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Levels of Student Development in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021438/00001

Material Information

Title: Levels of Student Development in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (105 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Estevez, Brian J
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agriculture, cals, chickering, development, florida, student, undergraduates, university
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Science at the University of Florida. This study was administered to undergraduates in three purposely selected classes; AEE 2014-Economics and you, AEE-Principles of agribusiness, and FOS 3042-Introduction to food science. The sample consisted of 451 undergraduates enrolled in the purposely selected classes in the College of Agricultural and Life Science at the University of Florida. The participants completed form 2.99 of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment. Form 2.99 measured undergraduates on the establishing and clarifying purpose task. The dependent variables in this study were the educational involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and cultural participation subtasks. The independent variables were gender, ethnicity, international student classification, current residence, employment, current number of credit hours, leadership positions held, academic standing, number of semesters attended college, and involvement in extracurricular activities. Participants in this study reported student development scores that were very similar to the national normative sample as measured by the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment. Participants also reported they were familiar with jobs in their career area, had some experience in their career area, had clear priorities for establishing a family, were involved in lifestyle planning activities, had become more culturally sophisticated in college, and took the initiative to set up conferences with an academic advisor. However, participants had not formed a personal relationship with faculty members, made a firm decision about an academic major, or joined a student organization related to their career area.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brian J Estevez.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Osborne, Edward W.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021438:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021438/00001

Material Information

Title: Levels of Student Development in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (105 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Estevez, Brian J
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agriculture, cals, chickering, development, florida, student, undergraduates, university
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Science at the University of Florida. This study was administered to undergraduates in three purposely selected classes; AEE 2014-Economics and you, AEE-Principles of agribusiness, and FOS 3042-Introduction to food science. The sample consisted of 451 undergraduates enrolled in the purposely selected classes in the College of Agricultural and Life Science at the University of Florida. The participants completed form 2.99 of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment. Form 2.99 measured undergraduates on the establishing and clarifying purpose task. The dependent variables in this study were the educational involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and cultural participation subtasks. The independent variables were gender, ethnicity, international student classification, current residence, employment, current number of credit hours, leadership positions held, academic standing, number of semesters attended college, and involvement in extracurricular activities. Participants in this study reported student development scores that were very similar to the national normative sample as measured by the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment. Participants also reported they were familiar with jobs in their career area, had some experience in their career area, had clear priorities for establishing a family, were involved in lifestyle planning activities, had become more culturally sophisticated in college, and took the initiative to set up conferences with an academic advisor. However, participants had not formed a personal relationship with faculty members, made a firm decision about an academic major, or joined a student organization related to their career area.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brian J Estevez.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Osborne, Edward W.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021438:00001


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LEVELS OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT INT THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL
AND LIFE SCIENCES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA





















By

BRIAN JOSEPH ESTEVEZ


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007





























O 2007 Brian Joseph Estevez





























To my parents, Thomas and Cheryl Estevez.
I told you that I was doing something!!!









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Once upon a time in a land far, far away, a fine piece of literature would never have started

if not for several individuals who willingly provided enormous amounts of love, patience, and

kindness. To begin, I humbly and graciously thank Dr. Edward W. Osborne for his honesty,

kindness, and patient guidance during my time as a graduate student. Dr. Osborne took me in

after losing my entire committee halfway through my graduate program. I warned him that I

might scare him off as well, but he stuck around and became the guiding voice and mentor that I

desperately needed. His dedication to students, commitment to excellence, warm smile, and

expectation for superior work pushed me to finish this document with pride. It truly was an

honor and a privilege to have been blessed with the opportunity to work with and learn from

such a faithful, respected, and accomplished individual and all around great Gator!

I would also like to thank Dr. Hannah Carter for being an exciting and helpful addition to

my graduate committee. Her leadership, insight, and thoughtful comments continued to

challenge me during this process. Her big smile and enthusiasm helped push me to finish this

paper. From her teaching ability in the classroom to her thought provoking comments in a

meeting, Dr. Carter has been a big inspiration to me. It was truly a privilege to have Dr. Carter

as a part of my committee.

A big thank you is in order for a few special people who contributed to the success of this

paper. CALS Dean Kirby Barrick and director of student development Chris Vitelli deserve

thanks for their assistance, guidance, and funding for this proj ect. Susan Morgan at Appalachian

State University receives my gratitude for her kind response to countless emails and questions. It

was a privilege to work with such wonderful people.

A special thank you and shout-out is in order for some blessings that I like to call my

friends; Elio Chiarelli, Katy Groseta, Christy Windham, Carrie and Michael Pedreiro, Ginger










Larson, Emily Hand, Katie Chodil, Ann Delay and Jason Eatmon, Audrey Vail, Rochelle

Strickland, Marlene von Stein, Jessica Blythe, Charlie Nealis, Courtney and Daniel Meyers,

Aaron and Corien Peavy, and Scot Eubanks. Each of these people made Gainesville and my

graduate program a little bit sweeter. From trips to Archer, to Gator games, to 408 fun, to

National Championships, to talks over ice cream, they made graduate school fun and exciting.

Each one made me a better person in my faith, my friendships, my work ethic, and my schooling.

I love each of them so very much. I hope they all remember that .. if you ain't a Gator, you're

Gator Bait!!!

I want to give a special thank you to Elio Chiarelli, Katy Groseta, Christy Windham, and

Aaron and Corien Peavy for their love over the past two years. They had a big part in this and I

am grateful for their prayers and for being big blessings in my life. They have really made

Philippians 4:4 applicable for me!i I love you more than you know and I thank you for being my

best friends.

Next, I want to thank my family for being blessings in my life. First, I want to thank my

Mother, Cheryl, for instilling a rock-solid faith in me from a very early age. I also want to thank

her for her support and love as I finished my graduate degree. My Father, Thomas, has had a

large influence on my character, work ethic, and skills. He has always guided and supported me

as I progressed through my education. I thank my sister, Kelly, for the fun times as we grew up.

Finally, I thank my brother, Zachary, for being a great sibling and friend. Learn from my

mistakes and remember that I am bigger than you, so I can still beat you up!

Finally, I thank God for sending Jesus to save me from my sins. I have been blessed more

than I ever should have and am ever thankful for your grace, mercy, and provision. I forever

long to "Delight in the Lord"-Psalm 37:4. -:--:< Go Gators!!!












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ................ ...............8............ ....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 12...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............14.......... ......


Introducti on ................. .......... ...............14.......
Developing Competence .............. ...............16....
M managing Emotions. .............. .. .... ........ ......... .............1
Moving through Autonomy toward Interdependence .............. ...............16....
Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships ................ ..............................17
Establishing Identity ................. ...............17.......... ......
Developing Purpose............... ...............17
Developing Integrity ................. ...............18.................
Problem Statement ................. ...............19.................

Purpose and Obj ectives ................. ...............19................
Definition of Terms .............. .....................19

Significance .............. ...............20....
Limitations ................. ...............20.................
Assum options .............. ...............21....


2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .............. ...............22....


Introducti on ................. ...............22.................

Purpose and Obj ectives ................. ...............22................
History of Student Development .............. ...............22....
Maj or Contributing Authors and Theorists ................. ...............24........... ..
Erik Erikson ................. ...............24.................
Kenneth Keniston ................ ...............25.................
James M arcia ................. ...............26.................
Art Chickering ................. ...............26.......... .....
Theoretical Framework......................... ... .........2
Chickering's Seven Vectors of Student Development .............. ...............30....
Vector 1: Developing Competence .............. ...............30....
Vector 2: Managing Emotions. ................. ......... ..... ........... ...........3
Vector 3: Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence ................. ................31
Vector 4: Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships ................ ............. .......32
Vector 5: Establishing Identity ........._.___..... .___ ...............34.....
Vector 6: Developing Purpose............... ...............34
Vector 7: Developing Integrity ........._.___........... ...............36...












Sequence of the Vectors ................ ...............37................
Student Development ................. ...............38.................


3 IVETHODOLOGY .............. ...............41....


Introducti on ................. ...............41.................
Research Design .............. ...............41....
Population ................. ...............42.................
Instrumentation ............ ..... .._ ...............43...
Data Collection .............. ...............47....
Data Analysis............... ...............48
Summary ............ ..... .._ ...............49...


4 RE SULT S .............. ...............50....


Obj ective 1: To Assess Levels of Student Development of Undergraduates in the
College of Agricultural and Life Sciences ...._ ......_____ .......___ ...........5
Career Planning Subtask............... ...............51
Lifestyle Planning Subtask ............_ ..... ..__ ...............57...
Cultural Participation Subtask ............_ ..... ..__ ...............62...
Educational Involvement Subtask ............... ........__ ... ......_ .............6

Obj ective 2: To Examine the Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and
the Levels of Student Development of Undergraduates in the College of Agricultural
and Life Sciences .............. ...............71....


5 SU1V1VARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOM1VENDATIONS .............. ....................8


Summary of Findings .............. ...............82....
O objective 1............... ...............82...
Obj ective 2. ........._.._.. ...._... ...............85....
Conclusions............... .... ............8
Discussion and Implications ........._..... ...._... ...............88....
Recommendations.................. .. ..........9
Recommendations for Practice............... ...............91
Recommendations for Future Research............... ...............93


APPENDIX


A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL .............. ...............96....


B APPROVED INFORIVED CONSENT ................. ...............97................


LI ST OF REFERENCE S ................. ...............98................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............105......... ......










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1 Class Participation by Undergraduates in Selected CALS Courses .............. .................51

4-2 Number of Enrolled College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students and Survey
Respondents by Class .............. ...............51....

4-3 Post hoc Internal Reliability Estimates for the Student Developmental Task and
Lifestyle Assessment Instrument ......__................. ...............51......

4-4 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Employment Prospects after College .........52

4-5 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking about Careers Within the Past
Six M months ........._.__ ..... .._ ._ ...............52....

4-6 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by the Ability to Name Beginning-Level
Positions in Related Fields............... ...............53.

4-7 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Meeting with Professional in my Field.......53

4-8 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Becoming Acquainted with Three
People Actively Involved in Chosen Occupational Area .............. ....................5

4-9 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Career Area of Interest .............. ..............54

4-10 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking About Occupations......................54

4-11 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking about Narrowing the Number
of Career Areas to Explore .............. ...............54....

4-12 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Taking Action for a Possible Career..._......55

4-13 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Establishing a Plan for Gaining Practical
Experience in Pursued Career Area ........._._ ....__. ...............55.

4-14 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Experience in Career Area..........................56

4-15 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Having Trouble Visualizing Day-To-
Day Work in Selected Career Area............... ...............56..

4-16 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Joining College Organizations Related
to Chosen Occupational Field............... ...............56.

4-17 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Visiting a Career Center or Library to
Obtain Information about a Chosen Career ........._. ...... .... ....._. ..........5

4-18 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Consistent Plans with Personal Values.......57











4-19 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Developing Strategies to Maximize
Strengths and Minimize Weaknesses to Accomplish Goals ................. ......................57

4-20 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking about Life Five Years after
College ................ ...............58.................

4-21 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Achieving Goals Established for the
Next Ten Years .............. ...............58....

4-22 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Not Achieving my Present Educational
Plans ................. ...............59.................

4-23 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Considering the Impact of the Present
Course of Study and Goals .............. ...............59....

4-24 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Deciding about Marriage ................... .........59

4-25 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Weighing the Importance of
Establishing a Family and Goals............... ...............60.

4-26 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Continuing Hobbies 10 Years from Now...60

4-27 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Developing Skills and Habits to
Continue Learning after College............... ...............60

4-28 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Investigating the Process to Satisfy
Needs or Desires for Material Goods............... ...............61.

4-29 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Considering Tradeoffs Needed for
Personal Lifestyle............... ...............6

4-30 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Efforts to Broaden Understanding of
Culture............... ...............62

4-31 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Seeking Out Opportunities to Learn
About Cultural or Artistic Forms ................. ...............62...............

4-32 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Becoming More Culturally
Sophisticated in College .............. ...............63....

4-33 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Attending a Cultural Event When Not
Required For a Class ................. ...............63................

4-34 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Visiting a Museum or Art Exhibit When
Not Required for a Class............... ...............63.

4-35 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Participating in the Arts for Their Own
Benefit ................. ...............64.................










4-36 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Frequently Participating in Cultural
Activities ................. ...............64.................

4-37 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Academic Maj or Choices ................... ........65

4-3 8 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Investigating Possible Academic Maj ors ...65

4-39 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Requirements of an Academic Maj or.........66

4-40 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Investigating the Abilities and
Background Needed to be Successful in an Academic Maj or ........._..._... ............_.......66

4-41 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Working with an Academic Advisor..........67

4-42 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Having a Serious Conversation about
Long-Term Educational Obj ectives with an Academic Advisor ................. ................67

4-43 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Having a Mature Working Relationship
with Members of the Academic Community .....__.....___ ..........._ ...........6

4-44 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Forming Personal Relationships with
Professors ........... ..... .._ ...............68...

4-45 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Having a Serious Discussion with a
Faculty M ember ........... ..... .._ ...............68...

4-46 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Attending Lectures Dealing with
Serious Intellectual Subj ects ........... ..... .._ ...............69..

4-47 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Reading a Non-Required Publication
Related to my Maj or Field ................. ...............69.....__ ...

4-48 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Spending Free Time............... ..................70

4-49 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Being Engaged in a Student
Organization in the Past 6 Months ........... __... ........ ...............70..

4-50 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Participating in Practical Experience
Related to Educational Goal s............... ...............70.

4-51 Standardized Means and Standard Deviations for the Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task .....__.....___ ..........._ ...........7

4-52. Frequencies and Percentages of Males and Females ......____ ....... .__ ............ ....72

4-53 Frequencies and Percentages of Race and/or Cultural Background .............. ...............72

4-54 Frequencies and Percentages of Academic Class Standing ................. ............ .........72










4-55 Frequencies and Percentages of Current Residence .............. ...............73....

4-56 Frequencies and Percentages of International Students .....__.___ ........._. ..............73

4-57 Frequencies and Percentages of Semesters Attended a College or University
Excluding the Current Semester .............. ...............73....

4-58 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Number of Credit Hours Taken in
Spring 2007 Semester ................. ...............74................

4-59 Correlation Between Academic Class Standing and Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task ................. ...............75........... ...

4-60 Analysis of Variance for Racial or Cultural Background with the Career Planning,
Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks
and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task ................. ........._.__ ...... 76.........

4-61 Frequency and Means of Racial or Cultural Backgrounds with the Lifestyle Planning
Subtask ........._.__...... ..__ ...............76....

4-62 Frequency and Means of Racial or Cultural Backgrounds with the Career Planning
Subtask ........._.__...... ..__ ...............76....

4-63 Correlation Between Current Residence with the Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task ......__....._.__._ ......._._. ...........7

4-64 Correlation Between International Students with the Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task ....._.__._ .............. ....__ ...........7

4-65 Correlation Between Gender with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural
Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying
Purpose Task............... ...............78..

4-66 Correlation Between being in a Leadership Position with the Career Planning,
Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks
and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task ................. ........._.__ ...... 79.........

4-67 Correlation Between Number of Credit Hours Taken in the Spring 2007 Semester
with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational
Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task..............................80

4-68 Correlation Between Employment Status and the Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task ....._.__._ .............. ....__ ...........8









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

LEVELS OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND
LIFE SCIENCES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

By

Brian Joseph Estevez

August 2007

Chair: Edward Osborne
Major: Agricultural Education and Communication

The purpose of this study was to examine student development of undergraduates in the

College of Agricultural and Life Science at the University of Florida. This study was

administered to undergraduates in three purposely selected classes; AEE 2014-Economics and

you, AEE-Principles of agribusiness, and FOS 3042-Introduction to food science.

The sample consisted of 451 undergraduates enrolled in the purposely selected classes in

the College of Agricultural and Life Science at the University of Florida. The participants

completed form 2.99 of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment. Form 2.99

measured undergraduates on the establishing and clarifying purpose task. The dependent

variables in this study were the educational involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and

cultural participation subtasks. The independent variables were gender, ethnicity, international

student classification, current residence, employment, current number of credit hours, leadership

positions held, academic standing, number of semesters attended college, and involvement in

extracurricular activities.

Participants in this study reported student development scores that were very similar to the

national normative sample as measured by the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle

Assessment. Participants also reported they were familiar with j obs in their career area, had









some experience in their career area, had clear priorities for establishing a family, were involved

in lifestyle planning activities, had become more culturally sophisticated in college, and took the

initiative to set up conferences with an academic advisor. However, participants had not formed

a personal relationship with faculty members, made a firm decision about an academic maj or, or

joined a student organization related to their career area.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Introduction

Two fundamental beliefs of education are that people can change and that educators and

educational environments can affect change (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1987). Observations of

college students from entry through graduation confirm that students do change as a direct result

of the higher education experience (Astin, 1977; Feldman & Newcomb, 1969; Pace, 1979). The

main purpose of higher education should be to encourage intentional psychosocial

developmental changes in students (Chickering, 1981).

There is considerably more to higher education than academic and intellectual learning

alone (Hazen Foundation, 1968). Students' interactions with teachers; encounters with college

leaders; involvement in friendship groups; acquisition of values from the student culture; and

exposure to climates of flexibility or rigidity that permeate the college environments, as well as

the colleges' operative educational goals, all have an immense impact on the evolution of

students' self and world views, on their confidence and altruism, and on their achievement of

personal identity and mature intimacy. By the very fact that colleges intend to inform students'

minds, these institutions become intimately involved in the development of the whole person, of

which intellectual faculties are but a part (Hazen Foundation, 1968; Pascarella & Terenzini,

1991).

Just as there are intellectual knowledge to be gained and academic skills to be acquired in

college, there is also knowledge about oneself to be learned and interpersonal skills to be

developed (Astin, 1993). Likewise, just as academic competence can be taught and learned, so

can personal assessment, goal setting, interpersonal skills, and other important life skills (Gazda,

Childers, & Brooks, 1987; Miller & Price, 1976). Sanford (1965) noted, "How a student turns









out at the end of his (or her) college experience-depends both on what he (or she) was like at the

time of admission and upon the influences of college" (p. 42).

As Chickering (1981) noted, every college and university in the country (whether public or

private, 2-year or 4-year) is in the business of shaping human lives, lives that reflect much more

than academic learning. The key issue is not so much whether the higher education experience

promotes growth and development beyond the intellectual domain alone, for there is consensus

that it does, but rather what forms that development takes and how it can be identified and

assessed. The effects of college on student growth and development are determined by the

characteristics of the individual student and the influence of his or her academic program, extent

of involvement with university-sponsored services, and the impact of student-faculty interactions

(Astin, 1977, 1993; Bauer, 1995). "The overarching educational purpose of our colleges and

universities should be to encourage and enable intentional developmental change in students"

(Chickering & Havinghurst, 1982, p. 2).

According to data taken from Cooperative Institutional Research Program (Sax, Astin,

Korn, & Mahoney, 2000), based on more than 260,000 first time freshmen from more than 400

colleges and universities nationwide, 72% of the students reported that one of the primary

reasons they decided to attend college was to get a better j ob. This describes why 64% of the

2003 high school graduating class went directly to college (Education facts at a glance, 2006).

Individuals who obtain a college degree are more likely to earn higher annual incomes than

individuals who obtain a high school diploma (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001).

Chickering (1969) maintained that the increasing complexity of the world society has

created a new developmental period. The developmental age spanning the years from 18 to 25

must be studied separately from other developmental stages because the tasks of the period are









related to, but substantially different from, those of both adolescence and adulthood. Calling this

developmental stage "the young adult," Chickering (1969, p. 8) postulated seven major

developmental tasks that he called developmental vectors. In a revision of Education and

Identity (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 43), the authors downplayed the young adult emphasis.

They then proposed a comparable set of developmental vectors in a slightly different order and

with slightly different emphases. The latter set of vectors follows.

Developing Competence

Competence involves the development of intellectual competence, physical and manual

skills, and social and interpersonal competence. It reflects a sense of confidence defined as "the

confidence that one can cope with what comes and achieve goals successfully" (Chickering &

Reisser, 1993, p. 53; Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999).

Managing Emotions

The student' s first task along this vector is to become aware of feelings and to

acknowledge and trust them to recognize that they provide information relevant to contemplated

behavior or to decisions about future plans. As a larger range of feelings is fully expressed, new

and more useful patterns of expression and control can be achieved (Winston, Miller, & Cooper,

1999).

Moving through Autonomy toward Interdependence

Mature independence requires both emotional and instrumental independence and the

recognition of one's interdependencies. To be emotionally independent is to be free of continual

and pressing needs for reassurance, affection, or approval. Instrumental independence has two

components: the ability to carry on activities and to cope with problems without seeking help,

and the ability to be mobile in relation to one's needs. Interdependency is recognizing that

loving and being loved are complementary, or that one cannot receive benefits of a social









structure without contributing to it. "Developing autonomy culminates in the recognition that

one cannot operate in a vacuum and that greater autonomy enables healthier forms of

interdependence" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 47; Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999).

Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships

Relationships should shift toward greater trust, independence, and individuality and

become less anxious, defensive, and burdened by inappropriate past reactions. Mature

relationships are more friendly, spontaneous, warm, and respectful. Maturity is reflective of

"long-lasting relationships that endure through crises, distance, and separation" (Chickering &

Reisser, 1993, p. 48). Developing greater tolerance for differences is a significant aspect of this

task (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999).

Establishing Identity

Identity is an advanced vector that reflects confidence in one's ability to maintain inner

sameness and continuity. Further, identity involves clarification of conceptions concerning

physical needs, characteristics, and personal appearances; clarification of sexual identification

and of sex appropriate roles and behaviors; and a sense of self-esteem, personal stability, and

integration. Establishing identity "leads to clarity and stability and a feeling of warmth for this

core self as capable, familiar, worthwhile" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 47; Winston, Miller,

& Cooper, 1999).

Developing Purpose

Development of purpose requires formulating plans and priorities that integrate avocational

and recreational interests, vocational plans, and life-style considerations. "Developing purpose

entails an increasing ability to be intentional, to assess interests and options, to clarify goals, to

make plans for action" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 47; Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999).









Developing Integrity

Developing integrity involves humanizing and personalizing values and developing

congruent values. Humanizing of values describes the shift from a literal belief in the

absoluteness of rules to a more relative view. Personalizing of values occurs as values are first

examined and then selected by an individual. The development of congruence is the

achievement of behavior consistent with the personalized values held. "With this final stage,

internal debate is minimized." .. and "the response .. is made with conviction, without debate

or equivocation" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 47; Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999).

According to Chickering (1969), these seven areas represent the common core of

development during the young adult college years and are variously termed growth trends,

developmental tasks, stages of development, needs and problem areas, or student typologies.

Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) noted that no other theorist has had a greater influence on the

study of college student development. Chickering' s work will be used as the foundation of the

theoretical framework to guide this study.

Chickering's seven vectors enable student development professionals to understand how

students are adjusting to deal with the uncertainty of adulthood. In addition, the seven vectors

also enable student personnel in higher education to better understand their roles as student

development professionals by specifying a series of interrelated stages college students are

seeking to resolve (Flowers, 2002). Chickering's theory provides researchers and student affairs

practitioners with some very useful descriptors of the emotional and psychological

transformation students might potentially undergo in college (Reisser, 1995; Thomas &

Chickering, 1984; White & Hood, 1989).









Problem Statement

The work of Chickering was used to identify student developmental issues in the College

of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. A lack of knowledge and

information about the developmental needs of students in the College of Agricultural and Life

Sciences at the University of Florida was found. This lack of knowledge extends beyond the

boundaries of the classroom and into areas including involvement, career and lifestyle planning,

and cultural participation. In regards to student development in colleges of agricultural and life

sciences, the review of literature showed a clear void in research in this specific area.

Purpose and Objectives

The purpose of this research will be to examine student development of undergraduates in

the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. This study will

address the following obj ectives:

1. To assess levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and
Life Sciences.

2. To examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and the levels of student
development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following terms were defined:

* Assessment-The means by which students' progress and achievement are measured,
recorded, and communicated to students and relevant university authorities (Miller, Imrie,
& Cox, 1998).

* Developmental Task-An interrelated set of behaviors and attitudes that the culture specifies
should be exhibited at approximately the same chronological time of life by age cohorts in
a designated context (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). The developmental task used in
this study was the establishing and clarifying purpose task and the subtasks measured were
the career planning, lifestyle planning, educational involvement, and cultural participation
subtasks.

* Involvement-The investment of physical and psychological energy in various 'obj ects'
(Astin, 1985, p. 36).










* Psychosocial Development-The emergence and development of the ego, a selective,
integrating coherent agency "which bridges one's inner life and social roles" (Erikson,
1964, p. 148).

* Purpose-An increasing ability to be intentional, to assess interests and options, to clarify
goals, to make plans, and to persist despite obstacles (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 209).

* Student Development-Including those attitudes, skills, and values that enable oneto:
understand and reflect on one's thoughts and feelings; recognize and appreciate the
differences between oneself and others; manage one's personal affairs successfully; care
for those less fortunate; relate meaningfully to others through friendships, marriage, and
civic and political entities; determine personally and socially accepted responses in various
situations; and be economically self-sufficient. These qualities are usually associated with
satisfaction, physical, and psychological well-being, and a balanced, productive life of
work and leisure (Kuh, Schuh, Whitt, & Associates, 1991, p. 13). In this study, student
development was determined by self-reported scores on the Student Developmental Task
and Lifestyle Assessment (STDLA).

* Vector-A series of develop mental tasks, a source of concern, and a set of outcomes
(Chickering, 1969).

Significance

This study will be beneficial in determining obj ectives and developing student programs in

the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. The results of this

study could be used to create and enhance existing leadership programs, career fairs, cultural

events, extracurricular activities, and academic advising in CALS.

Limitations

The data analyzed in this study were collected from undergraduate students in the College

of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida, and generalizations about other

populations and other types of institutions should be used with caution. This descriptive study

assessed levels of student development of undergraduates in CALS at UF at a particular point in

time. Results may not be generalizable to other periods. In addition, a purposive sample of

undergraduates in CALS at UF was selected using undergraduate classes in CALS at UF selected

by the researcher. Thus, results of the study cannot be generalized beyond the data sample.









Assumptions

A number of assumptions were made in conducting the study. First, the researcher

assumed that the participants of the study honestly and accurately completed the instrument

without external influences. This included the assumption that students could accurately recall

information and feelings about educational involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and

their cultural participation.

This thesis was organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 discussed the background and

purpose for the study. Chapter 2 includes findings and research applicable to the problem under

investigation and indicates theory upon which the study was based. Chapter 3 contains the study

design and the methodology used. Results of the data collected and important findings are

organized in Chapter 4, and Chapter 5 summarizes the intent, procedures, and findings of the

study, in addition to the conclusions, implications, and recommendations of the findings.









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Introduction

This chapter presents a review of the relevant literature as it relates to student

development. The chapter focuses on literature that describes student development and presents

relevant theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Throughout this chapter, a number of general

studies about student development are presented. This chapter also summarizes the major

authors and theorists in student development. This review of literature is separated into several

maj or sections: history of student development, maj or authors and theorists, theoretical

framework, and a summary.

Purpose and Objectives

The purpose of this research was to examine student development of undergraduates in the

College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. This study addressed the

following obj ective s:

* To assess levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural
and Life Sciences.

* To examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and the levels of student
development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

History of Student Development

The history of student development has been a relatively brief one in the scheme of

American postsecondary education (Strange, 1999). Wrenn (1959, p. 46) said that, "In short,

student personnel work has philosophic and psychological foundations which have only haltingly

developed and are disturbingly incomplete." Student development was foreshadowed by Harper

(1905, p. 320).

In order that the student may receive the assistance so essential to his highest success,
another step in the onward evolution will take place. This step will be the scientific study










of the student himself....In the time that is coming provision must be made, either by the
regular instructors or by those appointed especially for the purpose, to study in detail the
man or woman to whom instruction is offered.

This feature of twentieth century education will come to be regarded as of greatest
importance, and fifty years hence, will prevail as widely as it is now lacking.

From the Progressive Education Movement of the 1920's (Mayhew, 1977) came an

emphasis on student self-direction and the need for education to work closely with other societal

institutions to affect the total development of students. It was within this context that the

American Council on Education commissioned the Student Personnel Point of View (American

Council on Education, 1937), advocating attention to holistic learning and individual differences

in responding to college student needs.

Today there are many models of college student development and theories that are used as

the foundation for student development research. According to Knefelkamp, Widick, and Parker

(1978), five student development theory clusters have risen from the literature:

1. Psychosocial theories

2. Cognitive developmental theories

3. Maturity models

4. Typology models

5. Person-environment interaction models

Psychosocial theorists suggest that an individual develops through a series of stages in

the life cycle. Each developmental stage or phase is created by the convergence of a particular

growth phase and certain tasks, such as learning certain attitudes and specific skills which must

be mastered to successfully manage that particular phase. In more general terms, psychosocial

theorists suggest that development follows a chronological sequence. At different times in a

person' s life, different aspects of their personality will emerge as a concern that must be









addressed. From a student development viewpoint, these aspects would include: age of the

student, decisions, concerns, and needs of primary concern, and the skills and attitudes that need

to be developed to make decisions and perform tasks (Knefelkamp, Widick, & Parker, 1978).

Cognitive development theories refer to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains

understanding of his or her world through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Among

the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language

development, and memory (Sternberg & Williams, 2002). Heath (1977) described twenty "basic

hypotheses" about the maturing of the whole person. Typology models sort individuals into

categories according to their similarities and differences related to how they manage and cope

with common developmental tasks inherent in the collegiate setting (Kuh, Gonyea, & Rodriguez,

2002). Person-environment interaction theories hold that individual performance is optimized

when one's needs and abilities are congruent with the demands of the environment (Strange and

Banning, 2001).

Psychosocial theories describe how individuals resolve challenges and personal growth

issues at different stages or periods (Kuh, Gonyea, & Rodriguez, 2002). Since Chickering's

seven vectors fall under this category, only psychosocial theories and its relevant theorists will

be discussed.

Major Contributing Authors and Theorists

Erik Erikson

Erikson describes stages in psychosocial development that can be seen at particular times

in the life sequence when physical growth, certain social demands, and cognitive maturation all

converge to create a particular developmental task. In each stage, individuals assume a

psychosocial attitude which ultimately marks an evaluation of themselves as social beings and

contributes another aspect to their identity (Knefelkamp et al., 1978). Erikson's phrase "the









identity crisis" means to suggest a time of motivating uncertainty, typically found in college

students. This crisis is dominated by the search for personal feedback and perfect solutions.

Relationships become important sources of validation and information; Erikson notes,

individuals are "sometimes morbidly, often curiously, preoccupied with what they appear to be

in the eyes of others as compared to what they feel they are" (Erikson, 1959, p. 89).

Erikson argues that one's identity is manifest behaviorally and can be confirmed and

validated by others. A positive sense of identity is seen as a willingness to take on culturally-

prescribed roles of adulthood and participation in the various rites of passage of the society, such

as personal or occupational commitments (Widick, Parker, & Knefelkamp, 1978b). Student

development professionals often comment on the changes in students from one generation to the

next. Each generation of college students reflects the broader societal environment in the way it

addresses the task of identity resolution.

Kenneth Keniston

Keniston refined Erikson's identity stage by focusing on the psychosocial effects of a

rapidly changing society. Keniston was the primary interpreter of psychosocial development of

college students in the 1960s. He suggested that as society went through a new change; college

attendance became the normative social experience for young adults. Keniston also suggested

that college attendance was so distinct a social experience that it created another psychosocial

task and the potential for additional growth upon Erikson's stages. During this new stage, the

identity task shifted from the college students concern with who they were to the dynamic

tension between what they want and what society demands. In general, Keniston's work showed

that the college years provided a testing ground for sorting through how one would reconcile

individual needs and societal norms. His major contribution was the delineation of the changes









in society and the impact those changes have on the tone of the identity stage commitments

(Widick et al., 1978b).

James Marcia

Marcia presented a maj or contribution to psychosocial development both as an

elaboration of the identity resolution process and as a prototype of needed empirical study.

Marcia postulated the existence of different ego-identity statuses which represent styles of

coping with the identity task. He found that the active, conscious attempts to come to terms with

one's identity seem related to a more complex, flexible, and autonomous orientation of others'

commitments (Widick et al., 1978b). Marcia's work served to make the identity task more

concrete and understandable. Marcia (1976) went on to say "college curricula, procedures, in

fact, a total environment should be set up to maximize the occurrence of the identity crisis and to

provide support for resolution. Identity formation will take place in college whether faculty or

administration think it appropriate or not" (p. 128).

Art Chickering

Chickering is recognized as one of the most prominent psychosocial theorists. Pascarella

and Terenzini (1991) have noted that no other theorist has had a greater influence on the study of

college student development. Chickering (1969) wrote his book Education and Identity because

he was interested in increasing the working knowledge necessary for good decision rather than

for refining the theory and research base of student development. Chickering wanted to "make

information accessible to college and university faculty members so that they would have ways

of thinking about how their educational programs could be organized to encourage such

development in more systematic and powerful ways" (Thomas & Chickering, 1984, p. 393). His

work, however, produced the theory upon which all other student development theories are

based. Chickering sought a more detailed framework compared with the work of previous










foundational psychosocial theorists such as Erikson. He also presented his findings in a way that

drew upon and gave coherence to the wealth of college student change data provided by theorists

such as Feldman and Newcomb (1969).

Echoing Keniston (1971), Chickering saw the traditional-aged college student as a person

in a distinct psychosocial phase defined by the emergence of certain inner capabilities and needs

which interact with the demands of a particular college environment (Widick, Parker, and

Knefelkamp, 1978a, p. 20). Chickering also based his work off of Erikson' s (1968) work and the

identity stage. Chickering (1969) stated, "At one level of generalization, all the developmental

vectors could be classified under the general heading 'identity formation'" (p. 78).

Studies have shown that changes occur as students' progress through their college career

(Brown, 1972; Winston & Miller, 1987). Not only does change occur in students' academic and

social development, but also in their psychosocial development. Chickering's (1969) theory

claims that it is essential for students to go through seven vectors of development to establish a

self-identity. In Chickering's theory of psychosocial development, "vectors" instead of "stages"

are used because there is no set time line for students to be at particular points at particular times

(Lien, 2002).

Theoretical Framework

The seven vectors proposed by Chickering (1969) for the development of young adults

were :

1. Developing competence

2. Managing emotions

3. Developing autonomy

4. Establishing identity

5. Freeing interpersonal relationships









6. Developing purpose

7. Developing integrity

In a revision of Education andldentity (Chickering & Reisser, 1993), the authors

downplayed the young adult emphasis, yet then proposed a similar set of developmental vectors

in a slightly different order with a slightly different emphasis. Chickering and Reisser reordered

their vectors based on research that questioned the assumption that personal autonomy is a

necessary condition for achieving intimacy. Thus, the autonomy vector was moved prior to the

developing mature interpersonal relationships vector. The latter set of vectors follows:

1. Developing competence

2. Managing emotions

3. Moving through autonomy toward interdependence

4. Developing mature interpersonal relationships

5. Establishing identity

6. Developing purpose

7. Developing integrity

Although Chickering and Reisser hesitated to depict development in their model as

proceeding from one stage to another, they did propose a sequential model suggesting that earlier

vectors form a foundation for later vectors. They noted that early college experiences are likely

to move students along the first four vectors, which in turn helps them develop their identity.

After developing their identity (vector 5), students are more likely and able to develop purpose

and integrity (Foubert, Nixon, Shamim-Sisson, & Barnes, 2005). Student development occurs

sequentially along these seven stages in college (Flowers, 2002).










The seven vectors can be viewed as a series of developmental tasks, a source of concern,

and a set of outcomes. The vectors in psychosocial terms specify the nature and range of those

tasks. The vectors also define the central concerns of the student and the tasks which will

confront them and become sources of worry. Finally, each vector outlines changes in self-

awareness, attitudes, and/or skills which are manifestations of successful completion of that task

or vector (Widick et al., 1978a). According to Chickering and Reisser (1993), these seven areas

represent the common core of the maj or foundations of non-intellective development during the

college years variously termed growth trends, developmental tasks, stages of development,

personal development, needs and problems areas, or student typologies. Their theory "assumes

that emotional, interpersonal, and ethical development deserve equal billing with intellectual

development" (p. 39).

Chickering's seven vectors enable student development professionals to understand how

students are adjusting to the uncertainty of adulthood. In addition, the seven vectors also enable

student personnel in higher education to better understand their roles as student development

professionals by specifying a series of interrelated stages that college students are seeking to

resolve. Stated another way, Chickering's theory provides researchers and student affairs

practitioners with some very useful descriptors of the emotional and psychological

transformation students might potentially undergo in college (Reisser, 1995; Thomas &

Chickering, 1984; White & Hood, 1989). As Chickering and Reisser (1993) stated, "student

development should be the organizing purpose for higher education... Community and four-year

institutions can have significant impact on student development along the maj or vectors

addressed" (p. 265).









Chickering's Seven Vectors of Student Development

Vector 1: Developing Competence

Competence involves the development of intellectual competence, physical, and manual

skills, and social and interpersonal competence. This first vector reflects a sense of competence

defined as "the confidence that one can cope with what comes and achieve goals successfully"

(Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 53). Adhering to the criticism set forth by Widdick et al.

(1978a) that the original theory of student development did not have enough information in the

area of student development, Chickering included information with respect to intellectual

competence for this vector, with specific focus on relative thought. Chickering also noted the

importance of ensuring that students receive special sessions to fine tune their skills in active

listening, constructive feedback, and public speaking opportunities to achieve their interpersonal

competence (Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Moore & Upcraft, 1990; Thomas & Chickering, 1984,

Lien, 2002).

This vector includes three spheres: intellectual competence, physical and manual

competence, and social competence. Increased skills in these three spheres can lead to a sense of

confidence, an inner judgment that one is capable of handling and mastering a range of tasks

(Chickering, 1969).

Increased intellectual competence involves many elements, most notably knowledge

acquisition and the gaining of critical thinking skills, particularly the capacity for analysis,

synthesis, evaluation, and creation of ideas. While in college, students become increasingly able

to work effectively in groups and to manage a multitude of social situations. If students can

develop the competencies to allow them to handle their academic work and social situations, a

basic sense of competence will emerge. This self-evaluation can propel students onward to new

experiences and towards growth in subsequent vectors (Widick et al., 1978a).









Vector 2: Managing Emotions

The student' s first task along this vector is to become aware of feelings and to

acknowledge and trust them, to recognize that they provide information relevant to contemplated

behavior or to decisions about future plans. As a larger range of feelings is fully expressed, new

and more useful patterns of expression and control can be achieved (Chickering & Reisser,

1993). Szulecka, Springett, and de Pauw (1987) suggested that the major causes of attrition in

first-year college students are emotional rather than academic factors. Leafgran (1989)

suggested that students who are emotionally and socially healthy have a greater chance to

succeed in college. The ability to deal successfully with the multitude of emotional stresses

encountered in college life appears to be an important factor in student retention (Pritchard &

Wilson, 2003).

Development in this vector involves increasing awareness of one's feelings and the

integration of feelings which allow flexible control and expression. Prior to this vector, a college

student is not capable of readily allowing for detached observation and integration of feelings

and purposes. The increasing differentiation of feelings leads to the awareness that feelings can

be trusted to provide useful information and can be expressed (Widick et al., 1978a).

Vector 3: Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence

The development of autonomy is a maj or psychosocial issue in young adulthood and

includes three facets: establishing emotional autonomy, attaining instrumental autonomy, and the

recognition of one's interdependence (Widick et al., 1978a). To be emotionally independent is

to be free of "continual and pressing needs for reassurance, affection, or approval" (Chickering,

1969, p. 12). Instrumental independence has two components, the ability to carry on activities

and to cope with problems without seeking help, and the ability to be mobile in relation to one's

needs. Interdependence is recognizing that loving and being loved are complementary, and that









one cannot receive benefits of a social structure without contributing to it (Winston, Miller, &

Cooper, 1999). "Developing autonomy culminates in the recognition that one cannot operate in

a vacuum and that greater autonomy enables healthier forms of interdependence" (Chickering &

Reisser, 1993, p. 47).

The establishment of instrumental autonomy is the second developmental task in this

vector and it involves the ability to make plans for reaching goals and to be mobile in relation to

one's desires. Characteristics of this task include the ability to identify resources, get help from

the appropriate people, and the use of systematic problem-solving methods. The final

component of this vector is the recognition of interdependence. If the student progresses through

the first three vectors, they will acquire different perceptions and new skills and a sense that they

can handle demands without relying on others (Widick et al., 1978a). Chickering and Reisser

(1993) asserted that the freshmen year in college plays a particularly significant role in overall

student development because the first three vectors are typically developed in the first year.

Taub (1995), in a study targeting the development of women, showed that the

development of freeing interpersonal relationships reflects the development of autonomy. Taub

(1997) confirmed Green and Tinsley's (1988) study that class level increases autonomy since

seniors were found to be more independent than freshmen when autonomy and parental

attachment in various ethnic groups were studied. Green and Tinsley (1988) also found that

intimacy is the best predictor of autonomy for men and women. "Class level, sex role self-

concept, and work role salience were weak but significant predictors of autonomy (Green &

Tinsley, 1988, p. 517).

Vector 4: Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships

In this vector, relationships shift toward greater trust, independence, and individuality;

become less anxious, defensive, and burdened by past reactions; and become more friendly,










spontaneous, warm, and respectful. Maturity is reflective of "long-lasting relationships that

endure through crises, distance, and separation" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 48). Reisser

(1995) acknowledged "that relationships provide powerful learning experiences about feelings,

communication, sexuality, self-esteem, values, and other aspects of identity, for both men and

women" (p. 508). Developing greater tolerance for differences is a significant aspect of this task.

Chickering postulated that development involves increased tolerance and acceptance of

differences between individuals and increased capacity for mature and intimate relationships. In

this vector, the college student develops attitudes and skills marked by empathy. Growth in this

vector is reflected in attitudinal and behavior changes; relationships are viewed as a joint

venture, and interaction is more reciprocal and empathetic (Widick et al., 1978a).

Hood (1984) found that participation in campus organizations and recreational activities

has a positive influence on students' development of mature interpersonal relationships.

Riahinejad and Hood (1984) also showed that participation in extracurricular activities has a

significant influence on the development of students' mature interpersonal relationship. Martin

(2000) found that gender had no influence on the development of mature interpersonal

relationships.

If a student is well integrated into the college, then they will feel in congruence with the

institution (Lien, 2002). More importantly, if a student is well integrated into one or more of the

communities within the institution, then the student will have the self-perception of being a part

of that particular community or communities. Similarly, students who are integrated well with

faculty members and peers feel a strong sense of acceptance; this in turn assists them in growing

both intellectually and personally (Kuh, Schuh, & White, 1991). When time is invested with the










group or community, providing challenge yet support for the students, students become better

developed psychosocially (Stage, 1991).

Vector 5: Establishing Identity

Identity is an advanced vector that reflects confidence in one's ability to maintain inner

sameness and continuity. Further, it involves clarification of conceptions concerning physical

needs, characteristics, and personal appearances; clarification of sexual identification and of sex

appropriate roles and behaviors; and a sense of self-esteem, personal stability, and integration.

Establishing identity "leads to clarity and stability and a feeling of warmth for this core self as

capable, familiar, worthwhile" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 50). Chickering described this

vector as a developmental step that is interwoven with the other vectors such that it is difficult to

distinguish it as a separate developmental realm.

Hood (1984) stated that participation in campus activities boosts confidence, which in

turn facilitates ones' identity development. Erwin and Kelly (1985) confirmed that satisfaction

with academic performance and commitment to career decision assists ones' own identity

development.

Reisser (1995) proposed that, "any experience that helps students define 'who I am',

'who I am not' can help solidify a sense of self and that personal stability and integration are the

result" (p. 509). After developing identity, students are more able to develop purpose and

integrity (Foubert et al., 2005).

Vector 6: Developing Purpose

Development of purpose requires formulating plans and priorities that integrate

recreational interest, vocational plans, and life style considerations. "Developing purpose entails

an increasing ability to be intentional, to assess interests and options, to clarify goals, to make










plans for action" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 50). Ultimately, integration of these factors

results in setting a coherent, yet general, direction for one's life.

Developing purpose encompasses three areas: vocational plans and aspirations, personal

interests, and interpersonal and family commitments. Vocational planning is often accomplished

as students identify those activities that not only give them great pleasure but also use their skill

and abilities. Personal interests involve making choices about personal commitments of time and

energy. Finally, considerations of lifestyle and family are integral aspects of developing purpose

as students attempt to clarify goals in the midst of increasing intimacy in relationships (Moran,

2001).

College seniors (students with more exposure to postsecondary education than freshmen)

reported higher levels of vocational purpose than freshman (Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Hood

& Zerwas, 1997; Flowers, 2002).

Thieke (1994) found that not only do extracurricular activities have significant relationship

to developing purpose, but faculty and student interactions also have significant influence on

developing purpose. Martin (2000) confirmed that faculty-student interaction has a strong

relationship with the development of purpose and sense of competence. Martin' s (2000) study

also shows that the development of purpose is influenced by clubs and organizations, student

acquaintances, topics of conversation, and information in conversations. Simmons (1980) found

that students who have a clearly identified purpose in life tend to value intellectualism,

responsibility, and self-control. Zika and Chamberlain (1992) found that students are less likely

to be depressed, hopeless, or anxious if they have identified a life purpose. Overall, quality of

life is positively related to identified purpose in life (Ulmer, Range, & Smith, 1991). This sixth

vector, developing purpose, is the focus of this study.









Vector 7: Developing Integrity

Developing integrity involves humanizing and personalizing values and developing

congruent values. Humanizing of values describes the shift from a literal belief in the

absoluteness of rules to a more relative view. Personalizing values occurs as values are first

examined and then selected by an individual. The development of congruence is the

achievement of behavior consistent with the personalized values held. "With this final stage,

internal debate is minimized"...and "the response...is made with conviction, without debate or

equivocation" (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 52). This vector in important because as Carter

(1996) noted, many of today's college students have grown up in a social environment that not

only often fails to value integrity but also sometimes actively disparages it.

Chickering sees three phases to this vector that are used to define a set of values that

guide college student' s actions: the humanizing of values, the personalizing of values, and the

seeking of congruence between beliefs and behavior. The humanizing of values shifts students

from a literal doctrine set of beliefs to an awareness of relativity of their values. College students

are now able to look closely and obj ectively at situations and use a sense of complexity to their

value judgments. The personalizing of values allows a student to develop a personal code

reflecting personal assessment and direction. This serves as a flexible guide to the student' s

behavior. Finally, the congruence between beliefs and behavior involves an increased awareness

of the relationship between values held and behavior the increased ability to attain congruence

between action and values (Widick et al., 1978a).

This final vector is reflected in student values: humanizing values and personalizing

values. Humanizing values are relative rather than dualistic (Perry, 1970). Personalizing values

refer to the process of "affirming one' s own values and beliefs, while respecting others' view









points" (Reisser, 1995, p. 510). Carter (1996) noted that a basic aspect of integrity is thinking

about whether an action is right or wrong before deciding on whether to take the action.

This vector emphasizes the interaction of intellectual development and value formation

(Kohlberg, 1964; Perry, 1970) and also the work of Gilligan (1982), which studied the

differences between men and women. Chickering stated that this vector should include the

development of sense of social responsibility in addition to the personal responsibility advanced

by the original constructs (Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Moore & Upcraft, 1990; Thomas &

Chickering, 1984).

Sequence of the Vectors

According to Chickering (1969), these seven areas represent the common core of

development during the young adult college years and are variously termed growth trends,

developmental tasks, stages of development, needs and problem areas, or student typologies.

Although Chickering and Reisser (1993) did not state the order of their vectors as rigidly

sequential, they did note that the vectors should be viewed as a guide to determine where

students are developmentally and where they are headed. Even though Chickering and Reisser

(1993) warned readers that they hesitated to depict development in their model as proceeding

from one stage to another, they did propose a sequential model suggesting that earlier vectors

form a foundation for later vectors. Given the importance of the educational process to

development, it is critical to gauge how and when developmental change occurs during the

process of the college experience (Foubert et al., 2005).

Research has validated that college students develop along Chickering and Reisser' s

(1993) vectors during the college experience (Cooper, Healy, & Simpson, 1994; Martin, 2000;

Straub, 1987). Similarly, Foubert et al. (2005) found that college students advanced in their

development throughout their college experience in the areas of developing purpose, mature









interpersonal relationships, academic autonomy, and tolerance, supporting the validity of

Chickering and Reisser' s (1993) assertion that development along these vectors occurs during

college.

Primarily, Chickering's theory points out that the student population will always remain

diverse across developmental lines. In other words, at any given time, the student body at a

college will contain students from all seven of Chickering' s vectors. Thus, those "administrators

who focus on student leadership development will never be able to focus all of their efforts on

just one aspect of identity development" (Widick et al., 1978a, p. 21). For this reason, student

development programs must remain flexible and diverse in order to accommodate students from

all levels of development.

Student Development

"How students turn out at the end of their college experiences, the degree of their success

from their own point of view, or that of the college, depends both on what they were like at the

time of admission and upon the influences of college" (Sanford, 1962, p. 42). The college

student in developmental terms is a person who is engaged in a variety of age-related

developmental tasks (Strange, 1999). The impact of college on students does not result from a

single experience but involves the "cumulative result of a set of interrelated and mutually

supporting experiences, in class and out, sustained over an extended period of time" (Pascarella

& Terenzini, 1991, p. 31). Pascarella and Terenzini (1991, p. 32) continued:

Thus, although the weight of evidence indicates that the links between involvement and
change tend to be specific, the greatest impact may stem from the student' s total level of
campus engagement, particularly when academic, interpersonal, and extracurricular
involvements are mutually supporting and relevant to a particular educational outcome.

It is important to keep in mind that "the impact [of college] is determined by the quality

of the student' s effort" (Pankanin, 1995, p. 44). The impact of college is a result of the degree to









which the student makes use of the people, leadership positions, facilities, and opportunities

made available by the college or university. Students themselves bear much of the responsibility

for the extent to which involvement makes a difference in their own development and learning

(Hernandez, Hogan, Hathaway, & Lovell, 1999). Chickering (1974) mentioned that the student

culture either amplifies or attenuates the impact of curriculum, teaching, and evaluations,

residence hall arrangements, and student faculty relationships. In addition, Chickering and

Reisser (1993) claim that "when students are encouraged to form friendships and to participate in

communities that become meaningful subcultures, and when diversity of backgrounds and

attitudes, as well as significant interchanges and shared interests exist, development along all

seven vectors is fostered" (p. 316).

Research has indicated that the college years are a critical period for students' personal,

social, and professional growth (Astin, 1985; Astin, 1993). Astin (1985) suggested that student

learning and personal development are directly proportional to the quality and the quantity of

student involvement in the process of learning, including participation in leadership experiences

and activities. The positive influence of campus-wide interactions on students' attitudes,

interests, and values has been documented for decades (Feldman & Newcomb, 1969; Pascarella

& Terenzini, 2005).

Colleges and universities exhibit characteristics of "self-organizing systems" (Caple, 1987,

p. 101), encouraging involvement, responsibility, and creativity on the part of members.

Providing such opportunities in organized educational environments offers an important key for

stimulating students' growth and development (Astin, 1985; Strange, 1981; Strange, 1983).

Kaufman and Creamer (1991) found that beneficial, positive interactions with one's peers

correlate positively with personal and intellectual outcomes. From their reviews, Pascarella and









Terenzini (1991) supported the notion that student interactions with their peers have a strong

influence on attitudinal and psychosocial change.

Nearly every college and university has an expressed commitment to the development of

students as leaders (Boatman, 1999). Since the inception of student development constructs in

higher education, many student affairs practitioners view the higher education experience as

more than academic and intellectual development (Brown & Barr, 1990; Creamer, 1990; Hess &

Winston, 1995; Miller, 1982). Student affairs staff engaged in the developmental activities of

student leaders find the development challenge for higher education is empowering students.

The essential ingredient of effective leadership is helping students develop their talents and

attitudes enabling them to become positive social change agents (Astin & Astin, 2000).

"Leadership is now understood by many to imply collective action, orchestrated in such a way as

to bring about significant change while raising the competencies and motivation of all those

involved" (Bornstein & Smith, 1996, p.281).

In this chapter, literature associated with student development was examined and

summarized to provide a clear understanding of what student development within higher

education is responsible for accomplishing. Next, a review of literature associated with Art

Chickering's theory of student development was presented. This literature provided the

background for a theoretical framework and the seven vectors of student development. This

theory was the most appropriate to levels of student development in the College of Agricultural

and Life Sciences at the University of Florida.









CHAPTER 3
IVETHODOLOGY

Introduction

Chapter 1 described the changes that affect undergraduate students in colleges and

universities and provided the background for studying the levels of student development in the

College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the University of Florida (UF). Chapter 1

also explained the significance of the study and identified its purpose. The chapter concluded by

defining key terms and stating the assumptions and limitations of the study.

Chapter 2 presented a discussion of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that guided

this study. Chapter 2 focused specifically on literature related to the work of Chickering and his

seven vectors of student development.

This chapter describes the methodology used to answer the research questions presented in

the study. This chapter also addresses the research design, population and sample,

instrumentation development, and data collection and analysis. The following research

obj ectives were assessed:

* To assess levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural
and Life Sciences.

* To examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and the levels of student
development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

Research Design

This study utilized a descriptive survey research design. This approach uses the cross-

sectional design, which asks questions of respondents at one point in time. This was also a

small-scale survey, in which the typical sample size is between 200-300 respondents. A

limitation of this type of research design was that the researcher may or may not be able to

analyze the direction of casual relationships. Selection was one threat to validity in this study.









The researcher took every effort to avoid bias in selecting a broad sample of undergraduates in

CALS. The next threat to validity was the interaction of history and treatment. The survey was

administered was in the classroom setting and once participants finished the survey, they were

then allowed to leave the classroom. The researcher had no control over how fast participants

finished the survey. The researcher recognizes the fact that some of the participants may have

been accustomed to the instrument. History, maturation, testing, mortality, and statistical

regression were potential threats that were not involved with this study. Another threat to

validity was nonresponse (Ary et al., 2002). This was addressed by directly administering the

survey to the selected classes.

Population

The population for the study was defined as all undergraduates in the College of

Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the University of Florida (UF) for the spring 2007

semester. At the time of data collection, Spring 2007 semester, CALS had 3274 undergraduate

students (Turner, personal communication, February 22, 2007). The class breakdown of

undergraduates in CALS was as follows:

* Freshmen (n=325)
* Sophomores (n=427)
* Juniors (n=1224)
* Seniors (n=1298)

Underclassmen comprised of 23% (n=752) of the undergraduate population, while

upperclassmen comprised of 77% (n=2422) of the undergraduate population (Turner, personal

communication, February 22, 2007). The researcher gathered data on eleven introductory

courses in CALS. Population data and class ratios were then analyzed and a combination of

undergraduate classes was selected for this research to mimic the upperclassmen and









underclassmen percentages in CALS. A purposive sample consisted of undergraduates in CALS

at UF from the following classes:

* AEB 2014-Economic Issues Food and You
* AEB 3 133-Principles of Agribusiness Management
* FOS 3042-Introduction to Food Science


AEB 2014 had 118 students enrolled, with 36.4% (n=43) underclassmen and 54.2% (n=64)

upperclassmen. Nine percent (n=1 1) of students enrolled in AEB 2014 were not students in

CALS or not undergraduates. AEB 3133 had 116 students enrolled, with 9% (n=1 1)

underclassmen and 87.9% (n=102) upperclassmen. Three percent (n=3) of students enrolled in

AEB 3133 were not students in CALS or not undergraduates. FOS 3042 had 217 students

enrolled, with 18.4% (n=40) underclassmen and 60.8 (n=132) upperclassmen. Twenty-one

percent (n=45) of students enrolled in FOS 3042 were not students in CALS or not

undergraduates. In total, 451 students were enrolled in the three classes, with 20.8% (n=94)

underclassmen and 66.1% (n=298) upperclassmen enrolled in the classes. Fifty-nine (13.1%) of

students enrolled in the three selected classes were not students in CALS or not undergraduates.

Instrumentation

Instrumentation consisted of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment

(SDTLA). The SDTLA is a revision of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Inventory

[SDTLI] (Winston, Miller, & Price, 1987) and is also grounded in the work of Chickering. The

phenomena with which the SDTLA is concerned with, within the context of higher education,

are the changes produced in individuals as a result of accomplishing a developmental task or

having addressed important life events. The SDTLA represents a sample of behavior, including

feelings and attitudes that are familiar to students who have satisfactorily achieved

developmental tasks common to young adult college students between the ages of 17 and 25.









The samples of behavior were chosen because there representation of larger behavioral domains

(Winston et al., 1999). The SDTLA was chosen for this research because it measures the

developmental tasks of college students and will allow the researcher to assess levels of student

development in CALS at UF.

The SDTLA consists of both developmental tasks and scales. According to the SDTLA, a

developmental task is defined as an interrelated set of behaviors and attitudes that the culture of

colleges and universities specifies should be exhibited at approximately the same time by a given

age cohort in higher education. A subtask is defined as a more specific component or part of a

larger developmental task; whereas a scale is the measure of the degree to which students report

possessing certain behavioral characteristics, attitudes, or feelings. Like a developmental task or

subtask, a scale may not be directly affected by participation in the higher education

environment. The SDTLA is made up of three developmental tasks: Establishing and Clarifying

Purpose, Developing Autonomy, and Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships (Winstonet

al., 1999).

For this research, only the Establishing and Clarifying Purpose task was used. This task

was selected with the assistance of the Dean and Director of Student Development of CALS at

UJF. The establishing and clarifying purpose task more accurately described the vision and

direction that student development in CALS wanted to achieve. Based on Chickering's work,

this task is typically developed during the later college years and this study deals with a maj ority

of upperclassmen. Students who succeed with this task have well-defined and well thought out

educational goals and plans and are active, self-directed learners. They also have developed

knowledge about themselves and future employment, created appropriate career plans and took

steps to allow the realization of career goals. Students also have established a personal direction









in their lives and made plans for their futures that take into account personal, ethical, and

religious values, future family plans, and vocational and educational objectives. Finally, they

exhibit a wide range of cultural interests and active participation in both traditional and non-

traditional cultural events (Winston et al., 1999). This task was then further delineated into the

following subtasks: educational involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and cultural

participation.

Students who have accomplished the educational involvement subtask have well-defined

educational goals and plans, and are knowledgeable about available resources, and are actively

involved in the academic life of the college/university. The career planning subtask is evidenced

by an accomplishment in an awareness of the world of work, an accurate understanding of one' s

abilities and limitations, knowledge of requirements for various occupations, and an

understanding of the emotional and educational demands of different kinds of jobs (Winston et

al., 1999).

Achievement of the lifestyle planning subtask includes establishing a personal direction

and orientation in one's life that takes into account personal, ethical, and religious values, future

relationship/family plans, and vocational and educational obj ectives. Students who have

accomplished the cultural participation subtask are actively involved in a wide variety of

activities, including traditional cultural events such as attending plays, ballets, museums, art

exhibits, and classical music concerts, as well as new forms of expression and ethnic celebrations

and performances (Winston et al., 1999).

The SDTLA consists of four forms and 153 items. For the purpose of this research, only

Form 2.99 was used, which included 57 items measuring the establishing and clarifying purpose

task (career planning, lifestyle planning, educational involvement, and cultural participation









subtasks). Form 2.99 normally requires 15 to 20 minutes to complete (Winston et al., 1999).

The questions asked on the SDTLA included 47 multiple choice, 10 true and false, five

demographic, and five researcher-developed questions. The researcher developed questions

asked respondents about extracurricular activities, leadership positions, college enrollment,

number of credit hours taken in the spring 2007 semester, and current employment.

Knoke, Bohrnstedt, and Mee (2002) defined reliability as "the extent to which different

operationalizations of the same concept produce consistent results" (p. 13). Two different

methods of reliability estimation were used with the SDTLA: test-retest and internal consistency.

The SDTLA was administered to three classes of undergraduates at two different institutions to

receive the following test-retest reliability correlations. These test-retest reliability correlations

clustered around .80, with the lowest being .70 and the highest being .89. Alpha coefficients

(Cronbach, 1970) for students (n=1822) at thirty-two colleges in the United States and Canada

showed ranges for estimating internal consistency from .88 to .62. The SDTLA developers used

these two studies to help present reliability estimates for the entire assessment (Winston et al.,

1999).

For the purposes of this research, the establishing and clarifying purpose task was used.

Based on the same reliability studies as previously mentioned, the coefficient alpha for this task

was .81 and the test-retest reliability was .84. The individual subtasks under this task had the

following alpha coefficients for internal consistency: career planning- .84, lifestyle planning- .81,

educational involvement- .82, and cultural participation- .76. The individual subtasks under this

task had the following test-retest reliabilities: career planning- .89, lifestyle planning- .80,

educational involvement- .79, and cultural participation- .79 (Winston et al., 1999).









The validity estimates for the SDTLA resulted from a variety of scales (Winston et al.,

1999). Tasks and subtasks for Establishing and Clarifying Purpose were checked scales from

several instruments, including Calreer Development Inventory (Super, Thompson, Lindeman,

Jordann, & Meyers, 1981), College Student Experiences (Pace, 1983), and Life .Mil//1

Development Inventory, (Picklesimer, 1991). The use of existing and valid instrumentation was

used to guard against these threats to the study's validity.



Data Collection

The SDTLA instrument was distributed via paper and pencil format. This distribution

method was chosen based on restrictions set by Appalachian State University, which stated that

the full version of the SDTLA can be administered on the web, but that individual forms of the

instrument must be given in the paper and pencil format. The population for this research was

undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences and the University of Florida.

Classes were selected to mimic the undergraduate population in CALS. Three classes, FOS

3404, AEE 2014, and AEE 3133, were selected because their combined populations were similar

to that of the total undergraduate population. There were a total of 45 1 students enrolled in the

three classes. The underclassmen population of the combined classes was 20.8% (n=94), and the

upperclassmen population of the combined classes was 66.1% (n=298). Non-CALS students

made up 13.1% (n=59) of the population.

Prior to the collection of the primary data for this survey, the SDTLA was purchased and

additional demographic questions were added. The finalized instrument was then submitted to

the University of Florida Institutional Review Board for non-medical projects (IRB-02). The

proposal (see Appendix A) was approved (Protocol #2007-U-0252). A copy of the informed

consent form that was given to participants of the study was submitted to the IRB along with the










proposal. The informed consent form described the study, the voluntary nature of participation,

and informed participants of any potential risks and/or benefits associated with participating in

the study.

Data collection began in April 2007, and procedures were followed using Dillman's

tailored design method (Dillman, 2007). Data were collected using a cover letter and consent

form outlining the purpose of the study, need for participation, and instructions for completion; a

scantron answer sheet; and the questionnaire (Appendix B). This first class to receive the contact

packets was FOS 3042 on April 9, 2007.

The second class to receive the contact packets was AEB 2014 on April 10, 2007. The

third class to receive the contact packets was AEB 3133 on April 16, 2007.

Respondents were given class time to complete and return the survey. After all waves had

been completed, the study obtained an overall response rate of 58.9% (n=266). The overall

response rate was based on class attendance on the particular day that the instrument was

admini stered. The overall response rate included the combination of all surveys completed from

all three classes surveyed. The students enrolled in the selected classes who were also CALS

undergraduates gave a response rate of 52.3% (n=236).

Data Analysis

The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis. Student responses

were on scantron sheets and scored by the staff at Appalachian State University. The Statistical

Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS@) 14.0 for Windows software package was utilized for

the analysis. The data were returned from Appalachian State University in a SPSS file.

Descriptive statistics, including measures of central tendency and frequencies were calculated for

the appropriate questionnaire items. In addition, correlational analysis was used to examine the

association between levels of student development and selected demographic characteristics.









Summary

This chapter provided an overview of the methodology associated with this study. The

research design was described and selection of the study's population was explained. A

thorough explanation of each component of the construction of the study's instrumentation was

given. Finally, data analysis was discussed, and the reliability and validity of the study was

addressed. The next chapter will provide specific information on data analysis procedures and

the results received from the questionnaire.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Chapter 1 described the changes that affect undergraduate students in colleges and

universities and provided the background for studying the levels of student development in the

College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the University of Florida (UF). Chapter 1

also explained the significance of the study and identified its purpose. The chapter concluded by

defining key terms and stating the assumptions and limitations of the study.

Chapter 2 presented a discussion of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that guided

this study. Chapter 2 focused specifically on literature related to the work of Chickering and his

seven vectors of student development.

Chapter 3 described the research methodology utilized to accomplish the obj ectives of the

study. Specifically, chapter 3 described the research design, population, instrumentation, survey

development, and data collection and analysis procedures.

This chapter presents the findings of the study, beginning with a description of the

population and results of the reliability analysis. The remaining sections of this chapter present

the findings of the study for each obj ective.

The population of this study consisted of undergraduates in three classes, AEB 2014, FOS

3042, and AEB 3133, in CALS at UF for the spring 2007 semester. Four hundred and fifty-one

undergraduates at UF were enrolled in the three selected classes, including 392 CALS students.

At the conclusion of the primary data collection procedures via a paper and pencil survey

outlined in Chapter 3, 262 students responded to the survey (Table 4-1). Two hundred and

thirty-six out of the 262 respondents were enrolled in CALS (Table 4-2).









Table 4-1. Class Participation by Undergraduates in Selected CALS Courses
Class Number of undergraduate students Number of respondents
enrolled in class
AEB 2014 118 56
FOS 3042 217 137
AEB 3133 116 69
Total 451 262

Table 4-2. Number of Enrolled College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students and Survey
Respondents by Class
Class Number of undergraduate students in Number of Respondents
CALS enrolled in classes in CALS
AEB 2014 107 52
FOS 3042 172 117
AEB 3133 113 67
Total 392 236

Table 4-3 presents the internal consistency reliability estimates for each of the four

subtasks measured by the SDTLA instrument: career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural

participation, and educational involvement and the overall task, establishing and clarifying

purpose. The reliabilities for the subtasks ranged from a .741 to a .826. Each of the subtasks and

the overall task were sufficiently reliable (Agresti & Finlay, 1997).

Table 4-3. Post hoc Internal Reliability Estimates for the Student Developmental Task and
Lifestyle Assessment Instrument
Subtask Reliabilit
Career Planning .826
Lifestyle Planning .774
Cultural Participation .741
Educational Involvement .773
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task .893
Note. All reliability coefficients were estimated using Cronbach's alpha.


Objective 1: To Assess Levels of Student Development of Undergraduates in the College of
Agricultural and Life Sciences

Career Planning Subtask

In regards to students thinking about employment after graduation, 72.5% (n=166) knew

of one or more sources that could provide information about future employment prospects in a










variety of Helds. Twenty-one percent (n=48) had a vague idea about how to Eind out about future

employment prospects, while 6.6% (n=15) did not know how to Eind prospects for employment

in a variety of fields (Table 4-4). Concerning students thinking about possible careers in the past

six months, 64.6% (n=151) of students have talked with relatives, faculty members, counselors,

placement centers, or others about career positions (Table 4-5). In response to students being

able to name beginning level positions in related Hields, 69.8% (n=164) reported that they could

name two or more positions, while 13.2% (n=31) could name at least one position. In contrast,

17.1% (n=40) reported that they could not list any beginning positions in their career field or had

not made a decision about their academic maj or (Table 4-6).

Table 4-4. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Employment Pros 3ects after College
Respnse Freqenc Percent
I do not know how to find out about the prospects 15 6.6
for employment in a variety of fields.
I have a vague idea about how to find out about 48 21.0
future employment prospects in a variety of
fields.
I have one source that could provide information 55 24.0
about future employment prospects in a variety
of fields.
I know several sources that can provide 111 48.5
information about future employment prospects
in a variety of fields.
n=229; Missing=7

Table 4-5. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking about Careers Within the Past
Six Months
Respnse Freqec Percent
I haven't seriously thought about possible post-college 6 2.6
jobs or careers.
I have thought about possible post-college j obs or a career, 77 32.9
but haven't done much about exploring the possibilities.
I have asked relatives, faculty members, or others to 64 27.4
describe positions in the fields in which they are working.
I have taken definite steps to decide about a career, such 87 37.2
as visiting a counselor, placement center, or persons
who hold the kinds of poitions in which I am interested.
n=234; Missing=2











Table 4-6. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by the Ability to Name Beginning-Level
Positions in Related Fields
Respnse Freqenc Percent
Can name three or more. 100 42.6
I can name only two. 64 27.2
I can name only one. 31 13.2
I cannot name any. 38 16.2
I haven't made a decision about my academic 2 0.9
maj or or concentration; therefore, I don't know
for what I migh be qualified.
n=235; Missing=1

In terms of students meeting professionals in their related fields, 80% (n=189) had

discussed career goals with a professional or at least had minimal exposure to people in the

career field that interested them (Table 4-7). In regards to students becoming acquainted with at

least three people in their chosen occupational area, 63.9% (n=149) had become acquainted with

at least three people involved in their chosen occupational area (Table 4-8).

Table 4-7. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Meeting with Professional in my Field
Respnse Freqenc Percent
I have discussed my career goals with at least two 124 52.5
professionals in the field that interests me most.
I have had minimal exposure to people in the 65 27.5
career field that interests me most.
I know several professionals in the career field in 40 16.9
which I am interested, but I haven't talked to
them about entering the field.
I have yet to decide on a career area. 7 3.0
n=236

Table 4-8. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Becoming Acquainted with Three People
Actively Involved in Chosen Ocptonal Area
Respnse Freqenc Percent
Yes. 149 63.9
No, I haven't met many people doing work I 63 27.0
visualize for myself.
No, I have yet to decide on a post-college 15 6.4
occupational area.
No, I don't think that is ver impotat. 6 2.6
n=233; Missing=3










In response to student's career area of interest, 39% (n=92) had a vague picture about what

will be faced after graduation, while 47.9% (n=1 13) of respondents had a clear picture of what

they would face after graduation. Also, 13.1% (n=31) did not have an idea about what to face

upon graduation or had not yet decided on a career area or academic maj or (Table 4-9). In

regards to students thinking about occupations, 87.7% (n=206) had a general idea of what was

required or could list at least five requirements (Table 4-10). In reference to students narrowing

the number of career areas to explore, 85.1% (n=201) identified specific abilities or had general

ideas about how to be successful (Table 4-11).

Table 4-9. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Career Area of Interest
Response Frequenc Percent
I have yet to decide on a career area or academic maj or. 4 1.7
I don't have much of an idea of what I will face upon 27 11.4
graduation.
I have a general, though somewhat vague, picture of 92 39.0
what I will face upon graduation.
I have investigated things enough to be pretty clear 113 47.9
about what I will face upngauton.
n=236

Table 4-10. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking. About Occupations
Respnse Freqenc Percent
I don't know what is required in order to be 12 5.1
competitive for a job.
I haven't decided which occupations interest me most. 17 7.2
I have a general idea of what is required. 108 46.0
I can list at least five retirements. 98 41.7
n=235; Missing=1

Table 4-11. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking about Narrowing the Number
of Career Areas to Explore
Response Frequenc Percent
I have identified specific personal abilities and limitations 102 43.2
which I can use to guide my thinking.
I have some general ideas about how I would be successful. 99 41.9
I have only a vague sense of where I can best use my skills 21 8.9
or minimize my shortcomings.
I have never thought about careers in this way 14 5.9
n=236











In the item concerning students taking action for a possible career, 6.4% (n=15) had not

seriously thought about a career. Almost half, 48.1% (n=1 13) had read about or had thought

about a career. Finally, 45.5% (n=107) had been involved in activities that directly related to

their future career (Table 4-12). In terms of students establishing a plan for gaining practical

experience in their pursued career area, 75.2% (n=173) of students had developed or begun

implementing this plan (Table 4-13).

Table 4-12. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Taking Action for a Possible Career
Response Frequenc Percent
I haven't thought seriously about my career 15 6.4
I have read about a career I am considering. 36 15.3
I have been involved in activities directly related to 107 45.5
my future career.
I have thought about my career, but things are still 77 32.8
too unsettled for me to take any action yet.
n=235; Missing=1

Table 4-13. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Establishing a Plan for Gaining
Practical Experience in Pursued Career Area
Respnse Freqenc Percent
No, I have yet to decide on a career area. 6 2.6
No, but that is something I should be doing. 38 16.5
No, that isn't something I want to do. 13 5.7
Yes, but I haven't actually acted on my plan. 79 34.3
Yes, and I have begn imlementing my plan. 94 40.9
n=230 Missing=6


In the item related to students by their experience in a career area, 40.2% (n=95) had very

little to no experience or had not decided on a post-college career area. In relation, 59.7%

(n=141) had some to a great deal of experience in their chosen career area (Table 4-14). In

addition, 69.9% (n=165) of students did not have trouble visualizing day-to-day work in their

selected career area (Table 4-15).










Table 4-14. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Experience in Career Area
Response Frequenc Percent
Yet to decide on a post-college career area. 9 3.8
Had no experience. 31 13.1
Had very little experience. 55 23.3
Had some experience. 93 39.4
Had a great deal of experence. 48 20.3
n=236

Table 4-15. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Having Trouble Visualizing Day-To-
Day Work in Selected Career Area
Response Frequenc Percent
Yes, because I have yet to decide on a career area. 16 6.8
Yes, because I don't know what routine work in 42 17.8
my career area is really like.
Yes, because I don't like to think about that. 13 5.5
No, I can visualize work in that area, but I'm not 59 25.0
sure that it's realistic.
No, I have a clear and realistic picture of work in 106 44.9
my career area.
n=236

In terms of students joining college organizations related to their chosen occupational

field, 28.9% (n=68) had j oined and were actively involved while 29.4% (n=69) had j oined but

were not actively involved. In contrast, 41.7% (n=98) of students had not j oined an organization

related to the chosen occupational field (Table 4-16). Regarding students visiting a career center

or a library to obtain information about a chosen career, 60.9% (n=137) of students had not

visited these resources (Table 4-17).

Table 4-16. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Joining College Organizations Related
to Chosen Occupational Field
Respnse Freqenc Percent
Yet to decide on a post-college occupational field. 17 7.2
Investigated joining one or more, but have not 81 34.5
actually joined .
Joined one or more, but am not very involved. 69 29.4
Joined one or more and am actively involved. 68 28.9
n=235; Missing=1










Table 4-17. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Visiting a Career Center or Library to
Obtain Information about a Chosen Career
Response Frequenc Percent
No, but I will do that when I Eind time. 79 35.1
No, I don't need career information. 51 22.7
No, there is no place or person that deals with 7 3.1
careers on my campus.
Yes. 88 39.1
n=225; Missing=I11

Lifestyle Planning Subtask

In response to students currently being involved in lifestyle planning activities, 80.4%

(n=189) of respondents were involved in these activities. Eighty three percent (n=196) of

students had begun making plans that were consistent with their personal values (Table 4-18). In

addition, 74.9% (n=176) of students had developed strategies to maximize their strengths and

minimize their weaknesses to accomplish goals (Table 4-19).

Table 4-18. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Consistent Plans with Personal Values
Response Frequenc Percent
No, my future plans are unclear and I am undecided about my 5 2.1
personal values.
No, my future plans are clear, but I am undecided about my 9 3.8
personal values.
No, my future plans are unclear, but I am clear about my 26 11.0
personal values.
Yes, I have recently begun to think about how my values will 106 44.9
shape my future.
Yes, I thought about this a lot and have a clear understanding of 90 38.1
howmy values will saemy future.
n=236

Table 4-19. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Developing Strategies to Maximize
Strengths and Minimize Weaknesses to Accomplish Goals
Respnse Freqenc Percent
No, I don't know myself that well. 4 1.7
No, I haven't Eigured out how to do that. 29 12.3
No, I don't have a clear picture of my life goals. 26 11.1
Yes, I have done this, but I'm not very confident about my strategies. 111 47.2
Yes, I have done this, and I am confident that my 65 27.7
strategies will be effective.
n=235; Missing=1











According to students who thought about life Hyve years after college, 81.9% (n=191) had

a clear enough picture to identify steps necessary to realize their dreams. Eighteen percent

(n=42) of students did not have a clear picture or had not identified specific steps to realize

dreams (Table 4-20). According to students being able to clearly state the plan for achieving

their goals for the next ten years, 37.3% (n=88) could state their plan, while 62.7% (n=148) of

students could not clearly state their plan (Table 4-21).

Table 4-20. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking about Life Five Years after
College
Respnse Freqenc Percent
Not come up with a very clear picture. 7 3.0
A vague picture, but have been unable to identify 35 15.0
the specific steps I need to take now.
A clear enough picture that I can identify the steps 104 44.6
that are necessary for me to take now in order to
realize my dreams.
A clear enough picture and identified the steps that 87 37.3
are necessary for me to take now in order to
realizemy dreams.
n=233; Missing=3

Table 4-21. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Achieving Goals Established for the
Next Ten Years
Response Frequency Percent
No, because I have no specific goals for the next 4 1.7
ten years.
No, because I don't like making detailed plans for 38 16.1
long-range goals.
No, because I haven't worked out my plan 106 44.9
compl etely.
Yes. 88 37.3
n=236

According to students not achieving their present educational plans, 60.6% (n=143) had

several acceptable alternatives in mind. Conversely, 39.4% (n=93) of students had a vague

notion of alternatives or no alternatives at all (Table 4-22). In the item of students considering

the impact of their present course of study on their goals, 2.2% (n=5) of respondents had not










thought about this at all. In addition, 44% (n=100) of students had a very clear picture of how

their studies would shape their future (Table 4-23).


Table 4-22. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Not Achieving my Present Educational
Plans
Respnse Freqenc Percent
No idea what else I might pursue. 29 12.3
A vague notion about acceptable alternatives. 64 27.1
Several acceptable alternatives in mind, but I 98 41.5
haven't explored them very much.
Several acceptable alternatives in mind, which I 45 19.1
have explored in some detail.
n=236

Table 4-23. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Considering the Impact of the Present
Course of Stud and Goals
Response Frequenc Percent
No, I haven't thought about this at all. 5 2.2
Yes, I have thought about this, but its unclear how 35 15.6
my studies will shape my future.
Yes, I have a fairly clear idea about how my 85 37.8
studies will shape my future.
Yes, I have a very clear picture of how my studies 100 44.4
will shape my future.
n=225; Missing=I11

In regards to students deciding about marriage, 41.5% (n=98) had made a definite

decision regarding the place marriage had in their future. Also, 39.8 (n=94) had not made a

definite decision about marriage, but knew what they would like to have happen (Table 4-24). In

response to students weighing the importance of establishing a family in relation to goals, 87.2%

(n=205) had weighed the importance (Table 4-25).


Table 4-24. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Deciding about Marriage
Respnse Freqenc Percent
No, I will just wait to see what develops. 30 12.7
No, I don't think about it. 14 5.9
No, but I know what I would like to have happen. 94 39.8
Yes, I have made a definite decision. 98 41.5
n=236











Table 4-25. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Weighing the Importance of
Establishing a Family and Goals
Respnse Freqec Percent
No, my desire to establish a family is too uncertain. 16 6.8
No, my life goals are too uncertain. 14 6.0
Yes, but my priorities tend to change. 55 23.4
Yes, my priorities about these goals are clear. 150 63.8
n=235; Missing=1


According to students continuing present hobbies ten years from now, 75.1% (n=175) of

students responded that they would continue their hobbies, 10.7% (n=25) of students responded

that they would not continue their hobbies, and 14.2% (n=33) of respondents did not know if

they would continue their present hobbies ten years from now (Table 4-26). In relation to

students developing skills and habits to continue learning after college, 83.4% (n=197) of

students think about this or do this systematically. Meanwhile, 7.2% (n=17) of students have not

thought about this, and 9.3% (n=22) of students rely completely on course requirements to do

this (Table 4-27).

Table 4-26. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Continuing Hobbies 10 Years from
Now
Response Frequency Percent
Yes. 175 75.1
No. 25 10.7
I don't know. 33 14.2
n=233; Missing=3

Table 4-27. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Developing Skills and Habits to
Continue Learning. after College
Respnse Freqec Percent
I haven't thought about this. 17 7.2
I rely completely on course requirements to do this. 22 9.3
I think about this some times. 115 48.7
I do this sstematically 82 34.7
n=236










In terms of students investigating the process to satisfy needs or desires for material

goods, 22.1 (n=52) of students had thought very little to none about this tradeoff. Only 5.1%

(n=12) of students were unsure how important material goods were to them, while 31.1% (n=73)

of students responded that their current plans were likely to meet their needs or desires.

Additionally, 41.7% (n=98) of students were somewhat sure that they would be able to satisfy

their needs and desires (Table 4-28). In response to students considering the tradeoffs needed for

a personal lifestyle, 69.9% (n=165) of students have a clear to very clear idea of the tradeoffs

required. In addition, 23.7% (n=56) had thought about and 6.4% (n=15) had not thought about

the tradeoffs required (Table 4-29).


Table 4-28. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Investigating the Process to Satisfy
Needs or Desires for Material Goods
Response Frequenc Percent
No, I'm unsure about how important material 12 5.1
goods are to me.
No, I haven't thought much about what I will need 19 8.1
to do.
No, I have given some thought to this, but things 33 14.0
are still unclear.
Yes, I'm somewhat sure that I will be able to 98 41.7
satisfy my needs or desires.
Yes, my current plans are likely to meet my 73 31.1
needs or desires.
n=235; Missing=1

Table 4-29. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Considering Tradeoffs Needed for
Personal Lifetle
Respnse Freqenc Percent
I haven't thought about this at all. 15 6.4
I have thought about this in general. 56 23.7
I have a fairly clear idea of the tradeoffs required. 97 41.1
I have a ver clear idea of the tradeoffs retired. 68 28.8
n=236










Cultural Participation Subtask

In regards to students experiencing unfamiliar artistic media in the past six months, 51.1%

(n=120) of respondents had not experienced this type of media. In addition, students learning or

experiencing a culture different from their own through artistic expression, 50.4% (n=119) of

students had experienced a different culture. In response to students seeking to broaden their

understanding of culture, 20.4% (n=48) of students responded always true of me, 38.3% (n=90)

of students responded usually true of me, 28.9% (n=68) of students responded seldom true of

me, and 12.3% (n=29) of students responded never true of me (Table 4-30).

Table 4-30. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Efforts to Broaden Understanding of
Culture
Response Frequenc Percent
Never (almost never) true of me. 29 12.3
Seldom true of me. 68 28.9
Usually true of me. 90 38.3
Always (almost always) true of me. 48 20.4
n=235; Missing=1

In the item students having a conversation about the arts in the past 12 months, 73.3%

(n=173) of students had a conversation. In relation to students seeking out opportunities to leamn

about cultural or artistic forms, 13.2% (n=3 1) of students responded never true of me, 49.4%

(n=1 16) of students responded seldom true of me, 26.4% (n=62) of students responded usually

true of me, and 1 1.1% (n=26) of students responded always true of me (Table 4-3 1).

Table 4-31. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Seeking Out Opportunities to Leamn
About Cultural or Artistic Forms
Respnse Freqec Percent
Never (almost never) true of me. 31 13.2
Seldom true of me. 116 49.4
Usually true of me. 62 26.4
Alwas (almost alwas) true of me. 26 11.1
n=235; Missing=1










In the item becoming more culturally sophisticated since beginning college, 79.9%

(n=187) of students responded agree or strongly agree (Table 4-32). In addition, students who

had attended a cultural event when not required by class, 49.2% (n=1 16) of students had not

attended these events when not required by class (Table 4-33). In regards to students visiting a

museum or art exhibit when not required for a class, 47% (n=1 11) had not visited when not

required by class (Table 4-34).

Table 4-32. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Becoming More Culturally
Sophsticated in Coll ee
Response Frequenc Percent
Strongly Agree. 61 26.1
Agree. 126 53.8
Disagree. 40 17.1
Strongly Disagee. 7 3.0
n=234; Missing=1

Table 4-33. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Attending a Cultural Event When Not
Required For a Class
Response Frequenc Percent
Yes. 116 49.2
No, I don't like those kinds of things. 31 13.1
No, I just haven't gotten around to it. 85 36.0
No, there aren't such thins available here. 4 1.7
n=236

Table 4-34. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Visiting a Museum or Art Exhibit
When Not Required for a Class
Respnse Freqenc Percent
Yes. 111 47.0
No, I don't like those kinds of things. 27 11.4
No, I just haven't gotten around to it. 91 38.6
No, there aren't such thins available here. 7 3.0
n=236

In terms to students participating in the arts for their own benefit, 55.3% (n=130) of

students do this occasionally or frequently (Table 4-35). In regards to students frequently

participating in cultural activities, 6.4% (n=15) only attend when required by the college while










28.1% (n=66) of students have taken advantage of as many opportunities as they could manage.

Also, 31.1% (n=73) of students do not frequently participate in cultural activities (Table 4-36).

Table 4-35. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Participating in the Arts for Their Own
Benefit
Response Frequenc Percent
I never (almost never) do this. 61 26.0
I seldom do this. 44 18.7
I occasionally do this. 63 26.8
I frequently do this. 67 28.5
n=235; Missing=1

Table 4-36. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Frequently Participating in Cultural
Activities
Response Frequenc Percent
No, that isn't something that I enj oy or consider 42 17.9
important.
No, there haven't been any cultural activities. 31 13.2
I have attended when others have encouraged or 81 34.5
invited me.
Yes, I have taken advantage of as many 66 28.1
opportunities as I could manage.
Yes, only when requiredby the college. 15 6.4
n=235; Missing=1


Educational Involvement Subtask

Students in terms of academic maj or choices, 50% (n=1 18) have made a firm decision

about a maj or. Three percent (n=7) had not selected a maj or, while 9.3% (n=22) had made a

tentative decision and 37.7% (n=89) had made a firm decision while still having some doubts

(Table 4-37). In regards to students investigating possible academic majors, 49.6% (n=1 17) of

students had made a systematic effort to learn about possible majors. Meanwhile, 22.8% (n=54)

of students had not investigated the possibilities, while 27.5% (n=65) of students had read a

catalog and talked to some students, faculty, and staff members about possible maj ors (Table 4-

38).










Table 4-37. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Academic Major Choices
Response Frequenc Percent
I am uncertain about possible maj ors and am a 3 1.3
long way from a decision.
I have thought about several maj ors, but haven't 4 1.7
done anything about it yet.
I have made a tentative decision about what I 22 9.3
will maj or in.
I have made a firm decision about a maj or, but I 89 37.7
still have doubts about whether I have made
the right decision.
I have made a firm decision about a major in 118 50.0
which I am confident that I will be successful.
n=236


Table 4-3 8. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Investigating Possible Academic
Mai ors
Response Frequenc Percent
Not spent much time investigating the possibilities. 23 9.7
Talked to some students about their maj ors, but 31 13.1
have not done any systematic investigation.
Read the catalog and talked to some students, 65 27.5
faculty, staff members about possible maj ors.
Made a systematic effort to learn about possible 60 25.4
maj ors and what they entail.
Make a systematic effort to learn about possible 57 24.2
maj ors and have carefully looked at my abilities
and interests and how the fit different maors.
n=236

In relation to student' s requirements for an academic maj or, 86.9% (n=205) of students

had investigated the basic requirements for the maj or that they had chosen. In addition, 1 1.4 %

(n=27) students had a general idea about the courses and other requirements needed in their

maj or, while 1.7% (n=4) had not paid attention to requirements or selected a major (Table 4-39).

In regards to students investigating the abilities and background needed to be successful in an

academic maj or, 70.6% (n=166) of students had investigated the requirements for success (Table

4-40).










Table 4-39. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Requirements of an Academic Major
Response Frequenc Percent
Determined what all the requirements are and the 148 62.7
deadlines by which things must be done, for the
maj or I have chosen.
Investigated the basic requirements for graduating 57 24.2
with a degree in my academic maj or.
A general idea about the courses and other 27 11.4
requirements needed in my maj or.
Not paid much attention to the requirements for 3 1.3
my maj or; I depend on my advisor or others to
tell me what to take.
Yet to decide on an academic maor. 1 0.4
n=236

Table 4-40. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Investigating the Abilities and
Background Needed to be Successful in an Academic Major
Respnse Freqenc Percent
No, I have yet to make a definite decision about an 3 1.3
academic maj or or concentration.
No, I chose my maj or or concentration solely on 25 10.6
the basis of what I enjoyed most.
No, I have narrowed the choice down to a few 21 8.9
areas, but I haven't really investigated maj ors in
that way.
No, I never thought about it in that way. 20 8.5
Yes. 166 70.6
n=235; Missing=1

In relation to students working with an academic advisor, 73.3% (n=173) of students took

the initiative to set up conferences with an academic advisor while only 12.3% (n=29) kept

appointments with an academic advisor when scheduled by the advisor (Table 4-41). In terms of

students having a serious conversation about long-term educational obj ectives with an academic

advisor, 53% (n=125) did have a serious conversation with an academic advisor. On the

contrary, 22.5% (n=53) did not have a serious conversation with an academic advisor while

24.6% (n=58) of students did not have a serious conversation with an academic advisor but

wanted to do so (Table 4-42).










Table 4-41. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Working. with an Academic Advisor
Response Frequenc Percent
Taken the initiative to set up conferences with an 173 73.3
academic advisor.
Kept appointments with an academic advisor when 29 12.3
scheduled by advisor.
Avoided dealing with my academic advisor. 19 8.1
Not investigated how to obtain academic advising. 7 3.0
Not been at this college long enough to get 8 3.4
involved in academic advising.
n=236

Table 4-42. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Having a Serious Conversation about
Long-Term Educational Objectives with an Academic Advisor
Response Frequenc Percent
No, I don't know to whom to talk. 27 11.4
No, I have tried but no one will help me. 15 6.4
No, but I want to do that. 58 24.6
No, I don't want my options limited. 11 4.7
Yes. 125 53.0
n=236

Slightly more than half (54.7%, n=129) of the respondents reported that they have a

mature relationship with members of the academic community. In addition, 18.2% (n=43) did

not have a mature relationship with members of the academic community, while 27. 1% (n=64)

of students did not have a mature relationship with members of the academic community because

they did not know any members of the academic community (Table 4-43). In regards of students

forming personal relationships with professors, 47.1% (n=1 11) of students had not formed a

personal relationship with a professor. Meanwhile, 19.9% (n=47) of students had formed a

personal relationship with a professor but found it to be difficult to talk with them. Also, 33.1%

(n=78) of students had formed a personal relationship with a professor and they enjoyed

interacting with each other (Table 4-44). In terms of students having a serious discussion with a

faculty member, 52. 1% (n=123) of students had a serious discussion with a faculty member

(Table 4-45).











Table 4-43. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Having a Mature Working Relationship
with Members of the Academic Communit
Respnse Freqenc Percent
Yes. 129 54.7
No, I don't like dealing with them. 13 5.5
No, I have tried to form relationships, but haven't 24 10.2
been successful yet.
No, I don't know any. 64 27.1
No, I don't have time for that kind of thing. 6 2.5
n=236

Table 4-44. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Forming Personal Relationships with
Professors
Response Frequenc Percent
Yes, but I find it difficult to talk to him or her (them). 47 19.9
Yes, we often enj oy interacting with each other. 78 33.1
No, I would like to but haven't taken any action. 89 37.7
No, I would like to and have tried unsuccessfully. 19 8.1
No, because that isn't important to me. 3 1.3
n=236

Table 4-45. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Having a Serious Discussion with a
Faculty Member
Respnse Freqenc Percent
No, I don't like talking to faculty members. 36 16.3
No, I have tried, but was unsuccessful. 14 5.9
No, I haven't found one who seemed willing to 63 26.7
interact in that way.
Yes, I initiated such a discussion. 107 45.3
Yes, I repned to a faculty member' s initiative. 16 6.8
n=236

In terms of students attending lectures dealing with serious intellectual subj ects, 61.4%

(n=145) of students had attended one or more non-required lectures during the past twelve

months that dealt with serious intellectual subjects (Table 4-46). In regard to students reading a

non-required publication related to their maj or, 57. 1% (n=124) of students had read a non-

required publication related to their maj or (Table 4-47).











Table 4-46. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Attending Lectures Dealing with
Serious Intellectual Subjects
Respnse Freqenc Percent
I haven't attended any non-required lectures, 91 38.6
programs, or activities dealing with serious
intellectual subjects.
I have attended one or two non-required lectures or 106 44.9
programs dealing with serious intellectual
subj ects.
I have attended three or four lectures or programs 25 10.6
dealing with serious intellectual subj ects that
were not required for any of my courses.
I have attended five or more lectures or programs 14 5.9
dealing with serious intellectual subj ects which
were not requred forany ofmy courses.
n=236

Table 4-47. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Reading a Non-Required Publication
Related to my Major Field
Respnse Freqenc Percent
No, I have yet to decide on an academic maj or or 17 7.8
field of study.
No, I don't have time to read such things. 59 27.2
No, that would be too boring. 17 7.8
Yes. 124 57.1
n=217; Missing=19

In relation to students spending their free time, 22.1% (n=52) spend their free time

involved in the community or in organized activities on campus. Sixty percent (n=141) of

students spend their time with friends or "goofing off." In addition, 17.9% (n=42) of students

spend their free time working to support themselves or their family (Table 4-48). In terms of

students being engaged in a student organization in the past six months, 52.5% (n=124) of

students were engaged in a student organization in the past six months. Meanwhile, 31.4%

(n=74) of students had not been engaged in a student organization in the past six months. In

addition, 16. 1% (n=3 8) of students had not be engaged in a student organization in the past six

months, but planned to do so soon (Table 4-49). In regards to students participating in practical










experience related to educational goals, 62.8% (n=145) of students had participated in practical

experience related to educational goals (Table 4-50).

Table 4-48. Frequencies and Percentag~es of Students by Spending. Free Time
Response Frequenc Percent
I spend much of my free time involved in organized 52 22.1
activities on campus or in the community.
I spend most of my free time "goofing off" or 28 11.9
watching TV.
I spend most of my free time with friends doing 113 48.1
things we enj oy.
I spend most of my time working to support myself 42 17.9
or caring for my family.
n=235; Missing=1

Table 4-49. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Being Engaged in a Student
Oraization in the Past 6 Months
Response Frequenc Percent
Yes. 124 52.5
No, I don't have time because of my j ob(s) or 35 14.8
family responsibilities.
No, I am not interested. 32 13.6
No, I haven't been in college long enough. 7 3.0
No, but I plan to do so soon. 38 16.1
n=236

Table 4-50. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Participating in Practical Experience
Related to Educational Goals
Respnse Freqenc Percent
No, I haven't been enrolled long enough. 33 14.3
No, I haven't thought about it much. 28 12.1
No, I have yet to establish any specific educational 25 10.8
goals.
Yes, I did it to satisfy program requirements. 32 13.9
Yes, I did it on my own initiative. 113 48.9
n=231; Missing=5
Standardized t-scores (M = 50, SD = 10), which were provided by Student Development

Associates (Winston et al., 1999), were computed using a normative sample of students of the

same gender and class standing. The standardized t-score compared the reported level of student

development to what is normally expected from undergraduates of the same age. The normative

sample came from a carefully selected national sample to define responses for each of the four










college years (Wachs, personal communication, July 5, 2007). Data for the normative sample

was collected from over 1800 undergraduate students from 42 different colleges and universities

(Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). For the subtask career planning (n=231) a mean of 50.9 and

standard deviation of 10.0 was found, while the subtask lifestyle planning (n=231) had a mean of

51.6 and standard deviation of 9.3. The subtask cultural participation (n=230) obtained a mean

of 47.7 with a standard deviation of 10. 1 and the subtask educational involvement (n=23 1) had a

mean of 48.4 and a standard deviation of 10. 1. For the establishing and clarifying purpose task

(n=23 1), a mean of 49.4 was reported with a standard deviation of 9.2 (Table 4-51).


Table 4-51. Standardized Means and Standard Deviations for the Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifyn Pupse Task
Subtask and Task Mean Standard n
Deviation
Career Planning. 50.9 10.0 231
Lifestyle Planning. 51.6 9.3 231
Cultural Participation. 47.7 10.1 230
Educational Involvement. 48.4 10.1 231
Establishing andC ClrfingProe 49.4 9.2 231


Objective 2: To Examine the Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and the
Levels of Student Development of Undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life
Sciences



In terms of the gender of students, 3 0.8% (n=72) were male while 69.2% (n=162) were

female (Table 4-52). In regards to the students' race, 11.3% (n=26) were Black or African

American and 15.1% (n=3 5) were Hispanic, Latino, Latina, or Mexican-American.

Additionally, 8.7% (n=20) were Asian-American or Pacific Islander while 58.4% (n=135) were

White, Caucasian, or European. Also, 6.5% (n=15) were considered Other, including Native

American, Bi-racial, or Multiracial (Table 4-53).










Table 4-52. Frequencies and Percentages of Males and Females
Sex Frequency Percent
Male. 72 30.8
Female. 162 69.2
n=234; Missing=2

Table 4-53. Frequencies and Percentages of Race and/or Cultural Background
Background Frequency Percent
Black or African American. 26 11.3
Hispanic, Latino, Latina, or Mexican-American. 35 15.1
Asian-American or Pacific Islander. 20 8.7
White, Caucasian, or European. 135 58.4
Bi-racial or Multiracial. 9 3.9
Other. 6 2.6
N=231; Missing =5

Concerning the students class standing, 9.4% (n=22) were freshmen and 24.0% (n=56)

were sophomores. Combined, the underclassmen made up 33.4% (n=78) of the sample.

Additionally, 52.4% (n=122) of the students were juniors and 14.2% (n=33) were seniors.

Combined, the upperclassmen made up 66.6% (n=155) of the sample (Table 4-54).

Table 4-54. Frequencies and Percentages of Academic Class Standing
Academic Standing Frequency Percent
Freshman (First Year). 22 9.4
Sophomore (Second Year). 56 24.0
Junior (Third Year). 122 52.4
Senior (ourth Year). 33 14.2


In terms of students' current residence, 17.7% (n=41) lived in an on-campus residence hall,

while 2.2% (n=5) lived in an on-campus apartment, trailer, or house. Also, 1.3% (n=3) lived at a

fraternity or sorority. Combined, the students that lived on campus made up 21.2% (n=49) of the

sample. Additionally, 5.6% (n=13) of the students lived at home with their parents while 4.3%

(n=10) lived at home with a spouse or a spouse equivalent. Also, 69.0% (n=160) of the students

lived in an off-campus apartment, trailer, or house. Combined, 78.9% (n=183) of the student

lived off-campus (Table 4-55).










Table 4-55. Frequencies and Percentages of Current Residence
Current Residence Frequenc Percent
In on-campus residence hall. 41 17.7
At home with parents. 13 5.6
At home with spouse or spouse equivalent. 10 4.3
In on-campus apartment, trailer, or house (Not with 5 2.2
parents or spouse).
In off-campus apartment, trailer, or house (Not with 160 69.0
parents or spouse).
In fraternity or sorority. 3 1.3

n=232; Missing=4

In terms of international students, 92.4% (n=208) of students were not international

students (Table 4-56).

Table 4-56. Frequencies and Percentages of International Students
International Student Frequency Percent
Yes. 17 7.6
No. 208 92.4



In regards the number of semester that students had attended a college or university,

excluding the current semester, 20.6% (n=44) of student had attended 0-2 semesters. In addition,

39.4% (n=84) had attended 3-5 semesters whereas 25.4% (n=54) had attended 6-8 semesters.

Also, 14.6% (n=31) of students had attended 9 semesters at a college or university (Table 4-57).

Table 4-57. Frequencies and Percentages of Semesters Attended a College or University
Excluding. the Current Semester
Number of Semesters Frequenc Percent
0. 5 2.3
1. 15 7.0
2. 24 11.3
3. 28 13.1
4. 25 11.7
5. 31 14.6
6. 18 8.5
7. 22 10.3
8. 14 6.6
9. 31 14.6










In terms of students being involved in extracurricular activities on campus, 69.8% (n=162)

were involved in extracurricular activities on campus. In regards to students being in a

leadership position in a campus organization, 32.3% (n=75) of students were in a leadership

position in a campus organization. In regards to students being currently employed, 48.5%

(n=1 12) of respondents were currently employed.

In response to students by the number of credit hours taken in the spring 2007 semester,

9.5% (n=22) of students were taking 0-11 credit hours. In addition, 60.9% (n=142) of students

were taking 12-14 credit hours, while 29.7% (n=69) of students were taking 15 or more credit

hours (Table 4-58).

Table 4-58. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Number of Credit Hours Taken in
Spring. 2007 Semester
Respnse Freqenc Percent
0-6. 9 3.9
7-11. 13 5.6
12-14. 142 60.9
15-18. 67 28.8
21+. 2 0.9


In order to further describe the variables in this study, analyses were conducted to identify

relationships that may have existed among variables. The magnitudes of the correlations are

presented and discussed using the ranges proposed by Miller (1994). Correlation coefficients

between .01 and .09 were considered negligible, correlations between .10 and .29 were low

relationships, correlations between .30 and .49 were moderate relationships, correlations between

.50 and .69 were substantial relationships, correlations between .70 and .99 were very high and a

perfect correlation was 1.0.

A Pearson point biserial correlational analysis between academic class standing and the

career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and educational involvement subtasks










and the overall task of establishing and clarifying purpose was performed. Negligible to low

negative relationships were found between the overall task and four subtasks and academic

standing (Table 4-59). Underclassmen (freshmen and sophomores) had a slight tendency to

report higher scores on the overall task and the individual subtasks, with the exception of the

lifestyle planning task, where no relationship was found.

Table 4-59. Correlation Between Academic Class Standing and Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing. and Clarifying. Purpose Task
Task or Subtask rb
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. -.214
Educational Involvement Subtask. -.208
Cultural Participation Subtask. -.192
Lifestyle Planning Subtask. -.071
Career Planning Subtask. -.163
Note: Academic class standing was coded as 1=underclassmen; 2=upperclassmen

A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of

racial or cultural background on the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation,

and educational involvement subtasks and the establishing and clarifying purpose task. Racial

and cultural backgrounds were divided into five groups; Black or African American; Hispanic,

Latino/a, or Mexican American; Asian American or Pacific Islander; White or

Caucasian/European; and Other, which included Native Americans, Bi-racial, and Multi-racial.

There was a statistically significant difference at the p<.05 level in the lifestyle planning and

career planning subtasks (Table 4-60) Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated

the mean score for the Asian American or Pacific Islander group was significantly different from

the White or Caucasian/European group for the lifestyle planning subtask (Table 4-61 and Table

4-62).










Table 4-60. Analysis of Variance for Racial or Cultural Background with the Career Planning,
Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing andC Clrfin Purps Task
Source df F Mean Square
Between Grous
Establishing and clarifying 4 2.16 178.39 .07
proe task
Educational involvement 4 2.28 227.36 .06
subtask
Cultural participation 4 .70 71.22 .59
subtask
Lietle panning subtask 4 3.39* 281.69 .01
Career planning subtask 4 2.57* 249.61 .04
Within Groups
Establishing and clarifying 224 2.16 82.55 .07
proe task
Educational involvement 224 2.28 99.66 .06
subtask
Cultural participation 224 .70 101.65 .59
subtask
Lietle panning subtask 224 3.39* 83.02 .01
Career planning subtask 224 2.57* 97.24 .04
Note. p<.05*

Table 4-61. Frequency and Means of Racial or Cultural Backgrounds with the Lifestyle
Planning. Subtask
Racial or Cultural Background Freqenc Mean
Black or African American 26 51.95
Hispanic, Latino/a, or Mexican American 35 50.56
Asian American or Pacific IslanderA 20 45.22
White or Caucasian/EuropeanA 133 52.84
Other-Native American/People, Bi-racial, and 15 49.48
Multi-racial
A-Means are significantly different at p<.05

Table 4-62. Frequency and Means of Racial or Cultural Backgrounds with the Career Planning
Subtask
Racial or Cultural Background Frequenc Mean
Black or African American 26 48.90
Hispanic, Latino/a, or Mexican American 35 48.88
Asian American or Pacific IslanderA 20 46.57
White or Caucasian/EuropeanA 135 52.53
Other-Native American/People, Bi-racial, and 14 49.67
Multi-racial
A-Means are significantly different at p<.05












A Pearson point biserial correlational analysis between current residence and the career

planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and educational involvement subtasks and

establishing and clarifying purpose task was performed. Negative, low relationships were found

between residence and the establishing and clarifying purpose task and the cultural participation

subtask. Negligible relationships were found for the educational involvement, lifestyle planning,

and career planning subtasks (Table 4-63). Students who lived on-campus had a slightly higher

tendency to report higher scores on the overall task and the cultural participation subtask.

Table 4-63. Correlation Between Current Residence with the Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task
Task or Subtask rb
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. -.122
Educational Involvement Subtask. -.078
Cultural Participation Subtask. -.131
Lifestyle Planning Subtask. -.089
Career Planning. Subtask. -.080
Note: Current residence was coded as 1=on-campus; 2=off-campus

A Pearson point biserial correlational analysis between international students and the

career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and educational involvement subtasks

and establishing and clarifying purpose task was executed. Negligible relationships were found

for the overall task and all of the subtasks (Table 4-64). A Pearson point biserial correlational

analysis between gender and the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and

educational involvement subtasks and establishing and clarifying purpose task was also utilized.

Negligible relationships were found for the establishing and clarifying purpose task and the

lifestyle planning, career planning, and cultural participation subtasks. A low negative

relationship (rpb=-0.13 7) was found between the educational involvement subtask and gender










(Table 4-65). Males had a slight tendency to report higher scores on the educational involvement

subtask, while no relationships were found for the overall task and the other subtasks.

Table 4-64. Correlation Between International Students with the Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task
Task or Subtask rb
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. -.026
Educational Involvement Subtask. -.013
Cultural Participation Subtask. -.046
Lifestyle Planning Subtask. -.007
Career Planning. Subtask. -.009
Note: Being an international students was coded as 1=no; 2=yes

Table 4-65. Correlation Between Gender with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural
Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying
Purpose Task
Task or Subtask rb
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. -.043
Educational Involvement Subtask. -.137
Cultural Participation Subtask. .085
Lifestyle Planning Subtask. -.048
Career Planning Subtask. -.043
Note: Gender was coded as 1=male; 2=female

A scatterplot was administered to examine linearity for the number of semesters attended a

college or university with the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and

educational involvement subtasks and establishing and clarifying purpose task. Linearity was

not met and no further analysis was done on the relationship of these variables.

A Pearson point biserial correlational analysis between being in a leadership position and

the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and educational involvement

subtasks and establishing and clarifying purpose task was performed. A negative moderate

relationship (rpb =-0.315) was found for the establishing and clarifying purpose task. Negative

low relationships were found for all of the subtasks (Table 4-66). Students who held leadership

positions in CALS student organizations had a moderate tendency to have higher scores on the










overall student development task and a low tendency to have higher scores on each of the four

subtasks.

Table 4-66. Correlation Between being in a Leadership Position with the Career Planning,
Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task
Task or Subtask rb
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. -.315
Educational Involvement Subtask. -.280
Cultural Participation Subtask. -.199
Lifestyle Planning Subtask. -.150
Career Planning. Subtask. -.266
Note: Being in a leadership position was coded 1=yes; 2=no

A Pearson point biserial correlational analysis was used to determine the relationship

between number of credit hours taken in the spring 2007 semester and the career planning,

lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and educational involvement subtasks and establishing

and clarifying purpose overall task. A negligible relationship was found between number of

credit hours and the cultural participation subtask. Low, positive relationships were found

between the number of credit hours in the spring 2007 semester and the establishing and

clarifying purpose task and the educational involvement, lifestyle planning, and career planning

subtasks (Table 4-67). Thus, students who completed 15 or more credit hours during the spring

2007 semester had a slight tendency to have higher scores on the overall task and the educational

involvement, lifestyle planning, and career planning subtasks. No relationship was found

between number of credit hours taken in the spring of 2007 and the cultural participation subtask.

A Pearson point biserial correlational analysis between being currently employed and the

career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and educational involvement subtasks

and establishing and clarifying purpose task was done. A low, negative relationship was found

for the lifestyle planning subtask. A negligible relationship was found for the cultural










Table 4-67. Correlation Between Number of Credit Hours Taken in the Spring 2007 Semester
with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational
Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Claifing Purpoe Task
Task or Subtask rb
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. .190
Educational Involvement Subtask. .223
Cultural Participation Subtask. .016
Lifestyle Planning Subtask. .111
Career Planning Subtask. .199
Note: Credit hours was coded as 1=0-14 credit hours; 2=15+ credit hours

participation subtask while negligible relationships were found for the overall task and the

educational involvement, cultural participation, and career planning subtasks (Table 4-68).

Students who were employed had a slight tendency to report higher scores on the lifestyle

planning subtask. No relationship was found between being employed and the overall task and

the rest of the subtasks.

Table 4-68. Correlation Between Employment Status and the Career Planning, Lifestyle
Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task
Task or Subtask rb
Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. -.082
Educational Involvement Subtask. -.082
Cultural Participation Subtask. .043
Lifestyle Planning Subtask. -.137
Career Planning. Subtask. -.058
Note: Being employed was coded as 1=yes; 2=no









CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter summarizes the study and discusses the conclusions, implications and

recommendations that have been drawn from the study. The first section of the chapter provides

an overview of the study, including the purpose and specific objectives, methodologies, and

findings. The remainder of the chapter discusses specific conclusions from the findings,

implications of the findings, and recommendations for future research.

The problem that was addressed by this study was the lack of knowledge and information

about the developmental needs of students in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the

University of Florida. This lack of knowledge extends beyond the boundaries of the classroom

and into areas including educational involvement, career and lifestyle planning, and cultural

participation as measured by the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment based

on the work of Chickering. In regards to student development in colleges of agricultural and life

sciences, the review of literature showed a clear void in research in this area.

The primary purpose of this study was to examine student development of undergraduates

in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. This study also

described a purposive sample of undergraduates in CALS at UF in terms of gender, ethnicity,

current residence, number of semesters attending college, academic class standing, number of

credit hours taken during the spring 2007 semester, involvement in extracurricular activities,

leadership positions held, and employment. The following research objectives were used to

guide this investigation: (1) to assess levels of student development of undergraduates in the

College of Agricultural and Life Sciences and (2) to examine the relationship between

demographic characteristics and the levels of student development of undergraduates in the

College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.









This study employed the descriptive survey research design, which asks questions of

respondents at one point in time. The survey instrument was the Student Developmental Task

and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which was obtained from Appalachian State University.

The first part of the instrument contained demographic questions, the second part assessed levels

of student development, and the final section contained researcher-added demographic questions.

In this study, the population was defined as all undergraduates in the College of

Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida for the spring 2007 semester. A

purposive sample consisted of undergraduates in CALS at UF enrolled in the following classes:

AEB 2014, AEB 3 133, and FOS 3042. Responses were obtained from 236 of the 45 1

individuals listed on the class rosters (those attending class on day data were gathered), for an

overall response rate of 52.3%. All of the 236 responses contained usable data for analysis.

Summary of Findings

Objective 1

Obj ective one sought to assess levels of student development of undergraduates in the

College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. Almost half of the

respondents (n=1 11) reported that they knew several sources that could provide them with

information about future employment prospects, and almost 70% (n=164) of respondents could

name two or more beginning-level positions in fields related to their maj or. Over half (n=124) of

respondents had discussed their career goals with at least two professionals in the field that

interested them the most, while almost 64% (n=149) had become acquainted with three people

actively involved in their chosen occupational area. Slightly less than half (45.5%) of the

respondents had been involved in activities directly related to their future career. Over 58%

(n=137) of respondents had joined one or more college organizations related to their chosen









occupational field, yet 60.9% (n=137) had not visited a career center or library to obtain

information about a chosen career.

Over 80% (n=189) of respondents were involved in lifestyle planning activities yet, 72.3%

(n=170) of students had not developed or were not very confident in their abilities to maximize

their strengths and minimize their weaknesses to accomplish their goals. Over 81% (n=191) of

respondents reported that they had a clear picture of the steps necessary to realize their dreams

five years from now. However, 62.7% (n=148) of respondents did not have a plan to achieve

goals for the next ten years. Over 82% (n=185) of respondents had a fairly clear to clear idea of

how their present course of study would shape their future. Over 58% (n=13 8) of respondents

had not decided on the place that marriage had in their future, yet 87.2% (n=205) of respondents

had weighed the importance of establishing a family and goals. Over 83% (n=197) of

respondents thought about and systematically developed skills and habits to assure that they

continue learning after completing their formal education.

Only 12.3% (n=29) of respondents reported that they had never sought to broaden their

understanding of culture. However, 73.3% (n=173) of respondents had held a conversation

about the arts within the past 12 months. Over 62% (n=147) of respondents said that seeking out

opportunities to learn about cultural or artistic forms was never or seldom true of them. In

contrast, 79.9% (n=187) of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they had become more

culturally sophisticated in college. Just under half of the respondents had attended a cultural

event (n=1 16) or visited a museum or art exhibit (n=111) when not required by class. Only

28.5% (n=67) of respondents had frequently participated in the arts for their own benefit, while

34.5% (n=81) of respondents frequently participated in cultural activities.









Only 50% (n=1 18) of respondents had made a firm decision about an academic maj or in

which the student was confident that they would be successful. Over 62% (n=148) of

respondents had determined all of the requirements and deadlines for the academic maj or in

which they had chosen. Over 70% (n=166) of respondents had investigated the abilities and

background needed to be successful in their academic maj or. Surprisingly, 73.3% (n=173) of

respondents took the initiative to set up conferences with an academic advisor, while only 12.3%

(n=29) of respondents kept appointments with an academic advisor when scheduled by the

advisor. Only 53% (n=125) of respondents had a serious conversation about long-term

obj ectives with an academic advisor. Just over half (54.7%) of respondents had a mature

working relationship with members of the academic community, while 19.9% (n=47) of

respondents had formed a personal relationship (friendly acquaintanceship) with one or more

professors but found it difficult to talk to them. Just over half (52. 1%) had held a serious

discussion with a faculty member concerning something of importance to the respondent. Over

61% (n=145) of respondents had attended one or more non-required lectures dealing with serious

intellectual subj ects, while 57. 1% (n=124) of respondents had read a non-required publication

related to their academic field. Only 22. 1% (n=52) of respondents spent their free time involved

in organized activities on campus or in the community. Over half (52.5%) of respondents had

engaged in a student organization in the past six months, while approximately 62% (n=145) of

respondents had participated in practical experiences related to their educational goals.

For the establishing and clarifying purpose task, a standardized t-score of 49.4 was

determined, very close to the national mean of 50.0. Means and standard deviations for the

cultural participation (t=47.7) and educational involvement (t=49.4) subtasks were also very










comparable to the national average. Scores for the career planning (t=50.9) and lifestyle

planning (t=51.6) subtasks were also very near to the national average.

Objective 2

Obj ective two sought to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and

the levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life

Sciences at the University of Florida. Over 30% (n=72) of respondents were male and 69.2%

(n=162) of respondents were female. In terms of racial or cultural background, 6.4% (n=1 5)

responded other, including Native American, bi-racial, or multiracial, while 8.7% (n=20) of

respondents were Asian-American or Pacific Islander. Twenty-six (1 1.3%) of respondents were

Black or African-American; 15.1% (n=3 5) were Hispanic, Latino, Latina, or Mexican-American;

and 58.4% (n=135) of respondents were White, Caucasian, or European. Seventy-eight (33.4%)

of respondents were underclassmen, with 9.4% (n=22) being freshmen and 24.0% (n=56) being

sophomores. Thirty-three (14.2%) of respondents were seniors, and 52.4% (n=122) were

juniors, making the upperclassmen 66.6% (n=155) of the population.

Over 21% (n=49) of respondents lived on-campus, while 78.9% (n=160) lived off-campus.

Only 7.6% (n=17) of respondents were international students. Over 64% (n=138) of respondents

had attended 3-8 semesters at a college or university. Almost 70% (n=162) of respondents were

involved in extracurricular activities on campus, but only 32.3% (n=75) of respondents were in a

leadership position in a campus organization. All (n=236) of the respondents were in the College

of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Over 60% (n=142) of respondents were taking 12-14 credit

hours in the spring 2007 semester. Only 48.5% (n=1 12) of respondents were employed.

A correlational analysis found low relationships between the establishing and clarifying

task and the educational involvement, cultural participation, and career planning subtasks with

academic class standing. Thus, underclassmen had a slight tendency to report higher scores on









the SDTLA on the overall task and the mentioned subtasks for academic class standing. A

statistical difference between the lifestyle and career planning subtasks for racial and cultural

background was found. Post-hoc analysis found that the mean score for the Asian American or

Pacific Islander group was significantly different from the White or Caucasian/European group

for the lifestyle planning subtask. Negative, low correlations were found between the

establishing and clarifying task and current residence and between the cultural participation

subtask and current residence. Thus, students who lived on-campus had a slightly higher

tendency to report higher scores on the overall task and the cultural participation subtask.

No relationships were found between being an international student and the overall task

and individual subtasks. A correlational analysis also found a low negative correlation between

the educational involvement subtask and the gender of the respondent. Thus, males had a slight

tendency to report higher scores on the educational involvement subtask. There was the lack of a

linear relationship between the task and subtasks and the number of semesters the respondents

attended a college or university. Low relationships were found for the overall task and all of the

individual subtasks and number of semesters the respondents attended a college or university. A

negative, moderate relationship between the respondent being in a leadership position in a

campus organization and the overall task was reported. Negative, low relationships were found

between all of the individual subtasks and being in a leadership position. Students who held

leadership positions in student organizations had a moderate tendency to have higher scores on

the overall student development task and a low tendency to have higher scores on each of the

four subtasks. A correlational analysis found low, positive relationships between the number of

credit hours taken in the spring 2007 semester and the establishing and clarifying purpose task

and the educational involvement, lifestyle planning, and career planning subtasks. Thus,










students who completed 15 or more credit hours during the spring 2007 semester had a slight

tendency to have higher scores on the overall task and the educational involvement, lifestyle

planning, and career planning subtasks. A low, negative relationship was also found between

employment status and the lifestyle planning subtask. Thus, students who were employed had a

slight tendency to report higher scores on the lifestyle planning subtask.

Conclusions

The following conclusions were drawn based upon the findings of the study:

* This sample of undergraduates in CALS at UF mirrors the national norms concerning
student development as measured by the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle
Assessment (SDTLA). The establishing and clarifying purpose task and the educational
involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and cultural participation subtask means
for this sample were all comparable to the national norms described by the SDTLA.

* Undergraduates in this sample are familiar with jobs in their career area. However, many
remain uncertain about their career decisions, have not taken deliberate steps to learn more
about their career area, and are not sure how to maximize their strengths as they prepare
for a career.

* Undergraduates in this sample have some experience in their career area but many still do
not have a clear picture of the nature of work in their career area.

* This sample of undergraduates is actively involved in extracurricular activities on campus,
yet is not actively involved in a student organization related to their career area.

* Undergraduates in this sample do not have a clear understanding of how their values will
shape their future.

* Undergraduates in this sample are currently involved in lifestyle planning activities
(establishing a personal direction and orientation in one's life) and have a clear enough
picture to identify steps to reach goals five years after college.

* CALS students surveyed in this study believe they have become more culturally
sophisticated during their time in college.

* Undergraduates in this sample have not made a firm decision about an academic maj or but
have investigated requirements, deadlines, and opportunities for success in academic
maj ors.










*This sample of undergraduates takes the initiative to set up conferences with an academic
advisor, yet they do not have strong levels of interaction with faculty members.

Discussion and Implications

This research shows that undergraduates in CALS at UF that participated in this

purposive sample have comparable scores to the national norm as measured by the SDTLA.

However, the average scores for CALS students on the SDTLA may indicate that more work

needs to be done in the area of student development. One question posed by this research is how

good is good enough concerning student development in colleges and universities? Another is

how much difference does student development actually make in the lives of students? These

questions arise because "nearly every college and university has an expressed commitment to the

development of students" (Boatman, 1999, p. 325). If this is true, then what is CALS doing to

go a step further? Student development levels, activities, and ideas should be continually

improved upon and refocused to meet the needs of students in CALS.

One puzzling concept from this study is that underclassmen (freshmen and sophomores)

had a slight tendency to report higher scores on the overall task and three of the subtasks

measured. College seniors reported higher levels of vocational purpose than freshmen

(Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Hood & Zerwas, 1997; Flowers, 2002). The natural inclination

would be for upperclassmen to report higher scores in all subtasks because of the increased

amount of opportunities presented to them. However, the scores from this research were only

slightly higher than the national norms, and the purposive sample may not be an accurate

representation of the population. Increased developmental opportunities in high schools and as

underclassmen could be possible solutions to this occurrence. The more puzzling concept was

the fact that the survey presented to respondents was based on Chickering's sixth vector,

developing purpose. Chickering and Reisser (1993) proposed a sequential model suggesting that









earlier vectors form a foundation for later vectors, yet in this study, underclassmen had slightly

higher scores on the establishing and clarifying purpose task than the upperclassmen did.

In this sample of undergraduates in CALS at UF a maj ority are familiar with j obs in their

career area, yet they remain uncertain about their career decisions, have not taken deliberate

steps to learn more about their career area, and are not sure how to maximize their strengths.

This shows the need for more internships and career fairs for undergraduates in CALS. These

types of activities are beneficial and helpful for students when they are uncertain about their

future career. Internships provide students with a means of bridging the gap between career

expectations developed in the classroom and the reality of employment in the real world (Gault,

Redington, & Schlager, 2000).

A maj ority of undergraduates in this sample have some experience in their career areas, but

many don't have a clear picture of the nature of work in their career area. This shows a need for

more Hield trips and work experience for undergraduates in CALS. These experiences will help

students become more familiar with different careers and the type of work that each career

entails. Field trips can be among the most intensive, in-depth, integrative, and rewarding of

educational experiences for [college] students and instructors alike (Scarce, 1997).

This research also shows that a maj ority of undergraduates in this sample are involved in

extracurricular activities on campus, yet most are not actively involved in a student organization

related to their career area. This was expected because of research by Thieke (1994) that said

that extracurricular activities have a significant relationship to developing purpose. Martin

(2000) found that the development of purpose is influenced by clubs and organizations.

However, the fact that a maj ority of undergraduates in this sample were not actively involved in

a student organization related to their career area was slightly puzzling.










Only one-third of the undergraduates in this sample in CALS at UF have a clear

understanding of how their values would shape their future. A maj ority in this sample also had

clear priorities for establishing a family, yet less than half had made a definite decision on the

place marriage had in their future. The fact that this sample of undergraduates had weighed the

importance of establishing a family in relation to their goals is understandable, considering that

over two-thirds of the respondents were women. The large number of women in the survey was

also puzzling, yet there were 59% (n=2067) females and 41% (n=1425) males in the entire

undergraduate population in CALS (CALS Institutional Research Data, 2007).

A maj ority of this purposive sample of undergraduates is currently involved in lifestyle

planning activities and has a clear enough picture to identify steps to reach goals five years after

college. However, just over one-third could clearly state their plans for the next ten years. This

was expected because considerations of lifestyle are an integral aspect of developing purpose as

students attempt to clarify goals (Moran, 2001).

A maj ority of undergraduates in this sample have become more culturally sophisticated in

college, yet less than half of the sample actually participated in cultural events. This was slightly

puzzling since less than half actually attended cultural events. Yet, colleges and universities are

a melting pot of new cultures and ideas. Chickering (1971) noted that small net changes toward

increased cultural sophistication occur for some students at some colleges, but not at other

colleges.

Only half of the undergraduates in this sample had made a firm decision about an academic

maj or, while a maj ority had investigated requirements, deadlines, and opportunities for success

in academic majors. This concept is of serious concern since over two-thirds of the sample was

upperclassmen and only half had made a firm decision about an academic maj or. The maj ority









of respondents that had investigated requirements in the academic maj ors seemed to show that

the respondents were at least utilizing resources to decide on an academic maj or.

A maj ority of undergraduates in this sample took the initiative to set up conferences with

an academic advisor, while just over half regularly interacted with members of the academic

community. Less than half had formed a personal relationship or had initiated a serious

discussion with a faculty member. Pascarella et al. (1996) found that students who reported the

most out-of-class contact with their faculty members also reported the strongest gains in skills

such as the ability to comprehend, interpret, or extrapolate, and the ability to evaluate materials

and methods. Martin (2000) confirmed that faculty-student interaction has a strong relationship

with the development of purpose.

Recommendations

Recommendations for future research and practice are provided as a result of assessing

levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences

at the University of Florida.

Recommendations for Practice

Based on the results of this study, student development personnel in the College of

Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida are encouraged to continue allocating

money, attention, and time towards the areas of educational involvement, career planning,

lifestyle planning, and cultural participation (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). The average

levels of student development for students in this purposive sample mirrored national norms, yet

CALS students are more academically advanced due to high admission standards across the

university. Thus, one could expect levels of student development in CALS to be well above

national norms. However, a random sample of CALS undergraduates may produce different

results, and in fact, reveal levels of student development higher than the national SDTLA norms.









Proactive student development programming has the potential to significantly boost levels of

student development. The use of Chickering' s seven vectors to guide student development

programs is also recommended. Chickering's theory provides researchers and student affairs

practitioners with some very useful descriptors of the emotional and psychological

transformation students might potentially undergo in college (Reisser, 1995; Thomas &

Chickering, 1984; White & Hood, 1989).

Developing programs that concentrate on individual vectors would help to increase levels

of student development. Also, specific programming on select ideas from individual vectors,

such as career planning, would help to increase student development. By taking a month,

semester, or year long approach at a specific aspect of one of Chickering' s vectors would

encourage intentional development.

Seminars that focus on career experience, values and goals, and maximizing strengths

should be developed in CALS. Increased development in these areas would allow for higher

overall student development scores in CALS. Multiple opportunities, such as workshops, should

be created to encourage development in these specific areas. More opportunities should also be

given for undergraduates to learn about academic maj ors, cultural events, CALS student

organizations, and internships. Increased undergraduate awareness in these areas would allow

students to become more involved in CALS, allowing for more opportunities for development.

Increased engagement for faculty and staff in student organizations is also recommended.

Having increased contact would strengthen the relationship between faculty and staff and the

undergraduates in CALS. Students who interact frequently with faculty members are more likely

than other students to express satisfaction with all aspects of their institutional experience (Astin,

1984). Student development involves more than just student development practitioners; it also









involves recruiters, advisors, faculty, deans, and the students. Students who are integrated well

with faculty members and peers feel a strong sense of acceptance; this in turn assists them in

growing both intellectually and personally (Kuh, Schuh, & White, 1991). Creating more

opportunities for students to interact with faculty, such as an open house, would increase the

comfort levels of students and allow for more opportunities for student development.

In terms of educational involvement, more emphasis should be placed on academic

advising, student-professor interactions, and academic success. Increased focus should be aimed

towards undergraduates in CALS regarding academic majors. Online resources should be

promoted to increase awareness of academic maj ors within CALS. More resources such as open

houses and freshman orientation classes should be implemented to help students decide on their

chosen maj or and career field.

Recommendations for Future Research

Although this study specifically focused on undergraduates in the College of Agricultural

and Life Sciences at the University of Florida, research in other colleges of agricultural and life

sciences in other states is essential to further assess levels of student development in

undergraduates in colleges of agricultural and life sciences around the nation. By comparing

levels of student development of undergraduates in colleges of agricultural and life sciences at

universities other than the University of Florida, researchers could further determine the needs of

agricultural and life sciences undergraduate students.

Another recommendation includes assessing levels of student development of

undergraduates in other colleges at the University of Florida. This cross-college design would

compare levels of student development for each of the ten colleges at the University of Florida.

By doing so, university officials would be able to prepare programs specifically for each college

based on their student's developmental needs.









The use of other forms of the SDTLA should be utilized to measure different tasks and

subtasks involved with the survey. Using these other forms of the SDTLA would further

communicate the levels of student development of undergraduates. The other forms of the

SDTLA measure the following tasks and subtask: developing autonomy and mature

interpersonal relationships task, and the emotional autonomy, interdependence, academic

autonomy, instrumental autonomy, peer relationships, and tolerance subtasks. Gathering scores

from the other forms of the SDTLA could then be used to compare undergraduates in CALS at

UF to the national norms for all of the tasks and subtasks measured by the SDTLA. More

research is also needed to find the factors that most influence levels of student development in

undergraduates.

The SDTLA takes a broad and general view of student development. The SDTLA could

be revised to more clearly separate undergraduates by academic class standing. Further revision

could also be used to make questions on the SDTLA more appropriate to measuring student

development and to make question choices more mutually exclusive. Some participants in this

study had difficulty understanding and answering select questions on the SDTLA. Making the

SDTLA web-based would be ideal for random samples, yet the length of the assessment would

discourage undergraduates from completing it without an incentive.

A random sample of students in CALS at UF should be taken to participate in this type of

research. While the researcher took every effort to avoid bias in the sample, a purposive sample

was still taken. To generalize findings to all undergraduates in CALS at UF, a random sample

would need to be conducted. A new instrument could be needed to fulfill this recommendation.

Providing web-based versions of all forms of the SDTLA is also recommended to be able to

reach a larger audience of undergraduates. The utilization of pre- and post- testing of students










regarding student development should be done. Assessing students when they entered CALS,

either as freshmen or transfers, and then assessing them again once they graduate, would be

useful to gather information on their levels of student development and the effects of individual

or collective student development programs. Using a pre-test would also be beneficial to student

development practitioners who could then know at what levels of student development their

students are when they enter CALS. They could then develop programs to match student needs.

More research should also be done to test the effectiveness of student development

programs that are already in place in CALS at UF. By relating existing programs to

Chickering's seven vectors, the effectiveness of these programs can be found. More research

should also be conducted on the effectiveness of student organizations that are directly related to

specific career areas. Understanding how these types of organizations affect students is

important to understanding their effectiveness.





SPONSOR: Unfunded


I am pleased to advise you that the University of Florida Institutional Review Board has
recommended approval of this protocol. Based on its review, the UFIRB determined that this
research presents no more? than minimal risk to participants. Given your protocol, it is
essential that you obtain signed documentation of informed consent from each participant.
Enclosed is the dated, IRB-approved informed consent to be used when recruiting participants
for the research.


It is essential that each of your participants sign a copy of your approved informed
consent that bears the IRB approval stamp and expiration date.


If you wish to make any changes to this protocol, including the need to increase the number
of participants authorized, you must disclose your plans before you implement them so that
the Board can assess their impact on your protocoL. In addition, you must report to the Board
any unexpected complications that affect your participants.


If you have not completed this protocol by March 5. 2008, please telephone our office (392-
0433), and we will discuss the renewal process with you. It is important that you keep your
Department Chair informed about the status of this research protocol.

15F:dl


APPENDIX A
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL


PO Box 112250
Gainesville, FL 326j11-2250
as2-se2-osas frhone)
352-392-9234 (Fax)
irb28ufl~edu


DATE:


March 6, 2007


TO: Brian Estevez
PO Box 110540


FROM:


Campus
Ira S. Fischler, Chair
University of Florida
Institutional ReviewB


SUBJECT: Approval of Protocol #2007-U-0252


Levels of Student Development in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences
at the University of Florida


TITLE:


An Equal Opporturnly Iinsiution


U UNIVERSITY of FLORIDA~nftfoa ]R ve o











APPENDIX B
APPROVED INFORMED CONSENT









INFORMED CONSENT

Protocol Title: Levels of Student Development in the College of Agricultural and Life
Sciences at the University of Florida

Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.

My name is Brian Estevez and I am a graduate student in the Department of
Agricultural Education and Communication at the University of Florida. Thank you for
taking the time to participate in this study. Your participation is completely voluntary.
There is no penalty for not participating. The purpose of this study is to assess student
development in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of
Florida. If you choose to participate, you will answer items on a confidential survey
that will take about 10-15 minutes to complete. You can stop any time without penalty
and you do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer.

All answers are confidential to the extent provided by law. There are no
known risks associated with this study and there is no compensation or other
direct benefit to you for participation.

If you'd like to learn more about this study, please contact me at 408
Rolfs Hall, Gainesville campus, 352-392-0502 ext. 244, bestevez@ufl.edu,
or my supervisor, Dr. Ed Osborne, 303 Rolfs Hall, Gainesville campus, 352-
392-0502 ext. 231, ewvo@ufl.edu. If you have questions about your rights as
a research participant, please contact the UFIRB Office, Box 1 12250,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3261 1-2250, 352-392-0433.

Agreement:

I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate
in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description.

Participant: Date:

Principal Investigator: Date:








Approved by
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02
Protocol # 2007-U-0252
For Use Through 03/05/208










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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Brian Estevez was born in Gainesville, Florida, on January 19, 1983. He was raised in

Archer, Florida with his parents and two siblings. He graduated from Williston High School in

May, 2001. Mr. Estevez earned his undergraduate degree from the University of Florida in

animal sciences, specializing in safety and processing of meat and poultry in December 2004.

He also minored in marketing and sales of agribusiness and food science. While an

undergraduate, Estevez worked at the University of Florida' s Meat Processing Laboratory and

served as an ambassador for the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

In August 2005, Mr. Estevez entered the graduate program in the Department of

Agricultural Education and Communication at the University of Florida where he specialized in

agricultural leadership. During his time in the graduate program at the University of Florida he

served as a graduate teaching assistant where he assisted in the instruction of two different

agricultural courses. He also assisted with the writing, completion, and distribution of Growing

Space magazine, volume 3. An avid Gator fan, Mr. Estevez is still smiling about the three

National Championships won while he attended graduate school.





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1 LEVELS OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By BRIAN JOSEPH ESTEVEZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Brian Joseph Estevez

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3 To my parents, Thomas and Cheryl Estevez. I told you that I was doing something!!!

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Once upon a time in a land far, far away, a fine piece of literature would never have started if not for several individuals who willingly provided enormous amounts of love, patience, and kindness. To begin, I humbly and graciously th ank Dr. Edward W. Osborne for his honesty, kindness, and patient guidance durin g my time as a graduate stude nt. Dr. Osborne took me in after losing my entire committee ha lfway through my graduate program. I warned him that I might scare him off as well, but he stuck ar ound and became the guiding voice and mentor that I desperately needed. His dedica tion to students, commitment to excellence, warm smile, and expectation for superior work pus hed me to finish this document with pride. It truly was an honor and a privilege to have been blessed with the opportunity to work with and learn from such a faithful, respected, and accomplishe d individual and all around great Gator! I would also like to thank Dr. Hannah Carter for being an exciting and helpful addition to my graduate committee. Her leadership, in sight, and thoughtful comments continued to challenge me during this process. Her big smile and enthusiasm helped push me to finish this paper. From her teaching ability in the cla ssroom to her thought provoking comments in a meeting, Dr. Carter has been a big inspiration to me. It was truly a privilege to have Dr. Carter as a part of my committee. A big thank you is in order for a few special pe ople who contributed to the success of this paper. CALS Dean Kirby Barrick and director of student development Chris Vitelli deserve thanks for their assistance, guidance, and funding for this project. Susan Morgan at Appalachian State University receives my gratitude for her ki nd response to countless emails and questions. It was a privilege to work with such wonderful people. A special thank you and shout-out is in order for some blessings that I like to call my friends; Elio Chiarelli, Katy Groseta, Chri sty Windham, Carrie and Michael Pedreiro, Ginger

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5 Larson, Emily Hand, Katie Chodil, Ann Delay and Jason Eatmon, Audrey Vail, Rochelle Strickland, Marlene von Stein, Je ssica Blythe, Charlie Nealis, Courtney and Daniel Meyers, Aaron and Corien Peavy, and Scot Eubanks. E ach of these people made Gainesville and my graduate program a little bit swee ter. From trips to Archer, to Gator games, to 408 fun, to National Championships, to talks over ice cream, th ey made graduate school fun and exciting. Each one made me a better person in my faith, my friendships, my work ethic, and my schooling. I love each of them so very much. I hope they al l remember that if you aint a Gator, youre Gator Bait!!! I want to give a special thank you to Elio Ch iarelli, Katy Groseta, Christy Windham, and Aaron and Corien Peavy for their love over the past two years. They had a big part in this and I am grateful for their prayers a nd for being big blessings in my life. They have really made Philippians 4:4 applicable for me! I love you more than you know and I thank you for being my best friends. Next, I want to thank my family for being blessi ngs in my life. First, I want to thank my Mother, Cheryl, for instilling a rock-s olid faith in me from a very ea rly age. I also want to thank her for her support and love as I finished my gr aduate degree. My Father, Thomas, has had a large influence on my character, work ethic, and skills. He has always guided and supported me as I progressed through my educa tion. I thank my sister, Kelly, for the fun times as we grew up. Finally, I thank my brother, Zachary, for bei ng a great sibling and fr iend. Learn from my mistakes and remember that I am bigger than you, so I can still beat you up! Finally, I thank God for sending Jesus to save me from my sins. I have been blessed more than I ever should have and am ever thankful for your grace, mercy, and provision. I forever long to Delight in the Lord-Psalm 37:4. -:--:< Go Gators!!!

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................14 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........14 Developing Competence.................................................................................................16 Managing Emotions.........................................................................................................16 Moving through Autonomy toward Interdependence.....................................................16 Developing Mature Interp ersonal Relationships.............................................................17 Establishing Identity........................................................................................................17 Developing Purpose.........................................................................................................17 Developing Integrity........................................................................................................18 Problem Statement.............................................................................................................. ....19 Purpose and Objectives......................................................................................................... ..19 Definition of Terms............................................................................................................ ....19 Significance................................................................................................................... .........20 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........20 Assumptions.................................................................................................................... .......21 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................................................22 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........22 Purpose and Objectives......................................................................................................... ..22 History of Student Development............................................................................................22 Major Contributing Authors and Theorists.............................................................................24 Erik Erikson................................................................................................................... ..24 Kenneth Keniston............................................................................................................25 James Marcia...................................................................................................................26 Art Chickering.................................................................................................................26 Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................................... .27 Chickerings Seven Vectors of Student Development...........................................................30 Vector 1: Developing Competence.................................................................................30 Vector 2: Managing Emotions.........................................................................................31 Vector 3: Moving Through Autono my Toward Interdependence...................................31 Vector 4: Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships.............................................32 Vector 5: Establ ishing Identity........................................................................................34 Vector 6: Developing Purpose.........................................................................................34 Vector 7: Developing Integrity........................................................................................36

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7 Sequence of the Vectors..................................................................................................37 Student Development............................................................................................................ ..38 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................41 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........41 Research Design................................................................................................................ .....41 Population..................................................................................................................... ..........42 Instrumentation................................................................................................................ .......43 Data Collection................................................................................................................ .......47 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........48 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........49 4 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......50 Objective 1: To Assess Levels of Student Development of Undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences..........................................................................51 Career Planning Subtask..................................................................................................51 Lifestyle Planning Subtask..............................................................................................57 Cultural Participation Subtask.........................................................................................62 Educational Involvement Subtask...................................................................................64 Objective 2: To Examine the Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and the Levels of Student Development of Unde rgraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.............................................................................................................. ..71 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS.........................................81 Summary of Findings............................................................................................................ .82 Objective 1.................................................................................................................... ...82 Objective 2.................................................................................................................... ...85 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... .........87 Discussion and Implications...................................................................................................88 Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...91 Recommendations for Practice........................................................................................91 Recommendations for Future Research...........................................................................93 APPENDIX A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL............................................................96 B APPROVED INFORMED CONSENT..................................................................................97 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..98 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................105

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Class Participation by Undergradu ates in Selected CALS Courses..................................51 4-2 Number of Enrolled College of Agricultural and Life Sc iences Students and Survey Respondents by Class........................................................................................................51 4-3 Post hoc Internal Reliability Estimate s for the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment Instrument.......................................................................................51 4-4 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Employment Prospects after College.........52 4-5 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Thinking about Careers Within the Past Six Months..................................................................................................................... ....52 4-6 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by the Ability to Name Beginning-Level Positions in Related Fields.................................................................................................53 4-7 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Meeting with Professional in my Field.......53 4-8 Frequencies and Percentages of St udents by Becoming Acquainted with Three People Actively Involved in Chosen Occupational Area..................................................53 4-9 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Career Area of Interest...............................54 4-10 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking About Occupations......................54 4-11 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Thinking about Narrowing the Number of Career Areas to Explore................................................................................................54 4-12 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Taking Action for a Possible Career...........55 4-13 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Establishing a Plan for Gaining Practical Experience in Pursued Career Area...................................................................................55 4-14 Frequencies and Percentages of St udents by Experience in Career Area..........................56 4-15 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Having Trouble Vi sualizing Day-ToDay Work in Selected Career Area....................................................................................56 4-16 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Joining College Or ganizations Related to Chosen Occupational Field............................................................................................56 4-17 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Visiting a Care er Center or Library to Obtain Information about a Chosen Career.......................................................................57 4-18 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Consistent Plans with Personal Values.......57

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9 4-19 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Developing Strategies to Maximize Strengths and Minimize Weaknesses to Accomplish Goals..............................................57 4-20 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Thinking about Life Five Years after College........................................................................................................................ .......58 4-21 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Achieving Goals Established for the Next Ten Years................................................................................................................. .58 4-22 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Not Achieving my Present Educational Plans.......................................................................................................................... .........59 4-23 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Considering the Impact of the Present Course of Study and Goals................................................................................................59 4-24 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Deciding about Marriage............................59 4-25 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Weighing the Importance of Establishing a Family and Goals........................................................................................60 4-26 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Continuing Hobbies 10 Years from Now...60 4-27 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Developing Skills and Habits to Continue Learning after College........................................................................................60 4-28 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Investigating the Process to Satisfy Needs or Desires for Material Goods.................................................................................61 4-29 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Considering Tradeoffs Needed for Personal Lifestyle............................................................................................................. ..61 4-30 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Efforts to Broaden Understanding of Culture........................................................................................................................ ........62 4-31 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Seeking Out O pportunities to Learn About Cultural or Artistic Forms.......................................................................................62 4-32 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Becoming More Culturally Sophisticated in College....................................................................................................63 4-33 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Attending a Cultural Event When Not Required For a Class..........................................................................................................63 4-34 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Visiting a Museum or Art Exhibit When Not Required for a Class....................................................................................................63 4-35 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Participating in the Arts for Their Own Benefit........................................................................................................................ ........64

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10 4-36 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Frequently Participating in Cultural Activities..................................................................................................................... .......64 4-37 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Academic Major Choices...........................65 4-38 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Investigati ng Possible Academic Majors...65 4-39 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Requirements of an Academic Major.........66 4-40 Frequencies and Percentages of St udents by Investigating the Abilities and Background Needed to be Successful in an Academic Major...........................................66 4-41 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Working with an Academic Advisor..........67 4-42 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Having a Serious Conversation about Long-Term Educational Objectives with an Academic Advisor.......................................67 4-43 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Having a Mature Working Relationship with Members of the Academic Community.....................................................................68 4-44 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Forming Personal Relationships with Professors..................................................................................................................... ......68 4-45 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Having a Serious Discussion with a Faculty Member.................................................................................................................68 4-46 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Attending Lectures Dealing with Serious Intellectual Subjects..............................................................................................69 4-47 Frequencies and Percentages of Stude nts by Reading a Non-Required Publication Related to my Major Field.................................................................................................69 4-48 Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Spending Free Time....................................70 4-49 Frequencies and Percentages of St udents by Being Engaged in a Student Organization in the Past 6 Months.....................................................................................70 4-50 Frequencies and Percentage s of Students by Participating in Practical Experience Related to Educational Goals.............................................................................................70 4-51 Standardized Means and Standard Devi ations for the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task.........................................................................71 4-52. Frequencies and Percentages of Males and Females............................................................72 4-53 Frequencies and Percentages of Race and/or Cultural Background..................................72 4-54 Frequencies and Percentages of Academic Class Standing...............................................72

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11 4-55 Frequencies and Percenta ges of Current Residence..........................................................73 4-56 Frequencies and Percentage s of International Students.....................................................73 4-57 Frequencies and Percentages of Semest ers Attended a College or University Excluding the Current Semester........................................................................................73 4-58 Frequencies and Percentages of Student s by Number of Credit Hours Taken in Spring 2007 Semester........................................................................................................74 4-59 Correlation Between Academic Class Standing and Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task.........................................................................75 4-60 Analysis of Variance for Racial or Cultural Background with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task..................................................................76 4-61 Frequency and Means of Racial or Cultu ral Backgrounds with the Lifestyle Planning Subtask........................................................................................................................ .......76 4-62 Frequency and Means of Racial or Cu ltural Backgrounds with the Career Planning Subtask........................................................................................................................ .......76 4-63 Correlation Between Current Residen ce with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task.........................................................................77 4-64 Correlation Between International Stude nts with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task.........................................................................78 4-65 Correlation Between Gender with the Career Planning, Li festyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task................................................................................................................... ...78 4-66 Correlation Between being in a Leadership Position with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task..................................................................79 4-67 Correlation Between Number of Credit Hours Taken in the Spring 2007 Semester with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planni ng, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establis hing and Clarifying Purpose Task..............................80 4-68 Correlation Between Employment Stat us and the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task.........................................................................80

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science LEVELS OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By Brian Joseph Estevez August 2007 Chair: Edward Osborne Major: Agricultural Ed ucation and Communication The purpose of this study was to examine st udent development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Science at the University of Florida. This study was administered to undergraduates in three purpos ely selected classes; AEE 2014-Economics and you, AEE-Principles of agribusiness, and FOS 3042-Introduction to food science. The sample consisted of 451 undergraduates enro lled in the purposely selected classes in the College of Agricultural and Life Science at the University of Florida. The participants completed form 2.99 of the Student Developmenta l Task and Lifestyle Assessment. Form 2.99 measured undergraduates on th e establishing and clarifying purpose task. The dependent variables in this study were th e educational involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and cultural participation subt asks. The independent variables we re gender, ethnicity, international student classification, current resi dence, employment, current numbe r of credit hours, leadership positions held, academic standing, number of seme sters attended college, and involvement in extracurricular activities. Participants in this study repor ted student development scores that were very similar to the national normative sample as measured by the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment. Participants also reported they were familiar with jobs in their career area, had

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13 some experience in their career ar ea, had clear priorities for esta blishing a family, were involved in lifestyle planning activities, had become more culturally sophist icated in college, and took the initiative to set up conferences wi th an academic advisor. However, participants had not formed a personal relationship with faculty members, made a firm decision about an academic major, or joined a student organization related to their career area.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction Two fundamental beliefs of e ducation are that people can ch ange and that educators and educational environments can affect change (W inston, Miller, & Cooper, 1987). Observations of college students from entry thr ough graduation confirm that student s do change as a direct result of the higher education experience (Astin, 1977; Feldman & Newcomb, 1969; Pace, 1979). The main purpose of higher education should be to encourage inte ntional psychosocial developmental changes in st udents (Chickering, 1981). There is considerably more to higher educat ion than academic and intellectual learning alone (Hazen Foundation, 1968). Students interac tions with teachers; encounters with college leaders; involvement in friendship groups; acquis ition of values from the student culture; and exposure to climates of flexibility or rigidity that permeate the college environments, as well as the colleges operative educational goals, all have an immense impact on the evolution of students self and world views, on their confid ence and altruism, and on their achievement of personal identity and mature intimacy. By the very fact that colleges intend to inform students minds, these institutions become intimately invol ved in the development of the whole person, of which intellectual faculties ar e but a part (Hazen Foundation, 1968; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991). Just as there are intellectual knowledge to be gained and academic skills to be acquired in college, there is also knowledge about oneself to be learned a nd interpersonal skills to be developed (Astin, 1993). Likewise just as academic competence can be taught and learned, so can personal assessment, goal setting, interpersona l skills, and other importa nt life skills (Gazda, Childers, & Brooks, 1987; Miller & Price, 1976). Sanford (1965) noted, How a student turns

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15 out at the end of his (or her) co llege experience-depends both on what he (or she) was like at the time of admission and upon the in fluences of college (p. 42). As Chickering (1981) noted, every college and uni versity in the country (whether public or private, 2-year or 4-year) is in the business of shaping human lives lives that reflect much more than academic learning. The key issue is not so much whether the higher education experience promotes growth and development beyond the inte llectual domain alone, for there is consensus that it does, but rather what forms that deve lopment takes and how it can be identified and assessed. The effects of college on student growth and development are determined by the characteristics of the individual student and the influence of his or her academic program, extent of involvement with university-s ponsored services, and the impact of student-faculty interactions (Astin, 1977, 1993; Bauer, 1995). The overarc hing educational purpose of our colleges and universities should be to encour age and enable intent ional developmental change in students (Chickering & Havinghurst, 1982, p. 2). According to data taken from Cooperative Institutional Research Program (Sax, Astin, Korn, & Mahoney, 2000), based on more than 260,000 first time freshmen from more than 400 colleges and universities nationwide, 72% of th e students reported that one of the primary reasons they decided to attend co llege was to get a better job. This describes why 64% of the 2003 high school graduating class went directly to college (Education facts at a glance, 2006). Individuals who obtain a colleg e degree are more likely to earn higher annual incomes than individuals who obtain a high schoo l diploma (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001). Chickering (1969) maintained th at the increasing complexity of the world society has created a new developmental period. The deve lopmental age spanning the years from 18 to 25 must be studied separately from other developm ental stages because the tasks of the period are

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16 related to, but substantially different from, t hose of both adolescence and adulthood. Calling this developmental stage the young adult, Chickering (1969, p. 8) postulated seven major developmental tasks that he called deve lopmental vectors. In a revision of Education and Identity (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 43), the authors downplayed the young adult emphasis. They then proposed a comparable set of developm ental vectors in a sligh tly different order and with slightly different emphases. The latter set of vectors follows. Developing Competence Competence involves the development of inte llectual competence, physical and manual skills, and social and interpersonal competence. It reflects a sense of c onfidence defined as the confidence that one can cope with what comes and achieve goals successfully (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 53; Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). Managing Emotions The students first task along this vector is to become aware of feelings and to acknowledge and trust them to rec ognize that they provide informa tion relevant to contemplated behavior or to decisions about future plans. As a larger rang e of feelings is fully expressed, new and more useful patterns of expression and cont rol can be achieved (W inston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). Moving through Autonomy toward Interdependence Mature independence requires both emotiona l and instrumental independence and the recognition of ones interdependencie s. To be emotionally independent is to be free of continual and pressing needs for reassurance, affection, or approval. Instrument al independence has two components: the ability to carry on activities a nd to cope with problem s without seeking help, and the ability to be mobile in relation to one s needs. Interdependency is recognizing that loving and being loved are comple mentary, or that one cannot receive benefits of a social

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17 structure without contributing to it. Developi ng autonomy culminates in the recognition that one cannot operate in a vacuum and that gr eater autonomy enables healthier forms of interdependence (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 47; Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships Relationships should shift toward greater trust, independence, and individuality and become less anxious, defensive, and burdened by inappropriate past reactions. Mature relationships are more friendly, spontaneous, warm, and respectful. Matur ity is reflective of long-lasting relationships that endure through crises, distance, and separation (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 48). Developing greater tolerance for differences is a significant aspect of this task (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). Establishing Identity Identity is an advanced vector that reflect s confidence in ones ability to maintain inner sameness and continuity. Further, identity i nvolves clarification of conceptions concerning physical needs, characteristics, and personal appearances; clarif ication of sexual identification and of sex appropriate roles a nd behaviors; and a sense of se lf-esteem, personal stability, and integration. Establishing identity leads to clar ity and stability and a feel ing of warmth for this core self as capable, familiar worthwhile (Chickering & Rei sser, 1993, p. 47; Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). Developing Purpose Development of purpose requires formulating plans and prioritie s that integrate avocational and recreational interests, vocational plans, and life-style considerati ons. Developing purpose entails an increasing ability to be intentional, to assess interests and optio ns, to clarify goals, to make plans for action (Chickering & Reisse r, 1993, p. 47; Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999).

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18 Developing Integrity Developing integrity involves humanizing and personalizing values and developing congruent values. Humanizing of values desc ribes the shift from a literal belief in the absoluteness of rules to a more relative view. Personaliz ing of values occurs as values are first examined and then selected by an individua l. The development of congruence is the achievement of behavior consistent with the pers onalized values held. With this final stage, internal debate is minimized. and the resp onse is made with conviction, without debate or equivocation (Chickeri ng & Reisser, 1993, p. 47; Wins ton, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). According to Chickering (1969), these seve n areas represent the common core of development during the young adult college years and are variously termed growth trends, developmental tasks, stages of development, ne eds and problem areas, or student typologies. Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) noted that no other theorist ha s had a greater influence on the study of college student developmen t. Chickerings work will be used as the foundation of the theoretical framework to guide this study. Chickerings seven vectors enable student development professiona ls to understand how students are adjusting to deal w ith the uncertainty of adulthood. In addition, the seven vectors also enable student personnel in higher educa tion to better understand their roles as student development professionals by spec ifying a series of interrelated stages college students are seeking to resolve (Flowers, 2002). Chickerings theory provides researchers and student affairs practitioners with some very useful descriptors of th e emotional and psychological transformation students might potentially underg o in college (Reisse r, 1995; Thomas & Chickering, 1984; White & Hood, 1989).

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19 Problem Statement The work of Chickering was used to identify student developmental issues in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the Univ ersity of Florida. A lack of knowledge and information about the developmental needs of stud ents in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida was f ound. This lack of knowledge extends beyond the boundaries of the classroom and in to areas including involvement career and lifestyle planning, and cultural participation. In regards to student development in colleges of agricultural and life sciences, the review of literatu re showed a clear void in rese arch in this specific area. Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this research will be to exam ine student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. This study will address the following objectives: 1. To assess levels of studen t development of undergra duates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. 2. To examine the relationship between demogra phic characteristics and the levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study, the following terms were defined: Assessment -The means by which students progress and achievement are measured, recorded, and communicated to st udents and relevant university authorities (Miller, Imrie, & Cox, 1998). Developmental Task -An interrelated set of be haviors and attitudes that the culture specifies should be exhibited at approximately the same chronological time of life by age cohorts in a designated context (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). The developmental task used in this study was the establishing and clarifying pur pose task and the subtasks measured were the career planning, lifestyle planning, educatio nal involvement, and cu ltural participation subtasks. Involvement -The investment of physical and psyc hological energy in various objects (Astin, 1985, p. 36).

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20 Psychosocial Development -The emergence and development of the ego, a selective, integrating coherent agency w hich bridges ones inner life and social roles (Erikson, 1964, p. 148). Purpose -An increasing ability to be intentional, to assess interests a nd options, to clarify goals, to make plans, and to persist despit e obstacles (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 209). Student Development -Including those attitudes, skills, and values that enable oneto: understand and reflect on ones thoughts and feelings; recognize and appreciate the differences between oneself and others; mana ge ones personal affairs successfully; care for those less fortunate; relate meaningfully to others through friendships, marriage, and civic and political entities; determine personall y and socially accepted responses in various situations; and be economically self-sufficient. These qualities are usually associated with satisfaction, physical, and psyc hological well-being, and a ba lanced, productive life of work and leisure (Kuh, Schuh, Whitt, & Associates, 1991, p. 13). In this study, student development was determined by self-reported scores on the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (STDLA). Vector -A series of developmental tasks, a source of concern, and a set of outcomes (Chickering, 1969). Significance This study will be beneficial in determining objectives and developing student programs in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at th e University of Florida. The results of this study could be used to create and enhance existin g leadership programs, career fairs, cultural events, extracurricula r activities, and academic advising in CALS. Limitations The data analyzed in this study were collect ed from undergraduate students in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the Univers ity of Florida, and generalizations about other populations and other types of in stitutions should be used with caution. This descriptive study assessed levels of student development of undergradua tes in CALS at UF at a particular point in time. Results may not be generalizable to othe r periods. In addition, a purposive sample of undergraduates in CALS at UF was selected usin g undergraduate classes in CALS at UF selected by the researcher. Thus, result s of the study cannot be generali zed beyond the data sample.

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21 Assumptions A number of assumptions were made in c onducting the study. First, the researcher assumed that the participants of the study hone stly and accurately completed the instrument without external influences. This included the assumption that students could accurately recall information and feelings about educational i nvolvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and their cultural participation. This thesis was organized into five chap ters. Chapter 1 discussed the background and purpose for the study. Chapter 2 includes findings and research applicable to the problem under investigation and indicates theory upon which th e study was based. Chapte r 3 contains the study design and the methodology used. Results of th e data collected and important findings are organized in Chapter 4, and Chapter 5 summarizes the intent, procedures, and findings of the study, in addition to the conclusions, impli cations, and recommendations of the findings.

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22 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction This chapter presents a review of the relevant literature as it relates to student development. The chapter focuses on literature that describes student development and presents relevant theoretical and concep tual frameworks. Throughout this chapter, a number of general studies about student developm ent are presented. This chapter also summarizes the major authors and theorists in student development. This review of literature is separated into several major sections: history of student developmen t, major authors and theorists, theoretical framework, and a summary. Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this research was to examine student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Fl orida. This study addressed the following objectives: To assess levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. To examine the relationship between demographi c characteristics and th e levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. History of Student Development The history of student development has been a relatively brief one in the scheme of American postsecondary education (Strange, 19 99). Wrenn (1959, p. 46) sa id that, In short, student personnel work has philosophic and psyc hological foundations which have only haltingly developed and are disturbingly incomplete. St udent development was foreshadowed by Harper (1905, p. 320). In order that the student may receive the assi stance so essential to his highest success, another step in the onward evolut ion will take place. This st ep will be the scientific study

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23 of the student himself.In the time that is coming provision must be made, either by the regular instructors or by those appointed especially for the pur pose, to study in detail the man or woman to whom instruction is offered. This feature of twentieth centu ry education will come to be regarded as of greatest importance, and fifty years hence, will prevail as widely as it is now lacking. From the Progressive Education Moveme nt of the 1920s (Mayhew, 1977) came an emphasis on student self-direction and the need for education to work closely with other societal institutions to affect the total development of students. It was within this context that the American Council on Education commissioned the Student Personnel Point of View (American Council on Education, 1937), advocati ng attention to holistic learni ng and individual differences in responding to coll ege student needs. Today there are many models of college student development and theories that are used as the foundation for student development research. According to Knefelkamp, Widick, and Parker (1978), five student development theory cl usters have risen from the literature: 1. Psychosocial theories 2. Cognitive developmental theories 3. Maturity models 4. Typology models 5. Person-environment interaction models Psychosocial theorists suggest that an individual develops through a series of stages in the life cycle. Each developmental stage or ph ase is created by the conve rgence of a particular growth phase and certain tasks, such as learning certain attitudes and specific skills which must be mastered to successfully manage that particul ar phase. In more general terms, psychosocial theorists suggest that development follows a chronological sequence. At different times in a persons life, different aspects of their personality will emerge as a concern that must be

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24 addressed. From a student development viewpo int, these aspects would include: age of the student, decisions, concerns, and needs of primary concern, and the skills a nd attitudes that need to be developed to make decisions and perf orm tasks (Knefelkamp, Widick, & Parker, 1978). Cognitive development theories refer to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her worl d through the interaction of gene tic and learned factors. Among the areas of cognitive development are informa tion processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory (Sternberg & Williams, 2002). Heath (1977) described twenty basic hypotheses about the maturing of the whole pe rson. Typology models so rt individuals into categories according to their similarities and diffe rences related to how they manage and cope with common developmental tasks inherent in th e collegiate setting (Kuh Gonyea, & Rodriguez, 2002). Person-environment interac tion theories hold that indivi dual performance is optimized when one's needs and abilities are congruent with the demands of the environment (Strange and Banning, 2001). Psychosocial theories describe how individua ls resolve challenges and personal growth issues at different stages or periods (Kuh, Gonyea, & Rodrig uez, 2002). Since Chickerings seven vectors fall under this categor y, only psychosocial theories a nd its relevant theorists will be discussed. Major Contributing Authors and Theorists Erik Erikson Erikson describes stages in psychosocial develo pment that can be seen at particular times in the life sequence when physical growth, certa in social demands, and cognitive maturation all converge to create a particular developmental task. In each stage, individuals assume a psychosocial attitude which ultimately marks an ev aluation of themselves as social beings and contributes another aspect to their identity (Knefelkamp et al., 1978). Eriksons phrase the

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25 identity crisis means to sugge st a time of motivating uncerta inty, typically found in college students. This crisis is domi nated by the search for personal feedback and perfect solutions. Relationships become important sources of validation and information; Erikson notes, individuals are sometimes morbid ly, often curiously, preoccupied w ith what they appear to be in the eyes of others as compared to what they feel they are (Erikson, 1959, p. 89). Erikson argues that ones identity is mani fest behaviorally and can be confirmed and validated by others. A positive sense of identity is seen as a willingness to take on culturallyprescribed roles of adulthood and participation in the various rites of passage of the society, such as personal or occupational commitments (W idick, Parker, & Knefelkamp, 1978b). Student development professionals often comment on the ch anges in students from one generation to the next. Each generation of college students reflect s the broader societal environment in the way it addresses the task of identity resolution. Kenneth Keniston Keniston refined Eriksons identity stage by focusing on the psychosocial effects of a rapidly changing society. Keniston was the prim ary interpreter of psychosocial development of college students in the 1960s. He suggested th at as society went thr ough a new change; college attendance became the normative social experien ce for young adults. Keniston also suggested that college attendance was so distinct a social experience that it created another psychosocial task and the potential for additi onal growth upon Eriksons stages. During this new stage, the identity task shifted from the college student s concern with who they were to the dynamic tension between what they want and what society demands. In general, Kenistons work showed that the college years provided a testing gr ound for sorting through how one would reconcile individual needs and societal norms. His majo r contribution was the delineation of the changes

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26 in society and the impact those changes have on the tone of the identity stage commitments (Widick et al., 1978b). James Marcia Marcia presented a major contribution to psychosocial development both as an elaboration of the identity re solution process and as a protot ype of needed empirical study. Marcia postulated the existence of different ego-identity status es which represent styles of coping with the identity task. He found that the active, conscious at tempts to come to terms with ones identity seem related to a more complex, flexible, and autonomous orientation of others commitments (Widick et al., 1978b). Marcias work served to make the identity task more concrete and understandable. Marc ia (1976) went on to say colle ge curricula, procedures, in fact, a total environment should be set up to maximi ze the occurrence of the identity crisis and to provide support for resolution. Identity formatio n will take place in college whether faculty or administration think it appr opriate or not (p. 128). Art Chickering Chickering is recognized as one of the most pr ominent psychosocial th eorists. Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) have noted th at no other theorist has had a greater influence on the study of college student development. Chickering (1969) wrote his book Education and Identity because he was interested in increasing the working knowledge necessary for good decision rather than for refining the theory and research base of st udent development. Chickering wanted to make information accessible to college and university fa culty members so that they would have ways of thinking about how their ed ucational programs could be or ganized to encourage such development in more systematic and powerful ways (Thomas & Chickering, 1984, p. 393). His work, however, produced the theory upon which a ll other student development theories are based. Chickering sought a more detailed fram ework compared with the work of previous

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27 foundational psychosocial theorists such as Erikson. He also presented his findings in a way that drew upon and gave coherence to the wealth of co llege student change data provided by theorists such as Feldman and Newcomb (1969). Echoing Keniston (1971), Chickering saw the traditional-aged college student as a person in a distinct psychosocial phase defined by the em ergence of certain inner capabilities and needs which interact with the demands of a partic ular college environmen t (Widick, Parker, and Knefelkamp, 1978a, p. 20). Chickering also based hi s work off of Eriksons (1968) work and the identity stage. Chickering (1969) stated, At on e level of generalization, all the developmental vectors could be classified under the gene ral heading identity formation (p. 78). Studies have shown that changes occur as students progress through their college career (Brown, 1972; Winston & Miller, 1987). Not only does change occur in students academic and social development, but also in their psychos ocial development. Chickerings (1969) theory claims that it is essential for students to go th rough seven vectors of development to establish a self-identity. In Chickerings th eory of psychosocial development, vectors instead of stages are used because there is no set time line for students to be at particular po ints at particular times (Lien, 2002). Theoretical Framework The seven vectors proposed by Chickering ( 1969) for the development of young adults were: 1. Developing competence 2. Managing emotions 3. Developing autonomy 4. Establishing identity 5. Freeing interpersonal relationships

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28 6. Developing purpose 7. Developing integrity In a revision of Education and Identity (Chickering & Reisser, 1993), the authors downplayed the young adult emphasis, yet then propos ed a similar set of developmental vectors in a slightly different order with a slightly different emphasis. Chickering and Reisser reordered their vectors based on research that questione d the assumption that personal autonomy is a necessary condition for achieving intimacy. Thus, the autonomy vector was moved prior to the developing mature interpersonal relationships vector. The latter set of vectors follows: 1. Developing competence 2. Managing emotions 3. Moving through autonomy toward interdependence 4. Developing mature interpersonal relationships 5. Establishing identity 6. Developing purpose 7. Developing integrity Although Chickering and Reisser hesitated to depict development in their model as proceeding from one stage to another, they did propose a sequential model suggesting that earlier vectors form a foundation for later vectors. They noted that early college experiences are likely to move students along the first f our vectors, which in turn help s them develop their identity. After developing their identity (v ector 5), students are more like ly and able to develop purpose and integrity (Foubert, Nixon, Shamim-Sisson, & Ba rnes, 2005). Student development occurs sequentially along these seven stag es in college (Flowers, 2002).

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29 The seven vectors can be viewed as a series of developmental tasks, a source of concern, and a set of outcomes. The vectors in psychosoc ial terms specify the nature and range of those tasks. The vectors also define the central concerns of the student and the tasks which will confront them and become sources of worry. Fi nally, each vector outl ines changes in selfawareness, attitudes, and/or skills which are mani festations of successful completion of that task or vector (Widick et al., 1978a). According to Chickering and Reisser (1993), these seven areas represent the common core of the major foundations of non-intellective development during the college years variously termed growth trends, developmental tasks, stages of development, personal development, needs and problems areas, or student typologies. Their theory assumes that emotional, interpersonal, and ethical development deserve equal billing with intellectual development (p. 39). Chickerings seven vectors enable student development professi onals to understand how students are adjusting to the uncer tainty of adulthood. In addition, the seven vectors also enable student personnel in higher education to better understand their roles as student development professionals by specifying a series of interrelated stages that college students are seeking to resolve. Stated another way, Chickerings th eory provides researcher s and student affairs practitioners with some very useful descriptors of th e emotional and psychological transformation students might potentially underg o in college (Reisse r, 1995; Thomas & Chickering, 1984; White & Hood, 1989). As Chicke ring and Reisser (1993) stated, student development should be the organizing purpose for higher educationCo mmunity and four-year institutions can have signif icant impact on student devel opment along the major vectors addressed (p. 265).

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30 Chickerings Seven Vectors of Student Development Vector 1: Developing Competence Competence involves the development of inte llectual competence, physical, and manual skills, and social and interpersonal competence. This first vector reflects a sense of competence defined as the confidence that one can cope w ith what comes and achieve goals successfully (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 53). Adhering to the criticis m set forth by Widdick et al. (1978a) that the original theory of student deve lopment did not have enough information in the area of student development, Chickering include d information with respect to intellectual competence for this vector, with specific focu s on relative thought. Ch ickering also noted the importance of ensuring that studen ts receive special sessions to fine tune their skills in active listening, constructive feedback, a nd public speaking opportu nities to achieve their interpersonal competence (Chickering & Reisse r, 1993; Moore & Upcraft, 1990; Thomas & Chickering, 1984, Lien, 2002). This vector includes three spheres: in tellectual competence, physical and manual competence, and social competence. Increased skills in these three spheres can lead to a sense of confidence, an inner judgment that one is capab le of handling and mast ering a range of tasks (Chickering, 1969). Increased intellectual competence involve s many elements, most notably knowledge acquisition and the gaini ng of critical thinking sk ills, particularly the capacity for analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and creation of ideas. While in college, st udents become increasingly able to work effectively in groups and to manage a mu ltitude of social situat ions. If students can develop the competencies to allow them to handl e their academic work and social situations, a basic sense of competence will emerge. This se lf-evaluation can propel students onward to new experiences and towards growth in subse quent vectors (Widick et al., 1978a).

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31 Vector 2: Managing Emotions The students first task along this vector is to become aware of feelings and to acknowledge and trust them, to rec ognize that they provide informa tion relevant to contemplated behavior or to decisions about future plans. As a larger rang e of feelings is fully expressed, new and more useful patterns of expression and c ontrol can be achieved (Chickering & Reisser, 1993). Szulecka, Springett, and de Pauw (1987) s uggested that the major causes of attrition in first-year college students are emotional rather than academic factors. Leafgran (1989) suggested that students who ar e emotionally and soci ally healthy have a greater chance to succeed in college. The ability to deal successf ully with the multitude of emotional stresses encountered in college life appears to be an impor tant factor in student retention (Pritchard & Wilson, 2003). Development in this vector involves incr easing awareness of one s feelings and the integration of feelings which allo w flexible control and expression. Prior to this vector, a college student is not capable of readil y allowing for detached observati on and integration of feelings and purposes. The increasing differentiation of fee lings leads to the awaren ess that feelings can be trusted to provide useful information and can be expressed (Widick et al., 1978a). Vector 3: Moving Through Auto nomy Toward Interdependence The development of autonomy is a majo r psychosocial issue in young adulthood and includes three facets: establishing emotional aut onomy, attaining instrumental autonomy, and the recognition of ones interdependence (Widick et al., 1978a). To be emo tionally independent is to be free of continual and pressing needs for re assurance, affection, or approval (Chickering, 1969, p. 12). Instrumental independence has two co mponents, the ability to carry on activities and to cope with problems without seeking help, a nd the ability to be mob ile in relation to ones needs. Interdependence is rec ognizing that loving and being l oved are complementary, and that

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32 one cannot receive benefits of a social struct ure without contributing to it (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). Developing autonomy culminates in the recognition that one cannot operate in a vacuum and that greater autonomy enables heal thier forms of interdep endence (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 47). The establishment of instru mental autonomy is the second developmental task in this vector and it involves the ability to make plans for reaching goals and to be mobile in relation to ones desires. Characteristics of this task include the ability to identify resources, get help from the appropriate people, and th e use of systematic problem-solving methods. The final component of this vector is the recognition of in terdependence. If the student progresses through the first three vectors, they will acquire different perceptions and new skills and a sense that they can handle demands without relying on others (W idick et al., 1978a). Chickering and Reisser (1993) asserted that the freshmen year in college plays a particularly sign ificant role in overall student development because the first three vect ors are typically developed in the first year. Taub (1995), in a study targeting the de velopment of women, showed that the development of freeing interpers onal relationships reflects the development of autonomy. Taub (1997) confirmed Green and Tins leys (1988) study that class level increases autonomy since seniors were found to be more independent than freshmen when autonomy and parental attachment in various ethnic groups were studied Green and Tinsley (1988) also found that intimacy is the best predictor of autonomy fo r men and women. Class level, sex role selfconcept, and work role salience were weak but significant predictors of autonomy (Green & Tinsley, 1988, p. 517). Vector 4: Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships In this vector, relationships shift toward greater trust, independence, and individuality; become less anxious, defensive, and burdened by past reactions; and become more friendly,

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33 spontaneous, warm, and respectful Maturity is reflective of long-lasting relationships that endure through crises, distance, and separation (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 48). Reisser (1995) acknowledged that relationships provide powerful learning experiences about feelings, communication, sexuality, self-estee m, values, and other aspects of identity, for both men and women (p. 508). Developing greater tolerance for di fferences is a significant aspect of this task. Chickering postulated that development i nvolves increased tolera nce and acceptance of differences between individuals a nd increased capacity for mature and intimate relationships. In this vector, the college student de velops attitudes and skills marked by empathy. Growth in this vector is reflected in attitudi nal and behavior changes; relatio nships are viewed as a joint venture, and interaction is more reciprocal and empath etic (Widick et al., 1978a). Hood (1984) found that participation in campus organizations and recreational activities has a positive influence on students developmen t of mature interpersonal relationships. Riahinejad and Hood (1984) also showed that pa rticipation in extracur ricular activities has a significant influence on the development of studen ts mature interpersonal relationship. Martin (2000) found that gender had no influence on the development of mature interpersonal relationships. If a student is well integrated into the college, then they wi ll feel in congruence with the institution (Lien, 2002). More importantly, if a student is well integrated into one or more of the communities within the institution, then the studen t will have the self-perception of being a part of that particular community or communities. Similarly, students who are integrated well with faculty members and peers feel a strong sense of accep tance; this in turn a ssists them in growing both intellectually and personally (Kuh, Schuh, & White, 1991). When time is invested with the

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34 group or community, providing challenge yet suppor t for the students, students become better developed psychosocially (Stage, 1991). Vector 5: Establishing Identity Identity is an advanced vector that reflect s confidence in ones ability to maintain inner sameness and continuity. Further, it involves cl arification of conceptio ns concerning physical needs, characteristics, and personal appearances; clarification of sexual id entification and of sex appropriate roles and behaviors; and a sense of self-esteem, pers onal stability, and integration. Establishing identity leads to clarity and stability and a feeling of warmth for this core self as capable, familiar, worthwhile (Chickering & Re isser, 1993, p. 50). Chickering described this vector as a developmental step th at is interwoven with the other ve ctors such that it is difficult to distinguish it as a separate developmental realm. Hood (1984) stated that participation in campus activities boosts confidence, which in turn facilitates ones identity de velopment. Erwin and Kelly (1985) confirmed that satisfaction with academic performance and commitment to career decision assists ones own identity development. Reisser (1995) proposed that any experience that helps students define who I am, who I am not can help solidify a sense of self and that personal stability and integration are the result (p. 509). After devel oping identity, students are more able to develop purpose and integrity (Foubert et al., 2005). Vector 6: Developing Purpose Development of purpose requires formula ting plans and priorities that integrate recreational interest, voca tional plans, and life style consider ations. Developing purpose entails an increasing ability to be intentional, to assess interests and options, to clarify goals, to make

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35 plans for action (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 50). Ultimately, integration of these factors results in setting a coherent, yet general, direction for ones life. Developing purpose encompasses three areas: vocational plans and aspirations, personal interests, and interpersonal and family commitme nts. Vocational planning is often accomplished as students identify those activities that not only give them great pleasure but also use their skill and abilities. Persona l interests involve making choices a bout personal commitments of time and energy. Finally, considerations of lifestyle and fa mily are integral aspect s of developing purpose as students attempt to clarify goals in the mids t of increasing intimacy in relationships (Moran, 2001). College seniors (students with more exposur e to postsecondary education than freshmen) reported higher levels of vocational purpose than freshman (Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Hood & Zerwas, 1997; Flowers, 2002). Thieke (1994) found that not only do extracurri cular activities have si gnificant relationship to developing purpose, but faculty and student in teractions also have significant influence on developing purpose. Martin ( 2000) confirmed that faculty-st udent interaction has a strong relationship with the development of purpose and sense of competence. Martins (2000) study also shows that the development of purpose is influenced by clubs and organizations, student acquaintances, topics of conversation, and info rmation in conversations Simmons (1980) found that students who have a clearly identified pur pose in life tend to value intellectualism, responsibility, and self-control. Zika and Chamberlain (1992) f ound that students are less likely to be depressed, hopeless, or anxious if they have identified a life purpose. Overall, quality of life is positively related to id entified purpose in life (Ulmer, Range, & Smith, 1991). This sixth vector, developing purpose, is the focus of this study.

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36 Vector 7: Developing Integrity Developing integrity involves humanizi ng and personalizing values and developing congruent values. Humanizing of values desc ribes the shift from a literal belief in the absoluteness of rules to a more relative view. Persona lizing values occurs as values are first examined and then selected by an individua l. The development of congruence is the achievement of behavior consistent with the pers onalized values held. With this final stage, internal debate is minimizedand the respons eis made with conviction, without debate or equivocation (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 52). This vector in important because as Carter (1996) noted, many of todays coll ege students have grown up in a social environment that not only often fails to value integrity but also sometimes actively disparages it. Chickering sees three phases to this vector th at are used to define a set of values that guide college students actions: the humanizing of values, the pe rsonalizing of values, and the seeking of congruence between beliefs and behavi or. The humanizing of values shifts students from a literal doctrine set of beliefs to an awareness of relativity of their values. College students are now able to look closely and objectively at situations and use a sense of complexity to their value judgments. The personalizing of values allows a student to de velop a personal code reflecting personal assessment and direction. This serves as a flexible guide to the students behavior. Finally, the congruence between belief s and behavior involves an increased awareness of the relationship between values held and behavi or the increased ability to attain congruence between action and values (Widick et al., 1978a). This final vector is refl ected in student values: huma nizing values and personalizing values. Humanizing values are re lative rather than dualistic (P erry, 1970). Personalizing values refer to the process of affirming ones own valu es and beliefs, while respecting others view

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37 points (Reisser, 1995, p. 510). Cart er (1996) noted that a basic as pect of integrity is thinking about whether an action is right or wrong be fore deciding on whethe r to take the action. This vector emphasizes the interaction of intellectual development and value formation (Kohlberg, 1964; Perry, 1970) and also the wo rk of Gilligan (1982), which studied the differences between men and women. Chickering stated that this vector should include the development of sense of social responsibility in addition to the personal responsibility advanced by the original constr ucts (Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Moore & Upcraft, 1990; Thomas & Chickering, 1984). Sequence of the Vectors According to Chickering (1969), these se ven areas represent the common core of development during the young adult college years and are variously termed growth trends, developmental tasks, stages of development, ne eds and problem areas, or student typologies. Although Chickering and Reisser (1 993) did not state the order of their vectors as rigidly sequential, they did note that the vectors should be viewed as a guide to determine where students are developmentally and where they ar e headed. Even though Chickering and Reisser (1993) warned readers that they hesitated to de pict development in their model as proceeding from one stage to another, they did propose a sequential model suggesting that earlier vectors form a foundation for later vectors. Given the importance of the educational process to development, it is critical to gauge how and when developmental change occurs during the process of the college expe rience (Foubert et al., 2005). Research has validated that college st udents develop along Chickering and Reissers (1993) vectors during the college experience (Cooper, Healy, & Simpson, 1994; Martin, 2000; Straub, 1987). Similarly, Foubert et al. (2005) found that college stude nts advanced in their development throughout their college experience in the areas of developing purpose, mature

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38 interpersonal relationships, academic autonomy, and tolerance, supporting the validity of Chickering and Reissers (1993) assertion that development al ong these vectors occurs during college. Primarily, Chickerings theory points out that the student population will always remain diverse across developmental lines. In other word s, at any given time, the student body at a college will contain students from all seven of Chickerings vectors. Thus, those administrators who focus on student leadership development will never be able to focus all of their efforts on just one aspect of identity development (Wid ick et al., 1978a, p. 21). For this reason, student development programs must remain flexible and diverse in order to accommodate students from all levels of development. Student Development How students turn out at the e nd of their college experiences, the degree of their success from their own point of view, or that of the co llege, depends both on what they were like at the time of admission and upon the influences of college (Sanford, 1962, p. 42). The college student in developmental terms is a person w ho is engaged in a variety of age-related developmental tasks (Strange, 1999). The impact of college on students does not result from a single experience but invol ves the cumulative result of a set of interrelated and mutually supporting experiences, in class a nd out, sustained over an extended period of time (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991, p. 31). Pascarella and Terenzini (1991, p. 32) continued: Thus, although the weight of evidence indicates that the li nks between involvement and change tend to be specific, the greatest impact may stem from the students total level of campus engagement, particularly when academ ic, interpersonal, and extracurricular involvements are mutually supporting and rele vant to a particular educational outcome. It is important to keep in mind that the impact [of college] is determined by the quality of the students effort (Pankanin, 1995, p. 44). The im pact of college is a re sult of the degree to

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39 which the student makes use of the people, lead ership positions, facili ties, and opportunities made available by the college or university. Studen ts themselves bear much of the responsibility for the extent to which involvement makes a di fference in their own development and learning (Hernandez, Hogan, Hathaway, & L ovell, 1999). Chickering (1974) mentioned that the student culture either amplifies or attenuates the im pact of curriculum, teaching, and evaluations, residence hall arrangements, and student faculty relationships. In addition, Chickering and Reisser (1993) claim that when st udents are encouraged to form fr iendships and to participate in communities that become meaningful subcultu res, and when diversity of backgrounds and attitudes, as well as significan t interchanges and shared intere sts exist, development along all seven vectors is fostered (p. 316). Research has indicated that the college years are a critical period fo r students personal, social, and professional growth (Astin, 1985; Astin, 1993). Astin (1985) suggested that student learning and personal development are directly proportional to the quality and the quantity of student involvement in the proce ss of learning, including participat ion in leadership experiences and activities. The positive in fluence of campus-wide interac tions on students attitudes, interests, and values has been documented fo r decades (Feldman & Newcomb, 1969; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Colleges and universities exhibi t characteristics of self-or ganizing systems (Caple, 1987, p. 101), encouraging involvement, responsibility, and creativity on the part of members. Providing such opportunities in orga nized educational environments offers an important key for stimulating students growth and developmen t (Astin, 1985; Strange, 1981; Strange, 1983). Kaufman and Creamer (1991) found that beneficial, positive inte ractions with ones peers correlate positively with personal and intellectual outcomes. From their reviews, Pascarella and

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40 Terenzini (1991) supported the notion that student interactions with their peers have a strong influence on attitudinal and psychosocial change. Nearly every college and university has an expressed commitment to the development of students as leaders (Boatman, 1999) Since the inception of student development constructs in higher education, many student affa irs practitioners view the hi gher education experience as more than academic and intellectual devel opment (Brown & Barr, 1990; Creamer, 1990; Hess & Winston, 1995; Miller, 1982). Stude nt affairs staff engaged in th e developmental activities of student leaders find the development challenge for higher education is empowering students. The essential ingredient of eff ective leadership is helping students develop their talents and attitudes enabling them to become positive so cial change agents (Astin & Astin, 2000). Leadership is now understood by many to imply colle ctive action, orchestrated in such a way as to bring about significant change while raising the competencies and motivation of all those involved (Bornstein & Smith, 1996, p.281). In this chapter, literature associated with student development was examined and summarized to provide a clear understanding of what student development within higher education is responsible for accomplishing. Next, a review of literature associated with Art Chickerings theory of student development was presented. This literature provided the background for a theoretical framework and the se ven vectors of student development. This theory was the most appropriate to levels of st udent development in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida.

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41 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction Chapter 1 described the changes that affect undergraduate students in colleges and universities and provided the background for studying the levels of student development in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the Universi ty of Florida (UF). Chapter 1 also explained the significance of the study and id entified its purpose. Th e chapter concluded by defining key terms and stating the assu mptions and limitations of the study. Chapter 2 presented a discussion of the theore tical and conceptual frameworks that guided this study. Chapter 2 focused spec ifically on literature related to the work of Chickering and his seven vectors of student development. This chapter describes the methodology used to answer the research questions presented in the study. This chapter also addresses th e research design, population and sample, instrumentation development, and data colle ction and analysis. The following research objectives were assessed: To assess levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. To examine the relationship between demographi c characteristics and th e levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Research Design This study utilized a descriptiv e survey research design. Th is approach uses the crosssectional design, which asks quest ions of respondents at one point in time. This was also a small-scale survey, in which the typical sa mple size is between 200-300 respondents. A limitation of this type of research design was th at the researcher may or may not be able to analyze the direction of casual re lationships. Selection was one th reat to validity in this study.

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42 The researcher took every effort to avoid bias in selecting a broad sample of undergraduates in CALS. The next threat to validity was the intera ction of history and treatment. The survey was administered was in the classroom setting and on ce participants finished the survey, they were then allowed to leave the classroom. The resear cher had no control over how fast participants finished the survey. The researcher recognizes th e fact that some of the participants may have been accustomed to the instrument. History, maturation, testing, mort ality, and statistical regression were potential threats that were not involved with this study. Another threat to validity was nonresponse (Ary et al., 2002). This was addressed by directly administering the survey to the selected classes. Population The population for the study was defined as all undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the University of Florida (UF) for the spring 2007 semester. At the time of data collection, Spring 2007 semester, CALS had 3274 undergraduate students (Turner, personal communication, Fe bruary 22, 2007). The class breakdown of undergraduates in CALS was as follows: Freshmen (n=325) Sophomores (n=427) Juniors (n=1224) Seniors (n=1298) Underclassmen comprised of 23% (n=752) of the undergraduate population, while upperclassmen comprised of 77% (n=2422) of the undergraduate population (Turner, personal communication, February 22, 2007). The research er gathered data on eleven introductory courses in CALS. Population data and class ratios were then analyzed and a combination of undergraduate classes was selected for this research to mimic the upperclassmen and

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43 underclassmen percentages in CALS. A purposive sa mple consisted of unde rgraduates in CALS at UF from the following classes: AEB 2014-Economic Issues Food and You AEB 3133-Principles of Agribusiness Management FOS 3042-Introduction to Food Science AEB 2014 had 118 students enrolled, with 36.4% (n=43) underclassmen and 54.2% (n=64) upperclassmen. Nine percent (n=11) of student s enrolled in AEB 2014 were not students in CALS or not undergraduates. AEB 3133 ha d 116 students enrolled, with 9% (n=11) underclassmen and 87.9% (n=102) upperclassmen. Th ree percent (n=3) of students enrolled in AEB 3133 were not students in CALS or not undergraduates. FO S 3042 had 217 students enrolled, with 18.4% (n=40) underclassmen a nd 60.8 (n=132) upperclassmen. Twenty-one percent (n=45) of students en rolled in FOS 3042 were not students in CALS or not undergraduates. In total, 451 st udents were enrolled in the th ree classes, with 20.8% (n=94) underclassmen and 66.1% (n=298) upperclassmen enroll ed in the classes. Fifty-nine (13.1%) of students enrolled in the three sele cted classes were not students in CALS or not undergraduates. Instrumentation Instrumentation consisted of the Student De velopmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA). The SDTLA is a revisi on of the Student Developmenta l Task and Lifestyle Inventory [SDTLI] (Winston, Miller, & Price, 1987) and is also grounded in the work of Chickering. The phenomena with which the SDTLA is concerned w ith, within the contex t of higher education, are the changes produced in individuals as a result of accomplishing a developmental task or having addressed important life events. The SDTLA represents a sample of behavior, including feelings and attitudes that are familiar to students who have satisfactorily achieved developmental tasks common to young adult college students betw een the ages of 17 and 25.

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44 The samples of behavior were chosen because th ere representation of larger behavioral domains (Winston et al., 1999). The SDTLA was chosen for this research because it measures the developmental tasks of college st udents and will allow the research er to assess levels of student development in CALS at UF. The SDTLA consists of both developmental task s and scales. According to the SDTLA, a developmental task is defined as an interrelated set of behaviors and attitudes that the culture of colleges and universities specifies should be exhi bited at approximately the same time by a given age cohort in higher education. A subtask is defi ned as a more specific co mponent or part of a larger developmental task; whereas a scale is th e measure of the degree to which students report possessing certain behavioral charact eristics, attitudes, or feelings. Like a developmental task or subtask, a scale may not be directly affect ed by participation in the higher education environment. The SDTLA is made up of three developmental tasks: Es tablishing and Clarifying Purpose, Developing Autonomy, and Developing Ma ture Interpersonal Relationships (Winstonet al., 1999). For this research, only the Esta blishing and Clarifying Purpose task was used. This task was selected with the assistance of the Dean a nd Director of Student De velopment of CALS at UF. The establishing and clarifying purpose task more accurately described the vision and direction that student developm ent in CALS wanted to achieve. Based on Chickerings work, this task is typically developed during the later college years and th is study deals with a majority of upperclassmen. Students who succeed with th is task have well-defined and well thought out educational goals and plans and are active, self-d irected learners. They also have developed knowledge about themselves and future employmen t, created appropriate career plans and took steps to allow the realization of career goals. Stud ents also have established a personal direction

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45 in their lives and made plans for their futures that take into account personal, ethical, and religious values, future family plans, and vocat ional and educational obj ectives. Finally, they exhibit a wide range of cultura l interests and active participation in bo th traditional and nontraditional cultural events (Winston et al., 1999). Th is task was then furthe r delineated into the following subtasks: educational involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and cultural participation. Students who have accomplished the educational involvement subtask have well-defined educational goals and plans, and are knowledgeab le about available reso urces, and are actively involved in the academic life of th e college/university. The career planning subtask is evidenced by an accomplishment in an awareness of the worl d of work, an accurate understanding of ones abilities and limitations, knowledge of requi rements for various occupations, and an understanding of the emotional a nd educational demands of differe nt kinds of jobs (Winston et al., 1999). Achievement of the lifestyle planning subtas k includes establishing a personal direction and orientation in ones life that takes into account personal, ethi cal, and religious values, future relationship/family plans, and vocational and educational objectives. Students who have accomplished the cultural participation subtask are actively involved in a wide variety of activities, including traditional cultural events su ch as attending plays, ballets, museums, art exhibits, and classical music concerts, as well as new forms of expression and ethnic celebrations and performances (Winston et al., 1999). The SDTLA consists of four forms and 153 ite ms. For the purpose of this research, only Form 2.99 was used, which included 57 items meas uring the establishing and clarifying purpose task (career planning, lifestyle planning, educat ional involvement, and cultural participation

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46 subtasks). Form 2.99 normally requires 15 to 20 minutes to complete (Winston et al., 1999). The questions asked on the SDTLA included 47 multiple choice, 10 true and false, five demographic, and five researcher-developed que stions. The researcher developed questions asked respondents about extracurricular activities, leadership positions, college enrollment, number of credit hours taken in the spri ng 2007 semester, and current employment. Knoke, Bohrnstedt, and Mee (2002) defined reliability as the extent to which different operationalizations of the same concept produce consistent results (p. 13). Two different methods of reliability estimation were used with the SDTLA: test-retest and internal consistency. The SDTLA was administered to three classes of undergraduates at two diffe rent institutions to receive the following test-retest reliability correla tions. These test-retest reliability correlations clustered around .80, with the lowest being .70 and the highest being .89. Alpha coefficients (Cronbach, 1970) for students (n=1822) at thirty-two colleges in the United States and Canada showed ranges for estimating in ternal consistency from .88 to .62. The SDTLA developers used these two studies to help presen t reliability estimates for the en tire assessment (Winston et al., 1999). For the purposes of this research, the estab lishing and clarifying purpose task was used. Based on the same reliability studies as previously mentioned, the coefficient alpha for this task was .81 and the test-retest reliab ility was .84. The individual subt asks under this task had the following alpha coefficients for internal consistenc y: career planning.84, lifestyle planning.81, educational involvement.82, and cultural participa tion.76. The individual subtasks under this task had the following test-retes t reliabilities: career planni ng.89, lifestyle planning.80, educational involvement.79, and cultural participation.79 (Winston et al., 1999).

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47 The validity estimates for the SDTLA resulted from a variety of scales (Winston et al., 1999). Tasks and subtasks for Establishing and Clarifying Purpose were checked scales from several instruments, including Career Development Inventory (Super, Thompson, Lindeman, Jordann, & Meyers, 1981), College Student Experiences (Pace, 1983), and Life Skills Development Inventory (Picklesimer, 1991). The use of ex isting and valid instrumentation was used to guard against these thre ats to the studys validity. Data Collection The SDTLA instrument was dist ributed via paper and pencil format. This distribution method was chosen based on restrictions set by A ppalachian State Univers ity, which stated that the full version of the SDTLA can be administer ed on the web, but that individual forms of the instrument must be given in the paper and penc il format. The population for this research was undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences a nd the University of Florida. Classes were selected to mimi c the undergraduate population in CALS. Three classes, FOS 3404, AEE 2014, and AEE 3133, were selected because their combined populations were similar to that of the total undergraduate population. Ther e were a total of 451 students enrolled in the three classes. The underclassmen population of the combined classes was 20.8% (n=94), and the upperclassmen population of the combined cla sses was 66.1% (n=298). Non-CALS students made up 13.1% (n=59) of the population. Prior to the collection of the primary data for this survey, the SD TLA was purchased and additional demographic questions were added. The finalized instrument was then submitted to the University of Florida Institutional Revi ew Board for non-medical projects (IRB-02). The proposal (see Appendix A) was approved (Pro tocol #2007-U-0252). A copy of the informed consent form that was given to participants of the study was submitted to the IRB along with the

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48 proposal. The informed consent form described the study, the voluntary natu re of participation, and informed participants of any potential risks a nd/or benefits associated with participating in the study. Data collection began in April 2007, and pr ocedures were followed using Dillmans tailored design method (Dillman, 2007). Data were collected using a cover letter and consent form outlining the purpose of the study, need for pa rticipation, and instruc tions for completion; a scantron answer sheet; and the quest ionnaire (Appendix B). This firs t class to rece ive the contact packets was FOS 3042 on April 9, 2007. The second class to receive the contact packets was AEB 2014 on April 10, 2007. The third class to receive the contact packets was AEB 3133 on April 16, 2007. Respondents were given class time to complete and return the survey. After all waves had been completed, the study obtained an overall response rate of 58.9% (n=266). The overall response rate was based on class attendance on th e particular day that the instrument was administered. The overall response rate included the combination of all surveys completed from all three classes surveyed. The students enrolled in the selected classes who were also CALS undergraduates gave a res ponse rate of 52.3% (n=236). Data Analysis The data collected were analyzed using descri ptive statistical analysis. Student responses were on scantron sheets and scored by the staff at Appalachian State University. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 14.0 fo r Windows software package was utilized for the analysis. The data were returned from Appalachian State University in a SPSS file. Descriptive statistics, including m easures of central tendency and fr equencies were calculated for the appropriate questionnaire items In addition, correlational anal ysis was used to examine the association between levels of student development and selected demographic characteristics.

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49 Summary This chapter provided an overview of the methodology associated with this study. The research design was described and selection of the studys populati on was explained. A thorough explanation of each component of the c onstruction of the studys instrumentation was given. Finally, data analysis was discussed, and the reliability and validity of the study was addressed. The next chapter will provide specific information on data analysis procedures and the results received from the questionnaire.

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50 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Chapter 1 described the changes that affect undergraduate students in colleges and universities and provided the background for studying the levels of student development in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the Universi ty of Florida (UF). Chapter 1 also explained the significance of the study and id entified its purpose. Th e chapter concluded by defining key terms and stating the assu mptions and limitations of the study. Chapter 2 presented a discussion of the theore tical and conceptual frameworks that guided this study. Chapter 2 focused spec ifically on literature related to the work of Chickering and his seven vectors of student development. Chapter 3 described the research methodology ut ilized to accomplish th e objectives of the study. Specifically, chapter 3 described the re search design, population, instrumentation, survey development, and data collection and analysis procedures. This chapter presents the findings of th e study, beginning with a description of the population and results of the reliability analysis. The remaining sections of this chapter present the findings of the study for each objective. The population of this study consisted of unde rgraduates in three classes, AEB 2014, FOS 3042, and AEB 3133, in CALS at UF for the spri ng 2007 semester. Four hundred and fifty-one undergraduates at UF were enrolle d in the three selected classes, including 392 CALS students. At the conclusion of the primar y data collection procedures via a paper and pencil survey outlined in Chapter 3, 262 students responded to the survey (Table 4-1). Two hundred and thirty-six out of the 262 respondents were enrolled in CALS (Table 4-2).

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51 Table 4-1. Class Participation by Underg raduates in Selected CALS Courses Class Number of undergraduate students enrolled in class Number of respondents AEB 2014 118 56 FOS 3042 217 137 AEB 3133 116 69 Total 451 262 Table 4-2. Number of Enrolled College of Agri cultural and Life Sciences Students and Survey Respondents by Class Class Number of undergraduate students in CALS enrolled in classes Number of Respondents in CALS AEB 2014 107 52 FOS 3042 172 117 AEB 3133 113 67 Total 392 236 Table 4-3 presents the internal consistency reliability estimates for each of the four subtasks measured by the SDTLA instrument: ca reer planning, lifesty le planning, cultural participation, and educational involvement a nd the overall task, establishing and clarifying purpose. The reliabilities for the subtasks ranged from a .741 to a .826. Each of the subtasks and the overall task were sufficiently re liable (Agresti & Finlay, 1997). Table 4-3. Post hoc Internal Reliability Estim ates for the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment Instrument Subtask Reliability Career Planning Lifestyle Planning Cultural Participation Educational Involvement Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task .826 .774 .741 .773 .893 Note. All reliability coefficients were estimated using Cronbachs alpha. Objective 1: To Assess Levels of Student Deve lopment of Undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Career Planning Subtask In regards to students th inking about employment afte r graduation, 72.5% (n=166) knew of one or more sources that c ould provide information about fu ture employment prospects in a

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52 variety of fields. Twenty-one percent (n=48) ha d a vague idea about how to find out about future employment prospects, while 6.6% (n=15) did not know how to find prospects for employment in a variety of fields (Table 44). Concerning students thinking a bout possible careers in the past six months, 64.6% (n=151) of student s have talked with relatives, faculty members, counselors, placement centers, or others about career positions (Table 4-5). In response to students being able to name beginning level positions in relate d fields, 69.8% (n=164) reported that they could name two or more positions, while 13.2% (n=31) could name at least one position. In contrast, 17.1% (n=40) reported that they co uld not list any beginning positions in their career field or had not made a decision about their academic major (Table 4-6). Table 4-4. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Employment Prospects after College Response Frequency Percent I do not know how to find out about the prospects for employment in a variety of fields. I have a vague idea about how to find out about future employment prospects in a variety of fields. I have one source that could provide information about future employment prospects in a variety of fields. I know several sources that can provide information about future employment prospects in a variety of fields. 15 48 55 111 6.6 21.0 24.0 48.5 n=229; Missing=7 Table 4-5. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Thinking a bout Careers Within the Past Six Months Response Frequency Percent I havent seriously thought a bout possible post-college jobs or careers. I have thought about possible pos t-college jobs or a career, but havent done much about exploring the possibilities. I have asked relatives, faculty members, or others to describe positions in the fields in which they are working. I have taken definite steps to decide about a career, such as visiting a counselor, placement center, or persons who hold the kinds of positions in which I am interested. 6 77 64 87 2.6 32.9 27.4 37.2 n=234; Missing=2

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53 Table 4-6. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by the Ability to Name Beginning-Level Positions in Related Fields Response Frequency Percent Can name three or more. I can name only two. I can name only one. I cannot name any. I havent made a decision about my academic major or concentration; therefore, I dont know for what I might be qualified. 100 64 31 38 2 42.6 27.2 13.2 16.2 0.9 n=235; Missing=1 In terms of students meeting professionals in their related fields, 80% (n=189) had discussed career goals with a professional or at least had minimal exposure to people in the career field that interested them (Table 4-7). In regards to stud ents becoming acquainted with at least three people in their chos en occupational area, 63.9% (n=149) had become acquainted with at least three people involved in their chosen occupational area (Table 4-8). Table 4-7. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Meeting w ith Professional in my Field Response Frequency Percent I have discussed my career goals with at least two professionals in the fi eld that interests me most. I have had minimal exposure to people in the career field that interests me most. I know several professionals in the career field in which I am interested, but I havent talked to them about entering the field. I have yet to deci de on a career area. 124 65 40 7 52.5 27.5 16.9 3.0 n=236 Table 4-8. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Becomi ng Acquainted with Three People Actively Involved in Ch osen Occupational Area Response Frequency Percent Yes. No, I havent met many people doing work I visualize for myself. No, I have yet to decide on a post-college occupational area. No, I dont think that is very important. 149 63 15 6 63.9 27.0 6.4 2.6 n=233; Missing=3

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54 In response to students career area of intere st, 39% (n=92) had a va gue picture about what will be faced after graduation, while 47.9% (n=113) of respondents had a clear picture of what they would face after graduation. Also, 13.1% (n= 31) did not have an idea about what to face upon graduation or had not yet decided on a career area or academic major (Table 4-9). In regards to students thinking about occupations, 8 7.7% (n=206) had a general idea of what was required or could list at least five requirements (Table 4-10). In reference to students narrowing the number of career areas to explore, 85.1% (n= 201) identified specific ab ilities or had general ideas about how to be successful (Table 4-11). Table 4-9. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Career Area of Interest Response Frequency Percent I have yet to decide on a car eer area or academic major. I dont have much of an id ea of what I will face upon graduation. I have a general, though some what vague, picture of what I will face upon graduation. I have investigated things enough to be pretty clear about what I will face upon graduation. 4 27 92 113 1.7 11.4 39.0 47.9 n=236 Table 4-10. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Thinking About Occupations Response Frequency Percent I dont know what is required in order to be competitive for a job. I havent decided which occ upations interest me most. I have a general idea of what is required. I can list at least five requirements. 12 17 108 98 5.1 7.2 46.0 41.7 n=235; Missing=1 Table 4-11. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Thinki ng about Narrowing the Number of Career Areas to Explore Response Frequency Percent I have identified specific pers onal abilities and limitations which I can use to guide my thinking. I have some general ideas about how I would be successful. I have only a vague sense of where I can best use my skills or minimize my shortcomings. I have never thought about careers in this way. 102 99 21 14 43.2 41.9 8.9 5.9 n=236

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55 In the item concerning students taking acti on for a possible career, 6.4% (n=15) had not seriously thought about a career. Almost half 48.1% (n=113) had read about or had thought about a career. Finally, 45.5% (n=1 07) had been involved in activit ies that directly related to their future career (Table 4-12). In terms of st udents establishing a plan for gaining practical experience in their pursued career area, 75.2% (n=173) of students had developed or begun implementing this plan (Table 4-13). Table 4-12. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Taking Action for a Possible Career Response Frequency Percent I havent thought seriously about my career I have read about a ca reer I am considering. I have been involved in activ ities directly related to my future career. I have thought about my caree r, but things are still too unsettled for me to take any action yet. 15 36 107 77 6.4 15.3 45.5 32.8 n=235; Missing=1 Table 4-13. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Esta blishing a Plan for Gaining Practical Experience in Pursued Career Area Response Frequency Percent No, I have yet to decide on a career area. No, but that is something I should be doing. No, that isnt something I want to do. Yes, but I havent actually acted on my plan. Yes, and I have begun implementing my plan. 6 38 13 79 94 2.6 16.5 5.7 34.3 40.9 n=230 Missing=6 In the item related to students by their experi ence in a career area, 40.2% (n=95) had very little to no experience or had not decided on a post-college car eer area. In relation, 59.7% (n=141) had some to a great deal of experience in their chosen career area (Table 4-14). In addition, 69.9% (n=165) of student s did not have trouble visualizi ng day-to-day work in their selected career area (Table 4-15).

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56 Table 4-14. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Experience in Career Area Response Frequency Percent Yet to decide on a pos t-college career area. Had no experience. Had very little experience. Had some experience. Had a great deal of experience. 9 31 55 93 48 3.8 13.1 23.3 39.4 20.3 n=236 Table 4-15. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Havi ng Trouble Visualizing Day-ToDay Work in Selected Career Area Response Frequency Percent Yes, because I have yet to decide on a career area. Yes, because I dont know what routine work in my career area is really like. Yes, because I dont like to think about that. No, I can visualize work in that area, but Im not sure that its realistic. No, I have a clear and realistic picture of work in my career area. 16 42 13 59 106 6.8 17.8 5.5 25.0 44.9 n=236 In terms of students joining college organi zations related to thei r chosen occupational field, 28.9% (n=68) had joined and were activel y involved while 29.4% (n=69) had joined but were not actively involved. In contrast, 41.7% (n=98) of students had not joined an organization related to the chosen occupationa l field (Table 4-16). Regarding students visiting a career center or a library to obtain information about a c hosen career, 60.9% (n=137) of students had not visited these resources (Table 4-17). Table 4-16. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Joining College Organizations Related to Chosen Occupational Field Response Frequency Percent Yet to decide on a post-college occupational field. Investigated joining one or more, but have not actually joined Joined one or more, but am not very involved. Joined one or more and am actively involved. 17 81 69 68 7.2 34.5 29.4 28.9 n=235; Missing=1

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57 Table 4-17. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Visiting a Career Center or Library to Obtain Information about a Chosen Career Response Frequency Percent No, but I will do that when I find time. No, I dont need career information. No, there is no place or person that deals with careers on my campus. Yes. 79 51 7 88 35.1 22.7 3.1 39.1 n=225; Missing=11 Lifestyle Planning Subtask In response to students currently being invol ved in lifestyle pla nning activities, 80.4% (n=189) of respondents were involved in these activities. Eighty thr ee percent (n=196) of students had begun making plans that were consistent with their personal values (Table 4-18). In addition, 74.9% (n=176) of student s had developed strategies to maximize their strengths and minimize their weaknesses to ac complish goals (Table 4-19). Table 4-18. Frequencies and Percen tages of Students by Consistent Plans with Personal Values Response Frequency Percent No, my future plans are unclear and I am undecided about my personal values. No, my future plans are clear, but I am undecided about my personal values. No, my future plans are unclear but I am clear about my personal values. Yes, I have recently begun to th ink about how my values will shape my future. Yes, I thought about this a lot a nd have a clear un derstanding of how my values will shape my future. 5 9 26 106 90 2.1 3.8 11.0 44.9 38.1 n=236 Table 4-19. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Devel oping Strategies to Maximize Strengths and Minimize Weaknesses to Accomplish Goals Response Frequency Percent No, I dont know myself that well. No, I havent figured out how to do that. No, I dont have a clear pi cture of my life goals. Yes, I have done this, but Im not very confident about my strategies. Yes, I have done this, and I am confident that my strategies will be effective. 4 29 26 111 65 1.7 12.3 11.1 47.2 27.7 n=235; Missing=1

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58 According to students who thought about life five years after colle ge, 81.9% (n=191) had a clear enough picture to identify steps necessa ry to realize their dr eams. Eighteen percent (n=42) of students did not have a clear picture or had not identified specific steps to realize dreams (Table 4-20). According to students bein g able to clearly stat e the plan for achieving their goals for the next ten years, 37.3% (n=88) could state their pla n, while 62.7% (n=148) of students could not clearly state their plan (Table 4-21). Table 4-20. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Thinking about Life Five Years after College Response Frequency Percent Not come up with a very clear picture. A vague picture, but have been unable to identify the specific steps I need to take now. A clear enough picture that I can identify the steps that are necessary for me to take now in order to realize my dreams. A clear enough picture and identified the steps that are necessary for me to take now in order to realize my dreams. 7 35 104 87 3.0 15.0 44.6 37.3 n=233; Missing=3 Table 4-21. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Achiev ing Goals Established for the Next Ten Years Response Frequency Percent No, because I have no speci fic goals for the next ten years. No, because I dont like making detailed plans for long-range goals. No, because I havent worked out my plan completely. Yes. 4 38 106 88 1.7 16.1 44.9 37.3 n=236 According to students not achieving their present educational pl ans, 60.6% (n=143) had several acceptable alternatives in mind. Conve rsely, 39.4% (n=93) of students had a vague notion of alternatives or no altern atives at all (Table 4-22). In the item of students considering the impact of their present course of study on their goals, 2.2% (n=5) of respondents had not

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59 thought about this at all. In addition, 44% (n=100) of students had a very clear picture of how their studies would shape thei r future (Table 4-23). Table 4-22. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Not Achi eving my Present Educational Plans Response Frequency Percent No idea what else I might pursue. A vague notion about acceptable alternatives. Several acceptable alternatives in mind, but I havent explored them very much. Several acceptable alternatives in mind, which I have explored in some detail. 29 64 98 45 12.3 27.1 41.5 19.1 n=236 Table 4-23. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Consideri ng the Impact of the Present Course of Study and Goals Response Frequency Percent No, I havent thought ab out this at all. Yes, I have thought about this, but its unclear how my studies will shape my future. Yes, I have a fairly cl ear idea about how my studies will shape my future. Yes, I have a very clear pi cture of how my studies will shape my future. 5 35 85 100 2.2 15.6 37.8 44.4 n=225; Missing=11 In regards to students deci ding about marriage, 41.5% (n =98) had made a definite decision regarding the place marriage had in thei r future. Also, 39.8 (n=94) had not made a definite decision about marriage, but knew what th ey would like to have ha ppen (Table 4-24). In response to students weighing the importance of establishing a fam ily in relation to goals, 87.2% (n=205) had weighed the importance (Table 4-25). Table 4-24. Frequencies a nd Percentages of Students by Deciding about Marriage Response Frequency Percent No, I will just wait to see what develops. No, I dont think about it. No, but I know what I would like to have happen. Yes, I have made a definite decision. 30 14 94 98 12.7 5.9 39.8 41.5 n=236

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60 Table 4-25. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Weighing the Importance of Establishing a Family and Goals Response Frequency Percent No, my desire to establish a family is too uncertain. No, my life goals are too uncertain. Yes, but my priorities tend to change. Yes, my priorities about these goals are clear. 16 14 55 150 6.8 6.0 23.4 63.8 n=235; Missing=1 According to students continuing present hobb ies ten years from now, 75.1% (n=175) of students responded that they would continue th eir hobbies, 10.7% (n=25) of students responded that they would not continue their hobbies, a nd 14.2% (n=33) of res pondents did not know if they would continue their present hobbies ten years from now (Table 4-26). In relation to students developing skills and ha bits to continue learning af ter college, 83.4% (n=197) of students think about this or do th is systematically. Meanwhile, 7.2% (n=17) of students have not thought about this, and 9.3% (n=22) of students rely completely on course requirements to do this (Table 4-27). Table 4-26. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Cont inuing Hobbies 10 Years from Now Response Frequency Percent Yes. No. I dont know. 175 25 33 75.1 10.7 14.2 n=233; Missing=3 Table 4-27. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Deve loping Skills and Habits to Continue Learning after College Response Frequency Percent I havent thought about this. I rely completely on course requirements to do this. I think about this some times. I do this systematically. 17 22 115 82 7.2 9.3 48.7 34.7 n=236

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61 In terms of students investig ating the process to satisfy n eeds or desires for material goods, 22.1 (n=52) of students had thought very little to none about this tradeoff. Only 5.1% (n=12) of students were unsure how important ma terial goods were to them, while 31.1% (n=73) of students responded that their current plans we re likely to meet their needs or desires. Additionally, 41.7% (n=98) of students were somewhat sure that they would be able to satisfy their needs and desires (Table 4-28 ). In response to students cons idering the tradeoffs needed for a personal lifestyle, 69.9% (n=165) of students have a clear to very clear idea of the tradeoffs required. In addition, 23.7% (n= 56) had thought about and 6.4% (n=15) had not thought about the tradeoffs required (Table 4-29). Table 4-28. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Investig ating the Process to Satisfy Needs or Desires for Material Goods Response Frequency Percent No, Im unsure about how important material goods are to me. No, I havent thought much about what I will need to do. No, I have given some thought to this, but things are still unclear. Yes, Im somewhat sure that I will be able to satisfy my needs or desires. Yes, my current plans are likely to meet my needs or desires. 12 19 33 98 73 5.1 8.1 14.0 41.7 31.1 n=235; Missing=1 Table 4-29. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Considering Tradeoffs Needed for Personal Lifestyle Response Frequency Percent I havent thought about this at all. I have thought about this in general. I have a fairly clear idea of the tradeoffs required. I have a very clear idea of the tradeoffs required. 15 56 97 68 6.4 23.7 41.1 28.8 n=236

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62 Cultural Participation Subtask In regards to students experiencing unfamiliar artistic media in the past six months, 51.1% (n=120) of respondents had not expe rienced this type of media. In addition, students learning or experiencing a culture different from their ow n through artistic expres sion, 50.4% (n=119) of students had experienced a different culture. In response to students s eeking to broaden their understanding of culture, 20.4% (n= 48) of students responded always true of me, 38.3% (n=90) of students responded usually true of me, 28.9% (n =68) of students responded seldom true of me, and 12.3% (n=29) of students responde d never true of me (Table 4-30). Table 4-30. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Effort s to Broaden Understanding of Culture Response Frequency Percent Never (almost never) true of me. Seldom true of me. Usually true of me. Always (almost always) true of me. 29 68 90 48 12.3 28.9 38.3 20.4 n=235; Missing=1 In the item students having a conversation a bout the arts in the past 12 months, 73.3% (n=173) of students had a conversation. In rela tion to students seeking out opportunities to learn about cultural or arti stic forms, 13.2% (n=31) of student s responded never true of me, 49.4% (n=116) of students responded seldom true of me 26.4% (n=62) of studen ts responded usually true of me, and 11.1% (n=26) of students re sponded always true of me (Table 4-31). Table 4-31. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Seeki ng Out Opportunities to Learn About Cultural or Artistic Forms Response Frequency Percent Never (almost never) true of me. Seldom true of me. Usually true of me. Always (almost always) true of me. 31 116 62 26 13.2 49.4 26.4 11.1 n=235; Missing=1

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63 In the item becoming more culturally s ophisticated since beginning college, 79.9% (n=187) of students responded agree or strongly agree (Table 4-32). In addition, students who had attended a cultural event when not required by class, 49.2% (n=116) of students had not attended these events when not required by class (Table 4-33). In rega rds to students visiting a museum or art exhibit when not required for a class, 47% (n=111) had not visited when not required by class (Table 4-34). Table 4-32. Frequencies a nd Percentages of Students by Becoming More Culturally Sophisticated in College Response Frequency Percent Strongly Agree. Agree. Disagree. Strongly Disagree. 61 126 40 7 26.1 53.8 17.1 3.0 n=234; Missing=1 Table 4-33. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Attendi ng a Cultural Event When Not Required For a Class Response Frequency Percent Yes. No, I dont like those kinds of things. No, I just havent gotten around to it. No, there arent such things available here. 116 31 85 4 49.2 13.1 36.0 1.7 n=236 Table 4-34. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Visiting a Museum or Art Exhibit When Not Required for a Class Response Frequency Percent Yes. No, I dont like those kinds of things. No, I just havent gotten around to it. No, there arent such things available here. 111 27 91 7 47.0 11.4 38.6 3.0 n=236 In terms to students participating in the arts for their own benefit, 55.3% (n=130) of students do this occasionally or frequently (Table 4-35). In regards to students frequently participating in cultural activities, 6.4% (n=15) only attend when required by the college while

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64 28.1% (n=66) of students have taken advantage of as many opportunities as they could manage. Also, 31.1% (n=73) of students do not frequently participate in cultural activities (Table 4-36). Table 4-35. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Participat ing in the Arts for Their Own Benefit Response Frequency Percent I never (almost never) do this. I seldom do this. I occasionally do this. I frequently do this. 61 44 63 67 26.0 18.7 26.8 28.5 n=235; Missing=1 Table 4-36. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Frequen tly Participating in Cultural Activities Response Frequency Percent No, that isnt something th at I enjoy or consider important. No, there havent been any cultural activities. I have attended when othe rs have encouraged or invited me. Yes, I have taken advantage of as many opportunities as I could manage. Yes, only when required by the college. 42 31 81 66 15 17.9 13.2 34.5 28.1 6.4 n=235; Missing=1 Educational Involvement Subtask Students in terms of academic major choices, 50% (n=118) have made a firm decision about a major. Three percent (n=7) had not se lected a major, while 9.3% (n=22) had made a tentative decision and 37.7% (n=89) had made a firm decision while still having some doubts (Table 4-37). In regards to students investig ating possible academic majors, 49.6% (n=117) of students had made a systematic effort to learn about possible majors. Meanwhile, 22.8% (n=54) of students had not investigated the possibilities, while 27.5% (n =65) of students had read a catalog and talked to some stude nts, faculty, and staff members about possible majors (Table 438).

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65 Table 4-37. Frequencies a nd Percentages of Students by Academic Major Choices Response Frequency Percent I am uncertain about possible majors and am a long way from a decision. I have thought about seve ral majors, but havent done anything about it yet. I have made a tentative decision about what I will major in. I have made a firm decision about a major, but I still have doubts about whether I have made the right decision. I have made a firm decision about a major in which I am confident that I will be successful. 3 4 22 89 118 1.3 1.7 9.3 37.7 50.0 n=236 Table 4-38. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Inve stigating Possible Academic Majors Response Frequency Percent Not spent much time investigating the possibilities. Talked to some students about their majors, but have not done any systematic investigation. Read the catalog and talked to some students, faculty, staff members about possible majors. Made a systematic effort to learn about possible majors and what they entail. Make a systematic effort to learn about possible majors and have carefu lly looked at my abilities and interests and how they fit different majors. 23 31 65 60 57 9.7 13.1 27.5 25.4 24.2 n=236 In relation to students requirements for an academic major, 86.9% (n=205) of students had investigated the basic requi rements for the major that they had chosen. In addition, 11.4 % (n=27) students had a general idea about the co urses and other requirements needed in their major, while 1.7% (n=4) had not pa id attention to requirements or selected a major (Table 4-39). In regards to students investigating the abilitie s and background needed to be successful in an academic major, 70.6% (n=166) of students had inve stigated the requirements for success (Table 4-40).

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66 Table 4-39. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Requirements of an Academic Major Response Frequency Percent Determined what all the requirements are and the deadlines by which things must be done, for the major I have chosen. Investigated the basic re quirements for graduating with a degree in my academic major. A general idea about the courses and other requirements needed in my major. Not paid much attention to the requirements for my major; I depend on my advisor or others to tell me what to take. Yet to decide on an academic major. 148 57 27 3 1 62.7 24.2 11.4 1.3 0.4 n=236 Table 4-40. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Investigating the Abilities and Background Needed to be Successful in an Academic Major Response Frequency Percent No, I have yet to make a definite decision about an academic major or concentration. No, I chose my major or concentration solely on the basis of what I enjoyed most. No, I have narrowed the choice down to a few areas, but I havent really investigated majors in that way. No, I never thought about it in that way. Yes. 3 25 21 20 166 1.3 10.6 8.9 8.5 70.6 n=235; Missing=1 In relation to students working with an acad emic advisor, 73.3% (n=173) of students took the initiative to set up conferences with an academic advisor while only 12.3% (n=29) kept appointments with an academic advisor when schedul ed by the advisor (Table 4-41). In terms of students having a serious conversation about long-t erm educational objectives with an academic advisor, 53% (n=125) did have a serious conversation with an academic advisor. On the contrary, 22.5% (n=53) did not have a seriou s conversation with an academic advisor while 24.6% (n=58) of students did not have a serious conversation with an academic advisor but wanted to do so (Table 4-42).

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67 Table 4-41. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Worki ng with an Academic Advisor Response Frequency Percent Taken the initiative to set up conferences with an academic advisor. Kept appointments with an academic advisor when scheduled by advisor. Avoided dealing with my academic advisor. Not investigated how to obtain academic advising. Not been at this college long enough to get involved in academic advising. 173 29 19 7 8 73.3 12.3 8.1 3.0 3.4 n=236 Table 4-42. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Having a Serious Conversation about Long-Term Educational Objectives with an Academic Advisor Response Frequency Percent No, I dont know to whom to talk. No, I have tried but no one will help me. No, but I want to do that. No, I dont want my options limited. Yes. 27 15 58 11 125 11.4 6.4 24.6 4.7 53.0 n=236 Slightly more than half (54.7%, n=129) of the respondents reported that they have a mature relationship with members of the academ ic community. In addition, 18.2% (n=43) did not have a mature relationship with members of the academic community, while 27.1% (n=64) of students did not have a mature relationship with members of the academic community because they did not know any members of the academic co mmunity (Table 4-43). In regards of students forming personal relationships w ith professors, 47.1% (n=111) of students had not formed a personal relationship with a professor. Meanwh ile, 19.9% (n=47) of students had formed a personal relationship with a profe ssor but found it to be difficult to talk with them. Also, 33.1% (n=78) of students had formed a personal rela tionship with a professor and they enjoyed interacting with each other (Table 4-44). In terms of students having a serious discussion with a faculty member, 52.1% (n=123) of students had a serious discussion with a faculty member (Table 4-45).

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68 Table 4-43. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Having a Mature Working Relationship with Members of the Academic Community Response Frequency Percent Yes. No, I dont like dealing with them. No, I have tried to form relationships, but havent been successful yet. No, I dont know any. No, I dont have time for that kind of thing. 129 13 24 64 6 54.7 5.5 10.2 27.1 2.5 n=236 Table 4-44. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Forming Personal Relationships with Professors Response Frequency Percent Yes, but I find it difficult to talk to him or her (them). Yes, we often enjoy interacting with each other. No, I would like to but havent taken any action. No, I would like to and have tried unsuccessfully. No, because that isnt important to me. 47 78 89 19 3 19.9 33.1 37.7 8.1 1.3 n=236 Table 4-45. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Having a Serious Discussion with a Faculty Member Response Frequency Percent No, I dont like talking to faculty members. No, I have tried, but was unsuccessful. No, I havent found one w ho seemed willing to interact in that way. Yes, I initiated such a discussion. Yes, I responded to a faculty members initiative. 36 14 63 107 16 16.3 5.9 26.7 45.3 6.8 n=236 In terms of students attending lectures d ealing with serious inte llectual subjects, 61.4% (n=145) of students had attended one or more non-required lectures dur ing the past twelve months that dealt with serious in tellectual subjects (Table 4-46). In regard to students reading a non-required publication re lated to their major, 57.1% (n=1 24) of students had read a nonrequired publication related to their major (Table 4-47).

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69 Table 4-46. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Atte nding Lectures Dealing with Serious Intellectual Subjects Response Frequency Percent I havent attended any non-required lectures, programs, or activitie s dealing with serious intellectual subjects. I have attended one or tw o non-required lectures or programs dealing with serious intellectual subjects. I have attended three or f our lectures or programs dealing with serious intellectual subjects that were not required for any of my courses. I have attended five or mo re lectures or programs dealing with serious intellectual subjects which were not required for any of my courses. 91 106 25 14 38.6 44.9 10.6 5.9 n=236 Table 4-47. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Readi ng a Non-Required Publication Related to my Major Field Response Frequency Percent No, I have yet to decide on an academic major or field of study. No, I dont have time to read such things. No, that would be too boring. Yes. 17 59 17 124 7.8 27.2 7.8 57.1 n=217; Missing=19 In relation to students spending their fr ee time, 22.1% (n=52) spend their free time involved in the community or in organized ac tivities on campus. Sixt y percent (n=141) of students spend their time with friends or goofi ng off. In addition, 17.9% (n=42) of students spend their free time working to support themselves or their family (Table 4-48). In terms of students being engaged in a student organizati on in the past six months, 52.5% (n=124) of students were engaged in a student organizati on in the past six months. Meanwhile, 31.4% (n=74) of students had not been engaged in a st udent organization in the past six months. In addition, 16.1% (n=38) of students had not be engaged in a studen t organization in the past six months, but planned to do so soon (Table 4-49). In regards to students pa rticipating in practical

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70 experience related to educational goals, 62.8% (n=145) of students had participated in practical experience related to educational goals (Table 4-50). Table 4-48. Frequencies a nd Percentages of Students by Spending Free Time Response Frequency Percent I spend much of my free time involved in organized activities on campus or in the community. I spend most of my free time goofing off or watching TV. I spend most of my free time with friends doing things we enjoy. I spend most of my time working to support myself or caring for my family. 52 28 113 42 22.1 11.9 48.1 17.9 n=235; Missing=1 Table 4-49. Frequencies and Percentages of Students by Being Engaged in a Student Organization in the Past 6 Months Response Frequency Percent Yes. No, I dont have time because of my job(s) or family responsibilities. No, I am not interested. No, I havent been in college long enough. No, but I plan to do so soon. 124 35 32 7 38 52.5 14.8 13.6 3.0 16.1 n=236 Table 4-50. Frequencies and Per centages of Students by Participat ing in Practical Experience Related to Educational Goals Response Frequency Percent No, I havent been enrolled long enough. No, I havent thought about it much. No, I have yet to establis h any specific educational goals. Yes, I did it to satisfy program requirements. Yes, I did it on my own initiative. 33 28 25 32 113 14.3 12.1 10.8 13.9 48.9 n=231; Missing=5 Standardized t-scores (M = 50, SD = 10), which were provided by Student Development Associates (Winston et al., 1999), were computed using a normative sample of students of the same gender and class standing. The standardized t-score compared the reported level of student development to what is normally expected from undergraduates of the same age. The normative sample came from a carefully selected national sa mple to define responses for each of the four

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71 college years (Wachs, personal communication, Ju ly 5, 2007). Data for the normative sample was collected from over 1800 undergraduate students from 42 different colle ges and universities (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). For the subt ask career planning (n=231) a mean of 50.9 and standard deviation of 10.0 was found while the subtask lifestyle pl anning (n=231) had a mean of 51.6 and standard deviation of 9.3. The subtask cultural particip ation (n=230) obtained a mean of 47.7 with a standard deviation of 10.1 and the subtask educational involvement (n=231) had a mean of 48.4 and a standard deviation of 10.1. For the establishing and clarifying purpose task (n=231), a mean of 49.4 was reported with a standard deviation of 9.2 (Table 4-51). Table 4-51. Standardized Means and Standard Deviations for the Care er Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Subtask and Task Mean Standard Deviation n Career Planning. Lifestyle Planning. Cultural Participation. Educational Involvement. Establishing and Clarifying Purpose. 50.9 51.6 47.7 48.4 49.4 10.0 9.3 10.1 10.1 9.2 231 231 230 231 231 Objective 2: To Examine the Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and the Levels of Student Development of Undergraduate s in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences In terms of the gender of students, 30.8% (n=72) were male while 69.2% (n=162) were female (Table 4-52). In regards to the stude nts race, 11.3% (n=26) were Black or African American and 15.1% (n=35) were Hispanic Latino, Latina, or Mexican-American. Additionally, 8.7% (n=20) were Asian-American or Pacific Is lander while 58.4% (n=135) were White, Caucasian, or European. Also, 6.5% (n=1 5) were considered Other, including Native American, Bi-racial, or Mu ltiracial (Table 4-53).

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72 Table 4-52. Frequencies and Per centages of Males and Females Sex Frequency Percent Male. Female. 72 162 30.8 69.2 n=234; Missing=2 Table 4-53. Frequencies and Percenta ges of Race and/or Cultural Background Background Frequency Percent Black or African American. Hispanic, Latino, Latina, or Mexican-American. Asian-American or Pacific Islander. White, Caucasian, or European. Bi-racial or Multiracial. Other. 26 35 20 135 9 6 11.3 15.1 8.7 58.4 3.9 2.6 N=231; Missing =5 Concerning the students cla ss standing, 9.4% (n=22) were freshmen and 24.0% (n=56) were sophomores. Combined, the underclassm en made up 33.4% (n=78) of the sample. Additionally, 52.4% (n=122) of the students were juniors and 14.2% (n=3 3) were seniors. Combined, the upperclassmen made up 66.6% (n=155) of the sample (Table 4-54). Table 4-54. Frequencies and Percen tages of Academic Class Standing Academic Standing Frequency Percent Freshman (First Year). Sophomore (Second Year). Junior (Third Year). Senior (Fourth Year). 22 56 122 33 9.4 24.0 52.4 14.2 In terms of students current residence, 17.7% (n=41) lived in an on-campus residence hall, while 2.2% (n=5) lived in an on-campus apartment, trailer, or house. Also, 1.3% (n=3) lived at a fraternity or sorority. Combined, the students that lived on campus made up 21.2% (n=49) of the sample. Additionally, 5.6% (n=13) of the student s lived at home with their parents while 4.3% (n=10) lived at home with a spouse or a spouse equivalent. Also, 69.0% (n=160) of the students lived in an off-campus apartmen t, trailer, or house. Combin ed, 78.9% (n=183) of the student lived off-campus (Table 4-55).

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73 Table 4-55. Frequencies and Per centages of Current Residence Current Residence Frequency Percent In on-campus residence hall. At home with parents. At home with spouse or spouse equivalent. In on-campus apartment, traile r, or house (Not with parents or spouse). In off-campus apartment, trailer, or house (Not with parents or spouse). In fraternity or sorority. 41 13 10 5 160 3 17.7 5.6 4.3 2.2 69.0 1.3 n=232; Missing=4 In terms of international st udents, 92.4% (n=208) of stude nts were not international students (Table 4-56). Table 4-56. Frequencies and Percen tages of International Students International Student Frequency Percent Yes. No. 17 208 7.6 92.4 In regards the number of semester that stude nts had attended a college or university, excluding the current semester, 20.6% (n=44) of stude nt had attended 0-2 semesters. In addition, 39.4% (n=84) had attended 3-5 semesters wherea s 25.4% (n=54) had attended 6-8 semesters. Also, 14.6% (n=31) of students had attended 9 semesters at a college or university (Table 4-57). Table 4-57. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Semesters Attended a College or University Excluding the Current Semester Number of Semesters Frequency Percent 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 5 15 24 28 25 31 18 22 14 31 2.3 7.0 11.3 13.1 11.7 14.6 8.5 10.3 6.6 14.6

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74 In terms of students being involved in extr acurricular activities on campus, 69.8% (n=162) were involved in extracurricula r activities on campus. In rega rds to students being in a leadership position in a campus organization, 32.3% (n=75) of students were in a leadership position in a campus organization. In regards to students being curre ntly employed, 48.5% (n=112) of respondents were currently employed. In response to students by the number of cr edit hours taken in the spring 2007 semester, 9.5% (n=22) of students were taking 0-11 credit hours. In addition, 60.9% (n=142) of students were taking 12-14 credit hours, wh ile 29.7% (n=69) of students we re taking 15 or more credit hours (Table 4-58). Table 4-58. Frequencies and Pe rcentages of Students by Number of Credit Hours Taken in Spring 2007 Semester Response Frequency Percent 0-6. 7-11. 12-14. 15-18. 21+. 9 13 142 67 2 3.9 5.6 60.9 28.8 0.9 In order to further describe the variables in this study, analyses were conducted to identify relationships that may have existed among variab les. The magnitudes of the correlations are presented and discussed using the ranges proposed by Miller ( 1994). Correlation coefficients between .01 and .09 were considered negligib le, correlations between .10 and .29 were low relationships, correlation s between .30 and .49 were moderate relationships, correlations between .50 and .69 were substantial relationships, correl ations between .70 and .99 were very high and a perfect correlation was 1.0. A Pearson point biserial corre lational analysis between academic class standing and the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and edu cational involvement subtasks

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75 and the overall task of establis hing and clarifying purpose was performed. Negligible to low negative relationships were found between the ov erall task and four subtasks and academic standing (Table 4-59). Underclassmen (freshme n and sophomores) had a slight tendency to report higher scores on the overall task and the in dividual subtasks, with the exception of the lifestyle planning task, wh ere no relationship was found. Table 4-59. Correlation Between Academic Cl ass Standing and Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Task or Subtask rpb Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. Educational Involvement Subtask. Cultural Participation Subtask. Lifestyle Planning Subtask. Career Planning Subtask. -.214 -.208 -.192 -.071 -.163 Note: Academic class standing was coded as 1=underclassmen; 2=upperclassmen A one-way between-groups analys is of variance was conducted to explore the impact of racial or cultural background on the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and educational involvement subtasks and the es tablishing and clarifying purpose task. Racial and cultural backgrounds were divided into five groups; Black or African American; Hispanic, Latino/a, or Mexican American; Asian Am erican or Pacific Islander; White or Caucasian/European; and Other, which included Native Americans, Bi-racial, and Multi-racial. There was a statistically signifi cant difference at the p<.05 level in the lifestyle planning and career planning subtasks (Table 4-60) Post-hoc comparisons using the Tu key HSD test indicated the mean score for the Asian American or Pacifi c Islander group was significantly different from the White or Caucasian/European group for the li festyle planning subtask (Table 4-61 and Table 4-62).

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76 Table 4-60. Analysis of Variance for Racial or Cultural Background with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, a nd Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Source df F Mean Square p Between Groups Establishing and clarifying purpose task 4 2.16 178.39 .07 Educational involvement subtask 4 2.28 227.36 .06 Cultural participation subtask 4 .70 71.22 .59 Lifestyle planning subtask 4 3.39* 281.69 .01 Career planning subtask 4 2.57* 249.61 .04 Within Groups Establishing and clarifying purpose task 224 2.16 82.55 .07 Educational involvement subtask 224 2.28 99.66 .06 Cultural participation subtask 224 .70 101.65 .59 Lifestyle planning subtask 224 3.39* 83.02 .01 Career planning subtask 224 2.57* 97.24 .04 Note. p <.05* Table 4-61. Frequency and Means of Racial or Cultural Backgrounds with the Lifestyle Planning Subtask Racial or Cultural Background Frequency Mean Black or African American Hispanic, Latino/a, or Mexican American Asian American or Pacific IslanderA White or Caucasian/EuropeanA Other-Native American/People, Bi-racial, and Multi-racial 26 35 20 133 15 51.95 50.56 45.22 52.84 49.48 A-Means are significantly different at p <.05 Table 4-62. Frequency and Means of Racial or Cultural Backgrounds with the Career Planning Subtask Racial or Cultural Background Frequency Mean Black or African American Hispanic, Latino/a, or Mexican American Asian American or Pacific IslanderA White or Caucasian/EuropeanA Other-Native American/People, Bi-racial, and Multi-racial 26 35 20 135 14 48.90 48.88 46.57 52.53 49.67 A-Means are significantly different at p <.05

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77 A Pearson point biserial corre lational analysis between curre nt residence and the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultura l participation, and educati onal involvement subtasks and establishing and clarifying purpose task was perf ormed. Negative, low relationships were found between residence and the establishing and clar ifying purpose task and th e cultural participation subtask. Negligible relationships were found for the educational involvement, lifestyle planning, and career planning subtasks (Tab le 4-63). Students who lived on-campus had a slightly higher tendency to report higher scores on the overall task and the cultural participation subtask. Table 4-63. Correlation Between Current Residence with th e Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Task or Subtask rpb Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. Educational Involvement Subtask. Cultural Participation Subtask. Lifestyle Planning Subtask. Career Planning Subtask. -.122 -.078 -.131 -.089 -.080 Note: Current residence was coded as 1=on-campus; 2=off-campus A Pearson point biserial co rrelational analysis between in ternational students and the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and edu cational involvement subtasks and establishing and clarifying purpose task was executed. Negligible re lationships were found for the overall task and all of the subtasks (Table 4-64). A Pearson point biserial correlational analysis between gender and the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultur al participation, and educational involvement subtasks and establishing and clarifying pur pose task was also utilized. Negligible relationships were found for the es tablishing and clarifyi ng purpose task and the lifestyle planning, caree r planning, and cultural participa tion subtasks. A low negative relationship ( rpb=-0.137) was found between the educati onal involvement subtask and gender

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78 (Table 4-65). Males had a slight tendency to repo rt higher scores on the educational involvement subtask, while no relationships were found for the overall task and the other subtasks. Table 4-64. Correlation Between International Students with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Task or Subtask rpb Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. Educational Involvement Subtask. Cultural Participation Subtask. Lifestyle Planning Subtask. Career Planning Subtask. -.026 -.013 -.046 -.007 -.009 Note: Being an international stud ents was coded as 1=no; 2=yes Table 4-65. Correlation Between Gender with the Career Planni ng, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Task or Subtask rpb Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. Educational Involvement Subtask. Cultural Participation Subtask. Lifestyle Planning Subtask. Career Planning Subtask. -.043 -.137 .085 -.048 -.043 Note: Gender was coded as 1=male; 2=female A scatterplot was administered to examine lin earity for the number of semesters attended a college or university with the career planni ng, lifestyle planning, cultu ral participation, and educational involvement subtasks and establishi ng and clarifying purpose task. Linearity was not met and no further analysis was done on th e relationship of these variables. A Pearson point biserial correlational analysis between being in a leadership position and the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultura l participation, and e ducational involvement subtasks and establishing and clarifying purpos e task was performed. A negative moderate relationship ( rpb =-0.315) was found for the establishing and clarifying purpose task. Negative low relationships were found for all of the subtas ks (Table 4-66). Students who held leadership positions in CALS student organizations had a moderate tendency to have higher scores on the

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79 overall student development task and a low tendency to have higher scores on each of the four subtasks. Table 4-66. Correlation Between being in a L eadership Position with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, a nd Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Task or Subtask rpb Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. Educational Involvement Subtask. Cultural Participation Subtask. Lifestyle Planning Subtask. Career Planning Subtask. -.315 -.280 -.199 -.150 -.266 Note: Being in a leadership position was coded 1=yes; 2=no A Pearson point biserial corre lational analysis was used to determine the relationship between number of credit hour s taken in the spring 2007 seme ster and the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural par ticipation, and educational involv ement subtasks and establishing and clarifying purpose overall task. A neglig ible relationship was f ound between number of credit hours and the cultural participation su btask. Low, positive relationships were found between the number of credit hours in the spring 2007 semester and the establishing and clarifying purpose task and the educational involvement, lifesty le planning, and career planning subtasks (Table 4-67). Thus, students who comp leted 15 or more credit hours during the spring 2007 semester had a slight tendency to have higher scores on the overall task and the educational involvement, lifestyle planning, and career planning subtasks. No relationship was found between number of credit hours ta ken in the spring of 2007 and the cultural participation subtask. A Pearson point biserial corre lational analysis between being currently employed and the career planning, lifestyle planning, cultural participation, and edu cational involvement subtasks and establishing and clarifying purpose task wa s done. A low, negative relationship was found for the lifestyle planning subtask. A neglig ible relationship was f ound for the cultural

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80 Table 4-67. Correlation Between Number of Cr edit Hours Taken in the Spring 2007 Semester with the Career Planning, Lifestyle Planni ng, Cultural Participation, and Educational Involvement Subtasks and Establis hing and Clarifying Purpose Task Task or Subtask rpb Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. Educational Involvement Subtask. Cultural Participation Subtask. Lifestyle Planning Subtask. Career Planning Subtask. .190 .223 .016 .111 .199 Note: Credit hours was coded as 1=014 credit hours; 2=15+ credit hours participation subtask while negl igible relationships were found for the overall task and the educational involvement, cultura l participation, and career planning subtasks (Table 4-68). Students who were employed had a slight tendency to report higher scores on the lifestyle planning subtask. No relationship was found be tween being employed and the overall task and the rest of the subtasks. Table 4-68. Correlation Between Employment Status and th e Career Planning, Lifestyle Planning, Cultural Participation, and E ducational Involvement Subtasks and Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task Task or Subtask rpb Establishing and Clarifying Purpose Task. Educational Involvement Subtask. Cultural Participation Subtask. Lifestyle Planning Subtask. Career Planning Subtask. -.082 -.082 .043 -.137 -.058 Note: Being employed was coded as 1=yes; 2=no

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81 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the study and discu sses the conclusions, implications and recommendations that have been drawn from the study. The first section of the chapter provides an overview of the study, including the purpos e and specific objectives, methodologies, and findings. The remainder of the chapter disc usses specific conclusions from the findings, implications of the findings, and reco mmendations for future research. The problem that was addressed by this study was the lack of knowledge and information about the developmental needs of students in the Co llege of Agricultural a nd Life Sciences at the University of Florida. This lack of knowle dge extends beyond the bound aries of the classroom and into areas including educational involveme nt, career and lifestyle planning, and cultural participation as measured by the Student Deve lopmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment based on the work of Chickering. In re gards to student development in co lleges of agricultural and life sciences, the review of lite rature showed a clear void in research in this area. The primary purpose of this study was to exam ine student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. This study also described a purposive sample of undergraduates in CALS at UF in terms of gender, ethnicity, current residence, number of semesters attendi ng college, academic cla ss standing, number of credit hours taken during the spring 2007 semest er, involvement in ex tracurricular activities, leadership positions held, and employment. The following research objectives were used to guide this investigation: (1) to assess levels of student development of underg raduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences and (2) to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and the levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

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82 This study employed the descriptive survey research design, which asks questions of respondents at one point in time. The survey instrument was the Stude nt Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which was obt ained from Appalachian State University. The first part of the instrument contained dem ographic questions, the second part assessed levels of student development, and the final section contained researcher-adde d demographic questions. In this study, the population was defined as all undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florid a for the spring 2007 semester. A purposive sample consisted of undergraduates in CALS at UF enrolled in the following classes: AEB 2014, AEB 3133, and FOS 3042. Responses were obtained from 236 of the 451 individuals listed on the class ro sters (those attending class on da y data were gathered), for an overall response rate of 52.3%. All of the 236 responses containe d usable data for analysis. Summary of Findings Objective 1 Objective one sought to assess levels of st udent development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. Almost half of the respondents (n=111) reported that they knew several sources th at could provide them with information about future employment prospects, and almost 70% (n=164) of respondents could name two or more beginning-level positions in fields related to their major. Over half (n=124) of respondents had discussed their car eer goals with at le ast two professionals in the field that interested them the most, while almost 64% (n =149) had become acquain ted with three people actively involved in their chos en occupational area. Slightly less than half (45.5%) of the respondents had been involved in activities direc tly related to their futu re career. Over 58% (n=137) of respondents had joined one or more college organizations related to their chosen

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83 occupational field, yet 60.9% (n=137) had not vi sited a career center or library to obtain information about a chosen career. Over 80% (n=189) of respondents were involved in lifestyle planning ac tivities yet, 72.3% (n=170) of students had not develo ped or were not very confident in their abilities to maximize their strengths and minimize their weaknesses to accomplish their goals. Over 81% (n=191) of respondents reported that they had a clear picture of the steps necessary to realize their dreams five years from now. However, 62.7% (n=148) of respondents did not have a plan to achieve goals for the next ten years. Over 82% (n=185) of respondents had a fairly clear to clear idea of how their present course of st udy would shape their future. Ov er 58% (n=138) of respondents had not decided on the place that marriage had in their future, yet 87.2% (n=205) of respondents had weighed the importance of establishing a family and goals. Over 83% (n=197) of respondents thought about and systematically devel oped skills and habits to assure that they continue learning after comple ting their formal education. Only 12.3% (n=29) of respondents reported that they had never sought to broaden their understanding of culture. However, 73.3% (n=1 73) of respondents had held a conversation about the arts within the past 12 months. Over 62% (n=147) of respondents said that seeking out opportunities to learn about cultural or artistic forms was never or seldom true of them. In contrast, 79.9% (n=187) of responde nts agreed or strongly agreed that they had become more culturally sophisticated in college. Just under half of the respondents had attended a cultural event (n=116) or visited a museum or art exhib it (n=111) when not requ ired by class. Only 28.5% (n=67) of respondents had fre quently participated in the arts for their own benefit, while 34.5% (n=81) of respondents frequently participated in cu ltural activities.

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84 Only 50% (n=118) of respondents had made a firm decision about an academic major in which the student was confident that they would be successful. Over 62% (n=148) of respondents had determined all of the requireme nts and deadlines for the academic major in which they had chosen. Over 70% (n=166) of respondents had investigat ed the abilities and background needed to be successful in their acad emic major. Surprisingly, 73.3% (n=173) of respondents took the initiative to se t up conferences with an academic advisor, while only 12.3% (n=29) of respondents kept appointments with an academic advisor when scheduled by the advisor. Only 53% (n=125) of respondent s had a serious conver sation about long-term objectives with an academic advisor. Just over half (54.7%) of respondents had a mature working relationship with members of the academic community, while 19.9% (n=47) of respondents had formed a personal relationship (f riendly acquaintanceship) with one or more professors but found it difficult to talk to them Just over half (52.1%) had held a serious discussion with a faculty member concerning something of importance to the respondent. Over 61% (n=145) of respondents had attended one or more non-required lectures dealing with serious intellectual subjects, while 57.1% (n=124) of respondents had r ead a non-required publication related to their academic field. Only 22.1% (n=52) of responde nts spent their free time involved in organized activities on campus or in the community. Over half (52.5%) of respondents had engaged in a student organizati on in the past six months, while approximately 62% (n=145) of respondents had participated in practical experiences relate d to their educational goals. For the establishing and clarifying purpose task, a standardized t-score of 49.4 was determined, very close to the national mean of 50.0. Means and standard deviations for the cultural participati on (t=47.7) and educational involvement (t=49.4) subtasks were also very

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85 comparable to the national average. Scores for the career planning (t=50.9) and lifestyle planning (t=51.6) subtasks were also very near to the national average. Objective 2 Objective two sought to examine the relations hip between demographic characteristics and the levels of student development of undergradu ates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. Over 30% (n=72) of respondents were male and 69.2% (n=162) of respondents were female. In term s of racial or cultural background, 6.4% (n=15) responded other, including Nativ e American, bi-racial, or multi racial, while 8.7% (n=20) of respondents were Asian-American or Pacific Islander. Twenty-s ix (11.3%) of respondents were Black or African-American; 15.1% (n=35) were Hispanic, Latino, Latina, or Mexican-American; and 58.4% (n=135) of respondents were White, Ca ucasian, or European. Seventy-eight (33.4%) of respondents were underclassmen, with 9.4% (n =22) being freshmen and 24.0% (n=56) being sophomores. Thirty-three (14.2%) of responde nts were seniors, a nd 52.4% (n=122) were juniors, making the upperclassmen 66.6% (n=155) of the population. Over 21% (n=49) of respondents lived on-campus while 78.9% (n=160) lived off-campus. Only 7.6% (n=17) of respondents were international st udents. Over 64% (n=138) of respondents had attended 3-8 semesters at a co llege or university. Almost 70% (n=162) of respondents were involved in extracurricular activ ities on campus, but only 32.3% (n= 75) of respondents were in a leadership position in a campus organization. All (n=236) of the respondents were in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Over 60% (n=142) of respondents we re taking 12-14 credit hours in the spring 2007 semester. Only 48.5% (n=112) of respondents were employed. A correlational analysis found low relationships between the establis hing and clarifying task and the educational involvement, cultural pa rticipation, and career pl anning subtasks with academic class standing. Thus, underclassmen had a slight tendency to report higher scores on

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86 the SDTLA on the overall task and the mentioned subtasks for academic class standing. A statistical difference between the lifestyle and ca reer planning subtasks for racial and cultural background was found. Post-hoc anal ysis found that the mean score for the Asian American or Pacific Islander group was significantly different from the White or Caucasian/European group for the lifestyle planning subtask. Negativ e, low correlations were found between the establishing and clarifying task and current residence and betw een the cultural participation subtask and current residence. Thus, student s who lived on-campus had a slightly higher tendency to report higher scores on the overall task and the cultural participation subtask. No relationships were found between being an international student and the overall task and individual subtasks. A co rrelational analysis also found a low negative correlation between the educational involvement subtask and the gende r of the respondent. Thus, males had a slight tendency to report higher scores on the educational involvement subtask. Th ere was the lack of a linear relationship between the task and subtas ks and the number of semesters the respondents attended a college or university. Low relationships were found for the overall task and all of the individual subtasks and number of semesters the respondents attended a college or university. A negative, moderate relationship between the re spondent being in a lead ership position in a campus organization and the overall task was repo rted. Negative, low relationships were found between all of the individual subtasks and bei ng in a leadership position. Students who held leadership positions in student organizations had a moderate tendency to have higher scores on the overall student development task and a low te ndency to have higher scores on each of the four subtasks. A correlational analysis found lo w, positive relationships between the number of credit hours taken in the spri ng 2007 semester and the establis hing and clarifying purpose task and the educational involvement, lifestyle planning, and career planning subtasks. Thus,

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87 students who completed 15 or more credit hour s during the spring 2007 semester had a slight tendency to have higher scores on the overall task and the educational involvement, lifestyle planning, and career planning subtasks. A low, negative relationship was also found between employment status and the lifes tyle planning subtask. Thus, st udents who were employed had a slight tendency to report higher scor es on the lifestyle planning subtask. Conclusions The following conclusions were drawn based upon the findings of the study: This sample of undergraduates in CALS at UF mirrors the national norms concerning student development as measured by the St udent Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA). The esta blishing and clarifying purpose task and the educational involvement, career planning, lifestyle planni ng, and cultural participation subtask means for this sample were all comparable to the national norms described by the SDTLA. Undergraduates in this sample are familiar w ith jobs in their career area. However, many remain uncertain about their ca reer decisions, have not taken deliberate steps to learn more about their career area, and are not sure how to maximize their strengths as they prepare for a career. Undergraduates in this sample have some experience in their career area but many still do not have a clear picture of the natu re of work in their career area. This sample of undergraduates is actively i nvolved in extracurricu lar activities on campus, yet is not actively involved in a student organization related to their career area. Undergraduates in this sample do not have a clear understanding of how their values will shape their future. Undergraduates in this sample are currently involved in lifestyl e planning activities (establishing a personal direction and orient ation in ones life) and have a clear enough picture to identify steps to reach goals five years after college. CALS students surveyed in this study believe they ha ve become more culturally sophisticated during their time in college. Undergraduates in this sample have not made a firm decision about an academic major but have investigated requirements, deadlines and opportunities for success in academic majors.

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88 This sample of undergraduates takes the initiative to set up conferences with an academic advisor, yet they do not have strong levels of interaction with faculty members. Discussion and Implications This research shows that undergraduates in CALS at UF that participated in this purposive sample have comparable scores to the national norm as measured by the SDTLA. However, the average scores for CALS student s on the SDTLA may indicate that more work needs to be done in the area of student developmen t. One question posed by this research is how good is good enough concerning student development in colleges and universities? Another is how much difference does student development act ually make in the lives of students? These questions arise because nearly every college and university has an expressed commitment to the development of students (Boatman, 1999, p. 325). If this is true, then what is CALS doing to go a step further? Student development levels activities, and ideas should be continually improved upon and refocused to meet the needs of students in CALS. One puzzling concept from this study is th at underclassmen (freshmen and sophomores) had a slight tendency to report higher scores on the overall task and three of the subtasks measured. College seniors reported higher levels of vocational purpose than freshmen (Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Hood & Zerwas, 1997; Flowers, 2002). The natural inclination would be for upperclassmen to report higher scores in all subtasks because of the increased amount of opportunities presented to them. However, the scores from this research were only slightly higher than the national norms, and the purposive sample may not be an accurate representation of the population. Increased developmental opport unities in high schools and as underclassmen could be possible so lutions to this occurrence. The more puzzling concept was the fact that the survey presented to responde nts was based on Chicke rings sixth vector, developing purpose. Chickering an d Reisser (1993) proposed a se quential model suggesting that

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89 earlier vectors form a foundation for later vectors, yet in this study, underclassmen had slightly higher scores on the establishing and clarifying purpose task than the upperclassmen did. In this sample of undergraduates in CALS at UF a majority are familia r with jobs in their career area, yet they remain unc ertain about their career decisi ons, have not taken deliberate steps to learn more about their career area, and are not sure how to maximize their strengths. This shows the need for more internships and ca reer fairs for undergraduates in CALS. These types of activities are beneficial and helpful for students when they are uncertain about their future career. Internships provide students w ith a means of bridging the gap between career expectations developed in the cl assroom and the reality of employm ent in the real world (Gault, Redington, & Schlager, 2000). A majority of undergraduates in this sample ha ve some experience in their career areas, but many dont have a clear picture of the nature of wo rk in their career area. This shows a need for more field trips and work experience for underg raduates in CALS. These experiences will help students become more familiar with different car eers and the type of work that each career entails. Field trips can be among the most inte nsive, in-depth, integrat ive, and rewarding of educational experiences for [college] st udents and instructor s alike (Scarce, 1997). This research also shows that a majority of undergraduates in this sample are involved in extracurricular activities on campus, yet most are not actively involved in a student organization related to their career area. Th is was expected because of research by Thieke (1994) that said that extracurricular activities have a significan t relationship to devel oping purpose. Martin (2000) found that the development of purpose is influenced by clubs and organizations. However, the fact that a majority of undergraduat es in this sample were not actively involved in a student organization related to thei r career area was slightly puzzling.

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90 Only one-third of the undergraduates in th is sample in CALS at UF have a clear understanding of how their values would shape their future. A majority in this sample also had clear priorities for establishing a family, yet less than half had made a definite decision on the place marriage had in their future. The fact that this sample of undergraduates had weighed the importance of establishing a family in relation to their goals is understand able, considering that over two-thirds of the respondents were women. The large number of women in the survey was also puzzling, yet there were 59% (n=2067) fe males and 41% (n=1425) males in the entire undergraduate population in CALS (CALS Institutional Research Data, 2007). A majority of this purposive sample of underg raduates is currently involved in lifestyle planning activities and has a clear enough picture to identify steps to reach goals five years after college. However, just over one-thi rd could clearly state their plans for the next ten years. This was expected because considerations of lifestyle are an integral aspect of developing purpose as students attempt to clarify goals (Moran, 2001). A majority of undergraduates in this sample ha ve become more culturally sophisticated in college, yet less than half of the sample actually pa rticipated in cultural events. This was slightly puzzling since less than half actually attended cultural events. Ye t, colleges and universities are a melting pot of new cultures and ideas. Chicke ring (1971) noted that small net changes toward increased cultural sophistication occur for some students at some college s, but not at other colleges. Only half of the undergraduates in this sample had made a firm decision about an academic major, while a majority had investigated re quirements, deadlines, a nd opportunities for success in academic majors. This concept is of serious concern since over two-thirds of the sample was upperclassmen and only half had made a firm deci sion about an academic major. The majority

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91 of respondents that had investigat ed requirements in the academic majors seemed to show that the respondents were at least utilizing resources to decide on an academic major. A majority of undergraduates in this sample took the initiative to se t up conferences with an academic advisor, while just over half regular ly interacted with me mbers of the academic community. Less than half had formed a pers onal relationship or ha d initiated a serious discussion with a faculty member. Pascarella et al. (1996) found that students who reported the most out-of-class contact with their faculty member s also reported the strongest gains in skills such as the ability to comprehend, interpret, or extrapol ate, and the ability to evaluate materials and methods. Martin (2000) confirmed that facu lty-student interaction has a strong relationship with the development of purpose. Recommendations Recommendations for future research and pr actice are provided as a result of assessing levels of student development of undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. Recommendations for Practice Based on the results of this study, student development personnel in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida are en couraged to continue allocating money, attention, and time towa rds the areas of educationa l involvement, career planning, lifestyle planning, and cultural participation (Winston, Miller, & Cooper, 1999). The average levels of student development for students in this purposive sample mirrored national norms, yet CALS students are more academically advanced due to high admission standards across the university. Thus, one could expect levels of st udent development in CALS to be well above national norms. However, a random sample of CALS undergraduates may produce different results, and in fact, reveal levels of student development higher than the national SDTLA norms.

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92 Proactive student development programming has th e potential to significantly boost levels of student development. The use of Chickering s seven vectors to guide student development programs is also recommended. Chickering's th eory provides researchers and student affairs practitioners with some very useful descriptors of th e emotional and psychological transformation students might potentially underg o in college (Reisse r, 1995; Thomas & Chickering, 1984; White & Hood, 1989). Developing programs that concentrate on indivi dual vectors would help to increase levels of student development. Also, specific progra mming on select ideas from individual vectors, such as career planning, would help to increa se student development. By taking a month, semester, or year long approach at a specific aspect of one of Chickerings vectors would encourage intentional development. Seminars that focus on career experience, values and goals, and maximizing strengths should be developed in CALS. Increased deve lopment in these areas would allow for higher overall student development scores in CALS. Mu ltiple opportunities, such as workshops, should be created to encourage development in these spec ific areas. More opportunities should also be given for undergraduates to learn about academ ic majors, cultural events, CALS student organizations, and internships. Increased underg raduate awareness in these areas would allow students to become more involved in CALS, allowing for more opportunities for development. Increased engagement for faculty and staff in student organizations is also recommended. Having increased contact would strengthen the re lationship between faculty and staff and the undergraduates in CALS. Students who interact frequently with faculty members are more likely than other students to express sa tisfaction with all aspects of th eir institutional experience (Astin, 1984). Student development involves more than ju st student development practitioners; it also

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93 involves recruiters, advisors, faculty, deans, and the students. Students who are integrated well with faculty members and peers feel a strong sens e of acceptance; this in turn assists them in growing both intellectually and personally (Kuh, Schuh, & Wh ite, 1991). Creating more opportunities for students to intera ct with faculty, such as an open house, would increase the comfort levels of students a nd allow for more opportunities for student development. In terms of educational involvement, more emphasis should be placed on academic advising, student-professor interactions, and academ ic success. Increased focus should be aimed towards undergraduates in CALS regarding acad emic majors. Online resources should be promoted to increase awareness of academic majo rs within CALS. More resources such as open houses and freshman orientation classes should be implemented to help students decide on their chosen major and career field. Recommendations for Future Research Although this study specifically focused on unde rgraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida, re search in other colleges of agricultural and life sciences in other states is essential to furt her assess levels of student development in undergraduates in colleges of ag ricultural and life sciences around the nation. By comparing levels of student development of undergraduates in colleges of agri cultural and life sciences at universities other than th e University of Florida, researchers could further determine the needs of agricultural and lif e sciences undergraduate students. Another recommendation includes assessing levels of student development of undergraduates in other colleges at the University of Florida. This cross-college design would compare levels of student development for each of the ten colleges at the University of Florida. By doing so, university officials would be able to prepare programs specifically for each college based on their students developmental needs.

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94 The use of other forms of the SDTLA should be utilized to measure different tasks and subtasks involved with the survey. Using these other forms of the SDTLA would further communicate the levels of student development of undergraduates. The other forms of the SDTLA measure the following tasks and s ubtask: developing autonomy and mature interpersonal relationships task, and the em otional autonomy, interdependence, academic autonomy, instrumental autonomy, p eer relationships, and tolerance subtasks. Gathering scores from the other forms of the SDTLA could then be used to compare undergraduates in CALS at UF to the national norms for all of the task s and subtasks measured by the SDTLA. More research is also needed to find the factors that most influence levels of student development in undergraduates. The SDTLA takes a broad and general view of student development. The SDTLA could be revised to more clearly separate undergradu ates by academic class standing. Further revision could also be used to make questions on the SDTLA more appropriate to measuring student development and to make question choices more mutu ally exclusive. Some participants in this study had difficulty understanding and answering select questions on the SDTLA. Making the SDTLA web-based would be ideal for random samp les, yet the length of the assessment would discourage undergraduates from co mpleting it without an incentive. A random sample of students in CALS at UF shoul d be taken to participate in this type of research. While the researcher took every effort to avoid bias in the sample, a purposive sample was still taken. To generalize findings to all undergraduates in CALS at UF, a random sample would need to be conducted. A new instrument could be needed to fulfill this recommendation. Providing web-based versions of all forms of the SDTLA is also recommended to be able to reach a larger audience of undergraduates. The u tilization of preand pos ttesting of students

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95 regarding student development should be done. Assessing students when they entered CALS, either as freshmen or transfers, and then a ssessing them again once they graduate, would be useful to gather information on their levels of student development and th e effects of individual or collective student development programs. Using a pre-test would also be beneficial to student development practitioners who c ould then know at what levels of student development their students are when they enter CALS. They could then develop programs to match student needs. More research should also be done to test the effectiveness of student development programs that are already in place in CALS at UF. By relating existing programs to Chickerings seven vectors, the effectiveness of these programs can be found. More research should also be conducted on the eff ectiveness of student organizations that are directly related to specific career areas. Understa nding how these types of organi zations affect students is important to understandi ng their effectiveness.

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96 APPENDIX A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL

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97 APPENDIX B APPROVED INFORMED CONSENT

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98 LIST OF REFERENCES American Council on Education. (1937). The student personnel point of view Washington, DC: Author. Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., & Razavieh, A. (2002). Introduction to research in education (6th ed.). Blemont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning. Astin, A.W. (1977). Four critical years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Astin, A.W. (1985). Achieving educational excellence: A cr itical assessment of priorities and practices in higher education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Astin, A.W. (1993). What matters in college: Four critical years revisited San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Astin, A.W., & Astin, H.S. (2000). Leadership reconsidered: E ngaging higher education in social change Battle Creek, MI: W.K. Kellogg Foundation. Bauer, K.W. (1995). Freshman to senior year gains reported on the college student experiences questionnaire. NASPA Journal, 32 (2), 130-137. Boatman, S.A. (1999). The leadership audit: A pr ocess to enhance the development of student leadership. NASPA Journal, 37 (1), 325-336. Bornstein, S.M., & Smith, A.F. (1996). The puzzl es of leadership. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard (Eds.), The leader of the future: New visions, strategies, and practices for the next era (pp. 281-292). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brown, R.D. (1972). Student development in tomorrows higher education: A return to the academy. Washington, D.C.: American Personnel and Guidance Association. Brown, R.D., & Barr, M.J. (1990). Student deve lopment: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. In L.V. Moore (Ed.), Evolving theoretical pe rspectives on students (New Directions for Student Services, 51, 83-92). Sa n Francisco: Jossey-Bass. CALS Institutional Re search Data. (2007). College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Retrieved July 12, 2007, from http://www.cals.ufl.edu/cir/ Caple, R.B. (1987). The change process in deve lopmental theory: A self-organization paradigm, part 1. Journal of College Student Personnel, 28, 100-104. Carter, S.L. (1996). Integrity New York: HarperCollins. Chickering, A.W. (1969). Education and identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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99 Chickering, A.W. (1971). Cultural sophi stication and college experience. Educational Record, 52 125128. Chickering, A.W. (1974). The impact of vari ous college environments on personality development. Journal of the American College Health Association, 23, 82-94. Chickering, A.W. (1981). The modern American college: Responding to the new realities of diverse students and a changing society. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Chickering, A. W., & Ha vighurst, R. J. (1981). The modern American college San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chickering, A.W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity (2nd ed.). San Francisco: JosseyBass. Cooper, D.L., Healy, M.A., & Simpson, J. ( 1994). Student development through involvement: Specific changes over time. Journal of College Student Development, 35, 98-102. Creamer, D.G. (1990). Progress to ward intentional student development. In D.G. Creamer & Associates (Eds.), College student development: Theory and practice for the 1990s (pp. 38). Alexandria, VA: American College Personnel Association. Cronbach, L.J. (1970). Essentials of psychology testing. New York: Harper and Row. Dillman, D.A. (2007). Mail and internet surveys: The ta ilored design method 2007 update with new internet, visual, and mixed-mode guide New York: John Wiley. Education Facts at a Glance. (2006). Fact monster Retrieved on March 8, 2007 from http://www.factmonster.co m/spot/schoolfacts1.html Erikson, E.H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. Psychological Issues Monograph, 1 (1). New York: International Universities Press. Erikson, E.H. (1964). Insight and responsibility New York: W.W. Norton and Co. Feldman, K., & Newcomb, T.R. (1969). The impact of college on students San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Flowers, L. (2002). Developing purpose in college : Differences between freshmen and seniors. College Student Journal, 36 (3), 478. Foubert, J.D., Nixon, M.L., Shamim-Sisson, V., & Barnes, A.C. (2005). A longitudinal study of Chickering and Reissers vector s: Exploring gender differences and implications for refining theory. Journal of College St udent Development, 46 (5), 461-471.

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100 Gazda, G.M., Childers, W.C., & Brooks, D.K., Jr. (1987). Foundations of counseling and human services. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gault, J., Redington, J., & Schlag er, T. (2000). Undergraduate bus iness internship s and career success: Are they related? Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (45), 45-53. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Green, A.T., & Tinsley, H.E.A. (1988). Aut onomy and intimacy development in college students: Sex differences and predictors. Journal of College Student Development, 29 512520. Harper, W.R. (1905). The trend in higher education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hazen Foundation. (1968). The student in higher education. New Haven, CT: Author. Heath, D. (1977). Maturity and competence : A transcultural view New York: Gardner Press. Hernandez, K., Hogan, S., Hathaway, C., & Lovell, C.D. (1999). Analysis of the literature on the impact of student involvement on student deve lopment and learning. More questions than answers? NASPA Journal, 36 (3), 184-197. Hess, W.D., & Winston, R.B., Jr. (1995). Deve lopmental task achieve ment and students intentions to participate in developmental activities. Journal of College Student Development, 36 (4), 314-321. Hood, A. (1984). Student development: Do es participation affect growth? Association of College Unions International Bulletin, 52 16-19. Kaufman, M.A., & Creamer, D.G. (1991). Influences of student goals for college on freshmanyear quality of effort and growth. Journal of College Student Development, 32 (3), 197206. Keniston, K. (1971). Youth and dissent New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc. Knefelkamp, L., Widick, C., & Parker, C.A. (Eds.). (1978). New directions in student services: Applying new developmental findings San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Knoke, D., Bohmstedt, A.P., & Mee, A.P. (2002). Statistics for social data analysis. Itasca, IL: FE Peacock Publishers. Kohlberg, L. (1964). Stage and sequence: The cognitive development approach to socialization. In D. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization and research. Chicago: Rand McNally.

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101 Kuh, G.D., Gonyea, R.D., & Rodrguez, D.P. (2002). The scholarly assessment of student development. In T.W. Banta and associates (Eds.), Building a scholarship of assessment San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. Kuh, G.D., & Love, P.G. (2000). A cultural perspec tive on student departure. In J. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the departure puzzle. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. Kuh, G.D., Schuh, J.H., Whitt, E.J., & Associates. (1991). Involving colleges San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Leafgran, F.A. (1989). Health and wellness program s. In M.L. Upcraft & J.N. Gardner (Eds.), The freshman year experience (pp. 156-167). San Fran cisco: Jossey-Bass. Lein, L.A. (2002). The role of social integration in students psychosocial development Doctoral Dissertation, Vande rbilt University. Marcia, J. (1976). Studies in ego-identity Unpublished manuscript, Simon Frazier University. Martin, L.M. (2000). The relationship of college experiences to psychosocial outcomes in students. Journal of College Student Development, 41 (3), 292-301. Mayhew, L.B. (1977). The legacy of the seventies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Miller, A.H., Imrie, B.W., & Cox, K. (1998). Student assessment in higher education: A handbook for assessing performance London: Kogan Page Limited. Miller, T.K., & Prince, J.S. (1976). The future of student affairs: A guide to student development for tomorrows higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Miller, T.K. (1982). Student development a ssessment: A rationale. In G.R. Hanson (Ed.), Measuring student development (New Directions for Student Services, 20, pp. 5-15). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Moore, L., & Upcraft, L. (1990) Theory in student affairs. New directions in student services, 51 3-25. Moran, C.D. (2001). Purpose in life, student deve lopment, and well-being: Recommendations for student affairs practitioners. NASPA Journal, 38 (3), 269-279. National Center for Edu cation Statistics. (2001). Credits and attainment: Returns to postsecondary education ten years after high school Washington D.C.: United States Department of Education. Pace, C.R. (1979). Measuring outcomes of college: Fift y years of findings and recommendations for the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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102 Pace, C.R. (1983). College student experiences: A questionnaire (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: University of California, Higher Education Research Institute. Pankanin, J. (1995). We do good work and now we can prove it. Campus Activities Programming, 28 43-45. Pascarella, E. T., Edison, M., Whitt, E. J., Nora, A., Hagedorn, L. S., & Terenzini, P. T. (1996). Cognitive effects of Greek affiliation during the first year of college. NASPA Journal, 33, 242-259 Pascarella, E.T., & Terenzini, P.T. (1991). How college affects students. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Pascarella, E.T., & Terenzini, P.T. (2005). How college affects students: Vol.2. A third decade of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Perry, W.G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical de velopment in the college years: A scheme. Troy, MO: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Picklesimer, B.K. (1991). The development and evaluation of the life-ski lls development inventory-college form Doctoral dissertation, Un iversity of Georgia. Pritchard, M.E., & Wilson, G.S. (2003). Using emo tional and social factors to predict student success. Journal of College Student Development, 44 (1), 18-28. Reisser, L. (1995). Revisiting the seven vectors. Journal of College Student Development, 36 505-511. Riahinejad, A., & Hood, A. (1984). The developmen t of interpersonal relationships in college. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25 498-502. Sanford, N. (1962). The American college: A ps ychological and social interpretation of the higher learning New York: John Wiley & Sons. Sax, L.J., Astin, A.W., Korn, W.S., & Mahoney, K.M. (2000). The American freshman: National norm for fall 2000. University of California, Los Angeles: Cooperative Institutional Research Program. Scarce, R. (1997). Field trips as s hort-term experiential education. Teaching Sociology, 25 (3), 219-226. Simmons, D.D. (1980). Purpose in life and the three aspects of valuing. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36 (4), 921-922. Stage, F.K. (1991). Common elements of theory: A framework for college student development. Journal of College Student Development, 32 (1), 56-61.

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103 Sternberg, R.J., & Williams, W.M. (2002). Educational psychology Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Strange, C.C. (1981). Organizational ba rriers to student development. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Journal, 19 12-20. Strange, C.C. (1983). Human development theory a nd administrative practice in student affairs: Ships passing in the daylight? National Association of St udent Personnel Administrators Journal, 21, 2-8. Strange, C.C. (1999). Student development: The e volution and status of an essential idea. Journal of College Student Development, 40 (5), 1-18. Strange, C.C., & Banning, J.H. (2001). Educating by design: Creating campus learning environments that work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Straub, C.A. (1987). Womens development of autonomy and Chickerings theory. Journal of College Student Personnel, 28 198-205. Super, D.E., Thompson, A.S., Lindeman, R.H ., Jordaan, J.P., & Meyers, R.A. (1981). The career development inventory (College and University Form ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. Szulecka, T.K., Springett, N.R., & de Pauw K.W. (1987). General health, psychiatric vulnerability and withdrawal from univ ersity in first-year undergraduates. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling Special Issue: Counseling and Health, 15 82-91. Taub, D.J. (1995). Relationship of selected fact ors to traditional-age undergraduate womens development. Journal of College Student Personnel, 27 216-224. Taub, D.J. (1997). Autonomy and parental att achment in traditional-age undergraduate women. Journal of College Student Development, 38 (6), 645-654. Thieke, W. (1994 ). Developmental change in freshman stude nts: Validating Chickerings theory of student development ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. Thomas, R.E., & Chickering, A.W. (1984) Education and identity revisited The Journal of College Student Personnel, 25 392-399. Ulmer, A., Range, L.M., & Smith, P.C. (1991). Pur pose in life: A moderator of recovery from bereavement. Omega, 23 (4), 279-289. White, D.B., & Hood, A.B. (1989). An assessment of the validity of Chickerings theory of student development. Journal of College Student Development, 30 354-361.

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104 Widick, C., Parker, C.A., & Knefelkamp, L.L. (1978a). Arthur Chickerings vectors of development. In L. Knefelkamp, C. Widick, & C.A. Parker (Eds.), New directions for student services: Applying new developmental findings (pp 19-34). San Francisco: JosseyBass. Widick, C., Parker, C.A., & Knefelkamp, L. L. (1978b). Erik Erikson and psychosocial development. In L. Knefelkamp, C. Widick, & C.A. Parker (Eds.), New directions for student services: Applying new developmental findings (pp 1-17). San Francisco: JosseyBass. Winston, R.B., & Miller, T.K. (1987). The student development ta sk and lifestyle inventory manual. Athens, GA: Student Development Associates. Winston, R.B., Jr., Miller, T.K., & Cooper, D.L. (1999). Preliminary technica l manual for the student developmen tal task and life style assessment. Athens, GA: Student Development Associates. Winston, R.B., Jr., Miller, T.K., & Prince, J.S. (1987). Student developmental task and lifestyle inventory. Athens, GA: Student Development Associates. Wrenn, C.G. (1959). Philosophical and psychological bases of pe rsonnel services in education. In N.B. Henry (Ed.), Personnel services in education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1992). On the rela tion between meaning in life and psychological well-being. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 133-145.

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105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brian Estevez was born in Gainesville, Florid a, on January 19, 1983. He was raised in Archer, Florida with his parents and two sibli ngs. He graduated from Williston High School in May, 2001. Mr. Estevez earned his undergraduate degree from the University of Florida in animal sciences, specializing in safety and pr ocessing of meat and poultry in December 2004. He also minored in marketing and sales of agribusiness and food science. While an undergraduate, Estevez worked at the University of Floridas Meat Processing Laboratory and served as an ambassador for the Colleg e of Agricultural and Life Sciences. In August 2005, Mr. Estevez entered the graduate program in the Department of Agricultural Education and Commun ication at the University of Fl orida where he specialized in agricultural leadership. During his time in the gra duate program at the University of Florida he served as a graduate teaching as sistant where he assisted in th e instruction of two different agricultural courses. He also assisted with the writing, comple tion, and distribution of Growing Space magazine, volume 3. An avid Gator fan, Mr. Estevez is still smiling about the three National Championships won while he attended graduate school.