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The Synergy Effect of Advertising and Publicity on Country Brand in the Case of Americans' Attitudes toward South Korea

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021511/00001

Material Information

Title: The Synergy Effect of Advertising and Publicity on Country Brand in the Case of Americans' Attitudes toward South Korea
Physical Description: 1 online resource (92 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ham, Chang Dae
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: brand, country, synergy
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In the era of the free trade agreement (FTA), developing countries should manage their country brand image to the larger consumer market, such as the United States. It?s because the country brand image may influence the country?s products image and foreign consumers' purchase intentions. To build positive country images, it is important to use various media with regard to the integrated marketing communication (IMC) concept. In this vein, the current study examines the synergy effect of advertising and publicity on attitudes toward country brands. This study examines the case of Americans' attitudes toward South Korea. The study also investigates what are the most influencing elements in terms of attitude toward the country brand of South Korea. In the first study, a 2 x 3 (ad, no ad exposure x positive news, negative news, no news exposure) experimental design was used. A MANCOVA was used to analyze the main and interaction effects. In the second study, 38 elements of six groups of South Korean cultural symbols were examined as independent variables to predict the attitude toward South Korea. Results of study 1 indicate that there was a main effect of advertising and a main effect of negative news on attitudes toward South Korea. Specifically, the interaction effect was found in 10 the impact of negative news and advertising in the case of attitudes toward Korean electronic products. However, no effect on attitudes was found toward Korean food products. In addition, it was determined that the attitudes toward the country predict, or determine, the extent of attitudes toward the country-based products and purchase intentions, as in the case of South Korea. The result of study 2 indicates that national symbols such as Taekukki and Seoul and companies such as LG and Samsung were the most influencing cultural symbols on the attitude toward South Korea. These findings provide a theoretical and practical background for analyzing the combined effect of advertising and publicity on country brand. About the synergy effect, the counterbalancing effect of advertising on negative news was found to be significant enough so that countries should consider using various media depending on their communication situation. Based on the negative effect, appropriate use of integrated marketing communication is useful for influencing the attitude toward country brand. In particular, the Dual Mediation Effect was found to be effective in terms of country brand. According to the results of second study, South Korean government should consider national and company symbols in their communication with foreign countries. Finally, future study will continue to examine the integrated effects of using multimarketing communication tools on country branding. Certainly, in the FTA era of free trade within economic blocks, combined with the era of multi-media, management of country brand image using various marketing communication tools is going to be more important than ever before.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Chang Dae Ham.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Cho, Chang-Hoan.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021511:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021511/00001

Material Information

Title: The Synergy Effect of Advertising and Publicity on Country Brand in the Case of Americans' Attitudes toward South Korea
Physical Description: 1 online resource (92 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ham, Chang Dae
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: brand, country, synergy
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In the era of the free trade agreement (FTA), developing countries should manage their country brand image to the larger consumer market, such as the United States. It?s because the country brand image may influence the country?s products image and foreign consumers' purchase intentions. To build positive country images, it is important to use various media with regard to the integrated marketing communication (IMC) concept. In this vein, the current study examines the synergy effect of advertising and publicity on attitudes toward country brands. This study examines the case of Americans' attitudes toward South Korea. The study also investigates what are the most influencing elements in terms of attitude toward the country brand of South Korea. In the first study, a 2 x 3 (ad, no ad exposure x positive news, negative news, no news exposure) experimental design was used. A MANCOVA was used to analyze the main and interaction effects. In the second study, 38 elements of six groups of South Korean cultural symbols were examined as independent variables to predict the attitude toward South Korea. Results of study 1 indicate that there was a main effect of advertising and a main effect of negative news on attitudes toward South Korea. Specifically, the interaction effect was found in 10 the impact of negative news and advertising in the case of attitudes toward Korean electronic products. However, no effect on attitudes was found toward Korean food products. In addition, it was determined that the attitudes toward the country predict, or determine, the extent of attitudes toward the country-based products and purchase intentions, as in the case of South Korea. The result of study 2 indicates that national symbols such as Taekukki and Seoul and companies such as LG and Samsung were the most influencing cultural symbols on the attitude toward South Korea. These findings provide a theoretical and practical background for analyzing the combined effect of advertising and publicity on country brand. About the synergy effect, the counterbalancing effect of advertising on negative news was found to be significant enough so that countries should consider using various media depending on their communication situation. Based on the negative effect, appropriate use of integrated marketing communication is useful for influencing the attitude toward country brand. In particular, the Dual Mediation Effect was found to be effective in terms of country brand. According to the results of second study, South Korean government should consider national and company symbols in their communication with foreign countries. Finally, future study will continue to examine the integrated effects of using multimarketing communication tools on country branding. Certainly, in the FTA era of free trade within economic blocks, combined with the era of multi-media, management of country brand image using various marketing communication tools is going to be more important than ever before.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Chang Dae Ham.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Cho, Chang-Hoan.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021511:00001


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1 THE SYNERGY EFFECT OF AD VERTISING AND PUBLICITY ON COUNTRY BRAND IN THE CASE OF AMERICANS ATTITUDES TOWARD SOUTH KOREA By CHANG DAE HAM A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Chang Dae Ham

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First of all, I thank my chair, Dr. Chang-Ho an Cho for all the guidance he has given me, not only through the process of writing my thesis but throughout my entire masters degree program. I am sure that my thesis, as well as my graduate education in general, has benefited from his endless energy and dedication to the study of advertising. In addition, I thank my committee members, Dr. Jorge Villegas and Dr. Marylin Roberts for th eir guidance, knowledge, and encouragement in their areas of expertise. I would also like to express my gratitude toward all of my professors in the masters program of the Department of Adver tising, the University of Florida. Next, I thank my fellow Korean students for their endless support and affection. Special thank go to Jong Woo Jun, Hyung Suk Lee, a nd Jong Moo Woo from the idea development through the completion of this st udy. I also thank for Korean doc toral students, Sang Won Lee, Jin Sung Park, Hee Jung Kim and Jun Heo. Without their encouragement and guidance, I might not complete my masters course successfully. In addition, I thank my masters program Korean classmates Mihyun Kang, Eun Soo Rhee, Wan Se op Jung, Yeu Seung Kim, and Mi Jung Kim. Without their friendship and help, my masters program experience would not have been as memorable. Last but not least, I thank my wife, Yeai Lee Kim and my lovely daughter Yeon Soo Ham. I also specially thank to my mother, J ung Sook Choi, my sister Si Hyun Ham, and my brother Chang Kun Ham. Their encouragement, gui dance, patients, and belief are a reflection of the achievements I have made th roughout my life. Without my family, I would not have been able to accomplish all the things that I have, and would not be where I am today. For that I dedicate this thesis my famil y. I love them all very much.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................14 Synergy Effect of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)...........................................14 Encoding Variability Theory...........................................................................................15 Selective Attention .........................................................................................................15 Publicity and Its Theoretical Background..............................................................................16 Agenda Setting................................................................................................................16 Source Credibility............................................................................................................17 Country Image as a Brand......................................................................................................18 Country of Origin Effect....................................................................................................... ..22 Dual-Mediation Effect.......................................................................................................... ..23 Elements Influencing Country Brand Image..........................................................................24 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................26 Study 1. Experiment............................................................................................................ ...26 Research Design..............................................................................................................26 Participants................................................................................................................... ...27 Covariates..................................................................................................................... ...28 Stimuli Development.......................................................................................................28 Independent and Dependent Variables............................................................................29 Study 2. Survey................................................................................................................ .......31 Research Design..............................................................................................................31 Respondents.................................................................................................................... .31 Independent, Dependent Va riables and Procedures........................................................31 4 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......34 Study 1. Experiment............................................................................................................ ...34 Profile of the Sample.......................................................................................................34 Manipulation Check of I ndependent Variables...............................................................34 Reliability Check of Dependent Variables......................................................................35

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6 Correlation Check............................................................................................................36 Covariates..................................................................................................................... ...36 Hypotheses Testing.........................................................................................................37 Study 2. Survey................................................................................................................ .......42 Profile of the Sample.......................................................................................................42 Research Question Examination......................................................................................43 5 DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................... ....56 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........56 Study 1. Experiment........................................................................................................56 Study 2. Survey...............................................................................................................57 Conclusion and Implication....................................................................................................58 Study 1. Experiment........................................................................................................58 Study 2. Survey...............................................................................................................64 Limitations and Future Research............................................................................................65 APPENDIX A EXPERIMENT QUESTIONNAIRE......................................................................................69 B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE...............................................................................................75 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..87 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................92

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Demographic Profile of the Respondents in the Experiment.............................................46 4-2 Manipulation Check of Stimuli..........................................................................................47 4-3 Reliablility Check......................................................................................................... .....47 4-4 Correlation of Dependent Variables in MANCOVA.........................................................47 4-5 Multivariate Test Results.................................................................................................. .48 4-6 Results of Between-Subjects Test......................................................................................48 4-7 Result of Post hoc test of ANOVA....................................................................................49 4-8 Descriptive Statistics of MANCOVA................................................................................49 4-9 Result of Simple Linear Re gression, Ab(Korea)-Ab(Electronic)......................................50 4-10 Result of Simple Linear Regression, Ab(Korea)-Ab(Food)..............................................50 4-11 Result of Simple Linear Regression, Ab(Korea)-VI(Korea).............................................50 4-12 Result of Simple Linear Re gression, Ab(Korea)-PI(Electronic).......................................50 4-13 Result of Simple Linear Regression, Ab(Korea)-PI(Food)...............................................50 4-14 Demographic Profile of the Respondents in Survey..........................................................51 4-15 Result of Multiple Regression of the Six Groups of Cultural Symbols.............................52 4-16 Stepwise Regression Analysis Summary...........................................................................52 4-17 Mean and Standard Deviation of 38 Elements..................................................................53

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Interaction Effect on Attitudes toward South Korean Electronic Products ......................55 4-2 Insignificant Interaction Effect on Attitudes toward South Korea ...................................55

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising THE SYNERGY EFFECT OF AD VERTISING AND PUBLICITY ON COUNTRY BRAND IN THE CASE OF AMERICANS ATTITUDES TOWARD SOUTH KOREA By Chang Dae Ham December 2007 Chair: Chang-Hoan Cho Major: Advertising In the era of the free trade agreement (FTA), developing countries should manage their country brand image to the larger consumer market, such as the United States. Its because the country brand image may influence the country s products image and foreign consumers purchase intentions. To build posi tive country images, it is importa nt to use various media with regard to the integrated marke ting communication (IMC) concept. In this vein, the current study examines the synergy effect of advertising and p ublicity on attitudes toward country brands. This study examines the case of Americans attitudes toward South Korea. The study also investigates what are the most influencing elements in term s of attitude toward the country brand of South Korea. In the first study, a 2 x 3 (ad, no ad exposure x positive news, negative news, no news exposure) experimental design was used. A MANCOVA was used to analyze the main and interaction effects. In the second study, 38 elem ents of six groups of South Korean cultural symbols were examined as independent variables to predict the attitude toward South Korea. Results of study 1 indicate that there was a main effect of advertising and a main effect of negative news on attitudes toward South Korea. Specifically, the interaction effect was found in

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10 the impact of negative news and advertising in the case of attitudes toward Korean electronic products. However, no effect on attitudes was f ound toward Korean food products. In addition, it was determined that the attitudes toward the country predict, or determine, the extent of attitudes toward the country-based products and purchase in tentions, as in the case of South Korea. The result of study 2 indicates that national symbol s such as Taekukki and Seoul and companies such as LG and Samsung were the most influencing cultural symbols on the attitude toward South Korea. These findings provide a theoretical and prac tical background for analyzing the combined effect of advertising and publicity on country brand. About the synergy effect, the counterbalancing effect of a dvertising on negative news was found to be significant enough so that countries should consider using various media depending on their communication situation. Based on the negative effect, appropriate use of integrated marketing communication is useful for influencing the attitude toward country bran d. In particular, the Dual Mediation Effect was found to be effective in terms of country brand. According to the result s of second study, South Korean government should consider national and company symbols in their communication with foreign countries. Finally, future study will continue to exam ine the integrated effects of using multimarketing communication tools on country branding. Certainly, in the FTA era of free trade within economic blocks, combined with the era of multi-media, management of country brand image using various marketing communication tools is going to be more important than ever before.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the era of globalization, multinational companie s are more likely to become interested in foreign markets and aware of the importance of in ternational marketing and advertising (Mueller 2004) In terms of globalization era, a countrys image is likely to affect its companies global business circumstances. For example, Japan is generally recognized as one of the best automobile and electronics manuf acturing countries in the world, while France is considered the country of wine and fashion. Consumers who see m ade in Japan on cars or television sets are likely to trust the quality of th e product due to Japans reputation and image. This same trust can be applied to wine or fashion products made in France. Since consumers are more willing to evaluate the quality of a product based on the image of its country of origin, country brands are becoming more important (Mulle r 2004). Likewise, there are ma ny reasons why countries should build and manage their country branding. For in stance, countries need to attract tourists, factories, global companies, and investments. In addition, countries should concern the attractiveness of a countries positioning in the global market (Ko tler and Gertner 2002). The change or development of a countrys brand image depends on various elements. For instance, one worldwide percepti on of the United States as a c ountry brand was the home of desirable brands and popular cultu re, but this image has dissipa ted, since it was more prevalent in the past (Allison 2005, p.1). To build an e ffective country image, some nations have communicated with citizens of ot her nations. For example, Japa n developed its country brand concept, Affordable, Value-oriented, Comf ortable in 2003 and communicated to a global audience with the brand slogan YOKOSO! Ja pan, which means welcome to Japan. Hong Kongs country brand concept is Depth & Br eadth of Hong Kongs Diversity which was developed in 2002 (Kwack 2006).

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12 In 2007, the United States and South Korea drafted the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), which allowed the two countries to open their ma rkets to each other without a trade tax. In the era of the FTA, less developed countries must stre ngthen their brand image to foster partnerships with more developed nations and to avoid trade imb alances. In order to make use of the FTA as a profitable opportunity, each country might take advantage of its own unique image. In the case of the FTA between South Korea and the U.S., S outh Korea should enhance its country image to attract U.S. consumers, because the purchasing pow er of the U.S. market is the largest in the world. However, since South Koreas current imag e is not well recognized by U.S. consumers, it is necessary for South Korea to develop a more favorable image. This study will examine how less-developed countries like South Korea can develop a country brand image by using marketing communication tools. In this vein, this study examines advertising as a representative t ool for improving country image. While advertising is a marketing comm unication tool controlled by the advertiser, uncontrollable tools also exist in the marketing environment. Among those uncontrollable tools, publicity is a source used to influence consum ers brand attitudes and purchase intentions (Ahluwalia et al. 2000). Since publ icity is a more credible resour ce than advertising, it is more effective at influencing consumer attitudes toward brands (Ahl uwalia et al. 2000). In addition, negative publicity is more likely to be exposed to consumers, since the media prefers bad news to good (Dean 2004). Thus, the current study will ex plore the combined e ffects of publicity and advertising on the country brand in the case of Americans attitudes toward South Korea. Since the United State has the largest market in the world, American consumers attitudes toward the country are very important to the trading count ries such as South Korea. Thus American consumers attitudes toward South Kor ea were examined in the present study In addition, this

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13 study will explore the important elements influe ncing the brand image of South Korea, which provides an insight of how South Korea bu ilds its country brand image among American consumers.

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14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Synergy effect of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) To manage their brand more effectively, brand managers instinctively prefer the idea of a unified brand image that is delivered by the media. In spite of the importa nce of advertising in building a brand image, messages delivered via several routes can be more effective than advertising alone (Tavassoli 1998 ). The AAAA (American Associat ion of Advertising Agencies) identifies that IMC is A concept of marketi ng communications planning that recognizes the added value of comprehensive plan that evaluate strategic roles of a va riety of communication disciplines for example, general advertising, direct response, sales promotion and public relations and combined these disciplines to provide clarity, cons istency, and maximum communication impact (Schultz 1993, p.17). IMC is also defined as the natural and inevitable result of progress in promotion tools and conve rgence media (Schultz 1996). According to this definition, added value of IMC is created by comb ination effects of multiple media usage (Naik and Raman 2003). A central idea of IMC is that each medium increases the total combination effect of all other media. These potential syner gy effects are created from the combined effects which exceed the sum of individual effect of total media (Naik and Raman 2003). In recent decades, advertising agencies have applied the Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) approach as an effective method in marketing communication (Cook 1996; Novelli 1989). Several prior studies have ex amined the synergy effect of using multiple media outlets in a campaign, but little research has empirically examined the interaction between advertising, publicity, sales promo tion, and direct marketing to s ee whether a synergistic effect from multiple marketing communication tools rea lly exists (Stammerjohan et al. 2005). As the role of IMC in brand management has become considerably more important, it can be also

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15 applied to manage country image to maximize th e effect of country br anding. Many theoretical backgrounds were introduced by several researchers. Encoding Variability Theory Tavassoli (1998) explained that multi-sourced messages were more likely to be encoded into an audiences memory than single-sourced messages, resulting in stronger, clearer, and more accessible information networks in the brain. Ac cording to the theory, multi-sourced messages also reinforce the likelihood of memory recall more accurately than single-sourced messages. Different modes of presentation are likely to de velop perceptions of value and promotion and positively affect attitudes toward the ads and br ands (Petty and Caccioppo 1981). As a result, a message delivered through multi-media is more likely to improve consumer attitudes toward the ad, and will ultimately influen ce attitudes toward brands. Selective Attention According to the Kahneman (1973), people genera lly pay more attention to a set of stimuli of both familiar and complex or both novel and simp le. In other words, people pay less attention to those that are both complex and novel, or fa miliar and simple. In terms of integrated marketing communication (IMC), repeated messages increase familiarity, and using multiple media raises complexity. Thus, using multi-media with repeated messages are more likely to increase the media effect than single and novel message. Accord ing to this explanation, IMC increases consumers attention by raising both familiarity and complexity, because increased attention by the complex media sources acts as a mediator for the e ffects of communication (MacKenzie 1985). The variety of media use and repetition increase the attention, resulting in more effective elaboration and improvement of attitudes toward brand (Kahneman 1973).

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16 Publicity and its Theoretical Background Among various tools used in IMC, publicity is one of the frequently used marketing tools as well as advertising. As a majo r marketing tool, publicity has se veral advantages compared to advertising. Generally, publicity is believed to have more credibility, persuasiveness, and effectiveness than advertising (Gartner 1993). Another study also mentioned that the advantage of publicity was lower costs and increased visi bility over the advert ising. The third-party endorsement effect of publicity is considered to increase its credibili ty (Kotler 1993). Several theories were introduced about the advantages of publicity. Agenda Setting The agenda-setting theory suggests that the me dia provide people with what to think about, instead of what to think. (McComb and Shaw 1972). That is to say, the function of public relations is the placing of a topic or issue before the public (Botan and Hazleton 2006). The agenda-setting theory has been widely invest igated since it was intr oduced in 1972 by McComb and Shaws study (Meijer and Kleinnijenhuis 200 6). Among the various research studies, the media-agenda is considered impor tant in determining issues salient in the public agenda. The theory explains the relationship between the exte nt of media coverage and the extent to which people think that the subject story is important Generally, the agenda-s etting effect of news media has been researched in the political communication se tting (Carroll and McComb 2003). However, the core theoretical thinking can be equally adapted to business communication. According to the same study, news about a certain topic which is related to the organization or company stimulated the emergence of that topic. That is to say, if ther e were a lot of news exposure about a certain company it would subse quently lead people to associate the company with the issue. For example, it is expected that if people are stimul ated to think of an issue when they think about a company, they will associate the company with the issue which is mentioned

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17 in the media (Carroll and McComb 2003). In this vein, the agenda-setti ng effect of news will influence the reputation of a certain county just as it does in the case of a company or organization. Source Credibility Among the various means of IMC used when building a countrys image, publicity is considered as an effective tool of marketing co mmunication due to the credibility of the source. Since publicity is a communication message that doe s not come from the company or advertiser, but instead comes from the independent trustable s ource, it is more credible with consumers than advertising (Lindquist and Sirgy 2003). Publicity can also affect consumers attitudes toward the ads and the brands because consumers are likely to use credible information to evaluate the trustworthiness of other sources of information such as adve rtising (Kotler and Gertner 2002). Thus, source credibility is the reason why public relations or p ublicity has a stronger marketing impact on brand, product, or company image in me dia outlets such as television, newspaper, and trade publications. Due to the lack of control over publicity, however, publicity can influence a brand both positively and negatively (Kotler and Gertner 2002). For example, Ford, Firestone, and Enron confronted worldwide exposure to negative publicity about thei r products and practices even though they had spent a lot of money in public relations (Stammerjohan et al. 2005). Thus the importance of publicity combined w ith advertising should be consid ered because of their synergy effect on building a brand image. With issues like this in mind, this study ex amines the effects of communication from controllable and uncontrollable s ources like advertising and pub licity on attitudes toward the country brand of South Korea.

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18 Country Image as a Brand Brand is one of the most important factors for differentiating products because consumers cannot easily distinguish between various produ cts by attributes alone. Thus, branding is an important asset for companies in competitiv e marketing environments (Aaker 1996). The concept of branding has been classified into di fferent categories such as the human brand, the cultural brand, and the country br and. Geographical specification by city, state, and town, known as place marketing, is also applied to brandi ng (Keller 2003). According to Keller (2003), place marketing has been emerged due to the increased mobility of both people and business, and the fast growth of tourism industr y. Countries are now actively co mmunicated with people through advertising and various communi cation tools. The goals of co untry marketing are creating awareness and preference of the country which may enhance visiting or living intentions of people or businesses (Keller 2003) Thus, a country can be the target of brand marketing communication. Country image is an important component to constructing a country brand. Since a good brand image is developed by crea ting favorable and unique associa tions with the country in the consumers mind (Keller 2003), a good country image can be formed by an individuals recognition of a specific country or that countrys people (Hall 1996). According to Kotler et al. (1993, p141), country image is the sum of beliefs and impressions people hold about places. Image represents a simplification of a large number of associati ons and pieces of information connected with a place. They are a product of the mind trying to process and pick out essential information from a huge amount of data about places. Kotler et al. (1993) also argue that country image or pla ce image related to knowledge structures is one of the most frequently used shortcut methods in information processing and consumer decision-making processes. Country imag e also is the basis of the country of origin

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19 effect, which influences images, attitudes, a nd purchasing intentions (Beverland and Lindgreen 2002). In addition, consumers purchase intentions are affected by country image (Hsieh et al. 2004). Therefore, country image is likely to a ffect country of origi n, its companies, product brand images, and consumers purchase intentions. Attitudes toward the country brand. To understand the country brand, peoples attitudes toward the county brand are an important concept because the attitude toward brand has been one of the most widely examined constr ucts in consumer behavior (Berger & Mitchell 1989). Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) defined that att itude toward the brand was a predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular brand. In fact, Attitude toward the ad (Aad), attitude toward the brand (Ab), and purch ase intention (PI) are the most frequently used variables in the many studies of advertising effectiveness (MacKenzie & Lutz 1989). In terms of the definition of attitude toward brand (Ajzen and Fishbein 1980), the attitudes toward country brand can be de fined as the predisposition of a consistent response to a particular country. Even though limited research studies have been focused on the attitude toward country brand, several re lated research studies were fo und to understand attitude toward country. Fullerton (2005) researched about international attitudes toward Amer ica in her study of international attitude change af ter 9/11. In her study, attitudes toward America were measured by 16-five point Likert-scale questions such as: American people are generally quite violent, Americans are peaceful people, and Muslims w ho live in America are treated fairly. Another related study was A Study of Attitudes toward Ru ssia: The Personal Setting of Public Opinion (Smith 1947). In this study, attitude toward Russia was used as a subject to demonstrate systematic analysis of complex attitudes in a public opinion study. In addition, attitudes toward a

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20 made in a country label was re searched to examine American s attitudes toward specific country-based product quality (Gaedeke 1973). In th is study, the country of origin effect, based on a specific country image, was measured by Am ericans attitudes toward made in various developing countries. Similar research was c onducted to understand UK consumers attitudes toward imports. In this research, UK consumer s stereotype image of import country was measured (Bannister and Saunders 2001). In spite of several similar studies overall, only limited academic research has been conducted regardin g attitude toward country. In addition, no previous research on the eff ect of advertising and publicity on the attitude toward country brand were found in this field. In recent years, managing brand image is not a temporary, but an ongoing and long-term process. According to Kotler et al. (1993, p141), st rategic country image management is also a continuous process of researching a place imag e, segmenting and targeting its demographic audience, and positioning the places benefit to support an existing image or create a new image and communicate those benefits to the target audience. For the purpose of managing a good country brand image, appropriate use of advertising and publicity are essential to the strategic country brand management because these are tw o of the most frequently used marketing communication tools. For example, Turkeys touris m department hired a pub lic relations firm to promote their large-scale international campaign encouraging tourist to perceive Turkey as a favorable tourist destination. Likewise, Jamai ca invests millions of dollars each year in advertising targeted to American tourists (Kotler and Gertner 2002). In terms of media effect, the independent e ffects of adverting and publicity exposure can be explained by the Mere Exposure Effect (Zaj onc 1968). According to th e study, familiarity led by mere repeated exposure results in liking the object. This effect explains that simple repeated

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21 exposure increases the consumers opportunity to experience the information process and reduces uncertainty about the object (Zajonc 1968). According to this effect, peoples preferences for new products or services can be enhanced by repeatedly exposing the message about it (Hoyer and Maclnnis 2003) In this vein, mere exposur e of advertising and publicity about a country are also likely to a ffect attitudes toward the country. Hypothesis 1. Those who are exposed to South Korea country advertising are more likely to display favorable attitudes toward the country brand South Korea than those who are not exposed. Hypothesis 2a. Those who are exposed to positive ne ws story of South Korea are more likely to display favorable attitudes toward th e country brand South Ko rea than those who are not exposed. Hypothesis 2b. Those who are exposed to negative news story of South Korea are less likely to display favorable attitudes toward th e country brand South Ko rea than those who are not exposed. In addition, this research will examine both th e synergistic effect of positive publicity and advertising as well as the counter balancing influence of advertisi ng to the negative publicity of the country brand South Korea. Sinc e the effect of publicity is likel y to be stronger than that of advertising due to the source cr edibility (Lindquist and Sirgy 2003) it is important to know the effect of advertising on the country brand unde r the positive or negative news exposed. To explain this interaction effect of advertising and p ublicity, the following two research questions are suggested.

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22 Research Question 1. Is the positive effect of positive publicity on a country brand stronger among the people who saw the advert ising than among those who did not see the advertising? Research Question 2. Is the negative effect of nega tive publicity on a country brand weaker among the people who saw the advertis ing than among those who did not see the advertising? Country of Origin Effect Country of origin is important factor to indicate the image of certain product and certain company (Hsieh et al. 2004). In marketing and ad vertising, country of origin is a significant aspect of influencing images, attitude, and pur chase intension of certa in product (Beverland and Lindgreen 2002). Consumers generally recognize or evaluate products based on country of origin. For example, Malboro is an American ci garette, Channel No.5 is a French perfume and Johnny Walker is a Scotch whiskey (Muller 2004, p31 ). In fact, the countr y of origin is a significant indicator of recognized product quality. According to Kotler and Gertner (2002), consumers tend to evaluate quality of product base d on country of origin, specifically when other indicators of quality does not exist or cons umers are in low involvement. For example, consumers expect to pay lower prices for products from unindustrialized countries as a result of their country image. Products that are made in Germany, made in Switzerland, or made in Japan are generally considered as high quality because of their image as the worlds top manufacturers or exporters (Kot ler and Gertner 2002). Another study showed that Country-oforigin information enhanced to the salient in formation of product attribute which affected consumers evaluation of the produc t attribute (Chao et al. 2005). In this vein, this study examines how att itudes toward the country influence attitudes toward the country-based produc t in case of South Korea.

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23 Hypothesis 3. The attitude towards the country brand South Korea will influence consumers attitudes toward the South Korea-based products. Dual-Mediation Effect The dual-mediation hypothesis is an explanat ion for the relationship between consumers preference for advertising and bra nd attitudes, purchase intentions (MacKenzie et al. 1986). This hypothesis explains how an attitude toward the advertisement can a ffect an attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. When the consum ers are exposed to an ad, they can have responses that are either cogniti ve or affective. These response s lead consumers to prefer the advertisement, which can then lead them to accept brand beliefs and have a more positive brand attitude, or the effects can lead them to simply experience positive feelings that transfer over to the brand Consequently, a positive brand attitudes l eads to an increase in the consumers intention to purchase (MacKenzie et al. 1986). In this vein, if adve rtising or publicity has either individual or combined effects on consumers attitudes toward advertising or publicity, these attitudes toward the adve rtising or publicity affect s the consumers attitu des toward the country brand, which in turn af fects purchase intention. In this study, hypothesis 4 examines how a ttitude toward the c ountry brand affects purchase intention of the country. More specific ally, the purchase intent ion of a country brand can be indicated by looking at visiting intention to the country. The curre nt study postulated that the visiting intention of country can be a prope r indication of purchase intention because the more positive the image of a place or country, the more attractive it is to the visitors (Bigne et al. 2001). In addition, hypothesis 5 examines how attitude toward the country brand affects purchase intention of the country-based products. Hypothesis 4. The attitude towards the country brand South Korea will influence consumers visiting intentions toward South Korea.

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24 Hypothesis 5. The attitude towards the country brand South Korea will influence consumers purchase intentions to ward South Korea based products. Elements Influencing Country Brand Image To make a synergy effect of multiple-promo tional elements more practical, the content delivered by the promotional elements was also important. Even though the synergy effect of multiple-promotional elements can be found in the cas e of this study, it seems to be useless if the message is not appropriate to improve a count rys image. To be an effective marketing communication, message strategy is as important as media strategy specifically for the practitioners. With this reas on, the present study examines not only the synergy effect of advertising and publicity, but also what kind of messages are the most appropriate to make the synergy effect more practical in the case of Americans attitude toward South Korea. To improve a countrys image, creating new posit ive brand association is easier than trying to refute old image (Kotler and Gertner 2002). If a country doesnt have a specific image or needs to change its negative image, it is better to make new country br and association with the positive image. According to the Kotler and Ge rtner (2002), the brand image of a country results from its history, geography, art, music, cel ebrities, proclamations, and ot her features. Specifically, the media and entertainment industry are important el ements that shape peoples perceptions of a specific place. Product categories such as perf umes, electronics, automobiles, wines, and software also are considered as strong influe nces on a country brand. In addition, societal ills such as AIDS, political riots, civil rights violations, environm ental problems, racial conflicts, economic dilemmas, poverty, and high crime rates can all be elements that influence country brand (Kotler and Gertner 2002). A specific place su ch as country can be relatively or strongly associated with some of these elements a nd its brand image can be built on them.

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25 The current study explores the elements that most contribute to th e development of the country brand image of South Korea. Practitioners can make use of these critical elements to improve the country brand image of South Kor ea. In addition, the South Korean governments trade or tourism department can consider th ese elements when improving upon their country image with U.S. consumers in the era of FTA. One of the attribute-related theo ries that are used in this study to understand the elements influencing country brand attit ude is Expectancy-Value model (Ajzen and Fishbein 1980). Expectancy-Value model The expectancyvalue model was explained by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) in their research of Understa nding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. In the model, Ajzen and Fishbein explained that ou r attitudes toward an objective, entity, or person were based on our belief and evaluation. In m easuring attitude toward country brand, the expectancy-value model can be applied. According to the measurement of attitude in the Expectancy-Value model of the Ajzen and Fis hbein (1980), attitude score is measured by the equation: Attitude = Belief*Evaluation. By the measurement of belief strength and outcome evaluation, the present study measures the attitudes toward each element associated with attitude toward the country. Research Question 3. What are the important factors influencing the brand image of South Korea?

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26 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The present study investigated empirically th e effects of advertis ing and publicity on attitudes toward the country bra nd of South Korea by using an e xperimental design. Americans attitudes toward South Korean products and purchase intention also were investigated. In addition, this study also explored what kind of elements influen ce Americans attitude toward South Korea by using the survey method. Since the subjects of this study are college students w ho perfectly qualify as important consumers in the high tech industry, South Korea id eally is one of the more appropriate countries for the study of county brands. Study 1. Experiment To investigate the combined media effect on c ountry brand for South Korea, the study used experimental research, which was well suited for research projects with well defined and comparably limited propositions. It also is th e most appropriate method for hypothesis testing because experimentation is useful to determin e causation (Babbie 2001). Thus, a factorial design experiment was used to investigate the single an d combined effects of advertising and publicity on the country brand of South Korea. Research Design The hypotheses and research que stions were examined using a 2 x 3 between-subjects experiment. The effect of publicity and the effect of a dvertising were manipulated. The effect of advertising was controlled by two groups, an exposure and a no exposure groups, while the effect of publicity was designed with three groups consisting of positive news exposure, negative news exposure, and no exposure groups. This design is reasonable in adapti ng to the real world of communication because advertising is a controllable method by its source and, therefore it

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27 should be positive. Alternatively, publicity or news stories are not controllable and they could be positive or negative (Stammerjohan et al. 2005). In this vein, the order of exposures was designed so that the news story was exposed first and then an ad was showed. This was done not only because news was generally exposed unexpectedly in the real world, but also because one of the present research objective was to examin e the effect of advertising under a news exposed situation. The subjects of the experiment were U.S. college students who were separated into six groups including both experimental and control groups; 1) Ad and Po sitive news exposure, 2) Ad and Negative news exposure, 3) Ad exposure an d No publicity, 4) No ad and Positive news exposure, 5) No ad and Negative news exposure, and 6) An ad and No publicity. Since this experiment examined a real country brand of South Korea, other variables apart from dependent and independent variables should be controlled as covariates. The control of covariates was necessary in order to estimate the pure effects between the independent and dependent variables. As a result, this study used a multivariate analysis of covariance, MANCOVA. In addition, simple linear regression analysis wa s conducted to investigate the prediction of attitude toward South Korea concerning other attitude and purchase intentions. The experiment was conducted by an American operator because an Asian researcher could be a bias in the controlled experimental circumstances. Participants Participants were recruited among the underg raduate students in one of the largest southeastern universities in America. A total of 212 students participated in the experiment, separated into six groups. Each group consisted of at least 30 subjects to assume reliability of the factorial experiment. Each group was controlled by independent circumstan ces to let them watch only designed experimental stimuli. Every particip ant took part in the expe riment in a controlled

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28 room with differently scheduled times. A total of eight classes were used for this experiment and some classes were divided by two or three group s to control experimental circumstances. Each participant was randomly assign ed into one of six groups. Covariates Consumers are less likely to be influenced by new information if they already know about the brand or advertising (Park and Lessig 1977). Thus, prior knowledge of the brand is likely to influence advertising and publicity information processing. In other words, the effects of publicity and advertising are likely to vary with consumers leve l of interest, experience, and knowledge about South Korea. In this vein, pers onal experiences, pers onal acquaintances, and previous knowledge of South Korea were controlled as covariates in this study. Stimuli development The advertising stimulus was selected to pr omote the positive image of South Korea. To avoid confusing with North Korea, the curren t study used the country brand name of South Korea as well as the stimuli only related with S outh Korea. This stimulus did not describe a specific product, company, person, or one aspect of South Korea; instead it described the total image of the country. It was because this research did not intend to promote certain aspects of the country brand image, but total country bra nd image of South Korea. Among the several advertisements promoting the positive image of South Korea, a Korea Sparkling TV commercial film which was made in 2007 by the South Korea Tourism Organization was used. The content of this TV commercial describe d various aspect of South Korea including traditional, present, and future aspects of South Korea. It took 3 minutes to watch. Publicity stimuli also were selected to show either positive or negative image of South Korea. Two real news stories were chosen from CNN.com. Since the participants were selected from college students, this study chose the public ity stimuli relevant for younger audiences. For

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29 this reason, two news stories describing the c yber cultures of Korea we re selected either positively or negatively. The title of positive news was South Korea Cyber Gaming and it described the explosive growth of South Korean cyber gaming. It was exposed in April 4, 2005. The negative news was Cyber-vio lence rises in South Korea. It described about the people who were singled out and bombarded with Intern et hate messages in South Korea. It was exposed in September 22, 2006. Both positive and negative news stories were exposed in CNN.com Asia-pacific region. The time of e xposing positive news was two minutes and 33 seconds, whereas the exposing time of negative news was three minutes and two seconds. As mentioned above, these two stimuli were tested by a manipulation check. The two stimuli were exposed to the subjects by using the same medium. If the news story is delivered via television, the advertisement should also be deli vered by the same media (i.e. television). This was to control the effect of media types. With this reason, the experimental materials were presented to the participants by the big screen in the experiment room. In addition, to control prior exposure effects, th e participants who were previously e xposed to either the news stories or the advertisement were exclude d in analyzing the results. Independent and Dependent Variables The two categorical independent variables (a dvertising and publicity) were measured to explain the effect of advertising, the effect of publicity, and the in teraction effect of advertising and publicity on attitudes toward the country. Six dependent variables were also measured in this experiment: 1) attitudes toward South Korea [Ab(Korea)], 2) attitude s toward South Korean electroni c product [Ab(Electronic)], 3) attitudes toward South Korean food product [Ab( Food)], 4) visiting intention of South Korea [VI(Korea)], 5) purchase intention of South Kor ean electronic product [PI(Electronic)], and 6) purchase intention of South Korean food pr oduct [PI(Food)]. To examine the relationship

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30 between the attitude toward the country brand and the attitude toward its products and purchase intentions of its products, th e present study separate d the country-base products into two categories, electronic products and food products. It is because food is representative of localized products whereas electronic produc ts are representative of sta ndardized products. It is also because food is a culture-oriented product catego ry whereas electronic devices are not cultureoriented product. According to the study of count ry of origin (Lim a nd OCass 2001), culture of origin is a more effective concept than count ry of origin to explain consumers brand perceptions. The products of count ry origins are becoming more complicated, because they can be designed in one country, manufactured in another country, and assembled in the third; however, consumers can easily identify the culture of origin brand over co untry of origin (Lim and OCass 2001). In this vein, attitude toward and purchase intention of country-based products can be separately examined depending on whether the products are culturally oriented or not. This experiment borrowed the scale of attit ude toward the brand and purchase intention from Marketing Scales Handbook Vol. IV: A Comp ilation of Multi-Item Measures for Consumer Behavior & Advertising (Bruner et al. 2005) Attitudes toward brands [Ab(Korea), Ab(Electronic), Ab(Food)] were measured by the most frequently used multi-dimensional scale (unfavorable-favorable, bad-good, dislike-like, and negative-positive). The scales were measured by 7-point semantic differential scale items. In regard to purchase intention [PI(Electronic), PI(Food)] and visiting intention [VI(Korea)], a three-item-scale (unlikely-likely, impossiblepossible, and improbable-probable) was adapted from the study of Mackenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986). The scales were also measured by 7point semantic differential scale items.

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31 Study 2. Survey Research Design The survey research was designed to identify a nd explain what sort of elements were the most important in influencing South Koreas brand image. The survey was conducted among the respondents who were not involved in the experi ment. After asking the attitudes toward each cultural symbols of South Korea, attitudes towa rd South Korea were asked to the respondents. To measure more specific attitudes, the survey questionnaires included each symbols picture. In addition, the order of questions was counterbalanced in order to control the order effect. As a supplementary question, respondents general impression about South Korea was asked before they answered the main questionn aire. Since South Korea is not a big or popular country to the Americans, asking general impre ssion about South Korea was valuable to support the survey result. Respondents The respondents of the survey were recruite d among the undergraduate students in one of the largest southeastern universities in America. A total of 91 students partic ipated in the survey. Independent, Dependent Va riables and Procedures The 38 variables influencing the building of a South Korean brand image were measured as independent variables which were categori zed into six groups: the Company group, the Food group, the Media group, the Event group, the National Symbol group, and the People group. This grouping was conducted by the researchers subjective decision ba sed on the study of Kotler and Gertner (2002). According to their st udy (2002), the country brand image results from its history, geography, art, music, celebrities, proclamations, and other features. The media and entertainment industry are also important el ements. Product categories such as perfumes, electronics, automobiles, wines, and software ar e also considered as strong influences on a

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32 country brand. The six groups were categorized ba sed on the literature of this study and adapted to the South Korea. The company group contained four elements : LG, SAMSUNG, HYUNDAI, and KIA. The food group included three cultura l elements: Kimchi, Galbi, and Bulgogi. The media group included HOST, KING, Oldboy, M*A*S*H, wher eas the event group contained 1988 Seoul Olympic games, 2002 FIFA Worldcup, World Base ball Classic. The national symbol group contained Taekukki, Taekwondo, SEOUL, and IT KOREA. The People group included 20 people who were Ki-Moom Ban, Moo-Hyun Roh, Dae-Jung Kim, Rain, Sumi Cho, Nam June Paik, Kim, Yun-Jin, Daniel Dae Kim, Sandr a Oh, Margalet Cho, Rick Yune, Grace Park (Actress), Chan-Ho Park, Byung Hyun Kim, Jae Se o, Michelle Wie, Seri Park, Mi-Hyun Kim, Grace Park2 (Golfer), and K. J. Choi. For measuring attitudes toward each variable in each group, this study adopted Ajzen and Fishbeins Expectancy-Value model (Ajzen a nd Fishbein 1980), which was a framework for predicting brand attitudes. To m easure the attitudes toward each variable, contingency questions were initially used to check each respondents present awareness of the 38 cultural symbols. If they knew of each cultural symbol, they then answered the two following questions measuring their belief and evaluation of each cultural sym bol. If they didnt know of each symbol, they were asked to skip the sub questions and go to th e question for the next symbol. In this way, each symbol was measured by three questions: 1) awarene ss [Yes or No], 2) belief of association with South Korea [7-point semantic differential scales from rarely associated (0) to highly associated (7)], and 3) evaluation [7-point semantic differential scales from negative (-3) to positive (+3)]. Likewise, each persons attitude toward each symbol was calculated by multiplying 1) awareness, 2) belief strength, and 3) evaluati on. For example, when someone knew of symbol A,

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33 his/her belief of association with South Korea wa s 3, and his/her evaluation of the symbol was 2, his/her attitude toward the symbol A was -6 (i.e.1 x 3 x -2 = -6). The dependent variable of this exploratory research was the attitudes toward the country brand of South Korea. These attitudes were m easured by four 7-point differential scale items (unfavorable-favorable, bad-good, dislike-like, and negative-positive). Various multiple regression analyses were c onducted to answer th e research question 3. Procedurally, thirty eight elements (variables) symbolizing South Korea were categorized by six groups by the researcher. Next, all thirty eight symbols were inve stigated in order to predict attitudes toward South Korea. Finally, stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine which group variable pred icted most reliably the attit udes toward South Korea. Since stepwise estimation in multiple regression anal ysis was the method for selecting the best predictor of the dependent variable this result suggested the most appropriate answer to the final research question. Through the additional pr ocess of selecting independent variables respectively, this method would discover the appropriate variables and thereby increase the explanatory power of the regres sion model (Hair et al. 2006).

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34 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Study1. Experiment The first part of this chapter presents th e results of the experiment outlined above. MANCOVA and simple linear regression analysis were conducted to inve stigate hypotheses and research questions. The result of the experiment is presented in the following order of describing sample profiles, manipulation checks for the inde pendent variables (positive news story, negative news story and advertising) and reliability checks for the dependent variables (attitudes). It is followed up by the results of MANCOVA and between -subject tests to inve stigate hypothesis 1, 2a, and 2b and research question 1 and 2. Finally, the resu lts of simple regre ssions are presented to examine hypothesis 3, 4 and 5. Profile of the Sample All participants used for this experimental study were American college students. Among a total of 212 participants, 72 (24%) were males an d 140 (66%) were females (Table 4-1). Most of them were undergraduate students (99.5%). In terms of academic classification, two were freshmen (0.9%), 21 were sophomores (9.9%), 93 were juniors (43.9% ), 95 were seniors (44.8%), and one was graduate student (0.5%). Part icipants ages range from 18 to 38 but most of the participants were between 18 and 23 (93.4 %). In terms of ethnicity, 127 were Caucasians (59.9%), 24 were African Americans (11.3%), 39 were Latin Americans (18.4%), 11 were Asian Americans (5.2%), and 11 were Native Americans (5.2%). Manipulation Check of Independent Variables For a manipulation check of the positive and ne gative news stories, participants (N=212) were asked two questions respectively: 1) Do you think this news story depicts South Korea positively or negatively? and 2) Do you think ot her people will be positively or negatively

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35 influenced by this news story? For each questio n, a 7-point bipolar rati ng scale was used from negative (1) to positive (7). For a manipulation check of the advert isement, the participants were also asked a question: I believe what I just watched is an adve rtisement about South Korea (1: strongly disagree and 7: st rongly agree). As shown in Table 4-2, the ANOVA for the mean scores of particip ants recognition of positive and negative news stories showed a si gnificant difference between the two means [M negative news = 2.28, M positive news = 5.20, F(1,140) = 204.17, p<.05]. Likewi se, participants thought that other people also recognized positive news stimulus as a positive news story and negative news stimulus as a negative news story. This m ean difference was also statistically significant [Mnegative news = 2.69, Mpositive news = 4.88, F(1,140) = 99.54, p<.05]. Thus, it is assumed that participants who watched positive news stimulus perceived it as a positive news story, whereas participants who watched negative news stimulus considered it as a negative news story. In addition, participants also thought that other people would th ink as they thought. Meanwhile, Table 4-2 also showed that participants perceive d the advertising stimulus as an advertisement for South Korea, since its mean score was 5.83 in the 7 point bipolar scal e of strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (7). Thus it can be assumed that the adve rting stimulus used in this experiment was perceived by the participants as an advertisement for South Korea. Reliability Check of Dependent Variables According to Table 4-3, the reliability check fo r attitudes toward the brands showed that the scale had high internal consistency for attitudes toward South Korea [Ab(Korea)] (Cronbachs alpha = .94), attit udes toward South Korean elec tronic product [Ab(Electronic)] (Cronbachs alpha = .96), and attitudes to ward South Korean food product [Ab(Food)] (Cronbachs alpha = .95). The reliability check fo r purchase intention also showed that visiting intention of South Korea [VI(Korea)] (Cronbachs alpha = .94), purchase intention of South

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36 Korean electronic product [PI(Ele ctronic)] (Cronbachs alpha = .90) and purchase intention of South Korean food product [PI(Food)] (Cronbachs al pha = .93) had high internal consistency respectively. Correlation Check The MANCOVA procedure was suitable for the analysis of the experimental results because three dependent variables [Ab(Korea), Ab(Electronic), Ab(Food)] in this study were conceptually related to each other as suggested by the Pearsons correlation coefficients. According to Table 4-4, Pears ons correlation between Ab(Korea) and Ab(Electronic) was r= .53, p<.05, Ab(Electronic) and Ab(Food) was r= .19, p<.05, and Ab(Electronic) and Ab(Food) was r=.28, p<.05. Consequently, three dependent vari ables were reasonably correlated with each other for the MANCOVA analysis. Covariates As mentioned earlier in the methodology chapter, prior knowledge of the brand is likely to influence participants informati on processing of the stimuli, based on the fact that consumers are less likely to be influenced by new inform ation if they already know about the brand or advertising (Park and Lessig 1977). Thus, the eff ects of participants prior experience and knowledge of South Korea should be controlled as covariates. To measure prior experience and knowledge, the participants were asked the follo wing questions: 1) Do you have South Korean friends hanging around with? 2) Do you have close friends or relatives living in South Korea? 3) Do you think that you have knowledge of South Ko rea? and 4) Have you ev er visited to South Korea? if yes, how long have you been? These four variables were controlled as covariates in this study. According to Table 4-5, the effect of the partic ipants prior visit expe rience of South Korea on their country attitude and pur chase intention was not statis tically significant [F(3, 195)=.42,

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37 Wilks Lambda = .99, p>.05]. It was also found that the effect on de pendent variables of participants having Korean friends was not statistically significant [F(3, 195)=2.30, Wilks Lambda = .97, p>.05]. The same result was found fo r having friends or relatives living in South Korea [F(3,195)=2.06, Wilks Lambda = .97, p>.05]. Ho wever, the effect of prior knowledge of South Korea on dependent variable s was statistically significant [F(3, 195)=2.72, Wilks Lambda = .96 p<.05]. As a result, it is concluded that the subject s prior knowledge of South Korea played an important role in making attitude s toward South Korea. However, this effect was controlled because it was incorporated into the da ta analysis as covariates in MANCOVA. Hypotheses Testing The objective of this study was to examine th e single and combined effects of advertising and publicity on attitudes toward country bra nd and purchase intention. First, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was conducted to examine the effects on attitudes toward country brand and country-based products. In detail, MANCOVA was run with three dependent variables (attitudes toward South Korea, attitude s toward South Korean electronic products, and attitudes toward South Korean food Products) and two independent va riables (exposures of advertisement and news stories of South Kor ea). Second, to examine the effect of country attitudes on product attitudes and purchase inten tions, linear regression of each relation was conducted. Attitudes toward South Korea was an independent variable whereas dependent variables were attitudes toward South Korean electronic products and food products, purchase intention of South Korean electronic products an d food products, and visiting intention of South Korea respectively. First of all, since Boxs M te st of equality of covarian ce matrices was not significant (p=.463), this research utilized the Wilks Lambda statistic when interp reting the homogeneity of

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38 regression slope and the subsequent multivariate tests (Mertler and Vannatta 2002). According to the MANCOVA results in Table 4-5, significant di fferences were discovered in terms of interaction between the news exposure and the ad exposure on the combined dependent variables [Wilks Lambda ( ) =.917, F(6, 390)=2.86, P<.05]. This result showed that the composition of three dependent variables [Ab(Korea), Ab(Elect ronic), and Ab(Electroni c)] was influenced by the interaction effect of news and ads exposures. In addi tion, the main effect of the news [F(6,390)=3.84, p<.05] and main effect of the ad [F(3, 195)=7.54, p<.05] were statistically significant. These results also showed that the news and ad affected the composition of three dependent variables. Hypothesis 1. Main effect of advertising on Ab(K orea). According to Table 4-6, equal variances were assumed because F-values of Revenes tests for all three variables were not statistically significant (p > .05). Based on th is result, a detailed look at follow-up ANOVA showed that the main effect of the ad on the attitudes toward South Korea was statistically significant [F(1, 197)=14.45, p<.05]. Thus, hypothesi s 1 was supported; i.e., people who were exposed to advertising were more likely to di splay favorable attitude s toward country brand South Korea than those who were not exposed. Hypothesis 2. Main effect of publicity on Ab(Korea). Univariate analysis also indicated that the main effect of news story was statis tically significant on the attitudes toward South Korea [F(1, 197)=9.89, p<.05] (Table 4-6). To inve stigate which difference mainly affected the significant difference, this research used the T ukey HSD method as a post hoc test because it was the one of the most frequently used and conserva tive methods with respect to Type I error (Hair et al, 2006). By the analysis of post hoc test of the Tukey HSD method at 95% of confident interval, main effect of news story on Ab(Korea) was effective mainly because of the difference

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39 between no exposure and negative ne ws exposure (Table 4-7). Howeve r, there was no significant difference between control group and positive news exposed group. As a result, the post hoc test showed that people who watched negative news st ory were more likely to display unfavorable attitude toward South Korea (M=4.60) compar ed with control group (M=5.03). However, this result could not prove that people who watche d positive news were more likely to display favorable attitudes toward South Korea compar ed with control group. There was no significant effect of positive news story on attitudes toward South Korea (M positive=5.25, M no exposure=5.03). In conclusion, hypothesis 2a was not suppor ted, whereas hypothesis 2b was successfully supported. Research Question 1 & 2. Interaction effect of the Ad and News on Ab(Korea). The interaction effect of news and ads was discovered only in Ab(El ectronic) but not in Ab(Korea) and Ab(Food). According to Table 4-6, interactio n effect of news and ads was statistically significant only in Ab(Electronic) [F(1, 197)=4.22, p=.02]. The result of interaction effect can be analyzed more accurately with Figure 4-1. According to Figure 4-1, people who watched positive news with the the ad (M=5.68) were not more likely to display favorable Ab(Electronic) compared with people who watc hed only positive news (M=5.62). Th is result showed that the ad did not strongly influence the people who alr eady had positive attitudes by watching positive news. Since positive news already strongly affected pe oples attitudes to be pos itive, the effect of the advertisement was not significant to influence peoples attitudes. However, in terms of the negative news exposed group, the result was differe nt that people who watched negative news story with an ad displayed more favorable Ab (Electronic) (M=5.63), compared with people who only watched negative news (M= 4.61). To the negative news exposed group, the effect of advertising was strong enough to positively influence th eir attitudes. As a result, the effect of ads

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40 significantly influenced the attit udes of the negative news expos ed group, whereas the effect of ads did not significantly affect the attitudes of the positive news exposed group. Thus, the answer to the research question 1 was N o, it was not. In other words, in terms of Ab(Electronic), there was no significant attitude differences between people who were only exposed by positive news and people who were exposed both positive news and ads. Thus, there was no significant synergy effect on the positive news and ads in case of Ab(Electronic). However, the answer to the research question 2 was Yes it was. In othe r words, in case of Ab (Electronic), the negative effect of negative news was weaker among those people exposed to both th e negative news and ads than those who were exposed to only the negative news. This result indicated that the counterbalancing effect of the ads on the negati ve news effect was si gnificant in terms of Ab(Electronic). In the case of Ab(Korea), no significant in teraction effect was reported [F(1, 197)=2.47, p>.05] (Figure 4-2). However, th e interaction effect of Ab(Kor ea) could be considered with caution even though its p-value wa s not significant (p=.09). If th e interaction e ffect of the combined media was significantly considered, the same result of the Ab(Electronic) case could be anticipated in the case of Ab(Korea). In othe r words, the counterbalancing effect of the ad on negative news is noticeable in the case of Ab(Korea). However, any statistical signifi cance of main effects or inte raction effects were not found in the experiment in the case of Ab(Food). Hypothesis 3. Effect of Ab(Korea) on Ab(Electronic) and Ab(Food). Hypothesis 3 posited that Ab(Korea) would influence consumers attitudes toward c ountry-based products. In this research, South Korea-based pr oducts were represented by two product categories, electronic products and food products. Thus, the independen t variable was Ab(Korea) and the dependent

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41 variables were Ab(Electronic) and Ab(Food) respec tively. First, a simple regression analysis was conducted to investigate how well Ab(Korea) predic ts Ab(Electronic) (Table 4-9). The result was statistically significant [F(1, 208)=79.12, p<.05]. The identifie d equation to understand this relationship was Ab(Electronic ) = 2.34+.61*[Ab(Korea)]. The R square value was .28. This indicated that 28% of the va riance in Ab(Electronic) was explained by Ab(Korea). Another simple regression analysis also was conducte d to examine how well Ab(Korea) predicts Ab(Food) (Table 4-10). The result was stat istically significant [F(1, 206)=17.18, p<.05]. The identified equation to understa nd this relationship was Ab(F ood) = 2.35+.35*[Ab(Korea)]. The R square value was .08 which indicated that only 8% of the variance in Ab(Food) was explained by Ab(Korea). Therefore, it is c oncluded that Ab(Korea) had more explanatory power to predict Ab(Electronic) than Ab(Food) even though those tw o predictions were statistically significant. Hypothesis 4. Effect of Ab(Kor ea) on VI(Korea). Hypothesis 4 assumed that the Ab(Korea) would influence consumers visiti ng intention of South Korea [VI(Korea)]. The independent variable was Ab(Korea) and the de pendent variable was VI(Korea). The simple regression analysis was conducted to investigate how well Ab(Korea) predicts VI(Korea) (Table 4-11). The result was statistically significant [F (1, 206)=33.25, p<.05]. The id entified equation to understand this relationship was VI(Korea) = 0.75+.62* Ab(Korea). The R square value was .14 indicating that 14% of the variance in VI(Korea) was explained by the Ab(Korea). As a result, hypothesis 4 was supported by th e simple regression analysis results. Hypothesis 5. Effect of Ab(Korea) on PI(Electro nic), and PI(Food). Hypothesis 5 assumed that the Ab(Korea) would influence consumers purchase intentions of South Korea-based products: the electronic [PI(Electronic)] and the food products [PI(Food)]. The independent variable was Ab(Korea) and the dependent va riables were PI(Elect ronic), and PI(Food)

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42 respectively. First, simple linear regression analysis was conducted to examine how well Ab(Korea) predicts PI(Electronic) (Table 4-12). The result wa s statistically significant [F(1, 207)=48.32, p<.05]. The identified e quation to understand this relationship was PI(Electronic) = 2.39+.52*Ab(Korea). The R square value was .19 which indicated that 19% of the variance in PI(Electronic) was explained by the Ab(Korea). Next, the simple linear regression analysis of Ab(Korea) and PI(Food) showed a statistically significant re sult [F(1, 206)=12.95, p<.05] (Table 4-13). The identified equation to understand this relationship was PI(Food) =2.07+.37* Ab(Korea). The R square value was .06 indicating th at only 6% of the variance in PI(Food) was explained by Ab(Korea). Therefore, it is conclu ded that PI(Korea) had more explanatory power to predict PI(Electronic) than PI(Food) even though those two predictions were statistically significant. As a result, hypothesi s 5 was supported by the simple regression analysis results. Study 2. Survey Research question 3 asked what kind of elemen ts mostly influence attitudes toward South Korea [Ab(Korea)]. As explorator y research, this surveys findi ngs provided insights on how to improve the attitudes toward South Kor ea among American college students. Profile of the Sample All respondents used for this survey resear ch were American college students. Among 91 participants, 40 (44%) were males and 51(56%) were females (Table 4-14). All of them were undergraduate students (100%). In terms of academic classification, 3 were freshmen (3.3%), 15 were sophomores (16.5%), 33 were juniors (36.3%), and 40 were seniors (44.0%). Participants ages range from 18 to 45 but most of them were between 18 and 23 (88.0%). In terms of ethnicity, 61 were Caucasians (67.0%), 11 were African Americans ( 12.1%), 8 were Latin Americans (8.8%), 3 were Asian Americans (3.3 %), 1 was Native American (1.1%) and 7 were others (7.7%).

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43 As a supplementary question, respondents ge neral impression was asked before they answered the main questionnaire. According to the results, Americans did not have much knowledge or specific impression of South Korea. Almost all respondent answered they didnt know much about South Korea. Although they did not have much knowledge of South Korea, they generally thought that South Korea was an advanced country in technology, had fastgrowing industry, and its people were smart. Research Question Examination Research Question 3. Elements Influencing Attitudes toward South Korea. To investigate research question 3, this study se lected 38 cultural symbols which represented South Korea. To measure respondents attitudes toward each symbol the level of awarene ss for each symbol was initially asked to the respondent by the yes or no ques tion [e.g. I know of it. Yes ( ) or No ( )]. If the respondent knew the symbol, he/she answered yes and guided to the next two contingent questions which were belief of association with South Korea [e.g. I believe that LG is rarely associated (1) to highly associat ed (7) with South Korea] and ev aluation of each symbol [e.g. My evaluation of LG is bad (-3) to Good (+3)]. Acco rding to the measurement of attitudes in the Expectancy-Value model by the Ajzen and Fishbe in (1980), the attitudes score of each symbol was calculated by the equation: Attitude = Belief* Evaluation. For example, the respondent knew of Seoul, then he/she guided to answer how much he/she believed Seo ul was associated with South Korea and how positively or negatively he/she evaluated Seoul. If the respondent answered +3 in belief of associ ation and +2 in evaluation, it wa s considered as +6in his/her attitude toward the Seoul (e.g. +3 x +2 = + 6). However, when respondent did not know of the symbols, it was considered as missing value and analyzed as a It was treated as same as the case that the respondents grad ed zero in evaluation scale (from -3 to +3). When a certain respondent knew of an elements, grad ed +7 in belief, and graded in evaluation, this element

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44 was considered as zero because multiplied by +7 was This meant that missing value was considered as same as evaluation zero in this research. Then the 38 symbols were categorized by the researcher into the followi ng six groups of indepe ndent variables, the Company group, the Food group, the Media group, the Event group, the National symbol group, and the People group, as mentioned in methodology chapter. First, a simultaneous multiple regression anal ysis was conducted to investigate the best predictor groups of Ab(Korea). The means and sta ndard deviations of six groups can be found in Table 4-15. There was a moderate correlation between the six gr oups of independent variables and Ab(Korea) as a dependent vari able (R=.48). The correlations va lues of each group suggested that the National symbol group (r=.37) had the highest correlation with dependent variable followed by the Company group (r=.32), and the Media group (r=.22) respectively. However, only three (the National symbol group, the Company group, and the Media group) variables significantly contributed to the model (p<.05) among the six independent variables. The regression equation line was statistically si gnificant [F(6, 76)=3.83, p<.05], thus this combination of six group variables significantly predicted Ab(Korea). The R square of total model was .23 which indicated that 23% of tota l variance in Ab(Korea) was explained by the model. The beta ( ) weight suggested that the National symbol group ( =.34) contributed most to predicting the Ab(Korea), followed by the Company group ( =.24), the Media group ( =.17), the Food group ( =.12), the People group ( =.-28), and the Event group ( =-.00), even though only the National symbol group and the Company group were statistically significant (p<.05). The regression model is: Ab(Korea) = 3.88 + .10(th e Media Gr.) + .08(the National Symbol Gr.) + .07(the Company Gr.) .24(the People Gr.) + .01(the Food Gr.) + .00 (the Event Gr.). The equation model indicated that the more the respondents had positive attitudes toward South

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45 Korean national symbols and companies, the mo re they had positive attitudes toward South Korea. Next, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate which variables were more influential on the Ab (Korea) than others. According to the result in Table 4-16, two steps were determined for the final model. The first step variable was the National symbol group. Then the Company group was added in second ste p. In the final step, the National symbol group ( =.33) contributed most to predicting the Ab(Korea), followed by the Company group ( =.24). The final step indicated that when the two groups of variables were entered, the multiple correlation coefficient was .45 and the R square was .20, which meant 20% of the variances in attitudes toward South Korea wa s explained by the final model. The regression equation for the final model was: Ab(Korea) = 4.00 + .08(th e National symbol group) + .07(the Company group). Next, another simultaneous multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate the best individual cultural sym bol (out of 38) in predicting Ab(Korea). The means, standard deviations, and correlations of 38 symbols are shown in Table 4-17. The mean of awareness, belief of association, and evaluation for each sym bol also can be found in the same table. The correlation values of each symbol with attitude toward South Korea suggested that LG (r=.37) was the most highly correlated with attitude toward South Ko rea followed by Seoul (r=.31), Margaret Cho (r=.29), IT Korea (r=.27), Tae kukki (r=.21), The Rain (r=.21), Old Boy (r=.21), Choi K.J. (r=-.21). These nine symbols we re the only statistically significant elements among 38 symbols (p<.05). The highest mean among 38 symbols attitude values (belief*evauation) were 9.77 (Taekwondo) fo llowed by 8.59 (Seoul), 6.73 (Samsung), and 5.7 (Sandra Oh) respectively. The level of awareness of each Korean cultural symbol was the highest

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46 in Samsung (100%), and Hyundai (100%) fo llowed by Kia (97%), Taekwondo (95%), LG (93%), M*A*S*H* (87%), and Sandra Oh (86%). However, the result of the multiple regression analysis of 38 symbols as independe nt variables were not statistically significant (p=.19), thus this model failed to predict the Ab(Korea). Table 4-1. Demographic profile of the respondents in the experiment Demographics Frequency Valid Percent Gender Male 72 34.0 Female 140 66.0 Total 212 100.0 Age 18-20 86 40.6 21-23 112 52.8 24-30 13 6.1 over31 1 .5 Total 212 100.0 Education Level Freshmen 2 .9 Sophomores 21 9.9 Juniors 93 43.9 Seniors 95 44.8 Graduate Students 1 .5 Total 212 100.0 Ethnicity Caucasian 127 59.9 African American 24 11.3 Latin American 39 18.4 Asian American 11 5.2 Native American 11 5.2 Total 212 100.0

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47 Table 4-2. Manipulation check of stimuli Stimuli M S.D. F a) positive news 5.20 1.08 1.Respondents' recognition b) negative news 2.28 1.34 204.17* a) positive news 2.69 1.42 News 2.Others recognition b) negative news 4.88 1.19 99.54* N=212, *p<.05, Advertising (M=5.83, S.D=1.31) Table 4-3. Reliablility check Dependent variables Cronbach's alpha 1. Attitudes toward S. Korea .94 2. Attitudes toward S. Korean electronic products .96 Attitude 3. Attitudes toward S. Korean food products .95 1. Visiting Intention of S. Korea .94 2. Purchase Intention of S. Korean electronic products .90 Intention 3. Purchase Intention of S. Korean food products .93 N=212 Table 4-4. Correlation of depe ndent variables in MANCOVA Attitudes toward S. Korea Attitudes toward S. Korean electronic products Attitudes toward S. Korean food products Attitudes toward S. Korea 1.00 Attitudes toward S. Korean electronic products .53* 1.00 Attitudes toward S. Korean food products .19* .28* 1.00 N=212, *p<.05

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48 Table 4-5. Multivariate test results Effect Wilks' Lambda F Hypothesis df Error df p-value 1. Prior visit experience 0.99 .42 3 195 .74 2. Having Korean friend 0.97 2.30 3 195 .08 3. Having friend living in Korea 0.97 2.06 3 195 .11 Covariate 4. Prior knowledge 0.96 2.72* 3 195 .05* 1. News 0.89 3.84 6 390 .00* 2. Ads 0.90 7.54 3 195 .00* Variables 3. News Ads 0.92 2.86* 6 390 .01* N=212, *p<.05 Box's M=31.26, F=1.00, p=.46 Table 4-6. Results of between-subjects test Source Dependent variable SS df MS F p 1.Attitude toward S. Korea 16.16 2 8.09 9.89* .00* 2. Attitude toward S. Korean Electronic products 10.74 2 5.37 4.40* .01* News 3. Attitude toward S. Korean Food products .14 2 .07 .05 .95 1. Attitude toward S. Korea 11.81 1 11.81 14.45* .00* 2. Attitude toward S. Korean Electronic products 20.86 1 20.86 17.08* .00* Ads 3. Attitude toward S. Korean Food products .03 1 .03 .02 .89 1. Attitude toward S. Korea 4.04 2 2.02 2.47 .09 2. Attitude toward S. Korean Electronic products 10.32 2 5.16 4.22* .02* News* Ads 3. Attitude toward S. Korean Food products 6.58 2 3.29 2.33 .10 N=212, *p<.05

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49 Table 4-7. Result of post hoc test of ANOVA Variable Group Treatment (1) Group Treatment (2) Upper bound** Lower bound** Sig No news group Negative news group .01 .80 .01* No news group Positive news group -0.62 .16 .34 Attitudes toward S. Korea Positive news group Negative news group .25 1.03 .00* *p<.05, ** 95% Confident Interval The results are based on the Tukey HSD method Table 4-8. Descriptive statistics of MANCOVA Ab(Korea) Ab(Electronic) Ab(Food) News Treat ment Ad Treat ment Mean SD News Treat ment Ad Treat ment Mean SD News Treat ment Ad Treat ment Mean SD No ad 4.74 1.02 No ad 4.88 .92 No ad 4.06 1.37 Ad 5.33 1.04 Ad 5.67 1.09 Ad 4.01 1.43 No news Total 5.03 1.06 No news Total 5.27 1.08 No news Total 4.03 1.39 No ad 4.21 .70 No ad 4.61 1.06 No ad 4.24 1.25 Ad 4.93 1.01 Ad 5.63 1.23 Ad 3.91 1.03 Nega tive news Total 4.60 .95 Nega tive news Total 5.18 1.26 Nega tive news Total 4.06 1.14 No ad 5.19 .90 No ad 5.62 1.13 No ad 3.87 1.25 Ad 5.33 .93 Ad 5.68 1.16 Ad 4.38 1.18 Positi ve news Total 5.25 .91 Positi ve news Total 5.64 1.13 Positi ve news Total 4.08 1.24 No ad 4.77 .97 No ad 5.09 1.13 No ad 4.04 1.29 Ad 5.18 1.00 Ad 5.66 1.16 Ad 4.08 1.22 Total Total 4.97 1.01 Total Total 5.37 1.17 Total Total 4.06 1.25 N=212

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50 Table 4-9. Result of simple linear regression, Ab(Korea) -Ab(Electronic) Variable B beta t sig Constant 2.34 6.73 .00 Ab(Korea) Ab(Electronic) Attitudes toward South Korea .61 .53 .89 .00 Dependent variable: Attitude toward South Korean Electronic Products N=212, R=.53, R square=.28, F(1,208)=79.12*, *p<.05 Table 4-10. Result of simple linea r regression, Ab(Korea)-Ab(Food) Variable B beta t sig Constant 2.35 5.56 .00 Ab(Korea) Ab(Food) Attitudes toward South Korea .35 .28 4.15 .00 Dependent variable: Attitude to ward South Korean Food Products N=212, R=.28, R square=.08, F(1,206)=17.18*, *p<.05 Table 4-11. Result of simple linea r regression, Ab(Korea)-VI(Korea) Variable B beta t sig Constant .75 1.36 .18 Ab(Korea) VI(Korea) Attitudes toward South Korea .62 .37 5.77 .00 Dependent variable: Visiting Intention of South Korea N=212, R=.37, R square=.14, F(1,206)=33.25*, *p<.05 Table 4-12. Result of simple linear regression, Ab(Korea)-PI(Electronic) Variable B beta t sig Constant 2.39 6.34 .00 Ab(Korea) PI(Electronic) Attitudes toward South Korea .52 .44 6.95 .00 Dependent variable: Purchase Intenti on of South Korean Electronic Products N=212, R=.44, R square=.19, F(1,207)=48.32*, *p<.05 Table 4-13. Result of simple linea r regression, Ab(Korea)-PI(Food) Variable B beta t sig Constant 2.07 3.96 .00 Ab(Korea) PI(Food) Attitudes toward South Korea .37 .24 3.60 .00 Dependent variable: Purchase Inten tion of South Korean Food Products N=212, R=.24, R square=.06, F(1,206)=12.95*, *p<.05

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51 Table 4-14. Demographic profile of the respondents in survey Frequency Valid Percent Gender Male 40 44.00 Female 51 56.00 Total 91 100.00 Age 18-20 46 50.60 21-23 34 37.30 24-30 9 9.90 over31 2 2.20 Total 91 100.00 Education Level Freshmen 3 3.30 Sophomores 15 16.40 Juniors 33 36.30 Seniors 40 44.00 Graduate Students Total 91 100.00 Ethnicity Caucasian 61 67.00 African American 11 12.10 Latin American 8 8.80 Asian American 3 3.30 Native American 1 1.10 Others 7 7.70 Total 91 100.00

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52 Table 4-15. Result of multiple regression of the six groups of cultural symbols Variables M SD B t Constant 3.88 14.47 Company Gr. 4.25 4.23 .07 .24 2.31 Food Gr. 1.05 3.23 .01 .01 0.12* Media Gr. 1.52 2.19 .10 .17 1.68 Event Gr. 3.28 4.09 .00 -.00 -.01 National Symbol Gr. 1.86 1.50 .08 .34 3.08* People Gr. 7.09 4.83 -.02 -.03 -.28 N=91, *p<.05, R=.48, R square=.23, F=3.83 Company Gr.: LG, SAMSUNG, HYUNDAI, KIA. Food Gr.: Kimchi, Galbi, Bulgogi. Media Gr.: HOST, KING, Oldboy, M*A*S*H Event Gr.: Seoul Olympic, 2002 Worldcup, World Baseball Classic. National symbol Gr.: Taekukki Taekwondo, SEOUL, IT KOREA People Gr.: Ki-Moom Ban, Moo-Hyun Roh, Dae-J ung Kim, Rain, Sumi Cho, Nam June Paik, Kim, Yun-Jin, Daniel Dae Kim, Sandra Oh, Marg alet Cho, Rick Yune, Grace Park (Actress), Chan-Ho Park, Byung Hyun Kim, Jae Seo, Michelle Wie, Seri Park, Mi-Hyun Kim, Grace Park2 (Golfer), K. J. Choi. Table 4-16. Stepwise regr ession analysis summary Model Variables B t R R square F a) Constant 4.2 19.76* 1 b) National symbol Gr. .10 .39 3.76* .39 .15 14.11* a) Constant 4.0 18.04* b) National symbol Gr. .08 .33 3.22* 2 c) Company Gr. .07 .24 2.35* .45 .20 10.20* Dependent Variable: Attitudes toward South Korea N=91,*p<.05

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53Table 4-17. Mean and Standard Deviation of 38 Elements Variable N Knowledge (Yes/No) % Belief of Association M Evaluation M Attitudes Belief x Evaluation M SD r** p Ban, Ki-Moon 93 8.60/91.40 0.57 0.12 0.07 0.62 2.78 0.09 0.42 Roh, Moo-Hyun 93 8.60/91.40 0.57 0.12 0.07 0.75 93.00 0.16 0.13 Kim, Dae-Jung 92 8.70/91.30 0.52 0.18 0.10 1.01 3.79 0.06 0.59 Rain 93 5.40/94.60 0.37 0.09 0.03 0.53 2.46 0.21* 0.05 Cho, Sumi 93 2.20/97.80 0.08 0.03 0.00 0.11 0.74 0.10 0.37 Nam June Paik 93 3.20/96.80 0.19 0.06 0.01 0.34 2.34 -0.08 0.48 Kim, Yun-Jin 93 37.60/62.40 1.42 0.92 1.31 3.03 5.18 0.04 0.72 Daniel Dae Kim 93 35.50/64.50 1.29 0.83 1.07 2.69 5.05 0.06 0.56 Sandra Oh 93 81.70/18.30 2.65 1.92 5.09 5.91 5.49 0.12 0.25 Margelet Cho 93 39.80/60.20 2.08 0.61 1.27 2.96 6.44 0.29* 0.01 Rich Yune 93 51.60/48.40 2.18 0.94 2.04 3.03 4.33 0.08 0.45 Grace Park 93 7.50/92.50 0.28 0.18 0.05 0.39 1.61 0.03 0.78 LG 91 83.50/16.50 2.76 1.59 4.40 4.51 4.84 0.37* 0.00 SAMSUNG 90 91.10/ 8.90 3.50 1.95 6.81 6.73 6.11 0.20 0.06 HYUNDAI 91 22.40/17.60 3.99 1.12 4.47 4.60 8.00 0.20 0.06 KIA 91 20.20/19.80 3.56 0.42 1.49 1.11 6.74 0.11 0.33 Kimchi 93 15.10/84.90 1.02 0.15 0.15 0.87 4.97 -0.01 0.91 Galbi 93 7.50/92.50 0.41 0.15 0.06 0.87 3.81 0.08 0.44 Bulgogi 93 10.80/89.20 0.58 0.29 0.17 1.40 4.56 0.06 0.56 HOST 93 5.40/94.60 0.37 0.04 0.02 0.27 2.57 0.07 0.51 King 93 1.10/98.90 0.09 0.02 0.00 0.11 1.04 0.06 0.58 Oldboy 93 9.70/90.30 0.62 0.22 0.13 1.16 4.16 0.21* 0.05 M*A*S*H 93 65.60/34.40 3.46 1.06 3.69 4.56 6.20 0.12 0.25 2002 Worldcup 93 34.40/65.60 1.92 0.72 1.39 3.59 6.62 0.08 0.47 Seoul Olympic 92 29.30/70.70 2.37 0.65 1.55 3.84 6.75 0.08 0.46 WBC 93 32.30/67.70 1.16 0.60 0.70 2.34 4.97 -0.07 0.53 Chan-Ho Park 93 30.10/69.90 1.47 0.52 0.76 2.56 4.72 -0.02 0.86 Byung-Hyun Kim 93 21.50/78.50 0.95 0.41 0.39 1.68 3.66 -0.01 0.92 Jae Seo 93 14.00/86.00 0.67 0.31 0.21 1.40 4.10 -0.10 0.37 Michelle Wie 93 64.50/35.50 2.81 1.13 3.17 4.85 6.97 -0.06 0.59 Seri Park 93 16.10/83.90 0.87 0.38 0.33 1.70 4.41 -0.10 0.35

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54Table 4-17. Continued Variable N Knowledge (Yes/No) % Belief of Association M Evaluation M Attitudes Belief x Evaluation M SD r** p Mi-Hyun Kim 93 8.60/91.40 0.52 0.19 0.10 0.98 3.53 -0.09 0.40 GracePark2 92 10.90/89.10 0.51 0.23 0.12 0.97 3.01 -0.15 0.17 K.J. Choi 92 19.60/80.40 1.12 0.41 0.46 2.18 5.12 -0.21* 0.05 Taekukki 92 41.30/58.70 3.85 0.86 3.30 5.73 8.40 0.21* 0.05 Taekwondo 92 88.00/12.00 4.65 1.90 8.85 9.77 7.53 0.15 0.17 SEOUL 91 59.30/40.70 4.71 1.27 6.00 8.59 8.54 0.31* 0.00 IT KOREA 92 42.40/57.60 2.24 0.79 1.78 4.54 7.14 0.27* 0.01 N=91, *p<.05, r**: Correlation with attitudes toward South Korea

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55 Figure 4-1. Interaction effect on attitudes toward South Korean electronic products [Ab(Electronic)] Figure 4-2. Insignificant interact ion effect on attitudes towa rd South Korea [Ab(Korea)] Positive News Exposure Group Ad Exposure Group No Ad Exposure Group No News Exposure Group Negative News Exposure Group Positive News Exposure Group Ad Exposure Group No Ad Exposure Group No News Exposure Group Negative News Exposure Group

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56 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to examine the simple and combined effects of advertising and publicity on attitudes toward South Korea [Ab(Korea)]. Another purpose was to explore what sort of cultural symbols influence attitudes toward South Korea [Ab(Korea)]. To achieve these purposes, the first study used experiment al research and analyzed the data through MANCOVA and simple regression analysis, wher eas the second study used a survey method and analyzed the result by multiple regression analysis. This chapter summarizes the results of both the experiment and survey method. Additionally, the conclusion and the implications are discussed in terms of the effects of advertising and publicity on country brand, and th e cultural symbols influencing Ab(Korea) in detail. Finally, the chapter concludes with th e limitations and recommendations for future research. Summary Study 1. Experiment The first study was about the effects of a dvertising and publicity on country brand. As a whole, the MANCOVA model wa s significant. The main and interaction effects of an advertisement and news stories were significant on combined de pendent variables: Ab(Korea), Ab(Electronic), and Ab(Food). First, the results showed that there existed the main effect of a dvertising and publicity on attitudes toward country brand. In this study, Ab (Korea) and Ab(Electronic) were explained by the main effect of advertising and the main e ffect of publicity. The result demonstrates that advertising exposure has a positive influence on attitudes toward the co untry; those who were exposed to an country-image ad display a more fa vorable attitudes toward the country than those

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57 who were not exposed. In terms of detail about the publicity effects, negative news affected Ab(Korea), whereas positive news did not. The result indicates that negative news story exposure has a negative influen ce on the attitudes toward the country, whereas positive news story exposure does not have a positive influe nce on the attitude toward the country. Second, the interaction effect of advertising and publicity was found in Ab(Electronic). Taken in detail, the counterbalancing effect of advertising to the negative news was found whereas the synergy effect of advertising and positive news was not observed. This result shows that the effect of advertising reduces or counterbalances the ne gative effect of a negative news story, while the effect of advertising can not in fluence the positive effect of positive news. Such positive news effect was strong enough not to be infl uenced by the advertising effect. In spite of its insignificance, the interac tion effect on Ab(Korea) was noticeable as well. However, no interaction effect was found in Ab(Food). This resu lt demonstrates that the effect of advertising can reduce the negative effect of negative news on South Korea. However, this effect does not apply to South Korean food products. Finally, the results of the simple regression analysis show that Ab(Korea) significantly influenced Ab(Electronic) and Ab(Food). The resu lt indicates that the mo re people like South Korea, the more people will like South Ko rean electronic and f ood products. Likewise, Ab(Korea) significantly affected VI(Korea), PI(Electronic), and P I(Food). The result shows that the more people like South Korea, the more peopl e will want to visit South Korea, purchase South Korean electronic products and food products as well. Study 2. Survey The second study was concerned with the cultu ral symbols influencing attitudes toward South Korea. Multiple regression analysis was co nducted to find the significant factors. A total of 38 cultural symbols were ca tegorized into six groups by th e researcher. Among these six

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58 groups, the National symbol group and the Compa ny group significantly influenced Americans attitudes toward South Korea. Utilizing stepwi se regression analysis, this study found that the National symbol group was the most important in explaining Ab(Korea), followed by the Company group. The more that people like South Korean national symbols and companies, the more they like South Korea. Among 38 elemen ts, only the well known LG Company was found to be an influencer by another multiple regression analysis, but the model was not significant. Conclusion and Implication Study 1. Experiment According to existing literature, country imag e is an important component in constructing a country brand (Keller 2003). To manage count ry brand image is an ongoing and long-term brand management process (Kotler et al. 1993). As the product or corporate brand has been continuously managed with various marketing communication tools, br and management of country brand is also important to the country. Specifically, the integrated effect of marketing communication tools (e.g. advertis ing and publicity) should be cons idered essential in terms of country brand management because the combined e ffect is generally more powerful than just the sum of the individual effects (Naik and Raman 2003) In this venue, this study investigated both the individual and combined effects of adver tising and publicity on the country brand of South Korea. As country brand influences country-b ased products, the effects of country brand on country-based products such as electronic and fo od products were also ex amined (Hsieh et al. 2004). As a result, the individual and combined effect of advert ising and publicity on Ab(Korea),Ab(Electronic), and Ab (Food) were statistically signi ficant. Advertising and news stories were effective influencer s in building attitudes toward country brand and country-based products. Since prior experience an d knowledge of South Korea were controlled as covariates in

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59 the experiment, these detected relationships c ould be attributed purel y to advertising and publicity, and not to the covariates. More specific results are explained accordingly. Hypothesis 1. Main effect of advertising on Ab(K orea). Hypothesis 1 was supported: the positive effect of advertising on Ab(Korea) was proven. In terms of being effective in product brand building, advertising is a necessary ma rketing communication tool in building good country brand image to the foreign consumers. The study results support the Mere Exposure Effect of advertising (Zajonc 1968). Hypothesis 2. Main effect of publicity on Ab(Korea) As expected in hypothesis 2, the effect of publicity or news story on Ab(Korea) depends on publicity types. In detail, negative news stories significantly affect ed Ab(Korea) whereas positive ne ws story did not significantly influence Ab(Korea). This result partly support s the Mere Exposure Effect. The more exposure in the news, the more accurately the news describes. However, this result is effective in case of negative news exposure. This result can be empirically explained by the negative effect, meaning that negative information played a greater role in consumers brand judgment (Ahluwalia et al. 2001). People generally use negative information in a more analytical way than positive information. The negative effect is that people place more we ight on negative than positive information in forming overall evaluations of a target (Fis ke 1980; Klein 1996; S kowronski and Carlston 1989). For instance, when the information processing is focused on message content, negative information framing has a stronger effect than positive information framing (Maheswaran and Meyers-Levy 1990). This negative effect is found not only in personal perceptions but also in product evaluation perceptions. Accordingly, the negative news or publicity effect was researched in various ways. Negative news reduces the effect of company advertising

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60 (Stammerjohan et al. 2005). It also damages a companys reputation (Dean 2004). Additionally, negative news reduces brand equity (Dawar an d Pillutla 2000), affects negative attributes (Ahluwalia et al. 2000), and infl uences unfavorable associations (Ahluwalia et al. 2001). These findings are important in terms of the management of country brand because publicity is a more credible source than advertising. The reason is because publicity is communication from a nonadvertiser oriented source (Li ndquist and Sirgy 2003). Thus, to the practitioners in government, tourism organizations, or trade associations, ma naging negative news is the most important function in building positive country brand imag e. They should focus more on coping with and nullifying negative news exposure than with creating positive news exposure. Research Question 1 & 2. Interaction effect of Ad and News on Ab(Korea). Among the three measures of attitudes toward country brand, the synergy effect of news and advertising was found only in Ab(Electronic). Even though the in teraction effect was discovered only in Ab(Electronic), interaction eff ect on Ab(Korea) was also noticeab le with a caution. Thus, it can be concluded that the interacti on effect of advertising and pub licity exists for Ab(Korea) and Ab(Electronic), while no eff ect was found for Ab(Food). The reason why this interaction effect was significant only fo r electronic products can be explained by the different level of brand familia rity between electronic and food products. To the Americans, electronic products from South Kore a are more familiar than South Korean food products. This association is supported by the result of resear ch question 3 indicating that American consumers recognize Korean electronic brands more easily than any other brands. The respondents percentage of recognitions of Samsung and LG were 91.1% and 83.5% respectively, while it was only 15.1%, 7.5% a nd 10.8% for Kimchi, Galbi, and Bulgogi respectively (Table 13).

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61 As mentioned earlier, the inte raction effect of an ad a nd news stories was found only on Ab(Electronic). In detail, the synergy effect of positive news and an ad was not observed, whereas the counterbalancing eff ect of negative news and advert ising was found. Therefore, the answer to RQ1 is that the pos itive effect of positive public ity on a country brand was not stronger among the people who saw the advert ising than among those who did not see the advertising. Thus, the effect of pos itive publicity is so powerful that the effect of advertising can not significantly add its positive influence to the consumer. According to the source credibility (Lindquist and Sirgy 2003), the effect of positive publicity is so powerful that the positive effect of ad did not significantly increase such positivis m. Alternatively, the negative effect of negative publicity on a country brand was weaker among th e people who saw the advertising than among who did not see the advertisi ng (RQ2). Although negative news influences people negatively, advertising can counterbalance this negative eff ect in the case of country-based product. The result of the present study could be explained by brand familiarity and multi promotional effect. According to the study of the relationship between brand familiarity and multi promotional effect (StammerJohan et al. 2005), high brand familiarity obtained by advertising activity reduced the effects of negative news. Their research also showed by the experiment that the effect of positive publicity on attitudes toward the ad and attitudes toward the brand was not significant for a familiar brand. Since Americans tend to be familiar with South Korean electronic products, the c ounterbalancing effect of advert ising on negative news could be significant. Even though one time ad exposure wa s not enough to make brand familiarity, it might have influenced to make South Korea be a familiar brand and finally affected reducing negative effect of negative news. On the othe r hand, positive effect of advertising was not

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62 discovered in this study because South Korean el ectronic products could be already familiar to the Americans. Another research about brand knowledge might also explain the results. According to research on consumer brand knowledge, brand knowledge determines how consumers think about a brand (Keller 2003). Th is research also showed th at consumers brand knowledge influenced how they responded to different st imuli about a brand. When consumers have preknowledge of a brand being advertis ed, it is easier to meet the advertising object ives (Ray 1982; Rossiter and Percy 1987). Thus, brand familiarity or previous br and knowledge is important concept in communicating with foreign consumers in terms of building country brand image. In fact, when consumers are familiar with a brand the expense of communication can be curtailed by reducing the amount of media used (StammerJohan et al. 2005). This fact has important implications for the practitioners. Under a crisis situation in product brand, active advertising expo sure can reduce the negative eff ect of such crisis. Since the media prefers bad news to good, countries are more likely to be exposed in bad press (Dean 2004). According to Kotler and Gertner (2002), cr eating new favorable image is easier than trying to refute old and negative image. Thus practitioners should cons ider active marketing communication to create positive new image of the country in the crisis situation. In this situation, advertising activities can be considered as an effective way to reduce the negative effect of bad news. Hypothesis 3. Ab(Korea) predicts Ab(Electronic) and Ab(Food). As expected in hypothesis 3, Ab(Korea) was signi ficantly predicting Ab(Electr onic) and Ab(Food). The results were consistent with the findings of country of origin effect. Aaker offered an example of a

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63 positive attitude toward Italy as a contributing factor likely to increase the consumption of Italian wine. When it comes to considering the spill-over effects from the parent brand (Balachander et al. 2003), attitudes toward country -based products are influenced by the attitude toward the country. In developing countries, th is effect is important in that developing their country image can produce positive product images. Specifically, it is effective when unfamiliar products are to be introduced to foreign consumer s (Balanchader et al. 2003). Comparing R square value of two predictions toward Ab(Electronic) and Ab(Food), the results showed that the prediction of Ab(Electronic) by Ab(Korea) (R2 = .28) was higher than that for Ab(Food) (R2 = .08). The results can also be explained by brand familiarity of electronic and food products (high familiarity for Korean electronic products compared to low familiarity for Korean food products). The research of consumer brand knowledge (Keller 2003) showed that a consumers brand knowledge influences ho w the consumer responds to different stimuli about a brand. The more the consumer knows about a brand being advertised, the less expenditure the advertiser must spend to ach ieve their communication objectives (Ray 1982; Rossiter and Percy 1987). Hypothesis 4. Ab(Korea) predicts VI(Korea). As exp ected in hypothesis 4, Ab(Korea) was an important predictor of South Korea visiti ng intentions [VI(Korea)]. The results were consistent with those of the Dual-Mediation Effe ct. Positive ads and news stories increase the positive brand attitudes. In the case of country brand, the positive brand attitude leads to an increase in the consumers intention to visit th e place. As an important implication, practitioners in South Korean government of tourism or trad e organizations should be attentive to managing the country brand image because it influences visiting intentions of South Korea.

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64 Hypothesis 5. Ab(Korea) predicts PI(Electronic) a nd PI(Food). As expected in hypothesis 5, Ab(Korea) was an important predictor of pur chase intentions of South Korean electronic product [PI(Electronic)], and food product [PI(Food)]. The results were consistent with those of the Dual-Mediation Effect. Positive ads and news stories increase the positive brand attitude. Consequently, the positive brand attitude leads to an increase in the consumers intention to purchase (Mackenzie, Lutz, & Belch, 1986). Rega rding relative predictiv e powers, it was found that Ab(Korea) is more likely to predict PI(Electronic) (R2 = .19) than PI(Food) (R2 = .06). The result can be explained in the same way with the attitude difference in Ab(Electronic) and Ab(Food). In other words, Ab(Korea) is mo re likely to predict Ab(Electronic) (R2 = .28) than Ab(Food) (R2 = .08). As an important implication, pr actitioners in government or related organizations should consider to managing the country brand image because it influences the purchase intentions of their products. Study 2. Survey Research Question 3. Cultural Symbols influencing attitude toward S. Korea. Research question 3 was what kind of elements was influe ncing the attitude toward South Korea. A total of 38 symbols were selected and formed into six groups. Among them, the National Symbol group played the most significant role in pr edicting Ab(Korea), followed by the Company group. The results imply that the more people like Korean national symbols and companies, the more they like South Korea. Among the South Korean cultural symbols, natio nal symbols such as Taekukki, Taekwondo, Seoul, and IT Korea were the most effective symbol s in building positive Korean country image and thus can serve as important advertising or publicity cues in communicating with American consumers. In addition, companies such as LG, Samsung, Hyundai, and KIA could be used as important cues to build positive country image for South Korea.

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65 In developing communication strategy, the S outh Korean government should consider this important result. Although South Korea has communicated to Amer ican consumers with various contents such as tourism advertisements, govern ment publicity, and international event news, the most effective way of communicating with the Am erican consumer is by using national symbols or company brands. Since South Korea is a de veloping country, most Am ericans have not had any specific country image. With regard to the qu estion of a general image of South Korea, most American respondents answered that they did not know much about S outh Korea. Even though American respondents knew of South Koreas existe nce, they did not have any specific country images. In the coming era of FTA, the South Korean government should consider the use of company and national symbol images to create an overall positive image of South Korea. Limitations and Future Research The present study has several lim itations. In this section thes e limitations are discussed and recommendations for future research are suggested. First, the designed experiment used only two product category samples for examining attitudes toward country-based product; i.e., electronic and food products Therefore, it would be fruitful to conduct future resear ch using a broader category of products to investigate whether the subjects existing attitudes toward Korea mi ght influence their attitudes toward South Koreabased products. Second, a limited sampling of college students for both studies (Study 1 and 2) might raise concerns about projecting the st udy findings onto the general popul ation. That is to say that perhaps the general popul ation would not yield results sim ilar to those found in this study. Therefore, it is desirable for future studies to use a general popul ation sample that represents a socio-economic spectrum broad enough to allo w for a generalization of study findings.

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66 Third, there was a limitation in manipulating e xperimental stimuli. Since the present study used real-world advertisement and news stor ies, manipulating stimuli was not perfectly controlled only for the study purpose. In this stud y, the news stimuli described mainly about the cyber space in South Korea, thus it could have influenced res pondents attitudes toward brands. In fact, the interaction effect of advertising and news was only di scovered in the case of attitudes toward South Korean electronic pr oducts. In spite of this limita tion, the result of current study is useful because the most important result is differences between positive and negative news effects on country brand. In a ddition, the reason why the interaction effect was only found in electronic product was not because of the stimuli, but because of Americans general impression of South Korea. According to th e result about the Americans ge neral impression of South Korea in this study, almost all respondents answer ed they thought South Korea as a leading technological country. However, it would be bette r to use the stimuli describing various aspects of the country for the future study. Fourth, the effect of countr y marketing communication on th e brand is better to be considered in terms of long-term base in the future study. Since managing brand image is not a temporary, but an ongoing and long-term process (Kotler et al.1993), comb ined effects of multipromotional elements are better to be examined in terms of long-term base. In this vein, the result of current study was limited because the positive news was exposed only one-time to measure respondents attitudes. Although the current study results showed that positive news was not effective, it should be understood from the perspectives of long-term process (i.e. repeated exposure to positive news might be e ffective in the long-term). In addition, long-term research is also important to investigate the relationship between brand familiarity and combined marketing communication effect. Specifically the posit ive effect of news is likely to need some

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67 time enough to influence the attitudes toward the br and, whereas negative effect of news is likely to affect directly to the attitudes in the short term. Since brand familiarity is one of the core concepts to explain the synergy marketing co mmunication effects, future research should consider long-term process of medi a effect on country brand. Next, a well-controlled future experimental study would be needed to examine the extent to which each variable has its own effect on att itudes toward Korea or its product. For example, advertising effects can be examined separately by affectiveand cognitive-oriented ads. Depending on cognitive or affective appeals, the individual or co mbined effects of advertising and publicity might be different. Another example is that attitude toward country brand can be examined separately by familiar and unfamiliar country brand characteristics. Previously, Stammerjohan et al. (2005) researched the interaction between a dvertising, publicity, and previous brand attitude and knowledge. In the ca se of familiar brands, no difference was found in attitude toward the ad and the brand among th e people watching positive news. However, the result was different in the case of unfamiliar br ands (Stammerjohan et al. 2005). The findings of their study can be applied in the case of c ountry brand. Since American consumers are not familiar with most developing countries, such as South Korea, the effects of ad and publicity as concerns country brand familiarity should be studied. In addition, other statistical methods, e.g. SE M and Canonical correla tion analysis, might be considered in order to see whether the findings of this study are similar to results when other statistical methods are applied. For example, individual findings in the present study can be examined by one analysis, SEM, which examines a series of dependence relationships at one time (Hair et al. 2006). Thus, a future study might use SEM to investigate the structural and directional relationship model among the latent constructs used in this study.

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68 Furthermore, a future study might investigate Americans attitudes to ward other countries. It would be useful to examine such attitudes toward those countries having exclusive free trade relationships with the U.S. By using such rese arch findings, each government can build effective country brand building strategies. For example, Americans attitudes toward Mexico would be important for Mexican government trade affairs personnel to know because Mexico is a member of the NAFTA (North American Free Trade Association). Finally regarding study 2, a future study could investigate additional factors influencing attitudes toward South Korea. Such factors might include economic, political, media issues, etc. It would be interesting to see which group of factors are more im portant predictors of attitude toward the country. Overall, future research should consider be tter sampling techniques, as well as more comprehensive variables and statis tical methods to investigate c ountry brand attitudes, all of which would contribute further to country brand theory building.

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69 APPENDIX A EXPERIMENT QUESTIONNAIRE Synergy effect on country as a brand This study is interested in finding out synergy effects of advertising and publicity on your attitudes toward country brand of South Korea. Please read th e following questions carefully and give the most proper answers. Personal experience and knowledge Have you ever visited to South Korea? Please check in the blank. Yes ( ) / No ( ) If yes, how long have you been? ______months ______weeks ______days Please check or circle only one scale that best reflects your attitudes I have South Korean friends I hang around with Strongly disagree (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Strongly agree I have close friends or relatives who live in South Korea Strongly disagree (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Strongly agree I think that I have knowledge of South Korea Strongly disagree (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Strongly agree (Dont turn the next page without the instructors notice)

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70 Please watch the message and answer the following questions carefully Have you ever seen this news story? Please check in the blank Yes ( ) / No ( ) Please check or circle only one scale that best reflects your attitudes Attitude toward news story of South Korea To me, the news story about South Korea is: Unfavorable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Favorable Bad (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Good Unlikable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Likable Negative (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5 )------(6)------(7) Positive Do you think this news story depicts South Korea positively or negatively? Negative (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5 )------(6)------(7) Positive Do you think other people will be positively or ne gatively influenced by this news story? Negative (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5 )------(6)------(7) Positive (Dont turn the next page without the instructors notice)

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71 Please watch the message and answer the following questions carefully Have you ever seen this advertisem ent before? Please check in the blank Yes ( ) / No ( ) I believe what I just watched is an advertisement about South Korea Strongly Disagree (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5 )------(6)------(7) Strongly agree Please check or circle only one scale that best reflects your attitudes Attitude toward South Korea advertisement To me, the advertisement about South Korea is: Unfavorable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Favorable Bad (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Good Unlikable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Likable Negative (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5 )------(6)------(7) Positive (Please continue to the next page)

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72 Please check or circle only one scale that best reflects your attitudes, and purchase intention Attitude toward South Korea To me, South Korea is, Unfavorable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Favorable Bad (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Good Unlikable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Likable Negative (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Positive Attitude toward the South Korean electronic products To me, South Korean electronic products, such as cell phones, refrigerators, washers and televisions are, Unfavorable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Favorable Bad (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Good Unlikable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Likable Negative (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5 )------(6)------(7) Positive Attitude toward the South Korean food products To me, South Korean food products, such as Kimchi, Bulgogi, and Galbi are, Unfavorable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Favorable Bad (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Good Unlikable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Likable Negative (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5 )------(6)------(7) Positive Purchase intention of South Korean electronic Products If you were in the market place, would you like to purchase the South Korean electronic products? Unlikely (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Likely Impossible (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Possible Improbable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Probable (Please continue to the next page)

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73 Purchase intention of South Korean food Products If you were in the market place, would you like to purchase the South Korean food products? Unlikely (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Likely Impossible (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Possible Improbable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Probable Visiting intention of South Korea If you are going to take a vacation, would you like to visit South Korea? Unlikely (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Likely Impossible (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Possible Improbable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Probable (Please continue to the next page)

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74 Please answer the following demographic questions. Demographics The following questions are about your demogr aphic information. Please check or write down about you. 1) Please check your gender: Female _______ Male _______ 2) How old are you? _______ years old 3) Whats your grade year? (Please Check one) Freshman ( ) Sophomore ( ) Junior ( ) Senior ( ) Graduate ( ) 4) What is your ethnic background? (Please circle one) a. Caucasian b. African American c. Latin American d. Asian American e. Native American f. Othe r (please specify:___ _____________ _________) Thank you

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75 APPENDIX B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Country as a brand This study is interested in finding out synergy effects of advertising and publicity on your attitudes toward country brand. Please read and an swer the following questions carefully. Please read the following questions carefully and give the most proper answers. 1. Please describe your genera l impression of South Korea: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (Please continue to the next page)

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76 For each item below, please rate your degree of belief and evaluation of South Korean symbols. 2. Attitude toward LG, the electr onics company based in South Korea. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 3. b. I believe that LG is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about LG is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 3. Attitude toward Samsung, the electronics company based in South Korea. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 4. b. I believe that Samsung is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Samsung is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 4. Attitude toward Hyundai, the au tomobile company based in South Korea. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 5. b. I believe that Hyundai is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Hyundai is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 5. Attitude toward KIA, the autom obile company based in South Korea. I believe that a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 6. b. I believe that KIA is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about KIA is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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77 6. Attitude toward Kimchi, the traditional South Korean food made from Korean cabbage. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 7. b. I believe that Kimchi is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Kimchi is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 7. Attitude toward Galbi, the traditional South Korean food made from beef short ribs. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 8. b. I believe that Galbi is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Galbi is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 8. Attitude toward Bulgogi, the traditional South Korean beef dishes. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 9. b. I believe that Bulgogi is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Bulgogi is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 9. Attitude toward the Host, the blockbuster South Korean monster movie. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 10. b. I believe that the Host is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation a bout the Host is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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78 10. Attitude toward the King and the Crown, the South Korean movie. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 11. b. I believe that the King and the Crown is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about the King and the Crown is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 11. Attitude toward Old boy, the South Korean movie that won grand prize at the 2004 Cannes Films Festival. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 12. b. I believe that Old boy is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Old boy is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 12. Attitude toward M*A*S*H, th e old American TV program which portrayed Korean War. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 13. b. I believe that M*A*S*H is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about M*A*S*H is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 13. Attitude toward Korea-Japan FIFA Worldcup a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 14. b. I believe that 2002 Korea-Japan FIFA Worldcup is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about 2002 Korea-Japan FIFA Worldcup is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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79 14. Attitude toward Seoul Ol ympic Games which were held in Seoul, South Korea. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 15. b. I believe that 1988 Seoul Olympic Games is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about 1988 Seoul Olympic Games is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 15. Attitude toward World Baseball Classic, an international baseball tournament, first held in March 2006 Team South Korea won the third place in this event. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 16. b. I believe that 2006 World Baseball Classic is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about 2006 World Baseball Classic is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 16. Attitude toward Chan-ho Park, a major league baseball player from South Korea a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 17. b. I believe that Chan-ho Park is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation abou t Chan-ho Park is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 17. Attitude toward Byung-hyun Kim, a major league baseball player from South Korea a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 18. b. I believe that Byung-hyun Kim is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Byung-hyun Kim is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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80 18. Attitude toward Jae Seo, a major league baseball player from South Korea a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 19. b. I believe that Jae Seo is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Jae Seo is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 19. Attitude toward Michelle Wie, a LPGA golfer. She is Korean American. a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 20. b. I believe that Michelle Wei is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Michelle Wei is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 20. Attitude toward Seri Park, a LPGA golfer, from South Korea a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 21. b. I believe that Seri Park is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c My evaluation about Seri Park is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 21. Attitude toward Mi-hyun Kim, a LPGA golfer, from South Korea a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 22. b. I believe that Mi-hyun Kim is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c My evaluation about Mi-hyun Kim is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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81 22. Attitude toward Grace Park, a LPGA golfer from South Korea a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 23. b. I believe that Grace Park is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Grace Park is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 23. Attitude toward K.J Choi, (Kyung-Ju Choi), a PGA golfer from South Korea a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 24. b. I believe that K.J Choi is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about K.J Choi is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 24. Attitude toward Taekuk-ki, a South Korean National Flag a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 25. b. I believe that Taekuk-ki is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Taekuk-ki is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 25. Attitude toward Taekwondo, a martial art and combat sport originating in Korea. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 26. b. I believe that Taekwondo is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Taekwondo is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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82 26. Attitude toward the secretary-general of the United Nations, Ban KiMoon, the former Foreign Minister of South Korea. a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 27. b. I believe that Ban Ki-Moon is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Ban Ki-moon is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 27. Attitude toward the president of South Korea, Roh Moo-Hyun. a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 28. b. I believe that Roh Moo-Hyun is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c My evaluation about Roh Moo-Hyun is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 28. Attitude toward the 2000 Nobel Peace prize recipient, Kim DaeJung, the former president of South Korea. a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 29. b. I believe that Kim Dae-Jung is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Kim Dae-Jung is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 29. Attitude toward the Rain, a South Korean pop star. a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 30. b. I believe that The Rain is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about the Rain is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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83 30. Attitude toward Sumi Cho,a South Korean opera singer. a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 31. b. I believe that Sumi Cho is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation a bout Sumi Cho is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 31. Attitude toward Nam June Paik, a South Korean artist famous for video art. a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 32. b. I believe that Nam June Paik is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Nam June Paik is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 32. Attitude toward Kim Yun-Jin, a popular actress in the ABC TV series LOST. She is South Korean. a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 33. b. I believe that Kim Yun-Jin is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Kim Yun-Jin is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 33. Attitude toward Daniel Dae Kim, a popular actor in the ABC TV series LOST. He is KoreanAmerican. a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 34. b. I believe that Daniel Dae Kim is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Daniel Dae Kim is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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84 34. Attitude toward Sandra Oh, a popular actor in the ABC TV series Gray Anatomy. She is KoreanAmerican. a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 35. b. I believe that Sandra Oh is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Sandra Oh is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 35. Attitude toward Margaret Cho, a popular comedian in All American Girl, fashion designer and actress. She is Korean-American. a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 36. b. I believe that Margaret Cho is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Margaret Cho is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 36. Attitude toward Rick Yune, a Korean-American actor, appeared in The Fast and the Furious, and the James Bond movie Die Another Day. a. I know of him. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 37. b. I believe that Rick Yune is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Rick Yune is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 37. Attitude toward Grace Park is an American-Canadian actress of Korean descent. She is best known as Sharon Valerii (and the various iterations of Number Eight a humanoid Cylon ) on Battlestar Galactica a. I know of her. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 38. b. I believe that Grace Park is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Grace Park is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good (Please continue to the next page)

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85 38. Attitude toward Seoul, the capital of South Korea. a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 39. b. I believe that Seoul is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My attitude toward Seoul is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 39. Attitude toward South Korea as a Leading country in IT (Information Technology) a. I know of it. Yes ( ) No ( ) If yes, please answer the two questions below. If no, go to question 40. b. I believe that A Leading country in IT (Information Technology) is Rarely associated (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Highly associated with South Korea c. My evaluation about Sou th Korea as a leading country in IT (Information Technology) is Bad (-3)------(-2)------(-1)------(0)------(1)------(2)------(3) Good 40. Please provide additional comments not listed above ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (Please continue to the next page)

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86 Please check or circle only one scale that best reflects your attitudes, and visiting intention. Attitude toward the country brand South Korea To me, South Korea is, Unfavorable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4 )------(5)------(6)------(7) Favorable Bad (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Good Unlikable (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Likable Negative (1)------(2)------(3)------(4)------(5)------(6)------(7) Positive Please answer the following demographic questions. Demographics The following questions are about your demographic information. Please check or write down about you. 5) Please check your gender: Female _______ Male _______ 6) How old are you? _______ years old 7) Whats your grade year? (Please Check one) Freshman ( ) Sophomore ( ) Junior ( ) Senior ( ) Graduate ( ) 8) What is your ethnic background? (Please circle one) a. Caucasian b. African American c. Latin American d. Asian American e. Native American f. Othe r (please specify:___ _____________ _________) Thank you

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87 LIST OF REFERENCES Aaker, David A. (1996), Building Strong Brands New York, NY: The Free Press. Ahluwalia, Rohini H., H. Rao Unnava, and Robert E. Burnkrant (2000), Consumer Response to Negative Publicity: The Moderating Role of Commitment, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (2), 203-214. Ahluwalia, Rohini H., Robert E. Burnkrant, a nd H. Rao Unnava (2001), The Moderating Role of Commitment on the Spill-over Effects on Marketing Communications, Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (4), 458-470. Ajzen, Icek, and Martin Fishbein (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Anholt, Simon (2003), Brand New Justice: The Upside of Global Branding, Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Allison, Kevin (2005), World Turning its Back on Brand America, Financial Times (August 1), available at http://www.organicconsumers.org/BT C/brandname080305.cfm (accessed May 25, 2007). Babbie, Earl R. (2001), The Practice of Social Research, 9th ed., Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning. Balanchader, Subramanian, and Sanjoy Ghose (2003) Reciprocal Spillover Effects: A strategic Benefit of Brand Extensions, Journal of Marketing 67 (January), 4-13. Bannister, J. P. and J. A. Saunders (1978), UK Consumers Attitude towards Imports: The Measurement of National Stereotype Image, European Journal of Marketing 12 (8), 562. Berger, Ida E., & Andrew A. Mitchell (1989), The Effect of Advertising on Attitude Accessibility, Attitude Confidence, and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship, Journal of Consumer Research 16, 269-279. Beverland, Michael, and Adam Lindgreen (2002), Using Country of Origin in Strategy: The Importance of Context and Strategic Action, Journal of Brand Management 10(2), 147167. Bigne, J. Enrique, Sanchez, M. Isabel, and Javi er Sanchez (2001), Tourism Image, Evaluation Variable and After Purchase Behavior: Inter -relationship, Tourism Management 22, 607616. Botan, Carl, and Vincent Hazleton (2006), Public Relations Theory II Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

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88 Bruner II, Gordon C., Paul J. He nsel, and Karen E. James (2005), Marketing Scales Handbook Vol. IV: A Compilation of Multi-item Meas ures of Consumer Behavior & Advertising Mason, Ohio: Thomson Higher Education. Carroll, Craig E., and Maxwell McCombs (2003), Agenda-setting Effect of Business News on the Publics Images and Opini ons about Major Corporations, Corporate Reputation Review 16(1), 36. Chao, Paul, Gerhard Wuhrer, and Thomas Werani (2005), Celebrity and Foreign Brand Name as Moderators of Count ry-of-origin Effects, International Journal of Advertising 24 (2), 173-192. Cook, William A. (1996), Paradise Tossed, Journal of Advertising Research 36 (March/ April), 6-7. Dawar, Niraj and Madan M. Pillutla (2000), Imp act of Product-Harm Crises on Brand Equity: The Moderating Role of Consumer Expectations, Journal of Marketing Research 37(2), 215-226. Dean, Dwane H. (2004), Consumer Reaction to Negative Publicity, Journal of Business Communication 41(2), 192-211. Fiske. Susan T. (1980), Attention and Weight in Person Perception: The Impact of Negative and Extreme Behavior, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38 (6), 889-906. Fullerton, Jami A. (2005), Why Do They Hate Us? International Attitudes toward America, American Brands and Advertising, Place Branding 1(2), 129-140. Gartner, William C. (1993), Image Formation Process, Journal of Travel &Tourism Marketing 2, 191. Gaedeke, Ralph (1973), Consumer Attitudes toward Products Made In Developing Countries, Journal of Retailing 49 (2). Gibson, Lawrence D. (1996), What Can One TV Exposure Do? Journal of Advertising Research 36 (2), 9-19. Hair, Joseph F. Jr., William C. Black, Barry J. Babin, Rolph E. Anderson, and Ronald L. Tatham (2006), Multivariate Data Analysis 6th ed., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Prentice Hall. Hall, C.P. (1996), National Images: A Conceptual Assessment paper presented to the International Communicati on Association, Boston. Hoyer, D. Wayne, and Deborah J. Maclnnis (2003), Consumer Behavior 3rd, Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin.

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89 Hsieh, Ming-Huei, Shan-Ling Pan, and Rudy Setiono (2004), Product-, Corporate-, and County-Image Dimensions and Purchase Behavior: A Multicountry Analysis, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 32, (3), 251-270. Kahneman, Daniel (1973), Attention and Effort, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall. Keller, Kevin Lane (2003), Strategic Brand Management: Bu ilding, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity New York, NY: Pearson Education. Klein. Jill G. (1996), Negativity in Impressions of Presidential Candida tes Revisited: The 1992 Election, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22 (March), 289-96. Kotler, Philip (1993), Marketing Management: Analysis, Pl anning, Implementation and Control 7th ed., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Kotler, Philip, Donald H. Haider, and Irving J. Rein (1993), Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations NewYork, NY, Free Press. Kotler, Philip and David Gertner (2002), C ountry as Brand, Product, and Beyond: A place Marketing and Brand Management Perspective, Journal of Brand Management 9 (4-5), 249-261. Kwack, Seungho (2006), The Background of Developing Korean Country Brand, LG Ad Company Magazine, (July/August), LG Ad, Seoul. Lim, Kenny, and Aron OCass (2001), Consumer Brand Classifications: an Assessment of Culture-of-origin versus Country-of-origin, The Journal of Product and Brand Management 10 (2), 120. Lindquist, Jay D, and M. Joseph Sirgy (2003), Shopper, Buyer, and Consumer Behavior, 2nd ed., Cincinnati: Atomic Dog. McCombs, Maxwell E., and Donald L. Shaw (1972), The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media, Public Opinion Quarterly 36, 176-187. McCombs, Maxwell E., and Donald L. Shaw (1982), The Evolution of Agenda-Setting Research: Twenty-Five Years in the Marketplace of Ideas, Journal of Communication 43, 58-67. MacKenzie, Scott B. (1985), The Role of Atte ntion in Mediating the Effect of Advertising on Attribute Importance, Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (2), 174. MacKenzie, Scott. B., Richard J. Lutz, and Ge orge E. Belch (1986), The Role of Attitudes toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertis ing Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations, Journal of Marketing Research 23 (May), 130-143.

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90 MacKenzie, Scott B., and Richard J. Lutz (1989) An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude toward the Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context, Journal of Marketing 53 (April), 48-65. Maheswaran, Durairaj, and Joan Meyers-Levy (1990), The Infl uence of Message Framing and Issue Involvement, Journal of Marketing Research, 27 (August), 361-367. Meijer, May-May, and Jan Kleinnijenhuis (2006) Issue News and Corporate Reputation: Applying the Theories of Agenda Setting and Issue Ownership in the Field of Business Communication, Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916, 56, 543-559. Mertler, Craig A., and R achel A.Vannatta (2002), Advanced and Multivaria te Statistic Methods: Practical Application and Interpretation, 2nd ed., Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. Muller, Babara (2004), Dynamics of International Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc. Naik, Prasad A., and Kalyan Raman (2003), Understanding the Impact of Synergy in Multimedia Communications, Journal of Marketing Research 40 (November), 375-388. Novelli, William D. (1989), One-stop Shopping: Some Thoughts on Integrated Marketing Communication, Public Relations Quarterly 34 (4), 7-9. Park, C. Whan, and V. Parker Lessig (1977), Jud gmental Rules and Stages of the Familiarity Curve: Promotional Implications, Journal of Advertising 6(1), 10-16. Petty, Richard E., and John T. Cacioppo (1981), Attitudes and Persuasio n: Classic Issues and Contemporary Approaches Dubuque, IA. Ray, Micheal L. (1982), Advertising and Communication Management Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Rossiter, John. R. and L. Percy (1987), Advertising and Promotion Management New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Schultz, Don E. (1993), Integrated Marketing Communications: May be Definition is in the Point of View, Marketing News 27 (2), 17. Schultz, Don E. (1996), The Inevitabili ty of Integrated Communications, Journal of Business Research 37 (3), 139-146. Schumann, David W., Richard E. Petty, and D. Scott Clemons (1990), Predicting the effectiveness of Different Stra tegies of Advertising Variatio n: A Test of the RepetitionVariation Hypothesis, Journal of Consumer Research 37 (5), 7-18. Skowronski, John J., and Donal E. Carlston (198 9), Negativity and Extremity in Impression Formation: A Review of Explanations, Psychological Bulletin, 105 (January), 131-142.

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91 Smith, M. Brewster (1947), The Personal Set ting of Public Opinions: A Study of Attitude toward Russia Public Opinion Quarterly 11(4), 507-523. Stammerjohan, Claire, Charles M. Wood, Yuhm iin Chang, and Esther Thorson (2005), An Empirical Investigation of th e Interaction between Publicit y, Advertising, and Previous Brand Attitudes and Knowledge Journal of Advertising 34 (4), 55-67. Tavassoli, Nader T. (1998), Language in Mu ltimedia: Interaction of Spoken and Written Information, Journal of Consumer Research 25(1), 26-38. Wilkie, William L. (1990), Consumer Behavior 2nd ed., New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Zajonc, Robert B. (1968), Attit udinal Effects of Mere Exposure, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9 (2), 1-27.

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92 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Chang Dae Ham was born in Seoul, Kor ea on March 17, 1971. He graduated with a bachelors degree in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication of Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea, and completed a master of business administration de gree at the Graduate School of Business of Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. He, then, received his Master of Advertising in the college of J ournalism and Communications from the University of Florida in 2007. Prior to joining the University of Florida, he had worked for ten years in various fields of marketing and advertising. During the time, he ha d various experiences as an account manager, account planner, account executive, and internet marketing consultant in the LG Ad, a major advertising agency in Korea and a member of WPP group. After he completes his master's degree at the University of Florida, he joins the doctoral program of the School of Journalism, Universi ty of Missouri Columbia in August 2007. He will continue his study of advertising, concentrating on international branding, integrated marketing communication, and new media effect.