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Measuring Time

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021441/00001

Material Information

Title: Measuring Time Conserving a Monumental Ground and the Restoration of La Passeggiata
Physical Description: 1 online resource (118 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Vogler, Marie Ann
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture, charter, conservation, field, ground, guide, historic, layer, marie, monument, narrative, passeggiata, place, preservation, ritual, supplement, surface, venice, vogler
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Although Venice is a city with many historic structures, little recognition is given to the ground as a historic structure, as a monumental site for future generations. This thesis explores the relationship between the monumental ground and the culture of la passeggiata within the city. The focus of this study is to establish the ground as a monument. La passeggiata is both culturally and ritually stimulating. The ritual of la passeggiata, the walk around town, became evident as the relationships between the ground and people were studied. The conservation of this ritual of la passeggiata is dependent upon the recognition of ground as a monument. Sixteen trips were taken to Venice over the course of the fall semester of 2006; and the factors affecting the ground over the past decades were analyzed. During these visits, over 2,000 images were taken of the typical Venetian surfaces, specifically the monumental ground; each trip yielded a different, yet similar Venetian experience. The ground was analyzed during the final visits to Venice; however upon returning home the photographs were used in further studying of the ground. In order for visitors to get the full experience of Venice, they need to be able to explore the patchwork of streets. By using a field-guide as a way of marking certain ground along a heritage trail, visitors will be able to move on and off of this composed trail whenever they decide to do so. A supplement to the Venice Charter will serve as a document that will allow the ground to function as a memory of things past and present. It will serve as an informer for residents, visitors, and all those involved with any re-workings of the city. As a supplement to the charter, it will contribute to the development and recognition of the monumental ground, not only by bringing about increasing awareness, but by encouraging further studies of the ground as a monument.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Marie Ann Vogler.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Hailey, Charles L.
Local: Co-adviser: Graham, Roy E.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2017-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021441:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021441/00001

Material Information

Title: Measuring Time Conserving a Monumental Ground and the Restoration of La Passeggiata
Physical Description: 1 online resource (118 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Vogler, Marie Ann
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture, charter, conservation, field, ground, guide, historic, layer, marie, monument, narrative, passeggiata, place, preservation, ritual, supplement, surface, venice, vogler
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Although Venice is a city with many historic structures, little recognition is given to the ground as a historic structure, as a monumental site for future generations. This thesis explores the relationship between the monumental ground and the culture of la passeggiata within the city. The focus of this study is to establish the ground as a monument. La passeggiata is both culturally and ritually stimulating. The ritual of la passeggiata, the walk around town, became evident as the relationships between the ground and people were studied. The conservation of this ritual of la passeggiata is dependent upon the recognition of ground as a monument. Sixteen trips were taken to Venice over the course of the fall semester of 2006; and the factors affecting the ground over the past decades were analyzed. During these visits, over 2,000 images were taken of the typical Venetian surfaces, specifically the monumental ground; each trip yielded a different, yet similar Venetian experience. The ground was analyzed during the final visits to Venice; however upon returning home the photographs were used in further studying of the ground. In order for visitors to get the full experience of Venice, they need to be able to explore the patchwork of streets. By using a field-guide as a way of marking certain ground along a heritage trail, visitors will be able to move on and off of this composed trail whenever they decide to do so. A supplement to the Venice Charter will serve as a document that will allow the ground to function as a memory of things past and present. It will serve as an informer for residents, visitors, and all those involved with any re-workings of the city. As a supplement to the charter, it will contribute to the development and recognition of the monumental ground, not only by bringing about increasing awareness, but by encouraging further studies of the ground as a monument.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Marie Ann Vogler.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Hailey, Charles L.
Local: Co-adviser: Graham, Roy E.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2017-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021441:00001


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1 MEASURING TIME: CONSERVING A MONUMENTAL GROUND AND THE RESTORATION OF LA PASSEGGIATA By MARIE VOGLER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Marie Vogler

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3 To Charles MacMahon, Jr., FAIA and Head Women’s Track and Field Coach Tom Jones.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I first thank my thesis committee for their support throughout my research overseas and my final semesters of graduate study. Professo r Charles Hailey was a constant voice throughout both my architectural and historic preservation undertakings. Professor Roy Graham has worked with my scheduling to allow me to achieve both a Master of Architecture and this Master of Science in Architectural Studies. His class trips have carried me to all corners of the world. Professor Joseli Macedo has been an influencing figure who has encouraged me to think outside the architectural box. During the course of my research I have come across many others that have contributed to my success while studying in Italy. The Peruch family was especially informative and ready to answer all of my questions about the Italian lifestyle. My proofreaders this semester deserve recognition, without them my three solid days of typing this thesis from handwritten notes would make no sense at all. Not only were they there for me whenever I made another preliminary print, they also provided all the distractions that could possibly be needed. Most importantly I want to thank Dereck and all my family for their words of encouragement and loving support along the way.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........7 LIST OF TERMS.................................................................................................................. .........11 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. ..14 Statement of Purpose........................................................................................................... ...15 Identifying the Site..........................................................................................................1 6 Rationale...................................................................................................................... ....16 Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .17 Challenges Related to Tourism.......................................................................................18 Challenge of a Venetian Foundation...............................................................................19 Significance of a Supplement.................................................................................................21 2 THE VENICE CHARTER AND LA PASSEGGIATA .............................................................23 Literature Review.............................................................................................................. .....25 What is a Place?............................................................................................................... 25 Divisions of Venice.........................................................................................................30 Bridge as Ground.............................................................................................................35 Venice in its Entirety......................................................................................................... .....36 The Venetian Experience................................................................................................38 Elements of the City........................................................................................................40 The Venetian Footwork...................................................................................................41 Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................................... .42 3 ARRIVING TO VENICE........................................................................................................52 Field Research................................................................................................................. .......52 Mapping Venice..............................................................................................................55 Reasonable Documentation.............................................................................................57 Analysis and Discussion........................................................................................................ .58 Specific Foundations.......................................................................................................58 Icons of Venice................................................................................................................ 60 Flooding and Temporary Ground....................................................................................62 Deterioration.................................................................................................................. ..63 Restructuring.................................................................................................................. .64 Perception of Ground......................................................................................................64

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6 4 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................... .....93 Phenomenon....................................................................................................................9 3 Definition and Aim..........................................................................................................95 Conservation................................................................................................................... .95 Restoration.................................................................................................................... ...97 Historic Sites and Excavations........................................................................................98 Publications and Review.................................................................................................99 APPENDIX A THE VENICE CHARTER: ORIGINAL...............................................................................101 B THE VENICE CHARTER: REWORKED SUPPLEMENT.................................................104 C SUPPLEMENT AND FIELD-GUIDE..................................................................................107 D JOURNAL ENTRY: MY ARRIVAL TO VENICE.............................................................111 E JOURNAL ENTRY: A GROUNDING DISCOVERY.........................................................114 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. 116 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................118

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2-1 International triangle................................................................................................... .......48 2-2 A flooded city ......................................................................................................... .........48 2-3 Official marked path .................................................................................................... .....49 2-4 Restructuring the ground ............................................................................................... ...49 2-5 Ground formations ....................................................................................................... .....49 2-6 Gondoliers along the canal............................................................................................... ..50 2-7 Caf on the square ...................................................................................................... .......50 2-8 Worn marble ............................................................................................................. ........51 3-1 Map of Venice............................................................................................................ ........66 3-2 Street Markets .......................................................................................................... .........66 3-3 Tall streets of Venice .................................................................................................. ......67 3-4 Dark covered streets .................................................................................................... ......67 3-5 Narrow streets of the city .............................................................................................. ....67 3-6 Large square outside of the train station ...........................................................................68 3-7 Large square hidden within the city ..................................................................................68 3-8 Moments of pause......................................................................................................... .....68 3-9 Marked entry to church .................................................................................................. ...69 3-10 Water entry ............................................................................................................ ............69 3-11 Private marble entry ................................................................................................... .......70 3-12 Merging streets ........................................................................................................ ..........70 3-13 Changing elevations .................................................................................................... ......70 3-14 Marked path of a window shopper ....................................................................................71 3-15 Stones as a market edge ................................................................................................ ....71

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8 3-16 Small stones of smaller squares ........................................................................................ 72 3-17 Larger stones of larger squares ........................................................................................ .72 3-18 Carved stone treads .................................................................................................... .......72 3-19 White stones as a divisor .............................................................................................. .....73 3-20 Differentiating stones as an edge....................................................................................... 73 3-21 Stones as a drain ...................................................................................................... ..........73 3-22 Stones marking a square ................................................................................................ ...74 3-23 Markings of previous flooding .......................................................................................... 74 3-24 Ground level well ..................................................................................................... ........74 3-25 Above ground well ..................................................................................................... ......75 3-26 Gondola tie............................................................................................................. ............75 3-27 Stair markings.......................................................................................................... ..........75 3-28 Piazza San Marco ....................................................................................................... .......76 3-29 Gondoliers in a small canal ............................................................................................ ...76 3-30 Gondola at a water entry ............................................................................................... ....77 3-31 Private gondola ........................................................................................................ .........77 3-32 Gondolas in the flooded water .......................................................................................... 77 3-33 Altered historic water entry............................................................................................ ...78 3-34 Original water entry ................................................................................................... .......78 3-35 Water entry of today ................................................................................................... ......78 3-36 Visual exposed timeline ................................................................................................ ....79 3-37 Historic bridges of Venice ............................................................................................. ...79 3-38 Water entry at bridge .................................................................................................. ......80 3-39 Rialto bridge .......................................................................................................... ............80 3-40 Workday in the flooded city ............................................................................................ .81

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9 3-41 Flooded Piazza San Marco ............................................................................................... .81 3-42 Modern interventions to keep flooded waters out..............................................................82 3-43 Typical private flood gate .................................................................................................82 3-44 Flooded caf............................................................................................................ ...........83 3-45 Caf in the flooded piazza ............................................................................................. ....83 3-46 Waiting in line during acqua alta .....................................................................................84 3-47 Wooden planks during low tide.........................................................................................84 3-48 Canal flooded .......................................................................................................... ..........85 3-49 Stranded tourists in the flooded piazza .............................................................................85 3-50 Algae seen during low tide ............................................................................................. ..85 3-51 Algae along the steps of a canal ....................................................................................... .86 3-52 Broken steps ........................................................................................................... ...........86 3-53 Deteriorated stone ..................................................................................................... ........86 3-54 Replaced stones ........................................................................................................ .........87 3-55 A cracked edge ......................................................................................................... .........87 3-56 Worn column edge ....................................................................................................... .....87 3-57 Worn marble in Piazza San Marco ...................................................................................88 3-58 Worn steps ............................................................................................................. ...........88 3-59 Worn entryway .......................................................................................................... ........88 3-60 Unintentional rough markings ..........................................................................................8 9 3-61 Intentiona l rough markings ............................................................................................. ..89 3-62 Stone filler ........................................................................................................... ..............89 3-63 Ready for stone replacement ........................................................................................... .89 3-64 Stone replaced with stone............................................................................................... ...89 3-65 Walkways not kept up ................................................................................................... ....90

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10 3-66 Deteriorating st ones in a courtyard ...................................................................................9 0 3-67 Stone staples .......................................................................................................... ............90 3-68 Metal fasteners ........................................................................................................ ..........91 3-69 Metal column support ................................................................................................... ....91 3-70 Stone fastener ......................................................................................................... ...........91 3-71 Stone set aside for reuse .............................................................................................. ......92 3-72 Temporary wooden ground ...............................................................................................9 2 3-73 Wooden ground covering uneven surfaces .......................................................................92

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11 LIST OF TERMS Charter A written contract; documents outlining conditions1 Conserve To avoid wasteful or destructive use of Ground An object that makes a connection with the earth; the solid surface of the earth Image A tangible or visual representation; a mental picture of something; a mental conception held in common by members of a ground and symbolic of an attitude and orientation; a popular conception projected especially through the mass media Landscape The landforms of a region Monument A lasting evidence, reminder; an identifying mark; a boundary or position marker; anything surviving from a past age; an area or a site of interest to the public for its historical significance Narrative An account of incidents or events or experiences Passeggiata A walk (around town) in order to see and be seen; a cultural ritual Place Physical environment or surroundings; an indefinite region or expanse; a place to be occupied Preserve To keep alive, intact, free from decay; to make lasting; to maintain Resident Living in a place for some length of time Restore To put or bring back into existence Ritual Done in accordance with social custom or normal protocol; practice or pattern of behavior relating to a culture or social conduct Sightseer “[S]omeone who [will engage] in socially and culturally constructed way[s] of viewing.”2 Tourist “To enjoy the spectacle and allow themselves to be seen”3; a person traveling for pleasure Visitor Someone who visits for pleasure or socially 1 All terms taken from: Merriam Webster Online 2007. 2 Davis, et al. 2004, 11. 3 Davis, et al. 2004, 61.

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies MEASURING TIME: CONSERVING A MONUMENTAL GROUND AND THE RESTORATION OF LA PASSEGGIATA By MARIE VOGLER August 2007 Chair: Charles Hailey Cochair: Roy Graham Major: Architecture Although Venice is a city with many historic structures, little recognition is given to the ground as a historic structure, as a monumental site for future generations. This thesis explores the relationship between the monumental ground and the culture of la passeggiata within the city. The focus of this study is to establish the ground as a monument. La passeggiata is both culturally and ritually stimulating. The ritual of la passeggiata the walk around town, became evident as the relationships between the ground and people were studied. The conservation of this ritual of la passeggiata is dependent upon the recognition of ground as a monument. Sixteen trips were taken to Venice over the course of the fall semester of 2006; and the factors affecting the ground over the past decades were analyzed. During these visits, over 2,000 images were taken of the typical Venetian surfaces, specifically the monumental ground; each trip yielded a different, yet similar Venetian experience. The ground was analyzed during the final visits to Venice; however upon returning home the photographs were used in further studying of the ground. In order for visitors to get the full experience of Venice, they need to be able to explore the patchwork of streets. By using a field-guide as a way of marking certain

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13 ground along a heritage trail, visitors will be able to move on and off of this composed trail whenever they decide to do so. A supplement to the Venice Charter will serve as a document that will allow the ground to function as a memory of things past and present. It will serve as an informer for residents, visitors, and all those involved with any re-workings of the city. As a supplement to the charter, it will contribute to the development and recognition of the monumental ground, not only by bringing about increasing awareness, but by en couraging further studies of the ground as a monument.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In this thesis I propose a field-guided walk throughout the landscape of Venice. A composed walk dealing with the heritage or culture does not exist in Venice today. There are no standard methods for informing the tourist of not only what they are walking on, but what they are passing as they move towards their common destination of Piazza San Marco. The influx of tourists has risen and the Venetians seen roaming the streets declined. The term la passeggiata is an expression of this common Venetian ritual: a walk through town, to see or be seen. La passeggiata has slowly begun to disappear. This thesis discovers the important relationships between the historic ritual of la passeggiata and the ground that is walked upon by so many everyday. La passeggiata becomes a cultural monument. The supporting fieldwork has come from numerous trips to Venice and walking a series of similar tourist path towards Piazza San Marco. This fieldwork became a study of the ground as something traversed and as a form of organization for the city. As the Venice Charter stands today, it is a generic document for international restoration and conservation. The charter will serve as a template for the project’s idea of ground as a monument, a supplement to the charter. The resulting supplement will bring about a Venice specific guide that will be applied to the monumental ground through the use of la passeggiata With this document, a field-guided trail throughout the city will function as a record of the cultural histories of this place. This thesis essentially tests the application of the Venice Charter of 1964 to the ground of Venice and the elements of time. Is this charter able to work for a new recognition of monuments that should be taken into consideration within Venice? It examines the original concept of la passeggiata, a walk around town as a ritual that must be continued as time

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15 progresses within the city and across the world. The idea of this walk will incorporate the understanding of the delicate construction of ground amongst this collection of islets. Statement of Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to provide a methodological basis for an establishment of the Venetian ground a both a cultural and historical monument. This 21st century supplement to the existing charter will focus specifically on the landscape as a monument, allowing it to emerge from something that we often take for granted: the earth upon which we walk. Specifically, the stones of Venice are in dire need of preserving. Puddles remaining from a recent flooding of the city become an ephemeral record of the event that is until the water evaporates and leaves behind its ghost-like outline. Thousands of tourists pass over the stone paths everyday, most often assuming they are built upon preexisting foundations structural enough to support a city made of rock. The ground as a monument allows the cultural setting of place to embrace the inhabitants of the island. This cultural setting provides markings needed to compose a heritage trail. The trail will help to rekindle the tradition of la passeggiata the walk around town, a place to see or be seen. The trail will not only serving as a narrative history of the city, but will also allow the streets to once again come alive with residents who have hidden themselves within their own city. This concealing has intensified over the past years as the number of tourists has increased. The residents stay away from the tourists as a way to live in the city as it once was. Many do not appreciate the lost tourist who constantly wanders into their own private courtyards asking for directions. This new document will allow the residents to feel ownership in a city that was once theirs. The itinerary will be open to all. Here the tourists and residents can interact in a way in which la passeggiata intended for mingling. The document will bring back the ritual of la passeggiata while protecting the intricate layers of grounding throughout the island.

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16 Identifying the Site Venice was chosen as a site for this study of a monumental ground specifically for the ground and its delicately layered history creating the foundation for the urban form and function of the city. Numerous visits to Venice in the fall of 2006 sparked a great deal of interest of the history behind the assembly of the stones into pathways. Many questions began to arise: why was marble used in some areas, while in other areas basic stones were used? Technology can play only so much of a role in the restructuri ng of the sinking islands. If a stronger foundation is needed, the newest engineering techniques will need to look to the traditional method of building in order to determine how the island can be save d. Technology will ultimately play a role in how the island is saved, but this technology will not serve as the way of rebuilding the island. Instead it will be used in the human intervention means in progress today meant to keep out the high water – the floodgates being placed under the water away from the island edges to form a border when high waters are expected. The ground has become the main focus of the current issue of saving Venice ; it is this ground that so many traverse without the faintest idea of how complex the formation of the layers below these stones really are. Rationale The surfaces of these collection of islets must be recognized, not only by the engineers involved in the restructuring of formations, but by those tourists who initially came to visit to see the buildings and the city as a whole. By marking the ground as a monument, all those who pass through the streets of Venice will be aware and in formed of just how great of a feat these methods of working really are. A monument serves as “lasting evidence, reminder, or example of someone or something notable or great.”1 Its functions are a recognizable reminder, a 1 Merriam Webster Online 2007.

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17 marking for the city of events from the past. The ground of Venice operates as a monument to the intricate work that has gone into the making and connecting of the islands and what they have become today. The detailed making of the ground begins from the natural collection of rocks and soil as runoff from the mountains in northern Italy.2 Collections over many centuries eventually led to the formation of the islets that make up Venice. Structural pilings were pounded into the mud; from there the base of what we know today as Venice began. It is in this complex way of making that the story of Venice must be told. Statement of the Problem As time progresses, the islands of Venice grow older, the original mudflats that make up the historic city are compressed, and the islands appear to be sinking. Although the physical sinking of the islands is not all that creates a problem for Venice, it has become a major concern for the residents. While the sea level continues to rise and the islands become a destination for tourists, the Venetian ground and true experience of this place is at risk of being lost forever. The foundation for the city, both its stories and its physical build up, create the narrative that must continue to thrive as it is passed down from generation to generation. With the creation of a heritage walk through a field-guided tour, the narratives will be told about the nature of this unique destination. Each stone and the layers of the constructed grounds tell a story; the bridges and their connections to the other islets are all waiting for the passerby to listen as they share their individual timelines. John Ruskin tells a narrative of his passing through a smaller square in his opening lines to St. Mark’s Rest : Go first into the Piazzetta, and stand anywhere in the shade, where you can well see its two granite pillars. You Murray tells you that they are ‘famous,’ and that one is surmounted by the bronze lion of St. Theodore, the Protector of the Republic. It does not, however, tell you why, or for what the pillars are famous. Nor, in reply to a question which might 2 McGregor 2006.

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18 conceivably occur to the curious, why St. Theodore should protect the Republic by standing on a crocodile; nor whether the bronze lion of St. Mark was cast by Sir Edwin Landseer, or some more ancient and ignorant person; nor what these rugged corners of limestone rock, at the bases of granite, were perhaps once in shape of. Have you any idea why, for the sake of any such things, these pillars were once, or should yet be, more renowned than the Monument, or the column of the Place Vendome, both of which are much bigger?3 For him the smaller squares serves as a way to compare something to Piazza San Marco. He questions the use of the statues, and who the people are on the monument. He makes Venice what it is for him in his retelling of past experiences. The visitor must create his or her own stories upon returning home. For the resident, this topographical narrative will serve as a reminder of traditions both past and present and the people who created its history. The landscape will serve as the narrator in the imagina tion of the tourist recalling the stories of the island’s cultures, histories and its evolution. Challenges Related to Tourism The addition of a train station in the 19th century has played a major role in attracting the tourists and, most importantly, bringing in the resulting economic support for the city. The typical tourist arrives by train and continues by f oot to the Rialto Bridge and eventually moving towards Piazza San Marco. Before the introduction of the train and the building of Piazzale Roma, Piazza San Marco was the primary entrance to the island. When the idea to connect Venice to the mainland was first approved, the southwest side of the island had to be built up in order to house the station and the cars that would be brought in. Layers and layers of ground were added to the existing edge of the island in order to make room for these additions to the city, ultimately additions for the tourist. 3 Ruskin 1904, 1-2.

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19 However, it is because Venice began catering to the tourist that the island has been able to survive the past decades. The tourists have brought in the financial stability that still continues to support the island. From the purchasing of souvenirs, to church and museum entry fees and even the authentic gondola rides, the tourists have been a constant source of support for the Venetians that have been struggling to live in this tourist dominated city. The walks to Piazza San Marco and the Rialto Bridge have turned into an all-day, every day parade of tourists. Although stops are made along the journey to these primary destinations, most often the pauses throughout this walk are caused by interventions meant specifically to intercept the tourist. The itinerary of most tourists is the same, a choreographed framework based on these shops and cafs that will eventually funnel the tourists to th eir corresponding points of interest – mainly the Rialto Bridge or Piazza San Marco; however each experience is a personal one. Is the tourist as much help as they are portrayed to be? The tourists are the reason that the population of Venetians living in Venice has dropped steadily. In the year 2000, for every two Venetians who moved out of the city, three foreigners moved in.4 Although they are proven to be of great financial support to the city, at this rate, the island will soon be simply a collection of tourists and their accommodations, something similar to that of a historic resort within a city. The experience will then be changed entirely and the residents and visitors alike will see what problems they must now face. The residents are enc ouraged to stay within the historic center. Challenge of a Venetian Foundation Creating a route to serve as a heritage trail proposes a challenge. In composing this trail specifically for the tourist, residents will take the needed extra step to move away from the tourists. At the same time it is the tourist who often wants to observe and engage in the daily 4 Davis, et al. 2004, 100.

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20 lives of residents who inhabit the island. In choosing a path that is tourist dominated for the heritage trail, eventually this itinerary from the train station to the piazza will become a destination in and of itself. A field-guided wa lk throughout the city would mark this specific monumental ground as a point of interest. As the tourist wanders towards Piazza San Marco, there is a designated route that will allow all necessary exploring of the streets. The field-guide throughout the city will allow the tourists to explore on his or her own, while wande ring on and off the path. This does not require them to begin at the station and end at the piazza. The guide will instead encourage individual exploring, creating personal heritage walks of this hi storical city. This heritage trail must give back to the community, even if it is only in the mindset of the tourist upon their re-entry back into the real world. The trail will leave the tourists more informed of what Venice is all about, even in the simple concepts of giving more understanding to the ground upon which they walk. As people from all walks of life continue to traverse these complex series of islands, the stones break apart and wear away. Once they are replaced, the substituted material must express the originally portrayed image of the city. In evitably, the stones will break apart and wear away; that is something the city must address. The re-formation of the ground must allow the continuum of the city’s history to be told. Some stones will wear away faster than others by virtue of their placement on the street path, while others will manage to keep their form for years to come. Those along the edges of a building may hold their shape and their engraved tread longer than those along the center of a street where the largest numbers of people walk. The pieces that break away from the others are thos e that are affected by the constant high waters, most commonly known as acqua alta Being submerged in water allows the soil from below to wash away. As the water recedes and the remaining uneven soil dries, the most brittle stones

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21 crack under the weight of the people. Eventually these pieces are washed away with the next acqua alta and the process continues until the ground is finally re-formed by the city’s craftsmen in this necessary way of making. Another challenge arises when deciding how to allow the ground to be in continual use while preventing the complete wearing away of the stone constructions. Both the visitors and residents alike enjoy the experience of an active and living city. The tourists especially want to walk the route of the famed ones, not on a replicated ground that has been created so as to keep the original ground from deteriorating. In devel oping this field-guided trail, is it possible to preserve the experience of Venice and not simply reconstruct what it means to walk on Venetian grounds? The histories of the island evolved hundreds of years ago, therefore the imagery associated with it must portray the historic narrative as well. In creating a guide it is necessary to mark the monumental ground as many points of interest along the journey of an individual. Challenges arise if these new markers interrupt the flow of the architecture and its corresponding historic fabric of the city. In much the same way as the signage on Venetian structures enhances the customary way of communicating, the marks to the monumental ground will serve as a way for the ground to communicate with the visitor without altering the experience of traditional Venice. Significance of a Supplement The Venice Charter was created before the unpredictable flood of 1966. The flood on November 3rd and 4th was the “most threatening day in Venetian history…”5 Although the charter was not written specifically for sinking Venice, the city has reaped its benefits. The charter as it stands today is a generic guideline for the conservation and restoration of 5 Plant 2002, 32.

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22 monuments and sites.6 This international agreement has influenced conservation and restoration of older structures found all over the world includi ng Florence, Italy and historic small towns in the United States, such as Washington As stated in the first definition of the charter: The concept of an historic monument embraces not only the single architectural work but also the urban or rural setting in which is found the evidence of a particular civilization, a significant development or an historic event. This applies not only to great works of art but also to more modest works of the past, which have acquired cultural significance with the passing of time.7 A supplement to the Venice Charter will bring on a new understanding of the monument as a site, and not simply a monument and a site. For the first time in a charter there will be items dedicated to the creation of a monumental site and to the workmanship that went into the creation of this complex system of ground-maki ng. The landscape of Venice will function as a tangible memory to the people and events of this unique city. 6 ICOMOS 2007. 7 ICOMOS 2007.

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23 CHAPTER 2 THE VENICE CHARTER AND LA PASSEGGIATA The Venice Charter is a means to an everlasting Venice. Its intention, to save the major monuments of the city, has led to the birth of many other international organizations to do the same.1 This charter has positively affected monuments and sites in cities over the past 40 years. There have been many supplements to the Venice Charter each with its own take on proper additions.2 The creation of the Venice Charter has allowed the tourists to enjoy the monuments of Venice and in return purchase the goods that re sult in the money used for the continual upkeep and maintenance. This supplement to the Venice Charter will recognize the ground as a monument, informing the tourists of the building, layering and structuring of the ground upon which they have walked for many centuries. The city will once again become a place for people to see and be seen, this guided walk will encourage the tourists to wander throughout the city, and not head straight for their destination. The idea of the heritage itinerary will link the tales of the city with the factual creation of the founda tion as well as the original walk around town, la passeggiata This walk around town is not a single event; it is a statement of the people of the city. It creates a “lively atmosphere [with] complex gr eetings [and] … gestures, and conversations intertwine to create a richly textured and highly aesthetic canvas of meanings.” This allows the loner resident or the individual visitor to “[conn ect] with a generalized self and [feel] part of a larger whole.”3 By creating a specific choreography of marked sites within an itinerary, the visitor and resident alike will be able to inhabit this path as opposed to simply strolling through. 1 Murtagh 2006, 153. 2 These additions include, but are not limited to: the Burra Charter (Australia 1979), the Nara Document on Authenticity (Japan 1994), and the Cracow 2000 Charter of Restoration. (Knowles 2007.) 3 Davis, et al. 2004, 66.

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24 Of course, many tourists may wander along the rout e without considering the surfaces they pass over, but this will allow the monument to continue as it is with its function and practical use. [During la passeggiata ], the goal is not to be private in public, to seek anonymity in the crowd, but rather to share a physical and social co-presence with others. … A participant cannot and should not be anonymous.,. because any individual will be known, or at least known of, by someone… These observers and the observed, and everyone is both at the same time – are not so much simply watching or being watched by others, as they are interacting with those they have knowledge of and with whom they have complex social relations. Townsfolk who do keep up a lively and active passeggiata proudly see it as proof of local civility… the civilizing power of their community. … When la passeggiata is abandoned or reduced to a strictly neighborhood affair, as has by now happened in Venice, the central piazza no longer performs its customary social function of turning mere residents into … citizens of the whole civic community. What happens for those Venetians who remain in the city is more than just the disappearance of a public arena for socializing… they also experience the loss of primary form of education and socialization in what they themselves have come to term venezianit or “Venetianness.”4 Ultimately, it is the people that make la passeggiata what it is, an event. This ritual involves the people roaming the streets in social manner, not to simply go from one destination to another, it is about being in the presence of other Venice citizens. There is always someone you will know, and someone who will know of you. You play the role of the onlooker, while at the same time you play the role of the entertainer for those onlookers. Without this ritual the residents become only occupiers of the city, they do not become involved, almost as if they are no longer a part of the city. They keep to themselves; this social activity eventually dissolves into nothing. “Is this city not a theatrical city not to say a theatrecity – where actors and public are the same in the multiplicity of their roles and relations? …Would it not be so because what is given free rein in this place is [a] privileged form of civility and freedom.”5 When this heritage itinerary passes over a canal, the gondoliers are included, when it passes by a church even the beggars are involved, the shop owners, and the 4 Davis, et al. 2004, 66. 5 Lefebvre 1996, 236.

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25 sightseers, the tourists and the children chasing pigeons all become a part of the itinerary. These events are all sights to be seen. Here the experience of Venice as a place is formed. The gondoliers, the beggars even the other visitors around the island gives an individual their first moldable impression of what this city is all about. As a typical day in the life of a visitor progresses, thoughts on the place of this city will change. Literature Review The ground is a place, Venice is a place, and even an event can be a place. Until we establish what place we are really talking about, the specificity of applying place to a monumental ground in Venice cannot occur. This artwork of the assemblage of the ground becomes one of the visual timelines found throughout Venice. To an individual tourist coming to experience Venice, the idea of place will change, albeit without recognition from the individual, many times throughout their journey. What is a Place? To an individual, place has an identity; however, that identity may be entirely different to a large group of people or perhaps something not agr eed upon by others. If there is no official title to a specific place, it is up to the visitor to define the place for himself. The idea of place considers a fixed location. You are in a city square; however, when broken down into other smaller places you are in a chair, at a caf outside, within the location of the city square. At a larger scale, you are in a city square, in the city of Venice. “… Place is not something we come across, [it is] … something we are simply in .”6 Place is something fixed; and the scale of place to which we are fixed is determined by the context and timeline of which we are speaking. However, as we move throughout the streets of Venice, does place move with us? If we are in 6 Casey 1998, 250.

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26 the place of the city, then it could be said that we have simply moved within that place; if we mark our location as a place on the Rialto Bridge, as we move from the bridge back into the city, that place does not follow us, but at this scale we become part of another place. The idea of a ritual as an orchestrated agenda is a method used to attempt to insert a pause on our own timeline. Rituals are often traditions passed down from generation to generation. Sites of historic cultures have frequently challenged time: monuments accumulate memory in defiance of oblivion, permanently evoking founding individuals, acts, or institutions. Place as foundation… as that which lies beneath, belongs to cultures that find their identity in the struggle against the passage of time, seeking to arrest time by means of ritual and myth. The architecture of these cultures b ecomes part of these rites of foundations, memory and permanence.7 In this way rituals serve as an expression of time. The ritual is a cultural expression performed by a group of people trying to express their identity, their intangible historic culture. By continuing in a ritual performed by our ancestors, we are keeping ourselves within their timeline. Or are we simply fulfilling our identity? The ritual may be slightly altered in order to meet the needs of the community today. However, by performing this ritual we are expressing our identity as part of that culture while at the same time keeping the memory of the timeline visible. La passeggiata is seen as a historic ritual and a cultural – yet intangible – monument that is still performed today in many Italian cities. Although this walk around town has slowly dissolved in Venice because of the growing number of tourists, it still serves as a ritual from the beginning of time of this place. We are able to truly experience Venice when we can engage in the rituals in which the typical Venetian becomes a part. By truly experiencing this place, we feel as though we have become a part of it, a true experience includes all the day to day troubles and triumphs of a typical Venetian, and the interactions with others. La passeggiata allows this field-guided tour throughout the city to serve as a place that has been produced, both historically 7 Sola – Morales 1997.

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27 and in today’s time. By including the historic Venetian costumes and masks – like what is done during the Carnivale festival before Easter – the ritual brings the observers and the observed back in history. It is inevitable that this walk will be changed from what it once was many centuries ago, but the idea of the ritual is one from the past. The reintroduction of la passeggiata will allow the place to be linked to the element of both a past and present timeline. Place belongs to the culture that expresses its particular identity. This often leads to the pausing of time by means of a given ritual, in this case la passeggiata The culture of this ritual allows it to become a part of its foundation and its memory, leading to its permanence within the city.8 Can place truly be constructed or produced without becoming a replica of something else, something that was once there? In the production of place, the experience must come from the culture and the traditions of the city. What is place? Does it have a name? Is it something fixed? … There are places that speak, others that act as signs … There are free places, vacant, available … First gestures, initial steps: to begin, to inaugurate, to establish.9 The notion of place is linked to the notion of time through change: changes of style, materiality and even technology. How one perceives a place at any given time is determined not only by their personal mindset, but also by the current state of affairs of the world. The rain in Venice on a hot day can be a refreshing treat to the tourist who is seeking even the smallest bit of shade; whereas, the icy shower s in the winter can be a cold reminder of just how long that walk is back to the station. How time and place are related is an intricate problem that invites different approaches. … They are: time as motion or flow and place as a pause in the temporal current, attachment 8 Sola – Morales 1997. 9 Sola – Morales 1997.

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28 to place as a function of time … and place is time made visible, or place as memorial to times past.10 One of the major challenges that arise within th e relationship of time and place is that of the historic cultures. It is often the monuments that collect memories of the people and the events.11 Often a monument is designed specifically for the memory of a community or an event; it is in the temporary and weak monuments in which there is a struggle in the relationship between time and place.12 In a monument such as this, the present situation and condition of the memory from within a specific site, determines the relationship between monument and time. If, for instance, there existed a memorial to lives lost in the tragic flood of 1966, the relationship would exist specifically between the residents of the city and the place itself. “The city does not exist of [something like] this, but of relationships between the measurements of its space and the events of its past… The city … does not tell its past.”13 Because there is not a memorial for which residents can remember this tragic event, the memorial becomes the marks on the ground, even at times, the restructuring of the ground. The memorial becomes an impromptu monument for the Venetian flooding and the sinking of Venice. There is no specific time relate to these marks, however, eventually this monumental ground will become concret e 10 Tuan 1977, 179. 11 Sola – Morales 1997. 12 For the purpose of this thesis, the term weak refers to those monuments that are temporary and were not built for the sole reason of serving as a monument. The ground in Venice was not built as a remembrance to the making that originally went into the complex layering of systems in the ground. What we see today is what the ground was many years ago. Some stones have been replaced with newer, more pristine ones, but they still exist as a part to the whole of the original ground. As they are worn to fit in with the others, soon they are seen as a part to this weak monument of ground. This ground did not take the city in consideration in terms of acting solely as a memory of the event of making, but instead it took the city and the people into consideration by virtue of being functional. It became a place to gather, a place to move from one square to another. Because this monument is the original makings of the ground, it cannot have a direct agreement with place and time. The ground brings us back many years ago when construction invol ved the laying of individual st ones; it brings us back to a historic place. However, because this is still the traditional wa y of making today, a perfect relations hip between time and place cannot exist, yielding us to see this monumental ground as a weak monument by definition. 13 Calvino 1972, 10-11.

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29 memorials to all the events of the extreme flooding, not simply the everyday acqua alta that occurs in the fall and winter months. But then again, as Martin Heidegger asks, “… where is time? Is time at all and does it have a place ?”14 Although it is arguable that time has a place, it is within the context of our thoughts and our description of a place that time plays a crucial role. Time certainly exists in a place, but what time one is discussing depends on the place in which one is speaking. Place is an acknowledgement and a founding of restrictions. “… [T]he production of place continues to be possible. Not as the revelation of something existing in permanence, but as the production of an event [a ritual].”15 The ritual of la passeggiata has its borders. It is not possible to perform this ritual in the presence of select family members back in a private courtyard. The entire concept of this walk encourag es the people of the city to come out of their hidings and converse with each other. Although this is an intangible boundary, there are physical boundaries as well. La passeggiata was not intended to occur inside the buildings lining the streets, the people are meant to be physically close to each other, encouraging conversations. Water is another surface and edge la passeggiata must face; la passeggiata still occurs on water. Although in Venice it is perfectly reasonable to suggest a party on the water, it does not fair well for the original intention of the walk. It is through the centuries of history that the Venetians have seen this walk around town as a simple, relaxed evening. Children are able to run around and play their games while the adults have no other worries; it is a ritual performed out of enjoyment and entertainment for yourself and those around you. Today la passeggiata 14 Casey 1998, 277. 15 Sola – Morales 1997.

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30 claims its borders with the elements of the city: the buildings and the water. This ritual will encourage the intermingling of both visitor and resident and la passeggiata will serve as the place for this. Place is a foundation of the understanding of what belongs to a culture. The identity of any given culture is found through the passing of time within a given place. “Place is … a ritual of and in time, capable of fixing a point of particular intensity in the universal chaos of our … civilization.”16 Just as the water is a physical edge for the visitor, Piazza San Marco becomes a figurative edge for the resident. Any resident of Venice knows that walking into the historic center, especially moving into Piazza San Marco, will require a lot of interaction with the tourists. This interaction can be as simple as pushing your wa y through the mass of crowds crossing a bridge, or waiting your turn in line to cross over the wooden planks during acqua alta In serving as an edge for the residents, the historic center becomes a destination, the most famous place for tourists. “… Edges are uniting seams, rather than isolating barriers.”17 It is the edges of the islands that remind us of our limits, or restrictions within this framework of streets. The canals become an edge as well, an edge for the gondolier, the boats, and the vaporatti The canals serve as a stitch that connects the network of islets we know as Venice. It is by this seam that we are able to mark our place within the patchwork of streets and piazzas. Divisions of Venice The most basic of sectors found within the city are those of the land and water. However, further analysis and study of the visitors and inha bitants brings into question other social zones found mainly among tourist areas of interest. There are also main social zones specifically for 16 Sola – Morales 1997. 17 Lynch 1960, 65.

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31 the residents; only the lost visitor stumbles upon these zones. In the book, Venice: The Tourist Maze the authors have divided the island into social zones: a tourist triangle, an international zone, and the peripheral zone.18 (Figure 2-1) The tourist triangle connects the common destination among tourists: Piazza San Marco, the Rialto Bridge and the Accademia. The shops and cafs within this triangle are referred to as the tourist core. Unless the residents are making their way to this core for work opportunities, they try to stay away from the tourists. The prices of this area reflect the going rates for the tourists as well. Within the international zone lie many residential housing structures, still somewhat close to the historic center. The authors, Robert C. Davis and Garry R. Marvin, have named it the “international zone” because it contains the second homes or apartments purchased by nonVenetians. For the most part these homes appear as they have for many decades, they are much more spacious than the crowded tourist core and there are more squares left unoccupied by tourists. “During the year 2000, roughly three [foreigners] moved into the center for every two Venetians who moved out.” It is within the peripheral zone that most of the true Venetians live. Because the buildings are newer for the most part, they do not attract the tourists. This zone covers the edge of the island as it meets the lagoon.19 Although much of this area is newer, it is still important in telling the story of Venice. The reason this new area has thrived over the original is because of the immense number of tourist that bring in the cash flow for the island. Without catering towards the tourists, the island itself could not afford to stay alive according to today’s living standards. It is the influx of tourists that bring in the money that will 18 Davis, et al. 2004, 98. 19 Davis, et al. 2004, 100.

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32 be used to keep the canals clean, the streets swept, and even as much as supporting the tradition of allowing the Rialto Bridge to live on as it once was and still remains today. Davis and Marvin believe a sightseer comes to Venice as “someone who [will engage] in socially and culturally constructed way[s] of viewing.”20 On the other hand a tourist comes to Venice “to enjoy the spectacle and allow themselves to be seen.” Many years ago, this walk around town allowed you to see everyone and “hear the news of the day.”21 For the economy in Venice, it is the tourist that is needed; they bring in the money that, generally speaking, keeps the city running. It is the sightseer that comes to Venice to engage in the cultural experience, whether it is the festival of the Carnivale or to come walk a choreographed monumental ground. Sightseeing becomes a “ritual process.”22 But at the same time is it not the sightseer who really gives back to the community? The sightseer comes specifically to see Venice in its entirety; they were the original tourists. A sightseer visits Venice because he or she knows what it is all about; a sightseer will also have the cultural understanding to inform friends and colleagues of their journey upon returning home. He or she will be able to educate others on what Venice is really about. Today a tourist who visits Venice will see the island through the lens of a camera. A tourist will try as hard as possible to experience Venice. Because they looking so hard for that perfect moment, that perfect photograph opportunity, they will miss what is truly there. He will miss the silly imperfections found throughout the entire island. Although it is the tourist that brings the financial support to the island, it is the sightseer that is able to educate the rest of the world about the city itself and the work that needs to be done to save this historic city. 20 Davis, et al. 2004, 11. 21 Davis, et al 2004, 61. 22 Davis, et al 2004, 154.

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33 Being lost in Venice is a common concept for most visitors. Many often try to get lost in the hidden streets of the city. It is in truly being lost that we are able to see how the island really functions. “…[T]he ways that open to each passerby are never two, but many, and they increase further for those who alternate a stretch by boat with one on dry land.”23 A lost tourist within the city of Venice will begin to panic and attempt to remember which turns they took to reach the point at which they are standing. They will worry about the time: Is it getting too dark? Where will I eat? Will I make the last train? Upon attempting to recall the turns they made and the bridges they crossed they will end up in a dead end, in someone else’s courtyard; they will try and ask for directions in just about any language other than Italian. It is the lost sightseer that does not serve as an annoyance to the resident Venetian. The sightseer will enjoy the experience and the imperf ections found within the city as they walk around. The sightseer will see that one bridge that has begun to deteriorate so much that it has actually been blocked off; he will see the children illegally swimming in the canal. It is the sightseer who will find himself at the best restaurant in the entire city and still have no idea where he is. However, just when he really starts to experience the place, he will see that crooked sign for the Rialto Bridge and just upon his arrival to the bridge the sun will begin to set creating an unforgettable panorama of the city. It is the sightseer who really gets to experience Venice and enjoy every minute of being lost. To become completely lost is perhaps a rather rare experience for most people in the modern city. We are supported by the presences of others and by special way-finding devices: maps, street numbers, route signs… But let the mishap of disorientation occur, and the sense of anxiety and even terror that accompanies it reveals to us how closely it is linked to our sense of balance and well-being.24 23 Calvino 1972, 88. 24 Davis, et al. 2004.

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34 Visitors often find themselves lost because their view of the Grand Canal or of the lagoon has disappeared. Without seeing this datum that runs through the city, they are easily disoriented. Following the signs to a particular poi nt of interest is the only thing that allows them to become reoriented with this place. The itinerary or the monumental ground will serve as a field-guide, an identifying mark throughout this maze, that will allow those visitors who begin to realize how lost they are, to find themselves back on their way towards a destination. In stumbling upon this composed itinerary, the tourist will see signs of recognition, signs leading him or her back to the starting point of th e station or the ending point of the piazza. It is the “familiarity with the signs of places … [that] draws tourists … to find what is original, authentic, and supposedly existing behind the sign…”25 But what do these signs really tell? Of course sometimes a sign will get you back to where you want to be, but in a network of streets, like what is found in Venice, is there really only one way back? Oftentimes owners in Venice will point signs in different directions leading the lost tourist to their shop. The monumental ground as a site of recognition will function as a datum running throughout the city; a datum that will simply inform the tourists of where they are located in reference to their personal beginning: “Combining segments of the various routes, elevated or on ground level, each inhabitant can enjoy every day pleasure of a new itinerary to reach the same places.”26 After being lost within this patchwork of islets, it is the monumental ground running throughout the city that will bring you to create a site of recognition, a site that will allow you to start once again from point zero. The fragments found within the exploration of even the first layer of ground that we traverse are details to a story that can keep the traditions of Venice alive. These stories add to 25 Davis, et al. 2004, 262. 26 Calvino 1972, 88.

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35 the Venetian sense of experience. Without them, the path that visitors take to reach the destination of Piazza San Marco becomes a generic path like any other. When this walk becomes the place for la passeggiata it becomes a place for tourists to interact with others, and not simply pass by on their way to Piazza San Marco. It becomes a ground of recognition upon which they walk as a monument to the beginnings of the creation of the city: Piazza San Marco draws people because it … enjoys a worldwide frame both as a topographical entity in its own right and as a symbol for the larger cultural monument known as Venice.27 Bridge as Ground The bridges within Venice are the most common moments of pause for the visitor. This moment of place becomes a place to sit, a place to observe and be observed. The place of the bridge relies heavily on the place in which it is located, in the larger scale of context. Heidegger refers generally to the built bridge as a “structure of place.”28 This structure of place depends on the scene; the bridge can be at one location out in a landscape or a series of steps over a canal. Heidegger’s bridge brings hierarchy to the location to all those who pass by it. Because it is a change in elevation, we are forced to rethi nk our steps before continuing on a journey, thus bringing us back to reality even if only for a split second. Bridges are not something we simply pass over; they “also carry one from islet to islet,” intensifying the unique experience.29 Viewing a bridge over a canal in a context other than Venice can, in some cases, be an intriguing image. However, after a visit to Venice, it is impossible to cross over a bridge with the same perceived notion. In no other place in the world can you walk across so many bridges in such a short period of time. One bridge in Venice, without the context of all the other bridges, cannot capture 27 Davis, et al. 2004, 67. 28 Casey 1998, 281. 29 Davis, et al 2004, 90.

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36 the same story of the historic fabric throughout the island. These bridges weave together the historic fabric. When a modern bridge was put into place (near where the Accademia Bridge stands today) during the 1850s, the visitor who walked from one islet across this bridge to another was, if only for a minute, disconnected from the historic and traditional fabric that we know as Venice. Once the city was able to see how much this newer bridge interrupted the flow of the traditional ways of building, the bridge was replaced with what we know now today as the Accademia Bridge. When one islet sinks at a faster rate than the other, the change in elevation is most obviously seen in the bridge itself. Because these bridges li nk together the historic fabric of the city, they function as information for the city and grounding devices. Venice in its Entirety Today Venice must deal with the issue of flooding and sinking. The most simple, although not very efficient solution so far for incoming waters, is the placement of raised wooden planks for tourists and residents to walk across in orde r to go from one point of higher ground to another (Figure 2-2). To the unknowing tourist, these planks often serve as a table for eating, or a place of rest during the season of acqua alta In addition to the wooden planks found throughout the city, the City of Venice has incorporated stones with markings placed directly on them. By following these stones, you can be assured you will be safe and dry along the marked path (Figure 2-3). Unless the waters rise above the marked four feet, the tourist can walk freely along this path no matter what time of the year it is. Although this is the only officially marked route throughout the city, it only functions as an informer to the visitor – a simple statement telling

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37 them they are clear of floodwaters.30 Introducing a field-guided walk throughout the islands will allow certain landmarks to be recognized and connected with others around the island, thus creating a specified walk if the visitor decides to go directly from one identified site to another. An identified route can serve as a physical, tangible challenge of our time. While walking the streets of Venice structural elements that tell a tale are found everywhere. In placing two fragments of a street together, we are able to fi nd out what it is that connected them. Perhaps a bridge was put into place to connect two islets as a way to allow two lovers to move from one house to the next without wandering all over the island. Perhaps the two unique forms of stone found on a street off of the Grand Canal serve as a reminder to those of the flood of 1966. What if the flood washed away the stone and the underlying mud and new stone and mud were required in order to make the road accessible? There are places all over the island where interconnected stone patterns can tell a story of where they have come from and particularly why certain stones are used in certain places. Some walkways have been replaced because water has seeped under the sand and caused old pipes to rust. This often means the removal of the stones; carefully stacking them together, replacing the pipes and then again laying the stones back down, unfortunately, in a different order than where they were originally (Figure 2-4 and 2-5). For this reason we may see a slight change in the pattern from one ten-foot span of hand placed stone to another ten-foot span. In parts of Venice, where streets have been raised to protect from acqua alta the whole experience of the city has changed. Although this does keep out most of the water and you are able to experience the city 30 For the purpose of this thesis, other routes followed by tourists within the city are unofficial. Although there are many books with listed routes for any tourist, these routes mark out tourist destinations; they bring you to specific points of interest for the tourist.

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38 on dry land, the proportions of the buildings are all altered because of the shortening of their height from ground level entry to rooftop lookout. The Venetian Experience Like many well-known publicized places, Venice has become a place that can practically be visited without physically going there. Tourists can still navigate their way around the city using the birds-eye view map created by Jacopo de’ Barbari in the early 1500’s.31 However, everyone experiences Venice differently. These di fferences can be as simple as the varying climatic experiences while growing up or as complex as having varying backgrounds ranging from architecture to biology. Experiences are li nked to one another. Yesterday’s experience while walking from the caf to Piazza San Marco, no matter what happened, will ultimately affect how one travels through the city the next day. “Nothing is experienced by itself, but always in relation to its surroundings, the sequences of events leading up to it, the memory of past experiences.”32 Each experience is affected by the context of the situation and all experiences leading up to today. If the changing experience of the city is determined solely on the built buildings, the experience of Venice has hardly changed over the past decades. The buildings are the same; the problem comes with how the buildings are treated. If shops begin to take over office buildings or the ground is raised in low lying areas or even if the social make up of inhabitants is altered, all of these factors play a role in the changing experience of the city. The raising of the ground in certain areas, the addition of tourist shops in the center of the city, and even the change in the physical inhabitants of the city are all additional factors than can be blamed for the changed 31 Robinson 2003. 32 Lynch 1960, 1.

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39 Venetian experience. Through the raising of the ground we can see a difference in the proportions of building elements. In the same manner, we see a change in the building proportions to other parts of the non-raised city. The intervention of tourist shops has caused a collection of tourists in the centralized part of the city. The tourists have unknowingly encouraged a rise in prices. When owners see they are able to charge much more for just about anything, the prices rise in order to bring support to the financially struggling city. Now at times the visitors to the city outnumber the residents, furthermore changing the experience of the visitor. Because so many visitors are looking for these interactions with the true Venetian life, there are limited chances of this happening as more and more tourists visit everyday. At peak times when the tourist clearly have taken over the island, the residents stay within their own courtyards trying their best to keep out of the chaos of the massive crowds. The re-birth of la passeggiata will bring about more interactions with those who inhabit the island on a full time basis. The visitor will be able to become a part of this cultural ritual. Not only will they be the observed, they too will also do the observing. This fulfills their desire to interact with the Venetian residents of the island. La passeggiata will bring about this interface between visitor and resident. “We are not simply observers of [a] spectacle, but are ourselves a part of it, on the stage with the other participants.”33 The ritual of la passeggiata as a cultural monument serves as an environmental image for the city. This image, although different for the observing and the observed, is based on the surface of the ritual, and not the thoughts between visitors or residents. These thoughts affect the image of the interpretations each individual has for the ritual. This will in turn affect the perception of what he or she is actually 33 Lynch 1960, 1.

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40 viewing.34 A narrative is created about these experiences that each visitor goes through as he or she moves throughout the island towards their destination. In creating this heritage itinerary, visitors will most often begin their journey at the train station and move throughout the island making their way to the historic center, but is it correct to assume they will all take a similar route? Although each tourist may take a similar route and arrive in the same place, each will have a different narrative to tell based on their personal encounters as they traverse the island. This narrative will continue to change as the journey evolves and the visitor returns home. Ultimately this narrative is based on the souvenirs they take home, the photographs they develop, and the memories they keep. Elements of the City If the ground can serve as a monument for Venice and its beginnings, the fragments that make up this unique foundation must be include d. Although each fragment is not a specific tangible object, it is in the assembly of these parts that the narrative is formed. First and foremost in Venice are the water, the canals, the lagoon and even the flooding. Water serves as a datum that connections the islands; from the water springs forth the mudflats on which the city was built. By using the water as a visual reference throughout the city, it has become easier to orient yourself with where you are in reference to where you started. You are able to relate to the water, particularly the Grand Canal, w ith what you already know about your location “… [b]y remembering how you have come to this place [through] bodily motions that have their own directionality…”35 34 Lynch 1960, 131. 35 Casey 1998, 209.

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41 The Venetian Footwork Although this ground as a monument may not be one that sightseers come specifically to see, it will be one in which the stories can be told as the path is traversed. The tourists may simply just walk the ground to their destination, but in doing so they will still serve the purpose of the observed –within la passeggiata – as they make their way to their point of interest. This walk may eventually serve as a souvenir for the tourists as their time within the city moves forward. There are two options tourists generally use for taking a place home with them. They either embrace a souvenir “towards the present” or “towards the future.”36 The monumental ground will enrich the experience of the tourist, allowing them to capture the experience of the place of Venice as it once was. As a souvenir toward the future, ground as a Venetian monument will create an experience, a memory to be recorded for later; most likely through the stories of travels after returning home. The water, whether it is a canal, the Grand Canal, the lagoon or the puddles in the street, serves to create an edge for the visitor. Specifically the Grand Canal serves as an edge for the visitor because they are not able to cross the canal freely. There are three bridges that allow the visitor to cross this canal, other than the bridges the only other way across is with a Venetian who has a residency card allowing him access, specifically the gondoliers. While the water serves as an edge for the tourist, it serves as free land for the resident. Here they are able to be in the center of the city without really being in the center of all the commotion. In many other cities it is the resident that connects the tourist to the town. The resident knows the history, the stories that nobody else will tell you. However, here in Venice, the residents do their best to stay away from the tourists. To them the tourists have taken over the 36 Davis, et al. 2004, 261.

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42 island. From this perspective the tourists are the reason that it is nearly impossible to afford to continue living and working on the island. There is only one true Venetian connection for the tourist. The gondolier has all the stories that a visitor would want to hear. He serves as the narrator for any journey they may go on. The visitor is now “no longer locked out of the city’s idiosyncratic culture and overriding logic of its organization.”37 The gondolier serves as an icon, not only is he someone that anyone who has ever visited Venice will tell you about, but he is present all throughout the island. The black and white stripped shirts, the straw hats, and the elaborate gondolas make any gondolier easily spotted through a crowd of people (Figure 2-6). In much the same ways that the gondolier has become an icon for the city, the elaborated making that went, and still goes into, ground construction will serve as an icon for the city. Davis and Marvin have noted that “[f]or an icon to function it must be both reliable and instantly recognizable…”38 The stones of Venice should be recognized apart from the stones anywhere else. The corners have been polished with the rubber soles of many visitors; the imperfections have been smoothed out in order to create a level surface. Even the high water that comes in washes away any dirt or footprints that ma y be left on the stone from the day before. Theoretical Framework The most basic tourist experience is the numerous perceptions of the sights seen. It is when we are most vulnerable that we gain consciousness of where we are.39 When is it that we truly get to know Venice? Is it the weekend before the Carnival when the city is flooded with tourists? Or is it on a cold rainy weekday afternoon when the city is void of any noise except the echo of our own footsteps walking through the puddles in the streets. Perhaps you really get to 37 Davis, et al. 2004, 135. 38 Davis, et al. 2004, 145. 39 Casey 1998, 248.

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43 know the island when you find yourself lost within the framework of streets, eating at a caf, conversing with a native Venetian. It is the natives and the originals that make the Venetian experience a unique one. The creation of ground as a monument will allow the original ground to continue in its creation of the true Venetian experience. As the waters continue to rise, the ground is in a constant state of alteration, either from the foundation below or the foot traffic above. Acco rding to Davis and Marvin, the reason for the constant state of change in the ground: “it is … underneath all its marble – clad palaces, its history, and its tourists, just one cluster of muddy islands among the many…”40 As time progresses and there is a constant source of waves crashing onto the layers of ground, eventually the stones will become loose in the foundation and speed up the deterioration of the wooden poles that serve as markers to building entrances on the lagoon. The protection of the ground in Venice is an important task that will allow visitors and residents alike to gain an appreciation for the path that takes them to and from their destination, after all “… this is a city of brick and marble built on mudflats.” The sinking of the foundations leave the island more vulnerable to the rising of the lagoon as well as placing an impact on the deterioration of the monuments and the monumental ground, the identifying marks of the city.41 The landscape of the city serves as a series of paths, each one crossed at one point or another throughout a visit. A designated marked walk throughout any city must have meaning, truth and place. The meaning behind the walk will derive from the historical narrative told by the surrounding context and the groundscape. Truth comes from the authentic surfaces, not something created for the sake of replication. Lastly, the idea of place is created by one’s individual experience at a certain 40 Davis, et al. 2004, 160. 41 Davis, et al. 2004, 211.

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44 location. The scale of place depends entirely on the contextual location. You are in a place, on one stone, at the same time looking into the window of a caf. You are also standing in a piazza that reaches off of the choreographed itinerary (F igure 2-7). Heidegger states “[t]hree terms, which carry each other forward even as they mark the stages of the path of … thought: Meaning – Truth – Place.”42 Through each of these concepts, the user of the ground is able to read the stories behind the assemblies. The assemblage gives meaning to the ground, it gives truth to its mysteriousness, and it gives place to the traditional and historic city. This authentic walk serves “to exercise its seductive influence, its power to unveil, its capacity to imply rather than to constitute the intense apprehension of reality.”43 Physically, a visitor is walking on the stones of Venice, but what is it that he or she is really doing? As people walk across the stones, slowly each individual footstep continues to smooth out the original cut of the stone. Many of these changes are not noti ced; even the sweeping of the streets is slowly wearing away the city. The Istrian stones are stronger than the marble, both of which are used throughout Venice. Over the centuries we have seen what our footsteps have done to the marble in Piazza San Marco (Figure 2-8). The differences over many centuries is really only comparable if you are able to see the before and after images. The stones do not distinctly show the wearing away from footsteps. When placed side by side, however, it is possible to see the difference in a new stone and one that has been walked upon for many years. As the tourists walk the ground of Venice during acqua alta they are also causing problems to the foundations below. Many steps on an individual stone allow it to begin rocking in its place in the ground, eventually breaking it 42 Casey 1998, 279. 43 Sola – Morales 1997.

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45 loose from the mud below. This will eventually lead to a breaking of the stone, or even a sinking in the ground. The sinking of the ground becomes most obvious in the appearance of the bridges throughout the island. If one islet sinks faster than another stress is placed on the stone and eventually cracks appear before the bridge has been closed for restructuring. It is the walking on streets that are flooded, or walking on the blocked off marble that causes the only real harm to the city. The wearing away of the stones can be a problem, but because the wearing away happens so slowly, it is more important that Venice leave itself vulnerable and allow people to experience what the island has to offer. The notion of a typical monument here is that of an architectonic object: “for all its being an opening, a window, … at the same time its representation is produced as a vestige, as the tremulous clangor of the bell that reverberates after it has ceased to ring as that which is constituted as pure residuum, as recollection.”44 These reminders are what emphasize the stories when a visitor returns home. There are always monuments we remember, but then there are the great monuments that we remember and need to come back to visit. It is in the supplement of the Venice Charter that the ground will be seen as a monument – a monument viewed numerous times throughout your visit and one that continually brings you back time and time again. Each visit yields a deeper understanding of the place and into the creation of its unique foundation and the corresponding narrative. Alois Riegl’s theory on monuments states: “Monuments register traces of time and decay; their historicity extends beyond the monument builder’s original intent to encompass the signs of age and ruin. … [E]very historical event is in principle irreplaceable.”45 Although Riegl is 44 Sola – Morales 1997. 45 Gubser 2005, 457.

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46 speaking of a monument in generic terms, it is the general concept of time and memory that will allow this general definition to apply to the monumental ground within Venice. The ground of Venice is well known for it’s tracing of time and decay. Not only do the floodwaters and the foot traffic play a role in the imperfections of the ground, but also the restructuring of the ground shows just how much of a role time alone plays on this place. As time progresses even the littlest things build up, soon the muck from the years of flood waters will have caused a canal to become to shallow to pass through, even the pipes that have been so intricately hidden beneath the surface need their own repairing as time progresses. In Venice, it is the monuments that must show the historic authenticity of age and ruin, the ground of Venice serves as a way of measuring this time. The ground cannot be replicated to appear to be old, especially in a city with as much character as Venice. The monument must be as functional as it is today. The event that went into the making of this ground is one of the historical events that have gone into the making of this city. This ground-making is unique. Because this structuring of the ground occurred so many years ago, and much restructuring has occurred since then, the dates of the laying of the different stones along with their unique patterns are unknown. A monument is still considered a monument even if it offers no clues about its specific dates of an event or memory. It is meant to portray not only a specific event, but also a passage of time after that event; it serves as memory for future generations about the reasons for its existence.46 Now that it is possible to understand just how important the ground is, it is apparent how significant of an event it became during the beginnings of Venice. Because the ground was not built originally as a reminder, it will play the role of an unintentional monument versus an 46 Gubser 2005, 460.

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47 intentional one. More often than not, these unintentional monuments are seen as the weaker monuments. They were not built within the landscape to allow visitors to see the monument within the entire context, instead, in the case of Venice; this monumental ground serves as the landscape. The context is the city, the canals, and the people. Unintentional monuments are those that have gained value over time. Intentional monuments are intended to last forever as monuments to all future generations, whereas “m ortality” of unintentional monuments lies within the hands of time.47 Obviously the ground of Venice has been able to stand a test of time, however it is too often that tourists leave the city not having any idea what was involved in its creation. Venice did not simply start because it was an intersection of crossroads – much like many places within the United States. Venice started as an island that needed to be created, the small amount of visitors – today we know them as native ancestors to native Venetians – to the island hundreds of years ago built the ground and its hand crafted foundation, today we see this as a traditional Venetian way of working. A monument serves as a personal “longing for permanence.” It serves to “react against continuous change … the immaterial, the temporary.”48 Designating an unintentional monument such as the Venetian ground serves as an informer to those who are unaware of the stones of Venice. It is important for both the city and the remaining corners of the world that the tales of the ground be told even if only through the adventure stories of a visitor upon returning home. By designating the landscape as a monumental site within the city, this site will encourage the memory of the past and present 47 Gubser 2005, 463, 464. 48 Gregotti 1996, 64.

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48 events that go into the foundation of this ground as well as prescribe a future for something that is so often taken for granted. Figure 2-1. International triangle (Photograph fr om Davis, Robert C. and Gary R. Marvin. Venice, the Tourist Maze: A Cultural Critique of the World’s Most Touristed City Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. 2004.) Figure 2-2. A flooded city (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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49 Figure 2-3. Official marked path (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 2-4. Restructuring the ground (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 2-5. Ground formations (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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50 Figure 2-6. Gondoliers along the canal (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 2-7. Caf on the square (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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51 Figure 2-8. Worn marble (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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52 CHAPTER 3 ARRIVING TO VENICE My first arrival into Venice yielded the image of a wet and quiet city. January 2nd, 2006 was a cold and rainy day. Although there were people everywhere, all I could hear was the sound of raindrops on top of the umbrellas. The waters were higher than I had expected, probably because of the rain, yet they appeared entirely under control. I knew the city was divided by the Grand Canal, among many other waterways, but I was under the impression one side of the Grand Canal was primarily the tourists shops and restaurants, while the other side was more or less residential. Soon after crossing the Grand Canal I felt entirely lost. I had only been in Italy for a few weeks and had not totally come to grasp with what I viewed as an assembled city.1 Field Research During the fall of 2006 I spent the semester in Italy studying the Italian culture. Most of my time was spent in Venice, leaving “no stone unturned,” metaphorically speaking. In order to see just where the island had come from and the traditions that it has carried along the way, it was imperative that I get the full Venice experience. Initial trips to Venice started in the heat of the summer. It was easy for my fellow Americans and me to see just what the constant hardscape and dense city structures can do to trap in the heat from the summer sun. During these first trips, my entire focus was placed on exploring the islands and getting to know this place before I was truly able to do any research on the ground upon which I walked. It was within my initial visits to the city that I created a mental catalogue of what to, or not to, expect within this city. After so many visits one begins to take certain things for granted, 11 I have included this rest of the journal as appendix D. These journals serve as research of beginning thoughts upon first arriving to the island. After so many trips to a place, you begin to see it from a different perspective. The journals that I kept throughout my trips made it possible to bring myself back to the mindset of a first time visitor.

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53 the pigeons flying overhead, the marble steps, the numerous bridges, and the crowds of people. My strongest images were those of the varying ground levels and those paths that seemed to constantly be under construction. To me the ground was intriguing. This island was built on mudflats, albeit, mud and stones that had washed off of the mountain ranges inland.2 How is it that it still remains today? The more ground you cover as you walk through the city, the more intriguing it becomes. The patterns start to tell their own stories, some of the importance of the buildings along their edges, some of the canals nearby. The layering of the buildings quickly caught my attention. The use of brick and stucco and the many layers of paint created what appeared to be an assembly of fragments within the city. Although Venice is literally an assembly of islands linked with waterways, the ground appeared to be just the same. A certain pattern of stones would often reveal the layer below, a layer of smaller rocks that appeared to be part of the muddy foundation. Other parts throughout the city showed the soil that was simply the dried mud of what the islands were built upon. Often, throughout a walk around the city, you will encounter a route that has been disassembled. The worn stones are stacked neatly along the nearby building while the pipes or foundations of another building are restructured. It is here that the city is truly exposed. One of the most common, and probably most overlooked topographical changes within the city is the large streets that have been sloped to allow rain or flood water to drain along the edges back into the canal as opposed to collecting in the center of the street. Cracks in the stone or slight alterations in the patterns can serve to show the memory of what was once there. Often, two different materials used in the reworking of the ground may begin to pull away from each other after so long; these cracks begin to tell a story of what was, 2 McGregor 2006.

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54 and perhaps even of what is to come, as one side of the street may begin to sink faster than another. They tell the story of the chronological development of the place. Not only do the stones show what materials were available during a certain time period, but they also show what materials were chosen for the higher classes – what materials signified importance. The fragments of the small islands brought on a unique experience. I had only seen Venice through the eyes of a tourist – postcards and photographs. During my first encounter with the city I needed to understand the true experience of the city…3 After many days of visiting Venice I was able to apply my personal research and readings to what I found within the city, both fictional and non-fictional, to what I had witnessed. I was able to find the children playing in a back alley and some others fishi ng in a hidden canal. I saw the elderly residents sitting outside along the water conversing amongst themselves, but it was by sitting in the same square for multiple hours where I was able to find the true Venice. Here you see the tourists move in and then move out again as they are gradually replaced with other tourists who do the same, and then there are the live statues that can be seen taking a break from their posed positions on blocks out in Piazza San Marco. It was after these visits that I finally was able to begin my field research on the monumental site of the Venetian ground. I began with an observation of the many varying stones found all over the island. From the ways in which each stone was carved and the way the rock had layered upon itself, I was able to see what stones had originally belonged together. Some of the stones came from as far away as Istria, Croatia while others came from a neighboring island of Venice, the nearly vacant Torcello.4 As I began my field research walks, I wanted to simulate the walks of the tourist. The 3 Excerpt from journal entry continued in appendix D. 4 Tyler 2000.

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55 monumental ground of Venice needs to provide hist orical background for tourist. The residents are more than likely to cross paths with this field-guided tour no matter where it stands. My walks started from the station; each additional tr ip to Venice yielded a different path to Piazza San Marco, where all my walks ended. By following the crowds or the eye-catching markets or storefront windows, I was able to act as a tourist as I wandered throughout the streets. An analysis of ground as a monument was created through photographs. As I covered this walk photographs were taken specifically dealing with the idea of ground marking and patterns, acqua alta and temporary ground, icon images of the canals and bridges, and most importantly the images of restructuring of the ground. Mapping Venice Initially I had thought of the most common route that I took to function as a heritage trail. As I continued my research, I realized so much of the experience of Venice comes from the exploration of back alleys and the quiet streets hidden within the historic fabric. If a monument was made of the ground of Venice as a trail for vis itors to take from point A to point B, those wanting to walk the trail would be moving in massive groups while being constrained to certain streets and sites along the way. I composed an itinerary to serve as the heritage trail and noted certain markings and traditional Venetian icons along the way. A heritage itinerary must include all of the grounds of Venice: the train rails as you enter by train, the large stone edges of the canal, the marble of the steps to a bridge, the bridge itself, the dirt of a reconstructed path, the marking and changes within the ground as you move from the entry of one building, to the entry of another and even as far as the puddles, large or small, from the lagoon waters. Figure 3-1 proposes routes, as they would be taken throughout the different neighborhoods of Venice, if the tour ist directly connected the identified ground markings from one to another.

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56 Within the Cannaregio Sestieri, the walk begins at the train station. Upon passing through this threshold out into the city of Venice you are struck with two choices, catch one of the vaporatti across the Grand Canal or continue northeast. The path most commonly traveled is the walk northeast. From there the tourist can begin his meandering to his point of interest, but not before passing through all the shops, specifically set up to catch the attention of the eager tourist after just arriving to the island. As the shops dwindle down to a crossing of a canal, the vegetable market appears (Figure 3-2), and then another of anything a tourist could possibly want to bring home. You continue walking on la rger streets along the edge of the Grand Canal directing you to your next most likely destination, the Rialto Bridge. Arrival at this bridge brings you into another neighborhood, the San Marco Sestieri the historic center of Venice. As you wander between the small alleys and through the shops towards the piazza, you encounter the largest collection of gondoliers in the smallest of canals. Because the historic center has the most stories to share, the gondoliers take sightseers from all over the world through these small canals telling them their personal renditions of historic events and people. It is in the historic center that the elevation of the ground changes the most. These changes occur as you cross onto any other islet, as you move from one shop entrance to another and as you make your way towards the edge of the canal, ultimately towards Piazza San Marco. Within the historic district the buildings appear to reach higher than anywhere else on the island, this is because of the tight streets and alleyways. The light is able to reach the ground floor for only an hour or two each day in some places (Figure 3-3). This experience brings the visitor back in time, when the cities were dense and people were always visible, and the only source of lighting was the sun and its reflection off of the street puddles.

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57 Once I began working with a tourist-like direction of movement throughout Venice, I wanted to be sure to guarantee, at least for myself, that it was possible to travel this heritage trail as a field-guided itinerary throughout the city. Wandering throughout the streets and from one point to another was all possible, when other destinations called out to any individual tourist it was possible to move into the other part of the city and continue on exploring. One identified mark was not dependent upon another; in allowing the trail to be explored in any series of movements, the experience of Venice and the maze-like patchwork of streets still existed. In other words, the new visitors were still able to find themselves lost and not strictly constrained to a particular choreographed path. Reasonable Documentation This fieldwork and research of the tourist experience within Venice needed to be documented. The ground was documented as something tangible, while the documentation of the experience of Venice – without traveling there firsthand – was left up to the images I photographed and the stories I uncovered within the assembly of the stones. Because the ground is something so tactile and something that every one of us is so familiar with, the documentation of the Venetian ground is especially important. Before taking numerous photographs of the ground I needed to determine what exactly I was looking for. How was one series of paths more important than another? Before fully answering this question for myself I came across a quote by Alois Riegl: The ruins of a castle … whose decayed walls display little of their original form, technique, floor plan, etc., to gratify an art or art historical interest, and to which moreover no chronicled memories attach, offer no simple historical-value that can explain their clear and evident interest to the modern observer. When regarding an old church belfry, we also have to distinguish between the more or less localized historical memories of various

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58 forms which are awakened in us when we observe it, and the general, non-localized presentation of time…5 As Riegl has pointed out, the ground in Venice may appear as a decaying hardscape left without its original form for the modern workers of the city to reconstruct. There is no simple historical value placed upon this ground upon which we walk, but it is in the deeper meaning underneath it all that there really is a story to share. It is true there may be no documented record and memories of this ground, but it is in the every day re-workings of the foundation that new stories are uncovered. It is in the stones piled on top of silt, piled on top of wooden pillars, tied together to keep the foundation from falling in upon itself, which are in turn secured into layers of the built up mudflats that house this unique collection of islands. Together these fragments tell their own story of the creation of Venice. Analysis and Discussion Each stone, its shape, size, color, and location all play an important role in their relationship to the rest of the city and the structures upon which they border. The following figures deal with markings and patterns found along this choreographed itinerary. The examination of photographs and walks taken throughout the city show how the city truly works. Specific Foundations The patterns found throughout the city are some of the most unique and intricate assembly of stones seen anywhere in the world. It is the patterns that allow the city to differentiate uses between certain structures, between private and public space, but especially to break up the large hardscapes that can be overwhelming after passi ng through a tight walkway (Figure 3-4 and 3-5). Upon arriving at the train station in Venice, as most visitors do, movement occurs through the 5 Gubser 2005, 460.

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59 threshold of the contained space within the station. Once you have moved through the station and out into the city you are confronted with a vi ew of the Small Church of St. Simon as well as a large view of the Grand Canal, but what you must first overcome is the large square in front of you, directing you in no particular direction or another. The markings on this surface serve to break up the large ground. The white stones are only a glimpse of the maze that lies ahead as you explore the city (Figure 3-6). However, once you have moved within the streets and into the maze this large square does not appear to be such a large feat to overcome (Figure 3-7). There are no more divisions within the larger squares until you reach Piazza San Marco. Typical squares throughout the city are broken up with cafs or seating, while every square also has its own well. The other most common forms of specific ground marking throughout the city come from ground differentiation. Each building claims its own territory within the square or street that it opens toward. Along the edge of the lagoon near Piazza San Marco, the stones become divided (Figure 3-8) at the entry to a larg e home. The stones change from a strict pattern that emphasizes movement to a broken up pattern of stone at the doorstep to this home. It is common for the entrance to the churches to be emphasized along the path of entry (Figure 3-9). Historically the common form of entry into the churches was from the water, therefore making the approaching steps from the water important as well (Figure 3-10). Some of the more aristocratic homes marked their entrance in an altogether different form of ground. Marble or tile was often used within a deep alley or a hidden courtyard (Figure 3-11). However, general street patterns are found everywhere within the city. Simple ground changes occur wherever there are changes in the elevation of the ground (Figure 3-12 and 13) and where the use and functi on of the street changes – from moments of pause while window shopping or direct movement from one street to another. The center is used

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60 for movement, the edges for shopping, and the white stone becomes the divisor between the two (Figure 3-14 and 3-15). The density of the streets is largely determined by the location: the historic center or the edge of the island. It is this density that plays a role in the remaining patterns found throughout the city. The smaller streets use smaller stones (Figure 3-16), for the larger more populated streets larger stones are f ound (Figure 3-17). The sizes of the street stones today indicate where the visitors gathered many decades ago. Some markings are not entirely the assembly of the individual stones, but are found on the stones themselves. For the modern Venice, the treads have been carved into the newer stones to keep people from slipping while walking in the floodwaters (F igure 3-18). The white stone plays many roles: as a divisor (Figure 3-19), as a marker (Figure 320), and most functional in the city, as the drain (Figure 3-21 and 3-22). Certain stones mark the edges to market stands; others once served as markers to the tragic flood of 1966 (Figure 3-23). Because this Istrian stone is easier to work with than the other stones used throughout the city, it is used for both the above and below ground wells (Figure 3-24 and 3-25), the edge of canals for the gondolas ties (Figure 3-26), and most simply a visual breakup of the dark stone for the visitor (Figure 3-27). Icons of Venice The icons of Venice portray the city to the visual visitor, a visitor who first imagines Venice through postcards and photographs. It is the icons that bring us back to the reality that we really are within this unique historic fabric of Venice. The most famous icon is that of Piazza San Marco (Figure 3-28). It is partly because of its renowned size and its original location as the entrance to the city that so many visitors come to visit this large square. The ground of Piazza San Marco is broken up with the white stone. As Venice begins to sink, it is this area of the city that is in the most danger.

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61 Some of the other most famous icons include the gondoliers and their gondolas, the wellknown water entries, and the bridges as a connection between one islet and another. As the tourist makes his way to Piazza San Marco, it is impossible to do so without crossing one or more of these icons. The gondoliers serve as the only real connection the visitor has with the island. The gondoliers do not ignore visitors; it is these visitors that allow the gondoliers to still remain living in the city. They each have their own take on history and are more than willing to share their tales with anyone who will pay to listen (Figure 3-29). The gondolas allow the visitor to cross the Grand Canal without making their way back towards one of the three main bridges (Figure 3-30, 3-31 and 3-32). The gondolas themselves serve as a continuation to the monumental ground. The water of the canals is a permeable layer on top of the existing monumental ground. The water entries were used most often when the gondolas served as the primary source of transportation. Today the entries are rarely used partly because of the drastically changing water levels throughout the day. Walking, as primary movement in the city today, forces the user to enter through the streets or city squares. Some entryways have been altered to allow for visitors to come off of the street (Figure 3-33). Others remain as they were decades ago, as entries directly from the canal (Figure 3-34). The oldest entries that are still in use today are those that allow the gondola to tie to the edge of the canal where the stairs line directly up with the front door (Figure 3-35). The other most important iconic image of Venice has been around since the early years of Venetian settlement. The bridges serve as the physical connector from one individual islet to another. They also serve as an important visual timeline for any changes in the elevation of an

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62 individual islet. When one islet sinks at a rate different of the one it is connected to, these changes will be obvious in the composition of stones and any visible cracks (Figure 3-36). The first bridges were made of any large material that would allow one to cross from one islet to another. When the islands were determined to be in an ideal location, the temporary bridges were rebuilt as permanent ones. These bridges, along with many other additional ones, still stand today (Figure 3-37 and 3-38). Because th e Rialto Bridge is the most famous (Figure 339), it is a common destination for a visitor on their way to Piazza San Marco. It also will serve as one of many identified stops along the heritage itinerary, discovering ground as a monumental site. Flooding and Temporary Ground As the waters continue to rise, they often consume the streets of Venice; the city takes on a different look. The temporary wooden planks placed throughout the city during the season of high water often seem like a playground for the adults as they move throughout the city. The city takes on an entire transformation during these times of acqua alta The wooden planks can be found all throughout the city. During a day of high water everyone is affected: the postman (Figure 3-40), the shop owners, the visitors, and it seems that the only thing that can have any burden on the pigeons, is the high waters that flood Piazza San Marco (Figure 3-41). The owners of shops and cafs must either find ways to keep the water out (Figure 3-42 and 343), or find ways to let the water in and allow the customers to still enter without standing in water (Figure 3-44 and 3-45). The tourists ofte n seem undecided about the high water. Some see it as an inconvenience, while others see it as a spectacle, an event to be witnessed. During this time the routes are severely restricted for the visitor, those without the wading boots (Figure 3-46). The visitors are restricted to the temporary ground (Figure 3-47).

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63 Standing water in the squares is a major problem for the city (Figure 3-48 and 3-49). As the water sits in the squares, the dirt absorbs that water causing it to expand and the stones to break loose from their permanent placement many years ago. Deterioration The constant flooding of the city, the footsteps of the visitors, and the inevitable progression of time all play the leading roles in deterioration of the ground. The flooding of the city leads to a collection of algae, which in turn eats away at the stone used as an edge for the canals. Many of the old structures and bridges show this collection of algae (Figure 3-50 and 351). The constant changing in the height of water in the canals and the movement of water in and out of the squares causes more problems with the assemblage of the stones. The water causes the dirt below to break loose allowing the stones to shift just enough to cause damage to them over many years. Because the stones are no longer protected on the exterior edges, the elements – the footsteps of the visitors – have caused some of the stones to break apart (Figure 352 – 3-55). The footsteps of the visitors have some effect on these stones when they are traversed while being under the floodwaters. However, the largest problem the tourists bring to the ground specifically is the wearing away of the any stone type as the foot traffic is increasing more and more as time wears on (Figure 3-56 – 3-59). The city has put in place some measures to stop this complete wearing down of the stones. Recently tr eads have been carved into some of the newly placed stones. However, at the same time, these little imperfections that have occurred during the carving process have been worn down as well, the foot traffic smoothes out these stones (Figure 3-60 and 3-61). These slight changes in th e heights of the stones adds more pressure to the highest stone, while leaving the lower ones untouched until both stones are evened out. Even

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64 with the water and foot traffic, the progression of time proves to be the largest problem with the stones. As time progresses, the make up of the stones is altered, the sun dries some out and leaves others faded, others are chipped and require the replacing of part of a step (Figure 3-62 –3-64). However, at the same time, it is the people of the city that do not always continue with the necessary upkeep of squares and private walkways (Figure 3-65 and 3-66). Not all stones are replaced; some are simply reconnected to another. Some of this connection is done so with steel fasteners (Figure 3-67 – 3-69) while others are done with the same type of stone (Figure 3-70). Restructuring The last in the series of image analyses of Venice reviews the re-structuring of the Venetian landscape. Walking through Venice today involves the re-routing of many common visitor paths. As time progresses the ground itself and many elements below the surfaces need to be replaced as well. In order for these elements to be reworked, the hand laid stones must be individually collected and stored in order to be us ed when work is finished (Figure 3-71). While work is being done to certain streets visitors are often re-routed. However, other streets still remain open, allowing the tourist to walk on temporary ground – once again wooden planks placed above a layer of ground. If work is paused, these planks are laid down for days and even weeks until work continues again (Figure 3-72 and 3-73). Perception of Ground The examination of photographs and walks taken throughout the city show how the city truly works. Some temporary structural changes become permanent, while other drawn out processes become a problem for the re-routed resident. It is through the preservation of the ground of Venice and the use of images of this place that the story of Venice will be passed down for generations to come. This series of images has shown the many angles at which the

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65 ground works within the city. Not only is it a connector, but a director of movement and a timeline as well. The perception of ground is as apparent in the city of Venice as it is anywhere else in the world. The constant stepping up and stepping down to cross the canals, and even the sense of watching your step as you cross over the wooden planks during acqua alta gives the visitor and the resident a reason to be entirely conscious of their footwork. Monuments within cities serve as a mark by which the city is known. Venice has its share of marks ranging from Piazza San Marco, to the Campanile, even to the gondoliers. Creating ground as a monument to Venice is not meant to give the city its main icon, but is meant to make the users of the ground aware of what this city is really built upon. Many passersby watch as workmen take the stones from the ground and stack them neatly along the side of a building, but it is only a few people who realize that the soil below is just a small part to the mudflat of which a particular islet has been formed. The steps and repairing of broken stones along the edges of canals add to the experience as you walk through the city. In most other cities, broken stones along a sidewalk are often later replaced. In Venice, the experience and image of the place is taken into c onsideration. The stones of Venice that so many people have traversed create a power of place unique to this part of the world. As broken stones are fixed with a metal staple, this staple will allow the stone to continue functioning as it had in the past. The tourist does not ask the question of will the stone meet its original structural requirements but instead ponders why so much care has been put into forcing this metal connector into the stone in order to hold it together instead of simply replacing it.

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66 Figure 3-1. Map of Venice ( Venezia: Pianta della Cittia. Storti Edizione. 2006.) Figure 3-2. Street Markets (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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67 Figure 3-3. Tall streets of Venice (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-4. Dark covered streets (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-5. Narrow streets of the city (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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68 Figure 3-6. Large square outside of the trai n station (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-7. Large square hidden within the city (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-8. Moments of pause (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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69 Figure 3-9. Marked entry to church (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-10. Water entry (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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70 Figure 3-11. Private marble entry (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-12. Merging streets (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-13. Changing elevations (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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71 Figure 3-14. Marked path of a window shopper (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-15. Stones as a market edge (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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72 Figure 3-16. Small stones of smaller squares (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-17. Larger stones of larger squares (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-18. Carved stone treads (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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73 Figure 3-19. White stones as a divisor (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-20. Differentiating stones as an edge (Photograph by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-21. Stones as a drain (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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74 Figure 3-22. Stones marking a square (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-23. Markings of previous floodi ng (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-24. Ground level well (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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75 Figure 3-25. Above ground well (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-26. Gondola tie (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-27. Stair markings (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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76 Figure 3-28. Piazza San Marco (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-29. Gondoliers in a small canal (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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77 Figure 3-30. Gondola at a water entry (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-31. Private gondola (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-32. Gondolas in the flooded water (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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78 Figure 3-33. Altered historic water entry (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-34. Original water entry (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-35. Water entry of today (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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79 Figure 3-36. Visual exposed timeline (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-37. Historic bridges of Ve nice (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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80 Figure 3-38. Water entry at bridge (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-39. Rialto bridge (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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81 Figure 3-40. Workday in the flooded city (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-41. Flooded Piazza San Marco (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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82 Figure 3-42. Modern interventions to keep flooded waters out (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-43. Typical private flood gate (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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83 Figure 3-44. Flooded caf (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-45. Caf in the flooded piazza (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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84 Figure 3-46. Waiting in line during acqua alta (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-47. Wooden planks during low tide (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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85 Figure 3-48. Canal flooded (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-49. Stranded tourists in the fl ooded piazza (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-50. Algae seen during low tide (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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86 Figure 3-51. Algae along the steps of a canal (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-52. Broken steps (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-53. Deteriorated stone (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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87 Figure 3-54. Replaced stones (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-55. A cracked edge (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-56. Worn column edge (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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88 Figure 3-57. Worn marble in Piazza San Marco (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-58. Worn steps (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-59. Worn entryway (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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89 Figure 3-60. Unintentional rough markings (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-61. Intentional rough markings (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-62. Stone filler (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-63. Ready for stone replacement (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-64. Stone replaced with stone (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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90 Figure 3-65. Walkways not kept up (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-66. Deteriorating stones in a c ourtyard (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-67. Stone staples (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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91 Figure 3-68. Metal fasteners (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-69. Metal column support (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-70. Stone fastener (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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92 Figure 3-71. Stone set aside for reuse (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-72. Temporary wooden ground (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler) Figure 3-73. Wooden ground covering uneven su rfaces (Photograph taken by Marie Vogler)

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93 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION A supplement to the Venice Charter will introduce a field-guided walk throughout this historical city.1 The walk can serve as a composed itinerary, but will also allow the users to meander from one identified mark to another, to navigate this patchwork of streets on their own. The addition to the charter will serve as a choreographed marking to a specified walk throughout the island, allowing the user to come into contact with the restructuring of the ground, the replacing of the pipes under the ground, and most importantly the changing of the ground as he or she follows the itinerary. This supplement will become an International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of a Monumental Site and Site as a Monument, as opposed to a monument and a site individually. Ground in Venice serves as both a monument and a site. It will focus on the ancient footpaths throughout the island as opposed to the ancient buildings that have been the entire focus in the past. The supplement is written for Venice, while the charter was written for international applications. Although the island itself is listed as a World Monument, it is necessary to make specific recognition for the ground and its corresponding surfaces, to recognize them as a monument that must be cared for. Phenomenon There are many phenomena that have occurred throughout Venice, making it necessary to recognize the ground as a monument. For the most part these are naturally occurring phenomenon that can be slowed through human intervention. The series of images displaying the ground in Venice today depict just some of the problems caused. Specifically the naturally 1 A proposed initial mark for the field-guided walk is listed in appendix C. For the purpose of this thesis, the fieldguide will serve as future work resu lting from the findings. The supplement and documentation by the author will create a base for which the remaining field-guide will be written.

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94 occurring floods and naturally occurring foot traffic of these touristed islands have all played a role in the wearing away of the stones.2 Today the city has provided visitors with markings on the ground that inform them that they will be dry upon following these marked tiles found throughout the city. The flooding has become an event for the visitors. While the residents have found ways in which to work around it, it is the visitors who are affected the most. But this affecting has only increased their want to be a part of the action, a part of the crowds waiting in long lines to cross the wooden planks. It is this event that serves – at that minute – as la passeggiata The visitors want to be seen in the crowds, they want photographs of others trying to cross the wooden planks that appear to be overwhelmed with people. While flooding has caused problems for the ground of Venice there are currently works in progress that may soon keep the city dry as often as it was just decades ago. The passing of the visitors on foot throughout the city is a phenomenon that – for the purpose of this thesis – is naturally occurring. The only way to keep the foot traffic off of this monumental ground is to create another, longer lasting layer of stone or concrete. This will of course alter the entire Venetian experience, not only altering the differentiation of spaces, but also changing the scale, rhythm and proportions of the streetscape, as we know it today. It is imperative that the visitors and residents alike still traverse the ground of Venice. These stones serve as a datum for the visual timeline throughout the city. The slight image of wear that has been found on stones today has occurred over many centuries. It is necessary for visitors to see the ground and the field-guided walk throughout the city – as the city is today, as it has adapted 2 For this thesis, natural is something that must happen. People must walk the stones of Venice in order to get the full experience of the city. Keeping people from walking on the grounds is not a solution to the problem in which this thesis is focusing on.

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95 to the addition of so many visitors. It is through a supplement of the Venice Charter that the ground will become an occupiable monument, a memory for future generations, of what Venice has always been. Although the markings on the ground are always changing, it is the ground that has been so constant as the island has developed and grown horizontally. Definition and Aim As the original charter defines exactly which pieces of history it will embrace, this document is written as a focus on ground and site as a monument. It does not work with the singular architectural works found within a partic ular city, but instead focuses on the numerous fragments and footpaths of Venice. Article 1 will no longer focus on a single historic event or development, but the traditions that have come from them creating a historical narrative.3 The conservation and preservation must have access to the sciences, the technology and the traditional foundation work that went into the making of the ground. Without the knowledge of the original structuring of the ground it is not po ssible to continue restructuring the ground with the same ancient engineering process that went into work so many centuries ago. This aim will lead to a concentration of the context of the place as opposed to the larger urban setting of Italy in general. The works of art originally referred to have now become the stone assemblies of the route through the city. Throughout the original charter, the word monument will refer to the monumental ground, using the landscape of Venice as a site for this monument. Conservation Especially for the deteriorating stones of Venice and the large spanning bridges, it is extremely important that the conservation of this monumental ground be conserved. The 3 Explained in more detail in appendix B.

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96 conservation division of the original charter requires “making use of [monuments] for some socially useful purpose.”4 Within this supplement, this will be done primarily through informing the visitors about the narrative behind this itinerary through the use of a field-guided tour. It will focus on the movement and composition, specifically the ways in which the island has been mapped out, the choreographed itinerary. Although sculptures play a large role in the experience as you move throughout Venice, there should be an importance placed on the focus of constructed tiles, the cobblestone and the wooden planks that protect you from acqua alta The original Article 6 states that no new construction, which would alter relationships within the context, should be created.5 This document, written specifically for use in Venice, is not meant to put the city on pause. The city still needs to function; it needs to work to keep itself literally above the water. Without modifications or any new construction the city will not be able to live. Many visitors want to come to the island to see how it truly works; by allowing the city to continue working we must allow the people to make any necessary changes. However, restrictions will be suggested when working with the specific guided walk and the monumental ground that connects each identified mark. The site of Venice and its ground as a monument are inseparable from the context in which it sits. Without the historic fabric of Venice as an edge to the streets, the experience of Venice will be lost. It must be stated that the moving of all of the ground cannot be allowed. It may be necessary that stones be lifted and moved to the edge of a street in order to fix any problems that may be occurring below the surface, but by replacing these stones we can consider the ground 4 Taken from appendix A. 5 Taken from appendix A.

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97 put back together. The stones my not fit exactly as they had before, but the portrayed experience to the knowing – or unknowing – visitor will be the same. Restoration Restoration will focus on the specific itinerary and the actual steps throughout, including the original assemblies and their corresponding documentation. The route and its assembly of fragments should be studied through the lens of how they contribute to the composition of the path. In the original charter the concept of restoration meant distinguishing the original from the restored, for the new charter it is important that the restoration continues with the original feeling of the sense of place. Restoration is the most influential section of this supplement. It is through restoration that the historical value of this monument will be s hown. The original charter uses the concept of restoration as a means of informing for the vi sitor; however, with the monumental ground, it will be the field-guide that allows the visitor to make connections with designated marks along the site. The specific itinerary may or may not be followed, but in moving throughout the city from one identified mark to another, the visitor will have the freedom to roam the island like any other, while still being informed of the ground as the monumental site for the city. Traditional forms of engineering in the case of the ground and Venice have proven to work for many years. These traditional ways of working should be followed as long as there is no threat to the people or the city.6 Certain projects will necessarily involve the introduction of new techniques and technology, such as the installation of pipes and electricity lines. By using new techniques in these processes, the end result will cause less harm and alteration to the ground as it stands now. 6 Taken from appendix B.

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98 Because a unified style is not the aim of restoration, consideration must be placed on grounds from all time periods. The decision on what should and should not be replaced cannot rest solely on the individual performing the work. It must be discussed with those of knowledgeable background to the creation of this monumental ground. Just as in the original article (12), replacement of missing or damaged parts must be recognizable.7 Any new stone placed in Venice will be spotted because it has not had interaction with a high amount foot traffic or the high waters of the lagoon. However, once these stones have worn and aged enough that they no longer stand out, it is not necessary to point them out to all who pass by. Now they have become a part of this historic creation, they are no longer new additions. It is not possible to stop these additions to the ground without once again placing a pause on the city to keep it from growing and moving forward. Additions will be allowed so long as they continue with the traditions and the historic fabric of the city. Historic Sites and Excavations Just as stated in Article 14, the monument must be the object of focus in order to ensure its integrity.8 The work must come from topics mentioned in the previous sections of this supplement. The excavations from the ground of Venice will not be the typical, physical archaeological excavation, but from a conglomerati on of the previously mentioned articles. The excavation will be a metaphorical one, one that comes from the mind of the visitor after traversing the monumental ground that has shaped so much of what Venice was, and what it remains today, hopefully allowing this portrayal to extend to future generations. The Venice Marathon was my personal act of finding, an outcome of my interwoven discoveries. I had arrived to Venice by car, train and plane, but the marathon proved to be 7 Taken from appendix A. 8 Taken from appendix A.

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99 an entirely different entrance to the city. After running from Stra, a city about 15 miles west of Mestre, to the bridge that connected Venice to the mainland I had encountered the city in an entirely new way. This time I was forced to take in what I already knew of the island and combine it with my slow strides along this bridge. The island was not visible at first, there was fog and the bridge was lined with cars trying to get to the island to see the finish. When I finally caught my first glimpse of the island, it seemed so far away.9 Although the visitor may leave with questions of belief to how this making was really possible, it is the visitor who will make their own presumptions based on the facts that will be displayed throughout the city as designated and identified markings. The monument for the visitor upon leaving Venice will be one of memory, one of fragments. The fragments will contain only those pieces of information that were believed, along with those that were seen as important to the individual. It is the visitor who comes to the island specifically for ways of understanding how the city works, the one who has gained interest upon recognition of the monumental ground who will remember every identified mark and leave th e island with a complete understanding of this site as a monument; the fragments will be stitched together so as to tell the history of the islands, resulting in a narrative of just what these islands are really about. Publications and Review Any publications made within this charter should continue with the original publicized work. In addition, the narrative of the city must tell the history of the place and the importance of this mapped itinerary along the Venetian grounds. As stated in the last article, “In the works of preservation [or] restoration … there shoul d be precise documentation in the form of analytical and critical reports, illustrated with drawings and photographs.”10 This thesis will serve as the initial publication and analytical report on the monumental ground. The images will 9 I have included this rest of the journal as appendix E. This journal entry was my personal excavation of the city. Any experience I had during my remaini ng stay in Italy was based on my expe rience during the marathon. This race was my way of finding. 10 Taken from appendix A.

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100 function as a study of the need to recognize this uniquely structured ground as a monumental site. The historical monument of the ground has served generations of both resident Venetians and the visitors of the island as a visual timeline of the age-old traditions.11 This supplement will bring about a better understanding of the value of this assemblage of stones that – to the unknowing user – may appear as a simple construction. It is the responsibility of all to save the authenticity of the monumental ground. These guidelines need to be agreed upon by all those involved. The visitors need to be made aware of what kind of affect they have on the ground as they make their way to Piazza San Marco or as they explore the network of streets within the city. This document will serve as an informer for the residents, visitors and all thos e involved with any re-str ucturing or re-working of the foundations within the city. As a supplem ent to the charter, it will contribute to the development and recognition of the monumenta l ground, not only by bringing about increasing awareness, but by encouraging further studies of the ground as a monument. 11 Taken from appendix A.

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101 APPENDIX A THE VENICE CHARTER: ORIGINAL Imbued with a message from the past the historic monuments of generations of people remain to the present day as living witnesses of their age-old traditions. People are becoming more and more conscious of the unity of human values and regard ancient monuments as a common heritage. The common responsibility to safeguard them for future generations is recognized. It is our duty to hand them on in the full richness of their authenticity. It is essential that the principles guiding the preservation and restoration of ancient buildings should be agreed and be laid down on an international basis, with each country being responsible for applying the plan within the framework of its own culture and traditions. By defining these basic principles for the first time, the Athens Charter of 1931 contributed towards the development of an extensive international movement which has assumed concrete form in national documents, in the work of ICOM and UNESCO and in the establishment by the latter of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property. Increasing awareness and critical study have been brought to bear on problems which have continually become more complex and varied; now the time has come to examine the Charter afresh in order to make a thorough study of the principles involved and to enlarge its scope in a new document. Accordingly, the IInd International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, which met in Venice from May 25th to 31st 1964, approved the following text: DEFINITIONS ARTICLE 1. The concept of an historic monument embraces not only the single architectural work but also the urban or rural setting in which is found the evidence of a particular civilization, a significant development or an historic event. This applies not only to great works of art but also to more modest works of the past which have acquired cultural significance with the passing of time. ARTICLE 2. The conservation and restoration of monuments must have recourse to all the sciences and techniques which can contribute to the study and safeguarding of the architectural heritage. AIM ARTICLE 3. The intention in conserving and restoring monuments is to safeguard them no less as works of art than as historical evidence. CONSERVATION ARTICLE 4. It is essential to the conservation of monuments that they be maintained on a permanent basis.

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102 ARTICLE 5. The conservation of monuments is always facilitated by making use of them for some socially useful purpose. Such use is therefore desirable but it must not change the lay-out or decoration of the building. It is within these limits only that modifications demanded by a change of function should be envisaged and may be permitted. ARTICLE 6. The conservation of a monument implies preserving a setting which is not out of scale. Wherever the traditional setting exists, it must be kept. No new construction, demolition or modification which would alter the relations of mass and color must be allowed. ARTICLE 7. A monument is inseparable from the history to which it bears witness and from the setting in which it occurs. The moving of all or part of a monument cannot be allowed except where the safeguarding of that monument demands it or where it is justified by national or international interest of paramount importance. ARTICLE 8. Items of sculpture, painting or decoration which form an integral part of a monument may only be removed from it if this is the sole means of ensuring their preservation. RESTORATION ARTICLE 9. The process of restoration is a highly specialized operation. Its aim is to preserve and reveal the aesthetic and historic value of the monument and is based on respect for original material and authentic documents. It must stop at the point where conjecture begins, and in this case moreover any extra work which is indispensable must be distinct from the architectural composition and must bear a contemporary stamp. The restoration in any case must be preceded and followed by an archaeological and historical study of the monument. ARTICLE 10. Where traditional techniques prove inadequate, the consolidation of a monument can be achieved by the use of any modem technique for conservation and construction, the efficacy of which has been shown by scientific data and proved by experience. ARTICLE 11. The valid contributions of all periods to the building of a monument must be respected, since unity of style is not the aim of a restoration. When a building includes the superimposed work of different periods, the revealing of the underlying state can only be justified in exceptional circumstances and when what is removed is of little interest and the material which is brought to light is of great hist orical, archaeological or aesthetic value, and its state of preservation good enough to justify the action. Evaluation of the importance of the elements involved and the decision as to what may be destroyed cannot rest solely on the individual in charge of the work. ARTICLE 12. Replacements of missing parts must integrate harmoniously with the whole, but at the same time must be distinguishable from the original so that restoration does not falsify the artistic or historic evidence. ARTICLE 13. Additions cannot be allowed except in so far as they do not detract from the interesting parts of the building, its traditional setting, the balance of its composition and its relation with its surroundings.

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103 HISTORIC SITES ARTICLE 14. The sites of monuments must be the object of special care in order to safeguard their integrity and ensure that they are cleared and presented in a seemly manner. The work of conservation and restoration carried out in such places should be inspired by the principles set forth in the foregoing articles. EXCAVATIONS ARTICLE 15. Excavations should be carried out in accordance with scientific standards and the recommendation defining international principles to be applied in the case of archaeological excavation adopted by UNESCO in 1956. Ruins must be maintained and measures necessary for the permanent conservation and protection of architectural features and of objects discovere d must be taken. Furthermore, every means must be taken to facilitate the understanding of the monument and to reveal it without ever distorting its meaning. All reconstruction work should however be ruled out a priori ." Only anastylosis, that is to say, the reassembling of existing but dismembered parts can be permitted. The material used for integration should always be recognizable and its use should be the least that will ensure the conservation of a monument and the reinstatement of its form. PUBLICATION ARTICLE 16. In all works of preservation, restoration or excavation, there should always be precise documentation in the form of analytical and critical reports, illustrated with drawings and photographs. Every stage of the work of cleari ng, consolidation, rearrangement and integration, as well as technical and formal features identified during the course of the work, should be included. This record should be placed in the archives of a public institution and made available to research workers. It is recommended that the report should be published.

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104 APPENDIX B THE VENICE CHARTER: REWORKED SUPPLEMENT Imbued with a message from the past, the historic monuments of generations of people remain to the present day as living witnesses of their age-old traditions. People are becoming more and more conscious of the unity of human values and regard ancient monuments as a common heritage. The common responsibility to safeguard them for future generations is recognized. It is our duty to hand them on in the full richness of their authenticity. It is essential that the principles guiding the preservation and restoration of ancient footpaths should be agreed and be laid down on an international basis, with each country being responsible for applying the plan within the framework of its own culture and traditions. By defining these basic principles for the firs t time, the Athens Charter of 1931 contributed towards the development of an extensive international movement which has assumed concrete form in national documents, in the work of ICOM and UNESCO and in the establishment by the latter of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property. Increasing awareness and critical study have been brought to bear on problems which have continually become more complex and varied; now the time has come to examine the Charter afresh in order to make a thorough study of the principles involved and to enlarge its scope in this new supplement: Measuring Time: Making of Monumental Ground and Culture of La Passeggiata. DEFINITIONS ARTICLE 1. The concept of monumental ground embraces not only numerous fragments or footpaths but also the urban or context of place in which is found the evidence of a particular civilization, a traditions and assemblies, that create a historical narrative. This applies not only to stone assemblies but also to more modest footpaths of the past which have acquired cultural significance with the passing of time. ARTICLE 2. The conservation and restoration of monumental ground must have recourse to all the sciences and techniques which can contribute to the study and safeguarding of the architectural heritage. AIM ARTICLE 3. The intention in conserving and restori ng grounding assemblies is to safeguard them no less as works of art than as historical evidence. CONSERVATION ARTICLE 4. It is essential to the conservation of ground that they be maintained on a permanent basis.

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105 ARTICLE 5. The conservation of a ground monument is always facilitated advising visitors of their roles in the narrative of Venice. Such use is therefore desirable but it must not change movement and composition of the mapping of Venice. ARTICLE 6. The conservation of ground implies preserving a setting which is not out of scale. Wherever the traditional setting exists, it must be kept. No new fragments, demolition or modification which would alter the relations of size and color must be allowed. ARTICLE 7. The ground is inseparable from the history to which it bears witness and from the setting in which it occurs. The moving of all or part of the path cannot be allowed except where the safeguarding of that path demands. ARTICLE 8. Constructed tiles, cobblestone or wooden paths which form an integral part of a monument may not be removed from it if this is the sole means of ensuring their preservation. RESTORATION ARTICLE 9. The process of restoration is a highly specialized operation. Its aim is to preserve and reveal the aesthetic and historic value of the ground and is based on respect for original route and corresponding documentation. It must stop at th e point where conjecture begins, and in this case moreover any extra work which is indispensable must follow the distinct architectural composition and must bear an identifiable mark. The restoration in any case must be preceded and followed by an archaeological and historical study of the itinerary and its constructions. ARTICLE 10. Where traditional techniques prove inadequate, the consolidation of ground monument can be achieved by the use of any modem technique for conservation and construction, the efficacy of which has been shown by scientific data and proved by experience. ARTICLE 11. The valid contributions of the context of the footpath must be respected, since unity of style is not the aim of a restoration. When the ground includes the superimposed work of different periods, the revealing of the underlying state can only be justified in exceptional circumstances and when what is removed is of little interest and the material which is brought to light is of great historical, archaeological or aesthetic value, and its state of preservation good enough to justify the action. Evaluation of the importance of the elements involved and the decision as to what may be destroyed cannot rest solely on the individual in charge of the work. ARTICLE 12. Replacements of missing parts must integrate harmoniously with the whole, so as to continue the sense of place and not falsify the artistic or historic evidence. ARTICLE 13. New paths cannot be allowed except in so far as they do not detract from the interesting parts of the original ground, its traditional setting, the balance of its composition and its relation with its surroundings. HISTORIC SITES

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106 ARTICLE 14. The sites of monumental ground must be the object of special care in order to safeguard their integrity and ensure that they are cleared and presented in a seemly manner. The work of conservation and restoration carried out in such places should be inspired by the principles set forth in the foregoing articles. EXCAVATIONS ARTICLE 15. The excavations will be metaphorical, they come from the mind of the visitor after traversing the monumental ground that has shaped so much of what Venice was, and what it remains today. This will create an image to be portrayed for future generations to come. Although the visitor may leave with questions of how this making was really possible, it is the visitor who will make their own presumptions based on the facts learned during the visit. The monument for the visitor upon leaving Venice will be one of memory, one of fragments, a metaphorical excavation. The fragments will contai n only those pieces of information that were believed, along with those that were seen as important to the individual, important enough to remember and bring home. It is the visitor who comes to the island specifically for ways of understanding how the city works, the one who has gained interest upon recognition of the monumental ground, who will remember every identified mark and leave the island with a complete understanding of this site as a monument; the fragments will be stitched together so as to tell the history of the islands, resulting in a narrative of just what these islands are really about. PUBLICATION ARTICLE 16. In all works of preservation, restoration or excavation, there should always be precise documentation in the form of analytical and critical reports, illustrated with drawings and photographs. Every stage of the work of cleari ng, consolidation, rearrangement and integration, as well as technical and formal features identified during the course of the work, should be included. This record should be placed in the archives of a public institution and made available to research workers. It is recommended that the report should be published. ARTICLE 17. The narrative of the city must tell the history of place and the importance of this mapped itinerary along the Venetian grounds.

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107 APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENT AND FIELD-GUIDE The final supplement to the Venice Charter serves as a step towards the direction of a field guide of the monumental ground in Venice. This supplement contains ideas and topics specifically related to Venice. The images and commentary serve as a tourist-user link to the actual supplement used by the city before and during any adjustments to the ground. Who is the supplement for? The supplement will provide guidance for the management of the ground within Venice. It sets a standard of practice specifically for use in Venice by those who manage the grounds. Who is the field-guide for? The field-guide is for those visiting Venice who want to learn more about the making of the city and its foundations. Squares throughout the city will be marked on a map. With this marking there will be images of the square and a narrative commentary. Where does the supplement apply? The supplement applies to all ground and surfaces throughout the city. This place enriches the lives of the residents and visitors. They are historical timelines that show the progressions of the city. These places reflect the diversity of those who inhabit the islands. What is cultural significance? Cultural significance is part of the place, its setting and its context. The value of a place will vary from one individual to another. As one individual experiences a place, his value of the significance of a place will change as new information is learned. Applying the supplement: Re-structuring of any surfaces should be preceded by studies in order to understand the traditional ways of making in Venice. The results of these studies should be up to date, and be regularly reviewed and revised as necessary.

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108 Part of a field-guided walk throughout the city – the train station [Stazione FF.SS]: Upon first passing through the threshold of the train station, you reach this first square. You are able to see across the Grand Canal and the front of one of many churches you will encounter throughout your walking. The markings on the ground here serve to break up the large space of the square. The city can appear overwhelming at times, and these breaks allow it to appear more manageable. As you travel northeast (to the left in this image), you will see the first of many vaporetto stops. From here you are able to travel across the surface of the water, or continue on along the monumental ground. Another option is to cross the Grand Canal by foot. There are only three spots throughout the city where you are able to cross the canal by bridge. Here the bridge shows the progression of time. As one side begins to sink faster than another, the stones crack in order to make up for the changes in elevations.

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109 Here, on one of the steps located just across the street from the bridge listed above, the stone has been replaced with other stones more than once. Because this is the church closest to the train station – where most visitors enter from – it is receives many visitors. For the first time visitor, many of these markings throughout the square go unnoticed. However, after you become familiar with the place, you begin to question the meanings behind all these markings. The ‘X’ could mark a piece of stone that serves as a drain, it could mark a stone that needs to be replaced, or it could serve simply as a marker for those working in maintaining the island. Other marks include official marks placed by the city. The mark explains to the visitor that it is safe to walk along this path in floods up to four feet, ensuring the unknowing visitor that he or she will be able to return if the city does start to flood. As the visitor begins to wonder about the flooding city, these obstacles seen in the image to the left may be signs of relief. The wooden planks serve as a temporary ground for the visitor who meanders off of that marked path. Once the city floods, the wooden planks are placed an individual can walk from one to the next.

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110 As you move away from the entry square and into the fabric of the city, tourist carts are seen as far as the perspective will allow. Here the white stone serves as a divisor for the flow of movement throughout the city. The right side of the street is meant for the pauses while window-shopping, while the larger center strip is used for movement. If you are not visiting Venice on a crowded day, these divisors may be of no use, but during the high tourist season, the only way to move throughout the city is down the middle of the streets, bypassing all the window shoppers. Continue on to the next mark along the field-guide that will give you a taste of the tradition Venetian cuisine and a market of their produce.

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111 APPENDIX D JOURNAL ENTRY: MY ARRIVAL TO VENICE My first arrival into Venice yielded the image of a wet and quiet city. January 2nd, 2006 was a cold and rainy day. Although there were people everywhere, all I could hear was the sound of raindrops on top of the umbrellas. The waters were higher than I had expected, probably because of the rain, yet they appeared entirely under control. I knew the city was divided by the Grand Canal, among many other waterways, but I was under the impression one side of the Grand Canal was primarily the tourists shops and restaurants, while the other side was more or less residential. Soon after crossing the Grand Canal I felt entirely lost. I had only been in Italy for a few weeks and had not totally come to grasp with what I viewed as an assembled city. After walking around and trying to come to grasp with where I was I reached Piazza San Marco, a place that felt like it was tucked away in Venice, definitely not a place for people to gather. Although I knew that Piazza San Marco was the most visited of the squares, I would only later – months later – come to grasp how crowded it actually becomes within the square. On this cold and rainy day there were maybe five other people in the square, no pigeons, and many wooden planks to walk on left over from acqua alta on New Year’s Day. It seemed as though people were keeping to themselves, celebrating the New Year with family. Although the Italian culture portrays the people as socialites, this day did little to confirm those notions. While in Piazza San Marco I had some idea of where I was, at least I could see the water – something I could connect with on the visual map I had drawn in my head. As I moved underneath the sea of umbrella tops, it was as though I was discovering an alley no one had been down before. One turn serves as a quick transition from a crowded street to a quiet square that appears as though it has not been touched in months. Although every movement in Venice appears as a movement through a threshold, at first grounding it feels as though there is no threshold. ‘One wrong move’ and you could be lost for quite some time without warning; there was nothing stopping you. Landing on Venice on a cold and rainy day left me wondering what drastic changes could possibly come to such a small city. As I moved throughout the maze and made my way back to the train station, I soon realized there are more than just a few people in the city. There were groups of people here and there; many appeared as though they were departing from their winter vacations with suitcases in hand. While looking out over the Grand Canal I tried to make a connection with the canal and the rest of the cit y. How exactly did I arrive at Piazza San Marco? Knowing that this piazza was to the east of the station left me only knowing more or less I had walked east. The layering of the buildings quickly caught my attention. The use of brick and stucco and the many layers of paint created what appeared to be an assembly of fragments within the city. Although Venice is literally an assembly of islands linked with waterways, the ground appeared to be just the same. A certain pattern of stone s would often reveal the layer below, a layer of smaller rocks that appeared to be the foundation. Other parts throughout the city showed the soil that was simply the dried mud of what the island was built upon. Often throughout a walk around the city you will encounter a route that has been disassembled. The worn stones are

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112 stacked neatly along the nearby building while the pipes or foundations of another building are restructured. It is here that the city is truly exposed. One of the most common, and probably most overlooked topographical changes within the city is the large streets that have been sloped to allow rain or flood water to drain along the edges back into the canal as opposed to collecting in the street. Cracks in the stone or slight alterations in the patterns can serve to show the memory of what was once there. Often two different materials used in the reworking of the ground may begin to pull away from each other after so long; these cracks begin to tell a story of what was, and perhaps even of what is to come as one side of the street may begin to sink faster than another. They tell the story of the chronological development of the place. Not only do the stones show what materials were available during a certain time period, but they also show what materials were chosen for the higher classes – what materials signified importance. The fragments of the small islands brought on a unique experience. I had only seen Venice through the eyes of a tourist – postcards and photographs. During my first encounter with the city I needed to understand the true experience of the city, or as much as I could on this cold and rainy day. I needed to see why so many people visit Venice, what is it that makes this place so serene? How can the island be so chaotic, and so peaceful at the same time? My image of the Italian city was far different than what most would imagine. I looked at the buildings as an element of time. I wanted to see how true Venetians live in this tourist-dominated place. Because I had come to the island looking for more than just a postcard and the pigeons in Piazza San Marco, my image was based on what I had come to find – the cultures and histories that make up this unique place. The movement through Venice is entirely choreographed, even though movement through the streets really depends on what you are looking fo r. As a tourist the many tourist shops define movement from the train station to the Rialto Bridge and then on to Piazza San Marco and the many market stands found along the way. However, if you are looking to truly experience the city, there is no other way to do so than to make that one turn and get lost in the patchwork of the islands and canals. It is deep into the neighborhoods that the city is truly born. Here you can see the children playing in the puddles while families converse amongst each other. This personal relationship left me feeling like more than just a tourist when I finally arrived again. In August I was able to see the cultures and traditions that make this place a worldwide destination. This arrival into Venice was entirely different. During the peak of the tourist season, the sea of umbrellas from many months ago turned into a sea of tourists – the young and old alike. The histories of the island were just as apparent, however, the ways in which each were expressed were entirely differe nt. The interwoven historic townscape was hidden behind the mask of tourists and street vendors that seemed to be everywhere. The densities found within various parts of the island tell a story about their history. The densest areas were first occupied, and slowly homes and other buildings were built up alongside and the process continued. During acqua alta the areas that flood, especially Piazza San Marco, have adapted to serve the people even during these flooded conditions. Although water still often enters shop or hotels, the water does not stop the constant movement of the city.

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113 Through a walk to this central space within the city, the architectural composition of the city and its adaptation over time is apparent. This composition transforms as the culture develops, easiest seen in the alteration of buildings throughout the major tourist destinations and their adaptation to what the tourists want. Through time and memory, perception of a space is based upon the growth of our everyday human experiences. My landing to this place occurred in January. After this visit, everything was simply an adjustment of my previous thoughts on the city. It was within my initial visits to the city that I created a mental catalogue of what to, or not to expect within this city. After so many visits you begin to take certain things for granted, the pigeons flying overhead, the marble steps, the numerous bridges, the crowds of people. My strongest images were that of the varying ground le vels and those paths that seemed to constantly be under construction. To me the ground was intriguing. How is it that this island was built on simple mudflats, albeit, mud and stones that had washed off of the mountain ranges inland and still remains standing today?1 The more ground you cover as you walk through the city, the more intriguing it becomes. The patterns start to tell their own stories, some of the importance of the buildings along their edges, some of the canals nearby. 1 McGregor 2006.

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114 APPENDIX E JOURNAL ENTRY: A GROUNDING DISCOVERY The Venice Marathon was my personal act of finding, an outcome of my interwoven discoveries. I had arrived to Venice by car, train and plane, but the marathon proved to be an entirely different entrance to the city. After r unning from Stra, a city about 15 miles west of Mestre, to the bridge that connected Venice to the mainland I had encountered the city in an entirely new way. This time I was forced to take in what I already knew of the island and combine it with my slow strides along this bridge. The island was not visible at first, there was fog and the bridge was lined with cars trying to get to the island to see the finish. When I finally caught my first glimpse of the island, it seemed so far away. At this point I had been staring at the ground and carefully calculating the changes in elevations for over three hours, the only thing I wanted to do was reach that finish line. Much like all of my other arrivals to Venice I felt like I was in a hurry, with nowhere to go. The race through Venice towards the finish over so many br idges involved an exploration of the newer islets of Venice and the fabric of the stones. There were cars, there were streets lined with sidewalks, something that we are all so familiar with, but when you actually stop and take a second to think about it, the cars and sidewalks don’t exist in Venice. All of my previous arrivals to the island had been amongst the sea of tourists. Today, it was as though there were tourists lined along the entire course, but even more so there were thousands of tourists lining that last 3-mile stre tch of the race. The most previous groundings to Venice involved me pushing my way through the train station and finally out to the view of the Grand Canal before again pushing my way through all of the tourist shops, market stands and caf’s. Today it was as if all those tourists were welcoming me into the city, into something that doesn’t even belong to them. As I reached the last stretch of the course that ran along the Canal de San Marco, people from all nations, young and old, greeted me. As I ran by I felt that everyone on the bridge was cheering me on. However, I am sure the reality was more along the lines of the tourists wondering what was going on and why they were not allowed to reach the edge of the canal. To me this grounding was my beginning to becoming a part of the place that is Venice. Becoming a gondolier is a tradition and career that must be passed down from many generations. In order to be a Venetian you must be born into a family that has resided in Venice for many years. Becoming a gondolier is a tradition and career that must be passed down for many generations. In order to cross the Grand Canal on anything other than the three main bridges you must be a Venetian. My final grounding before becoming a part of this place was a discovery unlike any other. This process of grounding and becoming is onl y tangible to a select few and in the case of the marathon, 6,000 other runners. These findings are based on personal experiences as well as reactions and an analysis of the ground as I covered it at all speeds. Because the Venice Marathon is an international race the city becomes a conglomeration of cultures for the weekend. Everywhere you go there are other people who have become a part of the place by running the same race. However, this experience will be different for each culture.

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115 For the true Venetian who took the challenge of running the marathon, this may be the one-day out of the year, or possibly only the few hours out of the year where they feel the tourists are on their side. Every other day of the year, the tourists take it upon themselves to take over this city, crowding the shops and restaurants. However, on this one-day of the year, as you run by the crowds of people it us only second nature to think these people are cheering you on. For the past 24 miles you have seen crowds of people lining the streets shouting their words of encouragement, so who is to say the crowds on the last 2.2 miles are not doing the same. Today this passeggiata became a mixture of those coming to the edge to observe the runners, and the runners moving throughout the city, mostly observing every step they take as the finish draws near. The final steps of the race become a strict observance of the ground you cross as the elevation changes with every step. This act of observing those along the edge who have come to observe you is the ritual once performed by many Venetians, the stroll around town to see and be seen.

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116 LIST OF REFERENCES Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Space Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press, 1958. Baudrillard, Jean. Photographies 1985-1998 Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz Publishers, 2002. Brodsky, Joseph. Watermark New York, New York: The Noonday Press. 1992. Calvino, Italo. Invisible Cities. San Diego, California: Harcourt Brace and Company. 1972. Casey, Edward. Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1998. Davis, Robert C. and Gary R. Marvin. Venice, the Tourist Maze: A Cultural Critique of the World’s Most Touristed City Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. 2004. Frank, Ellen Eve. Literary Architecture: Essays Towards a Tradition Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1979. Gallagher, Winifred. The Power of Place New York, New York: Harper Perennial. 1993. Gregotti, Vittorio. Inside Architecture Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 1996. Gubser, Michael. Time and History in Alois Riegl’s Theory of Perception. Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 5 (2005), http:// need site still (accessed June 21, 2007). Howard, Peter. Heritage Management, Interpretation, Identity New York, New York: Continuum. 2003. Knowles, Alessandra. After Athens and Venice, Cracow. Trieste Contemporanea: La Rivista no. 5 (November 2000), http://www.triestecontemporanea.it/pag4-e.htm (accessed June 26, 2007). Lefebvre, Henri. Writing on Cities Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Limited. 1996. Lynch, Kevin. Image of the City Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 1960. Lynch, Kevin. What Time is this Place? Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 1972. Major, Clearance. Surfaces and Masks Minneapolis, Minnesota: Coffeehouse Press. 1988. McGregor, James, H. Venice From the Ground Up Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University. 2006. Merriam Webster Online s.v. “Monument.” http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/monument (accessed May 22, 2007).

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117 Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2006. Pallasmaa, Juhani, Eyes of the Skin West Sussex, England: Wiley-Academy. 2005. Pertot, Gianfranco. Venice Extraordinary Maintenance. London, England: Gianfranco Pertot and Paul Holberton Publishing. 2004. Plant, Margaret. Venice Fragile City: 1797-1997 New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. 2002. Robinson, Mark. Timeless Venice Pallas Athene. 2003. CD-ROM Ruskin, John. St. Mark’s Rest London, England: George Allen. 1904. Ruskin, John. The Stones of Venice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. 1960. Sola Morales, Ignasi de. Differences: Topographies of Contemporary Architecture Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 1997. Schneekloth, Lynda H. and Robert G. Shibley. Placemaking: The Art and Practice of Building Communities. New York, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1995. The Venice Charter. http://www.icomos.org/ venice_charter.html. (accessed May 24, 2007). Tuan, Yi-Fu. Space and Place Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. 1977. Tung, Anthony. Preserving the World’s Great Cities New York, New York: Three Rivers Press. 2001. Tunnard, Christopher. With a Heritage So Rich “Landmarks of Beauty and History.” New York, New York: Random House. 1966. Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation: An introduction to Its History, Principles, and Practice. New York, New York: W.W. Norton and Company. 2000. Venezia: Pianta della Cittia. Storti Edizione. 2006. [Map of Venice.] Woods, Lebbeus. Gr(o)und. Bern, Switzerland: RIEA. 2003.

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118 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Marie Vogler was born in Cadillac, Michigan, on May 20th, 1983. The oldest child of Christopher and Carole Vogler, she grew up in Rockford, Michigan. In 1996 she and her family moved to DeBary, Florida. Marie graduated from DeLand High School in 2001 and completed a Bachelor of Design in 2005. After attending the Nantucket Design studio in the summer of 2004 she became interested in photography and historic preservation. In 2005 she entered a master’s program in architecture and one in architectural studies at the University of Florida, where she is currently interested in historic preservation and adaptive reuse of historic structures. In the fall of 2005 she attended the Vicenza Institute of Architecture studying the architecture, language and the culture of Italy. Her graduate studies included work in various places throughout Mexico, New Orleans, Tampa, and with the Gainesville Community Redevelopment Agency. In New Orleans she documented 1,500 homes in the Holy Cross Historic District during spring break of 2006. While working with the Gainesville CRA she photographed and worked on the nomination report for the Fifth Avenue historic district. During October of 2006 Mari e completed the Venice Marathon, which lead to an even deeper understanding of the culture in Venice and throughout the Veneto. Her experiences during this three-hour race and the runs leading up to the event were some of the most influential cultural experiences within the semester and became a starting point for this thesis. She graduated with a Master of Architecture in May 2007 and will graduate with a Master of Science in Architectural Studies in August of 2007.