ended in September, 2006 which resulted in 169 full, eligible surveys completed.

Problems and Solutions

During the course of this study from the planning stages to the analysis and reporting

several complications arose, none of which were insurmountable, but each of which altered the

original proj ect plan to some extent. Some of the problems are typical in survey research, while

others were a result of unexpected administrative or staffing constraints.

First, GRU faced delays when trying to implement the second portion of the recruiting

survey: while the ideal follow-up to a mail-administered recruiting survey occurs immediately

after receipt of respondents' information, there was a fair amount of lag time between these two

events due to unavoidable staffing complications. GRU considered hiring professional survey

research staff to conduct the scheduling phase of the survey, but these services were not available

within GRU' s budget and timeline constraints. As a result, GRU and PREC combined efforts

across staff assigned to the proj ect and although initiation of the in-home surveys was delayed,

over 200 surveys in total were successfully scheduled.

Second, because GRU staff could administer the in-home surveys only during weekday

business hours, customer participation rates were lower than expected and the in-home surveys

took longer to complete than had originally been anticipated. Because GRU was more concerned

with collecting a sufficient amount of valid data than about collecting a limited amount of data in

a short period of time, the sampling and data collection phases of the proj ect were extended until

a sufficient number of surveys were completed.









An unexpected complication that was perhaps the most onerous in its effect was that the

original energy intensity measures to which the survey was tailored were inherently incomplete

measures of household energy use. From the beginning of the proj ect well into the data analysis

phase, GRU considered differences across high and low energy intensity customers as defined by

kilowatt-hour demand per thousand square feet of conditioned space. While GRU was aware

through the course of survey development that this measure accounted for electrical demand

only, the practical ramifications of this were not realized until preliminary data analysis revealed

that the most important determinant of 'high' vs. 'low' energy users was the type of space

heating and water heating systems used in the homes. GRU attempted to correct this by

comparing energy intensities only across high and low electric-only users, but this strategy

effectively decreased the sample size by two-thirds. A better strategy, GRU decided, was to

extract, for all of the customers who participated in the DEED survey, data on their natural gas

usage over the same period of time for which kWh usage data had been extracted, merge these

two data sets, and convert both energy measures into the common denominator of British

Thermal Units, or BTUs. Once this was done, the energy intensity distribution of the DEED

sample changed from bimodal to normal, so the analysis itself had to be modified as well.











Table 3-1: HUD 2005 Gainesville, FL MSA Low-Income Criteria


Household Size Low-Income
(number of residents) (80% MFI*)

1 $30,000
2 $34,300
3 $38,600
4 $42,900
5 $46,300
6 $49,750
7 $53,150
8 $56,600


*Fiscal Year 2005 Median Family Income (MFI) = $53,550





Figure 4-1: Energy Survey Sampling and Scheduling Schematic


2075 n ,l-


__~
C
1619~
En;~j II

1LI II-i


2497 112131

..1, j=r II,.1 I.1 t=1rII,









CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Typical Participant

Participants were selected based on several criteria. All were HU7D defined low-income

households, living in single-family, detached residences. After the selection of participants,

several common characteristics were identified:

81% of the sample population own the homes in which they live. Over 63% have

been at their residence for at least 5 years.

76% of the homes were reported to be constructed over 20 years ago. The average

number of occupants in each of the surveyed homes was 2.5 persons.

43% of the homes were occupied by senior citizens and 32% had children living in

the home.

66% of the sample population said that they spent most of the day at home. This

group included both those who are retired and those who work from home. On

average the sample population spent just over 10 hours per day using entertainment

devices such as televisions, radios, computers, or video games within the home.

70% of the homes were built on slab-on-grade foundations and 63% had concrete

block walls.

74% said that they were "Very Concerned" about their energy use and 54% had

made changes to decrease their energy use within the last year.

86% reported that they did not know of any programs to assist with making

efficiency changes.









Initial Analysis

Initially a basic statistical analysis was performed to identify repairable energy efficiency

issues in the home using simple percentages. These percentages were plotted to show frequency

within the survey population. Starting with the issues seen in the highest percentage of surveyed

homes, the pooled variance and the Student' s t-values were found in order to determine the

significance of differences in average energy intensity between groups exhibiting and free of

each efficiency issue. Table 4-1 shows the frequency of energy efficiency problems within the

sample population. The criteria for these will be discussed briefly below and will be further

reviewed in the Chapter 5.

Exclusions

Issues such as structural features and age of the home were not included as a repairable

item. While these issues certainly affect the energy intensity of a home they are not readily

repairable and are beyond the scope of demand-side management practices. Several of these

issues are addressed in Chapter 5 in order to give a general description of the sample population.

Secondary Analysis

Energy Intensity Significance

Descriptive statistical analysis was performed with respondents grouped based on the

presence or absence of energy efficiency issues. Mean, standard error, standard deviation,

sample variance, and sample size were calculated for each group. The pooled variance and

Student' s t-value were calculated to determine the significance of the difference between the

average energy intensities in homes with and homes without energy efficiency problems. Tables

4-2 to 4-16 show the values for each group.

Energy intensity as used in this analysis was measured in millions of British Thermal Units

per one thousand square feet of conditioned floor space (MMBTU/sf). The measure of BTUs










was found by converting each customer' s total 2005 natural gas therm and electric kilowatt

usage.

Insulation Problems

Homes exhibiting insulation problems accounted for 91.7% of the survey population.

Problems with insulation include homes with less than R-30 insulation or areas of reduced

insulation due to uneven distribution. Insulation levels were visually inspected by the GRU

energy auditor and were based on the insulation thickness as it relates to average R-value of the

particular insulation type. For example, loose fill cellulose has an insulation value of R-3.7 per

inch while fiberglass batt insulation has a value of R-3.3 per inch of thickness and rock wool has

an accepted value of R-3.7 per inch of thickness. [29] During the analysis R-30 was used as a

baseline as this is the minimum standard for attic insulation per the Florida Building Code. [6]

The mean energy intensity of the group with attic insulation problems was 5.6 IVINBTU/1000sf

while the mean for those with proper insulation was 3.6. The calculated Student' s t-value, 8.68,

indicates that these average energy intensity values are significantly different at the 95% level of

confidence.

Compact Fluorescent Lighting

During administration of the DEED questionnaire participants were asked about the extent

to which they use CFLs in their homes. Of the survey population 78.7% don't use any compact

fluorescent lamps (CFL) for their home lighting. In order to determine the potential gain that

could be made by maximizing use of CFLs a comparison was made between those using no

CFLs and those using 75%-100% CFL lighting. The mean of the energy intensity of those who

do not use compact fluorescent lamps was 4.3 5 M1VBTU/1000sf while those who use greater

than 75% CFLs have an average energy intensity of 3.64 IVINBTU/1000sf. The resulting









Student' s t-value was 2. 14 indicating that these average energy intensity values are significantly

different at the 95% level of confidence.

Dark Roof Color

When examined by the survey administrator 62.1% of surveyed homes had dark, either

red, brown or black, roofs. The mean energy intensity for those who had a dark roof was 4.63

MMBTU/1000sf while those whose roof was either white or light gray were at 3.63

MMBTU/1000sf. The calculated Student' s t-value, 6.50, indicates that these average energy

intensity values are significantly different at the 95% level of confidence.

Refrigerator Coils

Upon visual inspection by the GRU energy auditor 60.9% of the survey population had an

unacceptable amount of buildup of dust on the condenser coils of the refrigerator. The mean

energy intensity for those who had dirty refrigerator was 4.7 MMBTU/1000sf while those

without were at 3.7 MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value was 6.62 indicating that the mean

energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different at the 95% confidence level.

Hot Water Pipe Insulation

Upon visual inspection by the GRU energy auditor 53.8% of the survey population needed

additional insulation on hot water pipes to reduce heat loss of water in transit and to maintain the

desired temperature of water as it leaves the water heater. The mean energy intensity for those

who needed additional water pipe insulation was 4.4 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not

were at 4.2 MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value was 1.25 which did not meet a 95% level of

confidence that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different.

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Leaks

Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) leaks include any leaks within the force

air system and were physically tested by GRU energy auditor. Many of these leaks (34%) were










within the ductwork while additional leaks were found in the air handler plenum and trunk line

sections. Overall 49.7% of the sample population was found to have leakage in the forced air

HVAC system. The mean energy intensity for those who had HVAC leaks was 4.51

MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not have leaks were at 4. 11 MMBTU/1000sf. The

Student' s t-value was 2.6 indicating that the mean energy intensity values differed significantly

at the 95% confidence level.

Weather-stripping

Over 45.0% of the sample population was found to be in need of additional weather-

stripping around doors, windows, and other openings in the building envelope. This conclusion

was based on visual inspection by the GRU auditor. The mean energy intensity for those who

needed additional weather-stripping was 4.52 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not were at

4. 14 MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value was 2.46 indicating that the mean energy intensities

are significantly different at the 95% confidence level.

Windows

It was found that 3 5.5% of the sample population had maj or problems with their windows

that affect the homes energy use. Problems affecting efficiency ranged from windows that did

not close properly to those with broken or missing panes. Windows that did not close properly

were those that could not be fixed simply using weather-stripping. This category included all

homes with jalousie windows, as they do not provide an adequate seal to prevent the movement

of air and moisture. GRU auditor both visually and physically inspected windows within the

survey homes. The mean energy intensity for those who window problems was 4.73

MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not were at 4.07 MMBTU/1000sf. The calculated

Student' s t-value, 4.05, indicates that these average energy intensity values are significantly

different at the 95% level of confidence.









HVAC Settings

From the DEED questionnaire it was found that 33.7% of the sample population does not

adjust their HVAC setting when leaving the home for more than 3 hours. This was asked of

participants for both heating and cooling season settings. The mean energy intensity for those

who did not adjust their HVAC settings while away from their homes was 4.46 MMBTU/1000sf

while those who did were at 4.23 MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value was 1.43 which did not

meet a 95% level of confidence that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are

significantly different.

HVAC Filter

Upon visual inspection by the GRU auditor and participant response to the DEED

questionnaire it was found that 32% of the survey population has not regularly replaced their

HVAC Eilter. The mean energy intensity for those who had dirty HVAC Eilters was 4.27

MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not were at 4.33 MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value

was 0.3 5 which did not meet a 95% level of confidence that the mean energy intensities of the

two groups are significantly different.

Attic Access

Upon visual inspection by the GRU auditor and participant response to the DEED

questionnaire it was found that 27.2% of the survey population does not have insulation on the

interior attic access panel of their home. The mean energy intensity for those who had insulation

on the attic access panel was 4. 15 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not were at 4.73

MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value was 3.56 which indicates a 95% level of confidence that

the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different.









Water Heater Setting

Over 20.0% of the sample population was found to have their water heater setting above

the recommended temperature of 120 oF. This conclusion was based on visual inspection by the

GRU auditor. The mean energy intensity for those whose setting was at or below 120 oF was

4.09 MMBTU/1000sf while those whose setting was above 120 oF had an average intensity of

5.14 MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value was 6. 12 indicating that the mean energy intensities

are significantly different at the 95% confidence level.

Shading

Upon visual inspection by the GRU energy auditor 19.5% of the survey population needed

additional shading to reduce solar heat gain on the south facing side of their homes. The mean

energy intensity for those who needed shading was 4.69 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did

not were at 4.22 MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value was 2.71 which corresponds with 95%

level of confidence that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different.

Evaporator Coil

Upon visual inspection by the GRU energy auditor 13% of the survey population had an

unacceptable amount of buildup of dust on the HVAC evaporator coil. The mean energy

intensity for those who had a dirty evaportator coil was 5.09 MMBTU/1000sf while those

without were at 4. 19 MMBTU/1000sf. The Student' s t-value was 5.49 indicating that the mean

energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different at the 95% confidence level.

Conclusions

The top energy efficiency issues that have been identified among the sample population

have shown varying degrees of statistical significance. Issues of insulation problems, CFL use,

roof color, dirty refrigerator coils, HVAC leaks, weather-stripping, problems with windows,

unisulated attic access, water heater settings, lack of shading, and HVAC evaporator coil









maintenance all show a 95% level of confidence in the difference between the means in energy

intensity of those with and without the undesirable characteristic. HVAC settings, water pipe

insulation, and HVAC filter issues did not meet a 95% level of confidence. Factors that affect

these results and potential for demand side management programs will be discussed in Chapter 5.













Insulation Problems 91.7%
Don't Use CFLs 78.7%
Dark Roof Color 62.1%
Dirty Refrigerator Coils 60.9%
Need Insulation on HW Pipes 53.8%
HVAC Leaks 49.7%
Need Weather-strippng 45.0%
Problems With Windows 35.5%
Don't Adjust While Away 33.7%
Dirty HVAC Filter 32.0%
Uninsulated Attic Access 27.2%
Water Heater Set Too Hig 20.7%
Need Additional Shading 19.5%
HVAC Evaporator Coil Dirty 13.0%


Table 4-2: Attic Insulation Problems
Insulation N~o Problems Problems
91.7%
Mean 3.57 Mean 5.60
Standard Error 0.68 Standard Error 0.21
Standard Deviation 2.54 Standard Deviation 2.64
Sample Variance 6.43 Sample Variance 6.99
Count 14 Count 155
Sx2 0.05
t 8.68

Table 4-3: Compact Fluorescent Lamps
CFLs Don't Use Use 75%-100% CFLs
78.7%
Mean 4.35 Mean 3.64
Standard Error 0.17 Standard Error 1.24
Standard Deviation 1.96 Standard Deviation 2.14
Sample Variance 3.84 Sample Variance 4.58
Count 133 Count 3
Sx2 0.11
t 2.14


Table 4-1: Energy Efficiency Problems based on percentage of survey participants.


Energy Efficiency Problem


Percent of homes











Table 4-11:. Dark Roof Color
Dark Roof Color Dark N~ot Dark
62.1%
Mean 4.63 Mean 3.63
Standard Error 0.20 Standard Error 0.22
Standard Deviation 2.10 Standard Deviation 1.68
Sample Variance 4.40 Sample Variance 2.83
Count 105 Count 58
Sx2 0.02
t 6.50


Table 4-4: Refrigerator Coils
Refrigerator Coils Clean Dirty
60.9%
Mean 3.70 Mean 4.70
Standard Error 0.21 Standard Error 0.20
Standard Deviation 1.71 Standard Deviation 2.08
Sample Variance 2.94 Sample Variance 4.33
Count 66 Count 103
Sx2 0.02
t 6.62


Table 4-5: Water Pipe Insulation
HW Pipe Insulation Doesn 't N~eed N~eeds
53.8%
Mean 4.20 Mean 4.40
Standard Error 0.23 Standard Error 0.21
Standard Deviation 2.05 Standard Deviation 1.97
Sample Variance 4.18 Sample Variance 3.88
Count 78 Count 91
Sx2 0.02
t 1.25

Table 4-6: HVAC Leaks
HVAC Leaks N~o Leaks Leaks
49.7%
Mean 4.11 Mean 4.51
Standard Error 0.23 Standard Error 0.20
Standard Deviation 2.17 Standard Deviation 1.81
Sample Variance 4.69 Sample Variance 3.28
Count 85 Count 84
Sx2 0.02
t 2.60











Table 4-7: Weather-stripping
Weather-stripping Doesn 't Ieed N~eeds
45.0%
Mean 4.14 Mean 4.52
Standard Error 0.20 Standard Error 0.24
Standard Deviation 1.90 Standard Deviation 2.11
Sample Variance 3.61 Sample Variance 4.46
Count 93 Count 76
Sx20.02
t 2.46

Table 4-8: Windows
Wind ows N~o Problems Problems
35.5%
Mean 4.07 Mean 4.73
Standard Error 0.18 Standard Error 0.29
Standard Deviation 1.83 Standard Deviation 2.24
Sample Variance 3.35 Sample Variance 5.02
Count 106 Count 60
Sx2 0.03
t 4.05


Table 4-9: HVAC Settings
HVAC Settings Adjust While Away Don 't Adjust While Away
33.7%
Mean 4.23 Mean 4.46
Standard Error 0.19 Standard Error 0.26
Standard Deviation 2.03 Standard Deviation 1.94
Sample Variance 4.13 Sample Variance 3.78
Count 112 2q 57
Sx2 0.02
t 1.43

Table 4-10: HVAC Filter
HVAC Filter N~ot Dirty Dirty
32.0%
Mean 4.33 Mean 4.27
Standard Error 0.20 Standard Error 0.22
Standard Deviation 2.17 Standard Deviation 1.59
Sample Variance 4.73 Sample Variance 2.51
Count 115 Count 54
Sx2 0.02
t 0.35











Table 4-11: Attic Access
Attic Access Insulated N~ot Insulated
27.2%
Mean 4.15 Mean 4.73
Standard Error 0.18 Standard Error 0.28
Standard Deviation 2.02 Standard Deviation 1.90
Sample Variance 4.09 Sample Variance 3.62
Count 123 Count 46
Sx2 0.03
t 3.56

Table 4-12: Water Heater Setting
Water Heater Setting <120 OF >1200F
20.7%
Mean 4.09 Mean 5.14
Standard Error 0.17 Standard Error 0.34
Standard Deviation 1.94 Standard Deviation 2.04
Sample Variance 3.76 Sample Variance 4.16
Count 134 Count 35
Sx2 0.03
t 6.12


Table 4-13: Shading
Shading Have Adequate Shading N~eed Additional Shading
19.5%
Mean 4.22 Mean 4.69
Standard Error 0.17 Standard Error 0.35
Standard Deviation 1.99 Standard Deviation 2.01
Sample Variance 3.98 Sample Variance 4.05
Count 136 Count 33
Sx2 0.03
t 2.71


Table 4-14: Evaporator Coil
Evaporator Coil N~ot Dirty Dirty
13.0%
Mean 4.19 Mean 5.09
Standard Error 0.17 Standard Error 0.30
Standard Deviation 2.05 Standard Deviation 1.42
Sample Variance 4.21 Sample Variance 2.03
Count 147 Count 22
Sx2 0.03
t 5.49









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The low-income energy efficiency survey conducted by Gainesville Regional Utilities

(GRU) and the University of Florida' s Program for Resource Efficient Communities (PREC)

with funding from the American Public Power Association' s (APPA) Demonstration of Energy

Efficient Developments (DEED) has resulted in an unprecedented collection of data concerning

the low-income population of Gainesville.

Typical Participants

To discuss the potential cause of energy efficiency issues that were found in the results and

potential solutions to these issues, it is necessary to first describe the typical survey participant.

Participants for the survey were selected based on several criteria. Selected households met the

Housing and Urban Development' s (HUD) low-income guidelines. (see Table 3-2) Additionally,

only those low-income customers living in single family, detached residences were selected in

order to limit confounding factors that would come from comparing apartments to houses.

People

It was found that 81% of the sample population own the homes in which they live and over

63% have been at there current residence for at least five years. Long tenure and ownership of

the residence would indicate that there is incentive for investment in energy efficiency upgrades.

The longer the tenure at the residence the greater chance of seeing a return on money used for

energy efficiency upgrades. For those who rent or those who are short term residents this type of

investment may not make financial sense as they may not see a return on their investment.

The occupancy of a home meaning those who reside in the home and the amount of time

spent in the home effect the amount of energy used in the home. For our survey 43% of the

homes were occupied by senior citizens and 66% of the survey population said that they spend










most of an average day at home. This group would include those who are retired or disabled,

those who stay at home with children and those who work from home. On average our sample

population spent just over ten hours per day using entertainment devices such as televisions,

radios, or computers within the home. The high percentage of participants that do not work,

including retirees, the disabled, and stay-at-home parents, with energy efficiency problems

indicate that not only low-income but fixed low-income may hamper attempts at efficiency

investment.

As could be predicted 74% of the survey population said that they were "Very Concerned"

about their energy use. When asked 54% reported that they had made either structural,

mechanical or behavioral changes to reduce their energy use within the past year. These changes

ranged from adding attic insulation to replacing HVAC equipment to making more of an effort to

turn off lights when not being used. Concern over energy use has most likely been bolstered as

energy prices have risen. Over half of the survey population claimed to have made various

changes to reduce energy use which may be infer openness to efficiency suggestions. With this

in mind, 86% reported that they did not know of any programs to assist with making energy

efficiency changes. This statistic may seem astonishing at first but begins to make sense after

considering that internet, phone, and transportation access may be limited among a low-income

population such as our survey sample.

Homes

Structural properties of a home are considered a primary determinant of energy use.

Beyond the selection criteria of single family, detached homes we found that 63% of the homes

were of concrete block construction with 70% on slab-on-grade foundations. Considering

structural age as a factor, 76% of the homes were greater than twenty years old. The age of the

home can generally be linked with the insulation levels and types of windows that were










originally installed. Unless these upgrades have been made these homes will exhibit the same

insulative properties while air condition use has risen.

Analytical Results

Insulation Problems

It is no surprise that issues with attic insulation were found at the most prevalent energy

efficiency problem facing the low-income survey population. With most of the homes being

older, the level of insulation that was used during construction was most likely minimal. Many of

these homes may have been constructed before the Florida Energy Code became effective in

1979. The importance of proper attic insulation cannot be overstated. In our survey population

we found that nearly 92% of the households had inadequate attic insulation. This means that the

home either had less than R-30 insulation, as outlined in the Florida Building and Energy Codes,

or insulation was unevenly distributed creating "hot-spots" of thinner insulation. It is also not

surprising that the population with attic insulation problems had an average energy intensity of

more than 50% higher than those with proper attic insulation. It is worthy of mentioning that

nearly 20% of the survey population had no attic insulation. With the high cost associated with

adding attic insulation it is no wonder why low-income households have not been more active in

upgrading. Price estimates for upgrading vary from source to source. The RS Means

Construction Cost Index indicates a price of $2, 13 8 for the addition of R-30, blown- in, cellulose

insulation in the Gainesville area while a local contractor quoted a price of $1,400 for the same

upgrade. Understandably, the return on investment would be faster and greater for those with

lower insulation levels.

Compact Fluorescent Lamps

The use of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) is one of the most inexpensive and effective

strategies for energy savings yet we found that only 21% of our sample population used them. To









clarify, this means that they used at least one CFL in their home. Our statistical analysis showed

significantly lower energy intensity for those who use CFLs. So, why are the other 79% not

using CFLs? While CFLs have been on the market for some time, they are a new idea to many.

The different shape of the lamp as well as the relatively high purchase price may have kept them

out of homes. For those who have not seen or do not understand the lifecycle costs associated

with using CFLs versus standard incandescent lamps, CFLs probably seem expensive. The U.S.

Department of Energy' s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Consumer' s Guide quotes the

initial cost of one 27-watt CFL at $14 with a lifetime savings of $62.95 over 4.5 years. To low-

income households this may seem like a long term investment. How can utilities best bring CFLs

to the low-income community. [29] [34]

KEMA-XENERGY, a national energy consulting, information technology, and energy

services firm, evaluated the maj or CFL program delivery mechanisms by analyzing the results of

a survey conducted with 2001 CFL program participants. The results of this survey were

compared based on the utility's cost per lamp and the installation rate, or how many were

actually installed. There were four types of programs evaluated, all with their own strengths and

weaknesses. Table 5-1 is a table taken from the case study outlining the outcome of the research.

[34]

From this research we can determine that the best market strategy for Gainesville Regional

Utilities to target the general population may be a reduced-price program as it provides the best

market sustainability at the lowest cost. In order to target their low-income customers it may be

best to use a door-to-door giveaway method in order to maximize impacts while reaching their

target audience. Recently GRU has created several programs to promote the use of compact









fluorescent lamps and is working to tailor these programs to meet the needs of the Gainesville

community.

Dark Roof Color

The color of a home' s roof has a direct effect on the roof temperature and the amount of

solar radiation absorbed by the home. Our survey results show that 62% of the population had

darker colored, mostly asphalt shingled, roofs ranging in color from dark red to black. This in

combination with the commonality of insulation problems among the sample population sets up

a situation where solar heat gain has a significant negative effect on air-conditioning efficiency.

The effective solution to this problem, to lighten the roof color, is simple while the means

to that end can become complicated and expensive. Residential roofs can be replaced with white

shingles, tiles, or metal roof decking. Asphalt shingles are a very economic roofing choice, and

have a large share of the market, including most houses with sloping roofs. According to the RS

Means 2006 Cost Index, replacing a 2000 square foot roof with white asphalt shingles would

cost about $2,075 including shingles and underlayment. [17] Another choice for increasing roof

solar reflectance is to coat the roof with a reflective material. White roof mastic can be applied

directly over shingles to decrease solar heat gain. A 1994 study by the Florida Solar Energy

Center (FSEC) reports a solar reflectance of 0.73 after the application of a roof mastic material

while white asphalt shingles have an reflectance of 0.21 [22] Tests showed that the addition of

white mastic coating to an asphalt singled roof where there was no attic insulation and the

HVAC ductwork was located in the attic resulted in a 19% energy savings and a 22% decrease in

peak electricity demand. The cost of white roof mastic is nearly 85 cents per square foot

resulting in a material cost of $1,700 for a 2000 square foot roof. Manufacturers of these roof

coatings tout this as a do-it-yourself proj ect. It can also be noted that mastic roof coatings

increase the longevity of asphalt shingles and increase hurricane resistance. Faced with the task









of decreasing roof solar heat gain a program that would help homeowners to purchase mastic

roof coating seems like the best option. Figure 5-1 shows a Central Florida home after the

application of mastic roof coating over asphalt shingles.

Refrigerator Coils

As the third largest user of energy within the home, attention to refrigerator maintenance,

including cleaning the condenser coils and checking door seals, should be a priority. It was found

that 61% of the survey population had excessive buildup of dust and dirt on their refrigerator' s

condenser coils. Among the survey participants those with dirty refrigerator coils had

significantly higher energy intensity. Since cleaning refrigerator coils can be done with no

expensive materials or equipment the only reason for this percentage to be so high is lack of

knowledge about refrigerator maintenance.

Hot Water Pipe Insulation

Water heaters are second on the list of residential energy users. Any inefficiency in the

system will have an effect on energy consumption. As part of the hot water supply system pipes

must be insulated to prevent heat loss. In our study we found that 53% of the survey population

had portions of hot water pipe that needed insulation. While there was increased energy intensity

among those who needed insulation it did not reach a 95% confidence level. The cost of adding

insulation to hot water pipes is minimal and supplies can be purchased at local hardware stores

and can be applied with no special training. In order to address this issue demand side

management programs must address homeowner knowledge of potential inefficiencies.

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Leaks

Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems account for the largest portion of

residential energy use in Florida. According to Florida Solar Energy Center inefficiencies in the

ductwork portion of the HVAC system account for 22% of the total annual cooling load. [21]









Within our low-income survey population almost 50% of the homes had noticeable leakage in

the forced air system, which includes the ductwork, plenum, and trunk lines. It comes as no

surprise that these homes had significantly higher energy intensity. Problems of leakage can all

be attributed to improper installation, degradation, or disturbance. Installation issues will

generally occur where ductwork is improperly connected or where ductwork is hung in such a

manner that excessive stress in put on connections. Degradation of joint connection materials

may also occur resulting in leakage. Many times paper tape that was used years ago to connect

ductwork has degraded due to high attic temperatures and humidity. Perhaps the most likely

cause of duct leakage is disturbance by either people or animals. Often ductwork is disturbed by

those working in attic space. This is especially true in homes will smaller attic spaces. Attic

space used for storage also presents a case were ductwork can easily be disturbed. According to

information from a pilot duct repair program by GRU the average cost of duct repair is $422.20

and it results in a 5.2% overall reduction in energy use. This means that the average payback for

duct repair is 3.6 years. [12] The initial cost of duct repair may be outside of the reach of most

low-income families but with assistance could be an alternative for our survey sample as most

were long tenure residents who would receive a return on their investment. GRU currently offers

a duct repair rebate of up to $375 for work done by an approved contractor. Unfortunately the

upfront cost may be more than most low-income customers can afford.

Weather-stripping

According to FSEC, outside air infiltration accounts for 6% of the total annual cooling load

for Florida residences. [12] Addition of weather-stripping around doors, windows and other

openings can help to reduce infiltration and cooling load. Over 45% of our sample population

exhibited significant energy efficiency problems that could be repaired by using weather-

stripping. Most often doors and windows are installed with weather-stripping to prevent air









infiltration around edges. Over time degradation of the material or simple wear and tear causes

the original weather stripping to loose its integrity. Although replacing weather-stripping is

generally cheap and easy, choosing the correct product for each application can be tough. If the

weather-stripping is too large, doors and windows may not close properly. If the weather-

stripping is too small, it may be insufficient to close the gap. Also, if the improper material is

chosen degradation may occur more rapidly. For a demand side management program to

properly address the issue of weather-stripping and weatherization increasing homeowner

knowledge must be the focal point.

Windows

Building science data shows that a homes windows account for 30% of its cooling load.

[21] When windows have degraded to the point that they no longer close properly their cooling

load can be compounded by air infiltration. Over 3 5% of the sample population had problems

with windows that made them inadequate. It is understandable that among this population energy

intensity was significantly higher. The cost of replacing windows is highly variable and depends

on the size, quantity, and type of windows to be used. The RS Means Construction Cost Index

indicates a cost of $158 per window installed for double pane, double hung, vinyl windows. This

figure does not account for removal and disposal of old windows. At this price replacing

windows throughout a home will cost thousands of dollars. While the upfront costs are high,

return on investment in both energy and comfort likely appeal to the long tenured survey group.

HVAC Settings

Home comfort as described by a thermostat setting varies greatly from home to home

although most utilities recommend 78oF for summer cooling and 68oF for winter heating. In any

case it is recommended that you adjust your setting to lower energy use while away from the

home for more than two hours. In our study we found that almost 34% of participating









households did not adjust their HVAC settings while they were away from home. Though the

difference in energy intensity was only significant at a 90% level of confidence building science,

and common sense, shows that the longer the HVAC system runs the more energy it will use.

Many customers may be fooled by the myth that it takes less energy to maintain the homes

temperature than it does to re-cool or re-heat the home later. This is clearly untrue. Utility

companies could benefit greatly from creating education DSM programs to counteract this

problem as it would reduce peak electricity demand.

HVAC Filter

Proper maintenance of a home's HVAC system keeps it running as efficiently as possible.

There are many problems that can befall heating and cooling systems but the most common one

is reduced airflow across the evaporator coil. This happens when there are blockages in the

forced air system such as crushed or clogged ductwork, dust, dirt, or mildew build up on the

condenser coil, or when an air filter is clogged. Most often it is the latter. We found that 32% of

our sample population had excessively dirty air filters. While those household had, on average,

higher energy intensities the difference was not significant. The most likely explanation of this is

that those household do change their air filters, just not as often as they should. This would mean

that having just changed the filter the system would be on par with other study households. Once

the filter became clogged the energy use would increase until the next change. The cost of

replacement air filters is nominal; usually less than $15 for a three month filter. Effective

demand side management programs to counteract this issue would be centered on homeowner or

occupant knowledge and behavior.

Water Heater Setting

In North Florida residences, water heating accounts for 18% of the total energy use. [7] In

older, less efficient water heaters much of the energy is used to maintain water temperature in the









tank. It is recommended that water heaters be set no higher than 120oF in order to avoid excess

energy use. For almost 21% of the survey population a simple adjustment to lower their water

heater setting could result in a significant decrease in energy consumption. This behavioral based

energy efficiency issue could best be attended to by DSM programs that focus on increasing

home occupant knowledge of mechanical systems.

Shading

With windows, walls, and roof accounting for as much as 55% of a home's cooling load,

solar heat gain can be a large burden on Florida homes. [21] To maximize energy efficiency it is

essential to provide adequate shading. The primary way to decrease solar heat gain in residential

areas is to maximize shading by trees. Ideally, tree canopy is taken into account during the

planning stage of residential development. If not trees must be strategically planted in order to

increase shading. As can be imagined the timescale on which this type of measure works is based

on the amount of input that can be afforded. A small tree will cost less but will take longer to

grow. A large tree will cost more but will provide more immediate results. Although tree shading

may be the most effective means of reducing solar heat gain there are other alternatives. One

relatively inexpensive way is to cover windows with heat control film.

Solar control window film is applied to the inside of a window where it reflects radiation

and creates an additional insulating layer. According to product specifications a window film can

help to reflect up to 55% of radiational heat during the summer, retain up to 45% of indoor heat

during the winter, and reduce UV light penetration by up to 99%. Window films can be

purchased at local hardware stores and can be easily installed. Films are available for around $30

for a 3ft. by 15ft. roll which will cover three 3ft. by 4ft. windows. This comes to around $10 per

window treated. One distinct advantage of this approach to reducing solar heat gain through

windows is that, unlike the use of curtains or blinds, the daytime lighting that is provided by









windows is preserved. Solar screens are also available but are more expensive and are generally

professionally installed.

In order to reduce solar heat gain on walls without increasing shading it is necessary to

increase solar reflectance. This can be done by using lighter colors on the exterior of the home.

The concepts are much the same as previously discussed regarding roof solar heat gain while the

process of painting exterior siding is easier and less expensive.

In addition to decreasing direct solar heat gain on the structure itself tree shade can reduce

ambient temperatures around the home lessening the effects of outside air infiltration and heat

exchange through the building envelope. A 1997 study published in the j journal Energy and

Buildings estimates the total energy saved over a cooling season by the addition of shade trees to

be 29%. The peak energy savings resulting in this study is said to be 47%. [20] While the

addition of trees for shade has proven to have a profound effect on energy consumption, the

payback period and lag time before seeing true results suggest that alternative measures be taken

as well. The most likely alternatives would be solar window fi1ms and light colored exterior

paints or coatings.

Evaporator Coil

Any inefficiency within the HVAC system will have a detrimental effect on energy use.

Excessive buildup of dust and dirt on the air handler evaporator coil leads to reduced air flow,

reduced heat transfer, and reduced moisture removal from the air. Among the sample population

13% were found to have dirty evaporator coils. This portion of the sample population had

significantly higher energy intensity than those without dirty evaporator coils. The solution to

this problem is to have regularly scheduled HVAC maintenance performed by a qualified HVAC

technician, to regularly check and change HVAC filters and to repair leaks in the HVAC duct

system. According to local contractors HVAC maintenance service costs between $65 and $100









and should be done every one to two years at the beginning of the cooling season. GRU currently

offers a rebate of up to $55 for central air condition maintenance. Issues concerning HVAC

Eilters and ductwork were discussed in detail earlier in this chapter.

Combined Effect of Results

Of the most frequent issues that were found to be present among our sample population it

is understood that several stand out due to the scope of their potential energy efficiency effects.

Information from leading energy efficiency resources, including the U. S. Department of Energy,

the Florida Department of Energy, and the Florida Solar Energy Center, suggest that reduced

solar heat gain, properly sealed building envelope, increased attic insulation, properly sealed

ductwork, efficient HVAC system, reduction of hot water use, and use of compact fluorescent

lighting are the main goals to reducing energy consumption in existing residential structures. In

addition it is recognized that increased energy intensity is most likely due to a combination of the

issues tested in this research.

The energy efficiency issues that most likely have the largest effect on the low income

population in Gainesville are lack of proper attic insulation, poor quality windows, lack of

shading to reduce solar heat gain, HVAC duct leaks, improper adjustment of HVAC settings,

poorly sealed building envelope, non-use of compact fluorescent lamps, inefficient HVAC

equipment, and inefficient use of hot water and water heating equipment. Possible solutions and

demand side management target for many of these issues have been discussed in the preceding

sections. In order to identify DSM approaches that may help to resolve these issues it is

necessary to identify current programs and their potential effects.

Recent Programs

Since the completion of this survey Gainesville Regional Utilities has used some of the

data to enhance and support its demand side management programs that address its low-income









customers. In order to discuss future demand side management and research options it would be

most appropriate to outline the current course of action being taken.

Low Income Energy Efficiency Program

GRU is piloting its Low-Income Energy Efficiency Program (LIEEP) that will address

insulation, ductwork, HVAC equipment, and general weatherization problems. The program is

designed to incorporate capacity and knowledge building among its participants. To gauge the

outcome of this program energy use for each of the homes will be monitored by using standard

billing data. For the pilot, 40 homes are participating in the program with an additional 119

scheduled for next year.

Weatherization for Low-Income

There are many players in the fight to decrease energy use among the low-income

population in Gainesville. Affiliated Congregations To Improve Our Neighborhoods (ACTION),

Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation (NHDC), ReBuild Gainesville, and GRU

are teaming up to help low-income households receive weatherization assistance. This program

is funded by community organizations and donations from the public with GRU acting as

information and training resource. Citizens are being trained to help their neighbors self audit

their homes to identify energy efficiency problems while ReBuild Gainesville is helping to

provide labor, expertise, and materials to fix these problems. Programs such as this one seem

most appropriate for helping to fix low-cost, knowledge-based changes.

Low Interest Loan Program

GRU is partnering with 1st Credit Union to offer up to $10,000 in low-interest loans for

energy efficiency upgrades. Customers would apply for the loan with 1st Credit Union based on

GRU' s approval of the upgrades and the cost estimates. This program has the most promise for










helping to ease high initial cost of those improvements that have longer payback periods such as

adding attic insulation, making roof changes, fixing duct leaks, or replacing windows.

Compact Fluorescent Giveaway

Promotion of compact fluorescent lamps has been an ongoing proj ect for GRU. Several

delivery methods have been used to distribute CFLs. As incentive for participating in this survey

households were given three CFLs. The University of Florida' s Office of Sustainability has been

provided with CFLs to give away at community festivals and other civic events. Packets have

been given out at ACTION network meetings that contained energy efficiency tips and

information along with CFLs. They have also partnered with Home Depot for promotional sales

where GRU has bought down the price of CFLs. Data has not been collected on how effective

these initiatives are or how they might be augmented or enhanced.

Future

Potential Demand Side Management Program Areas

In order to broaden the effect of GRU' s residential energy conservation programs for low-

income customers more emphasis must be placed on homeowner and occupant knowledge and

behavior. In particular the approach to distributing information must be reexamined. GRU offers

a wealth of energy saving tips on their website and via mail and offers various rebates and

services yet their effect has not resounded as greatly in the low-income population. Perhaps this

will change with the latest programs targeting low-income households through community

organizations.

One method for increasing energy efficiency knowledge would be to become more active

in civic events and with civic organizations, possibly making GRU staff available to answer

energy questions, to display energy efficiency technologies, to give tips on solving particular

problems and to direct customers toward the programs that are available to assist with their










particular needs. While it is true that a simple phone call to GRU would allow a customer to

receive the same information, being seen in an outreach setting may bolster end use of the

information.

In its most recent programs GRU has taken advantage of the resources and influence of

other community organization to enhance DSM programs. To continue this trend it may be

advantageous to partner with ReBuild Gainesville and local hardware retailers to teach customers

how to make some of the upgrades that lend themselves more to do-it-yourself proj ects such as

installing weather-stripping, caulking, and adjusting their water heater setting.

Problem Areas

Other than issues that were found and corrected during the survey process there were

factors that affected the outcome of the survey and the potential end use of the data. Research

subj ects may have been indirectly selected based on their daytime availability due to the methods

used to contact potential participants. These potential participants were contacted primarily

during business hours, between 8:00am and 5:00pm, and appointments for surveys were only set

during these hours. If calls and appointments were made at later times or during weekend hours

the survey population may have been more widely varied.

There were also problems with the data collection that hindered the scope of which the

data is applicable. In the questionnaire portion of the survey participants were asked about

features of their homes and its mechanical systems. Many times they were assisted with the

answers by GRU auditors and survey administrators. If the participants had not been helped with

responses their answers could be compared to the findings of the GRU auditor to determine

aspects of homeowner and occupant knowledge. This information could have been used to

promote and enhance knowledge based DSM programs.









Future Research

As this research was funded by the American Public Power Association the full survey

instrument, analytical method and program design considerations can be used by other utilities

throughout the U.S. to help implement cost-effective energy conservation programs for their

low-income customer segments. To gain a broader perspective of the low-income Gainesville

population additional research of this type should be targeted toward apartment dwellers.

Additionally, to determine the effect of ongoing programs, participant energy use should be

monitored to determine if efforts have resulted in significant and lasting decreases in energy

consumption. This would help to judge effectiveness in order to tailor programs to meet the

needs of their target audiences which is a primary goal of demand side management programs.









Table 5-1: Demand side management programs for compact fluorescent lamps [34]
Comparison of Delivery Mechanisms and Potential Program Obj ectives
Target Market Volume/Total Cost Per
Delvey pecans Market Sustainability Impacts CFL
Targeted event giveaway Very good Poor Low High
Door-to-door giveaway Good Poor High Moderate
Leveraging existing IPoor Poor ILow to medium ILow
programs
Reduced-price programs IPoor Good IHigh ILow


Figure 5-1: Central Florida home with mastic roof coating over asphalt shingles.









APPENDIX A
RECRUITMENT MARLING


February 6, 2006


Dear Family Bill-Payer:

As fuel prices continue to rise, families throughout Gainesville are looking for ways to reduce home
energy expenses. GRU and the City of Gainesville are developing ways to help you save energy,
but we need your help. We hope you will be part of a study that will help you and other customers
save energy and money. Your home has been selected to represent at least 50 others in your
neighborhood, so your participation is important.

Please fill out the short form included with this letter and mail it back to GRU in the enclosed postage-
paid envelope by February 24, 2006. Your responses will tell us if you and your home meet the
needs of the study. If you qualify, we will contact you at the telephone number you provide to
schedule an in-home energy assessment. During our visit, we will 1) perform a detailed energy
survey at no charge to you, and 2) with your help, complete an in-depth questionnaire about your
energy usage and pertinent features of your home such as appliances, number of rooms, windows,
and insulation levels.

If you are selected and agree to participate, we will thank you by installing three energy saving
compact fluorescent light bulbs in your home for free! These light bulbs will help reduce your home's
energy use and save you money.

We hope you will take this chance to conserve energy, save on your monthly energy bill, and
improve the environment. Fill out the short form and drop it in the mail today! If you have
questions about the enclosed form or the energy survey itself, please contact Amy Carpus in
GRU's Conservation Services Department at (352) 393-1450.

Thank you for your participation!

Sincerely,



Pegeen Hanrahan
Mayor, City of Gainesville


RJL:CEP
Enclosure












Energy Survey Form
Family Bill-Payer: Please take a minute to complete this survey form and mail it back to GRU in the enclosed postage-paid envelope by February 24, 2006.
If you qualify, we will contact you at the telephone number you provide to schedule an in-home energy assessment.
Name: Phone Number:( )

Best time to reach you by phone: 0 Morning 0 Afternoon 0 Evening

1. How concerned are you about energy costs in your home?
O Not Concerned at All 0 Somewhat Concerned 0 Very Concerned
2. Including yourself, how many people live in your home?
01 02 03 04 05+
3. How long have you and your family been living in this home?
O Less than 1 year 0 1-2 years 0 2-4 years 0 4-6 years 0 More than 6 years
4. What was your combined household's 2005 income before taxes? (See Box 1 on your W-2 forms)
0 Under $18,750 0 $18,751 to $30,000 0 $30,001 to $34,300 0 $34,301 to $38,600 0 $38,601 to$42,900
0 $42,901 to $46,300 0 $46,301 to $49,750 0 $49,751 to $53,150 0 $53,151 to $56,600 0 over $56,601
Thank you for your participation! Source Code: 1001











APPENDIX B
DEED IN-HOME QUESTIONNAIRE

DEED HOME ENERGY SURVEY




We would like to begin by asking some information about the home in which you now live.


Q1. When did you move into this home?

1 Less than 1 year ago Date given:
2 1 year to less than 2 years ago
3 2 years to less than 3 years ago
4 3 years to less than 5 years ago
5 5 years to less than 10 years ago
6 10 years ago or longer



Q2. How many months per year do you live in this home?

1 Less than 3 months
2 3 months to just under 6 months
3 6 months to just under 9 months
4 9 months to 12 months



Q3. Do you expect to move from this home in the next 12 months?

1 Yes 3 Explanation, if offered:
2 No
3 Uncertain



Q4. Do you own your home?

1 Yes, I own (or am buying) my home
2 No, I'm renting/leasing my home
3 Other:



Q5. When was your home built?

1 Less than 5 years ago Year if known:
2 5 years to just under 10 years ago
3 10 years to just under 20 years ago
4 20 years ago or more
5 Don't know











Q6. What direction does the longest side of your home face?


West (or East)
Southeast (or Northwest)
Southwest (or Northeast)
South (or North)


Q7. Which best describes the foundation of your home?


Slab on grade
Raised wood floors
Other:


3 Insulated?


No Uncertain


Q8. What is the major wall type of your home?


Concrete block
Brick
Wood frame
Other:


Q9. What is the shape of your home's roof?


Flat
Shed
Gabled
Hipped
Other:


Q10. Does your home have an attic?


3 Insulated?


No Uncertain


1 Yes
2 No


Yes


Q11. What is your home's roofing material?


Asphalt shingles
Wooden shakes
Tile (clay or concrete)
Metal
Other:


Q12. What is the color of your home's roofing material?

1 White or silver
2 Light grey or tan



68











































IDescription Total # I#Weather-strippedl

1"""""" W ood""""""""
2 IMetal Insulated

3 Glasss~
4Other:


Q15. Describe your home's windows.




Desci Toal# # Weather- # Double- Frame Material Window Covering

~~Wood / Vinyl / Metal / None /Drapes /Blinds /
1 Smgl HungOther: Other:
Dobl~ugWood / Vinyl / Metal / None /Drapes /Blinds /
Other: Other:
Wood / Vinyl / Metal / None /Drapes /Blinds /
3 Casement
Other: Other:
~aolleWood / Vinyl / Metal / None /Drapes /Blinds /
Other: Other:

Avu~Wood / Vinyl / Metal / None /Drapes /Blinds /
Other: Other:


3 Red or orange
4 Dark brown or dark grey
5 Black
6 Other:



Q13. What is the total square footage of your home, including bathrooms and hallways? (Do not include
garages, outside

patios or porches)


1 Less than 500
Record #>
2 500-999
3 1000-1499
4 1500-1999
5 2000-2499
6 2500-2999
7 3000-3999
8 4000 or more
9 Don't Know


GRU Records / Appraiser Value:<

Specific #, if offered:


Q14. Describe your home's exterior doors.










.IC1]~ I Wood /Vinyl /Metal / INone /Drapes /Blinds /
6........1..."~...... Slidmg~~~~~~~~~~~~ Other: _IOther:
7 Other. Wood / Vinyl / Metal / None /Drapes /Blinds /
Other: Other:



Q16. What type of floor coverings does your home have? (Circle all that apply and indicate percentage
covering)


Description Percent Covering

1 Hardwood 25% 50% 75% 100%
2 Carpet or Area Rugs 25% 50% 75% 100%
3 Tile (Ceramic) 25% 50% 75% 100%

4 Viny-l or Linoleum 25% 50% 75% 100%
5 Other: 25% 50% 75% 100%


Q17. During a typical summer day, to what extent do trees help shade your house in the morning? (around
8 AM)

1 Almost totally shade the house
2 Partially shade the house
3 No shading of the house



Q18. During a typical summer day, to what extent do trees help shade your house in the late afternoon?
(around 4PM)

1 Almost totally shade the house
2 Partially shade the house
3 No shading of the house













Sectioni 2: liEEPING Y~OUR HOMIE C'OMFORTA~BLE


The next step is intended to gather some information about how you keep your home warm in the winter and
cool in the summer.


Q19. What are the main types of heating systems that you use?


Primary


Secondary


Electric resistance
Natural gas furnace
Liquid propane gas furnace
Heat pump 3 Central
central
Portable electric heater
Kerosene space heater
Wood stove / fireplace
Natural gas logs
None
Other:


1 Electric resistance
2 Natural gas furnace
3 Liquid propane gas furnace
4 Heat pump 3 Central

5 Portable electric heater
6 Kerosene space heater
7 Wood stove /fireplace
8 Natural gas logs
9 None
10 Other:


Non-central


Non-


Q20. What type of thermostat controls your main heating system?

1 Standard Thermostat
2 Programmable Electronic Thermostat
3 No Thermostat



Q21. At what temperature do you normally set your thermostat for winter heating?

oF




Q22. Do you change your thermostat setting or other heating control when you are away?

1 Yes 3 To what temperature is it changed?
2 No oF



Q23. Do you change your thermostat setting or other heating control when you are sleeping?

1 Yes 3 To what temperature is it changed?
2 No oF



Now we're going to ask about how you keep your home cool in the summer.











Q24. What are the main types of cooling systems that you use in your home?


Primary


Secondary


Electric central air conditioner
Natural gas air conditioner
Window / wall / room air conditioner
Whole house fan
Ceiling fans
Floor / box fans
None
Other:


1 Electric central air conditioner
2 Natural gas air conditioner
3 Window /wall /room air conditioner
4 Whole house fan
5 Ceiling fans
6 Floor / box fans
7 None
8 Other:


Q25. What type of thermostat is used to control your home's main air conditioning system?


Standard Thermostat
Programmable Thermostat
No Thermostat


Q26. At what temperature do you normally set your thermostat for summer cooling?


oF




Q27. Do you change your thermostat setting or other cooling control when you are away from home?


1 Yes
2 No


3 To what temperature is it changed?


Q28. Do you change your thermostat setting or other cooling control when you are sleeping?


1 Yes
2 No


3 To what temperature is it changed?


Q29. How often is the air conditioner filter changed?


Once a month
Once every 2-3 months
Once every 4-6 months
Once a year
Don't know


Q30. During what months of the year, if any, do you open windows on a regular basis for natural ventilation?












SJanuary April July October
SFebruary May August Novemnber
SMarch June September December
SNever Open Windows













Sections 3: A\PPLIA-NC'ES IN 1'OUrR HOlllE


The next step is intended to gather some information about appliances and water use in your home. Use side
notes to indicate if an appliance is Energy Star rated, is particularly out of date, or there are other factors that
could be affecting its efficiency.


Q31. What type of hot water heater do you have?


Gas
Electric
LP Gas
Other:


Q32. About how old is your main water heater?


Less than 2 years old
2 to just under 5 years old
5 to just under 10 years old
10 to just under 20 years old
20 years or older
Don't know
years


Specific age, if offered:


Q33. In a typical week (7 days), about how many baths and showers are taken in your home?


7 or less
8 to 14
15 to 21
22 to 28
29 to 35
36 to 42
43 or more


# per day:


Q34. About how long is a typical shower?


minutes


Q35. Do you have a washing machine (or machines) in your home?


1 Yes
2 No


3 SKIP to Q39











Q36. About how old is your main washer?

1 Less than 2 years old
2 2 to just under 5 years old
3 5 to just under 10 years old
4 10 to just under 20 years old
5 20 years or older
6 Don't know Specific age, if offered:
years



Q37. How many loads of clothes do you wash in a typical week (7 days)?








Q38. How often do you use hot water to wash your clothes?


Always
Frequently
Occasionally
Never


Q39. Do you have a clothes dryer (or dryers) in your home?

1Yes


2 No


3 SKIP to Q42


Q40. About how old is your main dryer?


Less than 2 years old
2 to just under 5 years old
5 to just under 10 years old
10 to just under 20 years old
20 years or older
Don't know


Q41. What type of energy does your dryer use?

1 Gas
2 Electric



Q42. How often do you hang your clothes to day?

1 Always











2 Frequently
3 Occasionally
4 Never



Q43. What type of energy does your stoveloven use?


Gas
Electric
Other:


Q44. In a typical week, how many meals are prepared at home? (brealdast, lunch, and dinner each count as
one meal)


5 or less
6 to 10
11 to 15
16 or more


Q45. How frequently do you use a microwave, toaster oven, or toaster?

1 Never
2 Once a week or less
3 About every other day
4 Once or twice a day
5 Several times a day












Section -5: LIGHTING IN Y~OUR HOlllE


Q46. During a typical day, how many hours do you use indoor lights in your home? (consider both morning
and night

hours)

1 less than two hours
2 2 to just under 4 hours
3 4 to just under 6 hours
4 6 to just under 8 hours
5 8 to just under 10 hours
6 10 to just under 12 hours
7 12 hours or more Specific #, if offered: hours



Q47. When using your indoor lights, how many rooms usually have lights on?

1 One
2 Two
3 Three
4 Four
5 Five or More



Q48. What type of light bulbs do you use in your home? (include rough percentage)




Type Percent of Total

2 Fluodr Inescent 25% 50% 75% 100%

3 opc Fluorescent 25% 50% 75% 100%

4 Other: 25% 50% 75% 100%



Q49. Do you have exterior flood lights around your home?

1 Yes
2 No



Q50. How are your exterior lights controlled?

1 Indoorswitch
2 Timer
3 Motion Sensor











4 Other:



Q51. How many hours per night are exterior lights typically on?

1 Less than 2 hours
2 2 to just under 4 hours
3 4 to just under 6 hours
4 6 to just under 8 hours
5 8 to just under 10 hours
6 10 to just under 12 hours
7 12 hours or more Specific #, if offered: _hours













Section 5: HOMIE ENTERTA-INMIENT


Now, think about some of the other energy users in your home, such as electronic equipment.


Q52. How many TVs are in your home?

1 One
2 Two
3 Three
4 Four
5 5 or more 3 Of all TVs, how many are large screens?
6 None



Q53. About how many hours will at least one TV be on in a typical day?

1 None
2 Less than 2 hours
3 2 to just under 4 hours
4 4 to just under 6 hours
5 6 to just under 8 hours
6 8 hours or more Specific #, if offered: _hours



Q54. About how many hours per day is a video game system typically in use?

1 None
2 Less than 2 hours
3 2 to just under 4 hours
4 4 to just under 6 hours
5 6 to just under 8 hours
6 8 hours or more Specific #, if offered:
hours



Q55. About how many hours per day is a computer typically in use?

1 None
2 Less than 2 hours
3 2 to just under 4 hours
4 4 to just under 6 hours
5 6 to just under 8 hours
6 8 hours or more Specific #, if offered: hours



Q56. How many hours per day is a CD player, radio, or other type of stereo system typically in use?

1 None
2 Less than 2 hours
3 2 to just under 4 hours











4 4 to just under 6 hours
5 6 to just under 8 hours
6 8 hours or more Specific #, if offered: _hours













Section 6: HOUrSEHOLD DElllOGRA~PHIC'S


Finally, we would like to ask a few questions about you and your family. Please remember that your
information will be grouped together with other families' responses and will not be linked directly to your
household. We will use the results of this survey to help you and your neighbors lessen the burden of monthly
energy bills, so your continued input is important.


Q57. Including yourself, how many people live in your home (i.e., sleep here at least five nights a week)?








Q58. How many senior citizens (65 years or older) are in your household?

1 One
2 Two
3 Three
4 Four
5 Five or more
6 None



Q59. How many children (17 years or younger) are in your household?

1 One
2 Two
3 Three
4 Four
5 Five or more
6 None


Q60. Do any members of your household regularly work from home?

1 Yes 3 Occupation, if offered:
2 No


Q61. During a typical work week, is someone at home all day?

1 Yes
2 No

Q62. What was your household's total 2005 income before taxes? (See Box 1 on your W-2 forms)

1 $20,000 or less
2 $20,001 to $25,000
3 $25,001 to $30,000
4 $30,001 to $35,000
5 $35,001 to $40,000











6 $40,001 to $45,000
7 $45,001 to $50,000
8 $50,001 to $55,000
9 Over $55,000 Specific #, if offered: $



Q63. What things do you feel have the largest impact on your household's energy use?











Q64. How concerned are you about energy costs in your home?

1 Very concerned
2 Somewhat concerned
3 Not concerned



Q65. In the past year, have you or anyone else in your household made any changes in either your home or
your lifestyle -

to make your home more energy efficient?

1 Yes 3 Explain:
2 No










Q66. Are you aware of any programs that are available to help you lower your home energy bills?

1 Yes 3 Explain:
2 No










Those are all of our questions, but before we wrap up, we would be happy to answer any questions you may











have for us. [REMEMBER TO GIVE RESPONDENT 3 CFLs once they've completed the survey]

Thank you for your time and patience.



























Meter Readings: Electric # Water # Gas #
Date Days Reading kWh kWhlDay Reading Gallons Gallons/Day Reading Therms Therms/Day
Today

Previous


I have checked the major areas that may cause high energy and water use. You can reasonably expect the following suggestions
to save you money. Savings will be affected by equipment type, efficiency and condition, operation patterns, and weather.


GAINESVILLE REGIONAL UTILITIES
CONSERVATION SERVICES PHONE: 393-1460
ENER G YAND WATER AC TION SAV INGS PLAN


Mre than ]Energy"

Name:

Address:


GRU #

Survey #


Home Phone

Work Phone


GRU Representative _


Date/Time


O Since I did not find you at home, I looked around and made some general observations. Because the heating, cooling, water
heating, and refrigeration equipment can dramatically affect your utility bill, you may want to call us for another appointment. As
always. we are here to serve you.


HEATING, VENTILATION, AND COOLING


I checked:


Findings:

O Large line needs insulation

O Coils are damaged
O Coils are dirty
O Air flow restricted (See comments)

O Filter is dirty
O Filter is missing
0 Air by-passing filter


O Air handler coil is dirty
O Evidence suggests coil is dirty
O Temperature Drop= "F

O Ducts have leaks
O Ducts need insulation

O Air handler, support platform, air
handler closet leaks
0 Excessive rust found
O Yellow flame noted

O Attic insulation is inadequate
(Currently R-


Suggested Actions:

O Install pipe insulation

O Call HVAC contractor to repair
O Clean coils
O Remove air flow obstruction

O Clean and/or replace filter
O Install filter (Size:
O Install proper-sized filter or
secure filter across opening

O Call HVAC contractor to service units)

O Ideal range is between 8-12.F

O Call HVAC contractor to seal leaks
O Insulate ducts (R-6)

O Consult HVAC contractor to seal air
handler, support box or closet
O Have furnace serviced
O Replace with natural gas unit

O Upgrade to at least R-
O Insulate attic access coverts)


O Refrigerant Line

O Condenser Coil
(Outside a/c coll)


O Filters


O Evaporator Coil
(Alr handler coll)


O Ducts


O Air Handler/Furnace




O Attic Insulation


OTHER HEATING AND COOLING TIPS:

Current thermostat setting is:
O When cooling, set the thermostat no lower that 78.F when home, and turn up or off the system when gone.
O When heating set the thermostat no higher that 68.F when you are at home, and turn it off or back 10-15.F when gone
(except with a heat pump where you leave the temperature constant) and set to 55.F at night.
O Keep interior doors open, or at least cracked open one inch, for proper air circulation.
O Use fans, but only when someone is in the room.
O Shade windows that get direct sunshine in the summer on the ON OS OE OW.
O Snuggly cover windows in winter.
O Weatherstrip and caulk around doors and windows.


APPENDIX C

GRU ENERGY AUDIT FORM



























LEAKS NEEDING REPAIR

Kitchen/Laundry Bathroomls) Outdoor Leaks Concealed Leaks
O Kitchen sink faucet 0 Toilet flapper O Front yard faucet 0 Behind wall(s)
O Kitchen sink shutoffs O Toilet Ffloat control O Back yard faucet 0 Beneath dwelling
O Dishwasher O Sink Faucet 0 Side yard faucet 0 Underground
O Laundry tub faucet 0 Sink Faucet Shutoffs O Irrigation system
O Laundry tub shutoff O Bathtub Faucet 0 Poollspa
0 Washing machine O Shower O Meter box
hose connections O Customer side
O GRU side


COMMENTS:


ADDITIONAL ENERGY SAVING TIPS:

O Run irrigation system for an appropriate time each season, now set to:
O Reduce pool pump run time to 4-8 hours/day in season, now running
O Service refrigerator to increase efficiency,
O Keep fireplace damper(s) closed when not in use.
O Consider a high efficiency outdoor lighting system.

Customer provided with: O The Energy Book O Rate calculation fact sheets: O Electric
O Water Conservation O Natural Gas
O Xeriscaping information O Water
O Vendors list 0 Wastewater
O Lighting Guide O Solar information
O Pool Operating Tips O Heat Pump Operation Guide


I checked:


Water Heating

Findings:

O Now set at oF

O Pipe feel test indicates leaks
O Pipes need insulation
O Pipes rusty, corroded, leaking
O Tank needs insulation

O Energy and water waster


Suggested Actions:

O Reset to oF

O Find and fix leaks
0 Insulate Pipes
O Repair Pipes
0 Insulate Tank

O Install showerhead that uses
less than 3 gallons/minute


O Hot Water Temperature

O Water Heater




O Showerhead


Results received by:_


Date:





Circle applicable categones for mainframe Wate details or comments below


STRUC TYPE SING MULT MOBI BUSI
OCCUPANCY OWNE RENT
CEILINGS INSU UNIN BYPA ATTI ROOF
FLOORS INSU UNIN SLAB RAIS
WALLS INSU UNIN BYPA BLOC WOOD
WINDOWS GOOD POOR AWNI JALO
SHADE NEED EAST WEST SOUT NORT
COOL DISTR NONE ATTI INTE LEAK
HEAT DISTR NONE ATTI INTE LEAK
PRIME COOL NATG PROP ELEC PUMP WALL CENT
PRIME HEAT NATG PROP STRI PUMP FUEL WOOD
PORT HEAT KERO STRI OTHE
WATER HEAT NATG PROP STRI PUMP HRU SOLA


COOKING
POOL HEAT
SPA HEAT
REFRIG
OUTDR LT


NATG PROP STRI PUMP
NONE NATG PROP STRI PUMP SOLA
NONE NATG PROP STRI PUMP SOLA WOOD
REFR FREE HIGH
INCA FLUO HID LOW MEDI HIGH


A/C REBATE
MAINT
SYST
WIND
RRC
HP
HRU


SERVICES PROVIDED:

Action check
Computer Audit
A/C Sizing
Landscape Survey

HOUSE PLAN REVIEW:
Addition
New Home
EPI Calculation
Florida Fix Eval
Solar Eval

















CBIS
UEAS

INIT

REV









LIST OF REFERENCES


[1] Baxter LW. Federal Options for Low-Income Electricity Policy. The Electricity Journal 1998;11(5):
72-80.

[2] Berg SV. The Customer Bill as an Index of Utility Performance. The Electricity Joumnal
1995;8(1):54-59.

[3] City of Gainesville Official Website. Block Grant Community Development.
accesss sed 9/24/2006).

[4] Colton RD. Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Low-Income Customers. The Electricity
Journal 2002; 15(3):70-75.

[5] Flanigan T, Weintraub J. The Most Successful DSM Programs in North America. The Electricity
Journal 1993; 6(4): 53-65.

[6] Florida Department of Community Affairs. 2006 Supplement to the 2004 Florida Building
Code. International Code Council. Falls Church, VA.

[7] Florida Energy Gauge. Cales-Plus: Practical Solutions for Florida's Building Science Issues.
(accessed 9/24/2006).

[8] Gehring KL. Can Yesterday's Demand Side Management Lessons Become Tomorrow's Market
Solutions. The Electricity Joumnal 2002; 15(5): 63-69.

[9] Grosskopf KR, Kibert CJ. Economic Incentive Framework for Sustainable Energy Use in US
Residential Construction. Construction Management and Economics 2006;8(24):839-846.

[10] GRU. Be Energy Efficient Year 'Round.
(accessed 1/13/2006).

[1l] Halvorsem R. Demand for Electric Energy in the United States. Southern Economic Joumnal
1976;42(4): 610-625.

[12] Hardin D. Impact of Duct Leakage on 50 Houses in Gainesville, Florida. Gainesville Regional
Utilities 2006.

[13] Hashem A, Kurn DM, Bretz SE, Hanford JW. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of Shade
Trees. Energy and Buildings 1997;25(2):139-148.

[14] HUD. Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy. (accessed
3/12/2006)

[15] LIHEAP. Campaign for Home Energy Assistance. 2005. (accessed
11/12/2005).









[16] McPherson EG. Evaluating the Cost Effectiveness of Shade Trees for Demand-Side Management.
The Electricity Journal 1993;6(9): 57-65.

[17] Means RS. Building Construction Cost Data 2006, 64th ed. Kingston, MA: Reed Construction
Data, 2005.

[18] NEADA. National Energy Assistance Survey Report.

[19] Olatubi WO, Zhang Y. A Dynamic Estimation of Total Energy Demand for the Southern States.
The Review of Regional Studies 2003;33(2): 206-228.

[20] Parker DS, Sherwin JR, Sonne JK, Barkaszi SF, Floyd DB, Withers CR. Measured Energy Savings
of a Comprehensive Retrofit in an Existing Florida Residence. Florida Solar Energy Center 1997.

[21] Parker DS, Vieira R. Priorities for Energy Efficiency for Home Construction in Florida. Florida
Solar Energy Center 2007.

[22] Parker DS, Barkaszi S. Saving Energy with Reflective Roof Coatings. Home Energy Magazine
1994;May/June: 35-41.

[23] Parker DS, Mazzara M, Sherwin J. Monitored Energy Use Patterns in Low-Income Housing in a
Hot and Humid Climate. Tenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot Humid
Climates, Ft. Worth, TX, 1996; 316.

[24] Power M. Low-Income Consumers' Energy Bills and Their Impact in 2006. Economic
Opportunity Studies 2005.

[25] University of California Environmental Energies Technology Division. Building Energy
Efficiency. (accessed 9/20/2007).

[26] US DOE. Residential Demand Module.

[27] US DOE. Residential Energy Consumption Survey.
(accessed 9/12/2006).

[28] US DOE. Characteristics of Residential Housing Units by Ceiling Fans.


[29] US DOE. A Consumer's Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
accesss sed 7/7/2007).

[30] US DOE. Energy Information Administration.
(accessed 4/1 9/2007.)











[31] US DOE. Trends in Residential Air-Conditioning Usage from 1978 to 1997.
3/23/2006).

[32] Vieira RK, Sheinkopf KG, Stone JK. Energy-Efficient Florida Home Building. Cape Canaveral,
FL: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1992.

[33] Wikler GA. Policy Options for Energy Efficiency Initiatives. The Electricity Journal 2000; 13(1):
61-68.

[34] XEnergy Inc. Phase 4 Market Effects Study of California Residential Lighting and Appliance
Program. San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Oakland, CA, 2002.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Nicholas Wade Taylor was born in Laurinburg, NC and grew up in Rockingham, NC.

During his youth he was a member of the Boy Scouts of America and attained the rank of Eagle

Scout. After graduating from Richmond Senior High School in 1997 he went on to complete his

bachelor' s degree at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina in

environmental technology. After graduation, Nick j oined the Peace Corps and moved to Vanuatu

where he worked and lived on Mota Lava Island. After returning from the Peace Corps, he began

working toward his master' s degree at the University of Florida. On October 12, 2007, he was

married to Anna Mary Prizzia. The two currently reside in Gainesville, Florida.





PAGE 1

1 HOUSING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND AFFORDABILITY ISSUES AFFECTING LOW INCOME RESIDENTS IN GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA By NICHOLAS WADE TAYLOR A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLME NT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

PAGE 2

2 2007 Nicholas Wade Taylor

PAGE 3

3 To my wife and my family.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Pierce Jones for helping me to set my roots at the University of Florida and giving me a chance to work with amazing people. I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Kevin Grosskopf, Dr. Robert Stroh, and all of the faculty an d staff at M.E. Rinker School of Building Construction for their guidance and support. For all of their hard work and dedication to this project, I would like to thank Bill, Kathy, David, Tara, Amy, and Jim at Gainesville Regional Utilities Conservation Se rvices. I would like to express my gratitude to Jennison Kipp for helping to straighten out all the kinks along the way. Lastly, I would like to thank all of the people who opened their homes to us for the greater good of the Gainesville community.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 10 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 12 Project Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 12 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 12 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 15 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 18 Energy Use ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 18 Structural ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 Mechanical ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 20 Behavioral ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 22 Demographic ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 23 Current Programs ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 24 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 27 Project Development ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 27 Sample Selection ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 27 Recru itment Survey ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 28 DEED Survey ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 30 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 31 Problems and Solutions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 32 4 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ 36 Typical Participant ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 36 Initial Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 37 Exclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 37 Secondary Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 37 Energy Intensity Significance ................................ ................................ .......................... 37 Insulation Problems ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 38 Compact Fluorescent Lighting ................................ ................................ ........................ 38 Dark Roof Color ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 39 Refrigerator Coils ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 39 Hot Water Pipe Insulation ................................ ................................ ............................... 39

PAGE 6

6 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Leaks ................................ ........................... 39 Weather stripping ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 40 Windows ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 40 HVAC Settings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 41 HVAC Filter ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 41 Attic Access ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 41 Water Heater Setting ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42 Shading ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 42 Evaporator Coil ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 42 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 48 Typical Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 48 People ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 48 Homes ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 49 Analytical Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 50 Insu lation Problems ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 50 Compact Fluorescent Lamps ................................ ................................ ........................... 50 Dark Roof Color ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 52 Refrigerator Coils ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 53 Hot Water Pipe Insulation ................................ ................................ ............................... 53 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Leaks ................................ ........................... 53 Weather stripping ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 54 Windows ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 55 HVAC Settings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 55 HVAC Filter ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 56 Water Heater Setting ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 56 Shading ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 57 Evaporator Coil ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 58 Combined Effect of Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 59 Recent Programs ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 59 L ow Income Energy Efficiency Program ................................ ................................ ........ 60 Weatherization for Low Income ................................ ................................ ..................... 60 Low Interest Loan Program ................................ ................................ ............................. 60 Compact Fluorescent Giveaway ................................ ................................ ...................... 61 Future ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 61 Potential D emand Side Management Program Areas ................................ ..................... 61 Problem Areas ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 62 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 63 A R ECRU ITMENT MAILING ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 65 B DEED IN HOME Q UESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ................... 67 C GRU E NERGY AUDIT FORM ................................ ................................ ............................. 84

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 87 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 90

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1: Low income criteria ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 34 4 1: Energy e fficiency p roblems based on percentage of survey par ticipants. .............................. 44 4 2: Attic i nsulation p roblems ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 44 4 3: Compact f luorescent l amps ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 44 4 11: Dark r oof c olor ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 45 4 4: Refrigerator c oils ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 45 4 5: Water p ipe i nsulation ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 45 4 6: HVAC l eaks ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 45 4 7: Weather stripping ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 46 4 8: Windows ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 46 4 9: HVAC s ettings ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 46 4 10: HVAC f ilter ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 46 4 11: Attic a ccess ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 47 4 12: Water h eater s etting ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 47 4 13: Shading ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 4 7 4 14: Evaporator c oil ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 47 5 1: Demand side management programs for compact fluorescent lamps ................................ .... 64

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 : GIS map created by GRU to show areas of highest energy intensity. ................................ ... 16 1 2 : M ap of the Community Development Block Grant areas overlay to show the energy intense areas as they correlate. ................................ ................................ ........................... 17 2 1: Annual energy end use percentage for North Florida residences as given by the Univer ................................ ... 25 2 2: Annual c ooling l oad c omponents ................................ ................................ ........................... 26 4 1: Energy s urvey s amplin g and s cheduling s chematic ................................ ............................... 35 5 1: Central Florida home with mastic roof coating over asphalt shingles. ................................ .. 64

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requir ements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Science HOUSING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND AFFORDABILITY ISSUES AFFECTIN G LOW INCOME RESIDENTS IN GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA By Nicholas Wade Taylor December 2007 Chair: Dr. Kevin Grosskopf Major: Building Construction In partnership with administrators from Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) and the designed to help identify and overcome the barriers to delivering energy e fficiency services in the most cost effective manner to low income residential customers. The purpose of this thesis was to identify the most significant energy efficiency and subsequent affordability issues affecting the low income population in Gainesvil le, Florida and to address the potential for demand side management (DSM) programs that could reduce occupant operations and maintenance costs, conserve energy resources and protect the environment. A two fold approach was taken in data collection includin g an in depth, in home customer questionnaire energy intensity, measured in mega British Thermal Units per 1000 square foot per year, of low income customers that exhi bit certain efficiency related characteristics with those who do not. Results of this study show that for the low income population in Gainesville, Florida attic insulation is the largest energy efficiency problem. The information provided in this report will be useful for identifying housing energy related deficiencies and identifying DSM products and services that most cost effectively reduce energy expenses to low income consumer s For

PAGE 11

11 utilities results of this research w ill assist in energy demand avo idance and reduction of carbon emissions to the environment and will serve as a basis for future energy efficiency research

PAGE 12

12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Project Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to identify the energy efficiency and subsequent affordability issues affecting the low income population in Gainesville, Florida. Potential for demand side management programs that cou ld address these issues as well as the potential costs of retrofit s are secondary objectives and will be discussed in Chapter 5. Background respect to their energy use, a 2005 study combined Geographic Information System (GIS) data hours per thousand square feet of conditioned living space) into a color coded map that displayed where high i ntensity househo lds tend to cluster. Figure 1 1 shows the areas of highest energy intensity based on kilowatt hours per square foot. Household income eligibility was based on 2005 Income Criteria for Gainesville, F 2005 Fiscal Year. Income criteria are also based on the number of residents in the household. Income eligibility is di s cussed further in the Methods section In examining this map, two important attributes of the customer population were revealed, both of which motivated GRU to implement an energy survey: First, there was consistency with GRU billing records indicating that customers in traditionally lower i ncome neighborhoods average energy intensity among low income household s is relatively high, some low income

PAGE 13

13 households also perform relatively well compared to the rest of the low income household population (i.e., their energy intensity is relatively low among this population). There was a profound shift in the results for average customers vs. low income customers when total electric energy use is converted to energy intensity. This led GRU to create a study focused on the servic e territory areas with high densities of low income customers and data to determine the primary factors contributing to increased energy use and to identify potential mechanisms appropriate for delivering energy efficiency services to low and fixed inco me Gainesville residents. Initially, GRU conservation analysts determined low income areas by making field visits to these neighborhoods where there were high intensity, red dot clusters and compared these areas to maps indicating Community Development Blo ck Grant (CDBG) areas. Under the CDBG housing activities are addressed city wide with income of beneficiaries as the main determining factor. Infrastructure and public facility improvements are targeted toward Housing and Urban Development (HUD) low and mo derate income neighborhoods within the Gainesville City limits and to those agencies serving low and moderat e income clients. In Figure 1 2 the GRU energy intensity map is over laid with the Gainesville CDBG map to show the occurrence of high energy intens ity households within the CDBG zones. [29] This was done only as an indicator of correlation between occurrence of high energy intensity and CDBG zones and was not the limit of the sample population selection area. Next, GRU staff interviewed GRU energy co nservation representatives who ha d visited many of the dwellings in the red dot cluster areas and asked them to list the factors that they thought contributed to high bills in these locations. Their responses included a range of potential

PAGE 14

14 factors, from the condition of the building envelope and appliances in the home to the behavior of residents. At this point in survey development all types of housing, including apartments, duplexes and detached homes were under consideration. The preliminary list of poten tial energy intensity determinants to be investigated in the study included: Number of people in the household quite often in low income areas many individuals live under the same roof to help reduce costs Age and type of structural material used of the dwelling (i.e. wood frame vs. concrete block) Occupancy status (i.e. tenant vs. owner occupied) little incentive exists for a landlord to care about energy usage by a tenant, so necessary upgrades to appliances and HVAC equipment is too often delayed or ignored completely Age, condition, and number of appliances again, potentially tied to the lack of incentive for absentee landlords to upgrade appliances Type of air conditioning/heating and the age of these systems Availability of natural gas, which is o ften a more efficient energy source than electric ity Lack of tree cover to reduce solar heat gain No price signal related to energy use increasing numbers of rental units include utilities in rent so the occupant never sees the bill or gets the appropria te price signal to modify behavior Lack of knowledge about conservation opportunities and savings This list was later supplemented after an exhaustive literature review test outlined many other potential energy determinants. Given the wide range of factor s that are likely to determine energy intensity in low income households, GRU decided that the best way to lay the foundation for development of new conservation programs targeted at these customers was to first learn more about their homes and households both the structures and the people in them. GRU needed to go beyond billing and energy use records, into the homes of the customers who are most vulnerable to rising energy

PAGE 15

15 costs and most in need of effective conservation programs. It was in response to this need that GRU sought funding from the American Public Power Association (APPA) through the Demonstration of Energy Efficient Developments (DEED) grant and implemented, in mmunities (PREC), a thorough energy survey of low income customer households in Gainesville. Research Objectives To better understand why certain low income customers perform significantly better than e goals of this project were to: 1. Determine major structural and socioeconomic behavioral factors that affect residential energy use in low income homes in Gainesville Florida. 2. Identify necessary cost input s or behavioral changes to resolve the ten most pr evalent problems, in percentage of respondents, facing low income Gainesville Regional Utilities customers

PAGE 16

16 Figure 1 1: GIS map created by GRU to show areas of highest energy intensity.

PAGE 17

17 Figure 1 2. This is the map of the Community Development Block G rant areas overlay to show the energy intense areas as they correlate.

PAGE 18

18 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Energy Use household consumption of electricity is among the highest in the United States, umid weather drives up electricity demand for air million BTU while the US average is 94.9 million BTU per household. In 2001 Floridians spent an average of $1,45 8 per household on home energy and accounted for 6.1% of U.S. residential energy consumption. [30] Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) is a multi service utility owned by the City of Gainesville and is the 5 th largest municipal electric utility in Florid a. GRU serves Gainesville and portions of Alachua County, Florida, with electricity, natural gas, water, wastewater, and telecommunications services and also provides wholesale power to the City of Alachua. The utility employs over 800 people who help prov ide one or more of these services to approximately 78,000 residential customers with an annual electric load of 875.3 gigawatt hours. Structural Over the past hundred years residential architecture in Florida has shifted. Earlier homes were built to passiv ely endure the elements. This meant homes that promoted air movement and used shade from broad overhangs and trees to reduce ambient temperatures. Most often these homes were raised floor, wood frame houses with no insulation. A typical example is the Flor ida Cracker style architecture. Later homes were built to actively overcome the elements. These homes were generally built of concrete block on a concrete slab foundation. Forced air air conditioning systems and insulation were used to control heat and hum idity. Since around the

PAGE 19

19 on grade foundations and insulated wood framed walls in northern Florida. Homes are still built this way today and older homes are retro fitted with insulation and air conditioning systems. The integrity of the building envelop is an important determinant of the heating and cooling load for each type of household. [26] Shell integrity is a function of the age and type of house, fuel and service types for heating and cooling, and the environmental conditions to which it is exposed. The sizes of a structure and wall and floor material are fundamental to energy use. Houses with slab on grade floors will be more efficient than houses with raised wood floors as heat flow between the grou nd and the slab moderates home temperature in both summer and winter. Efficiency of differences in wall types vary based on construction and insulation values. Concrete block walls absorb and store more heat and therefore, may prevent rapid temperature cha nges in the home. Wood frame walls are generally better insulated but tend to have greater air leakage than concrete block walls. [32] In addition to the building materials used in the structural envelope, roof color and attic insulation levels greatly inf luence the degree to which the interior of a home is protected against excessive heat gain from solar radiation. Protecting conditioned interior spaces from the effects of roof solar heat gain is essential to reducing energy used for cooling. Exterior roo f temperatures in Florida can soar to 160F 170F in the mid summer months. There are several options available for reducing roof solar heat gain including replacing roofing material with a lighter colored material, painting roofing materials, or applicati on of light colored, reflective elastomeric roof coating. In a two year study conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center, published in 1994, a Central Florida home with a black asphalt shingled roof, with no attic insulation and attic ductwork was treate d with a reflective

PAGE 20

20 elastomeric roof coating. The change from dark to reflective roof coating resulted in a 43% decrease in energy required to cool the home. [22] Attic insulation is one of the largest determinants of energy use. It acts as a barrier to e nergy transfer from high temperature attic space to conditioned space. The 2006 supplements to the Florida Energy Code and Florida Building Code require that R 30 attic insulation be installed in all new residential construction. [6] Mechanical In North Fl ventilation and air conditioning systems typically consume the largest portion of total energy demanded by the home at approximately 35%. Figure 2 1 shows energy end use by percentage as calculated by the Univers [7] With this in mind, it is expected that problems related to mechanical heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems will increase energy intensity of a home. For example, improperly sealed duc twork or air handler closets will cause inefficiencies in HVAC systems. Conditioned air will not be distributed properly, return air will not be preconditioned, and the structure will be negatively pressured resulting in outside air infiltration. In a Marc h 2007 report researchers from the Florida Solar Energy Center state that windows in an average Florida residence account for 30% of the annual cooling load and solar heat gain from the roof accounts for another 20%. This is illustrated in Figure 2 2. [21] In the South U.S. Census Region the percentage of homes with central air conditioning rose by 44 percent from 1978 to 1997. That increase is compounded by an addition of 11 million homes in the same period. The share of southern homes with central air con ditioning that report conditioners 40 percent [31] Rented homes, older homes, smaller homes, homes

PAGE 21

21 with no air conditioning, and homes with lower income s all tend to have fewer ceiling fans which may indicate that lower income families may resort to more costly and energy intensive methods of home cooling. [28] It is also worth noting that any energy using devices within the home, such as it lights, appli ances, etc., will not only use energy to operate but will also give off heat, adding to the load on the air conditioning system. Electricity use (or plug loads) of specific appliances and devices is supported by hard data tested in a laboratory setting. Fo r instance, compact fluorescent lamps use considerably less energy than incandescent lamps with the same light output. Newer, Energy Star rated appliances typically use less energy than older appliances. Major differences in plug loads from household to ho usehold are often tied to frequency of use of these appliances by occupants. Simulation analysis suggests that electricity consumption can be reduced up to 40% in existing Florid a homes with judicious use of methods to reduce loads, as well as more efficient equipment. [20] The home used in the study was a 1,243 square foot, three bedroom, single story home that was selected based on a history of high utility costs. The homes had an uninsulated slab on grade 5 interior insulation on the walls. The study home s attic had R 19 blown insulation, limited ventilation, and the roof was covered with black asphalt shingles. For space conditio ning the home contained a 3.5 ton split system air conditioner with electric strip heat. The indoor air handler unit was located in the unconditioned garage. The daytime setting for the air conditioning system was normally set to 85F during daytime hours using a programmable thermostat. During the study an attic radiant barrier system, high efficiency HVAC system, high efficiency refrigerator, high efficiency lighting and additional attic insulation were added. With an input $6,480, the estimated annual s avings from these upgrades was $616 which results in a

PAGE 22

22 payback of just over 10 years. With an initial annual consumption of 20,733 kwh and an annual savings of 7,265 kwh due to efficiency upgrades the study home saw a 35% reduction in annual energy consum ption. Behavioral Significant differences in energy demand across residential homes are also likely to be tied systems and how to use t hem effectively? How do custo mers tend to use energy within their homes (i.e., what and how intense are the major plug load and HVAC demands)? How can customers be motivated to pursue more efficient energy use habits or technologies? How responsive will customers be to new energy effi ciency programs? These types of questions along with what is already know about major energy users in Florida homes serve as the foundations from which the DEED energy survey was developed. Many energy efficiency factors that are behavioral or knowledge ba sed are associated with routine maintenance. These include things like cleaning refrigerator coils, changing air filters, scheduling regular HVAC service. According to GRU energy efficiency data refrigerators and freezers are among the most significant en ergy users in the home. Routine refrigerator maintenance includes cleaning dust and dirt from the possible. Timely replacement and proper installation of HVAC air filters can be an important factor in the performance of the system. In the short term a clogged air filter will reduce air flow across the evaporator coil, making the system work harder to cool the home. In the long term an improperly installed air f ilter can result in dust and dirt building up on the evaporator coil itself, again reducing air flow and creating an insulating film around the coil. Scheduling regular HVAC maintenance service is essential to resolve minor problems before they affect the long term performance of the system.

PAGE 23

23 Beyond maintenance issues basic control and use of household appliances and mechanical equipment can con tribute to increased energy use. Proper use of HVAC equipment can insure economical space conditioning of the hom e. GRU recommends that HVAC thermostats be set at 78F while in cooling mode and at 68 F while in heating mode and cites an energy increase of up to 4% for every degree set below the cooling recommendation or above the heating recommendation. In addition, it is recommended that thermostats be adjusted, up during cooling season or down during heating season, while the home is unoccupied for two or more hours. [26] Using ceiling fans to increase air circulation can allow home occupants to feel comfortable wh ile decreasing HVAC use. Turning off lights, fans, entertainment devices or other appliances while not in use or while rooms are unoccupied is another method of using behavior to decrease energy use. A similar approach can be taken to reduce hot water use This can be done by avoiding washing clothes or rinsing dishes with hot water, decreasing shower time, or turning off the hot water tap when not in immediate use. It is estimated that 80% to 85% of energy used to wash clothes is used for heating water. A djusting the water heater temperature setting to 120F will insure that excessive energy in not being used for water heating. Many, if not all, of the behavioral energy efficiency issues are based in knowledge of system use and maintenance. Demographic Lo w income households typically spend a disproportionate amount of their income on utility bills, and reaching these customers with energy efficiency improvement programs has proven more challenging than delivering similar services to higher income customers [24] High energy use and rising utility rates combine to create significant financial burdens for households constrained by low incomes: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) data unicipal service area are housing cost

PAGE 24

24 burdened, meaning that they spend 30% or more of their gross income on housing costs, so addressing the needs of these low conservation programs [14]. Current Programs There are currently several programs targeted at low income energy assistance. The U.S. income Home Energy Assistance Program income households wi th a minimum of government bureaucracy and a maximum of involvement by civic institutions [15] LIHEAP funds are distributed in Florida by the Division of Housing and Community Development and in Alachua County by the Central Florida Community Action Age ncy. The LIHEAP Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) provides funds for repair or replacement of inefficient heating and cooling units, windows, doors, and water heaters. They also help to address air infiltration issues, install solar screens and insta ll attic insulation and ventilation. To qualify for assistance household income must not exceed 150% of the HUD low income level. The national budget for the LIHEAP program in 2006 was just over two billion dollars which resulted in 15% of the eligible app licants receiving funds. Beyond LIHEAP the only source of energy assistance in the Alachua County area is through GRU. Gainesville Regional Utilities offers energy efficiency upgrade rebates for adding attic insulation, HVAC maintenance, duct leak repair, and high efficiency air conditioners to name a rebates. The problem with this type of rebate structure is that low income customers cannot afford the initial cost of upgrades. So far there have been few effective low income energy assistance programs that were not direct giveaway or weatherization makeover efforts.

PAGE 25

25 Figure 2 1. Annual energy end use percentage for North Florida residences as given by the

PAGE 26

26 Figure 2 Priorities for Energy Efficiency for Home Construction in Florida

PAGE 27

27 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Project Development In July 2005 Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) applied for the American Public Power Efficient Developments (DEED) grant to fund additional research on the topic of ener gy use in low income housing. The intent of the research was to identify the energy efficiency and subsequent affordability issues affecting the low Efficient Comm unities (PREC) started on the project in December 2005 to help develop and administer the research survey as well as to analyze the forthcoming data. At this point identification of potential survey participants and development of the initial recruitment q uestionnaire began. Because it would not be possible to achieve the DEED research objectives using a survey administered entirely by mail or telephone, the research design led to the development of two distinct survey instruments: a very brief mail admini stered recruiting survey and an in depth, in conservation audit form and an appliance checklist. Sample Selection The sample population was chosen based on three criteria: income, energy use, and housing type. The primary criteria used while selecting the research sample was household (HUD) Low d as 80% of the Median Family Income (MFI) which was $53,550 for the 2005 Fiscal Year. Income criteria are also based on the number of residents in the household. Table 3 1 shows the upper limits of household income in relation to household size based on H UD low income criteria.

PAGE 28

28 (IFAS) statistical experts it was determined that for the amount of data to be correlated with the independent variables statistically significa nt results could be obtained with a total of 200 average monthly electric energy intensity in 2005 was less than 454 kWh per 1000 square feet and were coded as HL if t heir average monthly electric energy intensity in 2005 was greater than 1096 kWh per 1000 square feet. Information including energy use and conditioned floor area was retrieved from the GRU customer database. Household income of those to which initial ques tionnaires were sent was anticipated based on the home s location and was later verified with the response given to the initial mailing. The designation of LL and HL groups was originally intended to create a bimodal comparison between high and low electri c energy users within the low income sector to identify differences in energy conservation strategies. This was distribution of energy intensity among the survey sampl e. This change is discussed further in the Problems & Solutions section. It was determined that the most appropriate sample population would be those low income customers who either own or rent single family, detached residences. In defining the target po pulation, we opted to recruit only single family, detached homes as these have distinct structural characteristics from multi unit dwellings that affect their energy performance. The purpose for this was to keep the DEED sample as consistent as possible ac ross features over which there was some degree of selection control. This also helped to reduce the required survey sample size needed to provide meaningful results. Recruitment Survey On February 17, 2006, recruitment surveys (Appendix A) were distributed to 1000 potential participant households with an anticipated response rate of 20%. These questionnaires

PAGE 29

29 consisted of 4 questions, chosen to qualify households based on the given criteria. The survey was accompanied by a letter of support and encouragement by City of Gainesville Mayor Pegeen the goals of the project and explain how interested households could participate. As an incentive for participation, this lette r also informed customers that they would receive three free compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). The purpose of the recruiting survey was to invite randomly selected qualifying households to participate in the in home energy survey. To verify that household s contacted and scheduled for in income criteria, the mail administered survey asked customers two necessary questions about 1) their 2005 gross household income and 2) the number of people living in their household. Two suppleme ntal about their current residence tenure. Respondents were asked to share their contact information (name and phone number, which could be cross checked with customer records) and the best time that they could be reached by phone. These components were included so that GRU could easily follow up to schedule the in home survey with income eligible customers. Initially 1000 mailings were sent, including 500 to low energy intensity, low income (LL) customers and 500 to high energy intensity, low income (HL) customers. Return service was requested by March 3, 2006. Respondents who indicated a willingness to participate in the in depth energy survey by returning the energy s urvey form were screened for project criteria and were contacted by GRU staff to schedule survey appointments. Before recruiting surveys were to be sent to new batches of customers pulled from the low and high energy intensity group database, follow up tel ephone calls and replacement surveys (when necessary), were mailed to non respondents from the current batch of customers. After receiving and verifying the first round of responses GRU sent

PAGE 30

30 another 3000 mailings, including 2 500 to LL customers and 2 500 to HL customers. This resulted in 2497 LL customers and 2131 HL customers being contacted. A total of 2696 responses were received including 2075 from the LL category and 1619 from the HL category. Figure 4 1 shows a schematic of the progression from recruit ment to final data collection. The next step was to contact respondents in order to set appointments for GRU and PREC staff to administer the surveys. Respondents were contacted between the hours of 8:00am and 7:00pm. After disqualifying customers whose in come or contact information was incorrect as well as those who declined or were unable to participate due to schedule conflicts, a total of 224 surveys were scheduled including 110 LL and 114 HL customers. DEED Survey In January 2006 development of the i n home survey instrument began. The in home energy surveys were to collect the bulk of data to identify key determinants of energy intensity among low income households. This was an extensive survey instrument made up of three core components: a verbally a dministered questionnaire developed jointly by GRU and PREC for the (Attachment C), and a supplemental GRU appliance checklist. The questionnaire investigated in formation about the home as a structure, its occupants and their behavior, heating and cooling systems, water heating and appliances, lighting, home entertainment systems, and demographics. Questions were grouped according to subject areas which were title d: Information About Your Home, Keeping Your Home Comfortable, Appliances in Your Home, Lighting in Your Home, Home Entertainment, and Household Demographics. Data collected by verbally administering this questionnaire to the respondent were also supplemen ted with information recorded by GRU conservation analysts using a standard GRU

PAGE 31

31 structure and systems, identify potential interventions to improve its energy effici ency, and give residents tips for conserving energy and improving the efficiency of their homes. At the conclusion of the survey an appliance checklist was completed to record accurate counts for the number of different types of systems, appliances, and ot her significant energy users in the home. Each in home survey was administered by two field interviewers, one administering the questionnaire and one to complete the inspection audit. Key components of the complete survey instrument were based on building science and demographic data obtained from the U.S. Center (FSEC) and GRU historical data. The effective term of survey development was four months, with significant a ction occurring between December, 2005 and March, 2006. Survey development was complete in March, 2006 and data collection via in home surveys began on April 14, 2006. Data Collection Collection of data via implementation of the in home survey began in March, 2006. A survey session consisted of two surveyors, one GRU auditor and one person to administer the survey administrator would sit to talk with the partic ipant about the various items covered in the questionnaire survey (see Appendix B) while the GRU auditor inspects physical features of the home as outlined in the GRU Energy Audit Form (see Appendix C). During the questionnaire portion of the survey any ph ysical features of the home that were readily apparent were noted by the administrator and verified with the home owner. These would have include items such as wall, flooring, and foundation type, roof structure, material, and color, window and door types, and lighting types. Any questionnaire items that were not readily discernable or that related to

PAGE 32

32 administrator and the GRU auditor had finished data collection the GRU auditor would explain the findings of home inspection audit. Participants were given tips and suggestions on how to improve the efficiency of their homes and how to lower their monthly bills. Data collection ended in September, 2006 which resulted in 169 full, eligible surveys completed. Problems and Solutions During the course of this study from the planning stages to the analysis and reporting several complications arose, none of which were insurmountable, but each of which altered the original project plan to some extent. Some of the problems are typical in survey research, while others were a result of unexpected administrative or staffing constraints. First, GRU faced delays when trying to implement the second portion of the recruiting survey: while the ideal follow up to a mail administered recruiting survey occurs immediately events due to unavoidable staffing complications. GRU considered hiring profess ional survey research staff to conduct the scheduling phase of the survey, but these services were not available across staff assigned to the project and although init iation of the in home surveys was delayed, over 200 surveys in total were successfully scheduled. Second, because GRU staff could administer the in home surveys only during weekday business hours, customer participation rates were lower than expected and the in home surveys took longer to complete than had originally been anticipated. Because GRU was more concerned with collecting a sufficient amount of valid data than about collecting a limited amount of data in a short period of time, the sampling and da ta collection phases of the project were extended until a sufficient number of surveys were completed.

PAGE 33

33 An unexpected complication that was perhaps the most onerous in its effect was that the original energy intensity measures to which the survey was tailor ed were inherently incomplete measures of household energy use. From the beginning of the project well into the data analysis phase, GRU considered differences across high and low energy intensity customers as defined by kilowatt hour demand per thousand s quare feet of conditioned space. While GRU was aware through the course of survey development that this measure accounted for electrical demand only, the practical ramifications of this were not realized until preliminary data analysis revealed that the mo heating and water heating systems used in the homes. GRU attempted to correct this by comparing energy intensities only across high and low electric only users, but this strate gy effectively decreased the sample size by two thirds. A better strategy, GRU decided, was to extract, for all of the customers who participated in the DEED survey, data on their natural gas usage over the same period of time for which kWh usage data had been extracted, merge these two data sets, and convert both energy measures into the common denominator of British Thermal Units, or BTUs. Once this was done, the energy intensity distribution of the DEED sample changed from bimodal to normal, so the analy sis itself had to be modified as well.

PAGE 34

34 Table 3 1: HUD 2005 Gainesville, FL MSA Low Income Criteria Household Size (number of residents) Low Income (80% MFI*) 1 $30,000 2 $34,300 3 $38,600 4 $42,900 5 $46,300 6 $49,750 7 $53,150 8 $56,600 *Fi scal Year 2005 Median Family Income (MFI) = $53,550

PAGE 35

35 Figure 4 1 : Energy Survey Sampling and Scheduling Schematic

PAGE 36

36 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Typical Participant Participants were selected b a sed on several criteria. All were HUD defined low income households, living in single family, detached residences. After the selection of participants, several common characte ristics were identified: 81% of the sample population own the homes in which they live. Over 63% have been at their residence for at least 5 years. 76% of the homes were reported to be constructed over 20 years ago. The average number of occupants in each of the surveyed homes was 2.5 persons. 43% of the homes were occupied by senior citizens and 32% had children living in the home. 66% of the sample population said that they spent most of the day at home. This group included both those who are retired a nd those who work from home. On average the sample population spent just over 10 hours per day using entertainment devices such as televisions, radios, computers, or video games within the home. 70% of the homes were built on slab on grade foundations and 63% had concrete block walls. made changes to decrease their energy use within the last year. 86% reported that they did not know of any programs to assist with making efficiency changes.

PAGE 37

37 Initial Analysis Initially a basic statistical analysis was performed to identify repairable energy efficiency issues in the home using simple percentages. These percentages were plotted to show frequency within the survey population. Starting wi th the issues seen in the highest percentage of surveyed values were found in order to determine the significance of differences in average energy intensity between groups exhibiting and free of each efficienc y issue. Table 4 1 shows the frequency of energy efficiency problems within the sample population. The criteria for these will be discussed briefly below and will be further reviewed in the Chapter 5. Exclusions Issues such as structural features and age o f the home were not included as a repairable item. While these issues certainly affect the energy intensity of a home they are not readily repairable and are beyond the scope of demand side management practices. Several of these issues are addressed in Cha pter 5 in order to give a general description of the sample population. Secondary Analysis Energy Intensity Significance Descriptive statistical analysis was performed with respondents grouped based on the presence or absence of energy efficiency issues. Mean, standard error, standard deviation, sample variance, and sample size were calculated for each group. The pooled variance and value were calculated to determine the significance of the difference between the average energy intensities in homes with and homes without energy efficiency problems. Tables 4 2 to 4 16 show the values for each group. Energy intensity as used in this analysis was measured in millions of British Thermal Units per one thousand square feet of conditioned floor space (MMBTU/sf). The measure of BTUs

PAGE 38

3 8 usage. Insulation Problems Homes exhibiting insulation problems accounted for 91.7% of the survey population. Problems with insulati on include homes with less than R 30 insulation or areas of reduced insulation due to uneven distribution. Insulation levels were visually inspected by the GRU energy auditor and were based on the insulation thickness as it relates to average R value of th e particular insulation type. For example, loose fill cellulose has an insulation value of R 3.7 per inch while fiberglass batt insulation has a value of R 3.3 per inch of thickness and rock wool has an accepted value of R 3.7 per inch of thickness. [29] D uring the analysis R 30 was used as a baseline as this is the minimum standard for attic insulation per the Florida Building Code. [6] The mean energy intensity of the group with attic insulation problems was 5.6 MMBTU/1000sf while the mean for those with value, 8.68, indicates that these average energy intensity values are significantly different at the 95% level of confidence. Compact Fluorescent Lighting During administration of the DEED questionnaire participants were asked about the extent fluorescent lamps (CFL) for their home lighting. In order to determine the potential gain that could be made by maximizing use of CFLs a comparison was made between those using no CFLs and those using 75% 100% CFL lighting. The mean of the energy intensity of those who do not use compact fluorescent lamps was 4.35 MMBTU/1000sf while those who use greater than 75% CFLs have an average energy intensity of 3.64 MMBTU/1000sf. The resulting

PAGE 39

39 value was 2.14 indicating that these average energy intensity values are significantly different at the 95% level of confidence. Dark Roof Color When examined by the survey admin istrator 62.1% of surveyed homes had dark, either red, brown or black, roofs. The mean energy intensity for those who had a dark roof was 4.63 MMBTU/1000sf while those whose roof was either white or light gray were at 3.63 MMBTU/1000sf. The calculated Stud value, 6.50, indicates that these average energy intensity values are significantly different at the 95% level of confidence. Refrigerator Coils Upon visual inspection by the GRU energy auditor 60.9% of the survey population had an unacceptable amo unt of buildup of dust on the condenser coils of the refrigerator. The mean energy intensity for those who had dirty refrigerator was 4.7 MMBTU/1000sf while those value was 6.62 indicating that the mean ene rgy intensities of the two groups are significantly different at the 95% confidence level. Hot Water Pipe Insulation Upon visual inspection by the GRU energy auditor 53.8% of the survey population needed additional insulation on hot water pipes to reduce h eat loss of water in transit and to maintain the desired temperature of water as it leaves the water heater. The mean energy intensity for those who needed additional water pipe insulation was 4.4 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not were at 4.2 MMBTU/1000 value was 1.25 which did not meet a 95% level of confidence that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Leaks Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC ) leaks include any leaks within the force air system and were physically tested by GRU energy auditor. Many of these leaks (34%) were

PAGE 40

40 within the ductwork while additional leaks were found in the air handler plenum and trunk line sections. Overall 49.7% of the sample population was found to have leakage in the forced air HVAC system. The mean energy intensity for those who had HVAC leaks was 4.51 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not have leaks were at 4.11 MMBTU/1000sf. The value was 2.6 indicat ing that the mean energy intensity values differed significantly at the 95% confidence level. Weather stripping Over 45.0% of the sample population was found to be in need of additional weather stripping around doors, windows, and other openings in the bui lding envelope. This conclusion was based on visual inspection by the GRU auditor. The mean energy intensity for those who needed additional weather stripping was 4.52 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not were at value wa s 2.46 indicating that the mean energy intensities are significantly different at the 95% confidence level. Windows It was found that 35.5% of the sample population had major problems with their windows that affect the homes energy use. Problems affecting efficiency ranged from windows that did not close properly to those with broken or missing panes. Windows that did not close properly were those that could not be fixed simply using weather stripping. This category included all homes with jalousie windows, as they do not provide an adequate seal to prevent the movement of air and moisture. GRU auditor both visually and physically inspected windows within the survey homes. The mean energy intensity for those who window problems was 4.73 MMBTU/1000sf while th ose who did not were at 4.07 MMBTU/1000sf. The calculated value, 4.05, indicates that these average energy intensity values are significantly different at the 95% level of confidence.

PAGE 41

41 HVAC Settings From the DEED questionnaire it was found that 33.7% of the sample population does not adjust their HVAC setting when leaving the home for more than 3 hours. This was asked of participants for both heating and cooling season settings. The mean energy intensity for those who did not adjust their HVAC se ttings while away from their homes was 4.46 MMBTU/1000sf value was 1.43 which did not meet a 95% level of confidence that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly differe nt. HVAC Filter Upon visual inspection by the GRU auditor and participant response to the DEED questionnaire it was found that 32% of the survey population has not regularly replaced their HVAC filter. The mean energy intensity for those who had dirty HVA C filters was 4.27 value was 0.35 which did not meet a 95% level of confidence that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different. Attic Access Upon visual inspection by the GRU auditor and participant response to the DEED questionnaire it was found that 27.2% of the survey population does not have insulation on the interior attic access panel of their home. The mean energy intensity for those who ha d insulation on the attic access panel was 4.15 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did not were at 4.73 value was 3.56 which indicates a 95% level of confidence that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly di fferent.

PAGE 42

42 Water Heater Setting Over 20.0% of the sample population was found to have their water heater setting above the recommended temperature of 120 F. This conclusion was based on visual inspection by the GRU auditor. The mean energy intensity for tho se whose setting was at or below 120 F was 4.09 MMBTU/1000sf while those whose setting was above 120 F had an average intensity of value was 6.12 indicating that the mean energy intensities are significantly different a t the 95% confidence level. Shading Upon visual inspection by the GRU energy auditor 19.5% of the survey population needed additional shading to reduce solar heat gain on the south facing side of their homes. The mean energy intensity for those who needed shading was 4.69 MMBTU/1000sf while those who did value was 2.71 which corresponds with 95% level of confidence that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different. Evaporator Coil U pon visual inspection by the GRU energy auditor 13% of the survey population had an unacceptable amount of buildup of dust on the HVAC evaporator coil. The mean energy intensity for those who had a dirty evaportator coil was 5.09 MMBTU/1000sf while those w value was 5.49 indicating that the mean energy intensities of the two groups are significantly different at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions The top energy efficiency issues that have been identified a mong the sample population have shown varying degrees of statistical significance. Issues of i nsulation problems, CFL use, roof color, dirty refrigerator coils, HVAC leaks, weather stripping, problems with windows, unisulated attic access, water heater set tings, lack of shading, and HVAC evaporator coil

PAGE 43

43 maintenance all show a 95% level of confidence in the difference between the means in energy intensity of those with and without the undesirable characteristic. HVAC settings, water pipe insulation, and HVAC filter issues did not meet a 95% level of confidence. Factors that affect these results and potential for demand side management programs will be discussed in Chapter 5.

PAGE 44

44 Table 4 1 : Energy Efficiency Problems based on percentage of survey participants. E nergy Efficiency Problem Percent of homes Insulation Problems 91.7% Don't Use CFLs 78.7% Dark Roof Color 62.1% Dirty Refrigerator Coils 60.9% Need Insulation on HW Pipes 53.8% HVAC Leaks 49.7% Need Weather stripping 45.0% Problems With Windows 35.5 % Don't Adjust While Away 33.7% Dirty HVAC Filter 32.0% Uninsulated Attic Access 27.2% Water Heater Set Too High 20.7% Need Additional Shading 19.5% HVAC Evaporator Coil Dirty 13.0% Table 4 2 : Attic Insulation Problems Insulation No Problem s Problems 91.7% Mean 3.5 7 Mean 5.60 Standard Error 0.6 8 Standard Error 0.21 Standard Deviation 2.5 4 Standard Deviation 2.64 Sample Variance 6.4 3 Sample Variance 6.9 9 Count 14 Count 155 Sx 0.05 t 8.68 Table 4 3 : Compact F luorescent Lamps CFLs Don't Use Use 75% 100% CFLs 78.7% Mean 4.35 Mean 3.64 Standard Error 0.17 Standard Error 1.24 Standard Deviation 1.96 Standard Deviation 2.14 Sample Variance 3.84 Sample Variance 4.58 Count 133 Count 3 Sx 0.11 t 2.14

PAGE 45

45 Table 4 1 1 : Dark Roof Color Dark Roof Color Dark Not Dark 62.1 % Mean 4.63 Mean 3.63 Standard Error 0.20 Standard Error 0.22 Standard Deviation 2.10 Standard Deviation 1.68 Sample Variance 4.40 Sample Vari ance 2.83 Count 105 Count 58 Sx 0.02 t 6.50 Table 4 4 : Refrigerator Coils Refrigerator Coils Clean Dirty 60.9% Mean 3.70 Mean 4.70 Standard Error 0.21 Standard Error 0.20 Standard Deviation 1.71 Standard Deviation 2. 08 Sample Variance 2.94 Sample Variance 4.33 Count 66 Count 103 Sx 0.02 t 6.62 Table 4 5: Water Pipe Insulation HW Pipe Insulation Doesn't Need Needs 53.8% Mean 4.20 Mean 4.40 Standard Error 0.23 Standard Error 0.21 Standard Deviation 2.05 Standard Deviation 1.97 Sample Variance 4.18 Sample Variance 3.88 Count 78 Count 91 Sx 0.02 t 1.25 Table 4 6 : HVAC Leaks HVAC Leaks No Leaks Leaks 49.7% Mean 4.11 Mean 4.51 Standard Error 0.2 3 Standard Error 0.20 Standard Deviation 2.17 Standard Deviation 1.81 Sample Variance 4.69 Sample Variance 3.28 Count 85 Count 84 Sx 0.02 t 2.60

PAGE 46

46 Table 4 7: Weather stripping Weather stripping Doesn't Need Needs 45.0% Mean 4.14 Mean 4.52 Standard Error 0.20 Standard Error 0.24 Standard Deviation 1.90 Standard Deviation 2.11 Sample Variance 3.61 Sample Variance 4.46 Count 93 Count 76 Sx 0.02 t 2.46 Table 4 8: Windows Windows No Problems Problems 35.5% Mean 4.07 Mean 4.73 Standard Error 0.18 Standard Error 0.29 Standard Deviation 1.83 Standard Deviation 2.24 Sample Variance 3.35 Sample Variance 5.02 Count 106 Count 60 Sx 0.03 t 4.05 Table 4 9: HVAC Settings HVAC Settings Adjust While Away Don't Adjust While Away 33.7% Mean 4.23 Mean 4.46 Standard Error 0.19 Standard Error 0.26 Standard Deviation 2.03 Standard Deviation 1.94 Sample Variance 4.13 Sample Variance 3.78 Count 1 12 2q 57 Sx 0.02 t 1.43 Table 4 10 : HVAC Filter HVAC Filter Not Dirty Dirty 32.0% Mean 4.33 Mean 4.27 Standard Error 0.20 Standard Error 0.22 Standard Deviation 2.17 Standard Deviation 1.59 Sample Variance 4.73 Sampl e Variance 2.51 Count 115 Count 54 Sx 0.02 t 0.35

PAGE 47

47 Table 4 11: Attic Access Attic Access Insulated Not Insulated 27.2% Mean 4.15 Mean 4.73 Standard Error 0.18 Standard Error 0.28 Standard Deviation 2.02 Standard Devi ation 1.90 Sample Variance 4.09 Sample Variance 3.62 Count 123 Count 46 Sx 0.03 t 3.56 Table 4 12: Water Heater Setting Water Heater Setting <120 F >120F 20.7% Mean 4.09 Mean 5.14 Standard Error 0.17 Standard Error 0.34 Standard Deviation 1.94 Standard Deviation 2.04 Sample Variance 3.76 Sample Variance 4.16 Count 134 Count 35 Sx 0.03 t 6.12 Table 4 13: Shading Shading Have Adequate Shading Need Additional Shading 19.5% Mean 4. 22 Mean 4.69 Standard Error 0.17 Standard Error 0.35 Standard Deviation 1.99 Standard Deviation 2.01 Sample Variance 3.98 Sample Variance 4.05 Count 136 Count 33 Sx 0.03 t 2.71 Table 4 14: Evaporator Coil Evaporator Coil No t Dirty Dirty 13.0% Mean 4.19 Mean 5.09 Standard Error 0.17 Standard Error 0.30 Standard Deviation 2.05 Standard Deviation 1.42 Sample Variance 4.21 Sample Variance 2.03 Count 147 Count 22 Sx 0.03 t 5.49

PAGE 48

48 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The low income energy efficiency survey conducted by Gainesville Regional Utilities A) Demonstration of Energy Efficient Developments (DEED) has resulted in an unprecedented collection of data concerning the low income population of Gainesville. Typical Participants To discuss the potential cause of energy efficiency issues that were fou nd in the results and potential solutions to these issues, it is necessary to first describe the typical survey participant. Participants for the survey were selected based on several criteria. Selected households met the UD) low income guidelines. (see Table 3 2) Additionally, only those low income customers living in single family, detached residences were selected in order to limit confounding factors that would come from comparing apartments to houses. People It was fo und that 81% of the sample population own the homes in which they live and over 63% have been at there current residence for at least five years. Long tenure and ownership of the residence would indicate that there is incentive for investment in energy eff iciency upgrades. The longer the tenure at the residence the greater chance of seeing a return on money used for energy efficiency upgrades. For those who rent or those who are short term residents this type of investment may not make financial sense as th ey may not see a return on their investment. The occupancy of a home meaning those who reside in the home and the amount of time spent in the home effect the amount of energy used in the home. For our survey 43% of the homes were occupied by senior citize ns and 66% of the survey population said that they spend

PAGE 49

49 most of an average day at home. This group would include those who are retired or disabled, those who stay at home with children and those who work from home. On average our sample population spent j ust over ten hours per day using entertainment devices such as televisions, radios, or computers within the home. The high percentage of participants that do not work, including retirees, the disabled, and stay at home parents, with energy efficiency probl ems indicate that not only low income but fixed low income may hamper attempts at efficiency investment. As coul about their energy use. When asked 54% reported that they had made either structural, mechanical or behavioral changes to reduce their energy use within the past year. These changes ranged from adding attic insulation to replacing HVAC equipment to making more of an effort to turn off lights when not being used. Conc ern ov er energy use has most likely been bolstered as energy prices have risen. Over half of the survey population claimed to have made various changes to reduce energy use which may be infer openness to efficiency suggestions. With this in mind, 86% repor ted that they did not know of any programs to assist with making energy efficiency changes. This statistic may seem astonishing at first but begins to make sense after considering that internet, phone, and transportation access may be limited among a low i ncome population such as our survey sample. Homes Structural properties of a home are considered a primary determinant of energy use. Beyond the selection criteria of single family, detached homes we found that 63% of the homes were of concrete block cons truction with 70% on slab on grade foundations. Considering structural age as a factor, 76% of the homes were greater than twenty years old. The age of the home can generally be linked with the insulation levels and types of windows that were

PAGE 50

50 originally in stalled. Unless these upgrades have been made these homes will exhibit the same insulative properties while air condition use has risen. Analytical Results Insulation Problems It is no surprise that issues with attic insulation were found at the most prev alent energy efficiency problem facing the low income survey population. With most of the homes being older, the level of insulation that was used during construction was most likely minimal. Many of these homes may have been constructed before the Florida Energy Code became effective in 1979. The importance of proper attic insulation cannot be overstated. In our survey population we found that nearly 92% of the households had inadequate attic insulation. This means that the home either had less than R 30 i nsulation, as outlined in the Florida Building and Energy Codes, surprising that the population with attic insulation problems had an average energy intensity of more than 50% higher than those with proper attic insulation. It is worthy of mentioning that nearly 20% of the survey population had no attic insulation. With the high cost associated with adding attic insulation it is no wonder why low income househo lds have not been more active in upgrading. Price estimates for upgrading vary from source to source. The RS Means Construction Cost Index indicates a price of $2,138 for the addition of R 30, blown in, cellulose insulation in the Gainesville area while a local contractor quoted a price of $1,400 for the same upgrade. Understandably, the return on investment would be faster and greater for those with lower insulation levels. Compact Fluorescent Lamps The use of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) is one of th e most inexpensive and effective strategies for energy savings yet we found that only 21% of our sample population used them. To

PAGE 51

51 clarify, this means that they used at least one CFL in their home. Our statistical analysis showed significantly lower energy i ntensity for those who use CFLs. So, why are the other 79% not using CFLs? While CFLs have been on the market for some time, they are a new idea to many. The different shape of the lamp as well as the relatively high purchase price may have kept them out of homes. For those who have not seen or do not understand the lifecycle costs associated with using CFLs versus standard incandescent lamps, CFLs probably seem expensive. The U.S. ide quotes the initial cost of one 27 watt CFL at $14 with a lifetime savings of $62.95 over 4.5 years. To low income households this may seem like a long term investment. How can utilities best bring CFLs to the low income community. [29] [34] KEMA XENERG Y, a national energy consulting, information technology, and energy services firm, evaluated the major CFL program delivery mechanisms by analyzing the results of a survey conducted with 2001 CFL program participants. The results of this survey were compar actually installed. There were four types of programs evaluated, all with their own strengths and weaknesses. Table 5 1 is a table taken from the case study outlining the o utcome of the research. [34] From this research we can determine that the best market strategy for Gainesville Regional Utilities to target the general population may be a reduced price program as it provides the best market sustainability at the lowest co st. In order to target their low income customers it may be best to use a door to door giveaway method in order to maximize impacts while reaching their target audience. Recently GRU has created several programs to promote the use of compact

PAGE 52

52 fluorescent la mps and is working to tailor these programs to meet the needs of the Gainesville community. Dark Roof Color solar radiation absorbed by the home. Our survey results sh ow that 62% of the population had darker colored, mostly asphalt shingled, roofs ranging in color from dark red to black. This in combination with the commonality of insulation problems among the sample population sets up a situation where solar heat gain has a significant negative effect on air conditioning efficiency. The effective solution to this problem, to lighten the roof color, is simple while the means to that end can become complicated and expensive. Residential roofs can be replaced with white sh ingles, tiles, or metal roof decking. Asphalt shingles are a very economic roofing choice, and have a large share of the market, including most houses with sloping roofs. According to the RS Means 2006 Cost Index, replacing a 2000 square foot roof with whi te asphalt shingles would cost about $2,075 including shingles and underlayment. [17] Another choice for increasing roof solar reflectance is to coat the roof with a reflective material. White roof mastic can be applied directly over shingles to decrease s olar heat gain. A 1994 study by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) reports a solar reflectance of 0.73 after the application of a roof mastic material while white asphalt shingles have an reflectance of 0.21 [22] Tests showed that the addition of white mastic coating to an asphalt singled roof where there was no attic insulation and the HVAC ductwork was located in the attic resulted in a 19% energy savings and a 22% decrease in peak electricity demand. The cost of white roof mastic is nearly 85 cents p er square foot resulting in a material cost of $1,700 for a 2000 square foot roof. Manufacturers of these roof coatings tout this as a do it yourself project. It can also be noted that mastic roof coatings increase the longevity of asphalt shingles and inc rease hurricane resistance. Faced with the task

PAGE 53

53 of decreasing roof solar heat gain a program that would help homeowners to purchase mastic roof coating seems like the best option. Figure 5 1 shows a Central Florida home after the application of mastic roof coating over asphalt shingles. Refrigerator Coils As the third largest user of energy within the home, attention to refrigerator maintenance, including cleaning the condenser coils and checking door seals, should be a priority. It was found that 61% of t condenser coils. Among the survey participants those with dirty refrigerator coils had significantly higher energy intensity. Since cleaning refrigerator coils can be done with no expensive materials or equipment the only reason for this percentage to be so high is lack of knowledge about refrigerator maintenance. Hot Water Pipe Insulation Water heaters are second on the list of residential energy users. Any inefficiency i n the system will have an effect on energy consumption. As part of the hot water supply system pipes must be insulated to prevent heat loss. In our study we found that 53% of the survey population had portions of hot water pipe that needed insulation. Whil e there was increased energy intensity among those who needed insulation it did not reach a 95% confidence level. The cost of adding insulation to hot water pipes is minimal and supplies can be purchased at local hardware stores and can be applied with no special training. In order to address this issue demand side management programs must address homeowner knowledge of potential inefficiencies. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Leaks Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems account for t he largest portion of residential energy use in Florida. According to Florida Solar Energy Center inefficiencies in the ductwork portion of the HVAC system account for 22% of the total annual cooling load. [21]

PAGE 54

54 Within our low income survey population almos t 50% of the homes had noticeable leakage in the forced air system, which includes the ductwork, plenum, and trunk lines. It comes as no surprise that these homes had significantly higher energy intensity. Problems of leakage can all be attributed to impro per installation, degradation, or disturbance. Installation issues will generally occur where ductwork is improperly connected or where ductwork is hung in such a manner that excessive stress in put on connections. Degradation of joint connection materials may also occur resulting in leakage. Many times paper tape that was used years ago to connect ductwork has degraded due to high attic temperatures and humidity. Perhaps the most likely cause of duct leakage is disturbance by either people or animals. Ofte n ductwork is disturbed by those working in attic space. This is especially true in homes will smaller attic spaces. Attic space used for storage also presents a case were ductwork can easily be disturbed. According to information from a pilot duct repair program by GRU the average cost of duct repair is $422.20 and it results in a 5.2% overall reduction in energy use. This means that the average payback for duct repair is 3.6 years. [12] The initial cost of duct repair may be outside of the reach of most l ow income families but with assistance could be an alternative for our survey sample as most were long tenure residents who would receive a return on their investment. GRU currently offers a duct repair rebate of up to $375 for work done by an approved con tractor. Unfortunately the upfront cost may be more than most low income customers can afford. Weather stripping According to FSEC, outside air infiltration accounts for 6% of the total annual cooling load for Florida residences. [12] Addition of weather stripping around doors, windows and other openings can help to reduce infiltration and cooling load. Over 45% of our sample population exhibited significant energy efficiency problems that could be repaired by using weather stripping. Most often doors and windows are installed with weather stripping to prevent air

PAGE 55

55 infiltration around edges. Over time degradation of the material or simple wear and tear causes the original weather stripping to loose its integrity. Although replacing weather stripping is gener ally cheap and easy, choosing the correct product for each application can be tough. If the weather stripping is too large, doors and windows may not close properly. If the weather stripping is too small, it may be insufficient to close the gap. Also, if t he improper material is chosen degradation may occur more rapidly. For a demand side management program to properly address the issue of weather stripping and weatherization increasing homeowner knowledge must be the focal point. Windows Building science data shows that a homes windows account for 30% of its cooling load. [21] When windows have degraded to the point that they no longer close properly their cooling load can be compounded by air infiltration. Over 35% of the sample population had problems wi th windows that made them inadequate. It is understandable that among this population energy intensity was significantly higher. The cost of replacing windows is highly variable and depends on the size, quantity, and type of windows to be used. The RS Mean s Construction Cost Index indicates a cost of $158 per window installed for double pane, double hung, vinyl windows. This figure does not account for removal and disposal of old windows. At this price replacing windows throughout a home will cost thousands of dollars. While the upfront costs are high, return on investment in both energy and comfort likely appeal to the long tenured survey group. HVAC Settings Home comfort as described by a thermostat setting varies greatly from home to home although most ut ilities recommend 78F for summer cooling and 68F for winter heating. In any case it is recommended that you adjust your setting to lower energy use while away from the home for more than two hours. In our study we found that almost 34% of participating

PAGE 56

56 h ouseholds did not adjust their HVAC settings while they were away from home. Though the difference in energy intensity was only significant at a 90% level of confidence building science, and common sense, shows that the longer the HVAC system runs the more energy it will use. Many customers may be fooled by the myth that it takes less energy to maintain the homes temperature than it does to re cool or re heat the home later. This is clearly untrue. Utility companies could benefit greatly from creating educa tion DSM programs to counteract this problem as it would reduce peak electricity demand. HVAC Filter There are many problems that can befall heating and cooling system s but the most common one is reduced airflow across the evaporator coil. This happens when there are blockages in the forced air system such as crushed or clogged ductwork, dust, dirt, or mildew build up on the condenser coil, or when an air filter is clog ged. Most often it is the latter. We found that 32% of our sample population had excessively dirty air filters. While those household had, on average, higher energy intensities the difference was not significant. The most likely explanation of this is that those household do change their air filters, just not as often as they should. This would mean that having just changed the filter the system would be on par with other study households. Once the filter became clogged the energy use would increase until t he next change. The cost of replacement air filters is nominal; usually less than $15 for a three month filter. Effective demand side management programs to counteract this issue would be centered on homeowner or occupant knowledge and behavior. Water Hea ter Setting In North Florida residences, water heating accounts for 18% of the total energy use. [7] In older, less efficient water heaters much of the energy is used to maintain water temperature in the

PAGE 57

57 tank. It is recommended that water heaters be set no higher than 120F in order to avoid excess energy use. For almost 21% of the survey population a simple adjustment to lower their water heater setting could result in a significant decrease in energy consumption. This behavioral based energy efficiency is sue could best be attended to by DSM programs that focus on increasing home occupant knowledge of mechanical systems. Shading solar heat gain can be a large burden on Fl orida homes. [21] To maximize energy efficiency it is essential to provide adequate shading. The primary way to decrease solar heat gain in residential areas is to maximize shading by trees. Ideally, tree canopy is taken into account during the planning st age of residential development. If not trees must be strategically planted in order to increase shading. As can be imagined the timescale on which this type of measure works is based on the amount of input that can be afforded. A small tree will cost less but will take longer to grow. A large tree will cost more but will provide more immediate results. Although tree shading may be the most effective means of reducing solar heat gain there are other alternatives. One relatively inexpensive way is to cover wi ndows with heat control film. Solar control window film is applied to the inside of a window where it reflects radiation and creates an additional insulating layer. According to product specifications a window film can help to reflect up to 55% of radiati onal heat during the summer, retain up to 45% of indoor heat during the winter, and reduce UV light penetration by up to 99%. Window films can be purchased at local hardware stores and can be easily installed. Films are available for around $30 for a 3ft. by 15ft. roll which will cover three 3ft. by 4ft. windows. This comes to around $10 per window treated. One distinct advantage of this approach to reducing solar heat gain through windows is that, unlike the use of curtains or blinds, the daytime lighting that is provided by

PAGE 58

58 windows is preserved. Solar screens are also available but are more expensive and are generally professionally installed. In order to reduce solar heat gain on walls without increasing shading it is necessary to increase solar reflecta nce. This can be done by using lighter colors on the exterior of the home. The concepts are much the same as previously discussed regarding roof solar heat gain while the process of painting exterior siding is easier and less expensive. In addition to decr easing direct solar heat gain on the structure itself tree shade can reduce ambient temperatures around the home lessening the effects of outside air infiltration and heat exchange through the building envelope. A 1997 study published in the journal Energy and Buildings estimates the total energy saved over a cooling season by the addition of shade trees to be 29%. The peak energy savings resulting in this study is said to be 47%. [20] While the addition of trees for shade has proven to have a profound effe ct on energy consumption, the payback period and lag time before seeing true results suggest that alternative measures be taken as well. The most likely alternatives would be solar window films and light colored exterior paints or coatings. Evaporator Co il Any inefficiency within the HVAC system will have a detrimental effect on energy use. Excessive buildup of dust and dirt on the air handler evaporator coil leads to reduced air flow, reduced heat transfer, and reduced moisture removal from the air. Amon g the sample population 13% were found to have dirty evaporator coils. This portion of the sample population had significantly higher energy intensity than those without dirty evaporator coils. The solution to this problem is to have regularly scheduled HV AC maintenance performed by a qualified HVAC technician, to regularly check and change HVAC filters and to repair leaks in the HVAC duct system. According to local contractors HVAC maintenance service costs between $65 and $100

PAGE 59

59 and should be done every on e to two years at the beginning of the cooling season. GRU currently offers a rebate of up to $55 for central air condition maintenance. Issues concerning HVAC filters and ductwork were discussed in detail earlier in this chapter. Combined Effect of Resul ts Of the most frequent issues that were found to be present among our sample population it is understood that several stand out due to the scope of their potential energy efficiency effects. Information from leading energy efficiency resources, including the U.S. Department of Energy, the Florida Department of Energy, and the Florida Solar Energy Center, suggest that reduced solar heat gain, properly sealed building envelope, increased attic insulation, properly sealed ductwork, efficient HVAC system, redu ction of hot water use, and use of compact fluorescent lighting are the main goals to reducing energy consumption in existing residential structures. In addition it is recognized that increased energy intensity is most likely due to a combination of the is sues tested in this research. The energy efficiency issues that most likely have the largest effect on the low income population in Gainesville are lack of proper attic insulation, poor quality windows, lack of shading to reduce solar heat gain, HVAC duct leaks, improper adjustment of HVAC settings, poorly sealed building envelope, non use of compact fluorescent lamps, inefficient HVAC equipment, and inefficient use of hot water and water heating equipment. Possible solutions and demand side management tar get for many of these issues have been discussed in the preceding sections. In order to identify DSM approaches that may help to resolve these issues it is necessary to identify current programs and their potential effects. Recent Programs Since the compl etion of this survey Gainesville Regional Utilities has used some of the data to enhance and support its demand side management programs that address its low income

PAGE 60

60 customers. In order to discuss future demand side management and research options it would be most appropriate to outline the current course of action being taken. Low Income Energy Efficiency Program GRU is piloting its Low Income Energy Efficiency Program (LIEEP) that will address insulation, ductwork, HVAC equipment, and general weatherizatio n problems. The program is designed to incorporate capacity and knowledge building among its participants. To gauge the outcome of this program energy use for each of the homes will be monitored by using standard billing data. For the pilot, 40 homes are p articipating in the program with an additional 119 scheduled for next year. Weatherization for Low Income There are many players in the fight to decrease energy use among the low income population in Gainesville. Affiliated Congregations To Improve Our Ne ighborhoods (ACTION), Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation (NHDC), ReBuild Gainesville, and GRU are teaming up to help low income households receive weatherization assistance. This program is funded by community organizations and donations from the public with GRU acting as information and training resource. Citizens are being trained to help their neighbors self audit their homes to identify energy efficiency problems while ReBuild Gainesville is helping to provide labor, expertise, and materia ls to fix these problems. Programs such as this one seem most appropriate for helping to fix low cost, knowledge based changes. Low Interest Loan Program GRU is partnering with 1 st Credit Union to offer up to $10,000 in low interest loans for energy effic iency upgrades. Customers would apply for the loan with 1 st Credit Union based on

PAGE 61

61 helping to ease high initial cost of those improvements that have longer payback periods such as adding attic insulation, making roof changes, fixing duct leaks, or replacing windows. Compact Fluorescent Giveaway Promotion of compact fluorescent lamps has been an ongoing project for GRU. Several delivery methods have been used to dis tribute CFLs. As incentive for participating in this survey provided with CFLs to give away at community festivals and other civic events. Packets have been giv en out at ACTION network meetings that contained energy efficiency tips and information along with CFLs. They have also partnered with Home Depot for promotional sales where GRU has bought down the price of CFLs. Data has not been collected on how effectiv e these initiatives are or how they might be augmented or enhanced. Future Potential Demand Side Management Program Areas income customers more emphasis must be place d on homeowner and occupant knowledge and behavior. In particular the approach to distributing information must be reexamined. GRU offers a wealth of energy saving tips on their website and via mail and offers various rebates and services yet their effect has not resounded as greatly in the low income population. Perhaps this will change with the latest programs targeting low income households through community organizations. One method for increasing energy efficiency knowledge would be to become more act ive in civic events and with civic organizations, possibly making GRU staff available to answer energy questions, to display energy efficiency technologies, to give tips on solving particular problems and to direct customers toward the programs that are av ailable to assist with their

PAGE 62

62 particular needs. While it is true that a simple phone call to GRU would allow a customer to receive the same information, being seen in an outreach setting may bolster end use of the information. In its most recent programs G RU has taken advantage of the resources and influence of other community organization to enhance DSM programs. To continue this trend it may be advantageous to partner with ReBuild Gainesville and local hardware retailers to teach customers how to make som e of the upgrades that lend themselves more to do it yourself projects such as installing weather stripping, caulking, and adjusting their water heater setting. Problem Areas Other than issues that were found and corrected during the survey process there were factors that affected the outcome of the survey and the potential end use of the data. Research subjects may have been indirectly selected based on their daytime availability due to the methods used to contact potential participants. These potential p articipants were contacted primarily during business hours, between 8:00am and 5:00pm, and appointments for surveys were only set during these hours. If calls and appointments were made at later times or during weekend hours the survey population may have been more widely varied. There were also problems with the data collection that hindered the scope of which the data is applicable. In the questionnaire portion of the survey participants were asked about features of their homes and its mechanical systems. Many times they were assisted with the answers by GRU auditors and survey administrators. If the participants had not been helped with responses their answers could be compared to the findings of the GRU auditor to determine aspects of homeowner and occup ant knowledge. This information could have been used to promote and enhance knowledge based DSM programs.

PAGE 63

63 Future Research As this research was funded by the American Public Power Association the full survey instrument, analytical method and program design considerations can be used by other utilities throughout the U.S. to help implement cost effective energy conservation programs for their low income customer segments. To gain a broader perspective of the low income Gainesville population additional resear ch of this type should be targeted toward apartment dwellers. Additionally, to determine the effect of ongoing programs, participant energy use should be monitored to determine if efforts have resulted in significant and lasting decreases in energy consump tion. This would help to judge effectiveness in order to tailor programs to meet the needs of their target audiences which is a primary goal of demand side management programs.

PAGE 64

64 Table 5 1: Demand side management programs for compact fluorescent lamps [34] Comparison of Delivery Mechanisms and Potential Program Objectives Delivery Mechanism Target Market Market Sustainability Volume/Total Impacts Cost Per CFL Targeted event g iveaway V ery good Poor L ow H igh Door to d oor g iveaway Good Poor H igh M oderate Le veraging existing p rograms Poor Poor L ow to medium L ow Reduced price p rograms Poor G ood H igh L ow Figure 5 1: Central Florida home with mastic roof coating over asphalt shingles.

PAGE 65

65 APPENDIX A RECRUITMENT MAILING February 6, 2006 Dear Family Bill Payer: As fuel prices continue to rise, families throughout Gainesville are looking for ways to reduce home energy expenses. GRU and the City of Gainesville are developing way s to help you save energy, but we need your help. We hope you will be part of a study that will help you and other customers save energy and money. Your home has been selected to represent at least 50 others in your neighborhood, so your participation is important. Please fill out the short form included with this letter and mail it back to GRU in the enclosed postage paid envelope by February 24, 2006. Your responses will tell us if you and your home meet the needs of the study. If you qualify, we wil l contact you at the telephone number you provide to schedule an in home energy assessment. During our visit, we will 1) perform a detailed energy survey at no charge to you, and 2) with your help, complete an in depth questionnaire about your energy usag e and pertinent features of your home such as appliances, number of rooms, windows, and insulation levels. If you are selected and agree to participate, we will thank you by installing three energy saving compact fluorescent light bulbs in your home for free! energy use and save you money. We hope you will take this chance to conserve energy, save on your monthly energy bill, and improve the environment. Fill out the short form and drop it in the mail to day! If you have questions about the enclosed form or the energy survey itself, please contact Amy Carpus in 1450. Thank you for your participation! Sincerely, Pegeen Hanrahan Mayor, City of Gain esville RJL:CEP Enclosure

PAGE 66

66

PAGE 67

67 APPENDIX B DEED IN HOME QUESTIONNAIRE DEED HOME ENERGY SURVEY Section 1: INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR HOME We would like to begin by asking some information about the home in which you now live. Q1. When did you move into this home? 1 Less than 1 year ago Date given: _____________________ 2 1 year to less than 2 years ago 3 2 years to less than 3 years ago 4 3 years to less than 5 years ago 5 5 years to less than 10 years ag o 6 10 years ago or longer Q2. How many months per year do you live in this home? 1 Less than 3 months 2 3 months to just under 6 months 3 6 months to just under 9 months 4 9 months to 12 months Q3. Do you expect to move from this home in the next 12 months? 1 Y es Explanation, if offered: 2 No 3 Uncertain Q4. Do you own your home? 1 Yes, I own (or am buying) my home 2 3 Other: Q5. When was your home built? 1 Less than 5 years ago Year if known: _____________________ 2 5 years to just under 10 years ago 3 10 years to just under 20 years ago 4 20 years ago or more 5

PAGE 68

68 Q6. What direction does the longest side of your home face? 1 West ( or East) 2 Southeast (or Northwest) 3 Southwest (or Northeast) 4 South (or North) Q7. Which best describes the foundation of your home? 1 Slab on grade 2 Raised wood floors Insulated? ___Yes ___No ___Uncertain 3 Other: Q8. What is the major wall type of your home? 1 Concrete block 2 Brick 3 Wood frame 4 Other: 1 Flat 2 Shed 3 Gabled 4 Hipped 5 Other: Q10. Does your home have an attic? 1 Yes Insulated? ___Yes ___No ___Uncertain 2 No 1 Asphalt shingles 2 Wooden shakes 3 Tile (clay or concrete) 4 Metal 5 Other: 1 White or silver 2 Light grey or tan

PAGE 69

69 3 Red or orange 4 Dark brown or dark grey 5 Black 6 Other: Q13. What is the total square footage of your home, including bathrooms and hallways? (Do not include garages, outside patios or porches) 1 Less than 500 GRU Records / Appraiser Value: Merge Record # 2 500 999 3 1000 1499 4 1500 1999 5 2000 2499 6 2500 2999 7 3000 3999 8 4000 or more Specific #, if offered: ___________ ft2 9 Description Total # # Weather stripped 1 Wood 2 Metal Insulated 3 Glass 4 Other: Q15. De Description Total # # Weather stripped # Double paned Frame Material (majority) Window Covering (majority) 1 Single Hung Wood / Vinyl / Metal / Other: None / Drapes / Blinds / Other: 2 Double Hung Wood / Vinyl / Metal / Other: None / Drapes / Blinds / Other: 3 Casement Wood / Vinyl / Metal / Other: None / Drapes / Blinds / Other: 4 Jalousie Wood / Vinyl / Metal / Other: None / Drapes / Blinds / Other: 5 Awning Wood / Vinyl / Metal / Other: None / Drapes / Bl inds / Other:

PAGE 70

70 6 Sliding Wood / Vinyl / Metal / Other: None / Drapes / Blinds / Other: 7 Other: Wood / Vinyl / Metal / Other: None / Drapes / Blinds / Other: Q16. What type of floor coverings does your home have? (Circle all that apply and i ndicate percentage covering) Description Percent Covering 1 Hardwood 25% 50% 75% 100% 2 Carpet or Area Rugs 25% 50% 75% 100% 3 Tile (Ceramic) 25% 50% 75% 100% 4 Vinyl or Linoleum 25% 50% 75% 100% 5 Other: 25% 50% 75% 100% Q17. During a typical summer day, to what extent do trees help shade your house in the morning? (around 8AM) 1 Almost totally shade the house 2 P artially shade the house 3 No shading of the house Q18. During a typical summer day, to what extent do trees help shade your house in the late afternoon? (around 4PM) 1 Almost totally shade the house 2 Partially shade the house 3 No shading of the house

PAGE 71

71 Sec tion 2: KEEPING YOUR HOME COMFORTABLE The next step is intended to gather some information about how you keep your home warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Q19. What are the main types of heating systems that you use? Primary Secondary 1 Electric resistance 1 Electric resistance 2 Natural gas furnace 2 Natural gas furnace 3 Liquid propane gas furnace 3 Liquid propane gas furnace 4 Heat pump __ Central __ Non central 4 Heat pump __ Central __ Non central 5 Portable electric heater 5 Portable electric heater 6 Kerosene space heater 6 Kerosene space heater 7 Wood stove / fireplace 7 Wood stove / fireplace 8 Natural gas logs 8 Natural gas logs 9 None 9 None 10 Other: 10 Other: Q20. What type of thermostat controls your main heating system? 1 Standard Thermostat 2 Programmable Electronic Thermostat 3 No Thermostat Q2 1. At what temperature do you normally set your thermostat for winter heating? ________F Q22. Do you change your thermostat setting or other heating control when you are away? 1 Yes To what temperature is it changed? 2 No ________F Q23. Do you change your thermostat setting or other heating control when you are sleeping? 1 Yes To what temperature is it changed? 2 No ________F

PAGE 72

72 Q24. What are the main types of cooling systems that you use in your home? Primary Secondary 1 Electric central air conditioner 1 Electric central air conditioner 2 Na tural gas air conditioner 2 Natural gas air conditioner 3 Window / wall / room air conditioner 3 Window / wall / room air conditioner 4 Whole house fan 4 Whole house fan 5 Ceiling fans 5 Ceiling fans 6 Floor / box fans 6 Floor / box fans 7 None 7 None 8 Other: 8 Other: Q25. What type of thermostat is u 1 Standard Thermostat 2 Programmable Thermostat 3 No Thermostat Q26. At what temperature do you normally set your thermostat for summer cooling? ________F Q27. Do you change your thermostat setting or other cooling control when you are away from home? 1 Yes To what temperature is it changed? 2 No ________F Q28. Do you change your thermostat setting or other cooling control when you are sleeping? 1 Yes To what temperature is it changed? 2 No ________F Q29. How often is the air conditioner filter changed? 1 Once a month 2 Once every 2 3 months 3 Once every 4 6 months 4 Once a year 5 Q30. During what months of the year, if any, do you open windows on a regular basis for natural ventilation?

PAGE 73

73 __ January __ April __ July __ October __ February __ May __ August __ November __ M arch __ June __ September __ December __ Never Open Windows

PAGE 74

74 Section 3: APPLIANCES IN YOUR HOME The next s tep is intended to gather some information about appliances and water use in your home. Use side notes to indicate if an appliance is Energy Star rated, is particularly out of date, or there are other factors that could be affecting its efficiency. Q31. What type of hot water heater do you have? 1 Gas 2 Electric 3 LP Gas 4 Other: Q32. About how old is your main water heater? 1 Less than 2 years old 2 2 to just under 5 years old 3 5 to just under 10 years old 4 10 to just under 20 years old 5 20 years or older 6 now Specific age, if offered: ___ ________ years Q33. In a typical week (7 days), about how many baths and showers are taken in your home? 1 7 or less # per day: ___________ 2 8 to 14 3 15 to 21 4 22 to 28 5 29 to 35 6 36 to 42 7 43 or more Q34. About how long is a typical shower? ___________ minutes Q35. Do you have a washing machine (or machines) in your home? 1 Yes 2 No SKIP to Q39

PAGE 75

75 Q36. About how old is your main washer? 1 Less than 2 years old 2 2 to just under 5 years old 3 5 to just under 10 years old 4 10 to just under 20 years old 5 20 years or older 6 Specific age, if offered: ___________ years Q37. How many loads of clothes do you wash in a typical week (7 days)? ______________ Q38. How often do you use hot water to wash your clothes? 1 Always 2 Frequently 3 Occasionally 4 Never Q39. Do you have a clothes dryer (or dryers) in your ho me? 1 Yes 2 No SKIP to Q42 Q40. About how old is your main dryer? 1 Less than 2 years old 2 2 to just under 5 years old 3 5 to just under 10 years old 4 10 to just under 20 years old 5 20 years or older 6 Q41. What type of en ergy does your dryer use? 1 Gas 2 Electric Q42. How often do you hang your clothes to dry? 1 Always

PAGE 76

76 2 Frequently 3 Occasionally 4 Never Q43. What type of energy does your stove/oven use? 1 Gas 2 Electric 3 Other: Q44. In a typical week, how many meals are prepar ed at home? (breakfast, lunch, and dinner each count as one meal) 1 5 or less 2 6 to 10 3 11 to 15 4 16 or more Q45. How frequently do you use a microwave, toaster oven, or toaster? 1 Never 2 Once a week or less 3 About every other day 4 Once or twice a day 5 Several ti mes a day

PAGE 77

77 Section 4: LIGHTING IN YOUR HOME Q46. During a typical day, how many hours do you use indoor lights in your home? (consider both morning and night hours) 1 less than two hours 2 2 to just under 4 hours 3 4 to just under 6 hours 4 6 to ju st under 8 hours 5 8 to just under 10 hours 6 10 to just under 12 hours 7 12 hours or more Specific #, if offered: ______ _____ hours Q47. When using your indoor lights, how many roo ms usually have lights on? 1 One 2 Two 3 Three 4 Four 5 Five or More Q48. What type of light bulbs do you use in your home? (include rough percentage) Type Percent of Total 1 Standard Incandescent 25% 50% 75% 100% 2 Fluorescent 25% 50% 75% 100% 3 Compact Fluorescent 25% 50% 75% 100% 4 Other: 25% 50% 75% 100% Q49. Do you have exterior flood lights around your home? 1 Yes 2 No Q50. How are your ext erior lights controlled? 1 Indoor switch 2 Timer 3 Motion Sensor

PAGE 78

78 4 Other: Q51. How many hours per night are exterior lights typically on? 1 Less than 2 hours 2 2 to just under 4 hours 3 4 to just under 6 hours 4 6 to just under 8 hours 5 8 to just under 10 hours 6 10 to ju st under 12 hours 7 12 hours or more Specific #, if offered: ________ ___ hours

PAGE 79

79 Section 5: HOME ENTERTAINMENT Now, think about some of the other energy users in your home, such a s electronic equipment. Q52. How many TVs are in your home? 1 One 2 Two 3 Three 4 Four 5 5 or more Of all TVs, how many are large screens? ________ 6 None Q53. About how many hours will at least one TV be on in a typical day? 1 N one 2 Less than 2 hours 3 2 to just under 4 hours 4 4 to just under 6 hours 5 6 to just under 8 hours 6 8 hours or more Specific #, if offered: ________ ___ hours Q54. About how many hou rs per day is a video game system typically in use? 1 None 2 Less than 2 hours 3 2 to just under 4 hours 4 4 to just under 6 hours 5 6 to just under 8 hours 6 8 hours or more Specific #, if offered: ___________ hours Q55. About how many hours per day is a computer typically in use? 1 None 2 Less than 2 hours 3 2 to just under 4 hours 4 4 to just under 6 hours 5 6 to just under 8 hours 6 8 hours or more Specific #, if offered: ___________ hours Q56. How many hours per day is a CD player, radio, or other type of stereo system typically in use? 1 None 2 Less than 2 hours 3 2 to just under 4 hours

PAGE 80

80 4 4 to just under 6 hours 5 6 to just unde r 8 hours 6 8 hours or more Specific #, if offered: _______ ____ hours

PAGE 81

81 Section 6: HOUSEHOLD DEMOGRAPHICS Finally, we would like to ask a few questions about you and your family Please remember that your household. We will use the results of this survey to help you and your neighbors lessen the burden of monthly energy b ills, so your continued input is important. Q57. Including yourself, how many people live in your home (i.e., sleep here at least five nights a week)? ___________ Q58. How many senior citizens (65 years or older) are in your household? 1 One 2 Two 3 Three 4 Four 5 Five or more 6 None Q59. How many children (17 years or younger) are in your household? 1 One 2 Two 3 Three 4 Four 5 Five or more 6 None Q60. Do any members of your household regularly work from home? 1 Yes Occupation, if offered: 2 No 3 Q61. During a typical work week, is someone at home all day? 1 Yes 2 No 2 forms) 1 $20,000 or less 2 $20,001 to $25,000 3 $25,001 to $30,000 4 $30,001 to $35,000 5 $35,001 to $40,000

PAGE 82

82 6 $40,001 to $45,000 7 $45,001 to $50,000 8 $50,001 to $55,000 9 Over $55, 000 Specific #, if offered: $____ ________ Q64. How concerned are you ab out energy costs in your home? 1 Very concerned 2 Somewhat concerned 3 Not concerned Q65. In the past year, have you or anyone else in your household made any changes in either your home or your lifestyle to make your home more energy efficie nt? 1 Yes Explain: 2 No Q66. Are you aware of any programs that are available to help you lower your home energy bills? 1 Yes Explain: 2 No Those are all of our questions, but before we wrap up we would be happy to answer any questions you may

PAGE 83

83 Thank you for your time and patience.

PAGE 84

84 APPENDIX C GRU ENERGY AUDIT FOR M

PAGE 85

85

PAGE 86

86

PAGE 87

87 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] Baxter LW. Federal Options for Low Income Electricity Policy. The Electricity Journal 1998; 11 (5) : 72 80. [2] Berg SV The Customer Bill as an Index of Utility Performance. The Electricity Journal 1995; 8 (1): 54 59. [3] City of Gai nesville Official Website. Block Grant Community Development. < http://www.cityofgainesville.org/comdev/bg/ > (accessed 9/24/2006). [4] Colton RD Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Low Income Customers. The Electricity Journal 2002 ;15(3) :70 75. [5] Flanigan T Weintraub J The Most Successful DSM Programs in North America. The Electricity Journal 1993; 6 (4) : 53 65. [6] Florida Department of Community Affairs 2006 Suppleme nt to the 2004 Florida Building Code. International Code Council. Falls Church VA [7] Florida Energy Gauge. Calcs Plus: Practical Solutions for Florida's Building Science Issues. < http://www.calcs plus.com > (accessed 9/ 24 / 2006 ). [8] Gehring KL. Can Yesterday's Demand Side Management Lessons Bec ome Tomorrow's Market Solutions. The Electricity Journal 2002; 15 (5) : 63 69. [9] Grosskopf K R Kibert CJ Economic Incentive Framework for Sustainable E nergy Use in US Residential Construction. Construction Management and Economics 2006 ;8(24):839 846. [10] GRU. Be Energy Efficient Year 'Round. < http://www.gru.com/YourHome/Conservation > (accessed 1 /13/2006) [11] Halvorsem R. D emand for E lectric E nergy in the U nited S tates Southern Economic Journal 1976;42(4): 610 625. [12] Hardin D. Impact of Duct Leakage on 50 Houses in Gainesville, Florida Gainesville Regional Utilities 2006 [13] Hashe m A Kurn DM Bretz SE Hanfor d JW. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of Shade Trees. Energy and Buildings 1997 ;25(2): 139 148. [14] HUD Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy. < http://socds.huduser.org > (accessed 3/12/2006) [15] LIHEAP. Campaign for Home Energy Assistance 2005. < http://www.liheap.org > (accessed 11/12/2005).

PAGE 88

88 [16] McPherson EG. Evaluating the Cost Effectiveness of Shade Trees for Demand Side Manag ement. The Electrici t y Journal 1993; 6 (9) : 57 65. [17] Means RS. Building Construction Cost Data 2006 64th ed. Kingston, MA: Reed Construction Data, 2005. [18 ] NEADA. National Energy Assistance Survey Report. < http://www.neada.org/comm/surveys/NEADA_Survey_2004.pdf > (accessed 9/11/2006). [19] Olatubi WO Zhang Y A Dynamic Estimation of Total Energy Dema nd for the Southern States The Review of Regional Studies 2003; 33 (2) : 206 228. [20] Parker DS Sherwin JR Sonne JK Barkaszi SF Floyd DB Withers CR Measured Energy Savings of a Comprehensive Retrofit in an Existing Florida Residence Florida Solar Energy Center 1997. [21] Parker D S Vieira R Priorities for Energy Effi ciency for Home Construction in Florida Florida Solar Energy Center 2007. [22] Parker D S Barkaszi S Saving Energy with Reflective Roof Coatings. Home Energy Magazine 1994;May/June : 35 41. [23] Parker D S Mazzara M Sherwin J Monitored Energy Use Pa tterns in Low Income Housing in a Hot and Humid Climate. Tenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot Humid Climates Ft. Worth, TX, 1996 ; 316. [24] Power M Low Economic Opportunity Studi es 2005. [25] University of California Environmental Energies Technology Division Building Energy Efficiency. < http://eetd.lbl.gov/coolroof/asshingl.htm > (accessed 9/ 20 / 2007 ). [26] US DOE. Res idential Demand Module < www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/assumption/pdf/residential.pdf > (accessed 5/12/ 2007 ) [27] US DOE. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/ > (accessed 9/12/2006). [28] US DOE. Characteristics of Residential Housing Units by Ceiling Fans < http://www .eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/ceilingfans/ceiling_fan.html > (accessed 11/30/2005) [29] US DOE. A Consumer's Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy < http://www.eere.energy.gov/ > (accessed 7/ 7 / 2007 ). [30] US DOE. Energy Information Administration < http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/florida.html > (accessed 4/1 9 / 2007 .)

PAGE 89

89 [31] US DOE. Trends in Residential Air Conditioning Usage f rom 1978 to 1997 < www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/consumptionbriefs/recs/actrends/recs_ac_trends.html > (accessed 3/23/2006). [32] Vieira RK, Sheink opf KG, Stone JK. Energy Efficient Florida Home Building. Cape Canaveral, FL: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1992. [33] Wikler G A. Policy Options for Energy Efficiency Initiative s. The Electricity Journal 2000; 13 (1): 61 68. [34 ] XEnergy Inc. Phase 4 Ma rket Effects Study of California Residential Lighting and Appliance Program. San Diego Gas an d Electric Company. Oakland, CA, 2002.

PAGE 90

90 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Nicholas Wade Taylor was born in Laurinburg, NC and grew up in Rockingham, NC. During his youth he was a member of the Boy Scouts of America and attained the rank of Eagle Scout. After graduating from Richmond Senior High School in 1997 he went on to complete his environmental technology. After graduation, Nick joined the Peace Corps and moved to Vanuatu where he worked and lived on Mota Lava Island. After returning from the Peace Corps, he began married to Anna Mary Prizzia. The two currently reside in Gainesville, Florida.