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Factors Affecting the Brand USA

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021463/00001

Material Information

Title: Factors Affecting the Brand USA The Mediated Country Brand Model
Physical Description: 1 online resource (130 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jun, Jong Woo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: affect, attitudes, beliefs, brand, country, culture
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: As the concept of brand building began to draw a great amount of attention from academic and industrial fields, advertisers and marketers started to view countries as brands that could be managed and marketed like other product and service brands. Also, there is a consensus among different academic fields on the existence of the country-branding concept. Using brand management approaches, this study explores the antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward country brands from communication and marketing perspectives, and proposed the mediated country brand model. Particularly, the main focus of this study is to investigate the role of mediated cultural product consumption on various targeted country-related constructs. Collecting South Korean and Mexican college students as a sample, this study is designed to identify the role of U.S. mediated cultural product consumption on attitudes toward the U.S. brand, attitudes toward U.S.-based products, and purchase intentions for U.S.-based products, including the mediation effects of inter-country relationship beliefs and country visual identity. The findings of this study conclude that the consumption of mediated cultural products has no direct influences on country brand attitudes (H1-1); however, the consumption of mediated cultural products has a direct relationship with inter-country relationship beliefs (H1-2) and country visual identity (H1-3). Country brand attitude is influenced by inter-country relationship beliefs (H2), country visual identity (H3), and personal knowledge/experiences (H4). This country brand attitude is linked to attitudes toward country-based products (H5), and positive attitudes toward country-based products subsequently affect consumer purchase intentions of country-based products (H6). Finally, relationships among constructs are slightly different according to individual countries (RQ1) and product categories (RQ2). Unexpectedly, this study also found that the consumption of mediated cultural products directly influences attitudes toward country-based products and purchase intentions. In conclusion, the mediated country brand model is supported across countries. Implications of these findings and directions for refinement and future research are discussed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jong Woo Jun.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Cho, Chang-Hoan.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021463:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021463/00001

Material Information

Title: Factors Affecting the Brand USA The Mediated Country Brand Model
Physical Description: 1 online resource (130 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jun, Jong Woo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: affect, attitudes, beliefs, brand, country, culture
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: As the concept of brand building began to draw a great amount of attention from academic and industrial fields, advertisers and marketers started to view countries as brands that could be managed and marketed like other product and service brands. Also, there is a consensus among different academic fields on the existence of the country-branding concept. Using brand management approaches, this study explores the antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward country brands from communication and marketing perspectives, and proposed the mediated country brand model. Particularly, the main focus of this study is to investigate the role of mediated cultural product consumption on various targeted country-related constructs. Collecting South Korean and Mexican college students as a sample, this study is designed to identify the role of U.S. mediated cultural product consumption on attitudes toward the U.S. brand, attitudes toward U.S.-based products, and purchase intentions for U.S.-based products, including the mediation effects of inter-country relationship beliefs and country visual identity. The findings of this study conclude that the consumption of mediated cultural products has no direct influences on country brand attitudes (H1-1); however, the consumption of mediated cultural products has a direct relationship with inter-country relationship beliefs (H1-2) and country visual identity (H1-3). Country brand attitude is influenced by inter-country relationship beliefs (H2), country visual identity (H3), and personal knowledge/experiences (H4). This country brand attitude is linked to attitudes toward country-based products (H5), and positive attitudes toward country-based products subsequently affect consumer purchase intentions of country-based products (H6). Finally, relationships among constructs are slightly different according to individual countries (RQ1) and product categories (RQ2). Unexpectedly, this study also found that the consumption of mediated cultural products directly influences attitudes toward country-based products and purchase intentions. In conclusion, the mediated country brand model is supported across countries. Implications of these findings and directions for refinement and future research are discussed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jong Woo Jun.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Cho, Chang-Hoan.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021463:00001


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1 FACTORS AFFECTING THE BRAND USA: THE MEDIATED COUN TRY BRAND MODEL By JONG WOO JUN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Jong Woo Jun

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the chair and members of my dissert ation committee for their mentoring. I thank my wife and my children for their devotion, wh ich enabled me to complete my study. Also, I thank my colleagues at the University of Flor ida and members of the Korean Gator Tennis Club.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................17 Brands and Brand Building....................................................................................................17 Brand Image.................................................................................................................... ........18 Brand Identity................................................................................................................. ........21 Brand Personality.............................................................................................................. ......23 Country as a Brand............................................................................................................. ....26 3 CONCEPTUALIZATION......................................................................................................33 Attitudes toward a Country.....................................................................................................33 Consumption of Mediated Cultural Products as Behaviors of International Publics.............34 Inter-Country Relationship Beliefs.........................................................................................38 Country Visual Identity........................................................................................................ ..41 Personal Knowledge and Experiences....................................................................................45 Country-of-Origin in the Brand Perspective...........................................................................46 4 METHOD......................................................................................................................... ......54 5 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......63 Subject Profile................................................................................................................ ........63 Measurement Model.............................................................................................................. .64 Model Testing.................................................................................................................. .......64 Competing Model................................................................................................................ ...67 S. Korean Model................................................................................................................ .....68 Mexican Model.................................................................................................................. .....68 Differences between S. Koreans and Mexicans Brand USA Attitudes...............................69 Differences of Country-of-origin E ffects depending on Product Categories.........................70 6 DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................... ....83

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6 7 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................... ..96 APPENDIX A CORRELATION MATRIX...................................................................................................98 B ENGLISH SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE...........................................................................101 C KOREAN SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE...........................................................................106 D SPANISH SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE...........................................................................111 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................116 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................130

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Cultural differences among the US, S. Korea, and Mexico...............................................59 4-2 Results of exploratory f actor analysis of pre-test..............................................................60 4-3 Constructs, indicators, and key statistics of the final model..............................................61 5-1 Constructs, indicators, and key st atistics of the S. Korean model.....................................72 5-2 Constructs, indicators, and key statistics of the Mexican model.......................................73 5-3 Results of ANOVA........................................................................................................... .82 A-1 Correlation matrix......................................................................................................... .....99

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Hypothesized model......................................................................................................... ..53 5-1 Confirmatory factor analysis of c onsumption of mediated cultural products....................74 5-2 The mediated country brand model...................................................................................75 5-5 The single construct model................................................................................................76 5-4 Competing model testing 1................................................................................................77 5-5 Competing model testing 2................................................................................................78 5-6 S. Korean model............................................................................................................ .....79 5-7 Mexican model.............................................................................................................. .....80 5-8 Country-of-origin model by product categories................................................................81

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9 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy FACTORS AFFECTING THE BRAND USA: THE MEDIATED COUN TRY BRAND MODEL By Jong Woo Jun December 2007 Chair: Chang-Hoan Cho Major: Mass Communication As the concept of brand building began to draw a great amount of attention from academic and industrial fields, advertisers an d marketers started to view count ries as brands that could be managed and marketed like other product and se rvice brands. Also, there is a consensus among different academic fields on the existence of the country-branding concept. Using brand management approaches, this study explores th e antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward country brands from communication and marketing perspectives, and proposed the mediated country brand model. Part icularly, the main focus of this study is to investigate the role of mediated cultural product consumption on va rious targeted country -related constructs. Collecting South Korean and Mexican college stud ents as a sample, this study is designed to identify the role of U.S. mediated cultural product consumption on attitudes toward the U.S. brand, attitudes toward U.S.-based products, an d purchase intentions for U.S.-based products, including the mediation effects of inter-country relationship beliefs and country visual identity. The findings of this study conclude that the consumption of mediated cultural products has no direct influences on country brand attitudes (H1-1); however, the consumption of mediated cultural products has a direct re lationship with inter-country relationship beliefs (H1-2) and

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10 country visual identity (H1-3). Country brand attitude is influe nced by inter-country relationship beliefs (H2), country visual identity (H3) and personal knowledge/experiences (H4). This country brand attitude is linke d to attitudes toward country-based products (H5), and positive attitudes toward country-based pr oducts subsequently affect cons umer purchase intentions of country-based products (H6). Fi nally, relationships among constr ucts are slightly different according to individual countries (RQ1) and pro duct categories (RQ2). Unexpectedly, this study also found that the consumption of mediated cu ltural products directly influences attitudes toward country-based products and purchase in tentions. In conclusion, the mediated country brand model is supported across countries. Implic ations of these findings and directions for refinement and future research are discussed.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Nowadays, image is one of the most importa nt factors in evaluating objects, because people evaluate objects through their own pers pectives. When people evaluate something, perceived images are sometimes more important than actual quality. Though consumers are said to use rational thinking in buying environments (H oyer and MacInnis 2001), it is often true that a product inferior to other competitive products dr aws the attention of consumers and succeeds in markets by using well organized image strategies. In this regard, consumer product or service brands should be managed to create a favorable image for success with in the market place, because consumers might judge products or services based on simple heuristics, such as image (Kotler and Gertner 2002). Imag e especially has marketing communication implications when we view an object as a brand for the purpose of building a favorable image. Brand perspective approaches could explain the reas ons for the successes or failures of many products or services launched in current markets. Favorably perceive d brands could have bot h visible and invisible advantages over other competitors and greater longevity. These brand management approaches are not limited to specific marketed products or services. For example, human brand image is crucial to candidates launching political campaigns, as favorable images could mean succ ess to those candidates running in elections. The importance of a personal brand is also applicable to consumer marketplaces. For instance, a CEOs image can influence a companys reputa tion and its products, especially for technology companies. Typical examples include Apples St eve Jobs, Microsofts Bill Gates, Ciscos John Chambers, Suns Scott McNeely, and Oracless Larry Ellison (Keller 2003). Furthermore, presidents are also critical human brands who can influence the brand equity of the countries they govern. For presidents of relatively unknown c ountries in particular, the human brand plays

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12 a more significant role in terms of fostering globa l visibility and familiarity with international publics because of the global medias limited co verage of countries of lesser news value (Sreberny-Mohammadi, Nordenstreng, and Steven son 1984). Presidents images might be the only source that international publics use when evaluating countries. The image and brand debate can be extended to specific countries, as well. A country must develop a strong global image in order to be a successful brand. The desirable outcomes of country brand-building endeavor s include attracting internatio nal tourists and industrial investors, and promoting its country of origin pr oducts to global markets. Thus, discussions of brand management could lead marketers to questi on the worlds perception of a country like the United States, its overall favorability, and what imag es of the United States have been generated by foreigners. The ability to identify and unders tand global perceptions of the United States could provide implications for various diplomatic sectors in every country, such as political, economic, cultural, tourism, and even consumer marketing perspectives. Unique country images continuously evolve and change. For example, the most important brand image for the United States was the freedom image developed between the 1940s and 1960s, but America is no longer perceive d as the only country of freedom or the home of desirable brands and popular cu lture (Allison 2005, p.1). More specifically, international publics have developed increasingly negative images of or unfavorable feelings toward the United States as a brand; one study showed that the United States was the least favored country among five major countries in the world: the United States, Germany, China, Japan, and France (Mitchell 2005). According to reports by the Pew Research Center (2004), the French, German, and British hold negative views of the United States, and Muslim countries continue to harbor anger toward America after the Iraq War. Furt her, nearly every citizen of

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13 Jordan or the Palestinian Authority (99%) repo rted unfavorable attit udes toward the United States (Gentzkow and Shapiro 2004). The serious problem is that this negative image is not limited to certain countries. For example, 53% of the Chinese have negative opinions of the United States (Mitchell 2005), and 46% of Russi ans still consider the United States as an adversary instead of an ally, even in the postCold War era (Nesterov 20 05). This negative image of the United States seems primarily associated w ith its foreign policynot its people, values, or products (Telhami 2003). For example, the Chinese show sensitive reactions to the U.S.-driven and annually published human rights reports. Also, Ta iwan issues raise delicate concerns for the Chinese, because the U.S. policy on Taiwan c onflicts with the traditional One-China policy. Another example is a conflict be tween the United States and Canada, which stems from the rivalry of sharing a border (K lein, Ettenson, and Morris 1998). Th e same situation also can be extended to Mexico. The geographi c proximity of two countries can evoke an affinity between the countries, but it can also ge nerate negative reactions. Even though negative images may not be directly connected to intern ational business, they could in directly affect international business, especially for companies that make d istinctly American prod ucts (Allison 2005, p. 1; Guyon 2003, p. 179). Another problem is that the number of U.S. global companies keeps decreasing. According to the top 100 global brand list (B usinessWeek 2001; 2006), the top ten American brands decreased from nine to seven betw een 2001 and 2006. Also, the number of top 100 brands shrank from 61 to 51. Though this decrease in the top U.S. brands might be due to competition with and the success of other countries brands, it should be noted that this decrease happened around the world. More speci fically, the sales of U.S.-based brands declined as a result of the Iraq War, or additional international conflicts between the United States and other

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14 countries. The percent of international consumer s who use major U.S. products (e.g., Microsoft, McDonalds, Nike, Coca Cola, etc.) in the 30 surv eyed countries decreased by about 3%, and the level of trust toward U.S.-based brands also decreased an average of 3% between 2003 and 2004 (NOP World 2004). For South Korea, the event in which two Korean schoolgirls were killed by a U.S. armored car, impacted the sales volume of U.S. made products due to a civil campaign among South Koreas younger generation to boycott American products (Kim 2002). In recognizing these increasingly negative opin ions from internati onal consumers toward the U.S. brand and U.S.-based products, it woul d be fruitful to expl ore the various factors affecting attitudes toward the U.S. brand and thei r impact on U.S.-based products. It is generally acknowledged that there are tremendous factors in fluencing brand images. For example, images of McDonalds could be generated from various sources such as adver tising, word-of-mouth, the golden arches, the Ronald McDonald House, pr omotion toys, playgrounds, employees, litter in the street, news stories, signage, products, and personal experiences (Aaker 1996). When we view a country as a brand that should be st rategically managed, there are many uncontrollable factors that might be benefici al or fatal to country images. From a brand management perspective, the first step is to identify bot h controllable and uncontrolla ble factors and manage both of them under rigid strategi zing. Among these various factors, mass mediated content can be a powerful source from which international pub lics obtain information or develop images of a country. It could include c ontrollable messages, like adve rtising or other marketing communication messages, as well as uncontrollable mass media content, such as news reports, documentaries, and films. Given that the United St ates is a leading country in the international entertainment industry, dominant made in the USA entertainment content could be an effective marketing communication tool for building a strong brand image. However, tremendous

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15 quantities of entertainment conten t could also hurt the U.S. image, depending on their levels of acceptance by internatio nal audiences. Another factor affecting brand image coul d be individuals dir ect experiences and personal knowledge about a country. Direct expe riences with a country may include personal visits to the country, meeting people from th e country, making friends with citizens of the country, learning the national la nguage, and even marrying a pe rson from the country. These direct contacts are effective channels to unde rstanding other cu ltures (Khairulla h 1995). Personal knowledge about a country could constitute languag e proficiency and an understanding of the culture. In the same vein, inherited beliefs abou t a country can be an effective approach to understanding a country, beyond making simple judgm ents. These beliefs can also be generated through various controllable or unco ntrollable sources that represen t criteria with which to judge images of a certain country. Furthermore, ge neral inter-country perceptions are based on political, economic, and cultural rela tionships (Martin and Eroglu 1993). In addition, there is a brand management factor influencing country brand image. Considering a country as a strategic brand, the firs t element of country bran d identity can be the countrys visual identity (Aaker 1996; Schmitt and Simonson 1997). Within the country brand management setting, the national flag, governme nt badge, and other national symbols could provide formal or informal international represen tations of a country. If the concept of corporate visual identity is applied to the United States, th e stars and stripes, the American eagle, and the Statue of Liberty are core visu al signifiers of the country. This study will focus on the e ffect of mediated cultural pr oducts, such as movies, TV shows, music, advertising, and books on country brand image. It is assumed that the degrees to which people are exposed to these kinds of medi ated cultural products positively affects their

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16 attitudes toward a given country. The studys fi ndings could be applied to general marketing communication strategies of the country as a brand and the country-based products that it produces. This study was initiated by the proposition that mediated cultural products could increase positive attitudes toward a country brand, which in turn, would be linked to attitudes toward and purchase intention of country-bas ed products. The main purposes of this study are to clarify the extent to which consumption of mediated cultu ral products, including inte r-country relationships and national symbols, can explain attitudes toward the country brand, and to examine the effect of country brand attitudes on att itudes toward and purchase inten tions of country-based products. Finally, this study intends to help advertisi ng and marketing scholars and practitioners by suggesting marketing communication strategies that will improve country brand image and attitudes toward country-based product brands. This study focuses on perceptions of the U.S. brand and U.S.-based products among consumers in foreign countries.

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17 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Brands and Brand Building Traditionally, it is believed that companie s make products, and consumers own brands. This means that products are developed based on physical attributes and benefits, while brands are created based on invisible values within the consumers cognition and mind. Because product attributes can be easily imitated and consumer s may not recognize differences among similar products, brands can be a competitive asset for differentiating similar products in the consumers mind (Aaker 1996). Nowadays, it is said that al most everything can be branded, including human beings, ideas, and cities or c ountries (Anholt and Hildreth 2004) Before discussing the concept of country branding, it is necessary to review wh at a brand is and how it works. The American Marketing Association defined a brand as a name, term, sign, symbol, or combination of them that is designed to identify the goods or serv ices of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors (Keller 2003, p. 3). This AMA definition focuses on specific brand elements, and thus creating a brand means choosing a name, logo, symbol, package design, and other components that identif y and distinguish it from competing products. A brand is also viewed as a promise a company makes to the customer, of what this product is going to fit into the business of the cust omer (Campbell 2002, p. 208). Furthermore, Keller (2003) defined a brand as a product, but one that adds other dimensions that differentiate it in some way from other products designed to satis fy the same need (p. 4). According to Keller (2003), a brand provides several benefits from the perspective of both consumers and firms. From consumer perspectives, brands help identif y the source or maker of products, and provide simple cues for their product decisions. Beyond their functional benefits, brands serve as a symbolic representation of a consumers self-ima ge. From the firm perspective, brands make it

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18 possible to identify each brand when handling vari ous products, and provide legal protection for their unique assets. Ultimately, a brand is nothi ng more and nothing less than the good name of something to be offered to cons umers (Anholt and H ildreth 2004, p. 10). Given the importance of brands, brand buildi ng is a critical goal for advertisers and marketers. The current market situation make s brand building more important because of different usages and developments in the media, as well as globalization, the fragmentation and transformation of markets, and increasing numbers of availabl e products (Kathman 2002). As consumer markets become more complicated and diverse, customers and audiences cannot remember or recognize brands or products la unched in markets. For instance, even though advertisers and marketers try to develop recognizable commercials or effective promotions, it is hard for average product brands to obtain ap propriate responses from audiences. In these competitive market situations, branding can be a strategic solution to promoting audiences recognition, recall, and purchase in tentions. There are three practical steps to building brands: (1) identify a point-of-view, (2) develop a pitch, a nd (3) identify your target platform (Bliss and Wildrick 2005, p. 2). Aaker (2000) also introdu ced the concept of the sweet spot and stressed the importance of non-mass media comm unication beyond traditiona l advertising, such as sponsorship and using the Internet. As previous ly noted, there are critica l concepts needed to understanding a brand such as brand image, br and identity, and brand personality. Among them, brand image should be explored first when atte mpting to build a favorable and strong brand, because brand image is the general description of a brand that consumers will first recognize (Aaker 1996). Brand Image The concept of image is used in various academic fields, but the meaning is quite confusing because of its vast number of con ceptual constructs. Lippman (1922), the famous

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19 American reporter, identified image as a mental picture associated with objects. However, a negative aspect of image exists which shows only distorted and fractional views of an event instead of the comprehensive image (Boorstin 1964) Scott (1965) divided image into three parts: composite image, generic image, and hal lucinatory image. Th e composite image is acquired through repetitive experiences and it be comes similar to knowledge. The generic image is a representative image stemming from the co re characteristics of an object. Many scholars understand image as a construct or schema (Beach 1990). Schema is the linkage of related items in the map of the human brain. Understanding sc hema as a cognitive construct of information, Kern and Just (1995) regard the image and schema as a similar concept. Boulding (1959) also recognized the similarity between image and sche ma, asserting that the image is a subjective knowledge. Both scholars suggest that image bel ongs to the cognitive aspect of information gathering. The concept of brand image has been us ed since the early 1950s (Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990). Brand image is defined as the meaning cons umers develop about the brand as a result of the firms marketing activ ities (Roth 1994, p. 495). Keller ( 2003) defined brand image as perception about a brand as reflec ted by the brand associations he ld in consumer memory, and brand associations as the othe r information nodes linked to the brand node in memory [that] contain the meaning of the brand for consumers (p. 66). A desirable brand image is formed when brand associations within the consumer mind are favorable, strong, and unique (Keller 1998). This brand image is also important in c ountry branding or mark eting (Pike and Ryan 2004). However, one of the problems in studying country branding is that no common word represents this single concept. A review of academic and practical literature on the subject

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20 reveals that each term has been given a variet y of definitions, and the terms are often used interchangeably. Researchers use several differe nt terms such as country brand, nation brand, location brand, place brand, and destination brand. This study uses the term country brand, but place branding is used when discussing other geographical branding concepts, such as state or city branding. A countrys imag e is important in country branding, particularly for young countries (Konecnik 2004); for instance, studies suggest that developing a new brand image can promote tourism in U.S. cities (J udd 1995). Given the importance of brand image, accurate measurement methods are needed to understand and develop images (Roth 1994). Brand images can be measured for country or place brands in various ways. Tapachai and Waryszak (2000) used the beneficial image fo r the analysis of country or place image. A beneficial image has five value dimensions: f unctional, social, emotional, epistemic, and conditional. Foley and Fahy (2004) examined imag es on national tourism promotion websites to analyze the incongruities between expression and experience. Culture is the primary component of brand images of countries or places (Thompson 2004). Hankinson (2004) assessed the salience of image attributes linked with history, heritage, and culture in building a destination brand, and suggested organic images formed from outside marketings core, such as education, literature, and the arts using a re pertory grid technique. In his re search, organic image is defined as the totality of what a person already knows or perceives about that destination from newspapers, radio and TV news, documentaries, periodicals, dramas, nov els, and non-fictional books and classes on geography and history (p. 7). There also has been research about constitu ting the elements of place images (Goodrich 1978; Haahti 1986; Bojani, 1991; Fakeye and Crompton 1991; Reilly 1990; Embacher and Buttle, 1989). Goodrich (1978) did a comparative st udy of images from nine places in North

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21 America and Central/South America. Haahti (1 986) suggested Finlands country image by comparing it to adjacent countries. Leisen (2001 ) found four categories of U.S. state images: socio-cultural amenities, natural amenities, par ticipative recreational facilities, and climate attribute interrelation. As previous literature shows, country im age is currently perceived as consumers, audiences, and/or tr avelers mental descriptions of a country. This current image can be good or bad. A more strategic concept of brand is brand identity, which is a desirable image created by marketers for consumers, audiences and/or travelers. The ultimate goal that a company aims to achieve is effective brand iden tity. When a brand is successful, brand image and brand identity should be similar. Brand Identity Brand identityone of the core concepts in brand buildingis an objective goal that is defined as a strategy that aims to change or develop a brand (Aaker 2000). Brand identity is based on two important factors: brand image and awareness (Aaker 1996). Normally, brand image and identity are used interchangeably, but these two should be di stinguished. Brand image refers to the current consumer a ssociations with a brand. Brand id entity is a target image that customers are supposed to perceive about a comp any. According to Aaker (1996), brand identity is more important than brand image and percepti on in brand building. He viewed brand identity as the outcome of brand associations. In other words, brand identity is the result of the combination of all items related to building br and image and awareness. Brand identity is composed of 12 factors developed from four dimensions: brand as product, brand as organization, brand as person, and brand as symbol. Among the 12 factors, brand as product includes product scope, product attri butes, quality/value, uses, users, and country of origin; brand as organization includes organi zation attributes and local vs global; brand as person is represented by personality and brand-customer relationships; and brand as symbol includes

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22 visual imagery/metaphors and brand he ritage (Aaker 1996). Brand identity can differentiate brands from competitors brands, and then the brand can achieve audience recall and favorable perceptions more easily than others. These achievements encourage sales and improve the company image, encourage continuous purchasing, and lead to actual pro duct trials and loyal consumers of the brand. Brand identity strategy is pract ically defined as a set of processes that include the coordinated efforts of the bra nd strategists in (1) developing, evaluating, and maintaining the brand identity, and (2) communica ting the brand identity to all individuals and groups (internal and external to the firms) responsible for th e firms marketing communications (Madhavaram, Badrinarayanan, and McDonald 2005, p. 70). Als o, Keller (1993) commented that good brand identity requires two important factors: internal efforts to create brand identity and brand identity integration. Other authors suggest the concept of brand power. The Brand Power Index is used in technological industries and incl udes four components: price pr emium, customer commitment, brand advocacy, and preference among non-custom ers (Brandt and Johnson 1997). Na, Marshall, and Keller (1999) also applied the concept of brand power to optimize brand equity. Brand power can be explained with the key words tr ust, perception, and sati sfaction. According to Campbell (2002), brand equity can be the cause and result of brand power. In other words, brand equity can build brand power, and brand equity can then be increased by strong brand power. Specifically, brand equity is composed of two key words: awareness and associations (Campbell 2002). Campbell added that an increa se in the rate of recall from customers is needed to increase awareness of the brand and also suggested analyz ing customers, competitors, and the company in

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23 order to increase associations. Ul timately, brand equity building is the goal of brand strategy. Keller (1993) also explained that brand equity is related to bra nd awareness and brand image. Equity is valued as an important asset for companies and other organizations. Brand equity is composed of brand l oyalty, name awareness, perceived quality, brand associations, and other proprietary brand assets (Aaker 1991). More specifically, brand equity is influenced by brand image, which is also enhanced by company image, product image, user image, and even the images of competing brands (Beil 1992). Th is brand identity is important for country branding. While exploring current country images is the first step of branding, developing the right identity is a core step to managing a c ountry brand and ultimately achieving brand equity. Even though international public s perceive the United States negatively, developing desirable country brand identities could st rengthen the U.S. brand and allevi ate negative perceptions of the country. Thus, the concept of bra nd identity is essential to bu ilding a strong country brand. Brand Personality Another important concept of branding is brand personality. Brand personality can broaden our understanding of bra nding, help differentiate brand id entity, act as a communication guideline, and create brand equity (Aaker 1996). The personality concept first appeared in 1930s psychology, and the two major theories behind it are the trait or the dispositional theory and the person-situation theory (Wee 2004). According to the dispos itional theory individual dispositions remain constant and distinctiv e for each person. On the other hand, the personsituation theory posits that human propensity depe nds on certain contextual situations. From this traditional perspective of personality, definitions of brand personality normally contained the words durable and stable and focused on the dynamic nature of a brand (Allport 1937; Sullivan 1953). It is said that personality scales can measure human characteristics (Brinol and Petty 2005). The representative scale is the Bi g Five of Personality (Digman 1990). The five

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24 factors include: extraversion or dominan ce and submissiveness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openne ss to experience. Human personality scales were developed and applie d to brand personalities. Since Martineau (1958) first identified the pe rsonality concept for retail stores, this concept has gained popularity. Nowadays, the hu man personality concept is extended to brand personality, and this brand personality is an import ant tool to differentiati ng competitors brands (Sweeney and Brandon 2006). Brand personification has become common sin ce the frequent use of celebrity endorsements (Azoulay 2003) and is important because brand pe rsonality is a viable metaphor for understanding brand image (Capra ra, Barbaranelli, and Guido 2001). Research supports that brand personality functions in the same way the human personality does (Wee 2004). Aaker (1997) investigated the possibility of br and personality by defining it as the set of human characteristics associat ed with a brand (p. 347) and a pplied various personality scales, including the Big Five of Pers onality scale and othe r traditional personality scales used by academics and practitioners, to brands. The results identified five dimensions of brand personality: sincerity, exciteme nt, competence, sophisticatio n, and ruggedness. Among them, three brand personality scales we re correlated with three of the Big Five dimensions, and two are different from the Big Five human personality scales. As Aaker (1997) mentioned, personality traits can be associated with a brand in direct or i ndirect ways. For instance, a brand can be directly associated w ith people, as when consumers a ssociate a brand with a companys employees or CEO. This concept is applicable to people-related count ry images, such as associating a country with its ci tizens or president. A brand can be indirectly associated with

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25 personality traits through productrelated attributes, which include the country name, the national flag or badge, adver tising, and transportation. In addition, personality variables are rela ted to attitudes toward brands, so positive personalities lead to favorabl e brand attitudes (Aaker 1996). Fo r example, while Folgers used more dynamic personalities in its advertising during the early 1990s, Maxwell House suffered in sales because it used characters with weak personalities. Bran d personality has been studied across cultures (Sung and Tinkham 2005) and extende d to non-profit sectors (Venable, Rose, and Gilbert 2003). Kim, Han, and Park (2001) found positive correlations between attractiveness, distinctiveness, and the self-expr essive values of brand personal ity. However, studies show that the replication of Big Five constructs is depe ndent upon the brand (Caprara et al. 2001). Other research proposes that the current brand personality scales cannot measure true brand personality, and assert the importance of brand identity over brand personality (Azoulay 2003). Recently, Sweeney and Brandon (2006) suggested an alternative approach to brand personality by introducing the circumplex model, which focuse s on interpersonal personality traits derived from social and pe rsonality psychology. The brand personality concept is applicab le to any given country. For example, companies or individual brands use celebrity endors ements or a personalized mascot as a tool for developing brand associations. Countries can use this concept to adopt brand personality symbols. These symbols could be people or artificial si gnifiers created through brand management strategy. More specifically for the Un ited States, the Statue of Liberty is a typical personalized image of the country. The president of the United Stat es could also represent human characteristics of the country. Furthermore, actor s or actresses, sports athletes, artists, and

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26 famous business people from the Un ited States could provide persona lities representative of the country. Country as a Brand Every country has its unique ch aracteristics, such as its peop le, geography, resources, and culture. Indeed, no two countries have the same name or identity. This affirms the fact that countries come by brand attributes naturally. Almo st all objects can be branded and marketed in the same way companies and products are. Th ere has been an overall consensus among academics and practitioners about the existence of the country brand concept (Keller 2003; Anholt 2003; Olins 2002; Caldwell a nd Freire 2004). Keller (2003) s uggested the possibility of branding countries in his book, noting geographic location also can be branded, and increased mobility of both people and businesses and growth in the tourism industry have contributed to the rise of place marketing (p. 30). Other author s assert that any nation can be viewed as a brand, as it can be viewed as a compound of cont emporary and historical a ssociations that have relevance for marketing (OShaughnessy a nd OShaughnessy 2000, p. 56). Anholt (2003) also mentioned that a country is operated like a brand in various respects. In particular, Olins (2002) asserted the existence of country branding by refuting Michel Girards proposition that a corporation can be branded, not a state; a coun try carries specific dignity unlike a marketed product (p. 241). Olinss argument is illustrated by the fact that France has changed politically over time, and French politicians became expe rts in branding and re-branding the country (2002). Benjamin Franklin and his successor, Thomas Jefferson, could be similarly identified as the builders of brand Americ a (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). Country brand is one of the representative c oncepts for place brands. In general, country brand image is generally defined as the total of all descriptive, inferential and informational beliefs one has about a particular country (Martin and Eroglu 1993, p. 193). Based on previous

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27 brand literature, this study defines a country brand as a mental description of collective country images generated by cognitive, affective, and behavioral experie nces about a country This definition will be applied throughout the study. In this era of globalization, positive and attractive branding guarantees success on a global scale (Hsieh et al. 2004). A country brand is crucial to a c ountry and its citizens, because people tend to perceive and respond according to the brand images that shape their attitudes and behaviors (Jaworski and Fosh er 2003; Tse and Gorn 1993). Se veral studies exploring the relationship between ones proj ected image about an object an d the individuals resulting perceptions about and attitudes toward that objec t have confirmed this notion (e.g., Johansson et al. 1994; Liu and Johnson, 2005). A country image can be one of the main contributors to public perceptions and attitudes about a place (Bramwell and Rawding 1996; Knight and Calantone 2000). In country branding, developing a brand can be equated to the development of an image identity (Joppe et al. 2001, p. 252). However, country branding is challenging b ecause country image is a multifaceted and complex construct (Roth and Romeo 1992) and th ere are a great number of variables that determine a country image (Lee and Ganesh 1999). Furthermore, becau se a country is a composite of such diverse images it is not eas y to identify as a unified brand (OShaughnessy and OShaughnessy 2000). Establishing or changi ng a country image also consumes a great amount of time and effort (Lebedenko 2004). Despite these challenges regarding country branding and country image promotion, the fact that images are dynamic and can be improved through diligent management means there is hope for the successful development of country brands (Gallarza et al. 2002).

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28 Previous studies found that individuals pro cesses of associating images with foreign countries can be segmented into cognitive, affectiv e, and behavioral dimensions (Laroche et al. 2005; Lawrence and Marr 1992). A countrys familiarity and visibility are prerequisites to these image dimensions and image formation processe s. A countrys familiarity influences ones feelings toward it (Lee and Ganesh 1999). Moreover, according to Mackay and Fesenmaier (1997), familiarity was the one consistently significant input variable across all image dimensions (p. 559). On the contrary, unless a country is familiar and visible, one cannot develop an image of it or even be aware of its presence (Papadopoulos and Heslop 2000). Consumers do not respond to what is true, bu t what they believe to be true (Lindquist 1974). Therefore, a countrys percei ved image is much more importa nt than its actual state. The global media plays a role in todays country bran ding, in that the media is the major source, if not the only source, from which most people obtain information about countries (OShaughnessy and OShaughnessy 2000). Frequent and wide ex posure to place identity helps establish a distinguished place brand for global publics (Bramwell and Rawding 1996). International corporations have already applie d this branding concept to the country level as a way of differentiating their products for international consumers. Furthermore, global marketers have become interested in building po sitive country brand images because they realize the power of country image for their companie s and products (Keller 2003). The application range of the branding concept has now extended from its original co nceptualization of brand as a product or company to brand as a human, bra nd as a culture, and brand as a country. Thus, the country image acts as a halo that surrounds and a summary construct that affects attitudes toward a product brand (Han 1989) In particular, country image acts as a halo when consumers are not familiar with products and as a summary construct when consumers are

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29 familiar with products. Kim and Ch ung (1997) also found that country image interacts with other marketing variables such as br and popularity and adve rtising, and they identified country image as a country-related intangible a sset. Lee and Ganesh (1999) divided country image into two constructs: overall image and product specific im age. They found that specific country images showed stronger effects than count ry of origin mediating relati onships between overall country image and consumer evaluation. Then, what are the factors influencing country brand image? Extant research on country brand image is mos tly descriptive, comparing the country brand attitudes or images of different nations in the wo rld without explaining what factors contribute to country brand attitude or image. One recent st udy (Fullerton 2005) explored the differences in attitudes toward the U.S. brand between indivi duals who watched U.S. television programs and those who did not. The study found no significant differences between the two groups. The same study also failed to detect a significant correla tion between attitudes toward the U.S. brand and an acceptance of U.S.-based products. Laro che, Papadopoulos, Hesl op, and Mourali (2005) suggested that country image c onstituted three dimensionscount ry beliefs, effects on people and desired interactions, and how country image influences product beliefs and product evaluation. Empirically, Jun and Shim (2007) found country personality constructs representing the United States and identified the five constructs of country personality as follows: excitement, trendiness, sincerity, uniqueness, and down to ear th. Among these five constructs, trendiness and sincerity are the significant constructs influenc ing brand attitudes toward the United States. In addition, marketing communication e ndeavors can promote country brands. Advertising is one such typical promotional tool. For the Unit ed States, the Shared Value Initiative (SVI) is essential to viewing the effects of country advertising. The SVI was created by Charlotte Beers, a successful advertising executive, and wa s tested on Muslim countries

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30 (Fullerton and Kendrick 2005). The models depicted in the advertisements include a MuslimAmerican baker, doctor, schoolteacher, journalist, and firefighter, who say they lead happy lives in the United States (Anholt and Hildreth 2004) According to Fullerton and Kendrick (2005), it is a first-of-its-kind use of advertising developed by governme nt officials, and even though there are critical debates on its success, the effects of SVI we re proven through experimental research using international students. They confirmed that attitudes toward the United States were enhanced after viewing the advertising, and proposed th at marketing techniques are effective tools for building country brands. Howe ver, some arguments exist regarding the true success of the SVI. Anholt and Hi ldreth (2004) asserted that the SVI was a failure because messages do no represent the real thoughts of Muslim people and c ontain biased depictions of Muslim individuals. For example, Muslims regard other Muslims living in the United States as betrayers (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). In this respect, it is dubious whether the SVI was successful or not, but the SVI has implications for advertising and marketers because it represents the first attempt to use advertising as a brand building communi cation tool. After that, other countries started to use advertising techniques as a c ountry promotion tool. For example, South Korea is running its country advertising campaign using the slogan, Sparkling Korea, which was distributed through ESPN. Taiwan is also running its country branding advertising campaign in the United States featuring ChienMing Wang, a baseball player for the New York Yankees. Australia has also run its worldwide country advertisi ng campaign and it has proven to be a promotional success. Another marketing communication tool for c ountry brands is sporting events. Though mass media advertising is regarded as the most effective form of ma rketing communication, the situation is somewhat different when the target object is a co untry. For instance, a tremendous

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31 budget is required to advert ise a country and even this is not always sufficient for reaching all international publics and consumers. Thus, an effective alternative marketing communication tools is a major sports event. When a country hosts a mega event, it can draw international media coverage, thus presenting an e ffective country-branding vehicle. Empirically, the importance of a sporting event is supported. Jun and H. D. L ee (2007) found that the Olympic Games are an important antecedent that has positively affected the Germany brand. An art event was also one of the significant event cate gories influencing the Germa ny brand. Studies show that international sports events and country of or igin companies influence country image (Jun and Byon 2006). In their study, Jun and Byon found that the World Cup Games and Olympics influenced the South Korea brand, and the sponsor ing companies of those mega events also had positive influences on the country. Furthermore, pa rticipating in mega sports events generated favorable country images (Jun and H. M. Lee 2007) Studies also suggested that Latin American countries participating in the World Baseball Classic games, such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela, built favorable attit udes among international publics. One representative consequence of country branding is the country of origin effect. However, many consequences beyond country of or igin effect exist. For example, companies consider country of origin images when inve sting money, constructing factories in foreign countries, and exporting their products. Govern ments also care about country images when spending foreign aid budgets. Thus, country imag e is crucial when choosing a host country for international events or finding affiliate partne rs for international organizations (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). In this rega rd, Anholt and Hildreth (2004) proposed the hexagon model of country brand, which includes six perceptual cons tructs that explain the brand equity of a

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32 country: tourism, export brands, foreign and domestic policy, investment and immigration, culture and heritage, and citizens. Even though it might not seem sufficient for six constructs to explain the complexity of country equity, it is worth looking into the specific constructs influencing country brands. Cons tructs related to this study ar e export brands and foreign and domestic policy. Tourism-related co nstructs are not included becaus e a main consequence of this study is country of origin effects from advertis ing and communication pers pectives. Specifically, both constructs of country of origin effects and purchase intentions used in this study are based on export brands, and inter-country relationship beliefs are linked to a countrys foreign policy. The main problem with the hexagon model is its l ack of mass communication constructs. So this study incorporates mass-mediated cultural products as a main st udy construct along with country visual identity. Given that the vi sual identity related to a coun try is mainly developed through mass-mediated content, it is essential to include mass communication construc ts or variables. In general, there has been limited academic re search from a marketing perspective on the antecedents and consequences of country attit udes. Given the unfavorable U.S. country image and the decreasing dominance of U.S. brands around the world, there may be practical advantages to employing a theoretical framework that will examine the antecedents and consequences of country brand attitude. The current study examines which factors influence country brand attitude and how country brand attitude affects attitude s toward, and purchase intentions for, country-based products. The results of this examination will provide theoretical and practical implications for the consum er brand marketing of global companies.

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33 CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUALIZATION Attitudes toward a Country Country attitude is an extended concept fr om attitude psychology and brand management. Given that a country can be a br and, attitudes toward product brands can be applied to attitudes toward a country. Even though a country repres ents much bigger conceptual and physical elements, an attitudinal approach is appropria te to exploring the a dvertising and marketing implications of a country brand. Moon (1996) ex plored the impact of consumer ethnocentricity and foreign culture attitu des when consumers are processing country of origin advertisements. In his research, the concept of attitudes toward a fo reign culture was used as a main variable. Moon (1996) defines consumer attitudes toward a fore ign culture/country as a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating the life-styles, values, and customs of a specific foreign culture/country in consumption be havior (p. 437). Thus, attitudes toward a foreign country are formed from travel, trade, education, watching movies, or paying attention to world events. However, one problem is that Moon (1996) measured only consumer attitudes toward a foreign country. Given that a c ountry brand also incl udes citizens evaluations of their own country, this definition has limitations. Branding is not limited to the areas outside of an organization. For example, residents within a co untry also have certain attitudes about their own country, and these internal evaluations and per ceptions are important when building a country brand, in order to draw consensus from all stak eholders. Therefore, a broader definition is required to incorporate brand ma nagement concepts. In this study, Eagly and Chaikens (1993) traditional definition of attitude is modified to define the concept of country attitude as a psychological tendency that is ex pressed by evaluating a particular country w ith some degree of favor or disfavor

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34 Consumption of Mediated Cultural Products as Behaviors of International Publics It is said that Hollywood is the worlds leading entertainment business. Through this entertainment business, American culture can be easily disseminated to the world, familiarizing international publics with American values, belie fs, and lifestyles (Anholt 2003). It has been well documented that the media appears to have sign ificant agenda setting (e.g., McCombs 1994) and framing (e.g., Entman 1993) influence, in terms of guiding and shaping pub lic opinion. In that sense, the medias depiction of a certain objec t seems to be critical to determining publics subsequent perceptions of it. A significant amount of U.S. mediated cultural products are exported globally and international consumers ha ve already become accustomed to such cultural products as movies, TV shows, periodicals, books, and websites. For example, U.S. made television shows make up 75% of Latin Ameri can television programs (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). For South Korea, the market share of domes tic movies has been over 50%, but recently the market share of Hollywood movies duri ng May 2007 reached 75.4% in the South Korean film market (YTN Star 2007). The concept of mediated cultu ral products is defined as mediated information or entertainment created and deliv ered by and reflective of a certain culture or country, and includes movies, music, art, and literature. These mediated cultural products are important factors in conveying a country brand to interna tional audiences and consumers because mediated cultural products have the ab ility to close perceived dist ances between a country and international publics (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). Du ring the twentieth centu ry, people who have contact with books, radios, televi sion, music, movies, video ga mes, or other products were influenced by the United States (Anholt and Hild reth 2004). This is because the U.S. government used media products to promote its country brand during the Cold War era. Specific examples of

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35 those media products include the radio program Voice of America as well as the magazines Problems of Communism America Illustrated and Soviet Life (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). It is widely assumed that the U.S. entertainment bus iness affects global consumers in various ways, such as socially, culturally, and in terms of marketing. This study views the consumption of mediated cultural products as a behavior-related construct of international publics. Previous research documents th e relationship between behaviors and attitudes (Ols on and Stone 2005). According to Olson and Stone (2005), individuals behaviors influence their attitudes in three ways. Fi rst, by reminding the individual of particular information, behavior can change attitudes. Second, actions make individuals affect certain attitudes psychologically. Third, behaviors can serve as information for judging personal attitudes. Three main approaches to explaining the in fluence of behavior on attitudes exist: biased scanning, dissonance theory, and self-per ception theory. Accordin g to biased scanning, role-playing evokes selective generation and su pports one-sided arguments. Biased scanning makes role players convince themselves that the advocated position is better. In the context of country branding, people who are heavy users of American mediated cultural products tend to advocate U.S. mediated cultural products when th ere are pros and cons, and this could lead to favorable attitudes toward the Un ited States. Dissonance theory posit s that people prefer logical, harmonious, or coherent associations among th eir attitudes, values, and interpersonal relationships (Olson and Stone 2005), and pe ople tend to reduce dissonance by changing behaviors or avoiding it (Festinge r 1957). It is possible, then, that a person who likes and watches Hollywood movies freque ntly but who has unfavorable attitudes toward the United States might change his/her attitudes to reso lve the dissonance problem. Self-perception theory proposes that self-perception is parallel to social perception (Bem 1965). This means that

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36 individuals often infer their own internal states including attitudes, from the same external, visible cues they would use to infer another persons internal states (Olson and Stone 2005, p. 250). When a majority of people like and advo cate Hollywood movies, th is environment can persuade someone who does not like Hollywood movies to adopt more favorable attitudes toward American films in order to remain in harmony with his/her pier group. This is a common situation among international audiences due to the positive and negative effects of American mass culture. Another explanation of the role of mediat ed cultural products involves media-related theories. Anholt (2003) proposed th at brands could be highlighted by the essence of history and culture. This means that historic al properties and cultu ral outcomes can help raise an individual products brand equity, and by extension, the brand image of a country. To test this proposition, the current study adopts the theory of social real ity building, which posits that people construct their own reality through social communications including their inter actions with the mass media (DeFluer and DeFluer 2003; Fullerton 2005). Ba sed on this theoretical premise, this study assumes that the consumption of mediated cu ltural products such as TV shows, Hollywood movies, advertising, music, news, and websites ma y influence how people build their reality or images of a culture. Consumption of mediated cultural products from foreign cultures could be a critical means of understanding other countri es, since the mass media provides a more convenient source of information for intercul tural communication than other sources like interpersonal interactions (Yaple and Korze nny 1989). In this regard, a countrys mediated cultural products, such as movies, TV shows, and news stories, c ould be a significant information source for most people to learn about and form better understandings of other cultures and countries. Furthermore, the ideological effects of the mass media indicate that when

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37 mediated cultural products are consumed in othe r cultures, the ideological values and norms presented by mediated cultural products can be easily transferred to consumers (Shanahan and Morgan 1999). More specifically, learning or information acquisition through the mass media plays a positive role in intercultural communi cations, such that people who consume more mediated cultural products related to a country tend to develop positive beliefs about that countrys culture (Baldwin and Hunt 2002; Gudykunst and Kim 1997). For example, CNN viewers from Muslim countries showed favorab le attitudes toward the United States while general TV, newspaper, and radio news consumption did not affect U.S. attitudes (Gentzkow and Shapiro 2004). This study defines the perceived inte r-country relationship context as beliefs that general publics hold about the relationship of a cer tain country with their own countries Given that mediated cultural products represent a country s values, norms, and culture (Shabahan and Morgan 1999), and that the consumption of medi ated cultural products can positively influence individuals beliefs about th e countries depicted (Baldwin and Hunt 2002; Gudykunst and Kim 1997), it can be posited that mediated cultura l products have positive effects on inter-country relationships. In addition, mediated cultural products such as music, movies, television, and other entertainment forms relate to consumers pe rsonal likes or aestheti c tastes (Holbrook and Schindler 1994). This study views country visu al identity as an emotional stimulus for international consumers, and defines the term country identity as a country-scale application of corporate identity Thus, the consumption of mediated cu ltural products can lead to favorable feelings about U.S. visual identi ty as depicted in movies, TV s hows, or international newscasts, because mere exposure (Zajonc 1968) to country vi sual identity can generate positive attitudes.

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38 The representative examples of U.S. visual id entity include the national flag, national badge, or symbolic monuments like th e Statue of Liberty. In sum, given that people construct their own realities and unde rstand objects through mediated content, and that this understanding can shape attitudes toward objects, it can be postulated that the consumption of mediated cu ltural products will positi vely affect attitudes toward the country brand, the inte r-country relationship beliefs, a nd the country visual identity of the United States. H1: Consumption of mediated cultural produ cts will influence various aspects of international publics. H1-1: The more people consume a countrys medi ated cultural products, the more likely they are to develop positive atti tudes toward the country brand. H1-2: The more people consume a countrys medi ated cultural products, the more likely they are to develop positive attitude s toward inter-country relationships. H1-3: The more people consume a countrys medi ated cultural products, the more likely they are to develop positiv e attitudes toward that c ountrys visual identity. Inter-Country Relationship Beliefs Beliefs can be summarized as estimates of the likelihood that the knowledge one has acquired about a referent is correct or alternativel y, that an event or state of affairs has or will occur (Wyer and Albarracin 2005, p. 273). It is said that belief s can influence individuals attitudes (Kruglanski and Stro ebe 2005). According to the expectancy-value model, an individuals attitude to ward a given attitude object depends on the subjective value attached to attributes of the object or its consequences, each weighted by the subjec tive probability that the object is associated with these attributes or consequences (Kruglanski and Stroebe 2005, p. 328). Traditionally, dual process models, such as the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and

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39 the heuristic systematic model (HSM) have domina ted theoretical frameworks on attitude change (Petty and Cacioppo 1986; Chaiken, Liberman, a nd Eagly 1989). ELM posits that information processing occurs through the cen tral route or peripheral route depending on the circumstances. Similarly, HSM proposes systematic processing and heuristic processi ng to explain the two different information processing systems. In a ddition, Albarracin (2002) identified cognition in a persuasion model (CPM), which is a single process model with different processing stages. CPM posits a non-linear effect on persuasion show ing that moderate conditions work better (Albarracin and Kumkale 2003). A ll of the above three models posit that peoples cognitive processes are an important means of moderating individua l beliefs and attitudes. In the countrybranding context, these models are applied to the relationship between constructs of intercountry relationship beliefs and country attitude. Given that various political, economic, and cultural perceptions of a country make up the set of beliefs th at people have about a country, the positive relationship is in the same line of thought with the three previously mentioned models. Given that attitudes are eval uative judgments or knowledge structures about an object, peoples perceptions of the inter-c ountry relationships between c ountries can act as beliefs and therefore influence their attit udes toward a country. If belief s are positive, they may be a powerful source of country branding. Extant literature indicates that political context is related to country image. According to Anholt (2003), fo reign policy is regard ed as an important component of country image. Similarly, Telhami (2003) suggests that negative images of the United States are primarily connected to its fore ign policy, not its people or values (Telhami 2003). Martin and Eroglu (1993) also suggest th at political context is one of the three components constituting country image, along with economic and technical components. Furthermore, Kelman (1965) showed that countr y image is related to various inter-country

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40 relationship factors such as in ter-country contacts, international events, and international collisions. More specifically, Br unner, Flaschner, and Lou (1993) empirically demonstrated that the events at Tiananmen Square in 1989 negatively affected Ch inas country image. Jaffe and Nebenzahl (1993) found that the 1988 Seoul Olym pics promoted a positi ve image of South Korea. Similarly, consumers in Nanjing, China do not buy Japanese products, even though they admit they are of high quality, because of their tr aumatic memories of a brutal Japanese army in 1937. New Zealand consumers report low purchase intentions when it comes to buying French products because of the actions France took against Greenpeace in New Zealand territory (Beverland and Lindgreen 2002). Thus, internationa l tensions, conflicts, and atrocities affect consumer willingness to buy products made in pa rticular countries (Kle in, Ettenson, and Morris 1998). These empirical results illust rate that political, economic, and/ or international events play an important role in forming country image a nd product purchase intentio ns. Several important political and economic events have taken place between the United States and other countries, and some events have yielded a delicate political balance between these countries. For example, people in Mainland China have negative feelin gs about the United States intervention in Taiwan. Another example is th e human rights reports generated by the U.S. government that criticize the Chinese for human ri ghts violations. U.S. inter-country events also include the Iraq war, economic issues with free trade, and cultura l relationships. For example, the United States exerts a strong influence on other countries through its credit-rat ing agencies such as Moodys, Standard & Poors, and Fitch be cause credit ratings could instigate economic crises for other countries (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). Another ex ample is the FTA between the United States and South Korea, Colombia, Peru, and Panama The FTA drew international attention and negative reactions like demonstrations because of its potential to change the entire map of

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41 international business. Not only were countries signe d to the FTA with the U.S. interested in the agreement, but other countries pr eparing the FTA with the U.S. al so paid great attention to it. The inter-country relatio nships related to thes e events affect the U.S. country image among international publics. Based on the extant literatur e, it can be postulated that country image is constructed within the context of inter-country relationships. H2: Publics with positive belief s about the inter-count ry relationship between their country and a foreign country are more likely to develop positive attitudes toward the foreign country brand. Country Visual Identity The concept of identity is important to understanding the core meaning of brand architecture. According to Aaker (1996), brand identi ty is a unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or main tain; brand identity should help establish a relationship between the brand and the customer by generating a value proposition involving functional, emotional, or self-expressive benefits ; brand identity consists of twelve dimensions organized around four perspectives such as bran d-as-product, brand-as-o rganization, brand-asperson, and brand-as-symbol; and brand ident ity structure includes a core and extended identity (p. 68). Visual imagery and metaphors are included in the brand-as-symbol category. It was Pilditch (1970) who firs t suggested that corporate iden tity is an important concept in marketing. Even though corporate identity has garnered the attention of academics and managers alike (e.g., Alessandri 2001; Balmer and Wilson 1998; Melewar and Jenkins 2002; Melewar and Saunders 2000; Olins 1978, 1989; van Ri el and Balmer 1997), the definition of corporate identity is different between scholars and practitioners. While people in the marketing industry view corporate identity as a composite of visual elements including a corporate name, logo, and tagline, scholars define it as a more abstract concept incorpor ating corporate strategy,

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42 corporate culture, and communi cation (Alessandri 2001; Balmer and Wilson 1998; Melewar and Jenkins 2002). In spite of disputes between academics and pr actitioners over the definition of corporate identity, both groups seem to agree that corporate identity is a strategic management tool that communicates with the public about a company and influences long term public perceptions (Alessandri 2001). More specifically Lambert (1989) explained the concept of corporate identity as an iceberg with two levels: above the surfa ce is a companys visual presentation of itself to consumers, including name, logo, and tagline. Ben eath the surface are the invisible elements of written communication, corporate structure, and behavior. In the same vein, Schmidt (1995) diversified corporate identity-related concepts by identifying corporate culture, corporate behavior, market conditions, strategy, products services, communications, and graphic design. In addition, van Rekom (1997) suggested defining co rporate identity as the set of meanings by which an object allows itself to be known and through which it allows people to describe, remember, and relate to it (p. 411). Another approach to defining corporate id entity is through con ceptual and operational perspectives. Alessandri (2001) defi ned corporate identity perceptua lly as a firms strategically planned and purposeful presentation of itself in order to gain a positive corporate image in the minds of the public and to gain a favorable co rporate reputation over time. On the other hand, the operational definition of cor porate identity means all of the observable and measurable elements of a firms identity manifest in its comprehensive visual presentation of itself. The core elements of the operational definition of corporate identity are corporate name, logo, tagline, color palette, and archit ecture. Alessandri also viewed the firms public behavior, including its corporate reception from employees, customers, stakeholders, and suppliers, as an

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43 important element of operati onal corporate identity (p. 177). Van Riel and Balmer (1997) focused on organizational behavior and broadly exemplified elements of corporate identity such as graphic design, integrated corporate comm unication, and a multidisciplinary approach. Van Riel and Balmer (1997) also stressed th at marshaling the corp orate identity mix (communications, symbols, and organizational beha vior) is important to linking actual corporate identity with desire d corporate identity. Particularly, the visual components of cor porate identity communi cate the central idea of the organization with impact, brevity, and immediacy (Olins 1995, p. 11). This corporate visual identity affects consumers purchase deci sions, influencing the pe rceived reputation and goodwill of a company (Melewar and Saunders 1998) Corporate visual identity is a core element of corporate branding strategy and is more important for multinational companies that should choose a standardized and a localized cor porate identity for their international marketing (Henderson et al. 2003; Melewar and Saunders 1998, 1999; Melewar et al. 2000). Schmitt (1995) asserted that localized corporate visual identity is needed when entering the Asian market. East Asians assess corporate name, visual symbols, color, and phonological ap peal differently than Westerners. For example, while the color blue is primarily used as a corporate identity color in the United States, it is associated with negative emotions in China. Furthermore, East Asians weight indirect expressions such as naturalism, complexity, and decoration, as well as modern aesthetics, including traditional values, more h eavily than Westerners (Schmitt, 1995). Based on the literature rega rding corporate visual id entity, this study proposes the concept of country visual identity. Given that a c ountry can be viewed as a br and, this extension could be appropriate to understanding the visual identity system that is used in country brand architecture.

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44 This study defines the country visual identity as visual descriptions or icons that represent a country and evoke emotional response s from audiences or consumers Bald eagles, the great seal, monuments and buildings, and the national flag represent Americas visual identity (Anho lt and Hildreth 2004) The national flag was developed during the colonial period and its firs t design was Benjamin Franklins Join, or Die. This later changed to the Navy Jack flag, which included 13 stripes and the slog an, Dont tread on me (Anholt and Hildreth 2004, p. 30). T hus, the flag was an effective tool in differentiating the United States from the British and gathering indi viduals under one common identity. It is said that the most prominent brand icon of the Unite d States is the Statue of Liberty (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). This means that when international publics thi nk about the United States, they probably visualize the Statue of Liberty. Empiricall y, it is reported that subliminal exposure to the U.S. flag activates egalitar ian concepts and lowers hostility of outlying groups by moderating opposition with a degree of nationalism (Butz, Plant, and Doerr 2007). This study operationally defined co untry visual identity as the affective components of country brand attitudes. There are said to be at least three types of affective components: emotion, mood, and sensory affects (Schimmack and Crites 2005). Exis ting literature supports the roles of affect on attitudes (Clore and Schnall 2005). For instan ce, favorability can be increased by simple repeated exposure to something (Zajonc 1968). This means that watching stimuli on mediated cultural products could increase favorability to ward the depicted object without cognitive mediation. It is true that signifiers of country visual identity such as a national flag, national badge, and other miscellaneous symbols could e voke emotions from international audiences because the symbols have aesthetic component s. According to Schmitt and Simonson (1997), aesthetic components are important factors influencing the emoti onal reactions of consumers.

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45 International publics are able to identify the vi sual identity of certain countries through that countrys movies, TV programs, ad vertising, Internet s ites, and televised in ternational sports games like the World Cup Soccer Games, the Olympi cs Games, or the World Baseball Classic. Exposure to these symbols of country visual identity through mediated cultural products can yield the positive affective consequences of the experience of cognitive fluency (Clore and Schnall 2005, p. 479). In this regard, the curren t study posits the following third hypothesis. H3 : Individuals who have positive feelings toward country visual identity are more likely to develop positive attitudes toward the foreign country brand. Personal Knowledge and Experiences Even though mass mediated communication is a critical factor influencing country attitude, personal experiences are also an importa nt construct to developi ng attitudes toward a country (Kim 2001; Gudykunst and Kim 1997). Given that messages can be communicated through both mass mediated channels and direct contact with a s ource, direct experiences and established knowledge about an object can be generators of favorable at titudes. It is also said that interpersonal communication and interaction with people are essential when learning about a host culture (Kim 2001). Pool (1965) showed that levels of acculturation are positively related to levels of interpersonal interaction. More spec ifically, customs, language, and interpersonal contacts influence changing behaviors and attitudes toward the United States and among U.S. immigrants (Khairullah 1995). This study applied the accultura tion concept to a global context. This means that even international publics who live in their own countri es can learn about othe r countries cultures and values through direct contact with other countries and this contact will help them develop certain images of those countries. According to the accu lturation approach, personal experiences could include English fluency, experien ces residing in the United States and whether individuals have

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46 American friends or friends who live in the Unit ed States (Khairullah 199 5; Kim 2001). In this study, knowledge about the United States could be measured by the degree to which people understand American culture. Also, the country hexagon model proposed that citizens and tourism are important constructs influencing co untry brand image (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). In this regard, it is easily assumed that having American friends or expe riences residing in the United States could be factors a ffecting country brand image. H4: The more personal knowle dge/experiences people have with a country, the more likely they are to develop positive attitu des toward the foreign country brand. Country of Origin in the Brand Perspective When consumers are in purchasing envi ronments, they sometimes use country information as a simple cue for decision-making. It is true that some countries have strong associations with certain produc ts (Hoyer and MacInnis 2001)the st andard example is that car buyers often prefer Japanese cars to U.S. car s when all other conditions are equal (Kim 1995). Even though Russia has a low quality image for ge neral products, caviar fr om Russia is regarded to be of higher quality and price than that of other count ries (Beverland and Lindgreen 2002). This situation can be applied to French wine and cheese, German beer and cars, and Swiss chocolate and watchesthese produ cts are all favored simply becau se of the country where they originated. Thus, country of origin plays an im portant role in brand identification for those products. The country of origin effect has been an important rese arch issue in marketing and advertising. Extant literature s hows that country of origin is a noticeable factor affecting company images, attitudes, and purchase intent ions (Beverland and Li ndgreen 2002; DAstous and Ahmed 1999; Hsieh, Pan, a nd Setiono 2004; Kleppe et al. 2002; Kotler and Gertner 2002; Lim and OCass 2001; Thakor and Lavack 2003; Ruth and Simoni n 2003). Thus, the country of

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47 origin image should be understood as a multif aceted construct (Parameswaran and Pisharodi 1994). For example, Kotler and Ge rtner (2002) summarized that c ountry of origin information could be an important indicator of perceived product quality, especially when other quality indicators are absent and people have low motivation or involvemen t. Specifically, a country of origin cue was found to be effective in quality perceptions of videocasse tte recorders (DAstous and Ahmed 1999). Chao (2001) sugges ted that country of origin, m oderated by country of origin parts, assembly and design, affect s the attitudes and purchase inten tions of television and stereo consumers. The country of origin effect is act ivated by its mere presence and linked to quality evaluations, even if consumers did not intend to buy the item (Liu and Johnson 2005). Ruth and Simonin (2003) also confirmed that country of orig in affected attitudes to ward sponsored events. Lim and OCass (2001) proposed the culture of brand origin concept to repl ace country of origin, since consumers more easily recognize the cultural origin than country of origin. Hong and Wyer (1989) found that positive attitudes toward a cer tain country influence evaluations of that countrys products. Recently, Hsieh, Pan, and Setiono (2004) also showed that consumer purchase behaviors are influenced by company images and country images. It is hard to exactly distinguish the country of origin for foreign products due to the advent of various trade blocs such as the Worl d Trade Organization (WTO), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Associatio n of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the European Union (EU), and Mercosur. As globa l product operations become more complex, the country of origin concept is further refine d and broken down into country of design (COD), country of parts (COP), country of assembly (COA), and country of manufacture (COM) (Pharr 2005). These new constructs ar e also found to influence product quality evaluations. Specifically, COA, COP, and COD influence consumers product qua lity perceptions (Insch and

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48 McBride 1998; Chao 2001). Furthe r, COA, COP, and COD are moderated by the technological complexity of the product (Insch and McBride 1 998) along with demogra phic variables and the degree of product familiarity (Insch and Mc Bride 2004). When COA and COP are matched, consumers showed more favorable cognitive and behavioral responses (Chao 2001). In addition, COP was valued above COA and COD by cons umers (Insch and McBride 2004; Chao 2001). There are various antecedents to country of origin. Specificall y, extant literature studies the negative aspects of the count ry of origin effect. Klein, Et tenson, and Morris (1998) proposed the animosity model of foreign pr oduct purchase, in which animosity is defined as the remnants of antipathy related to previous or ongoing militar y, political, or economic events (p. 90), and it ranges from benign rivalry (e.g., th e United States and Canada) to more serious manifestations due to previous military struggles or recent pol itical conflicts (e.g., Japan and China or South Korea). In their study, animosity significantly influenced Chinese consumers willingness to buy Japanese products. The representati ve antecedent of country of or igin is a countrys level of economic development, which has a significant eff ect on country of origin evaluations (Verlegh and Steenkamp 1999). Gurhan-Candi and Maheswaran (2000) attempted to explain the cognitive antecedents of country of origin and found that motivational inte nsity, the goals of information processing, and product information were effectiv e in evaluating country of origins impact. Country of origin effects are moderated by seve ral factors. For instan ce, country of origin is weak in evaluating product and purchase intenti ons when the extrinsic cues of price and brand name are provided (Lin and Kao 2004). On the c ontrary, country of origin also influenced product quality perceptions even with the extrin sic product cues of pri ce and brand name (Teas and Argawal 2000). Purchase intentions were not influenced by country of origin, but by price and brand name (Hui and Zhou 2002). Furthermore, country of origin showed interaction effects

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49 on purchase intentions when a famous bra nd was introduced or when consumers were ethnocentric (Pecotich and Rosenthal 2001). As extrinsic cues, brand image negated negative country of origin perceptions (Jo, Nakamoto, and Nelson 2003). According to Chao and Werani (2005) country of origin evaluations were diminished by the use of foreign brand names. Also, country of origin evaluations were mediated by brand equity (Lin and Kao 2004), and the country of origin effect was m oderated by consumers involvement level and type (Gurhan-Canli and Maheswaran, 2000; Ahmed et al. 2004; Lee, Yun, and Lee 2005). The degree of stereotype assimilation was found to influence country of or igin evaluations, but was not related to the country of origins influence on product evalua tions and purchase intentions (Parameswaran and Pisharodi 2002). However, purchas e intentions were not susceptible to the country of origin effects, which were mediated by product quality evaluations, and which in turn lead to purchase intentions (Hui and Zhou 2002). Pecotich and Rosent hal (2001) also did not find a direct country of origin effect on purchase inte ntions. Lin and Kao (2004) found that brand equity mediated the country of origin effect on product perceptions and purchase intentions. Cervino, Sanchez, and Cubillo (2005) suggested that another mediati ng variable of country of origin on purchase intentions is brand success. In sum, country of origin acts as heuris tic information for judging products, and a favorable perception of a products country of orig in leads to positive pro duct attitudes, quality perceptions, and purchase intenti ons with various moderating and mediating variables. Extending the effects of country of origin to the concept of country branding, this study proposed the role of general country brand attitudes on attitudes towa rd country-based products and subsequent purchase intentions. Based on previous country of origin, culture of origin, and country image literature, it can be postulated that country brand attitude can be transferred to pr oduct attitudes.

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50 In other words, there is a positive relationshi p between attitudes toward a country brand and attitudes toward country-based products, which, in turn, leads to posi tive purchase intentions. H5: People with positive at titudes toward a coun try brand are more likely to have positive attitudes toward country-based products. H6: People with positive at titudes toward country-based pro ducts are likely to have higher purchase intentions for country-based products. Figure 3-1 is the visual desc ription of the hypothesized mode l (i.e., the mediated country brand model) showing the paths among constructs in cluded in the model, such as consumption of mediated cultural products, intercountry relationship beliefs, c ountry visual identity, personal knowledge/experiences, attitudes to ward country brand, attitudes toward country-based products, and purchase intentions. In addition, this study examines the potential differences between count ries, such as South Korea and Mexico. Previous litera ture suggests that country of or igin effects vary according to consumers cultures. For instance, consumer ethno centrism is one of the im portant predictors of the country of origin effect (Orth and Fi rbasova 2003; Balabanis and Diamantopoulos 2004). Ethnocentric individuals believe that their own culture is supe rior to other cultures. Thus, cultural variation is an important factor in the country of origin effect (Gurhan-Canli and Maheswaran, 2000). In individualis t cultures, the home country product is favorably evaluated only when the product is superior to another countrys product, but in collectivist cultures, the home country product is favorably evaluated regardless of produc t superiority. The country of origin effect is also influen ced by consumers sub-cultural di fferences (LaRoche et al. 2003), power distance (Insch and McBride 2004), country stereotypes (Liu and Johnson 2005), and the degree of the assimilation of host country ster eotypes (Parameswaran and Pisharodi 2002). These

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51 antecedents to country of origin imply the existe nce of different country of origin effects among different countries. Given the fact that South Korea and Mexico have different experiences related to the United States, comparisons among different count ries would provide in sightful results and implications for advertising and marketing stra tegies. Results would prove especially varied depending on the market shares of mediated cultural products from the United States. For example, given that the markets for Mexican me diated cultural products are influenced by the United States because of the countries geograp hic proximity, one can assume that different degrees of attitudes toward U.S.-related constructs and purchase intentions exist. Also, South Korean consumers could show varying responses toward the United States because South Koreans have whimsical emotions about and at titudes toward America. However, favorable attitudes alone are not dominant to publics, as negative attitude s are also detected depending on the issues related to a country, such as anti-A merican demonstrations. Given the differences in individual countries situations, it is worth comparing countries using inter-related variables. RQ1: Because of cultural differences and geogr aphic and inter-country issues, this study will note the differences in models (e.g., path dire ction, path strength, path structure, means of each construct, etc.) between Sout h Korean and Mexican respondents. Another consideration is the difference in country origin eff ects depending on product categories. According to Pharr ( 2005), intrinsic cues such as pr oduct complexity and the level of product familiarity are moderators of the country of origin effect More specifically, country of origin influences purchase intentions for luxur ious brands and publicly consumed products, while no significant results were found regardin g essential or privatel y consumed products. Product-based variables such as product familia rity, product importance, and product complexity

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52 moderated the country of origin effect on bra nd equity (Lin and Kao 2004; Isch and McBride 2004). Contextual variables such as the size of a resource base, product type, the nature of targeted niches, and positioning strategy moderate firms uses of country of origin (Beverland and Lindgreen 2002). In this rega rd, it can be hypothesized th at product categories can yield differences in country of origin effects. RQ2: Are there any differences in country of origin effects depending on product categories (e.g., electr onics, fashion, food)?

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53 Figure 3-1. Hypothesized model Intercountry Relationship Beliefs Country Visual Identity H2 H3 Country Brand Attitude H5 Purchase Intention H6 Attitude toward Countrybased Products Consumption of Mediated Cultural Products H1-1 H1-2 H1-3 Personal Knowledge/ Experiences H4

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54 CHAPTER 4 METHOD Survey research was employed to examine the consumption of mediated cultural products and the antecedents and consequences of country brand attitude. The United States was selected as a target country brand for this study, and younger South Korean and Mexican consumers were surveyed for their attitudes toward the United States, attitudes toward U.S.-based products, and their purchase intentions. College students were chosen to represent younger consumers because they are more sensitive to images of the United States than other consumers in that they are intermittently enthusiastic about U.S. culture and opinion leaders on anti-Americanism. South Korea and Mexico were chosen based on their geographic distances and cultural orientations. Mexico shares a border with the United States, and is therefore geographi cally influenced by the United States. On the contrary, South Korea is fa r from the United States, but the United States still influences South Korean consumers. Recen tly, the United States organized the Free Trade Agreement with South Korea and three Latin Amer ican countries (Colombia, Peru, and Panama). This international economic event could influence international attitudes toward the United States and evoke the U.S.-rela ted thoughts and beliefs. Culturall y, South Korea and Mexico are different from one another and from the United States. As Table 4-1 shows, both countries are collectivistic countries, but each shows different ch aracteristics in terms of power distance and masculinity. College students from both countries were re cruited as the study sample. A total of 361 college students participated in the survey. Among the 361 participants, 179 were South Korean, 174 were Mexican, and eight were from other co untries. To develop a model based on the two countries and to validate comparisons of the tw o countries, the eight participants from other countries were eliminated, and to tal of 353 subjects were included in the final analysis. For each

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55 countrys participants, questionn aires were translated into Ko rean and Mexican. Structural equation modeling (SEM), which is frequently used to combine a comprehensive statistical methodology with factor analysis and path an alysis (Kaplan 2000), was used to test the hypothesized model. The benefit of this methodology is that the measuremen t error is considered to provide a more exact causal relationship (Hair et al 1998). SEM is adequa te for this study to identify the relationships among constructs, because the concept of country brand is complex and constitutes various factors. Through this structural equation analysis, the ei ght hypotheses of this study were analyzed using the method of maximum likelihood. AMOS 5 was utilized for the data analyses. Generally, measurement permits one to assign values to individuals in a theoretically meaningful manner, such that differences in thos e values are thought to re flect differences in the understanding construct that is being measured (Krosnick, J udd, and Wittenbrink 2005). Seven latent constructs were examined in this study: consumption of mediated cultural products, intercountry relationship beliefs, country visual identity, personal knowle dge/experiences, country brand attitude, attitudes toward country of or igin products, and purchase intentions. Question items for the consumption of cultural products and inter-country rela tionship beliefs were constructed by the researcher due to the lack of previously validated measures or an adaptable preexisting scale in the literature. Also, measur ement scales for persona l knowledge/experience were constructed by modifying measurement scal es of acculturation. The researcher conducted a pre-test to determine the types of mediated cultural products, inter-coun try relationship issues, and consumer product categories. One hundred and one South Korean college students participated in the pre-test. After exploratory f actor analysis, the resear cher developed sets of

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56 measurement scales constituting each construct. Ta ble 4-2 illustrates the factor loadings of the exploratory factor anal yzed pre-test data. For consumption of U.S. mediated cultural pr oducts, this study m easures the degree to which international subjects we re exposed to American TV shows, Hollywood movies, news stories, advertising, periodical s, books, music, and websites. For inter-country relationship beliefs, the researcher selected eight important relationship issues betwee n the United States and other countries including ally, political relationship, U.S. arm y, North Korea issues, economic relationship, the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), country credit evaluation, and cultural relationship. For country visual id entity, participants affections for representative visual items including the national flag, the national badge, and the Statue of Liberty were measured. For attitude measurement, general attitude m easurement scales were chosen according to the definitions of attitudes. Trad itionally, attitudes were thought to be latent, and therefore could not be observed directly or exist as a concrete, stored association (Krosnick, Judd, and Wittenbrink 2005). In this regard, attitudes ar e variously defined according to different perspectives. Allport (1935) define d attitude as a mental and neur al state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dyna mic influence upon the in dividuals response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Thurston (1931) more narrowly defined it: attitude is here used to describe potential acti on as will be favorable or unfavorable toward the object. Eagly and Chaiken (1993, p. 1) defined at titude as a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity w ith some degree of favor or disfavor. The researcher reviewed existing attitu de definitions and attitude measur es in the extant literature and modified them to fit the context for the Unite d States as a country brand and U.S.-based

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57 consumer products. Consequently, favorable/unf avorable, positive/negative, likable/unlikable, and good/bad were selected to measure attitude. For purchase intentions of U.S.-based cons umer products, the researcher selected 13 product categories through the pre-test that are highly relevant to younger consumers (e.g., cellular phones, jeans, premium brands, appare l, sneakers, restaurants, computers, home appliances, MP3 players, cars, soft drinks, be er, and toilet products). Seven-point semanticdifferential scales, or Likert scales, were used to measure all questionnaire items. Previous literature suggests that the seve n-point scale is reasonable for measuring attitude or related concepts and recommend that midpoints be added to rating scales and to label scale points with words because doing so could contribute to im proved reliability and validity of ratings (Krosnick, Judd, and Wittenbrink 2005). Since measurement items used in this st udy were constructed or modified by the researcher, this study performed a four-step meas urement purification pro cess: (1) exploratory factor analysis to discover the items that devi ate from the common core of items and to produce additional dimensions (Churchill 1979), (2) confirma tory factor analysis fo r the final verification of unidimensionality (Gerbing and Anderson 1988), (3) reliability test of the final scales, and (4) calculation of construct validity (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, an d Black 1998). First, through exploratory factor analysis the researcher decided to keep one factor for each construct. Second, through confirmatory factor analysis, select ed measurement items were confirmed. For consumption of mediated cultural products, news variables, periodicals, and books were deleted due to the low exploratory factor loadings. Thus five of the eight original variables were included in the final model (i.e., TV s hows, movies, advertisements, music, and websites). For the construct of inter-country relati onship beliefs, issues of North Korea and the U.S. army were

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58 deleted after confirmatory factor analysis. For the personal knowledge/exper iences construct, the variable of English fluency was deleted due to double loading on two fact ors. This may have been due to the similar levels of English pr oficiency among the college student subjects. The results from first-order confirmatory factor m odels showed that the item-loading estimates on their factors were significant (p < .01). Goodness-of-fit i ndices also demonstrat ed the quality of all models. The reliability coefficient alpha for each construct was higher than .70. Finally, construct validity for each constr uct was calculated manually follo wing Hair et al. (p. 642), and the coefficients were all above the rule of .50. The final meas urement items, purified through a series of factor analyses and us ed in the final structural equati on analysis, are presented in Table 4-3.

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59 Table 4-1. Cultural differences among the United States, South Korea, and Mexico Country PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO United States 40 91 62 46 29 South Korea 60 18 39 85 75 Mexico 81 30 69 82 PDI: Power Distance IDV: Individualism MAS: Masculinity UAI: Uncertainty Avoidance LTO: Long-Term Orientation **Table is constructe d from Hofstedes cu ltural dimensions

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60 Table 4-2. Results of exploratory factor analysis of pre-test Va ri a l bes F1 F2 F 3 F4F 5 F 6 F 7 F 8 F 9 Economic .83 Political .80 All y .79 FTA .76 U.S. Arm y .75 Cultural .68 Credit .67 North Kore a .64 Websites .78 Advertisements .77 Periodicals .69 TV shows .67 U.S. friends .66 News .62 Friends in U.S. .61 En g lish .59 Books .58 Music .55 Movies .55 U.S. brand 4 .83 U.S. brand 1 .77 U.S. brand 2 .76 U.S. brand 3 .76 Soft drinks .77 Toiletries .70 Home A pp liance .70 Com p ute r .69 Cell p hones .54 Restaurants .48 MP3 .47 U.S. attitude 4 .79 U.S. attitude 2 .75 U.S. attitude 3 .72 U.S. attitude 1 .70 Sneakers .83 Jeans .77 A pp arel .74 Premium brands .59 Bee r .44 Residence .93 U.S. Schools .91 The U.S. Fla g .78 Bad g e .72 Statue of Libert y .50 Relatives .49 Cars .49

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61 Table 4-3. Constructs, indicators, an d key statistics of the final model Latent Constructs Indicators M SD Confirmatory Factor Loadings I watch American TV shows. 4.57 2.11 .69b I watch American movies. 6.03 1.19 .67a I watch or read American advertising. 3.91 1.77 .64 a I listen to American music. 5.59 1.54 .61 a I visit American websites. 4.32 2.07 .63 a Consumption of mediated cultural products Index 4.88 1.32 Cronbach =.80 I believe that the United States is an ally of my country. 3.27 1.57 .71 b I believe that the United States has a good political relationship with my country. 3.52 1.43 .74 a I believe that the United States has a good economic relationship with my country. 3.45 1.59 .79 a The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States is appropriate. 3.76 1.66 .71 a Country credit ratings evaluated by the U.S. rating service are trustworthy. 3.59 1.39 .74 a I believe that the United States has a good cultural relationship with my country. 3.27 1.46 .69 a Inter-country relationship beliefs Index 3.41 1.17 Cronbach = .88 National flag 4.05 .95 .90 b National badge 3.92 .93 .76 a The Statue of Liberty 4.36 1.06 .65 a Country visual identity Index 4.11 .83 Cronbach = .80 I have some experiences of residence in the United States. 2.46 2.15 .58 b I have some American friends that I hang around with. 2.23 1.79 .66 a I have some close friends living in the United States. 3.42 2.19 .72 a I think that I have a quite good understanding of the United States. 3.77 1.73 .72 a I think that I am quite familiar with American culture. 4.03 1.73 .61 a Personal experience /knowledge Index 3.18 1.44 Cronbach = .80 To me, the United States is: (1) unfavorable / favorable (7) 4.01 1.57 .86 b (1) bad / good (7) 3.81 1.47 .90 a (1) unlikable / likable (7) 3.47 1.63 .74 a Attitudes toward the United States (1) negative / positive (7) 3.64 1.49 .86 a

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62 Index 3.73 1.38 Cronbach = .90 Table 4-3. Continued. Latent Constructs Indicators M SD Confirmatory Factor Loadings To me, products/brands from the United States are: (1) unfavorable / favorable (7) 5.03 1.37 .86 b (1) bad / good (7) 5.21 1.29 .86 a (1) unlikable / likable (7) 4.94 1.32 .85 a (1) negative / positive (7) 4.98 1.35 .86 a Attitudes toward U.S.based products Index 5.04 1.20 Cronbach = .92 If I were in the marketplace, I would purchase American __________: impossible/possible; improbable/probable. Electronics (cell phone, computer, home appliance, and MP3) 4.60 1.75 .65 b Fashion (premium brands, apparel, and sneakers) 5.28 1.37 .72 a Food (restaurant, soft drink, and beer) 4.08 1.41 .60 a Purchase intentions of U.S.-based products Index 4.65 1.28 Cronbach = .79 a Factor significance: p < .01 b loading was set to 1.0 to fix construct variance.

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63 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS Subject Profile Among 353 participants, 173 (46.6%) were male and 180 (53.4%) were female. Their nationalities were 179 South Korean and 174 Mexi can. Their ages ranged from 18 to 29, but most (92.9%) were between the ag es of 19 and 25. The mean age was 21.7. More specifically for Korea, 79 participants (44.1%) we re male and 100 were female (55.9%). The mean age of the Korean sample was 21.13. For Mexico, 94 partic ipants (54%) were male and 80 (46%) were female. Their mean age was 22.31. Korean particip ants were slightly you nger than the Mexican sample, but their overall profiles were quite simila r. As Table 4-2 illustrated, the most consumed mediated cultural products among respondents we re American movies followed by American music, American TV shows, American websites, and American advertis ing. For inter-country relationship beliefs, the mean of the FTA issue with the United States was the highest (M = 3.76), but it was below the scale average. For personal knowledge/experiences, an understanding of American culture showed the highest mean value (M = 4.03). The product category that showed the highest purchase in tentions was American fashion brands (M = 5.28), and purchase intentions were lowest for the food categor y (M = 4.08). Generally, the means of personal knowledge/experiences, intercountry relationships beliefs, and attitudes toward the U.S. were below the average (M = 3.18, 3.41, and 3.73 respec tively). Respondents showed the strongest emotional responses to the Stat ue of Liberty (M = 4.36) followe d by the national flag (M = 4.05), and the national badge (M = 3.92). Attitudes toward U.S.-based products and purchase intentions of U.S.-based products were favorable (M = 5.04 and 4.65).

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64 Measurement Model A confirmatory factor analysis using ma ximum likelihood was conducted to authenticate the key construct of the cons umption of mediated cultural products identified through the exploratory factor analysis. As Figure 5-1 shows, the measuremen t model for the consumption of mediated cultural products had a good model fit: a X2/degrees of freedom ratio was 2.63, NonNormed Fit Index (NNFI) was .97, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) was .98, and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) wa s .068. Specifically, websites were the most important dimension for the construct of mediated cultural product consumption ( = .72), followed by TV shows ( = .70), movies ( = .68), advertisements ( = .67), and music ( = .62). This indicated that websites are highly correlated to the constr uct of mediated cultural product consumption. Model Testing Prior to the main hypothesis testing, we va lidated several underly ing assumptions for SEM (normality, sampling adequacy, and no extr eme multicollinearity) (Hair et al., 1998), and the assumptions were confirmed to be within ac ceptable boundaries. The researcher tested six research hypotheses, using st ructural equation analysis, by the method of maximum likelihood. AMOS 5 was used for performing data analyses Exogenous variables included the consumption of mediated cultural produc ts and personal knowledge/experience. The five endogenous variables included inter-country relationship beliefs, country vi sual identity, country brand attitudes, attitudes toward U.S.-based produc ts, and purchase intentions. Estimating goodness-offit for the hypothesized research model is the first step in model testing. In our study, the X2 test is significant and suggests that the estimated model does not f it well with the observed data. However, the X2 test is sensitive to sample size and su ch a test frequently leads to model rejection. Therefore, Bentler and Bonnet (1980) suggested that an X2/degrees of freedom ratio

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65 that does not exceed five indica tes acceptable model fit (Bentler 1989; Bollen 1989), and this was estimated as 2.98 in the hypothesized model ( X2 = 1175.69, df = 395). NNFI was .86, CFI was .87, and RMSEA was .075 respectively. Based on th ese measures, we can conclude that the model is marginally acceptable despite the significant X2 statistic. To improve the model, the significance of th e regression weights was first examined and all variables were significant ( p < .05). Modification indices we re then used to identify any theoretically meani ngful paths/relationships omitted in th e original model. We found that the consumption of mediated cultural products is dir ectly related to both attitudes toward the United States and purchase intentions (p < .01). Therefore, the two re lationships were added to the revised model. Given that mediated cultural pro ducts are also kinds of American products, and that consumption of mediated cultural products is one of the purchase behaviors, it can be assumed that the consumption of mediated cultu ral products plays a posi tive role in shaping peoples attitudes and behavioral intentions. Even though those re lationships were not the main interest of this research, they are meaningful results that s upport the model proposed in this study. The revised model with the added paths (c onsumption of mediated cultural products attitudes toward the United States and consumption of mediated cultural products purchase intentions) were tested (see Figure 5-2), and the revised model was found to fit the data better than the original model: X2 (921.54) / df (388) ratio = 2.36, NNFI = .90, CFI = .91, and RMSEA = .063. The significance of regressi on weights was examined for all constructs, and their associated measures and relati onships were significant at p < .01. However, there was a negative relationship between the consumption of mediat ed cultural products and attitudes toward the United States. This is exactly the opposite resu lt of the hypothesized rela tionships. To explore

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66 the original relationship, the researcher tested the single construct model of mediated cultural product consumption. As Figure 5-3 illustrated, the mediated cultural product consumption construct positively influences attitudes toward th e United States in the single construct model. However, when other constructs are added, the relationship between the consumption of mediated cultural products and attitudes toward the United States is fully mediated, and even shows a negative relationship. In this case, the c onstructs of inter-country relationship beliefs and country visual identity can be identified as mediated moderato rs between the consumption of mediated cultural products and country brand a ttitudes (Muller, Judd, and Yzerbyt 2005). When examining direct and indirect path values, direct positive relationships between the consumption of mediated cultural products and attitudes toward the United States were weak ( = .13 in the single construct model). Therefore, when medi ating constructs of in ter-country relationship beliefs and country visual identity were added in the model, the direct relationship is fully mediated by two mediating constructs, and so the direct positive relationship between the consumption of mediated cultural products and a ttitudes toward a countr y cannot be found in the final model. In this regard, the final model provides support for seve n out of eight hypotheses, including mediated moderating e ffect. The final model is named the mediated country brand model First, H1-1 was not supported. Greater consumption of mediated cultural products from a country does not directly lead to more favorab le attitudes toward th e country brand, but indirectly through inter-country re lationship beliefs and country visu al identity. In other words, this hypothesized positive relationship was negate d and even became negative when other factors were included (H1-1 : = -.23, p < .01). So it can be said that H1 is not supported. Even though the single construct model shows a direct positive relationship ( = .13, p < .05) between

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67 consumption of mediated cultural products and a ttitudes toward a countr y, this relationship was weak and should be understood with caution. Ho wever, consumption of mediated cultural products positively influences inte r-country relationship beliefs (H1-2: = .24, p < .01) and country visual identity (H1-3: = .35, p < .01). Beliefs about inte r-country relationships (H2: = .58, p < .01) and country visual identity (H3: = .26, p < .01) were also positively related to country brand attitudes. This means that consum ption of mediated cultu ral products indirectly influences attitudes toward the United States when mediated by both in ter-country relationship beliefs and country visual identity. Another exogenous construct of personal knowledge/experience influen ces the attitudes toward country brands (H4: = .23, p < .01). Country brand attitude, in turn, leads to attitudes toward country-based products (H5: = .48, p < .01), which in turn leads to purchase in tentions of country-based products (H6: = .46, p < .01). In addition, new causal relationships (cons umption of mediated cultural products attitudes toward country based products and consum ption of mediated cultural products purchase intentions) emerged ( = .31 and = .47 respectively, p < .01) in the mediated country brand model. Competing Model To secure the validity of the final model, th is study compared its main constructs with a competing model in which country attitudes we re set to be exogenous constructs and the consumption of mediated cultural products was se t as an endogenous construct. One could argue that consumption behavior should be the conseque nce of attitudes because attitudes traditionally precede behaviors. As Figures 5-4 and 5-5 illust rate, consumption of me diated cultural products is set to be a consequence construct in the comp eting model. The results show that the model fit of both models is the same [ X2 (278.45) / df (127) ratio = 2.19, NNFI = .95, CFI = .95, and RMSEA = .058], but path values are differe nt. The relationship between inter-country

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68 relationship beliefs and the consumption of medi ated cultural products is not statistically significant (p < .05). This means that originally hypothesized relationshi p directions are more reasonable than those in the competing model. South Korean Model This study proposed the research question of whether country differences exist by applying the mediated country bra nd model to individual countries. To explore the differences of individual countries, the data for each country was tested separately for the applicability of the mediated country brand model to each country. For South Korea, a goodn ess-of-fit index shows that the model is marginally acceptable. An X2/degrees of freedom ratio was estimated as 2.03 in the model ( X2 = 787.96, df = 388). NNFI was .86, CFI wa s .87, and RMSEA was .076. An X2/degrees of freedom ratio shows acceptable mo del fit, but the NNFI and CFI indexes were somewhat low. When the significance of regressi on weights was examined for all constructs, the relationships between the consumption of mediat ed cultural products and country visual identity (H1-3 = .07), U.S. attitudes (H1-1 = -.17), and U.S.-based products ( = .00) are insignificant. Other constructs and their associated measur es and relationships were significant at p < .05. For the separate South Korean model, six out of eight hypotheses (H1-2, H 2, H3, H4, H5, and H6) were supported with one additional path (c onsumption of mediat ed cultural products purchase intentions). Mexican Model Next, the mediated country brand model was tested separately for Mexican respondents. For Mexico, a goodness-of-fit index shows that the model has a good model fit that is better than the South Korea model. An X2/degrees of freedom ratio was 1.67 in the model ( X2 = 649.20, df = 388). NNFI was .89, CFI was .90, and RMSEA was .063. The significance of regression weights in the Mexican model shows that the relationshi p between the consumpti on of mediated cultural

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69 products and U.S. attitudes (H1-1 = -.24, p > .05) was not statisti cally significant. For the Mexican model, seven out of eight hypothese s (H1-2, H1-3, H2, H3, H4, H5, and H6) were supported with one additional path (consum ption of mediated cultural products attitudes toward country based product). Thus, the Mexican model better fits the mediated country brand model. Differences between South Koreans a nd Mexicans Brand U.S.A. Attitudes Through testing individual country models, th is study showed the slight differences in model application to a specific country. Furthe rmore, specific country differences among study constructs were also tested (RQ1). ANOVA was used to compare the differences of individual constructs between surveyed count ries. The independent variable is the nationality of subjects (i.e., South Korean or Mexican), and the dependent variables are ei ght constructs tested in the mediated country brand model: consumption of mediated cultural products, inter-country relationship beliefs, country visu al identity, personal knowledg e/experiences, country brand attitudes, attitudes toward count ry-based products, and purchase in tentions. Table 5-3 illustrates the means of each construct and ANOVA results. As Table 4-4 shows, there is no statistically significant mean difference for inter-country relationship beliefs and attitudes toward the Unite d States (p > .05). For the two variables, the means of South Korea are slightly higher than th ose of Mexico, but their mean differences are not statistically significant. Th e other five variablesconsumpti on of mediated cultural products, country visual identity, persona l knowledge/experiences, U.S. pr oduct attitudes, and purchase intentionsare statistically sign ificant (p < .01), and the means fo r Mexico are higher than those for South Korea. More specifically, for the c onsumption of mediated cultural products, younger Mexican audiences consume more mediated cultural products than their South Korean counterparts. Also, the Mexican students showed more positive emotional responses to country

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70 visual identity, had more knowledge and experience about the United States, held more favorable attitudes toward U.S.-made produ cts, and had more positive purch ase intentions. Generally, the degree of attitudes toward the United States and inter-country relati onship beliefs are not different between South Korean and Mexican people, but Mexicans show an overall higher degree of favorability toward the U.S.-related constructs than did South Koreans. This might be due to the geographic proximity of Mexico a nd the United States and the spillover of U.S. culture and products into Mexico. However, in terestingly, both South Korean and Mexican respondents show similar degrees of attitudes toward the United States. In summary, there was no major difference between the two countries in terms of the applicability of the mediated country brand m odel (i.e., the antecedents and consequences of country brand), even though there were minor differences such as path values and mean differences. Therefore, it may be concluded th at the final mediated country brand model generally applies similarly acr oss the two target countries. Differences in Country of Origin E ffects Depending on Product Categories The second research question proposed to invest igate the differences in country of origin effects depending on product categor ies. Product categories used in the mediated country brand model were electronics, fashion, and food. To explore the effects of country of origin, three individual models were teste d. The exogenous construct was att itudes toward the United States, and the two endogenous constructs were attitudes toward U.S. -based products and purchase intentions. As Figure 5-6 illustrates, the fashi on brand model has the best model fit among three country of origin models: an X2/degrees of freedom ratio was 3.39 in the model ( X2 = 176.27, df = 52). NNFI was .95, CFI was .96, and RMSEA wa s .082. Also, the relationship strength between attitudes toward country of origin prod ucts and purchase intentions shows the highest value ( =.63, p < .01).

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71 The food model shows the lowest model fit: an X2/degrees of freedom ratio was 4.54 in the model ( X2 = 190.68, df = 42). NNFI was .92, CFI was .94, and RMSEA was .100. For the electronics model, an X2/degrees of freedom ratio was 4.37 in the model ( X2 = 227.28, df = 52). NNFI was .93, CFI was .95, and RMSEA was .098. Thes e results show that fashion brands (e.g., jeans, premium brands, apparel, and sneakers) were most highly linked to country brand attitudes, and food products have comparatively low linkage to country brand attitudes. In general, this implies that consumers care more about country of origin when they buy fashion brands, but on the contrary, food products are not su sceptible to the countr y of origin of those products.

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72 Table 5-1. Constructs, indicators, and ke y statistics of the South Korean model Latent Constructs Indicators M SD Confirmatory Factor Loadings TV shows 3.62 2.05 .65b Movies 5.51 1.32 .54a Advertising 3.23 1.70 .59 a Music 5.15 1.64 .55 a Websites 2.93 1.60 .54 a Consumption of mediated cultural products Index 4.09 1.13 Cronbach =.70 Ally 3.37 1.52 .77 b Political relationship 3.43 1.42 .75 a Economic relationship 3.23 1.51 .82 a The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) 3.68 1.73 .73 a Country credit ratings 3.47 1.38 .79 a Cultural relationship 3.49 1.28 .74 a Inter-country relationship beliefs Index 3.48 1.20 Cronbach = .90 National flag 3.80 .72 .77 b National badge 3.74 .75 .68 a The Statue of Liberty 4.24 .89 .53 a Country visual identity Index 3.93 .62 Cronbach = .67 Residence in the United States 1.62 1.38 .64 b American friends 1.65 1.24 .69 a Close friends living in the United States 2.69 1.85 .71 a Good understanding of the United States 2.96 1.37 .59 a American culture 3.69 1.60 .61 a Personal experience /knowledge Index 2.52 1.12 Cronbach = .80 (1) unfavorable / favorable (7) 3.95 1.56 .90 b (1) bad / good (7) 3.79 1.45 .94 a (1) unlikable / likable (7) 3.79 1.71 .83 a (1) negative / positive (7) 3.69 1.56 .86 a Attitudes toward the United States Index 3.80 1.44 Cronbach = .94 (1) unfavorable / favorable (7) 4.73 1.27 .84 b (1) bad / good (7) 4.71 1.26 .88 a (1) unlikable / likable (7) 4.79 1.26 .87 a (1) negative / positive (7) 4.77 1.28 .89 a Attitudes toward U.S.based products Index 4.75 1.14 Cronbach = .93 Electronics 3.43 1.48 .66 b Fashion 4.73 1.30 .90 a Food 3.85 1.36 .85 a Purchase intentions of U.S.-based products Index 4.00 1.15 Cronbach = .78 a Factor significance: p < .01 b loading was set to 1.0 to fix construct variance.

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73 Table 5-2. Constructs, indicators, and key statistics of the Mexican model Latent Constructs Indicators M SD Confirmatory Factor Loadings TV shows 5.59 1.68 .46b Movies 6.58 .71 .56a Advertising 4.61 1.57 .54 a Music 6.06 1.27 .64 a Websites 5.76 1.43 .64 a Consumption of mediated cultural products Index 5.36 .90 Cronbach =.70 Ally 3.15 1.60 .66 b Political relationship 3.63 1.45 .75 a Economic relationship 3.64 1.63 .78 a The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) 3.85 1.60 .68 a Country credit ratings 3.70 1.41 .68 a Cultural relationship 3.05 1.59 .70 a Inter-country relationship beliefs Index 3.50 1.19 Cronbach = .80 National flag 4.31 1.08 .92 b National badge 4.10 1.05 .80 a The Statue of Liberty 4.49 1.21 .71 a Country visual identity Index 4.30 .98 Cronbach = .85 Residence in the United State 3.31 2.43 .40 b American friends 2.81 2.06 .59 a Close friends living in the US 4.18 2.27 .68 a Good understanding of the US 4.61 1.70 .62 a American culture 4.38 1.83 .58 a Personal experience /knowledge Index 3.86 1.43 Cronbach = .72 (1) unfavorable / favorable (7) 4.08 1.59 .84 b (1) bad / good (7) 3.83 1.50 .84 a (1) unlikable / likable (7) 3.15 1.49 .70 a (1) negative / positive (7) 3.59 1.43 .86 a Attitudes toward the United States Index 3.66 1.32 Cronbach = .90 (1) unfavorable / favorable (7) 5.35 1.41 .87 b (1) bad / good (7) 5.73 1.11 .85 a (1) unlikable / likable (7) 5.09 1.36 .86 a (1) negative / positive (7) 5.21 1.40 .84 a Attitudes toward U.S.based products Index 5.35 1.18 Cronbach = .91 Electronics 5.80 1.07 .86 b Fashion 5.89 1.12 .91 a Food 4.33 1.47 .59 a Purchase intentions of U.S.-based products Index 5.34 1.04 Cronbach = .79 a Factor significance: p < .01 b loading was set to 1.0 to fix construct variance.

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74 Figure 5-1. Confirmatory factor analysis of consumption of mediated cultural products Consumption of Mediated Cultural Products TV shows Movies Advertisements Music Websites X2 =13.15, df =7, p=.022 X2/df ratio=2.63 CFI=.98 NNFI=.97 RMSEA=.068 a Factor significance: p < .01 b loading was set to 1.0 to fix construct variance. .68 a .67 a .62 a .70 b .72 a

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75 Figure 5-2. The mediated country brand model Intercountry Relationship Beliefs .58* .26* Country Brand Attitude .48* Purchase Intention .46* Attitude toward Countrybased Products Consumption of Mediated Cultural Product -.23* .24* .35* Personal Knowledge/ Experiences .23* Country Visual Identity .31* .47* X2 =921.54, df =388, p<.05 X2/df ratio=2.36 CFI=.91 NNFI=.90 RMSEA=.063 *path significance p<.01

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76 Figure 5-5. The single construct model Country Brand Attitude .49** Purchase Intention .48** Attitude toward Countrybased Products Consumption of Mediated Cultural Products .13* X2 =299,19, df =96, p<.05 X2/df ratio=3.12 CFI=.94 NNFI=.93 RMSEA=.078 .49** .49** path significance p<.05 ** path significance p<.01

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77 Figure 5-4. Competing model testing 1 Intercountry Relationship Beliefs .58* .26* Country Brand Attitude Consumption of Mediated Cultural Product .22* .30* Country Visual Identity X2 =278.45, df =127, p<.05 X2/df ratio=2.19 CFI=.95 NNFI=.95 RMSEA=.058 *path significance p<.01

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78 Figure 5-5. Competing model testing 2 Intercountry Relationship Beliefs .29* Country Brand Attitude .68* .50* Country Visual Identity X2 =278.45, df =127, p<.05 X2/df ratio=2.19 CFI=.95 NNFI=.95 RMSEA=.058 *path significance p<.01 Consumption of Mediated Cultural Product

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79 Figure 5-6. S. Korean model -.16 .16 .21* X2 =787.96, df =388, p<.05 X2/df ratio=2.03 CFI=.87 NNFI=.86 RMSEA=.076 .51** path significance p<.05 ** path significance p<.01 .36** Personal Knowledge/ Experiences Country Visual Identity Intercountry Relationship Beliefs .56** .29** Country Brand Attitude Purchase Intention Attitude toward Countrybased Products .20* .28** Consumption of Mediated Cultural Products

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80 Figure 5-7. Mexican model .20* -.14 .33 X2 =649.20, df =388, p<.05 X2/df ratio=1.67 CFI=.90 NNFI=.89 RMSEA=.063 .53** .66** .26** Intercountry Relationship Beliefs Personal Knowledge/ Experiences Country Visual Identity .52** .30** Country Brand Attitude Purchase Intention Attitude toward Countrybased Products .37** path significance p<.05 ** path significance p<.01 Consumption of Mediated Cultural Products

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81 Figure 5-8. Country of origin model by product categories Attitudes toward Country-oforigin Products Purchase Intention of Electronics .45* Attitudes toward the U.S. .51* X2 =227.28, df =52, p<.05 X2/df ratio=4.37 CFI=.95 NNFI=.93 RMSEA=.098 Purchase Intention of Food Product .41* Attitudes toward Country-oforigin Products .52* Attitudes toward the U.S. X2 =190.68, df =42, p<.05 X2/df ratio=4.54 CFI=.94 NNFI=.92 RMSEA=.100 path significance p<.01 Attitudes toward Country-oforigin Products Purchase Intention of Fashion Brands .63* Attitudes toward the U.S. .50* X2 =176.271, df =52, p<.05 X2/df ratio=3.39 CFI=.96 NNFI=.95 RMSEA=.082

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82 Table 5-3. Results of ANOVA Variables Means M.S F S. Korea 4.09 Consumption of mediated cultural products Mexico 5.70 230.24213.53* S. Korea 3.48 Inter-country relationship beliefs Mexico 3.34 1.801.32 S. Korea 3.93 Country visual identity Mexico 4.30 12.6319.18* S. Korea 2.52 Personal knowledge/experiences Mexico 3.86 158.8997.03* S. Korea 3.80 Country attitudes Mexico 3.66 1.86.97 S. Korea 4.75 Country of origin product attitudes Mexico 5.34 30.2822.47* S. Korea 4.00 Purchase intentions Mexico 5.32 152.78125.54* *p < .05

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83 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION This study explored the antecedents and conseq uences of attitudes toward country brands from communication and marketing perspectives. The main focus of this study was to investigate the roles of mediated cultural product consumpti on on various target country-related constructs. The findings of this study concl ude that the consumption of me diated cultural products does not directly influence country brand attitudes (H11); however, consumption of mediated cultural products has direct relationships with inter-country relationship beliefs (H1-2) and country visual identity (H1-3). In addition, country brand atti tude is influenced by inter-country relationship beliefs (H2), country visual identity (H3) and personal knowledge/experiences (H4); this country brand attitude is then linked to attit udes toward country-based products (H5). Positive attitudes toward country-based pr oducts subsequently affect cons umer purchase intentions for country-based products (H6). Relationships am ong constructs are different according to individual countries (RQ1), and c ountry of origin effects are str ongest for fashion brands (RQ2). Unexpectedly, this study also found that consum ption of mediated cultural products directly influences both attitudes toward countrybased products and purchase intentions. First, this study does not support that the c onsumption of a countrys mediated cultural products directly influences attitudes toward the country brand (H11). Even though a weak relationship can be found betw een the two within the sing le construct model, when communication circumstances become complex (i.e., the research setting in which other countryrelated factors are included in the mediated country brand mode l), the influence of mediated cultural product consumption loses its direct pow er. Furthermore, the relationship between the consumption of mediated cultural products and a ttitudes toward the coun try brand experienced a negative change. These results are due to the mediated moderators of inter-country relationship

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84 beliefs and country visual identity. When peopl e have firm conceptual beliefs and a strong preexisting visual imagery of a cu lture or country, they are not di rectly influenced by mediated cultural products. As mentioned before, Full erton (2005) and Gentzkow and Shapiro (2003) could not find direct relationships between Amer ican TV exposure and U.S. country attitudes or anti-Americanism from their studies using intern ational students living in the United States. These failures are consistent with the results of the current study. However, this study found that the consumpti on of mediated cultura l products directly influences both inter-country rela tionship beliefs (H1-2) and country visual identity (H1-3). This means that the more people watch mediated cultural products, the more they have positive beliefs about inter-country relationships and favorable emotional responses toward visual descriptions of that country. This finding s upports Shanahan and Morgans (1999) argument on the ideological effects of mass media, Anderson and Bryants (1983) proposition of the role of symbolic environments created by mediated cu ltural products in consumers formation of attitudes toward the culture, a nd Baldwin and Hunts (2002) asse rtion of the positive roles of mediated cultural products in intercultural co mmunication effects. Give n that international publics obtain country information a nd images from the mass media, this is quite consistent with the previous literature. According to Anholt (2003), consumers lear n about the cultural values, lifestyles, political systems, and social norms of a country through various communication channels including the mass media. This implies that sy mbols of American culture and values embedded in mediated cultural products could have positiv ely influenced internatio nal consumers beliefs about the inter-country relations hips between America and othe r countries. Baldwin and Hunt (2002) also point out that peopl e who consume more mediated cultural products related to a

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85 country tend to have positive beliefs about that countrys culture, and this positive relationship could be extended to peoples belief s about inter-country relationships. Also, Anholt (2003) and Baldwin and Hunts (2002) proposition can be applied to country visual identity because cultural identity is one of the top of mi nd cultural icons of a country, and this visual identity is frequently depicted in mediated cultural products like TV shows, movies, and other visual media. For ex ample, when watching blockbuster movies, it is common to see country icons in important scenes. When the plot of movie is focused on powerful images of the United States fighti ng with enemies (e.g., formerly Russia and now North Korea) or invaders from another univers e, the visual country symbols play a more significant role and become country icons. In sh ort, this study found that the consumption of mediated cultural products does no t directly influence country br and attitude, but it indirectly affects country brand attitude through inter-country relationship beliefs and country visual identity. Although not included in the hypotheses, this study found that the amount of mediated cultural product consumption directly influen ces both attitudes toward country-based products and purchase intentions. Second, this study demonstrates that inter-c ountry relationship belie fs affect country brand attitudes (H2). This is consistent with ex tant literature, which notes that the political dimension is an important component constituti ng country image (Martin and Eroglu 1993) and that international events aff ect country image (Brunner, Flaschner, and Lou 1993; Jaffe and Nebenzahl 1993). In this rega rd, political, economic, and cultu ral perceptions are significant factors influencing country bra nd attitudes. Particularly, indi vidual issues like the FTA could also be important factors b ecause these issues draw a great amount of attention from

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86 international publics. This result also supports the importance of public diplomacy (Anholt and Hildreth 2004), and that a government should car e about international publics perceptions. Third, a positive relationship be tween country visual identity and country brand attitude was found in this study (H3). This study operationa lly defined country visu al identity as the national flag, the national badge, and the Stat ue of Liberty. Using the corporate brand management concept, the national flag and natio nal badge were identified as identical to corporate visual symbols or word mark designs re presenting a corporate identity and image. This result is consistent with literature on corporate visual identity, which stat es that visual symbols work as an important brand-building factor (Aak er 1996). Given that corporate visual identity is a basic representation of a companys image, this result shows that corporate identity management can be applied to a countr y visual identity management setting. Fourth, personal knowledge/experi ences proved to be significan t factors affecting country brand attitudes (H4). The items used in this study were residence expe rience, friends, general knowledge, and an understanding of a country. This means that the more people have knowledge of and experiences with a countr y, the more likely they are to develop favora ble attitudes toward that country. This result is consistent with th e proposition of acculturati onthat immigrants who are accustomed to a host countrys customs and language and who have interpersonal contacts with a host countrys people, can change their behaviors and att itudes toward the United States (Pool 1965; Khairullah 1995). In th e global era, the acculturation c oncept was used to explain the acquisition of culture in an international setti ng beyond country boundaries. This study also found that international cons umers who have positive attitudes toward the U.S. brand are more likely to have positive atti tudes toward U.S.-based products (H5). This finding is different from that of Fullerton (2005 ), who failed to find si gnificant correlations

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87 between U.S. country image and favorable attitudes toward U.S. brands. This might be due to the use of different samples and the interaction e ffects of knowledge. Fullertons study sample of international students living in the United States is different because those students would buy American products anyway due to their accessibilit y, and so the situation is totally different for respondents living in other count ries. International consumers should have to choose between domestic products and U.S. products that normally require more effort to attain. Furthermore, most previous literature on the country of orig in effect demonstrates the positive relationship between country of origin and attitudes to ward country-based products (Beverland and Lindgreen 2002; DAstous and Ahmed 1999; Hsieh, Pan, and Seti ono 2004; Kleppe et al. 2002; Kotler and Gertner 2002; Lim and OCass 2001; Th akor and Lavack 2003). In alignment with the extant country of origin literature, the current study confirmed the proposition that direct attitudes transfer from country to country-based products. This study also shows that international c onsumers who have positive attitudes toward U.S.-based products have a greater intent to purchase U.S. products (H6). The relationship between brand attitude and purch ase intention has alre ady been confirmed by previous studies; however, the current study further suggests that general attitudes toward U.S. products also have a positive effect on purchase intent ions for general U.S. products. Additionally, product categories s hould be considered (RQ2). When a separate model for a different product category was tested, the produc t category of fashion fit the country of origin model best (NNFI = .95 and CFI = .96), followed by electronics (NNFI = .93 and CFI = .95) and food (NNF I= .92 and CFI = .94). This is consistent with the confirmatory factor loadings (see Table 4-1), which indicate that fashion brands (. 85) are the most important item in the construct of purchase intentions, followed by electronics (.80) and the food category (.57). This trend can

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88 also be detected in the mean comparison. The means of purchase intentions are 5.30 (fashion), 4.59 (electronics), and 4.09 (food). Th is indicates that fashion bra nds are most highly associated with typical American products a nd that the food category has the least association with general American products. This might due to the fact that South Korea and Mexico have their own inherent food cultures. It is also believed that fo od is the most difficult export item to standardize globally. So, in the practice of country of origin marketing executions, different country of origin strategies are needed acco rding to product categories. Finally, this study provides somewhat different descriptions of country brand relationships between two countries (RQ1). Mexican consumers consume more mediated cultural products than South Ko rean consumers and view the United States more favorably in terms of country visual iden tity, personal knowledge/experiences attitudes toward U.S.-made products, and purchase intentions. This means that Mexican consumers are more familiar with U.S.related concepts than South Koreans. Howe ver, their overall attitudes toward the United States do not differ from those of South Koreans. In addition, the mediated country brand model is a better fit for Mexican consumers than for South Korean consumers. While the consum ption of mediated cultu ral products does not directly influence attitudes toward the United St ates, consumption of me diated cultural products does indirectly affect attitudes toward the Unite d States for both countries. For South Koreans, consumption of mediated cultural products influe nces attitudes toward the United States through inter-country relationship beliefs. For Mexican consumers, attitudes toward the United States are affected by their consumption of mediated cultural produc ts through both inter-country relationship beliefs and country visual identity. S o, South Korean consumers can be said to hold more conceptual understandings about the United States than Mexican consumers, and Mexican

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89 consumers have more visible and animated a ttitudes toward American-related products. This result is due to the differences in geographi c distance and cultural orientation between each country and the United States. As Figure 4-1 sh ows, Mexico is more similar to the United Statesespecially in terms of masculinitythan South Korea, based on cultural orientation. This similarity of cultural orientation could play a positive role in absolving U.S. culture and its products. However, despite these minor differences the general antecedents and consequences of country branding apply similarly for both countri es. Therefore, one could conclude that the mediated country brand model might be uni versal across two countries or more. This study provides several important manage rial implications for U.S. government officials and global marketers. First, in accordan ce with recent international polls and reports (e.g., Pew Research Center 2004; Mitchell 2005; Nesterov 2005), th is study shows that general feelings toward the United States are not favor able among international college students (M = 3.73, less than the mid-point of four in a seve n-point scale). Moreove r, the current study demonstrates that attitudes toward the U.S. br and influence attitudes toward U.S.-based products. Recently, the Bush administration attempted to improve Americas image through governmentsponsored advertising campaigns for America calle d the Shared Value Initi ative (SVI). However, these campaigns have mostly targeted Muslim and Arabic countries and the effectiveness of the campaigns is open to debate (Fullerton a nd Kendrick 2005; Anholt and Hildreth 2004). The results of the current study and other previous polls and reports strongly recommend that the U.S. government develop a comprehensive inte rnational communication campaign to improve Americas image worldwide and change its curre nt international dipl omatic activities. Recognizing the overwhelmingly negative imag e of America, U.S. global marketers tend to be concerned that this nega tive image could influence their international business activities

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90 (Allison 2005). The current study proves that this fear is not exaggerated, as reported by Fortune magazine (Guyon 2003), but is actually happening, in that country brand at titudes transfer to product brand attitudes. This imp lies that international consumers care about country of origin when they purchase products, and that country image has a significant impact on their attitudes toward, and purchase intentions of international brands. Since the U.S. government has not been fully engaged or effective in improving the U.S. image around the world, global marketers in the United States need to strive on their own to e nhance international consumers attitudes toward the U.S. brand. First of all, U.S. marketers need to examine through international market analysis how foreign consumers view them If anti-Americanism exists in foreign markets, then U.S. marketers should scrutini ze why local consumers dislike Ameri ca and what negative images are associated with America (e.g., America is too materialistic, is only concerned with money making, is insensitive to local customers and culture s, hurts local traditions etc.). Based on this market research to understand local customers and their cultures, U.S. marketers need to develop marketing communication campaigns that prom ote the USA brand as well as their product brands. There are some effective tools for building country brands. As the results of this study show, inter-country relationship beliefs, country visual identity, and personal knowledge/experiences are important factors influe ncing country brand a ttitudes. This means that there are various consumer contact points for country bra nds to influence country brand attitudes. Even though it is hard for marketers or government officials to change international publics inter-country relationship perceptions with in a short period of time, they can promote positive beliefs about a country. Inter-country relationship beliefs can be developed through various sources. The U.S. government should enhan ce its efforts to build more positive beliefs

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91 about America within international publics. Nowa days, as public diplomacy is a main approach to international administration (Anholt and Hildreth 2004), targets of diplomacy should incorporate general international publics, and not just governments, in their diplomacy efforts. Technically, country advertising and public rela tions management can be effective marketing communication tools for country branding. It is time to borrow business strategies to run a country more strategically. For country visual id entity management, it is suggested that favorable visual icons of the United Stat es be developed. These icons ca n be monuments, buildings, or even people. The important point is that thes e icons should be managed strategically. When visual icons are effectively communicated, the bra nd equity of the United States can be increased through secondary associations with visual icons. In addition, greater personal knowledge or favorable experi ences can be constructed among international publics. The Fulbright fund is a typical example of this case. Traditionally, the U.S. funded international students and im parted knowledge and experience about the United States on those students. Such programs are su ccessful because students who study in the United States could be opinion leaders in their countries, and transfer favorable images of the United States to their people. In this regard, government officers or cor porate marketers need to develop various programs providing students with an und erstanding of the United States and actual experiences living there. Tourism marketers could also contribute to th is strategic program because travelers are civil ambassadors and transfer the U.S. image to others. The World Citizen Guide that the National Business Travel Associ ation (NBTA) published woul d be a good example. This guidebook suggests 16 guidelines for U.S. traveler s: 1) youll never go wrong with a smile; 2) show your pride, but respect theirs ; 3) think as big as you like, but talk and act smaller; 4) it may

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92 be Greek to you, but theyll love i t; 5) its okay to talk with y our hands if you know what theyre saying; 6) leave the slang at home; 7) listen at le ast as much as you talk; 8) save the lecture for your kids; 9) think a little local ly; 10) slow down; 11) speak lo wer and slower; 12) remember that your religion is your religion and not necessar ily theirs; 13) if you talk politics, talk but dont argue; 14) read a map and dress up because you can always strip down; and 16) a few extra hours in their country will do a lot for yours (NBTA 2004). These guidelines could work for building a favorable country image. Another managerial implication from the findi ngs of the current study is that the degree of consumption of mediated cultural products coul d be used as a target segmentation variable for international customers who are not familiar with the United States. For example, U.S. marketers could segment international customers in terms of their use of U.S. mediated cultural products such as American movies, TV shows, music, a nd websites. Generally, those who use more U.S. mediated cultural products could be defined as ta rget audiences for U.S. consumer brands, since they are more likely to have positive attitude s toward American produc ts. At the same time, media vehicles that deliver U.S. cultural content (e.g., American TV shows or movies on television) can be purchased for advertising media planning. Given that the consumption of mediated cultural products indirectly affects count ry attitudes and directly influences attitudes toward country-based products and purchase inte ntions, product placement in U.S. movies and TV shows exported to target c ountries would be an effective marketing tool to reach local customers. Placing brand images and messages w ithin mediated cultural products can appeal more effectively to those who watch U.S. movi es and TV shows, because these consumers tend to feel more positively toward U.S.-based produc ts and have higher purchase intentions after being exposed to U.S. movies and TV shows.

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93 While this study provides various useful imp lications for brand management, there are also significant implications fr om mass communication perspectives As the results of this study show, mediated cultural products impact various country-relat ed concepts. This result is consistent with traditional l iterature, suggesting the powerful influence of mass media content such as agenda setting, framing, priming, and so on. Though previous lite rature suggests the effects of media content, this study generally showed that the degree of various media consumption impacted the beliefs, emotions, attit udes, and behaviors of in ternational audiences. For entertainment practitioners c onsidering these effects, producer s of mediated cultural products should note the results of this study. Specifically, producers need to note that their entertainment products are influential to international audien ces. For example, a Holly wood film could set a certain agenda among internationa l audiences. When a country is described as a main enemy of the plot, audiences can develop a stereotype of the depicted country, which then influences attitudes toward that country. Al so, producers should avoid biased de scriptions of other countries that could evoke negative consequences. In th e same vein, they should pay attention when describing the United States. It is desirable to depi ct the United States with consideration of its huge impact on international audiences. This study has some limitations that mostly relate to sampling issues. For example, this study employed South Korean and Mexican samples to measure attitudes toward the U.S. brand and American products. The results may have be en different if more country samples were included. In addition, the use of a homogeneous student sample might have resulted in different effects than what would have been found in a sa mpling of the general pop ulation. Therefore, it would be valuable to replicate th e current study with more represen tative samples. It would also be interesting to rep licate the current study for other c ountry brands and consumers (e.g.,

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94 perceptions of the France bra nd and French products among U.S. consumers) and for city attitudes or U.S. state images (e.g., th e New York brand or Florida brand). Further, given that this st udy and those of Fullerton (2005), DeFluer and DeFluer (2003), and Shapiro (2003), could not fi nd direct relationships betwee n consumption of mediated cultural products and country attitudes, ther e might be moderating variables between the consumption of mediated cultural products and attitudes toward a country. First, an exploration of interaction effects of knowledge and media consumption w ould be valuable. If study samples were divided by their degree of knowledge about a country, the resu lt would yield more specific results and a conclusion regarding the condi tional roles of mediat ed cultural products. Experimental research would be one of the optio ns for exploring other moderating effects that this study could not uncover. Another interesti ng future study could focus on not only the degree of consumption of mediated cultural products, bu t also the content or format of the mediated cultural products. For example, the effects of mediated cultural products could be different between negative violent movies and positive silent dramas. In this regard, specific categorizations of mediated cultu ral products could be fruitful moderators of country branding. Future studies should also include various f actors affecting country brand. As Anholt and Hildreth (2004) proposed, people, tourism, investment, immigration, culture, and heritage could be additional factors influencing a ttitudes toward a country that ha ve not been empirically tested. Finally, a future country brand study could investigate citizens satisfaction with their own country. Due to developments in transporta tion and globalization, people can move across borders. Brain exodus is one of the main nationa l problems for developing countries, and some other countries are in need to attract immigran ts for their economic grow th. In this regard, a

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95 country brand study of a particul ar countrys resident s could provide further implications for country brand management.

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96 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION This study proposes the mediated country brand model and shows that the model was successfully supported. The mediated country br and model explains how country brand is influenced and what factors are im portant. Particularly, this study focuses on the role of mediated cultural products. Mediated cultu ral products convey the cultural values of a country, and the transfer of culture is different for different pr oduct exports/imports. The market share of products could be a zero-sum game, but culture is diffe rent (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). This means that mediated cultural products can play a role as effective communication channels transferring American values and its favorable image, because after experiencing U.S. culture, international publics became familiar with the U.S. brand. Th e mediated country brand model incorporates cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs within a single mode l. It is recommended to apply the mediated country brand model to explain vari ous country branding strategies and to predict the influence of individual country branding factors. Brand management strategy is essential to a ny country. The United States in particular needs to build a comprehensive and well-organize d country brand strategy (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). Country brand strategy is the same as co rporate brand strategy, in terms of analyzing current situations and percepti ons from different locations, and establishing clear brand identities, or a desirable country brand image. Furthermore, th is country identity should be shared, not only among government offices but also among general publics who live in the United States, and effectively communicated globa lly. The means of building a country brand is not that different from that of corporate br and management: for a company, corporate brand identity should be shared, from the top manage ment level to every employee (Aaker 1996; Keller 2003). All stakeholders should unde rstand the brand vision of America from government to civil

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97 society, NGOs, entertainment, the media, small a nd large businesses, foreign services, tourism, culture and arts, religion, academia, and education (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). However, U.S. brand-building endeavors ha ve not been successful. For example, the budget for the Shared Value Initiative was only $15 million (Anholt and Hild reth 2004). This is too small when compared to the marketing expend itures of American mid-sized companies. It is even said that U.S. advertising campaigns ar e not effective and could yield a counter-effect (Anholt and Hildreth 2004). For exam ple, if the general perceived im age of America is that of a bully, allotting bigger budgets for country br anding could reinforce that image and evoke resistance to branding messages (Anholt and H ildreth 2004). This is why a comprehensive country brand management system is required. In ternational publics coul d have a great number of contact points with the United States Even though there are both controllable and uncontrollable factors in country branding, they are needed to run strategic country brand management systems starting from manageable bra nd factors. For example, immigrants from all over the world could be precious sources for the United Stat es as a global brand. Their attachment to brand America coul d play a role in effective br anding because people trust them more than marketing messages. This is why word -of-mouth is important to marketing practices. Also, people who live in the United States should help to build a favorable U.S. brand. When they travel abroad, they should act as civil amba ssadors in order to transf er a positive U.S. image to other countries. In conclusion, the United States is not a mysterious, idealized, magical land anymore (Anholt and Hildreth 2004, p. 130). Ho wever, the U.S. brand is sti ll a strong brand. It should be remembered that the United Stat es is loosing its status as a premium brand, and that brandrehabilitating programs are needed.

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98 APPENDIX A CORRELATION MATRIX

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99Table A-1. Correlation matrix TV Movie Ads Music Web Ally Polotical Economic FTA Credit Cultural Flag Badge Statue Residence TV 1 Movie .50** 1 Ads .50** .44** 1 Music .38** .45** .37** 1 Web .48** .46** .49** .49** 1 Ally 0.01 0.03 0.07 0.07 0.05 1 Political .15** .15** .15** .18** .14* .71** 1 Economic 0.08 .13* .15** 0.08 .18** .58** .61** 1 FTA 0.06 .12* .11* .17** .12* .48** .48** .58** 1 Credit .14** .13* 0.06 .18** .19** .51** .53** .55** .59** 1 Cultural 0.01 0 .12* 0.08 0.01 .47** .53** .55** .45** .51** 1 Flag .20** .18** .12* .28** .24** .27** .32** .33** .27** .34** .26** 1 Badge 0.1 0.08 0.06 .18** .19** .22** .24** .28** .23** .31** .23** .69** 1 Statue 0.03 .12* 0.08 .19** .12* .23** .19** .22** .17** .18** .18** .58** .49** 1 Residence .25** .24** .24** .15** .37** 0.07 0.09 .13* 0.09 0.04 -0.09 .25** .23** .24** 1 Friends1 .27** .19** .34** .23** .38** .13* .14** .24** .16** .11* 0.09 .27** .18** .25** .42** Friends2 .34** .30** .30** .25** .36** .11* .14** .20** .15** 0.1 0.03 .18** 0.1 .17** .37** Knowledge .37** .31** .32** .26** .50** .21** .27** .34** .20** .27** .11* .33** .24** .22** .44** US culture .33** .30** .24** .28** .33** .11* .11* .16** .13** .15** 0.08 .19** .16** .16** .40** US 1 .18** .17** .11* .16** .17** .54** .50** .53** .45** .49** .43** .41** .35** .41** .21** US 2 0.02 0.09 0.03 .11* .12* .45** .44** .45** .37** .43** .43** .38** .39** .35** .11* US 3 -0.04 0 -0.03 0.04 -0.03 .39** .35** .42** .33** .34** .43** .22** .27** .22** -0.02 US 4 0 0.05 0 0.03 0.05 .43** .38** .44** .40** .39** .44** .33** .33** .31** 0.08 Brand 1 .18** .31** .14** .23** .28** .28** .32** .26** .26** .27** .20** .31** .18** .30** .12* Brand 2 .24** .33** .20** .19** .38** .18** .26** .24** .23** .21** .11* .31** .21** .39** .23** Brand 3 .14** .24** .13* .17** .18** .25** .28** .26** .26** .24** .23** .31** .19** .36** .14** Brand 4 .17** .26** .16** .13* .19** .22** .26** .26** .23** .25** .21** .26** .14** .34** .12* Electronics .41** .41** .33** .34** .48** 0.09 .17** .19** .18** .20** -0.01 .39** .24** .24** .31** Fashion .32** .42** .24** .34** .39** .11* .21** .17** .19** .16** 0 .28** .19** .33** .25** Food .26** .21** .14** .20** .19** .22** .25** .21** .25** .24** .18** .21** .11* .21** .11*

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100Table A-1. Continued. Friends1 Friends2 Knowledge USculture US1 US2 US3 US4 B1 B2 B3 B4 Electronics Fashion Food TV Movie Ads Music Web Ally Political Economic FTA Credit Cultural Flag Badge Statue Residence Friends1 1 Friends2 .53** 1 Knowledge .43** .52** 1 US culture .33* .45** .66** 1 US 1 .26** .26** .35** .27**1 US 2 .24** .17** .23** .22**.76**1 US 3 0.1 0.03 0.07 0.06 .65**.70**1 US 4 .17** .13* .20** .13* .73**.80** .79**1 Brand 1 .17** .23** .29** .16**.52**.44* *.33**.41**1 Brand 2 .17** .27** .32** .18**.42**.38**.18**.31**.77**1 Brand 3 .19** .20** .22** .13* .46**.40**.37**.41**.72**.72**1 Brand 4 .15** .22** .21** .11* .43**.39**.30**.39**.72**.73**.78** 1 Electronics .26** .27** .39** .18**.22**.18**-0.02 .18**.37**.49**.34** .38**1 Fashion .21** .25** .27** .16**.27**.22**0.07 .15**.52**.57**.48** .52**.68**1 Food .20** .20** .21** .14**.28**.24**0.09 .26**.27**.29**.28** .30**.52**.50**1

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101 APPENDIX B ENGLISH SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Consumption of Mediated Cultural Products I watch American TV shows. Rarely (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5)-----(6) -----(7) Frequently I watch American Movies. Rarely (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5)-----(6) -----(7) Frequently I watch or read news stories about America. Rarely (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5)-----(6) -----(7) Frequently I watch or read American advertising. Rarely (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5)-----(6) -----(7) Frequently I read American periodicals. Rarely (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5)-----(6) -----(7) Frequently I read American books. Rarely (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5)-----(6) -----(7) Frequently I listen American Music. Rarely (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5)-----(6) -----(7) Frequently I visit American websites. Rarely (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5)-----(6) -----(7) Frequently Inter-country Relationship beliefs I believe that the United States is an ally of my country. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree I believe that the US has a good polit ical relationship with my country. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree The US army in other countries is necessary Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree The US is the only country who can control North Korea Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree I believe that the US has a good econo mic relationship with my country. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US is appropriate Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree

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102 Country credit ratings evaluated by the US rating service are trustworthy Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree I believe that the US has a good cultu ral relationship with my country. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree Personal experiences Would you say you can speak English? Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree I have some experiences of re sidence in the United State. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree I have some American friends I hang around with. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree I have some close friends living in the US. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree I think that I have a quite good understanding of the US Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree I think that I am quite familiar with the American culture Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree Emotional responses of the Country Visual Identity To me, the presented US national flag is: Unhappy (1)----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Happy Annoyed (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7 ) Pleased Unsatisfied (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Satisfied Melancholic (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Contented Despairing (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Hopeful Bored (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Relaxed Relaxed (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Stimulated Calm (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Excited Sluggish (1)----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7 ) Frenzied Dull (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Jittery Sleepy (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Wide awake

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103 To me, the presented US national badge is: Unhappy (1)----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Happy Annoyed (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7 ) Pleased Unsatisfied (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Satisfied Melancholic (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Contented Despairing (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Hopeful Bored (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Relaxed Relaxed (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Stimulated Calm (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Excited Sluggish (1)----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7 ) Frenzied Dull (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Jittery Sleepy (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Wide awake To me, the presented Statue of Liberty is: Unhappy (1)----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Happy Annoyed (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7 ) Pleased Unsatisfied (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Satisfied Melancholic (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Contented Despairing (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Hopeful Bored (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Relaxed Relaxed (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Stimulated Calm (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Excited

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104 Sluggish (1)----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7 ) Frenzied Dull (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Jittery Sleepy (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Wide awake Attitude toward the United States To me, the United States is: Unfavorable (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Favorable Bad (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Good Unlikable (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Likable Negative (1)-----(2)-----( 3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Positive Attitude toward US-based products To me, products/brands from the United States are: Unfavorable (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Favorable Bad (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Good Unlikable (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Likable Negative (1)-----(2)-----( 3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Positive Purchase Intention of US-based Products If I were in the market place, I would purchase American cellular phone. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American jeans. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American luxury products. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American apparel products. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American sneakers. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would us e American fast food/restaurant chains. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American computers.

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105 Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American home appliance. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American MP3 players. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American cars. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American soft drinks. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American beer. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable If I were in the market place, I would purchase American toiletries. Impossible (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Possible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Nationality ( ) Gender: male ( ) female ( ) Occupation ( ) Age ( ) years

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106 APPENDIX C KOREAN SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE TV (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) FTA

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107 (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) ? (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) ( ) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7)

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108 (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) ( ) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) ( ) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7)

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109 (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) : (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) : (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7)

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110 (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) / (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) MP3 MP3 (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) ( ) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) ( ) : ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

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111 APPENDIX D SPANISH SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Consumo Cultural de Productos Yo veo programas americanos de televisin. Raramente (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Frecuentemente Yo veo pelculas americanas. Raramente (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Frecuentemente Yo veo o leo noticias sobre los Estados Unidos. Raramente (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Frecuentemente Yo veo o leo publicidad americana. Raramente (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Frecuentemente Yo leo peridicos americanos. Raramente (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Frecuentemente Yo leo libros americanos. Raramente (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Frecuentemente Yo escucho msica americana. Raramente (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Frecuentemente Yo visito sitios de Internet americanos. Raramente (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Frecuentemente Creencias sobre relaciones interculturales. Yo creo que los Estados Unidos son un aliado de mi pas. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Yo creo que los Estados Unidos tienen una buena relacin poltica con mi pas. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente El ejrcito americano es necesario en otros pases. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Los Estados Unidos son el nico pas que pueden controlar a Corea del Norte. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Yo creo que los Estados Unidos tienen una buena relacin econmica con mi pas. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente El Acuerdo de Tratado Libre (ATL) c on los Estados Unidos es apropiado.

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112 No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente La clasificacin de crdito del pas, evaluada po r el servicio de clasif icacin de los Estados Unidos es confiable. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Yo creo que los Estados Unidos tienen una buena relacin cultural con mi pas. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Experiencias Personales Usted dira que puede hablar ingls? No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Tengo algunas experiencias de resi dencia en los Estados Unidos. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Tengo algunos amigos americanos con los que salgo. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Tengo algunos amigos cercanos que viven en los Estados Unidos. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Creo que tengo un buen entendimiento de los Estados Unidos. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Creo que tengo conocimiento de la cultura Americana. No estoy de acuerdo (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Estoy de acuerdo totalmente Respuestas Emocionales sobre la Identidad Visual del Pas: Para m, la bandera nacional de los Estados Unidos est: Descontento (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Contento Molesto (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Complacido Insatisfecho (1)----(2)-----(3)-----(4 )-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Satisfecho Melanclico (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Estresado Desesperado (1)-----(2)-----(3) -----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Optimista Aburrido (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Relajado

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113 Relajado (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Estimulado Calmado (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Emocionado Haragn (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Frentico Poco interesante (1)-----( 2)-----(3)-----(4) -----(5)-----(6)----(7) Nervioso Sooliento (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Despierto Para m, el escudo nacional de los Estados Unidos est: Descontento (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Contento Molesto (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Complacido Insatisfecho (1)----(2)-----(3)-----(4 )-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Satisfecho Melanclico (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Estresado Desesperado (1)-----(2)-----(3) -----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Optimista Aburrido (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Relajado Relajado (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Estimulado Calmado (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Emocionado Haragn (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Frentico Poco interesante (1)-----( 2)-----(3)-----(4) -----(5)-----(6)----(7) Nervioso Sooliento (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Despierto Para m, la Estatua de la Libertad presentada est: Descontento (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Contento Molesto (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Complacido Insatisfecho (1)----(2)-----(3)-----(4 )-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Satisfecho

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114 Melanclico (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Estresado Desesperado (1)-----(2)-----(3) -----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7) Optimista Aburrido (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Relajado Relajado (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Estimulado Calmado (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Emocionado Haragn (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Frentico Poco interesante (1)-----( 2)-----(3)-----(4) -----(5)-----(6)----(7) Nervioso Sooliento (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Despierto Actitud hacia los Estados Unidos Para m, los Estados Unidos son: Desfavorable (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Favorable Malos (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5 )-----(6)-----(7) Buenos Antipticos (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5 )-----(6)-----(7) Simpticos Negativo (1)-----(2)-----( 3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Positivo Actitud hacia productos americanos Para m, productos/marcas de los Estados Unidos son: Desfavorable (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Favorable Malos (1)-----(2)-----(3 )-----(4)-----(5 )-----(6)-----(7) Buenos Antipticos (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5 )-----(6)-----(7) Simpticos Negativo (1)-----(2)-----( 3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Positivo Intencin de consumo de productos americanos Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo comprara un celular americano. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo co mprara pantalones jeans americanos. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo compra ra productos de lujo americanos. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo comp rara productos de ropa americanos. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo co mprara zapatos tenis americanos.

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115 Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo usara restaura ntes y cadenas americanas de comida rpida. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo co mprara computadoras americanas. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo comprar a aparatos electrodomsticos americanos. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo comp rara aparatos de MP3 americanos. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo comprara carros americanos. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo comprara bebidas americanas. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo comprara cerveza americana. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Si yo estuviera en el mercado, yo comprara pr oductos de tocador y de higiene americanos. Imposible (1)-----(2) -----(3)-----(4)-----(5)----(6)-----(7) Posible Improbable (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Probable Nacionalidad ( ) Gnero: Masculino ( ) femenino ( ) Ocupacin ( ) Edad ( ) aos

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130 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jong Woo Jun enrolled in the Department of Advertising at the Univ ersity of Florida in August 2004, and received Ph.D. degree in 2007. Previous to his study, he worked in the advertising business. He has worked for LGAd, an affiliate of WPP, and Crayfish, a branding consulting firm in S. Korea. He received a BA and MA, both in mass communication from the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, South Korea.