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Germplasm Collection, Evaluation, and Characterization of Common Carpetgrass

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021474/00001

Material Information

Title: Germplasm Collection, Evaluation, and Characterization of Common Carpetgrass
Physical Description: 1 online resource (84 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Greene, Nicholas V
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: affinis, analysis, axonopus, breeding, carpetgrass, component, fissifolius, florida, germplasm, heritability, lawn, measurements, morphological, principal, turf, turfgrass, variation
Agronomy -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agronomy thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Common carpetgrass (Axonopus fissifolius Raddi) is a warm-season perennial grass species indigenous to Central and South America and the West Indies. It is used sparingly as a forage and turfgrass in the southeastern United States. Because of its low maintenance attributes, common carpetgrass may have potential for development as an alternative turfgrass species for use in lower latitudes. There is limited information regarding the types and amounts of variation that exists for this species. Our objectives were to make a collection of common carpetgrass germplasm, determine the variation within the collection for morphological and turfgrass performance characteristics, calculate estimates of heritability and identify groups of genotypes that are similar based on morphology. The germplasm collection consists of genotypes obtained from commercial seed and collection trips. The collection is therefore divided into two populations, the seeded population and the collected population. Differences in means and variances between the two populations were found for various field and morphological traits. Collected genotypes contained equal or less variation as commercially available seed. This substantiates the thought that common carpetgrass germplasm in the southeast United States has a narrow genetic base. The greenhouse study evaluated morphological traits and the field study evaluated turfgrass performance characteristics. Differences in means were found to exist between genotypes for most traits. Heritability estimates for most traits were moderate to high, indicating the potential to alter these traits through conventional breeding. Cluster analysis provided a subset of the germplasm collection which accounts for most of the variation present in the entire collection. Principal component analysis identified morphological traits contributing most to genetic variation and established relationships among various traits.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Nicholas V Greene.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Kenworthy, Kevin E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021474:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021474/00001

Material Information

Title: Germplasm Collection, Evaluation, and Characterization of Common Carpetgrass
Physical Description: 1 online resource (84 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Greene, Nicholas V
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: affinis, analysis, axonopus, breeding, carpetgrass, component, fissifolius, florida, germplasm, heritability, lawn, measurements, morphological, principal, turf, turfgrass, variation
Agronomy -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agronomy thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Common carpetgrass (Axonopus fissifolius Raddi) is a warm-season perennial grass species indigenous to Central and South America and the West Indies. It is used sparingly as a forage and turfgrass in the southeastern United States. Because of its low maintenance attributes, common carpetgrass may have potential for development as an alternative turfgrass species for use in lower latitudes. There is limited information regarding the types and amounts of variation that exists for this species. Our objectives were to make a collection of common carpetgrass germplasm, determine the variation within the collection for morphological and turfgrass performance characteristics, calculate estimates of heritability and identify groups of genotypes that are similar based on morphology. The germplasm collection consists of genotypes obtained from commercial seed and collection trips. The collection is therefore divided into two populations, the seeded population and the collected population. Differences in means and variances between the two populations were found for various field and morphological traits. Collected genotypes contained equal or less variation as commercially available seed. This substantiates the thought that common carpetgrass germplasm in the southeast United States has a narrow genetic base. The greenhouse study evaluated morphological traits and the field study evaluated turfgrass performance characteristics. Differences in means were found to exist between genotypes for most traits. Heritability estimates for most traits were moderate to high, indicating the potential to alter these traits through conventional breeding. Cluster analysis provided a subset of the germplasm collection which accounts for most of the variation present in the entire collection. Principal component analysis identified morphological traits contributing most to genetic variation and established relationships among various traits.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Nicholas V Greene.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Kenworthy, Kevin E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021474:00001


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GERMPLASM COLLECTION, EVALUATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
COMMON CARPETGRASS





















By

NICHOLAS V. GREENE


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































2007 Nicholas V. Greene





























To my father, John R. Greene.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would first like to thank my family for their support in everything that I do. They have

always been there for me, especially through the difficult times over the past couple of years.

I am very grateful to my supervisory committee chair, Dr. Kevin Kenworthy. He has

always been happy to help me and I have learned much from him. I would also like to thank my

supervisory committee members, Dr. Ken Quesenberry, Dr. Jerry Sartain and Dr. Bryan Unruh,

for their help and support.

I appreciate the friendship and project support of Brian Schwartz and Paul Reith. I thank

Georgene Johnson and Justin Sapp for their assistance in data collection. I would like to thank

Mark Kann, Brian Owens, Jan Weinbrecht and the rest of the crew at the turfgrass research farm

in Citra, Florida for their help with maintaining my breeding plots.

Finally, I would like to thank my father. He was a great friend who taught me so much. He

believed in me more than anyone and would do anything in the world for me. He was taken from

us much too soon and I miss him.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IST O F T A B L E S ...................................................................................................... . 7

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .9

A B S T R A C T ............ ................... ............................................................ 10

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... .......................................................... 12

Common Carpetgrass: A Potential Alternative Turfgrass.....................................................12
L literature R review ................................................................................ 13
Com m on Carpetgrass U se and D istribution................................................................ 13
Comm on Carpetgrass Botanical Characteristics ........................ ........................ .... 14
Common Carpetgrass Biology, Fertility and Inflorescence Characteristics .................15
Common Carpetgrass Taxonomic and Cytological Relationships..............................15
Seed E stablishm ent........................................................ ..... .. .... .16
Com m on Carpetgrass M anagem ent ........................................ .......................... 17
Alternative Warm-Season Species Used as Turf ........................................ ...............19
H e ritab ility ........................................................ ................ 2 1
M ultivariate A analysis .......................................... ............. .... ..... .. 22

2 VARIATION AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF COMMON CARPETGRASS......25

In tro d u ctio n ............... .......... .. ................. ...................................... 2 5
M materials and M methods ...................................... .. .......... ....... ...... 28
G erm plasm C collection .......... ..... .......................................................... ................... 28
M orphological M easurem ents ................................................... ........................ 28
Turfgrass Performance Characteristics.................... ....... .......................... 29
G erm plasm Source C om prison ......................................................................... ...... 31
Statistical A analysis ...............................................................3 1
Results and Discussion ...................................... .. ......... ....... ..... 33
G erm plasm C collection .......... ..... .......................................................... ................... 33
M orphological M easurem ents ............................................................................ 33
Turfgrass Performance Characteristics.............................................. 35
Population Com prison ........................................ ... .... ..................36
C onclu sions.......... ............................... ................................................38









3 PATTERNS OF MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF COMMON
C A R P E T G R A S S ........................................ ...... ...................................................... .. 4 3

In tro d u ctio n ................... ............ ............................................ ................ 4 3
M materials and M methods ..................................... ... .. ........... ....... ......45
Morphological Measurements .......................................... ..................... 45
Statistical A analysis ..................................... .. ..... .... ...... .... ......46
Results and Discussion ..................................... ... .. ........... ...... ..... 46
C onclu sions.......... ..........................................................48

APPENDIX

A GERMPLASM COLLECTION INFORMATION ..................................... ...............52

T rip 1 ......................................................................................5 2
T rip 2 ................................................................................................ 5 2
T rip 3 ............................................................................................ . 5 2
T rip 4 .............................................................................5 3

B COLLECTION INFORM ATION ................................................. ............................. 55

C ANOVA TABLES ............... ......................................................... .. 58

D L SD T A B L E S ............................................................................... 63

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ..................................................................................... ....................79

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .........................................................................................................84









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Expected mean squares from analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data over years on
genotypes of com m on carpetgrass. ........................................ ......................................39

2-2 Expected mean squares from analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data over dates on
genotypes of com m on carpetgrass. ........................................ ......................................39

2-3 Estimates of variance components, minimum, maximum and mean values, broad-
sense heritabilities and standard deviations for morphological measurements. ................40

2-4 Estimates of variance components, minimum, maximum and mean values, broad-
sense heritabilities and standard deviations for turfgrass performance traits ..................41

2-5 Comparison of variances and means of morphological traits for two germplasm
sources of com m on carpetgrass. ............................................................. .....................42

2-6 Comparison of variances and means of turfgrass performance traits for two
germplasm sources of common carpetgrass. ........................................ ............... 42

3-1 Eigenvectors from principal component analysis of common carpetgrass genotypes.
Eigenvalues and contribution to total variation listed at bottom. .....................................49

3-2 Cluster assignments of genotypes for cluster analysis of common carpetgrass. ...............50

B-l Source information for common carpetgrass germplasm collection. .............................55

C -l Stolon length A N O V A table ...................................................................... ..................58

C-2 N um ber of nodes AN OV A table................................................................ .....................58

C-3 Number of internodes ANOVA table. ............................................................................58

C-4 Stolon diam eter AN O V A table ................................................ .............................. 59

C-5 Internode length A N O V A table. ........................................ .........................................59

C -6 L eaf length A N O V A table. ...............................................................................................59

C -7 L eaf w idth A N O V A table ................................................................................ ......... 60

C-8 Number of spikes per seedhead ANOVA table. ..................................... ............... 60

C -9 E stablishm ent A N O V A table............................................................................. ....... 60

C -10 G genetic color A N O V A table.............................................................................. ....... 61









C -11 D density A N O V A table ................................................................................ ......... 6 1

C-12 Seedhead density A N O V A table. ........................................................... .....................61

C-13 Turf quality ANOVA table. ...... ........................... ........................................... 62

C-14 W inter color A N O V A table. ...................................................................... ...................62

D-1 Means of accessions and least significant difference (LSD) values for morphological
measurements in the greenhouse for common carpetgrass..............................................63

D-2 Means of accessions and least significant difference (LSD) values for turfgrass
performance characteristics in the field for common carpetgrass. ...................................71









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

3-1 Cluster dendrogram for 32 clusters of 176 common carpetgrass genotypes ...................51









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

GERMPLASM COLLECTION, EVALUATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
COMMON CARPETGRASS

By

Nicholas V. Greene

August 2007

Chair: Kevin Kenworthy
Major: Agronomy


Common carpetgrass (Axonopusfissifolius Raddi) is a warm-season perennial grass

species indigenous to Central and South America and the West Indies. It is used sparingly as a

forage and turfgrass in the southeastern United States. Because of its low maintenance attributes,

common carpetgrass may have potential for development as an alternative turfgrass species for

use in lower latitudes. There is limited information regarding the types and amounts of variation

that exists for this species. Our objectives were to make a collection of common carpetgrass

germplasm, determine the variation within the collection for morphological and turfgrass

performance characteristics, calculate estimates of heritability and identify groups of genotypes

that are similar based on morphology. The germplasm collection consists of genotypes obtained

from commercial seed and collection trips. The collection is therefore divided into two

populations, the seeded population and the collected population. Differences in means and

variances between the two populations were found for various field and morphological traits.

Collected genotypes contained equal or less variation as commercially available seed. This

substantiates the thought that common carpetgrass germplasm in the southeast United States has

a narrow genetic base. The greenhouse study evaluated morphological traits and the field study









evaluated turfgrass performance characteristics. Differences in means were found to exist

between genotypes for most traits. Heritability estimates for most traits were moderate to high,

indicating the potential to alter these traits through conventional breeding. Cluster analysis

provided a subset of the germplasm collection which accounts for most of the variation present

in the entire collection. Principal component analysis identified morphological traits contributing

most to genetic variation and established relationships among various traits.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Common Carpetgrass: A Potential Alternative Turfgrass

New turfgrass cultivars are needed to satisfy the public's growing concern for the

environment. Cultivars requiring less water, pesticides and fertilizers are the goal of current

breeding programs. This requires extensive germplasm collection and evaluation. The collection

of turfgrass germplasm lags far behind that of more traditional crops. Most turfgrass collections

in the United States contain minimal genetic diversity (Morris and Hossain, 2000).

Several species have been collected and evaluated for use as warm-season turf.

Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack.) collections were made by Hanna

(1995) in Taiwan and in southern China in 1999 (Liu et al., 2003), although this material is not

currently available in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) (USDA-NPGS,

2007). There are only 12 accessions of centipedegrass contained in the NPGS. Saltgrass

(Distichlis spicata [L.] Greene) accessions in the NPGS total only 7 and seashore paspalum

(Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) is represented by 16 plants (Morris and Hossain, 2000). Seashore

paspalum collections have been made by a team from the University of Georgia. Since 1993, 300

accessions have been collected from various countries. A small collection also exists in

Argentina (Duncan, 2000). A collection of buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides [Nutt.] Engelm.)

germplasm was assembled from across the lower Great Plains and is maintained at Texas Tech

University (Kenworthy, 1996). The University of Nebraska also maintains a large collection of

buffalograss. The USGA sponsored zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) germplasm collection trips to

Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines in 1982 (Diesburg, 2000). Texas A&M University

holds a collection of zoysiagrass germplasm containing over 1,000 accessions. The majority of

the species in the collection are Zoysiajaponica and Z. matrella, while other species include Z.









sinica, Z. macrostaycha, Z. pacifica and Z. tenuifolia. This collection has been maintained for

two decades and has been tested under field conditions in Texas, Maryland and Missouri

(Engelke, 2000).

Common carpetgrass (Axonopusfissifolius Raddi) is a warm season grass prevalent in the

southern coastal plain region of the southeastern United States. There are no accessions found in

the National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-NPGS, 2007). With an emphasis on low

maintenance and low input turfgrass species there exists a need to collect, evaluate and improve

common carpetgrass. It requires minimal fertilization and pesticide inputs. It has potential for

utilization along roadsides, lawns, and other areas in the tropical and subtropical regions of the

world. A collection of common carpetgrass will be made and evaluated in both breeding and

management programs.

The objectives of this research are to:

* Acquire diverse common carpetgrass germplasm.

* Determine the extent of variation within the collection for morphological and turfgrass
performance characteristics.

* Calculate broad-sense heritabilities for morphological and turfgrass performance
characteristics.

* Determine if greater variation exists in seeded or collected germplasm.

* Identify and select a core collection of common carpetgrass.

Literature Review

Common Carpetgrass Use and Distribution

Common carpetgrass, also known as "Louisianagrass" and "petit gazon", which means

'small lawngrass', is a warm-season grass prevalent in the southern coastal plains of the United

States (Wise, 1961). Its stoloniferous sod forming growth habit can develop a dense turf that

produces an attractive, wear resistant lawn. Common carpetgrass is grown in Australia, Central









America, Malaysia, North America, South America, South Korea, and West Africa with

indigenous populations existing in Central America, South America and the West Indies (Bush,

1997). Its uses include lawns, parks, cemeteries, roadsides, unimproved pastures and other low

maintenance grassy areas. It can also be used successfully in low, wet areas where prolonged

water-logging occurs. It persists in areas with high water tables where it out-competes other

grasses as soil fertility declines (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002). Common carpetgrass is adapted to

acidic, poorly drained soils characteristic of those found in the southern gulf coast region of the

United States (Heath et al., 1985; Musser, 1962). Another use, although rare, is on golf course

fairways such as the Louisville Country Club in Louisville, Mississippi (Bush, 1997).

Common carpetgrass is believed to have entered the United States through the state of

Louisiana during the 19th century where it quickly became a major component of unimproved

pasture land (Heath et al., 1985). It has naturalized in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas,

Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia and North and South Carolina (Hitchcock, 1950).

Common carpetgrass has been reported as far north as Memphis, TN (Bush, 1997), and is

commonly found in Hawaii (Russell Nagata, personal communication). Common carpetgrass

studies at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station began in the spring of 1922. The common

carpetgrass plots in the lawn grass studies were reported as 'showing up well' (Stokes, 1927). It

was introduced near the beginning of the 19th century and was not considered valuable as a

pasture grass until after the middle of the 19th century (Ritchey and Henley, 1936). Common

carpetgrass introduction to the United States was prior to 1832 and a plant collected near New

Orleans in that year has been preserved (Stefferud, 1948).

Common Carpetgrass Botanical Characteristics

Common carpetgrass is a stoloniferous plant (Turgeon, 2005) and highly variable in color,

leaf length, leaf texture, height and seed characteristics and production. Leaves are glabrous and









light green to medium green in color. Leaf blades range from 5 to 20 cm in length and have a

rounded apex (Skerman and Riveros, 1990). Vernation is folded and the ligule is a fringe of hairs

fused at the base. Auricles are absent and the collar is narrow and continuous, occasionally with

hairs. The lamina is 4 to 8 mm wide and margins have short hairs near apex (Turgeon, 2005).

Skerman and Riveros (1990) report leaf widths of 2 to 6 mm.

Tropical carpetgrass (Axonopus compressus [Swartz.] Beauv.) is at times referred to and

confused with common carpetgrass. Tropical carpetgrass is less cold hardy (Turgeon, 2005).

Tropical carpetgrass tends to be more stoloniferous with stouter culms and stolons, broader

leaves and longer, more acute spikelets (Cook et al., 2005).

Common Carpetgrass Biology, Fertility and Inflorescence Characteristics

Common carpetgrass is a perennial plant. The florets are perfect, possessing both pistillate

and staminate reproductive parts. It can reproduce vegetatively and sexually. Cross-pollination

will occur in the field and an isolated plant in the greenhouse set selfed seed. An inflorescence

typically has two or three racemes branching from a tall, filiform seedstalk (Heath et al., 1985).

The upper two racemes are proximate with the third remote. Spikelets are 2 mm long and in two

rows on one side of a flattened rachis. Lemmas are fertile with a glabrous apex (Skerman and

Riveros, 1990). Anthers are purple (Hickenbick et al., 1975).

Common Carpetgrass Taxonomic and Cytological Relationships

Cytological studies provide information on taxonomy and reproductive biology which is

vital for plant improvement through breeding programs (Norrmann et al., 1994). Common

carpetgrass belongs to the genus Axonopus. The scientific name A. fissifolius is synonymous with

A. affinis (Chase) and Paspalumfissifolium (Raddi) (USDA-NPGS, 2007). Watson and Dallwitz

(1992) examined this very complex genus, which contains about 110 species. Many are

allopolyploids derived through interspecific hybridization within the genus. Cytological studies









suggest that common carpetgrass shows morphologic and ecologic similarity to the forms A. x

riograndensis, A. purpusii var. glabrescens, A. parodii, A. jesuiticus, A. obtusifolius var.

obtusifolius and A. x compressoides. The genus exhibits a base number, x = 10, and total (2n)

chromosomes = 20, 40, 60 and 80, indicating diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid species

(Watson and Dallwitz, 1992 ; Hickenbick et al., 1975). Common carpetgrass is an octaploid (2n

= 8x = 80) (Hickenbick et al., 1975; Turgeon, 2005). Tropical carpetgrass is a tetraploid (2n = 4x

= 40) (Turgeon, 2005).

Seed Establishment

Turfgrass establishment by seeding is commonly practiced. Environmental factors that

affect seed germination are temperature, moisture, light and wind (Hensler et al., 2001).

Common carpetgrass seed germination is relatively fast compared to other warm-season

turfgrass species, making it ideal for soil stabilization (Turgeon, 2005). A seeding rate of 245 Kg

ha-1 (5 lb 1000 ft-2) is recommended for establishing a new lawn (Trenholm et al., 2000).

Bush (1997) reported that untreated seed has a mean germination time of 12.3, 10.2, 5.6

and 4.4 days at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 300 C, respectively. These temperatures resulted

in 6, 49, 88 and 95 percent germination. Seed priming is a process in which seed is treated prior

to planting in order to speed germination time, overcome dormancy requirements and increase

germination rate. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) is generally used in a weak solution (1 to 4 % KNO3)

to treat common carpetgrass seed. The soaking treatment lasts 48 hours. Priming can increase

germination by up to 33%. Time of germination can also be reduced by about 2 days. The

highest increases in germination percentage and time to germination due to priming are seen

under sub-optimal temperature conditions (Bush, 1997).









Common Carpetgrass Management

Herbicides. Management of common carpetgrass will at times require the use of

postemergence herbicides to control weed infestations. Herbicide tolerance of common

carpetgrass has not been studied as extensively as other more commonly grown warm-season

turfgrasses such as common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] and St.

Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum [Walt.] Kuntze.). Common carpetgrass exhibits only

a slight decline in turfgrass quality following applications of atrazine, bentazon, imazaquin,

mecoprop, triclopyr, metsulfuron, 2,4-D, 2,4-D + dicamba and 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop.

Turf of marginal quality resulted after applications of sulfometuron, sethoxydim and diclofop.

Common carpetgrass was rendered unacceptable after application of asulam and MSMA.

Common carpetgrass generally tolerated most postemergence broadleaf and sedge herbicides and

was generally damaged by postemergence grass herbicides (McCarty and Colvin, 1991).

Plant growth regulators can be used on common carpetgrass to improve turf quality, reduce

mowing requirements, reduce plant texture and to reduce seedhead height and number.

Trinexapac-ethyl improved turf quality, reduced growth and seedhead height. Mefluidide showed

no effect on common carpetgrass. Sethoxydim reduced growth but with unacceptable turfgrass

quality. Fluazasulfuron produced unacceptable turf at times and reduced seedhead height (Bush

et al., 1998).

Disease and insect problems. Common carpetgrass is damaged by the soilborne fungal

diseases brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani) and Pythium spp. as well as most leaf spot diseases

(Duble, 1996). In warm-season turfgrasses, brown patch is referred to as large patch and consists

of basal rot caused by infection of stolons or basal leaf sheaths. Circular patches can reach up to

1 m in diameter, sometimes with discolored outer rings. Tip dieback can occur due to sheath

infection. Pythium diseases are caused by numerous different species. Disease symptoms vary









depending on conditions and site of infection of the plant. Pythium is capable of infecting every

part of the plant (Smiley et al., 2005). Foliar diseases affecting common carpetgrass include

Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora and Phaeoramularia spp.), dollar spot (Sclerotinia

homoeocarpa), gray leaf spot (Pyricularia grisea) and rust (Puccinia, Uromyces and Physopella

spp.). Chemical control can reduce disease severity and cultural practices such as mowing at

maximum recommended height, thatch removal, fertilization and deep, frequent irrigation will

aid in disease prevention (Agrios, 1997).

Insects that can affect common carpetgrass include the white grub and mole cricket (Duble,

1996). White grubs are the larvae of scarab beetles. Grubs are white with brown heads and can

range in length from 3/8 to 2 inches long. They feed on the roots of the plant and cause a

yellowing or wilting of the turf. Three species of mole crickets are considered plant pests in

Florida; the southern mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii), the tawny mole cricket (Scapteriscus

vicinus) and the short-winged mole cricket (Scapteriscus abbreviatus). Mole cricket damage is

due to direct feeding on the turfgrass plant and to the tunnels created which uproot the plant and

cause desiccation (Frank and Unruh, 1999).

Fertilization. Common carpetgrass is considered a low maintenance turfgrass in part

because of its low nitrogen requirement. Late spring and early fall applications of nitrogen at a

rate of 49 Kg ha-1 (1 lb 1000 ft-2) are sufficient to sustain growth (Duble, 1996). Bush et al.

(2000) reported a linear increase in turf quality with increasing annual nitrogen up to 196 kg ha-

(4 lbs 1000 ft-2). As with all fertilization programs, phosphorous and potassium requirements

should be based on soil testing.

Watering. Common carpetgrass exhibits poor drought tolerance when compared to

bermudagrass. During a drought or on dry soils, supplemental irrigation is required to maintain









leaf cover. Moist soils in low lying areas will sustain common carpetgrass with no additional

irrigation. It thrives in these areas where bermudagrass is not adapted (Duble, 1996). It has a

shallow root system with 96% of roots in the top 5 cm of soil (CTAHR, 2002), contributing to its

lack of drought tolerance.

Mowing. Common carpetgrass grows vigorously in the late spring, summer and early fall

months. Unsightly seedhead production occurs throughout the growing season and can become a

problem within three weeks in nonmowed stands (Bush et al., 2000). A rotary or flail mower is

required for seedhead removal which are produced approximately five days following mowing.

Recommended mowing heights range from 0.75 to 2.0 inches. Shorter mowing heights require

reduced mowing intervals. When mowing is infrequent higher mowing heights provide better

turf quality (Duble, 1996).

Alternative Warm-Season Species Used as Turf

Two species, bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and St. Augustinegrass, dominate the warm-

season turfgrass market in the United States. In recent years several species have been

investigated to provide alternatives and hopefully reduce management inputs associated with

warm-season species. These turfgrass species include buffalograss, centipedegrass,

mesquitegrass (Hilaria belangeri [Steud.] Nash), saltgrass (Distichlis spicata [L.] Greene),

seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass.

Buffalograss is native to the United States and is the predominant species found in the

shortgrass prairie of the North American Great Plains (Wenger, 1943). The University of

Nebraska received funding from the United States Golf Association and the Golf Course

Superintendents Association of America in 1984 to develop improved cultivars of vegetative and

seeded buffalograsses. Selection criteria were based on lower water, fertilizer, pesticide and

mowing requirements. Collections of buffalograss were made, including material from a









discontinued buffalograss breeding program at Texas A & M University (Riordan, 1991).

Buffalograss has been well received for use in home lawns and on golf courses in many regions

(Mintenko and Smith, 1999).

Centipedegrass is a popular turfgrass species among those that desire low fertility and

maintenance requirements (Nutter, 1955). It is native to China and southeast Asia and was

introduced into the United States as seed in 1916 by Frank Meyer. It is grown from Florida to

South Carolina and west to Texas. Oklahoma State University introduced an improved cultivar,

'Oklawn', possessing drought and cold tolerance in 1965 (Alderson and Sharp, 1993). More

recently, the University of Tennessee 'Tenn Turf' (Callahan, 1999), Auburn University 'AU

Centennial' (Pedersen and Dickens, 1985), USDA-ARS Tifton, GA 'TifBlair' (Hanna et al.,

1997) and the University of Florida 'Hammock' (Kenworthy, personal communication) have

released improved cultivars of centipedegrass.

Mesquitegrass, or Curly Mesquitegrass, appears similar to buffalograss and has been

investigated as a low input desert turfgrass. The water requirement for this species is minimal.

The University of Arizona began research into this species in 1988. A germplasm collection was

made in the state of Arizona. Flowering biology and turfgrass performance traits were evaluated

with research funding provided by the United States Golf Association (Mancino, 1988). There

are no known improved cultivars of mesquitegrass.

Saltgrass is a rhizomatous grass which is prevalent in the salt marshes of North America

(Gosselink, 1984). This grass shows promise as an alternative turf in terms of its fast growth rate,

wide soil pH range, high salt tolerance and high drought tolerance (Meerow, 2001). Salt

tolerance is achieved through salt excretory glands (Hansen et al., 1976) and tolerance at the

cellular level (Warren and Gould, 1982). Saltgrass can be found throughout most of the United









States. Breeding programs are underway utilizing collections from the western United States

(Johnson, 2000).

Seashore paspalum is a turfgrass species experiencing much success. It is adapted to

brackish marshes and is tolerant to many stresses. It has high salt tolerance, tolerates a wide

range of soil pH and is drought and flood tolerant (Duncan, 2000). During the 1950's, Dr. O.J.

Noer moved the grass throughout the southeastern United States. Additional seashore paspalum

came from Australia in the 1970's and 1980's. A breeding and management program for

seashore paspalum began at the University of Georgia in 1993. These efforts led to the release of

improved cultivars, 'Sea Isle I', 'Sea Isle 2000' and 'Sea Isle Supreme', for use on golf courses

and sports fields (Carrow and Duncan, 2002).

Zoysiagrass was introduced to the United States from Japan in the 1890's. The cultivars

'Meyer' and 'Emerald' were released by the United States Department of Agriculture and the

United States Golf Association during the 1950's and 1960's. Interest in zoysiagrass increased

during the 1980's (Engelke, 2000). Zoysiagrass contains much genetic diversity making it

adaptable to many different environmental conditions. Recent cultivars released in 1997 by

Texas A&M University include 'Diamond', 'Cavalier', 'Palisades' and 'Crowne' (Diesburg,

2000).

Heritability

Heritability for certain traits can indicate to a plant breeder the amount of progress that can

be expected in subsequent cycles of selection. The term heritability, denoted as h2, refers to the

ratio of the genotypic variance (C2g) to the phenotypic variance (G2ph). Genotypic variance

includes additive (C2A), dominance (c2D) and epistatic (C2I) variances. Phenotypic variance

includes variances due to environment (c2e), genotype by environment interactions (c2ge) and

genotype (c2g). Heritability estimates can be broad-sense or narrow-sense. Broad-sense









heritability estimates include additive, dominant and epistatic gene actions in the genotypic

variance component. Narrow-sense estimates include only the additive effects and relate to the

potential for improvement of traits through selection. Calculating narrow-sense heritability

requires estimating additive genetic variance using diallel, design I and design II mating designs

(Fehr, 1991). Heritability is expressed as a fraction with possible values ranging from zero to

one. It can be multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage. Narrow-sense heritability can not exceed

broad-sense heritability and is most often lower. Broad-sense heritabilities generally indicate the

presence of dominant effects and can be useful for vegetative propagation of F hybrids.

Multivariate Analysis

Morphological characterization involves the measurement of various morphological traits

of a germplasm collection. Morphological and molecular characterization of a species can be

used to assess the genetic variability present in a germplasm collection. This information can be

used to determine whether or not further increase of the gene pool is warranted and identify

divergent accessions useful in making hybridizations. The data can provide information on the

relatedness of the accessions. This enables grouping of accessions and assembly of a core

collection. The core collection would then represent the entire collection in terms of genetic

variation. Core collections are useful for larger germplasm banks and for expedited transfer of

genetic resources. Correlations can be made between traits to learn which characteristics

contribute most to the genetic diversity. Certain traits could then be discarded in future

evaluations.

Multivariate analysis is often used analyze a collection with many accessions to determine

relationships among accessions (Bhargava, 2007). Appropriate procedures include Principal

Component and Cluster Analysis (Hawkes et al., 2000). Principal Component Analysis is most

appropriate in genetic studies when there are many accessions evaluated for multiple variables.









Principal Component Analysis identifies patterns in a data set where multiple variables are

measured on many accessions. This type of analysis can be useful in understanding complex

traits (lezzoni and Pritts, 1991).

Casler and van Santen (2000) used morphological measurements and cluster analysis to

determine the relatedness of 221 meadow fescue (Festucapratensis Huds.) accessions. Their

results placed the accessions into 35 clusters. They were able to make inferences about specific

clusters by comparing cluster means to the total germplasm means for specific traits.

Additionally, they used the data to select a core subset of 55 accessions to represent the genetic

variation found in the collection for morphological traits.

Morphological measurements were used to identify diversity among accessions of

Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Lewu et al., 2007). They were able to cluster together genotypes that

were collected from similar geographic regions.

Cluster analysis was performed on morphological and quality traits of 30 accessions of

quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) germplasm (Bhargava et al., 2007). The accessions

grouped into six clusters. Accessions did not cluster well based on geographic location, but did

so based on accessions having similar quality and morphological measurements.

Carvalho (2004) performed cluster analysis to characterize germplasm of perennial peanut

(Arachispintoi Krap. and Greg.) based on morphological measurements. Fifty-three accessions

were placed into four distinct clusters.

Xu et al., (1994) used restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to determine the

diversity among cultivars of tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.). While cluster analysis

did not provide clear subgroups the turf-type cultivars were found to be more closely related than

the forage-type cultivars.









Wu et al., (2004) used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to compare 28

accessions of Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon that originated from 11 countries and 4 continents.

The accessions were grouped into five major clusters that corresponded well with the geographic

origin of the accessions.









CHAPTER 2
VARIATION AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF COMMON CARPETGRASS

Introduction

Warm-season turfgrass production in the United States is dominated by two species,

bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon L.) and St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum

secundatum [Walt.] Kuntze). Other warm-season species have been investigated recently to

provide alternatives to these grasses and to decrease the management inputs of warm-season

turfgrasses. Evaluated alternative species include buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides [Nutt.]

Engelm.) (Riordan, 1991), centipedegrass (Eremichloa ophiuroides [Munro.] Hack.) (Hanna,

1995), mesquitegrass (Hilaria belangeri [Steud] Nash.) (Mancino, 1998), saltgrass (Distichlis

spicata [L.] Greene) (Meerow, 2001), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz.)

(Duncan, 2000), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) (Engelke, 2000).

Common carpetgrass (Axonopusfissifolius Raddi) is a warm-season species that may have

merit for improvement as a low-maintenance turfgrass. Cultivation occurs in Australia, Central

America, Malaysia, North America, South America, South Korea, and West Africa. It originated

in Central America, South America and the West Indies (Bush, 1997). Common carpetgrass

requires minimal fertilization and pesticide inputs (Duble, 1996). It has potential for utilization

along roadsides, lawns, and other areas in the southeastern U.S. and lower latitudes.

Common carpetgrass is readily found throughout the southern coastal plain region of the

southeastern United States (Wise, 1961). The species made its way into the United States

through the Louisiana area and quickly became a substantial part of unimproved pasture land

(Heath et al., 1985). Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida,

Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina all contain naturalized populations of common

carpetgrass (Hitchcock, 1950). Bush (1997) reported common carpetgrass as far north as









Memphis, TN. It is commonly found in the Hawaiian islands (Russell Nagata, personal

communication).

Common carpetgrass is a stoloniferous sod forming plant capable of developing a dense

turf that produces an attractive wear resistant lawn. It thrives in the acidic, poorly drained soils

found in the southern gulf coast region of the United States (Duble, 1996; Heath et al., 1985;

Musser, 1962). It has been used in low, wet areas where prolonged water-logging occurs and it

persists in areas with high water tables where it out-competes other grasses as soil fertility

declines (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002). Common carpetgrass has fair shade tolerance compared

to other warm-season turfgrasses and root growth is most active with temperatures between 27

and 32C (Waddington et al., 1992). The species is highly variable in color, leaf length, leaf

texture, height, and seed characteristics and production. Leaves are glabrous and light green to

medium green in color and range from 5 to 20 cm in length and 2 to 6 mm in width with a

rounded apex (Skerman and Riveros, 1990). Turgeon (2005) reports leaf widths of 4 to 8 mm.

Common carpetgrass is capable of self- and cross-pollination and can be clonally propagated

through sod, plugs, and sprigs. An inflorescence typically has two or three racemes branching

from a tall, filiform seedstalk (Heath et al., 1985).

Taxonomy and reproductive biology of a species are important when dealing with plant

improvement through breeding programs. Cytological studies can provide this information

(Norrmann et al., 1994). Common carpetgrass resides in the genus Axonopus. Synonyms of A.

fissifolius include A. affinis (Chase) and Paspalumfissifolium (Raddi) (USDA-NPGS, 2007).

This complex genus contains about 110 different species. Many of these are allopolyploids

derived from interspecific hybridizations within the genus. Cytological studies suggest that

common carpetgrass, an octaploid (2n = 8x = 80), shows morphologic and ecologic similarity to









the forms A. x riograndensis, A. purpusii var. glabrescens, A. parodii, A. jesuiticus, A.

obtusifolius var. obtusifolius and A. x compressoides (Hickenbick et al., 1975 and Turgeon,

2005).

Heritability can indicate the amount of progress that can be made through subsequent

cycles of selection. Heritability (h2) refers to the ratio of the genotypic variance (c2g) to the

phenotypic variance (G2p). Total genotypic variance includes additive (o2A), dominant (G2D) and

epistatic (G2I) variances. Phenotypic variance includes variances due to environment (C2e),

genotype x environment interactions (C2ge) and genotype (02g). Two types of heritability

estimates include broad- and narrow-sense. Broad-sense heritability estimates include additive,

dominant and epistatic gene actions in the genotypic variance component and narrow-sense

heritabilities include only additive effects (Fehr, 1991; Dudley and Moll, 1969). While narrow-

sense estimates are better indicators of progress through selection, broad-sense heritabilities

indicate the presence of genetic effects and can be useful for development of vegetatively

propagated Fi hybrids.

Breeding and development of a new turfgrass species requires a broad germplasm base,

knowledge of the population's morphological and turfgrass performance traits and reliable

estimates of heritability for these traits. Currently, there are no common carpetgrass accessions in

the National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS, 2007). The objectives of this research are

to acquire diverse common carpetgrass germplasm, determine the extent of variation within the

collection for morphological and turfgrass performance characteristics, calculate broad-sense

heritabilities for these characteristics and determine if greater variation exists in seeded or

collected germplasm.









Materials and Methods


Germplasm Collection

During summer 2005 a collection of common carpetgrass germplasm was gathered from

across the southeastern United States. A total of four trips were made originating from

Gainesville, Florida. Accessions were collected from Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North

Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas. An attempt was made to collect an

accession every 48 km (30 miles). Each accession was collected, placed in a numbered bag and

stored in a cooler. Latitude and longitude coordinates were noted at each collection site. Upon

return to Gainesville, the plants were transplanted into pots in the greenhouse. Two additional

accessions were acquired, one from Hilo, Hawaii and the other from the Germplasm Resources

Information Network (acquired July 2005). These accessions comprise the collected population

of the germplasm collection.

The remaining germplasm was derived from a commercial bag of common carpetgrass

seed purchased at a home improvement retail store in Gainesville, Florida. There are 71

accessions from this source. The collected population and the seeded population total 176

accessions and were utilized for morphological and turfgrass performance evaluations.

Morphological Measurements

The germplasm was propagated in 10 cm (4 inch) pots and arranged in a randomized

complete block design with three replications in the greenhouse. Plants were allowed to mature

and fill out the pots. Once mature, all plants were trimmed around the edge of the pots and to a

uniform height. After 8 wk of growth, three stolons from each pot were measured and stolon

length, number of nodes, number of intemodes, stolon diameter, intemode length, leaf length,

leaf width and number of spikes per inflorescence were recorded. Stolons were cut at the point

where they grew over the edge of the pot. Stolon length (cm) was measured from the cut end to









the end of the terminal leaf sheath. Number of nodes and internodes were counted. Stolon

diameter (mm), on the third internode from the terminal end, was measured using digital

calipers. The diameter was taken from the center of the internode and at its narrowest point. The

same internode was measured for internode length (cm). Leaf length (cm) was measured on the

youngest, fully expanded leaf. Leaf width (mm) was determined on the same leaf and at its

widest point. Spikes per inflorescence were counted on three randomly selected seed stalks per

pot. First year measurements were performed under decreasing day length conditions. Year two

measurements were taken under increasing day length. Irrigation four times per week and

biweekly fertilization sustained plant growth. The above measurements were taken November

2006 and April 2007.

Turfgrass Performance Characteristics

All accessions (176) were planted 4 October 2005 in a randomized complete block design

with three replications at the University of Florida Plant Science Research and Education Unit in

Citra, Florida on a Candler Sand (Hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments). A plot was

planted using a single 10 cm plug planted on 1.8 m centers and maintained as 2.25 m2 plots with

a surrounding 0.3 m alley. Fertility applications consisted of 24.5 Kg N ha-1 (0.5 lbs N 1000 ft-1)

using a 15-5-15 (N-P205-K20) fertilizer at planting, 36.7 Kg N ha- (0.75 lbs N 1000 ft-1) of urea

and 15-5-15 in July and October of 2006, respectively, and 24.5 Kg N ha-1 of 15-5-15 and 19-1-6

with atrazine in February and May of 2007, respectively. Fungicide applications of

chlorothalonil at 9.35 1 ha-1 (8 pts acre-1) were applied in June and September of 2006.

Preemergence herbicide applications of pendimethalin at 4.67 1 ha-1 (4 pints acre- ) were made in

November of 2006 and March of 2007. Plots were mowed weekly with a rotary mower at a

height of 5 cm.









Turf density, genetic color, winter color and turf quality were visually rated using a one-to-

nine scale based on the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) guidelines (Morris and

Shearman, 2007). For these traits a rating of one equals poor performance, nine equals

exceptional performance and five was the minimum acceptable rating. Seedhead density was

visually rated using a one-to-five scale. Turfgrass establishment was visually rated based on

percent plot coverage.

Density ratings, collected August 2006 and June 2007, reflect the number of living plants

per unit area. A rating of one indicates open turf and a nine represents maximum density. Genetic

color, collected September 2006 and June 2007, assessed a genotype's inherent color,

disregarding any effects due to stress. A rating of one equaled light green color and nine

indicated dark green. Winter color was evaluated during cooler months (January 2006-07) and

was utilized to recognize genotypes that retained color through winter. A rating of one indicated

a completely brown dormant state and nine equals actively growing, green turf. Turf quality,

rated August 2006 and June 2007 was a combination of color, density, uniformity, texture, and

damage due to stress; it reflected the aesthetic and functional value of a turf. A turf quality

rating of nine represented the highest quality possible and one indicated very poor quality

(brown, low density, poor uniformity, or mortality). For ratings of seedhead density plots were

not mowed for three weeks. Ratings were done on a one-to-five scale, where a rating of five was

no or very few seedheads and a one was a high density of seedheads. Seedhead density was

evaluated in August 2006 and June 2007. Establishment ratings were taken from the time of

planting to when most plants had covered the plot area. A 1.5 x 1.5 m grid with grid-lines on one

foot spacings was superimposed over each plot to calculate percent establishment. Establishment

was rated May and July of 2006.









Germplasm Source Comparison

The germplasm collection contains plants from two distinct sources. The first source is

designated as the seeded population and consists of plants germinated from commercial seed.

The second source is designated as the collected population and consists of plants collected

during four collection trips across the southeastern United States.

Statistical Analysis

For morphological traits data were analyzed as a split-plot using the PROC GLM

procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, 2003). Years were considered random effects and designated

as main plots. Genotypes were considered fixed effects and designated as sub-plots (Table 2-1).

Appropriate tests of significance to compare means were determined using expected mean

squares. Years were tested using reps within years as the error term. Differences among

genotypes were tested using genotypes x years as the error term. The interaction, genotypes x

years, was tested using the residual error. Estimates of variance components were determined

using PROC VARCOMP. Use of these variances allowed for calculation of broad-sense

heritabilities using the following formula:

H2= 2
2 2
C2 GY + E
Y RY

where H2 equals broad sense heritability, a2G equals the variance of genotypes, a2GY equals the

variance of genotypes x years, a2E equals the error variance, R equals number of replications and

Y equals number of years.

Standard errors (s.e.) of heritability estimates for the morphological measurements were

calculated using the formula (Hallauer and Miranda, 1981):










s.e.() )
s.e.(H 2 2 2
2 GY +
Y RY

Turfgrass performance traits were analyzed as a split-plot using PROC GLM. However,

because measurement dates represent repeated measures of the same experimental units,

genotypes were designated as whole plots and measurement dates as sub-plots (Table 2-2).

Again, genotypes were considered as fixed effects and dates as random effects. The test of

significance for genotypes was performed using genotypes x reps. Dates and genotypes x dates

were tested using the residual error. PROC VARCOMP provided variance components used to

calculate heritability estimates. The following formula was used for heritability estimates:

2
H2 G
2 2 2
2 GD GR E
G + +
D R RD

where H2 equals broad sense heritability, a2G equals the variance of genotypes, c2GD equals the

variance of genotypes x dates, C2GR equals the variance of genotypes x reps, G2E equals the error

variance, R equals number of replications and D equals number of dates.

Standard errors (s.e.) of heritability estimates for the turfgrass performance traits were

calculated using the formula (Hallauer and Miranda, 1981):


s.e.(a G
..(2 2 2
2 GD +GR +E
G D R RD

The standard errors of the variance components are given in Table 2-3 and Table 2-4.

Calculations were based on the following formula (Hallauer, 1970):


/2 M2
s.e.(- 2 2
c df +2









where c equals the coefficient of the appropriate component of the expected mean square and df

equals the degrees of freedom.

To determine if differences exist between the two sources, seeded and collected

(designated as populations), comparisons were made between means and variances of the

populations. PROC GLM was used for comparing population means and a Levene's test was

used to identify when population variances differed for respective traits.

Results and Discussion

Germplasm Collection

Plants were collected between the latitudes of 26 27.921' N and 35 20.289' N and

longitudes of 78 33.750' W and 92 04.573' W. A total of 103 common carpetgrass accessions

were collected during the collection trips. Total distance traveled was 9664 km (6005 miles).

Common carpetgrass was readily found throughout the southeastern United States. An exception

was peninsular Florida, where common carpetgrass does not appear to be as prevalent. It is

reported as preferring wet or moist growing conditions (Turgeon, 2005). In addition to wet areas,

germplasm was found growing in coastal areas, higher elevations and dry, compacted soils.

Accessions were found growing in full sun as well as shaded areas.

Morphological Measurements

The combined analysis across years indicated that the means of genotypes were

significantly different for all morphological traits measured (Appendix C). Differences for stolon

length, number of nodes and number of intemodes were significant (P<0.05); internode length,

stolon diameter, leaf length, leaf width and number of spikes per seedhead were highly

significant (P<0.001). Years (2006 and 2007) were highly significant (P<0.01) for all traits

except number of nodes, number of intemodes and internode length. The genotype x years

interaction was non-significant for stolon diameter, significant (P<0.05) for internode length and









leaf width, and highly significant (P<0.001) for stolon length, number of nodes, number of

internodes, leaf width and number of spikes per seedhead. The combined analysis was utilized

because entries with the largest and smallest measurements remained consistent across dates for

all traits. Changes in rank leading to the significant interaction were associated with entries

having intermediate measurements. Selection in a breeding program is typically directed at

genotypes that rank in the tail ends of a population (i.e. largest/smallest or best/worst). Since

genotypes that ranked in the upper and lower tail ends changed little, it is desirable from a

breeding perspective to utilize the combined analysis. In addition, this analysis is more

appropriate for estimation of heritabilities because it produces an environmental variance

estimate.

The means and ranges (Table 2-3) indicate that tremendous variation exists for

morphological traits in common carpetgrass. Previously reported leaf widths range from 2 to 8

mm and leaf lengths from 5 to 20 cm (Turgeon, 2005; Skerman and Riveros, 1990). We

observed leaf widths of 3 to 11 mm and leaf lengths of 1.6 to 14.1 cm. Reported number of

spikes per inflorescence was 2 to 3 (Heath et al., 1985). In contrast, we report a range of 2 to 5.

This is the first known reporting of values in common carpetgrass for stolon length, number of

nodes and internodes, internode length and stolon diameter.

Variance estimates (Table 2-3) can indicate which components, environmental or genetic,

are primarily contributing to the observed phenotype. Contributions of environmental or genetic

effects are also reflected in the heritability estimates. For stolon length, number of nodes, number

of internodes and number of spikes per seedhead the broad sense heritabilities were moderate

(0.29-0.34). For these traits the variance of genotype x year was more than twice the variance of

genotype, indicating that the environment contributed greatly to the overall phenotype.









Broad sense heritabilities were high (0.54-0.87) for stolon diameter, internode length, leaf

length and leaf width. The genetic variance was twice the genotype x year variance for leaf

length and several times more for stolon diameter, internode length and leaf width. Therefore,

the environment did not influence the expressed phenotype as occurred with previously

described traits. These traits influence the plant architecture and are related to overall density and

turf quality. Since high heritabilities are associated with these traits there exists potential for

significant improvements in the appearance of common carpetgrass.

Turfgrass Performance Characteristics

Field data collected over time were combined for analysis. Differences among means of

genotypes were highly significant (P<0.001) for all turfgrass performance characteristics

(Appendix C). Dates were not significant for density and turf quality, and highly significant

(P<0.001) for color, seedhead density, establishment and winter color. The genotype x date

interaction was not significant for density, significant (P<0.05) for winter color and highly

significant for color (P<0.01), establishment (P<0.01), seedhead density (P<0.01) and turf quality

(P<0.01). For reasons explained for morphological traits, the combined analysis was utilized for

explanation of variation for turfgrass performance traits.

A large amount of variation exists for the traits measured in the field. The mean, minimum

and maximum values for turfgrass performance traits are presented (Table 2-4). Turfgrass color,

quality and establishment of common carpetgrass have previously been reported (Bush at al.,

1998). However, this information was acquired from observing a uniform planting of common

carpetgrass with various fertility and mowing treatments. Therefore, information related to range

and extent of variation available for turfgrass performance of common carpetgrass germplasm

was not previously available. The means for all traits using NTEP protocols were below









minimum acceptable values. This indicates that the majority of genotypes did not perform well.

However, the maximum values show that potential exists for selecting plants for use as parents

or as direct cultivar releases that have superior visual turfgrass characteristics.

The variance estimates for turfgrass performance traits (Table 2-4) indicate the proportion

of environmental and genetic effects that result in the expressed phenotype. The heritability

estimation for establishment was high (0.56). Heritability estimates for genetic color, density,

seedhead density, turf quality and winter color were moderate (0.25-0.41). The genotypic

variance for establishment was five times that for the genotype x date interaction indicating the

importance of genetic effects for this trait. Genotypic variances for the remaining traits with

moderate heritabilities were similar to the genotype x date variances. Therefore, the lower

heritability estimates for these traits may be due to enhanced environmental effects. An

exception to this was the density rating, which had a lower heritability due to a large error

variance. Overall, these heritabilities suggest that improvement of turfgrass performance traits in

common carpetgrass is possible through breeding. Although the broad-sense heritabilities do not

indicate that progress is possible through cycles of selection, they do infer that Fi hybrids can be

developed that possess combinations of desirable characteristics. These Fi hybrids could then be

utilized as vegetative cultivars.

Population Comparison

Morphological traits. For comparisons between the two germplasm sources, an analysis

of variance was performed to compare population means and a Levene's test for variances (Table

2-5). Means differed (P<0.01) for number of nodes, number of intemodes, stolon diameter,

internode length, leaf length, leaf width and number of spikes per seedhead. The means of

collected genotypes were higher than seed derived genotypes for number of nodes and









internodes. For morphological traits closely related to turf quality (stolon diameter, internode

length, leaf length, leaf width and number of spikes per inflorescence) the mean of the collected

genotypes were lower than the seeded source. Variances were different only for stolon diameter,

number of spikes per seedhead (P<0.01) and leaf width (P<0.05). For these traits the variance

associated with the seed derived genotypes was of a higher magnitude than the collected

genotypes. Therefore, for morphological traits, a group of collected common carpetgrass

genotypes from the southeastern United States had equal or less variation than a group of

genotypes acquired from purchased seed.

While less variation was found in the collected material, the use of these genotypes, due to

lower means, may aid in the quicker development of improved turf-type plants with finer stems,

shorter and finer leaves and fewer number of unsightly spikes per inflorescence. The similarities

in the range of variation found between the two germplasm sources can potentially be attributed

to 1) the use of several and highly variable parents in the development of the bought seed and 2)

the common carpetgrass growing throughout the southeastern United States originates from a

narrow genetic base.

Turfgrass performance traits. For field evaluated turfgrass performance traits,

population means and variances were not significantly different for establishment and winter

color. Differences in means were highly significant (P<0.01) for genetic color, density, turf

quality and seedhead density. Differences between variances were significant for density,

seedhead density (P<0.05), genetic color and turf quality (P<0.01). When differences were found

between germplasm sources, for both means and variances, the higher values were always

associated with the collected germplasm. Therefore, for turfgrass performance traits, the

collected genotypes had greater than or equal levels of variation as seed derived material.









The greater magnitude of variance and higher performing means for genetic color, density

and turf quality indicate that the collected germplasm is highly valuable for improving the visual

appearance of common carpetgrass. The collected material may also be more useful for

increasing the seed production associated with a seeded cultivar. Reasons why the collected

germplasm has generally higher means and magnitudes of variance for turf performance may be

1) the collector likely selected plants in naturalized populations that had better color, density and

turf quality and 2) the parents for the seeded material were selected for vigor and robust

appearance versus turf attributes.

Conclusions

Common carpetgrass was found to be abundant in the coastal plain region of the

southeastern United States. Plants had many uses and were found in varying environmental

conditions. Common carpetgrass was found to contain genetic variation for all morphological

and turfgrass performance traits measured. Broad-sense heritability estimates were moderate to

high for all traits, indicating that improvement through breeding and the development of superior

F1 hybrids is possible. Superior Fi plants could be clonally propagated as cultivars or utilized in

the development of synthetic seeded cultivars.

Similar variances between populations of commercially available seed and collected

germplasm suggest that common carpetgrass in the southeastern United States is the result of an

introduction of common carpetgrass with minimal genetic diversity and that the purchased seed

was produced from highly variable parents. Collection of germplasm from other areas is

warranted and could help broaden the genetic variation available to common carpetgrass

breeding programs. In addition, further evaluation and selection will be needed to identify

genotypic responses associated with biotic and abiotic stresses.









Table 2-1. Expected mean squares from analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data over years on
genotypes of common carpetgrass.


Sources of variation

Years (Y)

Rep (R)/Y

Genotype (G)

GxY

Error (E)


Mean squares


y-1

y(r 1)

g- 1

(g 1)(y 1)

y(r- 1)(g- 1)


Expected mean squares

C2e + gC2r(y) + rgC2y

02e + g2r(y)

2e + ra2gy + rya2g
2 2
a e + ra gy


Table 2-2. Expected mean squares from analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data over dates on
genotypes of common carpetgrass.

Sources of variation df Mean squares Expected mean squares
Reps (R) r 1 M1 C2e + gdC2r
Genotypes (G) g 1 M2 G2e + rc2gd + dc2gr + rdc2g
G xR (g 1)(r 1) M3 Ce + dgr
Date d 1 M4 C2e + gr2d
G xD (g 1)(d 1) M5 2e r2gd
Error g(d- 1)(r 1) M6 G2e










Table 2-3. Estimates of variance components, minimum, maximum and mean values, broad-sense heritabilities and standard
deviations for morphological measurements in common carpetgrass.
Source Stolon length Nodes Intemodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes
---------------- -----------------------------------Variance Estimates----------- -------------------------------------

Years (Y) 22.77+13.39 1.65+0.99 1.87+1.12 0.013+0.01 0.010+0.02 0.300+0.27 0.254+0.18 0.007+0.01
Rep (R)/Y 1.55+0.98 0.76+0.44 0.83+0.47 0.001+0.00 0.052+0.03 0.027+0.01 0.007+0.01 0.004+0.00
Genotype (G) 18.17+6.98 1.18+0.55 1.15+0.54 0.029+0.00 0.173+0.02 0.382+0.08 0.430+0.05 0.018+0.01
GxY 39.17+8.27 3.03+0.68 2.82+0.67 0.001+0.00 0.016+0.01 0.191+0.08 0.011+0.02 0.019+0.01
Error (E) 102.68+5.34 8.48+0.44 8.74+0.45 0.034+0.00 0.305+0.02 1.338+0.07 0.361+0.02 0.147+0.01
Minimum 14.2 cm 5.6 6.1 1.48 mm 1.6 cm 2.0 cm 4.3 mm 2.3
Maximum 62.1 17.7 18.1 2.47 4.1 6.7 7.9 3.6
Mean 26.3 9.5 9.9 1.93 2.7 3.8 6.2 2.7


0.33+0.13 0.29+0.13 0.29+0.13


0.83+0.10


0.75+0.10


0.54+0.12 0.87+0.10 0.34+0.13


S H2









Table 2-4. Estimates of variance components, minimum, maximum and mean values, broad-sense heritabilities and standard
deviations for turfgrass performance traits in common carpetgrass.


Source Genetic Color t Density Establishment $ Seedhead Density # Turf Quality Winter Color
-------------------------------------------Variance Estimates------------------------------------


Reps (R)
Genotypes (G)
GxR


Date
GxD


Error (E)
Minimum
Maximum
Mean


0.0050.01
0.1240.03
0.2000.04
0.0430.03
0.0870.03
0.5320.04
3.17
6.25
4.54


0.0000.00


2.7352.22


0.1260.04 88.00816.56
0.2340.06 151.95413.40


0.0020.00
0.0030.04
0.8560.06
2.50
6.17
4.48


128.17893.38
17.7773.91
53.8674.07
1%
60%
27 %


H2 0.390.11 0.360.11 0.560.11 0.41+0.10 0.400.10 0.25+0.11
f Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken in 2006 and 2007. Genetic color estimated on a visual scale of 1 to 9: 1 = brown
turf, 9 = dark green turf.
Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken in 2006 and 2007. Density estimated on a visual scale of 1 to 9: 1 = loose, open
turf; 9 = very dense turf.
$ Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken May and July 2006. Estimated on a percent basis.
# Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken 2006 and 2007. Seedhead density visually estimated on a 1 to 5 scale: 1 = very
dense, 5 = zero to few seedheads.
Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken 2006 and 2007. Turf quality estimated on a visual scale of 1 to 9: 1 = poor turf
quality, 9 = outstanding turf quality.
Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken 2006 and 2007. Winter color visually estimated on a 1 to 9 scale: 1 = brown,
dormant turf, 9 = actively growing green turf.


0.0040.00
0.1010.03
0.0000.02
0.0080.01
0.1590.03
0.3900.03
2.17
4.67
3.39


0.0150.01
0.1940.05
0.4430.06
0.0020.00
0.1110.03
0.5540.04
2.00
6.33
4.62


0.0080.01
0.0570.03
0.0830.04
1.3430.93
0.0800.03
0.6220.05
1.75
5.67
4.13









Table 2-5. Comparison of variances and means of morphological traits for two germplasm sources of common carpetgrass.
Stolon Stolon Internode length Leaf length Leaf width
length (cm) Nodes Internodes diameter (mm) (cm) (cm) (mm) Spikes
Population -------------------------------- --- ------------Means--- ---------------------------------------
Seeded 26.34 8.65 9.12 2.04 3.00 4.33 6.63 2.85
Collected 26.62 10.10 10.54 1.85 2.60 3.40 5.91 2.64
F-Value 0.10 ns 33.66** 32.08** 127.39** 21.77** 103.00** 142.35** 63.49**
Population -------------------- -------------------Variances--------------------------- ------------
Seeded 171.48 12.28 12.02 0.08 1.65 2.27 0.92 0.24
Collected 170.97 14.37 14.86 0.05 1.56 1.59 0.71 0.14
F-Value 0.00 ns 0.80 ns 1.52 ns 15.35** 0.01 ns 1.36 ns 6.42* 27.73**
ns, *, ** Non-significant, significant at P<0.05 and significant at P<0.01, respectively.



Table 2-6. Comparison of variances and means of turfgrass performance traits for two germplasm sources of common carpetgrass.
Establishment Genetic color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color
Population -------------------------------------------Means --------------------------------------
Seeded 26.00 4.40 4.30 4.40 3.10 4.10
Collected 28.00 4.70 4.60 4.80 3.60 4.20
F-Value 1.88 ns 17.28** 20.50** 35.54** 113.95** 0.04 ns
Population ---------------------------------------Variances--- -------------------------------------
Seeded 344.19 0.71 1.04 1.02 0.51 1.42
Collected 399.25 1.11 1.29 1.41 0.64 1.60
F-Value 2.43 ns 17.55** 4.86* 11.46** 6.05* 2.15 ns
ns, *, ** Non-significant, significant at P<0.05 and significant at P<0.01, respectively.









CHAPTER 3
PATTERNS OF MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF COMMON CARPETGRASS

Introduction

Common carpetgrass (Axonopusfissifolius Raddi) is a warm-season grass species

prevalent throughout the southern coastal plain region of the southeastern United States. It

spreads laterally by stolons which produce a dense turf, providing an attractive, wear resistant

lawn. Areas where common carpetgrass is cultivated include Australia, Central America,

Malaysia, North America, South America, South Korea and West Africa. Indigenous populations

originated in Central America, South America and the West Indies (Bush, 1997). In the early

1800's, the species entered the United States through Louisiana and quickly became a major

component of unimproved pastures (Heath et al., 1985). Common carpetgrass has naturalized

throughout the areas of Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida,

Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina (Hitchcock, 1950). There are reports of common

carpetgrass as far north as Memphis, TN (Bush, 1997) and it is commonly used in Hawaii as a

lawn grass (Russell Nagata, personal communication).

Assessment of the genetic variability present in a germplasm collection can be done using

morphological measurements of the species. The process is called morphological

characterization. Information obtained can reveal if further increase of the gene pool is warranted

and can identify divergent genotypes useful in hybridizations. The morphological data can

provide information on the accessions and their degree of relatedness to each other. This

knowledge allows for grouping of the genotypes based on their similarities and the assembly of a

core collection which would represent the genetic variation of the entire collection. A core

collection is valuable for large scale germplasm banks and for expedient transfer of genetic









material. Morphological traits can be correlated, and if a strong correlation is present, certain

traits could then be discarded in future data collection.

Multivariate analysis has been used to analyze germplasm collections to establish

relationships among accessions (Bhargava, 2007). The most common procedures used include

principal component and cluster analysis (Hawkes et al., 2000). Principal component analysis is

utilized in genetic studies involving many accessions being evaluated for multiple variables. The

analysis identifies patterns in the data set based on the relationships between certain traits. The

number of principal components provided equals the number of variables measured, however,

typically only the first few are meaningful. The first principal component (PC1) accounts for the

most variation in the data set. Variables contributing most to a principal component have larger

eigenvectors. Variables greatly contributing to the same principal component are linearly

correlated. This is likely due to an underlying biological reason for the data to be related.

Understanding of complex horticultural traits is often attained through principal component

analysis. Principal components with eigenvalues greater than one generally provide insight,

although not necessarily (Iezzoni and Pritts, 1991).

Casler and van Santen (2000) performed multivariate analysis on morphological

measurements of a collection of meadow fescue (Festucapratensis Huds.) germplasm. They

were able to determine the relatedness between accessions and their results placed 221 genotypes

into 35 clusters. Inferences were made about specific clusters by comparing cluster means and

total germplasm means for specific traits. In addition, they used the data to compile a core subset

of 55 genotypes to represent the genetic variation of the entire collection based on morphological

traits.









Lewu et al (2007) used morphological measurements to identify genetic diversity within a

germplasm collection of Pelargonium sidoides DC. Using cluster analysis, they were able to

segregate genotypes based on geographic location. Bhargava et al (2007) utilized cluster analysis

on morphological and quality traits of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) germplasm. 30

accessions were placed into six clusters. Clustering could not be linked to geographic location,

but was based on accessions having similar quality and morphological measurements. Perennial

peanut (Arachispintoi Krap. And Greg.) germplasm was characterized using multivariate

analysis by Carvalho (2004). Morphological measurements were used and 53 accessions were

grouped into four distinct clusters.

Variation for turfgrass performance and morphological traits in common carpetgrass

germplasm has been previously reported (Chapter 2). Here we report the use of morphological

measurements to determine the relatedness of 176 common carpetgrass accessions.

Materials and Methods

Morphological Measurements

During summer 2005 a collection of common carpetgrass germplasm was made across the

southeastern United States. Accessions were collected from Florida, Georgia, South Carolina,

North Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas. An attempt was made to collect

an accession every 48 km (30 miles). Latitude and longitude coordinates were noted at each

collection site (see Appendix B). Two additional plants in the collection include one from Hilo,

Hawaii and another from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (acquired July 2005).

One-hundred and five genotypes comprise the collected population. The remaining germplasm

was derived from a commercial bag of common carpetgrass seed, designated as the seeded

population, purchased at a home improvement retail store in Gainesville, Florida. A total of 176









genotypes were evaluated. The experiment was arranged and data collected for greenhouse

measured morphological traits as described in Chapter 2.

Statistical Analysis

A correlation was performed for all combinations of morphological traits to determine if

any traits could be removed from further analysis. This was done using PROC CORR (SAS

Institute, 2003). Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were then used

for multivariate analysis of the data. PROC PRINCOMP was performed for stolon length,

number of nodes, stolon diameter, internode length, leaf length, leaf width, and number of spikes

per inflorescence. This provided seven principal components (PCi-PC7), their eigenvalues, and

the percentage of variance explained by each principal component.

Data for the seven variables were transformed into canonical values (PROC ACECLUS)

for cluster analysis. The use of canonical values creates equal variances and means of zero for

each variable. This is necessary for variables measured with different units and varying scales. In

addition, this procedure omits genotypes which contain missing data points; therefore, the

combined data from both years of data collection were used as it contains values for all variables

of each genotype. PROC CLUSTER, using the canonical data set, and PROC TREE, using

Ward's method (Milligan, 1980 and Casler and van Santen, 2000), were utilized to construct a

dendrogram. Clusters were obtained based on an R2 value greater than 0.75.

Results and Discussion

Prior to multivariate analysis, the PROC CORR analysis revealed a very high correlation

(0.99) between the number of nodes and number of internodes. This was expected and resulted in

the removal of number of internodes from the data set. All subsequent analysis occurred on the

remaining seven traits. The principal component analysis accounted for 37 % of the total

variation at the first principal component (PC1) (Table 3-1). The amount of variation accounted









for, cumulatively, by adding PC2 and PC3 was 66 % and 80 %, respectively. PCi was most

correlated with stolon diameter, leaf length, and leaf width. These three traits relate to plant

architecture, texture and aesthetic appeal of a turfgrass plant.

The second principal component accounted for 29 % of the variation and was mostly due

to stolon length, number of nodes, and internode length. These traits are closely related. The

number of nodes on a stolon and the length of intemodes equate to stolon length and when

combined relate to number of growing points, rate of establishment and turfgrass density. PC3

explained 14 % of the variation and is comprised primarily of the number of racemes per

inflorescence. This trait is independent of all other traits measured. Therefore, a seeded variety

could be developed with the desired plant architecture and provide good seed yield.

Cluster analysis was utilized to group the common carpetgrass genotypes into 32 clusters

accounting for 75% of the variation (Figure 3-1). The clusters varied with respect to number of

accessions (Table 3-2). Three clusters contained only 1 accession and the largest contained 15.

Many clusters were not limited to a single germplasm source, seed derived or collected. In some

cases, the majority of accessions within a cluster represented one germplasm source. However,

accessions from both sources were scattered throughout the dendrogram indicating that

relatedness among accessions were equally probable within and between germplasm sources.

Clusters 32, 30, 26, 25, 31 and 3 contain 11, 9, 8, 5, 4 and 4 genotypes, respectively, all of which

are from the collected population. Clusters 1, 7, 9 and 13 contain primarily collected genotypes.

Clusters 4, 10, 15, 16, 17, 19 and 22 are completely comprised of genotypes from the seeded

population. Clusters 8, 14 and 23 are mostly seeded genotypes. Note that clusters having only a

single accession, clusters 16, 22 and 17, are all associated with the seeded population. One would









not expect such unique plants to result from commercial seed. These plants may have increased

value from a breeding perspective.

Attempts were made to associate collected accessions that clustered together based on their

geographic collection site. No patterns could be identified with respect to latitude, longitude or

state. This may be attributable to the narrow genetic base of common carpetgrass that was

introduced into the southeastern United States and the relatively short amount of time that it has

been naturalized (approximately 200 years). Common carpetgrass has not been in the

southeastern United States long enough to differentiate based on geographic location. Similarly,

Casler and van Santen (2000) found that meadow fescue (Festucapratensis) accessions were for

the most part not geographically linked. In contrast, (Wu et al., 2004) reported that geographic

location was a significant factor in genetic differentiation of common bermudagrass (Cynodon

dactylon var. dactylon). The authors attribute the geographic distinctness to genetic isolation of

plant populations originating on the continents of Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australia. These

genotypes could have been under selective forces for more than several hundred years.

Conclusions

Analysis of individual morphological traits, using principal component analysis, has

uncovered their relationship to broader turfgrass characteristics. Texture, establishment, density

and seed yield are products of different combinations of variables measured. Using hierarchical

cluster analysis, a core collection of plants from the common carpetgrass germplasm collection

can be assembled using the 32 clusters identified. This subset represents the variation present

within the entire collection for morphological parameters. Association of collected and seeded

genotypes suggests that collection of additional germplasm is warranted to increase the genetic

variation available to breeding programs.









Table 3-1. Eigenvectors from principal component analysis of common carpetgrass genotypes.
Eigenvalues and contribution to total variation listed at bottom.
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7
Stolon Length -0.01 0.70 -0.02 0.03 0.09 0.10 -0.71
Nodes -0.29 0.56 0.14 0.35 0.28 0.06 0.62
Stolon Diameter 0.50 -0.04 0.06 0.55 -0.30 0.59 0.02
Internode Length 0.31 0.42 -0.28 -0.56 -0.46 0.06 0.34
Leaf Length 0.50 -0.05 -0.18 -0.24 0.78 0.21 0.07
Leaf Width 0.53 0.12 0.01 0.33 -0.02 -0.77 0.02
Spikes 0.20 0.05 0.93 -0.31 -0.01 0.02 0.01
Eigenvalue 2.59 2.02 0.96 0.68 0.43 0.28 0.04
% Variance Explained 0.37 0.29 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.04 0.01
Cumulative Variance 0.37 0.66 0.80 0.89 0.95 0.99 1.00










Table 3-2. Cluster assignments of genotypes for cluster analysis of common carpetgrass.
Cluster R2 # Genotypes t
23 0.961 4 29 53 56 136
5 0.957 2 68 102
2 0.922 3 71 86 87
11 0.921 3 46 67 174
29 0.908 3 54 113 146
9 0.906 5 43 121 128 132 149
4 0.891 2 2 69
28 0.882 7 49 64 65 77 122 166 170
20 0.872 5 19 59 78 117 131
21 0.864 5 20 23 33 125 179
26 0.858 8 105 118 135 139 147 150 163 165
8 0.855 5 6 41 50 63 83
31 0.852 4 82 92 106 108
3 0.849 4 130 155 157 171
19 0.846 7 5 7 9 22 27 38 42
24 0.843 6 47 74 75 76 89 169
27 0.840 5 39 72 80 104 137
7 0.825 9 4 93 97 101 103 112 123 138
148
13 0.821 8 10 55 94 95 98 143 175 176
12 0.813 3 30 57 145
32 0.805 11 84 107 109 116 124 126 140 141
142 144 153
10 0.794 8 11 24 44 45 48 60 62 66
6 0.789 10 3 25 32 51 99 100 114 115
120 177
14 0.784 6 14 16 28 36 73 133
18 0.778 5 21 40 70 172 173
30 0.772 9 96 119 151 152 154 156 159 161
167
1 0.767 15 1 8 15 79 81 88 110 111
127 129 134 158 164 168 178
15 0.761 6 13 18 31 34 35 58
25 0.755 5 85 90 91 160 162
16 0.671 1 17
22 0.660 1 52
17 0.593 1 12
t Genotypes 1 through 74 from seeded population; 75 through 179 from collected population.











1(15)
2(3)
3 (4)
4(2)
5 (2)
6(10)
7(9)
8 (5)
9 (5)
S10 (8)
11(3)
12(3)
S13(8)
14(6)
15(6)
2 16(1)
S17(1)
S18(5)
19(7)
S20(5)
S21(5)
u 22 (1)
23 (4) -
24 (6)
25 (5)
26 (8)
27(5)
28 (7)
29(3)
30(9)
31(4)
32(11)-

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
R2

Figure 3-1. Cluster dendrogram for 32 clusters of 176 common carpetgrass genotypes.









APPENDIX A
GERMPLASM COLLECTION INFORMATION

The primary method of collecting plant material was road trips throughout the southeast

United States during the summer of 2005. Traveling back roads in search of old stands of

naturalized grasses proved a successful strategy. Old cemeteries and church yards were usually

productive locations. An attempt was made to collect an accession every 30 miles. One grass

plug approximately 4 inches in diameter was taken from each site. The sample was bagged,

labeled and placed in a cooler. Latitude and longitude readings were recorded at each location

using a handheld GPS device. Four collection trips were made, each consisting of three to four

days.

Trip 1

The first trip was made down the western portion of Florida to Bradenton. From there it

went east to Arcadia then south to Everglades City. It went east across south Florida to Key

Largo, and back up eastern Florida via the east shore of Lake Okeechobee, 441 North and the

Florida Turnpike. This trip produced 9 plants

Trip 2

The second trip focused south of Interstate 10 through Florida, Alabama and Mississippi to

Louisiana and covered all but western Louisiana. 35 plants were acquired on this trip.

Trip 3

The third collection trip headed north to Georgia and into South Carolina through Augusta.

It continued through western South Carolina through Clemson and north into western North

Carolina. Tennessee was covered by traveling west until turning back south into north central

Alabama. This was the northern most location traveled in an attempt to acquire cold tolerant

plants. Common carpetgrass was scarce in this region. From here the trip continued in a south-









east direction covering north-east Alabama and west-central Georgia. A total of 22 common

carpetgrass plants were collected on this trip.

Trip 4

The final collection trip started out heading west on Interstate 10 eventually reaching

Louisiana. From here it went north into Arkansas up to Little Rock, centrally located in

Arkansas. From Little Rock it went southeast through northern Mississippi, central Alabama and

southwest Georgia. I arrived back in Gainesville, Florida with 23 common carpetgrass plants.

A total of 89 plants were obtained from these collection trips. Local collections were also

made near Gainesville, Florida. Three of these were collected at the Micanopy Cemetery in

Micanopy, Florida, 8 from the Agronomy Forage Research Unit near Alachua, Florida and one

from the Alachua Sink located in southeast Gainesville, Florida. The northern and eastern most

plant was collected in North Carolina along 1-95 on the way back from a hunting trip in New

York state. One plant was collected near I-10 in Quincy, Florida by Dr. Kevin Kenworthy. The

help of Dr. Bryan Unruh and the crew at the Milton NWREC farm during collection trip 2 is also

appreciated.

Another source of common carpetgrass came from a bag of common carpetgrass seed

purchased at a local garden center. Plants were germinated and evaluated for variation of

morphological characteristics. These plants showed significant differences in the population;

therefore, they were included in the study. A total of 68 plants were obtained from this source.

While germinating seed from a bag of centipedegrass seed, some common carpetgrass

weed seed was observed. This provided 3 common carpetgrass plants. The GRIN database sent

three seed samples of common carpetgrass from Brazil and Swaziland. Two of the samples did

not germinate; therefore, 1 plant is from GRIN. The final accession was obtained from Hawaii. A

breeder from the University of Florida, Dr. Russell Nagata, who is from Hawaii, was the









provider of this plant. A total of 176 common carpetgrass plants now make up the population for

this study. An attempt was made to obtain plants from a variety of sources to ensure a good

amount of diversity.









APPENDIX B
COLLECTION INFORMATION


Table B-1. Source information for common
Accession I.D. Collection
Number Trip
1 through 74
75 Local
76 Local
77 Local
78 Local
79 Local
80 Local
81 Local
82 Local
83 Local
84 Local
85 Local
86 1
87 1
88 1
89 1
90 1
91 1
92 1
93 1
94 1
95 2
96 2
97 2
98 2
99 2
100 2
101 2
102 2
103 2
104 2
105 2
106 2
107 2
108 2


carpetgrass germplasm collection.


Longitude


State Latitude
Common Carpetgrass Seedlot
FL 29 30.104 N
FL 29 30.104 N
FL 29 30.104 N
FL 29 48.147 N
FL 29 48.147 N
FL 29 48.147 N
FL 29 48.147 N
FL 29 48.147 N
FL 29 48.147 N
FL 29 48.147 N
FL 29 48.147 N
FL 29 02.442 N
FL 29 02.442 N
FL 28 39.046 N
FL 28 39.046 N
FL 27 47.245 N
FL 27 47.245 N
FL 27 13.932 N
FL 27 13.932 N
FL 26 27.921 N
FL 29 55.114 N
FL 30 07.649 N
FL 30 07.649 N
FL 30 06.325 N
FL 30 26.268 N
FL 30 26.268 N
FL 30 23.764 N
FL 30 26.306 N
FL 30 26.306 N
FL 30 27.212 N
FL 30 42.945 N
FL 30 46.607 N
FL 30 46.607 N
FL 30 46.607 N


82 17.128
82 17.128
82 17.128
82 24.676
83 24.676
84 24.676
85 24.676
86 24.676
87 24.676
88 24.676
89 24.676
82 27.791
82 27.791
82 16.616
82 16.616
82 20.839
82 20.839
81 55.592
81 55.592
8126.129
82 38.407
83 14.111
83 14.111
83 31.233
83 59.175
83 59.175
84 36.353
85 13.382
85 13.382
86 04.365
86 44.674
87 08.621
87 08.621
87 08.621









Table B-1. Continued.
Accession I.D. Collection
Number Trip State Latitude Longitude
109 2 AL 30 36.268 N 87 39.967 W
110 2 AL 3041.156 N 8801.040 W
111 2 MS 3024.902 N 8827.627 W
112 2 MS 30 18.817 N 89 15.296 W
113 2 MS 3025.782 N 8926.611 W
114 2 MS 3040.801 N 8945.881 W
115 2 MS 3040.801 N 8945.881 W
116 2 LA 3047.465 N 8950.764 W
117 2 LA 3058.410 N 90 18.362 W
118 2 MS 3109.439 N 9048.096 W
119 2 MS 3105.932 N 9102.484 W
120 2 LA 3049.615 N 9122.894 W
121 2 LA 3041.412 N 9127.318 W
122 2 LA 30 12.085 N 90 55.233 W
123 2 MS 31 19.428 N 89 20.919 W
124 2 MS 3121.040 N 8912.277 W
125 2 MS 3120.774 N 8845.917 W
126 2 AL 31 34.100 N 8752.941 W
127 2 AL 3124.719 N 87 13.992 W
128 2 AL 31 17.285 N 86 28.239 W
129 2 FL 3043.218 N 85 56.259 W
130 3 FL 30 18.632 N 8238.072 W
131 3 GA 30 49.001 N 82 38.827 W
132 3 GA 31 02.147 N 8244.767 W
133 3 GA 31 32.644 N 8251.085 W
134 3 GA 3149.678 N 8258.595 W
135 3 GA 32 18.469 N 82 55.779 W
136 3 GA 32 51.338 N 8228.761 W
137 3 GA 33 22.435 N 82 08.267 W
138 3 SC 33 35.793 N 8207.615 W
139 3 SC 33 56.953 N 82 22.366 W
140 3 SC 34 17.558 N 8232.137 W
141 3 SC 3435.720 N 8244.916 W
142 3 SC 3446.000 N 83 03.874 W
143 3 SC 34 48.657 N 83 07.532 W
144 3 AL 33 49.794 N 85 48.495 W
145 3 AL 3327.034 N 8603.754 W
146 3 AL 33 07.443 N 85 34.464 W









Table B-1. Continued.
Accession I.D. Collection
Number Trip State Latitude Longitude
147 3 GA 33 13.794 N 85 14.320 W
148 3 GA 33 13.936 N 84 56.900 W
149 3 GA 3258.419 N 8435.988 W
150 3 GA 3254.792 N 8425.630 W
151 3 GA 3252.462 N 84 19.576 W
152 4 MS 3144.164 N 9025.555 W
153 4 MS 3206.503 N 90 16.939 W
154 4 LA 3227.412 N 9143.725 W
155 4 LA 32 48.740 N 91 10.899 W
156 4 AR 33 51.978 N 91 28.862 W
157 4 AR 34 13.739 N 9204.573 W
158 4 AR 3446.429 N 9203.753 W
159 4 AR 3447.876 N 91 33.959 W
160 4 MS 34 15.744 N 90 16.857 W
161 4 MS 34 05.118 N 89 52.341 W
162 4 MS 33 38.606 N 8946.937 W
163 4 MS 33 31.245 N 8922.909 W
164 4 MS 3329.194 N 8849.023 W
165 4 MS 33 29.729 N 88 17.599 W
166 4 AL 33 15.341 N 87 45.074 W
167 4 AL 33 02.903 N 87 24.791 W
168 4 AL 3248.951 N 8658.201 W
169 4 AL 32 31.271 N 86 36.823 W
170 4 AL 32 19.010 N 86 13.928 W
171 4 AL 3143.535 N 8544.205 W
172 4 GA 31 53.082 N 8506.326 W
173 4 GA 3146.343 N 8440.887 W
174 4 GA 31 34.387 N 8404.164 W
175 NC 35 20.289 N 78 33.750 W
176 Local FL 2936.332 N 82 18.154 W
177 Local FL 3032.539 N 8435.394 W
178 HI 1943.935 N 155 05.633 W
179 BRAZIL GRIN P.I. 50856501SD










APPENDIX C
ANOVA TABLES

Table C-1. Stolon length ANOVA table.


Source

Years (Y)

Rep (R)/Y

Genotype (G)

GxY

Error (E)

Total


1

4

175

175

700

1055


ms

8654

300

321

228

100


exp ms
a2e+ 1762r(y) + 528C2y

2 e + 17602r(y)

2 e + 3C2gy + 6C2g
2 2g
G e +3 2gy
2
C5e


Table C-2. Number of nodes

Source df

Years (Y) 1
Rep (R)/Y 4

Genotype (G) 175
GxY 175

Error (E) 700
Total 1055


ANOVA table.

ms

632.5
133.3
24.5
18.6

8.2


exp ms
02e+ 17602r(y)+ 52802y

02e +176G2r(y)
2 2 26ag
02e + 32gy + 602
0 e+ 3G gy
2
5e


Table C-3. Number of internodes ANOVA table.

Source df ms exp ms

Years (Y) 1 717.6 2e + 176a2r(y) +5282y

Rep (R)/Y 4 142.6 a2e + 176a2r(y)
Genotype (G) 175 24.1 2e + 302gy + 602,

GxY 175 18.4 2 e+ 302gy
Error (E) 700 8.4 a2e
Total 1055


F-test

28.84

3.00

1.41
2.28


P-value

0.0058

0.0180

0.0136
<0.0001


F-test

4.75
16.27
1.32
2.27


P-value

0.0949
<0.0001
0.0369
<0.0001


F-test

5.03

16.91
1.31
2.18


P-value

0.0883

<0.0001
0.0389
<0.0001










Table C-4. Stolon diameter ANOVA table.

Source df ms

Years (Y) 1 6.099

Rep (R)/Y 4 0.224

Genotype (G) 175 0.190
GxY 175 0.037

Error (E) 700 0.033
Total 1055


Table C-5. Internode length ANOVA table.

Source df ms

Years (Y) 1 12.400

Rep (R)/Y 4 7.809

Genotype (G) 175 1.270
GxY 175 0.370

Error (E) 700 0.299
Total 1055


Table C-6. Leaf length ANOVA table.

Source df ms

Years (Y) 1 172.040

Rep (R)/Y 4 3.069
Genotype (G) 175 4.202
GxY 175 2.157

Error (E) 700 1.266

Total 1055


exp ms
2e + 1762r(y)+ 52802y
02e +17602r(y)

2 e + 3G2gy + 6 2g
2 2
2 e + 32gy
2
ae






exp ms
2 e+ 17602r(y)+ 52802y

a2e +17602r(y)

2 e + 3 2gy + 6 2
2 2g
0 e+ 3a gy
2
5e


exp ms
2a + 176a2r(y)+ 52802y

02e +17602r(y)

2 e + 3 2gy + 6( 2

2 e + 3G2gy
2
5e


F-test

27.22

6.74

5.15

1.11








F-test

1.59

26.09

3.43

1.24


F-test

56.05

2.43

1.95

1.70


P-value

0.0064

<0.0001

<0.0001

0.1925








P-value

0.2761

<0.0001

<0.0001

0.0393


P-value

0.0017

0.0470

<0.0001

<0.0001










Table C-7. Leaf width ANOVA

Source df

Years (Y) 1

Rep (R)/Y 4

Genotype (G) 175
GxY 175

Error (E) 700
Total 1055


table.

ms

118.379

1.756

2.680

0.428

0.351


Table C-8. Number of spikes per seedhead

Source df ms

Years (Y) 1 4.491

Rep (R)/Y 4 0.833

Genotype (G) 175 0.310

GxY 175 0.204

Error (E) 700 0.147

Total 1055


Table C-9. Establishment ANOVA table.

Source df Ms

Reps (R) 2 1103.09

Genotype (G) 175 900.90

GxR 350 351.43

Date 1 60383.60

GxD 175 103.44

Error 352 54.12

Total 1055


exp ms
2 + 176a2r(y)+ 52802y
0 e +17602r(y)

2 e + 3G2gy + 6 2g
2 2
2e + 3a2gy
2
ae




ANOVA table.

exp ms
02e+ 17602r(y)+ 52802y

02e +176G2r(y)

2 e + 3C2gy + 6 2g
2 32
0 e +30 gy
2
5e


exp ms
2 e + 352a2r

a2e + 32 gd + 202gr + 602g

52e + 202gr

02e + 52802d
2 2
G e + 3( gd
2
5e


F-test

67.42

5.01

6.26

1.22








F-test

30.48

5.65

1.52

1.39


F-test

20.38

2.56

6.49

1115.79

1.91


P-value

0.0012

0.0006

<0.0001

0.0492








P-value

<0.0001

0.0002

0.0030

0.0023


P-value

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001










Table C-10. Genetic color ANOVA table.

Source df ms

Reps (R) 2 2.5928

Genotype (G) 175 1.8123

GxR 350 0.9317

Date 1 22.4033

GxD 175 0.7753

Error 352 0.5300

Total 1055


exp ms

2 e + 35202r

2e + 32gd + 202 g + 602g
2 202gr
5 e + 2a C5

02e + 52802d
2 2
2 e + 302gd
2
5e


Table C-11. Density

Source

Reps (R)

Genotype (G)

GxR

Date

GxD

Error

Total


ANOVA table.

df ms

2 0.8444

175 1.9984

350 1.3315

1 2.9526

175 0.8550

352 0.8214

1055


exp ms

02e + 352a2r
02e 3C2gd + 202gr + 602g
2 202gr

02, + 52802d

2 e + 302gd
2
5e


Table C-12. Seedhead density

Source df

Reps (R) 2

Genotype (G) 175

GxR 350

Date 1

GxD 175

Error 352

Total 1055


ANOVA table.

ms exp ms

2.0071 02e + 35202r

1.4076 02e + 3 2gd + 202g + 602g

0.3642 02, + 202,

3.8335 02e + 52802d

0.8040 02e + 302gd

0.4191 02e


F-test

4.89

1.95

1.76

42.27

1.46


P-value

0.0081

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

0.0019


F-test

1.03

1.50

1.62

3.59

1.04


P-value

0.3590

0.0009

<0.0001

0.0590

0.3796


F-test

4.79

3.87

0.87

9.15

1.92


P-value

0.0090

<0.0001

0.8931

0.0027

<0.0001










Table C-13. Turf quality ANOVA table.

Source df ms

Reps (R) 2 5.8830

Genotype (G) 175 2.7184

GxR 350 1.3809

Date 1 1.5517

GxD 175 0.8304

Error 352 0.5474

Total 1055


Table C-14. Winter color ANOVA table.

Source df ms

Reps (R) 2 4.1439

Genotype (G) 175 1.3084

GxR 350 0.7853

Date 1 602.5530

GxD 175 0.8243

Error 352 0.6095

Total 1055


exp ms

2 e + 35202r

02e + 3C2gd + 202g + 602g
2 202gr

02e + 52802d
2 2
2 e + 302gd
2
5e






exp ms

02e + 352a2r

02e + 3C2gd + 20"2g, + 62 2g


02, + 52802d

2 e + 302gd
2
5e


F-test

10.75

1.97

2.52

2.83

1.52


F-test

6.80

1.67

1.29

988.61

1.35


P-value

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

0.0933

0.0009


P-value

0.0013

<0.0001

0.0112

<0.0001

0.0111









APPENDIX D
LSD TABLES

Table D-1. Means of accessions and least significant difference (LSD) values for morphological measurements in the greenhouse for
common carpetgrass.


Stolon length
Yl1 Y2 t
24.40 24.42
26.92
9.20 32.59
7.80 22.57
20.75 29.54
23.00 26.30
21.15 24.77
33.60 22.40
28.23 26.00
20.37 17.66
26.68
112.95 28.13
21.08 37.54
13.08 21.02
39.23 25.39
24.08 32.11
11.00 30.34
33.89 30.39
32.46 25.34
23.93
49.23 37.21
16.40 23.49


Nodes
Y1 Y2
6.00 7.11
7.33
4.00 10.33
3.25 7.56
6.67 8.89
8.00 7.11
6.33 7.78
11.00 7.89
9.56 9.33
10.17 9.22
8.44
31.50 8.44
7.25 12.00
4.00 7.89
13.11 8.44
7.78 9.56
4.00 10.00
10.67 9.78
10.67 9.11
7.22
13.00 9.33
7.00 8.00


Internodes
Y1 Y2
7.00 7.56
8.00
4.00 10.67
4.00 8.11
7.67 9.22
9.00 7.56
7.00 8.11
11.33 8.22
10.11 9.67
10.67 9.44
8.78
31.50 9.11
7.75 12.33
5.00 8.11
13.78 9.00
8.67 10.33
4.00 10.89
11.44 10.33
10.78 9.44
7.44
13.25 9.78
7.00 8.67


Stolon
diameter
Combined t
2.24
1.50
1.97
1.88
2.13
2.17
2.40
1.88
2.15
1.82
2.01
2.16
1.89
2.25
1.88
2.22
1.95
2.09
2.27
2.10
2.07
2.22


Internode
length
Combined
3.17
3.56
2.70
2.49
3.35
3.25
5.65
2.90
2.77
1.71
3.17
3.19
3.24
2.40
2.69
5.44
2.33
3.22
2.69
3.43
3.83
2.78


Leaf length
Y1 Y2
6.45 3.88
3.10
5.15 4.21
4.35 3.96
4.86 4.04
4.30 4.72
5.12 4.54
3.60 3.31
5.94 3.58
2.98 2.63
4.89
3.15 3.38
4.70 4.13
5.58 3.52
2.93 3.50
3.82 4.40
3.90 3.72
5.62 3.36
4.46 3.70
4.07
4.88 4.24
5.10 3.72


Leaf width
Y1 Y2
6.50 6.11
5.22
5.50 6.67
5.75 5.78
7.50 6.00
8.00 7.89
7.67 7.56
6.33 6.00
7.22 6.22
6.50 5.22
6.89
9.00 7.22
7.00 6.89
7.25 6.33
5.22 5.67
7.56 7.22
7.00 5.56
7.33 6.33
7.11 6.11
6.33
7.00 7.11
7.00 5.67


Spikes


Accession
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22


Y1
2.67
2.78
3.22
2.89
3.22
2.89
2.67
2.44
2.44
2.78
3.11
3.11
3.00
3.33
2.89
3.00
4.11
3.56
2.44
2.17
3.33
3.11


Y2
2.56
2.44
2.22
2.67
2.44
2.67
2.89
2.67
3.00
3.11
2.67
2.89
3.22
2.67
2.67
3.11
3.11
3.00
2.78
2.56
2.78
2.67










Table D-1. Continued.


Accession
23
24
25
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
$ 34
35
36
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48


Nodes


Stolon length
Y1 Y2
18.00 21.32
19.37 24.01
27.55 27.10
22.13
27.64 23.46
26.43 34.80
17.25 20.24
18.93 32.37
10.00 24.49
20.39
40.80 23.93
14.85 22.82
16.17 28.84
20.49 25.11
25.92
53.29 44.08
37.10 20.41
29.75 21.78
13.98 22.32
33.31 23.89
14.37 34.08
20.62 28.11
34.06 29.81
25.20 28.38


Y1
7.00
6.44
9.11

10.44
7.67
6.67
5.00
3.00

13.00
5.00
6.67
7.33

12.56
10.50
9.00
4.33
10.11
5.67
6.67
10.44
8.00


Internodes


Y2
8.22
7.67
10.44
8.56
9.33
10.89
6.78
10.22
9.00
6.44
8.78
8.22
8.78
8.11
10.56
11.11
7.22
8.33
8.11
9.33
10.44
8.22
9.44
9.56


Y1
7.17
6.89
9.78

11.11
7.89
7.50
5.33
4.00

14.00
6.00
7.67
8.22

12.78
11.50
10.00
5.17
11.11
6.67
7.50
11.22
9.00


Y2
8.33
8.00
10.67
9.00
10.00
11.22
7.33
10.44
9.44
6.89
9.11
8.89
9.22
8.78
10.78
11.44
7.67
8.78
8.67
9.56
11.00
8.33
9.89
9.89


Stolon
diameter
Combined
2.30
2.02
1.85
2.15
2.40
2.02
2.15
2.02
2.02
1.98
1.94
2.11
2.10
2.25
1.78
2.06
1.96
2.19
2.03
2.05
2.18
2.02
2.14
1.92


Leaf length


Internode
length
Combined
2.79
3.01
2.39
2.64
2.27
3.34
2.20
3.68
2.27
3.20
2.72
2.68
2.69
3.01
2.76
4.06
2.83
2.67
2.53
2.70
3.01
3.10
3.17
2.83


Y1
4.53
5.61
4.77

4.07
4.18
7.07
4.07
7.50

5.60
3.05
5.35
6.82

5.21
7.50
7.40
5.72
5.91
6.03
6.67
4.97
7.60


Leaf width


Y2
3.86
3.77
2.88
3.84
4.20
3.48
5.67
3.69
3.87
3.72
3.74
4.38
3.79
3.27
2.89
4.80
3.81
3.28
4.32
4.37
5.49
4.87
3.33
4.72


Y1
7.33
6.78
6.67

7.33
7.22
7.00
6.67
8.00

6.50
7.50
6.83
7.67

8.22
8.50
8.00
7.83
7.17
8.00
7.00
7.44
8.50


Spikes


Y2
6.11
6.33
5.44
6.22
7.00
7.11
6.56
6.44
6.78
5.78
6.33
6.89
6.11
5.67
6.11
7.44
6.33
6.33
6.44
6.67
7.56
6.67
6.67
6.22


Y1
2.44
2.67
2.67
3.33
3.22
2.56
2.78
3.67
3.00
2.56
3.44
3.89
3.33
2.78
2.67
2.78
2.67
3.00
2.56
3.00
3.22
2.33
2.44
3.22


25.52 23.01 10.11 9.44 10.56 9.56 1.86


Y2
2.67
2.89
2.89
2.89
3.00
3.00
2.67
3.44
3.00
2.22
3.11
3.11
2.89
3.11
2.89
3.00
2.44
2.78
2.44
2.78
3.11
2.89
3.00
2.67


2.54 3.57 3.49 6.78 5.56 2.33 3.00










Table D-1. Continued.


Accession
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
ul
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75


Nodes


Stolon length
Y1 Y2
12.33 24.57
21.32
36.62 25.47
24.27 33.42
12.93 24.08
15.04
38.12 26.17
12.80 16.10
21.91 28.92
20.47 20.96
10.70 26.96
18.62
16.33 24.19
28.13 23.92
11.81 26.84
11.14 27.73
11.18 20.62
27.72
28.60
40.78 29.46
67.03 32.18
14.43 24.84
36.49 26.26
40.75 20.90
50.12 28.49


Y1
4.67

12.33
8.00
5.00

11.89
3.00
8.22
7.56
4.00

5.50
9.33
5.17
4.17
3.67



11.39
15.33
6.00
10.56
12.50
14.50


Internodes


Y2
7.00
8.22
9.78
9.44
8.67
6.11
9.11
6.78
10.22
7.33
7.67
7.67
8.56
8.56
8.33
9.89
6.89
9.44
9.11
10.00
8.67
8.11
8.44
6.89
9.67


Y1
5.00

12.83
8.67
5.25

12.56
3.00
8.78
8.00
4.00

6.00
9.67
5.50
4.61
4.33



11.61
15.50
6.00
11.22
12.75
15.17


Y2
7.67
8.67
10.00
9.78
8.78
6.44
9.44
7.11
10.33
7.78
8.44
8.00
8.89
9.22
8.56
10.11
7.44
10.00
9.33
10.56
9.22
8.11
9.11
7.44
10.00


Stolon
diameter
Combined
1.96
1.82
2.22
1.92
1.84
2.13
1.85
2.08
1.80
2.47
1.98
1.85
2.08
1.84
2.00
2.01
2.17
1.63
1.48
1.97
1.98
1.94
2.22
2.14
2.10


Leaf length


Internode
length
Combined
3.06
2.29
3.11
3.51
3.36
2.34
3.32
2.47
2.94
2.62
3.16
2.40
2.59
2.99
2.83
2.65
2.85
2.93
3.20
3.06
4.06
3.25
2.98
3.02
3.08


Y1
6.62

6.48
4.53
3.55

3.26
14.10
3.95
3.84
5.30

7.33
5.00
4.03
6.36
8.50



4.01
4.58
2.83
4.32
3.18
3.33


Leaf width


Spikes


Y2
3.96
3.44
3.97
3.66
4.17
3.54
3.20
4.29
3.61
4.00
4.79
4.51
4.26
3.29
3.98
3.53
3.86
3.71
3.86
3.98
5.03
3.81
3.33
4.07
2.90


Y1
9.50

5.67
6.33
8.00

6.89
9.00
6.11
7.67
7.00

7.75
6.72
7.28
7.28
7.83



6.61
7.50
6.67
6.78
7.75
7.17


Y2
6.22
6.22
5.56
6.56
6.11
6.67
5.78
6.11
5.44
6.78
5.78
5.44
6.89
5.67
6.44
6.56
6.33
4.78
5.33
5.78
6.22
6.11
6.44
6.78
6.33


Y1
2.44
2.89
2.56
2.67
2.78
2.56
2.56
2.44
3.00
2.56
2.89
3.00
2.56
2.67
2.78
3.11
2.44
3.33
3.11
3.11
2.67
3.00
3.00
2.67
2.78


Y2
2.78
2.78
2.22
2.78
2.67
3.22
3.00
2.56
3.33
2.89
3.11
3.11
2.89
2.67
2.56
2.78
2.89
2.78
2.56
3.11
2.56
3.00
2.78
2.78
2.56










Table D-1. Continued.


Stolon length


Nodes


Accession
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100


Y1
40.09
33.01
40.25
28.81
28.64
25.63
19.96
30.04
38.41
22.13
55.67
59.34
37.98
50.82
38.78
52.60
32.02
22.60
29.66
37.86
25.48
32.56
24.23
13.98
31.32


Y2 Y1
22.77 12.56
28.03 11.61
19.31 15.00
30.37 11.44
20.51 11.11
21.64 7.78
15.66 8.56
27.39 9.89
24.11 13.11
19.98 11.00
25.76 14.67
29.39 14.11
30.98 12.11
25.79 13.44
24.46 11.92
21.68 17.83
17.50 11.33
14.86 9.11
13.20 12.56
19.13 14.22
17.07 10.17
11.69 14.33
14.21 11.00
14.51 6.83
18.98 11.67


Y2
8.22
11.22
8.11
8.56
9.00
8.00
9.44
8.89
9.67
8.22
8.78
9.22
9.89
8.44
8.67
8.00
8.22
6.44
7.44
8.33
10.44
6.44
7.44
7.33
8.56


Internodes
Y1 Y2
12.89 8.44
11.78 11.56
15.50 8.56
12.00 9.22
11.44 9.33
8.44 8.44
8.89 9.67
10.33 9.33
13.67 10.00
11.67 8.67
15.22 9.00
14.89 9.56
12.56 10.78
14.11 8.89
12.75 8.89
18.17 8.11
11.78 8.44
9.67 7.11
13.11 7.89
15.00 8.67
10.83 10.89
14.56 6.56
12.00 8.22
7.42 7.78
12.00 8.78


Leaf length


Stolon
diameter
Combined
2.04
1.59
2.13
1.84
1.71
1.95
1.57
1.99
1.90
2.03
1.75
1.78
1.84
2.00
1.95
1.89
1.67
1.72
2.05
1.68
1.81
1.70
1.92
1.96
1.69


Internode
length
Combined
2.93
2.76
2.45
2.73
2.69
2.76
1.95
2.85
2.77
2.07
3.31
3.95
3.20
3.31
2.78
2.63
2.51
2.18
1.82
2.29
2.29
1.88
1.73
1.73
2.25


Leaf width


Spikes


Y1
3.60
3.44
3.00
3.09
3.04
4.59
4.09
5.39
3.38
2.97
3.33
3.73
3.47
3.77
5.57
3.59
3.50
2.71
3.57
2.96
3.53
2.23
3.50
5.03
4.04


Y2
2.78
2.73
3.04
3.04
3.01
3.38
2.69
3.92
3.82
2.66
3.57
3.52
3.33
3.06
3.32
3.19
2.90
2.17
2.23
2.81
2.33
2.39
2.74
3.38
2.86


Y1
7.11
6.28
6.50
5.36
5.57
6.67
5.67
7.44
6.56
6.67
5.56
6.22
6.11
6.56
8.50
7.33
5.44
5.78
6.44
5.33
6.50
5.67
5.67
7.08
6.56


Y2
6.11
5.67
5.33
5.22
5.56
5.56
4.67
6.67
5.67
6.44
5.22
5.11
6.44
5.89
7.11
6.67
5.00
5.11
5.56
4.78
5.11
4.78
4.67
6.33
5.44


Y1
2.44
2.67
2.33
2.56
2.89
2.11
2.22
2.67
2.22
2.11
2.33
2.17
2.67
2.22
2.67
2.33
2.44
2.56
2.67
2.72
2.67
2.56
3.11
2.78
2.56


Y2
2.89
2.56
2.56
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.89
2.89
2.78
2.78
2.44
2.67
2.67
2.89
2.78
2.78
3.11
2.89
3.11
2.67
3.00
2.89
2.89










Table D-1. Continued.


Stolon length


Nodes


Accession
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
S 111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125


Y1 Y2 Y1
19.25 11.19 9.17
30.56 23.21 12.33
20.71 14.96 9.67
20.71 20.79 7.22
35.58 17.03 13.39
27.98 17.08 10.78
25.70 20.64 10.89
24.92 14.50 11.83
31.02 25.40 10.44
26.83 25.30 9.22
36.49 23.51 10.89
14.77 17.13 7.17
29.65 12.47 12.83
33.41 14.26 13.67
17.57 15.90 6.83
29.21 20.30 13.44
42.89 14.53 13.83
42.99 19.88 17.33
31.99 20.24 14.89
26.24 24.89 10.78
19.48 20.22 7.00
22.26 25.91 10.00
15.59 16.71 6.11
28.11 20.48 9.33
24.61 18.04 9.33


Internodes


Y2
6.89
9.78
6.11
7.56
7.44
8.22
10.67
7.44
9.33
8.67
8.89
6.56
6.33
6.22
6.44
10.11
6.11
9.00
9.89
9.67
6.89
11.33
6.11
7.78
7.11


Y1
9.50
13.00
10.17
7.67
13.89
11.11
11.56
12.17
11.22
9.89
11.33
7.33
13.33
13.78
7.17
13.44
14.33
17.67
15.44
11.22
7.33
10.33
6.50
9.89
12.67


Y2
6.78
10.22
6.56
8.00
8.11
8.56
11.11
8.00
9.56
9.00
9.33
7.00
6.89
7.00
6.78
10.89
6.44
9.22
10.00
10.00
7.56
11.78
6.44
8.11
7.56


Stolon
diameter
Combined
1.52
1.51
1.86
1.76
1.78
1.69
1.82
1.89
1.96
2.01
1.93
2.00
1.90
1.87
1.91
1.86
2.14
1.65
1.52
1.67
1.77
1.67
1.88
2.06
2.05


Leaf length


Internode
length
Combined
1.61
2.26
2.19
2.86
2.51
2.32
2.13
1.75
2.91
2.79
2.76
1.92
2.74
2.14
3.72
1.90
2.79
3.14
2.42
2.16
2.53
2.29
2.19
2.88
2.73


Y1
2.77
2.92
3.36
3.39
2.68
3.07
3.22
4.20
4.04
3.72
3.86
4.35
3.25
3.57
4.80
3.30
4.41
2.76
3.19
3.00
4.45
3.03
3.87
4.48
4.38


Leaf width


Spikes


Y2
2.37
2.21
2.40
2.82
2.54
2.10
3.07
2.96
3.52
3.48
3.21
2.68
2.52
3.53
2.86
3.30
2.77
2.59
2.59
2.83
3.88
2.49
2.51
4.20
3.53


Y1
5.50
4.22
6.39
5.67
6.06
5.11
6.11
5.67
6.78
6.44
6.44
6.33
7.00
6.33
7.50
6.00
6.22
5.44
5.44
5.44
7.00
5.78
6.22
6.89
6.33


Y2
4.22
4.33
5.11
5.11
5.33
4.33
4.56
4.33
6.00
6.00
5.11
6.22
6.00
6.00
6.00
5.44
5.44
4.78
4.22
5.67
6.33
5.33
5.11
6.22
5.22


Y1
2.50
2.67
2.67
3.00
2.33
2.33
2.22
2.44
2.44
2.33
2.33
2.44
2.33
2.56
2.56
2.11
2.44
2.33
2.56
2.67
2.00
2.44
2.89
2.44
2.44


Y2
2.89
3.33
2.67
2.78
2.89
2.89
2.78
2.67
2.78
2.78
2.67
2.89
2.56
2.67
3.00
2.67
2.78
2.89
3.00
2.67
2.67
2.89
2.78
2.56
2.56










Table D-1. Continued.


Accession
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
m 136
00
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150


Stolon length Nodes
Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2
25.02 18.66 10.50 8.00
20.38 24.33 8.11 8.33
16.10 16.99 5.67 6.56
35.76 27.48 10.67 8.67
39.56 25.62 13.44 8.78
24.40 22.29 8.78 8.67
18.84 23.73 6.22 8.22
26.20 15.18 11.00 7.67
19.04 29.21 5.78 8.67
41.00 19.32 15.22 7.67
35.20 33.18 10.22 9.56
31.42 22.21 11.50 8.22
15.42 14.02 8.67 6.78
27.52 28.08 10.89 9.89
35.69 20.89 13.89 9.67
32.88 25.89 13.22 9.00
25.58 20.01 10.33 8.33
31.86 18.34 11.44 7.67
41.94 19.67 15.22 7.33
29.61 14.13 10.78 6.89
17.58 19.48 9.11 9.22
37.42 25.93 12.50 11.33
20.27 20.12 8.28 7.56
12.15 16.17 5.33 6.11
46.47 22.09 16.67 9.44


Internodes
Y1 Y2
11.00 8.44
8.28 9.00
6.33 6.89
11.44 9.22
13.56 9.44
9.67 8.89
6.56 8.67
11.50 8.00
6.33 9.00
16.00 8.22
10.78 9.78
11.67 8.56
9.11 7.22
11.78 10.00
14.22 10.33
13.89 9.44
10.78 8.44
10.44 8.00
15.56 7.89
11.22 7.11
9.22 9.89
13.17 11.78
8.83 8.11
5.83 6.78
17.11 9.67


Stolon
diameter
Combined
1.94
1.92
1.92
1.84
1.68
2.16
1.89
2.31
2.04
1.89
1.99
1.83
1.82
1.83
1.87
1.82
1.81
1.94
1.85
1.78
1.79
1.74
1.72
2.05
1.99


Internode
length
Combined
2.37
2.51
2.24
3.41
2.65
2.69
2.51
1.66
2.96
2.43
3.69
3.03
1.72
2.55
2.17
2.60
2.52
2.51
2.73
2.13
2.51
2.55
2.30
5.53
2.28


Leaf length


Y1
3.73
3.87
5.20
3.38
3.92
4.00
4.30
5.08
5.01
3.14
4.08
2.68
2.57
3.57
2.86
3.60
4.22
3.28
3.48
9.97
3.67
3.05
3.52
5.17
3.31


Y2
3.18
3.30
3.50
2.76
4.36
2.88
3.60
3.19
3.36
3.19
3.30
2.86
3.53
2.88
2.78
3.43
3.08
2.69
3.42
2.56
2.80
2.72
2.92
4.06
3.00


Leaf width


Spikes


Y1
6.83
6.17
6.67
5.78
5.89
6.33
6.67
7.08
6.11
6.11
7.44
5.67
6.00
6.44
5.56
6.00
6.56
5.89
6.11
5.67
6.67
6.00
5.89
6.50
6.67


Y2
6.00
5.44
5.33
5.11
5.78
6.11
5.67
6.22
6.44
5.89
7.00
5.56
5.11
5.89
5.00
5.11
5.78
5.89
5.00
4.56
6.11
6.22
5.56
6.22
5.78


Y1
2.33
2.56
2.22
2.56
2.56
2.22
2.22
2.89
2.78
2.67
2.78
2.50
2.44
2.44
2.33
2.56
2.11
2.67
2.11
2.11
2.56
2.33
2.33
2.22
2.78


Y2
2.44
2.67
2.67
2.44
2.78
2.67
2.78
3.11
2.67
3.00
2.89
2.78
2.78
2.89
2.67
2.78
2.56
2.78
3.00
2.89
2.78
2.56
2.78
2.89
2.78










Table D-1. Continued.


Stolon length


Accession
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
c> 161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174


Y1
30.72
39.42
27.63
41.31
57.34
21.08
42.37
34.54
44.70
34.98
32.19
19.99
42.00
55.73
43.01
20.60
21.71
44.02
49.63
24.50
44.57
68.21
54.97
36.31


Nodes


Y2
27.83
18.52
18.92
21.29
30.68
14.69
23.36
23.87
24.96
27.30
21.53
17.40
22.32
26.64
26.82
23.88
23.16
23.24
30.28
24.94
19.08
31.18
26.17
20.50


Y1
12.11
16.00
11.22
16.89
16.67
11.44
14.56
11.00
16.11
13.67
14.89
9.11
15.44
17.78
15.33
8.50
10.11
12.50
15.33
8.56
13.78
22.00
16.89
12.22


Internodes


Y2
11.89
8.11
9.00
11.00
10.56
9.11
8.67
8.44
11.22
10.78
10.89
8.44
10.22
9.89
10.44
10.44
10.78
8.22
10.22
9.00
7.22
11.33
9.11
7.11


Y1
12.33
16.44
11.78
17.78
16.89
12.00
14.67
11.56
16.78
13.89
15.33
9.67
16.33
18.22
15.78
8.67
10.61
12.72
15.89
9.00
14.11
22.56
17.00
12.89


Y2
12.22
8.78
9.11
11.33
10.67
9.22
9.11
9.44
11.33
11.11
11.44
9.00
10.67
10.00
10.89
10.78
11.22
8.44
11.00
9.33
7.33
11.67
9.56
7.33


Stolon
diameter
Combined
1.81
1.78
1.90
1.82
1.78
1.82
1.76
1.88
1.99
1.69
1.69
1.88
1.78
1.75
1.67
1.60
2.09
1.90
1.98
1.83
1.63
1.98
1.91
1.97


Leaf length


Internode
length
Combined
2.38
3.96
2.18
2.14
3.11
1.83
2.86
2.79
2.53
2.37
1.98
1.82
2.30
2.57
2.67
4.43
2.04
3.19
3.07
2.87
2.94
2.62
2.89
3.08


Y1
3.27
4.46
3.38
3.08
6.41
3.28
5.78
3.92
3.53
2.87
1.90
2.88
2.67
2.64
3.11
2.97
4.02
3.49
3.07
4.39
6.84
3.38
3.71
7.14


Leaf width


Y2
2.90
2.36
3.20
2.50
3.73
2.50
2.76
3.47
3.53
2.97
2.04
2.54
2.99
3.01
3.10
3.32
3.21
3.33
3.33
3.16
3.03
3.51
4.37
3.42


Y1
6.67
5.89
6.22
5.56
7.00
6.67
6.44
6.22
6.22
6.56
4.78
6.44
6.44
5.22
5.89
5.50
6.72
6.67
6.78
6.78
6.44
6.78
6.78
6.56


Spikes


Y2
6.00
5.56
6.00
4.56
6.33
5.00
5.89
5.11
6.00
6.78
4.22
5.89
5.22
5.11
5.22
5.44
6.56
5.11
6.22
6.00
5.33
6.78
6.67
6.00


Y1
3.00
1.89
2.22
2.33
2.56
2.44
2.33
2.33
2.89
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.44
2.44
2.44
2.56
2.67
2.44
2.44
2.67
2.78

3.00
2.89


19.67 23.28 8.33 9.00 8.33 9.44 2.02 2.41


Y2
2.56
2.89
2.67
3.00
2.56
2.78
2.78
2.33
2.89
2.78
3.11
2.56
2.78
2.56
3.00
2.78
2.78
2.89
2.67
2.67
2.56
3.00
2.67
2.56


2.92 3.79 6.28 6.11 3.22 2.44









Table D-1. Continued.


Stolon length


Nodes


Internodes


Stolon
diameter


Internode
length


Leaf length


Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined Combined Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2
176 27.78 19.62 10.67 8.44 11.22 8.67 1.87 2.34 3.47 3.61 6.33 5.33 2.89 3.11
177 13.67 21.73 6.06 8.89 6.67 9.44 1.90 2.19 3.14 3.59 6.83 6.44 2.78 3.22
178 38.32 30.74 10.78 8.78 12.11 9.11 1.86 3.49 3.37 3.44 6.22 5.78 2.22 2.67
179 17.98 22.79 6.50 7.56 6.50 7.78 2.15 3.05 3.72 3.12 6.67 5.56 2.33 2.67
LSD
(0.05) 25.82 8.84 7.32 2.64 7.47 2.61 0.25 1.49 2.96 0.90 1.21 0.87 0.67 0.57
t Y1, Y2 denotes year 1 and year 2 data, respectively; Combined denotes data pooled over both years.


Leaf width


Spikes









Table D-2. Means of accessions and least significant difference (LSD) values for turfgrass performance characteristics in the field for
common carpetgrass.
Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease
8/22/06,
Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06
1 14.00 32.33 4.67 3.67 4.00 4.33 4.33 3.33 3.33 3.33 4.33 3.67
2 11.67 22.33 4.67 3.33 3.60 3.33 3.33 3.33 3.00 2.67 4.00 4.00
3 9.00 19.33 4.00 4.50 4.25 4.00 4.50 4.00 2.50 2.67 5.00 3.33
4 26.00 41.67 4.00 2.33 4.17 4.00 3.67 2.67 3.33 4.00 4.00 4.33
5 25.00 51.33 4.00 4.33 3.67 4.67 4.00 3.33 3.33 3.67 4.67 3.67
6 32.00 59.33 4.33 4.33 4.33 4.67 5.00 3.00 3.00 3.67 5.00 4.00
7 21.00 70.00 5.00 5.00 4.50 4.00 6.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 7.00 4.00
8 21.00 28.00 4.33 4.33 3.83 4.00 3.67 3.67 2.67 4.00 4.67 4.33
9 22.67 36.33 4.33 5.00 4.33 4.00 5.00 4.00 4.33 4.67 5.00 4.33
10 10.00 18.00 5.67 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.67 3.67 3.33 4.00 5.33 4.67
11 21.33 41.33 4.00 3.67 4.50 4.67 4.67 3.33 2.67 3.33 4.00 4.67
12 24.33 40.67 3.67 4.00 3.50 4.00 3.50 3.33 3.00 4.00 4.33 3.00
13 19.67 57.33 4.00 5.00 4.33 4.00 5.00 2.67 2.67 4.67 5.00 3.33
14 16.67 32.00 4.33 4.67 4.40 5.00 4.67 3.33 3.33 3.67 5.00 3.67
15 17.33 33.67 4.33 5.00 4.17 4.50 5.00 3.33 3.00 3.00 6.00 3.67
16 16.00 25.33 3.50 4.00 3.25 3.00 3.00 4.00 2.50 3.33 4.00 4.00
17 15.33 26.00 4.67 3.67 4.17 4.33 4.33 3.00 3.00 4.00 4.67 4.00
18 37.67 62.67 4.33 4.67 4.33 4.33 5.33 3.00 3.00 4.33 5.33 3.67
19 14.00 24.33 4.00 3.33 4.20 4.50 3.67 4.00 3.33 3.00 4.33 4.33
20 8.00 12.00 4.50 5.00 4.67 4.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 2.67 4.50 4.00
21 12.00 18.67 4.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 4.50 4.33 3.00 4.00 5.00 4.00
22 8.33 18.00 4.33 5.00 4.33 4.00 5.00 3.00 2.67 2.67 5.67 3.00
23 30.33 49.00 4.00 3.33 4.00 4.33 4.00 3.33 2.33 4.00 5.00 3.67
24 9.33 16.67 4.67 3.33 4.50 4.33 4.67 4.00 3.33 4.00 4.33 5.00










Table D-2. Continued.
Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease
8/22/06,
Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06
25 25.33 49.33 3.67 4.33 3.83 4.00 3.33 3.00 3.50 3.00 4.33 3.33
27 5.00 8.00 4.00 4.00 3.75 4.00 4.50 3.00 2.00 3.00 4.33 4.67
28 13.00 22.67 5.67 5.50 3.60 5.00 4.00 4.00 3.50 3.67 5.50 4.33
29 24.00 47.33 5.00 4.00 4.50 5.33 4.33 2.67 3.67 3.67 5.67 4.33
30 21.67 45.67 5.00 4.67 4.50 4.33 5.67 3.00 3.33 4.33 6.00 4.00
31 38.33 58.67 4.67 3.67 4.83 4.67 4.67 2.67 3.00 3.67 5.00 4.33
32 9.00 22.00 5.33 4.67 4.17 5.00 4.33 3.00 2.67 3.00 4.67 5.00
33 4.00 7.67 5.00 5.00 3.75 3.00 4.00 3.50 2.50 2.00 5.00 4.00
34 18.00 36.67 4.33 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.33 3.33 2.67 3.33 5.00 3.33
35 13.00 28.00 4.33 5.67 4.40 4.00 5.67 3.00 3.33 3.67 5.33 3.33
36 27.33 42.33 4.33 4.33 4.83 4.33 4.67 3.33 2.67 2.67 5.00 4.33
38 30.67 62.33 3.67 4.67 4.67 4.67 4.00 2.33 3.33 3.67 5.00 3.67
39 9.00 20.00 4.00 3.33 4.00 3.67 4.00 3.00 2.00 2.33 4.33 3.67
40 6.67 12.50 5.00 4.00 3.20 2.33 4.50 4.33 3.00 3.00 4.50 4.00
41 21.33 40.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 4.33 4.67 3.33 3.33 4.00 5.00 4.00
42 16.33 31.33 3.67 3.67 3.20 4.00 3.00 3.33 2.67 4.33 4.00 4.00
43 15.33 33.67 4.67 4.00 4.33 4.00 4.67 3.00 2.00 3.33 5.33 4.33
44 17.00 35.00 4.50 5.00 4.33 5.00 4.50 3.50 2.50 3.33 5.50 3.00
45 21.33 37.00 5.00 4.00 5.00 4.33 4.33 3.33 3.00 3.67 4.67 4.33
46 28.33 55.00 4.33 4.00 4.83 5.00 4.33 2.33 3.00 4.33 5.33 4.67
47 21.00 37.33 4.00 5.50 5.00 4.50 6.00 3.00 3.50 3.67 6.00 4.67
48 18.67 35.33 4.33 4.00 4.50 4.67 4.33 3.00 3.00 3.33 5.33 4.33
49 22.33 37.67 4.33 4.33 4.83 5.00 5.33 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.67 4.33
50 7.00 13.67 4.33 4.00 3.67 3.33 4.00 3.00 2.67 3.00 5.00 5.00
51 18.00 22.33 4.67 5.33 3.60 4.50 4.33 3.33 2.67 2.33 5.00 4.00










Table D-2. Continued.
Establishment


Color


Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06
52 14.33 31.00 4.00
53 8.00 13.67 4.33
54 14.33 25.67 4.67
55 5.67 7.67 4.00
56 19.33 38.00 4.67
57 15.00 33.33 5.00
58 20.33 43.67 4.67
59 16.00 32.33 4.67
60 16.00 36.00 4.33
62 12.67 16.00 4.00
63 23.00 48.00 5.00
64 8.00 12.67 4.50
65 34.33 57.67 4.33
66 31.67 56.00 5.00
67 16.33 31.33 5.67
68 8.67 17.00 4.33
69 1.00 1.00 4.00
70 26.33 46.00 4.67
71 30.33 53.33 4.33
72 35.33 53.67 4.00
73 22.67 44.00 4.67
74 11.00 23.67 4.33
75 34.67 59.67 4.67
76 44.00 76.67 4.67
77 33.00 56.33 5.00


6/6/07
4.33
4.67
4.67
4.00
5.67
4.67
4.67
5.00
4.00
3.33
6.00
4.00
4.33
5.00
5.33
4.67
4.00
5.33
4.67
4.33
3.67
4.00
4.33
4.67
4.67


Density
8/22/06,
6/14/07
3.67
4.50
4.33
3.67
5.33
4.60
4.83
5.17
4.67
3.40
5.00
4.50
4.83
5.00
4.50
4.00
3.33
5.00
4.17
5.00
4.33
3.60
4.67
4.83
4.67


Turf quality

8/15/06 6/14/07


3.33
3.33
4.00
4.00
4.33
5.00
4.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
4.67
5.00
5.67
3.67
1.00
4.67
4.00
4.00
5.00
4.50
5.67
5.00
5.33


4.00
5.33
4.67
1.50
6.00
5.00
5.00
5.67
4.33
3.67
4.00
4.00
5.33
5.67
5.67
4.67
3.00
5.33
5.00
5.00
4.00
3.67
5.00
5.00
5.33


Seedhead density


8/3/06
2.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.00
2.67
2.67
3.67
2.67
3.67
4.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
3.33
3.33
4.00
3.00
2.67
3.67
3.33
2.67
3.00
3.33
3.00


6/28/07
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.67
3.00
2.67
3.33
1.67
2.67
4.00
3.50
3.33
2.67
3.67
2.33
3.00
3.67
2.67
1.67
2.00
3.00
3.33
3.67
2.67


Winter color Disease


1/26/06 1/12/07


4.33
2.33
3.00
3.00
4.33
3.33
2.67
3.67
3.00
4.33
2.67
3.33
4.00
4.00
4.33
3.00
1.00
4.00
3.33
4.00
3.67
3.00
3.00
4.33
3.00


4.67
4.67
4.00
4.00
6.00
4.67
5.00
5.33
5.00
4.00
5.00
4.50
5.33
6.33
5.00
4.67
4.00
5.00
4.67
4.67
5.00
4.67
5.33
6.00
6.33


9/1/06
3.00
3.33
4.00
4.00
5.00
4.67
4.33
4.33
4.00
3.33
4.00
4.50
3.67
3.50
5.33
3.67
4.00
4.67
3.67
3.33
4.00
3.67
5.33
5.00
5.67










Table D-2. Continued.
Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease
8/22/06,
Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06
78 26.33 52.67 5.33 5.33 4.83 5.67 5.00 2.33 2.67 4.33 6.00 4.67
79 14.00 26.67 5.33 4.67 4.33 5.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 3.33 5.00 5.67
80 16.00 34.00 4.33 4.00 5.20 6.00 5.33 3.00 3.33 2.67 6.00 4.33
81 31.33 58.33 5.00 4.67 4.83 5.00 5.33 2.67 4.67 3.67 5.33 6.33
82 12.00 18.00 3.67 3.50 3.00 3.67 3.00 3.67 3.50 3.00 4.00 4.33
83 22.33 35.67 4.67 3.00 4.33 5.33 3.33 3.33 4.00 3.00 4.33 4.67
84 31.00 56.33 4.33 5.33 5.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 4.67 4.33 4.67 6.00
85 17.00 32.33 5.33 4.67 4.83 5.67 5.00 3.00 3.33 4.00 5.33 5.00
86 28.00 48.00 4.33 3.67 5.00 5.33 4.67 3.33 4.00 3.67 5.00 4.33
87 31.67 45.33 4.67 5.00 4.67 3.67 5.67 3.67 3.67 4.00 5.33 4.33
88 28.67 53.67 5.33 5.00 5.00 6.00 4.67 3.33 4.00 3.67 6.33 5.33
89 39.50 63.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 5.00 5.00 3.00 4.00 3.33 4.50 4.50
90 35.67 50.33 4.00 4.67 4.17 3.67 4.33 3.67 2.67 3.67 5.00 4.33
91 23.33 46.00 4.67 5.00 4.17 4.67 4.67 3.33 3.33 3.33 4.67 4.67
92 39.67 68.00 5.67 3.33 4.83 5.33 4.67 3.33 3.33 3.67 5.00 6.00
93 19.67 34.33 4.67 3.33 4.33 4.67 4.00 2.33 3.33 3.33 5.00 5.00
94 15.33 29.33 5.00 4.67 4.50 4.67 5.33 3.33 3.67 3.33 6.00 4.33
95 28.33 49.67 4.33 4.00 4.17 4.33 4.00 3.33 3.67 3.33 5.00 3.67
96 29.33 56.67 5.33 4.33 4.83 5.67 4.67 2.67 3.67 4.00 5.33 5.33
97 51.33 68.00 4.33 3.67 5.00 4.67 5.00 2.33 3.33 3.67 5.00 4.00
98 18.00 30.00 5.00 3.33 4.67 4.67 4.67 3.33 3.00 3.67 5.33 4.33
99 15.33 31.67 4.00 3.67 3.67 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.33 3.00 5.00 4.00
100 38.33 66.33 5.33 4.33 4.50 5.67 4.33 2.67 3.67 3.67 5.00 4.33
101 22.00 40.33 6.00 4.67 5.83 6.67 5.67 2.33 3.67 4.33 6.33 6.67
102 15.33 71.67 5.33 4.00 5.17 5.67 4.33 4.00 5.00 3.00 5.00 5.00










Table D-2. Continued.
Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease
8/22/06,
Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06
103 22.33 47.67 4.67 3.67 5.00 6.00 5.00 2.67 4.00 3.00 5.67 5.33
104 27.33 49.00 4.67 5.00 4.17 4.50 4.33 3.67 3.67 3.33 5.67 4.00
105 21.33 40.00 4.33 4.33 4.20 5.50 3.67 4.00 4.00 3.00 4.67 4.67
106 21.33 37.67 5.00 5.33 5.33 6.67 6.00 3.33 4.33 3.00 5.00 5.33
107 3.00 5.00 5.50 3.50 4.00 3.00 3.50 3.50 3.50 2.33 5.00 4.50
108 7.33 14.00 4.67 3.67 4.50 4.67 3.67 3.67 3.33 3.00 5.00 6.33
109 10.00 16.33 5.00 4.50 4.50 5.00 4.50 3.00 4.00 3.33 5.00 4.33
110 14.00 25.67 4.33 4.67 4.20 5.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.67
111 20.00 40.33 4.67 5.00 4.80 5.00 5.33 3.00 4.00 3.00 5.33 4.00
112 21.67 36.00 4.33 2.67 4.83 4.67 4.33 3.33 3.33 3.33 4.67 4.00
113 12.33 28.67 4.33 3.67 4.17 4.33 3.67 4.00 4.00 3.33 5.00 5.00
114 13.50 25.50 4.50 3.00 3.25 4.00 3.50 3.00 3.00 2.33 5.00 4.00
115 12.00 32.00 4.00 3.50 5.25 5.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.50 6.50
116 4.00 8.33 4.33 3.67 4.33 4.33 4.00 4.00 3.33 3.33 4.00 5.00
117 21.00 35.00 5.00 4.67 4.50 6.00 4.33 3.50 3.33 3.33 5.00 4.00
118 5.00 10.50 4.00 4.00 4.20 4.50 3.50 4.00 3.50 3.33 4.00 5.50
119 21.00 32.67 4.67 3.67 5.83 5.67 5.67 3.67 5.00 3.00 5.33 5.00
120 20.67 46.67 5.67 6.00 5.67 6.00 6.00 4.33 4.67 3.67 6.00 6.00
121 6.33 11.67 4.00 3.67 4.17 4.33 3.67 4.00 3.00 3.67 4.00 6.00
122 15.67 24.33 6.00 5.67 5.50 6.00 5.33 3.67 4.33 2.67 6.33 6.33
123 20.33 37.00 4.33 4.00 4.00 5.00 4.33 3.67 3.33 3.67 4.67 4.67
124 6.00 13.33 4.67 4.33 5.00 4.33 4.33 4.00 3.67 3.00 5.00 4.67
125 14.00 31.00 5.00 4.00 4.17 4.67 4.33 3.00 4.33 3.33 4.33 4.33
126 15.00 25.33 5.33 4.00 4.17 5.33 4.00 3.33 4.00 3.67 4.00 5.00
127 5.00 21.00 5.00 4.00 4.25 5.00 4.00 4.00 3.50 2.33 4.00 5.00










Table D-2. Continued.
Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease
8/22/06,
Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06
128 12.00 29.00 5.50 4.50 4.00 4.00 3.33 3.50 3.00 3.33 4.00 6.00
129 17.33 35.00 4.00 3.67 4.17 5.00 3.67 3.00 2.67 2.67 4.33 4.67
130 20.50 40.50 4.50 4.00 5.25 5.00 5.00 4.00 4.50 2.67 6.00 3.50
131 26.67 50.67 5.00 4.00 4.50 4.67 4.33 2.00 4.33 3.67 5.00 5.33
132 15.33 26.67 4.67 3.67 4.00 4.00 3.67 3.00 3.00 4.33 5.00 5.67
133 7.50 12.50 4.50 3.00 4.00 4.00 2.50 3.50 3.50 3.00 4.50 5.50
134 25.67 47.33 4.33 4.33 4.83 5.33 4.67 3.33 3.33 4.00 5.00 4.33
135 23.33 65.33 4.67 3.33 4.33 4.67 4.00 3.00 4.33 3.00 5.00 4.33
136 19.33 52.67 5.33 5.00 5.00 4.67 4.67 2.67 3.67 4.33 6.00 5.33
137 7.67 14.33 5.33 4.67 4.33 4.67 4.67 4.67 4.67 2.67 5.33 6.67
138 12.50 19.50 5.00 4.50 5.50 6.50 5.00 3.50 3.50 3.33 6.00 6.00
139 16.00 31.67 5.67 5.67 5.67 6.00 6.00 3.67 3.67 3.00 5.67 6.00
140 15.67 27.33 5.67 4.33 4.83 5.33 5.00 3.67 4.00 2.33 5.67 6.00
141 21.33 34.00 4.67 4.00 5.17 5.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 3.67 5.00 4.33
142 21.33 45.00 4.67 5.33 4.67 5.00 4.67 3.00 3.33 2.67 5.00 5.00
143 15.33 32.67 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.67 5.67 3.33 4.00 3.00 5.33 4.67
144 11.67 19.00 5.67 5.33 5.00 6.33 5.33 4.00 5.00 3.00 5.33 6.00
145 8.00 14.67 4.67 4.33 4.17 5.33 4.00 3.67 4.00 2.33 4.00 6.00
146 5.00 4.33 3.50 4.00 3.00 4.00 2.50 3.50 3.00 2.00 3.00 4.50
147 11.00 18.67 4.33 3.67 4.17 4.33 4.33 4.00 4.33 3.00 4.33 5.00
148 6.00 10.33 5.33 3.67 3.67 3.67 3.33 3.67 4.00 2.67 4.67 5.67
149 10.00 14.33 5.50 3.00 4.60 5.00 4.50 3.50 4.50 2.67 4.00 5.50
150 14.00 23.67 5.33 4.67 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 5.33 4.67
151 20.67 34.00 4.67 5.00 4.00 4.33 4.33 3.33 4.00 3.00 5.00 4.33
152 5.00 6.00 4.50 4.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.50 4.00 2.00 4.00 4.50










Table D-2. Continued.
Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease
8/22/06,
Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06
153 12.67 28.33 5.00 5.67 5.17 5.33 6.67 3.33 4.33 3.67 5.67 4.67
154 20.33 37.00 6.33 5.33 5.50 6.00 6.33 4.00 5.00 3.67 5.67 6.67
155 19.67 38.33 5.33 4.00 5.33 5.67 5.67 3.67 4.00 3.67 5.00 5.33
156 12.67 14.67 6.00 6.50 5.00 6.00 5.50 4.00 4.00 3.67 6.50 5.00
157 5.33 8.67 4.00 3.50 3.50 4.00 3.33 3.00 3.33 3.33 4.00 4.67
158 22.67 47.67 6.00 4.67 5.17 5.33 5.00 3.33 4.00 3.33 5.33 5.67
159 17.00 33.67 4.67 3.67 4.67 5.33 4.00 3.67 4.33 3.33 4.67 5.00
160 19.00 34.33 5.33 4.00 4.80 5.50 4.50 3.67 5.00 4.00 5.00 4.67
161 21.67 37.33 5.33 5.00 4.67 5.67 5.67 3.33 3.33 3.00 5.33 5.33
162 3.67 7.67 4.00 3.33 3.50 4.33 3.00 3.33 3.33 3.67 4.00 5.33
163 15.00 30.33 5.33 5.67 5.50 5.33 5.33 2.67 4.00 3.33 5.00 5.33
164 16.50 37.50 5.50 5.50 4.50 5.00 5.50 3.00 5.00 3.33 5.00 5.00
165 3.67 6.67 4.67 4.50 4.50 4.50 5.00 3.67 3.50 2.67 5.00 4.00
166 29.67 50.33 5.67 6.33 5.67 6.33 6.33 3.33 5.00 3.00 5.33 5.33
167 34.33 56.33 4.33 3.33 4.50 5.00 4.67 3.33 3.67 3.00 4.67 4.67
168 42.00 71.33 4.33 5.00 4.17 4.33 4.67 2.67 3.33 3.33 5.00 4.00
169 25.67 45.33 4.33 4.00 4.33 4.33 3.67 3.33 3.33 3.67 4.67 3.67
170 23.33 51.67 5.00 6.33 5.60 6.00 6.33 3.33 4.33 4.00 6.67 4.67
171 11.00 24.67 4.67 4.33 4.67 5.00 4.67 3.33 4.67 2.67 4.33 5.00
172 23.67 41.00 5.00 5.67 5.00 4.33 5.67 3.67 4.67 3.33 4.67 5.00
173 27.67 51.00 4.67 6.00 4.00 5.00 4.67 3.33 3.00 4.00 5.67 4.00
174 5.33 5.33 4.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 4.50 4.50 3.33 4.50 4.50
175 18.50 1.00 5.67 6.67 5.50 6.33 2.33 3.33 6.00 6.33
176 28.00 50.67 5.33 4.67 5.17 5.67 5.67 3.67 5.00 3.33 6.00 5.33
177 16.00 35.00 5.00 3.50 4.75 5.00 4.50 4.00 4.50 2.67 5.00 4.50










Table D-2. Continued.
Establishment


Accession
178
179
LSD
(0.05)


5/22/06
16.33
24.67


7/5/06
35.00
50.33


Color


9/11/06
5.67
5.00


6/6/07
5.33
5.33


17.18 29.22 1.30 1.62


Density
8/22/06,
6/14/07
6.17
4.50


1.24


Turf quality


8/15/06
5.00
5.00


1.65


6/14/07
6.33
4.67


1.78


Seedhead density

8/3/06 6/28/07
2.67 4.33
3.00 3.67


1.13 1.00


Winter color


1/26/06 1/12/07
5.00
5.67


1.19


1.59


Disease

9/1/06
5.00
5.00


1.51









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Nick Greene was born in Bradenton, Florida and raised in Ellenton, Florida by his parents

John and Sharon Greene. He has one brother, Trevor. He graduated from Palmetto High School

and attended the University of Florida. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in

turfgrass science in 2005. He attended graduate school at UF in the Department of Agronomy

where he studied turfgrass breeding and genetics. He graduated with a Master of Science degree

in 2007. His decision to attend graduate school in Gainesville afforded him the experience of two

basketball and one football national championships. Go Gators.





PAGE 1

1 GERMPLASM COLLECTION, EVALUATI ON, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMON CARPETGRASS By NICHOLAS V. GREENE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

PAGE 2

2 2007 Nicholas V. Greene

PAGE 3

3 To my father, John R. Greene.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank my family for th eir support in everything that I do. They have always been there for me, especially through the difficult times over the past couple of years. I am very grateful to my supervisory co mmittee chair, Dr. Kevin Kenworthy. He has always been happy to help me and I have learned much from him. I would also like to thank my supervisory committee members, Dr. Ken Quese nberry, Dr. Jerry Sartai n and Dr. Bryan Unruh, for their help and support. I appreciate the friendship a nd project support of Brian Schw artz and Paul Reith. I thank Georgene Johnson and Justin Sapp for their assist ance in data collection. I would like to thank Mark Kann, Brian Owens, Jan Weinbrech t and the rest of the crew at the turfgrass research farm in Citra, Florida for their help with maintaining my breeding plots. Finally, I would like to thank my father. He wa s a great friend who taught me so much. He believed in me more than anyone and would do a nything in the world for me. He was taken from us much too soon and I miss him.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........9 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 Common Carpetgrass: A Potent ial Alternative Turfgrass......................................................12 Literature Review.............................................................................................................. .....13 Common Carpetgrass Use and Distribution....................................................................13 Common Carpetgrass Botanical Characteristics.............................................................14 Common Carpetgrass Biology, Fertility and Inflorescence Characteristics...................15 Common Carpetgrass Taxonomic a nd Cytological Relationships..................................15 Seed Establishment..........................................................................................................16 Common Carpetgrass Management................................................................................17 Alternative Warm-Season Species Used as Turf.............................................................19 Heritability................................................................................................................... ....21 Multivariate Analysis......................................................................................................22 2 VARIATION AND HERITABILITY ES TIMATES OF COMMON CARPETGRASS......25 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........25 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .28 Germplasm Collection.....................................................................................................28 Morphological Measurements.........................................................................................28 Turfgrass Performan ce Characteristics............................................................................29 Germplasm Source Comparison......................................................................................31 Statistical Analysis..........................................................................................................31 Results and Discussion......................................................................................................... ..33 Germplasm Collection.....................................................................................................33 Morphological Measurements.........................................................................................33 Turfgrass Performan ce Characteristics............................................................................35 Population Comparison...................................................................................................36 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... .........38

PAGE 6

6 3 PATTERNS OF MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF COMMON CARPETGRASS....................................................................................................................43 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........43 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .45 Morphological Measurements.........................................................................................45 Statistical Analysis..........................................................................................................46 Results and Discussion......................................................................................................... ..46 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... .........48 APPENDIX A GERMPLASM COLLECTION INFORMATION................................................................52 Trip 1......................................................................................................................... .............52 Trip 2......................................................................................................................... .............52 Trip 3......................................................................................................................... .............52 Trip 4......................................................................................................................... .............53 B COLLECTION INFORMATION..........................................................................................55 C ANOVA TABLES..................................................................................................................58 D LSD TABLES..................................................................................................................... ....63 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..79 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................84

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Expected mean squares from analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data over years on genotypes of common carpetgrass.....................................................................................39 2-2 Expected mean squares from analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data over dates on genotypes of common carpetgrass.....................................................................................39 2-3 Estimates of variance components, mi nimum, maximum and mean values, broadsense heritabilities and standard devia tions for morphological measurements.................40 2-4 Estimates of variance components, mi nimum, maximum and mean values, broadsense heritabilities and standard deviati ons for turfgrass performance traits....................41 2-5 Comparison of variances and means of morphological traits for two germplasm sources of common carpetgrass.........................................................................................42 2-6 Comparison of variances and means of turfgrass performance traits for two germplasm sources of common carpetgrass......................................................................42 3-1 Eigenvectors from principal component analysis of common car petgrass genotypes. Eigenvalues and contribution to to tal variation lis ted at bottom.......................................49 3-2 Cluster assignments of genotypes for cluster analysis of common carpetgrass................50 B-1 Source information for common car petgrass germplasm collection.................................55 C-1 Stolon length ANOVA table..............................................................................................58 C-2 Number of nodes ANOVA table........................................................................................58 C-3 Number of internodes ANOVA table................................................................................58 C-4 Stolon diameter ANOVA table..........................................................................................59 C-5 Internode length ANOVA table.........................................................................................59 C-6 Leaf length ANOVA table.................................................................................................59 C-7 Leaf width ANOVA table..................................................................................................60 C-8 Number of spikes per seedhead ANOVA table.................................................................60 C-9 Establishment ANOVA table.............................................................................................60 C-10 Genetic color ANOVA table..............................................................................................61

PAGE 8

8 C-11 Density ANOVA table.......................................................................................................61 C-12 Seedhead density ANOVA table.......................................................................................61 C-13 Turf quality ANOVA table................................................................................................62 C-14 Winter color ANOVA table...............................................................................................62 D-1 Means of accessions and l east significant difference (L SD) values for morphological measurements in the greenhouse for common carpetgrass................................................63 D-2 Means of accessions and least signifi cant difference (LSD) values for turfgrass performance characteristics in the field for common carpetgrass.....................................71

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Cluster dendrogram for 32 cluste rs of 176 common carpetgrass genotypes.....................51

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science GERMPLASM COLLECTION, EVALUATI ON, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMON CARPETGRASS By Nicholas V. Greene August 2007 Chair: Kevin Kenworthy Major: Agronomy Common carpetgrass ( Axonopus fissifolius Raddi) is a warm-season perennial grass species indigenous to Central and South America a nd the West Indies. It is used sparingly as a forage and turfgrass in the southeastern United St ates. Because of its low maintenance attributes, common carpetgrass may have potential for developm ent as an alternative turfgrass species for use in lower latitudes. There is limited inform ation regarding the types and amounts of variation that exists for this species. Our objectives were to make a collec tion of common carpetgrass germplasm, determine the vari ation within the collection fo r morphological and turfgrass performance characteristics, calc ulate estimates of heritability and identify groups of genotypes that are similar based on morphology. The germpl asm collection consists of genotypes obtained from commercial seed and collection trips. The collection is theref ore divided into two populations, the seeded population and the coll ected population. Differences in means and variances between the two populat ions were found for various field and morphological traits. Collected genotypes contained equal or less vari ation as commercially available seed. This substantiates the thought that comm on carpetgrass germplasm in th e southeast United States has a narrow genetic base. The greenhouse study eval uated morphological traits and the field study

PAGE 11

11 evaluated turfgrass performan ce characteristics. Differences in means were found to exist between genotypes for most traits. Heritability es timates for most traits were moderate to high, indicating the potential to alte r these traits through conventio nal breeding. Cluster analysis provided a subset of the germplasm collection wh ich accounts for most of the variation present in the entire collection. Principal component anal ysis identified morphologi cal traits contributing most to genetic variation and established relationshi ps among various traits.

PAGE 12

12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Common Carpetgrass: A Potential Alternative Turfgrass New turfgrass cultivars are needed to sa tisfy the publics growing concern for the environment. Cultivars requiring less water, pesticides and fertilizers are the goal of current breeding programs. This requires extensive germ plasm collection and evaluation. The collection of turfgrass germplasm lags far behind that of mo re traditional crops. Most turfgrass collections in the United States contain minimal ge netic diversity (Morris and Hossain, 2000). Several species have been collected and evaluated for use as warm-season turf. Centipedegrass ( Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack.) collections were made by Hanna (1995) in Taiwan and in southern China in 1999 (L iu et al., 2003), although this material is not currently available in the USDA National Pl ant Germplasm System (NPGS) (USDA-NPGS, 2007). There are only 12 accessions of centip edegrass contained in the NPGS. Saltgrass ( Distichlis spicata [L.] Greene) accessions in the NPGS total only 7 and seashore paspalum ( Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) is represented by 16 plants (Morris and Hossain, 2000). Seashore paspalum collections have been made by a team from the University of Georgia. Since 1993, 300 accessions have been collected from various co untries. A small collection also exists in Argentina (Duncan, 2000). A collection of buffalograss ( Buchloe dactyloides [Nutt.] Engelm.) germplasm was assembled from across the lower Gr eat Plains and is maintained at Texas Tech University (Kenworthy, 1996). The University of Ne braska also maintains a large collection of buffalograss. The USGA sponsored zoysiagrass ( Zoysia spp.) germplasm collection trips to Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines in 1982 (Diesburg, 2000). Texas A&M University holds a collection of zoysiagrass germplasm containing over 1,000 accessions. The majority of the species in the collection are Zoysia japonica and Z matrella while other species include Z

PAGE 13

13 sinica Z macrostaycha Z pacifica and Z tenuifolia This collection has been maintained for two decades and has been tested under field conditions in Texas, Maryland and Missouri (Engelke, 2000). Common carpetgrass ( Axonopus fissifolius Raddi) is a warm season grass prevalent in the southern coastal plain region of the southeastern United States There are no accessions found in the National Plant Germplasm System (USD A-NPGS, 2007). With an emphasis on low maintenance and low input turfgrass species there ex ists a need to collect, evaluate and improve common carpetgrass. It requires minimal fertilizati on and pesticide inputs. It has potential for utilization along roadsides, lawns, and other areas in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A collection of common carpetgrass will be made and evaluated in both breeding and management programs. The objectives of this research are to: Acquire diverse common carpetgrass germplasm. Determine the extent of variation within the collection for mor phological and turfgrass performance characteristics. Calculate broad-sense heritabilities fo r morphological and turfgrass performance characteristics. Determine if greater variation exists in seeded or collected germplasm. Identify and select a core collection of common carpetgrass. Literature Review Common Carpetgrass Use and Distribution Common carpetgrass, also known as Louisian agrass and petit gazon, which means small lawngrass, is a warm-season grass prevalent in th e southern coastal pl ains of the United States (Wise, 1961). Its stolonife rous sod forming growth habit can develop a dense turf that produces an attractive, wear resistant lawn. Co mmon carpetgrass is grown in Australia, Central

PAGE 14

14 America, Malaysia, North America, South Am erica, South Korea, and West Africa with indigenous populations existing in Central America, South America and the West Indies (Bush, 1997). Its uses include lawns, parks, cemeteries, roadsides, unimproved pastures and other low maintenance grassy areas. It can also be used successfully in low, wet areas where prolonged water-logging occurs. It persists in areas with high water tabl es where it out-competes other grasses as soil fertility declines (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002). Common carpetgrass is adapted to acidic, poorly drained soils charac teristic of those found in the southern gulf coast region of the United States (Heath et al., 1985; Musser, 1962). Another use, although ra re, is on golf course fairways such as the Louisville Countr y Club in Louisville, Mississippi (Bush, 1997). Common carpetgrass is believed to have entered the United St ates through the state of Louisiana during the 19th century where it quickly became a major component of unimproved pasture land (Heath et al., 1985). It has naturalized in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia and North and South Carolina (Hitchcock, 1950). Common carpetgrass has been reported as far north as Memphis, TN (Bush, 1997), and is commonly found in Hawaii (Russell Nagata, personal communication). Common carpetgrass studies at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station be gan in the spring of 1922. The common carpetgrass plots in the lawn gr ass studies were reported as s howing up well (Stokes, 1927). It was introduced near the beginning of the 19th cen tury and was not considered valuable as a pasture grass until after the middle of the 19t h century (Ritchey and Henley, 1936). Common carpetgrass introduction to the United States wa s prior to 1832 and a pl ant collected near New Orleans in that year has b een preserved (Stefferud, 1948). Common Carpetgrass Botanical Characteristics Common carpetgrass is a stolonif erous plant (Turgeon, 2005) and highly variable in color, leaf length, leaf texture, height and seed characteristics and pr oduction. Leaves are glabrous and

PAGE 15

15 light green to medium green in color. Leaf blades range from 5 to 20 cm in length and have a rounded apex (Skerman and Riveros, 1990). Vernation is folded and the ligule is a fringe of hairs fused at the base. Auricles are absent and the co llar is narrow and contin uous, occasionally with hairs. The lamina is 4 to 8 mm wide and marg ins have short hairs ne ar apex (Turgeon, 2005). Skerman and Riveros (1990) report leaf widths of 2 to 6 mm. Tropical carpetgrass ( Axonopus compressus [Swartz.] Beauv.) is at times referred to and confused with common carpetgrass. Tropical car petgrass is less cold hardy (Turgeon, 2005). Tropical carpetgrass tends to be more stolonif erous with stouter culms and stolons, broader leaves and longer, more acute spikelets (Cook et al., 2005). Common Carpetgrass Biology, Fertility and Inflorescence Characteristics Common carpetgrass is a perennial plant. The florets are perfect, po ssessing both pistillate and staminate reproductive parts. It can repr oduce vegetatively and sexually. Cross-pollination will occur in the field and an isolated plant in the greenhouse set selfed seed. An inflorescence typically has two or three racemes branching from a tall, filiform seedstalk (Heath et al., 1985). The upper two racemes are proximate with the th ird remote. Spikelets are 2 mm long and in two rows on one side of a flattened rachis. Lemmas are fertile with a glabrous apex (Skerman and Riveros, 1990). Anthers are pur ple (Hickenbick et al., 1975). Common Carpetgrass Taxonomic a nd Cytological Relationships Cytological studies provide information on taxonomy and reproductive biology which is vital for plant improvement through breedi ng programs (Norrmann et al., 1994). Common carpetgrass belongs to the genus Axonopus The scientific name A fissifolius is synonymous with A affinis (Chase) and Paspalum fissifolium (Raddi) (USDA-NPGS, 2007). Watson and Dallwitz (1992) examined this very complex genus, which contains about 110 species. Many are allopolyploids derived through in terspecific hybridization within the genus. Cytological studies

PAGE 16

16 suggest that common carpetgrass shows morphol ogic and ecologic similarity to the forms A riograndensis A purpusii var. glabrescens A parodii A jesuiticus A obtusifolius var. obtusifolius and A compressoides The genus exhibits a base number, x = 10, and total (2n) chromosomes = 20, 40, 60 and 80, indicating diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid species (Watson and Dallwitz, 1992 ; Hickenbick et al ., 1975). Common carpetgrass is an octaploid (2n = 8x = 80) (Hickenbick et al., 1975; Turgeon, 2005). Tropical carpetgrass is a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) (Turgeon, 2005). Seed Establishment Turfgrass establishment by seeding is comm only practiced. Environmental factors that affect seed germination are temperature, mo isture, light and wind (H ensler et al., 2001). Common carpetgrass seed germination is relati vely fast compared to other warm-season turfgrass species, making it ideal for soil stabi lization (Turgeon, 2005). A seeding rate of 245 Kg ha-1 (5 lb 1000 ft-2) is recommended for establishing a new lawn (Trenholm et al., 2000). Bush (1997) reported that untreated seed has a mean germination time of 12.3, 10.2, 5.6 and 4.4 days at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 C, respectively. These temperatures resulted in 6, 49, 88 and 95 percent germination. Seed priming is a process in which seed is treated prior to planting in order to speed germination time overcome dormancy requirements and increase germination rate. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) is generally used in a weak solution (1 to 4 % KNO3) to treat common carpetgrass seed. The soaking tr eatment lasts 48 hours. Priming can increase germination by up to 33%. Time of germinati on can also be reduced by about 2 days. The highest increases in germination percentage a nd time to germination due to priming are seen under sub-optimal temperature conditions (Bush, 1997).

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17 Common Carpetgrass Management Herbicides Management of common carpetgrass will at times require the use of postemergence herbicides to control weed in festations. Herbicide tolerance of common carpetgrass has not been studied as extensiv ely as other more commonly grown warm-season turfgrasses such as common bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon ] and St. Augustinegrass ( Stenotaphrum secundatum [Walt.] Kuntze.). Common carpetgrass exhibits only a slight decline in turfgrass quality followi ng applications of atrazine, bentazon, imazaquin, mecoprop, triclopyr, metsulfuron, 2,4-D, 2,4-D + dicamba and 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop. Turf of marginal quali ty resulted after applications of sulfometuron, seth oxydim and diclofop. Common carpetgrass was rendered unacceptable af ter application of asulam and MSMA. Common carpetgrass generally tolerated most poste mergence broadleaf and sedge herbicides and was generally damaged by postemergence grass herbicides (McCarty and Colvin, 1991). Plant growth regulators can be used on comm on carpetgrass to improve turf quality, reduce mowing requirements, reduce plant texture a nd to reduce seedhead height and number. Trinexapac-ethyl improved turf quality, reduced growth and seedhead hei ght. Mefluidide showed no effect on common carpetgrass. Sethoxydim redu ced growth but with unacceptable turfgrass quality. Fluazasulfuron produced unacceptable turf at times and reduced seedhead height (Bush et al., 1998). Disease and insect problems Common carpetgrass is damaged by the soilborne fungal diseases brown patch ( Rhizoctonia solani ) and Pythium spp. as well as most leaf spot diseases (Duble, 1996). In warm-season turfgrasses, brown pa tch is referred to as large patch and consists of basal rot caused by infection of stolons or basal leaf sheaths. Circular patches can reach up to 1 m in diameter, sometimes with discolored ou ter rings. Tip dieback ca n occur due to sheath infection. Pythium diseases are caused by numerous diffe rent species. Disease symptoms vary

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18 depending on conditions and site of infection of the plant. Pythium is capable of infecting every part of the plant (Smiley et al., 2005). Foliar diseases affecting comm on carpetgrass include Cercospora leaf spot ( Cercospora and Phaeoramularia spp.), dollar spot ( Sclerotinia homoeocarpa ), gray leaf spot ( Pyricularia grisea ) and rust ( Puccinia Uromyces and Physopella spp.). Chemical control can reduc e disease severity and cultural practices such as mowing at maximum recommended height, thatch removal, fe rtilization and deep, fre quent irrigation will aid in disease prevention (Agrios, 1997). Insects that can affect common carpetgrass incl ude the white grub and mole cricket (Duble, 1996). White grubs are the larvae of scarab beetle s. Grubs are white with brown heads and can range in length from 3/8 to 2 inches long. Th ey feed on the roots of the plant and cause a yellowing or wilting of the turf. Three species of mole crickets are considered plant pests in Florida; the southern mole cricket ( Scapteriscus borellii ), the tawny mole cricket ( Scapteriscus vicinus ) and the short-winged mole cricket ( Scapteriscus abbreviatus ). Mole cricket damage is due to direct feeding on the turfgrass plant and to the tunnels created wh ich uproot the plant and cause desiccation (Frank and Unruh, 1999). Fertilization Common carpetgrass is considered a low maintenance turfgrass in part because of its low nitrogen requirement. Late sp ring and early fall applica tions of nitrogen at a rate of 49 Kg ha-1 (1 lb 1000 ft-2) are sufficient to sustain grow th (Duble, 1996). Bush et al. (2000) reported a linear increase in turf quality with increasing annual nitrogen up to 196 kg ha-1 (4 lbs 1000 ft-2). As with all fertilization program s, phosphorous and potassium requirements should be based on soil testing. Watering Common carpetgrass exhibits poor dr ought tolerance when compared to bermudagrass. During a drought or on dry soils, supplemental irrigation is required to maintain

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19 leaf cover. Moist soils in low lying areas will sustain common carpetgrass with no additional irrigation. It thrives in these areas where bermudagrass is not adapted (Duble, 1996). It has a shallow root system with 96% of roots in the t op 5 cm of soil (CTAHR, 2 002), contributing to its lack of drought tolerance. Mowing Common carpetgrass grows vigorously in the late spring, summer and early fall months. Unsightly seedhead production occurs throughout the growing season and can become a problem within three weeks in nonm owed stands (Bush et al., 2000) A rotary or flail mower is required for seedhead removal which are produ ced approximately five days following mowing. Recommended mowing heights range from 0.75 to 2.0 inches. Shorter mowing heights require reduced mowing intervals. When mowing is in frequent higher mowing heights provide better turf quality (Duble, 1996). Alternative Warm-Season Species Used as Turf Two species, bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) a nd St. Augustinegrass, dominate the warmseason turfgrass market in the United States. In recent years several species have been investigated to provide altern atives and hopefully reduce manage ment inputs associated with warm-season species. These turfgrass species include buffalograss, centipedegrass, mesquitegrass ( Hilaria belangeri [Steud.] Nash), saltgrass ( Distichlis spicata [L.] Greene), seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass. Buffalograss is native to the United States and is the predominant species found in the shortgrass prairie of the North American Grea t Plains (Wenger, 1943). The University of Nebraska received funding from the United Stat es Golf Association and the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America in 1984 to develop improve d cultivars of vegetative and seeded buffalograsses. Selection criteria were based on lower water, fertilizer, pesticide and mowing requirements. Collections of buffalogr ass were made, including material from a

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20 discontinued buffalograss breeding program at Texas A & M University (Riordan, 1991). Buffalograss has been well received for use in home lawns and on golf courses in many regions (Mintenko and Smith, 1999). Centipedegrass is a popular turf grass species among those that desire low fertility and maintenance requirements (Nutter, 1955). It is native to China and southeast Asia and was introduced into the United States as seed in 1916 by Frank Meyer. It is grown from Florida to South Carolina and west to Texas. Oklahoma St ate University introduced an improved cultivar, Oklawn, possessing drought and cold tolera nce in 1965 (Alderson and Sharp, 1993). More recently, the University of Tennessee Tenn Turf (Callahan, 1999), Auburn University AU Centennial (Pedersen and Dickens, 1985), USDA -ARS Tifton, GA TifBlair (Hanna et al., 1997) and the University of Florida Hammo ck (Kenworthy, personal communication) have released improved cultivars of centipedegrass. Mesquitegrass, or Curly Mesquitegrass, a ppears similar to buffalograss and has been investigated as a low input desert turfgrass. Th e water requirement for this species is minimal. The University of Arizona bega n research into this species in 1988. A germplasm collection was made in the state of Arizona. Flowering biology a nd turfgrass performance traits were evaluated with research funding provided by the United St ates Golf Association (Mancino, 1988). There are no known improved cultivars of mesquitegrass. Saltgrass is a rhizomatous grass which is prev alent in the salt marshes of North America (Gosselink, 1984). This grass shows promise as an alte rnative turf in terms of its fast growth rate, wide soil pH range, high salt tolerance a nd high drought tolerance (Meerow, 2001). Salt tolerance is achieved through salt excretory glands (Hansen et al., 1976) and tole rance at the cellular level (Warren and Gould, 1982). Saltgrass can be f ound throughout most of the United

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21 States. Breeding programs are underw ay utilizing collec tions from the western United States (Johnson, 2000). Seashore paspalum is a turfgrass species expe riencing much success. It is adapted to brackish marshes and is tolerant to many stresses. It has high salt tolerance, tolerates a wide range of soil pH and is drought and flood tole rant (Duncan, 2000). During the 1950s, Dr. O.J. Noer moved the grass throughout the southeastern United States. Additional seashore paspalum came from Australia in the 1970s and 1980s. A breeding and management program for seashore paspalum began at the University of Geor gia in 1993. These efforts led to the release of improved cultivars, Sea Isle I, Sea Isle 2000 and Sea Isle Supreme, for use on golf courses and sports fields (Carrow and Duncan, 2002). Zoysiagrass was introduced to the United States from Japan in the 1890s. The cultivars Meyer and Emerald were released by the Unit ed States Department of Agriculture and the United States Golf Association during the 1950s and 1960s. Interest in zoysiagrass increased during the 1980s (Engelke, 2000) Zoysiagrass contains much genetic diversity making it adaptable to many different environmental cond itions. Recent cultivars released in 1997 by Texas A&M University include Diamond, Cav alier, Palisades a nd Crowne (Diesburg, 2000). Heritability Heritability for certain traits can indicate to a plant breeder the amount of progress that can be expected in subsequent cycles of sele ction. The term heritability, denoted as h2, refers to the ratio of the genotypic variance ( 2 g) to the phenotypic variance ( 2 ph). Genotypic variance includes additive ( 2 A), dominance ( 2 D) and epistatic ( 2 I) variances. Phenotypic variance includes variances due to environment ( 2 e), genotype by environment interactions ( 2 ge) and genotype ( 2 g). Heritability estimates can be broa d-sense or narrow-sense. Broad-sense

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22 heritability estimates include additive, dominant and epistatic gene actions in the genotypic variance component. Narrow-sense es timates include only the additive effects and relate to the potential for improvement of traits through se lection. Calculating narro w-sense heritability requires estimating additive genetic variance usin g diallel, design I and design II mating designs (Fehr, 1991). Heritability is expressed as a fr action with possible valu es ranging from zero to one. It can be multiplied by 100 to obtain a percen tage. Narrow-sense heritability can not exceed broad-sense heritability and is most often lower. Broad-sense heritabilitie s generally indicate the presence of dominant effects and can be us eful for vegetative propa gation of F1 hybrids. Multivariate Analysis Morphological characterization involves the m easurement of various morphological traits of a germplasm collection. Morphological and mo lecular characterization of a species can be used to assess the genetic variab ility present in a germplasm colle ction. This information can be used to determine whether or not further incr ease of the gene pool is warranted and identify divergent accessions useful in making hybridiza tions. The data can provide information on the relatedness of the accessions. This enables gr ouping of accessions and assembly of a core collection. The core collection w ould then represent the entire collection in terms of genetic variation. Core collections are useful for larger germplasm banks and for expedited transfer of genetic resources. Correlations can be made be tween traits to learn which characteristics contribute most to the genetic diversity. Certain tra its could then be discarded in future evaluations. Multivariate analysis is often used analyze a collection with many accessions to determine relationships among accessions (Bhargava, 2007). Appropriate procedures include Principal Component and Cluster Analysis (Hawkes et al., 2000). Principal Component Analysis is most appropriate in genetic studies when there are many accessions evaluated for multiple variables.

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23 Principal Component Analysis identifies patter ns in a data set where multiple variables are measured on many accessions. This type of anal ysis can be useful in understanding complex traits (Iezzoni and Pritts, 1991). Casler and van Santen (2000) used morphologi cal measurements and cluster analysis to determine the relatedness of 221 meadow fescue ( Festuca pratensis Huds.) accessions. Their results placed the accessions into 35 clusters. They were able to make inferences about specific clusters by comparing cluster means to the total germplasm means for specific traits. Additionally, they used the data to select a core subset of 55 ac cessions to represent the genetic variation found in the collecti on for morphological traits. Morphological measurements were used to identify diversity among accessions of Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Lewu et al., 2007). Th ey were able to cluste r together genotypes that were collected from similar geographic regions. Cluster analysis was performed on morphologica l and quality traits of 30 accessions of quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) germplasm (Bhargava et al., 2007). The accessions grouped into six clusters. Accessions did not cl uster well based on geographic location, but did so based on accessions having similar qua lity and morphological measurements. Carvalho (2004) performed cluste r analysis to characterize ge rmplasm of perennial peanut ( Arachis pintoi Krap. and Greg.) based on morphologica l measurements. Fifty-three accessions were placed into four distinct clusters. Xu et al., (1994) used restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to determine the diversity among cultivars of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.). While cluster analysis did not provide clear subgroups th e turf-type cultivars were found to be more closely related than the forage-type cultivars.

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24 Wu et al., (2004) used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to compare 28 accessions of Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon that originated from 11 co untries and 4 continents. The accessions were grouped into five major clus ters that corresponded well with the geographic origin of the accessions.

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25 CHAPTER 2 VARIATION AND HERITABILITY ES TIMATES OF COMMON CARPETGRASS Introduction Warm-season turfgrass production in the United States is dominated by two species, bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon L.) and St. Augustinegrass ( Stenotaphrum secundatum [Walt.] Kuntze). Other warm-season species have been investigated recently to provide alternatives to these grasses and to decrease the ma nagement inputs of warm-season turfgrasses. Evaluated alternativ e species include buffalograss ( Buchloe dactyloides [Nutt.] Engelm.) (Riordan, 1991), centipedegrass ( Eremichloa ophiuroides [Munro.] Hack.) (Hanna, 1995), mesquitegrass ( Hilaria belangeri [Steud] Nash.) (M ancino, 1998), saltgrass ( Distichlis spicata [L.] Greene) (Meerow, 2001), seashore paspalum ( Paspalum vaginatum Swartz.) (Duncan, 2000), and zoysiagrass ( Zoysia spp.) (Engelke, 2000). Common carpetgrass ( Axonopus fissifolius Raddi) is a warm-season species that may have merit for improvement as a low-maintenance turfg rass. Cultivation occurs in Australia, Central America, Malaysia, North America, South America, South Korea, and West Africa. It originated in Central America, South America and the West Indies (Bush, 1997). Common carpetgrass requires minimal fertilization and pesticide inputs (Duble, 1996). It has potential for utilization along roadsides, lawns, and other areas in th e southeastern U.S. and lower latitudes. Common carpetgrass is readily found throughout the southern coastal plain region of the southeastern United States (Wise, 1961). The sp ecies made its way into the United States through the Louisiana area and quickly became a substantial part of unimproved pasture land (Heath et al., 1985). Texas, Oklahoma, Louisian a, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina all contain naturalized populations of common carpetgrass (Hitchcock, 1950). Bush (1997) re ported common carpetgrass as far north as

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26 Memphis, TN. It is commonly found in the Hawaiian islands (Russell Nagata, personal communication). Common carpetgrass is a stolon iferous sod forming plant capable of developing a dense turf that produces an a ttractive wear resist ant lawn. It thrives in the acidic, poorly drained soils found in the southern gulf coast region of th e United States (Duble, 1996; Heath et al., 1985; Musser, 1962). It has been used in low, wet areas where prolo nged water-logging occurs and it persists in areas with high water tables where it out-competes other grasses as soil fertility declines (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002). Common carpetgrass has fair shade tolerance compared to other warm-season turfgrasses and root growth is most active with temperatures between 27 and 32 C (Waddington et al., 1992). The species is high ly variable in color, leaf length, leaf texture, height, and seed charac teristics and production. Leaves ar e glabrous and light green to medium green in color and range from 5 to 20 cm in length and 2 to 6 mm in width with a rounded apex (Skerman and Riveros, 1990). Turge on (2005) reports leaf wi dths of 4 to 8 mm. Common carpetgrass is capable of selfand cross-pollination a nd can be clonally propagated through sod, plugs, and sprigs. An inflorescence typically has two or th ree racemes branching from a tall, filiform seed stalk (Heath et al., 1985). Taxonomy and reproductive biology of a species are important when dealing with plant improvement through breeding programs. Cytologi cal studies can provide this information (Norrmann et al., 1994). Common car petgrass resides in the genus Axonopus Synonyms of A fissifolius include A affinis (Chase) and Paspalum fissifolium (Raddi) (USDA-NPGS, 2007). This complex genus contains about 110 differe nt species. Many of th ese are allopolyploids derived from interspecific hybrid izations within the genus. Cyto logical studies suggest that common carpetgrass, an octaploid (2n = 8x = 80), shows morphologic and eco logic similarity to

PAGE 27

27 the forms A riograndensis A purpusii var. glabrescens A parodii A jesuiticus A obtusifolius var. obtusifolius and A compressoides (Hickenbick et al., 1975 and Turgeon, 2005). Heritability can indicate the amount of progr ess that can be made through subsequent cycles of selection. Heritability (h2) refers to the ratio of the genotypic variance ( 2 g) to the phenotypic variance ( 2 p). Total genotypic variance includes additive ( 2 A), dominant ( 2 D) and epistatic ( 2 I) variances. Phenotypic variance include s variances due to environment ( 2 e), genotype environment interactions ( 2 ge) and genotype ( 2 g). Two types of heritability estimates include broadand narrow-sense. Broad-sense heritability estimates include additive, dominant and epistatic gene actions in the genotypic variance component and narrow-sense heritabilities include only additive effects (Fehr, 1991; Dudley and Moll, 1969). While narrowsense estimates are better indicators of progr ess through selection, broa d-sense heritabilities indicate the presence of geneti c effects and can be useful for development of vegetatively propagated F1 hybrids. Breeding and development of a new turfgra ss species requires a br oad germplasm base, knowledge of the populations morphological and tu rfgrass performance traits and reliable estimates of heritability for these traits. Current ly, there are no common carpetgrass accessions in the National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS, 2007). The objectives of this research are to acquire diverse common carpetgrass germplasm, determine the extent of variation within the collection for morphological and turfgrass performance character istics, calculate broad-sense heritabilities for these characteristics and determ ine if greater variation exists in seeded or collected germplasm.

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28 Materials and Methods Germplasm Collection During summer 2005 a collection of common carpetgrass germplasm was gathered from across the southeastern United States. A total of four trips were made originating from Gainesville, Florida. Accessions were collected from Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Ar kansas. An attempt was made to collect an accession every 48 km (30 miles). Each accession was collected, placed in a numbered bag and stored in a cooler. Latitude and longitude coor dinates were noted at each collection site. Upon return to Gainesville, the plants were transp lanted into pots in the greenhouse. Two additional accessions were acquired, one from Hilo, Hawaii and the other from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (acquired July 2005). Thes e accessions comprise the collected population of the germplasm collection. The remaining germplasm was derived from a commercial bag of common carpetgrass seed purchased at a home improvement retail store in Gainesville, Florida. There are 71 accessions from this source. The collected population and the seeded population total 176 accessions and were utilized for morphologica l and turfgrass perf ormance evaluations. Morphological Measurements The germplasm was propagated in 10 cm (4 inch) pots and arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the gr eenhouse. Plants were allowed to mature and fill out the pots. Once mature, all plants we re trimmed around the edge of the pots and to a uniform height. After 8 wk of growth, three st olons from each pot were measured and stolon length, number of nodes, number of internodes, stolon diameter, inter node length, leaf length, leaf width and number of spikes per inflorescence were recorde d. Stolons were cut at the point where they grew over the edge of the pot. Stolon length (cm) was measured from the cut end to

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29 the end of the terminal leaf sheath. Number of nodes and internode s were counted. Stolon diameter (mm), on the third internode from th e terminal end, was measured using digital calipers. The diameter was taken from the center of the internode and at its narrowest point. The same internode was measured for internode leng th (cm). Leaf length (cm) was measured on the youngest, fully expanded leaf. Leaf width (mm) was determined on the same leaf and at its widest point. Spikes per inflores cence were counted on three random ly selected seed stalks per pot. First year measurements were performed u nder decreasing day length conditions. Year two measurements were taken under increasing day length. Irrigation four times per week and biweekly fertilization sustaine d plant growth. The above measurements were taken November 2006 and April 2007. Turfgrass Performance Characteristics All accessions (176) were planted 4 October 2005 in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the University of Fl orida Plant Science Research and Education Unit in Citra, Florida on a Candler Sand (Hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments). A plot was planted using a single 10 cm plug plante d on 1.8 m centers and maintained as 2.25 m2 plots with a surrounding 0.3 m alley. Fe rtility applications c onsisted of 24.5 Kg N ha-1 (0.5 lbs N 1000 ft-1) using a 15-5-15 (N-P2O5-K2O) fertilizer at planting, 36.7 Kg N ha-1 (0.75 lbs N 1000 ft-1) of urea and 15-5-15 in July and October of 2006, respectively, and 24.5 Kg N ha-1 of 15-5-15 and 19-1-6 with atrazine in February and May of 2007, respectively. Fungicide applications of chlorothalonil at 9.35 l ha-1 (8 pts acre-1) were applied in June and September of 2006. Preemergence herbicide applications of pendimethalin at 4.67 l ha-1 (4 pints acre-1) were made in November of 2006 and March of 2007. Plots were mowed weekly with a rotary mower at a height of 5 cm.

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30 Turf density, genetic color, wint er color and turf qua lity were visually rated using a one-tonine scale based on the National Turfgrass Ev aluation Program (NTEP) guidelines (Morris and Shearman, 2007). For these traits a rating of one equals poor performance, nine equals exceptional performance and five was the mi nimum acceptable rating. Seedhead density was visually rated using a one-to-f ive scale. Turfgrass establishm ent was visually rated based on percent plot coverage. Density ratings, collected August 2006 and June 2007, reflect the number of living plants per unit area. A rating of one indicates open turf and a nine represents maximum density. Genetic color, collected September 2006 and June 2007, assessed a genotypes inherent color, disregarding any effects due to stress. A rati ng of one equaled light green color and nine indicated dark green. Winter color was evaluate d during cooler months (January 2006-07) and was utilized to recognize genotype s that retained color through wi nter. A rating of one indicated a completely brown dormant state and nine equa ls actively growing, green turf. Turf quality, rated August 2006 and June 2007 was a combination of color, density, uniformity, texture, and damage due to stress; it reflected the aesthetic and functional value of a turf. A turf quality rating of nine represented the highest quality possible and one indicated very poor quality (brown, low density, poor uniformity, or mortality) For ratings of seedhead density plots were not mowed for three weeks. Ratings were done on a one-to-five scale, wher e a rating of five was no or very few seedheads and a one was a high density of seedheads. Seedhead density was evaluated in August 2006 and June 2007. Establishm ent ratings were taken from the time of planting to when most plants had covered the pl ot area. A 1.5 x 1.5 m grid with grid-lines on one foot spacings was superimposed over each plot to calculate percent establishment. Establishment was rated May and July of 2006.

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31 Germplasm Source Comparison The germplasm collection contains plants from two distinct sources. The first source is designated as the seeded population and consists of plants germinated from commercial seed. The second source is designated as the collected population and consists of plants collected during four collection trips across the southeastern United States. Statistical Analysis For morphological traits data were analyzed as a split -plot using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, 2003). Years were considered random effects and designated as main plots. Genotypes were considered fixed effects and designated as sub-plots (Table 2-1). Appropriate tests of significan ce to compare means were determined using expected mean squares. Years were tested using reps with in years as the error term. Differences among genotypes were tested using genotypes years as the error term. The interaction, genotypes years, was tested using the residual error. Es timates of variance components were determined using PROC VARCOMP. Use of these variance s allowed for calculation of broad-sense heritabilities using the following formula: RY Y HE GY G G 2 2 2 2 2 where H2 equals broad sense heritability, 2 G equals the variance of genotypes, 2 GY equals the variance of genotypes years, 2 E equals the error variance, R equa ls number of replications and Y equals number of years. Standard errors (s.e.) of heritability estim ates for the morphological measurements were calculated using the formula (Hallauer and Miranda, 1981):

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32 RY Y e s H e sE GY G G 2 2 2 2 2) .( ) .( Turfgrass performance traits were analyzed as a split-plot using PROC GLM. However, because measurement dates represent repeated measures of the same experimental units, genotypes were designated as whole plots and m easurement dates as sub-plots (Table 2-2). Again, genotypes were considered as fixed effects and dates as random effects. The test of significance for genotypes was performed using genotypes reps. Dates and genotypes dates were tested using the residual error. PROC VARCOMP provided variance components used to calculate heritability estimates. The following formula was used for heritability estimates: R D R D HE GR GD G G 2 2 2 2 2 2 where H2 equals broad sense heritability, 2 G equals the variance of genotypes, 2 GD equals the variance of genotypes dates, 2 GR equals the variance of genotypes reps, 2 E equals the error variance, R equals number of replicat ions and D equals number of dates. Standard errors (s.e.) of heritability estimates for the turfgrass performance traits were calculated using the formula (Hallauer and Miranda, 1981): R D R D e s H e sE GR GD G G 2 2 2 2 2 2) .( ) .( The standard errors of the variance compone nts are given in Table 2-3 and Table 2-4. Calculations were based on the following formula (Hallauer, 1970): 2 2 ) .( .2 2 2 i i idf M c e s

PAGE 33

33 where c equals the coefficient of the appropriate component of the expected mean square and df equals the degrees of freedom. To determine if differences exist between the two sources, seeded and collected (designated as populations), comparisons were made between means and variances of the populations. PROC GLM was used for comparing population mean s and a Levenes test was used to identify when population vari ances differed for respective traits. Results and Discussion Germplasm Collection Plants were collected be tween the latitudes of 26 27.921 N and 35 20.289 N and longitudes of 78 33.750 W and 92 04.573 W. A total of 103 common carpetgrass accessions were collected during the collect ion trips. Total distance trav eled was 9664 km (6005 miles). Common carpetgrass was readily found throughout th e southeastern United States. An exception was peninsular Florida, where common carpetgrass does not appear to be as prevalent. It is reported as preferring wet or mo ist growing conditions (Turgeon, 2005). In addition to wet areas, germplasm was found growing in coastal areas, higher elevati ons and dry, compacted soils. Accessions were found growing in fu ll sun as well as shaded areas. Morphological Measurements The combined analysis across years indicated that the means of genotypes were significantly different for all mo rphological traits measured (Appe ndix C). Differences for stolon length, number of nodes and number of internodes were significant (P 0.05); internode length, stolon diameter, leaf length, leaf width and number of spikes per seedhead were highly significant (P 0.001). Years (2006 and 2007) we re highly significant (P 0.01) for all traits except number of nodes, number of inter nodes and internode length. The genotype years interaction was non-significant fo r stolon diameter, significant (P 0.05) for internode length and

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34 leaf width, and highly significant (P 0.001) for stolon length, number of nodes, number of internodes, leaf width and number of spikes pe r seedhead. The combined analysis was utilized because entries with the largest and smallest measurements remained consistent across dates for all traits. Changes in rank leading to the signif icant interaction were associated with entries having intermediate measurements. Selection in a breeding program is typically directed at genotypes that rank in the tail e nds of a population (i.e. largest/s mallest or best/worst). Since genotypes that ranked in the uppe r and lower tail ends changed little, it is desirable from a breeding perspective to utilize the combined an alysis. In addition, this analysis is more appropriate for estimation of heritabilities because it produces an environmental variance estimate. The means and ranges (Table 2-3) indicat e that tremendous variation exists for morphological traits in common car petgrass. Previously reported l eaf widths range from 2 to 8 mm and leaf lengths from 5 to 20 cm (Tur geon, 2005; Skerman and Riveros, 1990). We observed leaf widths of 3 to 11 mm and leaf lengths of 1.6 to 14.1 cm. Reported number of spikes per inflorescence was 2 to 3 (Heath et al., 1985). In contrast, we report a range of 2 to 5. This is the first known reporting of values in common carpetgrass for stolon length, number of nodes and internodes, internode length and stolon diameter. Variance estimates (Table 2-3) can indicate wh ich components, environmental or genetic, are primarily contributing to the observed phenot ype. Contributions of environmental or genetic effects are also reflected in the heritability estimates. For stolon length, number of nodes, number of internodes and number of spikes per seedhead the broad sense heritabilities were moderate (0.29-0.34). For these traits the variance of genotype year was more than twice the variance of genotype, indicating that the environment c ontributed greatly to the overall phenotype.

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35 Broad sense heritabilities were high (0.54-0.87) for stolon diameter, in ternode length, leaf length and leaf width. The geneti c variance was twice the genotype year variance for leaf length and several times more for stolon diameter internode length and leaf width. Therefore, the environment did not influence the expres sed phenotype as occurred with previously described traits. These traits influence the plant ar chitecture and are relate d to overall density and turf quality. Since high heritabilit ies are associated with these traits there exists potential for significant improvements in the a ppearance of common carpetgrass. Turfgrass Performance Characteristics Field data collected over time were combined for analysis. Differences among means of genotypes were highly significant (P 0.001) for all turfgrass pe rformance characteristics (Appendix C). Dates were not significant for density and turf quality, and highly significant (P 0.001) for color, seedhead density, esta blishment and winter color. The genotype date interaction was not significant for density, significant (P 0.05) for winter color and highly significant for color (P 0.01), establishment (P 0.01), seedhead density (P 0.01) and turf quality (P 0.01). For reasons explained for morphological traits, the combined analysis was utilized for explanation of variation for turfgrass performance traits. A large amount of variation exists for the tra its measured in the field. The mean, minimum and maximum values for turfgrass performance tra its are presented (Table 2-4). Turfgrass color, quality and establishment of co mmon carpetgrass have previously been reported (Bush at al., 1998). However, this information was acquired from observing a uniform planting of common carpetgrass with various fertility and mowing trea tments. Therefore, information related to range and extent of variation available for turfgra ss performance of common carpetgrass germplasm was not previously available. The means for all traits using NTEP protocols were below

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36 minimum acceptable values. This indicates that th e majority of genotypes did not perform well. However, the maximum values show that potential exists for selecting plants for use as parents or as direct cultivar releases that have superior visual turfgrass characteristics. The variance estimates for turfgrass performan ce traits (Table 2-4) indicate the proportion of environmental and genetic eff ects that result in the expres sed phenotype. The heritability estimation for establishment was high (0.56). Heri tability estimates for genetic color, density, seedhead density, turf quality and winter co lor were moderate (0.25-0.41). The genotypic variance for establishment was five times that for the genotype date interaction indicating the importance of genetic effects for this trait. Genotypic variances for the remaining traits with moderate heritabilities were similar to the genotype date variances. Therefore, the lower heritability estimates for these traits may be due to enhanced environmental effects. An exception to this was the density rating, which had a lower heritability due to a large error variance. Overall, these heritabilit ies suggest that improvement of turfgrass performance traits in common carpetgrass is possible through breeding. Although the broa d-sense heritabilities do not indicate that progress is po ssible through cycles of select ion, they do infer that F1 hybrids can be developed that possess combinations of desirable characteristics. These F1 hybrids could then be utilized as vegetative cultivars. Population Comparison Morphological traits. For comparisons between the two germplasm sources, an analysis of variance was performed to co mpare population means and a Levene s test for variances (Table 2-5). Means differed (P 0.01) for number of nodes, number of internodes, stolon diameter, internode length, leaf length, leaf width and number of spikes per seedhead. The means of collected genotypes were higher than seed derived genotypes for number of nodes and

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37 internodes. For morphological traits closely related to turf quali ty (stolon diameter, internode length, leaf length, leaf width a nd number of spikes per inflores cence) the mean of the collected genotypes were lower than the seeded source. Vari ances were different only for stolon diameter, number of spikes per seedhead (P 0.01) and leaf width (P 0.05). For these traits the variance associated with the seed derived genotypes was of a higher magnitude than the collected genotypes. Therefore, for mo rphological traits, a group of collected common carpetgrass genotypes from the southeastern United States had equal or less vari ation than a group of genotypes acquired from purchased seed. While less variation was found in the collected material, the us e of these genotypes, due to lower means, may aid in the quicker development of improved turf-type plants with finer stems, shorter and finer leaves and fewer number of unsi ghtly spikes per inflorescence. The similarities in the range of variation found be tween the two germplasm sources can potentially be attributed to 1) the use of several and hi ghly variable parents in the deve lopment of the bought seed and 2) the common carpetgrass growing throughout the southeastern Unite d States originates from a narrow genetic base. Turfgrass performance traits. For field evaluated turf grass performance traits, population means and variances were not significantly different for establishment and winter color. Differences in means were highly significant (P 0.01) for genetic color, density, turf quality and seedhead density. Differences be tween variances were significant for density, seedhead density (P 0.05), genetic color and turf quality (P 0.01). When differences were found between germplasm sources, for both means and variances, the higher values were always associated with the collected germplasm. Ther efore, for turfgrass performance traits, the collected genotypes had greater th an or equal levels of variat ion as seed derived material.

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38 The greater magnitude of variance and higher performing means for ge netic color, density and turf quality indicate that the collected germ plasm is highly valuable for improving the visual appearance of common carpetgrass. The collected material may also be more useful for increasing the seed production associated with a seeded cultivar. Reasons why the collected germplasm has generally higher means and magnit udes of variance for turf performance may be 1) the collector likely selected plants in naturalized populations th at had better color, density and turf quality and 2) the parents for the seeded material were selected for vigor and robust appearance versus turf attributes. Conclusions Common carpetgrass was found to be abundant in the coastal plain region of the southeastern United States. Plants had many us es and were found in varying environmental conditions. Common carpetgrass was found to contain genetic variation for all morphological and turfgrass performance traits measured. Broadsense heritability estimates were moderate to high for all traits, indicating that improvement through breeding and the development of superior F1 hybrids is possible. Superior F1 plants could be clonally propagated as cultivars or utilized in the development of synthetic seeded cultivars. Similar variances between popul ations of commercially avai lable seed and collected germplasm suggest that common carpe tgrass in the southeastern Unite d States is the result of an introduction of common carpetgrass with minimal genetic diversity and that the purchased seed was produced from highly variable parents. Co llection of germplasm from other areas is warranted and could help broaden the geneti c variation available to common carpetgrass breeding programs. In addition, further evaluation and selection will be needed to identify genotypic responses asso ciated with biotic and abiotic stresses.

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39 Table 2-1. Expected mean squares from analys is of variance (ANOVA) for data over years on genotypes of common carpetgrass. Sources of variation df Mean squares Expected mean squares Years (Y) y 1 M1 2 e + g 2 r(y) + rg 2 y Rep (R)/Y y(r 1) M2 2 e + g 2 r(y) Genotype (G) g 1 M3 2 e + r 2 gy + ry 2 g G Y (g 1)(y 1) M4 2 e + r 2 gy Error (E) y(r 1)(g 1) M5 2 e Table 2-2. Expected mean squares from analys is of variance (ANOVA) for data over dates on genotypes of common carpetgrass. Sources of variation df Mean squares Expected mean squares Reps (R) r 1 M1 2 e + gd 2 r Genotypes (G) g 1 M2 2 e + r 2 gd + d 2 gr + rd 2 g G R (g 1)(r 1) M3 2 e + d 2 gr Date d 1 M4 2 e + gr 2 d G D (g 1)(d 1) M5 2 e + r 2 gd Error g(d 1)(r 1) M6 2 e

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40Table 2-3. Estimates of vari ance components, minimum, maximum and mean va lues, broad-sense heritabilities and standard deviations for morphological measurements in common carpetgrass. Source Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes -----------------------------------------------------------------Variance Estimates---------------------------------------------------------------Years (Y) 22.7713.39 1.650.99 1.871.12 0.0130.01 0.0100.02 0.3000.27 0.2540.18 0.0070.01 Rep (R)/Y 1.550.98 0.760.44 0.830.47 0.0010.00 0.0520.03 0.0270.01 0.0070.01 0.0040.00 Genotype (G) 18.176.98 1.180.55 1.150.54 0.02 90.00 0.1730.02 0.3820.08 0.4300.05 0.0180.01 G Y 39.178.27 3.030.68 2.820.67 0.0010.00 0.0160.01 0.1910.08 0.0110.02 0.0190.01 Error (E) 102.685.34 8.480.44 8.740.45 0.0340.00 0.3050.02 1.3380.07 0.3610.02 0.1470.01 Minimum 14.2 cm 5.6 6.1 1.48 mm 1.6 cm 2.0 cm 4.3 mm 2.3 Maximum 62.1 17.7 18.1 2.47 4.1 6.7 7.9 3.6 Mean 26.3 9.5 9.9 1.93 2.7 3.8 6.2 2.7 H2 0.330.13 0.290.13 0.290.13 0.830.10 0.750.10 0.540.12 0.870.10 0.340.13

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41Table 2-4. Estimates of vari ance components, minimum, maximum and mean va lues, broad-sense heritabilities and standard deviations for turfgrass performa nce traits in common carpetgrass. Source Genetic Color Density Establishment Seedhead Density # Turf Quality Winter Color -----------------------------------------------------Variance Estimates---------------------------------------------------Reps (R) 0.005.01 0.000.002.735.22 0.004.00 0.015.01 0.008.01 Genotypes (G) 0.124.03 0.126.0488.008.56 0.101.03 0.194.05 0.057.03 G R 0.200.04 0.234.06151.954.40 0.000.02 0.443.06 0.083.04 Date 0.043.03 0.002.00128.178.38 0.008.01 0.002.00 1.343.93 G D 0.087.03 0.003.0417.777.91 0.159.03 0.111.03 0.080.03 Error (E) 0.532.04 0.856.0653.867.07 0.390.03 0.554.04 0.622.05 Minimum 3.17 2.50 1 % 2.17 2.00 1.75 Maximum 6.25 6.17 60 % 4.67 6.33 5.67 Mean 4.54 4.48 27 % 3.39 4.62 4.13 H2 0.39.11 0.36.11 0.56.11 0.41.10 0.40.10 0.25.11 Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken in 2006 and 2007. Genetic color estimated on a vi sual scale of 1 to 9: 1 = b rown turf, 9 = dark green turf. Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken in 2006 and 2007. Density estimated on a visual s cale of 1 to 9: 1 = loose, op en turf; 9 = very dense turf. Combined analysis of repeated measurements take n May and July 2006. Estimated on a percent basis. # Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken 2006 and 2007. Seedhead density visually estimat ed on a 1 to 5 scale: 1 = ve ry dense, 5 = zero to few seedheads. Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken 2006 and 2007. Turf quality estimated on a visu al scale of 1 to 9: 1 = poor turf quality, 9 = outstanding turf quality. Combined analysis of repeated measurements taken 2006 and 2007. Winter color visually estimate d on a 1 to 9 scale: 1 = brown, dormant turf, 9 = act ively growing green turf.

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42Table 2-5. Comparison of variances a nd means of morphological traits for two germplasm sources of common carpetgrass. Stolon length (cm) Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter (mm) Internode length (cm) Leaf length (cm) Leaf width (mm) Spikes Population ----------------------------------------------------------------M eans-------------------------------------------------------------Seeded 26.34 8.65 9.12 2.04 3.00 4.33 6.63 2.85 Collected 26.62 10.10 10.54 1.85 2.60 3.40 5.91 2.64 F-Value 0.10 ns 33.66** 32.08** 127.39** 21.77** 103.00** 142.35** 63.49** Population --------------------------------------------------------------Var iances------------------------------------------------------------Seeded 171.48 12.28 12.02 0.08 1.65 2.27 0.92 0.24 Collected 170.97 14.37 14.86 0.05 1.56 1.59 0.71 0.14 F-Value 0.00 ns 0.80 ns 1.52 ns 15.35** 0.01 ns 1.36 ns 6.42* 27.73** ns, *, ** Non-significant, significant at P 0.05 and significant at P 0.01, respectively. Table 2-6. Comparison of variances and m eans of turfgrass performance traits for two germplasm sources of common carpetgrass. Establishment Genetic color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Population ---------------------------------------------------------------Means------------------------------------------------------------Seeded 26.00 4.40 4.30 4.40 3.10 4.10 Collected 28.00 4.70 4.60 4.80 3.60 4.20 F-Value 1.88 ns 17.28** 20.50** 35.54** 113.95** 0.04 ns Population -------------------------------------------------------------Variances -----------------------------------------------------------Seeded 344.19 0.71 1.04 1.02 0.51 1.42 Collected 399.25 1.11 1.29 1.41 0.64 1.60 F-Value 2.43 ns 17.55** 4.86* 11.46** 6.05* 2.15 ns ns, *, ** Non-significant, significant at P 0.05 and significant at P 0.01, respectively.

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43 CHAPTER 3 PATTERNS OF MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF COMMON CARPETGRASS Introduction Common carpetgrass ( Axonopus fissifolius Raddi) is a warm-season grass species prevalent throughout the southern coastal plain region of the s outheastern United States. It spreads laterally by stolons which produce a dense turf, providing an attractive, wear resistant lawn. Areas where common carpetgrass is cultiv ated include Australia, Central America, Malaysia, North America, South America, Sout h Korea and West Africa. Indigenous populations originated in Central America, South America and the West Indies (B ush, 1997). In the early 1800s, the species entered the United States through Louisiana and quickly became a major component of unimproved pastures (Heath et al., 1985). Common carpetg rass has naturalized throughout the areas of Texas, Ok lahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mi ssissippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina (Hitchcock, 1950). There are reports of common carpetgrass as far north as Memphis, TN (Bush, 1997) and it is commonly used in Hawaii as a lawn grass (Russell Nagata personal communication). Assessment of the genetic vari ability present in a germplas m collection can be done using morphological measurements of the speci es. The process is called morphological characterization. Information obtai ned can reveal if further increas e of the gene pool is warranted and can identify divergent genotypes useful in hybridizations. The morphological data can provide information on the accessions and their degree of relatedness to each other. This knowledge allows for grouping of the genotypes based on their similarities and the assembly of a core collection which would represent the geneti c variation of the entire collection. A core collection is valuable for large scale germplas m banks and for expedient transfer of genetic

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44 material. Morphological traits can be correlated, and if a strong correlation is present, certain traits could then be discarded in future data collection. Multivariate analysis has been used to an alyze germplasm collections to establish relationships among accessions (Bhargava, 2007). The most common procedures used include principal component and cluster an alysis (Hawkes et al., 2000). Pr incipal component analysis is utilized in genetic studies i nvolving many accessions being evalua ted for multiple variables. The analysis identifies patterns in the data set based on the relationships between certain traits. The number of principal components provided equa ls the number of variab les measured, however, typically only the first few are meani ngful. The first principal component (PC1) accounts for the most variation in the data set. Variables contri buting most to a principa l component have larger eigenvectors. Variables greatly contributing to the same principal component are linearly correlated. This is likely due to an underlying biological reason for the data to be related. Understanding of complex horticult ural traits is often attain ed through principal component analysis. Principal components with eigenvalues greater than one gene rally provide insight, although not necessarily (Iezzoni and Pritts, 1991). Casler and van Santen (2000) performed multivariate analysis on morphological measurements of a collection of meadow fescue ( Festuca pratensis Huds.) germplasm. They were able to determine the relatedness between accessions and their results placed 221 genotypes into 35 clusters. Inferences were made about specific clusters by comp aring cluster means and total germplasm means for specific tr aits. In addition, they used the data to compile a core subset of 55 genotypes to represent the genetic variati on of the entire collec tion based on morphological traits.

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45 Lewu et al (2007) used morphol ogical measurements to identify genetic diversity within a germplasm collection of Pelargonium sidoides DC. Using cluster analysis, they were able to segregate genotypes based on geographic location. Bhar gava et al (2007) uti lized cluster analysis on morphological and qualit y traits of quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) germplasm. 30 accessions were placed into six clusters. Cluste ring could not be linked to geographic location, but was based on accessions having similar quality and morphological measurements. Perennial peanut ( Arachis pintoi Krap. And Greg.) germplasm was characterized using multivariate analysis by Carvalho (2004). Morphological meas urements were used and 53 accessions were grouped into four di stinct clusters. Variation for turfgrass performance and mo rphological traits in common carpetgrass germplasm has been previously reported (Chapt er 2). Here we report the use of morphological measurements to determine the relate dness of 176 common carpetgrass accessions. Materials and Methods Morphological Measurements During summer 2005 a collection of common car petgrass germplasm was made across the southeastern United States. Accessions were coll ected from Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas. An attempt was made to collect an accession every 48 km (30 miles). Latitude an d longitude coordinates were noted at each collection site (see Appendix B). Two additional plants in the co llection include one from Hilo, Hawaii and another from the Ge rmplasm Resources Information Network (acquired July 2005). One-hundred and five genotypes co mprise the collected populati on. The remaining germplasm was derived from a commercial bag of common carpetgrass seed designated as the seeded population, purchased at a home improvement retail store in Gainesville, Fl orida. A total of 176

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46 genotypes were evaluated. The experiment wa s arranged and data collected for greenhouse measured morphological traits as described in Chapter 2. Statistical Analysis A correlation was performed for all combinations of morphological tra its to determine if any traits could be removed from further an alysis. This was done using PROC CORR (SAS Institute, 2003). Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were then used for multivariate analysis of the data. PROC PRINCOMP was performed for stolon length, number of nodes, stolon diameter, internode length, leaf length, leaf width, and number of spikes per inflorescence. This provide d seven principal components (PC1-PC7), their eigenvalues, and the percentage of variance explai ned by each principal component. Data for the seven variables were transformed into canoni cal values (PROC ACECLUS) for cluster analysis. The use of canonical values creates equal variances and means of zero for each variable. This is necessary for variables meas ured with different units and varying scales. In addition, this procedure omits genotypes which contain missing data po ints; therefore, the combined data from both years of data collection were used as it contains values for all variables of each genotype. PROC CLUSTER, using the canonical data set, and PROC TREE, using Wards method (Milligan, 1980 and Casler and van Santen, 2000), were util ized to construct a dendrogram. Clusters were obtained based on an R2 value greater than 0.75. Results and Discussion Prior to multivariate analysis, the PROC CO RR analysis revealed a very high correlation (0.99) between the number of nodes and number of in ternodes. This was exp ected and resulted in the removal of number of internodes from the da ta set. All subsequent analysis occurred on the remaining seven traits. The principal compone nt analysis accounted for 37 % of the total variation at the first principal component (PC1) (Table 3-1). The amount of variation accounted

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47 for, cumulatively, by adding PC2 and PC3 was 66 % and 80 %, respectively. PC1 was most correlated with stolon diameter, leaf length, and l eaf width. These three tr aits relate to plant architecture, texture and aesthetic appeal of a turfgrass plant. The second principal component accounted for 29 % of the variation and was mostly due to stolon length, number of nodes, and internode length. These traits are closely related. The number of nodes on a stolon and the length of internodes equate to st olon length and when combined relate to number of growing points, rate of establishment and turfgrass density. PC3 explained 14 % of the variation and is comp rised primarily of the number of racemes per inflorescence. This trait is independent of all ot her traits measured. Therefore, a seeded variety could be developed with the desired plant architecture and provide good seed yield. Cluster analysis was utilized to group th e common carpetgrass genotypes into 32 clusters accounting for 75% of the variation (Figure 3-1). The clusters varied with respect to number of accessions (Table 3-2). Three clusters containe d only 1 accession and the largest contained 15. Many clusters were not limited to a single germpl asm source, seed derived or collected. In some cases, the majority of accessions within a clus ter represented one germplasm source. However, accessions from both sources we re scattered throughout the dendrogram indicating that relatedness among accessions were equally probab le within and between germplasm sources. Clusters 32, 30, 26, 25, 31 and 3 contain 11, 9, 8, 5, 4 and 4 genotypes, respectively, all of which are from the collected population. Clusters 1, 7, 9 and 13 contain primarily collected genotypes. Clusters 4, 10, 15, 16, 17, 19 and 22 are completely comprised of genotypes from the seeded population. Clusters 8, 14 and 23 are mostly seed ed genotypes. Note that clusters having only a single accession, clusters 16, 22 a nd 17, are all associated with the seeded population. One would

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48 not expect such unique plants to result from commercial seed. These plants may have increased value from a breeding perspective. Attempts were made to associate collected acces sions that clustered together based on their geographic collection site. No patt erns could be identified with respect to latitude, longitude or state. This may be attributable to the narro w genetic base of common carpetgrass that was introduced into the southeastern United States an d the relatively short am ount of time that it has been naturalized (approximately 200 years) Common carpetgrass ha s not been in the southeastern United States long enough to differe ntiate based on geographic location. Similarly, Casler and van Santen (2000) found that meadow fescue ( Festuca pratensis ) accessions were for the most part not geographically linked. In contrast, (Wu et al ., 2004) reported that geographic location was a significant f actor in genetic differentia tion of common bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon ). The authors attribute the geographic distinctness to gene tic isolation of plant populations origina ting on the continents of Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australia. These genotypes could have been under selective forces fo r more than several hundred years. Conclusions Analysis of individual mor phological traits, using princi pal component analysis, has uncovered their relationship to broader turfgrass ch aracteristics. Texture, establishment, density and seed yield are products of different combinat ions of variables measured. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, a core collection of plants from the common carpetgra ss germplasm collection can be assembled using the 32 clusters identified. This subset represents the variation present within the entire collection for morphological parameters. Associa tion of collected and seeded genotypes suggests that collection of additional germplasm is warranted to increase the genetic variation available to breeding programs.

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49 Table 3-1. Eigenvectors from principal compone nt analysis of common carpetgrass genotypes. Eigenvalues and contribution to to tal variation listed at bottom. PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 Stolon Length -0.01 0.70 -0.02 0.03 0.09 0.10 -0.71 Nodes -0.29 0.56 0.14 0.35 0.28 0.06 0.62 Stolon Diameter 0.50 -0.04 0.06 0.55 -0.30 0.59 0.02 Internode Length 0.31 0.42 -0.28 -0.56 -0.46 0.06 0.34 Leaf Length 0.50 -0.05 -0.18 -0.24 0.78 0.21 0.07 Leaf Width 0.53 0.12 0.01 0.33 -0.02 -0.77 0.02 Spikes 0.20 0.05 0.93 -0.31 -0.01 0.02 0.01 Eigenvalue 2.59 2.02 0.96 0.68 0.43 0.28 0.04 % Variance Explained 0.37 0.29 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.04 0.01 Cumulative Variance 0.37 0.66 0.80 0.89 0.95 0.99 1.00

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50 Table 3-2. Cluster assignme nts of genotypes for cluster an alysis of common carpetgrass. Cluster R2 # Genotypes 23 0.961 4 295356136 5 0.957 2 68102 2 0.922 3 718687 11 0.921 3 4667174 29 0.908 3 54113146 9 0.906 5 43121128132149 4 0.891 2 269 28 0.882 7 49646577122166 170 20 0.872 5 195978117131 21 0.864 5 202333125179 26 0.858 8 105118135139147150 163165 8 0.855 5 641506383 31 0.852 4 8292106108 3 0.849 4 130155157171 19 0.846 7 579222738 42 24 0.843 6 4774757689169 27 0.840 5 397280104137 7 0.825 9 49397101103112 123138 148 13 0.821 8 1055949598143 175176 12 0.813 3 3057145 32 0.805 11 84107109116124126 140141 142144153 10 0.794 8 112444454860 6266 6 0.789 10 325325199100 114115 120177 14 0.784 6 1416283673133 18 0.778 5 214070172173 30 0.772 9 96119151152154156 159161 167 1 0.767 15 1815798188 110111 127129134158164168 178 15 0.761 6 131831343558 25 0.755 5 859091160162 16 0.671 1 17 22 0.660 1 52 17 0.593 1 12 Genotypes 1 through 74 from seeded population; 75 through 179 from co llected population.

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51 1 (15) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 (2) 5 (2) 6 (10) 7 (9) 8 (5) 9 (5) 10 (8) 11 (3) 12 (3) 13 (8) 14 (6) 15 (6) 16 (1) 17 (1) 18 (5) 19 (7) 20 (5) 21 (5) 22 (1) Clusters (number of ge notypes in cluster) 23 (4) 24 (6) 25 (5) 26 (8) 27 (5) 28 (7) 29 (3) 30 (9) 31 (4) 32 (11) 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 R2Figure 3-1. Cluster dendrogram for 32 clusters of 176 common carpetgrass genotypes.

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52 APPENDIX A GERMPLASM COLLECTION INFORMATION The primary method of collecting plant materi al was road trips throughout the southeast United States during the summer of 2005. Traveling back roads in search of old stands of naturalized grasses proved a su ccessful strategy. Old cemeteries and church yards were usually productive locations. An attempt was made to co llect an accession every 30 miles. One grass plug approximately 4 inches in diameter was taken from each site. The sample was bagged, labeled and placed in a cooler. La titude and longitude readings were recorded at each location using a handheld GPS device. Four collection trip s were made, each consisting of three to four days. Trip 1 The first trip was made down the western porti on of Florida to Bradenton. From there it went east to Arcadia then south to Everglades City. It went east across south Florida to Key Largo, and back up eastern Flor ida via the east shore of La ke Okeechobee, 441 North and the Florida Turnpike. This trip produced 9 plants Trip 2 The second trip focused south of Interstate 10 through Florida, Alab ama and Mississippi to Louisiana and covered all but western Louisi ana. 35 plants were acquired on this trip. Trip 3 The third collection trip headed north to Georgia and into South Carolina through Augusta. It continued through western S outh Carolina through Clemson a nd north into western North Carolina. Tennessee was covered by traveling west until turning back sout h into north central Alabama. This was the northern most location trav eled in an attempt to acquire cold tolerant plants. Common carpetgrass was scarce in this regi on. From here the trip continued in a south-

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53 east direction covering north-east Alabama and west-central Georgia. A total of 22 common carpetgrass plants were collected on this trip. Trip 4 The final collection trip started out heading west on Interstate 10 eventually reaching Louisiana. From here it went north into Arka nsas up to Little Rock, centrally located in Arkansas. From Little Rock it went southeast through northern Mississippi, central Alabama and southwest Georgia. I arrived back in Gainesvi lle, Florida with 23 common carpetgrass plants. A total of 89 plants were obtained from these collection trips. Local collections were also made near Gainesville, Florid a. Three of these were collect ed at the Micanopy Cemetery in Micanopy, Florida, 8 from the Agronomy Forage Research Unit near Alachua, Florida and one from the Alachua Sink located in southeast Gaines ville, Florida. The northern and eastern most plant was collected in North Carolina along I-95 on the way back from a hunting trip in New York state. One plant was collected near I-10 in Quincy, Florida by Dr. Kevin Kenworthy. The help of Dr. Bryan Unruh and the crew at the Mi lton NWREC farm during collection trip 2 is also appreciated. Another source of common carpetgrass came fr om a bag of common carpetgrass seed purchased at a local garden cen ter. Plants were germinated and evaluated for variation of morphological characteristics. These plants show ed significant differences in the population; therefore, they were included in the study. A total of 68 plants were obtained from this source. While germinating seed from a bag of centipedegrass seed, some common carpetgrass weed seed was observed. This provided 3 common carpetgrass plants. The GRIN database sent three seed samples of common carpetgrass from Brazil and Swaziland. Two of the samples did not germinate; therefore, 1 plan t is from GRIN. The final acces sion was obtained from Hawaii. A breeder from the University of Florida, Dr. Russell Nagata, who is from Hawaii, was the

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54 provider of this plant. A total of 176 common car petgrass plants now make up the population for this study. An attempt was made to obtain plan ts from a variety of sources to ensure a good amount of diversity.

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55 APPENDIX B COLLECTION INFORMATION Table B-1. Source information for co mmon carpetgrass germplasm collection. Accession I.D. Number Collection Trip State Latitude Longitude 1 through 74 Common Carpetgrass Seedlot 75 Local FL 29 30.104 N 82 17.128 W 76 Local FL 29 30.104 N 82 17.128 W 77 Local FL 29 30.104 N 82 17.128 W 78 Local FL 29 48.147 N 82 24.676 W 79 Local FL 29 48.147 N 83 24.676 W 80 Local FL 29 48.147 N 84 24.676 W 81 Local FL 29 48.147 N 85 24.676 W 82 Local FL 29 48.147 N 86 24.676 W 83 Local FL 29 48.147 N 87 24.676 W 84 Local FL 29 48.147 N 88 24.676 W 85 Local FL 29 48.147 N 89 24.676 W 86 1 FL 29 02.442 N 82 27.791 W 87 1 FL 29 02.442 N 82 27.791 W 88 1 FL 28 39.046 N 82 16.616 W 89 1 FL 28 39.046 N 82 16.616 W 90 1 FL 27 47.245 N 82 20.839 W 91 1 FL 27 47.245 N 82 20.839 W 92 1 FL 27 13.932 N 81 55.592 W 93 1 FL 27 13.932 N 81 55.592 W 94 1 FL 26 27.921 N 81 26.129 W 95 2 FL 29 55.114 N 82 38.407 W 96 2 FL 30 07.649 N 83 14.111 W 97 2 FL 30 07.649 N 83 14.111 W 98 2 FL 30 06.325 N 83 31.233 W 99 2 FL 30 26.268 N 83 59.175 W 100 2 FL 30 26.268 N 83 59.175 W 101 2 FL 30 23.764 N 84 36.353 W 102 2 FL 30 26.306 N 85 13.382 W 103 2 FL 30 26.306 N 85 13.382 W 104 2 FL 30 27.212 N 86 04.365 W 105 2 FL 30 42.945 N 86 44.674 W 106 2 FL 30 46.607 N 87 08.621 W 107 2 FL 30 46.607 N 87 08.621 W 108 2 FL 30 46.607 N 87 08.621 W

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56 Table B-1. Continued. Accession I.D. Number Collection Trip State Latitude Longitude 109 2 AL 30 36.268 N 87 39.967 W 110 2 AL 30 41.156 N 88 01.040 W 111 2 MS 30 24.902 N 88 27.627 W 112 2 MS 30 18.817 N 89 15.296 W 113 2 MS 30 25.782 N 89 26.611 W 114 2 MS 30 40.801 N 89 45.881 W 115 2 MS 30 40.801 N 89 45.881 W 116 2 LA 30 47.465 N 89 50.764 W 117 2 LA 30 58.410 N 90 18.362 W 118 2 MS 31 09.439 N 90 48.096 W 119 2 MS 31 05.932 N 91 02.484 W 120 2 LA 30 49.615 N 91 22.894 W 121 2 LA 30 41.412 N 91 27.318 W 122 2 LA 30 12.085 N 90 55.233 W 123 2 MS 31 19.428 N 89 20.919 W 124 2 MS 31 21.040 N 89 12.277 W 125 2 MS 31 20.774 N 88 45.917 W 126 2 AL 31 34.100 N 87 52.941 W 127 2 AL 31 24.719 N 87 13.992 W 128 2 AL 31 17.285 N 86 28.239 W 129 2 FL 30 43.218 N 85 56.259 W 130 3 FL 30 18.632 N 82 38.072 W 131 3 GA 30 49.001 N 82 38.827 W 132 3 GA 31 02.147 N 82 44.767 W 133 3 GA 31 32.644 N 82 51.085 W 134 3 GA 31 49.678 N 82 58.595 W 135 3 GA 32 18.469 N 82 55.779 W 136 3 GA 32 51.338 N 82 28.761 W 137 3 GA 33 22.435 N 82 08.267 W 138 3 SC 33 35.793 N 82 07.615 W 139 3 SC 33 56.953 N 82 22.366 W 140 3 SC 34 17.558 N 82 32.137 W 141 3 SC 34 35.720 N 82 44.916 W 142 3 SC 34 46.000 N 83 03.874 W 143 3 SC 34 48.657 N 83 07.532 W 144 3 AL 33 49.794 N 85 48.495 W 145 3 AL 33 27.034 N 86 03.754 W 146 3 AL 33 07.443 N 85 34.464 W

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57 Table B-1. Continued. Accession I.D. Number Collection Trip State Latitude Longitude 147 3 GA 33 13.794 N 85 14.320 W 148 3 GA 33 13.936 N 84 56.900 W 149 3 GA 32 58.419 N 84 35.988 W 150 3 GA 32 54.792 N 84 25.630 W 151 3 GA 32 52.462 N 84 19.576 W 152 4 MS 31 44.164 N 90 25.555 W 153 4 MS 32 06.503 N 90 16.939 W 154 4 LA 32 27.412 N 91 43.725 W 155 4 LA 32 48.740 N 91 10.899 W 156 4 AR 33 51.978 N 91 28.862 W 157 4 AR 34 13.739 N 92 04.573 W 158 4 AR 34 46.429 N 92 03.753 W 159 4 AR 34 47.876 N 91 33.959 W 160 4 MS 34 15.744 N 90 16.857 W 161 4 MS 34 05.118 N 89 52.341 W 162 4 MS 33 38.606 N 89 46.937 W 163 4 MS 33 31.245 N 89 22.909 W 164 4 MS 33 29.194 N 88 49.023 W 165 4 MS 33 29.729 N 88 17.599 W 166 4 AL 33 15.341 N 87 45.074 W 167 4 AL 33 02.903 N 87 24.791 W 168 4 AL 32 48.951 N 86 58.201 W 169 4 AL 32 31.271 N 86 36.823 W 170 4 AL 32 19.010 N 86 13.928 W 171 4 AL 31 43.535 N 85 44.205 W 172 4 GA 31 53.082 N 85 06.326 W 173 4 GA 31 46.343 N 84 40.887 W 174 4 GA 31 34.387 N 84 04.164 W 175 NC 35 20.289 N 78 33.750 W 176 Local FL 29 36.332 N 82 18.154 W 177 Local FL 30 32.539 N 84 35.394 W 178 HI 19 43.935 N 155 05.633 W 179 BRAZIL GRIN P.I. 50856501SD

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58 APPENDIX C ANOVA TABLES Table C-1. Stolon length ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Years (Y) 1 8654 2 e + 176 2 r(y) + 528 2 y 28.84 0.0058 Rep (R)/Y 4 300 2 e + 176 2 r(y) 3.00 0.0180 Genotype (G) 175 321 2 e + 3 2 gy + 6 2 g 1.41 0.0136 G x Y 175 228 2 e + 3 2 gy 2.28 <0.0001 Error (E) 700 100 2 e Total 1055 Table C-2. Number of nodes ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Years (Y) 1 632.5 2 e + 176 2 r(y) + 528 2 y 4.75 0.0949 Rep (R)/Y 4 133.3 2 e + 176 2 r(y) 16.27 <0.0001 Genotype (G) 175 24.5 2 e + 3 2 gy + 6 2 g 1.32 0.0369 G x Y 175 18.6 2 e + 3 2 gy 2.27 <0.0001 Error (E) 700 8.2 2 e Total 1055 Table C-3. Number of internodes ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Years (Y) 1 717.6 2 e + 176 2 r(y) + 528 2 y 5.03 0.0883 Rep (R)/Y 4 142.6 2 e + 176 2 r(y) 16.91 <0.0001 Genotype (G) 175 24.1 2 e + 3 2 gy + 6 2 g 1.31 0.0389 G x Y 175 18.4 2 e + 3 2 gy 2.18 <0.0001 Error (E) 700 8.4 2 e Total 1055

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59 Table C-4. Stolon diameter ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Years (Y) 1 6.099 2 e + 176 2 r(y) + 528 2 y 27.22 0.0064 Rep (R)/Y 4 0.224 2 e + 176 2 r(y) 6.74 <0.0001 Genotype (G) 175 0.190 2 e + 3 2 gy + 6 2 g 5.15 <0.0001 G x Y 175 0.037 2 e + 3 2 gy 1.11 0.1925 Error (E) 700 0.033 2 e Total 1055 Table C-5. Internode length ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Years (Y) 1 12.400 2 e + 176 2 r(y) + 528 2 y 1.59 0.2761 Rep (R)/Y 4 7.809 2 e + 176 2 r(y) 26.09 <0.0001 Genotype (G) 175 1.270 2 e + 3 2 gy + 6 2 g 3.43 <0.0001 G x Y 175 0.370 2 e + 3 2 gy 1.24 0.0393 Error (E) 700 0.299 2 e Total 1055 Table C-6. Leaf length ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Years (Y) 1 172.040 2 e + 176 2 r(y) + 528 2 y 56.05 0.0017 Rep (R)/Y 4 3.069 2 e + 176 2 r(y) 2.43 0.0470 Genotype (G) 175 4.202 2 e + 3 2 gy + 6 2 g 1.95 <0.0001 G x Y 175 2.157 2 e + 3 2 gy 1.70 <0.0001 Error (E) 700 1.266 2 e Total 1055

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60 Table C-7. Leaf width ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Years (Y) 1 118.379 2 e + 176 2 r(y) + 528 2 y 67.42 0.0012 Rep (R)/Y 4 1.756 2 e + 176 2 r(y) 5.01 0.0006 Genotype (G) 175 2.680 2 e + 3 2 gy + 6 2 g 6.26 <0.0001 G x Y 175 0.428 2 e + 3 2 gy 1.22 0.0492 Error (E) 700 0.351 2 e Total 1055 Table C-8. Number of spik es per seedhead ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Years (Y) 1 4.491 2 e + 176 2 r(y) + 528 2 y 30.48 <0.0001 Rep (R)/Y 4 0.833 2 e + 176 2 r(y) 5.65 0.0002 Genotype (G) 175 0.310 2 e + 3 2 gy + 6 2 g 1.52 0.0030 G x Y 175 0.204 2 e + 3 2 gy 1.39 0.0023 Error (E) 700 0.147 2 e Total 1055 Table C-9. Establishment ANOVA table. Source df Ms exp ms F-test P-value Reps (R) 2 1103.09 2 e + 352 2 r 20.38 <0.0001 Genotype (G) 175 900.90 2 e + 3 2 gd + 22 gr + 62 g 2.56 <0.0001 G x R 350 351.43 2 e + 2 2 gr 6.49 <0.0001 Date 1 60383.60 2 e + 528 2 d 1115.79 <0.0001 G x D 175 103.44 2 e + 3 2 gd 1.91 <0.0001 Error 352 54.12 2 e Total 1055

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61 Table C-10. Genetic color ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Reps (R) 2 2.5928 2 e + 352 2 r 4.89 0.0081 Genotype (G) 175 1.8123 2 e + 3 2 gd + 22 gr + 62 g 1.95 <0.0001 G x R 350 0.9317 2 e + 2 2 gr 1.76 <0.0001 Date 1 22.4033 2 e + 528 2 d 42.27 <0.0001 G x D 175 0.7753 2 e + 3 2 gd 1.46 0.0019 Error 352 0.5300 2 e Total 1055 Table C-11. Density ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Reps (R) 2 0.8444 2 e + 352 2 r 1.03 0.3590 Genotype (G) 175 1.9984 2 e + 3 2 gd + 22 gr + 62 g 1.50 0.0009 G x R 350 1.3315 2 e + 2 2 gr 1.62 <0.0001 Date 1 2.9526 2 e + 528 2 d 3.59 0.0590 G x D 175 0.8550 2 e + 3 2 gd 1.04 0.3796 Error 352 0.8214 2 e Total 1055 Table C-12. Seedhead density ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Reps (R) 2 2.0071 2 e + 352 2 r 4.79 0.0090 Genotype (G) 175 1.4076 2 e + 3 2 gd + 22 gr + 62 g 3.87 <0.0001 G x R 350 0.3642 2 e + 2 2 gr 0.87 0.8931 Date 1 3.8335 2 e + 528 2 d 9.15 0.0027 G x D 175 0.8040 2 e + 3 2 gd 1.92 <0.0001 Error 352 0.4191 2 e Total 1055

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62 Table C-13. Turf quality ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Reps (R) 2 5.8830 2 e + 352 2 r 10.75 <0.0001 Genotype (G) 175 2.7184 2 e + 3 2 gd + 22 gr + 62 g 1.97 <0.0001 G x R 350 1.3809 2 e + 2 2 gr 2.52 <0.0001 Date 1 1.5517 2 e + 528 2 d 2.83 0.0933 G x D 175 0.8304 2 e + 3 2 gd 1.52 0.0009 Error 352 0.5474 2 e Total 1055 Table C-14. Winter color ANOVA table. Source df ms exp ms F-test P-value Reps (R) 2 4.1439 2 e + 352 2 r 6.80 0.0013 Genotype (G) 175 1.3084 2 e + 3 2 gd + 22 gr + 62 g 1.67 <0.0001 G x R 350 0.7853 2 e + 2 2 gr 1.29 0.0112 Date 1 602.5530 2 e + 528 2 d 988.61 <0.0001 G x D 175 0.8243 2 e + 3 2 gd 1.35 0.0111 Error 352 0.6095 2 e Total 1055

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63APPENDIX D LSD TABLES Table D-1. Means of accessions and least significant differen ce (LSD) values for morphological measurements in the greenhouse for common carpetgrass. Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined CombinedY1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 1 24.40 24.42 6.00 7.11 7.00 7.56 2.24 3.17 6.45 3.88 6.50 6.11 2.67 2.56 2 26.92 7.33 8.00 1.50 3.56 3.10 5.22 2.78 2.44 3 9.20 32.59 4.00 10.334.00 10.671.97 2.70 5.15 4.21 5.50 6.67 3.22 2.22 4 7.80 22.57 3.25 7.56 4.00 8.11 1.88 2.49 4.35 3.96 5.75 5.78 2.89 2.67 5 20.75 29.54 6.67 8.89 7.67 9.22 2.13 3.35 4.86 4.04 7.50 6.00 3.22 2.44 6 23.00 26.30 8.00 7.11 9.00 7.56 2.17 3.25 4.30 4.72 8.00 7.89 2.89 2.67 7 21.15 24.77 6.33 7.78 7.00 8.11 2.40 5.65 5.12 4.54 7.67 7.56 2.67 2.89 8 33.60 22.40 11.00 7.89 11.338.22 1.88 2.90 3.60 3.31 6.33 6.00 2.44 2.67 9 28.23 26.00 9.56 9.33 10.119.67 2.15 2.77 5.94 3.58 7.22 6.22 2.44 3.00 10 20.37 17.66 10.17 9.22 10.679.44 1.82 1.71 2.98 2.63 6.50 5.22 2.78 3.11 11 26.68 8.44 8.78 2.01 3.17 4.89 6.89 3.11 2.67 12 112.95 28.13 31.50 8.44 31.509.11 2.16 3.19 3.15 3.38 9.00 7.22 3.11 2.89 13 21.08 37.54 7.25 12.007.75 12.331.89 3.24 4.70 4.13 7.00 6.89 3.00 3.22 14 13.08 21.02 4.00 7.89 5.00 8.11 2.25 2.40 5.58 3.52 7.25 6.33 3.33 2.67 15 39.23 25.39 13.11 8.44 13.789.00 1.88 2.69 2.93 3.50 5.22 5.67 2.89 2.67 16 24.08 32.11 7.78 9.56 8.67 10.332.22 5.44 3.82 4.40 7.56 7.22 3.00 3.11 17 11.00 30.34 4.00 10.004.00 10.891.95 2.33 3.90 3.72 7.00 5.56 4.11 3.11 18 33.89 30.39 10.67 9.78 11.4410.332.09 3.22 5.62 3.36 7.33 6.33 3.56 3.00 19 32.46 25.34 10.67 9.11 10.789.44 2.27 2.69 4.46 3.70 7.11 6.11 2.44 2.78 20 23.93 7.22 7.44 2.10 3.43 4.07 6.33 2.17 2.56 21 49.23 37.21 13.00 9.33 13.259.78 2.07 3.83 4.88 4.24 7.00 7.11 3.33 2.78 22 16.40 23.49 7.00 8.00 7.00 8.67 2.22 2.78 5.10 3.72 7.00 5.67 3.11 2.67

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64Table D-1. Continued. Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined Combined Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 23 18.00 21.32 7.00 8.22 7.17 8.33 2.30 2.79 4.53 3.86 7.33 6.11 2.44 2.67 24 19.37 24.01 6.44 7.67 6.89 8.00 2.02 3.01 5.61 3.77 6.78 6.33 2.67 2.89 25 27.55 27.10 9.11 10.449.78 10.671.85 2.39 4.77 2.88 6.67 5.44 2.67 2.89 27 22.13 8.56 9.00 2.15 2.64 3.84 6.22 3.33 2.89 28 27.64 23.46 10.449.33 11.1110.002.40 2.27 4.07 4.20 7.33 7.00 3.22 3.00 29 26.43 34.80 7.67 10.897.89 11.222.02 3.34 4.18 3.48 7.22 7.11 2.56 3.00 30 17.25 20.24 6.67 6.78 7.50 7.33 2.15 2.20 7.07 5.67 7.00 6.56 2.78 2.67 31 18.93 32.37 5.00 10.225.33 10.442.02 3.68 4.07 3.69 6.67 6.44 3.67 3.44 32 10.00 24.49 3.00 9.00 4.00 9.44 2.02 2.27 7.50 3.87 8.00 6.78 3.00 3.00 33 20.39 6.44 6.89 1.98 3.20 3.72 5.78 2.56 2.22 34 40.80 23.93 13.008.78 14.009.11 1.94 2.72 5.60 3.74 6.50 6.33 3.44 3.11 35 14.85 22.82 5.00 8.22 6.00 8.89 2.11 2.68 3.05 4.38 7.50 6.89 3.89 3.11 36 16.17 28.84 6.67 8.78 7.67 9.22 2.10 2.69 5.35 3.79 6.83 6.11 3.33 2.89 38 20.49 25.11 7.33 8.11 8.22 8.78 2.25 3.01 6.82 3.27 7.67 5.67 2.78 3.11 39 25.92 10.56. 10.781.78 2.76 2.89 6.11 2.67 2.89 40 53.29 44.08 12.5611.1112.7811.442.06 4.06 5.21 4.80 8.22 7.44 2.78 3.00 41 37.10 20.41 10.507.22 11.507.67 1.96 2.83 7.50 3.81 8.50 6.33 2.67 2.44 42 29.75 21.78 9.00 8.33 10.008.78 2.19 2.67 7.40 3.28 8.00 6.33 3.00 2.78 43 13.98 22.32 4.33 8.11 5.17 8.67 2.03 2.53 5.72 4.32 7.83 6.44 2.56 2.44 44 33.31 23.89 10.119.33 11.119.56 2.05 2.70 5.91 4.37 7.17 6.67 3.00 2.78 45 14.37 34.08 5.67 10.446.67 11.002.18 3.01 6.03 5.49 8.00 7.56 3.22 3.11 46 20.62 28.11 6.67 8.22 7.50 8.33 2.02 3.10 6.67 4.87 7.00 6.67 2.33 2.89 47 34.06 29.81 10.449.44 11.229.89 2.14 3.17 4.97 3.33 7.44 6.67 2.44 3.00 48 25.20 28.38 8.00 9.56 9.00 9.89 1.92 2.83 7.60 4.72 8.50 6.22 3.22 2.67 49 25.52 23.01 10.119.44 10.569.56 1.86 2.54 3.57 3.49 6.78 5.56 2.33 3.00

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65Table D-1. Continued. Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined Combined Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 50 12.33 24.57 4.67 7.00 5.00 7.67 1.96 3.06 6.62 3.96 9.50 6.22 2.44 2.78 51 21.32 8.22 8.67 1.82 2.29 3.44 6.22 2.89 2.78 52 36.62 25.47 12.339.78 12.8310.002.22 3.11 6.48 3.97 5.67 5.56 2.56 2.22 53 24.27 33.42 8.00 9.44 8.67 9.78 1.92 3.51 4.53 3.66 6.33 6.56 2.67 2.78 54 12.93 24.08 5.00 8.67 5.25 8.78 1.84 3.36 3.55 4.17 8.00 6.11 2.78 2.67 55 15.04 6.11 6.44 2.13 2.34 3.54 6.67 2.56 3.22 56 38.12 26.17 11.899.11 12.569.44 1.85 3.32 3.26 3.20 6.89 5.78 2.56 3.00 57 12.80 16.10 3.00 6.78 3.00 7.11 2.08 2.47 14.104.29 9.00 6.11 2.44 2.56 58 21.91 28.92 8.22 10.228.78 10.331.80 2.94 3.95 3.61 6.11 5.44 3.00 3.33 59 20.47 20.96 7.56 7.33 8.00 7.78 2.47 2.62 3.84 4.00 7.67 6.78 2.56 2.89 60 10.70 26.96 4.00 7.67 4.00 8.44 1.98 3.16 5.30 4.79 7.00 5.78 2.89 3.11 62 18.62 7.67 8.00 1.85 2.40 4.51 5.44 3.00 3.11 63 16.33 24.19 5.50 8.56 6.00 8.89 2.08 2.59 7.33 4.26 7.75 6.89 2.56 2.89 64 28.13 23.92 9.33 8.56 9.67 9.22 1.84 2.99 5.00 3.29 6.72 5.67 2.67 2.67 65 11.81 26.84 5.17 8.33 5.50 8.56 2.00 2.83 4.03 3.98 7.28 6.44 2.78 2.56 66 11.14 27.73 4.17 9.89 4.61 10.112.01 2.65 6.36 3.53 7.28 6.56 3.11 2.78 67 11.18 20.62 3.67 6.89 4.33 7.44 2.17 2.85 8.50 3.86 7.83 6.33 2.44 2.89 68 27.72 9.44 10.001.63 2.93 3.71 4.78 3.33 2.78 69 28.60 9.11 9.33 1.48 3.20 3.86 5.33 3.11 2.56 70 40.78 29.46 11.3910.0011.6110.561.97 3.06 4.01 3.98 6.61 5.78 3.11 3.11 71 67.03 32.18 15.338.67 15.509.22 1.98 4.06 4.58 5.03 7.50 6.22 2.67 2.56 72 14.43 24.84 6.00 8.11 6.00 8.11 1.94 3.25 2.83 3.81 6.67 6.11 3.00 3.00 73 36.49 26.26 10.568.44 11.229.11 2.22 2.98 4.32 3.33 6.78 6.44 3.00 2.78 74 40.75 20.90 12.506.89 12.757.44 2.14 3.02 3.18 4.07 7.75 6.78 2.67 2.78 75 50.12 28.49 14.509.67 15.1710.002.10 3.08 3.33 2.90 7.17 6.33 2.78 2.56

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66Table D-1. Continued. Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined Combined Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 76 40.09 22.77 12.568.22 12.898.44 2.04 2.93 3.60 2.78 7.11 6.11 2.44 2.89 77 33.01 28.03 11.6111.2211.7811.561.59 2.76 3.44 2.73 6.28 5.67 2.67 2.56 78 40.25 19.31 15.008.11 15.508.56 2.13 2.45 3.00 3.04 6.50 5.33 2.33 2.56 79 28.81 30.37 11.448.56 12.009.22 1.84 2.73 3.09 3.04 5.36 5.22 2.56 2.67 80 28.64 20.51 11.119.00 11.449.33 1.71 2.69 3.04 3.01 5.57 5.56 2.89 2.67 81 25.63 21.64 7.78 8.00 8.44 8.44 1.95 2.76 4.59 3.38 6.67 5.56 2.11 2.67 82 19.96 15.66 8.56 9.44 8.89 9.67 1.57 1.95 4.09 2.69 5.67 4.67 2.22 2.67 83 30.04 27.39 9.89 8.89 10.339.33 1.99 2.85 5.39 3.92 7.44 6.67 2.67 2.67 84 38.41 24.11 13.119.67 13.6710.001.90 2.77 3.38 3.82 6.56 5.67 2.22 2.89 85 22.13 19.98 11.008.22 11.678.67 2.03 2.07 2.97 2.66 6.67 6.44 2.11 2.89 86 55.67 25.76 14.678.78 15.229.00 1.75 3.31 3.33 3.57 5.56 5.22 2.33 2.78 87 59.34 29.39 14.119.22 14.899.56 1.78 3.95 3.73 3.52 6.22 5.11 2.17 2.78 88 37.98 30.98 12.119.89 12.5610.781.84 3.20 3.47 3.33 6.11 6.44 2.67 2.44 89 50.82 25.79 13.448.44 14.118.89 2.00 3.31 3.77 3.06 6.56 5.89 2.22 2.67 90 38.78 24.46 11.928.67 12.758.89 1.95 2.78 5.57 3.32 8.50 7.11 2.67 2.67 91 52.60 21.68 17.838.00 18.178.11 1.89 2.63 3.59 3.19 7.33 6.67 2.33 2.89 92 32.02 17.50 11.338.22 11.788.44 1.67 2.51 3.50 2.90 5.44 5.00 2.44 2.78 93 22.60 14.86 9.11 6.44 9.67 7.11 1.72 2.18 2.71 2.17 5.78 5.11 2.56 2.78 94 29.66 13.20 12.567.44 13.117.89 2.05 1.82 3.57 2.23 6.44 5.56 2.67 3.11 95 37.86 19.13 14.228.33 15.008.67 1.68 2.29 2.96 2.81 5.33 4.78 2.72 2.89 96 25.48 17.07 10.1710.4410.8310.891.81 2.29 3.53 2.33 6.50 5.11 2.67 3.11 97 32.56 11.69 14.336.44 14.566.56 1.70 1.88 2.23 2.39 5.67 4.78 2.56 2.67 98 24.23 14.21 11.007.44 12.008.22 1.92 1.73 3.50 2.74 5.67 4.67 3.11 3.00 99 13.98 14.51 6.83 7.33 7.42 7.78 1.96 1.73 5.03 3.38 7.08 6.33 2.78 2.89 100 31.32 18.98 11.678.56 12.008.78 1.69 2.25 4.04 2.86 6.56 5.44 2.56 2.89

PAGE 67

67Table D-1. Continued. Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined Combined Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 101 19.25 11.19 9.17 6.89 9.50 6.78 1.52 1.61 2.77 2.37 5.50 4.22 2.50 2.89 102 30.56 23.21 12.339.78 13.0010.221.51 2.26 2.92 2.21 4.22 4.33 2.67 3.33 103 20.71 14.96 9.67 6.11 10.176.56 1.86 2.19 3.36 2.40 6.39 5.11 2.67 2.67 104 20.71 20.79 7.22 7.56 7.67 8.00 1.76 2.86 3.39 2.82 5.67 5.11 3.00 2.78 105 35.58 17.03 13.397.44 13.898.11 1.78 2.51 2.68 2.54 6.06 5.33 2.33 2.89 106 27.98 17.08 10.788.22 11.118.56 1.69 2.32 3.07 2.10 5.11 4.33 2.33 2.89 107 25.70 20.64 10.8910.6711.5611.111.82 2.13 3.22 3.07 6.11 4.56 2.22 2.78 108 24.92 14.50 11.837.44 12.178.00 1.89 1.75 4.20 2.96 5.67 4.33 2.44 2.67 109 31.02 25.40 10.449.33 11.229.56 1.96 2.91 4.04 3.52 6.78 6.00 2.44 2.78 110 26.83 25.30 9.22 8.67 9.89 9.00 2.01 2.79 3.72 3.48 6.44 6.00 2.33 2.78 111 36.49 23.51 10.898.89 11.339.33 1.93 2.76 3.86 3.21 6.44 5.11 2.33 2.67 112 14.77 17.13 7.17 6.56 7.33 7.00 2.00 1.92 4.35 2.68 6.33 6.22 2.44 2.89 113 29.65 12.47 12.836.33 13.336.89 1.90 2.74 3.25 2.52 7.00 6.00 2.33 2.56 114 33.41 14.26 13.676.22 13.787.00 1.87 2.14 3.57 3.53 6.33 6.00 2.56 2.67 115 17.57 15.90 6.83 6.44 7.17 6.78 1.91 3.72 4.80 2.86 7.50 6.00 2.56 3.00 116 29.21 20.30 13.4410.1113.4410.891.86 1.90 3.30 3.30 6.00 5.44 2.11 2.67 117 42.89 14.53 13.836.11 14.336.44 2.14 2.79 4.41 2.77 6.22 5.44 2.44 2.78 118 42.99 19.88 17.339.00 17.679.22 1.65 3.14 2.76 2.59 5.44 4.78 2.33 2.89 119 31.99 20.24 14.899.89 15.4410.001.52 2.42 3.19 2.59 5.44 4.22 2.56 3.00 120 26.24 24.89 10.789.67 11.2210.001.67 2.16 3.00 2.83 5.44 5.67 2.67 2.67 121 19.48 20.22 7.00 6.89 7.33 7.56 1.77 2.53 4.45 3.88 7.00 6.33 2.00 2.67 122 22.26 25.91 10.0011.3310.3311.781.67 2.29 3.03 2.49 5.78 5.33 2.44 2.89 123 15.59 16.71 6.11 6.11 6.50 6.44 1.88 2.19 3.87 2.51 6.22 5.11 2.89 2.78 124 28.11 20.48 9.33 7.78 9.89 8.11 2.06 2.88 4.48 4.20 6.89 6.22 2.44 2.56 125 24.61 18.04 9.33 7.11 12.677.56 2.05 2.73 4.38 3.53 6.33 5.22 2.44 2.56

PAGE 68

68Table D-1. Continued. Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined Combined Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 126 25.02 18.66 10.508.00 11.008.44 1.94 2.37 3.73 3.18 6.83 6.00 2.33 2.44 127 20.38 24.33 8.11 8.33 8.28 9.00 1.92 2.51 3.87 3.30 6.17 5.44 2.56 2.67 128 16.10 16.99 5.67 6.56 6.33 6.89 1.92 2.24 5.20 3.50 6.67 5.33 2.22 2.67 129 35.76 27.48 10.678.67 11.449.22 1.84 3.41 3.38 2.76 5.78 5.11 2.56 2.44 130 39.56 25.62 13.448.78 13.569.44 1.68 2.65 3.92 4.36 5.89 5.78 2.56 2.78 131 24.40 22.29 8.78 8.67 9.67 8.89 2.16 2.69 4.00 2.88 6.33 6.11 2.22 2.67 132 18.84 23.73 6.22 8.22 6.56 8.67 1.89 2.51 4.30 3.60 6.67 5.67 2.22 2.78 133 26.20 15.18 11.007.67 11.508.00 2.31 1.66 5.08 3.19 7.08 6.22 2.89 3.11 134 19.04 29.21 5.78 8.67 6.33 9.00 2.04 2.96 5.01 3.36 6.11 6.44 2.78 2.67 135 41.00 19.32 15.227.67 16.008.22 1.89 2.43 3.14 3.19 6.11 5.89 2.67 3.00 136 35.20 33.18 10.229.56 10.789.78 1.99 3.69 4.08 3.30 7.44 7.00 2.78 2.89 137 31.42 22.21 11.508.22 11.678.56 1.83 3.03 2.68 2.86 5.67 5.56 2.50 2.78 138 15.42 14.02 8.67 6.78 9.11 7.22 1.82 1.72 2.57 3.53 6.00 5.11 2.44 2.78 139 27.52 28.08 10.899.89 11.7810.001.83 2.55 3.57 2.88 6.44 5.89 2.44 2.89 140 35.69 20.89 13.899.67 14.2210.331.87 2.17 2.86 2.78 5.56 5.00 2.33 2.67 141 32.88 25.89 13.229.00 13.899.44 1.82 2.60 3.60 3.43 6.00 5.11 2.56 2.78 142 25.58 20.01 10.338.33 10.788.44 1.81 2.52 4.22 3.08 6.56 5.78 2.11 2.56 143 31.86 18.34 11.447.67 10.448.00 1.94 2.51 3.28 2.69 5.89 5.89 2.67 2.78 144 41.94 19.67 15.227.33 15.567.89 1.85 2.73 3.48 3.42 6.11 5.00 2.11 3.00 145 29.61 14.13 10.786.89 11.227.11 1.78 2.13 9.97 2.56 5.67 4.56 2.11 2.89 146 17.58 19.48 9.11 9.22 9.22 9.89 1.79 2.51 3.67 2.80 6.67 6.11 2.56 2.78 147 37.42 25.93 12.5011.3313.1711.781.74 2.55 3.05 2.72 6.00 6.22 2.33 2.56 148 20.27 20.12 8.28 7.56 8.83 8.11 1.72 2.30 3.52 2.92 5.89 5.56 2.33 2.78 149 12.15 16.17 5.33 6.11 5.83 6.78 2.05 5.53 5.17 4.06 6.50 6.22 2.22 2.89 150 46.47 22.09 16.679.44 17.119.67 1.99 2.28 3.31 3.00 6.67 5.78 2.78 2.78

PAGE 69

69Table D-1. Continued. Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined Combined Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 151 30.72 27.83 12.1111.8912.3312.221.81 2.38 3.27 2.90 6.67 6.00 3.00 2.56 152 39.42 18.52 16.008.11 16.448.78 1.78 3.96 4.46 2.36 5.89 5.56 1.89 2.89 153 27.63 18.92 11.229.00 11.789.11 1.90 2.18 3.38 3.20 6.22 6.00 2.22 2.67 154 41.31 21.29 16.8911.0017.7811.331.82 2.14 3.08 2.50 5.56 4.56 2.33 3.00 155 57.34 30.68 16.6710.5616.8910.671.78 3.11 6.41 3.73 7.00 6.33 2.56 2.56 156 21.08 14.69 11.449.11 12.009.22 1.82 1.83 3.28 2.50 6.67 5.00 2.44 2.78 157 42.37 23.36 14.568.67 14.679.11 1.76 2.86 5.78 2.76 6.44 5.89 2.33 2.78 158 34.54 23.87 11.008.44 11.569.44 1.88 2.79 3.92 3.47 6.22 5.11 2.33 2.33 159 44.70 24.96 16.1111.2216.7811.331.99 2.53 3.53 3.53 6.22 6.00 2.89 2.89 160 34.98 27.30 13.6710.7813.8911.111.69 2.37 2.87 2.97 6.56 6.78 2.33 2.78 161 32.19 21.53 14.8910.8915.3311.441.69 1.98 1.90 2.04 4.78 4.22 2.33 3.11 162 19.99 17.40 9.11 8.44 9.67 9.00 1.88 1.82 2.88 2.54 6.44 5.89 2.33 2.56 163 42.00 22.32 15.4410.2216.3310.671.78 2.30 2.67 2.99 6.44 5.22 2.44 2.78 164 55.73 26.64 17.789.89 18.2210.001.75 2.57 2.64 3.01 5.22 5.11 2.44 2.56 165 43.01 26.82 15.3310.4415.7810.891.67 2.67 3.11 3.10 5.89 5.22 2.44 3.00 166 20.60 23.88 8.50 10.448.67 10.781.60 4.43 2.97 3.32 5.50 5.44 2.56 2.78 167 21.71 23.16 10.1110.7810.6111.222.09 2.04 4.02 3.21 6.72 6.56 2.67 2.78 168 44.02 23.24 12.508.22 12.728.44 1.90 3.19 3.49 3.33 6.67 5.11 2.44 2.89 169 49.63 30.28 15.3310.2215.8911.001.98 3.07 3.07 3.33 6.78 6.22 2.44 2.67 170 24.50 24.94 8.56 9.00 9.00 9.33 1.83 2.87 4.39 3.16 6.78 6.00 2.67 2.67 171 44.57 19.08 13.787.22 14.117.33 1.63 2.94 6.84 3.03 6.44 5.33 2.78 2.56 172 68.21 31.18 22.0011.3322.5611.671.98 2.62 3.38 3.51 6.78 6.78 3.00 173 54.97 26.17 16.899.11 17.009.56 1.91 2.89 3.71 4.37 6.78 6.67 3.00 2.67 174 36.31 20.50 12.227.11 12.897.33 1.97 3.08 7.14 3.42 6.56 6.00 2.89 2.56 175 19.67 23.28 8.33 9.00 8.33 9.44 2.02 2.41 2.92 3.79 6.28 6.11 3.22 2.44

PAGE 70

70Table D-1. Continued. Stolon length Nodes Internodes Stolon diameter Internode length Leaf length Leaf width Spikes Accession Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Combined Combined Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 176 27.78 19.62 10.678.44 11.228.67 1.87 2.34 3.47 3.61 6.33 5.33 2.89 3.11 177 13.67 21.73 6.06 8.89 6.67 9.44 1.90 2.19 3.14 3.59 6.83 6.44 2.78 3.22 178 38.32 30.74 10.788.78 12.119.11 1.86 3.49 3.37 3.44 6.22 5.78 2.22 2.67 179 17.98 22.79 6.50 7.56 6.50 7.78 2.15 3.05 3.72 3.12 6.67 5.56 2.33 2.67 LSD (0.05) 25.82 8.84 7.32 2.64 7.47 2.61 0.25 1.49 2.96 0.90 1.21 0.87 0.67 0.57 Y1, Y2 denotes year 1 and year 2 data, respecti vely; Combined denotes data pooled over both years.

PAGE 71

71Table D-2. Means of accessions and least significant difference (LSD) values for turf grass performance characteristics in the field for common carpetgrass. Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 8/22/06, 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06 1 14.00 32.33 4.67 3.67 4.00 4.33 4.33 3.33 3.33 3.33 4.33 3.67 2 11.67 22.33 4.67 3.33 3.60 3.33 3.33 3.33 3.00 2.67 4.00 4.00 3 9.00 19.33 4.00 4.50 4.25 4.00 4.50 4.00 2.50 2.67 5.00 3.33 4 26.00 41.67 4.00 2.33 4.17 4.00 3.67 2.67 3.33 4.00 4.00 4.33 5 25.00 51.33 4.00 4.33 3.67 4.67 4.00 3.33 3.33 3.67 4.67 3.67 6 32.00 59.33 4.33 4.33 4.33 4.67 5.00 3.00 3.00 3.67 5.00 4.00 7 21.00 70.00 5.00 5.00 4.50 4.00 6.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 7.00 4.00 8 21.00 28.00 4.33 4.33 3.83 4.00 3.67 3.67 2.67 4.00 4.67 4.33 9 22.67 36.33 4.33 5.00 4.33 4.00 5.00 4.00 4.33 4.67 5.00 4.33 10 10.00 18.00 5.67 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.67 3.67 3.33 4.00 5.33 4.67 11 21.33 41.33 4.00 3.67 4.50 4.67 4.67 3.33 2.67 3.33 4.00 4.67 12 24.33 40.67 3.67 4.00 3.50 4.00 3.50 3.33 3.00 4.00 4.33 3.00 13 19.67 57.33 4.00 5.00 4.33 4.00 5.00 2.67 2.67 4.67 5.00 3.33 14 16.67 32.00 4.33 4.67 4.40 5.00 4.67 3.33 3.33 3.67 5.00 3.67 15 17.33 33.67 4.33 5.00 4.17 4.50 5.00 3.33 3.00 3.00 6.00 3.67 16 16.00 25.33 3.50 4.00 3.25 3.00 3.00 4.00 2.50 3.33 4.00 4.00 17 15.33 26.00 4.67 3.67 4.17 4.33 4.33 3.00 3.00 4.00 4.67 4.00 18 37.67 62.67 4.33 4.67 4.33 4.33 5.33 3.00 3.00 4.33 5.33 3.67 19 14.00 24.33 4.00 3.33 4.20 4.50 3.67 4.00 3.33 3.00 4.33 4.33 20 8.00 12.00 4.50 5.00 4.67 4.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 2.67 4.50 4.00 21 12.00 18.67 4.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 4.50 4.33 3.00 4.00 5.00 4.00 22 8.33 18.00 4.33 5.00 4.33 4.00 5.00 3.00 2.67 2.67 5.67 3.00 23 30.33 49.00 4.00 3.33 4.00 4.33 4.00 3.33 2.33 4.00 5.00 3.67 24 9.33 16.67 4.67 3.33 4.50 4.33 4.67 4.00 3.33 4.00 4.33 5.00

PAGE 72

72Table D-2. Continued. Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 8/22/06, 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06 25 25.33 49.33 3.67 4.33 3.83 4.00 3.33 3.00 3.50 3.00 4.33 3.33 27 5.00 8.00 4.00 4.00 3.75 4.00 4.50 3.00 2.00 3.00 4.33 4.67 28 13.00 22.67 5.67 5.50 3.60 5.00 4.00 4.00 3.50 3.67 5.50 4.33 29 24.00 47.33 5.00 4.00 4.50 5.33 4.33 2.67 3.67 3.67 5.67 4.33 30 21.67 45.67 5.00 4.67 4.50 4.33 5.67 3.00 3.33 4.33 6.00 4.00 31 38.33 58.67 4.67 3.67 4.83 4.67 4.67 2.67 3.00 3.67 5.00 4.33 32 9.00 22.00 5.33 4.67 4.17 5.00 4.33 3.00 2.67 3.00 4.67 5.00 33 4.00 7.67 5.00 5.00 3.75 3.00 4.00 3.50 2.50 2.00 5.00 4.00 34 18.00 36.67 4.33 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.33 3.33 2.67 3.33 5.00 3.33 35 13.00 28.00 4.33 5.67 4.40 4.00 5.67 3.00 3.33 3.67 5.33 3.33 36 27.33 42.33 4.33 4.33 4.83 4.33 4.67 3.33 2.67 2.67 5.00 4.33 38 30.67 62.33 3.67 4.67 4.67 4.67 4.00 2.33 3.33 3.67 5.00 3.67 39 9.00 20.00 4.00 3.33 4.00 3.67 4.00 3.00 2.00 2.33 4.33 3.67 40 6.67 12.50 5.00 4.00 3.20 2.33 4.50 4.33 3.00 3.00 4.50 4.00 41 21.33 40.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 4.33 4.67 3.33 3.33 4.00 5.00 4.00 42 16.33 31.33 3.67 3.67 3.20 4.00 3.00 3.33 2.67 4.33 4.00 4.00 43 15.33 33.67 4.67 4.00 4.33 4.00 4.67 3.00 2.00 3.33 5.33 4.33 44 17.00 35.00 4.50 5.00 4.33 5.00 4.50 3.50 2.50 3.33 5.50 3.00 45 21.33 37.00 5.00 4.00 5.00 4.33 4.33 3.33 3.00 3.67 4.67 4.33 46 28.33 55.00 4.33 4.00 4.83 5.00 4.33 2.33 3.00 4.33 5.33 4.67 47 21.00 37.33 4.00 5.50 5.00 4.50 6.00 3.00 3.50 3.67 6.00 4.67 48 18.67 35.33 4.33 4.00 4.50 4.67 4.33 3.00 3.00 3.33 5.33 4.33 49 22.33 37.67 4.33 4.33 4.83 5.00 5.33 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.67 4.33 50 7.00 13.67 4.33 4.00 3.67 3.33 4.00 3.00 2.67 3.00 5.00 5.00 51 18.00 22.33 4.67 5.33 3.60 4.50 4.33 3.33 2.67 2.33 5.00 4.00

PAGE 73

73Table D-2. Continued. Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 8/22/06, 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06 52 14.33 31.00 4.00 4.33 3.67 3.33 4.00 2.33 2.33 4.33 4.67 3.00 53 8.00 13.67 4.33 4.67 4.50 3.33 5.33 3.33 3.00 2.33 4.67 3.33 54 14.33 25.67 4.67 4.67 4.33 4.00 4.67 3.33 2.33 3.00 4.00 4.00 55 5.67 7.67 4.00 4.00 3.67 4.00 1.50 3.33 3.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 56 19.33 38.00 4.67 5.67 5.33 4.33 6.00 3.00 3.67 4.33 6.00 5.00 57 15.00 33.33 5.00 4.67 4.60 5.00 5.00 2.67 3.00 3.33 4.67 4.67 58 20.33 43.67 4.67 4.67 4.83 4.00 5.00 2.67 2.67 2.67 5.00 4.33 59 16.00 32.33 4.67 5.00 5.17 5.00 5.67 3.67 3.33 3.67 5.33 4.33 60 16.00 36.00 4.33 4.00 4.67 4.00 4.33 2.67 1.67 3.00 5.00 4.00 62 12.67 16.00 4.00 3.33 3.40 3.00 3.67 3.67 2.67 4.33 4.00 3.33 63 23.00 48.00 5.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.67 5.00 4.00 64 8.00 12.67 4.50 4.00 4.50 4.00 4.00 2.33 3.50 3.33 4.50 4.50 65 34.33 57.67 4.33 4.33 4.83 4.67 5.33 2.33 3.33 4.00 5.33 3.67 66 31.67 56.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.67 2.33 2.67 4.00 6.33 3.50 67 16.33 31.33 5.67 5.33 4.50 5.67 5.67 3.33 3.67 4.33 5.00 5.33 68 8.67 17.00 4.33 4.67 4.00 3.67 4.67 3.33 2.33 3.00 4.67 3.67 69 1.00 1.00 4.00 4.00 3.33 1.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 1.00 4.00 4.00 70 26.33 46.00 4.67 5.33 5.00 4.67 5.33 3.00 3.67 4.00 5.00 4.67 71 30.33 53.33 4.33 4.67 4.17 4.00 5.00 2.67 2.67 3.33 4.67 3.67 72 35.33 53.67 4.00 4.33 5.00 4.00 5.00 3.67 1.67 4.00 4.67 3.33 73 22.67 44.00 4.67 3.67 4.33 5.00 4.00 3.33 2.00 3.67 5.00 4.00 74 11.00 23.67 4.33 4.00 3.60 4.50 3.67 2.67 3.00 3.00 4.67 3.67 75 34.67 59.67 4.67 4.33 4.67 5.67 5.00 3.00 3.33 3.00 5.33 5.33 76 44.00 76.67 4.67 4.67 4.83 5.00 5.00 3.33 3.67 4.33 6.00 5.00 77 33.00 56.33 5.00 4.67 4.67 5.33 5.33 3.00 2.67 3.00 6.33 5.67

PAGE 74

74Table D-2. Continued. Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 8/22/06, 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06 78 26.33 52.67 5.33 5.33 4.83 5.67 5.00 2.33 2.67 4.33 6.00 4.67 79 14.00 26.67 5.33 4.67 4.33 5.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 3.33 5.00 5.67 80 16.00 34.00 4.33 4.00 5.20 6.00 5.33 3.00 3.33 2.67 6.00 4.33 81 31.33 58.33 5.00 4.67 4.83 5.00 5.33 2.67 4.67 3.67 5.33 6.33 82 12.00 18.00 3.67 3.50 3.00 3.67 3.00 3.67 3.50 3.00 4.00 4.33 83 22.33 35.67 4.67 3.00 4.33 5.33 3.33 3.33 4.00 3.00 4.33 4.67 84 31.00 56.33 4.33 5.33 5.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 4.67 4.33 4.67 6.00 85 17.00 32.33 5.33 4.67 4.83 5.67 5.00 3.00 3.33 4.00 5.33 5.00 86 28.00 48.00 4.33 3.67 5.00 5.33 4.67 3.33 4.00 3.67 5.00 4.33 87 31.67 45.33 4.67 5.00 4.67 3.67 5.67 3.67 3.67 4.00 5.33 4.33 88 28.67 53.67 5.33 5.00 5.00 6.00 4.67 3.33 4.00 3.67 6.33 5.33 89 39.50 63.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 5.00 5.00 3.00 4.00 3.33 4.50 4.50 90 35.67 50.33 4.00 4.67 4.17 3.67 4.33 3.67 2.67 3.67 5.00 4.33 91 23.33 46.00 4.67 5.00 4.17 4.67 4.67 3.33 3.33 3.33 4.67 4.67 92 39.67 68.00 5.67 3.33 4.83 5.33 4.67 3.33 3.33 3.67 5.00 6.00 93 19.67 34.33 4.67 3.33 4.33 4.67 4.00 2.33 3.33 3.33 5.00 5.00 94 15.33 29.33 5.00 4.67 4.50 4.67 5.33 3.33 3.67 3.33 6.00 4.33 95 28.33 49.67 4.33 4.00 4.17 4.33 4.00 3.33 3.67 3.33 5.00 3.67 96 29.33 56.67 5.33 4.33 4.83 5.67 4.67 2.67 3.67 4.00 5.33 5.33 97 51.33 68.00 4.33 3.67 5.00 4.67 5.00 2.33 3.33 3.67 5.00 4.00 98 18.00 30.00 5.00 3.33 4.67 4.67 4.67 3.33 3.00 3.67 5.33 4.33 99 15.33 31.67 4.00 3.67 3.67 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.33 3.00 5.00 4.00 100 38.33 66.33 5.33 4.33 4.50 5.67 4.33 2.67 3.67 3.67 5.00 4.33 101 22.00 40.33 6.00 4.67 5.83 6.67 5.67 2.33 3.67 4.33 6.33 6.67 102 15.33 71.67 5.33 4.00 5.17 5.67 4.33 4.00 5.00 3.00 5.00 5.00

PAGE 75

75Table D-2. Continued. Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 8/22/06, 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06 103 22.33 47.67 4.67 3.67 5.00 6.00 5.00 2.67 4.00 3.00 5.67 5.33 104 27.33 49.00 4.67 5.00 4.17 4.50 4.33 3.67 3.67 3.33 5.67 4.00 105 21.33 40.00 4.33 4.33 4.20 5.50 3.67 4.00 4.00 3.00 4.67 4.67 106 21.33 37.67 5.00 5.33 5.33 6.67 6.00 3.33 4.33 3.00 5.00 5.33 107 3.00 5.00 5.50 3.50 4.00 3.00 3.50 3.50 3.50 2.33 5.00 4.50 108 7.33 14.00 4.67 3.67 4.50 4.67 3.67 3.67 3.33 3.00 5.00 6.33 109 10.00 16.33 5.00 4.50 4.50 5.00 4.50 3.00 4.00 3.33 5.00 4.33 110 14.00 25.67 4.33 4.67 4.20 5.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.67 111 20.00 40.33 4.67 5.00 4.80 5.00 5.33 3.00 4.00 3.00 5.33 4.00 112 21.67 36.00 4.33 2.67 4.83 4.67 4.33 3.33 3.33 3.33 4.67 4.00 113 12.33 28.67 4.33 3.67 4.17 4.33 3.67 4.00 4.00 3.33 5.00 5.00 114 13.50 25.50 4.50 3.00 3.25 4.00 3.50 3.00 3.00 2.33 5.00 4.00 115 12.00 32.00 4.00 3.50 5.25 5.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.50 6.50 116 4.00 8.33 4.33 3.67 4.33 4.33 4.00 4.00 3.33 3.33 4.00 5.00 117 21.00 35.00 5.00 4.67 4.50 6.00 4.33 3.50 3.33 3.33 5.00 4.00 118 5.00 10.50 4.00 4.00 4.20 4.50 3.50 4.00 3.50 3.33 4.00 5.50 119 21.00 32.67 4.67 3.67 5.83 5.67 5.67 3.67 5.00 3.00 5.33 5.00 120 20.67 46.67 5.67 6.00 5.67 6.00 6.00 4.33 4.67 3.67 6.00 6.00 121 6.33 11.67 4.00 3.67 4.17 4.33 3.67 4.00 3.00 3.67 4.00 6.00 122 15.67 24.33 6.00 5.67 5.50 6.00 5.33 3.67 4.33 2.67 6.33 6.33 123 20.33 37.00 4.33 4.00 4.00 5.00 4.33 3.67 3.33 3.67 4.67 4.67 124 6.00 13.33 4.67 4.33 5.00 4.33 4.33 4.00 3.67 3.00 5.00 4.67 125 14.00 31.00 5.00 4.00 4.17 4.67 4.33 3.00 4.33 3.33 4.33 4.33 126 15.00 25.33 5.33 4.00 4.17 5.33 4.00 3.33 4.00 3.67 4.00 5.00 127 5.00 21.00 5.00 4.00 4.25 5.00 4.00 4.00 3.50 2.33 4.00 5.00

PAGE 76

76Table D-2. Continued. Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 8/22/06, 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06 128 12.00 29.00 5.50 4.50 4.00 4.00 3.33 3.50 3.00 3.33 4.00 6.00 129 17.33 35.00 4.00 3.67 4.17 5.00 3.67 3.00 2.67 2.67 4.33 4.67 130 20.50 40.50 4.50 4.00 5.25 5.00 5.00 4.00 4.50 2.67 6.00 3.50 131 26.67 50.67 5.00 4.00 4.50 4.67 4.33 2.00 4.33 3.67 5.00 5.33 132 15.33 26.67 4.67 3.67 4.00 4.00 3.67 3.00 3.00 4.33 5.00 5.67 133 7.50 12.50 4.50 3.00 4.00 4.00 2.50 3.50 3.50 3.00 4.50 5.50 134 25.67 47.33 4.33 4.33 4.83 5.33 4.67 3.33 3.33 4.00 5.00 4.33 135 23.33 65.33 4.67 3.33 4.33 4.67 4.00 3.00 4.33 3.00 5.00 4.33 136 19.33 52.67 5.33 5.00 5.00 4.67 4.67 2.67 3.67 4.33 6.00 5.33 137 7.67 14.33 5.33 4.67 4.33 4.67 4.67 4.67 4.67 2.67 5.33 6.67 138 12.50 19.50 5.00 4.50 5.50 6.50 5.00 3.50 3.50 3.33 6.00 6.00 139 16.00 31.67 5.67 5.67 5.67 6.00 6.00 3.67 3.67 3.00 5.67 6.00 140 15.67 27.33 5.67 4.33 4.83 5.33 5.00 3.67 4.00 2.33 5.67 6.00 141 21.33 34.00 4.67 4.00 5.17 5.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 3.67 5.00 4.33 142 21.33 45.00 4.67 5.33 4.67 5.00 4.67 3.00 3.33 2.67 5.00 5.00 143 15.33 32.67 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.67 5.67 3.33 4.00 3.00 5.33 4.67 144 11.67 19.00 5.67 5.33 5.00 6.33 5.33 4.00 5.00 3.00 5.33 6.00 145 8.00 14.67 4.67 4.33 4.17 5.33 4.00 3.67 4.00 2.33 4.00 6.00 146 5.00 4.33 3.50 4.00 3.00 4.00 2.50 3.50 3.00 2.00 3.00 4.50 147 11.00 18.67 4.33 3.67 4.17 4.33 4.33 4.00 4.33 3.00 4.33 5.00 148 6.00 10.33 5.33 3.67 3.67 3.67 3.33 3.67 4.00 2.67 4.67 5.67 149 10.00 14.33 5.50 3.00 4.60 5.00 4.50 3.50 4.50 2.67 4.00 5.50 150 14.00 23.67 5.33 4.67 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 5.33 4.67 151 20.67 34.00 4.67 5.00 4.00 4.33 4.33 3.33 4.00 3.00 5.00 4.33 152 5.00 6.00 4.50 4.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.50 4.00 2.00 4.00 4.50

PAGE 77

77Table D-2. Continued. Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 8/22/06, 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06 153 12.67 28.33 5.00 5.67 5.17 5.33 6.67 3.33 4.33 3.67 5.67 4.67 154 20.33 37.00 6.33 5.33 5.50 6.00 6.33 4.00 5.00 3.67 5.67 6.67 155 19.67 38.33 5.33 4.00 5.33 5.67 5.67 3.67 4.00 3.67 5.00 5.33 156 12.67 14.67 6.00 6.50 5.00 6.00 5.50 4.00 4.00 3.67 6.50 5.00 157 5.33 8.67 4.00 3.50 3.50 4.00 3.33 3.00 3.33 3.33 4.00 4.67 158 22.67 47.67 6.00 4.67 5.17 5.33 5.00 3.33 4.00 3.33 5.33 5.67 159 17.00 33.67 4.67 3.67 4.67 5.33 4.00 3.67 4.33 3.33 4.67 5.00 160 19.00 34.33 5.33 4.00 4.80 5.50 4.50 3.67 5.00 4.00 5.00 4.67 161 21.67 37.33 5.33 5.00 4.67 5.67 5.67 3.33 3.33 3.00 5.33 5.33 162 3.67 7.67 4.00 3.33 3.50 4.33 3.00 3.33 3.33 3.67 4.00 5.33 163 15.00 30.33 5.33 5.67 5.50 5.33 5.33 2.67 4.00 3.33 5.00 5.33 164 16.50 37.50 5.50 5.50 4.50 5.00 5.50 3.00 5.00 3.33 5.00 5.00 165 3.67 6.67 4.67 4.50 4.50 4.50 5.00 3.67 3.50 2.67 5.00 4.00 166 29.67 50.33 5.67 6.33 5.67 6.33 6.33 3.33 5.00 3.00 5.33 5.33 167 34.33 56.33 4.33 3.33 4.50 5.00 4.67 3.33 3.67 3.00 4.67 4.67 168 42.00 71.33 4.33 5.00 4.17 4.33 4.67 2.67 3.33 3.33 5.00 4.00 169 25.67 45.33 4.33 4.00 4.33 4.33 3.67 3.33 3.33 3.67 4.67 3.67 170 23.33 51.67 5.00 6.33 5.60 6.00 6.33 3.33 4.33 4.00 6.67 4.67 171 11.00 24.67 4.67 4.33 4.67 5.00 4.67 3.33 4.67 2.67 4.33 5.00 172 23.67 41.00 5.00 5.67 5.00 4.33 5.67 3.67 4.67 3.33 4.67 5.00 173 27.67 51.00 4.67 6.00 4.00 5.00 4.67 3.33 3.00 4.00 5.67 4.00 174 5.33 5.33 4.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 4.50 4.50 3.33 4.50 4.50 175 18.50 1.00 5.67 6.67 5.50 6.33 2.33 3.33 6.00 6.33 176 28.00 50.67 5.33 4.67 5.17 5.67 5.67 3.67 5.00 3.33 6.00 5.33 177 16.00 35.00 5.00 3.50 4.75 5.00 4.50 4.00 4.50 2.67 5.00 4.50

PAGE 78

78Table D-2. Continued. Establishment Color Density Turf quality Seedhead density Winter color Disease Accession 5/22/06 7/5/06 9/11/06 6/6/07 8/22/06, 6/14/07 8/15/06 6/14/07 8/3/06 6/28/07 1/26/06 1/12/07 9/1/06 178 16.33 35.00 5.67 5.33 6.17 5.00 6.33 2.67 4.33 5.00 5.00 179 24.67 50.33 5.00 5.33 4.50 5.00 4.67 3.00 3.67 5.67 5.00 LSD (0.05) 17.18 29.22 1.30 1.62 1.24 1.65 1.78 1.13 1.00 1.19 1.59 1.51

PAGE 79

79 LIST OF REFERENCES Agrios, G.N. 1997. Plant Pa thology. 4th ed. Academic Press. San Diego, FL. Alderson, J. and W.C. Sharp. 1993. Grass Varieties in the United States. 2nd ed. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture Handbook no. 170. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Bhargava, A., S. Shukla, S. Rajan and D. Ohri 2007. Genetic Diversity for Morphological and Quality Traits in Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Germplasm. Genetic Resources and Crop Evaluation 54:167-173. Bush, E.W. 1997. A Physiological Study of Common Carpetgrass ( Axonopus affinis ) Subjected to Cultural and Environmental Stress. Ph. D. Dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Bush, E.W., W.C. Porter, D.P. Shepard, and J.N. McCrimmon. 1998. Controlling Growth of Common Carpetgrass Using Sele cted Plant Growth Regulator s. HortScience 33(4):704706. Bush, E.W., A.D. Owings, D.P. Shepard, a nd J.N. McCrimmon. 2000. Mowing Height and Nitrogen Rate Affect Turf Quality and Ve getative Growth of Common Carpetgrass. HortScience 35(4):760-762. Callahan, L.M. 1999. Registration of TennTur f Centipedegrass. Crop Science 39(3):873. Carrow, R.N. and R.R. Duncan. 2002. Alternativ e Turfgrass Species: Seashore Paspalum Offers Alternative for the Future. Turfgra ss Trends Publication. May 2002 ed. Carvalho, M.A. 2004. Germplasm Characterization of Arachis pintoi Krap. And Greg. (Leguminosae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville. Casler, M.D. and E. van Santen. 2000. Patterns of Variation in a Collec tion of Meadow Fescue Accessions. Crop Science 40:248-255. Cook, B.G., B.C. Pengelly, S.D. Brown, J.L. Do nnelly, D.A. Eagles, M.A. Franco, J. Hanson, B.F. Mullen, I.J. Partridge, M. Peters, and R. Schultze-Kraft. 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool., [CD-ROM], CSIRO, DPI&F(Qld), CIAT and ILRI, Brisbane, Australia. CTAHR. 2002. Cover Crops: Narrowleaf Carp etgrass. College of Tropical and Human Resources. University of Hawaii at Manoa. http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/sustainag/Cove rCrops/narrowleaf_carpetgrass.asp (last updated Sept. 23, 2002). Diesburg, K.L. 2000. Expanded Germplasm Collect ions Set Stage for In creased Zoysiagrass Breeding for Turf Use. Di versity 16(1&2):49-50.

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80 Duble, R.L. 1996. Turfgrasses: Their Management and Use in the Southern Zone. 2nd ed. Texas A&M University Press. College Station, TX. Dudley, J.W. and R.H. Moll. 1969. Interpretati on and Use of Estimates of Heritability and Genetic Variances in Plant Breed ing. Crop Science 9(3):257-262. Duncan, R.R. 2000. Seashore Paspalum: A Turfgrass for Tomorrow Stress Tolerant and Versatile, It Promises to Meet 21s t-Century Environmental Challenges Diversity 16(1&2):45-46. Engelke, M.C. 2000. Widely Used for Centuries, Zoysiagrass is a Time -Tested Reservoir of Genetic Diversity. Di versity 16(1&2):48-49. Fehr, W.R. 1991. Principles of Cultivar De velopment: Theory and Technique. Vol. 1. Macmillian Publishing Company. Frank, J.H. and J.B. Unruh. 1999. Insect Management. p. 157-164. In Best Management Practices for Florida Golf Courses. 2nd ed UF/IFAS Publications. Gainesville, FL. Gosselink, J.G. 1984. The Ecology of Delta Ma rshes of Coastal Louisiana: A Community Profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/OBS-84/09. Hallauer, A.R. 1970. Genetic Variability for Yiel d after Four Cycles of Reciprocal Recurrent Selections in Maize. Crop Science 5:482-485. Hallauer, A.R. and J.B. Miranda. 1981. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding. The Iowa State University Press. Ames, IA. Hanna, W.W. 1995. Centipedegrass-diversity and vulnerability. Crop Science. 35:332-334. Hanna, W.W., J. Dobson, R.R. Duncan and D. Thompson. 1997. Registration of TifBlair Centipedegrass. Crop Science 37:1017. Hansen, D.J., P. Dayanandan, P.B. Kaufman, and J.D Brotherson. 1976. Ecological Adaptations of Salt Marsh Grass, Distichlis spicata (Gramineae) and Environm ental Factors Affecting its Growth and Distribution. Amer ican Journal of Botany 63:635-650. Hawkes, J.G., N. Maxted, and B.V. Ford-Lloyd. 2000. The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. The Netherlands. Heath, M.E., R.F. Barnes, and D.S. Metcal fe. 1985. Forages: The Science of Grassland Agriculture. Iowa State Univ ersity Press, IA. pp. 255-262. Hensler, K.L., B.S. Baldwin, and J.M. Goatley. 2001. Comparing Seeded Organic-fiber Mat with Direct Soil Seeding for Warm-season Tu rfgrass Establishment. HortTechnology 11(2):243-248.

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84 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Nick Greene was born in Bradent on, Florida and raised in E llenton, Florida by his parents John and Sharon Greene. He has one brother, Tr evor. He graduated from Palmetto High School and attended the University of Florida. He gra duated with a Bachelor of Science degree in turfgrass science in 2005. He attended graduate school at UF in the De partment of Agronomy where he studied turfgrass breedi ng and genetics. He graduated with a Master of Science degree in 2007. His decision to attend grad uate school in Gainesville affo rded him the experience of two basketball and one football nati onal championships. Go Gators.