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& #34;Kobushi Ageroo! (=Pump Ya Fist!) & #34;

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021536/00001

Material Information

Title: & #34;Kobushi Ageroo! (=Pump Ya Fist!) & #34; Blackness, & #34;Race & #34; and Politics in Japanese Hiphop
Physical Description: 1 online resource (280 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Fischer, Dawn-Elissa Ti
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: discourse, gender, hiphop, japan, race
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This project examines how specific communities of Japanese Hiphop cultural workers translate their political identities within a black diasporic imaginary. Performances of 'blackness' through the use of African American English, Hiphop language ideology, and other related operationalizations of Hiphop aesthetics are examined in a manner that considers the intersectionality of racialized, gendered and sexualized identifications. This research analyzes narratives and representations in transnational Hiphop culture in an effort to document and elucidate social realities as described by cultural workers in a transnational Japanese Hiphop community. Using Hiphop cultural production and its purported social movement as a point of entry as well as a site of inquiry, the analysis presented contributes to understandings of how 'race,' gender, sexuality, class, and transnational location affect cultural workers in their everyday lived experiences and resistance strategies, such as efforts to build a social movement. This research is also necessarily about rethinking how engagements in aesthetic practices and language ideology that cannot be fully 'excavated' as originating from the community in question are ethnographically interpreted as inauthentic or as mimicry. In an effort to call attention to this analytic crisis in ethnography, the objective of this project is to understand the discursive qualities of 'race' 'as an organizing principle of social order' when its status cannot be reduced to 'origins' histories or biological classifications. The analysis addresses central questions such as how are current popular cultural productions in conversation with transnational social movement mobilizing and organization, and how are these popular cultural productions contesting historical governmental policy and identification practice? Are identifications such as 'race' central to modern movement building strategies that resist governmental practice which limits and fixes identity? This research project considers evidence from Japan that attends to these general global issues and theoretical inquiries.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dawn-Elissa Ti Fischer.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Harrison, Faye V.
Local: Co-adviser: Fikes, Kesha D.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021536:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021536/00001

Material Information

Title: & #34;Kobushi Ageroo! (=Pump Ya Fist!) & #34; Blackness, & #34;Race & #34; and Politics in Japanese Hiphop
Physical Description: 1 online resource (280 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Fischer, Dawn-Elissa Ti
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: discourse, gender, hiphop, japan, race
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This project examines how specific communities of Japanese Hiphop cultural workers translate their political identities within a black diasporic imaginary. Performances of 'blackness' through the use of African American English, Hiphop language ideology, and other related operationalizations of Hiphop aesthetics are examined in a manner that considers the intersectionality of racialized, gendered and sexualized identifications. This research analyzes narratives and representations in transnational Hiphop culture in an effort to document and elucidate social realities as described by cultural workers in a transnational Japanese Hiphop community. Using Hiphop cultural production and its purported social movement as a point of entry as well as a site of inquiry, the analysis presented contributes to understandings of how 'race,' gender, sexuality, class, and transnational location affect cultural workers in their everyday lived experiences and resistance strategies, such as efforts to build a social movement. This research is also necessarily about rethinking how engagements in aesthetic practices and language ideology that cannot be fully 'excavated' as originating from the community in question are ethnographically interpreted as inauthentic or as mimicry. In an effort to call attention to this analytic crisis in ethnography, the objective of this project is to understand the discursive qualities of 'race' 'as an organizing principle of social order' when its status cannot be reduced to 'origins' histories or biological classifications. The analysis addresses central questions such as how are current popular cultural productions in conversation with transnational social movement mobilizing and organization, and how are these popular cultural productions contesting historical governmental policy and identification practice? Are identifications such as 'race' central to modern movement building strategies that resist governmental practice which limits and fixes identity? This research project considers evidence from Japan that attends to these general global issues and theoretical inquiries.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dawn-Elissa Ti Fischer.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Harrison, Faye V.
Local: Co-adviser: Fikes, Kesha D.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021536:00001


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"KOBUSHIAGEROO! (=PUMP YA FIST!)":
BLACKNESS, "RACE" AND POLITICS IN JAPANESE HIPHOP























By

DAWN-ELISSA TIYE IGHOSOTU FISCHER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































O 2007 Dawn-Elissa Tiye Ighosotu Fischer




































For my son, Xola Dessalines Amilcar Fischer, and my mother, Cheryl Fischer, with love, respect
and eternal admiration









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Anything productive that comes of this work is because it is multi-vocal and made possible

by much support and guidance from a number of people, programs and institutions. Any

mistakes are the sole fault of the author and so, in advance, I say, mea culpa, as this proj ect was

initially inspired by and continually driven by only good intentions as well as dreams of hope,

healing and human equality. I am most grateful to the many people whose work, presence and

support made this document possible. Writing to express my gratitude has been such an

emotional process that I have actually -in the spirit of Hiphop--produced an "underground" and

"commercial" version of Acknowledgements! What follows is the concise and commercial

version. However, I still hope that readers will enjoy this part in the true spirit of a mixtape, and

play your favorite instrumental sample while reading this academic version of the Hiphop "shout

out." In a Einal mixtape move, I send sincere apologies to all I may have forgotten to thank. I got

you next time! One love; let's get free.

I am eternally thankful to all of the institutions, foundations, programs and people who

financially supported my development and this research: the Mellon Mays Fellowship Program

and the Social Science Research Council, the University of Florida Alumni Fellowship, the

Japan Foundation, the Hiphop Archive, Stephen Fischer, Donald Fischer and Cheryl Fischer.

I am eternally grateful for all my mentors, teachers, motivators, leaders, theorists and other

folk who helped me make a way in the spirit and likeness of how I imagine Harriet Tubman led

members of my ancestral community to the river Jordan: Marcyliena Morgan, Faye Harrison,

Kesha Fikes, Irma McClaurin, Gina Ulysse, Mark Reid, Michael Heckenberger, Jon Yasin,

Marvin Sterling, Raymond Codrington, Dionne Bennett, Jon Jackson, Jeff Johnson, Maria

Grosz-Ngate, Enoch H. Page, Don Matthews, Chuck D, Bakari Kitwana, Nakazawa Mayumi,

Mark Anthony Neal, Theresa Adkins, Carla Stokes, Scott Heath and Stephany Rose Spaulding.










My advisory committee in particular, Faye Harrison, Kesha Fikes, Irma McClaurin,

Michael Heckenberger and Mark Reid, and the Founder and Director of the Hiphop Archive,

Marcyliena Morgan, deserve a special "shout out" and "bow down" for being supportive and

challenging as well as "the bomb" theorists and phenomenal educators. I sing a special spiritual

song for each of you, as you all inspire me. I am fortunate to have been mentored by these great

theorists and researchers. Finally, I express immense gratitude to Marcyliena Morgan, who not

only founded the Hiphop Archive, which serves as an important resource for scholars and

educators who study and teach Hiphop, but she has also been a pivotal mentor to a large cohort

of Hiphop generation Hiphop researchers.

I bow down in thanks and reverence for my various crews, who helped me to pull through

as we collectively figure out the Underground Railroad of life. Much props to my tight "Gator"

crew: Lonn Monroe, Tracey Graham, Theresa Adkins, Nakamura Mutsuo, Fujino Yuko, Nishant

Shahani, Sybil Dionne Rosado, Daphine Washington, Ermitte St. Jacques, Rosana Resende,

Harun Thomas and the University of Florida Hip Hop Collective!i I love all ya'll--your spirits

are what I miss about the "Swamp."

Much props to my Yay Area/ Lower Bottoms/ Club Knowledge crews: Danae Martinez,

Imani Williams, Sonni Collins, Chaka Smith, Tesa Rigaud, Miesha Hillard, Ameelah El-Amin,

Curtis "Boze" Riley, Jr. & Hairdoo, Tigi Bihon, Blu, Zotunde, Liv, Tedra, "Lower Bottoms

Mayor" Raymond from across the street, Tarus Jackson (RIP), Chaundra, Fat Rat, Makini,

Susan, Tani Nagaoka, Lisa Moon (RIP), Sato Mirei, Joel Tan, Ricky Vincent, Jeff Chang, Adam

Mansbach, Jeriel Bey and The Architektz, Dorothy Tsuruta, Nedra Ginwright, Shawn Ginwright,

Antwi Akom, Lem Lem, Anita Johnson and Davey D and the rest of the Hard Knock Radio fam,

Wade Nobles, Elnora Webb, Serie McDougall, Andreana Clay, Jon Rodriquez, Jessica Norwood,









Victor Thompson, Daniel Zarazua, Melanie, Shawntae, Joyce, Pamela, Kevin Washington, Ken

Monteiro, Johnetta Richards and the rest of the SF State Africana Studies & College of Ethnic

Studies family, and finally all the Hiphop Archive staff and crew from Stanford University!!!i

To my "right thurr" (STL throwback and Midwest) crew: Amoretta Itunde Morris, Donica

England, Chandra Williams, Jessica LaShawn, Ms. Chasity, Michelle Purdy, Stephanie Baker,

Lanetta Greer, Phyllis Broussard, Tony Stephenson, Jude Bordeaux, Cameron White, TJ

Crawford, Robin Terry, Jamilla Upchurch and Julia-Feliz Sessoms, and all the other activists,

educators and organizers that I worked with back in da day!

Nuff respect and eternal gratitude to my family, friends, colleagues and inspirational folk

in Japan: King Zulu Tone, Seiko, DJ Yutaka, Mayumi, DJ Kaori, K Dub Shine, Astuko, Ai, Kyle,

Keiko, Satchiko, Ricky, Curtis, Spanky, Master Key, Shingo, J-Roc, "Bobby," Tony, Mayuko

and everyone with much humble, grateful love and respect. B-tb E ftL 7" & L~rt!

I must give an extra special thanks to my formal research consultants and the people I lived

and worked with in Japan. Mad props and sincere gratitude to the translation teams over the

years: Fujino Yuko, Nakamura Mutsuo, King Zulu Tone, Wesley Uenten, VSOP, and Cheryl

Fischer. These folks also engaged me in dialogue and analysis that gave birth to the final product

that follows. Other specific and valuable research assistance and analysis was graciously

supplied by Rakaa Taylor, Daniel "Dan" Zarazua and VSOP. Rakaa was extremely patient and

efficient as he helped me to navigate formal music industry challenges and perspectives; his

insight and philosophical contributions were most helpful. Daniel and VSOP were especially

supportive with data collection in the latter parts of this proj ect. Daniel has done so much, it' s

easier just to say, "Dan, you da man! Thanks being a great research partner and comrade." VSOP









also lent his ill skillz as a master artist/ activist and was a key researcher in this proj ect. I am

humbly indebted to all ya'll!

I received wonderful editorial assistance from Anna Otieno, Pat Barker and AC Racette.

They were most gracious with their "mad" editorial skills; I am grateful for their help editing the

Einal document. I am extremely indebted to the kindness of Jon Rodriquez. He is a "dissertation

angel" who supported me in amazing ways during the Einal weeks of this proj ect. For real, Jon,

Harriet Tubman style. Much love and gratitude! Jon held me down like family.

I thank ALL my ancestors, especially the African-descent women who completed

undergraduate work despite the hostile and violent environment that followed slavery in

American history. These women began my family legacy in the profession of teaching at least

four generations back, beginning with Rachel McCoy Sanders and her daughter, Mildred Sanders

Glover, continuing through my mother, Cheryl Glover Fischer, and her sister, Catherine Glover,

and now through me. I give thanks to my brave ancestors who brought us through the tough trials

of slavery, segregation and other structural violence. Special thanks to "Free Bob" Vernon. I also

thank my determined ancestors who tilled land in Oklahoma, labored for family, and began my

paternal lineage of university professors with my grandfather, John Fischer, followed by my

father, Donald Fischer, and now continuing through me. My Grandpa Fischer' s advice

throughout my traj ectory as a student of anthropology has been especially motivational, and he

continues to teach me the importance of ethics, research and teaching in everyday life.

I give major shouts out to my exceptionally supportive family and especially my

immediate family members. I have all love, respect and gratitude for my mother, Cheryl Fischer,

who is the central inspiration for this proj ect and who supported me intellectually and physically,

not only by being my first Japanese teacher, but also with endless help caring for my son so that I









could write and work. I give thanks and love to my father, Donald Fischer, who kept it real as a

university professor, read and edited drafts of my work and debated with me about everything

from gender theory to Hield methods. I give special loving thanks to my three elder brothers who

also helped to raise and support me throughout this proj ect. Douglass, you taught me to follow

my dreams and be healthy. Stephen, you challenged me to always "do better" and you funded

much of this research. Scott, you found my lost bibliography fie, helped me with editing and

served as a general sounding board, and it has meant so much. Shout out to my brothers'

partners: Nina and Cali, who have listened to me drone on about this proj ect and have helped me

with my child. I give much love to one of our future leaders, my niece, Josephine Fischer, and

her younger sibling who is on her or his way to join us now. And most especially, I give eternal

love to my son, Xola, my greatest blessing to date. Xola, thank you for choosing me to parent

you: you inspire a peace in me that your name signifies, and it is my hope that our world knows a

similar peace and j oy, as we work collectively toward human equality and social justice.









NOTE ON LANGUAGE

When last or family names are provided for Japanese nationals, I follow Japanese practice

with last name first followed by given names. Japanese American names follow common

practice in the United States. Exceptions exist when I contacted the person whose name I am

using and she or he requested that the name was presented otherwise. I often use Japanese

characters for Japanese words for two main reasons. One is to show how the author of the text

utilized codeswitching in print (e.g., song lyrics published). The other case is for emphasis,

particularly when I am making points about language use. When I utilize Romanization, I follow

a variant of the modified Hepburn style. All translations are the author' s unless otherwise noted.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. ...............4.....


NOTE ON LANGUAGE ................. ...............9...._.._......

LIST OF TABLES ....... ................ ...............13......


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............14....


LIST OF OBJECT S .............. ...............15....


LI ST OF AB BREVIAT IONS ................. ............... 16......... ...

AB S TRAC T ........._. ............ ..............._ 17...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION: THE TRANSNATIONAL AS TRANSLATIONAL ................... ..........19


"[ Hiphop] is Black Power" ........._.___......_. ...............19...
T he Importance of Memory ........._._.. ......___ ...............29....
Global Races and Black Popular Culture .............. ...............37....
Race as Political Imaginary and Social Strategy .............. ...............46....
Ethnographic Significance ................. ...............48.................
Transnational as Translational ........._..._... ...............52.._.._........


2 AUTOETHNOGRAPHIC REFLECTION: ENTRY POINTTS, METHODOLOGIES,
AND BLACK BODY POLITICS .............. ...............54....


"Racing Research, Researching Race" ............... ...............54....
Significance of Focusing on Linguistic Data ................. ...............55...............
Attending to an Analytic Conundrum ................ ...... ............ .. ........5
Context and Experience Entering a Longitudinal Ethnographic Relationship.............._._. ....57
Phase One: First Contact .............. ...............57....
Phase Two: Back Again .............. ...............59....
Phase Three: Filmmaking ........._.___..... .___ ...............62....
Phase Four: Winter in Tokyo ................ ... ..... ..............6
Phase Five: Substantiating Postcolonial Identities ....._.__._ ........__. ........._......66
Phase Six: The Gender Mission ................ ...............67...
Phase Seven: The "Ethnographic Present" ................ ..........__ ......69.... ...
Data Collection Process ..........._._ ......_.. ...............70....
Background ..........._._ ....._.. ...............71.....
Doctoral Research .............. ...............72....
Data Analysis Process............... ...............75
Reporting Process .........._.._ ....._.. ...............86.....



10











3 "RACE," ETHNICITY, AND POSTCOLONIAL IDENTITIES IN CONTEMPORARY
JAPANESE STUDIES .............. ...............88....


Introduction to "Race" in Japan.................. ...............8
Negroid and Mongoloid: Race as Shared Experience ................. ...............92...
Examples of Racialization of Japanese People in US Print Media ......._.._....... ........... ....93
Treatments of "Race" and "Racism" in Japanese Studies ................ ........... ................94
From Burakumin to Blackface: The Performance of Race and Promise of
Transcendence............... .............11
NIHON-STYLE ................. ...............125__ .......

4 HIPHOP AS TRANSNATIONAL SOCIAL MOVEMENT? ................ ......................128


Making a Movement: "Building a Hiphop Foundation" ............. ..... ............... 12
Layers of Race: Samples from Hiphop............... ...............135
Codeswitching as Discourse Strategy ............ .....___ ...............143..
Hiphop Aesthetics and Language Ideology ............__......__ ....___ ............4
Examples of AAE Phonology .............. .....................149
Examples of AAE Syntax.. ....._ ....__.......___ ......__ .........__.....149
Examples of AAE Lexicon ............ ..... ._ ...............149..
Other Morpho syntacti c Prop erti e s ................ ...............149.............
Flow: Can You Feel It? ............ ...............150.....
Shinj uku Represent": A Battle ........._.._............_. ...............154..
Japanese AAE Codeswitching in Japanese Hiphop ................ ...........__ ..........__ .....16
"Luck Last" (2006) by Anarchy feat. La Bono and AK-69 --AK-69's Verse.............1 65
"Koko Tokyo" (2003) by Aquarius (DJ Yakko & Deli) feat. S-Word, Big-O, and
Dabo--BIG-O's Verse......................... ........................16
"No Pain No Gain" (2002) DJ PMX feat. Maccho (Ozrosaurus), Zeebra--
M accho' s Verse ................. ....... ........ ....... ... .. .........16
"Uh-Uh" (2003) by Suite Chic feat. Al--Suite Chic's Verse ................. .........._.._.. .169
"Bayside Cruisin'" (2005) Big Ron feat. Richee, DS455 --Richee's Verse ........._.....171
Hybridity, Identity, and Cultural Work ................... ...............173.
Case Studies: Producers, Consumers, and Distributors ................. .......... ................1 76
Distribution: "We All in the Same Game" ................ ...............176........... ..
Consumers: Beyond Blackface ................. ...............179...............
Producers: The "Keepers" of the Culture ................. ............ .. ............. ......18
Conclusion: The Politics of an International Hiphop Generation? ................ ................. .187

5 IS OPRAH RIGHT? RACE AND GENDER POLITICS INT HIPHOP .............. ................190


Ethnographer' s Eye/I-Novel or Mus/usseisu:~n Raising Critical Notions of Self and
Society through Narrative ................. ................. 190........ ....
Lessons in Uhuru from Uhura ......_._..............._. ...............192....
The W rath of Farrakhan .............. ... ....... .. ....................19
A JCdlfli ? (=What' s My Name?): Bringing Gender Back Into the Anti-Race Game .......204
Alf2~ (=Women Represent!) .............. ...............207....











"Watch Out!" by Ai, Afra, and Tucker (2004) .....___._ ..... ... .__ ......_._.........1
"Lady Meets Girl" by Miss Monday (2002) .............. ...............213....
"Let's Go (It's a Movement)" (2003)............ .............. ...............21
"There' s No Place Like Home": Queens and Bitches and Hos, Oh My!! i........._._.. ............219

6 CONCLUSION: KOBUSHI AGEROO! (=PUMP YA FIST!i) ................. ............. .......224

Blackness, "Race," and Politics in Ethnographic Proj ects ................ ........................224
Revoking Hiphop's "Ghetto Pass" ............ ...............227.....
Legacy to Liberation? ............. ...............232....
Final Reflection .............. ...............235....

APPENDIX SAMPLES FROM DATA REFERENCED .............. ...............240....


Summary of Analysis from RIAJ Yearbook 2006 Charts ....._._._ ........... ..............240
"Sill t*$ "/ "Kobushi Ageroo"/ "Pump Ya Fist" ..........._._ ....___ ....._._.......24
"Self Destruction," Japanese Style .............. ...............242....
K-Dub Shine's "Save The Children" ................ ...............245....._... ..
Hannya' s"Oretachi no YamYYYYYYYY~~~~~~~~ato "..........._.._. ...............245._.... ....
"Knowledge" Panel Translation Sample .............. ...............246....
Sample Survey from 2001 .............. ...............250....

LI ST OF REFERENCE S ............_ ..... ..__ ...............252..

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............280....



































12










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Numbers of long recorded interviews described in the Data Collection Process .............75

3-1 Population chart of registered foreigners in Japan from 1996 to 2005 ..........................127

4-1 Transcription conventions used ..........._ .....___ ...............189.










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 Advertisements along a stroll down one small city block (less than 100 feet in
length) in Kamakura, Japan in 2004 .............. ...............66....

4-1 An ankh symbol on a necklace; photograph taken by the author in 2005 at a Japanese
recording studio .............. ...............132....











LIST OF OBJECTS


Object page
3-1 M ap of Japan ............ ...... ._ ...............91...

3-2 Japanese people as "brutal," "savage," and not human .............. ...............93....

3-3 Japanese people as "apes" or "savages" in need of "civilizing" ..........._.._ ..........._..__..94

3-4 Japanese people as not human and akin to lice............... ...............94..

4-1 Channels performing blackface .............. ...............142....

4-2 Anarchy's album cover for "Luck Last" ....__. ...._.._.._ ......._._. .........16

4-3 Aquarius' s album cover for the "Koko Tokyo" ...._.._.._ ........... ........__. .....16

4-4 DJ PMX' s album art for the "'No Pain No Gain"'....._.._.._ ........... ..............6

4-5 Suite Chic's album cover for the "Uh-Uh" ................ ...._.._ ...................7

4-6 Big Ron's album cover for the "Bayside Cruisin"'"........... ...............173.....

5-1 View the skit "The Wrath of Farrakhan" ...._. ......_._._ ......_.. .........19

5-2 Nichelle Nichols as Uhura in a secretarial role in the original Star Trek series .............197

5-3 George Takei as Hikaru Sulu, in the original Star Trek series .............. ....................19

5-4 One of Ai's album covers for "Watch Out!" ............... ....___ ......._........1

5-2 Ai's "W atch Out!" ........... ...............212.....

5-5 Exile album cover featuring various African-American political marches with signs
photoshopped to reflect the names of guest artists on the album ........._.._... ........._......214

5-6 Miss Monday's "Lady Meets Girl" album cover............... ...............215.

5-7 Beef Soundtrack' s album art for "Let' s Go (It' s a Movement)"............ ..._.........__...2 16

5-8 Lil' Ai's album art for "Let' s Go (It' s a Movement)" .......__. ......... ___ ...............21

A-1 DJ Yutaka's album cover for "Kobushi" ............. ...............242....

A-2 "Self Destruction" album art............... ...............245..

A-3 K Dub Shine's "Save the Children"............. ...............24

A-4 Hannya's "Oretachi no YamYYYYYYYY~~~~~~~~~ato" ............. ...............246....









LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

African American English

Black Panther Party

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women

General American English

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination

Japan African-American Friendship Association

Japanese popular music

Office of Management and Budget

M~ovimento Nacional de M~eninos e M~enina~s de Rua (=National Movement
of Street Boys and Girls)

National Endowment for the Humanities

Non-Governmental Organization

National Hip Hop Political Convention

Transnational Social Movement Organization

United Nations World Conference Against Racism

Universal Zulu Nation

Worthiness, United, Numbers, Committed


AAE

BPP

CEDAW


GAE

ICERD


JAFA

J-Pop

OMB

MNMMR


NEH

NGO

NHHPC

TSMO

UNWCAR

UZN

WUNC









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

"KOBUSHIAGEROO! (=PUMP YA FIST!)":
BLACKNESS, "RACE" AND POLITICS IN JAPANESE HIPHOP

By

Dawn-Elissa Tiye Ighosotu Fischer

December 2007

Chair: Faye V. Harrison
Cochair: Kesha D. Fikes
Major: Anthropology

This proj ect examines how specific communities of Japanese Hiphop cultural workers

translate their political identities within a black diasporic imaginary. Performances of

"blackness" through the use of African American English, Hiphop language ideology, and other

related operationalizations of Hiphop aesthetics are examined in a manner that considers the

intersectionality of racialized, gendered and sexualized identifications. This research analyzes

narratives and representations in transnational Hiphop culture in an effort to document and

elucidate social realities as described by cultural workers in a transnational Japanese Hiphop

community. Using Hiphop cultural production and its purported social movement as a point of

entry as well as a site of inquiry, the analysis presented contributes to understandings of how

"race," gender, sexuality, class, and transnational location affect cultural workers in their

everyday lived experiences and resistance strategies, such as efforts to build a social movement.

This research is also necessarily about rethinking how engagements in aesthetic practices

and language ideology that cannot be fully "excavated" as originating from the community in

question are ethnographically interpreted as inauthentic or as mimicry. In an effort to call

attention to this analytic crisis in ethnography, the obj ective of this proj ect is to understand the









discursive qualities of "race"-as an organizing principle of social order--when its status cannot

be reduced to "origins" histories or biological classifications. The analysis addresses central

questions such as how are current popular cultural productions in conversation with transnational

social movement mobilizing and organization, and how are these popular cultural productions

contesting historical governmental policy and identification practice? Are identifications such as

"race" central to modern movement building strategies that resist governmental practice which

limits and Eixes identity? This research proj ect considers evidence from Japan that attends to

these general global issues and theoretical inquiries.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION: THE TRANSNATIONAL AS TRANSLATIONAL

"[Hiphop] is Black Power"

I mean a culture like Hiphop, which is brand new, that's bringing us together like this--
that' s amazing! That' s the power of music, I think. And not only that, the power of
Hiphop. I'll say this: it is black power. I'm not kidding. It is black power. For real!
Everybody recognizes that. I mean, don't get me wrong. I have a lot of respect for the
white people-everybody-but as far as Hiphop is concerned, it's black power.

--A Japanese-national Hiphopl cultural worker

Are these the words of a confused, "wannabe-black" victim of the "black hegemony" of

American popular culture, as some scholars suggest (Cornyetz 1994; Matory 2002; Wood 1997),

or is the cultural worker cited attempting to articulate something more significant? Could his

comments represent reflections regarding the postcolonial condition that he believes his people

have been suffering from since the United States' occupation of his country after WWII (Dower

1986, 1993, 1999)? And, could these comments provide any insight into the context of the more

recent barrage on Japanese youth by dominant images of whiteness as "humanity" and "beauty"

in the media--that is, the over-reliance on white models and actors for the maj ority of



SThe operational definition of Hiphop for the purpose of this proj ect considers Hiphop as a
culture, as it is described by the cultural workers with whom I work. Hiphop incorporates--but is
not limited to--Hyve maj or cultural "elements": knowledge, lyricism, beat production, graffiti art
or writing, and dance. Other elements such as fashion, language, and entrepreneurship also
abound in Hiphop cultural production (cf., Hebdige 1987; Kitwana 2005; KRS-ONE 2000;
Morgan 2001; Perkins 1996; Rose 1994; Smitherman 1997). The spelling of Hiphop--using a
capital H and no space or hyphen--serves to honor an artist who writes theory about Hiphop
culture (KRS-ONE); however, I do not completely agree with his views and theories. I began
writing academic papers on Hiphop as a Hiphop-generation scholar about 13 years ago, and at
that time, Hiphop cultural studies was not recognized or respected as an acceptable area of study.
In 2000, when Davey D circulated KRS-ONE's "Refinitions" (KRS-ONE 2000), I began
choosing this spelling in order to honor the people about whom I have been writing as well as to
accentuate that I am writing about Hiphop as a culture.

2 I USe the term "cultural worker" to refer to the artistic, music, media, and literary producers
who create the culture that I understand to be Hiphop. Read more about this term in the latter
part of this chapter.









commercial and marketing material (Honda 1993; Kondo 1997)? Japan, which is often

considered a world economic power and key player in Pacific hegemony (Tamanoi 2003) is a

complex site for documenting the every day lived experiences of youth, who are increasingly

dissatisfied with the alienating effects of state-regulated identity.3YOuth report that they are

grappling with "spoiled identities" (Goffman 1963) as a result of (1) increased employment

uncertainty and related social structural insecurity due to the country's most recent economic

recession, (2) continued cross-cultural misunderstandings and perceived social violations

concerning US-military occupation, (3) non-reflective and non-affirming images of whiteness in

the media and marketing-particularly those that are youth-centered, such as cartoons and

fashion billboards, and (4) official public policy that is simultaneously homogenizing and

hierarchical, such as Nihonjinron4, which exacerbates disparities between socially constructed

"pure" Japanese nationals and "others" (Fischer and White 2002).5




3 I define "state-regulated identities" as the identifications that are assigned to human bodies by
the governing institutions in the locations in which they reside. These identifications are
regulated by governments in that there are a fixed number of identity categories and these
identity categories are hierarchically situated in social practice, despite laws that recommend
otherwise (cf., Article 14 in Japan; Civil Rights Acts in US legislation).

4 Nihon~jinrTon reflects theories of Japanese uniqueness and national identity; it is generally
critiqued as being culturally chauvinist and culturally nationalist. See Lie (2001) or Befu et al.
(2000) for more anthropological information concerning Nihonjinron as social science theory
and public policy. See http://www.imadr.org for articles concerning how conceptions of a
"racially pure Japanese people" discriminate against other Japanese residents in the areas of
education and criminal justice.

SIn accordance with American Anthropological Association citation style guides, quotation
marks are used not only used to capture spoken words and citations, but they are also used to
designate problematized terms. Furthermore, quotation marks are utilized when introducing
discipline specific concepts or vernacular vocabulary. To optimize readability, once a term has
been established as problematic through the initial use of quotation marks (e.g., "race"), it
appears throughout the text without quotation marks, unless they are invoked for emphasis or
ironic effect.









All of the aforementioned issues can be connected to a history of power that is centered in

a relationship to the West (particularly, but not limited to, the US), and they are indicative of

complicated and contradictory colonial and postcolonial policies (such as General MacAuthor's

political re-education programs). However, the question still remains: what do the comments

from the cultural worker presented mean? Do they allude to some sort of "borrowing blackness"

(Bucholtz 1997)? If so, why, or for what purpose? Why connect Hiphop, a popular cultural

genre, to blackness and power, when speaking about it from the geopolitical location of Japan?

Does making this connection aim to manage a "spoiled identity" or to petition a particular

political rhetoric? Is the process of borrowing blackness truly only about blackness, or is the

cultural worker contributing to a political conversation that is more complex and reflective about

whiteness and its relationship to the West as it is experienced in Japan? That is, does the process

of borrowing blackness reference whiteness or its contentious history with the West without

actually naming it? If so, why invoke the black/white binary in (politically constructed "yellow")

Japan (Allen 1994, Dower 1986)? What insight do utterances such as the cultural worker' s lend

to the ethnographic study of "race," and what could this discourse tell us about youth6, race,

culture, and politics in Japan?

By analyzing utterances that tie Hiphop to blackness and politics, I examine how race

works in a no race' political era. I pay special attention to rhetoric and practice that is situated


6 The research presented in this proj ect specifically focuses on cultural workers who comprise
Japan' s Hiphop generation, which following Bakari Kitwana's definition (2002) refers to people
born between the years 1965 and 1984. From surveys and participant observation, it seems that
the maj ority of the consumer audiences of the cultural workers discussed in this dissertation
consists of youth born after 1984.

SWhile it has been proven biologically that race is a social construct, ethnographic analyses and
political policies must still consider the continued uses and abuses of race in the 21st century.
The reference to a "no race" era critiques the current trend of "un-recognizing" race in research
and policy (cf., anti-affirmative action court rulings in the United States; former Prime Minister









within a particularly racialized discourse that is inextricably linked to a narrative concerning

Hiphop. I execute the former in a manner that considers the unspoken complex historical

significance of Japan as simultaneous colonizer and colonized as well as the transnational space

in which Hiphop discourse and practice are produced. Therefore, the research I conducted is

largely concerned with how Hiphop cultural workers in Japan are interpreting the significance of

race. That is, if Hiphop is a trope for blackness, i.e., bodies and things perceived to be marginal,

in resistance and in association with Africa, what does the public and voluntary practice of this

cultural form by non-blacks cultural workers reveal about the production of race as a discourse?

Specifically, what is meaningful about the relationship between the signifying potential of

blackness and the subj activities of such Hiphop practitioners whose racial "origins" are not

publicly recognized as black? And finally, in what ways does blackness operate to signify a

contentious relationship with the West and associated discourses on whiteness?

This proj ect, in conversation with the research of cultural and linguistic social scientists

who consider identity a form of lived and situated practice (cf., Bucholtz 1997; Codrington 2003;

Condry 1999, 2001; Dimitriadis 2001; Goffman 1959; Greenhouse 2002; Hall 1998, 1996a;


Nakasone Yasuhiro and former Minister of Justice Kajiyama Seiroku' s comments in 1986 and
1990 respectively that not only reproduced colonial models of racial hierarchies abroad, but also
reinforced notions--and policy--of Japan as a racially homogenous or "pure" nation-state, see
Russell 1992).

SI define "non-blacks" as people who are not politically or historically recognized according to
gl obal rec ogniti on s of "rac e" and "'de scent"' as "'black"' or a s an "'Afri can- de scendant"' (cf., the
United Nations High Commission on Human Rights Declarations). I recognize that there are
non-"African-descendant" populations who have been historically situated and identified by
governing states as well as societies as "black" such as Asian-nationals (e.g., people from India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh) in England, Tongans in the Pacific Islands, Roma in Eastern European
states and Maori in Australia. However, this project focused on African-descendants who have
been historically marked as "Negroid" and Japanese nationals who have historically been marked
as "Mongoloid" by raciologists/ 18th Century race theorists.









Hannerz 1987; Harrison 2002; Hebdige 1979, 1987; Herzfeld 1997; Kondo 1990, 1997; Mercer

1994, 1996, 2000; Morgan 2001, 2002, forthcoming; Rickford and Rickford 2000), examines

how cultural workers in Japan translate their political worlds within a black diasporic imaginary,

specifically the practice of Hiphop culture and identity. As such, this proj ect is also necessarily

about rethinking how engagement in aesthetic practices that cannot be fully excavated as

originating from the community in question are likely to be ethnographically interpreted as forms

of mimicry or displays of inauthenticity. In the effort to call attention to this analytic crisis,

within a fashion that can consider the performative role of race as lived experience, the obj ective

of this research is to understand the discursive qualities (or potential) of race--as an organizing

principle of social order--when its status can not be ontologically reduced to diasporic scattering

or biology.

Hiphop can be associated with blackness precisely because of its origins narrativeS9, which

situate its cultural genesis in African-American speech communities (Baker 1993; Chuck D

1997; Hebdige 1987; Jackson 2003; Kitwana 2002; KRS-ONE 2000; Morgan 2008; Neal 2003;

Potter 1995; Ramsey 2003; Rose 1994; Smitherman 1997; Toop 2000; Washington and Shaver

1997; Yasin 1999). Anthropologists, linguists and cultural studies scholars alike have

documented aspects of African American English'o (AAE) language varieties in the lyricism of


9 The term "origins narrative" in this chapter is akin to what professional Hiphop cultural
archivists call Hiphop "history" (Chang 2005;, Fricke and Ahearn 2002; Kitwana 2005). I refrain
from fixing narratives collected from the ascribed pioneers as a static history, since they rely on
memory and consensus to remain in being. I theorize about the uses of a dominant origins
narrative in this paper. I use "origins" rather than "foundation" (Pratt 1992) because Hiphop is
often spoken about by the pioneers who police this narrative in terms of "origins," "originators,"
and "originality."

10 African American English (AAE) has also been referred to as Ebonics, African American
Vernacular English (AAVE), Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black English (BE) and Negro
English, among other terms over time. AAE is often defined as a language variety by linguists
and the difference in reference term could possibly but not always signify ideological differences









Hiphop cultural workers. Furthermore, Hiphop's origins narratives situate the cultural genesis in

particular black, urban spaces in New York City. Whether these narratives reflect reality or not is

insignificant, considering the fact that these stories have been reproduced in manifold ways in

popular literature (e.g., The Source Magazine, Viacom's music video industries such as MTV,

BET, and VH-1), and consumed by youth as well as cultural workers who identify with Hiphop

all over the world. The consumption of these narratives has facilitated the emergence of an

imagined community of "Hiphoppers" through a common literacy and common struggle against

controlling mechanisms of the state, i.e., "the man"/hegemony/"white power"11 (Anderson 1991;

Beebe 2002; Dyson 2001; Grossberg 1997; Heath 2006; Hall 1996b; hooks 1992). This common

literacy and language socialization can be demonstrated by the fact that any youth (from Italy to

Japan) identified with this global culture can usually recount a narrative that generally begins

with Kool Herc' s technological innovation and climaxes with the global popularity of Run DMC

(Fujita 1996; Gilroy 1993b; Hebdige 1987; Kitwana 2005; Morgan 2008; Pipitone 2006; Prevos

in how one is defining the specificities and phenomenologies of the language variety. See, for
example, Gates (1989), Green (2002), Morgan (2002), Mufwene et al (1998), Rickford and
Rickford (2000), Smitherman (1986), Yasin (1999). For examples of AAE use in non-US-based
Hiphop, see Spady, Alim, Meghelli (2006).

11 Terms such as "the man," "the establishment," "hegemony," "white power," and "white
supremacy," are reminiscent of particular political rhetoric utilized for social movement building
with "anti-establishment" efforts such as the Black Panther Party, the Weather Underground, the
Women's Liberation Movement, and the Red Guard. Early Hiphop artists came of age and began
the production of their art in this atmosphere, so it is common to see remnants of this rhetoric in
the lyricism of Hiphop. Recall that the Vietnam War, the Black Power Movement, Watergate,
the Cold War, and a plethora of other politically volatile situations were occurring in the United
States and abroad during the late 1960s and early 1970s when the onset of Hiphop culture is
claimed to have occurred. The global political climate in conjunction with changes in domestic
social policy (e.g., the Moynihan report) left subalternized urban poor and "minority" youth at a
particular disadvantage with little or no redress. It should be no surprise that they incorporated
the oppositional political rhetoric (e.g., "black is beautiful" and "power to the people") of the
time to voice their predicament and cope with harsh realities (cf., Wild Style and Style Wars).
Here, the term "the state" refers to governments or nation/states that determine legislature that
affect the peoples discussed.









2001; Spady, Alim, Meghelli 2006; Urla 2001). 12 Through the production of an origins narrative

that situates the cultural genesis in specific, struggling African-American (and immigrant

African-Caribbean) communities, the culture of Hiphop lends its political capital to anyone

seeking redress for the transnational character of political and economic injustice (Harrison

2000). This phenomenon is not new, as African Americans have been conceptualized as

trailblazers fighting against statel3 regulation of identity that is intrinsic in colonial and, as we

are witnessing, postcolonial processes, or metaphorically, a significant population that reside in

the "belly of the beast," cutting away at the intestines. 14 Therefore, as US-based racial politics

are exported abroad--specifically where US military interests persist--relational African

American resistance narratives and strategies become of particular interest as an oppositional

strategy for local populations (Gilroy 1993b, 2000; Hall 1996b; Harrison 2002; Mercer 2000).

Such narratives and strategies have historically been transmitted through popular cultural genres

(Atkins 2001; Chaney 2002: 115; Eterovic and Smith 2001; Lahusen 2001; Ramsey 2003;

Sterling 2003, 2006). In Japan since WWII, jazz, blues, reggae, dancehall, and now Hiphop have

occupied an oppositional utility to state-regulated identificatory practice--whether that practice

comes from the US military, multi-national corporations, or Japanese state policies (Davis 2000;

Lie 2001; Nakazawa 1998, 2002).




12 For instance, most Hiphop-identified participants' history and origins narratives concerning
Hiphop will begin as follows with the over-produced and over-published story of artist Kool
Herc (aka Clive Campbell): "In 1967, Kool Here emigrated from Jamaica to West Bronx.... He
extended break beats as a deej ay.... and Hiphop was born...."

13 See Philip Corrigan and Derek Sayer (1985:195) for a concise definition of the state as it is
operationalized in this study. Corrigan and Sayer (1985) are discussed in detail later in this
chapter.

14 JOse Marti coined the term "belly of the monster" and this phrase is my update of the concept.









Hiphop's relation to AAE language varieties also situates its political rhetoric within a

counter-language framework (Halliday 1976; Morgan 2002; T. Butler 1995). Likewise, its

origins narratives, which position it in African-diasporic, specifically African-American,

communities, associate it with a counterpublic sphere (Fraser 1992; Hauser 2001; Pough 2004).

It is counterpublic because its participants do not have access to the public sphere (cf., contexts

of slavery, Jim Crow segregation, prison industrial complex systems). This idea is not new for

black bodies in the United States, and any successful overthrow of regimes that regulate these

black bodies can be considered significant for democratizing efforts worldwide. The basic

statement concerning the US as a false democracy, that is, the ethnographic realities--that

humans are not treated equally--conveyed in the lyrics of African-American musical genres

(such as blues, jazz, funk, soul, and Hiphop) is threatening to US imperialist efforts abroad since

the political re-education of conquered countries like Japan and Iraq requires the US to be

accepted as a democratic safeguard, where all people are treated equally, and race and class

conflicts are downplayed (Tsuchiya 2002).

Therefore, Hiphop's political utility is precisely its association with a black body politic,

and its popular cultural presence allows it to be accessed and appropriated through performative

measures. As Judith Butler comments, "any mobilization against subj section will take subj section

as its resource, and that attachment to an injurious interpellation, by way of a necessarily

alienated narcissism, become the condition under which resignifying that interpellation becomes

possible" (Butler 1997b:104). The psychic process of identifying with the ultimate subj ected

body in the racialization process (i.e., Negroid, black, African-descendant) as a means of

displaying ambivalence and displacing fixities that bind and limit personal freedom could be the

utility of Hiphop cultural production, especially in a cross-cultural global process. As one









Japanese national cultural worker put it, "I use black power to fight white power." These

political strategies of ever-crafting and re-creating selves as a method of decolonizing minds are

echoed in the works of Aime Cesaire (2000)", Dorinne Kondo (1990, 1997), and Frantz Fanon

(1967), as well as Judith Butler (1993) and Jose Mufioz (1999). Perhaps what has previously

been read as Japanese racism against African Americans (i.e., all Japanese Hiphop as a

performance of blackface and minstrelsy) and African-American hegemony over Japanese

nationals (i.e., the conspicuous presence of African Americans in Japanese Hiphop) is in

actuality a critique of racialization and the post-colonial experience (see also Dower 1986,

Kondo 1997, and Lie 2001 on how race works in Japan).

As more scholarship is produced on the history of racialization and postcolonial

experiences in Japan (c.f., Davis 2000; Dower 1993; Horne 2004; Kondo 1997; Koshiro 2003;

Lie 2001), studies such as this one, which reveal how contemporary cultural workers--such as

those who produce Hiphop music--are interpreting those racialized and postcolonial experiences

to their consumer audience, comprise a useful contribution to critical race research. Hence,

conceptualizing Hiphop as a trope for blackness is key to its political usefulness in Japan; the

second it ceases to exist as such, it loses its relevance and utility for social movement building, a

question I will explore in greater detail as I proceed. Although Stuart Hall (1996d: 471) explains

this idea as "black cultural repertoires constituted from two directions at once," over fifty years

ago, anthropologist Cedric Dover (1947:25) alluded to a similar subversive strategy, as he

advised agents aiming to dismantle global racism to be "racial and anti-racial at the same time."

Such strategies--to be racial and anti-racial at the same time (Dover 1947), to "use black power

to fight white power" (Fischer fieldnotes), to mobilize against subj section using subj section as a

15 Aime Cesaire was a teacher of Frantz Fanon and he was a leading decolonization theorist who
also theorized Negritude. His work predates the other theorists listed in this section.









resource (Butler 1997b)-are all phenomena in which Judith Butler' s concept of

"disidentification"' becomes central when analyzing their political significance.

Butler writes that "although the political discourses that mobilize identity categories tend

to cultivate identifications in the service of a political goal, it may be that the persistence of

disidentification is equally crucial to the rearticulation of democratic contestation" (Butler

1993:23). Likewise, Jose Mufioz introduces a "'disidentificatory subj ect' who tactically and

simultaneously works on, with, and against a cultural form" such as the state--which regulates

and ritualizes identificatory practice (Mufioz 1999: 12). Disidentification abounds in Hiphop

discourse as racial, gendered, economic, linguistic, and national categories are constantly

disrupted, re-staged, and re-signified (Gates 1990; Hall 1996b, 1997b; Jackson 2001; Mitchell-

Kernan 1972; Morgan 2001). Whether in the United States or Japan, one can collect countless

examples of artists who negotiate the instability of categories such as race through performative

acts that displace the dominant culture as the site of authority, thus exposing the fallibility of

fixing subj ects against definitions of other subj ects. 16 Butler comments on the political

significance of such practices, as she explains that since subj ects are brought into being through

discourse, it is not enough to simply publicly identify acts of racializing discourse (for example),

but perhaps it might be more sustaining to consider "how ... we think about those particular

rituals and how ... we exploit their ritual function in order to undermine it:" (1999:166). Similar


16 Since Chapters Four and Five document examples from Japan, the following are samples from
US Hiphop lyrics that exemplify this phenomenon. Cee-Lo from Goodie Mob (1998) raps, "I
thought you said you was the G-O-D/ sound like another nigger to me, shit/ What a nigger do,
what a nigger does/and a nigger is what a nigger was/ and a nigger done read history but yet his
eyes didn't see/ the only reason you a nigger is because somebody else wants you to be." Mos
Def (1999) raps, "Now, who is cat riding out on the town/ State trooper wanna stop him in his
ride, pat him down/ Mr Nigga, Nigga Nigga/ He got the speakers in the trunk with the bass on
crunk/ Now, who is the cat with the hundred dollar bill/ They gotta send it to the back to make
sure the shit is real/ Mr Nigga, Nigga Nigga/ Nigga Nigga Nigga." See Perry (2004: 142-144) for
commentary on use of pej orative N-word in public space.










explorations of mimicry or performativity as an oppositional strategy of post-colonial, post-

structural resistance are also explored in the work of Homi Bhabha (1994), Carol Greenhouse

(2002), Michael Herzfeld (1997), Dorinne Kondo (1997), Marcyliena Morgan (2008), and David

Scott (1999). Scholarship that explores disidentification in popular culture (Mufioz 1999;

Sterling 2003, 2006) could help to provide insight into the transformative promise in global

Hiphop culture as it is produced by racially marked bodies.

The Importance of Memory

John Henrik Clarke (1995) provides an overview of numerous revolts, revolutions and

uprisings that led to the foundation of several black social movements in the United States.

Beginning with a description of a maj or enslaved African uprising in what is now Santo

Domingo in 1522 (1995:74) and concluding with Haiti's securing nationhood through revolution,

he lays a foundation for understanding how modern black social movements came into being. He

reminds his readers to remember the effect that slavery has on societies today. Clarke writes,

"Slavery was a war. A war against African culture, especially against the structure of the African

family. This war has not ended" (Clarke 1995:73). In short, humans create culture to cope.

African-descendants created a culture of resistance. This resistance was about humanity; it was

about people. Subjugated people representing diverse nations, cultures and languages needed to

be able to communicate and create collective identities by creating common cultures. Language

and music (especially percussion) were integral to creating a culture of resistance. Percussion is

important because one does not need extra tools to create beats with body parts and breath

control. Clarke comments, "African culture, reborn on the alien soil, became the cohesive force

and the communication system that helped to set in motion more than 300 slave revolts in the

American and the Caribbean" (1995:73). He then cites several examples.









There was a maj or enslaved African uprising in what is now Santo Domingo in 1522 and

another one in Cuba in 1550 (Clarke 1995:74). In 1529 enslaved African mutineers destroyed

Santa Marta, and the "Negro Republic" of Palmares in Pernamuco spanned almost the entire

17th century; between 1672 and 1692 it withstood, on average, one Portuguese expedition every

15 months (Clarke 1995:79). The best known enslaved African revolts against the Dutch are the

revolts of Surinam Maroons, 1715-1763, and the Berbice revolt in 1763, and these revolts

threatened the very foundation of an economy based on slavery (Clarke 1995:80). Clarke

continues that Maroons in Jamaica, who began to revolt in 1655, were never completely

conquered (1995:81). He cites nine revolts in Bahia between 1807 and 1835 (Clarke 1995:79).

He contends that different systems of slavery resulted in different types of revolts. The

aforementioned revolts collectively helped to create the condition and attitude that went into the

making of the most successful enslaved African revolt in history, better known as the Haitian

Revolution. The revolt's leadership is accredited through narrative to Toussaint L'Ouverture,

Jean-Jacques Dessalines, and Henri Christophe. The distinguishing feature of this revolution is

that it achieved what the others were not able to achieve--nationhood (Clarke 1995:81).

The success of these African-descendants served as international inspiration. The Haitian

Revolution invigorated increasingly oppressed enslaved Africans in the US. The back-to-Africa

movement, the repatriation movement, the American Colonization Society, the abolition

movement, and the African church establishment were inspired by news of movements abroad as

well as research and writing (e.g., David Walker' s Appeal published in 1829) from the US. Some

of these movements were concerned with the justice of African-descendants as well as other

colonized and economically and politically oppressed people from all over the world (e.g.,

Asians). Such concern continued with the African Baptist and AME churches' Ethiopianism,









with W.E.B. Du Bois's cohort' s Niagara movement (which spawned the NAACP in 1909), with

Marcus Garvey's U.N.I.A. (1921-1936), with the post-WWII civil rights movement and post-

Independence pan-Africanism movements, as well as the eventually global Black Power

Movement, which, some say, Hiphop is supposed to follow (Kitwana 2005).

Charles Tilly writes that a social movement involves "WUNC"--Worthiness, Unity,

Numbers, and Commitment. That is, if a cause is worthy, people are united, there are a large

number of them and they are committed, then a social movement can occur. John McCarthy and

Mayer Zald contend that "a social movement is a set of opinions and beliefs in a population

representing preferences for changing some elements of a social structure or reward distribution,

or both, of a society. A counter-movement is a set of opinions and beliefs in a population

opposed to a social movement" (1977: 1217-1218). Counter-movements should not be confused

with countercultures or counterpublics or counterlanguages. Social movements often require the

creation of a collective identity and allies or affinity groups for resource mobilization and

political inspiration; culture along with cultural history, music, and narrative are often invoked to

achieve these goals. The cultures created or excavated often are in opposition to the state or the

dominant culture, public sphere, or language of power (e.g., General American English/GAE).

Hiphop is said to be created in the spirit of such opposition, as its founding philosophers posit

that its goal is to achieve human rights by teaching the "truth" about race and related material

inequality that divides and destroys individuals, families, and communities (e.g., Afrika

Bambaataa of the Universal Zulu Nation; see Chang 2005; Kitwana 2002).









Therefore, following Charles Tilly's definition (2002:88), this proj ect explores Hiphop as a

potential social movement that is part of the counterpublic sphere (Dawson 1995; Fraser 1992). 17

This assignment is not new, as Hiphop has been described as "counterhegemonic" (Yasin 1999),

in accordance with M. K. Halliday's (1976, 1978) conception of "counterlanguages" of., Morgan

2002, 2008). In addition, Hiphop's cultural workers are often referred to in cultural studies

literature as "organic intellectuals" in this counterpublic sphere (T. Butler 1995; Neal 2003;

Gilroy 1993a; Keyes 2002; Potter 1995; Rose 1994; Washington and Shaver 1997). Borrowing

from Antonio Gramsci's description of "The Intellectuals" (1997), I include not only cultural

producers, but also their "deputies" to whom they designate the act of organizing (political

work), using the culture and art that is produced. Henry Giroux (1994, 1997) writes about

cultural workers as those who analyze the productions and representations of meaning within a

culture, and they, along with teachers and students, are considered key for critical pedagogical

practice as well as social change.

Transnational Hiphop pioneer Chuck D describes himself in these terms when he says, "As

a co-founder of Public Enemy I've used that platform to transcend beyond what a rapper and a

musician can do, taking a forward stance in turning great words into global community action."

He continues, "The critical and commercial success of Public Enemy opened the doors for me to

deliver a message through a number of different mediums, extending a reach to all segments of

the population..."l Additionally, many other "rappers" and people who use Hiphop to conduct

social "organizing" in transnational spheres have used the term "cultural worker" to describe

themselves; they also call themselves "Hiphoppers" or "hiphoppas" (using the katakana version

n7 Like Fraser, I also critique Habermas (1996) for dichotomizing the state and the public sphere,
which situates the latter as derivational. I maintain that state and society (including publicity and
counterpublicity) are mutually reinforcing.
Is Read more from Chuck D at http://www.myspace. com/chuckdpublicenemy .









if one is speaking Japanese). Following these operational definitions, Russell Simmons, a

Hiphop impresario and entrepreneur, could be considered a cultural worker just as Queen

Latifah, a performing artist, actor and entrepreneur, would. People who use and produce Hiphop

at a grassroots level for a non-profit or educational organization could also be considered cultural

workers, as I am not limiting my definition to those who perform and sell music at an industry

level. A description of the type of cultural work that each featured research consultant conducts

is detailed in Chapters Four and Five.

If Hiphop cultural production is written about in accordance to "counter" politics, what

exactly is its political movement "countering"? What is it that cultural workers are working for

or against; what is the significance of "cultural forms" to cultural workers? Namely, what is

problematic about the state, public sphere, and society so that cultural workers are finding useful

dissent in the practice of Hiphop? I contend that the state regulates race (e.g., the U. S.A.'s OMB

Directive 15, Japan's Nihonjinron-influenced policy)19 and other identifications as part of its

authoritative process to procure and maintain power (Foucault 1972; Tilly 2002; Greenhouse

2002; Harrison 2002). This occurs through bureaucratic processes (Chalfin 2006; Ong 1996;

Herzfeld 1997; Weber 1968) and representational negotiations (Baker 1998; Dover 1947; Du

Bois 1986; Hall 1997b; Harrison 2002; Mbembe 2002). That is, from the moment bodies are

born, state-related paperwork is generated to catalogue and categorize bodies according to

hierarchically situated values and socially constructed norms, such as those related to race (or

color or heritage), sex, language use of parents, and national origin of parents, et cetera. Births,


19 See Trouillot (2003) or http://www.aaanet. orn/nvt/omb draft.htm for more information on
OMB Directive 15. See Lie (2001) or Befu et al (2000) for more anthropological information
concerning Nihonjinron as social science theory and public policy. See http://www.imadr.org for
articles concerning how conceptions of a "racially pure Japanese people" discriminate against
other Japanese residents in the areas of education and criminal justice.









whether in hospitals or homes, are thus attended to and monitored by state officials. Human

beings ascribe these markings to one another' s bodies by lau in nations across the globe

throughout each individual's life, from birth to death. One way this is executed in the United

States is government law concerning Directive OMB 15, which is realized through a series of

identity category boxes that one must mark in either a self-identification process or third-party

identification process on various government forms including employer eligibility (I-9) forms

that require a copy of an identification card with a photograph and applications for "food

stamps" that require applicants to self-identify with Directive OMB 15 categories by checking

boxes according to race, ethnicity, gender, marital status, etc. Most nations/ states have similar

identity documentation processes (cf., Caplan and Torpey, eds ; Kumar 2000).These ascriptions

are made based on socialization, perception and imagination, among other influences (cf.,

Simmons 2001).

The conception of "the state" and related identificatory practice in this proj ect is influenced

by Philip Corrigan and Derek Sayer' s work (1985) concerning state formation of the English

state and others modeled after its image, namely Japan and the United States, to an extent.

Though Corrigan and Sayer do not incorporate a critical race theoretical perspective, their

synthesis of Marxist, feminist and poststructuralist ideations of "nations," "states,"

"civilizations," "capitalist economies" and "societies" provides a useful foundation for those

interested in taking the analysis further in research that considers racialization as an

identificatory practice that is part of state formation and strategies to maintain power for certain

social groups. Of particular interest is their discussion of the state as a "regulator of cultural

forms" and their call for research that studies these rituals by which regulation takes place. While

I recognize that "the state" is not "an invisible regulator" of "representations pulled out of thin










air," I also think that elucidating how power is sustained and managed is key to a complete

comprehension of how people experience power (Corrigan and Sayer 1985: 5). Corrigan and

Sayer assert in their conclusion that studying up is as important as representing critique and

agitation fr~om below. They comment:

What we have been dealing with, in this book, is the immensely long, complicated,
laborious micro-construction and reconstruction of appropriate forms of power; forms
fitted to ways in which a particular class, gender, race imposes its 'standards of life' as 'the
national interest' and seeks their internalization as 'national character'. The capacity of
such groups to rule rests neither on some supposedly 'prior' economic power--it is, on the
contrary, above all through state forms and their cultural revolution that such power is
made, consolidated, legitimate and normalized--nor simply on their control of some
neutral set of state instruments. Their political power resides rather in the routine
regulative functioning of state forms themselves, in their day-to-day enforcing, as much by
what they are as in any particular policies they carry out, of a particular social order as
'normality', the boundaries of the possible.[Corrigan and Sayer 1985: 203; emphasis mine]

Such an idea of the state--one that considers its regulatory processes--that is, an

understanding of the state that demystifies how control is reserved (in that there are people--

bodies--that produce and reproduce power through strategic reconfigurations, rituals,

regulations, deregulation and discourse on forms) allows one to consider theories of states'

intersection with social movement theory,20 which documents the dissents that Corrigan and

Sayer describe.

State formation is something that has ever been contested by those whom it seeks to
regulate and rule. It is first and foremost their resistance that makes visible the conditions
and limits of bourgeois civilization, the particularity and fragility of its seemingly neutral
and timeless social forms.....It is also, profoundly, a moral critique: what such struggles
show again and again is the exact ways in which the regulated social forms of bourgeois
civilization effect real, painful, harmful restrictions on human capacities. Such 'general
knowledge' -disarmed by legitimate disciplines, denied by curricular forms, diluted in its
being refused the accolade of scholarship, dissipated as 'empirical examples' in a thousand
doctoral dissertations--is the 'classic ground' for an understanding of bourgeois
civilization that does not simply parrot its 'encouraged' self-images, as well as for any
feasible or desirable social transformation. [Corrigan and Sayer 1985:8]

20 COnsider June Nash (2005) and Edelman (2001) for anthropological analysis of social
movements .









Defining states' identificatory practice as connected to disidentifieatory practice by those

who occupy the states' counterpublics, is relational to the goals of critical race research. It allows

ethnographers to consider subversive strategies of those who have historically been outside of

the "power" circle, such as African- and Asian-nationals and descendants (and their oppositional

cultures and cultural critiques produced over time). This intersection clarifies how ethnographers

analyze the utility of cultural forms produced by those who feel the "pain" of state forms that

"underdevelop human capacity" (Corrigan and Sayer 1985: 8).21

I posit that it is precisely the constructed, conflicted situation of state-regulated

identification practices and the related history of how such practices come into being-- and are

continually reified in current times--that allow them to be de-stabilized through counter-

hierarchical practices of disidentification. 22 Therefore, the significance of disidentification is its

promise to transform dominant cultural constraints through performance in an effort to

renegotiate more equitable conceptualizations of selves that exploit the instability of state

categorization and control of bodies (Caplan 2001; Kondo 1990). That is, such renegotiation is

central to a contemporary understanding of how subalternized state subj ects can reconceptualize

state-imposed concepts of, for example, race and blackmess or sex and queerness as tropes

central to movement building and social change. By documenting Hiphop's movement-building

process and related conversations that constitute as well as deconstruct race, one can glean more






21 Michel-Rolph Trouillot produces an exemplary theory and description that attends to the
weaknesses of Corrigan and Sayer' s critique of race in their analysis, as he elucidates the US's
Directive 01VB 15. Trouillot's analysis is cited more in the following chapters.

22 Gina Ulysse's research collaborators creatively termed this "finding the cracks in the
foundation" (2007).









information as to how this movement-building process works in opposition to race, while

simultaneously using it (Hall 1996d, 1997b; and Mufioz 1999).23

Global Races and Black Popular Culture

E. Taylor Atkins (2000, 2001) and Marvin Sterling (2003) consider popular cultural art

forms associated with black cultural production24 that are negotiated across transnational terrain

among African-descendants and Japanese nationals. Atkins examines the possibility of jazz,

deterritorialized in regard to Western racial configurations, in Japan. He problematizes questions

of authenticity regarding Japanese j azz artists and documents essentialist notions of black culture

among some of these artists, noting the relevance of Japanese j azz artists and aficionados'

association with black culture as a tool for definitions of nation and self. Atkins remarks that

"contrary to the image of Japanese as unrepentant racists, many are acutely sensitive to racial

strife in America and sympathetic to the economic and social plights of black Americans"

(2000:35).25 Studying dancehall in Jamaica and Japan, Sterling does not focus primarily on

questions of authenticity as Atkins does. Instead, he utilizes an "extreme" version of Judith

Butler' s theory regarding how the normative and the abj ect fully constitute each other in his

effort to understand tensions and instabilities regarding races, nationalities and sexualities--

among other aspects--in Jamaican and Japanese dancehall. Sterling, considering j azz, Hiphop,

roots reggae, and dancehall, contends that such "black cultural productions similarly constitute





23 While this project focuses on elucidating discourse strategies, specifically codeswitching, as
part of a potential transnational movement, it does not discount the equal importance of
corporeality--bodies that matter, that produce the language and thinking and practice that
frames our realities.

24 See Gina Dent, ed. (1998) for more discussion regarding this concept.

25 See also John Lie (2001:174).









complex relations of identification and disidentification, embracing and rej ect[ing]...the West"

(Sterling 2003).

Although Dorinne Kondo' s work (1997)--which studies Asian and Asian American

identities through performances in fashion and theatre--is not explicitly about the intersection of

African-descendant and Asian cultural production, her research, like that of Sterling (2003),

draws upon theories of performativity (Butler 1993) to produce a brilliant ethnographic

methodology and political proj ect that de-essentializes, excavates, and historicizes forgotten

conceptualizations of race and racialization. She asserts that her work "problematizes the black-

white binary and essentialist notions of racial hierarchy, which create separate, bounded racial

groups and place them on a single continuum along the black-white axis" (1997:6). Kondo

builds upon Homi Bhabha' s (1994) ideation of "mimicry" as she theorizes a politics of pleasure

that has the potential to displace the dominant culture as the site of authority. This notion is

exemplified in her analysis of David Hwang' sM2 Butterfly, which is also useful in addressing

how various manifestations of Hiphop in the United States (e.g., N.W.A.'s use of the pej orative

"N-word") and Japan (e.g., Rappagariya' s donning samurai gear) are performative for political

resistance against normative processes. Moreover, Kondo concurs with John Russell (1991a) as

they both problematize and recount "racial formations shaping various Japanese responses to and

tropings of African Americans, which [Russell] argues were mediated through the West"

(1997:244; see also Chapter Six).

Other scholars who have studied aspects of Japanese Hiphop, but are not necessarily

overtly concerned in their writing with destabilizing essentialized notions of race via a critical









race research perspective include lan Condry (1999, 2000)26, Tadashi Fujita (1996), Akio Goto

(1997), Kozo Okumura (1998), and James Spady (1999). Fujita (1996) and Goto (1997) are

journalists who published personal narratives (in Japanese) of pioneering Japanese Hiphop artists

in an effort to historically situate the autochthonous manifestations of the genre. They both

provide information regarding artists' life experiences as well as album reviews. In these

descriptions, the artists at times refer to subalternized aspects of their lives and the lives of others

in Japan (such as K Dub Shine's growing up in an impoverished single-parent household or You

the Rock' s raising awareness of anti-Burakumin discrimination). In these texts, artists relate their

experiences of cultural, national, racial, and linguistic discrimination in the United States. For

example, DJ Yutaka, the founder of the Japan Chapter of the Universal Zulu Nation, has taken

into account his experience with police harassment in Los Angeles as well as being cut out of

entertainment business opportunities because he did not fit a white norm. Japanese artists relate

their own experiences with discrimination to their perceptions of African Americans'

experiences of subordination and political alienation. Spady (1999) presents an interview with

DJ Yutaka in which they briefly discuss perpetuations of racial stereotypes in the United States

and Japan. Okumura (1998) examines the popularity of Hiphop dance in Japan. He presents a

history of Hiphop in Japan and accompanies his work with a documentary film presenting

dancers' Hiphop cultural productions. However, in his attempt to account for why Hiphop

culture is popular among Japanese youth, he draws on theories regarding "black expressiveness"

(Okumura 1998:18; Pasterur and Tolson 1982:4-5) in African-American studies and,


26 COndry's more recent work, especially Hip-Hop Japan (2006), focuses more on race than his
previous publications and dissertation research. He comments that he is attempting to "shift
attention away from questions of how American understandings of race are interpreted in Japan
to focus instead on how Japanese conceptualize and embody ideas of hip-hop and race"
(2006:25). Condry's newest work is discussed more in Chapters Five and Six.









consequently, though perhaps unconsciously, essentializes and fixes blackness in his analysis of

Japanese Hiphop.

Like Atkins (2001), Condry (1999) is concerned with authenticating "indigenous"

Japanese Hiphop. Through rigorous ethnographic descriptions, he explains why Hiphop by

Japanese artists is not imitation, but an authentic art form in its own right. In his work, Condry

(1999, 2006) translates Japanese lyrics and contextualizes the genre within discourses relevant to

economic anthropology, globalization studies, and more recently, racialization of Japanese

nationals. Condry's ethnographic contribution is extremely useful to those interested in the topic

area. He provides an erudite and compelling argument concerning how Japanese rappers are able

to utilize Hiphop as a voice against societal constructs, and thus, rebel. More research pertaining

to how these rebellions intersect with popular constructions of race, sex, and citizenship among

Hiphop participants in Japan, and how these performative acts intersect with AAE and Hiphop

language ideologies would buttress his argument.27 Overall, his research is a much needed

addition to the contemporary ethnography of popular culture and race as well as Japanese

studies. In regard to Hiphop cultural studies, Condry critiques existing scholarship (Rose 1994;

Lipstiz 1994; Fernando 1994) that limits descriptions and definitions of Hiphop to black urban

(American) youth expression. While his critique is not entirely accurate, as African-diasporic

roots of the genre are referenced in the work that he critiques (e.g., Rose 1994), analyses of

Hiphop are perhaps best elucidated if they are not limited to or described in terms of a "black

urban youth" norm, as obviously, it is not only black urban youth who practice Hiphop.

Condry is not alone in such a critique, as Tony Mitchell (1998, 2001) and Paul Gilroy

(2000) have been quite vocal in echoing these sentiments. However, unlike Gilroy (1993a,


27 See also Nina Cornyetz' s call for more research addressing these aspects (1994: 133)









1993b, 2000), Mitchell (1998, 2001) has not adequately acknowledged or addressed the

significance and influence of Hiphop's African-diasporic roots on Hiphop outside of the United

States. The failure to analyze Hiphop's association with blackness only undermines its political

relevance to nonblack performance and understanding of the culture. In addition, Mitchell's

work misses an important opportunity to critically engage the possibility of Hiphop's disruption

of static racial categories abroad by not analyzing how participants conceptualize race and

racialization.2

Furthermore, Mitchell's critique of US-based scholars of Hiphop has at times reified fixed

identities, such as racial categories. Mitchell's primary premise, to de-localize Hiphop analyses,

has at times disregarded the historic agency of important pioneers and practitioners of global

Hiphop, such as Afrika Bambaataa, the founder of the Universal Zulu Nation. In his scholarship,

Mitchell makes comments such as: "I find I have a growing dislike of rap music that comes out

of the USA and a growing fascination with rap from other parts of the world" (1998:2) in

addition to "and in musicological terms, rap can be traced back to the recitativo in 17th century

Italian opera" (1998:8). In an effort to de-essentialize what he perceives to be essentialized

origin-narratives of Hiphop culture, he misinterprets Afrika Bambaataa as implying that

Hiphop's roots are "a multicultural hybrid" rather than "an expression of African-American

monoculture" because "there were also a few white kids around, too" (1998:4).29 This




28 For an excellent example of the type of engagement that I am proposing, see Gilroy's
discussion concerning scholars' analysis and lack of analysis regarding Luther Campbell
(2000:180-181).

29 I asked Afrika Bambaataa about this and showed him the reference at the Hiphop Archive's
Hiphop Education and Community Activism Roundtable at Harvard University on September
28, 2002, and Bambaataa maintains that he was misquoted and is often misquoted by
academicians who have their own political interests when writing about Hiphop. Bambaataa
celebrates Hiphop as springing from a dialogue that is rooted in the African diaspora, a culture









conclusion restricts the political possibilities that the origin-narratives surrounding Hiphop

provide for the very youth he describes. Most disturbing of Mitchell's analysis is his situating of

African Americans as derivational to a (white?) American norm, as he differentiates between

US-based and African-American scholars (1998:1). For example, Mitchell writes, "A number of

US and African-American academics have argued..." (Mitchell 1998). The previous statement

reveals thinking that racially marks African-American Hiphop scholars as other compared to a

perceived European American norm. His preoccupation with racial identities of Hiphop scholars

in conjunction with his research agenda that seeks to disconnect Hiphop from its cultural genesis

among African Americans weaken his contribution to studying Hiphop cultural production

outside of the United States (see also Basu and Lemelle 2006, for similar critique of Mitchell).

Given the existing problematic concerning Hiphop scholarship of nonblack populations

previously outlined, it is clear why there is a crisis regarding ethnographic description that

attends to race and its intersectionalities with other state regulated identities (Harrison 1995:65).

Hence, it is important that current studies illuminate how our fields of inquiry are inscribed with

diasporic memories and racialized hierarchies that are wrought with power inequities and are,

therefore, politically constituted "ethnoscapes" (Appadurai 1996; see also "racialscapes" in

Harrison 1995:49). Such a task is not easy, for as Steven Gregory remarks, "racial meanings are

implicated in discourses, institutional power arrangements, and social practices that may or may

not be marked as explicitly 'racial'" (Gregory 1993:25). In addition, as Kesha Fikes observes,

"history-centered race studies that globally situate identity hierarchies, in relation to the

possibilities of movement--within and after colonial governance-have yet to emerge"

(2000:38). In response to this crisis in ethnographic literature, Fikes recommends drawing from

born in the Bronx; it is not limited to any "race"-not even the human race, for like Gilroy
(2000:2) he contends that the Universal Zulu Nation is yearning for a 'planetary humanism'.









postcolonial discourse that seeks to bridge lived experiences of individuals in the present

moment to historical memory (cf., Baker 2001; Brown 1998, 2000; Fanon 1967; Fikes 2000;

Hall 1996b, 1996d, 1997a; Mercer 1994, 1996; Morgan 2002, 2008; J. Scott 1992; D. Scott

1999; Yasin 1999). Here language (Butler 1993a, 1993b, 1997; Mercer 1994, 1996; Morgan

1994, 2001, 2002, 2008) will be an important point of inquiry, as it marks how racializing

processes interface with the public sphere (Brown 2000; Dawson 2003; Fikes 2000).

Upon close examination, one can uncover oppositional performative strategies within

Hiphop rhetoric. The subj ect utilizes subj section as a resource to resignify something about power

(Butler 1997b). However, while Hiphop in America is occasionally acknowledged as an

"authentic" cultural production, Hiphop in Japan is often relegated to "copycat" practice at best

and "blackface" at worst, and thus, its political significance gets lost.30 I pOsit that Japanese

Hiphop is not mere mimicry31, for Hiphop culture is simultaneously transnational and

autochthonous; it represents a common literacy and identity across the globe as well as local

nuances and cultural relevancy (Fischer and White 2002).32 The transnationality in this cultural

form (Hiphop) that is often dismissed as mere "entertainment" has intriguing promise for

solidarity building that aids its constitution and utility as a potential transnational social

movement. As Lahusen (2001:191) observes, "entertainment isn't necessarily alien to social


30 These are actual utterances from certain Hiphop artists, journalists and scholars. That is, if
when black people perform black culture it is "authentic," then what about when nonblack, yet
racially marked bodies operationalize black cultural production?

31 See the work of lan Condary (2000) and Kozo Okumura (1998) for more discussion.

32 In the case of Japan, the political rhetoric of proletariat tanka, the "vulgarity" of certain haikai,
the collective composition of renga, or the performative innovation of lyrical word play such as
honkadori,~~kkk~~~~kkk~~~ yoojo, and kakekotoba are salient. Of equal importance is the parallel and strikingly
similar aspects of these literary aesthetics to cultural aesthetics that abound in oral performance
from the African Diaspora--Hiphop included (cf., Ueda 1999). Indeed, Hiphop occurring on
either side of the Pacific is simultaneously transnational and autochthonous.









movements, in that mockery and irony have always served as a weapon of political protest and

subversion" (cf., Babcock-Abrahams 1984; Lahusen 1996). This idea is comparable to the uses

of pleasure as political resistance (cf., Bhabha 1994; Dent 1998; Kondo 1997; Lorde 1984).

Lahusen continues,

Ultimately, advocacy work is submitted to entertainment formats and values, as has
happened with what has come to be called infotainment or edutainment. This
"advotainment" is part of the manifold interrelations between social movements and
popular music...it may be of interest to explore the meaning and function of
"advotainment" in regard to political mobilization and solidaristic activism. [2001:191?]33

Lahusen challenges social scientists to consider advotainment as a new repertoire of

transnational activism (2001:194). TSMOs (Transnational Social Movement Organizations) like

the International Movement Against Discrimination and Racism (IMADR) and the Universal

Zulu Nation (UZN) present primary sites for such analyses, since they participate in

"edutainment" and seek to dismantle racialization.

With bases in Japan, the aforementioned TSMOs are of particular interest. African-

American movement building around race has served as a template for relational movement

building within these organizations. Indeed, for years, scholars have acknowledged the

exportation of racist rhetoric beyond the United States and throughout the world (Bunche 1936;

Butler 1999; Dover 1947; Harrison 2002; Trouillot 2003). The global ascriptions of race to

subordinated populations provided shared activist frames when these populations began to resist

and organize against these state-induced ascribing processes. Furthermore, building on Rochon

(1988), Eterovic and Smith (2001) identify two key components in the processes of solidarity-

building: (1) interaction among participating groups that creates a common shared experience



33 See Chaney (2002: 115) for the specific role of artists and celebrities as representatives of
social movements "expected to articulate a moral vision for social and public order"; see also
Monaco et al (1978:14).









and (2) unified frames that allow for shared interpretation of events (2001:200). As people

experiencing injustices associate their disenfranchisement with the American experience of being

"blackened" (Ong 1996), the concepts of blackness and related racialized categories and tropes

realize new meanings in social justice programs of action. The shared experience of being

subalternized or blackened holds important implications for understanding movement strategies,

and it offers interesting insight into the conscious choice of nonblack cultural workers to utilize

Hiphop rhetoric that is rooted in African-American discourse styles in their articulations of

various social-movement building processes. Here we find expressions of autochthonous

experiences interwoven into transnational narratives concerning social change.

Analyzing utterances like "Hiphop is black power" can illuminate the uses of knowledge

about black experiences--though conceptualized through Hiphop--to nonblack cultural workers

who, like many others all over the globe, are grappling with postcolonial residue concerning

race, class, gender, and citizenship. Thus, the opportunity to participate in and perform Hiphop,

that is, to "borrow" blackness (Bucholtz 1997a) could possibly present one example of how

postcolonial subj ects can resist within and against the cultural forms that oppress them. Eterovic

and Smith comment that:

As the world's political and economic institutions become increasingly integrated globally,
shared activist frames are crucial for addressing the underlying injustices that are
perpetuated or exacerbated by globalizing processes. But this requires ideological work to
overcome both inertia as well as the prevalence of what in some cases may be competing
nationalist framing of global problems. [2001:214]

Could the homogenized identities produced by Hiphop origins narratives and the activities

organized by Hiphop artists as organic intellectuals provide the very ideological work needed for

the social groups in question (Anderson 1991; Gramsci 1997; Hall and Donald 1986; Hall and

Jeffersonl1976)? And if so, what is the counterhegemonic promise of the shared activist frames

facilitated by a common literacy of Hiphop origins narratives and the practice and activity they









inspire? As Hauser observes, "rhetorical resistance in a subterranean arena can foster a level of

consensus so great that that this counterpublic sphere may eventually displace the official arena

as the locus of legitimation" (2001:37). Though optimistic, if Hauser is correct, utterances like

the following from a Japanese Hiphop pioneer addressing an audience of hundreds of youth at an

outdoor Hiphop festival speak to the promise of such work: "I want you all to do more activism

as Hiphoppers, to raise a revolution. I'll be looking out [with protective and supportive

intentions, believing in your success/mimoru]. That' s how I feel."

Race as Political Imaginary and Social Strategy

The political imaginaries presented in Hiphop have often been ignored due to its

association with another marginalized world group: youth (UN Report on Youth)34. Though at a

cursory glance, youth cultural production is often viewed as "nihilistic," worthy of moral panic

(Dimitriadis, Weaver and Daspit 2001) or filed as debauchery (West 1993; hooks 1992), some

studies of youth subculture have revealed that this production can indeed effect positive social

change. Dick Hebdige (1979) calls this "recuperation," and Henry Giroux (1994), Stuart Hall

(Hall and Donald 1986; Hall and Jefferson 1976, Hall 1997b), Isaac Julien (1991), Marcyliena

Morgan (2001, 2002, 2008), David Scott (1999), and Jon Yasin (1999) have documented how

this occurs with youth (sub)cultural production. In each of the aforementioned studies, youth

transform dominant cultural constraints through performance in an effort to renegotiate more

equitable conceptualizations of selves. Such renegotiation is relational to the concept of

disidentification (Butler 1993; Mufioz 1999; see also Seshadri-Crooks 2000:33), and central to a

34 As stated earlier in this chapter, the main consumer audience of the cultural workers
researched for this proj ect are post-Hiphop generation youth, and the cultural workers are
Hiphop generation or older. Despite the age of the cultural workers producing the art, Hiphop is
still considered a "youth-centered" cultural production because of the bulk of its topic matter and
also because of its origins narrative (Chuck D personal communication; Chang 2005; Kitwana
2005; Morgan 2008).









contemporary understanding of how youth reconceptualize concepts of race and blackness as

tropes central to movement building and social change. Gina Dent (1998), Paul Gilroy (2000),

Stuart Hall and Donald Jefferson (1976), Isaac Julien (1991), Kobena Mercer (1994, 1996), and

Marlon Riggs (1987, 1991, 1995) specifically explain how youth and their related oppositional

cultural production utilizes pleasure as a site for resistance and possibility for securing justice.

The use of tropes for creating narratives of transgression and the corresponding dialogue

that inspires a social literacy for increased rights is brought about through the strategic use of

language and performance (Butler 1997b; Freire 2002). However, the effects of such movement

building are real and reflective of the lived experiences of subaltern youth in our modern times.

For example, the storming of the Brazilian National Congress by youth led by the National

Movement of Street Boys and Girls (M~ovimento Nacional de M~eninos e M~enina~s de Rua-

MNMMR), which resulted in the Congress' s adoption of increased protections for children and

youth in the Brazilian constitution in 1989, demonstrated that even "the most marginalized

groups of young people can influence decision-makers at the highest levels of power, when give

the right kinds of support from youth workers and educators" (James and McGillicuddy 2001).

We see the further effects of youth cultural movements on larger governing bodies as well.

Consider the United Nations' move to incorporate and engage Hiphop at the World

Conference against Racism in 2001. In this case, Hiphop was identified as the most

transformative youth cultural production necessary for supporting transnational collaborative

efforts toward dismantling racism (and other injustices) while using the trope of race as one of its

unifying mechanisms. Thus, Hiphop is being utilized for global movement building and as a

strategy for redressing injustice. To further understand the implications of such phenomena, we

must continue to rise to Harrison's (2002) challenge and incorporate ethnographic analyses of









race and racism as an effort to transgress global apartheid--the deepening disparities of wealth,

health, life expectancy, et cetera, that are developing on a global scale. Researching the

intersection of race and Hiphop as a movement strategy can offer important insight regarding

global racial hierarchies as well as the uses of race in solidarity building for social change.

Therefore, the ultimate goal is, as Gilroy asserts, to "confront rather than evade the

comprehensive manner in which previous incarnations of exclusionary humanity were tailored to

racializing codes and qualified by the operation of colonial and imperial power" in the hopes that

we might arrive at an "alternative version of humanism" (2000:30). The opportunity to engage

the future--youth who identify with Hiphop's cultural workers as part of their political and

intellectual project, which attends to their generation's human rights agenda35--puShes

scholarship toward the utopian alternative proposed by Gilroy (2000) and Harrison (2002). In

summary, the research presented here builds on the foundations laid by anthropologists applying

critical theory to issues surrounding social inequality in our postcolonial era (Fikes 2000;

Heckenberger 2004; Harrison 2002; Kondo 1997; McClaurin 1995, 2001; Morgan 2008) by

offering linguistic and cultural evidence from transnationally positioned Hiphop cultural

workers.

Ethnographic Significance

Following Hall (1996d), the utilization of black as a political category is evident of

strategic essentialism; however, in order to elucidate why disidentificatory practice is necessary

with this particular population (the trans-Pacific Hiphop community in question), one must



35 Recall the South African National NGO Coalition's (SANGOCO) appeal to global Hiphop
artists to mobilize intellectualism and activism among youth at the UN WCAR 2001 as well as
Bakari Kitwana and Jeff Chang' s scholarship on this matter for UNESCO along with Kitwana' s
organization of "Hiphop Generation" voting blocks for the 2004, 2006, and 2008 US elections;
see also http://www. hiphopconvention. org or http ://www.2006hiphopconvention. org.









understand identificatory practices of the Japanese and US states and related strategies of

disidentification (Caplan 2001). Hall explains that "Popular culture is where we discover and

play with the identifications of ourselves, where we are imagined, where we are represented, not

only to the audiences out there who do not get the message, but to ourselves for the first time...

[T]hough the terrain of the popular looks as if it is constructed with single binaries, it is not"

(Hall 1996d: 474). Referencing Freud, he reminds us that sex and representation (including race)

take place in our minds, and warns against conceptualizing popular culture as being constructed

with single binaries (1996d:474; see also Fanon 1967). Through this observation by Hall, I

connect the recuperative theories of Butler (1997b) and Cesaire (2000) that relate mental

emancipation to deliverance from political subj section, and explore the relationship between black

popular culture and decolonization. The ethnographic chapters, the fourth and fifth chapters

previously introduced, initiate a conversation between cultural workers as maj or players in the

production of popular culture, and social theory that explores mental decolonization as a political

strategy for social change as well as eradicating injustice. Like Fikes (2000), Kondo (1990),

Ulysse (2007), and Visweswaran (1994), I intertwine the narratives and ethnographic

descriptions of shared experiences and observations that have taken place over the past 13 years

among my research consultants with the story of my repeated entry and re-entry into the various

spaces that comprise our transnational Hiphop community. Our stories reveal current work to

produce alternative representations and to combat existing representations in popular culture and

global media. Like Hall (1996d) observes, our stories are told not so much to discuss Hiphop in

particular, but to express and play with identifications pertaining to race, gender, class,

citizenship, and sexuality.









In this vein, consider Hiphop as a window to studying social reality as described by the

cultural workers representede. Hiphop is a point of entry, a site of inquiry, for understanding

how race, gender, class, and citizenship affect these cultural workers in their everyday lived

experiences. More importantly, documenting Hiphop as a trope for blackness and its related

status to the US and Japanese states helps to illustrate how blackness is utilized as a strategically

essentialized political tool to displace and assuage the essentializing political processes

operationalized by states to categorize and control bodies that are politicized. Therefore, I am not

only gleaning insight into how cultural workers cope and recuperate (Butler 1997b; Hall 1996d;

Hebdige 1979), but also how the state legitimates hierarchicalizing apparatuses, and how these

cultural workers subsequently make sense of this and resist when able.

The reporting strategy of this proj ect is to organize ideas and data in a manner that clarify

contemporary productions and performances of racialized scripts among Japanese Hiphop

cultural workers. The present chapter outlines a theoretical argument that centrally positions

discursive practice, particularly the use of AAE, among Hiphop's cultural workers as a unit of

analysis for understanding race as lived experience as well as an organizing principle. It

elucidates Hiphop's historical connection to blackness, black vernacular language, and black

popular culture. Its purpose is to emphasize Hiphop cultural practice as a racialized discourse--a

point which has been contested in Hiphop journalism and scholarship. Therefore, this chapter

explains Hiphop culture within a framework of disidentificatory practice in an effort to illustrate

how Hiphop, as part of popular culture, interacts with governmental identificatory practice

(Corrigan and Sayer 1985). Defining Hiphop in terms of disidentification and identification helps

to reveal how Hiphop cultural practice can be in some instances read as utilizing racialized

scripts for the purpose of being anti-racial.









The following chapters focus on contextualizing the data presented in the ethnographic

chapters. The second chapter builds on this argument by introducing methodological

considerations and fieldwork experiences as explanation for the context under which I collected

data. The implications and impact of my identity on collecting information about identifications

and disidentifications are illuminated. Autoethnographic reflections narrate my multiple entries

into the community, which informs the perspectives that I report on in the ethnographic chapters.

The types of data collected and the process under which I analyzed the data are described. The

third chapter situates Japan's relationship to the West and the United States, in particular, within

a racialized and postcolonial context. It explores Japan as a geopolitical entity that has been

simultaneously racialized by the West as well as a racializer within an East Asian geopolitical

sphere. This chapter uncovers Japan's domestic racial policy and historical racial theories in

order to historically situate the racialized contexts that the successive chapters' ethnographic

descriptions take place.

The next three chapters consider cultural workers' assertions that Hiphop constitutes a

transnational social movement. Here cultural products, discourse and practice are analyzed in an

effort to untangle how discourse surrounding Hiphop as a social movement intersects with

nationalist discourse from the Japanese government in the transnational space of a popular

cultural genre. The fourth chapter explores whether Hiphop is indeed a transnational social

movement or not through the presentation of ethnographic descriptions and data collected in

interaction with Hiphop cultural workers and Hiphop organizations.

By decoding song lyrics, excerpts from conversations, public performances, and personal

experiences when interacting with cultural workers and their relational organizations, the fourth

chapter describes the political rhetoric and practices that the cultural workers employ as they









create and maintain a Hiphop movement and presence in Japan (cf., Hall 1993 on decoding).

Likewise, the fifth chapter entails a critical analysis of gender politics within the movement that

Hiphop cultural workers purport to build. While the fourth chapter analyzes cultural productions

within a framework that emphasizes critiques of race and class, the fifth chapter revisits the

political practice and rhetoric of Japan' s Hiphop cultural workers as well as their international

allies, and outlines shortcomings in terms of gender and sexual equality. Ethnographic reflections

drawn from interviews and experiences with women and men who work in and around Hiphop

politics are emphasized. Popular cultural narratives in conjunction with the author' s

autoethnographic reflections from doing gender equality work in Hiphop's purported

transnational social movement are illuminated.

The concluding chapter explores Hiphop and human equality further. It synthesizes the

data collected and discusses the implications for new directions in Hiphop cultural research and

practice. This final discussion is framed in a manner that connects the three main research and

theoretical themes of this proj ect: (1) the state/ governmental practice, (2) transnational social

movements and (3) international black popular culture.

Transnational as Translational

While Hiphop is transnational, it is also simultaneously autochthonous because we cannot

discount the agency and innovation of individuals positioned at the peripheries of its cultural and

linguistic production (outside of the Black Atlantic). Despite occupying disparate spatial

locations, those who identify with Hiphop cultural production are often temporally intertwined

and linked through a common literacy (Anderson 1991; hooks 1992) that seeks to destabilize the

status quo--whatever that may be in any given culture--and this practice seems to encompass a

goal of dehierarchicalizing social relations (Fujita 1996; Gilroy 1993b; Morgan 2002; Prevos

2001; Urla 2001). Hence, Hiphop cultural production not only represents the articulation of









critical theory (Beebe 2002; Dyson 2001; Grossberg 1997; hooks 1992), but it also relates to the

postcolonial intellectual proj ect that Homi Bhabha described as "the transnational as

translational" (1993:172). By concomitantly signifying blackness and disrupting racial stasis,

Hiphop's significance to potential social-movement building is transnational ("hiphop is black

power") as well as translational ("kobushi agero! [=raise your fist!]"). That is, this transnational

genre is translatable in a metonymical sense, as its liberatory message is carried from one place

to another and serves to describe the condition of our contemporary world from a specific,

formally silenced perspective.









CHAPTER 2
AUTOETHNOGRAPHIC REFLECTION: ENTRY POINTTS, METHODOLOGIES, AND
BLACK BODY POLITIC S

"Racing Research, Researching Race"

If race is a social construct constituted through biological origins narratives and related

discursive practices, how can ethnographers discuss race without reifying it as a biological, Eixed

entity? Moreover, how do ethnographers record the uses of race for political identity and social

movement building that seek to disrupt the goals of racism and racialization?' In the 1990s,

anthropologists blazed trails in the social sciences, as the Einal biological investments in race

were dismantled with evidence from genetics (Gould 1996; Templeton 2002). However, cultural

anthropology then found itself amidst an analytical crisis (Harrison 1998, 1995). Ethnographic

reporting on race as a research variable began to decline, and discussions of ethnicities served as

a poor proxy. Cultural phenomena must be analyzed in all of their realizations by agents who

produce it: that means race in addition to gender or sex, ethnicity, citizenship, class, and other

interlocking identifications must be inspected (Harrison 2002).

Though race has no biological basis, institutions have been built over history based on the

contrary belief (Mbembe 2002; Mudimbe 1988; Pratt 1992). In response, humans have innovated

cultural adaptations to cope with racializing ascriptions as well as other colonizing experiences

(Bhabha 1994; Fanon 1967; Hall 1997c; Mercer 2000; D. Scott 1999). Therefore, ethnographers

witness subaltern populations utilizing subaltern ascriptions as a strategy for redressing social

injustice and inequity (e.g., Brown 2000; Harrison 2002; Herzfeld 1997; Fikes 2000; Kondo

1997; Morgan 2002; Ulysse 2007). Such cultural and narrative performances (Bauman 1992:41)

include stereotypes and other homogenizing identifications such as race; hence, race is used as a


SThe subheading title is taken from F. Winddance Twine and J. Warren's (2000) edited volume,
which also attends to this particular research question.









strategy to build movements against the very essentializing agencies that ascribe race according

to hierarchy.

Significance of Focusing on Linguistic Data

Race is brought into being through speech acts and partially maintained through discursive

practice. If race is a lived discourse and that discourse is being exploited in particular contexts to

constitute a political identity through an African-diasporic imaginary, certain words, phrases,

metonyms and narratives are of specific analytical interest (Bhabha 1994; Kondo 1997; Hall

1996d; Mercer 2000; Morgan 2008). If international Hiphop language is based on standards

associated with African-American language varieties (Labov 1972; Mitchell-Kernan 1972;

Morgan 2001; Rickford and Rickford 2000; Smitherman 1997; Yasin 1999), what does it mean

when Japanese nationals consciously choose to privilege African-American speech styles over

standard English language varieties? What does it mean when artists routinely codeswitch using

African American English (AAE) linguistic features in Japanese Hiphop narrative performances?

Speech choices in addition to conspicuous cultural performances add important layers of

meaning to heteroglossic interventions concerning race and Hiphop (Bakhtin 1981:288-300).

Following Butler (1997b:17), the documentation of the strategies described contributes to

understandings of how subj ects might take an oppositional relation to power that is rooted in the

very power one is attempting to oppose.

Using critical discourse analysis, I uncover Japanese cultural workers' connections to

Hiphop language ideology, which is linked to AAE language ideology, history, and culture

(Morgan 2002, 2008). The analysis of this ideology through critical discourse analysis (van Dijk

1995, 2001) explores implications of Japanese Hiphop cultural workers' use of African-

American language and culture in defense of their own indigenous identities and lifestyles that

are generally not supported by Japanese dominant societal values or government practice.









Similarly, referencing Gottlob Frege (1977) and J. L. Austin (1962) and also drawing from her

own research concerning youth and Hiphop language ideology (Morgan 2001, 2005), Marcyliena

Morgan offers the following summary:

In many respects, hiphop's language ideology addresses attempts to resolve how
individuals interpret utterances, referents and meanings while simultaneously recognizing
that there are different senses and therefore possible interpretations of referents... But it
goes even further. Youth recognize that their voices are routinely marginalized, and thus
their language ideology is one that assumes agency and power reside in the ability to
produce this discourse as proof of hiphop's existence and its ability to infiltrate and
interfere with dominant culture. Youth are not concerned with sustaining a system hidden
from dominant culture but one that is a strategic in-your-face anti-language. [Morgan
2008:94-95]

Attending to an Analytic Conundrum

The ethnographic challenge is to capture the experience of how cultural workers utilize

race without inadvertently re-inscribing racialized categories on such agents. I recorded and

analyzed data collected from my participation and observations with a trans-Pacific Hiphop

community primarily located in maj or metropolitan areas of Japan. I entered this community as a

teenager in 1994, and I have worked with various cultural workers in this community for the past

13 years. I have had the opportunity to interact with some of them in both the US and Japan for

industry-related business or political work. The primary data collected for analysis include

linguistic materials that were recorded during conversations, interviews, surveys, and postings

found in online fora. I enlisted research consultants to assist with the recording and interpreting

of such data, particularly in instances where identifications such as my sex and citizenship might

affect the rhetoric associated with discussion topics. In addition, archival materials, policy

papers, and popular political publications were collected and coded according to relevance for

references that attend to the research agenda: ascertaining the uses of race in Hiphop cultural

discursive practices in Japan. My fieldwork and previous community entry experiences are

described below in phases.










Context and Experience Entering a Longitudinal Ethnographic Relationship

Phase One: First Contact

In 1994, I spent my summer in Nagoya as part of a youth exchange program. My mother

had also received a National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) grant that year to study

ethnic minority dances and cultures in China and Japan. Therefore, the latter part of my summer

included trips to the Tokyo metropolitan area, including adj acent cities such as Kawasaki, to

accompany my mother. I observed her conducting interviews, videotaping and other interactions

with minority activists and artists, as well as non-minority Japanese activist artists,

photographers, and writers who did cultural work related to my mother' s subj ect of inquiry. The

community that my mother introduced me to turned out to be a vanguard of progressive Japanese

cultural workers and many have served as mentors during my repeat visits back to the island of

Honshu.

These elders, being my mother' s generation, also comprise a relational group to the US's

civil rights and black-power movement brokers, as they have done their share of agitation in

Japan and East Asia, and they have also done intersectional work organizing across geopolitical

boundaries with historic agents from the US civil rights, black power, labor, and Asian-American

social movements. Mostly women, these cultural workers present a women-centered ideology

and practice that, for well documented political reasons, was often left out of US-based women' s

movement building efforts. This aspect of past social movements is one of many elements that

these Japanese cultural workers had in common with my mother and her generation of African-

American social movement cultural workers. That is, women of color and also women of lower

socioeconomic status were often marginalized in women's social movement building.

During this period, I also had my first contact with Japanese Hiphop pioneers, and I

entered an aspect of the transnational Hiphop community that I later returned to study. I met two









African-descendant singers who toured with a reggae artist who was turning his genre to

Japanese Rap. As black women,2 we were elated to run into one another in an atmosphere that, at

the time, was largely nonblack, and we shared experiences that we perceived as alienating as

well as sexually and racially harassing. They invited me to come to their show, and put me on a

VIP list to visit them backstage after their show. I met a lot of Japanese national Hiphop, reggae,

ska, and soul fans at their show. The outfit that I wore, a Nigerian pant suit with a matching kufl

made from colorful pink and purple themed cloth, invited a lot of political commentary and

conversation from both the audience and performers. I spoke with the performing artist for a long

time in Japanese about his views concerning blackness, African identities, reggae music, and his

choice to switch to Hiphop. He was a kind gentleman whom I perceived as erudite and elder,

though an entertainer.

What struck me about the bilingual conversations that took place backstage was that the

Japanese national participants in that space seemed genuinely committed to blackness as an

important political category, and they found ways to tie black identities and experiences into

their own Japanese identities and experiences during our conversations. The African-descendant

entertainers who toured with the Japanese performers often buttressed their arguments when the

2 I Suppose that technically, I was a girl, since I was 17 years old.

3 This outfit was akin to a man's buba, but the shirt was cut at my hips, and the sleeves were
more "dolphin style." Cross-dressing at that time was a popular dress choice for woman-centered
Hiphop heads. Like popular artists including Bo$$, Yo Yo, Queen Latifah, and Left Eye of TLC,
I wore extra, extra large men's clothing with men's boxer shorts and white ribbed tank shirts that
are referred to in signifying yet sexist vernacular as "wife-beaters" that showed underneath a
larger outer shirt, but covered my own women's undergarments. As an avid Afrocentrist at the
time, I also wore men's clothing in African styles, in addition to women's African clothing like
dresses or skirt suits. In Japan, I could only express myself in these clothes when I went out to
clubs or met friends after school hours for food or shopping. At school and for many after-school
functions, we wore a skirt jumper and button-up shirt as part of our school uniform. I wore
printed dresses and skirt sets (a mid-1990s, Midwestern fashion staple that would be called
"church clothes") when out with my host family.









conversation was in English. That one night affected my entire summer because it introduced me

to a community of other adolescents whom I had met at the concert and who, unlike many of my

other age-mates I had met prior to this evening at my high school or at shopping malls, were

interested and committed to learning about black cultural practice in addition to notions of

"traditional" Japanese culture. Looking back, I would categorize our thinking as coinciding with

cultural nationalist thought. Cultural nationalism, and black nationalism in particular, marked an

important aspect of how we rebelled against control, identification, and dominant cultural

society. Individual nationalist notions of "purity" and general excellence when compared to

whiteness marked shared aesthetics and common appreciation of music and other related cultural

productions (cf., Afrocentricity in Hiphop, Rastafari ideology in roots reggae). This was a

community that was key to helping me fully understand complicated relationships between

African Americans and Japanese nationals that are often under-reported in popular media and

academic press.

Phase Two: Back Again

During the summer of 2001, I benefited from a Japan Foundation summer program that

was geared toward assisting postgraduates in the social sciences with language study and social

science research in Japan. We were housed outside of Osaka in a suburban community adj acent

to an outlet mall town and very close to the Kansai Airport. My brother and his wife were also

living in Japan at the time. They split their time between three maj or cities: Yokosuka,

Yokohama, and Tokyo. My brother is a medical doctor and naval officer who was practicing at

the Yokosuka naval base hospital, and his wife was a lawyer who worked for a multinational

corporation with offices in Tokyo. They had a naval-base townhouse in Yokohama, and a

splendid apartment in the middle of Tokyo, within walking distance of Tokyo Tower and

Roppongi's club district as well as countless other famous hotels, museums, and shrines. When I









wasn't studying at the Japan Foundation Language Institute or doing ethnography among cultural

workers in the Kansai region, I spent my time that summer at either of my brother and his wife' s

domiciles documenting scenes in that region. I found the location of the Tokyo apartment quite

fortuitous because I was able to walk to recording studios, radio station locations, and night clubs

or lounges without having to spend train fare or having to worry about being forced to stay out

all night and catch the first train in the morning. Doing ethnography in Tokyo also placed me

close to all of the mentors I had met with my mother during her research years earlier. My

mother had made several subsequent visits to work with anti-racist NGOs, and her peer group

was quite bonded. They were extremely helpful and available to help me think through political

issues and questions that arose during my fieldwork.

My schedule at the Japan Foundation was rigorous. I spent my mornings in intensive

language study, and my afternoons doing archival, library, internet, and discipline-specific

research as it related to my topic. I studied and did language homework before and after dinner,

and just before the last train left, I would get dressed in club clothes (black pants, a sparkly tank

top, and uncomfortable heeled sandals) and go observe at a Hiphop venue. I had just completed

my first year of graduate school, and I was meticulous about recording everything I saw and

experienced. In most of the Osaka scenes that I frequented there were general trends with club

owners, promoters, and deej ays being either African-national or Afro-Caribbean-descent. Many

of these individuals "passed" as being African American in an effort to avoid anti-African racism

from some Japanese citizens, European Americans, and European visitors, but others were open

about their country of origin. Toward the end of the nights when I did language study, research,

and venue observation, I would generally settle at a corner table, fighting sleep, while I waited

for the time of the first train to arrive. I might have time for a short nap before having to get










ready to go to language class the next day. Even when I began to do observations only on

Thursday, Fridays, and Saturdays, there was a set schedule for the Language Institute

participants, and even if I didn't have to get up for class, I would have to get up and be prepared

for some form of Japanese cultural tour or weekend culture class. This aspect of the program

frustrated many of the graduate students, who were anxious to spend free time delving into their

subj ects of interest rather than practicing the tea ceremony, with which most of us by that time

had at least some familiarity because we all had previously studied Japanese language and

culture.

The Language Institute allowed for scheduled trips to do "self-guided study," and I took

these opportunities to go to Tokyo and follow up on interview leads. A US-based Hiphop pioneer

made necessary introductions for me to meet and study with Japan's Hiphop pioneers who were

part of his transnational organization. The US pioneer was worried when one of my academic

mentors and coincidently his good friend mentioned that I was going to do "club ethnography"

observing nightclubs by myself in Japan. The US pioneer thought this was dangerous (and in

retrospect, despite the many claims that Japan is safer than the US, he was right). It wasn't until a

few years later that I found out that certain pioneers were asked to chaperone me and make sure

that I was safe during my interviews. I spent that summer in Tokyo developing relationships with

these people, friends with whom I continue to work.

A key aspect of that visit would be salvaging lost language abilities, as it had been many

years since I was immersed in a Japanese speech community. I learned key social-science terms

that were helpful to my study, and I had help from Institute staff formulating surveys in Japanese

and researching Japanese library databases (see Appendix for a copy of a survey created during

this period). My proj ect was amusing to them to say the least. The people I interviewed for my










proj ect turned out to be regularly played artists on video channels, and they were on covers of

popular music and Hiphop magazines while I was there. It was at times difficult to explain and

justify how this was academic, social-science research. Once a well-known author and friend of

my mother' s had to call the Institute to explain the academic rigor of my proj ect when it was

suggested by staff that I was not doing research but instead using research money to "hang out

with stars."

During this summer I began to appreciate Japanese Hiphop as autochthonous. I began to

discern different aesthetic trends in cultural work being done in Japan versus the US. I recorded

and analyzed countless music videos. I sat through hours of emcee, deej ay, and bboy4 battles. I

spent hours watching people in clubs and attempting to initiate interviews about their

experiences. I found that interviewing women in bathrooms was a useful tool to get more candid

reactions about gender politics in the club and Hiphop scene. I gained a better comprehension of

African-descendants' roles in Japan's Hiphop cultural work. Finally, I began to build my long

relationship with a key recording studio and transnational social movement organization--as

well as all the artists associated with it--during that summer.

Phase Three: Filmmaking

No matter how hard I tried to paint an ethnographic picture of the multiple worlds that I

experienced in 2001, not many people seemed to agree with my perspective or experience. Other

ethnographers of Japanese Hiphop seemed not to see the many African-nationals I had

shadowed. Fellow doctoral students who had lived in Japan for personal reasons or work didn't

buy that there was some huge underground Japanese Hiphop scene where blackness was

privileged or valued. Teachers seemed confused about what exactly I was trying to study: blacks

4 "(Bboy" is a generic masculine term that is used to refer to dance competitions in Hiphop that
do not exclusively include male participants. This term is explored more in Chapter Five.









in Japanese Hiphop or Japanese in Japanese Hiphop. To be frank, I was unclear. I had

experienced so much in time-limited slots, and I didn't know how to express it. I thought that if I

went back and filmed it, people would get a better idea of what I was trying to explain. An

opportunity arose when Professor Marcyliena Morgan graciously contributed an initial $6,700 to

make a film about Hiphop in Japan for the Hiphop Archive that she directs, which was then at

Harvard University. The prior spring semester, I had taken a course in Theoretical Approaches to

Black Cultural Studies from Professor Mark Reid. This was a special and intimate course in

which many of the participants, all but two of whom were people of color, debated multiple

sensitive issues in black cultural studies. One of my colleagues, Bianca White, held a unique and

critical analysis ofHiphop culture and Japan as a country. She had significant experience

through professional work with world famous Hiphop cultural workers and she had an informed

perspective of the "industry" aspects of Hiphop. She also had lived in Japan as an adolescent

with her mother who was teaching English as a second language. Bianca is my African-

American sister, and despite all of our debating and disagreement concerning my topic, we were

very close friends. She is an amazing critical theorist and an award-winning filmmaker, so when

Professor Morgan released funds to do a film on Japanese Hiphop, I chose her as my sister

warrior, my colleague, to document the scene.

I knew how to conduct ethnographic documentation using digital media, but I did not

know filmmaking, so Bianca was indispensable. As an ethnographer, not a visual ethnographer

but as a traditional ethnographer, I was not concerned about potential audience experience or

clear and steady shots. I was into recording by any means necessary, even if the image was not in

the camera and we just got the dialogue (because we could transcribe it and analyze it later).

Through Bianca I learned important technical skills as well as how to produce a product that is










optimal for audience experience. Bianca made Nihon Style a beautiful and artistic piece with her

superb directing and editing.

Many people did not think that we could go and make a film on a week' s notice for under

$7,000. I would agree that in most cases, one cannot, but we had access to a network that made it

happen. Our airline tickets consumed most of the budget and our equipment needs took most of

the rest. We stayed at my brother and his wife's Tokyo apartment, and my graduate stipend paid

for our train rides and meals. My network graciously allowed us access and VIP status to most

events so we did not have to pay entrance fees, and we also had intimate access to do long

interviews with key people in the Hiphop scene. We worked approximately 20 hour days for ten

days and then left.

The j oint transcription process that ensued was a learning experience as well. As an

ethnographer, I was accustomed to having to make sense of data alone. But in this case, I not

only had Bianca to sit in as we played and replayed quotes we thought were salient, but I also

had important conversations with my brother, his wife, her mother (who is a biological

anthropologist), and my ex-husband (a US Hiphop expert), who had an extended visit with me in

Japan in 2001. My colleagues, Nakamura Mutsuo in linguistics and Fujino Yuko in sociology at

the University of Florida, were also very helpful as we mulled over the data collected. By

November 2002, we had a short edited. I showed it at the AAA annual meeting along with a

paper that I read, and for the first time, I felt that the data were beginning to make sense to

people. Hiphop, including Japanese Hiphop, entails much diversity. There is codeswitching (with

Japanese and AAE as well as GAE). It is international, multilingual, and multiracial. It is

gendered, but all genders and sexual orientations are often present in some form or another in the

cultural productions. There was so much going on in the Hiphop community we documented.










Capturing it on film helped me to finally begin to organize my thoughts, my experiences, and my

other data. Copies of the film and the footage are housed at the Hiphop Archive.

Phase Four: Winter in Tokyo

I spent my first winter in Tokyo in January 2003. I was splitting my time between

negotiating family (this time my mother was there, too, as she and my father had just come back

from visiting China with my brother and his wife), obligatory meetings with family friends, and

meetings with my ethnographic consultants and friends. This visit exposed me to the conundrum

of balancing everyday life with research pursuits. My mother' s close friend didn't care if it was

Friday night or that there was a big event I felt compelled to document at a club; she cooked and

I better be on a train at 8 p.m. sharp to the remote suburbs and her subsidized housing complex to

spend a freezing night with her and her cats, talking about black political movements and Alice

Walker' s recent visit. This was an emotionally difficult visit because I had just finalized my

divorce with my husband who everyone in my Hiphop community knew. Therefore, my

ethnographic agenda was often shaped by comments like, "Now what happened? You two were

so good together! He really loved Hiphop!i" I realized that my ethnographic consultants weren't

research participants or subj ects. They were friends and fictive kin, as some of them had known

me since I was seventeen, and just as I followed them around intimate scenes with annoying

handheld mini-cassette recorders (which I thought at the time were inconspicuous), they had the

right to "get in my business" and assess whether I had made the right decision at 24 years of age.

Looking back, this experience furthered my understanding of Japan' s Hiphop's

generation's ideas concerning traditional gender roles. Though my marriage was considered to

be "young" and "early" by many of my friends and family in the United States, I was "on time"

in Japan. The stigma of divorce is harsh, however, and I learned a great deal about cultural









attitudes concerning divorce, and my friends' concern about me being branded with that stigma

was heart-warming to say the least.

Phase Five: Substantiating Postcolonial Identities

I was scheduled to go back during the summer of 2003, and I did a great deal of organizing

with Japanese Hiphop cultural workers in the US and, over the intemet, with Japanese cultural

workers in Japan for a 2003 annual Hiphop festival. However, my mother suffered a stroke in

early June and I decided not to return until things were more stable at home. I did not return until

the summer of 2004. Having just completed the written portion of my qualification exam, I was

committed to obtaining data for which I felt there were gaps in the literature: I was looking for

evidence of whiteness in Japan. I also had the opportunity to travel to China that summer and

document the post-colonial complexity of whiteness and neo-colonial relationships from that

vantage point as well. Below is a collage of pictures I took during one innocent walk down an

unassuming street in Kamakura that summer.






















Figure 2-1 Advertisements along a stroll down one small city block (less than 100 feet in length)
in Kamakura, Japan in 2004









My entire family except for my eldest brother and his wife and newborn came to visit that

summer, and upon learning what I was doing, they got into the experience of "spotting

whiteness." Once they opened their eyes to look for it, they saw it was everywhere, even to the

point where one week into the exercise I tired and concluded that I had enough white images to

take back to the United States. I caught up with my research friends and I continued to go to the

same Hiphop venues and document our experiences.'

This trip was significant in that I noticed what mainstream Hiphop had become in the ten

years since my initial contact with the community. The underground scene seemed integrated

with more commercial art and the older cultural nationalist ideas that were so prevalent in 1994

had been replaced with the ideology of "bling, bling" or conspicuous consumption and

materialism. However the underground had not disappeared. It just had company: commercial

company. This could obscure one' s view of Hiphop in Japan if background knowledge is

missing. With this shift, I saw some of my old friends leave the underground scene for the more

lucrative and "fast" lifestyle of commercial Hiphop, and this included working harder to promote

more African-American Hiphop artists in Japan.

Phase Six: The Gender Mission

When I returned to the Tokyo metropolitan area in 2005, I began to notice the effects of

my earlier visits on the local Hiphop scenes. Papers and memos that I had written and shared

earlier were now circulated in certain circles, and much of the time I allotted to do research,

SI recently had a similar experience while visiting with a research assistant and friend. My friend
was showing me pictures from a visit to Japan in July 2007. He took random pictures of
buildings, billboards, traffic crossings, and other signs of urban life on a popular street in the
Harajuku shopping district of Tokyo. Before he opened up his electronic file of pictures to show
me, I j okingly asked, "Are there still large images of white women everywhere in
advertisements, or has that changed?" By the time I made my utterance, the file opened, and to
both of our surprise, he had unintentionally captured several images of whiteness in advertising,
as almost every building hosted an advertisement that featured a white model.









additional interviews, and examine material culture was battling new requests from my research

friends to talk and work with them on reproducing some of the work that they had seen me doing

in the US. By this time, I was known as a cofounder for the National Hip Hop Political

Convention, I had been on a few Hiphop and politics shows on BET, and I was living and

working in a well-known recording studio in the US. I also had been sure to put all of my US-

based Hiphop cultural worker friends in touch with their Japanese counterparts, so unconsciously

we had all created a transnational Hiphop political community, made up of specific players who

supported a particular social-justice agenda. I no longer only heard from people through my own

contact, but artists who I worked with in the US who were formerly not part of the

aforementioned Japanese Hiphop scene would now pass on messages from their recent trips and

tours to the country. Likewise, people with whom I worked in Japan frequented areas where I

lived and worked in the US and it now seemed that anyone in this community could be in any

specific spot in the world at any given time.

The more closely I worked with cultural workers, the more I began to identify what my

feminist colleagues were trying to tell me years earlier concerning the "touring culture" of

entertainers in general. I began to gain a better understanding of critiques of sexism in Hiphop

culture, as I found myself in situations where I was seeing more and more violation of women,

even among self-proclaimed "socially conscious" and nonsexist Hiphop cultural workers. By this

time I had done more reading and more personal work to better understand earlier experiences

that I had in Japan, and I was able to analyze these experiences through a critical gender lens as

well as a critical race lens. Being older--I was now 28 and no longer a 17-year-old adolescent--

the prevalence of child pornography on the streets of Tokyo became more apparent to me than it

6 The new community that I refer to here includes those of us who worked with a transnational
social movement organization that uses Hiphop.










had been before. As an adolescent I viewed this as general pornographic material but as I aged, I

began to see that many of these images were not just subjugated women, they were subjugated

girls.

Thus, when I returned in 2005, I became more aggressive than before in my agenda to

speak with women cultural workers. I also spent significant time speaking to female consumers. I

remember being asked to give a talk about race and Hiphop at a college, and I talked instead

about the intersection of racialization and sexualization that I experienced. Though I was told

several times that publicly talking about that topic in some circles was taboo, many young

women came and spoke to me privately after my talk, all open to sharing their stories of being

sexually harassed while riding public transportation as well as stories concerning sexual abuse in

general. Seeing the urgency of this issue all over the world, not just in the US and Japan, I began

to question where this urgency was in Hiphop, which purported to be building a social-justice

agenda at the time. The ethnography I collected during this time reflects these issues.

Phase Seven: The "Ethnographic Present"

At present I continue to work with my research friends on the various political agendas that

we have initiated over the years. Some of these individuals have known me for 13 years now,

and vice versa. I have seen people get married, get divorced, have children, experience the loss

of loved ones, and change careers. Likewise, they have seen me go through similar changes. I

feel confident about the quality of the data that I have collected over the years and analyzed with

my research friends. However, it has been hard to write our stories because the research is so

personal. I assume this is a discomfort most ethnographers experience, for, as Cheryl Mwaria

(2001) says, we live our anthropology.









Data Collection Process

In accordance with critical discourse analysis (cf., Goffman 1974; Morgan 2002; van Dijk

2001), I recorded the narratives of diverse Hiphop cultural workers in Japan. Following Charles

Briggs (1986), I at times conducted "social science interviews" in order to collect information

from key actors who produce Hiphop culture in Japan and (when relevant) the United States. I

refer to two types of interviews in my data collection. One type consists of "short interviews"

which lasted three to fifteen minutes. These interviews were impromptu data collected on the

street at a venue with workers and patrons. The "long interview" follows Grant McCracken's

definition (1988) and refers to interviews that lasted anywhere from over thirty minutes to three

hours. Samples of interview questions are similar to the survey queries presented in the in the

Appendix, but as one will see from dialogues presented in Chapters Four and Five, the

interviews were quite informal and similar to conversational analysis (Psathas 1995). Examples

of early interview questions would be "How do you define Hiphop?" or "Describe some of the

proj ects that [your transnational social movement organization] is currently working on?" I

mainly followed the natural flow of conversation during recording periods.

The fieldnotes from the conversations and participant-observation7 periods provide

sufficient data to offer insight regarding current practices related to how race is conceptualized

through language and performance. Participant observation allowed me to focus on documenting

daily rituals and cultural practice in interpersonal conversation, professional experiences, popular

media, and other cultural productions (e.g., Hiphop songs) that frame race and racialization in

Japan.


SParticipant observation could be defined as gaining insight into a "way of life by taking part as
fully as [one]... can in a group's social activities, as well as observing those activities as
outsiders" (Lavenda and Schultz 2000:5).










The pictures that I took while doing observations, the album art that I collected and the

many other cultural products that I felt were salient to this research proj ect comprise a third

category of data collection. The processes under which I collected these data are outlined below.

Finally, the people to whom I refer as research consultants, friends, and cultural workers

are the people who shared information about their way of life with me. The "research

consultants" differ from the research assistants, who were the people who collaborated and

assisted me with transcription or translation and interpretation of data. Some of these research

assistants were paid, and others were close friends with whom I traded services.

Background

I previously described seven phases, with each phase having a different entry purpose or

experience that informs the perspective from which I now write. I alluded to the many interviews

and observations I experienced during each trip in my descriptions of each entry phase. Although

my first phase did not entail formal interviews, I accompanied my mother to many, listening and

at times participating in her formal interviews with her research participants and friends. I

accompanied my mother during four formal interviews that each lasted from 30 minutes to an

hour each. Although she interviewed most interviewees more than once, I accompanied her on

only four of these. After interviewing each participant, she videotaped them or their dancers

performing. While I was with her, I witnessed my mother interviewing a Korean civil rights

leader, a Korean dance teacher, a Ryukyuan dance teacher, and an Ainu visual and craft artist. In

addition, she engaged in several interview-like conversations with her Japanese artist and activist

friends who deal with the subj ect matter of ethnic minority rights in Japan. I would call her

method very similar to discourse analysis, except that these interviews were not taped.

Nonetheless, I learned a great deal of information from observing in this setting.









Doctoral Research

In 2001, during my second entry phase, I began recording my own data, as a graduate

student with approval from the University of Florida Institutional Review Board. As explained

earlier in Phase Two, I observed Hiphop venues (clubs, lounges, parties, and performances) three

to six nights a week for a six-week period in the Osaka metropolitan area during the summer of

2001. There, I interviewed mainly African-national and Caribbean descent Hiphop promoters,

venue organizers, and artists. I also interviewed Japanese-national and African-American artists.

I took pictures at the venues. I usually took pictures of deej ay booths and dance floor set ups. I

counted the numbers of people present and attempted to identify them according to Japanese

demographic categories. This process would usually involve asking people how they identify

themselves. I wrote notes about playlists, and noted which songs were most popular among

venue patrons. I judged the latter by how many people got on the dance floor to dance, and also

by people's commentary about songs' popularity.

While at the venues, I conducted at least one to three short taped interviews (i.e., 3 to 15

minutes) with venue owners and promoters, but because they were working, these were not the

most focused interviews. I carried a digital camera, a minicassette recorder, and consent forms in

a small purse at all times, so that at any moment, I could record a moment or conversation that

seemed relevant to my topic of interest. Some research respondents found this behavior

eccentric, but not entirely unexpected from a foreigner who' s expected to be eccentric. Others

told me that they did not find my behavior odd, but that they assumed I really wanted to be a

journalist or singer, thus my avid interest in their work. Even though I explained to everyone I

was a graduate student studying Hiphop and race, the general assumption seemed to be that no

one cares that much or is so organized about one's work unless they want to be in the industry. I

recorded seven long conversational interviews with participants in the Osaka metropolitan area









that summer, and one key consultant was recorded Hyve times. This key consultant was a Kenyan

national who had just completed his degree in civil engineering. He sold African art and goods at

an outdoor market close to the Language Institute, though he lived in an urban part of Osaka and

also promoted Hiphop events. I visited him at the market several times a week and spoke with

him regularly. Of my seven recorded interviewees, one was a Japanese-national female, two

were Japanese-national males, and four were African-descent males.

I conducted similar observations in Tokyo and adj acent cities for a cumulative total of

three weeks that summer. As stated earlier, I would spend a week in the region when I was

afforded "self-study" time at the Language Institute. In the Tokyo metropolitan area, I recorded

the same kind of data that I did in Osaka, except many of the club venues in which I observed

were too large to get accurate counts of participants and to talk with all of them about how they

identified themselves. In these venues, I would hang out in smaller settings within the larger

setting, such as the women's bathroom or the VIP lounge in an effort to get and record more

intimate data. I recorded eleven "long" conversational style interviews in Tokyo, and established

the beginning of a long friendship with many of these people. Unlike in the Osaka metropolitan

region, my general consultants in the Tokyo metropolitan region were mostly Japanese citizens,

although there were seven African-American male consultants, three of whom lived primarily in

Japan, two of whom traveled back and forth, and two of whom were US-based artists who

frequently toured in Japan. Of those whom I recorded in long interviews, seven identified as

Japanese citizens and four were African-American. The African Americans were all male, and

of the Japanese interviewees, only one was female.


SSee chart (Figure 2-2) at the end of this section and Chapter Four for more detail. Some of the
"Japanese-national"' cultural workers identified in dual ways, as both Japanese and as having
"mixed" heritage, such as having Chinese or Filipino mothers and Japanese fathers.










The male dominance in the Japanese Hiphop communities that I documented that summer

was a marked difference from my experience seven years earlier. As a high school student, I

frequented mostly all-female peer groups, and with the exception of the visiting artists and one

other African-American female exchange student in my sate (Aichi-ken), all of my interlocutors

in Nagoya were Japanese nationals. Thus, most of my conversations about Hiphop in 1994 were

bilingual, with fellow adolescent Japanese females, who were not necessarily cultural workers,

but consumers. The exception would be the conversations that I had with elder artists and

activists who were my mother' s friends during my visits to Tokyo. When I returned for

subsequent visits, focused on interviewing cultural workers, many of my respondents were male.

That is, like in the United States, many of the people with the money and structural support to

own the means of production in cultural work--as in owning the venue, the label, or the studio--

are males. As Marcyliena Morgan notes in her ethnography on Proj ect Blowed (2008), that does

not mean that only men are doing the work. Many females, who were not available to me for

interviews until I forced the issue in 2005, were indeed the primary workers holding the artistic

production and organizational structure together.

As stated earlier, in 2002, about 20 hours of each day were spent documenting Japanese

Hiphop culture through film, camera, or minicassette. In 2003, I recorded seven interviews (five

Japanese citizens and two African-American males) with people whom I had begun working

with in 2001. I also recorded two new African-American male cultural workers who were

promoters during that year, but who have since left the scene. In 2004, I interviewed 17 cultural

workers with whom I had previously worked. These people included two Japanese-national

females, eleven Japanese-national males and four African-American males. As mentioned

earlier, I spent a lot of my time documenting white images in the public sphere using a digital










still camera. In 2005, I interviewed six Japanese-national female cultural workers, four Japanese-

national male cultural workers, and two African-American male cultural workers. Since then, my

relationships with many of the people that I have traditionally recorded have changed in a way

that there hasn't been the need for me to record them like before (Fikes 2000; Mwaria 2001). We

exchange e-mail, message each other at social networking sites, call each other on the telephone,

and visit with one another in a way that marks our relationship as less research, but more a joint

Hiphop political and cultural work endeavor. At the Hiphop Archive, I have been working with

undergraduate and graduate researchers who are interested in collecting this type of data. These

are the people whom I usually connect with my research friends to document or record data now

for archiving and other academic proj ect purposes.

Table 2-1 Numbers of long recorded interviews described in the Data Collection Process
2001 2003 2004 2005
Total # of recorded "long interviews" 18 9 15 12
Total # of women interviewed 2 0 2 6
Total # of men interviewed 16 9 13 6
# of Japanese-national women 2 0 2 6
# of Japanese-national men 6 3 6 3
# of African-descendant men 8 4 4 2
# of Chinese-Japanese nationals 1 1 1 1
# of Filipino-Japanese nationals 1 0 1 0
# of 'Persian'-Puerto Rican-Japanese nationals 0 1 1 0
The year of 2002 is not included because almost the entire time was spent recording various aspects of Hiphop
cultural work. The chart is organized according to demographic constructions of gender identification as well as
self-reported ethnic/racial and national identifications.

Data Analysis Process

I described earlier how and with whom I collected data from 2001 to 2005. The types of

data that I collected over the years include conversations from interviews, music, art, and other

cultural products such as compact disc covers, promotional flyers, videos of live performances,

music videos played in television, magazine articles, and website postings. The pictures and

notes that I took during venue observations were very useful as well. As I organized the types of









data (e.g., interviews, album art, video-taped performances, etc.), I created five maj or categories

for analysis. These categories are: (1) how Japanese national identity is referenced, represented,

or manifested in the utterance or cultural product, (2) how blackness is referenced, represented,

or manifested in the utterance or cultural product, (3) how whiteness is referenced, represented,

or manifested in the utterance or cultural product, (4) how gender identity is referenced,

represented, or manifested in the utterance or cultural product, and (5) how Hiphop cultural

aesthetics are referenced, represented, or manifested in the utterance or cultural product.

When transcribing (and in some cases translating) recorded conversations or Hiphop lyrics,

I often enlisted the assistance of a secondary research assistant, who was usually a male fluent in

vernacular and speech style of masculine adolescent popular speech. I did this for several

reasons. One reason was to increase researcher translation reliability. The other translator or

transcriptionist and I would meet several times to talk about the significance of the data in

question. Another reason was that, during my most communicatively competent times in

Japanese speech communities, I engaged in intimate and vernacular conversations with females

in my same age group, or females in my mother' s age group, but rarely did I speak with men

using non-distal styles of speech. I am therefore not communicatively competent in adolescent

male speech varieties. An example of how this works in Hiphop research in English would be

that a researcher who is born in Oakland, California, and part of an Oakland-specific AAE

speech community, might have trouble understanding the accent, lexicon, and even grammar of a

Hiphop artist's production who uses a speech variety that is native to a rural Alabama AAE

speech community. It would not be the case that the researcher does not know General English

or even African-American English, but the speech community's specific phonetic and syntactic

difference may be beyond one's capabilities to adequately analyze linguistic data without









translation assistance. The speech from the Japanese cultural workers whom I recorded was often

not only direct style, but it included many vernacular and masculine-specific communicative

styles as well. There also was often substantial US English Hiphop lexicon and syntax used as

well. Any understanding of US Hiphop language requires knowledge of African American

English linguistics. Therefore, my research assistants who, except for one, were not

communicatively competent in African American English or US Hiphop language, had to work

closely with me to transcribe and translate linguistic data that often included a lot of

codeswitching.

Once transcripts were produced, I abstracted utterances of significance according to the

five analytic categories described. I discussed these utterances of interest with my research

assistants (who helped to transcribe and translate data), and I also discussed the utterances with

the cultural workers who produced them. I did the latter for multiple reasons. One reason was to

afford the cultural workers agency in how I was interpreting and representing their speech in my

research. Together we discussed and co-constructed meaning from our conversations in an effort

to avoid and reproduce unequal power dynamics that could occur in ethnographic relationships

in which the ethnography holds the ultimate power of how one's research subj ects are finally

represented. Our conversations helped me to feel secure that I was documenting them and

interpreting them in the manner in which they also saw themselves. As long as we were

discussing race we were often in agreement. However, when I began to inquire about ideas

concerning gender politics, this particular ethnographic strategy created discomfort because of a

general sentiment that conscious or political Hiphop is nonsexist, or not misogynistic, so it is

often considered rude or unnecessary to inquire about sexism in this transnational Hiphop

cultural space (cf., Collins 2006; Russ 1984). I explore this situation in detail in Chapter Five.









Similar approaches-extensive consultation with cultural workers from whom cultural

products were collected in an attempt to co-construct meaning--were applied to the analysis of

the nonlinguistic material documented. As I organized significant album art, videos of live

performances, song lyrics, music videos, pictures of venues, and people's fashion aesthetic

within those venues according to the five aforementioned analytic categories, I consulted

whenever possible with the cultural workers who produced them. Significant cultural products,

utterances, and observations that I recorded in the field are presented in Chapters Four and Five.

I present a synthesis of my own analysis of these products and conversations as well as those of

my research assistants and the cultural workers themselves. This process is presented in the

ethnographic chapters to avoid the imposition of exogenous meaning. In Writing Ethnographic

Fieldnotes, Emerson, Fretz and Shaw caution ethnographers from presenting accounts that

"obscure or suppress members' meanings by imposing outside understandings of events"

(Emerson et al 1995:109). The authors call on ethnographers to focus on "how members

construct meaning through interactions with other members of the group, how they actually

interpret and organize their own and other's actions" (1995:140).

On one hand, I provide an emic perspective on Hiphop cultural practice that was readily

recognized and welcomed from the research consultants who worked with me. I grew up a

Hiphop cultural "native," though I am in no way an artist. I practiced maj or elements of Hiphop

culture in my daily life from early childhood. My family supported this cultural development. I

used Hiphop to teach, to organize, and as therapy. I worked with various Hiphop artists in the US

and abroad in these endeavors. The artists with whom I worked ranged from unknown street

performers to world-famous entertainers and pioneers. Because some of my Japanese Hiphop

network had its introduction to me through these pioneers, our level of conversation began at an










in-group status. Other cultural workers whom I met by happenstance embraced a level of

intimacy based upon an assumption of my blackness and their ideas about Hiphop.

Some cultural workers, however, did not read my body as black, or black-American

enough, and those people initially categorized me as having an etic perspective until they got to

know me intimately. Because I do have an emic perspective, or "native anthropological"

knowledge of at least US Hiphop, I was already familiar with and using some of the terms the

people in the Hiphop community that I studied were using. Our j oint venture of analyzing and

interpreting recorded interactions in the analysis process further inserted emic perspectives and

members' interpretations of culturally recorded phenomena. My etic, or outsider' s perspective of

masculine vernacular speech varieties and cultural practice was mediated not only through

constant consultation with the cultural workers, but also by working with the transcription

research assistants who self-identified as being in-group.

The collection of data from (1) participant-observation fieldnotes, (2) recorded

conversations (interviews), (3) cultural products of the cultural workers (e.g., album art, lyrics,

venue pictures, or performances), and (4) footage from an ethnographic film proj ect represent

methodological triangulation, as I utilize a research design that draws from a variety of methods

to collect and interpret data (Arksey and Knight 1999:23). Specifically, I employ "between-

method triangulation" (cf., Denzin 1970), by drawing from my fieldnotes, the products, and the

interviews. I also consider my analysis process with the cultural workers and research assistants

"investigator triangulation." Hilary Arksey and Peter Knight explain:

Investigator triangulation is where different researchers, interviewers or observers with a
shared interest in the focus of study are employed. This strategy is deemed advantageous
on various grounds. For instance, team members are likely to have intellectual and
methodological backgrounds in different disciplinary areas, and can bring a diversity of
expertise to bear on the research problem. At the same time, investigator triangulation can
remove any potential bias generated by a single researcher. [1999:23]









While I do not believe that my collaboration with the cultural workers and research assistants

remove all cultural bias, I do believe that the synthesis of our perspectives and analysis produces

a richer ethnographic account, in which all participants had a chance to co-construct our

representation at some point in the ethnographic experience.

Another way that I attempt to balance the power dynamic between ethnographer and

research consultant is through the utilization of autoethnographic reflection. The longevity and

the intimacy that I experienced in the field mandates that I analyze data collected through a

conspicuous ethnographic lens that situates the politics that my black, female, and at times

underage body brought to the research inquiry process. As mentioned earlier, at times my

blackness was read as immediate membership within a transnational Hiphop community. In

addition, at other times my pigmentation, hair texture, perceived class or education, perceived

age (assumptions that I was older), and marital status hindered immediate entry, and raised

questions about my presence, in the very same community (see also Harrison 1991 and Ulysse

2007 on their similar experiences of "continual negotiation of role expectations"). People' s

willingness to work with me, immediate and extensive types of access (e.g., VIP privilege to

cultural workers' events), and the forms of speech and topics of communication that ensued (e.g.,

black nationalism or Nihonjinron) require an analysis that references the effect my body's

political reading and interpretation from my various interlocutors as well as the international

community as a whole had on our daily lived experiences (cf., Ulysse 2007). The added

dimensions of my family members being present and interacting with me in the field as well as

the length of time that I have known certain people in this Hiphop community also require

autobiographical contextualization. Finally, my public and sustained participation in US-based

Hiphop industry and community activist work, which has been chronicled in popular media and









easily accessed by the people I work with in Japan, also informs how we interpreted and dealt

with each other. Even when conversing in specific bounded Japanese geopolitical spaces, this

history requires that I reference my memory and experience working with Hiphop movement

building--activities that now affect all transnational spaces within a specific transnational social

movement agenda.

Synthesizing all of this and inj ecting it into the data analysis and report constitutes an

autoethnographic methodology. Irma McClaurin describes autoethnography as the "layering and

use of experience as a critical point of departure for both the production of the text and the

interpretation of ethnographic data" (2001:68). An exemplary instance of this methodology can

be found in Faye Harrison's "Ethnography as Politics" (1991). McClaurin concurs, citing how

Harrison' s experience growing up in the midst of the civil rights movement as well as her student

activism around freeing political prisoners like Angela Davis informed her ethnographic work in

Jamaica' s specific political climate:

Harrison's autobiographical memory authenticates an autoethnographic research rationale.
I would assert then that all autoethnography, which I view as not simply a highly reflexive
form but as a particular kind of reflexive form, is simultaneously autobiographical and
communal, as the Self encounters the Collective. Further, the legitimation of data (or its
validation) resides not in conventional scholarly requirements and standards but in self-
referencing. [2001:69; see also Caldwell 2006; Simmons 2001; Slocum 2001; Twine 2000]

Indeed, Harrison reworked conventional wisdom by inflecting personal and communal politics in

her methodological framework. Autoethnography as part of a feminist methodological repertoire

builds on traditional uses of autobiography as activism by women seeking to elucidate social

inequality in both the public and private spheres (Tanaka 1987; Perkins 2000). Yukiko Tanaka

(1987) discusses this in terms of shishosetsu (="I-novel," or autobiographical Eiction), which

allowed women writers throughout history in Japan to safely critique gender equality by

speaking candidly about injustice under the shelter of "Hction" or art. Margo Perkins (2000)









shares a similar perspective in her analysis of the autobiographies of Elaine Brown, Angela

Davis, and Assata Shakur. Perkins contends that these women's narratives are pedagogical as

they introduce readers to injustice in the United States that altered their lives and ultimately

influenced their decisions toward political engagement. My understanding of autoethnography

takes this tradition of "autobiography as activism" a step further as a methodological

consideration by including not only personal reflection and acknowledgement of how one' s body

and critical memory impacts field encounters and research agendas, but also it allows for the

inclusion of community-based, co-constructed descriptions and analysis concerning shared

experiences from a range of people who undergo similar identifications as well as life

trajectories. Autoethnography is simultaneously reflexive and dialogic, and therefore buttresses a

"meta-ethnographic"' agenda through the narration and analysis of multiple stories (Noblit and

Hare 1988).

In "Feminist Methodology as a Tool for Ethnographic Inquiry on Globalization," Faye

Harrison further elucidates the "intellectual and sociopolitical value of women' s stories and

practices" (Harrison In press:26). Whereas interpretive and qualitative research methods have

been dismissed as less accurate or useful for policy than numerical data and statistical

calculations, Faye Harrison observes that socioculturall anthropologists understand that stories

can be a rich and' invaheable source of Imowledge and' theory" (Harrison In press:26, emphasis

added). She explains:

For example, in accessible non-elitist language, Ann Kingsolver has written that "theory
can be viewed as 'the stories we tell ourselves to make sense of life and to determine
where we are as we navigate social space" (Kingsolver 2001:4). All human beings, from
social science and policy experts to ordinary folk, narrate socially situated yet differentially
empowered (2001:24) stories. Anthropologists are "ethnographic listeners] and
storyteller[s]" who weave together larger patterns of stories to develop social analyses,
often those that link complex macrostructural forces to the intricate micropolitics of
everyday lived experiences (2001:25). [Harrison In press:267]









Harrison's explanation of ethnography as being conceptualizedd and deployed as a feminist

methodology" (2007:26) in addition to her recognition of the democratizing effects of

storytelling and autochthonous assertions of self as well as communally constructed sense-

making coincides with Hiphop language ideology and philosophy that situates its cultural

workers in an organic intellectual framework. Rappers' "stories" seek to comment on and make

sense of social structures as well as individual experience.

What might seem to be a simple narrative of one's experience in life is usually a

commentary on shared knowledge of how social structures impact individual lives. For example,

Mia X' s "Mommie' s Angels" (1997) is not just a personal reflection on her plight as a single

mother and struggling rap artist, but it also shares insight about a common situation of single

mothers worldwide and particularly black women in America who are marked as "welfare

queens," "whores," and other derogatory identifications that degrade their humanity and ignore

their struggles to provide for their families. Mos Def s "Mr. Nigga" (1999) is not just about his

own experiences with racial profiling in the US and abroad as well as everyday racist encounters;

he also connects his experiences to people in the public sphere (e.g., Michael Jackson) as well as

unknown individuals. Following this narrative tradition of both Hiphop and AAE language

ideology, K Dub Shine flexes his cultural critique through storytelling in "Save The Children" as

he adopts the trope of rapper as savior (Chapter Four for more details) and builds from

knowledge he collected growing up, observing in communities, to "call out" issues of rampant

domestic abuse and child abuse in Japanese society. This particular style of storytelling in

Hiphop (as well as other AAE narrative performances) reveals yet another way that globalized

black popular culture is operationalized to address social inequality outside of the United States.










This narrative strategy, to connect one' s life to the shared experiences of one' s imagined

community as a strategy to politically engage and theorize about the intersections of

"macrostructural forces" and "micropolitics of everyday lived experiences," (cf., Harrison In

press:267) is relational to St. Clair Drake' s discussion of vindication in "Anthropology and the

Black Experience" (1980). In this vein, like Gramsci's organic intellectuals, the pioneers that I

work with seem to be building theory, or "liberation ideology." John Gwaltney (1980) offers

similar remarks on the narratives that he collected in the field, doing work identified as "native

anthropology" among even his own family members at times. He says:

From these narratives--these analyses of the heavens, nature and humanity--it is
evident that black people are building theory on every conceivable level....These
people not only know the troubles they've seen, but have profound insight into the
meaning of those vicissitudes. [1980: xxvi]

Gwaltney goes on to state that the "core black culture" he documents "is more than ad hoc

synchronic adaptive survival" and he critiques "the expectations and canons of core black

culture" for confining conceptions of blackness to "walking that walk, talking that talk..." (c.f.,

Labov 1972); he maintains that "these people live, move and have their being in their particular

variation on the human theme" (1980:xxvi-xxvii). Like Drake, he asserts that "beyond the black

experience lies the human experience" (Drake 1980: 31). Both scholars seem to want to move

beyond "the essential black subj ect" and they seem to recognize the analytic importance of

"naming" experience through narrative. Perhaps the task of Hiphop-generation ethnographers is

to move the ethnographic reporting language to match the political agenda of the methodological

framework, as we strive to create reports that simultaneously analyze and criticize racialization

processes.

Thus, my use of autoethnography in this text is not only one aspect of triangulating my

research, but it also complements emic perspectives of knowledge construction within Hiphop,









feminist ethnography, as well as "native" ethnography. Like Gwaltney (1980) my ethnographic

work at times included both fictive and biological kin. In addition, like Gina Ulysse (2003,

2007), I occupy a peculiar status as a "native anthropologist" in that "I am Hiphop"9-- "native"

who cut her teeth in a "golden age" of "raptivism," "edutainment," and Hiphop politics. I can

also at times be an outsider to the indigenous Japanese Hiphop community, as I am a citizen of

the United States. My skin color and other phenotypic expressions mark me as different from a

white "American" norm and my gender marginalizes me in the global world order. The

intersection of my race, gender, and pigmentation sexualizes my identity in specific historical

ways (e.g., the oversexualized black female or mulatta; see Chapter Three for more). The

political marking of my body as black actually thrusts me into an imagined community with

Japanese Hiphop artists, though I maintain an etic perspective on the Japanese aspect of Japanese

Hiphop. However, because Hiphop occupies a shared internationalist frame based on

international language ideology and socialization processes that are based in African-American

speech communities as well as cultural practice and performance, my Japanese Hiphop

interlocutors share a simultaneous emic perspective with me as we are all participants in a

transnational social movement and imagined community.

These ideas are akin to reflexivity in ethnographic proj ects. Gina Ulysse (2007) theorizes

reflexivity as becoming

a new mode of academic activism, which seeks to interrupt the problem of ethnographic
authority that arises when the focus is on the subj ect only... Put another way, by choosing
to tell how the ethnographer comes to know what she knows, the tailored suit or

9 See Morgan (2008) for more. "I am Hiphop" is a phrase popularized by KRS-ONE that
petitions Fred Hampton, Sr. and Jesse Jackson, Sr.'s phrase "I am somebody"-an assertion of
existence and humanity. As Hiphop struggles against the fate of black popular musical genres
such as rock and j azz to remain connected to black identities, the assertion of "I am Hiphop"
references a particular political agenda within Hiphop activism as well as Hiphop philosophy
that commands its cultural workers "keep it [Hiphop] real."









monograph is exposed to be not as seamless as it appears. Rather, it is various pieces held
together by all sorts of stitches, as a quilt. Reflexivity allows me to unmask the political
content of my encounter. [2007: 6]

She introduces an innovative theoretical frame of the alter(ed)native perspective in

anthropology. Ulysse writes:

This ethnography is a counternarrative articulated from what I call an alter(ed)native
perspective to the conventionalities of the dominant discourse within anthropology. It is
alter as in other and native as I was born in the region and am ascribed that identity. It is
altered) because of how my approach to this proj ect has been modified both by my
training and by my encounter with ICIs [her research consultants]. The term connotes an
anti- and postcolonial stance, with a conscious understanding that the continuities of
history mean that there is no clean break with the past. With that in mind, alter(ed)native
proj ects do not offer a new riposte or alternative view; rather they engage existing ones,
though these have been altered. Alter(ed)native perspectives are those in which tools of
domination are co-opted and manipulated to serve particular anti- and postcolonial goals.
[Ulysse 2007:7]

The goals of an alter(ed)native proj ect in anthropology relate to the disidentificatory practice of

Hiphop cultural workers introduced in Chapter One. Both engage a political agenda that works

simultaneously within and against the grain by invoking performativity and "flippin the script"

on traditional and dominant cultural narratives that position non-white male ethnographers as

peripheral to canons of art and ethnographic theory. As part of my contribution to Ulysse's

alter(ed)native theoretical framework, I utilize autoethnography, what McClaurin deems an

"innovative strategy of knowledge production" (2001:71) to contextualize how and why the

research collected and presented in this dissertation differ from and yet contribute to previous

ethnographies of Hiphop in Japan.

Reporting Process

Throughout the entire research, writing, and related data collection processes, all ethical

considerations were made in accord with the American Anthropological Association's Code of

Ethics (see http://www.aaanet. org/committees/ethics/ethics. htm). Research consultants' names

and associated identifiers are withheld in this write up through the use of generic pseudonyms









that were chosen to minimize valuation, imagination, and identification (e.g., Rapper, Pioneer 3,

cultural worker, etc.). I chose this level of generality because many of the people that I worked

with live their lives in the public sphere; and I thought that if I were to use a pseudonym of

"Tanaka-san" or "MC K" for an artist, for example, there could be too much room for guessing

about who that person might be. Therefore, many of the well-known cultural workers that I

worked with are referred to in general terms and other details such as dates and specific

geographic locations are left ambiguous. I chose to use general popular names (e.g., Makoto) for

my descriptions of consumers as well as one cultural worker who also worked with me on

research proj ects because these individuals are not living publicly documented lives, and it is

unlikely that one could figure out their identities given the small amount of information shared

about them. Furthermore, in the case that a public event is analyzed, such as a public forum, a

concert, or a conference, generally pseudonyms or descriptions are still used; however, if an

official name is being used, efforts to obtain permission from persons reported on were made.

Published materials, such as albums or song lyrics, are referred to in-text and cited accordingly.

In my write up, I attempted to weave together a "story" collected from fieldnotes, transcribed

linguistic data, print media, and other Hiphop cultural productions. This story is mediated

through conversations with research consultants in an effort to collectively co-author a narrative

of race as experienced by Hiphop cultural workers in Japan.









CHAPTER 3
"RACE," ETHNICITY, AND POSTCOLONIAL IDENTITIES INT CONTEMPORARY
JAPANESE STUDIES

If we have penetrated the question of "race," we must deny the very existence of human
races and the concomitant hotchpotch of theories about racially inherited qualities,
susceptibilities and memories. We must combat racialism, and its attendant inhumanity and
degeneration, wherever we meet it, whether it comes from the Great Race or
ourselves....That is to say we must be "racial and' anti-racial at the same time.

--Cedric Dover (1947:25; emphasis s added)

Racism must be understood to be a nexus of material relations within which social and
discursive practices perpetuate oppressive power relations between populations presumed
to be essentially different.... [Therefore, r]ace still matters in the world today because the
contradictory realities of racism are being reproduced in the disjunctures of the late
twentieth-century world.

--Faye Harrison (1995:65)

Introduction to "Race" in Japan

Race remains an important site of inquiry for social scientists and educators who are

interested in effecting social change toward a more equitable global society. The introductory

ob servations from two anthropologi sts-though separated by almost fifty years--attend to an

analytic crisis that was also fervently engaged by Franz Boas earlier in the 20th century (Boas

1906, 1911; Trouillot 2003; Willis 1974). As a large part of earth' s population still believes in

the myth of race that was constructed long ago (cf., Foucault 1970; Mudimbe 1988; Pratt 1992;

Smedley 1993; Trouillot 2003), there is a great amount of educational and documentary work

that needs to be done in order to eradicate outmoded notions that perpetuate divisions of power

and subsequent social subordination. Documenting and analyzing efforts against race that

simultaneously use race--as called for by Cedric Dover and Faye Harrison--marks an important

trend in activist scholarship. The relationship between Hiphop and race is not outside of this

research agenda. Though fairly divided in their theoretical frames, a number of scholars of

anthropology, cultural studies, and linguistics have studied the significance ofHiphop in regard









to its participants' efforts to dismantle global racialization (Dimitriadis 2001; Forman 2002;

Gilroy 1993a, 1993b, 2000; Kelley 1997; Keyes 2002; Kitwana 2005; Morgan 1998, 2001, 2002,

forthcoming; Potter 1995; Prevos 2001; Urla 2001). However, the significance of these efforts

has not been studied among nonblack populations outside of the United States. In studies

regarding nonblack Hiphop communities outside of the United States, the concepts of race and

racialization have largely been evaded in preference of privileging analyses that focus on the

interface of economics, US hegemony, and globalization (e.g., Condry 1999; Mitchell 1998,

2001). Such studies are incomplete without overt and detailed attention to the historical situation

of race and racialization, and they do a disservice to the social science of Hiphop, which as many

scholars have noted, seeks to disrupt racism as it currently exists around the globe (cf., Chang

2005; Kitwana 2002; Urla 2001).

When specifically addressing race in regard to Japan, analyses become more complex as

Japan represents a site of inquiry that has multi-layered racializing and colonizing histories when

analyzed in a global context. As John G. Russell (1991a, 1991b), Nina Cornyetz (1994), John

Davis (2000), and Yasuko Takezawa (2006) contend, analyses regarding race and racialization,

especially racialization in popular culture, are long overdue in Japanese studies. Russell (1991b)

documents racist stereotyping of blackened images presented in Japanese mass culture; Cornyetz

(1994) problematizes what she perceives to be the fetishization of blackness among Japanese

Hiphop aficionados; Davis (2000) studies the racialization of ethnic minorities in Japan; and

Takezawa (2006) theorizes about origins of race theories in Japan. In much of the remaining

literature there is little social scientific attention paid to the specific ways in which race and

racialization become realized through the daily practices of people living in Japan and by the

Japanese state.









What makes Japan a complex case in regard to studies of race is that it is a country

predominantly comprising people who were once designated as a "yellow" or "Mongoloid" race

by raciologistsl (e.g., Bigland 1816; Blumenbach 1795; Coon 1981 [1950]; US FBI papers

surveilling Takahashi Satohata under the direction of J. Edgar Hoover; Hooten 1946; Linnaeus

1735).2 Gerald Horne documents how Japanese people were further situated as such after WWII

in the peace treaty (2002). He explains this within a context of Japanese people being marked as

people of color, as there was no reference to race in the peace treaty negotiated with Germany.

Horne remarks that Japanese people were specifically punished for believing their race to be

superior to "the white race" (Horne 2002:37; see also Dower 1986). John Dower (1986, 1999)

and Mark Gallachio (2000) also document further racialism3 toward Japanese people from the

US government during WWII. FBI papers documenting US government surveillance of

solidarity movements between African Americans and Japanese nationals also mark such

racialization (cf., Allen 1994). Other scholars have continued to document current acts of

racialization of Asians from Western sources (cf., Befu et al. 2000; Cho 1993; Dover 1947;

Dower 1986; Harrison 1995; Kim 1993; Kondo 1997; Lie 2001; Okihiro 2006; Ong 1996;

Widener 2003).

An example of a virulent racist act, aimed at the racialization of Japanese people, was the

killing of Vincent Chin, a Chinese American murdered by white men in Michigan, who mistook


1 Gilroy defines raciology as "the lore that brings the virtual realities of 'race' to dismal and
destructive life" (2000: 11).

2 For an anthology of similar descriptions see Augstein (1996).

3 As in Cedric Dover' s usage (1947) referenced, racialism is a synonym for racism in that is a
British variant on the term. However, racialism also differs from racism as a term in that is also
holds a connotation of racial considerations that are based on policy, legislation or another
structural formulation of racism. "Racism" as a term is generally used throughout this text;
however, I use "racialism" twice when describing two specific instances of historic racialization
in government policy, following Dover.









Mr. Chin for a Japanese person, and hence representative of the threat of Japanese automobile

businesses to American automobile business interests (Choy and Tajima 1989; Kim 1993). Even

today, Japanese Hiphop artists can recall similar threats and racializing speech acts targeted

toward them during their tenure in the United States. For example, two different Japanese

Hiphop cultural workers recall trying out for commercials while living in Los Angeles and

hearing those in charge of selecting actresses and actors telling everyone who is not blonde

haired and blue-eyed to go home.

Obj ect 3-1 Map of Japan

To further complicate racialism in a global context, recall that Japan has a complex

colonial history in that it is a former colonizer (of parts of China, Korea, and Indonesia, for

example)--with (depending on whose perspective one is sympathetic towards--Islanders or

Mainlanders) psuedo-colonial relationships with islands that are now incorporated into its

national territory, such as the Ryukyu Islands, or Okinawa (see Figure 3-1). The nation has also

experienced periods of occupation in the distant past (e.g., with China) as well as more recently

with the United States. This physical occupation coupled with questionable (white) Western

over-representation in popular media is seen to some as a "pseudo-neo-colonial" relationship

with the West (Fischer and White 2002; Life 2004). Finally, any discussion of Japanese culture

should acknowledge the rise of social science literature regarding Nihonjinron (Japanese

"uniqueness" theory), a discourse purporting a pure and unchanging Japanese culture, which was

utilized by the state to legitimize and justify the regulation of power relations (cf., Herzfeld

1997; Weber 1968). In response, scholars (Befu 2001; Dale 1986; Goodman 1990; Lie 2001;

Ryang 2004) have critiqued assumptions that Japan is composed of a socially and culturally

homogenous people. In addition, there are NGOs such as IMADR-JC (International Movement

Against Discrimination and Racism--Japan Committee) and the Buraku Liberation League that









monitor ICERD (the United Nations' International Convention on the Elimination of Racism and

Discrimination) enforcement in Japan (Yamanaka 2002, for an example and more discussion)

and publish literature that documents racialization and discrimination (e.g., IMADR 2003;

Buraku Kaiho Kenkyusho 1994; see Davis 2000 for more discussion in English).

Negroid and Mongoloid: Race as Shared Experience

Just as scholars such as Edward Said (1979) have written about the creation of the Orient

in the European imagination, scholars such as V. Y. Mudimbe (1988) have written in a similar

manner (elucidating genealogies of knowledge) about the invention of Africa in the Western

imaginary. Likewise, the same raciologists who invented the fixed Mongoloid category also

invented the static Negroid conception (e.g., Bigland 1816; Blumenbach 1795; Coon 1981

[1950]; Hooten 1946; Linnaeus 1735). Countless scholars have documented the effects of

racialization and colonization as well as trans-Atlantic slavery and legacies of apartheid. 4 Some

scholars' have considered the significance of studying the intersection of the African and Asian

racialization over time. In an effort to differentiate and celebrate African and Asian peoples

against European peoples, some of these studies have reified notions of race and essentialized

difference (e.g., Rashidi and Van Sertima 1987; Smythe 1953). Some of these studies seek to

raise awareness of some Japanese peoples' ideations that reify Western constructions of black

races (e.g., Cornyetz 1994; Russell 1991a, 1991b; Yamashita 1996; J. Wood 1997). Some studies


4 See, for example, Brown 2000; Dover 1947; Drake 1980, 1981, 1990; Du Bois 1990 [1903];
Fanon 1967; Fikes 2002; Foucault 1970; Gilroy 1993a, 1993b, 2000; Gregory 1993; Harrison
1995, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007; Mbembe 2002; Mercer 1994, 1996; Mudimbe 1988; Pratt
1992; Smedley 1993; Stoler 1996, 2002; Hamilton 1995; Willis 1969, 1971; Wright 1956.

SSee, for example, Aoki 1997; Cho 1993; Cornyetz 1994; Dover 1947; Du Bois 1903; Field
1991; Fujino 1997; Hellwig 1977; Honda 1993;Horne 2002; Hughes 2003; Kearney 1998;
Kelsky 1994;Kim 1993; Kochiyama 1997; Kondo 1997; Koshiro 2003; Life 1995; Nakazawa
1998; Ogbar 2001; Okihiro 2006; Russell 1991; Sertima 1985; Sterling 2003; Smythe 1953; J.
Wood 1997; Yamashita 1996; Yoshida 1979 [1967].









problematize inter-racial relationships that seem to be situated around Western constructions of

racial stereotypes--of both African-descendants and Asians (e.g., Kelsky 2001); others seek to

unproblematize interracial relationships, while documenting the problem of racialization along

the lines of Western constructions of race for children who are born of interracial relationships

(e.g., Life 1995).

Other studies attempt to focus on the promise of political solidarity and transcendence of

subordinating raciology by documenting various political alliances between Japanese nationals,

Japanese Americans and African-descendants in the United States against white supremacy over

time (Allen 1944; Dover 1947; Dower 1986; Du Bois 1990 [1903]; Fujino 1997; Horne 2002;

Koshiro 2003; Nakazawa 1998; Ogbar 2001; Smythe 1953; Yoshida 1979 [1967]). Moreover,

there are other studies problematizing black-white binaries that serve to perpetuate white

supremacy by dividing potential political allies who are racially marked in America (Aoki 1997;

Cho 1993; Dover 1947; Dower 1986; Hellwig 1977; Kim 1993; Kondo 1997). Finally, there are

scholars who study popular culture as a way of gaining insight regarding processes of

destabilizing racialization and raising critical cultural awareness (Atkins 2000, 2001; Kondo

1990, 1997; Sterling 2003).

Examples of Racialization of Japanese People in US Print Media

The following images were collected by John Dower and can be found in his book War

0I ithout M2ercy (1986:185, 187; see also Dower 1993). The links provided (Objects 3-2, 3-3 and

3 -4) below are adapted from http ://w00.mmiddlebury. edu/IDO85A/film/gallery2.html The caption

to Obj ect 3-2 reads: "Cartoonist unidentified. British cartoon reprinted in a mid-1923 issue of the

New York Times Magazine."

Obj ect 3-2 Japanese people as "brutal," "savage," and not human










The caption to Obj ect 3-3 reads: "Cartoonist unidentified. Cartoon in the April 1943 New York

Times, captioned 'Let the punishment fit the crime' (a quote from Gilbert and Sullivan's The

M~ikado)kk~~~~~kkkkk~~~~ in response to the execution of captured American fliers."


Obj ect 3-3 Japanese people as "apes" or "savages" in need of "civilizing"

The caption to Obj ect 3-4 reads: "Cartoonist unidentified. Cartoon in the U. S. Marine monthly

Leatherneck from March 1945."

Obj ect 3-4 Japanese people as not human and akin to lice

All of these images situate Japanese people as a unitary, Eixed subj ect that is not only violent and

dangerous, but also savage and not human. The imagery and language that associates the

Japanese soldiers as apes is interestingly similar to imagery that was used to racialize African-

descendants in historical as well as modern popular media. The image of the lice character with

large front "buck" teeth is similar to racialization of other Asian nationals, such as Chinese

nationals, by US popular media. These images are provided as an example of how race can be

constructed as shared experience across categorizations of racial identities. Though "Asians" and

"Blacks/Negroes/Africans" are racialized into different categories by raciologists, the experience

of being homogenized and situated as not human can be similar (e.g., being depicted as an ape).

Thus, these images, a function of nationalist discourse as well as WWII combat strategy, may

help to explain why methods to resist racialization, that is, the use of black popular culture, are

shared and utilized across these constructed boundaries.


Treatments of "Race" and "Racism" in Japanese Studies

There are myriad approaches to the concepts of race and racism in Japanese studies. This

chapter discusses dominant trends regarding race research in Japan that are characterized by: (1)









non-treatments of race that, by avoidance, risk furthering raciologist6 agendas, (2) Nihonjinron

or anti-Nihonjinron literatures and other analyses of nationalist discourses, and (3) critical race

studies. Some of the literatures I examine follow more than one of the aforementioned trends in

their analytic approaches, and I attempt to reveal these intersections in my synthesis. I

characterize the first grouping of literature as studies that do not centrally situate race as an

analytical category for research and criticism (e.g., Allison 1994; Heam 1905; Takao 1992;

Varley 1984; Yoshimi 2000). The second grouping is characterized by complex (offensive-

defensive) subversive strategies of simultaneously problematizing and affirming notions of racial

purity, often without explicit discourse around the topics of race, racialization, and racism (e.g.,

Befu 2001; Creighton 2003; Dale 1986; Lie 2001; Weiner 1997, Yoshino 1992). The critical race

research that I review centrally locates race as an analytical category (e.g., Dower 1986; Kondo

1997; Koshiro 1999; Home 2004; Russell 1991b). These studies distinguish the complicated,

interlocking dynamics of race from other constructions such as citizenship, class, and gender in

research topics ranging from war to fashion in a manner that ultimately fleshes out issues

concerning identity and power. Below, I historically situate these literatures with a short

commentary, outlining maj or events and notable periods from just before the Meij i Restoration

to present times.

On July 8, 1853, under US President Millard Fillmore, Commodore Matthew Perry led

four ships loaded with guns and other artillery on a mission to force trade with Japan, which had

been characterized as having a closed shogun-run government, known as bakufu. Trade with

foreign Western countries, particularly European countries, was forbidden. Though trade with

Asia, namely Korea and China, continued with special governmental permissions, trade with

6 "Raciologist" is the term that Paul Gilroy coins for racist race theorists, particularly those form
the 18th Century (Gilroy 2000).










European nations was confined to a small island off the coast of Nagasaki (Dejima), and then

only with a few Dutch merchants. This trade was supposedly characterized by strong bakufu

control, as the merchants were entertained and interrogated by the shogunate once a year, signs

of settling were reversed and all academic studies of the Dutch closely monitored. This closed

government is often reported as the result of governmental fear of colonization by a European

nation, as was occurring in many Asian national neighbors (cf., the Philippines, Macao).

In 1603, the bakufu expelled European missionaries and foreign traders, and the

government forbade native peoples to leave the country. All contact with foreigners was

monitored and a sort of panopticism took effect (Befu 2000; Cullen 2003). Furthermore,

academic studies of foreign peoples and lands were taken up for strategic purposes. It is argued

that the threat of colonization by Europeans, coupled with information concerning early race

theories from Europe (i.e., Mongoloid, Negroid, Caucasoid, Wild Man and Monstroid

distinction; see Augstein 1996) influenced the manner in which the Meiji period government

"remade" Japan in a conceptually "western" national image (cf., Dower 1993). This marks a

transition in the ways that race was documented. That is, prior to this period there were folk

theories of peoples, native and nonnative, but the emergence of three maj or races, and their

hierarchical assignments, develops in literatures that emerge alongside or against the threat of

colonization. For example, Lafciado Hearn documents folk theories of whiteness as threatening

barbarism (Hearn 1905; Lie 2001). Likewise, John Dower observes that white Westerners were

conceived as devils in different ways. He writes:

"Devilish Anglo-Americans" (kichiku Ei-Bei) was the most familiar epithet for the white
foe. In graphic arts the most common depiction of Americans or British was a horned
Roosevelt or Churchill, drawn exactly like the demons (oni, akuma) found in Japanese
folklore and folk religion. As a metaphor for dehumanization, the demonic white man was
the counterpart of the Japanese monkeyman in Western thinking, but the parallel was by no









means exact.....Not all demons had to be killed; indeed, some could be won over and
turned from menaces to guardians. [Dower 1993:275]

Dower continues to explain that the image of devils as well as blue-eyed barbarians from across

the sea, threatening societal well-being linked with earlier conceptions of race concerning

whiteness, and an essentialized notion of "Yamato-race" was invoked "from the Heavens" to

fight for the eternal peace of the world (Dower 1993:276). These ideas were supported by state-

led research, the construction of cultural aesthetics, and manipulations of spiritualities (namely

the state-sponsored Shinto religion) with a little help from the West, in the form of German

raciologist Karl Haushofer' s theories (Dower 1993:278).

State-regulated identity in Japan is very much influenced by European imperialist

inventions of race that, according to Japanese historians and state documents, were

communicated to government officials by at least the 17th century (Koshiro 2003). Some

scholars write that missionaries brought with them the threat of colonization by European

countries as early as the 16th century (cf., Befu 2000). Other scholars have produced testimonies

and survey results that suggest that members of Japanese society conceptualize race in a way that

is homologous to the notorious theories of three races (Augstein 1996) that evolved along with

the need to industrialize and colonize (cf., Honda 1993; Koshiro 2003; Lie 2001). Therefore, one

might assume that race in Japan is popularly understood through the lens of Western conventions

(i.e., Mongoloid, Negroid, Caucasoid), with few discursive variations.

Ethnicity is a different matter, and it seems to be constructed by the state's historically

strategic alienation, isolation, and differentiation of particular groups of people for particular

political purposes. Certain ethnic groups are at times considered to be a part of Japanese society

and at other times their existence is completely ignored or denied by the Japanese state. For

example, Korean identities have ranged from being ostensibly racially disparate from Japanese to









being genetically similar "cousins" to Yamato "purity" in times when Korean labor was needed

for development during conspicuous colonization of Korea by Japan. Such fluctuations in

nationalist discourse occur at varying moments in Japanese history, and they are usually linked

to a national agenda regarding colonial policy and political expansion or seclusion. These ethnic

groupings will be discussed along with race in my research, because it has been argued that

ethnic groups are racialized in Japan (Befu 2000; Davis 2000; Dower 1993; Honda 1993;

Koshiro 1999; Lie 2001), and my research consultants who self-identify as being part of these

groups report their life experiences in racialized terms and use race metaphors.

Some scholars write that Japan's racial and ethnic groups were identified by the

government at different periods in history for the purpose of increasing legitimacy and efficacy

of citizen control (Dower 1993; Koshiro 2003; Horne 2004). In modern times, the people

identified as ethnic or "different" from "normal" Japanese citizens are ascribed as such in a

similar manner to other former colonized peoples living in a country where their (former)

colonizer is in power. For example, identity papers were not only utilized for non-whites in

South Africa and the United States, but also for those identified as "non-Japanese" Japanese

citizens in Japan (Lee 1994).7 Investigating how traditional Western (particularly US-based)

Japanese studies have eschewed race issues in research, exploring official national discourses on

race, i.e., Nihonjinshugi and Nihonjinron, as well as reviewing scholarship that deciphers these

national discourses' complicated connections to colonization, citizenship and socio-economic

class uncovers the multilayered narratives of subj section according to ascriptions of race and

racialized ethnicity.




SResearch consultant Pioneer 5 speaks in detail about his experiences with identity papers in
Chapter Four.









The studies that elide race through discourse that privileges nationality, religion, ideology,

and gender seem to describe hierarchically situated difference in a manner that naturalizes power

or in a way that takes social constructions of history for granted. In these studies, aberrations to

norms are invisible or footnotes to other analyses. The general idea was that Japanese "Others"

or "non-Japanese" Japanese people constituted such a minority that analysis of their experience

would be unsustainable with data (cf., Plath and Smith 1992). In some cases euphemisms such as

"ethnicity," "caste," "immigrant," or "social deviant" are evoked in these evasions of racializing

inter-state and intra-state identity regulation processes (cf., Plath and Smith 1992; Allison 1994;

Condry 1999). David Plath (Plath and Smith 1992) prides himself on his sensitivity to diversity

issues as he insisted on briefly mentioning the Burakmin in a documentary film for which he

was a consultant. In many of these cases, the existence of "non-Japanese" Japanese are briefly

mentioned in a page or two that critiques essentialism and often personal reactions to experiences

of perceived xenophobia, then discussions of diversity are forgone in an effort to (perhaps

unwittingly) homogenize one's field site or cultural topic through the unmentioning of

difference, except as it exists between the reporter and her or his unitary subj ect.

The general tone of these studies contributes to a fixed Japanese culture. Comments like

"the Japanese seek beauty in nature not in what is enduring or permanent, but in the fragile, the

fleeting, and the perishable. Above all, their feelings about nature have from earliest times been

absorbed by the changes brought by seasons," by Paul Varley (1984:43) reify singular nationalist

identities without explicitly identifying with nationalist (Nihonjinron--anti -Nihonjinron)

discourse (see also Kondo' s critique of ethnographers' use of "the Japanese" 1990:46). Indeed,

Varley's text evades all discussions concerning the controversial topic, preferring instead to

focus on a construction of a pre-modern "modern" Japanese cultural aesthetic that privileges









international stereotypes like chan2oyu (tea ceremony), ikebana (flower arranging), and haiku

(poetry). Varley's text is considered part of the canon, at least in Japanese studies at American

universities, as it is usually required reading for introductory classes. Thus, without mentioning

racial world orders, or even orientalisms, scholars are free to perpetuate culturally political,

racially imbued notions by not attending to these very subj ects.

Some scholars (Allison 1994; Condry 1999; Yoshimi 2000) critique nationalist discourses,

policies, and practices regarding homogeneity, but they do not directly report on issues of race

and ethnicity in their ethnography and, therefore, their reportage, though theoretically useful

(e.g., Allison' s 1994 Lacanian analysis of the construction of gender in hostess clubs), seems to

take for granted the idea of Japan as a homogenous society or as a realistic and viable norm. For

example, when I have come into contact with nonnative Japanese ethnographers, I am often

asked how I am able to do fieldwork in Japan, since "Japan is racist."s In defense of this

generalization, people cite the racist statements fTOm Prime Minister Nakasone or the

Congressional Black Caucus's activism following similar racist comments from a number of

state officials in the 1990s. Outside of identifications that position Japanese people in opposition






SI now have a witty soundbite or response from Chuck D that is on par with Erving Goffman's
observation (1963:136) regarding society and spoiled identities, which is, "Somebody says Japan
is racist? That' s like saying Africa is backward. You gotta consider the source" (Chuck D,
Interview 9/2003).

9 For example, on September 21, 1990, Mr. Kajiyama made the following declaration after
visiting a district in Tokyo mainly populated by Japanese sex workers: "It is like a bad currency
driving out a good currency...It is like in America when neighborhoods become mixed because
blacks move in and whites are forced out....they ruin the neighborhood in the same way."
(Russell 1992:230-231). During a speech in 1986, Mr. Nakasone remarked, "in America, there
are many blacks, Puerto Ricans and Mexicans, and on average America' s level (of intelligence)
is still extremely low" (Ivy 1989:22).









to foreigners--and black people in particularlo-"othernesses" inside Japan seem invisible to

some researchers (aside from a "shout out" here and there). This could be because many

racialized bodies in Japan "pass" (cf., Butler 1993; Mufioz 1999), obscure, or hide their state-

regulated identities (Lie 2001). However, like Paul Varley (1984), the language of reportage

appears fixed and thus, it undermines the few critiques within the texts that attend to the "myths"

of Japanese racial purity. Japan, as a singular geopolitical entity (Kondo 1997), was the Other in

question, what Harumi Befu (1992) calls Japonica Exotica, the intellectual explorer' s final

frontier, and homogenizing its state-served Western imperial efforts in a specific Cold War era.

Perhaps by identifying other "Others" within the Other, the Other ceases to exist--as it can no

longer be homogenized and fixed into being. The construction and perpetuation of a unified

Other serves particular political purposes that benefit a global economy built on exploitation.

Despite the multiple claims from official representatives of the Japanese state as well as

various scholars who specialize in Japanese studies and even some of the cultural workers cited

in later chapters, Japan does not constitute a "monoethnic" or "homogenous" society. Like most

former colonies and colonizers, the state is quite diverse, marked with cultural, economic,

geopolitical, sexual, and socially constructed racial differences that are situated in an explicit,

though not always "official," hierarchical manner. Some scholars attempt to substantiate their

claims for Japan's quintessential monolithic society by pointing to fixed tropes such as "the

salaryman" (=sarariman) image promoted in popular media or highlighting the pre-Meiji sakoku~~~~sssss~~~~ssss

(closed government) policy (Reischauer 1989), while others maintain that the construction of

Japan as a homogenous society is a 20th century phenomenon (Dower 1993; Honda 1993; Lie

2001; Weiner 1997). The latter perspective posits that narratives of homogeneity were

1o This premise assumes, for example, that there are not 'black' (UN-defined African-
descendant) Japanese citizens, for that matter.









constructed to serve the nation-building efforts and to address the state-identity crisis that ensued

after the people of Japan survived two atomic bomb attacks (=near genocide?), a confusing post-

WWII war crimes trial, governmental restructuring, and US occupation (Dower 1999; Lie 2001).

While there were official policies in place to assimilate diverse interests into one dominant

perspective that particularly supported the welfare and state leadership of a dominant group--the

so-called Yamato clan-this was done in an effort to build a unified nation during the Tokugawa

era as well as to build an empire during the Meiji Restoration (cf., Anderson 1991). Despite an

official "closed government" (=sakoku)~sss~~~sss~~~sss policy during the Tokugawa era, the ruling class

engaged in active trade with neighboring nations such as Taiwan, Ryukyu, et cetera (Lie 2001).

Because of strict hierarchic social class strata and regional variety, linguistic and cultural

diversity abounded and difference was interpreted through an imported lens of race (Koshiro

2003:203-204) for the purpose of legitimizing control. European theorists' ideas of purity and

national identity were translated through discursive turns that excavated "ancient" texts that told

Japan's national genealogy through poetry and prose (cf., the Kojiki 712 AD and Nihonshiki 720

AD). Most notable is the story of the sun goddess, Amaterasu, from whom the imperial family is

purportedly descended. By rallying unity around nostalgic entertainment (cf., waka, tanka, and

haiku) we see the conjunction of constructed cultural aesthetics, domestic citizen control, and

colonial expansionist efforts. "1

The pre-World War version of this discourse is termed Nihonshugi, and the highly

performative "rebirth" of the Emperor Matsuhito and the re-centering of Shinto (as opposed to

Buddhism) as an almost singular nationalist religion emerges to support this ideology (Lie 2001).


"1 I found it noteworthy that discourse utilized by the Japanese government for citizen control,
raciology, and colonial pursuits is the same discourse introduced as "authentic" Japan in
introductory undergraduate Japanese studies texts (c.f., Varley 1984).









The later version of constructed cultural aestheticism to partner with nationalist discourse in a

post WWII era, Nihonjinron, can be observed in the novels of Junichiro Tanizaki (e.g., In Praise

of Main y, l \ and Yukio Mishima (e.g., M~ediocrity). The proletarian women' s journal Seito was

constructed during the Taisho period in an effort to voice dissent to nationalizing efforts that

seemed to be premised on the subjugation of Asian neighbors via invasion and occupation

(Tanaka 1987). According to Harumi Befu' s view of this history:

As soon as Japan began to acquire colonies--Taiwan in the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-95,
Sakhalin Island as a result of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905, and Korea in 1905
through a rather dubious treaty--these colonies began to be peopled by the
Japanese... .Japanese dispersal also took place in areas occupied by the Japanese army,
including Manchuria, where they established a puppet government, coastal China, and
insular and continental Southeast Asia. Some went as farmers, as in Manchuria, recruited
from eastern and northern Japan through the enticement of the Japanese government, only
to be betrayed and to suffer unimaginable hardship at the end of the War [WWII]. By
1945, millions of Japanese were residing over a vast expanse of Asia. Even the coastal
cities of Siberia had Japanese communities with thousands of residents... .Resource-poor
Japan felt that it needed to secure territories rich in resources in order for its own
capitalism to flourish. [2000:23-24]

It should be noted that this capitalist, colonial expansion and occupation spanned to the Malay

Peninsula, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam (Befu 2000). In times of intense

colonial pursuits, national discourse was ambivalent toward notions of homogeneity in that

multi-nationalism in the spirit of nationalist "empire-building" was considered for the good of

the people of Japan. The Japanese government at these times also boasted ethnic diversity and

increased efforts to incorporate "racial others" under its state control through active colonization

of Korea, Taiwan, Manchuria, Ezoku (now Hokkaido, the northern most island in the Japanese

archipelago), and Ryukyu Islands (namely Okinawa) during the Meiji Restoration (Dower 1986).

For example, the state identification that once dehumanized Koreans switched to an idea that the

two nationalities "were not so different after all" (the lore was that long ago they were descended

from the same bloodline). This was done through market-driven policy based on labor shortages









and the need for the exchange of bodies across Korean and Japanese borders (Lie 2001). 12 At

this time, the official nationalizing discourse not only situated Japan as the superior leader of its

Asian "siblings" (e.g., the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere), but it also secured Japan as playing

an active role in "dismantling white supremacy" by uniting the "darker races" of the world

(Allen 1994; Dower 1986, 1993; Gallachio 2000; Horne 2002, 2004; Koshiro 1999, 2003; Lie

2001).

Such nationalizing discourse uses imported notions of race from the West to

simultaneously legitimize imperial control of neighboring Asian nations as well as to stave off

impending imperial control from the United States and other European nations (Dower 1993,

Horne 2004). Researching and cataloging information on other colonized peoples of the world in

research documents such as An Investigation of Global Policy 0I ith YamYYYYYYYY~~~~~~~~~ato Race as Nucleus was

part of this project (Dower 1986, 1993). Therefore, the national discourse not only challenged

the stasis of the Western construction of yellownesss," but it also sought to displace other color

stratifications on the racial hierarchy (including "other Asians" and "Negroes"), all the while

reproducing the supremacy of "whiteness" as "not-quite whiteness" as the goal (Kondo 1997).

Thus, the nationalizing discourse seems to allude to a sort of conscious and not-so-conscious

conversation between the Japan and Western imperial nations. That is, the rhetoric regarding

race in Japan was clearly marked at specific moments in time in reaction to interaction with the

West, and it continues to echo aspects of this highly racialized relationship in current times.

As a result of colonial pursuits, US-occupation, Western European buyouts of maj or

companies, and increased immigrant labor due to increases in labor shortages, the Japanese

12 This sentiment is almost identical to the American government' s ambivalence regarding
Japanese during occupation. As Dower succinctly outlines the changing Japanese national
discourse toward Korean identity, Japanese people went from "yellow peril" and "monkey men"
to "little misbehaving brothers" in need of guidance and control (Dower 1999: 185).









government has very recently (2003) moved to identify more national "minorities"--who are

discussed by many scholars via ethnicity or class though these people live a very racialized

experience (Davis 2000; Honda 1993; Lie 2001). The government identifies Chinese, Korean,

Nikkei specificallyy, Japanese Peruvians or Japanese Brazilians), Burakumin, Filipinos,

Okinawans, and Ainu (Kashiwazaki 2002; Linger 2001; Tsuda 2003; Weiner 1997). According

to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in 2000, approximately 1,686,444 foreigners resided in Japan.

This means that 2% of the population of Japan was "foreigner" (see Figure 3-5 at the end of this

chapter). This does not include numbers of Japanese people who do not enj oy full citizenship

rights (e.g., Buraku Japanese, Chinese Japanese, Korean Japanese, Ainu Japanese,

Okinawan/Ryukyuan Japanese, etc.). 13 Though recently legally secured, those who enforce the

law are slow to respond (see Pioneer 5's story in the next chapter). However, activists who Eight

against racial discrimination in Japan have been innovative in securing rights for those who

reside in Japan' s counterpublic sphere. The recent triumph of the law suit Hiled by Brazilian

journalist and legal resident of Japan, Ana Bortz, regarding ethnic discrimination based on the

United Nations' ICERD 14 declaration that Japan signed in 1995, presents much promise for the

future of educational and social equity for racialized peoples in Japan (Yamanaka 2002). This

case demonstrates that people may not have to rely solely on the Japanese government for

change. 1



13 The use of "Japanese" as part of a compound word with these ethnic identifications (e.g.,
Korean Japanese) is contested. In general, younger people (under 19 years of age in 2007) I have
worked with refer to themselves using ethnic identifications with and without "Japanese" tacked
on the end. My age mates and older who do not "pass" tend not to attach "Japanese."

14 (International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination)
15 Article 14 of the Japanese Constitution states a premise similar to ICERD, "All of the people
are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic, or social
relations because of race, creed, sex, social status, or family origin" (quoted in Koshiro









John Lie (2001) regards Japanese categorizations of people as Japanese people (Nihonjin)

and foreign people (gaijin). He differentiates Japanese racialized thinking from his understanding

of Western racialized thinking in that "everyone is some sort of jin [=people]" (2001:145), but he

also notes that this premise is not always repeated in practice by the Japanese state, by not

allowing citizenship, not guaranteeing full civil rights in areas such as law and education, nor

recognizing historical relationships. Not all citizens are linguistically marked as jin in Japanese

(e.g., Ainu, Okinaw/a no hito, Burakumin), and they are therefore not really conceptualized as

some sort of jin, perhaps because they are considered a lesser part of the greater Japanese race.

Lie cites racial thinking collected from his sociological surveys that echo raciological premises:

Blacks (kokujin) are distinguished from Americans because Amerikajin are taken to be
white. Although many people are aware that blacks in Japan are often African Americans,
the dominant ethnoracial classification consigns them to a different category of
peoplehood. The same confusion occurs at times for Jewish Americans, who are often
referred to as yudayayin (Jews). Some Japanese divide the world into three maj or races
white (hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhakzin), black (kokujin) and yellow (ooshokujin), but they are often not very
consistent in applying this racial scheme. Although they may be comfortable about
dividing foreigners into these three races, they are reluctant to cast Japanese people into
any of them. [2001:147]

Indeed, John G. Russell not only emphasizes a similar lack of serious racial critique in Japanese

Studies, but he also catalogues the correspondence between governmental officials and civil

rights activists who protested such comments by these Japanese governmental officials (Russell

1991a, 1991b). Though most likely for propagandist efforts, this has not always been the case in

historical narratives. Indeed, scholars note how state-regulated discourses have also represented

victimized national identities (e.g., after denial of the racial equality proposal by the League of


1999: 106). However, like similar laws in the United States that posit human equality, Article 14
is routinely ignored and not practiced, thus the experiences of discrimination described in this
research proj ect.









Nations, in the Hiroshima aftermath, etc.; see Dower 1993; Koshiro 2003; lida 2002; Shimazu

1998). Naoko Shimazu comments:

Prime Minister Hara, who came into power in September 1918, was determined that Japan
should adopt a pro-Western (obei k~yocho) foreign policy at the forthcoming peace
conference. This was due to the fact that the previous wartime governments under Prime
Ministers Okuma and Terauchi had followed expansionist policies, which had the effect of
alienating Japan from the United States and Britain. In order to steer Japan back to the
West, Hara was determined to support the creation of the League of Nations at the peace
conference in spite of the not insignificant degree of skepticism expressed towards it
domestically....In light of the situation, it can be reasonably constructed that the racial
equality proposal had the role of appeasing these opponents by making Japan's acceptance
of the League conditional on having a racial equality clause inserted into the covenant of
the League. [1998:38-39]

Yukiko Koshiro (1999, 2003) is confident that not all of Japan' s international moves for racial

equality and solidarity are without substance, and she echoes modem sentiments concerning

globalization-from-below. Regarding coalitions for movement building, she cites transnational

Marxist movements, and critiques the subversion of these literatures, which document such

movement-building processes, by pro-capitalist governments, like the US State Department. For

example, consider the near erasure of E.H. Norman' s oeuvre in Japanese studies. With the

exception of a few anthologies (e.g., Bowen 1987; Dower 1975) and websites (e.g., University of

Victoria E. H. Norman Digital Archive http://web.uvic. ca/ehnorman/index.html) dedicated to

excavating Norman' s scholastic and diplomatic contributions, Norman was generally reduced to

a discussion of his politics, exile, and eventual suicide (1957), which was attributed to stress he

was under after seven years of being targeted by McCarthyism--he was accused of being

communist and a spy (cf., Harootunian 1988; Plath and Smith 1992). While more information

concerning Norman's scholarship is available for students of Japanese studies in more recent

years, the trend to emphasize pro-capitalist political economic studies of Japan over alternative

views--be they through academic funding or frequent appearances on syllabi--still prevails.

Koshiro (1999, 2003) considers whether some of the absence of reports and literature concerning










Japanese national and African-American solidarity movement building could be due to the anti-

capitalist sentiments of the organizers and spokespeople involved. Indeed, during many

interviews with Japanese national activists from salient social movements in Japan (such as the

peace movement and Ryukyu/Okinawa anti-base social movements), I asked where I can find

literature to cite that tells their stories, and most replied that there wasn't any or that they don't

exist yet (=nai). One commented that one could receive social and economic discrimination from

writing about such topics because they often coincide with other anti-capitalist movements of the

time (the 1960s and 1970s). An exception to these reports is the Burakamin social movement

which has published a lot of literature documenting their discrimination and movement building

processes (cf., Buraku Liberation Research Institute 1994). Many of activists who cut their

political teeth in the 1960s and 1970s in various student- and other social movements said that

they were inspired to build social movements in Japan that were in solidarity with their

understanding of pre-existing black social movements in the Americas, specifically the US.

Many state that they were inspired not only by narratives regarding enslaved African revolts, but

also the work and rhetoric of groups like the Black Panther Party. A few elder activists that I

interviewed remembered reading about African-American leaders ranging from Elij ah

Muhammad to W. E. B. Du Bois, and they expressed a shared experience of "tyranny from the

US" as well as promises of success securing social equality if Japanese nationals and African

Americans were to "organize together politically." Regarding this imagined promise of African-

American and Japanese national solidarity, Koshiro states the following:

In 1923, critic Akamatsu Katsumaro predicted in Kaizo [Reconstruction], Japan's leading
intellectual journal, that African Americans would eventually help overthrow Japan's Pan-
Asianism as part of their racial-proletarian movement. Nationalistic struggles in the
contemporary world were by nature racial, he argued. Because Japan's Pan-Asianism was
a mere disguise for Japan' s dogma of its own racial supremacy, he claimed, it was time for
Asia to wage its true racial fight--one both anti-imperial and proletarian. To do so,









according to Akamatsu, the alliance with African Americans was indispensable.
[2003:192]

Due to recent publications by historians such as John Dower (1999), Gerald Home (2004)

and Yukiko Koshiro (2003), more critical race research and information is reaching a broader

academic audience. Social scientists are also critiquing the aforementioned trend to promote

English-centered and economic-based studies of Japan, that often do not take into account the

intricate ways that race works across geopolitical and linguistic boundaries. Citing trends toward

English-centered, capitalist-biased, race-evaded research dominance in Japanese studies, Susan

Klein offers the following advice concerning scholars' "overcoming the traditional Eurocentrist

perspective" in the field. She writes:

Since its encounter with the West, Japan has tended to be viewed as "alien," "exotic," or
just "different." The same biased attitude has been common in studies of Japan' s foreign
policy. So far there are only very few Western studies of Japan' s international role that
have based their observations and conclusions on material written by Japanese in the
Japanese language and have dealt with how the Japanese perceive their country's
international position and role. [2002:178; see also Williams 199]

I would add that with the exception of a few scholars (Kondo 1997), much of the ethnographic

work in English concerning Japan does not seriously or adequately consider race as analytical

category--though issues of orientalism, racism, and linguicism (as part of a postcolonial

condition) are present in many of these analyses. The bulk of social science literature regarding

Japan emerged around the World Wars--particularly in the form of national character studies

from scholars in the United States (e.g., Benedict 1946; Gorer 1953). These national character

studies explicitly served government intelligence purposes and have been critiqued for being not

only at times wrongheaded, but also ethnocentric, if not racist (Neiburg and Goldman 1998;

Kelly 1991). It has been argued that these works supported the basic premise of domination in

times of war--especially wars in which racial rhetoric plays an important role (for Japan terms

like "monkey men" are of salience, see Dower 1999). The core of Japan specialists were trained









during the post-WWII occupation era, and their studies were largely influenced by pro-capitalist

ideologies and evolutionary ideas of culture. Studies that did not fit this trend were marginalized,

as Dower points out in his introduction to E. H. Norman's work (Dower 1975) explaining how

this particular scholar was the target of McCarthyism and his work--which was not necessarily

capitalist-centered-was ignored and almost erased from Japanese studies.

Western research concerning Japan is often divided into two categories, Japanese studies

of the United States, Canada, and Britain, and Japanology of continental Europe (Befu 1992). It

is argued that scholars from non-Westemn countries (e.g., Korea, India, Kenya, Brazil) are often

trained by elite Western-centered institutions in their native countries or they study Japan from

departments abroad (Befu 1992). 16 Japanology is differentiated from Japanese studies in that the

former is considered more philological in frame. The Japanese studies category has been

criticized for having a political economic (and thus, strategic) approach to even the most banal

topics of study (Befu 1992; Williams 1996). Furthermore, the bulk of these studies has been

problematized due to lack of linguistic and cultural knowledge of Hieldworkers to collect

sufficient data that supports proposed paradigms (Befu 1992; Lie 2001). Moreover, how is it

possible to engage in one social construction, i.e., gender or citizenship, without investigating

how this concept intersects with overarching identifications such as race? That is, Japan, fixed as

a geo-political entity in dominant Western imaginaries, is racialized just as it is feminized in the

global world order and in public, policy, and academic discourse: it was "penetrated" by the

West; the "Yellow Peril" is out of control, et cetera. With many of these factors (post-War

conqueror-dominated relationship, lack of linguistic and cultural relevancy, political-economic

bias) affecting the bulk of modem Western scholarship on Japan, it should be no surprise that

16 This has not been my experience, but I suppose I represent a different generation of scholars
than those discussed in such syntheses (cf., Befu 1992).









nationalist discourses of racial, ethnic, and linguistic homogeneity, tropes of Japan as an exotic

"Other," and Japan as "late-developer" or NIC are reproduced manifold in Western treatments of

Japan, even when the authors of such research intend or purport to avoid such subj ects.

From Burakumin to Blackface: The Performance of Race and Promise of Transcendence

Japan's domestic practice concerning racialization has historically been an underreported

phenomenon; however, recent scholarship attends to these issues (Davis 2000; Horne 2004;

Kondo 1997; Koshiro 1999; Lie 2001; Weiner 1997). As mentioned before, underneath the layer

of Japan' s racialization as a geopolitical entity, lies its own domestic racial policy concerning the

construction of alienated groups that range from former colonial subj ects (e.g., Koreans,

Chinese, Ryukyuans, Filipinos, and Ainu people) to historically disenfranchised people (e.g.,

Burakmin) and racially mixed individuals or foreigners (e.g., Japanese-Brazilians, Japanese-

Peruvians, daaxburu individuals [people with multiple ethnoracial heritages], as well as other

Asian- and African-nationals). The current educational debates surrounding Japanese as a

Second Language curriculum for Nikkei and the former unequal treatment of Korean high-school

graduates wishing to take college entrance exams without first taking a high-school equivalency

exam (daiken) are just a few of the social justice issues that reach print media.

The aforementioned alienated groups experience discrimination that ranges from the

structural to the personal. The Korean schools previously mentioned were some of many schools

affected by the Japanese government' s decision to exempt Western non-Japanese schools from

taking a high school equivalency examination (daiken) before taking college entrance

examinations, whereas non-Western (Asian) ethnic minority schools did not enj oy the same

exemption. After much protest, the government extended the exemption to the non-Western ones

as well; however, the media coverage surrounding these events afforded cultural workers and

others the opportunity to learn about gross disparities between ethnic minority schools and other










Japanese public schools as well as the lack of much-needed funding to keep these schools

running and to extend much-needed social welfare programs to their constituents. Furthermore,

there are countless stories of young children and adolescents experiencing persistent harassment

and instances of physical brutality during integrative efforts into Japanese schools or society

from Japanese-citizen schoolmates and other persons in their communities. Some of the people I

have worked with remain scarred, both emotionally and physically, from such egregious and

often unpunished attacks. When discussing my research topic with a fellow activist and agemate

who is of Korean descent yet born in Japan, I was told that although some of the people I work

with who share her heritage may call themselves "Korean-Japanese," she maintains that she is

"Korean" despite being born in Japan. She recounted several instances of abuse she endured

growing up Korean and showed me several scars from wounds that she received as well.

Another popular print media topic concerning race and racism in Japan is the reportage

covering the subcultures of people who alter their bodies through tanning, lip collagen inj sections

and adopting kinky hair styles and the entertainers who actually apply blackface and body make-

up as they perform music or dance associated with African-American culture (usually soul or

gospel). These people, the gan2guro (the former) and blackface performers (the latter), are often

read as not necessarily mocking blackness, but also not fully understanding and respecting black

diasporic experiences, a prerequisite for full participation in authentic or real Hiphop culture,

according to dominant origins narratives. Those who are considered mocking blackness (such as

news anchors or talk show hosts in government-run television from the 1980s and 1990s who

donned blackface), are shunned and described as racists who are common enemies to Japanese

national Hiphop artists. Ganguro subculture and the entertainers who wear blackface do not

receive a uniform response from the cultural workers I interviewed, however. Some artists









described the trends as racist, and others explained that while these subcultural choices do not

appeal to their personal aesthetics, they think that the people who participate in it actually respect

black culture--that ganguro and entertainers' attempts to embody what they perceive as black

culture is indicative of their rej section of white culture. One African-American cultural worker

who lives in Japan described ganguro as follows:

I think its kind of fading away a little bit.... And it' s not even focused toward trying to be
black anymore as much. I mean, they're not even from this planet anymore. They just
like--they got the dark skin, they got like some kind of fluorescent, kind of like, make-up
on, you know the little sparkles or stuff like that....So it's not even so much about them
trying to be black anymore. It's just about them trying to be different. You know? Yeah,
that' s what' s it' s all about. At first, it might have been because they wanted to try to be
black, but now, because Hiphop has grown so much in Japan and that has become a
subculture, in and of itself, they don't want to associate with that, if they're not part of that.
They just wanna have their own thing, so the ganguro have taken it to a new level.

Another resident African-American cultural worker asked why people in the US were very

interested in gan2guro, but were not questioning the persistent presence of white characters in

anime (=cartoons) and manga (=comics). Indeed, it seems that in popular print media in the US,

gan2guro have not been differentiated from the performers who actually don black paint, either on

television or in live entertainment. In addition, the gan2guro phenomenon is discussed in

problematic terms, while the pervasive white images in cartoons are left unmarked and

unproblematized. There are others who are not exactly fully within either subgroup of racist

popular cultural figures performing minstrelsy on television, gan2guro, or the entertainers who

wear blackface. These individuals might wear a hairstyle borrowed from African-American

style, such as locs, afros, or braids, or they may wear certain clothing associated with African-

American style and these individuals are usually described as honoring African-American

culture, trying to be different from dominant Japanese culture, or performing fashion in a

strategic attempt to rej ect whiteness (e.g., wearing braids to protest a popular trend that situates

blond hair as optimal).









While cultural workers whom I have worked with claim to fight against the performance of

blackface, some of them have been loosely affiliated with Hiphop dance groups that at one point

in their careers have donned blackface and performed slowed or slurred Japanese speech, which I

understood to be similar to US representations of "Sambo" and "Stepin Fetchit" among other

negative stereotypes (Russell 1991b). Such affiliations have been difficult to uncover during this

research. While, to my knowledge, no one whom I've ever worked with actually put on

blackface, it seems that certain peoples' crews were affiliated with those who did at least 15

years ago. Recently, I was appalled to find that two Hiphop dancers/choreographers whose crew

is "down" or on positive acquaintance terms with a pioneer' s dance crew that I interviewed were

on Japanese national television in the early 1990s performing Hiphop dance styles with dark

brown makeup on their face and using explicitly slow and slurred Japanese speech, as if they

were Japanese language performances of Step'n Fetchit characters. I had explicitly asked the

pioneer about blackface when we spoke, and he never mentioned any affiliation with this group.

This particular pioneer spoke against such performances, but also explained that not everybody

who did them understood the historical racist implications of what it was that they were doing.

Instead of a hate crime, he said these people viewed themselves as comedic, and they needed to

be taught or reeducated not to do such things. It is disheartening to learn of a possible affiliation

between these groups rather than to be told upfront, but it also seems that these performances are

the source of deep shame and embarrassment. This recent discovery reminds me of when

European American US Hiphop artist Eminem's adolescent recordings of him referring to black

people as "niggers" and black women as "bitches" in a rap were discovered and disseminated by

The Source magazine with commentary from Nikki Giovanni and Bob Law in February 2004. 1



"7 The exact quotes from Eminem are that he had an aversion to "girls" with large behinds









It took so many by surprise because Eminem had stated so many times to the press that he

doesn't use the pej orative "N" word and that he would never use the pej orative "N" word in a

song lyric. Like Eminem, many artists that I worked with rej ect blackface performance and other

disrespectful actions toward black people, so it was surprising to find that someone that I talked

to about it has at least a crew affiliation with people who have performed in this manner in the

past.

Alternatively, this discovery also reminds me of the first rapper I met in 1994 who

absolutely did not condone this form of minstrelsy, and was upfront about the continued

presence of such occurrences on television during my stay that year. This artist recommended

that I read the work of John G. Russell (1991Ib) that discussed this phenomenon. This artist' s

verbal commitment to academic and activist work against this phenomenon (via his reference to

Russell's book and his organization, JAFA-Japan African-American Friends Association)

further helped me to not homogenize all performances of blackness as denigrating African-

descent identities. Nevertheless, while more recent (2006-2007) manifestations of blackface have

occurred among gospel and soul step performers, I can attest that this was part of the practice

among some self-identified Hiphop artists as late as the 1990s.

Blackface and other symbols of minstrelsy on television, consumer products and

advertisement are not the only forms of racism against African Americans in Japan. Honda

Katsuichi comments, "Whether it is a stereotype about blacks or whites, the Japanese people

have been brainwashed by the perspective of the white world" (1993:103). He explains, "When a

white GI gets drunk and makes a scene, the Japanese people say, 'The Gl is getting drunk!' But

because "that' s some nigger shit." He also says the following lines referring to black women:
"black girls only want your money 'cause they're dumb chicks," "black girls and white girls just
don't mix because black girls are dumb and white girls are good shit," and "get straight to the
point, black girls are bitches."









if it is a black GI, they think, 'The black is getting drunk!! '" (1993:102). Though Honda' s own

language tends to homogenize and totalize Japanese people as all being racist, his criticism is

astute in that the racial marking through language that he reveals in his story also abounds in the

US and other parts of the world. Honda shares another narrative to bring home how the

racialization of Koreans in Japan is relational to antiblack racism:

At one time, the white female student was teaching English to office workers in a bank.
Once, she introduced her roommate to one of the male office workers. Confused after
finding out that her roommate was a black woman, he asked the white woman, "How am I
supposed to treat her? Should I treat her like a servant, or should I treat her in the same
way a Japanese would treat a Korean?" In this way, the white student inadvertently found
out that this office worker also harbored extreme racial prejudice against Koreans. [Honda
1993]

Honda published this account in 1971, and there are probably individuals and even government

officials who exist in various countries that share the sentiments of the racist office worker. The

stories presented in Chapters Four and Five serve to offer alternative perspectives than those

generally reported on in the media. There are numerous accounts of self-hate as well as hatred of

"others" recorded in popular media, but stories of solidarity building among racialized "others"

does not seem to be as popular (cf. Bandung). The story of Hiphop is at times a story of

solidarity and social movement-building among racialized "others" or those who are articulating

an opposition to worldwide racism and other forms of injustice (such as classism and

xenophobia). Before continuing with the often untold stories of unity, I summarize below

accounts concerning racism experienced by myself as well as other African-descendants that I

have interviewed over the years. Thus, the bulk of the research presented through this proj ect is

not shared in an effort to evade anti-African-descendant sentiments by some Japanese people or

even structural laws that do not uphold social equality for African-descendants.

I have recorded stories of struggles from both African Americans as well as African-

descendants as they strive to obtain work visas or immigrate to Japan for entrepreneurial










purposes. Understanding that Japan's immigration policy is closed in general, my white

American and Canadian colleagues and artisans have not experienced the same difficulties that

my African and African-American colleagues have. Many African-American Hiphop

professionals have described the grueling experience of having to leave and come back every 90

days in order to do their work as choreographers or teachers because of difficulties obtaining

work visas. Many have described experiences of being harassed at Narita Airport about their

business in Japan. One African-American Hiphop professional explained that his experience

became more friendly when he cut off his long locs (=hairstyle) and began to don a more

"conservative" look. This Hiphop professional talked about coded rhetoric against "blackened"

peoples in the media that was similar to what we experience in the United States, in that "when a

black person does a crime, they also mention that the person was black, but if the person is

Japanese or white they don't mark them like that." I have noticed similar practices toward

Koreans and other racialized "others" in Japan. African-American corporate professionals have

recounted hearing insulting speech from colleagues that seems to question their humanity (e.g.,

"Do you bruise?") as well as difficulty receiving help from governmental officials such as the

police when crimes have been committed against them or their family members living in Japan.

Another account of "everyday racism" from a Hiphop professional was his observation of

people's unwillingness to sit next to him even when trains were crowded (in non metropolitan

areas), and people, usually children, pointing at him and saying "kiowa~i" (=scary). Finally,

everyone complains about the taxis in metropolitan areas. It can be very difficult to get a taxi if

one is dressed in nonconservative attire.

Do any of the experiences previously explained sound familiar? Africans-nationals

explained that they had difficulty immigrating to Japan. African-descendants shared that they










experienced (1) lack of assistance from police, (2) difficulty catching taxis, (3) difficulty

receiving work permits or government assistance on entrepreneurial efforts, (4) harassment at

airports, (5) character assassination and racial marking through language in the media, (6) public

epithets, and (7) fear of black bodies, especially touching black bodies. Academicians such as

Gerald Early and actors such as Danny Glover have written about experiencing these same things

in the United States. Early writes about being harassed by police in Frontenac shopping mall, and

Danny Glover was unable to hail a taxi. Both situate their experience as antiblack racism. Rapper

Mos Def says that airport harassment is so common that he gives the process a name: "world

nigga law." He raps:

They stay on nigga patrol on American roads
And when you travel abroad they got world nigga law
Some folks get on a plane go as they please
But I go over seas and I get over-seized
London, Heathrow, me and my people
They think that illegal's a synonym for Negro
Far away places, customs agents flagrant
They think the dark face is smugglin weight in they cases
Bags inspected, now we arrested
Attention directed to contents of our intestines
Urinalysis followed by X-rays
Interrogated and detained til damn near the next day
No evidence, no apology and no regard
Even for the big American rap star
For us especially, us most especially
A "Mr Nigga" VIP jail cell just for me
"If I knew you were coming I'd have baked a cake"
[Instead] Just got some shoe-polish and painted my face"
They say they want you successful, but then they make it stressful
You start keeping pace, they start changing up the tempo [Mos Def 1999; emphasis added]

Indeed, though the African-nationals and African Americans that I interviewed in Japan admit

that they have experienced racism, most state that it is not different from what they generally

experience in other parts of the world, especially the United States. Interestingly, many compare

the accounts of racism they experience in Japan to racism that they experience in the United









States. Many state that what they experience in Japan is more benign or less psychically violent,

and they have chosen to become permanent residents of Japan based on this idea. These

individuals generally state that the experiences of discrimination that they have experienced are

minimal and that their overall experiences in Japan have been welcoming and affirming enough

for them to move their homes permanently. This view is an important one that is often left out of

the "Japan is racist" narrative.

My own experiences have been a mix of those recounted. As I age, perform different

classes, and obtain more degrees, my treatment by those outside of the Hiphop community has

changed. When I first arrived in Japan in 1994, I immediately noticed a difference from my

home community, which was then located in the Ozarks region of Missouri in the United States,

in that black popular music was playing everywhere. I heard it in shopping malls, coffee shops,

restaurants and even from stores that one passes by as one walks down the street. Black popular

culture was banned from much of the public sphere where I grew up in the US. Radio stations

rarely played anything other than white country, rock, and Christian music. There was even a law

that banned my agemates and me from driving down the streets playing rap music too loudly.

We were not harassed if we played country music, but we were pulled over immediately if we

played rap music.

Despite the obvious popularity of black popular music, my everyday experience was

marked with a substantial amount of racial and sexual harassment in Japan. As I commuted to

school, I experienced verbal and physical sexual harassment. When I asked elders in my

community why I was experiencing such horrible things, I was told that there was a large

number of sex workers from the Philippines, Brazil, and Dominican Republic who look like me,

and that the culprits must be mistaking me for one of them because of my skin tone and the fact









that my uniform was extremely tight and short, ill-fitting on my body. I was appalled and

unsatisfied with this explanation. However, my identification as a possible sex worker rather

than an exchange student did not dissolve until about eight years later. When I was conducting

fieldwork at clubs, it would be difficult to get taxis in certain areas. My colleague Bianca White

experienced this with me as well when we were filming, and it was very frustrating. In addition,

many taxi drivers refused to believe that I was staying where I was staying because my brother

and his wife lived in a very affluent area of Minato-ku, Tokyo. Taxi drivers would waste my

money driving around, ignoring my instructions in Japanese because they didn't believe that I

could possibly live where I said I did. One taxi driver insinuated that I was a sex worker going to

visit a client and that' s why I wanted to go to this certain neighborhood. Because of these

numerous experiences, I began entering taxis with a pre-prepared speech in Japanese about my

purpose for being in Japan and why I stay where I stay. When I was too tired or irritated to give

this speech, I would simply perform the eccentric foreign tourist script and ask to be taken to the

shrine next door to my residence, even if it was afterhours.

Oddly, subsequent visits did not include such experiences. I attribute some of this to my

aging, and changes in fashion choices (slacks and button up shirts rather than jeans and casual or

club shirts). Rather than being suspiciously grilled about my line of work, taxi drivers began to

ask in friendly tones if I was a model or a business executive. As I have aged, my perceived class

has changed. I also spend less time outside of my Hiphop enclave, which has always served as a

"safezone" from racial and sexual harassment. Indeed, the reason I sought out and found this

community in the first place was in an effort to seek shelter from experiences of racism and

sexism in Japan in 1994. However, it is important to note that my experiences of racism and

sexism have diminished in Japan over time, and at no point were they any more egregious than









the violations that I experience in the United States as well as in many countries in Europe and

even parts of the Caribbean, such as Cuba.

I share the stories of the people I've worked with to offer an alternative narrative to those

we hear in the public sphere. I wish to share insights from a Hiphop community that are different

from Nakasone' s comments or even the performers of blackface that occupy media attention so

often. I hope to resist the totalizing trope of "Japan as racist" or even "Japan as sexist." My

experiences in Japan reflect many of those told to me by African-national and African Americans

living in Japan. While these experiences involve encounters of racism that are very painful and

upsetting, our experiences are generally no different from encounters of racism and sexism in

other parts of the world, including the United States. Moreover, our collective experiences in the

Hiphop community have been positive and solid. Indeed, often the very racism and sexism that I

have experienced as a black woman in Japan, Europe, or the United States attacks my Japanese

interlocutors in similar ways.

Cultural workers whom I have interviewed explain racism through claims that many

members of the Japanese government as well as its citizenry are "brainwashed" by the West (the

US in particular) to hate their global racial identity that is read as yellownesss," and love US and

certain European racial identities read as "whiteness." These cultural workers posit that the

Japanese government and citizenry therefore denigrate "blackness" in an effort to elevate

yellownesss." That is, it is argued that other global racial identities that are positioned in a

hierarchical manner below their own racial identity (e.g., "blackness") are hyperracialized in

media and policy to draw attention away from Japan's own racialization as non-White. The

cultural workers I interviewed eschew this as a viable antiracist strategy. They argue that the love

of "whiteness" and hatred of "blackness" is exactly what "their" Hiphop is resisting. They desire









a love for yellownesss" (who they are) without having to put down blackness or elevate

whiteness. Therefore, these artists often criticize such public attacks of racism against black

people (such as Channels, a Hiphop dance duo). One Japanese national cultural worker purported

that he used to wait outside the stations to "beat up" the blackface performers who embarrassed

them and their culture (meaning Hiphop as well as Japanese national identity). The performance

of blackness in their case serves to resist whiteness. The performance of blackness is also part of

a transition to a performance of yellowness, which unfortunately leads us back to our

homogenized Japanese national character that reinforces notions of Nihonjinron that could be

considered psychologically violent to the multi-ethnic consumers of Japanese Hiphop.

For example, at an annual Hiphop festival in a maj or metropolitan area of Japan in 2002,

hundreds of youth gathered around a stage usually utilized for musical performances in order to

see some of their favorite Hiphop pioneers as well as currently popular artists and j journalists

present at a panel dedicated to the "knowledge" element of Hiphop. After over an hour of origins

narratives and related discussion regarding the social and historical significance of Hiphop as a

"revolutionary" art form, a panelist opened up the floor for questioning. Youth eagerly lined up

to a microphone seeking further elucidation of contradictions concerning "authenticity" I and the

uses of Hiphop (as a strategy) in everyday resistance. Among the inquisitive was a self-identified

Korean-Japanese youth who asked the panel what their thoughts were on anti-Korean

discrimination in Japan, and what he--as a Hiphopper--could do to redress this social problem.

This posed an interesting intervention because earlier a pioneer had boasted that Japan did not

have the same racialized politics that plague the US due to its (purported) homogenous


Is See Morgan (2001) on "keeping it real"; see also Smitherman (1997) and Yasin (1999) on
authenticity in general Hiphop discourse. See Condry (2001) for specific discussion concerning
imitation vs. authenticity in Japan.










population, and yet another pioneer alluded to the activist utility of Hiphop, stating that Hiphop

offers an opportunity to assuage social inequality in Japan.

The youth were quick to utilize this moment to expose a common contradiction. That is,

how can Japan be without race problems, but also experience social inequality? The

contradiction of the former pioneer' s obvious Nihonjinron sentiments with the other pioneer' s

commitment to social change seemed to puzzle yet positively challenge these youth to make

sense of Hiphop and its political relevance to their generation. One pioneer responded that he

should be proud to be Korean-descent and that "some of the best Hiphop comes out of Korea."

He continued that the experiences of discrimination and its related pain contribute to "soulful"

productions of Hiphop that heal and present opportunities to bring oppositional people together.

He related the experience of anti-Korean discrimination in Japan to antiblack discrimination in

the United States, and reminded the young man of "black people's perseverance." He concluded

that it was every Hiphopper' s responsibility to address such issues in the Japanese Hiphop

community .

While the pioneer' s comments to the Korean-descent youth were meant to encourage him

and support social justice efforts, his sentiments unfortunately also situated the youth in a

derivative status to a Japanese norm. The comment concerning "some of the best Hiphop comes

out of Korea" reminded me of a statement often heard concerning US racial relations: "I'm not

racist; some of my best friends are black." Teun van Dijk (1995:27) comments on this

phenomenon:

Underlying ideologies also control communicative contexts, and hence the self-definition
and impression management of speakers, who will generally try to make a good
impression or avoid a bad impression...This is particularly clear in the strategic use of
disclaimers. Examples of such semantic strategies in our own research on the reproduction
of racism in discourse of such semantic strategies are well-known and comprise such
classical moves as the disclaimers of the apparent denial ("I have nothing against Blacks,










but ...", "Refugees will always be able to count on our hospitality, but ..."), the a-pparent
concession ("There are of course a few small racist groups in the Netherlands, but on the
whole ...") or blame transfer~r~t~rt~rt~rt~rt ("I have no problem with minorities in the shop, but my
customers ...").

The irony of the comment is that if one is not racist, one would not politically mark one's friends

with state-regulated identities. In addition, the comment elides any inspection of how one might

participate in racism and racializing processes. I interpreted the exchange between the youth and

the pioneer in a similar manner. I think that the youth was being marked as Korean, though he

was marked in a flattering, culturally chauvinist way. However, in this instance his being racially

marked actually brought him closer to being authentically tied to Hiphop, as his predicament was

related to the experience of those accredited with originating Hiphop: African Americans.

What makes this exchange important in regard to public discourse about race within Japan

is not the details of the exchange between the pioneer and the youth. It is the very idea of Korean

racialization being acknowledged and discussed in a public intergenerational dialogue that was

striking to me. The pioneer obviously showed shortcomings in the manner that he handled this

youth's question, but his remarks are far beyond what one could find in mainstream media at that

time: and thus, it is no wonder that Hiphop was attracting so many youth as well as cultural

workers who are politically marked as other in Japan at that time. In this case, Hiphop was

offering something that they couldn't find in government policy, national media, or other popular

culture. Hiphop offered them a starting point for a conversation about acceptance, humanity,

harmony, and unity. Indeed, throughout the entire panel, another pioneer repeated this mantra

learned from Afrika Bambaataa; he said, "Hiphop is about peace, love, unity, harmony." After

the event, this pioneer turned to me and said, "That's what Bam taught me; that' s what we must

do. That's our work: peace, love, unity, harmony." His sentiments reflect what the youth were

looking for when they attended the panel.









NIHON- STY LE

Over the past decade, there has been an increasing move by cultural workers who are

community-ascribed pioneers in varying aspects of Hiphop culture, to acquiesce to a dominant

Hiphop origins narrative and operational definition of Hiphop culture for the purpose of creating

a common literacy that is useful in making the transition from a cultural movement to a political

one. This move--to allow Afrika Bambaataa' s Universal Zulu Nation (UZN) the authority to

dictate history and KRS-ONE' s Temple of Hiphop to police the parameters of the culture's

definitionn" (=definition), for example, is indicative of a strategy by other pioneers (e.g., DJ

Yutaka and Crazy A or Kool Here and Crazy Legs) to invent a united front in a protracted

struggle for socio-economic change. Indeed, theorists have argued that a common literacy and

invented homogeneity can spark public identification with nationalist political rhetoric, and that

is precisely what Hiphop's cultural workers, its pivotal pioneers, have constructed across the

world (Anderson 1991; hooks 1992). Whether it was conscious or not, whether it reveals truth or

not, the interviews and public narratives reproduced in various print and visual media have

served as the building blocks for a dominant cultural narrative regarding Hiphop as a particular

resource for potential social movement building. The pioneers' world travels spread knowledge,

inspirational life histories, and organizational structures in key areas around the globe that

perhaps now demonstrate worthiness, unity, numbers and committed people--what Charles Tilly

calls WUNC-the characteristics of a social movement (2002:88). Many scholars have

documented the pioneers' narratives and key activities initiated by cultural workers that illustrate

how Hiphop politics have continued to raise awareness about issues (e.g., race and class) that

former movements brought into public discourse (Bynoe 2004; Chang 2005; Chuck D 1997;

Fujita 1996; Goto 1997; Jinno 2003; Keyes 2002; Kitwana 2002; Morgan 2008; Pipitone 2006;

Shomari 1995; Urla 2001; Wimsatt 2008).









This chapter summarized recent Japanese historical narratives and dominant theories

concerning scholarship's relationship to racialization and colonization. The research presented in

this proj ect positions Japan as a geopolitical entity that is part of a global racialized order in a

post-war and post-colonial condition. Japan's post-colonial condition is multiphrenic in that it is

both colonizer and, as I argued, it has in effect been colonized. Race and gender identities

(among others) are forged from both national sentiments and international sensibilities. The

popularity (cf., RIAJ charts summary in Appendix) and performance of Hiphop in Japan brings

this multidirectional aspect of racialized and gendered identity formation into popular cultural

memory. The United States' policies of social inequality are stirred into the public sphere

through African-American resistance narratives in US Hiphop that is popularly consumed.

Japan's own contentious relationship with US social inequality is brought back into question and

the agency to assert oneself as equal or worthy is presented and enjoyed in Japanese

performances of Hiphop. Finally, Hiphop in Japan offers the space to dialogue about other

injustices (e.g., domestic racialization, gender discrimination, child abuse), as Hiphop aesthetics

feature ideas of peace, harmony, social equality, and saviors (cf., Morgan 2008). Thus

understanding the US-based narrative of Hiphop's origins is imperative, as key players in US

Hiphop history are de facto pivotal figures in Japanese Hiphop history, and their interfacing with

Japanese Hiphop cultural workers assigns these artists the right to control and authenticate

Japanese popular discourse on the subj ect as it relates to race and other identificatory practice.

The next chapter explains this phenomenon in detail.
















Table 3-1 Population chart of registered foreigners in Japan from 1996 to 2005
Registered
Foreigners
5is $ 9$8 909 9il$10 VL114 9212$ V134 92A14$ VL154 90.e16$ 94i174
(0Jfl*%) -1996 -1 997 -1998 -1999 -2000 -2001 -2002 -2003 -2004 -2005


*a1,415, 136 1, 482, 707 1, 512, 116 1, 556, 113 1, 686, 444 1, 778, 462 1, 851, 758 1, 915, 030 1, 973, 747 2, 011, 555
RM~ MS (N. & 3. 657, 159 645, 373 638, 828 636, 548 635, 269 632, 405 625, 422 613, 791 607, 419 598, 687
Korea)
Ir~~ %)46 4 43 5 42 2 40 9 37 7 35 6 33 8 32 1 30 8 29. 8

95 (China) 234, 264 252, 164 272, 230 294, 201 335, 575 381, 225 424, 282 462, 396 487, 570 519, 561
Idet(%)16 6 17 18 18 9 19 9 21 4 22 9 24 1 24 7 25. 8

1$9)& (Brazi 1) 201, 795 233, 254 222, 217 224, 299 254, 394 265, 962 268, 332 274, 700 286, 557 302, 080
I~u (%) 14 3 15 7 14 7 14 4 15 1 15 14 5 14 3 14 5 15
7 4 ) E>84, 509 93, 265 105, 308 115, 685 144, 871 156, 667 169, 359 185, 237 199, 394 187, 261
(Phi ilipp lines)
Ir~~ %)6 63 7 74 86 88 91 97 10 1 9.3

R 19 (Peru) 37, 099 40, 394 41, 317 42, 773 46, 171 50, 052 51, 772 53, 649 55, 750 57, 728
aa~: %,26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 2.0

*14 (lJ. A.) 44, 168 43, 690 42, 774 42, 802 44, 856 46, 244 47, 970 47, 836 48, 844 49, 390
I~ ()31 3 28 28 26 26 26 25 25 2.5
t O) (I 156, 142 174, 567 189, 442 199, 805 225, 308 245, 907 264, 621 277, 421 288, 213 296, 848
(Others)
Ir~i (%)11 11 8 12 6 12 9 13 4 13 8 14 3 14 5 14 6 14.8

Source: Japan's Ministry of Justice, http://www.moj.go~jp/PRESS/0605 30-1/0605301hm (English translations of
nationalities/ethnic groups inserted by author). This chart does not take into account nonregistered or undocumented
foreigners, US military persons stationed in Japan, or racialized ethnic minorities such as Burakumin, Ainu or
Ryukyuan/Okinawan people, who are Japanese citizens but still do not have full citizenship rights or access to
citizenship privileges.









CHAPTER 4
HIPHOP AS TRANSNATIONAL SOCIAL MOVEMENT?

Hiphop has saved a lot of people, even me.

-"Pioneer 3" a Japanese national cultural worker

Performing and delivering these rhymes, we're gonna be saving Japan, and I'm just telling
you this is just one way of doing it

-"MC R" a Japanese national cultural worker

Making a Movement: "Building a Hiphop Foundation"

The productions by the cultural workers whom I consulted offer an important site of

inquiry regarding the possibility of political movement building using Hiphop. While the basic

framework of the Japanese Hiphop aesthetic follows that which was invented in specific African-

American speech communities (see the five elements' operational definition in Chapter One), the

lyrics are often sung in Japanese with instances of codeswitching using African American

English as well as occasional General American English language varieties. In addition, the

artistic production of lyricism and beat production can follow sensibilities of what is considered

and labeled as "more traditional" Japanese literary aesthetics (see Ueda 1991 for more on literary

and art theories in Japan), and most importantly, the topics and issues introduced in the songs

and performances are relevant to national consumer audiences. Furthermore, once cultural

workers ascend from the underground Hiphop scene into the more commercial formal music

industry, they are at some level dealing with entities that all musicians interface with all over the

world, as most music companies are branches from three main multinational corporations.

Therefore, Hiphop culture in Japan is like Hiphop culture all over the globe; while its expression

is often localized, there are conspicuous ties that are globalized at the levels of distribution,

consumption, and production.









The master origins narrative regarding Japanese Hiphop origins petitions a

counterhegemonic sentiment that abounds in black American-Japanese political relations. This

relationship dates from a pre-WWII era, and it buttresses transgressive and "underground"

claims regarding the authenticity and political nature of Hiphop in Japan. Though ethnographers

and cultural archivists (Condary 1999; Okumura 1998) place the onset of Hiphop global flow in

Japan with the Wild Style tour of 1983, certain pioneers claim to have first heard Hiphop in the

1970s from US military-base acquaintances, and one explains that he then innovated by

experimenting with cutting and mixing already popular black American blues, jazz, and soul

albums on sale in popular Japanese venues. Recall that prior to these pioneers' generation, jazz,

blues, soul, and reggae were mobilized along with resistance movements against oppressive state

policies (Asai 2005; Atkins 2001).

As more information concerning Hiphop reached American popular cultural memory, it

traveled to Japan just as it did other countries throughout the world through the assistance of

popular print media (e.g., International versions of Time, Newsweek and later, Tlhe Source),

cinema (e.g., Wild Style, Beat Street, Breakin 1,2 &3, Krush Groove, House Party 1,2, &3, Juice,

New Jack City, etc.), world famous concert tours (e.g., Public Enemy alongside U2 and Run

DMC), people-to-people contact (e.g., military bases and youth and business exchange programs,

etc.) and in the 1990s, the Internet. The more attention that Hiphop received in the US from the

formal music industry, the more opportunities the Japanese cultural workers had to penetrate the

formal Japanese music industry. Another Hiphop pioneer reports that when Hiphop was

promoted in the 1980s, it was American Hiphop that dominated the radio waves (based in both

US military and Japanese national audiences). In the 1990s, that changed and, along with the rise









of Nihonjinron-influenced literature, localized Hiphop culture also increased. He ob serves that

in the new millennium, we see Japanese Hiphop cultural producers and consumers who were

"born and raised" on Japanese Hiphop. That is, presently there are popular artists who not only

grew up listening to US-based Hiphop artists (like Wu Tang Clan, for example), but they also

grew up hearing their own domestic artists like Nah-ki, King Giddra and Rappagariya.

Many Japanese cultural workers express their initial attraction to Hiphop because of how it

was rooted in black culture. Specifically, many artists report that Hiphop's significance to them

stems from their positive feelings derived from what they believe to be Hiphop's connection to

general black popular cultural genres (e.g., TV shows like Chappelle 's .\hal~l or Good Times),

styles (e.g., clothing and jewelry aesthetics), and other imagined black cultural practices (e.g.,

dances and food preferences), as well as Hiphop's reference to black historical narratives and

people (e.g., Malcolm X and the Black Panther Party). US Hiphop, while directed to and focused

on issues relevant to African-American speech communities (e.g., racial profiling, class conflict,

etc.), is purported to "speak to" a common opposition for these artists. Therefore, this black

cultural product (Hiphop) constructed for local audiences (US region-specific African-American

speech communities) holds global significance, as other local cultural workers (Japanese Hiphop

artists) were inspired by the oppositional messages in US Hiphop to construct some of their own

oppositional messages in their local products (Japanese Hiphop) for their social networks and

audiences in Japan.

One such artist whom younger Hiphop consumers grew up listening to and are influenced

by is a top-selling, widely-respected Japanese-national Hiphop artist who hails from an urban,

non-affluent (relatively impoverished) metropolitan area, and was raised in a single-parent

SNihonjinron reflects theories of Japanese uniqueness and national identity; it is generally
critiqued as being culturally chauvinist and culturally nationalist (Lie 2001).









household. I'll call this man Rapper 1, and the following excerpts from one of our conversations

is instructive as to how the political rhetoric from African-American social movements found in

US-based Hiphop also inspired Japanese artists to draw connections with domestic issues.2

Rapper 1: ...when I went to the States, black people (.2) they were treated unfairly, it
wasn't because of how you are but who you are, right?

Ethnographer: Right.

Rapper 1: So I got mad; I was angry about that. Cause before I went to the United States
(.) the United States was all about the American dream, equality, fairness, freedom, right?
When I went there, it was all lies. So it opened my eyes, and I got with Hiphop. All the
people in Hiphop taught me a lot of stuff that I could not learn from schools.

Ethnographer: Wow.

Rapper 1: That was my first stage of being in Hiphop in America. Then I came back to
Japan, and I saw Japanese. In Japan, it was economically growing at that time and people
were chasing money. I thought (.) back then (.) the Hiphop in the United States was
teaching brothers [African-Americans] where they came from, not they're from slaves, you
know like, real history real pride and stuff, rht?

Ethnographer: Uh-huh.

Rapper 1: And that taught a lot of brothers to be really not afraid of saying stuff and not
afraid of being independent. And I thought we needed that. But when I came back to
Japan(.) Since we lost World War II, we lost our history. We were driven by Americans.
We had to be Americanized. It was, like, fifty years of that. So I got really angry. I thought
the minorities in the United States and Japan were parallel. You know like being the
victims of the so-called powers that be, you know like white supremacy (.4)

Ethnographer: ((shocked)) I-I'm feeling you (.) because I feel the same thing and I'm
trippin that you're sayin it.

Rapper 1: Then I decided that I had to build a foundation- HiphopIV foCIundaion over here
so that we could learn ourselves, we could build our own foundation.

The sentiments communicated by Rapper 1 were repeated by many of the cultural workers

with whom I worked. However, I am choosing to share this particular conversation for two

reasons. The first reason is that there were other cultural workers present in the studio "cosigning



2 There is a chart of transcription conventions used at the end of this chapter.









on" or agreeing with the ideas that Rapper 1 communicated to me. The other reason is that this

rapper is often referred to as the "KRS-ONE"3 Of Japanese Hiphop by Japanese national

consumers and upcoming artists. In that role, he has the power to shape Hiphop philosophy. He

appears in videos that are not his own, wearing clothing that gives respect to African-diasporic

symbols (e.g., a red, black, and green outline of a continent of Africa or an ankh symbol akin to

the picture to the left--however it was not this exact j ewelry) and a particular transnational

Hiphop social movement organization. In these videos he preaches and guides popular Hiphop

performers to "keep it real" and stay true to the original tenets of the origins narrative.














Figure 4-1 An ankh symbol on a necklace; photograph taken by the author in 2005 at a Japanese
recording studio

The transcription excerpt previously presented between Ethnographer and Rapper 1 took

place in a recording studio located in the Tokyo metropolitan area in the spring of 2005. In all

interviews, cultural workers were invited to speak in Japanese and English, and this cultural

worker chose to respond primarily in English. I think part of his choice to do so was to

demonstrate to other artists in the studio at the same time as us just how "dope" or talented he is

as a Hiphop cultural worker. By using English and publicly referencing our common

3 Recall that KRS-ONE is a leading lyrical pioneer of Hiphop culture, and a self-identified
philosopher who regularly writes and lectures about Hiphop culture and philosophy. The
operational definition of Hiphop used for this research as well as the spelling of Hiphop is
derived from his Refinitions (2000).










acquaintances and friends who are "famous," he emphasized his transnational authority on

Hiphop cultural and political work. Although the bulk of this particular interaction was in

English, we still generally adhered to Hiphop linguistic codes and Japanese cultural practices.

My body language was submissive, as I bowed low and was positioned below him on the floor,

looking up at him as he spoke for more than an hour. I codeswitched a lot with him, using both

AAE as well as distal and honorific Japanese in addition to regular direct speech styles. My

speech octave was higher than normal in an additional effort to show submission and politeness.

He dominated most of this time speaking, and with the exception of a few explanations or

comments, most of my interaction could be categorized as aizuchi, nodding sounds and words of

agreement (without being bonded to bona fide agreement) to indicate that I am paying attention,

interested, and understanding him (e.g., "mmm," "ahhh," "wow," "uh-huh," "yeah," "for real?

(=really?/ hontoo?)," etc; see also Kita and Ide 2007 for more on aizuchi and ideology).

Rapper 1 used kinship terms that indicated his conceptualizing us as in-group members of

(1) people of color or nonwhite people and (2) a transnational Hiphop community. Words like

"brothers" refer to African-American men in general and African-American male rappers in

particular, as well as "sister" to refer to me, his interlocutor, indicated his linguistic participation

in an imagined African-diasporic identity that is made possible through our collaboration in the

name of Hiphop. I did not expect Rapper 1 to actually use words like "white supremacy,"

"Americanized," and "brainwash program." He explicitly places Japanese-nationals' post-WWII

experience as parallel to African Americans' post-slavery experience. He speaks of his

commitment to building a Hiphop foundation, a foundation that follows the philosophy of the

origins narrative that attends to social justice. His language choices reveal a familiarity with both

Hiphop language ideology (Morgan 2001) and black liberation ideology (cf., Dawson 2003). His









candor and direct speech style, as well as his confidence in his ability to "teach" me the great

utility of Hiphop for self-actualization and community liberation revealed interesting themes in

regard to how he was thinking about race and politics.

Similar to John Dower' s (1993) ob servation regarding Japanese nationalist discourse,

Rapper l's rhetoric recasts Japanese nationals as victims along with their similarly oppressed

African-American "cousins"--as both have been subjugated and mentally occupied through

"brainwashing" and silencing in the national educational system. Dower documents popular

media cartoons and commentary that highlight how the nation has been "dissed" via racialization

by the Westemn "powers that be," using examples that range from the League of Nations'

dismissal of Japan's Racial Equality Clause at the 1919 meeting to Japan' s being characterized

as "Yellow Peril" and sava e aes during WWII to the more recent ima es of "The Ja anese" as

a singular, homogenous people, who imitate rather than innovate in the areas of culture and

technology, and who also pose a threat to the US's economic security (Dower 1993:292-298).

Rapper 1 explains:

It' s called, like, brainwash program, that kind of thing, right after World War II that the
U.S. government had on us. And they changed our constitution, they changed our
textbooks, they changed our history books. So we lost our essence. We lost our roots. We
lost our originality. I don't even have to explain [to Ethnographer, who is politically
marked as black]. It' s like black people during the last 60 years or 160 years. Even 300
years of history. You didn't know your roots. That' s what you've been trying to do with
the Roots movies, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., Hiphop. That' s what you did to be
real, to be where you're coming from. But we forget. I didn't have to forget because I was
in the United States, being Hiphop, learning for myself. But all the people here watching
TV forget where they've come from. They thought the Americans are better than us. We
had to be like Americans.

The preceding commentary illuminates further how Rapper 1 is thinking about race. He eagerly

acknowledges Japan's racialized status in the world order, and he supplies a theory of how this

racialization takes place in his country. After all, by his accounts, the Japanese government,

which formulates policy and runs national media is the culprit guilty of promoting these images









that cause people to feel alienated. This fuels his fight against the Japanese state as well as his

inspiration to use Hiphop to liberate the minds of "his people." Even though this rapper and

others often charge that it was through the exportation of US governmental policy and ideology

concerning race that originated the "brainwash" programs (e.g., educational programs) that

encourage people to think of themselves in more racialized terms, they argue that it is the

Japanese government and media that carry out and maintain such programs and ideologies today.

Note that there is a common criticism that Japanese Hiphop artists are sharing with US Hiphop

artists. They criticize the US government' s role in exporting racialized identifications worldwide,

and they also call for reform and revolution with each domestic government.

Layers of Race: Samples from Hiphop

Rapper l's designation of difference between black people living in America and general

(=white, not black) "Americans" reveals more about how people in Japan are taught to think

about race in a global setting. John Lie (2001:147) suggests that like Rapper 1, Japanese

nationals whom he surveyed distinguished between Blacks (kokujin) and Amerikajin (who were

"taken to be white"). Lie continues that his survey results supported a racial ideology akin to the

theory of three races (Negroid/black, Mongoloid/yellow, Caucasoid/white), and that Japanese-

nationals were reluctant to place themselves in any of the aforementioned categories (black,

yellow, or white). Rapper 1 and many other Japanese-national Hiphop artists are somewhat

unique in that they are consciously claiming their yellownesss" as part of their political

discourse. Indeed, many Japanese artists who have had the luxury of traveling to the US for

music business or a cultural pilgrimage often share stories of anti-Japanese or anti-Asian

discrimination that they have suffered at the hands of white Americans, such as police brutality

or being the targets of epithets in public. Sharing and analyzing the effects of such experiences

allows them to place themselves along with blackness against whiteness, the purported cause of









their psychic pain. Therefore, their voluntary performance of blackness through identification

with Hiphop is not necessarily an imitation of a hegemonic American identity; they say it is

about claiming race, especially race that is conspicuously positioned in opposition to whiteness.

The following lyrics from a Japanese Hiphop group, Rappagariya, reveal more about the

claiming of race in Hiphop. The song debuted on DJ Yutaka's United Nations album. The album

art for this album4 references Hiphop philosophy and origins narratives associated with space as

a place where humans transcend inequality suffered on Earth. Such references draw connections

with US Hiphop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa's Universal Zulu Nation as well as funk legends in

Parliament Funkadelic' s "Mothership Connection" performance and j azz innovator Sun Ra' s

"Space is the Place." There is also the reference to "peace" and graffiti-inspired art in the

planetary sphere pictured on the album. The title of Rappagariya' s song is "Kobushi" which

could translate to "Fist," and the song's chorus (pump ya fist, pump ya fist/open up your ears,

jump up [=S lf 6, S lf 6/ 4811% T <'6i .1~ f)' It 3, ~FllWk~ 3 5]) references another


famous Hiphop compilation album from the United States, Pump Ya Fist (Hip Hop inspired by

the Black Panthers) (1995).5 Note not only the claiming of a "yellow" race, but also the

references to Hiphop, being Japanese and overall identity:

We are the yellow race with the deadly poisonous shit that will raise the level of the hip
hop virus in your blood/ We represent Japan yo! We gonna tell the issues like they are/



4 A link to view the album art of DJ Yutaka' s United Nations (2000) is provided in the
Appendix.

S"Raise Your Fist" is a more literal translation, whereas, "Pump Ya Fist" is more in accordance
with AAE and other common Hiphop rhetoric that was published around this time. It petitions a
double reference of putting one' s hands in the air to party as well as the "power to the people" or
"black power" signal (the fist). The translations in this section are mine, and more literal, the
Appendix features selected translations by me as well as a younger research assistant and cultural
worker who is more entrenched in the current Japanese Hiphop speech community.









We're here to make these unacceptable conditions right / Our identity is dope Japanese
shit/Until we answer all your needs

"Kobushi" is one of many examples of song and performance that contains rhetoric that is

reflective of black nationalist rap from the US of the 1980s, 1990s, and beyond. It contains a

thread of cultural chauvinism, which uses positive racialized stereotypes to elevate damaged self-

identifications. Rappagariya, for example, may choose to dress up as samurai or perform martial

arts moves or "spit" verses like the following (also from "Kobushi"):

We're like Japanese soldiers in the war/We come at you with a death wish on the
microphone/We're gonna carve facts into history/There ain't no termination in this
culture/Hip hop is the surest way/If you know what we talking about pump ya fist

In this verse, the artists reference controversial images of Japanese masculine "savagery"6

by invoking the stereotype of Japanese military culture (e.g., kamkkkkkkkk~~~~~~~~~ikaze to demonstrate the

venom and vigor with which they defend "knowledge of self" through Hiphop. While the lyrics

reference unity via nationalist discourse, this same rhetoric could be interpreted as Nihonjinron

(one yellow race), in which cultural chauvinism and cultural nationalism undermine antiracist

efforts on a domestic level by reintroducing a singular, homogenous Japanese identity or

"national character." The song includes references to national icons such as hi no maru bento

(=1unchbox of rice with pickled plum, ume), baseball (=Tsuyoshi Shinj o, the renowned baseball

player), as well as spirits and swords (= "my spirit is real like a Japanese sword") that could

further reference Yamato identity rather than a shared Asian national experience. The hi no maru

bento is often interpreted as a reference to the contemporary Japanese national flag, with the

reddish plum representing the rising sun and the rice being the white background. It also could


6 JOhn Dower (1993), Yukiko Koshiro (1999), and Gerald Horne (2004) outline instances of how
Japanese people have been racialized by the West. The designation of Japanese people as less-
than-human (i.e., Yellow Peril) and popular imagery and words referring to Japanese people as
"savage apes" is strikingly similar to the manner in which African-descent populations were
racialized by these same geopolitical entities.









reference other traditional sentiments that support nationalist discourse, such as the narrative that

suggests soldiers ate these lunches in times of war as well as the idea of ume (=plum) being

commonly referenced in waka (=type or style of poetry that dates as far back as the Manyoshu,

an anthology of Japanese poetry collected from 686 A.D. to 784 A.D.) that is oft-cited in

descriptions of cultural and literary aesthetics (cf. Carter 1993; Varley 1984). However, some

consumers do not interpret these references within nationalist frameworks that isolate "non-

Yamato" Japanese residents. Instead these consumers refer to Rappagariya' s use of "yellow

race" as uniting Japanese identity with a shared Asian identification and thus, racialized

experience. Rappagariya' s references do, however, coincide with a World War II agenda that

acknowledged shared racialization with other Asians while also situating the Yamato as

"nucleus" in this identification as justification for colonization of other Asian nationals (cf.,

Dower 1993). The artists' intentions seem noble: they want to utilize Hiphop to fight

misinformation and oppression that could cause people to feel low self-esteem. But the particular

rhetoric used might not be sustainable for such a political goal, as it was not for their US cultural

nationalist Hiphop artist counterparts (e.g., X-clan, Brand Nubian, etc.).

The performance of ultra-masculinity plus the reliance on national stereotypes for power

does not allow for much intervention in regard to sexism and racism on a domestic level, thus

thwarting their sentiments for a more just reality. Borrowing from this school of political thought

allows the artist to insert brilliant social analysis concerning race and class ascriptions as they

describe conditions and emotions experienced by their consumer audience. However, just as the

Civil Rights Movement and Black Power Movement in the United States as well as the Anti-War

and Peace Movements in Japan were not without criticism in regard to raising public awareness

around issues of sexuality and gender (e.g., Brown 1993; Honda 1993), cultural products that









build on the political rhetoric of those movements without critique to address the shortcomings

of these past movement-building strategies will also fall short of the purported agenda to secure a

more just social reality. In summary, by not interrogating the sexism and heterosexism as well as

other rhetoric that homogenizes subaltern populations and simply leave out struggles organized

along lines of gender and sexuality, the use of Hiphop as an organizational tool, whether in Japan

or the US, is not offering anything new to social movement building efforts; rather it is

furthering a past political agenda, using similar political tools of past political movements.

Though the absence of issues pertaining to gender and sexuality limits the scope of the

uses of Hiphop as a political tool, the artists' rhetorical allegiance to political reform via the use

of cultural chauvinism to fight global racialization at least allows the opportunity for public

discourse to address and interrogate problems of Nihonjinron as well as sexist constructions of

masculinity in Japan. That is, the lyrics of songs like "Kobushi" further the tradition of resistance

to global apartheid which situates humans in a hierarchical racial order (e.g., Negroid,

Mongoloid, Caucazoid; see Augstein 1996) by simultaneously claiming and countering the

racialization of Japan by foreign geopolitical entities. Lyrics and commentaries from artists like

Rappagariya and Rapper 1 could raise their consumer audience's awareness of issues that affect

them, by drawing connections between cartoons and advertising that emphasizes whiteness and

historical programs such as the Occupation Force's political re-education for Japanese- nationals,

which entailed committing Japanese people to "appreciate and protect the 'free and democratic'

world under American hegemony" (Tsuchiya 2002: 196). In this way, these artists build on

cultural criticism from past domestic and global political movements. The strategic essentialism

employed here, however, like past political rhetoric, reinforces a homogenized Japanese male

trope. At this point, it is up to both analysts and activists to buttress the political momentum built









from the antiglobal apartheid stance in Japanese Hiphop by redirecting consumer audiences'

attentions to domestic apartheid that is organized along gendered and ethnoracial lines (e.g.,

sexual harassment and domestic violence against women or anti-Korean discrimination and

violence).

Upon studying rhetoric such as that used in the verse previously cited, cultural analysts can

continue to identify the political promise in Hiphop cultural production. Recall the commentary

from Rapper 1. He generally and sincerely seems concerned about the problem of racialization

worldwide. However, his argument might seem more relevant if he included some of the current

educational debate surrounding Japanese as a Second Language curriculum for Nikkei and the

former unequal treatment of Korean high-school graduates wishing to take college entrance

exams without first taking a high school equivalency exam (daiken). Addressing such issues

could allude to the domestic practice concerning racialization among non-Western Japanese

residents. Underneath the layer of Japan' s racialization as a geopolitical entity lies its own

domestic racial policy concerning the construction of alienated groups who range from former

colonial subjects (e.g., Koreans, Chinese, Okinawans, Filipinos, and Ainu people) to historically

disenfranchised people (e.g., Burakumin) and racially mixed individuals or foreigners (e.g.,

Japanese-Brazilians, Japanese-Peruvians, "daaburu"ddd~~~ddd~~~ddd or people of multiple ethnoracial heritage,

and African-nationals).

The aforementioned alienated groups experience discrimination that ranges from the

structural to the personal. The Korean schools mentioned were some of many schools affected by

the Japanese governments decision to exempt Western non-Japanese schools from taking a high-

school equivalency examination (da~iken) before taking college entrance examinations, whereas

non-Western, Asian ethnic minority schools did not enj oy the same exemption. After much










protest, the government extended the exemption to the non-Western ones as well; however, the

media coverage surrounding these events afforded cultural workers and others the opportunity to

learn about gross disparities between ethnic minority schools and other Japanese public schools

as well as the lack of much-needed funding to keep these schools running and to extend much-

needed social welfare programs to their constituents. Furthermore, there are countless stories of

young children and adolescents experiencing persistent harassment and instances of physical

brutality during integrative efforts into Japanese schools or society from Japanese-citizen

schoolmates and other persons in their communities. Some of the people I have worked with

remain scarred, both emotionally and physically, from such egregious and often unpunished

attacks.

When I asked Rapper 1 about these topics, he gave a nod of agreement, then there was

silence. He agreed that these were things that needed to be worked on, and explained that a lot of

people feel that they do not have the correct information to speak out about these issues. In

general, when interviewing cultural workers in Japan, there seemed to be discomfort when we

were talking about ethnoracial issues at home. There was courage to talk about racial inequity

abroad and even on a global level with one's whole country, but not within the country. In many

of my interviews with rappers, a domestic conversation on race went no further than an

acknowledgement of official antiblack racism from the government, certain corporations, and

government-run media. Such racism is shunned by those who identify with Hiphop. The

subcultures of people who alter their bodies through tanning, lip collagen inj sections, and

adopting kinky hair styles as well as the entertainers who actually apply blackface and body

makeup as they perform music associated with African-American culture (usually soul or gospel)

are criticized by the cultural workers whom I interviewed. Indeed, as mentioned in Chapter









Three, many of the artists with whom I worked communicated embarrassment and anger toward

Japanese singers and dancers who don blackface, and in some cases (e.g., Channels, the Hiphop

dance duo mentioned in Chapter Three; see Figure 4-3) other racist and stereotypic performances

that bring to mind Sambo and Step'n'Fetchit characters from US media (Russell 1991b).

Nevertheless, blackface performers persist in Japan in addition to other parts of the world, and

since many modern blackface performers (like Channels, see Figure 4-3) appear under the guise

of Hiphop performance, such practice remains a distraction from the productions by cultural

workers who sincerely attend to aesthetics brought forth in the Hiphop origins narrative. As a

result, performers like Channels receive the bulk of media attention (as these performances

should and must be "put on blast," critiqued, and shut down), while performances by people such

as the cultural workers I worked with are often ignored or underreported (except in the

scholarship of ethnographers such as Condry 2006; Cleveland 2006; Okumura 1998; Sterling

2003, 2006; see also Steele 2006, for similar cultural work in eastern mainland China).

Obj ect 4-1 Channels performing blackface

This chapter seeks to elucidate performances of blackness that differ from the type of

blackface performance that groups like Channels engage in. With the exception of certain

academic studies (cf Condry 2006; Cleveland 2006; Okumura 1998; Sterling 2003, 2006),

interest in black American cultures and performances of black popular culture in particular are

often misrepresented as minstrelsy. When one pays attention to the details of the performances,

for example, how AAE grammars are utilized, as well as other rhetoric and practice that

surround the performance, one finds that the Hiphop performance of Channels is quite different

from the "bboy" battle competitions at the annual festival I observed, for example. The

difference lies in intention, ideology, and respect. Understanding the details of aesthetics utilized

in addition to the language ideology that directly relate to a global Hiphop culture, AAE









narrative traditions and black cultural practices also help to differentiate the Hiphop community

that I worked with from mainstream performances of blackface. Below, the details of Japanese

Hiphop's cultural aesthetics are described through a description of the concepts of "flow" and

"battle," and also through the descriptions of sample cultural workers and consumers of Hiphop

in Japan. However, understanding how the Hiphop aesthetics and language ideology are

manifested within Japanese Hiphop culture requires an analysis of how codeswitching works as a

discourse strategy among the artists that are communicating these ideas.

Codeswitching as Discourse Strategy

In 2001, Morgan theorized Hiphop's language in terms of language socialization drawing

from Bambi Schieffelin and Elinor Ochs (1986). She wrote that:

Participants in Hip Hop must learn the appropriate language for particular social contexts.
In a sense, Hip Hop is constructed around the exploitation and subversion of the following
tenets of language philosophy and theory:
1. all sounds and objects have specific meanings in culture;
2. all languages have system;
3. all leaks in grammar can be exploited;
4. a society's reference system or indexicality is often political; and
5. meaning is co-constructed and co-authored. [Morgan 2001:190]

Japanese Hiphop artists' lyrical prowess demonstrate multiple levels of language socialization in

that these cultural workers are simultaneously socialized into transnational Hiphop language

ideology, which is based on AAE grammatical features. They are also socialized into their own

indigenous Hiphop language, which in Japan at least includes reinvented meanings for words

(e.g., kome, see explanation below) as well as a grammatical style that supports and encourages

codeswitching. Susan Romaine defines codeswitching in the following way:

I will use the term "code-switching" in the sense in which Gumperz (1982:59) has defined
it as "the juxtaposition within the same speech exchange of passages of speech belonging
to two [or more] different grammatical systems or subsystems". In code-switched
discourse, the items in question form part of the same speech act. They are tied together
prosodically as well as by semantic and syntactic relations equivalent to those that j oin
passages in a single speech act. ...I use the term "code" there in a general sense to refer not









only to different languages, but also to varieties of the same language as well as styles
within a language. This means that on a pragmatic level, all linguistic choices can be seen
as indexical of a variety of social relations, rights and obligations which exist and are
created between participants in a conversation....An important factor in the present
situation is the use of code-mixing and code-switching as a discourse strategy. [Romaine
1995:121]

Of key interest in Romaine's explanation is her identifying codeswitching as a discourse

strategy. The research presented in this proj ect details different strategies of codeswitching to

index relationships within domestic and international Hiphop communities. The types of

codeswitching that one utilizes could situate one within different international Hiphop genres

(e.g., "gangsta" versus "conscious"). The intricacies of the codeswitching within Japanese

Hiphop also demonstrate multiple levels of cultural and communicative competence. The emcees

are presenting multiple layers of understanding as well as presentation of information through

the production of diverse grammatical knowledge in their lyrical performances.

Codeswitching could include borrowed words in katakana form (e.g., borrowing; such as

"Hippuhoppu/ 0~7 ;;77 (=Hiphop)"). Or, as in many of the examples provided below, it could

entail complex syntactic risk-taking and mixing to produce beautiful multilingual utterances (see

" $ fBt 0 in da beat" below). In any case, analyzing lyrical codeswitching and excavating the

grammatical features of international Hiphop language features that are based in AAE

grammatical knowledge within these codeswitched performances help to further identify how

Hiphop is utilized as a discourse strategy. Finally, while I critique the gender politics of some of

the utterances analyzed below, I enthusiastically celebrate the linguistic genius of the Japanese

Hiphop cultural workers. Bi- and multilingualism continue to be stigmatized in many Western

epistemes, and as a result codeswitching has been theorized as situating bi- and multilingual

individuals as cognitively deficient and delayed. Multiple language users have been taught that

codeswitching, and intrasentential codeswitching in particular, signifies less fluency in both









languages rather than a greater knowledge of both languages, as the latter involves greater

syntactic risk and thus greater levels of creativity and ingenuity to make the codeswitch

intelligible. Just as children of multiple ethnoracial heritages were taught to feel bad about

themselves because they might not fit unitary and fixed collective identities, the same arguments

have been used with multiple language users, and it is indicative of communicative hegemony

when multiple language use is stigmatized rather than honored (cf. Briggs 1986; Romaine 1995).

The codeswitching that occurs in Japanese Hiphop could entail tag-switching,

intersentential codeswitching or intrasentential codeswitching (Poplack 1980; Romaine 1995).

Hiphop's "Yo!" is often inserted as a tag (e.g., "Yo! -it 6j e ( M 0 fr~it-f$HE ~I'I;'1\iP. 'lP

ii \). Though "yo" is also often utilized as pun because it has meaning in Japanese as well as

Hiphop language, and the meaning is relational in that it represents emphasis. Another common

tag is "Na' Mean" or any other representation of "You know what I mean?" in AAE following a

completely Japanese utterance. Intersentential codeswitching "involves a switch at a clause or

sentence boundary, where the clause is in one language or another" (Romaine 1995:122). In the

following sentence the clause is marked by particle /2-/ which also marks the language shift:

"It's da mutherfuckin '69, L EA & MS~. The conjunction/ E in "L & A" also marks a

codeswitch in the phrase "L and A." The utterance translates to "It' s da muthafuckin '69, got the

L and the A on lock" in AAE. The GAE gloss could be something like "My car is so wonderful;

it is a classic, and [because of that] I am the master of the city I live in [Los Angeles]."

Intrasentential codeswitching involves switching language types within the clause or sentence

boundary. It allows for not only the mixing of words but also grammars (e.g, "kick the leash $

(1 t in da beat"). In the latter example, $ &B tL" could be glossed as "free in" or "free inside"

using the word "0 $ and the grammatical marker tr" that is blended with the GAE phrase









that has AAE phonological features (e.g., "da," "beat"[=music]), "in da beat," to make a full

sentence that could be glossed as, "I'm free in the beat." The codeswitched sentence that could

be glossed as, "I'm free in the beat" is mixed with the AAE sentence that comes before it, "kick

the leash," which could be glossed as, "I got rid of my constraints" to form the final utterance,

which could be glossed as, "I got rid of my constraints; I'm free in the music." Another example

is: "MLOT47 /f 45 7 4-~ dope Japanese shit w i@ @0 c;7; t t ` it ifd j ;."

Which could be glossed as, "Our identity, delivering dope Japanese shit till everybody hears it,"

or "Our identity is dope Japanese shit, until we answer all your needs." The Hiphop language

phrase, "dope Japanese shit," does not neatly fit within clauses or sentence boundaries.

Hiphop Aesthetics and Language Ideology

Leading Hiphop linguistic scholar and anthropologist Marcyliena Morgan elucidates

Hiphop's linguistic relationship with AAE grammaticalization (2001, 2002, 2008; see also Alim

2006; Rickford and Rickford 2000; Smitherman 1997; Yasin 1999). Morgan explains that AAE

speakers :

respond to society's attempt to stigmatize and marginalize AAE usage by their continued
innovations within the norms of both dialects7... Consequently, discourse styles, verbal
genres, and dialect and language contrasts become tools to not only represent African
American culture, but also youth alienation, defiance, and injustice in general. [2008:95]

Building on her seminal work on modern speech communities, Morgan defines the Hiphop

speech community and its relationship centered around the concept of the "WORD," which she

describes as "the core of the hiphop nation, the power, trope, message and market all in one"

(2008:94). She continues:

The hiphop speech community is not necessarily linguistically and physically located, but
bound by this shared language ideology as part of politics, culture, social condition and

SHere GAE and AAE are referenced in Morgan's work, whereas the cultural workers I reference
codeswitch using Japanese and AAE as well as GAE at times.









norms, values and attitude. For hiphop, everyday language creativity requires knowledge
of a linguistic system as well as how language is used to represent power. It uses language
rules to mediate and construct a present, which considers the social and historicized
moment as both a transitory and stable place. In this respect, hiphop represents the height
of fruition of discursive and symbolic theories of identity and representation. It produces a
frenetic dialectic by interspersing and juxtaposing conventions and norms ... It
incorporates symbols and references based on shared local knowledge. It then introduces
contention and contrast by creating ambiguity and a constant shift between knowledge of
practices and symbols. Thus, while the hiphop nation is constructed around an ideology
that representations and references (signs and symbols) are indexical and create
institutional practices, what the signs and symbols index remain fluid and prismatic rather
than fixed.

Such is the case in my experience studying Japanese Hiphop. Whereas some ethnographers

(e.g., Condry 2006) interpret Japanese lyricists as using GAE (General American English) or a

generic American "slang," I interpret the codeswitching that I have participated in and observed

over the past 13 years as utilizing a combination of Japanese direct grammatical style and

vernacular lexicon with AAE linguistic features that are now being theorized as Hiphop language

(Alim 2006; Morgan 2008).

Discussion with cultural workers concerning their use of AAE in discursive practice has

buttressed my commitment to interpreting these acts as such. Moreover, when Japanese cultural

workers were employed to translate lyrics for the purpose of comparing them to my own and

other academician's translations, AAE linguistic styles were selected over literal transcription

that could have used more of a GAE-related grammar (i.e., compare my translations of

"Kobushi" to those that appear in the Appendix by research assistant and cultural worker VSOP

and to his translations of popular artists that follow). Furthermore, when different translations

were presented to Japanese cultural workers whose work was being translated, they preferred the

translations that utilized the most AAE linguistic features. These instances mark an important

aspect of my analysis, because they further contribute to an understanding of how Japanese









Hiphop artists are performing blackness. Following the theories explained by Morgan (2008),

usage of AAE language indexes oppositional practice and resistance to alienation.

One young Japanese-national research assistant concurs as he wrote to me in an e-mail: "I

think slang words (at least in the States) that are in Hip Hop are used [to] create a language that

whites don't understand but people of color can communicate with each other. It' s words that

can't be understood by whites so in Japan, I think slang words among young people is a way of

resistance against the adults." He then listed the following Japanese Hiphop lexicon:

(1)Ma~chigainai (=fo sho / yea that' s right, used in agreements, to emphasize the
agreement)

(2) 045 (=refers to Yokohama area also known as the "Bay Area" of Japan.)
((And there are lots more numbers and city names to refer to the specific area or city in
Japan and represent where they from. 03 usually refers to Tokyo area. same as how we
here in the states represent where we from with area codes.))

(3) Ame-ko- (=a word used towards [white] Americans (usually negative connotation)

(4) Kome (=rice; putting rice on the table; has money context)

(5) Ikareteru (=crazy (I guess this isn't really a slang)

Though this young researcher explains his understanding of AAE and Hiphop language in terms

of "slang," he is obviously engaging in and describing grammatical features. Likewise, there are

several African-American "slang" and "Ebonics English" dictionaries that situate AAE and

Ebonics as a language variety, as syntax, phonology, lexicon, semantics, and pragmatics (cf.,

Izumiyama 2005, 2007 [1997]). These texts also situate the study of African-American language,

culture, and history as necessary to understanding Hiphop and R&B. Understanding basic AAE

features are key to fully elucidating the significance of the "WORD" in Hiphop language



S"813" is also used for Tokyo, which interestingly is the same area code as Tampa, Florida, and
this relation was often brought to my attention. Examples of area code significance in global
Hiphop can be seen in works ranging from David Banner to Big Ron.









ideology. Some rules are summarized below drawing from Morgan (2002:77) as well as Green

(2002) when noted, with some of my own examples. Most of the examples below appear with a

listing of the AAE grammatical rule (e.g., absence of copula), the general American English

(GAE) equivalent (e.g., "Dawn is late." Note the use of "is," or the presence of copula), and

finally the example of the AAE grammatical rule (e.g., "Dawn late.").

Examples of AAE Phonology

* Final -ng as -n: laughing+ laughing
* Deletion or vocalization of r after a vowel: store+ sto
* Realization of -ing as -ang: sing + sang (e.g., She can sang!)

Examples of AAE Syntax

* Absence of copula: Dawn is late @/Daw/n late. (=Dawn is late in the present only.)

* Use of invariant /be/ for habitual action: Dawn is always late j Dawn be late. (=Dawn was
late yesterday, today, and everyday in general.)

* Use of invariant /be/ for future: Dawn will be here soon @Daw/n be here soon.

* Use of invariant /bin/: They made up a long time ago (and continue to be friendly). & They
been made up.

* Use of done to emphasize the completive nature of a task: She done divorced him.

* Use of had to mark the simple past: They had went to the store.

* Use of steady as a verbal marker that precedes a V-(ing): He steady mobbin.

* Multiple negation: Dawn don 't want no man telling her what to do/Ain 't no brothas goin
there .

Examples of AAE Lexicon

* Saditty (=conceited)
* Scrilla (=money)

Other Morphosyntactic Properties

* Postvocalic -s deletion or genitive marking: That my mama bed./ He my baby daddy./
That they business. [See also Green 2002: 102]










Of particular interest is Morgan' s unique and groundbreaking research (2002) which

catalogues the number of instances certain features are realized specifically within Hiphop. She

demonstrates particular trends within Hiphop linguistic features of using got(s) ta, got, and gotta

rather than have, have to, or has to in Hiphop verses. For example, US cultural worker Ice Cube

used some form of "got" 92% of the time verses "have" 2% of the time in lyrical productions

(Morgan 2002:128). Among other Hiphop linguistic features that she outlines is "Ima" rather

than "I'm going to" or "I'm gonna." Morgan explains it is "written Ima reflecting the deletion of

/g/. However, Ima does not only refer to future action, but also implies intention and agency of

speaker" (2002:127). How these linguistic features intersect with Japanese Hiphop is outlined

below in conjunction with other basic concepts of Hiphop language ideology and cultural

practice such as the idea of "flow" and the concept of "battle" (cf., Morgan 2005, 2008).

Flow: Can You Feel It?

As Hiphop encompasses many elements, including five fundamental ones emceeingg,

deejaying, graffiti art, dance, and knowledge and philosophy), artists' experiences with flow

have varied, depending on the specific genre within Hiphop in which one practices. 9 For emcees

in Japan, the history of use and innovation concerning flow has been interesting. In the early

1980s, because much of the Hiphop that emcees were consuming was coming from African-

American speech communities where AAE abounds, many artists began by interpreting a style

that was quite reflective of, if not imitating, African American English rhyming styles. Verses

were constructed in ways that either actually used multiple AAE and Hiphop language phrases,

or African American English sentences were translated into Japanese and then performed over

beats. Condry (1999: 106) writes that Japanese is a difficult language to construct simple English-

9 This section is inspired by the work of Marcyliena Morgan (2001, 2005, 2008) on the subj ect,
and I thank her for encouraging me to write about "flow" in Japanese Hiphop.










centered rhymes because of its multisyllabic nature. As one Japanese Hiphop pundit put it, "It

doesn't sound good": the practice of short and simple rhyme schemes in generic and standard 16-

bar rhyming formats. This pundit was signifying that the "flow" of the AAE-centered rhymes

that so many Japanese Hiphop fans were enjoying from abroad was missing from these Japanese

"translations."

Local Japanese Hiphop pundits and impresarios were not the only critics of this imitation

or "translation" style of verse composition. African-American and African national residents and

visitors in Japan in addition to visiting Hiphop artists from the United States (who usually

represented the African Diaspora) also criticized the aesthetics of this lyrical practice. Those

fluent in African-diasporic oral performance styles, from the oft-cited "griot" to the African-

American preaching styles that feature phonemic variation and "whooping" noted that the flow,

the product of the word performance of these early Japanese artists, created dissonance,

according to their cultural aesthetics (Harmon n.d.).

The difference in production between African-diasporic emcees and Japanese emcees does

not mean that there are no indigenous cultural aesthetics that have flow, in Japanese poetic and

oral performance (cf., renga, senryu, etc,). To my knowledge, the early emcees did not seem to

draw on this tradition. When they did, flow dramatically changed for Japanese emcees. In the

1990s, emcees like K Dub Shine and producers like DJ Yutaka brought cultural and linguistic

knowledge of African-American speech communities to Hiphop crews in metropolitan areas like

Tokyo. An important aspect of this knowledge was "to keep it real" and attend to autochthonous

concerns. Another aspect of this knowledge was the phenomenon of being socialized into a

transnational Hiphop cultural and speech community. Cultural national tenets that buttress pride

in one' s heritage and fixed ideas of "traditional cultural aesthetics" influenced the artists' cultural









exchanges. Others built bridges with African Americans in the military and other visitors to

tweak styles as they became introduced to Hiphop knowledge and philosophy. Emcees, in line

with the Hiphop mantra of "keeping it real" began to incorporate dialects and oral traditions

(such as Osaka-ben and Osaka comedy) from their regions into emcee battles and performances.

The rich tradition of Japanese poetry was built upon with modern Hiphop innovations.

Battles have dramatically improved these innovations and creations. There are striking

differences between battles that I observed in 1994 and those I observed postmillennium (2001,

2002, 2003, 2004, 2005). I have seen emcees go from uneven breath control and disj pointed

"spitting" of phonemes to the production of a flow that "melts in one' s ears" akin to the revered

verses of Hiphop lyrical guru Pharoah Monche (Alim 2006). An example of such lyrical prowess

would be the flows of MC Kan, a signed artist who was also the First Place winner of the 2002

BBoy Park Emcee Battle. MC Kan produced a lyricism that would be akin to African-American

preaching styles of "whooping" in which one goes into a rhythm and performative mode that is

simultaneously visceral and mental.

The difference between the early lyrical producers and the latter emcees described is one of

confidence and comfort with oral performance, which could also be described in terms of

"spirit." The latter artists are feeling their own flow; they produce morphemes with passion and

faith that convincingly reflect their purported life experience. The skill is undeniable. Topic and

content continue to be of concern to Japanese Hiphop pioneers, who feel responsible for much of

the cultural brokerage between African-diasporic emcees and Japanese national emcees. Too

much braggadocio as well as focus on a "gangsta lifestyle" that is simply unrealistic for what one

would commonly find in Japan can mar oral performance and interfere with one's flow, as it

disrespects the basic tenet of "keeping it real" or at least "realistic." (Not that there aren't










"gangstas" (=chinpira) in Japan--there certainly are--but they are not a carbon copy of a South

Central, Los Angeles video; they have their own version of street gangs and mafia, along with

their own rituals and cultural codes and ornament.) Thus, just as in the US and other parts of the

world, there is a philosophical battle taking place between pioneers and popular Hiphop artists

concerning content, performance, and aesthetics (see Knowledge Panel transcription in

Appendix, for example). Marcyliena Morgan describes the struggle between pioneers and

popular artists as:

Each hiphop era is marked by philosophical battles over the nature of representing and
identity, the notion of recognizing and truth, sense and reference, the notion of comin'
correct, intentionality and power. Similarly, the hiphop mantra keeping it real" represents
the quest for the coalescence and interface of ever-shifting art, politics, representation,
performance and individual accountability that reflects all aspects of youth experience.
[2005: 8]

Morgan further elucidates the relationship between "flow" and the concept of the "battle" in the

following passage:

Once the "real" and socially critical context is established, artists may enter what
Csikszentmihalyi refers to as flow state as they reach contentment and are fully absorbed in
the activity. It is in this sense that Hiphop's ritual of respect and collaboration undermines
and mines the status quo by not only exposing hegemony, but recklessly teasing it as well.
On the surface, artists appear to stalk, boast and deride. In reality, they are arguing for
inclusion on their terms. Hiphop, and its often-epic quest for what is real, is part of
Foucault' s technology of power and a battlefield where symbols, histories, politics, art, life
and all aspects of the social system are contested. It is not an endless Nietzschean search
for truth, but a determination to expose it and creatively represent all of its manifestation.
When an MC flows s/he is creating the highest level of a battle with honor. [2005:5]

Finally, in the past few years, emcees or artists who are "racially mixed" have been thrust

into the public sphere in both Hiphop, rap and R&B genres. These artists who may have

experienced severe social discrimination in mainstream Japanese society in earlier years (if not

living on a military base or a place where such youth were not the minority), are now able to

procure capital based on their bi-cultural knowledge and ability to flow between cultures and

languages. Perhaps the future champions of the flow and the battle will be those who are flexible









and fluid in not only their lyrical delivery, but also their ability to maneuver among and between

such linguistic and cultural knowledge.

"Shinjuku Represent": A Battle

The following battle, recorded on the occasion of a special anniversary of an annual

Hiphop festival, signifies many of the features of aesthetics and ideology concerning flow in

Hiphop culture previously described These emcees were competing for the championship of an

emcee battle that had been taking place over the course of three days. Hundreds of contenders

had battled before them, and now each battler was facing the other in this final showdown. The

two emcees, MC S and MC R, both represented the neighborhood of Shinjuku. They both were

known among their largely middle- and high-school-age fan base for performing rebellious

attitudes and presenting a "bad boy" image in the public sphere. For example, a few days earlier

at the first big battle site, I saw MC R stalking through the backstage crowd with power and

influence, his male age-mates configured close as an entourage. Collectively they heckled

emcees with poor lyrical skills, and some members of the group boasted about their access to

large quantities of high-grade marijuana, one of whom pulled a bag out and slammed it onto the

table in front of another hopeful emcee as part of his boastful performance.

Just before the final battle on the third day, I had a similar experience with MC S, as I was

almost run down by him as he blazed passed me on his motorbike in reckless haste toward the

arena in which the final battle for champion of the festival would take place. As he blazed past,

he called out his own emcee name in a rugged, raspy, and yet nasal voice. Others, especially

young women, who seemed to admire and support this emcee's budding career, screamed his

name in response. MC S performed his "bad boy" image through other performative antics in

forthcoming battles before the final one. He would strike poses that signified simultaneous

disinterest and hardness, and during one battle he climbed onto the ropes of the battlers' ring










(similar to a boxing ring) and hung upside down as if he were bored while his opponent

struggled to battle against him. MC S's expensive Hiphop-based fashion choices and his

passionate performatives of arrogance and rebelliousness positioned him in a place of pride and

even envy for most of the battle onlookers, myself included. Although I felt he could benefit

from the exercise of some discipline (perhaps this is an ageist perspective), I found his behaviors

engaging and charismatic.

MC R's performance was equally charismatic, though different. When I engaged him one-

on-one, he differed from MC S who kept up his "bad boy" image as though I were media and not

an elder or researcher, whereas MC R codeswitched and was almost shy and quite respectful,

using distal speech styles. When I praised his lyrical skills (that continue to mesmerize me to this

day), he replied in a humble and reserved manner. Among his peers, and even some industry

elders (all of whom were male), he was not so humble, but he remained reserved. He had a

"hard" and cold stance, and a critical look in his eyes that signified that he was capable of serious

physical defense. I perceived MC R as carrying a "hood" sensibility about him. He seemed

serious and "about business," but he also seemed to represent a distinct Hiphop aesthetic

associated with those who come of age in struggling and marginalized communities where crime

and injustice abound; these communities are sometimes referred to as "hoods."

Both emcees represented Shinjuku, and both expressed an authentically menacing

capability through body language and other performatives. Interestingly, their respective "hoods"

in Shinjuku also hold a symbolic reference to the world in addition to Japan as being especially

hybrid, diverse, and therefore "dangerous." Indeed, former Prime Minister Nakasone' s and

Justice Minister Kajiyama' s infamous racist comments were initially targeted toward the area of

Shinjuku, an area known for sex workers, gangsters, mafia, and foreign vendors (Africans,









Middle-Easterners and other Asian nationals who are routinely stigmatized and racially marked

by the Japanese government). The diversity of the area is read as criminal, and there are indeed

bona fide criminal activities that occur there; however, I would guess that the "criminal"

ascription is more due to policy and policing rather than "diversity" as Kajiyama suggested.

Perhaps hailing from such an area carried cultural currency in the traditional Hiphop aesthetic in

that it signified that one was a "survivor," one could "keep it real" (or not be ashamed of one' s

roots), and "not give up" as many Hiphop mantras advise.

This battle was significant to me for many different reasons. One is that it signified great

lyrical skills, and the emotion and interpersonal drama behind the battle made it interesting for

many of the audience participants. Another reason it has remained of interest to me is that these

two artists have gone on to enj oy commercially successful careers in Hiphop, and they have

worked with Japanese-national artists who are both nationally and internationally iconic in

Hiphop as well as J-Pop (= Japanese popular music genre akin to Billboards' "pop" category).

Finally, the rhetoric and topics of choice during the battle reinforced my premise that Hiphop is

simultaneously transnational and autochthonous in ways that continue to amaze me.

Three main themes in this battle were (1) the notion of saving Japan through Hiphop and

talented lyrical skills, (2) the assertion and protection of masculinity as an identity, and (3) the

assertion of Japanese national identity and pride. Those topics coupled with emcees boasting of

ways in which they are (1) lyrically talented, (2) "keeping it real,"(3) not giving up and

surviving, (4) willing to fight to death, (5) have pride in their background, community, and

identity, positioned their lyrical performance well within transnational Hiphop lyrical aesthetics,

content, and context. I am not alone in my interest in this particular battle. Excerpts of the battle

that appear in my film always elicit positive responses from younger US- and Japan-based










Hiphop consumers. Even when viewers do not understand Japanese, they remain excited and

impressed with MC R' s ability to flow by rhythmically uttering phonemes as well as his smooth

body movements and sincere passion about his freestyle performance. Likewise, this battle is one

of the few battles to-date to be posted on YouTube, and it is more popular than many popular

recording artists' videos on the Internet. At the time of this writing, it had received 103,491

views on YouTube, and approximately 8,000 during the previous week. Many of the fans

commenting on their performance seem to be fairly familiar with these emcees, global Hiphop,

and Japanese Hiphop. Below is a rough translation of the emcees' interchange. Lines of

ethnographic interest are marked with an arrow (4) and explicated below.

1. MC S:

2. This is a stage that I dreamt about standing on since 17

3. and I'll do this (freestyle) as much as you want.

4. RFollowing my own values. Right [MC R]? This is how I do it. For real. (yo/ 1)

5. MC R:

6. =For real (yo/ 1)

7. MC S:

8. This is how I really do it, my battle my way, my values, I'm climbing up the stairs.

9. 4My hood is also Shinjuku. Me too, I'm going to come up.

10. You are empty, don't even try to come up, this battle doesn't have any meaning.

11. I'm not gonna let you make it.

12. RMayday, mayday, this is the day that the war ended, you haven't really even stepped
foot 13. in the battle.










14. RPeace to the hardcore (?) (= real heads). [Name of MC S's crew] da bakayaro!
(=Name of 15. MC S's crew] muthafuckas!)o

16. RThey all know, chinpira and all the yakuza;s. 1

17. RI'm gonna tell you what' s on my mind,

18. 4How I do it. I'm a Nippon danjddd~~~~~ddddd~~~~i ((signifies pride as a Japanese male))

19. MC R:

20. I'm coming to respond to you, my way.

21. aWhen I was smoking Ganj a, I was thinking about the same thing.

22. If this is what I really want to do.

23. aWho' s real? What' s real. Don't matter just do it from

24. little by little and work your way up.

25. RCheck, check one two, anybody can say that.

26. MC S and MC R, the decision is up to you all.

27. 4Doing pachinko'2 when you 20, 30, I'm not gonna be like that, maybe you will.

28. Making a living off of (?) ((unintelligible))

29. I just wanted to rap, I put together a group,

30. maybe I couldn't have made it all the way here by myself.

31. This is where I'm gonna show you (?)((unintelligible))

32. MC S:

33. You don't really get what I said huh?



10 This is both an AAE narrative style and common Hiphop utterance that uses of a certain
explicative to emphasize pride in one's crew (perhaps by putting down other's mothers?).

11 Chinpira and yakuza are street or "petty" gangsters and mafia respectively.

12 Pachinko is often referred to as a national adult pastime. It is a gaming device and its reference
is used to petition images of gaming parlors and the illicit lifestyles that often surround them,
including drug use, depression, and gambling.










34. Yo, you first grade b-boy; I can't loose.

35. RThis is a battle between a man and a man. There are no rules.

36. A rap that becomes judged is already dead, stop fucking around judges, that' s a
mi stake

37. A wack fool that came up as an emcee

38. When you turn on that TV, you decide what' s right and what' s wrong.

39. I'm frustrated and I'm putting those emotions back to you in words,

40. carrying something that' s very important to me.

41. But I might be kind of weak, but I have something special,

42. I'm doing this for no one but myself.

43. This is what I chose to do for a living, right MC R?

44. 4Yea I want to fuck up [name of popular Hiphop 'boy band']

45. RI don't know what you get from TV,

46. but I'm going to die here ((I think referring to on stage in the ring))

47. That won't be too bad, I'm serious

48. MC R:

49. RI don't really care about you all JHiphop people,

50. the industry is full of wack people.

51. Yo, MC S, I don't like how the crowd and audience is looking down at us.

52. RThis ring (stage) should be set higher, about 10 meters higher.

53. Jumping over hurdles. We're gonna keep on going.

54. 4Me performing and delivering these rhymes.

55. aWe're gonna be saving Japan, and I'm just telling you this is just one way of doing









56. it.4Since the senpais'3 did not lay down the solid foundation for us,

57. we're coming up from the bottom to the top.

58. ((unintelligible)) SHINJUKU REPRESENT


Hiphop cultural aesthetics are referenced, represented and manifested in utterances

performed during the battle. MC R eventually won this close battle. Upon viewing the translation

below, one will see that while MC S had more substantive content, it was MC R's mesmerizing

flow--his ability to "freak" phonemes-that made him the champ. The following analysis

outlines the grammatical and cultural dynamics of this particular battle. Lines 4 and 5 (I~a~lig

WAY of >c c~/v~", 7Lde; MC R J"(=YO/"~for real/LYO")) contain a feature of AAE verbal combat as

well as Hiphop battle aesthetic in which one interlocutor says the final word of a phrase that their

battler is saying in an attempt to signify that their opponent' s freestyle is "weak" or untalented

because the opponent was able to guess the next word of the emcee she or he is battling. MC R' s

use of this technique was interesting and unexpected for me, because it is the only time he does it

in the battle, and he does it with a sentence particle, "yo" which is an emphasis signifier that has

a similar translational meaning in AAE. Other Hiphop ideology-based themes that abound in this

battle are (1) the idea of artist as superhero or savior (cf., Morgan 2008), (2) the assertion of

nationalist and gendered identities, (2) espousing philosophy about components of Hiphop,

including the aesthetics of battling, the "underground" versus the industry, and (3) rites of

passage in Hiphop socialization processes (Morgan 2001:190).

Assertions of nationalist and gendered identities are located in lines 9, 12, 14, 15, 25, 33,

34, 43, 55, and 58. In lines 9 and 58 respectively, MC S and MC R recognize their home

13 Serpai is an honorific assignment representing an age-based status relationship. A senpai
teaches the kohai, for example, in that the senpai are advanced in age, skill, and knowledge, and
are expected to teach, lead, and guide.









community of Shinjuku with pride and strength. Representing Shinjuku demonstrates their

experience with an urban lifestyle and it also positions their identity as Japanese national. In lines

14-15, MC S follows traditional Hiphop aesthetic as well as (perhaps unconsciously) Japanese

spoken poetry aesthetics, e.g., renga or senryu, of giving respects to one' s imagined community

or artistic crew (= "Peace to the hardcore, [name of MC S crew], muthafuckas!"). MC S and MC

R further situate their urban lifestyle and authenticity by characterizing their neighborhood as

being dangerous through references to gangsters and mafia (line 16), as well as references to

engaging in the illegal activity of smoking marijuana (line 21). Line 18 features a term that, prior

to my participation in Japanese Hiphop speech communities, I had only known older males and

often those who were sympathetic to the politics of WWII, to use: "Nippon danjddd~~~~~ddddd~~~~i." This term

could translate to, "I'm a JAPANESE MAN!" and it is relational to black nationalist Hiphop (cf.,

X-Clan, Public Enemy) that asserted emcees' identities as BLACK and MALE (cf, Brotha J of

X-Clan, "I do the great pimp strut, cuz Ima BLACK MAN!"14). The emphasis is on pride

associated with one' s state-regulated identity, and the practice of this utterance resembles

strategic essentialism as well as disidentification.

Lines 12 and 25 are mocking and marking whiteness by signifying white speech acts heard

in WWII movies and other media, "Mayday, mayday" (=a distress signal, call for help) in

conjunction with a recognition and reverence for the day the that WWII ended (which was also

the day these two young men were battling) in line 12. Line 25 is MC R's attempt to undercut


14 To get the full extent of how this phrase is nationalist, review more of Brotha J of X-Clan' s
verse (1990) for context: "And while I'm boomin this, I'm not a humanist/ I'm just a pro-black
nigga and I'm doin this/ And don't you try to prove, that you can make a move/ Because I'm
outraged, devil; it's a different groove/ And if you come again, this shit'll never end/ And we will
fight through time through the very end/ You get my point son? You get my point dad?/ I'm goin
back to your caves and I'm quite bad/ I do a war dance, and cause a avalanche/ And do the great
pimp strut cuz Ima black man!i"









MC S's talented diss (the use of a pun through signifying white war speech and referencing

WWII, which was in the minds of everyone because of the media surrounding the

commemorations at that time) that simultaneously and brilliantly dissed white American identity,

uplifted and showed reverence to Japanese (male) identity through his reference to the date,

while dissing MC R, who he is saying should send a distress signal akin to "Mayday, Mayday"

because he is about to lose the battle. MC R responds through an attempt to unpack this diss by

uttering, "Check, check on two, anybody can say that," implying that MC S's line 12 should not

be read as deep as MC S intends, because the rhythm of his utterance is reminiscent of early

Japanese Hiphop and even earlier US Hiphop flow styles.

Other references to masculinity are in line 35 (this is between MAN and MAN), line 34

(first grade b-boy [=low status young person, "wet behind the ears" implication]), and line 44

(which predicates masculinity on his willingness to annihilate other popular male Hiphop artists

who are read as "commercial," "soft," and "weak"; thus, they are damaging the already delicate

image of Japanese masculinity according to the global world order that feminizes Asian male

identity). Finally, line 55 echoes a "stakes is high" mentality in Hiphop philosophy, which

further situates the dominant "keep it real" and "don't give up" mantras with the emcees as

"gods" or "saviors" who save disaffected people as well as Hiphop through the practice of

Hiphop. Further, MC R critiques elders (=senpais) for not laying a solid foundation, and

accentuates that he among others is building a Hiphop foundation (cf., Rapper l's comments )

"from the bottom to the top."

Japanese AAE Codeswitching in Japanese Hiphop

AAE is used by people I know, my friends; that's how we talk. AAE, used by people of
color, is different from language that white people use (.2) so it's (I don't know) special.

--A 19 year old, Japanese national cultural worker who works in Japan and the US









In the popular and widely consumed Dictionary of African-American Slang, Izumiyama

Izumiyama (2007 [1997]) begins with a "Hip-Hop Map" that designates "who's representing'

where." A map of the continental United States is drawn with Hiphop "hotspot" cities denoted

along with lists of famous African-American rappers (with the lone exception of Eminem) who

"represent" those areas. These cities and artists are set according the author' s sense of saliency

towards Hiphop and African-American culture and history. The dictionary continues to give a

linguistic introduction to African American English as well as other information about popular

and literary history and culture. The book features words that represent all aspects of African

American English, from phonological manifestations such as "da" for "the" to lexicon like

"steelo" (=style). Samples of how to use the word in context in addition to definitions and

emoticons indicating whether the vernacular in question is gender-based or still relevant are part

of each dictionary entry. Popular magazines such as BM~R (Black Music Review), which

prominently features Hiphop, have monthly columns that elucidate "the word" in AAE much in

the manner of how Morgan (2008) theorizes. BMR' s column is titled, "Word is Yours!i" The

June 2007 issue of BMR' s "Word is Yours!" column featured the word, "nappy" as "Lesson 14"

in the series. The descriptions elucidate the subj ect matter in a similar manner to Izumiyama

(2007).

Izumiyama's book features brief biographies of salient African-American leaders, mostly

male, ranging from politicians and human rights activists to prominent sports figures. It says that

these leaders are included because they are commonly referenced in Hiphop lyrics. The book

also presents timelines and essays answering the question, "where did Hiphop come from?"

Interestingly, African-American roots are designated, and African-American narrative styles are

discussed in detail. The timeline features Langston Hughes Not 0I without Laughter in reference to










dirty dozens and other writers, including Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God,

with excerpts, explanation and translation, along with reference to other dance and music styles

from the 1930s through the 1960s. The year 1969 references Kool Herc' s immigration to the

Bronx in addition to H. Rap's Brown' s Die Nigger Die and Iceberg Slim's Pimp---The Story of

M~y Life. It continues on through the present with African-American history and cultural roles in

Hiphop's origins narrative.

Why would a dictionary of African-American "slang" feature so much information on

Hiphop, from "roots" to linguistic features to geography? I posit that the existence and popularity

of this book and many others (cf., Izumiyama 2005) further situates Hiphop in Japan as part of

imagined black cultural practice, with Hiphop serving as a trope for blackness. This is partially

maintained through specific speech acts that reflect African American English. I present lyrics

from popular songs initially translated by a 19-year-old cultural worker who also works with me

as a research assistant and co-constructive analyst. These songs were selected because they are

popular among diverse sets of Hiphop "heads," and they represent a cross-section of artists in the

public sphere. As a bilingual, bicultural producer of Hiphop culture, VSOP's translations were

much more artistic and to the liking of the cultural workers I worked with than some of the other

translations presented in this research (such as those by the author), because they were

considered more authentic and less literal or even "square."

I present both the codeswitching found in the original artists' lyrics published by the artists

themselves in their CD sleeves or on online fora, as well as the translations produced by VSOP.

Note that both the originals and the translations feature grammatical features of AAE. As stated

earlier, cultural workers reported that it was precisely the aspects of translations that maintained

the AAE linguistic features that reflected the intention and feeling of the original composition.









Below I outline and analyze examples of AAE linguistic features as well as Hiphop language

ideology in the Japanese compositions presented.

"Luck Last" (2006) by Anarchy feat. La Bono and AK-69 -AK-69's Verse

Original: Translation:
Shining $19 F-i ganxta rap J9 (# 8'% 1 Shining, let the gangsta rap bump, you
'E ~3FA 611 hey yo hey yo wack might get burned so you better watchout
RIt's da mutherfuckin '69, L EA &ig 2 Hey yo hey yo wack, eit's da
II Tubi fuckin' stylez muthafuckin' 69
Wi@ 98.: -I .( 1itf <( f61 ;h E (1f~I 3 4Got the L and the A on lock, tubi
fuckmn' stylez
4 When I walked around the town, didn't
8 6 IfiE & 5 4- & tokwant to lose to anyone, so don't start shit
e 9 ab;~~;~ iR 5 You need to know me to talk about me
6'~f i) 3 T/2347344~ f 4 '-7 6 REven when I was broke and livin' a
'.; CS $ 0 TW 6 T hard life, even when I was selling' and
rf $ F LT ?k31_[(g living a ballin' life,
/vub fe microphone 7 Even when I was doin' dirt, I never let
~Luck last put your sets up, 00 0~; 1) (f the microphone, even for no women
hitile AL blah 8 4Luck last put your sets up, all that
~~9 ~ c. .., ~,.,,,,.., r \\L ~~matters is if you reach your goal,
IJ c ~L YUI C~a ~ ~/J' L~lc~9 If you loymn' night now put your sets up,
W;h3 & & & right now blah livin' a crazy past


Anarchy is based in the Kyoto area of Japan. He is a rapper on the R-Rated Records label

managed by Ryuzo for Maguma MCs. The song, "Luck Last," features appearances by La Bono

(R-Rated Records) and AK-69, a rapper based in Nagoya. His album art (see Figure 4-1) features

himself in a striking pose behind letters that follow the aesthetics and rules of commercial graffiti

writing, as it looks as if it were written with a marker and extra lines and marks accentuate and

frame the wording. The tattoo on his hand supports his "bad boy," hardened, and masculine

image.

Obj ect 4-2 Anarchy's album cover for "Luck Last"

Though morphemes such as "the" and "they" being linguistically realized as /da/ and /dey/

are indicative of social class, linguists have also situated the occurrence within an AAE

phonological framework (cf., Green 2002; Morgan 2001). Lines 2-3 include AAE phonological










style of "the" appearing as "da," and there is also lexical innovation considering L and A (=LA)

with "on lock" lexicon, a verbal phrase meaning that the obj ect/subj ect in reference is "under

control." The numbers "69" refer to a car and "tubi" refers to car parts, specifically exhaust

systems hand-crafted by artisans in Italy. The term "fuckin" follows the rule of post-vocalic /g/

deletion, and "stylez" follows innovation in orthography, with the final /s/ being written /z/. Line

6 not only begins a reference to a Hiphop philosophy tenet of perseverance, but it also features

three words that follow postvocalic /g/ deletion: "livin," selling, and "lovin." "Put your sets up"

in line 8 means to represent one's identity, "hood," or gang affiliation, with "sets" referring to

hand symbols or gestures that signify one's affiliation or region, and it completes the narrative of

perseverance.

"Koko Tokyo" (2003) by Aquarius (DJ Yakko & Deli) feat. S-Word, Big-O, and Dabo--
BIG-O's Verse


Original: Translation:
S Y ROCK ON H r "~ b r a BIG-O 1 +Rock on, in a second I'll grab your
0 9* A f; 0ihD t% W 0 01[heart, Ima throw to you Big-O's rhyme
2 Movin and actin to haul your ears,
it~~~ ifiEM 380 RECORD t 1000?~ij~ physical evidence, it's on the record
3 This sick city, the magic doesn t
disappear, time passes, losing sight of the
GOT MY MIMDON MY MONEY
value
MONEY ON MY MIND
4 +Got my mmnd on my money, money
E neo~f LA 5 f v 10 g on my mind, money falls between the
c1- 9 7~ if (J tr (1 7 9 5 4f & ti valleys of the between the valleys of the
-ti building building
BEAT (1f 0 i3h 'O as a "i RA yR 6 Communication on the streets is serious,
7; & 3'/ I AQUARIUS slowly changes from dream to reality
((E(M/v~ofEA &0 Rf 67 4Sittin on the beat, chasin tomorrow,
WYAR-ZONE iR~t '7 -- 0 4 & '/ ? hearing Aquarius from the headphones
8 I choose to hive in this city, running
through the war zone
AL ty ^ AFWv x( Wvx (9 GI'll come and visit you before the
neon on the Tokyo tower disappears

The Hiphop group Aquarius is made up of the two-man crew of DJ and producer, Yakko

a.k.a. Jhett, and rapper Deli from Nitro Microphone Underground (NMU). The collaboration









resulted in an album called Oboreta Machi. The song, "Koko Tokyo" features fellow NMU

members S-Word and Dabo, along with another legendary Tokyo rapper, Big-O. Big-O is

currently gaining popularity in the US through his newest fashion line, Phenomenon. Their

album cover features artistic lettering in romaji in addition to the group members, who are

wearing popular Hiphop fashion.

Obj ect 4-3 Aquarius' s album cover for the "Koko Tokyo"

Line 1 of the preceding verse contains the "Ima" phrase that Morgan (2002: 127-128)

describes as part of AAE and Hiphop linguistics. Line 4 features the phrase "got my mind on my

money, money on my mind" which is a phrase that abounds in Hiphop as well as AAE historic

narrative poetry. More recently, The Notorious B.I.G.--a slain rapper who is considered as

possessing some of the most talented lyrical skills in global Hiphop--has been noted for that

phrase. The lyrical sampling here serves as a shout to the aforementioned traditions. The phrase

beginning with "got" is also consistent with Morgan's research (2002:128) concerning the higher

percentage for "got" verses "have" in subj ect case for Hiphop verses. Line 9, the final line of the

verse, is quite poetic and reminiscent of traditional Japanese poetry genres, such as tanka, with

his reference to coming to visit his sweetheart before dawn. It also petitions literary aesthetics

such as mono no aware, in that a sense of sadness along with sentimentality is communicated

with his vivid and beautiful imagery. The Hiphop aesthetic of perseverance is also

communicated in this song, and the lyrical reference to Notorious B.I.G. accentuates this

sensibility.










"No Pain No Gain" (2002) DJ PMX feat. Maccho (Ozrosaurus), Zeebra--Maccho's Verse


Original :
IR (1tr Cz e L 2 i~ &~ Of 9f 4T~ ~ J`~
At a11% Li hi3a

~a W E L -cCi$ NW 2






39 Met MURDERER C 1 4 i3 a> b0

78 SK CHECK DA NUMBER r\4 7
3 7L&'l::..D BAY STAR ft# (YO!)

jS7L 0 SMOKING' BOOGIE
-4 9- WPr (18 h-C6 & H ROLLIN'
Wh3 > b PEACE TO DA Mil yA- -~ -


2Ji~~ ~ 6 ;.t RRATIi tW~~~DJ PMX
9 4s b 7 2MC


Translation:
1 & This is all I have, this skill of rhymin
that I been doin
2 You better keep in mind that this ain't
easy, this is a tough path full of back
alleys
3 Crazy bass line with a punch lime, no
newcomer can get any respect
4 Seems irresponsible but I'm not but let
it look like it and I stay straight with my
swagger
5 My roots come from route 16, I'm a
murderer with a microphone, since the
age of 14, nonstop drama
6 4Gotta '78, check da number, speaks
like a ballad, reppin' the bay Yo!i
7 Just cruisin' straight on the road,
smoking' boogie
8 OI stay rollin' as the ballad plays in the
back, I give ma peace to ma Tokyo

9 I gamble with my talent and risk it with
my pride,
10 I only need those who know to
understand me till the end, DJ PMX and 2
tight MCs


Legendary producer DJ PMX is from the city of Yokohama and is known for his smooth

(US) West Coast style tracks. PMX is the deej ay and producer for the two-man crew, DS455.

The song "No Pain No Gain" features Maccho from Ozrosaurus and Zeebra. Maccho, like DJ

PMX, represents the Yokohama area. Zeebra is from Tokyo and was part of the legendary

Japanese Hiphop group, King Giddra. The font on the cover of the album brings to mind the

block lettering associated with the "bling" aesthetic that was new and yet popular at the time of

this album's debut. The expensive car and expensive fashion buttress this notion. The bandana

represents street culture of Japan as well as street culture of the US, and the squatted, leaned pose

is a classic "bboy" stance; both symbols represent masculinity.









Obj ect 4-4 DJ PMX' s album art for the "No Pain No Gain"

Line 1 communicates a sense of despair or deprivation in this verse that attends to

Hiphop's dominant "don't give up" narrative. Line 1 also features postvocalic /g/ deletion. Line

6 contains phonological feature "da" in place of "the" and "gotta" in subj ect position (Morgan

2002:128). Line 8 presents the syntax feature or "stay" which is akin to "steady," but differs in

that it means "to engage in activity frequently" (Green 2002:23). When lyricist Maccho says he

"stay rollin as the ballad plays in the back," he could intend a double meaning given the context

of the rest of the verse: he is always rolling marijuana cigarettes and he is always riding in his

car. Line 8 could be glossed as "I am always engaged in rolling marijuana for the purpose of

smoking, while I habitually ride in my car and listen to music from loudspeakers located in the

back of my car." Line 8 also includes the Hiphop and AAE word homese" meaning "friends."

"Uh-Uh" (2003) by Suite Chic feat. Al-Suite Chic's Verse

Original: Translation:
'4 &0 TEA 6i_@ ar M$ 61 Falling in to disorder, getting choked
9 9 v ~f-r t3 a> f( 01 (2 make 2 & This relationship that' s full of
me be sick scratches, make me be sick
j J0 16 -e (E aa' tr h 6 aaJ1 xj 3 Even as we talk, I feel like
collapsing
4 +Why don't you stop playing' me out
why don't you stop playing' me out.
5 I want to stop this
6 This is a game that I don't wanna
A1- if ( `r/iS 1; 7Ld what? R~t7Ld & 6 but, 7 So what? I'm gonna be aggressive
6 j --RfMA110Ct a bootylicious but
#jt-~i j0 & -e &i IMMP 6 to the 8 GOne more time, fall for my body
end that' sbootylicious
9 I love the way that you see me with
your eyes till the end









Suite Chic, a.k.a. Amuro Namie, is a famous pop singer in Japan who has shown her

staying power in the industry. She has recorded under the name Suite Chic as a Hiphop emcee

and singer, and has collaborated with various Hiphop artists such as Dabo, Zeebra, Verbal from

M-Flo, and XBS on her first Hiphop style album, When Pop Hit' s the Fan. The song "Uh-Uh" is

produced by Yakko a.k.a. Jhett from the group Aquarius and features another maj or Japanese

emcee, AI. This J-Pop turned Hiphop star features a "blaxploitation"-influenced cover for the

compilation pictured (Obj ect 4-5). Of note are 1970s-inspired font styles of Suite Chic" written

on the album cover. Also of note is her choice of the afro hair style and perhaps slightly browner

skin for the front cover illustration of herself. This illustration does not reflect her usual image.

She is rumored to have "mixed" or multiple heritages and is from Ryukyu Islands. She is touted

as being one of the best R&B and Hiphop artists in the world by her consumers.

Obj ect 4-5 Suite Chic' s album cover for the "Uh-Uh"

This translation features aspects of AAE phonology (postvocalic /g/ deletion), syntax

(invariant /be/), and lexicon (bootylicious). Line 2 suggests an attempt at the use of invariant

(aspectual or habitual) /be/, meaning the male character that she sings about keeps her in a

continual sense of heartbreak, not that he is only making her upset in this particular moment.

Line 4 contains the phrase playingn me out"; playing / is a result of post-vocalic /g/ deletion, and

the overall phrase is common in Hiphop meaning that one has been duped, tricked, or humiliated.

Line 8 contains a lyrical sample from Beyonce, who is part of an African-American female

singing group called Destiny's Child ("my body that' s bootylicious"). In Hiphop, lyrical samples

serve as a "shout out," "props," or respectful intentions toward others who influence one's

artistic production and persona. Furthermore, "bootylicious" is part of Hiphop lexicon. Currently

in the public sphere it means beautiful, or as Izumiyama (2007) defines it "booty (=body) +

delicious," and an example of it in use is "I wanna be bootylicious like Kelis" [US female emcee









and wife to US male emcee Nas] (2007:31). This newer definition demonstrates linguistic

change. For example, when I was coming of age, "bootylicious" was akin to the word wackk" or

"booty"-as in "it stank" like a "butt" (cf, Snoop Dogg 1992--dissin Tim Dog-"But fuck your

mama, I'm talking about you and me/ Toe to toe, Tim M-U-T/ Your bark was loud, but your bite

wasn't vicious/ And them rhymes you were kickin were quite bootylicious"). "Bootylicious" held

a negative connotation as an insult in a similar manner, but not as powerful, as any phrase that

disrespects one's mother. Beyonce and others have helped to catapult this AAE-rooted lexicon

into the international public sphere with a new meaning. 1

"Bayside Cruisin'" (2005) Big Ron feat. Richee, DS455 --Richee's Verse

Big Ron is a cultural worker based in the Yokosuka area of Japan, He has been active in

the "West Coast" cultural movement scene of Japan. This song is featured on his album, "Str8

Out Da Bay" and features Richee, a member of Big Ron' s Hiphop group, Ghetto INC., and

DS455, which consists of DJ PMX and rapper Kayzabro. Of note on this album cover is the

AAE phrase and orthography "Str8 Out Da Bay." Thus, two California, USA references are

combined. First, the Straight Outta Compton album by LA-based group NWA and "Da Bay,"

which refers to the San Francisco Bay Area (usually the East Bay's Oakland or Richmond, which

serve as tropes for blackness in public discourse as well as in the Ebonics dictionaries, see

Izumiyama 2005, 2007 [1997]). Second, the symbols of Big Ron' s tattooed arms simultaneously

evoke a memory of LA-based Black and Latino gang cultures as well as Japanese domestic gang

and mafia culture. The car selection also references a US West Coast Hiphop aesthetic, as

Yokohama, home to some US military-base housing, is usually presented as having more of a


SSee also Morgan (2002:76) on grammaticalization and (2008:95, 102) for more on linguistic
change in AAE and Hiphop language varieties.









"West Coast style" than Tokyo, a nearby city. Big Ron is also rumored to have "mixed" or

multiple heritages. I have heard a number of rumors, one of which positions him as being of

white (US, American?) and Japanese-national heritage. Big Ron's work has been criticized for

its misogynistic references that obj ectify women, and Latina/o research consultants have

problematized his performance of LA style and culture as Yokohama style and culture that

reifies stereotypes of Mexican people in the media. Despite these critiques, Big Ron enj oys

popularity, sold-out shows, and high sales of his productions, both CDs and DVDs, which could

hint toward changing attitudes concerning performances of race among current Hiphop

consumers. Whereas in the 1990s, trends in Japanese Hiphop seemed to be more sensitive about

performing negative stereotypes of racialized people (e.g., African-descendants) and there was a

lot of rhetoric about respecting the "roots" and history of "the culture," Big Ron's performances

were not read as such by some of my Latino-identified research assistants. His performance was

read as offensive to one assistant. Other research assistants viewed his work as performative and

not much different from other manifestations of the so-called "gangsta" genre of Hiphop, and

therefore, not offensive in terms of "race," but indeed offensive or at least problematic in terms

of gender representation. In any case, Big Ron presents interesting instances of codeswitching,

and represents novel aspects of hybridity in Japanese Hiphop genres.

Line 1 below contains postvocalic /g/ deletion with "cruising," hitting, and "switchin."

Lines 3-5 contain lexicon that is indicative of specific US West Coast aesthetics including so

called choloo" culture with "lowride," "dayton," and "candy paint," referring to car maintenance

and artistic rendering (paint, wheels, and stylization). Line 7 features a future tense auxiliary,

"gonna." Lisa Green comments that, "future is also marked with gonna or gon, which does not

occur with first person singular (Ima)" (Green 2002:40). Lines 8 and 12 refer to dominant










Hiphop philosophies, one of perseverance and the other to "wild style" or artistic and unfettered

creative aesthetics.

Original:
CRUISIN' WW@E~ STREET AND Translation:
HITTIN' #T-ti & LT 6 SWITCHIN' 1 ACruisin' around the city street and
WOW I4'774-A 6 CHROME hitting switchin'
CANDY PAINT i$4 --&(2l GOLD 2 wow, the chrome bumper shining
DAYTON WIRE (240 9- 4 V I- 3 +Candy paint, the wheels are gold
LOWRIDE STYLE tChil DESIRE 4 Adayton wire, with the stuck out tires
HOT i& GIRLS MY HEART IS ON FIRE 5 Glowride style is what it desire
6 some hot girls, my heart is on fire
Ofa tj-jA6 Q ~t GONNA GET HIGH
7 +gonna get high till the early morning
ta STYLE t letat~i WILD -
8 +this style is always wild
/v 3 L*iS RA 9 I cant tell ya all day long, this is our trial
BIG RON & KAY-DOUBLE "O" & 10 Big Ron and Kay-double "o" and
SHOUT shout to PMX, DJ that rocks the crowd
PMX, DJ THAT ROCKS THE CROWD 11 if you've come this far, you know the

5 i t R L i :'. \116 SHOW If 12 +the path is long so keep on movin'
j(lfW- \f KEEP ON MOVIN' 13 the never-ending bayside cruisin'
;0 ;h 0 oih BAY SIDE CRUISIN'

Obj ect 4-6 Big Ron' s album cover for the "Bayside Cruisin'"

Hybridity, Identity, and Cultural Work

I had been to the "VIP" section of a particularly large, Shibuya-based Hiphop club several

times, but I had not been there when there were so many (over a dozen) recording artists in the

section at once. The area we were in was very small, and it made my experience in the area seem

extra crowded and tight. I found a space next to an artist whom I recognized from popular press

and a brief meeting and interview a year earlier. I asked him if he was who I thought he was, and

responded that he was. He asked me how my work was going and I, surprised that he

remembered me from a brief meeting from the year before, replied that it was going well. At

some point while we were talking (in Japanese), he abruptly asked if I was half Japanese. When I

told him that I was not half Japanese, he asked how I learned to speak Japanese, and I told him

that I originally learned it from my mother, who used to teach Chinese and Japanese. He then









asked, "Is she [my mother] Chinese?" and I said, "No she's African-descent American." "But

you are half [haffu](=of multi-racial heritage)?" he said, and I responded, "Yes, my mother is

black and my father is white." "Me, too," was his response. He continued, "My mother is

Filipino and my father is Japanese. I am half, too." He was grinning widely and nodding

emphatically, seeming excited that we were both haffu.

At this point, a number of other artists near us began to relay similar comments. "My

mother is Chinese," said one rapper, and "My mother is Korean," said another. Someone called

out, "I heard [another artist who had left the "VIP" section to hang out in the deej ay area] was

Ainu." I was surprised by this interaction. Up until that point I had been told that people who

were haffu hid their multiple heritages to fit into to Japanese society (cf., Life 199X) but in this

space people were proudly claiming diverse heritage and drawing connections to their

perceptions of me. The artists whom I talked to that night performed as if they were secure and

proud of their identity. I asked the artist sitting closest to me who identified as having a Filipino

mother if he preferred the term haffu (=half, suggesting multiple ethnoracial heritage) or daaburu~ddd~~~~ddd~~~ddd

(=double, suggesting multiple ethnoracial heritage). He responded that nowadays it is better

(=politically correct) to say daaburu~ddd~~~~ddd~~~ddd but when he was growing up, he was picked on and called

h
successful. I replied that I understand prejudice (=sabetsu wakarima~su, meaning I went through

similar experiences), and said "In the United States and even here [in Japan] in Nagoya as a high

school student, I had problems." He said, "To struggle and be successful is the story of Hiphop.

KanpKKK~~~~~KKKKK~~~~ai (=toast)" We toasted, and the topic shifted, as someone began to ask my colleague

questions about her experiences with a famous US-based "conscious" Hiphop group.










My main interlocutor's (the artist with the Filipino mother) mindful usage of "haffu"

reminded me of the generational use of the pej orative N word in the US among African

Americans. His practice in this instance seemed indicative of disidentifieation, as he purposely

identified with a negative identity term in an effort to raise awareness about social inequality and

abuse that he experienced growing up with that identification. His recognition of his success in

spite of this identification seemed to be a political act to reveal the constructed nature of the

identification in the first place. Finally, his association with hyrbidity (having multiple heritage),

suffering (coping with racialized ascriptions), and success through Hiphop (overcoming societal

adversity), supports the transnational Hiphop aesthetic, which holds an idea of the artist as

"superhero" and artist as providing an imperative "don't give up" narrative (Mufioz 1999;

Morgan 2008).

As time passed, I had more and more experiences like the aforementioned. In 2005, the

atmosphere of certain clubs in Tokyo was more welcoming of multicultural and multilingual

knowledge than I had ever experienced before. Whereas my earlier experience was confined to a

group conversation in the secluded VIP section of a club, I now saw open mic battles that

welcomed emcees and other artists from local military bases and other club goers who all

displayed skill in multiple languages and cultures. Indeed, these particular spaces privileged

political marking of "daaburu"ddd~~~ddd~~~ddd or more. The extremely young club visitors seem to be "coming

up" in a different social space than my own age-mates who were marked with multiple heritages

in Japan, or at least this club. The hot spot of Roppongi was a safe zone for them that night. In

this atmosphere, I wished that Lafura Jackson, aka "A-Twice," was with me to witness our

shared childhood fantasy: a space that welcomed and encouraged African- and Asian- descent

cultural and political collaboration.










Lafura Jackson was the son of a Japanese mother and African-American father, and his

name "A-Twice" signified that he was of both African- and Asian-descent. An interview with a

close friend who assists his mother with managing the cultural and academic materials that focus

on Jackson revealed that Jackson was interested in uncovered, under-reported research and

practice concerning collaborations between Asian-descendents and African-descendants, with a

focus on African Americans and Japanese nationals. We even share a similar tattoo attesting to

this wish: the kanji character for black (E) rests on my back and it rested on Jackson's arm. The

increasing evidence of open "hybrid" identities in Japanese Hiphop scenes marks a difference

from the eras in which Jackson and I grew up, where blackness as well as being marked as

racially mixed or "haffu" was stigmatized. Jackson, among others, saw Hiphop as a safe space

for bringing diverse cultures and language ideologies together (Jackson n.d.). It seems to be

happening in the distinct spaces that I just described.

Case Studies: Producers, Consumers, and Distributors

You better be serious if you wanna be serious/ No question: we pass on the sentiment of
our great teachers/ We are missionaries from Japan/ Today again we go to the
battlefield....We put our intentions in rap/ We live this extreme performance/ softness
overcomes hardness

--Rappagariya' s lyrics, "Kobushi" (DJ Yutaka produced United Nations (2000)

Distribution: "We All in the Same Game"

The story of distribution in Hiphop is indicative of the universalization of capitalism, and it

cannot be rooted in one country's soil. Hiphop emerged in undocumented markets, outside of the

formal economy in its genesis in the United States. Arguably, all Hiphop continues to begin in

this manner, with the exception of corporate invented performing groups, which generally do not

have the lasting marketability that those that cut their entrepreneurial teeth in "street" markets

do. Indeed, many if not all Hiphop artists who are now part of a larger Multi-national Corporate










(MNC) family usually gained notoriety in their home communities, demonstrating the ability to

sell large numbers of units before being offered formal economic contracts with corporate

entities. While there have been some notable Hiphop acts that were created for the direct purpose

of profit and not necessarily art (e.g., Sugar Hill Gang by Sylvia Robinson and The Band by

Sean Combs), these creations have not proven to be profitable in the long term without constant

communication with and input from local community artists (e.g., Grandmaster Caz wrote many

of the lyrics for Sugar Hill Gang). This formula is not unique to the United States, as most record

labels and distributors are actually engaged with larger MNCs that run this aspect of the

entertainment market all over the world.

Despite the fact that various small independent recording companies initiated the

production, publishing, and marketing of Hiphop music, larger record companies that can be

traced to parent companies quickly realized the profit potential and by the late 1980s bought or

became the distributors for virtually all of the independent labels. At this moment, corporate

control over distribution (i.e., what the public has access to consume in formal markets) is at

once solidified and obscured. Even if an MNC does not have control over the artistic production

of a product, the corporation does retain control over its proliferation in the formal economy.

This is a cultural contradiction with the "authenticity" aesthetic in Hiphop origins narratives that

posit connections to communities and local knowledge for success. MNCs partially redress this

through subsidiaries. For example, reggae music by a Japanese or Jamaican artist on Island

Records can eventually be traced to its parent company, SONY. Likewise, Hiphop music by an

artist in Japan or the United States may be on the Def Jam or Virgin label, but it can eventually

SIn the late 1980s these companies were MCA, Warner, Capitol-EMI, Polygram, SONY, CBS,
and BMG. At the beginning of my research these companies were the following: Warner, EMI,
SONY/BMG and Universal. Warner and EMI merged during the tenure of my research, leaving
three major media conglomerates: Warner-EMI, SONY-BMG, and Universal.









be traced to SONY-BMG and EMI respectively. Even the notoriously "independent" ADA is

now owned by Warner.

In the mid-1990s, scholars interested in these global economic flows thought the country

base and ownership of these MNCs could be verified. For example, we thought that we could say

that SONY was a Japan-based and owned company, and that Warner was a USA-based and

owned company, but most of this has shifted with changing laws and economic practice. With

the severe economic recession that hit Japan in 1994, many of its leading companies have

changed national hands so quickly that it has been difficult for this ethnographer to keep up. I

know from those inside these industries that there has been a trend for Western and Northern

European countries as well as the United States to procure ownership of these companies, but

keep them based in Japan for market and legal reasons.2 This has created massive restructuring

with Japanese Hiphop companies, as it has with American Hiphop companies. Among the artists

whom I work with, there is a resistance not only to having one's political and artistic agenda

controlled by a corporation, but also to having one's political and artistic agenda controlled by a

foreign corporation that is conspicuously situated outside of the "traditional" Hiphop cultural

aesthetic, including pride and commitment to autochthonous production.







2 An economist in the Mitsubishi companies explained it to me like this, "If the trend is to 'buy
Japanese' then it is best for the American company to keep its product 'Japanese'" (Fieldnotes
2001). I suppose this complies with meeting the needs of perceived tastes and preferences. An
African-American MNC-affiliated artist who practices globally comments, "That shit changes
every year: companies switching hands. It's hard to keep up. I mean that' s the way the music
industry works; whatever is hot, different investors jumpin' in, jumpin' out...That' s the way that
shit works; it' s real fluid" (Fieldnotes 2004).









Consumers: Beyond Blackface

The consumers that I have engaged are so different that I will just give a few examples

from my field experiences in an effort to provide a sample of the variance. In addition, it is my

hope that these individuals' narratives will reveal the spurious claim of a fixed, "carbon copy"

Japanese national consumer, who is often presented as artificially tanned with darkening make-

up, "African-derived" hairstyles (e.g., braided extensions or locs), and wearing clothing that is

associated with a Hiphop fashion industry. Such images have spawned a number of articles from

American scholars and journalists arguing that this phenomenon represents more evidence of (1)

the lack of authenticity in Japanese Hiphop,4 and (2) antiblack, racist attitudes of "the"

(=homogenous) Japanese society.

Yuri and Makoto have never left the island of Honshu in Japan. Makoto has never left his

region, which is located in the southern part of the island. He is from a self-described lower

middle class family and he cannot afford to travel. Yuri, who lives near the capital city, visited

the southern region once on an extracurricular activity field trip. Makoto is an airplane custodian

in his middle twenties who specifically cleans restrooms. He consumes mainstream, top-selling

commercial Hiphop and reggae artists that are featured on popular radio stations and on video

channels such as MTV Japan and Space Shower TV. He reports that his love of Hiphop has led

him to have an increased pride in himself as a Japanese man. He is an avid reader of works that

are mentioned in his favorite Hiphop songs. He mentioned that the Autobioguraphy of2alcolm X

in translation was a pivotal text in his self-realization process.


3 These consumers are presented using pseudonyms that I have arbitrarily chosen. They are
presented in female-male groups, and categorized by access to travel.

4 This particular sentiment is indicative of the age-old "always imitators, never innovators"
racialized rhetoric from WWII and the 1980s. See John Dower (1993:291) or Dorinne Kondo
(1997) for more explanation.









Yuri was in her early twenties when I met her, and she had the unique experience of

interning as a promoter and organizer for "underground" Hiphop events in the Tokyo-Kawasaki-

Yokohama metropolitan area. Yuri consumes commercial Japanese Hiphop artists who have an

"underground aesthetic" as well as some popular American Hiphop groups that are marketed as

"underground" in America. The Japanese artists that Yuri likes best are usually unsigned,

internet-based groups who represent the local culture of her home area, located just outside of the

metropolitan area that she works. Her favorite groups tend to sing about things like ecology and

peace. Yuri likes similar environmentalist-minded Hiphop artists from the United States. Both

Makoto and Yuri self-identify as Japanese nationals.

Mayuko and Bunwon are open with their "ethnic minority" identity in Japan. Both of them

were born in Japan and currently live in the Kantoo region on the island of Honshu. When I met

them, Mayuko was in her early thirties and Bunwon was in his middle thirties. Mayuko is a

Korean-descent Japanese resident. Her family has lived in Japan for many decades. She is an

office worker at an NGO where she does educational research. Mayuko attended college, and as

a Christian, she recalls always listening to "black music" in her household. She thinks that

Hiphop is the music for her generation. She likes the melodies and beats. She also likes the

messages of equality in some (Japanese) rappers music. She enj oys all Hiphop, but she only

purchases Japanese Hiphop. Bunwon was originally from the southern region but moved to the

north in the hopes of pursuing an art career. He is from a single-parent, low socioeconomic

household, and he is also "daaburu~~dddd~~~dddd~~~ (=of mixed racial and ethnic heritage), as his mother is

Filipino. Bunwon now lives a comfortable, middle-class lifestyle in a city location, working as a

visual artist. Bunwon consumes and purchases both underground and commercial Hiphop from

both Japan and the United States. He believes that the Hiphop lyricists narrate their life struggles









through their art, and he is influenced to do the same in his own artistic expression. Both

Mayuko and Bunwon have only traveled briefly to other Asian countries for the purpose of

visiting distant family or exploring notions of cultural heritage.

Michiko and Seichi are self-identified "TCKs" or "Third Culture Kids," whose fathers are

very wealthy businessmen who often lived abroad with their families for business purposes.

When I met them, Michiko was in her late twenties and Seichi was in his early thirties. They

attended private schools as well as college. Whereas Michiko went to a prestigious Japanese

university, Seichi attended a well-known American university. Both Michiko and Seichi are avid

Hiphop fans, and they frequent concerts, clubs, and album debuts or "in-store" visits to record

shops from Hiphop artists. They consume and purchase Hiphop from Japan as well as the United

States. They have a preference for oppositional, nonconsumerist, anticapitalist music such as

music by K Dub Shine or dead prez. They both have dreams of joining their social activism with

what they believe to be an emerging international Hiphop political movement. Seichi, who was

once seriously considering a career as a bilingual lyricist, is now a fairly well known artist who

raps mainly in Japanese, despite his bilingual skills and is increasingly concerned with what he

understands to be traditional Japanese lyrical and cultural aesthetics in his music.

Producers: The "Keepers" of the Culture

Japanese pioneers such as Pioneer 1, Pioneer 2, and Pioneer 3' are able to police Japanese

origins narratives as well as what should be constituted as "real Hiphop" because they are elders

and they "were there." Other pioneers, such as Pioneer 4 and Pioneer 5, present interesting

intersections with the formal music industry. These artists have not only spent time in the United




SThe US-based pioneers are marked as US Hiphop Pioneer # and the Japanese Hiphop pioneers
are labeled without reference to geopolitical entity, Pioneer #.









States "experiencing" black culture firsthand, but they also purport fictive kinships with key US

Hiphop pioneers.

Pioneer 2 is famed for his over-twenty-years' friendship with US Hiphop Pioneer 7.

According to the Japanese origins narrative, Pioneer 2 met US Hiphop Pioneer 7 when a certain

tour hit Tokyo, Japan in the early 1980s. US Hiphop Pioneer 7, who was a teenager at the time

and was traveling as a live performer alongside a documentary film that features him and many

artists from US Hiphop's origins narrative. Pioneer 2 was a fellow adolescent who "befriended"

US Hiphop Pioneer 7, learned dance styles from him, and later started a Japan Chapter of US

Hiphop Pioneer 7's transnational social movement organization 2 (TSMO 2). For over twenty

years Pioneer 2 was known for holding bgirl and bboy dance circles on weekends in an outdoor

area. Pioneer 2 is considered the "father" of Japan' s largest underground Hiphop festival, which

is cohosted by Pioneer 1 and his transnational social movement organization 1 (TSMO 1) as well

as many other organizations and corporations.

Pioneer 2 is best known around the world for his dancing, but he also engages in other

elements of Hiphop such as emceeing and graffiti. At a Knowledge Panel at an annual Hiphop

festival, Pioneer 2 and Pioneer 1 engaged in philosophical discussion and cultural critique of

Japanese Hiphop practice. They expressed origins narratives and policed current practices with

all elements of Hiphop that they perceive to be deviating from its original goal ("peace, love,

unity and harmony" and social change). They problematized graffiti as practiced in Japan, and

petitioned US Hiphop Pioneer 7 to participate in a multilingual dialogue about the topic. Social

commentary was linked to artistic and cultural aesthetics in this conversation. Pioneer 1 pleaded

with the young crowd to read more and to study the origins by watching films like Wild Style,

and Pioneer 2 asked the crowd "to raise a revolution as Hiphoppers." Their age and their life










experiences in addition to their relationship with another elder from across the Pacific, US

Hiphop Pioneer 7, hierarchically situated their edicts, as they repeated their "old" ages, bragged

about their small children (=paternal privilege) and threatened to have their ancestral spirits

haunt those who disrespected the international culture of Hiphop.

When I met Pioneer 3, he enjoyed the rare pleasure of "checking" public discourse on the

origins and current cultural practice of Hiphop on the air of his radio show. A self-identified

"elder" in Japanese Hiphop, Pioneer 3's extensive and conspicuous experience working in a US

city with Hiphop-affiliated industries situates him as one of the few Japanese Hiphop pioneers

whose career has traced both the formal and informal sides of the economy as well as both the

artistic and j ournalistic sides of the culture. As an "elder," Pioneer 3 is positioned as "one who

knows" and "one who was there" at Hiphop's earliest phases. He has been called upon to judge

or moderate emcee or deej ay battles, and as a prominent personality in public discourse, he is an

accessible public authority on Hiphop culture. His role "in the community" as a radio personality

provides him with the opportunity to converse with and reach out to troubled individuals on a

nightly basis by answering faxes, e-mails, and phone calls while on air. He advocates social

change and is critical of white supremacy with his bilingual, binational (of black America and

Japan) mildly cultural nationalist political rhetoric. He contends that although he holds no

disrespect for white people, the "raced" peoples of the world are in a similar struggle against

subjugation. Pioneer 3 remembers being discriminated against by white people during his stay in

the US. While he finds US black culture politically useful, he encourages young Japanese people

to "be themselves" and to be proud they are Japanese, while vigilant not to fall into racist strains

of Nihonjinron that are antiblack or anti other ethnic peoples.









When I met Pioneer 4, she was an industry executive. She is a relative newcomer, as the

company she works with was established in the late 1990s. As a result, she occupies a space in

the latter part of Japanese Hiphop's origins narratives. Though Pioneer 4 has been criticized by

other cultural workers for promoting Japanese Hiphop that is considered consumerist and

commercial and "not real," she says that she is not an advocate of American imperialism, and she

believes that Japanese artists who perform "American identities" are rebelling against the

exoticized image of Japanese people as samurai and geishas. Pioneer 4 is an important power

player in the intersection of "underground" Hiphop and the formal music industry. Like other

CEOs of formal economic record companies in the US (e.g., Epitaph and Stone' s Throw),

Pioneer 4 recognizes youths' tastes and preferences for "underground" Hiphop. Companies like

these are currently courting groups that critique the status quo through cultural nationalism and

communist rhetoric. Perhaps as Kyle Cleveland, sociologist and director of the Wakai Proj ect at

Temple University Japan comments, these companies are attempting to market revolution to

increasingly disgruntled social groups.

Pioneer 5 is probably one of the most knowledgeable people about Pacific Rim Hiphop

culture, and he has been extremely instrumental in scouting out talent throughout this region of

the world. A Japanese national, yet a member of a racially stigmatized ethnic group, Pioneer 5 is

keen on Hiphop's utility as political strategy for socially subjugated groups. He is the child of

one Chinese parent and one Japanese parent, and he spent his early childhood between Hong

Kong and Japan. Despite the discrimination that he experienced as an Asian-national living in a

US city as an exchange student, his most salient experience of racial subj section occurred when

he was a middle school student who was picked up by the Japanese police for not carrying his

"identification papers." Until fairly recently, like in South Africa, members of certain racial and









ethnic groups did not enjoy full citizenship rights, and the adolescent Pioneer 5 was therefore

required to carry identification attesting to his state-regulated identity. In protest of this

oppressive policy, he refused to comply. As a result, he was punished by being arrested, abused

and detained. His mother learned of his arrest through neighborhood rumor and immediately

went to rescue him, but not without first reprimanding and shaming the police for their behavior.

Pioneer 5 was then sent to the US for high school. The program in which he enrolled turned out

to be a scam, and he soon found himself across the Pacific with no money and no way to contact

his family. He reports that an African-American woman who owned a hair salon offered to take

him in on two conditions: (1) that he sweep the shop after school and (2) attend church every

week.

Pioneer 5 ended up attending high school with an African-American entertainment

industry mogul's son and through this network, after high school he enjoyed a number of jobs in

both the Hiphop and fashion industry. Pioneer 5 says that he has never forgotten his roots, and he

continues to work for social justice. He is particularly committed to Hiphop, among other forms

of black cultural music forms because those are the melodies that helped him to cope with trying

times as a young person. An example of Pioneer 5's social consciousness would be his resigning

from a very lucrative designer j ob for an American (non-Hiphop) fashion mogul, because the

fabrics the designers used were produced in sweatshops in Southeast China. He remarks that he

could have relatives there and he cannot be complicit with policies that exploit "his people." At

one point Pioneer 5 said he prefers to work in the fashion world of Hiphop, where he claims to

experience less discrimination, and he thinks that there is less global exploitative practice in

those companies versus the non-Hiphop alternatives. He has innovated many popular items and









designs that abound in Hiphop today. Despite all of his successes, Pioneer 5 still experiences

discrimination based on his state-regulated identity in Japan.

Pioneer 1 conspicuously adds to his list of friends on the website for TSMO 1, with a

particular emphasis on two world-renown Hiphop giants: a world-famous political rapper and US

Hiphop Pioneer 9, the founder of TSMO l's parent organization, TSMO. Indeed, in Japanese

Hiphop origins narratives, Pioneer 1 is the US Hiphop Pioneer 9 of Japan, the founder of thelir

TSMO 1. Like US Hiphop Pioneer 9, his life experiences inspire Japanese youth who may be

grappling with exam failure, abuse at school, job loss, ethnoracial inferiority complexes,

hikikomori6 Of Some other social injustice to "keep on, keeping on (=ganbatte)" and persevere.

Pioneer 1 claims to have experienced a great deal of race-based discrimination while living in the

United States. He says that a combination of experiences caused him to end up impoverished,

homeless, and addicted to crack-cocaine while living in a US city.

Pioneer 1 attributes his rescue to US Hiphop Pioneer 8 of the parent TSMO and relative to

US Hiphop Pioneer 9. He says that US Hiphop Pioneer 8 helped him get back on his feet, and in

this way Hiphop saved his life. In this narrative, he returned to Japan to "save" Japanese youth

with Hiphop, as he once was the recipient of such outreach. The TSMO l's (cultural nationalist)

mantra, "peace, love, unity and harmony," are strikingly similar to Japan's own version of

cultural nationalism, Nihonjinron. Therefore, it should not be surprising that many tracks

produced by Pioneer 1 reveal their own strain of culturally nationalist rhetoric that is strategically

essentialist to liberate "the Japanese race" from the Western domination that makes people feel

bad and unworthy. Pioneer 1 and his cohorts seem to use this ideological combination to


6 Literally meaning parasitic, hikikomori is a sociologically prescribed social pathology among
youth, and it is akin to agoraphobia. I actually disagree with such ascriptions, but this is one of
many newer "social problems" assigned to youth.









dialogue with like-minded US-based Hiphop artists to create an international criticism of state-

regulated identities such as race and class. In these lyrical dialogues, the essentialist notions of

state-based ascriptions seem to be used in an effort to "unfix" these fixed identities and to

promote a counterhegemonic cultural pluralism.

Conclusion: The Politics of an International Hiphop Generation?

The use of a "borrowed blackness" by Japanese Hiphop producers and consumers that is

facilitated through MNC distribution as well as "underground" transnational networks is

reminiscent of Mark Reid' s explanation of negotiation in a post-Negritude, postcolonial activist

proj ect in which social change is sought that simultaneously works within and against the grain

of the status quo. Reid comments that in discussions of global racialism it "would be more

productive to view it as a sociopsychic problem that is generally aided by patriarchal conventions

and values which sustain a multinational corporate economy" (1997:22). He concedes "that any

economic solution to racist and sexist processes of cultural production must negotiate with the

capitalist needs of multinational corporations" (1997:22). This trend to reinvent oneself through

transcultural dialogues that include narratives that are strategically oppositional to formal

economies, while simultaneously working within them, seems to be characteristic with the utility

of "critical memory" as discussed by Houston Baker, Jr. (1994). The power of this narrative lies

in the public's willingness to comply with the pioneers' lead. I believe this because in many

cases the liberation ideologies were not communicated primarily through the dominant media

conglomerates, but through genuine people-to-people contact that ironically was usually made

possible by neo-imperialist endeavors such as corporate mergers and military occupation. In this

vein, the inspirational narrative spun by Hiphop's American pioneers and guarded by their

international counterparts shows particular promise for what Homi Bhabha calls the

"transnational as translational" in the postcolonial intellectual proj ect (1994: 172).









This chapter began with Japan's Hiphop origins narrative and outlined how that origins

narrative influenced Japanese cultural workers to transcend political boundaries and geopolitical

identities in search of a liberation message that serves their autochthonous political agenda.

Interviews with cultural workers were analyzed for terminology and discursive practice that

situated Japanese national identities in allegiance with African-American identities as one

explanation for these cultural workers' performance of blackness through Hiphop. Japanese

cultural workers' use of Hiphop language ideology and philosophy was analyzed through an

analysis of flow and battle concepts. Instances of AAE grammatical features were identified in

an analysis of selected song lyrics and related album art that attends to both an African-American

and Hiphop cultural aesthetic. Finally, case studies were provided in addition to other stories

from the field in an effort to narrate examples of individuals who live (=ikiru) Hiphop life and

philosophy.

Hiphop was situated as following past social movements' political agendas of furthering

critical awareness of and action against racialization and related socio-economic subjugation. In

this vein, Hiphop has been a successful social movement, albeit not a new one, as it has

successfully brought antiracist ideology against a global world racial hierarchy into the

international public sphere through popular culture and related organizational building. However,

the limits of this social movement, which build on cultural nationalist discursive practice, lie in

an ideology in which issues of race and class injustice trump issues of gender and sexuality

injustice when the latter refers to the basic human rights of women and children (cf., Collins

2006, Gelb 2003, Philips 2006, McClaurin 2001, Tanaka 1987). Indeed, the liberation of the

strategically essential "black MAN" and "Japanese MAN" through Hiphop leaves much undone

in regard to political work relating to women and racialized others (e.g., Ryukyuans) who feel










alienated by the discourses (e.g., Yamato purity) based on performances of unified national

identities (e.g., Rappagariya's lyrics referencing national icons such as hi no maru bento). The

next chapter further investigates this situation.

Table 4-1 Transcription conventions used
Symbol Description
() Words spoken, not quite audible
(())> transcriber's description
[ overlapping utterances use open-ended bracket for each overlapping utterance
[Hiphop] Words enclosed in brackets represent transcriber' s interpretation of preceding


words or phrases
no interval between turns
interrogative intonation
pause timed in seconds
small untimed pause
prolonged sound
emphasis
Louder sound to surrounding talk
utterance or line number of interest to ethnographer for analysis
translations or elucidations of words used in either Japanese, AAE, or GAE


?
(2.0)
(.)
th:: :en
why
YES

(=fo sho)









CHAPTER 5
IS OPRAH RIGHT? RACE AND GENDER POLITICS IN HIPHOP

You don't have to bitch and ho me down in order to make music

-Oprah Winfreyl

Ethnographer's Eye/I-Novel or Shishosetsu: Raising Critical Notions of Self and
Society through Narrative

In Curafting Selves (1990), Dorinne Kondo theorizes about the ethnographer' s "eye/I"

in the Einal reportage of research experiences. She comments, "So I tell the story of how I

came to center my proj ect on notions of identity and self-hood, through an 'experiential'

first person narrative I deploy in order to make several 'theoretical' points," one of which is

"that any account, mine included, is partial and located, screened through the narrator' s

eye/I" (1990:8). Kondo continues to critique ethnographic writing strategies that promote

Eixed identifications by not including particularities of power relations in the ethnographic

Hield experience. She also notes the difficulty of using standard ethnographic language and

writing techniques to communicate in a manner that does not reify static conceptualizations

of identities. For example, she, as I do in this write-up, avoids the use of the collective noun

"the Japanese" as well as generalized statements using abstract individuals such as "the

Japanese woman is..." (1990:46). These and other instances of attention paid to

problematizing rhetorical strategies that essentialize identities are important ethnographic

steps towards an ethnography that critically analyzes identifieatory practice without



SThe quote from Oprah Winfrey is from CNN.com's "Transcripts" and can be accessed at
http://transcripts. cnn.com/TRANSCRIPT S/0606/22/sbt.0O1 .html. (Accessed November 1 5,
2007). The entire quote from Winfrey is, "My point is you don't have to bitch and ho me
down in order to make music." This utterance followed her assertion that she likes/ listens
to some Hiphop, but not that which marginalizes women. Her comments are a response to
accusations from many rappers, including Ludacris and Ice Cube that Ms. Winfrey "got a
problem" with Hiphop.


190









reinscribing such identifications on the people whose lives we report. She concludes that

she aims "to make issues of power central to our discussions of the 'self,' and second, to

experiment with rhetorical strategies that might be more compatible with theoretical

emphases on multiplicity, contextuality, complexity, power, irony, and resistance"

(1990:43).

My text employs alternative reporting styles that attend to the political proj ect that

Kondo (1990, 1997) explains regarding critical race research. By employing

autoethnography in a manner similar to the Japanese literary genre of shishosetsu, I narrate

a story of complicated and contradictory discursive practice. The shishosetsu, which is

often translated as an "I-novel" or fiction that is based on confession or autobiography,

investigates and reveals critical notions of self and society through narrative and specific

rhetoric. Mary Layoun summarizes Edward Fowler' s work on the genre in the following

way :

Fowler' s analysis of the "rhetoric of confession" in the shishosetsu as a reformulation
of self-expression for society in which the self is rigorously contained is brilliantly to
the point and directly confronts the ready assumptions of some critical schools that
would simply equate the notion of self in the shishosetsu in particular or Japanese
society in general with the "Western" notion of the individual self. [1989:159]

The autoethnographic reflections offered in this work are meant to be read as an expression

of mediated identities and societal commentary as part of a collective voice offered through

the collaborative analysis of collected materials. The use of autobiographical form as

"fiction" or narrative has been a key tool for women writing against the grain throughout

Japanese literary history. Classics like The Gossamer Journal and The Confessions ofLady

Niifo allowed women writers to reveal the intimate details of social inequality in the spirit

of "prose" or "art" and Yukiko Tanaka (1987) comments on leftist women writers in the









1920s who also employed shishosetsu in their work to reveal and criticize injustice. Tanaka

comments :

They introduced a woman' s point of view into leftist literature by defining
themselves as doubly oppressed under the patriarchal system--in the family and in
society. These writers, many of whom came from impoverished families in rural
regions, showed a tenacity and honesty rarely seen among male writers; they
observed and wrote about a society run by men and recorded their personal battles
against traditional mores with unprecedented candor. [1987:ix]

Thus it is in the spirit of shishosetsu as well as autoethnography that I engaged research

participants, consultants, friends, and family in my analysis that is represented in this

narrative concerning my research. I attempt to illuminate how our talks and performances

constructed moments of recuperation, while illustrating salient aspects of social inequality.

This section draws on popular cultural narrative to buttress stories recounted by female

cultural workers in a movement building process. Namely, the concepts of uhuru and

Uhura2 are utilized for signification concerning the role(s) of women in social movements

that have historically utilized black popular culture as part of their politicization process.

Lessons in Uhuru from Uhura

At the end of an essay examining the "black" in "black popular culture," Stuart Hall

reminds his readers that popular culture is where "we discover and play with the

identifications of ourselves, where we are imagined, where we are represented, not only to

the audiences out there who do not get the message, but to ourselves for the first time"

(1996d:474). International Hiphop, as part of black popular culture, fits Hall's description

concerning how we discover and play with our identifications, though popular culture is



2 Uhuru is Swahili for liberation. Swahili is a favored language of "revolutionary
gangsters" (Black Guerilla Family), cultural nationalists (Simba Wachanga), and African-
American Hiphoppers (dead prez, X-Clan). Uhura is the name of the lone regularly cast
black female character on the original Star Trek series.










often commodified and stereotyped. The dialogue performed in the ln Living Color skit

(first aired April 1992) below serves as a humorous metaphor for my international

organizing experience with Hiphop. The skit also helps me to understand, through a

disheartening but sadly common performance, how black women in addition to all women

are often used and yet excluded from the outcomes of many social justice agendas (cf.,

Collins 2006). Although the performance provided below did not take place in Japan, and it

may not be obvious how it is related to transnational Hiphop, I outline in my analysis how

it demonstrates the experiences of women in historic social movements, including the

movement we call Hiphop.

The Wrath of Farrakhan

Jim Calrrev a~s the Capztain Kirk character:
"Captain's log stardate fourteen, we're being pulled toward a hostile planet, I'm
hoping that Scotty will be able to activate the back up control systems.
God, I feel so vulnerable."

Kim Wavans a~s the Uhura character:
"Captain, I'm picking up some strange signals. Something about intergalactic
oppressors, sir."

David Alan2 Grier a~s the Spzock character:
"Captain, intruders are approaching the bridge, sir."
((Three men step into the scene))

Kirk:
"Who are you?"

Damnon Wavans a~s the FarrakhanF~~FFF~~~FF~~~FF character:
"I am the Minister Louis Farrakhan."

Kirk:
"Spock!?! Spock, who is he?"


"A former Calypso singer, Captain. Who later became leader of a 20th century
African American religious sect known as the Nation of Islam."










FarrakhanFF~~~FFF~~~FFF~~ 's security backupz, Islamn #1
"You like to buy some incense?"

Farrakhan 's security backupz, Islamn #2:
"Bean pie, my brother?" ((to Sulu))

Steve Park a~s the Sulu character:
"No, thank you."

Kirk:
"What do you want?"

FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFar ak a :
"I've come to warn your crew."

Islamn #1+#2:
((Echoing Farrakhan)) "Warn your crew."

Farrakhan:
"Of their enslavement."

Islaml +2:
((Echoing)) "Enslavement!"

Farrakhan:~~FFF~~~FF~~~FF
"Aboard this vessel."

Kirk:
"That' s poppycock. These people are perfectly free to do anything they want."

Farrakhan :
"It is that same lie that kept Elvis the king. That made that poor child Latoya Jackson
think she could sing. It is that same lie that's got white boys rapping and the Fat Boys
acting."

Kirk:
"Hey Mister, you can't come in here and talk to me like that.
Uhuru ((pronounced "Ah-whore-a")), get me Star Fleet Command."

Uhura:
"Yes, Captain."

Farrakhan :
"Oh! My Nubian princess. How long have you placed his calls? I watch the show
every week and all I see is the back of your nappy wig." ((Uhura touches her hair))


194










Kirk:
"Uhura. Star Fleet. Now!"

Uhura:
"Well, wait a second. He's right. I've been sitting here for fifteen years with this
damn thing in my ear and ain't got one raise yet. Is that all I'm good for? To be your
little secretary, or your occasional chocolate fantasy. You get up off your flat butt and
get Star Fleet your damn self cuz I ain't budging. Preach on, brother "

Farrakhan :
"Yes, sister."

Kirk:
"Mr. Sulu, call Scotty. Tell him to get this man out of here."

Farrakhan:
"Wait a minute, Mr. Sulu. Before you touch that dial. Answer me this question: Who
does the laundry around here?"

Sulu:
"I do."

Kirk:
"Mr. Sulu" ((imploring))

Sulu:
"Well, you call me 'Buddha head' and 'pie face' in front of everybody."

Kirk:
"Well ."

Sulu:
"I've been in space all this time and I haven't had one woman yet. You even take the
ugly ones Captain. My loins are about to explode. I want to do the nasty!"

Farrakhan:~~FFF~~~FF~~~FF
"That' s right. Rise up from the oppressor!"

Islam #1+#2:
((Echoing)) "Rise up!"


Kirk :
"Mr. Spock, my friend, we've got to do something."










"Why do you say 'we' Caucasoid? It's obvious Captain that Minister Farrakhan is
right."

Kirk:
"Spock, are you out of your Vulcan mind?"


"Well, logically speaking Captain. ((Grabs Kirk by the shoulder, hurting him)) I am
the strongest and most intelligent person on this vessel and yet I am only second in
command."

Uhura :
"Mm-hmmm"


"I should be Captain and I'm also a better director than you"


"Can't you see it' s discrimination?"

Kirk:
"You get off my ship buddy!i" ((Blasts Farrakhan with laser gun))

Farrakhan:
"Put your puny weapon down Captain. You cannot harm me. My people have
survived four hundred years of slavery!"

Islamn 1+2:
((Echoing)) "Slavery!i"

Farrakhan:
"Three hundred years of Apartheid!i"

Islaml +2:
((Echoing)) "Apartheid!"

Farrakhan:~~FFF~~~FF~~~FF
"And 25 years of 7Jhe Jefferson 's in syndication."

Kirk:
((Yelling in aguish)) "Farrakhan!!! "

Farrakhan :
"Go to you room" ((Kirk runs out of room crying))

Farrakhan :


196










"Oh, I love it when I do that to them. ((Farrakhan sits down in the Captain's chair))
Nubian Princess. Call Sylvia's Soul Food Shack. Make reservations. I got a taste for
some blackened white fish. Mr. Sulu, what are you gonna have?"

Suh< :
((smiles broadly)) "Sylvia."

FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFar ak a :
"Well alright then my horny Asian brother. Warp factor five. We're goin home.
Destination: 125th Street." ((Shot pulls out to shot of exterior of ship. Ship is now
labeled USS Farrakhan with Nation of Islam flags on either side. Ship on strings flies
away. Full screen of title: "Wrath of Farrakhan"))

Obj ect 5-1 View the skit "The Wrath of Farrakhan"

What is striking about this skit is how identity politics are grossly exaggerated and

essentialized to candidly communicate trends of criticism concerning social movements. Of

key interest are Uhura' s character and Sulu' s character. Both performances elucidate the

intersection of sexualized, gendered, and racialized identities. Though both characters have

their intersectional identifications illuminated, only one character emerges in the end to

have experienced a social change: Sulu; Uhura sits down, right back where she started,

playing the role of secretary.

Obj ect 5-2 Nichelle Nichols as Uhura in a secretarial role in the original Star Trek series

Let' s examine the script. Kirk' s character, the sign for white male power, routinely

orders his crew around, and it is revealed later, that he does so in racist and sexist ways.

Farrakhan's character, backed up by two security characters that double as "yes" men,

boards Kirk's ship armed with charisma and lyrical talent. Using his lyrical talent, he

engages in "truth-telling," criticizing Kirk' s treatment of each crewmember. The three

visitors, with Farrakhan at the forefront, represent the strength and valorization of black

masculinity within a black nationalist framework. These men are also positioned as

"saviors" who have come to liberate the subjugated crew members from Kirk' s reign of









white male supremacy. In addition to Uhura, two members of the crew are situated as

"black": Spock (who plays the sign of ambiguously ethnic, racial "other" by virtue of being

"mixed" with Vulcan and Homo sapiens sapiens) and Sulu (who plays the sign of

homogenous Asian-racial other). They are identified as "nonwhite others" through kinship

terms used by Farrakhan and his security. Spock marks Kirk as not being the same as he is

by using the word "Caucasoid" and Sulu is referred to as "brother" by Islam #2.

Obj ect 5-3 George Takei as Hikaru Sulu, in the original Star Trek series

Uhura' s character is the one who makes the change of guard occur. Although it is her

character who Birst warns Kirk of Farrakhan's approach, it is also her character that sets the

stage for the change of guard by being the first to revolt against Kirk' s control. Farrakhan,

using call and response with his security backup, claims he is there to "warn" Kirk's

"crew" of their enslavement aboard the vessel. Kirk counters that his crew is free and not

enslaved. Farrakhan then signifies on stereotypes, lies, and identifications in popular

culture (which is humorous because the skit in which he is performing also relies on

stereotypes and identifications). Kirk then orders Uhura (which he pronounces "Ah-whore-

a" signifying that she is a "whore") to get Star Fleet Command (I suppose for backup

assistance against Farrakhan). At first, it seems as though Uhura is about to comply, and

she replies, "Yes, Captain," but then Farrakhan intervenes using words that signify kinship

as well as shared racial experience, "Oh My Nubian Princess." He attacks her compliance

with Kirk' s agenda, and like Don Imus, calls her hair "nappy," though the assumption is

that his intent is to suggest that she should be much more than a secretary given her talents.

This implication is important as it suggests that Uhura' s liberation is linked to his agenda

and that by helping him she, too, will benefit.









Kirk interj ects with a more stern order, and Uhura starts the revolution. Her list of

grievances include not getting a raise or job promotion despite her seniority and she alludes

to being sexualized and sexually harassed as well as taken advantage of by Kirk. She

concludes using a kinship term, "brother" toward Farrakhan, who replies in kind, "Yes

sister." Kirk then turns to Sulu for help, at which point Farrakhan intervenes and reminds

Sulu of the racialization that he has experienced. It is revealed that Sulu is not only called

racial epithets such as "Buddha head" and "pie face," but he has also been relegated to the

racial stereotypic service task of laundry--imagery that links foreign Asian racial identities

to a US-based racial trope from Asian-American history (cf., Shah 1997). Sulu's character

builds on the revelations laid down by Farrakhan to reveal an intersection of sexualization

and racialization by introducing the stereotype of the effeminized Asian-racial "other" so

prevalent in popular culture (cf., Kondo 1997; Poulson-Bryant 2005:71). The critique is

that Sulu is not allowed to express his full sexuality because he is Asian, and the

conversation that communicates this is a tirade against Kirk, along with enablement from

Farrakhan. All aspects of this dialogue take place in a manner that obj ectifies women and

accentuates the "man-to-man" aspect of political coalition building. The last person to

revolt is the Spock character who asserts he is more talented and yet underemployed

because of Kirk' s white supremacist management.

When Kirk attempts to retaliate against Farrakhan himself, he is unable to because

Farrakhan draws from an essentialist survivalist narrative in which he cannot be destroyed

because he is the descendant of people who survived slavery, apartheid, and media violence

through the production of racialized stereotypes (e.g., The Jefferson 's). Once Kirk is

conquered by Farrakhan, a changing of the guard takes place. The revolution has occurred.


199









There is a new Captain: Farrakhan. Sulu's character is "uplifted" in that he is no longer

sexually oppressed, though it is at the cost of obj ectifying another woman, Sylvia. When

Farrakhan asked him what he is going to have at Sylvia's Soul Food Shack, Sulu responds,

"Sylvia." Uhura goes back to her old position as secretary, this time for Farrakhan, and no

social change has taken place, as she continues to be sexually harassed as well as place

calls at the command of the captain.

This is obviously not reality; it is a skit from a popular television show that aired in

the 1990s. However, when I watch it, I cannot get over how much it mirrors the

experiences of the women with whom I have organized in the transnational Hiphop

movement. Although we represent different countries, different languages, different classes

and different ascriptions of race, we all seem to be stuck in the same script as Uhura. We

are the people who make things happen. We get things done. We are like the church

secretary. We get everything ready for worship on Sunday and then, when everyone is

congregated, the minister gets up to preach and receives all of the credit (financial and

otherwise) for making it all happen. When I speak at Hiphop political events, I call this the

"church secretary syndrome." In social movements, not only black social movements, we

have had spokespeople, usually men, who act as "saviors" armed with charisma and

rhetoric, like Farrakhan's character It is generally other people, usually women, who

execute the grunt work of political movement building (copying the fliers, typing the

memos, making the phone calls, walking door-to-door), while men receive the credit and

increased privileges. When one watches documentaries concerning the Civil Rights

Movement, for example, there are all these women in the background, and yet we don't

know their names. But we know Martin, Andrew, Jesse, and Ralph well enough not to


200









need a last name. There have been numerous published critiques of how this played out in

the Black Power Movement, the Yellow Power Movement and beyond, many of which

utilize autobiography and reflexivity to break silence on these matters (cf., Brown 1993;

Davis 1983; Collins 2006; Gelb 2003; Mackie 2003; J. Morgan 2000; Moraga and

Anzaldua 1983; Nakazawa 1998; hooks 1992; Lorde 1984; Perkins 2000; Shah 1997;

Shakur 2001; Tanaka 1987).

The Hiphop generation has inherited this gender politics as we have built upon and

borrowed from these past social movement strategies. As detailed in the preceding

chapters, through musical and historical sampling via rhetoric in lyrics, beats, film clips,

speech clips, and other performances (such as fashion), Hiphop's cultural workers furthered

the agenda of cultural nationalism and revolutionary internationalism (as well as other

leftover legacies from past social movements) by raising levels of global awareness about

race and class injustice. Introducing shared frames of oppression through a liberatory

assertion of masculinity is a key trend in these political agendas. This occurs all over the

world. In Japanese Hiphop, we hear rappers assert, "Nippon danjddd~~~~~ddddd~~~~i!" In US Hiphop, rappers

let us know, "Ima Black man!" Women cultural workers labor in a similar role to Uhura:

we are the "office ladies" (0. L. in Japan), secretaries, booking agents, road managers,

promoters, event organizers, budget managers, political organizers, research assistants, et

cetera, and nobody knows our names.3 Stuart Hall comments:

The way in which a transgressive politics in one domain is constantly sutured and
stabilized by reactionary or unexamined politics in another is only to be explained by
this continuous cross-dislocation of one identity by another, one structure by another.

3 Marcyliena Morgan (2008) has a chapter outlining this aspect of hidden women in
Hiphop, and she also explains how men have supported women's movement building.
Rachel Raimist is conducting her doctoral research on exactly that subj ect (how women are
erased in Hiphop), and she has a film titled, Nobody Knows M~y Namne.









Dominant ethnicities are always underpinned by a particular sexual economy, a
particular Eigured masculinity, a particular class identity. There is no guarantee in
reaching for an essentialized racial identity of which we think we can be certain, that
it will always turn out to be mutually liberating. [1996d:473-474]

Indeed, thus far, as Hall explains, political agendas that pertain to liberation along lines of

race and class have "trumped" any agenda that considers equality among identifications of

sexuality and gender. That is, women like Uhura in social movements from global labor

movements to global antiwhite supremacy movements, including the so-called global

Hiphop movement in the US, Japan, or some other geopolitical space, have been asked to

Eight and labor for the liberation of men under the pretext that we experience a shared

frame of oppression due to commonalities in our state-regulated identities.

And many of us have enjoyed our roles. After all, behind the scenes, we know it is

the "church secretary" who "makes it [i.e., social change] happen": just like Uhura, the first

to dissent, in the skit It is meaningful work to labor toward equal access and liberation for

our "brothers," men. Because we are also racially marked, the assertion, "Nippon danjddd~~~~~ddddd~~~~i"/

"Ima Black man," or pride in being marked yellow, black, Japanese or Afrikan, makes

many of us feel "good" or at least validated. Often while observing emcee battles in Japan,

I was excited for the young men who asserted their identity in angry and rebellious ways.

Their performance reminded me of my own angry and rebellious adolescent years, some of

which were spent in Japan. I identified with their pain, and I still to a large extent am in

solidarity with their movement: to raise levels of social justice among the identifications of

race and class through disidentifieation or any other means necessary--unless it continues

to be on the backs of women and the children they support.

That is, Hiphop has potential. It has furthered the goals of past social movements by

dovetailing efforts of race and class justice work, and it has been successful all over the









world in this regard. However, I posit that it will be Hiphop's emerging gender politics that

make or break it as a new social movement. Eduardo Canel writes that a new social

movement "perspective emphasizes the cultural nature of the new movements and views

them as struggles for control over the production of meaning and the constitution of new

collective identities" (2004:1; emphasis added). Hiphop's struggle is to combine gender

and sexuality equality with ant-racist and anti-classist work already in progress, our legacy

from past social movements.

Hiphop's potential is that its cultural and political workers have the opportunity to

transcend the limitations of past social movements and build something new, but that

would also entail letting go of the rhetoric and practice that has kept us locked into

collective identity politics that do not make room for gendered critiques. Stuart Hall

reminds us that although past social movements were predicated on collective identity

politics that are "always underpinned by a particular sexual economy" and "a particular

masculinity," social justice and equality for all "can be won... theree is a politics there to

be struggled for" (1996d:474). This new political struggle is for a collective identity that

encompasses all state regulated identifications, from gender to race to sexuality. This is a

worthy cause; it can be accomplished. A first step is to begin to conceptualize women not

as the mules or secretaries of social movements, but as theorists and architects integral to

constructing new collective identities. Indeed, we can start by learning the names4 of

"church secretaries" (female cultural workers) and stop "gazing at the backs" of our "nappy

wigs" as if we aren't there.


4 Because this is ethnography, I do not share the real names of the women I have worked
with in Japan. Instead I offer narratives of their experiences, and I make sure that their
names, and more importantly, political agendas, are known in other spheres of my work.










45 lifi MP[s ? (= What's My Name?): Bringing Gender Back Into the Anti-Race Game

The relative scarcity of women rappers in Japan presents an analytical puzzle.

-lIan Condry (2006:164)

Understanding gender in Japanese Hiphop is complicated, yet unavoidable, as

racialization is always inextricably linked to social constructions of gender and sexuality.

The male cultural workers whom I worked with represent a feminized population (Sassen

1999) and an emasculated stereotype within the global racial order (Kondo 1997).

Identification with Hiphop not only allowed them to perform black masculinities, but also

hypermasculine culture that is uniquely Japanese. That is, artists would use speech patterns

and vocabulary that were associated with male vernacular, and aggressive body language

and other communicative utterances were selected and exaggerated. These performances of

gender went against the grain of the dominant racialized stereotype of emasculated Asian

males. Even the racialized tropes of kamkkkkkkkk~~~~~~~~~ikaz referenced in the Rappagariya song described

in Chapter Four ("Kobushi") serve a hypermasculine agenda to fight both racialized and

gendered identities. By performing blackness, female performers can break stereotypes of

Japanese women as obedient and subservient, and speak out with venom and vigor like

their male counterparts. However, some of the artists I interviewed also performed the

script of "cute" (Condry 2006) for females, which maintained the status quo in Japanese

mainstream society.

The female cultural workers with whom I work in Japan have historically been

managers of artists, assistants to artists, receptionists at recording studios, businesswomen

in the industry, journalists, promoters, or organizers of events. A few years ago, I began

aggressively interviewing female artists. Sexism was often a difficult subj ect to discuss

during my interviews, as we were often not alone (there were male coworkers around


204









whose presence made it uncomfortable to be candid), and there was also often a sense of

hopelessness in regard to fighting sexism in the larger Japanese society, so focusing on

sexism in Japanese Hiphop seemed to be a moot point for many of my interviewees. That

is, they acknowledged that sexism is a worldwide problem, and Japan is no different.

Some criticized Japan's government practice for being behind other countries in

establishing laws that protect women' s bodies and women's rights. Other cultural workers

cited the pressure to marry and have children as another way in which they encounter

sexism. Many criticized what they perceived to be Japanese males' sexual obsessions with

youth or young girls. They reported that the sexualization of girls made them feel

undesirable at ages that would still be considered young in other cultural settings, for

example 24 years of age. Most interviewees also acknowledged that it was hard to be a

female artist among males and that one has to fight to ensure equal billing and equal pay in

the industry. But then they also felt that it wouldn't be much different in any other Japanese

corporate j ob. Most spoke about their experience within Hiphop communities as being

more positive in regard to sexism in larger society in that Hiphop culture allowed space for

each to speak her mind on topics and the performativity involved in its cultural product

afforded women the opportunity to play with their identities and transgress normative

boundaries concerning what was acceptable or not compared to mainstream Japanese

society.

A few female artists who have had the opportunity to travel to the United States

shared experiences of being sexually stereotyped along racial lines of being an East Asian

woman, in that these women were expected to act according to stereotypes of East Asian

women working as prostitutes or in massage parlors, and it was assumed that these women









would want to perform fellatio and otherwise service males who were supposed to be

colleagues in professional music industry spheres. Such stereotypes of women as

sexualized obj ects, particularly along historical racial lines, abound in Hiphop as they do in

other aspects of popular culture in the United States and abroad. While African-American

women are most often obj ectified in US Hiphop and Japanese women are most often

obj ectified in Japanese Hiphop, one can find examples of cross-cultural exploitation in

music videos, lyrical content, and popular artist interviews (e.g., a multiplatinum African-

American artist has referred to Tokyo as "Blowasaki"--a reference to fellatio and a sexual

stereotype concerning Japanese women).

The experiences of sexualization and sexual harassment are by no means limited to

the US. I conducted several interviews in offices and other officially professional spaces in

which the walls were covered with pornographic posters, pictures, and calendars of

Japanese women. In a mainstream culture where not only is pornography widespread, but

child pornography is also rampant, these aspects of female degradation and violence

against girl children also seeps into the Hiphop world. For the most part, however, the

cultural workers whom I worked with (both female and male) did not endorse such

degrading obj ectification. One female cultural worker comments: "Some people, they don't

take serious women, you know, like 'that' s women's opinion', but it' s changing.... Hiphop

is kind of hard. In R&B, [women] can do reviews and writing, but Hiphop--some people

think it' s just for men." Numbers of women artists, business women, and writers

commented that in general, society women are expected to work twice as hard as men to

"prove" themselves in the formal business and art worlds.


206









Given that parts of Hiphop, even that which is purported to be underground, intersect

with formal economies such as the popular music industry, the treatment of women is not

always much different. Nevertheless, all the cultural workers with whom I work say that

despite its inability to completely transcend sexism and domestic racialization within

Japanese society, Hiphop presents a forum for intercultural and transnational

communication that creates a safe space to begin discussion about these important topics.

Many think that the discussion is only the beginning for great problem-solving possibilities

concerning these matters and they cite relational examples of how Hiphop has been used to

address these problems in the US as models for what their organizations and artistic

productions can accomplish (cf., Ice Cube and Yo Yo's artistic dialogue, Russell

Simmons' s Hip Hop Summits and the ongoing, pioneering work of the Universal Zulu

Nation).

AfZ;tl i! (=Women Represent!)

Contrary to popular discourse, black social movement members do not have a

monopoly on sexism, heterosexism, and other forms of gendered subjugation. Countless

feminist writers have documented and attended to issues of sexism and hetereosexism in

practices that support and maintain white supremacy and global capitalism (cf., Sassen

1999; E. Wood 1997). Concerning sexism in the Japanese Hiphop movement, lan Condry

concludes:

In terms of women' s empowerment, the recent examples of female hip-hoppers Ai,
Hime, and Miss Monday show that gender is finally gaining wider treatment within a
Japanese rap scene largely dominated by men. If some of these straight-talking
women achieve mainstream success, it may be possible to point to hip-hop as a
vehicle for gender equality in Japan. Their influence up until 2005, however, seems
largely confined to their fans, a substantial, but not widespread, effect. [2006:214]










I posit that there is a nascent "11newI women's movement budding that is built on the past

women's movement building processes that have existed in Japan for decades, some would

say centuries (cf., Tanaka 1987). Conversations recorded document a rise in critical

awareness of women's issues among many of my Japanese peers. Our mother' s and

grandmother' s generations have been agitating for legislative changes and equal protection

under Japanese law, often operationalizing CEDAW and ICERD (transnational

conventions concerning human equality) to "get the j ob done." My agemates have taken

charge in leading NGOs and other community based organizations and networks in Japan

that protect and support women and girls grappling with multiple forms of sexual and

gender-based violence. Such activism lends a transnational element to current women' s

movement building efforts. But what is the status of women within the transnational

Hiphop movement?

Gender issues are gaining more attention in the government as well as on the streets.

Over the past 13 years I have seen an increase in laws protecting the rights of women, and I

have also seen an increased discourse concerning the abuses of women and the children

they support among the people I know. I disagree that there is a scarcity of female cultural

workers, or even artists, in Japanese Hiphop. They may not dominate in the public sphere,

but they exist and they represent on local levels. If I could, I'd say their names, but ethical

considerations preclude me doing so in this project. Below are the stories of four women

that lan Condry studied.

In his chapter that discusses women in Japanese Hiphop, Condry (2006) provides a

brief narrative of women' s roles in Japanese popular music, beginning with pop and ending

with R&B. He uses the stories of Sakurai Riko (former executive of record label Def Jam










Japan) to transition to his biographical sketch of Ai, whom he does not designate as an

emcee, but more so a singer that Sakurai "discovered." He moves on to discuss Miss

Monday whom he considers a bona fide emcee, who represents women and who does not

petition "cutismo." He cites her as saying, "What I want to say is, 'Even if you're a girl, do

what you want to do.' It doesn't have to be hip-hop. You can be a mechanic or a truck

driver. My attitude is, together as women let' s change ourselves to do what we want"

(Condry 2006: 177).

After providing a brief biographical sketch of Miss Monday, he describes a third

female emcee, Hime, as utilizing Japanese cliches or more aptly fixed identities and

negative stereotypes (such as "yellow cabs," women who are stigmatized for pursuing

erotic relationships with foreign men, who are usually African American, cf. Kelsky 2001)

to communicate oppositional messages to Japanese mainstream society. Condry also

describes Hime's use of imagery that attends to Nihonjinron notions of language

(kotodama)d~~~~~ddddd~~~~ and "traditional" literary aesthetics in her verse construction (e.g., tanka,

haiku). Moreover her name can be glossed as "Princess" and she uses the kanji for women

and giant together to represent her name. Hime utilizes a variety of "traditional" Japanese

cultural images to buttress her messages to her fan base, including sampling taiko drums,

and referring to herself as a "female samurai" and "Japanese doll." Condry introduces each

of the three artists in this chapter through their affiliation to well known male artists or their

relationship to maj or record labels and corporations. He describes a fixed gendered identity

of Japanese women artists as "cutismo," which he defines as being "parallel to a kind of

machismo common among male rappers ... [where] women singers in Japan's pop music

world are expected to conform to a particular type of feminine cute-ness" (2006: 165).


209









Condry contrasts this identity with those of female Hiphoppers who he says rej ect images

of feminine vulnerability (2006: 166). Below are two songs and more information about the

first two emcees that Condry briefly introduces.

"Watch Out!" by Ai, Afra, and Tucker (2004)

I have always conceptualized Ai as an emcee as well as a singer, dancer, and overall

performer. Her single, "Watch Out!" demonstrates her prowess as a fierce lyricist and

disciple of Hiphop. Ai raps alongside internationally known beatboxer, Afra, while Tucker

plays the keyboards in this song. Her lyrics feature codeswitching with AAE as well as

English. Phrases such as, "Doki, Doki ((Japanese word for heartbeat)) is getting louder

(=faster)" and "kick the leash and be free in da beat! (=kick the leash $U C/t~jiyu ni/ in da

beat!)" establish her great talent as an emcee, who not only rhymes in one or two languages,

but also delivers skillful and appealing codeswitched verses that situate her as unique and

chari smati c.

The video to "Watch Out!" is equally engaging. Its basic premise is to promote the

Hiphop philosophy of keepingn it real." The first part of the video showcases Ai, Afra, and

Tucker in J-Pop-like gear. Tucker has on an afro wig and a Run DMC-circa Addidas-brand

jumpsuit and Run DMC-style hat. Afra is wearing a large floppy hat, sports (swish) pants,

and an oversized T-shirt. Ai is wearing a short-haired wig and puffy pink shirt, ripped j ean

shorts, and boots with "bling" on them. The video editing entails classic "wipes" in

bubbled star shapes, and other significations on J-Pop. Then pioneer rapper K Dub Shine

enters wearing a white T-shirt with an outline of the continent of Africa airbrushed on it

that is colored in red, black, and green with the words "Zulu." K Dub Shine admonishes Ai,

Afra, and Tucker, and pulls off Ai's wig and shames Tucker into taking off his own wig.


210









The words, "Gotta Be Real" in Japanese and English appear in white with black

background on the screen, and the scene switches to an a cappella performance of the song.

Tucker and Afra are wearing baseball hats and oversized shirt and sweatshirts. Ai is

wearing her longer, natural hair and she is wearing a common club outfit of jeans and a

stylish fitted shirt. Tucker is skillfully playing the same brand of keyboard that Sly of Sly

and the Family Stone played, which further situates their performance as embedded in

"authentic" talent. Herein lies a key point in transnational Hiphop aesthetics: the difference

between the concepts of real and authentic.

The concept of real is often confused with authenticity in Hiphop j ournalism and

scholarship. Real has the connotation of being "true" or affirming of oneself. It is deeply

rooted in self-esteem, self love and self empowerment that is connected to the good of

one's community in many Hiphop philosophical manifestos (cf., KRS-ONE 2000).

Authenticity is related to real, but it tends to have less to do with introspection and more to

do with knowledge acquired. Monthly magazines like BM~R, Woofin and Blast often feature

articles to educate one wishing to study and learn more about a culture. Such tutorials are

centered on an ideology of authenticity rather than real. Ai, Afra and Tucker are situated as

"real" in the latter, a cappella, portion of the video because they are relaxed doing their art,

being themselves. Signs and symbols such as the vintage keyboard as well as their

connection to the ultimate trope of knowledge keeper in Japanese Hiphop, K Dub Shine

adds the notion of them being authentic as well. The video displays key signs and symbols

to boast of Ai and her colleagues' skills as artists and cultural workers within Hiphop. The

song's translation and a link to view the album art (Obj ect 5-4) are provided in an effort to

illustrate Ai's great abilities as an emcee as well as a masterful codeswitcher.










Obj ect 5-4 One of Ai's album covers for "Watch Out! "


[Original]
[versel]






Are you gonna stop me? How?

Cant stop me now!!i

Bomb ass DANCE


I wanna be a big star
I mean, gonna be! a big star
Watch!

[chorus]
1,2,3
& 0 1(1 I i0Qa live in da beat

I cant stop myself...
WA, WA, WA, WA, WA, WA!
WATCH OUT!
[verse2]

I'm so close 2 u
now, tOafgr i
what am I supposed 2 do!
Imean ~Eta~ I-Oi0\`PO 0&&/i


meet da beat!
Sick the leash $ B & (
in da beat!

everybody meet my team!!
AFRA E TUCKER,
Come show what you got!
Do what cha gotta do!! come on !
[chorus]


[Translation]
[versel]
I'm feeling' really good
with this tension so high, I really need to
do something,
the morning is coming
are you gonna stop me? how?
yo, no one can....stop me now!
together lets dance a bomb ass dance
that' s like a roller coaster
what do you say?
I wanna be a big star
I mean, gonna be! a big star
watch!i
some day ill grab it!
[chorus]

I'm going to grab your heart with this
beat
+'doki doki' is getting louder (my heart
rate is getting faster)
what should I do?
I cant stop myself
wa, wa, wa, wa, wa, wa! watch out!
verss e2]
really really close
I'm so close 2 u
now with this state of mind
what am Isupposed 2do!
I mean, I'm going to show you a part of
me that no ones seen
lets let them listen to it!
meet da beat!
+kick the leash and be free in da beat!
so I thmnk its time for everybody to meet
my team i
afra and tucker,
come show what you got!
do what cha gotta do! come on!
[chorus]


Obj ect 5-2 Ai's "Watch Out!"









"Lady Meets Girl" by Miss Monday (2002)

Miss Monday personifies what Hiphop scholar Gwendolyn Pough calls "wreck."

Pough defines wreck as "a Hip Hop term that connotes fighting, recreation, skill, boasting

or violence" (2004:17). She situates "wreck" as an example of Hiphop philosophy that

contributes to self-empowerment by encouraging self-respect, self-defense, and self-

determination. Pough explains:

The Hiphop concept of wreck sheds new light on the things Blacks had to do in order
to obtain and maintain a presence in the larger public sphere, namely fight hard and
bring attention to their skill and right to be in the public sphere. Bringing wreck, for
Black participants in the public sphere historically, has meant reshaping the public
gaze in such a way as to be recognized as human beings--as functioning and
worthwhile members of society--and not to be shut out of or pushed away from the
public sphere. [2004:17]

Though Pough is referring to ideology and practice for African-descent Americans, the

concepts of self-making and "self-belief" as well as black power (which entails self-

respect, self-defense, and self-determination) are also part of Japanese Hiphop and

routinely referred to by many Japanese Hiphop pioneers. DJ Yutaka, for example, produced

a song entitled, "Self-belief" featuring 'boy band' EXILE2 (fOrmerly J Soul Brothers) and

Rather Unique. This song maintains the basic premise of global Hiphop philosophy, which

is based on US Hiphop philosophy, namely that created by the Universal Zulu Nation, of

which Yutaka is the founder of the Japan chapter. Therefore, the idea of "bringing wreck"

in Hiphop for black people (as explained by Pough) holds transnational significance to



SThese latter three concepts are what Ron Maulana Karenga terms "the three ends of black
power."

2 Note the EXILE album cover features Black Panthers marching with signs and flags that
have been photoshopped to display the names of the rappers and other artists who appear as
guests on their album. Area codes such as "813" and other Hiphop referents abound in the
photoshopped banners.










Japanese Hiphop pioneers and other artists who utilize the opportunity to "borrow" the

"blackness" of Hiphop as part of a larger strategy to reshape the public gaze. Whether this

strategy, to borrow blackness as part of political praxis, is sustainable or not remains to be

seen.

Obj ect 5-5 Exile album cover featuring various African-American political marches with
signs photoshopped to reflect the names of guest artists on the album

Miss Monday toured with the Self-Destruction3 tour in 2003, spreading her message

to her sisters to be themselves and come of age with self-esteem. Her hoarse voice and

phonemic finesse cast her as a talented lyricist with a well-earned place in the history of

Japanese Hiphop. Pictured on the CD sleeve wearing locs, she now sports an afro (a tightly

curled perm) and is transitioning to a more reggae sound. The excerpts from the song

below, "Lady Meets Girl" (2003), outlines her advice to young women. She speaks about

finding her voice (line 1), using the microphone to fight (line 5), and unity among women

to build a better future and define themselves (lines 13, 19). She cautions against

materialism (line 1 1). Also of interest is the use of the phrase "back in the day" by the

cultural worker (VSOP) whose translation I decided to use for this explication. "Back in the

day" is an AAE and Hiphop linguistic phrase. Marcyliena Morgan comments, "'Back in the

day' is used by youth to refer to Hiphop eras" and it also represents nostalgia (2007).

1 +"If I can really express what I feel,
2 I would do it right now...
3 The future is in your hands
4 Just travel forward,
5 9I use the microphone to fight against this shitty daily life...
6 If I could, I would not know anything
7 Like it was back in the day yo!i Lady meets girl...
8 Too much information, so much weight that is carried on the shoulder
9 back then you weren't really like that,
10 grabbing everything that was seen from the eye.


3 See Appendix for more on this tour and a transcription of the theme song.


214










11 +Was it good? Motivation was greed and time started slipping;
12 you were almost lost, too...
13 +Again, we will climb together to the heavens
14 The conversation that might get you thinking...
15 Grab the passion that is in front of you!
16 Even if you can't see what's in front of you, jump on to it!
17 Yo! Wow wow wow wow wow wow wow, Hey!...
18 Take back the sky that recklessly went.
19 OTake apart the chains that you chained upon yourself!
20 Yo! Wow wow wow wow wow wow wow, Hey!...."

Obj ect 5-6 Miss Monday's "Lady Meets Girl" album cover

"Let's Go (It's a Movement)" (2003)

The following text is from the song entitled "Let's Go (It's a Movement)" by Long

Beach, California rapper Warren G, featuring Hiphop legend and pioneer KRS-ONE and

Ryukyu Islands, Japan rapper Lil' Ai. This song appeared on Beef The Soundtrack, an

album designed to accompany one of the Beef documentaries, which were Hiphop

documentaries explicating the history and practice of the battle concept in Hiphop culture.

This song signifies the transnational significance of Hiphop as well as the work put into

making its political agenda salient in the global sphere. The rappers selected for this song

represent disparate spaces. KRS-ONE hails from the Bronx, Warren G from Long Beach,

and Ai is from the Ryukyu Islands. The album cover features imagery that positions

Hiphop as spanning across the United States as it displays palm trees signifying California

and the West Coast, then the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri signifying the Midwest,

and then the New York City skyline signifying the East Coast. The song "Let' s Go (It' s a

Movement)" presents a Hiphop that transcends the national boundaries of the album cover.

Like the origins narrative of Hiphop, the first verse begins in the Bronx with KRS-ONE. It

then moves to the West Coast in a peaceful microphone pass to Warren G, despite the

stereotype of East Coast-West Coast conflict.









The message is brought home with Lil' Ai's final verse. Her presence in the song

takes Hiphop from the Bronx and Los Angeles to the colonized Pacific Islands of Ryukyu,

Japan. Codeswitching with some English, AAE, and Japanese, she raps about Hiphop as a

revolution. Like Rappagariya and other political lyricists in Japan, she raps about Hiphop

as a virus that spreads and has vibes to resonate or make people feel "good." The sense

from her lyrics translated below is that the Hiphop foundation that Rapper 1 (in Chapter

Four) mentioned is built solid, and it protects us from false popular culture. Lil' Ai situates

Hiphop as not being bound by geopolitical space (it is transnational culture) with the line:

"Hiphop defies the limit from the west to the east, from the left to the right, destroying

borders that creates lines in between." Like the male rappers described in Chapter Four,

she, too, positions herself in the role of guardian, savior, and "god" that can protect

Hiphop. In this way, her rhetoric is indicative of what some scholars are saying is the

opportunity for women to "flip" gendered scripts with Hiphop, as the role of savior or

superhero is thought to be stereotypically ascribed to men. However, one must be careful in

this analysis as we have learned from Uhura' s character, as well as from Joan Morgan

(2000), Ntozaki Shange (1977), Yukiko Tanaka (1987), and Michelle Wallace (1979): the

trope of savior/superhero/godess applied to women is not on equal footing with trope of

savior/superhero/god applied to men, in that the former could end up exploited,

unacknowledged, erased, or martyred. A transcription of the song lyrics follow.

Obj ect 5-7 Beef Soundtrack' s album art for "Let' s Go (It' s a Movement)"

The Beef soundtracks, documentaries, and related television series exemplify

Hiphop's cultural aesthetic concerning the "battle," which was described in Chapter Four.

It presents the "battle" as a discourse strategy to communicate value systems associated

with Hiphop culture. At times the value systems are progressive and in line with a


216










womanist agenda, and at other times they are indicative of Hiphop's classic gender politics

that degrade women and children. The series acknowledges that it was a female emcee that

popularized the battle aesthetic in Hiphop: Roxanne Shante. Shante criticized and engaged

in verbal play with several popular lyricists in the early 1980s. She made a song entitled

"Brothas Ain't Shit," which is accredited as the inspiration for the "answer" song "Bitches

Ain't Shit" by Dr. Dre featuring Snoop Dogg. The uneven venom with which these rappers

attacked Shante, 13 years later, is revealing. Nevertheless, Lil' Ai invokes Shante's lyrical

ingenuity in the verse below. Consider the song, "Let' s Go (It' s a Movement)":

Chorus 2X:
It's a movement/ (Let's go, here we go!)/ Ima prove it/ (Let's go, here we go!)/
KRS-One/ (Let's go, here we go!)/ Warren G, Lil' AI/ (Let's go, here we go!)


[KRS-One]
Radio waves making you behave like a
slave
So many ways to enhance what you crave
Microchips and optic clips have you
lickin your lips
With your eyes fixed on tits and fast
whips
It's funny how we call cars whips
We slave for it
How many times were you beaten by they
tricks
You looking at an eclipse
Faded dark spot in front of the light
Shut your eyes quick
International KRS passing through
When you spell Hip-Hop the H is always
capital
Here's what we have to do
It ain't hard to see
KRS, Lil' AI, Warren G
That's the power
Ain't no calmin me
An open hour
They see the god in me
Pardon me
In hip-hop, your heart is free
What you tellin me, KRS, LBC?
Chorus (2x)


[Warren G]

South Bronx, South Side Bronx
Boogie Down to my G-Funk Productions
Mic check, one two
Move a little something
Something with my peeps
Hip-hop declaration of peace
Street movement (let's go, here we go!)
Let's keep it music (let's go, here we go!)
Ima prove it (let's go, here we go!)
If you've got beef with Hip-Hop (let's go,
here we go!)
International incomes so we're in the suite
Watchin Ichiro hitting runs life is sweet
I take it back where I'm from
Knowledge rules supreme over nearly
everyone hmph
It's a shame how we caught up in the
material lifestyle
And our next generation livin wild
It's time for discipline time for listening
To this declaration of Hip-Hop
christening
Chorus (2x)












My name is L-I-L AI, I'm Lil' AI, vo
a & 22 0 1 M 3# 6~ VIBES
RA, 13 6 f VIRUS
US to JAPAN, As~ El ?$4 A i
Warren G i3 I; T 5~ BEAT,
KRS ONE Eit-il 'RM$


LI LI LI LA, LI LI LI LA LI LE
HIPHOP Ei It 6:l RS It i 34

;6R~ L3~13 ~. ~r '':i';' PAN

~~ ~ ~~~PHIPHOP &






Whatchu tellin me,
LIL AI n da the LBC


[Lil' Ai's translation]
My name is L-I-L AI, I'm Lil' AI, vo
connecting with this Hip Hop,
the vibes that vibrate, blowing some
new winds, kicking out the virus/ US
to Japan, like a cyclone, leading a
revolution
with the beat that Warren G plays
and we keep on going forward with
KRS ONE/ I will not give up this seat,
I'm like a clap of thunder in a blue sky
LI, LI, LI, LA, LI, LI, LI, LA, LI, LE,
HIP HOP defies the limit from the
west to the east, from the left to the
right,
destroying borders that creates limes mn
between/ the Hip Hop spirit is built
solid to withstand the false popular
culture,
through the use of words, spreading
freedom/ call me the guardian spirit
who uses fine wordplay one after
another,
who understands reality and music,
Watchu tellin me,
LIL AI n da LBC


At present there is no published ethnographic study that critically engages issues of

gender and sexuality in Japanese Hiphop ; even though Hiphop-studies scholars have

mentioned Japan as an example of a geopolitical space in which women cultural workers

and consumers have allegedly been able to use Hiphop as a tool to "flip the script" on

societal gender norms and other fixed identities for Japanese women such as the trope of

the good wife and wise mother, et cetera. Halifu Osumare comments that "in Japan, female

Hip-Hopers use the genre to defy gender restrictions for women" (2000:3). Ian Condry

(2006) concurs, noting that "the more recent female hip-hoppers discussed here [in his





SHowever, the excellent ethnographer of Japanese Hiphop and reggae, Marvin Sterling,
has a highly anticipated research proj ect in progress that attends to some of these issues.










work] represent for women (onna daihyoo) in a way that rej ects images of feminine

vulnerability" (2006:166).

Obj ect 5-8 Lil' Ai's album art for "Let' s Go (It' s a Movement)"

In general, Hiphop scholarship also tends to take for granted that Hiphop's

stereotypic misogynistic and heterosexist lyrics and performance are mediated and

mitigated by token female emcees that are perceived to be performing oppositional

identities that complicate standard practices of sexism. Most notable examples of such

performances would constitute Hime from Japan and Lil Kim from the United States.

These emcees are known for owning sexualized and fixed gendered identities and utilizing

norms associated with nationalist discourse to shock and unlock their identities from

dominant cultural standards and stigma. However, the need to create a more just social

reality requires more than "script flippin" and occasional access to performances in order to

achieve relational critical awareness of race and class analysis in the public sphere that

Hiphop has been able to secure worldwide thus far. While emerging Hiphop feminist

scholarship details how Hiphop has in some cases supported issues of gender equality (cf.,

Morgan 2008; Morgan and Bennett 2007; Pough 2004), the general claims of most

scholars--that there is a "golden age" of global Hiphop that did not include sexist and

heterosexist rhetoric, or that Hiphop's cultural practice is not sexist or heterosexist because

women and those in same-sex relationships have been able to mobilize the arts and

aesthetics of Hiphop for their own oppositional political agendas--need to be better

qualified and illuminated if a more equitable reality within global Hiphop is to be achieved.

"There's No Place Like Home": Queens and Bitches and Hos, Oh My!!

Much of the research and public discourse regarding women in Hiphop in general

reflects the discursive practice that has marked African-American women. There have been


219









constructed categories that fix female identities into a dominant binary opposition: queens

and hos. The queens are the virtuous virgins, the good wife and wise mother who do as

they are told, like Uhura following Farrakhan's demands in the skit presented Queens are

the cherished "church secretaries" who mule and martyr for the liberation of their people.

On the other hand, to quote Luther Campbell of Two Live Crew, "[h]os fuck a lot." They

are reduced to inhuman qualities as they are animalistic in behavior and cannot be trusted.

"Hos" bring down movements; they don't build them in popular cultural scripts. However,

"hos" can be "managed" by pimps in popular Hiphop rhetoric.

There are also manifestations of other categories that mark women' s identities as not

so binary, yet just as fixed. Some of these contemporary categories (which have historical

and tropological significance) are: sister, bitch, baby mama, and golddigger. Bitches, baby

mamas, and golddiggers usually follow the more dehumanized definition as hos, while

sisters are more in line with the definition of queens. Some aspects of these identifications

occur in most Hiphop cultural production around the world, despite academic scholarship

that says it does not (cf., Mitchell 2001). Tony Mitchell (2001) maintains that Hiphop in

the United States is more sexist and deviant than Hiphop in other countries. Often those

defending Hiphop's political potential will argue that it is just commercial Hiphop or Rap

that subjugates women; however, simple lyrical analysis of "conscious" Hiphop song lyrics

will reveal otherwise. Not only do some "conscious" rappers assign women according to

these categories, but some conscious rappers also will utilize pimp-ho metaphors to

describe their political cause. Even "underground" or "conscious" groups are guilty of

obj ectifying and degrading women in lyrics and lifestyle choices and onstage

performances. In many cases both "conscious" and "gangsta" cultural workers assert


220









masculinity in ways that degrade the human equality of women: "pimp" metaphors are

often utilized and celebrated, and male opponents are feminized (and in some cases

threatened with rape) as a strategy to disrespect them. Furthermore, content in "conscious"

songs referring to women often leave them absent as main topics of narrative, thus erasing

them from social struggle. In addition, women are cast into the "golddigger" category and

criticized for being complicit with materialism, consumerism, or sexualization in quite

paternalistic and patriarchal ways.

Examples of this would include song lyrics that criticize Japanese adolescent girls for

exchanging sexual services for Western brand name fashion items with older men, or song

lyrics that criticize women for shopping too much and, through their absence in their

household, allow themselves or their children to be degraded by their male partners.

Although these criticisms may come from good intentions, they do not address the larger

sociopolitical issues that underpin the behaviors and practice of the women and girls they

criticize, and general tones of the lyrical performances could be read as condescending.

Another example of sexism in Japanese Hiphop lyrics could include referents in Japanese

language that criticize by feminizing. The Hiphop vernacular Ame-ko for example is

diminutive and derogatory because the morpheme /ko/ means child and also signifies one

as feminine, as many female names end with that morpheme (e.g., Michiko, Satchiko,

Yoshiko, etc.). Borrowed words can also be utilized from English, both GAE and AAE, to

signify objectification, such as the English pej orative "bitch." Consider the verse below

from DS455 from Big Ron's "Bayside Cruisin'" introduced in Chapter Four:









KAYZABRO (DS455):
LADIDADI MAC DADDY IS COMIN' KAYZABRO (DS455):
1 -> -t%7 i HONEY PMAf 6 PARTY ladidadi mac daddy is comin'
I GOT IT '64 $R~~~~tf d ; honey come over here, the party is about
STILL ROLLIN' SMOKING' 41 3 ON AND to begin
ON I got it '64, I'm coming through
DOUBLE R 9/91~\EM still rollin', smoking we going on and on
FE 5EU' L EM MAY@M double R, to ma brothers
hows it going, this is our hood,
EO~ i & BAYSIDE CRUISIN' WiJ I/ 6
we doing what we want
we Bay side cruisin' so yall better
BIG RON, RICHEE CRUISIN' WIT' ME
watchout
HOW MANY BITCHES PLEASE GIVE ME.
YEA Big Ron, Richee, cruisin' wit me
STICY TW & 27 9 9x-yhow many bitches please give me yea I
R/o -10? 64 y prgot the sticky maryj ane, seeing crazy
ff ttir~ ;E--3 ;E3;E things in ahead
A~t ii EVERYDAY fr < d; <- b smoked out, getting high everyday
HA HIGH I(C i& Q Obt kg ai-rll ha high, get high like I am
IT'S LIKE THAT BIG RON .; : i \i it' s like that, sing it Big Ron

Hiphop's genesis in struggling, disenfranchised communities situates the culture as a

salient political force among today's emerging leadership in Japan as well as the United States.

Both countries' origin narratives speak of organizing in the face of oppression for the purpose of

peace and harmony as well as its multiple references to Japanese nationalist discourse, black

power rhetoric, and liberation ideologies that attract youth worldwide to utilize this art and

culture for a variety of political campaigns and strategic agendas. Hiphop's key leaders, authors,

and documentarians (cf., Kitwana 1994, 2002, 2005) have rightly predicted its transcendence

from a cultural movement such as j azz to a political one such as the Black Power movement.

However, is Hiphop a new social movement or is it merely an extension of past social

movements? Chapter Four and the present chapter examined how Hiphop's cultural workers and

political organizers have dealt with key issues in political movement building: race, class,

gender, and sexuality. I posit that it will be Hiphop's emerging gender politics that will foretell

whether or not it can forge a new social movement. My tools of analysis in this chapter included









evidence from my experiences of political organizing within the Hiphop culture in various

countries, including Japan, as well as examples from popular cultural discourse.









CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION: KOBUSHIAGEROO! (=PUMP YA FIST!)

Blackness, "Race," and Politics in Ethnographic Projects

The rhetoric of race is embedded in discursive practice that petitions a biological

classification system. The validity of such a system was ultimately empirically falsified in

anthropological literature in the 1990s. At this juncture, anthropologists remain amidst a

methodological crisis concerning to treatment of the live effects of racialization in ethnographic

data. For a while "ethnicity" became the trope for race; however, such studies denied the

historical significance of racial constructions and the material disparities that they have

produced. Specifically, ethnographers face the challenge of successfully analyzing and writing

about race without reifying it (Harrison 2002; Trouillot 2003). Inspecting instances of

disidentifieation among cultural workers in transnational Hiphop could lead to more developed

understandings of changing conceptualizations and strategies regarding race and raciology (cf.,

Butler 1993, 1997b; Hall 1996d; Gilroy 1993b, 2000). Perhaps studying disidentification can

help ethnographers better understand identification practices, such as those carried out by states'

governing bodies. Though race is but one of many intersecting identifications, examining how

race and its correlated disidentification takes place in Hiphop holds specific analytic interest.

Ethnographers and cultural critics have posited that popular culture stands for certain

discursive strategies (Dent 1998; Fabian 1998; Gilroy 1991; Hall 1996d; Hebdige 1987; hooks

1992) that encompass critical voices interested in reformulating outmoded notions of identity.

However, those writing specifically about such subj ects who identify with Hiphop communities

outside of the United States (cf., Condry 1999; Mitchell 2001) have yet to adequately address

how these participants in Hiphop culture are interpreting the significance of race and racialized

discourse, and representations of blackness in particular. If the political utility of Hiphop lies in









its association with a black body politic--rooted in an African-American imaginary that is

metonymicallyy) genealogically related to a history of resistance against state-regulated identity,

why is this aspect of Hiphop cultural production often avoided or left unanalyzed? Specifically,

what is the analytic relationship between race and Hiphop? How does race operate as a referent

within Hiphop culture? That is, how does Hiphop become racially imbued? And what becomes

of the conceptual status of race if Hiphop practitioners' racial "origins" are not publicly

recognized as black?

Following Hall (1996d), the utilization of black as a political category is evidence of

strategic essentialism; however, in order to discover why disidentificatory practice is necessary

with this particular population (the trans-Pacific Hiphop community in question), one must

understand identificatory practices of the state and related strategies of disidentification (Caplan

2001; McClaurin 2001). As Hall comments, "[popular culture] is where we discover and play

with the identifications of ourselves, where we are imagined, where we are represented, not only

to the audiences out there who do not get the message, but to ourselves for the first time...

[T]hough the terrain of the popular looks as if it is constructed with single binaries, it is not"

(Hall 1996d:474). Referencing Freud, he reminds us that sex and representation (including race)

take place in our minds and warns against conceptualizing popular culture as being constructed

with single binaries (1996:474; see also Fanon 1967). Through this observation by Hall we may

j oin the recuperative theories of Butler (1997b) and Cesaire (2000) that relate theories of mental

emancipation to deliverance from political subj section and explore the relationship between black

popular culture and decolonization.

Chapter One introduced theories of disidentification (Butler 1997; Mufioz 1999) and AAE

discursive practice and Hiphop Linguistics (Morgan 2002, 2008) in an effort to situate Japanese










Hiphop's cultural work within a theoretical frame that considers Hiphop as part of an

internationally practiced black popular culture. It offered a literature review of work on the

construction of race, social movement theory, and black popular cultural music genres in Japan

(e.g., blues, jazz, reggae, gospel, soul, step, and Hiphop). Chapter Two described methodological

considerations, including autoethnographic reflections concerning how I entered the field and

how my identifications affected fieldwork. I described my data collection and data analysis

processes as well as my reporting process. Chapter Three historically situated race in Japan and

sought to clarify Japan's geopolitical identity within a postcolonial framework. In this chapter, I

provided a literature review of race analysis in Japan, and examined Japanese studies as a

discipline, especially its relationship to critical race theory and studies of otherness in social

science. This chapter also sought to elucidate why race matters in Japan and why I am

conceptualizing current governmental practice and popular cultural reactions within a

postcolonial framework. Chapter Four posed the question, "Is Hiphop a transnational social

movement?" I explained how blackness is operationalized around the globe for political practice

and how African-American narrative style and liberation ideologies inform this practice. I

demonstrated how language, beats, dance, art, and philosophy fit into this framework. I offered

an origins narrative for Japanese Hiphop and described its cultural aesthetics from flows to

battles and verse styles. This chapter posited that Hiphop's contribution as a transnational social

movement was that it furthered the goals of past international social movements by dovetailing

race and class analyses. Chapter Five critiqued Hiphop as not being a "new" transnational social

movement because, like past movements, concepts of race and class have been allowed to trump

gender and sexuality as salient political issues. Explication of popular discourse regarding this

theme and autoethnographic reflections from movement building processes with which I have










participated in Japan and the US were the tools of analysis employed in this chapter. I explored

discussions concerning intersectionality in past and present political agendas, and I placed an

emphasis on questioning the political sustainability of these political agendas.

Revoking Hiphop's "Ghetto Pass"

Race is a socially constructed distinction, material relation, and dimension of social
stratification that intersects with and is mutually constituted by class, gender, ethnicity,
nation, and increasingly transnational location and identity. [Faye V. Harrison 2002]

A "ghetto pass" is approval from members of a community for individuals who did not

originate in that community or for individuals who originated from a community, but no longer

"keep it real" through community connections and sincerity. As a cofounder of the National

Hiphop Political Convention (NHHPC), I wonder if it is time to revoke Hiphop's "ghetto

pass"--as metaphor for its "social movement pass"-and hopefully, only temporarily, until we

can reassess whether our cause is still "worthy," given Hiphop's core's gender politics. Indeed,

what has made the language with which I write about Hiphop in regard to its relevance as a

contemporary social movement difficult, and at times confusing or contradictory, is the fact that

my analysis of its position has changed throughout the tenure of this research. Within a Hiphop

cultural framework, I am constantly reevaluating as to whether our cause is still worthy (cf.

Morgan 2008). Moreover, many of the female cultural workers that I organize with in the

international Hiphop community are becoming increasingly careful about uncritically praising

Hiphop's political utility, as we are finding ourselves in the position of the Uhura character (right

back where we started at the beginning of the movement). While writing Chapter Five, I polled

every international female Hiphop activist that I could think of as to whether Hiphop still had a

"worthy" cause, given its apparent gender politics and values concerning children and family

support. Everyone I talked to was exhausted from her secretarial role and skeptical concerning

Hiphop's political utility. While we recognize Hiphop's antiracist and anticlassist work--work









that was achieved through the "muling" of people gendered in the same identification as us--we

also realize that contemporary definitions of race are intersectional with other identifications

such as gender and sexuality (cf., Harrison' s previously cited definition of race, 2002; Hurston

1990 [1935]). Therefore, how successful can Hiphop continue to be if its international gender

politics are not immediately addressed?

The original "Hip Hop Political Agenda" document drafted in 2003 for the US National

Hip Hop Political Convention (NHHPC) listed three items that were eliminated from the final

document in 2004. Those three agenda items were gender equality, sexuality equality, and media

justice. At the 2006 NHHPC meetings in Chicago much debate ensued to put at least two of

those items back on the agenda: gender equality and media justice (which is seen as intersecting

with gender equality given the prevalent degrading images of women in Hiphop media). After a

lot of discussion, the gender equality item was supposed to be added back; however, a press

release distributed after the Democrats won back the US Senate in November 2006 omitted this

agenda item. When a fellow female cofounder of the NHHPC criticized this, she was met with

sexist rhetoric (e.g., it was insinuated that she was "frustrated," as in sexually frustrated) and was

asked if she wanted to be removed from the listsery where the group had its discussions. In

addition, during the summer of 2007, the national chair of the NHHPC, which would be held in

Las Vegas in 2008, posted a picture of female organizers at the World Social Forum in Atlanta

(June 2007) on his My Space (social networking site) page with the caption, "3 1 flavors of the

NHHPC." When criticized for sexually obj ectifying fellow organizers by referring to them using

a popular ice cream slogan, he responded, "I dont [sic] see a problem with recognizing the ethnic

diversity of our comrades... my definition of having 'flavor' is a good thing" (ellipsis in

original). By saying "ethnic diversity" he was referencing varied skin pigmentation, which









further shows that he was typologically casting these females as obj ects. He attempted to

backpedal by signifying that he was saying that these women "had flavor." However the

grammar of his original caption reveals his response as a lie, because his original use situated

"flavor" as a noun (obj ect), whereas his defense of the use of "flavor" refers to its use as modifier

to a noun.

The cultural workers with whom I work in other countries including Japan were closely

watching and participating in the movement-building process of the NHHPC as part of a shared

vision and eventual agenda to create allied "Hip Hop Conventions" in various countries. If the

prototype of the pilot is flawed in terms of gender politics, what does the future hold for

subsequent organizations? This does not mean that our international allies do not have agency,

and will just blindly accept the NHHPC's political agenda, but it is to say that given this sort of

treatment of women abounds in all international spaces, including Japan and the US, the outlook

of social change in regard to gender politics is not positive. While some cultural studies of

Japanese Hiphop have situated the genre as not being sexist in comparison to US Hiphop that has

not been my understanding of the culture. For example, Rhiannon Fink writes, "The lack of

misogyny and violence in Japanese hip hop is appreciated by US fans who oppose these facets of

contemporary commercial hip hop in America" (2006:205). I have read similar arguments from

Tony Mitchell (1998) and also lan Condry (1999), and I remain unsure of how that assessment is

made (see lyrics analysis in Chapters Four and Five).

That is, the cultural workers that I worked with reiterated the national stereotypes that

"Japan is sexist" in a fixed way and criticized rampant sexism in society and government policy

that predates Hiphop in Japan. I, too, have observed and experienced much sexism, sexual

violation, sexual harassment, and subjugation based on sexualized and gendered identifications









in Japan (see Chapter Three). However, I can also contend that my female colleagues and I have

undergone equally racist and sexist experiences in every country that I have visited and lived in,

including the United States and Japan. Mos Def calls this "world nigga law" and Faye Harrison

(2002) terms this "global apartheid." The global hierarchical order generally places those marked

as "female," "racialized other" or "nonwhite," and those in "same sex relationships" as lowest

priority concerning access to basic human rights and quality of life (food, wealth, health, shelter,

civic engagement, etc.). Ellen Meiksins Wood (1997) attributes growing global disparities along

lines of race, gender, sexuality, class, and citizenship to the universalization of capitalism--an

extension of previous imperialist agendas.

The contrast between today's "global" economy and earlier forms of colonial imperialism
should suffice to illustrate the point: colonies were what they were precisely because they
presented no effective geopolitical barrier to imperial power. The movement of capital
across colonial boundaries was, of course, not just a matter of paper transfers or electronic
transmissions but the bodily movement of coercive force. Geopolitical borders, in other
words, were not only notionally but physically permeable. Today, transnational capital is
even more effective than was the old-military imperialism in penetrating every corner of
the world; but it tends to accomplish this through the medium of local political
jurisdictions to maintain the conditions of economic stability and labour discipline. [E.
Wood 1997:553-554]

Given this historical situation, that there is a global world order that subjugates women and

nonwhite people, it is important not to blame Hiphop--or its global cultural production--for

how global racism and sexism came into being. As stated earlier, Hiphop has inherited a gender

and sexual politics from past social movements as well as mainstream society. The global world

order concerning gender, sexuality, and racial identity predate Hiphop's genesis. However, if

Hiphop cultural workers claim to be attending to all forms of global injustice, it is important to

evaluate whether Hiphop rhetoric and practice are oppositional enough to the global hierarchical

situation concerning gender and sexuality. At this juncture, Hiphop's international cultural

workers must ask ourselves, "Are 'flippin the script' and other performatives enough of a










political intervention when the numbers of people conanitted to Hiphop as an international

movement do not recognize or know the names and issues of the women within the purported

movement?" While the Hiphop movement builders should and must celebrate our success

regarding race and class awareness using international Hiphop cultural work, we must also ask if

our cause is still worthy if we do not attend to growing historical disparities along lines of gender

and sexuality. My assessment is that the Hiphop movement building efforts situated on the

periphery (e.g., the B-Girl Be Conference, the Homo Hop movement, and the cultural work of

Medusa, Rosa Clemente, Yo Yo, Danae Martinez, Hanifah Walidah, Carla Stokes, Georgia

Roberts, Stephany Spaulding, Retta Morris, Jessica LaShawn, Dereca Blackmon, Chasity

Johnson, Rachel Raimist, Aya de Leon, and numerous unnamed, undervalued, and unrecognized

others) constitute the criteria of a new social movement with a worthy cause (see also the

emerging canon of Hiphop feminist/womanist literature, such as Clay 2003; Cole and Guy-

Sheftall 2003; Collins 2006; Hopkinson and Moore 2006; J. Morgan 2000; M. Morgan 2008; M.

Morgan and Bennett 2007; J. Morgan and Neal 2007; Neal 2006; Rose 1994; Pough 2004; Pough

and Richardson 2007; Sharpley-Whiting 2007; Souljah 1996; Stokes 2007).

Although those on the periphery currently lack the numbers of the "core" Hiphop social

movement that is based on masculine centered, black nationalist frameworks, all is not lost. Like

past social movements (e.g., the black power movement) ultimately subjugated subj ects within

the United States (African-descendants in "the belly of the beast") tend to set the political agenda

on the world stage of black popular culture. Within a Hiphop cultural framework, "elders,"

founders, and pioneers reserve the right to critique. Therefore, we can urge increased attendance

to gender and sexual politics and create a new social movement that reaches greater heights of

social change. When cultural workers criticize Hiphop as not being a "new" social movement,









we are not denying its existence as a social movement, but we are criticizing its gender and

sexual politics (the worthiness of its cause) for not being "new," and instead stuck in ideology of

the past. Recall the satirical skit presented in Chapter Five, "The Wrath of Farrakhan." A social

change took place that could be the metaphor of a social movement in that Sulu experienced new

freedom. Likewise, men all over the world have benefited from Hiphop activism. The jury is out

as to whether women will remain in the position of Uhura, participating in movements that do

not end in much social change for ourselves. Just as the emergence of womanism and black

feminism served as a catalyst for the revamping and revolutionizing of "traditional" white

woman-centered feminist movement-building, hopefully a similar strain of criticism will spur a

relational change for renewed social change within Hiphop (cf., Philips 2006).

Legacy to Liberation?

Building on other ethnographic and social scientific studies of Hiphop in Japan (cf.,

Cleveland 2006; Condry 2006; Cornyetz 1994; Sterling 2003, 2006), the research presented here

specifically attends to linguistic features and cultural practices of a particular Japanese Hiphop

community. The data I have collected over the past 13 years appear to support the hypothesis of

many scholars that Hiphop's significance to agents within this community is its conspicuous and

purposeful connection to African-American discursive practices (cf., Alim 2006; Basu and

Lemelle 2006; Forman 2002; Kitwana 2005; Morgan 2008; Neal 1998; Osumare 2007; Ramsey

2004; Rose 1994; Smitherman 1997,; Watkins 2006; Yasin 1999). Many Japanese cultural

workers view their artistic productions as part of their political work against "white supremacy."

Moreover, their participation in Hiphop is conceptualized as "saving" themselves, their listeners

and especially Japan as a nation. The emcee battle and the song lyrics analyzed in Chapters Four

and Five highlighted the use of such rhetoric as part of a discursive strategy to connect with

African-American identities through Hiphop. That is, the agents I work with in the Japanese










Hiphop community conceptualize themselves as distinct cultural workers who are part of an

imagined community of transnational Hiphop practice that is internationally located in a US-

based "black aesthetic."

Such an identity, to view oneself as part of a transnational community that is inextricably

linked to African-American identity, does not necessitate that one is entangled in a neocolonial

relationship with the West or US hegemony. Identifying with blackness in the US is not

automatically an admission of submission to US hegemony, as "Americanized" identity is often

defined as whiteness and in terms of white racial norms (Lie 2001; Russell 1991a). Analysis of

the words people use to describe the US in terms of whiteness and African Americans as

derivational to an "American" (=white) norm reveal (1) that raciology or Western-centered

understandings of race have indeed been internalized and operationalized by the people who

speak in these terms, and (2) that identification with blackness or African-American cultural

narratives of resistance are not necessarily in alignment with a US imperial identity. Russell

explains,

Western hegemony and Japan's subordinate relation to the West has had a profound effect
on the Japanese self-image as well as their image of the nonwhite Other. The West has
played a pivotal role not only in introducing Japan to the black Other but in defining the
parameters of culture and civilization in general. Given Western hegemony and cultural
authority and its lavish display of modernity and material power in Japan and elsewhere, it
is not surprising that in its attempt to catch up with the West, Japan began to identify with
it and peripheralize cultural links with its Asian neighbors whose influence on Japan
waned with expansion of Euro-American power in the Pacific. [Russell 1991a: 15]

Consequently, I do not think that by identifying "acts of blackness" in Japan that I am

situating my research community in an identity that is somehow inauthentic or unoriginal.

Chapters Four and Five demonstrate how certain "acts of blackness," through performative

symbol or through speech act, are not necessarily about blackness per se, but about expressions

of disidentifieatory practice against grains of normalizing racial and gendered ascriptions in both









national and international settings. It is not my intention to project "American ways of thinking

about race" onto the people with whom I work (cf. Condry 2006:25; Takezawa 2006), rather I

hope to share linguistic data that they agree reveals how they are thinking about race as a

contribution to pre-existing research and writing that documents communities and cultural

workers conceptualizing racial oppression in shared ways, and borrowing as well as building

upon narratives of resistance in these ways (see, for example, Atkins 2001; Asai 2005; Koshiro

2003; Horne 2004). As Russell (1991a), Koshiro (1999), and Mishima (2000) explain, members

of Japan' s intelligentsia and governmental policy writers had access to and were informed by

Western theories of race and racial supremacy. Acknowledging this historical fact within

analysis of contemporary cultural practice need not be totalizing of Japan' s geopolitical identity

nor a US imperialist reading of indigenous cultural practice. Drawing on historical documents as

well as the work of historians like Dower (1986), Horne (2004), and Koshiro (1999) as well as

the critical race research of Kondo (1997), Russell (1991b), and Cleveland (2006), scholars can

better historically situate contemporary articulations of race and racialization within a Japanese

Hiphop context. Moreover, documenting changing trends in multicultural club venues,

multiethnic artists, and multilingual cultural productions and using discourse analysis to uncover

ideological constructions may reveal even more insight to how contemporary popular culture

relates and does not relate to older versions of nationalist discourse and racial hierarchies.

This critical race research proj ect pushes the discipline of anthropology to reconsider

traditional methodologies and social theories that do not fully extricate the significance of

postcolonial performances, like the performance of blackness among Japanese Hiphop

community cultural workers who are not bound to a particular identity, let alone a particular

geopolitical space in our specific modern times. An important part of my perspective in this









research is informed by my longitudinal and familial relationships--both biological and fictive--

that were forged over time during the tenure of my participation in this community. The political

markings that my body and my family bring to the ethnographic proj ect necessitate reflexivity in

writing, as the ethnographic relationship was at all times multivocal, heteroglossic, and dialogic

(Bakhtin 1981; Page 1988; Ulysse 2007). My body, my memory, my family experiences inform

the perspective from which I now write. This methodological perspective is a necessary and

integral influence that carries with it a particular political agenda to this already politically

charged intellectual proj ect. I will conclude with one such autoethnographic reflection.

Final Reflection

The Hiphop cultural community that I reported on in this work is a contemporary

manifestation of a historical relationship between activists and artists across the Pacific. As such,

the Hiphop community was not the only "home" that I found when navigating the cultural,

politic, and linguistic terrain in Japan. My parents' and grandparents' agemates that I

affectionately and respectfully call "elders" in this proj ect also provided an intellectual and

emotional shelter for me over the past 13 years. These elders were the trailblazers for

international social movement building that sought open alliances according to their

identification as being part of the world' s "darker races" (cf. Du Bois 1990 [1903]; Prashad

2007). This vanguard openly sought allegiance with their African-American counterparts and

other oppressed peoples all over the world.

One such elder is Yoshida Ruiko, who graciously hosted my mother and me in her home

after a long night of research in 1994. Watching my mother "build" with Yoshida-san on

strategies for eliminating inequality worldwide at various moments over time has been an

incredible experience. On one particular evening, Yoshida-san, Nakazawa Mayumi, Chikappu

Mieko, and my mother went to see a multicultural and multinational performance at a temple in









the Tokyo metropolitan area. Afterward, some of the group went to dine. We ate chanpuru and

other Ryukyuan cuisine while listening to Ryukyuan musicians perform at a restaurant. When the

musicians were finished performing (as we "closed the spot down" that night), my mother,

Nakazawa-san, and Yoshida-san talked with the musicians and other restaurant staff about

blackness, race, and politics as well as Asian-national art and activism. Upon arriving at

Yoshida-san' s home I was struck by her beautiful photographs of members of the Black Panther

Party, particularly Huey Newton. These "elders" "broke bread" based on their perceptions of

shared experiences of subj section as well as their collective cultural identity as members of a

transnational social movement inspired by the international black power movement. It wasn't

Hiphop, but similar aesthetics and language ideologies were at play.

Citing the work of Yoshida Ruiko, who is also an internationally acclaimed Japanese

national photoj ournalist, Russell (1991a) provides a quotation from her discussing the premise of

one of her books and its relationship to her becoming aware of her own identity as it intersects

with global racial hierarchies:

Haremu no Atsui Hibi is a coming-of-age record of the maturation of one yellow-skinned
woman' s [kiiori hada no onna] life in an American black ghetto in the 1960s. At same
time, it is also a journal of one person's search for self-identity, a person who--like
blacks--is a minority in American society. [Yoshida 1979:226, quoted in Russell 1991a]

Contrary to the scholarship that questions Japanese Hiphop's "authenticity" based on the

supposed premise that African-American Hiphop "originators" and Japanese national Hiphop

cultural workers lack shared experience [of racialization and disenfranchisement] (Fink

2006:201), Russell analyzes Yoshida' s comments and historically situates the existence of shared

racial identities and, thus, shared experiences between African Americans and Japanese

nationals. Russell writes,

Yoshida' s use of terms like oshukujin (yellow person) and hada no kiiroi onna (yellow-
skinned woman) and her identification of herself a "minority" is a deliberate statement of









her solidarity with other people of color; a consciousness, she tells the reader, she did not
possess until her experiences in America. In this and subsequent works, Yoshida rej ects
Western racial hierarchies, while criticizing her compatriots, particularly the Japanese
intelligentsia, for their uncritical embrace of them and oppression of minorities at home.
[Russell 1991a: 15]

Not all, but many of the Japanese national cultural workers that I interviewed had the chance like

Yoshida to travel to the US and experience anti-Asian racism firsthand, which perhaps helped to

formulate their identities in solidarity with African-American experiences. Those that had never

left Japan or East Asia and the South Pacific also shared Yoshida's conceptualization of self. It

could be because this generation of cultural workers grew up reading or hearing about the work

of Yoshida as well as Honda Katsuichi and Nakazawa Mayumi who write about race and

Japanese identity in similar ways to Yoshida. Also because of changes in technology that

contribute to time-space compression, consuming Hiphop cultural productions, such as movies

that elucidate social disparities and creative strategies of resistance against such structural

programs, further contributes to awakening Japanese Hiphop cultural workers to shared

experiences of racialization and related social inequality.

Indeed, whether it was an unknown Hiphop fan who worked a custodial position at the

Kansai Airport who' s never left his city, let alone the country, or a famous deej ay whose videos

frequent MTV Japan and who, at the time enjoyed a residency at Japan's then-largest Hiphop

club, I have rarely had a conversation about Hiphop that did not end in an articulation of social

disparities and what we, the interlocutors, could do to help assuage this worldwide problem that

we both endure on a daily basis. I do think that perceptions of political connectivity within my

transnational Hiphop community are becoming increasingly generational, as younger consumers

and cultural workers seem less committed to Hiphop's political promise; however, as Hiphop's

cultural and philosophical practice predicates, it is up to us--me, the famous deej ay, and the

Kansai Airport custodian--to criticize Hiphop's political potential and to guide its future cultural









workers toward more progressive practice. As Chuck D said during a collaboration with DJ

Yutaka, "The legends ain't ready to leave, cause the kids ain't ready to lead!"

In this way, let us consider that Hiphop serves as a window to studying social reality as

described by the cultural workers youth in question. Hiphop is a point of entry, a site of inquiry,

for understanding how race, gender, class, and citizenship affect cultural workers in their

everyday lived experiences. More importantly, documenting Hiphop as a trope for blackness and

its related status in relation to the state helps to illustrate how blackness is utilized as a

strategically essentialized political tool to displace and assuage the essentializing political

processes operationalized by states to categorize and control bodies that are politicized.

Therefore, I am not only providing insight into how cultural workers cope and recuperate (Butler

1997b; Hall 1996d; Hebdige 1979), but also how the state legitimizes hierchicalizing

apparatuses, and how cultural workers subsequently make sense of this and resist when able.

While Hiphop is transnational, it is also simultaneously autochthonous because we cannot

discount the agency and innovation of individuals positioned at the peripheries of its cultural and

linguistic production (outside of the "Black Atlantic"). Despite occupying disparate spatial

locations, those who identify with Hiphop cultural production are often temporally intertwined

and linked through a "common literacy" (Anderson 1991; hooks 1992) that seeks to destabilize

the status quo--whatever that may be in any given culture--and this practice seems to

encompass a goal of dehierarchizing social relations (cf., Fujita 1996; Gilroy 1993b; Morgan

2002; Prevos 2001; Urla 2001). Hence, Hiphop cultural production not only represents the

articulation of critical theory (Beebe 2002; Dyson 2001; Grossberg 1997; hooks 1992), but it

also relates to the postcolonial intellectual proj ect that Homi Bhabha described as "the

transnational as translational" (1993:172). By concomitantly signifying blackness and disrupting









racial stasis, Hiphop's significance to social movement building is transnational ("hiphop is

black power") as well as translational ("kobushi ageroo! [=pump ya fist!]"). This transnational

genre is translatable in a metonymical sense, as its liberatory message is carried from one place

to another and serves to describe the condition of our contemporary world from a specific,

formally silenced perspective.









APPENDIX
SAMPLES FROM DATA REFERENCED

Summary of Analysis from RIAJ Yearbook 2006 Charts

The Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ) Yearbook 2006 lists various charts

including one showing how distribution works in Japan and also top selling artists/groups of

artists. Whereas the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) categorizes Hiphop

sales, the RIAJ places these sales mostly under the category of "Pop" and also in some cases a

subcategory of "New Music." EXILE (formerly J Soul Brothers), is a J-Pop band, which could

also be described as a Hiphop-influenced Japanese soul (or "New Jack Swing") band as is

referenced in Chapter Five. EXILE was listed as having sold in the millions for 2005. It also won

Gold Discs and "Rock and Pop Album of the Year" for its Single Best and Perfect Best albums.

This is the same group that featured the Black Panther Party political march on its album cover

and the CD booklet contains different famous photographs from African-American political

struggles and demonstrations. In the past, EXILE has borrowed imagery from Public Enemy's It

Takes a Nation of2~illions album cover for EXILE ENTERTAINM~ENT s album art.

Obj ect A-1 EXILE' s EXILE ENTERTAINMENT

The song lyrics featured in this research proj ect generally sold high numbers, and the

albums were ranked in the top 25 under the Japanese Hiphop category for Cisco Records, which

is a different entity from RIAJ (see http://www. cisco-records.co.j p). Furthermore, Suite Chic/

Amuro Namie, won "Artsist of the Year" in 1997, according to the RIAJ. Finally, most of my

research assistants communicated that the samples used were representative of heavily-

consumed art in Japanese Hiphop.









"Si( #6` 5"/ "Kobushi Ageroo"/ "Pump Ya Fist"


This translation was ranked the highest by research consultants for the song "Kobushi,"

which is explicated in Chapter Four. This song also inspired part of the title for this proj ect.

[chorus]
put your fist up, put your fist up
open up your ears, jump up
put your fist up, put your fist up
open up your ears, jump up

[versel]
this hip hop virus has invaded your blood like poison,
representing Japan, the yellow race yo!
I'm tellin it to you straight up, trying to fix this situation that I don't agree with
our identity, delivering dope Japanese shit till everybody hears it
I hit every single ball thrown like Shinj o-
rhyming, luck is part of skills
I'm showing you how I do it,
I'm like a Japanese soldier during a war,
putting my life on the line fighting with this microphone
carving the truth into the history and its culture
Hiphop is something that got this lock down the most
those who feel the same way, put your fist up

[chorus]

[verse2]
trying to find something different in this cityscape
outlaws that go out and smoke weed
got the hachimaki tied to my head,
inj ectin the dope into the world,
seeing all of the problems in the world especially at night
greed cannot measure my battling schemes
during a live performance, I use the mic to fight against my fear
no need to pray, risk your life, never backing down
my spirit is real like a Japanese sword,
put into the sheath that' s gentle
the battle might be a little tough be we coming up
using Japanese that I learned since I was young
making songs that even a yakuza would be surprised
those who came to just watch will get tipsy from listening
if you gonna do it, do it
I got the spirit from those who came before
I'm a missionary from Japan, going to war today too










[chorus]

[verse 3]
for the men and women who have pride and big spirit, listen to the lyrics
got the info that will shock your mind
packed with good news, challenging various dojos and bringing new teachings
delivering crazy out of this world rhymes to your mind
I'm not following no trend, you don't have tell me that shit
we coming into you with me and DJ Yutaka's beat
male spirit and intelligence, putting muthafuckas to rest

popular culture changes as time changes,
fighting another day against society that gives false information
Yamadaman & Q, we are the big stars that has animal instincts to fight
eating 'hino maru bento-' with DJ Yutaka,
inheriting the culture and the values
rapping what I have to say,
this is the best skill to have to live
at times, something soft be stronger than a metal

[chorus]
--DJ Yutaka featuring Rappagariya

Obj ect A-1 DJ Yutaka' s album cover for "Kobushi"

"Self Destruction," Japanese Style

"Self Destruction" was also the title of a popular and pivotal song in the US by various

popular artists, including heavy hitter pioneers MC Lyte, KRS-ONE, Chuck D, Flava Flay, Just

Ice, Kool Moe Dee, Doug E. Fresh and Daddy O. The topics of each artist' s verse addressed

salient issues that were considered to be part of African-Americans' "state of emergency" at the

time. The song attended to a recuperative analysis in a similar vein to Negritude as expressed by

Aime Cesaire, Frantz Fanon and others. Indeed, self-destruction brings to mind Fanon's concept

of auto-destruction (Fanon 1967). Here is how the concept is operationalized by Japanese

cultural workers. Note the themes of nationalist discourse, survival and transcendence that are

prevalent throughout transnational Hiphop language ideology and cultural aesthetics.









[K Dub Shine]
this alcoholic carries a knife at around midnight and early morning,
probably some whiskey that's mixed with water
or maybe buying some really cheap stuff,
stalking, bullying, stealing that' s not worth anything
an island where people easily kill others,
parents putting life insurance on their children and abusing them
there is a lack of respect towards others,
and people starting bitching in prison when they get the death penalty
it' s no one else' s life but yours,
what I think the reason is because of the lack of knowledge and education
which causes the increase in self destruction in this society

[Zeebra]
I'm zeebra, coming from Shibuya,
There's a lot of chinpira (something like gangbangers in the states)
beating up a drunk salaryman in the alley
hating on parents and the police
but it doesn't look too tough when you seem scared
it' s better to be seen as cats who are tough
but that' s just a misunderstanding by a lot of fools
what doesn't change is the baggy jeans
and the sense of danger when I see a police car
man I don't feel good, I don't have any good memories
there' s a lot of negatives but there isn't any positives

[Yamada Man]
yeah, when you walk straight,
there's times when you hit something that blocks you
but if you give up, you're gonna regret it
the challenge in this whole lifetime is trying to eat,
trying to express how I feel
of course I'll challenge it as many times as it takes,
its journey in this game,
risking my life, I'm not playing,
my dream is big
no matter how tough it is, gotta keep my head up and fight it through
I'll keep on goin till my heart stops,
my principle is to work hard than take the way of cheating
you gotta believe in yourself when everything is going bad

[Q]
man how many times are you gonna make me say this
going straight past from left to the right? are you serious?
think a lil bit, you thinking like a kid, is your heart like ice?
one way of a death story, don't mistake it









so much corruption that I'm getting tired of saying
pushing the limit
dumb muthafuckas should sleep for 10,000 years,
trying to get to the bottom of this
ayo!
watch out because its burning and hot,
this is a gamble, risking the life

[Utamaru]
what' s scary isn't the dumb comment but the pretty excuses
the actions taken by the political authorities that are distorted
before we start disciplining the kids, we need to discipline the adults
seriously,
the persistent and stubborn, Japanese stock businesses need to calm down
stop trippin because someday you'll die

[Kohei Japan]
thinking that there will be equality tomorrow,
but one accident will change the peaceful balance,
wandering into suicide,
if there is no way out, you need a back up plan
make sure you know how to work your way out,
but if you ready to die, then follow me!

[Mummy-D]
bullying, threats, breakdowns, poor health,
falling, downgrading, escaping, disappearing
people giving up their lives,
jealousy, greed, despair, poor,
but you gotta keep on living
you need to show your will to keep on going

[Utamaru]
stop pulling my legs

[Kohei Japan]
don't listen to the noise (the bullshit)

[Mummy-D]
don't make a mistake on your path, the junction of life


[Utamaru]
@lets keep on doing rap music to survive

[Kohei Japan]










Rhymster, Kohei, bumping that sound
jiko ho-kai (self destruction), self destruction

-- DJ Yutaka, featuring K-Dub Shine, Rhymester, Kohei Japan, Rappagariya, Zeebra

Obj ect A-2 "Self Destruction" album art

K-Dub Shine's "Save The Children"

This song is referenced throughout, but especially in Chapter Two because of its specific

autoethnographic features.


verses3]
I don't want to see anymore tears from children
child abuse is something that cannot be forgiven
people abuse kids like its a daily / usual / conventional practice thing
language and violence, watch how you use them
the fear becomes planted in these kids' minds
always being scared,
like a nightmare always pressing on the child
all alone wondering around in their mind and memories
their hearts will always remained scarred
they can't find a way out of the path
they lose hope on all people and close their hearts
this is fatal for a young child's life
do you want me to do the same thing to you?
I won't be able to hear you cry even when you're on your knees
I don't think I can keep my temper down
this is the only way that you will understand the child's pain
[chorus]
if there is a kid that looks like he / she was beaten, let me know
if there is a house that seems suspicious, let me know
if there is someone who needs help, let me know
if you hear someone crying, let me know
--K Dub Shine

Obj ect A-3 K Dub Shine' s "Save the Children"

Hannya's "Oretachi no Yamato"

This song is an excellent example of how nationalist discourse, cultural nationalism,

resistance, assertions of masculinity and social commentary coalesce as cultural criticism.

Hannya is a member of the Mo-so-zoku ( R)) crew. He has ascended from a battle emcee in









local battles and festivals to a top-selling artist who recently announced that he would be

working with famous J-Pop star, Nagabuchi Tsuyoshi. Nagabuchi was on the main theme song

for the motion picture fi1m Otokotachi no YamYYYYYYYY~~~~~~~~~ato and Hannya had the supporting sub-theme

song, "Oretachi no Yamato." An excerpt appears below.

Our generation was born after the war, but there's still war going on
Some idiot creates the nuclear bomb and then some other idiot does the same thing
Will the top leader of your country and will the top leader of the other country, just step
down and Eight one and one because the rest of us
really wish for peace in this world

The aftermath of war brings losses of those who we love, family and friends
Forget about winning or losing, this is about life
To have feelings as a human being
If I ever have a kid, and that kid has a kid,
I would want them to live in a world where they will be able to smile more than the world
we live in today
--Hannya

Obj ect A-4 Hannya' s "Oretachi no YamYYYYYYYY~~~~~~~~~ato"

"Knowledge" Panel Translation Sample

Aspects of the following excerpt were translated by VSOP, Wesley Uenten, Fujino Yuko,

Nakamura Mustuo, and the author. This discussion took place at a "knowledge" panel during a

Hiphop festival. It is shared to exhibit the level of thought and philosophy that create the "fifth"/

"overstanding" element in the operational definition provided for Hiphop as a culture. It also

exhibits aspects of how narrative and storytelling--within Hiphop's language ideology--are

integral to the creation of Hiphop's transnational origins narrative, which includes members from

either side of the Pacific--that is, American pioneers such as DST are mentioned as well as

Japanese pioneers, whose identities are hidden.

Pioneer 1:
Hiphop is being portrayed greatly through the mass media. Yeah, it's not a bad thing, but
there is more to it in Hiphop than that is portrayed in the media. For instance, there has
been an increase in independent artists. For deej ays, maybe it' s good to listen to the
Hiphop from the 1980s? Do you guys feel the same way?










Grand Wizard Theodore was the first to bring the technique of scratching.
Today, there are artists such as Jay-Z, Ja Rule, Puff Daddy, Def Jam, Ruff Ryders.
But Eric B, DST, Diamond D, Battlecat were the first people to be making tracks back in
the day. A deej ay's j ob is to make sure people are having fun and to uplift people' s spirits.
I don't know how many deej ays there are in the crowd but I want everyone to listen to all
kinds of artists, and listen to and give the audience the music from back in day, not back in
the day but the true, real originators of Hiphop because that will open up people' s
perspective and they will learn. I want the deej ays to listen to the old school Hiphop again.
Yeah, vinyl is expensive, but there are CD's so you can use CD's to spread the music. It's
better if every deej ay is different and has their own style or else it' s boring. So, for the
deej ays, I want this message to mean something for you and have pride as a deej ay and
spmn.

Pioneer 2:
Is talking about deej ay good? Pioneer 1 was the first deej ay to scratch in Japan.
Back in those days, I was a b-boy and there was only disco at the time. I was wearing a
jersey and some sneakers and couldn't get in, and that was the era / time when we joined
the Hiphop movement. We were treated really bad and been through a lot but we've been
keeping on doing it. Today, there are a lot of deej ays but a Hiphop deej ay is not some who
spins Hiphop, but I want you guys to know that a Hiphop deej ay is someone who knows
about Hiphop.

Pioneer 1:
Even though this is what I'm wearing, even a guy in a suit, or in sneakers, or a salary man
who likes Hiphop is Hiphop. It doesn't matter what you wear. This is a culture and it's
about how you express yourself. I'm not saying magazines are wrong or the TV is wrong. I
was an outlaw back in the day. Without Hiphop, I wouldn't be here today. It saved me.
When I met Hiphop, I felt like this was what I wanted to do, this is my life. And I went to
the U.S. and lived there for 12 years.
I have a wife and kids, and I need to protect them, and I do think that God has protected
me, but if I didn't have Hiphop I would be against myself. I love Hiphop, so I don't want
to say I don't like Hiphop right now, but Hiphop is about peace, love, unity, and to have
fun. I want everyone to share the knowledge, deej aying, dancing, music, and have fun.
There' s gangsta rap, I mean it' s not bad, but if the whole world accepts it, it' s gonna be
crazy. So, for those who like Hiphop, there are the good parts and bad parts. Same with us
humans, but there are also the good and the bad in cultures, because humans made it. I
want everybody who does Hiphop to understand the good and the bad. It' s not about your
appearance, I want everyone to enj oy Hiphop and use it as like a battery to live life.
There's magazines like Bla~st and Woofin, there are good articles but there are also bad
articles. Sorry for saying this, but it is up to you to decide. Just because he or she is
wearing a chain and has vinyl, doesn't mean he or she is Hiphop. Someone who has been
long forgotten doesn't mean he or she wasn't Hiphop. I know what I'm saying is kinda
hard to understand but I know those who get what I'm saying gets it. I want you guys to
understand this and spread Hiphop and support it in Japan. We will be happy that we were
able to help grow positive and good Hiphop and we can comfortably be able to die and go
to the sky and watch you guys from above.










I am 42 this year, and I am a pretty old guy. But, you know, I am wearing stuff like this...
but I believe that life is for you to decide on your own and if you make your own decisions
and do something, it doesn't really matter what you wear. I am looking forward to the
future .

Pioneer 16:
It doesn't really matter about your appearance or what you wear. A salary man who likes
Hiphop is Hiphop and that's okay. I am a salary man myself. I am a writer.

Pioneer 2:
You were a dancer back in the day, right?

Pioneer 16:
You don't have to bring that up. Haha. I don't think nobody would know. When I was a
student, I met Hiphop and became a writer after I graduated. I think Hiphop is about your
heart / mindset. It doesn't matter what you wear. Hiphop is not just fashion. It' s more
about values. It' s not a gangster' s music and you don't have to be a gangster. I have
nothing to do with gangsters but I like Hiphop. I think there is a false image that Hiphop
equals gangster image and I don't really like that. But young people are maybe seeing too
much of this image. Whatever, if you wear red or blue, or something like that, is not all
Hiphop. It's about values and I don't want those values to be destroyed. To use these
values in life is important. Even when you read magazines, there are things that you cannot
learn and grab from just magazines. So that' s what I want to tell you guys. Hiphop is more
about the heart and mind. Yeah, fashion might be how you start but there' s more to it.

Pioneer 1:
Me too. Fashion was how I first got started. When I was 18, 19. Those superstars from Run
DMC. I own all the colors. I wore those without laces and it was hard to walk in them.
Haha. How many of y'all are deej ays? Be honest. Back in the day, I was real poor. I didn't
have money to buy vinyl. Applause for the sponsors. Today, there are good mentors, good
mixers, good turntables. We live in a time where deej ays should be really grateful. l used
to scratch on belt-drives. During that time, there hasn't been too many great turntables
invented yet. But now, there' s deej ay schools and you can learn about the skills. But just
cuz you got the skills, doesn't mean you know Hip Hop / are Hip Hop. I was really hungry
back in the day and I am really straight up with things. And because I had that feeling, I am
still here.
deej aying is not about following trends and hopping on the mainstream train.
I think there should be more of those who want to do it for the love. There' s a lot of street
bands around Shibuya. Where the deej ays at? It' s tough to be a club deej ay, you need skills
and its tough to make a living as a club deej ay. I understand if you got into it from fashion,
but if you want to get out from it, don't leave from the entrance but go to the exit. There' s
been a lot of violence in this country. Last year, I did a United Nations tour with
everybody. It was a charity event to save the children. We thought about this with Pioneer
2 and we want to do something for all the children in this country and we want to use
Hiphop to help these kids. So, for everybody out there, we need to really help these kids
and the future of this country and spread Hiphop in a positive way. You know, violence is










increasing and global warming is going on. The 'gangsters' that Pioneer 2 mentioned, is
not a bad gangster but a good gangster. I think Hiphop is a gangster' s culture, I mean,
that' s how it got started in the Bronx. After the violence that erupted in the area.
So, I want people here to embrace the positive aspects of Hiphop and spread positive
Hiphop.

Pioneer 14:
I want to talk about the fashion, and I go to the U.S. a lot too but I do say that kids over
there have to do a lot harder to buy, say a pair of Forces [Air Force Ones].
Kids over there [U.S.] really take care of their shoes a lot. You guys might be able to buy a
lot of Forces but kids over there, it might be really hard to buy Jordans [Air Jordans]. They
buy Reeboks and keep them white and manage to work the ways to show their pride. Even
in dance and graffiti, I want each one of them to have their own pride. Everybody here,
don't be like 'just because it got dirty in the rain, I'm not gonna wear it' but take care of
them ...











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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

A Hiphop-generation anthropologist, filmmaker and educator, Dawn-Elissa Fischer is

concerned with the ways youth around the world use Hiphop as a tool for political

empowerment. She is currently the research design & education manager for the Hiphop Archive

at Stanford University. Fischer is a co-founder of the National Hip-Hop Political Convention and

she serves on the Advisory Board for HOTGIRLS (Helping Our Teen Girls In Real Life

Situations), a non-profit organization dedicated to educating African American girls about sexual

and mental health issues. Fischer also serves as Co-Director of Edutainment4Life, a collective of

consultants dedicated to the creation of entertaining education for life skills and self-help for

underserved youth.





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1 KOBUSHI AGEROO! (=PUMP YA FIST!): BLACKNESS, RACE AND POLITICS IN JAPANESE HIPHOP By DAWN-ELISSA TIYE IGHOSOTU FISCHER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Dawn-Elissa Tiye Ighosotu Fischer

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3 For my son, Xola Dessalines Amilcar Fischer, and my mother, Cheryl Fischer, with love, respect and eternal admiration

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Anything productive that comes of this work is because it is multi-vocal and made possible by much support and guidance from a number of people, programs and institutions. Any mistakes are the sole fault of the author and so, in advance, I say, mea culpa as this project was initially inspired by and conti nually driven by only good intenti ons as well as dreams of hope, healing and human equality. I am most grateful to the many people whose work, presence and support made this document possible. Writing to express my gratitude has been such an emotional process that I have actually in th e spirit of Hiphopproduced an underground and commercial version of Acknowledgements! What follows is the concise and commercial version. However, I still hope that re aders will enjoy this part in th e true spirit of a mixtape, and play your favorite instrumental sample while re ading this academic version of the Hiphop shout out. In a final mixtape move, I send sincere apologi es to all I may have fo rgotten to thank. I got you next time! One love; lets get free. I am eternally thankful to all of the in stitutions, foundations, programs and people who financially supported my development and this research: the Mellon Mays Fellowship Program and the Social Science Research Council, the Un iversity of Florida Alumni Fellowship, the Japan Foundation, the Hiphop Archive, Stephen Fisc her, Donald Fischer and Cheryl Fischer. I am eternally grateful for all my mentors, t eachers, motivators, leaders, theorists and other folk who helped me make a way in the spirit a nd likeness of how I imagine Harriet Tubman led members of my ancestral community to the ri ver Jordan: Marcyliena Morgan, Faye Harrison, Kesha Fikes, Irma McClaurin, Gina Ulysse, Ma rk Reid, Michael Heckenberger, Jon Yasin, Marvin Sterling, Raymond Codrington, Dionne Bennett, Jon Jackson, Jeff Johnson, Maria Grosz-Ngate, Enoch H. Page, Don Matthews, Chuck D, Bakari Kitwana, Nakazawa Mayumi, Mark Anthony Neal, Theresa Adkins, Carla Stok es, Scott Heath and Stephany Rose Spaulding.

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5 My advisory committee in particular, Fa ye Harrison, Kesha Fikes, Irma McClaurin, Michael Heckenberger and Mark Reid, and th e Founder and Director of the Hiphop Archive, Marcyliena Morgan, deserve a special shout out and bow dow n for being supportive and challenging as well as the bomb theorists and phenomenal educators. I sing a special spiritual song for each of you, as you all inspire me I am fortunate to have be en mentored by these great theorists and researchers. Finally, I express im mense gratitude to Marcyliena Morgan, who not only founded the Hiphop Archive, which serves as an important resource for scholars and educators who study and teach Hiphop, but she has al so been a pivotal mentor to a large cohort of Hiphop generation Hiphop researchers. I bow down in thanks and reverence for my va rious crews, who helped me to pull through as we collectively figure out the Underground Railr oad of life. Much props to my tight Gator crew: Lonn Monroe, Tracey Graham, Theresa Adkins, Nakamura Mutsuo, Fujino Yuko, Nishant Shahani, Sybil Dionne Rosado, Daphine Washi ngton, Ermitte St. Jacques, Rosana Resende, Harun Thomas and the University of Florida Hip Hop Collective! I love all yallyour spirits are what I miss about the Swamp. Much props to my Yay Area/ Lower Bottoms / Club Knowledge crews: Danae Martinez, Imani Williams, Sonni Collins, Chaka Smith, Te sa Rigaud, Miesha Hillard, Ameelah El-Amin, Curtis Boze Riley, Jr. & Hairdoo, Tigi Bihon, Blu, Zotunde, Liv, Tedra, Lower Bottoms Mayor Raymond from across the street, Tarus J ackson (RIP), Chaundra, Fat Rat, Makini, Susan, Tani Nagaoka, Lisa Moon (RIP), Sato Mire i, Joel Tan, Ricky Vincent, Jeff Chang, Adam Mansbach, Jeriel Bey and The Architektz, Doro thy Tsuruta, Nedra Ginwright, Shawn Ginwright, Antwi Akom, Lem Lem, Anita Johnson and Davey D and the rest of the Hard Knock Radio fam, Wade Nobles, Elnora Webb, Seri e McDougall, Andreana Clay, J on Rodriquez, Jessica Norwood,

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6 Victor Thompson, Daniel Zarazu a, Melanie, Shawntae, Joyce, Pamela, Kevin Washington, Ken Monteiro, Johnetta Richards and the rest of th e SF State Africana Studi es & College of Ethnic Studies family, and finally all the Hiphop Archiv e staff and crew from Stanford University!!! To my right thurr (STL throwback and Mi dwest) crew: Amoretta Itunde Morris, Donica England, Chandra Williams, Jessica LaShawn, Ms. Chasity, Michelle Purdy, Stephanie Baker, Lanetta Greer, Phyllis Broussard, Tony St ephenson, Jude Bordeaux, Cameron White, TJ Crawford, Robin Terry, Jamilla Upchurch and Julia-Feliz Sessoms, and all the other activists, educators and organizers that I worked with back in da day! Nuff respect and eternal gratit ude to my family, friends, coll eagues and inspirational folk in Japan: King Zulu Tone, Seiko, DJ Yutaka, Ma yumi, DJ Kaori, K Dub Shine, Astuko, Ai, Kyle, Keiko, Satchiko, Ricky, Curtis, Spanky, Mast er Key, Shingo, J-Roc, Bobby, Tony, Mayuko and everyone with much humble, grateful love and respect. I must give an extra special thanks to my fo rmal research consultants and the people I lived and worked with in Japan. Mad props and sincer e gratitude to the tran slation teams over the years: Fujino Yuko, Nakamura Mutsuo, King Zulu Tone, Wesley Uenten, VSOP, and Cheryl Fischer. These folks also engaged me in dialogue and analysis that gave birth to the final product that follows. Other specific and valuable re search assistance and analysis was graciously supplied by Rakaa Taylor, Daniel Dan Zarazu a and VSOP. Rakaa was extremely patient and efficient as he helped me to navigate formal music industry challenges and perspectives; his insight and philosophical contribut ions were most helpful. Daniel and VSOP were especially supportive with data collec tion in the latter parts of this proj ect. Daniel has done so much, its easier just to say, Dan, you da man! Thanks bei ng a great research partner and comrade. VSOP

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7 also lent his ill skillz as a mast er artist/ activist and was a key researcher in this project. I am humbly indebted to all yall! I received wonderful editorial assistance fr om Anna Otieno, Pat Barker and AC Racette. They were most gracious with their mad editorial skills; I am grateful for their help editing the final document. I am extremely indebted to the kindness of Jon Rodriquez. He is a dissertation angel who supported me in amazing ways during th e final weeks of this project. For real, Jon, Harriet Tubman style. Much love and gratitude! Jon held me down like family. I thank ALL my ancestors, especially the African-descent women who completed undergraduate work despite the hostile and vi olent environment that followed slavery in American history. These women began my family le gacy in the profession of teaching at least four generations back, beginning with Rachel Mc Coy Sanders and her daughter, Mildred Sanders Glover, continuing through my mo ther, Cheryl Glover Fischer, a nd her sister, Catherine Glover, and now through me. I give thanks to my brave ancestors who brought us through the tough trials of slavery, segregation and other structural violence. Special tha nks to Free Bob Vernon. I also thank my determined ancestors who tilled land in Oklahoma, labored for family, and began my paternal lineage of university professors with my grandfathe r, John Fischer, followed by my father, Donald Fischer, and now continuing through me. My Grandpa Fischers advice throughout my trajectory as a student of anthro pology has been especially motivational, and he continues to teach me the importance of ethi cs, research and teaching in everyday life. I give major shouts out to my exceptionally supp ortive family and especially my immediate family members. I have all love, respec t and gratitude for my mother, Cheryl Fischer, who is the central inspiration fo r this project and who supported me intellectually and physically, not only by being my first Japanese teacher, but also with endless help caring for my son so that I

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8 could write and work. I give thanks and love to my father, Donald Fischer, who kept it real as a university professor, read and ed ited drafts of my work and de bated with me about everything from gender theory to field methods. I give specia l loving thanks to my three elder brothers who also helped to raise and support me throughout th is project. Douglass, you taught me to follow my dreams and be healthy. Stephen, you challenged me to always do better and you funded much of this research. Scott, you found my lost bibliography file, helped me with editing and served as a general sounding board, and it has meant so much. Shout out to my brothers partners: Nina and Cali, who have listened to me drone on about this project and have helped me with my child. I give much love to one of our future leaders, my niece, Josephine Fischer, and her younger sibling who is on her or his way to join us now. And most especially, I give eternal love to my son, Xola, my greatest blessing to date. Xola, thank you for choosing me to parent you: you inspire a peace in me that your name signi fies, and it is my hope that our world knows a similar peace and joy, as we work collectivel y toward human equality and social justice.

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9 NOTE ON LANGUAGE When last or family names are provided for Japanese nationals, I follow Japanese practice with last name first followed by given na mes. Japanese American names follow common practice in the United States. Exceptions exist wh en I contacted the person whose name I am using and she or he requested that the name was presented ot herwise. I often use Japanese characters for Japanese words for two main reason s. One is to show how the author of the text utilized codeswitching in print (e.g., song lyri cs published). The other case is for emphasis, particularly when I am making points about language use. When I utilize Romanization, I follow a variant of the modified Hepburn style. All tran slations are the authors unless otherwise noted.

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10 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 NOTE ON LANGUAGE............................................................................................................... ..9 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ........13 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .......14 LIST OF OBJECTS................................................................................................................ .......15 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................................16 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: THE TRANSNAT IONAL AS TR ANSLATIONAL.............................19 [Hiphop] is Black Power.....................................................................................................19 The Importance of Memory....................................................................................................29 Global Races and Black Popular Culture...............................................................................37 Race as Political Imaginary and Social Strategy....................................................................46 Ethnographic Significance...............................................................................................48 Transnational as Translational.........................................................................................52 2 AUTOETHNOGRAPHIC REFLECTION: EN TRY POINTS, METHODOLOGIES, AND BLACK BODY POLITICS..........................................................................................54 Racing Research, Researching Race...................................................................................54 Significance of Focusing on Linguistic Data..................................................................55 Attending to an Analytic Conundrum.............................................................................56 Context and Experience Entering a L ongitudinal Ethnographic Relationship.......................57 Phase One: First Contact.................................................................................................57 Phase Two: Back Again..................................................................................................59 Phase Three: Filmmaking................................................................................................62 Phase Four: Winter in Tokyo..........................................................................................65 Phase Five: Substantiating Postcolonial Identities..........................................................66 Phase Six: The Gender Mission......................................................................................67 Phase Seven: The Ethnographic Present......................................................................69 Data Collection Process........................................................................................................ ..70 Background..................................................................................................................... .71 Doctoral Research...........................................................................................................72 Data Analysis Process.......................................................................................................... ...75 Reporting Process.............................................................................................................. .....86

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11 3 RACE, ETHNICITY, AND POSTCOLONIAL IDENTITIES IN CONTEMPORARY JAPANESE STUDIES...........................................................................................................88 Introduction to Race in Japan..............................................................................................88 Negroid and Mongoloid: Race as Shared Experience............................................................92 Examples of Racialization of Japa nese People in US Print Media........................................93 Treatments of Race and Racism in Japanese Studies......................................................94 From Burakumin to Blackface: The Pe rformance of Race and Promise of Transcendence.................................................................................................................. .111 NIHON -STYLE....................................................................................................................125 4 HIPHOP AS TRANSNATIONA L SOCIAL MOVEMENT?..............................................128 Making a Movement: Building a Hiphop Foundation......................................................128 Layers of Race: Samples from Hiphop.................................................................................135 Codeswitching as Discourse Strategy...................................................................................143 Hiphop Aesthetics and Language Ideology..........................................................................146 Examples of AAE Phonology.......................................................................................149 Examples of AAE Syntax..............................................................................................149 Examples of AAE Lexicon............................................................................................149 Other Morphosyntactic Properties.................................................................................149 Flow: Can You Feel It?.................................................................................................150 Shinjuku Represent: A Battle.....................................................................................154 Japanese AAE Codeswitching in Japanese Hiphop..............................................................162 Luck Last (2006) by Anarchy feat. La Bono and AK-69 AK-69s Verse.............165 Koko Tokyo (2003) by Aquarius (DJ Yakko & Deli) feat. S-Word, Big-O, and DaboBIG-Os Verse...............................................................................................166 No Pain No Gain (2002) DJ PMX feat. Maccho (Ozrosaurus), Zeebra Macchos Verse.........................................................................................................168 Uh-Uh (2003) by Suite Chic feat. AISuite Chics Verse.......................................169 Bayside Cruisin (2005) Big Ron feat. Richee, DS455 Richees Verse................171 Hybridity, Identity, and Cultural Work................................................................................173 Case Studies: Producers, Cons umers, and Distributors........................................................176 Distribution: We All in the Same Game....................................................................176 Consumers: Beyond Blackface......................................................................................179 Producers: The Keepers of the Culture......................................................................181 Conclusion: The Politics of an In ternational Hiphop Generation?.......................................187 5 IS OPRAH RIGHT? RACE AND GE NDER POLITICS IN HIPHOP...............................190 Ethnographers Eye/I-Novel or Shishosetsu : Raising Critical No tions of Self and Society through Narrative.................................................................................................190 Lessons in Uhuru from Uhura.......................................................................................192 The Wrath of Farrakhan................................................................................................193 (=Whats My Name?): Bringing Gender Back Into the Anti-Race Game.......204 (=Women Represent!)..........................................................................................207

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12 Watch Out! by Ai, Afra, and Tucker (2004)..............................................................210 Lady Meets Girl by Miss Monday (2002).................................................................213 Let's Go (It's a Movement) (2003).............................................................................215 Theres No Place Like Home: Queen s and Bitches and Hos, Oh My!!............................219 6 CONCLUSION: KOBUSHI AGEROO! (=PUMP YA FIST!).............................................224 Blackness, Race, and Politics in Ethnographic Projects...................................................224 Revoking Hiphops Ghetto Pass.......................................................................................227 Legacy to Liberation?.......................................................................................................... .232 Final Reflection............................................................................................................... .....235 APPENDIX SAMPLES FROM DATA REFERENCED...........................................................240 Summary of Analysis from RIAJ Yearbook 2006 Charts....................................................240 / Kobushi Ageroo / Pump Ya Fist...............................................................241 Self Destruction, Japanese Style.......................................................................................242 K-Dub Shines Save The Children....................................................................................245 Hannyas Oretachi no Yamato ..........................................................................................245 Knowledge Panel Translation Sample..............................................................................246 Sample Survey from 2001....................................................................................................250 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................252 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................280

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13 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Numbers of long recorded interviews described in th e Data Collection Process..............75 3-1 Population chart of registered foreigners in Japan from 1996 to 2005............................127 4-1 Transcription conventions used.......................................................................................189

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14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Advertisements along a stroll down one small city block (less than 100 feet in length) in Kamakura, Japan in 2004..................................................................................66 4-1 An ankh symbol on a necklace; photogra ph taken by the author in 2005 at a Japanese recording studio...............................................................................................................132

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15 LIST OF OBJECTS Object page 3-1 Map of Japan.............................................................................................................. ........91 3-2 Japanese people as bruta l, savage, and not human.....................................................93 3-3 Japanese people as apes or savages in need of civilizing........................................94 3-4 Japanese people as not human and akin to lice..................................................................94 4-1 Channels performing blackface.......................................................................................142 4-2 Anarchys album cover for Luck Last..........................................................................165 4-3 Aquariuss album cover for the Koko Tokyo...............................................................167 4-4 DJ PMXs album art for the No Pain No Gain.............................................................169 4-5 Suite Chics album cover for the Uh-Uh......................................................................170 4-6 Big Rons album cover fo r the Bayside Cruisin.........................................................173 5-1 View the skit The Wrath of Farrakhan.........................................................................197 5-2 Nichelle Nichols as Uhura in a secretarial role in the original Star Trek series..............197 5-3 George Takei as Hika ru Sulu, in the original Star Trek series........................................198 5-4 One of Ais album covers for Watch Out!...................................................................212 5-2 Ais Watch Out!......................................................................................................... ..212 5-5 Exile album cover featuring various Af rican-American political marches with signs photoshopped to reflect the names of guest artists on the album....................................214 5-6 Miss Mondays Lady M eets Girl album cover.............................................................215 5-7 Beef Soundtracks album art fo r Lets Go (Its a Movement).....................................216 5-8 Lil Ais album art for Lets Go (Its a Movement).....................................................219 A-1 DJ Yutakas album cover for Kobushi .........................................................................242 A-2 Self Destruction album art............................................................................................245 A-3 K Dub Shines Save the Children.................................................................................245 A-4 Hannyas Oretachi no Yamato .....................................................................................246

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16 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AAE African American English BPP Black Panther Party CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women GAE General American English ICERD International Convention on the E limination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination JAFA Japan African-Ameri can Friendship Association J-Pop Japanese popular music OMB Office of Management and Budget MNMMR Movimento Nacional de Me ninos e Meninas de Rua (=National Movement of Street Boys and Girls) NEH National Endowment for the Humanities NGO Non-Governmental Organization NHHPC National Hip Hop Political Convention TSMO Transnational Social Movement Organization UNWCAR United Nations World Conference Against Racism UZN Universal Zulu Nation WUNC Worthiness, United, Numbers, Committed

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17 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy KOBUSHI AGEROO! (=PUMP YA FIST!): BLACKNESS, RACE AND POLITICS IN JAPANESE HIPHOP By Dawn-Elissa Tiye Ighosotu Fischer December 2007 Chair: Faye V. Harrison Cochair: Kesha D. Fikes Major: Anthropology This project examines how specific commun ities of Japanese Hiphop cultural workers translate their political iden tities within a black diasporic imaginary. Performances of blackness through the use of African American English, Hiphop language ideology, and other related operationalizat ions of Hiphop aesthetics are examined in a manner that considers the intersectionality of racialized, gendered and sexualized identifications. This research analyzes narratives and representations in transnationa l Hiphop culture in an effort to document and elucidate social realities as described by cultural workers in a transnational Japanese Hiphop community. Using Hiphop cultural production and its purported social movement as a point of entry as well as a site of i nquiry, the analysis presented cont ributes to understandings of how race, gender, sexuality, class, and transnati onal location affect cultural workers in their everyday lived experiences and resistance strategies, such as efforts to build a social movement. This research is also necessarily about reth inking how engagements in aesthetic practices and language ideology that cannot be fully excava ted as originating from the community in question are ethnographically interpreted as inauth entic or as mimicry. In an effort to call attention to this analytic cris is in ethnography, the objective of this project is to understand the

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18 discursive qualities of raceas an organizing principle of social orderwhen its status cannot be reduced to origins historie s or biological classi fications. The analysis addresses central questions such as how are curren t popular cultural produc tions in conversation with transnational social movement mobilizing and organization, and how are these popular cultural productions contesting historical governmental policy and identification practice? Are identifications such as race central to modern movement building stra tegies that resist governmental practice which limits and fixes identity? This research project considers evidence from Japan that attends to these general global issues and theoretical inquiries.

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19 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: THE TRANSNAT IONAL AS TRANSLATIONAL [Hiphop] is Black Power I mean a culture like Hiphop, which is brand ne w, thats bringing us together like this thats amazing! Thats the power of music, I think. And not only that, the power of Hiphop. Ill say this: it is black power Im not kidding. It is black power. For real! Everybody recognizes that. I mean, dont get me wrong. I have a lot of respect for the white peopleeverybodybut as far as Hi phop is concerned, its black power. --A Japanese-national Hiphop1 cultural worker2 Are these the words of a conf used, wannabe-black victim of the black hegemony of American popular culture, as some scholars suggest (Cornyetz 1994; Matory 2002; Wood 1997), or is the cultural worker cited attempting to ar ticulate something more significant? Could his comments represent reflections re garding the postcoloni al condition that he believes his people have been suffering from since the United States occupation of his count ry after WWII (Dower 1986, 1993, 1999)? And, could these comments provide a ny insight into the context of the more recent barrage on Japanese youth by dominant images of whiteness as humanity and beauty in the mediathat is, the over-reliance on wh ite models and actors for the majority of 1 The operational definition of Hiphop for the pur pose of this project considers Hiphop as a culture, as it is described by the cultural work ers with whom I work. Hi phop incorporates--but is not limited to--five major cultural elements: knowledge, lyricism, beat production, graffiti art or writing, and dance. Other elements such as fashion, language, and en trepreneurship also abound in Hiphop cultural production (cf., He bdige 1987; Kitwana 2005; KRS-ONE 2000; Morgan 2001; Perkins 1996; Rose 1994; Smith erman 1997). The spelling of Hiphopusing a capital H and no space or hyphen--serves to hono r an artist who write s theory about Hiphop culture (KRS-ONE); however, I do not completely agree with his views and theories. I began writing academic papers on Hiphop as a Hiphop-gene ration scholar about 13 years ago, and at that time, Hiphop cultural studies wa s not recognized or respected as an acceptable area of study. In 2000, when Davey D circulated KRS-ONE s Refinitions (KRS-ONE 2000), I began choosing this spelling in order to honor the people about whom I have been writing as well as to accentuate that I am writing about Hiphop as a culture. 2 I use the term cultural worker to refer to th e artistic, music, media, and literary producers who create the culture that I understand to be Hiphop. Read more about this term in the latter part of this chapter.

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20 commercial and marketing material (Honda 1993; Kondo 1997)? Japan, which is often considered a world economic power and key play er in Pacific hegemony (Tamanoi 2003) is a complex site for documenting the every day li ved experiences of youth, who are increasingly dissatisfied with the alienating effects of state-regulated identity.3Youth report that they are grappling with spoiled identities (Goffman 19 63) as a result of (1) increased employment uncertainty and related social st ructural insecurity due to the countrys most recent economic recession, (2) continued cross-cultural misunders tandings and perceived social violations concerning US-military occupation, (3) non-reflectiv e and non-affirming images of whiteness in the media and marketingparticularly those th at are youth-centered, such as cartoons and fashion billboards, and (4) official public policy that is simultane ously homogenizing and hierarchical, such as Nihonjinron4, which exacerbates disparities between socially constructed pure Japanese nationals and o thers (Fischer and White 2002).5 3 I define state-regulated ident ities as the identifications that are assigned to human bodies by the governing institutions in th e locations in which they resi de. These identifications are regulated by governments in that there are a fi xed number of identity categories and these identity categories are hierarchically situated in social practice, despite laws that recommend otherwise (cf., Article 14 in Japan; Civil Rights Acts in US legislation). 4 Nihonjinron reflects theories of Japanese uniquene ss and national identity; it is generally critiqued as being culturally ch auvinist and culturally nationalist. See Lie (2001) or Befu et al. (2000) for more anthropological information concerning Nihonjinron as social science theory and public policy. See http://www.imadr.org for articles concerni ng how conceptions of a racially pure Japanese people discriminate agai nst other Japanese residents in the areas of education and criminal justice. 5 In accordance with American Anthropological Association citation style guides, quotation marks are used not only used to capture spoken wo rds and citations, but they are also used to designate problematized terms. Furthermore, quotation marks are utili zed when introducing discipline specific concepts or vernacular vocabulary. To optimi ze readability, once a term has been established as problematic through the in itial use of quotation marks (e.g., race), it appears throughout the text wit hout quotation marks, unless they are invoked for emphasis or ironic effect.

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21 All of the aforementioned issues can be connected to a history of power that is centered in a relationship to the West (particularly, but not limited to, the US), and they are indicative of complicated and contradictory colonial and postc olonial policies (such as General MacAuthors political re-education programs). However, th e question still remains: what do the comments from the cultural worker presented mean? Do they allude to some sort of borrowing blackness (Bucholtz 1997)? If so, why, or for what purpose? Why connect Hiphop, a popular cultural genre, to blackness and power, when speaking ab out it from the geopolitical location of Japan? Does making this connection aim to manage a s poiled identity or to petition a particular political rhetoric? Is the pro cess of borrowing blackness truly onl y about blackness, or is the cultural worker contributing to a political conversation that is mo re complex and reflective about whiteness and its relationship to the West as it is experienced in Japan? Th at is, does the process of borrowing blackness reference whiteness or its contentious history with the West without actually naming it? If so, why invoke the black/white binary in (pol itically constructed yellow) Japan (Allen 1994, Dower 1986)? What insight do utte rances such as the cultural workers lend to the ethnographic study of race, and what could this discourse tell us about youth6, race, culture, and politics in Japan? By analyzing utterances that tie Hiphop to blackness and pol itics, I examine how race works in a no race7 political era. I pay special attention to rhetoric and practice that is situated 6 The research presented in this project specifically focuses on cultural workers who comprise Japans Hiphop generation, which following Bakari Kitwanas definition (2002) refers to people born between the years 1965 and 1984. From survey s and participant obser vation, it seems that the majority of the consumer audiences of the cultural workers discussed in this dissertation consists of youth born after 1984. 7 While it has been proven biologica lly that race is a social constr uct, ethnographic analyses and political policies must still consider the continue d uses and abuses of race in the 21st century. The reference to a no race era cr itiques the current trend of un-recognizing race in research and policy (cf., anti-affirmative action court rulings in the United States; former Prime Minister

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22 within a particularly racialized discourse that is inextricably linked to a narrative concerning Hiphop. I execute the former in a manner that considers the unspoken complex historical significance of Japan as simultane ous colonizer and colonized as well as the transnational space in which Hiphop discourse and practice are produ ced. Therefore, the research I conducted is largely concerned with how Hiphop cultural workers in Japan are interpreti ng the significance of race. That is, if Hiphop is a trope for blackness, i. e., bodies and things perceived to be marginal, in resistance and in association with Africa, what does the public and voluntary practice of this cultural form by non-black8 cultural workers reveal about th e production of race as a discourse? Specifically, what is meaningful about the re lationship between the signifying potential of blackness and the subjectivities of such Hiphop practitioners w hose racial origins are not publicly recognized as black? A nd finally, in what ways does blackness operate to signify a contentious relationship with the West and associated disc ourses on whiteness? This project, in conversation w ith the research of cultural a nd linguistic social scientists who consider identity a form of lived and situat ed practice (cf., Bucholtz 1997; Codrington 2003; Condry 1999, 2001; Dimitriadis 2001; Goff man 1959; Greenhouse 2002; Hall 1998, 1996a; Nakasone Yasuhiro and former Minister of Justice Kajiyama Seirokus comments in 1986 and 1990 respectively that not only reproduced colonial models of racial hierarchies abroad, but also reinforced notionsand policyof Japan as a racially homogenous or pure nation-state, see Russell 1992). 8 I define non-blacks as people who are not pol itically or historically recognized according to global recognitions of race and descent as bl ack or as an African-descendant (cf., the United Nations High Commission on Human Rights D eclarations). I recognize that there are non-African-descendant populations who have been historically situated and identified by governing states as well as societies as black such as Asian-nationals (e.g., people from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) in England, Tongans in th e Pacific Islands, Roma in Eastern European states and Maori in Australia. However, this pr oject focused on African-descendants who have been historically marked as Negroid and Japane se nationals who have hi storically been marked as Mongoloid by raciologists/ 18th Century race theorists.

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23 Hannerz 1987; Harrison 2002; Hebdige 1979, 19 87; Herzfeld 1997; Kondo 1990, 1997; Mercer 1994, 1996, 2000; Morgan 2001, 2002, forthcoming; Rickford and Rickford 2000), examines how cultural workers in Japan tran slate their political worlds with in a black diasporic imaginary, specifically the practice of Hiphop cu lture and identity. As such, this project is also necessarily about rethinking how engagement in aesthetic practices that cannot be fully excavated as originating from the community in question are likely to be ethnogr aphically interpreted as forms of mimicry or displays of inauthenticity. In the effort to call attention to this analytic crisis, within a fashion that can consider the performativ e role of race as lived experience, the objective of this research is to understa nd the discursive quali ties (or potential) of raceas an organizing principle of social orderwhen its status can not be ontologically reduced to diasporic scattering or biology. Hiphop can be associated with blackness pr ecisely because of its origins narratives9, which situate its cultural genesis in African-Ameri can speech communities (Baker 1993; Chuck D 1997; Hebdige 1987; Jackson 2003; Kitwana 2002; KRS-ONE 2000; Morgan 2008; Neal 2003; Potter 1995; Ramsey 2003; Rose 1994; Smither man 1997; Toop 2000; Washington and Shaver 1997; Yasin 1999). Anthropologists, linguists and cultural stud ies scholars alike have documented aspects of African American English10 (AAE) language varieties in the lyricism of 9 The term origins narrative in this chapte r is akin to what professional Hiphop cultural archivists call Hiphop history (Chang 2005;, Fricke and Ahear n 2002; Kitwana 2005). I refrain from fixing narratives collected from the ascribed pioneers as a static hist ory, since they rely on memory and consensus to remain in being. I th eorize about the uses of a dominant origins narrative in this paper. I use origins rather than foundation (Pratt 1992) because Hiphop is often spoken about by the pioneers who police this na rrative in terms of origins, originators, and originality. 10 African American English (AAE) has also b een referred to as Ebonics, African American Vernacular English (AAVE), Black English Vern acular (BEV), Black English (BE) and Negro English, among other terms over time AAE is often defined as a language variety by linguists and the difference in reference term could possibl y but not always signify ideological differences

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24 Hiphop cultural workers. Furthermore, Hiphops origin s narratives s ituate the cultural genesis in particular black, urban spaces in New York City. Wh ether these narratives reflect reality or not is insignificant, considering the fact that these stor ies have been reproduced in manifold ways in popular literature (e.g., The Source Magazine Viacoms music video industries such as MTV, BET, and VH-1), and consumed by youth as well as cultural workers who identify with Hiphop all over the world. The consumption of these na rratives has facilitated the emergence of an imagined community of Hiphoppers through a common literacy and common struggle against controlling mechanisms of the state, i.e., the man/hegemony/white power11 (Anderson 1991; Beebe 2002; Dyson 2001; Grossberg 1997; H eath 2006; Hall 1996b; hooks 1992). This common literacy and language socialization can be demonstrated by the fact that any youth (from Italy to Japan) identified with this global culture can us ually recount a narrative that generally begins with Kool Hercs technologica l innovation and climaxes with the global popularity of Run DMC (Fujita 1996; Gilroy 1993b; Hebdi ge 1987; Kitwana 2005; Morgan 2008; Pipitone 2006; Prevos in how one is defining the specificities and phe nomenologies of the langu age variety. See, for example, Gates (1989), Green (2002), Morgan (2002), Mufwene et al (1998), Rickford and Rickford (2000), Smitherman (1986), Yasin (1999) For examples of AAE use in non-US-based Hiphop, see Spady, Alim, Meghelli (2006). 11 Terms such as the man, the establishm ent, hegemony, white power, and white supremacy, are reminiscent of particular political rhetoric utilized for social movement building with anti-establishment efforts such as the Black Panther Party, the Weather Underground, the Womens Liberation Movement, and the Red Guar d. Early Hiphop artists came of age and began the production of their art in this at mosphere, so it is common to se e remnants of this rhetoric in the lyricism of Hiphop. Recall that the Vietnam War, the Black Power Movement, Watergate, the Cold War, and a plethora of other politically volatile situati ons were occurring in the United States and abroad during the late 1960s and early 1970s when the onset of Hiphop culture is claimed to have occurred. The global political cl imate in conjunction with changes in domestic social policy (e.g., the Moynihan re port) left subalternized urban poor and minority youth at a particular disadvantage with little or no redress. It should be no surprise that they incorporated the oppositional political rhetoric (e.g., black is beautiful and power to the people) of the time to voice their predicament and cope with harsh realities (cf., Wild Style and Style Wars ). Here, the term the state refers to governments or nation/states that determine legislature that affect the peoples discussed.

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25 2001; Spady, Alim, Meghelli 2006; Urla 2001).12 Through the production of an origins narrative that situates the cultural genesis in specifi c, struggling African-American (and immigrant African-Caribbean) communities, the culture of Hiphop lends its political capital to anyone seeking redress for the transnat ional character of political an d economic injustice (Harrison 2000). This phenomenon is not new, as African Americans have been conceptualized as trailblazers fighting against state13 regulation of identity that is in trinsic in colonial and, as we are witnessing, postcolonial processes, or metaphor ically, a significant popul ation that reside in the belly of the beast, cutt ing away at the intestines.14 Therefore, as US-based racial politics are exported abroadspecifically where US military interests persistrelational African American resistance narratives and strategies b ecome of particular interest as an oppositional strategy for local populations (Gilroy 1993b, 2000; Hall 1996b; Harrison 2002; Mercer 2000). Such narratives and strategies have historically been transmitted through popular cultural genres (Atkins 2001; Chaney 2002:115; Eterovic and Smith 2001; Lahusen 2001; Ramsey 2003; Sterling 2003, 2006). In Japan since WWII, jazz, bl ues, reggae, dancehall, and now Hiphop have occupied an oppositional utility to state-regulated identificatory practicewhether that practice comes from the US military, multinational corporations, or Japane se state policies (Davis 2000; Lie 2001; Nakazawa 1998, 2002). 12 For instance, most Hiphop-identified particip ants history and origin s narratives concerning Hiphop will begin as follows with the over-produ ced and over-published story of artist Kool Herc (aka Clive Campbell): In 1967, Kool Herc emigrated from Jamaica to West Bronx. He extended break beats as a deejay. and Hiphop was born. 13 See Philip Corrigan and Derek Sayer (1985:195) fo r a concise definition of the state as it is operationalized in this study. Corrigan and Sayer ( 1985) are discussed in detail later in this chapter. 14 Jos Mart coined the term belly of the monster and this phrase is my update of the concept.

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26 Hiphops relation to AAE language varieties also situates its political rhetoric within a counter-language framework (Halliday 1976; Mo rgan 2002; T. Butler 1995). Likewise, its origins narratives, which position it in African -diasporic, specifically African-American, communities, associate it with a counterpub lic sphere (Fraser 1992; Hauser 2001; Pough 2004). It is counterpublic because its pa rticipants do not have access to the public sphere (cf., contexts of slavery, Jim Crow segregati on, prison industrial complex system s). This idea is not new for black bodies in the United States, and any succes sful overthrow of regimes that regulate these black bodies can be considered significant for democratizing efforts worldwide. The basic statement concerning the US as a false democr acy, that is, the ethnogr aphic realitiesthat humans are not treated equallyc onveyed in the lyrics of A frican-American musical genres (such as blues, jazz, funk, soul, and Hiphop) is threatening to US imperialist efforts abroad since the political re-education of c onquered countries like Japan an d Iraq requires the US to be accepted as a democratic safeguard, where all pe ople are treated equall y, and race and class conflicts are downplayed (Tsuchiya 2002). Therefore, Hiphops political ut ility is precisely its association with a black body politic, and its popular cultural presence allows it to be accessed and appropriated through performative measures. As Judith Butler comments, any mobilization against subjection will take subjection as its resource, and that attachment to an injurious interpellation, by way of a necessarily alienated narcissism, become the condition under which resignifying that interpellation becomes possible (Butler 1997b:104). The psychic process of identifying with th e ultimate subjected body in the racialization proce ss (i.e., Negroid, black, African -descendant) as a means of displaying ambivalence and displacing fixities that bind and limit personal freedom could be the utility of Hiphop cultural production, especially in a crosscultural global process. As one

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27 Japanese national cultural worker put it, I use black power to fight white power. These political strategies of ever-cra fting and re-creating selves as a method of decolonizing minds are echoed in the works of Aim Csaire (2000)15, Dorinne Kondo (1990, 1997), and Frantz Fanon (1967), as well as Judith Butler (1993) and Jose Muoz (1999). Perhaps what has previously been read as Japanese racism ag ainst African Americans (i.e., all Japanese Hiphop as a performance of blackface and minstrelsy) a nd African-American hegemony over Japanese nationals (i.e., the conspicuous presence of Af rican Americans in Japanese Hiphop) is in actuality a critique of racial ization and the post-colonial experience (see also Dower 1986, Kondo 1997, and Lie 2001 on how race works in Japan). As more scholarship is produced on the hi story of racialization and postcolonial experiences in Japan (c.f., Davis 2000; Do wer 1993; Horne 2004; Kondo 1997; Koshiro 2003; Lie 2001), studies such as this one, which rev eal how contemporary cultural workerssuch as those who produce Hiphop musicare interpreting those racialized and postcolonial experiences to their consumer audience, comprise a useful contribution to critical race research. Hence, conceptualizing Hiphop as a trope for blackness is key to its political usefulness in Japan; the second it ceases to exist as suc h, it loses its relevan ce and utility for social movement building, a question I will explore in greater detail as I proceed. Although St uart Hall (1996d: 471) explains this idea as black cultural repertoires constitute d from two directions at once, over fifty years ago, anthropologist Cedric Dover (1947:25) a lluded to a similar subversive strategy, as he advised agents aiming to dismantle global racism to be racial and anti-raci al at the same time. Such strategiesto be racial a nd anti-racial at the same time (Dover 1947), to use black power to fight white power (Fischer fieldnotes), to mobilize against subjecti on using subjection as a 15 Aime Cesaire was a teacher of Frantz Fanon an d he was a leading deco lonization theorist who also theorized Negritude. His work predates the other theorists listed in this section.

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28 resource (Butler 1997b)are all phenomena in which Judith Butlers concept of disidentification becomes central when analyzing their political significance. Butler writes that altho ugh the political discourses that mobilize identity categories tend to cultivate identifications in the service of a political goal, it may be that the persistence of disidentification is equally crucial to the rear ticulation of democratic contestation (Butler 1993:23). Likewise, Jose Muoz introduces a disi dentificatory subject who tactically and simultaneously works on, with, and against a cultu ral form such as the statewhich regulates and ritualizes identificator y practice (Muoz 1999:12). Disi dentification abounds in Hiphop discourse as racial, gendered, economic, linguistic, and nationa l categories are constantly disrupted, re-staged, and re-signified (Gat es 1990; Hall 1996b, 1997b; Jackson 2001; MitchellKernan 1972; Morgan 2001). Whether in the Unit ed States or Japan, one can collect countless examples of artists who negotiate the instability of categories such as race through performative acts that displace the dominant culture as the site of authority, thus exposing the fallibility of fixing subjects against definitions of other subjects.16 Butler comments on the political significance of such practices, as she explains that since subjects are brought into being through discourse, it is not enough to simply publicly iden tify acts of racializing di scourse (for example), but perhaps it might be more sustaining to cons ider how we think about those particular rituals and how we exploit their ritual func tion in order to undermine it (1999:166). Similar 16 Since Chapters Four and Five document examples from Japan, the following are samples from US Hiphop lyrics that exemplify this phenomen on. Cee-Lo from Goodie Mob (1998) raps, I thought you said you was the G-O-D/ sound like a nother nigger to me, shit/ What a nigger do, what a nigger does/and a nigger is what a nigger was/ and a nigge r done read history but yet his eyes didn't see/ the only reason you a nigger is because somebody else wants you to be. Mos Def (1999) raps, Now, who is cat riding out on the town/ State trooper wanna stop him in his ride, pat him down/ Mr Nigga, Ni gga Nigga/ He got the speakers in the trunk with the bass on crunk/ Now, who is the cat with the hundred dollar bill/ They gotta send it to the back to make sure the shit is real/ Mr Ni gga, Nigga Nigga/ Nigga Nigga Nigga See Perry (2004:142-144) for commentary on use of pejorative N-word in public space.

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29 explorations of mimicry or performativity as an oppositional strategy of post-colonial, poststructural resistance are also explored in the work of Homi Bhabha (1994), Carol Greenhouse (2002), Michael Herzfeld (1997), Dorinne Kondo (1997), Marcyliena Morgan (2008), and David Scott (1999). Scholarship that explores disi dentification in popular culture (Muoz 1999; Sterling 2003, 2006) could help to provide insight into the tr ansformative promise in global Hiphop culture as it is produced by racially marked bodies. The Importance of Memory John Henrik Clarke (1995) provides an overv iew of numerous revolts, revolutions and uprisings that led to the founda tion of several black social movements in the United States. Beginning with a description of a major enslav ed African uprising in what is now Santo Domingo in 1522 (1995:74) and concluding with Haitis securing nati onhood through revolution, he lays a foundation for understa nding how modern black social movements came into being. He reminds his readers to remember the effect that slavery has on societie s today. Clarke writes, Slavery was a war. A war against African culture, especially against the structure of the African family. This war has not ended (Clarke 1995:73). In short, humans create culture to cope. African-descendants created a cultu re of resistance. This resist ance was about humanity; it was about people. Subjugated people representing dive rse nations, cultures and languages needed to be able to communicate and cr eate collective identities by cr eating common cultures. Language and music (especially percussion) were integral to creating a culture of re sistance. Percussion is important because one does not need extra t ools to create beats w ith body parts and breath control. Clarke comments, African culture, rebo rn on the alien soil, became the cohesive force and the communication system that helped to set in motion more than 300 slave revolts in the American and the Caribbean (1995:73) He then cites several examples.

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30 There was a major enslaved African uprisi ng in what is now Santo Domingo in 1522 and another one in Cuba in 1550 (Clarke 1995:74). In 1529 enslaved African mutineers destroyed Santa Marta, and the Negro Republic of Palmar es in Pernamuco spanned almost the entire 17th century; between 1672 and 1692 it withstood, on average, one Portuguese expedition every 15 months (Clarke 1995:79). The best known enslav ed African revolts agai nst the Dutch are the revolts of Surinam Maroons, 1715-1763, and th e Berbice revolt in 1763, and these revolts threatened the very foundation of an econom y based on slavery (Clarke 1995:80). Clarke continues that Maroons in Jamaica, who bega n to revolt in 1655, were never completely conquered (1995:81). He cites ni ne revolts in Bahia between 1807 and 1835 (Clarke 1995:79). He contends that different systems of slaver y resulted in different types of revolts. The aforementioned revolts collectively helped to create the condition a nd attitude that went into the making of the most successful enslaved African revolt in history, better known as the Haitian Revolution. The revolts leadership is accredited through narrative to Toussaint LOuverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, and Henri Christophe. The distinguishing f eature of this revolution is that it achieved what the others were not able to achievenationhood (Clarke 1995:81). The success of these African-des cendants served as internatio nal inspiration. The Haitian Revolution invigorated increasingl y oppressed enslaved Africans in the US. The back-to-Africa movement, the repatriation movement, the Am erican Colonization Society, the abolition movement, and the African church establishment we re inspired by news of movements abroad as well as research and writing (e.g., David Walkers Appeal published in 1 829) from the US. Some of these movements were concerned with the just ice of African-descenda nts as well as other colonized and economically and politically opp ressed people from all over the world (e.g., Asians). Such concern continued with the Af rican Baptist and AME churches Ethiopianism,

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31 with W.E.B. Du Boiss cohorts Niagara move ment (which spawned the NAACP in 1909), with Marcus Garveys U.N.I.A. (1921-1936), with th e post-WWII civil rights movement and postIndependence pan-Africanism movements, as well as the eventually global Black Power Movement, which, some say, Hiphop is supposed to follow (Kitwana 2005). Charles Tilly writes that a social move ment involves WUNCWorthiness, Unity, Numbers, and Commitment. That is, if a cause is worthy, people are united, ther e are a large number of them and they are committed, then a social movement can occur. John McCarthy and Mayer Zald contend that a soci al movement is a set of opinions and beliefs in a population representing preferences for changing some elements of a soci al structure or reward distribution, or both, of a society. A counter-movement is a set of opinions and beliefs in a population opposed to a social movement (1977:1217-1218). Counter-movements should not be confused with countercultures or counterpub lics or counterlanguages. Social movements often require the creation of a collective identity and allies or affinity groups for resource mobilization and political inspiration; culture along with cultural history, music, and narrative are often invoked to achieve these goals. The cultures cr eated or excavated often are in opposition to the state or the dominant culture, public sphere or language of power (e.g., Ge neral American English/GAE). Hiphop is said to be created in the spirit of such opposition, as its founding philosophers posit that its goal is to achieve hu man rights by teaching the truth about race and related material inequality that divides and destroys indi viduals, families, and communities (e.g., Afrika Bambaataa of the Universal Zulu Nati on; see Chang 2005; Kitwana 2002).

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32 Therefore, following Charles Tillys definition (2002:88), this project explores Hiphop as a potential social movement that is part of th e counterpublic sphere (Dawson 1995; Fraser 1992).17 This assignment is not new, as Hiphop has be en described as counterhegemonic (Yasin 1999), in accordance with M. K. Hallidays (1976, 1978) conception of counterlanguages cf., Morgan 2002, 2008). In addition, Hiphops cultural workers ar e often referred to in cultural studies literature as organic intellectuals in this counterpublic sphere (T Butler 1995; Neal 2003; Gilroy 1993a; Keyes 2002; Potte r 1995; Rose 1994; Washington and Shaver 1997). Borrowing from Antonio Gramscis description of The Intellectuals (1997), I in clude not only cultural producers, but also their deputies to whom th ey designate the act of organizing (political work), using the culture and art that is produced. Henry Giroux (1994, 1997) writes about cultural workers as those who analyze the produc tions and representation s of meaning within a culture, and they, along with teachers and student s, are considered key for critical pedagogical practice as well as social change. Transnational Hiphop pioneer Chuck D describes himself in these terms when he says, As a co-founder of Public Enemy I've used that plat form to transcend beyond what a rapper and a musician can do, taking a forward stance in turni ng great words into global community action. He continues, The critical and commercial succ ess of Public Enemy opened the doors for me to deliver a message through a number of different mediums, extending a reach to all segments of the population18 Additionally, many other rappers and people who use Hiphop to conduct social organizing in transnational spheres ha ve used the term cultural worker to describe themselves; they also call them selves Hiphoppers or hiphoppas (using the katakana version 17 Like Fraser, I also critique Habermas (1996) for dichotomizing the state and the public sphere, which situates the latter as derivational. I mainta in that state and societ y (including publicity and counterpublicity) are mutually reinforcing. 18 Read more from Chuck D at http://www.myspace.com/chuckdpublicenemy

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33 if one is speaking Japanese). Following these operational definitions, Russell Simmons, a Hiphop impresario and entrepreneur, could be co nsidered a cultural worker just as Queen Latifah, a performing artist, ac tor and entrepreneur would. People who use and produce Hiphop at a grassroots level for a non-profit or educationa l organization could also be considered cultural workers, as I am not limiting my definition to those who perform and sell music at an industry level. A description of the type of cultural work that each featured res earch consultant conducts is detailed in Chapters Four and Five. If Hiphop cultural production is written about in accordance to counter politics, what exactly is its political movement countering? What is it that cultural workers are working for or against; what is the significance of cultural forms to cultural workers? Namely, what is problematic about the state, public sphere, and society so that cu ltural workers are finding useful dissent in the practice of Hiphop? I contend that the state regulates race (e.g., the U.S.A.s OMB Directive 15, Japans Nihonjinron -influenced policy)19 and other identificati ons as part of its authoritative process to procure and mainta in power (Foucault 1972; Tilly 2002; Greenhouse 2002; Harrison 2002). This occurs through burea ucratic processes (Chalfin 2006; Ong 1996; Herzfeld 1997; Weber 1968) and representationa l negotiations (Baker 1998; Dover 1947; Du Bois 1986; Hall 1997b; Harrison 2002; Mbembe 2002) That is, from the moment bodies are born, state-related paperwork is generated to catalogue and categorize bodies according to hierarchically situated values and socially cons tructed norms, such as those related to race (or color or heritage), sex, language use of parents, a nd national origin of parents, et cetera. Births, 19 See Trouillot (2003) or http: //www.aaanet.org/gvt/ombdraft.htm for more information on OMB Directive 15. See Lie (2001) or Befu et al (2000) for more anthropological information concerning Nihonjinron as social science theory and public policy. See http://www.imadr.org for articles concerning how concepti ons of a racially pure Japanese people discriminate against other Japanese residents in the areas of education and criminal justice.

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34 whether in hospitals or homes, are thus atte nded to and monitored by state officials. Human beings ascribe these markings to one anothers bodies by law in nations across the globe throughout each individuals life, from birth to death. One way this is executed in the United States is government law concer ning Directive OMB 15, which is realized through a series of identity category boxes that one mu st mark in either a self-identification process or third-party identification process on various government fo rms including employer eligibility (I-9) forms that require a copy of an id entification card with a photograp h and applications for food stamps that require applicants to self-iden tify with Directive OMB 15 categories by checking boxes according to race, ethnicity, gender, marital st atus, etc. Most nations/ states have similar identity documentation processes (cf., Caplan and Torpey, eds ; Kumar 2000).These ascriptions are made based on socializati on, perception and imagination, among other influences (cf., Simmons 2001). The conception of the state and related identif icatory practice in this project is influenced by Philip Corrigan and Derek Sayers work (1985) concerning state formation of the English state and others modeled after its image, name ly Japan and the United States, to an extent. Though Corrigan and Sayer do not incorporate a cr itical race theoretical perspective, their synthesis of Marxist, feminist and poststruc turalist ideations of nations, states, civilizations, capitalis t economies and societies provides a useful foundation for those interested in taking the analysis further in research that considers racialization as an identificatory practice that is part of state forma tion and strategies to maintain power for certain social groups. Of particular inte rest is their discussion of the st ate as a regulator of cultural forms and their call for research that studies these rituals by which regulation takes place. While I recognize that the state is not an invisible regulator of representations pulled out of thin

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35 air, I also think that elucidating how power is sustained and managed is key to a complete comprehension of how people experience power (Corrigan and Sayer 198 5: 5). Corrigan and Sayer assert in their conclusion that studying up is as important as re presenting critique and agitation from below They comment: What we have been dealing with, in th is book, is the immensely long, complicated, laborious micro-construction and reconstruc tion of appropriate fo rms of power; forms fitted to ways in which a particular class, gende r, race imposes its stand ards of life as the national interest and seeks their internaliza tion as national character. The capacity of such groups to rule rests ne ither on some supposedly prior economic powerit is, on the contrary, above all through st ate forms and their cultural re volution that such power is made, consolidated, legitimated and normali zednor simply on their control of some neutral set of state instruments. Their political power resides rather in the routine regulative functioning of state forms themselves, in their day-to-day enforcing, as much by what they are as in any particular policies th ey carry out, of a partic ular social order as normality, the boundaries of the possible.[C orrigan and Sayer 1985: 203; emphasis mine] Such an idea of the state one that considers its regulat ory processesthat is, an understanding of the state that demystifies how control is reserved (in that there are people bodiesthat produce and reproduce power throu gh strategic reconfi gurations, rituals, regulations, deregulations and discourse on forms) allows one to consider theories of states intersection with soci al movement theory,20 which documents the dissents that Corrigan and Sayer describe. State formation is something that has ever been contested by those whom it seeks to regulate and rule. It is first and foremost th eir resistance that make s visible the conditions and limits of bourgeois civilization, the particul arity and fragility of its seemingly neutral and timeless social forms..It is also, prof oundly, a moral critique: what such struggles show again and again is the ex act ways in which the regula ted social forms of bourgeois civilization effect real, painful, harmful rest rictions on human capacities. Such general knowledge disarmed by legitimate disciplines, de nied by curricular forms, diluted in its being refused the accolade of scholarship, dissi pated as empirical examples in a thousand doctoral dissertationsis the classic ground for an understanding of bourgeois civilization that does not simply parrot its encouraged self -images, as well as for any feasible or desirable social tran sformation. [Corrigan and Sayer 1985:8] 20 Consider June Nash (2005) and Edelman ( 2001) for anthropological analysis of social movements.

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36 Defining states identificatory practice as c onnected to disidentificatory practice by those who occupy the states counterpublics, is relational to the goa ls of critical race research. It allows ethnographers to consider subversiv e strategies of those who have historically been outside of the power circle, such as Africanand Asiannationals and descendants (and their oppositional cultures and cultural critiques pr oduced over time). This intersec tion clarifies how ethnographers analyze the utility of cultural forms produced by those who feel the pain of state forms that underdevelop human capacity (C orrigan and Sayer 1985: 8).21 I posit that it is precisely the constructe d, conflicted situation of state-regulated identification practices and the re lated history of how such practi ces come into being and are continually reified in curren t timesthat allow them to be de-stabilized through counterhierarchical practices of disidentification.22 Therefore, the significance of disidentification is its promise to transform dominant cultural constraints through performance in an effort to renegotiate more equitable concep tualizations of selves that e xploit the instability of state categorization and control of bodies (Caplan 200 1; Kondo 1990). That is, such renegotiation is central to a contemporary understanding of how s ubalternized state subjec ts can reconceptualize state-imposed concepts of, for example, race and blackness or sex and queerness as tropes central to movement building and social cha nge. By documenting Hiphops movement-building process and related conversations that constitute as well as deconstruct race, one can glean more 21 Michel-Rolph Trouillot produces an exemplary theory and desc ription that attends to the weaknesses of Corrigan and Sayers critique of race in th eir analysis, as he elucidates the USs Directive OMB 15. Trouillots analysis is cited more in the following chapters. 22 Gina Ulysses research collaborators crea tively termed this finding the cracks in the foundation (2007).

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37 information as to how this movement-buildi ng process works in opposition to race, while simultaneously using it (Hall 1996d, 1997b; and Muoz 1999).23 Global Races and Black Popular Culture E. Taylor Atkins (2000, 2001) and Marvin St erling (2003) consider popular cultural art forms associated with black cultural production24 that are negotiated across transnational terrain among African-descendants and Japanese nationals. Atkins examines the possibility of jazz, deterritorialized in regard to Western racial c onfigurations, in Japan. He problematizes questions of authenticity regarding Japanese jazz artists and documents essent ialist notions of black culture among some of these artists, noting the releva nce of Japanese jazz ar tists and aficionados association with black culture as a tool for definitions of nati on and self. Atkins remarks that contrary to the image of Japanese as unrepentant racists, many are acutely sensitive to racial strife in America and sympathe tic to the economic and social plights of black Americans (2000:35).25 Studying dancehall in Jamaica and Japa n, Sterling does not focus primarily on questions of authenticity as Atkins does. Inst ead, he utilizes an extr eme version of Judith Butlers theory regarding how the normative and th e abject fully constitute each other in his effort to understand tensions a nd instabilities regarding races nationalities and sexualities among other aspectsin Jamaican and Japanese dancehall. Sterling, considering jazz, Hiphop, roots reggae, and dancehall, contends that such black cultural productions similarly constitute 23 While this project focuses on elucidating disc ourse strategies, specifi cally codeswitching, as part of a potential transnati onal movement, it does not discount the equal importance of corporeality bodies that matter that produce the language and thinking and practice that frames our realities. 24 See Gina Dent, ed. (1998) for more discussion regarding this concept. 25 See also John Lie (2001:174).

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38 complex relations of identification and diside ntification, embracing and reject[ing]the West (Sterling 2003). Although Dorinne Kondos work (1997)whi ch studies Asian and Asian American identities through performances in fashion and th eatreis not explicitly a bout the intersection of African-descendant and Asian cultural productio n, her research, like th at of Sterling (2003), draws upon theories of performativity (Butle r 1993) to produce a brilliant ethnographic methodology and political project that de-essentializes, excavates and historicizes forgotten conceptualizations of race and racialization. She asserts that her work p roblematizes the black white binary and essentia list notions of racial hierarchy, wh ich create separate, bounded racial groups and place them on a single continuum along the blackwhite axis (1997:6). Kondo builds upon Homi Bhabhas (1994) ideation of mim icry as she theorizes a politics of pleasure that has the potential to displa ce the dominant culture as the s ite of authority. This notion is exemplified in her analysis of David Hwangs M. Butterfly which is also useful in addressing how various manifestations of Hiphop in the United States (e.g., N. W.A.s use of the pejorative N-word) and Japan (e.g., Rappa gariyas donning samurai gear) are performative for political resistance against normative processes. More over, Kondo concurs with John Russell (1991a) as they both problematize and recount racial formati ons shaping various Japanese responses to and tropings of African Americans, which [Russe ll] argues were mediated through the West (1997:244; see also Chapter Six). Other scholars who have studied aspects of Japanese Hiphop, but are not necessarily overtly concerned in their writi ng with destabilizing essentialized notions of race via a critical

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39 race research perspective include Ian Condry (1999, 2000)26, Tadashi Fujita (1996), Akio Goto (1997), Kozo Okumura (1998), and James Spady (1999). Fujita (1996) and Goto (1997) are journalists who published personal narratives (in Japanese) of pi oneering Japanese Hiphop artists in an effort to historically situate the autoch thonous manifestations of the genre. They both provide information regarding ar tists life experiences as well as album reviews. In these descriptions, the artists at times refer to subalterni zed aspects of their lives and the lives of others in Japan (such as K Dub Shines growing up in an impoverished single-parent household or You the Rocks raising awareness of anti-Burakumin disc rimination). In these texts, artists relate their experiences of cultural, national, racial, and linguistic discrimination in the United States. For example, DJ Yutaka, the founder of the Japan Ch apter of the Universal Zulu Nation, has taken into account his experience with police harassment in Los Angeles as well as being cut out of entertainment business opportunities because he did not fit a white norm. Ja panese artists relate their own experiences with di scrimination to their percepti ons of African Americans experiences of subordination and political alienation. Spady (1999) presents an interview with DJ Yutaka in which they briefly discuss perpetuati ons of racial stereotypes in the United States and Japan. Okumura (1998) examines the populari ty of Hiphop dance in Japan. He presents a history of Hiphop in Japan and accompanies his work with a documentary film presenting dancers Hiphop cultural productions. However, in his attempt to account for why Hiphop culture is popular among Japanese youth, he draw s on theories regarding black expressiveness (Okumura 1998:18; Pasterur and Tolson 1982:45) in African-American studies and, 26 Condrys more recent work, especially Hip-Hop Japan (2006), focuses more on race than his previous publications and dissert ation research. He co mments that he is attempting to shift attention away from questions of how American understandings of race are interpreted in Japan to focus instead on how Japanese conceptu alize and embody ideas of hip-hop and race (2006:25). Condrys newest work is discu ssed more in Chapters Five and Six.

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40 consequently, though perhaps unconsciously, essentia lizes and fixes blackness in his analysis of Japanese Hiphop. Like Atkins (2001), Condry (1999) is concerned with authenticating indigenous Japanese Hiphop. Through rigorous ethnographic descriptions, he explains why Hiphop by Japanese artists is not imitation, but an authentic art form in its own right. In his work, Condry (1999, 2006) translates Japanese lyri cs and contextualizes the genre within discourses relevant to economic anthropology, globalization studies, and more recently, racialization of Japanese nationals. Condrys ethnographic cont ribution is extremely useful to those interested in the topic area. He provides an erudite and compelling argu ment concerning how Japa nese rappers are able to utilize Hiphop as a voice agains t societal constructs, and thus, rebel. More research pertaining to how these rebellions intersect with popular constructions of race, sex, and citizenship among Hiphop participants in Japan, and how these pe rformative acts intersect with AAE and Hiphop language ideologies woul d buttress his argument.27 Overall, his research is a much needed addition to the contemporary ethnography of popul ar culture and race as well as Japanese studies. In regard to Hiphop cultural studies, Co ndry critiques existing scholarship (Rose 1994; Lipstiz 1994; Fernando 1994) that limits descrip tions and definitions of Hiphop to black urban (American) youth expression. While his critique is not entirely accurate, as African-diasporic roots of the genre are referenced in the work that he critiques (e.g., Rose 1994), analyses of Hiphop are perhaps best elucidated if they are no t limited to or described in terms of a black urban youth norm, as obviously, it is not only black urban youth who practice Hiphop. Condry is not alone in such a critique, as Tony Mitchell (1998, 2001) and Paul Gilroy (2000) have been quite vocal in echoing thes e sentiments. However, unlike Gilroy (1993a, 27 See also Nina Cornyetzs call for more research addressing these aspects (1994:133)

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41 1993b, 2000), Mitchell (1998, 2001) has not adequa tely acknowledged or addressed the significance and influence of Hi phops African-diasporic roots on Hiphop outside of the United States. The failure to analyze Hiphops associat ion with blackness only un dermines its political re