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Eastern Subterranean Termite (Isoptera

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021397/00001

Material Information

Title: Eastern Subterranean Termite (Isoptera Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)) Entering into Buildings and Effects on Thermal Properties of Building Materials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (130 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: crack, heat, impasse, insulation, pipe, termite
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), were introduced to the top of an arena with a divider of various crack widths. Termites were not able to pass through cracks ?610 ?m, and feed on the bottom of the arena. The minimum crack width permitting termites to pass was 711 ?m for workers and larvae or 813 ?m for soldiers. The percentage of termites passing through a crack increased as crack width increased from 711 to 5000 ?m. For 5000 ?m cracks that did not restrict access to the bottom filter paper about 74% of the termites passed through and consumed ~40 mg filter paper. As crack size decreased to 711 ?m only 35% of termites passed through, however, consumption of filter paper on the bottom (~38 mg) did not significantly decrease. This suggests that any crack ?711 ?m would not limit termite damage in a structure. Head capsule dimensions (length, width, and depth) were measured for termites passing through various crack widths. As crack width increased, the maximum head capsule dimension of termites that passed through the crack also increased linearly. Depth of head capsule was best correlated with crack width that allowed termites to pass through it. Termites often use plumbing penetrations of concrete slabs to enter a structure. Polyethylene and foam sleeves used to protect pipes from physical damage were found to protect termites from residual soil termiticide treatments. When pipe sleeves extended beyond the termiticide treatment, termites utilized the sleeves as a protected route through the termiticide-treated sand. However when pipe sleeves terminated within the termiticide treatment, termites failed to pass through the slab. Impasse? Termite Blocker installed on pipes prevented termites from passing through the slab at pipe penetrations. Building construction materials (2x4s, 5-ply plywood, and rigid foam board insulation) were exposed to termites for 8 wk and a method for measuring changes in thermal properties was developed by heating one surface and imaging the temperature on the opposite surface. Termites mainly tunneled into 2x4s penetrating the sample resulting in ~35% increase in surface temperature (damaged vs. undamaged samples) despite a small amount of damage (6.7% consumed). Plywood damaged by termites (3.1% consumed), was the most thermally damaged with a temperature increase of 74% (damaged vs. undamaged samples). Insulation was significantly the most damaged with ~12% of the material removed and a temperature increase of ~27% (damaged vs. undamaged samples). A heat transfer index was developed to compare thermal properties of termite damaged building construction materials (2x4 and 2x6 pine lumber, 5 ply plywood, T1-11 siding, oriented strandboard, extruded polystyrene, and polyisocyanurate insulation). Termite damaged materials had higher heat transfer indices than undamaged materials The heat transfer index of damaged 2x4 and 2x6 lumber was 37% higher than damaged 5 ply plywood and T1-11 siding: therefore the siding materials were more thermally resistant. As would be expected the insulation materials had lower heat transfer index values than the wood materials. Termite damaged polyisocyanurate was 68% more conductive than the damaged expanded polystyrene insulation.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Koehler, Philip G.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021397:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021397/00001

Material Information

Title: Eastern Subterranean Termite (Isoptera Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)) Entering into Buildings and Effects on Thermal Properties of Building Materials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (130 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: crack, heat, impasse, insulation, pipe, termite
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), were introduced to the top of an arena with a divider of various crack widths. Termites were not able to pass through cracks ?610 ?m, and feed on the bottom of the arena. The minimum crack width permitting termites to pass was 711 ?m for workers and larvae or 813 ?m for soldiers. The percentage of termites passing through a crack increased as crack width increased from 711 to 5000 ?m. For 5000 ?m cracks that did not restrict access to the bottom filter paper about 74% of the termites passed through and consumed ~40 mg filter paper. As crack size decreased to 711 ?m only 35% of termites passed through, however, consumption of filter paper on the bottom (~38 mg) did not significantly decrease. This suggests that any crack ?711 ?m would not limit termite damage in a structure. Head capsule dimensions (length, width, and depth) were measured for termites passing through various crack widths. As crack width increased, the maximum head capsule dimension of termites that passed through the crack also increased linearly. Depth of head capsule was best correlated with crack width that allowed termites to pass through it. Termites often use plumbing penetrations of concrete slabs to enter a structure. Polyethylene and foam sleeves used to protect pipes from physical damage were found to protect termites from residual soil termiticide treatments. When pipe sleeves extended beyond the termiticide treatment, termites utilized the sleeves as a protected route through the termiticide-treated sand. However when pipe sleeves terminated within the termiticide treatment, termites failed to pass through the slab. Impasse? Termite Blocker installed on pipes prevented termites from passing through the slab at pipe penetrations. Building construction materials (2x4s, 5-ply plywood, and rigid foam board insulation) were exposed to termites for 8 wk and a method for measuring changes in thermal properties was developed by heating one surface and imaging the temperature on the opposite surface. Termites mainly tunneled into 2x4s penetrating the sample resulting in ~35% increase in surface temperature (damaged vs. undamaged samples) despite a small amount of damage (6.7% consumed). Plywood damaged by termites (3.1% consumed), was the most thermally damaged with a temperature increase of 74% (damaged vs. undamaged samples). Insulation was significantly the most damaged with ~12% of the material removed and a temperature increase of ~27% (damaged vs. undamaged samples). A heat transfer index was developed to compare thermal properties of termite damaged building construction materials (2x4 and 2x6 pine lumber, 5 ply plywood, T1-11 siding, oriented strandboard, extruded polystyrene, and polyisocyanurate insulation). Termite damaged materials had higher heat transfer indices than undamaged materials The heat transfer index of damaged 2x4 and 2x6 lumber was 37% higher than damaged 5 ply plywood and T1-11 siding: therefore the siding materials were more thermally resistant. As would be expected the insulation materials had lower heat transfer index values than the wood materials. Termite damaged polyisocyanurate was 68% more conductive than the damaged expanded polystyrene insulation.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Koehler, Philip G.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021397:00001


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EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE (ISOPTERA: Reticulitermesflavipes (Kollar))
ENTERING INTO BUILDINGS AND EFFECTS ON THERMAL PROPERTIES OF
BUILDING MATERIALS



















By

CYNTHIA LINTON TUCKER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008

































2008 Cynthia Linton Tucker

































Windswake Farm









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to my academic and

research advisor, Phil Koehler, for his unwavering support. Through careful questioning and

insightful comments he was able to suggest alternative courses of action in experimental and

analytical developments.

I am extremely thankful for the financial support of Dow AgroSciences. I am also

thankful in particular to Ellen Thoms, Raymond Issa, and Richard Patterson who along with Phil

Koehler constituted my supervisory committee and guided the research to a successful end.

I would also like to thank my office mates and compatriots for their unending support. I

would also like to thank Gilman Marshal (the lab's biological scientist and safety officer) for his

patience and grateful support. Finally I thank my parents and family for their unending support.

And I am grateful for warm summer memories of Windswake Farm.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

L IS T O F T A B L E S ................................................................................. 8

LIST O F FIG U RE S ................................................................. 9

ABSTRACT ................... ............... ......... ... ...... ... .............

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... .......................................................... 13

2 L IT E R A TU R E R E V IE W ........................................................................ .. ....................... 16

Evolution of Termites ................................................................. ......16
Important Subterranean Termites in the United States.........................................................17
Term ite Caste System ..................................... ............................... ........ .... 18
P process of T unnel F orm ation ......................................................................... ...................20
Feeding H abits ...................... ............... ....... .......................... 22
Building Construction and Its Relevance to Termite Exploitation............. ............. 23
B u ild in g C o d e s ................................................................................................................. 2 3
Building code history .......................................... ............. .... ....... 24
U S A co d e h isto ry : ......................................................................................2 4
C concrete C construction Standards ........................................ ............................................25
W ood F ram ing Standards ............................................................................. .................... 27
T erm ite C control O ptions............ ................................................................ .......... ....... 28
Physical B barriers .............................................................. ...... ..... ........ 30
Heat Transfer Concepts ................................... ... .. ... .... ...............3 31
In su latio n ............................................................................................ 3 3
Thermal Transmission .................................. .. .. ... ..... ................. 33

3 ABILITY OF EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES TO MOVE THROUGH
C R A C K S ........................................................................................... 3 5

Intro du action ................... ................... ...................................................... .. 3 5
M materials and M methods ...................................... .. .......... ....... ...... 36
T erm ites ........................ .... ........ ..... ... .... .. ..... .... ............................. 36
Effect of Crack Width on Penetration and Consumption by Caste..............................37
Effect of Termite Head Capsule Dimension on Penetration Through Cracks ................38
D ata A n a ly sis ............................................................................................................. 3 8
R results ................... ...................3...................9..........
Effect of Crack Width on Penetration and Consumption by Caste.............................39
Effect Termite Head Capsule Dimension on Penetration Through Cracks...................40
D isc u ssio n ................... ........................................................... ................ 4 1









4 METHODS TO PREVENT PENETRATION OF CONCRETE-PIPE INTERFACES
BY THE EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE................................. .....................52

In tro d u ctio n .............. ........... ................................................................................................ 5 2
M materials and M methods ...................................... .. ......... ....... ...... 54
T e rm ite s ............... ..................................................................5 4
P ip e S leev e E x p erim ent...................................................................................................54
Pipe Sleeve Treatm ents .................................................. .............................. 54
Pipe Sleeve Experim ental A rena......................................... ......................... 55
T erm ite B locker E xperim ent ........... .........................................................................56
Treatm ents ............................................................................... ............... ...... ... 56
Term ite B locker Experim mental A rena ........................................... .....................57
D ata A n a ly sis ...................................................................................................................5 8
R results ......... ...... ................. ...................... ............. 59
P ip e S leev e E x p erim ent...................................................................................................59
T erm ite B locker E xperim ent ........... .........................................................................61
D iscu ssio n ........................................................................................... 6 2

5 DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF EASTERN
SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE DAMAGE TO THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS ........................................ .....................72

Intro du action ........... ..... ......................................................................... 72
M materials and M methods ...................................... .. ......... ....... ...... 73
Term ites. ................................. ......... ............ ........ 73
Termite Damage to Construction Materials. ...................................... ............... 74
Thermal Imaging ................................................75
D ata A n a ly sis ...................................................................................................................7 5
R e su lts ................... ...................7...................6..........
2 x 4 s .........................................................................7 6
P ly w o o d ..................................................................7 7
Rigid Foam Board Insulation. ............................................... ............... 78
D iscu ssio n ................... ...................7...................9..........

6 EFFECTS OF EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE DAMAGE ON THE
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF COMMON BUILDING MATERIALS ..............................85

Introduction ................ ........................................85
M materials an d M eth o d s ...........................................................................................................8 7
Termites .............. ....... ..................................87
T e st A re n a ............................................................................8 7
T h erm al Im aging S etu p ............................................................................................. 89
D ata A n a ly sis ...................................................................................................................8 9
Results ............. ...... .. ......... ....................................90






6









Structural Lumber.................................. ... .. ........... ...... .... 91
Wood Based Siding ............................ ..... ...................92
Foam Insulation ......................................................................................................... 95
D isc u ssio n ........................................................................................................... 9 6

7 C O N C L U S IO N ................................................................................................................ 1 17

LIST O F R EFEREN CE S ...............................119..............................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................. ........... 130













































7









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Percentage of termite castes located on the bottom of the arena that passed through
various crack widths and consumption of filter paper by termites in arena at 5 d. ...........44

4-1 Effect of pipe sleeve composition and length and termiticide treatment on Mean
consumption (g) of cardboard ( SE) on top of the concrete slab by termites .................65

5-1 Percent damage and surface temperature increase for building materials heated for
15-min. Damaged materials were exposed to eastern subterranean termites (n=300)
fo r 8 w k .............. .... ...................................................................... 8 1

6-1 Mean + SE percent termite survivorship, damage (g), percent damage, and percent
increase in heat transfer index (HTI) between undamaged and building material
damaged by subterranean termites (n=300) and after 8 wk ........................... .........101









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure p e

3-1 Termite caste location and consumption test arena. .................................. ...............45

3-2 H ead capsule Petri-dish test arena. ............................................ ............................ 46

3-3 Linear regression comparing the maximum soldier head capsule measurements............47

3-4 Linear regression comparing the maximum worker head capsule measurements.............48

3-5 Soldier head capsule w idth. ...................................................................... ...................49

3-6 W worker head capsule w idth ........................ .. ........... ............................ ............... 50

3-7 L arval head capsule w idth. ....................................................................... ...................51

4-1 Pipe sleeve experim mental arena........................ .. .................... ................. ............... 66

4-2 Term ite blocker experim ental arena ............................................................................ 67

4-3 Typical pipe sleeve experiment arenas at 28 d. ..................................... ............... 68

4-4 Foam pipe sleeves exposed to eastern subterranean termites for 28 d in termiticide-
treated and untreated arenas....................................................................... ..................69

4-5 Polyethylene pipe sleeves exposed to eastern subterranean termites for 28 d in
termiticide-treated and untreated arenas. ........................................ ....................... 70

4-6 Mean cardboard consumption (g) ( SE) after 8 wk by termites in arenas without
termite blocker around copper and CPVC pipes, with or without foam or
polyethylene sleeves. ........................................... ... .. .. ...... .... .. .....71

5-1 Images of a 2x4 sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk. ...................................82

5-2 Images of a plywood sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk. ..........................83

5-3 Images of a rigid foam insulation sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk...........84

6-1 Differences in heat transfer index between undamaged materials and materials
damaged by subterranean termites after an 8 wk period.................................. .....102

6-2 The 2x4 samples. ............................ .. .. .. ..... .................. 103

6-3 Natural log linear regression of 2x4 samples...................................... ............... 104

6-4 The 2x6 samples. ............................ .. .. .. ..... .................. 105









6-5 Natural log linear regression of 2x6 samples...................................... ............... 106

6-6 The OSB samples........... .... ....................... ............ 107

6-7 Natural log linear regression of OSB samples...........................................................108

6-8 The T -l sam ples........................................................... ........ ............ 109

6-9 Natural log linear regression of T 1-11 samples ............................. .... ............110

6-10 The 5-ply sam ples. ..................................................... ............ .... ............ ..

6-11 Natural log linear regression of 5-ply samples ............ ............................. ............112

6-12 The EXP samples ............... ................. .......... ................. .......... 113

6-13 Natural log linear regression of EXP samples ............................................................. 114

6-14 The ISO samples .................. .................. ..................... ..... .... ...... ........ 115

6-15 Natural log linear regression of ISO samples .... ........... ....................................... 116

































10









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE (ISOPTERA: Reticulitermesflavipes (Kollar))
ENTERING INTO BUILDINGS AND EFFECTS ON THERMAL PROPERTIES OF
BUILDING MATERIALS

By

Cynthia Linton Tucker

May 2008

Chair: Philip G. Koehler
Major: Entomology and Nematology

Reticulitermesflavipes (Kollar), were introduced to the top of an arena with a divider of

various crack widths. Termites were not able to pass through cracks <610 [m, and feed on the

bottom of the arena. The minimum crack width permitting termites to pass was 711 [im for

workers and larvae or 813 [m for soldiers. The percentage of termites passing through a crack

increased as crack width increased from 711 to 5000 im. For 5000 [im cracks that did not

restrict access to the bottom filter paper about 74% of the termites passed through and consumed

-40 mg filter paper. As crack size decreased to 711 [im only 35% of termites passed through,

however, consumption of filter paper on the bottom (-38 mg) did not significantly decrease.

This suggests that any crack >711 [im would not limit termite damage in a structure. Head

capsule dimensions (length, width, and depth) were measured for termites passing through

various crack widths. As crack width increased, the maximum head capsule dimension of

termites that passed through the crack also increased linearly. Depth of head capsule was best

correlated with crack width that allowed termites to pass through it.

Termites often use plumbing penetrations of concrete slabs to enter a structure.

Polyethylene and foam sleeves used to protect pipes from physical damage were found to protect









termites from residual soil termiticide treatments. When pipe sleeves extended beyond the

termiticide treatment, termites utilized the sleeves as a protected route through the termiticide-

treated sand. However when pipe sleeves terminated within the termiticide treatment, termites

failed to pass through the slab. ImpasseTM Termite Blocker installed on pipes prevented termites

from passing through the slab at pipe penetrations.

Building construction materials (2x4s, 5-ply plywood, and rigid foam board insulation)

were exposed to termites for 8 wk and a method for measuring changes in thermal properties was

developed by heating one surface and imaging the temperature on the opposite surface. Termites

mainly tunneled into 2x4s penetrating the sample resulting in -35% increase in surface

temperature (damaged vs. undamaged samples) despite a small amount of damage (6.7%

consumed). Plywood damaged by termites (3.1% consumed), was the most thermally damaged

with a temperature increase of 74% (damaged vs. undamaged samples). Insulation was

significantly the most damaged with -12% of the material removed and a temperature increase

of -27% (damaged vs. undamaged samples).

A heat transfer index was developed to compare thermal properties of termite damaged

building construction materials (2x4 and 2x6 pine lumber, 5 ply plywood, TI-11 siding, oriented

strandboard, extruded polystyrene, and polyisocyanurate insulation). Termite damaged materials

had higher heat transfer indices than undamaged materials The heat transfer index of damaged

2x4 and 2x6 lumber was 37% higher than damaged 5 ply plywood and TI-11 siding: therefore

the siding materials were more thermally resistant. As would be expected the insulation

materials had lower heat transfer index values than the wood materials. Termite damaged

polyisocyanurate was 68% more conductive than the damaged expanded polystyrene insulation.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

One of the most economically significant pest termites in North America is the eastern

subterranean termite, Reticulitermesflavipes (Kollar). The ability of termites to digest wood and

the consequent potential to cause significant structural damage to most types of buildings

distinguishes termites from the most of other insect pests. The fact that R. flavipes termites live

in colonies of considerable size only serves to increase their destructive potential.

Subterranean termites evolved in nature as decomposers of dead wood. This capacity for

wood digestion, while very useful in terrestrial ecosystems, is a problem for people who build

structures using the same materials that the termites have evolved to feed upon. In geographies

like Florida with high termite activity, specific building codes are required to minimize the

structure's susceptibility to termite damage. In Florida, the building code also requires a

termiticide-preventative treatment be applied to new construction.

Subterranean termites typically enter structures through the foundation. A concrete slab

may seem impervious, but there are actually numerous potential routes of entry. One entry is the

cracks that inevitably develop as the poured concrete cures and settles. Another entry is where

plumbing pipes and other utilities penetrate the slab to provide a structure with water, power, and

sewer access. Depending upon the space between the pipe and the concrete slab, as well as the

material the pipe is wrapped in, termites may find this space to be an easy point of entry.

The structural damage caused by subterranean termites has been documented extensively

over the years. The focus of this documentation has been the structural weakening of load-

bearing timbers, causing a building to become unsafe and susceptible to collapse. However,

termite damage has other effects that have not been considered. One of these is the change in the

thermal properties of a structure. If the walls of a building are riddled with termite galleries, it









stands to reason that heat may travel more easily through damaged walls. Thus, a structure

damaged in this way will lose heat more rapidly in a cold environment, or gain heat more rapidly

in a hot environment. More energy is required for the heating and air conditioning systems to

compensate for the loss of insulating properties. The price of this energy is an added cost of

termite damage.

The first objective in this dissertation is to determine the minimum crack size that R.

flavipes termites can travel through, reviewed in Chapter 3. The next objective concerns the

passage of these termites through spaces between water pipes and a concrete slab, covered in

Chapter 4. The experiments conducted in this chapter will show the effects of different pipe

sleeves on termite travel, as well as the effects of the presence and absence of termite blocker

associated with the pipes. Chapter 4 will also investigate the possibility of pipe sleeves

providing a safe passage for termites through termiticide-treated soil.

The next objective in this dissertation, in Chapter 5, was to establish a method for

determining heat transfer using a hot plate to heat termite damaged and undamaged building

materials to document the change in surface temperature of a sample through time with a thermal

camera. The objective in Chapter 6 was to determine the differences in the rate of heat transfer

between termite damaged and undamaged samples of building materials. Materials will include

structural timbers, wood-based siding products, and foam insulation. These experiments will

show which materials can sustain more damage from termites before losing their insulating

ability, and therefore are best for use in structures located in geographies with high termite

activity.

The final objective of this dissertation is to obtain a better understanding of the activities of

R. flavipes termites within structures. A clearer understanding of their means of entry into









structures will allow for more effective prevention of this entry. Knowledge of the termites'

effects on thermal properties will allow a more informed selection of building materials with

reduced adverse effects if damaged by termites. By understanding how subterranean termites

interact with a structure, we may more effectively protect structures from entry and damage by

termites resulting in increased costs to the building occupants.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Evolution of Termites

Termites are believed to be closely related to cockroaches and have evolved from an

ancient ancestral cockroach lineage. The most primitive living termite, Mastotermes

darwinensis (Froggatt), has a similar wing structure to cockroaches and females of this termite

species lay their eggs in an ootheca (Snyder 1948). Presently, there is a primitive cockroach,

Cryptoceruspunctulatus (Scudder), which burrows into and consumes decaying wood and has

protozoa in its digestive tract similar to those in termites (Guthrie and Tindall 1968). These

similarities suggest that the Order Isoptera diverged from the ancient ancestral cockroach lineage

-200 million years ago (Nalepa and Bandi 2000).

All termites are eusocial insects. Subterranean termites are most commonly found within

the soil, thriving in an environment of high humidity and darkness. Subterranean termites are

also known to invade man-made structures, utilizing the wood within the structures as a food

source (Forschler 1999a). As cryptic, subterranean insects, termite workers are blind and possess

relatively thin, water-permeable exoskeletons. Like most termites, subterranean termites subsist

primarily on cellulosic materials such as wood, roots, and grasses (Waller and LaFage 1987,

Tayasu et al. 1997). Worker termites transfer nutrients to immatures, soldiers and reproductive

via stomodeal and proctodeal trophallaxis. Subterranean termites typically live in large numbers

that can range from 50,000 to several million individuals in a colony (Su et al. 1993). Native

subterranean termites consume numerous species of wood including slash pine, loblolly pine,

and sugar maple (Smythe and Carter 1970). Termites have endogenous enzymes (Watanabe et

al. 1998) and protozoan symbionts in the hindgut (Ohtoko et al. 2000) which allow termites to

digest cellulose and hemicelluloses (Smith and Koehler 2007), reducing these compounds to









simple sugars that can be used in energy production. Their digestive processes recycle nutrients

from dead plant materials that few other animals are able to digest (Thorne 1999). Thus,

subterranean termites are ecologically important insects because of their contributions to

environmental cellulose decomposition.

The Order Isoptera has been divided worldwide into seven families (Mastotermitidae,

Kalotermitidae, Sterritermitidae, Hodotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termopside, Termitidae),

281 genera and -2,600 to 2,761 species (Thorne et al. 2000, Myles 2000, respectively). The

Nearctic region of the world, composed of the U.S.A., Canada, and Northern Mexico, has 38

representative termite species (Eggelton 2000). Weesner (1965) documented the termite

distribution in the U.S.A. and determined that species distribution becomes richer as one moves

south within the U.S.A. Overall, Reticulitermes spp. has the widest distribution in the region.

The most commonly encountered species, Reticulitermesflavipes (Kollar), is a subterranean

termite found throughout the eastern U.S.A. with a range extending from Toronto, Canada

through Florida. This species is a major structural pest capable of forming large colonies and

constructing intricate tunnel networks to provide protection and access to resources.

Important Subterranean Termites in the United States

In the United States, the most economically important subterranean termites are

represented by three genera of the family Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes, Reticulitermes and

Heterotermes (Light 1934, Kofoid 1946). The genus Reticulitermes contains six species of

termite considered to be economically important (Su and Scheffrahn 1990b). Kofoid (1946)

listed the termites of economic importance in the family Rhinotermitidae included: Heterotermes

aureus (Snyder), R. calipennis (Banks), R. flavipes (Kollar), R. hagani (Banks), R. hesperus

(Banks), R. humilis (Banks), R. lucifugus (Rossi), R. tibialis (Banks), R. virginicus (Banks). In









addition, the species Amitermes (Amitermes) wheeleri (Desneux) in the family Termitidae is

considered to be economically important.

The Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermesformosanus, are an invasive species in

the U.S.A. Since its accidental introduction, C. formosanus has become one of the most

destructive termites in the Hawaiian Islands (Tamashiro et al. 1990). It became established in

Texas, Louisiana, and South Carolina during the 1960s and in Florida in 1980's (Su and

Scheffrahn 2000).

Termite Caste System

Members of the termite colony are divided into castes, each of which has a specialized

function within the colony. The reproductive caste, consisting of primary reproductive and

secondary reproductive, carry out tasks of reproduction and species distribution. The soldier

caste is responsible for nest and colony defense. Termites in the worker caste carry out the

majority of tasks, such as building and repairing the nest and tending the termite larvae and

reproductive. The needs of the colony determine what individuals will become workers,

soldiers, or reproductive. When there is a suitable balance of these three basic castes, a healthy,

productive, efficient colony can result (Thorne 1999).

Newly hatched larvae are able to develop into any caste in Rhinotermitid termites, but the

persistence of this developmental plasticity varies between different species of termite (Krishna

1969). The earliest instar termites are often referred to as larvae. These larvae, also known as

white immatures, are defined as having no significant cuticular sclerotization (Thorne 1996) and

they are dependent on a liquid diet provided by the workers (McMahan 1969). As the termite

larva molts and matures, the termite's exoskeleton changes from white to a light tan. This

change is most evident in the head capsule. Third instar workers are referred to as 'true workers'

if there is no divergence to a soldier or reproductive developmental line (Noirot and Pasteels









1988). Soldiers comprise a low percentage of individuals in the colony, approximately 1-2% in

R. flavipes (Howard and Haverty 1980, 1981, Haverty and Howard 1981, Grace 1986, Thorne et

al. 1997) and in R. virginicus (Pawson and Gold 1996). Therefore, the majority of the termites in

the colony are workers (Kofoid 1934).

The division of labor within the colony, in which casts perform specialized tasks, is unique

to social insects and allows the colony to function efficiently to ensure its survival and growth.

Workers are the most numerous caste in the subterranean termite colony and are responsible for

the majority of resource acquisition and nutrient cycling within the colony. Soldiers and larvae

are almost entirely dependent on workers for hydration and nutrients. Workers provide social

grooming to their nestmates during feeding behavior, reducing the chances of bacterial and

fungal growth within the colony. Workers also construct tunnels within the soil and mud tubes

above the soil. Although the soldier caste is primarily responsible for defense, termite workers

are also capable of defending the colony to some extent.

In subterranean termites, the reproductive caste consists of primary and secondary

reproductive (Lee and Wood 1971, Thorne 1999). Primary reproductive play a major role in

the dispersal as alates and founding of colonies, excavation of the first galleries, and feeding and

care of the first young (Light 1934). The primary reproductive consist of males (kings) and

females (queens), which are highly sclerotized, pigmented, have compound eyes, and develop

from winged adults (Krishna 1969). Colony size and maturity are central to determining the

production of winged primary reproductive, or alates (Nutting 1969).

There are three types of secondary reproductive that develop functional reproductive

organs without leaving the parent colony (Lee and Wood 1971). Neotenics develop functional

reproductive organs without becoming alates, and brachypterous neotenics possess wing buds









and develop from juveniles that have already developed wing buds (Lee and Wood 1971).

Apterous neotenics do not possess wing buds and develop from juveniles that have not

developed wing buds. Supplementary reproductive act as substitutes for the king or queen if

one or both should die, or supplement the egg production of the queen after the subterranean

termite colony is established (Lee and Wood 1971, Potter 2004). There may be several hundred

supplementary reproductive within the colony because as individuals they are not as prolific as

the queen (Lee and Wood 1971). In Reticulitermes spp., secondary reproductive also help to

expand the foraging territory of the colony (Forschler 1999a). All of the offspring in the colony

are produced by either primary or secondary reproductive. Termite reproductive differ from

those of social Hymenoptera in that the colonies contain ca. 50% males and 50% females

(Kofoid 1934).

Soldier termites are more highly specialized than are the workers. The soldier caste is

traditionally considered the defensive caste (Wheeler 1928, Kofoid 1934). Reticulitermes spp.

soldiers have a distinctively modified head with elongated mandibles. Their mandibles are

effective against certain predators like ants, and certain species have also developed a chemical

defense system (Lee and Wood 1971). Soldier termites develop from a pre-soldier stage that

develops from a larva or worker (Lee and Wood 1971). Soldier termites may act aggressively

toward competitors, predatory ants, and even other termites. Because of the soldiers' modified

mandibles, soldiers cannot chew wood and are entirely dependent on trophallaxis from worker

termites for food (Traniello et al. 1985, Su and LaFage 1987).

Process of Tunnel Formation

A newly founded colony is usually associated with a wood food source. As time passes,

the colony grows and this food source is consumed the termites must search for additional

resources. Subterranean termites will construct subterranean tunnels and above ground shelter









tubes in their search for food resources. Tunneling involves movement of soil particles, and the

process begins with an individual termite. In moist sand, subterranean termites construct the

tunnel network by pushing their heads forward through the moist sand, then pressing the sand

grains from side to side with their head, body, or mandibles (Ebeling and Pence 1957). The

smaller grains of sand are taken into the buccal cavity (Ebeling and Pence 1957), combined with

saliva and feces (Noirot 1970), and cemented to the wall of the tunnel to make a smooth, hard

surface. The termites are also able to carry sand grains to the surface to deposit excess soil

particles or construct above ground shelter tubes.

Above ground shelter tubes may be constructed during the search for food and after an

adequate food source has been located. Above ground foraging begins with the movement of

termites on the surface of the soil, trees, buildings, or other structures. As the termites search,

they may find nearly any type of cellulosic material to be an adequate food source, including a

wooden structure (Ebeling 1975). In the process of searching above ground, the termites leave a

faint pheromone trail (Stuart 1969, Runcie 1986). Once a food source has been located, the

chemical trail is reinforced with additional pheromone, causing other termites to be recruited to

the food source (Thorne 1996). Deposits of chewed cellulose, soil, feces and saliva are laid at

the food source and the tunnel network opening. Soldiers can be seen at the openings as the

workers quickly build the shelter tube (Snyder 1948, Reinhard et al. 1997). The completed

shelter tube protects the termites from predators and desiccation. The shelter tubes may not

protect the termites during extreme temperature changes, and they may retreat to the more stable

environment of their subterranean tunnel network (Potter 2004).

The subterranean tunnel network provides the termite colony with a protected route of

travel, giving them access to food and moisture resources. As the colony grows and searches for









food, the tunnel network increases in size. Tunnel construction in the soil does not initially begin

with the deposition of a trail pheromone, as is the case of above ground shelter tube construction.

Tunneling simply begins with the movement of soil particles (Ebeling and Pence 1957). After

tunnel construction, pheromones for trailing and recruitment are laid inside tunnels to direct

termite activity.

Tunnel construction may be described as non-random and may be influenced by

temperature, moisture gradient, food sources (Ettershank et al. 1980), guidelines (Pitts-Springer

and Forschler 2000) and soil compaction (Tucker et al. 2004). Puche and Su (2001c) found no

indication that R. flavipes were able were able to detect wood in sand over distance. However,

the excavation of new tunnels and the movement of the termites within existing tunnels network

are both essential for resource acquisition. Once tunnels are constructed to resources, individual

termites may randomly select which resources to forage on (Su et al. 1984, Jones et al. 1987).

Feeding Habits

The food gathered by worker termites is the basic energy source of the colony (Lee and

Wood 1971). It consists of living or dead plant material that is either partially or almost entirely

decomposed (Lee and Wood 1971). Subterranean termites may feed on a wide variety of food

including sound wood, decaying wood, parts of living trees and shrubs, plants, books, cardboard,

and paper. The major nutritional ingredient in all of these foods is cellulose (Noirot and Noirot-

Timothee 1969). Cellulose, a carbohydrate continuously produced by plants, is the most

common organic compound on earth and is an abundant potential food source (Light 1934).

Subterranean termites may also chew through non-nutritive materials such as foam

insulation (Gyuette 1994, Smith and Zungoli 1995abc, Ogg 1997), plastic, and rubber products

(Stemlicht 1977). Subterranean termites have also been known to damage or penetrate drywall,

plaster, and even stucco (Potter 2004).









Termite soldiers and larvae, as well as some nymphs and reproductive, are unable to feed

themselves and are fed via stomodeal and proctodeal trophallaxis from the workers. Proctodeal

feeding occurs in the lower termites that contain protozoan intestinal fauna (Wheeler 1928,

Noirot and Noirot-Timothee 1969). It consists of liquid excretions from the rectal pouches.

Proctodeal feeding allows larvae to ingest the protozoa necessary for cellulose digestion, and

allows gut refaunation in worker termites after a molt (Wheeler 1928). Stomodeal food may

often be regurgitated as clear liquid (probably saliva) and is the only way reproductive can get

nourishment (Noirot and Noirot-Timothee 1969).

Building Construction and Its Relevance to Termite Exploitation

Subterranean termite control begins by excluding termites from a structure, thereby

preventing them from damaging building materials by their feeding and tunneling.

Understanding the relationship between termite biology and construction design is essential to

termite control and the prevention of termite damage within a structure. The best time to provide

protection against termites is during the planning and construction of the building. Improper

design and construction of buildings, resulting from lack of knowledge or indifference to termite

problems, can greatly increase the chances of termite infestation. Building codes set a standard

that allow for flexibility of termite treatment options and protection against termites.

Building Codes

Building code is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for

constructed objects such as buildings and other structures. The main purpose of the building

codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and

occupancy of buildings and structures (IBC 2006). The building code becomes law of a

particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate authority.









The relevance of establishing building code standards is to protect a structure and the

property owner from avoidable property loss due to structural failure (Allen 1999). Subterranean

termites can damage the structural load bearing members by tunneling into the wood. They can

also tunnel into and damage wooden sheathing and insulation products affecting the building

envelope.

Building code history: For thousands of years, building codes and regulations have

protected the public. The earliest known code of law referred to as The Code of Hammurabi,

king of the Babylonian Empire, written in 2200 B.C. assessed severe penalties, including death,

if a building was not constructed safely. The regulation of building construction in the United

States dates back to the 1700s. By the early 1900s, special interest groups, such as the insurance

industry, joined others with similar concerns to develop a model code. This first model building

code gained widespread popularity among legislative authorities (Kofiod 1934).

USA code history: Since the early 1900s, the system of building regulations was based on

three regional model codes: the Building Officials Code Administrators International (BOCA),

Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI), and the International Conference of

Building Officials (ICBO) (Miller et al. 2002). Although the regional code development has

been effective and responsive to the regulatory needs of the local jurisdictions, in the early 1990s

it became obvious that the country needed a single coordinated set of national model building

codes. The nation's three regional model code groups decided to combine their efforts and in

1994 formed the International Code Council (ICC) to develop codes that would have no regional

limitations (IBC 2006).

The first edition of the International Building Code was published in 1997. By the year

2000, International Code Council has completed the International Codes series and ceased









development of the legacy codes in favor of their national successor. The International Building

Code applies to all structures in areas where it is adopted, except for one and two family

dwellings, which falls under the International Residential Code (IBC 2006).

Parts of the International Building Code reference other codes including the International

Plumbing code, International Mechanical code, National Electric Code and various National Fire

Protection Association Standards. Therefore, if a municipality adopts the International Building

Code, it is adopts those parts of the other codes referenced by the International Building Code.

Often, the plumbing, mechanical, and electric codes are adopted with the Building Code.

Currently the International Building Code has been adopted by 45 states. Each state has their

own state and local codes that tailor the International Building Code and International

Residential Code to suite the uniqueness of the state and region (IBC 2006, Miller et al. 2004).

Concrete Construction Standards

Building foundations and concrete minimum building standards are addressed in the codes

(IBC 2006). One primary function of a foundation is to transfer the structural loads from a

building safely into the ground. The foundation design is an integral part of every building. The

foundation supports a number of different kinds of loads: dead, live, wind, and snow loads (Allen

1999). If the concrete is not strong enough or the ground below settles, the concrete may crack

allowing subterranean termites to access the structure from below. Termites entering the

structure from cracks hidden from the exterior foundation may go undetected for a long period of

time and may result in significant termite damage to the structure. Currently the building code

requires the concrete slab to be a minimum of 150 cm above grade to allow a termite inspection

area around the structure (IBC 2006).

A satisfactory foundation for a building should meet three general requirements. First, the

foundation, including the underlying soil and rock, must be safe against structural failure that









could result in collapse. Second, during the life of the building, the foundation must not settle in

such a way to damage the structure or impair its function. Finally, the foundation must be

feasible both technically and economically, and practical to build without adverse effects to

surrounding property. Satisfying the aforementioned requirements of a foundation would

minimize the risk of concrete cracking, reducing the possibility of undetected subterranean

termite entry into a structure.

A concrete foundation can be considered an initial barrier to termites if there are no

concealed cracks. The Australian Standard AS 3660.1 specifies for buildings constructed on

sub-floors that the concrete slab can form an integral part of the termite barrier system (AS

1995). Lentz et al. (1997) reported that cracks ranging from 0.5-4.0 mm, made by splitting slabs,

can allow termite access through the slab. They determined that the smallest crack width

penetrated varied by termite species, and was 3.1 mm for Coptotermes acinaciformis, 1.5 mm for

.\'Nei /,t nlui' I me breinli, 1.8 mm for Heterotermes vagus, and 1.4 mm for H. validus.

Minimum concrete strength standards are established by the building codes to reduce the

potential for foundation shrinkage and cracking (IBC 2006).

The quality of a building floor or slab made of concrete is highly dependent on achieving a

hard and durable surface that is flat, relatively free of cracks (ACI 2004). There are several

components that contribute to the properties of the final product, such as mixture ratios, quality

of concreting, and joining techniques. The timing of the concreting operations, especially

finishing, jointing, and curing, is critical. Failure to address foundation and concrete design can

result in unsatisfactory characteristics in the wearing surface such as cracking, low resistance to

wear, dusting, scaling, high or low spots, poor drainage, and increased potential for curling.









Concrete floor slabs using portland cement, regardless of consistency, will start to

experience a reduction in volume as soon as they are placed and will continue al long as water

and/or heat are released to the surroundings. Because of the drying and cooling rates are

dissimilar at the top and bottom of the slab, the shrinkage will vary throughout the depth,

possibly causing the final product to be critically distorted and reduced in volume.

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) has published a guide containing recommendations

for controlling random cracking and edge curling (ACI 2004). ACI also acknowledges that even

with the best foundation design and proper construction techniques; it is unrealistic to expect

crack-free and curl-free concrete floor slabs. Therefore, it should be expected that some cracking

and curing to occur on every project and that such occurrences may not adversely impact the slab

adequacy if the design or the quality of the construction is sufficient (Campbell et al. 1976,

Ytterberg 1987). Therefore, since concrete cracking and shrinkage is always possible, then other

termite control measures should be employed.

Wood Framing Standards

Minimum standards for single and multi-family dwellings are established in the

international building code (IBC 2006). Design of exterior wall framing must be adequately

sized for strength and support. Exterior walls must be strong enough to support both live and

dead loads. Walls must also be able to resist lateral wind loads and in some regions, seismic and

hurricane forces (Allen 1999, Miller et al. 2002). Top plates are doubled and lapped at corners

and at bearing partition intersections to tie the building into a strong structural unit. In addition

to establishing minimum standards for strength and design of wood framing, standards have also

been established to prevent termite infestation.

The building codes establish minimum standards for termite prevention and control to

protect the materials in service from current and future termite attack. Because termites can









readily damage and consume cellulose products, a wooden structure needs to be protected.

When wood is in contact with the soil, the building code allows the use of termite resistant wood,

in critical termite prone areas, such as yellow cypress (Chamaecyparis u,,,,Ik,//ni,), western red

cedar (Thujaplicata) and eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) (IBC 2006), these species of

wood have natural substances that prevent termite attack. Grace and Yamamoto (1994)

determined that the heartwood of Chamaecyparis nu,,iiuei,\i\ (yellow cypress, or Alaska cedar)

and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) resists attack by the Formosan subterranean termite. Also,

wood construction components can be protected against decay and termite attack by application

of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) (Grace 1998), ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ), copper

azole (CA), or copper, zinc and arsenic ammonia (AZQA) (Tamashiro et al. 1988).

The studs in exterior walls of one and two-story structures are at least 2x4 inches with the

4-inch dimension forming the basic wall thickness. Stud spacing is normally 16 inches in

exterior walls. The studs are arranged in multiples at corners and partition sections to provide

the rigid attachment of sheathing (Allen 1999).

The high resistance of wood frame construction to seismic, hurricane and other natural

forces of nature are provided when exterior sheathing adequately secured to the exterior wall

stubs. Exterior wall sheathing includes plywood, particle board, and other structural panels such

as oriented strandboard, structural insulation, and board lumber. Sheathing is applied in strict

accordance with manufacturers nailing requirements to provide a rigid wood frame system. All

wooden materials that are not naturally termite resistant should be protected against termite

attack to maintain their strength and other physical properties (IBC 2006).

Termite Control Options

Currently there are four major categories of termiticide treatments to protect structures

from subterranean termites; liquid soil termiticides, wood-applied termiticides, baiting systems,









and physical barriers. Liquid termiticides are typically classified as repellent or non-repellent

and have been used to exclude subterranean termites from structures. Pyrethroids are among the

most commonly applied soil termiticides for new construction, and are highly repellent to

subterranean termites, deterring termites from tunneling in treated soil without causing

significant mortality (Su et al. 1993). Soil termiticides are applied to the soil beneath and around

the structure to create a barrier (Su and Scheffrahn 1990a). The newer, non-repellent

termiticides include imidacloprid (Kuriachan and Gold 1998), fipronil (Osbrink et al. 2001), and

chlorofenapyr (Rust and Saran 2006), all of which are effective at killing subterranean termites.

Soil termiticide treatments have been used since the 1900s and are generally inexpensive

and easy to use. A soil termiticide treatment is applied during the construction of a building, and

is required by the building code in Florida unless another method of termite protection is

approved as a stand-alone treatment (FBC 2004). Liquid soil termiticides are also used for

remedial treatments. Currently available soil termiticide treatments degrade and may require

reapplication after five or more years (Su et al. 1999, Richman et al. 2006) to maintain long-term

protection of structures.

In Florida, currently registered termite baiting systems approved for application at new

construction contain hexaflumuron (Foos 2006), noviflumuron (Foos and Daiker 2003), or

diflubenzuron (FBC 2004). These compounds are chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) that prevent

the successful molting and development of subterranean termites. This disruption in termite

growth causes the decline of the colony to the point of colony death. Hexaflumuron, the most

extensively studied CSI active ingredient, has been proven to eliminate subterranean termite

activity with several species of subterranean termites (Su 1994, Clement et al. 1996, Su and

Scheffrahn 1996, Peters and Fitzgerald 1999, Sajap et al. 2000, Rojas and Morales-Ramos 2001,









Grace and Su 2001). Noviflumuron, also produced by Dow Agrosciences, can eliminate

colonies of Reticulitermes in about half the time as colonies baited with hexaflumuron (Smith et

al. 2002). Karr et al. (2004) reported that the lethal dose of noviflumuron for R. flavipes termites

was found to be at least two-to three-fold lower than that of hexaflumuron. Su and Scheffrahn

(1993) determined that R. flavipes and C. formosanus consumed diflubenzuron resulting in

>90% mortality for both species in 9 wk.

Physical Barriers

Physical particle barriers of impenetrable materials, such as sieved soil particles (Ebeling

and Pence 1957, Su and Scheffrahn 1992, Yates et al. 2000) and steel mesh (ABSAC 1992,

Grace et al. 1996, Lentz and Runko 1994), have been demonstrated to effectively exclude

subterranean termites. For physical barriers to be effective, they must be constructed of

materials that cannot be moved or chewed through by termites and create no gaps that termites

can move through. Sieved soil particles must be specific size range to be large enough to prevent

manipulation by termite mandibles and small enough to not provide gaps to allow termite

movement through. Research has documented the effective size range for a soil particle barrier

is dependent upon the head capsule width of the termite species. Tamashiro et al. (1987, 1991)

documented that Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki could not penetrate basaltic particles with

diameters in the range of 1.7-2.4 mm. Su et al. (1991) found that particle barriers of 1.18-2.80

mm in size effectively prevented penetration of both R. flavipes and C. formosanus.

A physical barrier made of a fine stainless steal mesh wire known as "Termimesh" was

developed in the early 1990s (ABSAC 1992, Lentz and Runko 1994). Termimesh is typically

placed in critical areas, such as along control joints and around pipe penetrations, before the

concrete slab is poured. This mesh wire barrier, with an aperture of 0.45 by 0.66 mm, has been

proven effective to prevent access of large termites such as, C. formosanus (Grace et al. 1996),









C. acinaciformis (Froggatt), Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, and Schedorhinotermes breinli

(Hill) (Lentz and Runko 1994). Smaller termites, such as Heterotermes vagus (Hill) with a

maximum head width of only 0.76 mm, were able to move through this mesh wire (Lentz and

Runko 1994).

Impasse (Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC) is an insecticide-impregnated

vapor retarder that contains the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin sandwiched between construction

grade polymer layers. Like Termimesh, Impasse is used to repel termites from cracks in the slab

or gaps created plumbing or utility penetrations (Harbison 2003, Wege et al. 2003). Impasse

barrier became available in 2002 with the intent to cover the entire undersurface of the

foundation. Su et al. (2004) found that Impasse placed over a sand plot and covered with a

concrete slab prevented termite penetration. The Impasse termite system later focused on

Impasse termite blocker, installed around plumbing and utility pipes penetrating the slab.

Impasse termite blocker is applied in the preconstruction phase and is embedded in the concrete

around the pipe penetrations when the building foundation is poured.

Heat Transfer Concepts

Heat is a form of energy that is sometimes expressed as the intensity of molecular vibration

within a material. Heat is always transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature. There

are three different types of heat transfer: radiation, convection, and conduction. In all cases, a

temperature difference must exist for heat transfer to occur (Bueche and Wallach 1994).

Radiation is the movement of energy by means of electromagnetic waves. Radiative heat

transfer does not require that objects be touching to transfer heat (Bueche and Wallach 1994).

Convective heat transfer occurs when a fluid, as a liquid or a gas, comes in contact with a

material of a different temperature. Natural convection occurs when the changes in the localized

densities of a fluid, due to differences in thermal energy, drive the flow of the fluid. Forced









convection occurs when the fluid flow is due to localized differences in pressure (Bueche and

Wallach 1994).

Conduction takes place within the boundaries of a solid body by the transfer of thermal

energy between molecules within the material. The rate at which heat is conducted through a

material is proportional to the area available to the heat flow and the temperature gradient along

the heat flow path. For a one-dimensional, steady state heat flow the rate is expressed by

Fourier's equation (Healy and Flynn 2002):

Q=k*A*(AT/d)

Where:

k=thermal conductivity, W/m-K
Q=rate of heat flow, W
A=contact area, m
d=distance of heat flow, m
AT=temperature difference, Kelvin

Thermal conductivity, k, is an intrinsic property of a material which describes the

material's ability to conduct heat (ASHRAE 2005). This property is independent of the

materials size, shape, or orientation. For non-homogeneous materials the term "relative thermal

conductivity" is generally used and is appropriate because the thermal conductivities depend on

the thickness of the layers and their orientation with respect to heat flow. Another inherent

thermal property of a material is its thermal resistance, R or R-value (Bueche and Wallach 1994),

as defined below:

R=A*(AT/Q)

Resistance is a measure of how a material of a specific thickness resists the flow of heat.

The relationship between k and R is shown by combining the previous two equations to form:

k=d/R









This equation shows resistance is directly proportional to the material thickness for solids

(Bueche and Wallach 1994).

Insulation

The use of cellular thermal insulation has increased in recent years due to its energy saving

potential. There are many organic and inorganic substances that are capable of being processed

to form stable cellular foam insulation. In order to be successfully processed, the substance must

have the capability of being processed as a fluid, mechanically expanded by foaming with a gas

while in a liquid state, and then solidified while maintaining a cellular matrix established during

the foaming process. Rigid cellular materials are most often used for thermal insulation within

structures, but flexible and semi-rigid materials are available. The most common types of

organic, cellular insulations are manufactured using polyurethane and polyisocyanurate, and

resins of polystyrene, urea-formaldehyde, and phenol-formaldehyde. The most common

inorganic, cellular insulation (Perlite and vermiculite) is produced from glass (Yost 1991).

Thermal Transmission

The most important physical property of cellular thermal insulation is thermal

transmission. In cellular insulations, thermal energy is transferred by three different

mechanisms: conduction through the solid portion of the foam, conduction through the gaseous

portion, and radiation through the cellular matrix from cell wall to cell wall (Skochdopole 1961).

Convection heat transfer within cells is generally not considered, because the cell size is usually

too small to support significant convective movement (Skochdopole 1961).

For many products, measures are taken to minimize the heat transfer contribution from one

or more of these mechanisms. For example, chlorofluorocarbon blowing agents are commonly

introduced not only to help foam the fluid but also to reduce conduction through the gaseous









portion of the foam. The use of facings laminated or bonded to chlorofluorocarbon-blown foams

can also decrease thermal transfer.

One method of minimizing radiation through the cellular matrix is to increase the foam

density, thus providing more material in the cell walls to absorb infrared radiation. Although an

increase in density can reduce the radiation component of heat transfer, it simultaneously

increases the conduction through the solid portion of foam. Therefore, the lowest thermal

transfer for a particular foam material can be found in the optimal balance of solid and gaseous

portions within the cellular matrix. For example, the optimum balance for cellular plastics is

generally 1.8 to 2.5 lb/ft3 (28.8 to 40.0 kg/m3) (Skochdopole 1961, Norton 1967, Booth and Lee

1985). However, other factors generally need to be considered, such as raw material costs and

mechanical strength requirements, so the density of the cellular products typically ranges from

1.0 to 4.0 lb/ft3 (16 to 64.0 kg/m3).









CHAPTER 3
ABILITY OF EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES TO MOVE THROUGH CRACKS

Introduction

The eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermesflavipes (Kollar), is one of the most

destructive structural pests in North America (Kofoid 1934, Mauldin 1986, Su and Scheffrahn

1990a). Like other subterranean termites, R. flavipes inhabits the soil, typically invades

structures from the underlying soil, and can avoid detection for long periods of time. Preventing

subterranean termite entry from the soil is considered a primary way to protect a structure from

termite infestation and damage (Su and Scheffrahn 1990b).

Concrete and good quality mortar will not normally be penetrated by termites providing

that all joints are properly sealed (Snyder 1919, 1929). Nonetheless, a concrete slab of

appreciable size will crack as it sets and settles (Benboundjema et al. 2005). Most foundation

failures are attributed to excessive differential settlement (Allen 1999, Zijl et al. 2001). A pre-

existing crack or gap in the concrete slab is of relatively fixed width. Reticulitermes spp. are not

capable of widening gaps in uncompromised concrete, so their body dimensions are a limiting

factor for their moving through gaps. Lentz et al. (1997) reported that the smallest crack width

penetrated by termites through concrete was 1.3 mm for C. acinaciformis and 1.4 mm for

Heterotermes validus Hill. Cracks of 0.8 mm or more in width were reported to permit passage

of subterranean termites but species were not documented (Johnston et al. 1972, Beal et al.

1989).

The factor determining the crack width penetrated by termites should be the smallest

dimension of the termite head capsule. Termites are generally soft-bodied insects with thin,

flexible exoskeletons over most of their body. The notable exception to this is the head capsule,

a rigid structure which supports the mandibular musculature, allowing the termites to chew









through hard substrates like wood. This rigidity makes the head capsule incapable of being

compressed. Therefore, for a termite to travel through a crack, the smallest dimension of the

termite head capsule must be less than the width of the crack. Movement through a crack would

restrict movement in one-dimension where as movement through particles or a mesh would

restrict movement in two-dimensions. The only study correlating termite body dimensions to

movement through various particle sizes was Su et al. (1991). No studies have been conducted

evaluating the ability of different termite developmental stages for passing through fixed crack

widths.

The objectives of this study on R. flavipes were to investigate the relationship between

crack width and head capsule size for both worker and soldier termites, and evaluate the ability

of different termite developmental stages to pass through cracks of different widths and

subsequent consumption of matrices on either side of the cracks.

Materials and Methods

Termites

Three colonies of R. flavipes, separated by more than 1.5 km in Gainesville, FL, were

field collected in 6-liter plastic buckets inserted below ground with their lids accessible above the

soil surface. Each bucket was filled with 2-3 moistened corrugated cardboard rolls (15 cm long

by 10 cm diam.; Gainesville Paper Co., Gainesville, FL). Termites accessed cardboard rolls

through -10 holes (4-cm diam.) in the sides and bottom of each bucket. Cardboard rolls

containing termites were collected and returned to the lab in Ziploc bags (3.8-L). Termites were

removed from the cardboard by gently separating the corrugated cardboard and allowing the

termites to fall into a 20-L plastic bucket. The termites were then placed on moistened

corrugated cardboard and reared at room temperature (-230C) in plastic boxes (27 by 19 by 9.5

cm) with moistened cardboard for <1 wk before inclusion in experimental arenas.









Prior to the test, termites were sorted by size and caste. Soldiers and workers were

separated from larvae using a 1.18 mm mesh soil sieve (No. 16, Fisher Scientific Company,

Pittsburgh, PA). Larvae through the 2nd instar passed through the sieve. The 2nd instar larvae

were then separated from white immature larvae using a vacuum aspirator.

Effect of Crack Width on Penetration and Consumption by Caste

The test arena to evaluate penetration by caste and consumption by crack width was an

acrylic plastic cylinder (5.08 cm I.D., 127 cm long) with an acrylic divider (1.59 cm thick)

placed 5.72 cm from the bottom (Fig. 3-1). An oval opening (1 by 0.5 cm) was cut into the

center of the acrylic divider. Two aluminum spacers (2.5 by 1.0 by 0.1 cm) were glued over the

oval opening to create a space 1 cm long. Crack widths of 406, 508, 610, 711, 813, 991, and

5,000 rm were created using spark plug feelers (Carquest Corp., Lakewood, CO) and a second

acrylic divider with oval opening was glued over the aluminum plates before the glue set to fix

plates in place.

Soil was oven-dried at -1770C for 24 h, sifted through a 1.18 mm mesh soil sieve to

remove debris, and moistened by mixing 40 ml of distilled water in 400 g soil. Moistened soil

was evenly distributed above and below the acrylic dividers within the experimental arena

leaving a 0.64 cm void on the top for termite introduction. Pre-weighed filter paper (Whatman

#4, -130 mg, 4.3 cm diam.) was placed on the top and bottom of the arena.

Termites were aspirated into groups of 253 insects, consisting of 3 soldiers, 200 workers

[>3rd instar], 50 larvae [2nd instar], that were introduced on top of each arena. The top and

bottom of the arena were lidded with a plastic Petri dish (100 mm diam.) and secured with two

rubber bands. The experiment was a randomized complete block design. Each crack width (n =









7) was evaluated using three termite colonies with four replications per colony, resulting in 84

experimental arenas.

The arenas were opened 5 d after setup, and the numbers of each caste of termites located

in the top and the bottom sections were counted. Filter paper was collected, oven dried, and

weighed to determine consumption.

Effect of Termite Head Capsule Dimension on Penetration Through Cracks

The arena to evaluate the termite head capsule dimensions and crack width was a Petri dish

(55 mm diam.) with an acrylic divider and aluminum plates built as described above. Crack

widths of 711, 813, and 991 rim, and were created using spark plug feelers (Carquest Corp.,

Lakewood, CO) (Fig. 3-2). Groups of 125 termites consisting of 45 soldiers, 60 workers [3rd

instar] and 20 larvae [2nd instar] were then introduced to the arena above the crack. The arena

was lidded and sealed with Parafilm "M" (Pechiney Plastic Packing, Chicago, IL). Each crack

width (n = 3) was evaluated using three termite colonies with three replications per colony,

resulting in 27 experimental arenas.

The arenas were opened 24 h after setup, and the numbers of each caste of termites located

in the top and the bottom sections were recorded. The termites from the top and bottom sections

were separated and chilled in a refrigerator for -30 minutes before measuring. The termites head

capsule width, length, and depth were measured using a dissecting microscope with a calibrated

ocular micrometer.

Data Analysis

In the test arena to evaluate penetration and consumption the percentage of the termites

that passed through each crack width and survivorship in the arena were arcsine transformed and

analyzed with two-way analysis of variance, (P = 0.05; SAS 2001), with termite colony and

crack width as main effects, and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK). The effect









of crack width and termite colony consumption (gm) filter paper total and filter paper on bottom

of arena were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were separated with

Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), (P = 0.05; SAS 2001).

Quantiles of the head capsule width and depth for each caste were determined using

univariate analysis (SAS 2001) for the total population of termites and termites found below the

crack. Also for the soldier and worker termites located on the bottom of the Petri-dish a linear

regression was performed to determine the relationship of maximum head capsule measurements

(length, width, and depth) and the termite's ability to pass through three crack widths to the

bottom of the arena.

Results

Effect of Crack Width on Penetration and Consumption by Caste

Termites began tunneling immediately after introduction to the top of the arena and lived

to the end of the test with no significant mortality. Survivorship for each caste averaged 96% for

larvae, 97% for workers, and 99% for soldiers. The percentage (number) of termites passing

through a crack increased as the crack width increased (Table 3-1). No termites were able to

pass through the smallest crack widths of 406 and 508 nm. Only one larva was able to pass

through the crack width of 610 um. The minimum width opening permitting functional access

by each caste was 711 u.m for workers and larvae and 813 .im for soldiers. The dimensions of

711 and 813 u.m did restrict movement of caste members because the proportion of each caste

that passed through these dimensions were significantly less than those passing through gaps of

991 um or greater.

Crack widths of 610 .m and less that prevented penetration by termite workers

subsequently prevented feeding on the bottom of the arena (Table 3-1). There was significantly

more paper consumed, total and in the bottom of the arena, for crack dimensions >711 um









compared to crack dimensions <610 im. There was no significant difference in paper

consumed, total or in the bottom of the arena, for cracks from 710 5,000 rm in width, even

though a significantly lower proportion of workers were found in the bottom arenas with crack

widths of 711 and 813 im.

Effect Termite Head Capsule Dimension on Penetration Through Cracks

Termite groups placed in the Petri-dish arena immediately began to move about the arena

seeking a more hospitable environment. Termites were given two options, to stay on the surface

with no food or protection above the crack or to pass through the crack (711, 813, and 991 [m)

in search of food and protection. Linear regression analysis of termite head capsule dimensions

(length, width, and depth) of termites able to pass through the three crack widths indicated a

positive relationship between crack width and head capsule dimensions for both solders and

workers (Figure 3-3 and 3-4, respectively). As crack width increased, the maximum head

capsule dimension of termites that passed through the crack also increased. The head capsule

dimension of depth, compared to length and width, had the best correlation to crack width, with

r2 values of 0.96 for soldiers and 0.92 for workers.

Greater than 75% of the soldiers (Fig. 3-5, A) and 50% of the workers (Fig. 3-6, A) had

head capsule widths greater than the width of the crack that they passed through. In contrast, the

head depth of 100% soldiers (Fig. 3-5, B) and workers (3-6, B) was always < to 991 or 813 [im

wide cracks they passed through. A low percentage of soldiers (10%) and workers (25%) with

head depths greater than 711 .im were able to pass through cracks of this width. No larvae had

head capsule depths larger than the most narrow crack width of 711 [im (Fig. 3-7, B), so smaller

width cracks would need to be tested to evaluate penetration by larvae. These data further









confirm that head capsule depth is the best predictor of a termite's ability to penetrate fixed crack

widths.

Discussion

Previous studies have identified the termite head capsule width, not depth, as a significant

factor in the termite being able to penetrate through physical barriers (Su et al. 1991, Lenz and

Runko 1994, Grace et al. 1996, Toutountzis 2006). Su et al. (1991) suggested that one colony of

C. formosanus was not able to move through the interstitial space of large particles forming a

uniform particle barrier because the workers and soldiers had a large head capsule width (1.4

mm). Termi-Mesh is marine grade stainless steel wire screen (ABSAC 1992, Lentz & Runko

1994) which is embedded in concrete during construction to form a physical barrier to termites

(AS 1995). Grace et al. (1996) found that the Termi-Mesh screen with a rectangular aperture

size of 660 by 450 [m was able to exclude Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki from all test units.

Another study found that smaller termites, such as Heterotermes vagus (Hill) workers with a

head width of -0.76 mm, were able to pass through the small Termi-Mesh screen (Lentz and

Runko 1994), perhaps by aligning the head capsule to the largest dimension of the rectangular

aperture, the hypotenuse measuring -799 im. Our study determined the termite head depth, not

head width, is the limiting factor in determining a termite's ability to pass through the small

cracks of fixed width.

Our study findings concur with previous recommendations that no cracks greater than

0.396 mm (1/64 inch) should be present in the foundation and between masonry units

(Anonymous 1980). Our study also supports previous reports that termites can penetrate cracks

that are 0.794 mm (1/32 inch) wide (St. George et al. 1960). Our conclusions were based on

head capsule measurements for R. flavipes workers and soldiers, which were consistent with

those previously reported. Banks (1946) documented R. flavipes soldiers have a head capsule









lengths of 1.7-2.3 mm, head capsule widths of 1.0-1.3 mm, and head depths of 0.85-1.1 mm.

Similar soldier head capsule measurements for R. flavipes were also found by Scheffrahn and Su

(1994) and Thorne et al. (1997). The mean morphological worker head capsule measurements

collected from four field colonies ofR. flavipes, were head length of 1.2 mm and width of 1.0

mm (Suet al. 1991).

Our study found that termites consumed significantly less filter paper in arenas where they

were confined to the top of the arena (-40 mg) than in arenas where termites accessed the top

and bottom through the crack (-64 mg). Cornelius (2003) found that R. flavipes wood

consumption rates were greater on large blocks of wood than on small blocks of wood. Similar

results were found when food consumption rates were measured for different combinations of

wood volume and termite group size. Lentz et al. (2003) found that subterranean termites, R.

speratus (Kolbe), consumed 20% more when provided a food source that was 75% larger in size.

These studies as well as this study support the concept that subterranean termites vary their

feeding in response available resources. Another plausible explanation for the greater filter

paper consumption is that the energy expense of establishing a new tunnel network was

compensated for by consuming more filter paper.

Even though the proportion of termite workers passing through crack widths of 711 and

813 [m were significantly less than those in the 991 and 5,000 ism crack width arenas, the total

consumption of the filter paper was not significantly different in arenas with crack width ranging

from 711 to 5,000 im. This suggests that, for the 711 and 813 [.m crack width arenas, the

worker termites able to reach the bottom of the arena efficiently transferred larger amounts of

food to nestmates confined to the top of the arena. Therefore, any crack between roughly 700









and 900 [im in width will most likely allow damaging levels of wood consumption in a structure,

in spite of the partial exclusion of R. flavipes workers and almost total exclusion of soldiers.

The ability of subterranean termites to find cracks depends on their foraging behavior.

Campora and Grace (2001) as well as, Puche and Su (2001a) observed a systematic pattern of

tunneling regardless of the presence or absence of a food source in foraging sites. Puche and Su

(2001 c) determined that both Coptotermesformosanus and R. flavipes could not detect wood in a

test chamber and did not alter their tunneling to intercept the wood discs. Another study by

Puche and Su (2001b) determined that population density of subterranean termites, C.

formosanus and R. flavipes, had no effect on the overall complexity of the tunnel network and

tunnels were generally straight. It has been shown that termite tunneling is influenced by

guidelines and passageways (Pitts-Singer and Forschler 2000, Swoboda and Miller 2004).

Because tunneling is a necessary component of finding new resources, termites tunneling

beneath a concrete slab can use cracks as foraging guidelines. Therefore, it is essential to

attempt to eliminate as many cracks as possible in structure foundations to 'build out'

subterranean termites and prevent economic loss due to termite damage.









Table 3-1. Percentage of termite castes located on the bottom of the arena that passed through various crack widths and consumption
of filter paper by termites in arena at 5 d.
Crack width (pm) % + SE Termite castes located on the bottom Mean SE filter paper consumption (mg)
Workers Larvae Soldiers Total (top and bottom) Bottom
< 508 0.0 + 0.0d 0.0 + 0.0c 0.0 + 0.0b 39.8 0.0b 0.0 + 0.0b
610 0.0 + 0.0d 0.3 + 0.3c 0.0 0.Ob 37.3 0.Ob 0.0 + 0.Ob
711 34.7 + 6.1c 38.0 + 8.1b 0.0 + 0.Ob 61.5 + 0.0a 37.8 0.Oa
813 53.9 3.6b 30.7 8.5b 11.1 8.5b 62.9 O.Oa 39.2 O.Oa
991 64.1 + 3.2a 67.8 + 4.8a 72.2 9.9a 64.4 0.Oa 39.5 0.Oa
5,000 73.4 + 5.4a 80.2 8.5a 69.4 8.7a 69.0 0.Oa 39.6 0.Oa

Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (Student-Neuman-Keuls, P = 0.05, SAS Institute
2001).


















Two aluminum
metal plates


0-^


Petri dish lid
Filter paper


-4I Builders sand


Two acrylic circles
with cut out oval


4-I Builders sand


SFilter paper

I Petri dish lid


Figure 3-1. Termite caste location and consumption test arena.


9:































Side view








Figure 3-2. Head capsule Petri-dish test arena.


Planer view












2500


* Depth a Width A Length


2000
--- -y = 1.3102x + 621.13
r2 = 0.823
1500

L y = 1.407x 11.269
U 1000 -r= 0.6805
Sy = 0.9137x + 65.906
500 r= 0.9634


0
700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050
Crack Width (urn)

Figure 3-3. Linear regression comparing the maximum soldier head capsule measurements
(length, width, and depth) able to pass through the three crack widths (711, 813, and
911 tm) for each of the three termite colonies.














y = 1.2248x + 108.77
1400 r = 0.6506

1200 -A y = 0.8915x + 351.53

1000- ? = 0.5564
:- 1


0.5577x + 322.43
r = 0.9277


1000


1050


Crack Width (um)

Figure 3-4. Linear regression comparing the maximum worker head capsule measurements
(length, width, and depth) able to pass through the three crack widths (711, 813, and
911 tm) for each of the three termite colonies.


U,


S800

o 600

I 400


1600


* De~th m Width A Lenath


9
y =














1.4

1.3


1.2

1.1


0.9

0.8-

0.7


S--Total Population --Passed Through 711 pm
S Passed Through 813 pm -- Passed Through 991 pm


991pmn



----------------n
5 7131un

711 pm


0.6 I
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Quantile


60% 70% 80% 90% 100%


--. -Total Population ---Passed Through 711 pm
1.4
Passed Through 813 pm -II-Passed Through 991 pm
1.3

1.2 -

1.1

01

0.9

1 0.8

0.7


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Quantile


60% 70% 80% 90% 100%


Figure 3-5. Quantiles of soldier head capsule width (A) and depth (B) measurements of the total
population and the termites able to pass through the cracks of 711, 813, and 991 pm.














-- Passed Through 711 pmI


Passed Through 813 pm -*-Passed Through 991 pm|


------ ------
991 um



813npm

711mun


1.2

1.1

S1

0.9

2 0.8
CL
a 0.7
g
c 0.6

0.5

0.4








1.2

1.1
E
S1

" 0.9

* 0.8

u) 0.7
So

0.6

0.5


50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Quantile


(B)


9------------------------------------91
991"m


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
Quantile


70% 80% 90% 100%


Figure 3-6. Quantiles of worker head capsule width (A) and depth (B) measurements of the total
population and the termites able to pass through the cracks of 711, 813, and 991 pm.


0% 10% 20% 30% 40%


#Total Population


v I
-----------------------














- Total Population ---Passed Through 711 pm
Passed Through 813 pm --BPassed Through 991 Ipm


------- -
I 813pm
I
S 711 pm


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Quantile


1.1

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.41
0O


60% 70% 80% 90%


100%


-*-Total Population -*-Passed Through 711 pm
Passed Through 813 pm ---Passed Through 991 pm
-------------------------------------
991rpm




813pm
--


V0


10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Quantile


60% 70% 80% 90% 100%


Figure 3-7. Quantiles of larval head capsule width (A) and depth (B) measurements of the total
population and the termites able to pass through the cracks of 711, 813, and 991 pm.


+









CHAPTER 4
METHODS TO PREVENT PENETRATION OF CONCRETE-PIPE INTERFACES BY THE
EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE

Introduction

Subterranean termites in North America typically nest in the ground and enter structures

either around the foundation perimeter or next to pipe penetrations. Termites cannot penetrate

concrete, so the foundation can act as a physical barrier to entry into the structure (Lentz et al.

1997) provided there are no cracks or other hidden termite entry points due to construction

design. It has been shown that termite tunneling is influenced by guidelines and passageways

(Pitts-Singer and Forschler 2000, Swoboda and Miller 2004). Therefore pipes beneath structures

may guide termite movement into buildings through plumbing penetrations in the foundation.

Pipes for plumbing and utilities are placed during the initial construction phase before the

slab is poured. An average slab-on-grade foundation has multiple pipe penetrations using several

pipes typically composed of metal (copper) or plastics (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride [CPVC]

and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]). Copper pipes are required by the current international building

code (IBC 2006) to have pipe sleeping on pipe sections that penetrate and contact the slab to

protect the pipe from corrosion and abrasion. Protective pipe sleeping is recommended by

building codes (FBC 2004, IBC 2006) and the CPVC pipe manufacturer (Lubrizol 2007). No

pipe sleeping is required or recommended for PVC pipe (IBC 2006).

The most common termiticide treatment for termite prevention at new construction is

chemical treatment of the soil using a repellent or non-repellent termiticide. Chemical

termiticide treatment around critical areas, such as plumbing, must extend 30 cm (Ift) below the

sand-slab interface and is applied at a higher volume than elsewhere in the structure. Repellent

termiticides can act as a chemical barrier (Tamashiro et al. 1987, Jones 1990, Smith and Rust

1990, Su and Scheffrahn 1990a, Grace 1991) provided there are no gaps in the treatment.









Lubrizol (2007) recommends that CPVC pipe sleeping extends at least 30 cm (ift) below the

slab, the same depth as the required termiticide treatment around critical areas. This could result

in the soil around the bottom opening of the pipe sleeve containing relatively little or no

termiticide. Termites foraging along the pipes could then enter the structure through the pipe

sleeve, protected from any contact with the termiticide treatment. Termite infestations

originating at gaps around pipe penetrations through the concrete slabs may go undetected long

enough to result in significant damage to structures (AS 1995).

In addition to liquid termiticides, the US pest control industry currently has used two

commercial products that may potentially prevent termite entry through gaps around pipe

penetrations through slabs: TermimeshTM (Termimesh Australia Pty Ltd, Australia) and

ImpasseTM Termite Blocker (Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., Greensboro, NC). TermimeshTM, a

stainless steel mesh with an aperture of 660 by 450 gim, has been documented to prevent termites

from entering through gaps in slab over which the mesh is attached (ABSAC 1992, Lentz and

Runko 1994). ImpasseTM Termite Blocker, herein referred to as termite blocker, contains the

repellent termiticide lamda-cyhalothrin sealed between two thick layers of construction-grade

polymer, which prevents termites from chewing through the polymer (Su et al. 2004). Both

products must be secured around pipes or other conduit before the concrete slab is poured,

sealing the products into the foundation of the structure.

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of physical and chemical products

and their installation methods for preventing termite access along pipe penetrations to the upper

surface of a concrete slab. The factors evaluated with typical plumbing were pipe sleeve length

and composition in combination with soil termiticide treatment and termite blocker.









Materials and Methods


Termites

Eastern subterranean termites, R. flavipes, were field collected using traps from several

locations in Gainesville, FL. A trap consisted of a 6-liter plastic bucket inserted below ground

with its lid accessible above the soil surface. Each bucket was filled with 2-3 moistened

corrugated cardboard rolls (15 cm long by 10 cm diam.; Gainesville Paper Co., Gainesville, FL).

Termites accessed cardboard rolls through -10 holes (4-cm diam.) on the sides and bottom of

each bucket. Cardboard rolls containing termites were collected and returned to the lab.

Termites were removed from the cardboard and reared at room temperature (-230C) in plastic

boxes (27 by 19 by 9.5 cm) with moistened cardboard for <2 wk before inclusion in the

experimental arenas. The laboratory maintained termites used in the experiment were gently

shaken from clean cardboard, weighed, and then inspected to confirm that there was

approximately a 1:100 soldier:worker ratio.

Pipe Sleeve Experiment

Pipe Sleeve Treatments

Dry builders sand (0.04 m3) was treated with TalstarOneTM (Bifenthrin, FMC Corporation,

Philadelphia, PA) diluted 8.7 ml in 5.6 L tap water to obtain the maximum label concentration of

0.12% a.i. The termiticide-treated sand was mixed in a cement mixer for 15 minutes, spread

over a plastic tarp, and air-dried to allow termiticide to bind to the sand. A new termiticide

mixture was prepared for each replicate. Untreated control sand was prepared in the same

manner as the termiticide sand mixtures but using only tap water. All sand was remoistened

(10% moisture wt:wt) immediately prior to use in the experiment.

Five treatment configurations of CPVC pipes (Flowguard, Noveon, Inc., Cleveland, OH)

(60 cm long, 2.2 cm OD [3/4 in.]) were evaluated. Pipes were installed without pipe sleeping or









wrapped in two lengths, 20 cm or 50 cm, of sleeping consisting of either foam (FosterKing,

Thermwell Product Co., Inc., Mahwah, NJ) or polyethylene (Great Bay Productions, Inc. St.

Petersburg, FL).

Pipe Sleeve Experimental Arena

The experimental arena (Figure 4-1) was constructed by capping a PVC tube (61 cm long x

15.3 cm diam.) and adding 5 cm of dry builders sand. A CPVC pipe (60 cm long, 2.2 cm OD

[3/4 in.]), with or without pipe sleeping, was embedded in the sand. Concrete (Quickrete

concrete mix #1101, Atlanta, GA) poured on top of the sand around the CPVC pipe created a

slab 15.3 cm diam. by 10 cm height. After the concrete dried, the PVC tube arena was inverted

and the sand was removed. The CPVC pipe penetrated through the center of the slab, extending

5 cm above slab and 45 cm below the slab. Pipe sleeves were trimmed to be flush with the upper

slab surface and to extend either 20 cm or 50 cm below the slab. Temporary wax paper

wrappings were used to prevent contamination of non-treated arena surfaces and the space

between the CPVC pipe and sleeve when treated sand was added. The wax paper was wrapped

inside the lower 15 cm of the PVC tube distal to the concrete and around the bottom of the

CPVC pipe and sleeves. Moistened sand treated with termiticide or water only was added to the

PVC tube and extended -30 cm below the concrete slab. This resulted in short pipe sleeves (20

cm) being contained within the termiticide treatment and the long pipe sleeves (50 cm) extending

below the termiticide treatment. About 15 cm of untreated moistened builders sand was then

added to fill the PVC tube. A pre-weighed, corrugated cardboard (8 cm2) was placed on the

moistened untreated sand. Termites (10 g, -2500 workers and 25 soldiers), were introduced on

top of the cardboard. After termites tunneled into the sand, the bottom end of the tube was

capped. Another pre-weighed corrugated cardboard disk (15.25 cm diam.) was placed around









the pipe on the top of the slab and the concrete-slab end was of the tube capped. The arenas

were stored horizontally for 4 weeks at room temperature (-230C and -55% RH).

The ten treatments (5 CPVC pipe sleeve configurations x 2 sand treatments) were each

replicated four times using a different termite colony for each replicate for a total of 40

experimental units and -100,000 termites. The headspace above the concrete slab containing the

cardboard disc in each arena was inspected for the presence of termites after 24 h and at weekly

intervals thereafter. Arenas were disassembled after 4 weeks. All pre-weighed cardboard disks

were removed, oven dried (40 C for 24 h) and re-weighed to calculate consumption by termites.

The sand and sleeves below the concrete slab of the arena were checked for presence of live

termites.

Termite Blocker Experiment

Treatments

Termite blocker (1.9 cm [3/ in.]) was installed according to manufacturer specifications

around either CPVC or copper pipe (15.5 cm long, 2.2 cm OD [34 in.]) (Fig. 4-2). The pipes

were sealed at both ends with pipe caps. The termite blocker consisted of a semi-rigid plastic

collar (6.5 cm long) which fit snugly along the pipe shaft and completely encircled it. A 2.5-cm

flange extended at a 900 angle completely around the middle of the collar. The flange was

designed to extend into the concrete to block the gaps between the pipe and cement. The flanges

were centered 7.75 cm from the ends of the pipe pieces and the collar secured with two cable-ties

above the flange. Control CPVC and copper pipes were cut and capped for use without termite

blockers.

After installation of the termite blockers, CPVC and copper pipe were wrapped with either

foam sleeping (FosterKing, Thermwell Product Co., Inc., Mahwah, NJ) or polyethylene sleeping

(Great Bay Productions, Inc. St. Petersburg, FL). The foam or polyethylene sleeves were cut in









two 7.25 cm lengths and installed above and below the termite blocker flange. For pipes without

termite blocker, sleeves were 15.5 cm long. Because CPVC pipes can be used in construction

without sleeping, CPVC pipes were also evaluated with no pipe sleeves and no termite blocker.

Termite Blocker Experimental Arena

The experimental arenas were designed to represent typical plumbing penetrations through

the concrete slab and vapor barriers (Fig. 4-2). The arena was constructed by placing an open

plastic container (240 ml; 7.4 cm height) in the center of a 6-liter plastic bucket (20 cm diam.;

19.5 cm height), then filling the bucket and plastic container with sand to 1.5 cm below the top

opening of the plastic container. A 10 cm diameter plastic vapor barrier (6-mil), with a central

cross-cut to allow the pipe penetration, was placed flush on top of the sand in the plastic

container. The lip of the plastic container extended 1.5 cm above the vapor barrier. Pipe

treatments with and without termite blocker were pushed into the sand through the cross cut in

the vapor barrier, centered inside the plastic container so pipes would extend 2.75 cm into the

sand. Concrete (Quickrete concrete mix #1101, Atlanta, GA) was poured on top of the vapor

barrier to a depth of 10 cm, embedding the termite blocker and lip of the plastic container and

leaving 2.75 cm of the pipe exposed above the slab surface. For the five arenas with CPVC with

no pipe sleeve and no termite blocker, a 20-cm long rod (1 by 4 mm) was installed adjacent to

the pipe to simulate a temporary pipe support typically used during a concrete pour. The rod was

removed before the concrete dried to leave an open channel adjacent to the CPVC pipe, a

common occurrence in current construction practices. After the concrete dried, the bucket and

supporting sand were removed from all treatments.

The arenas were temporally inverted and a 6-cm diam. hole was cut into the bottom of the

plastic container. The dry sand in the plastic containers was replaced with 400 g builders sand

(10% moisture), and cardboard (8 cm2) was added as a food source. Termites, (4.2 g, -1000









workers: 10 soldiers) collected from one location in Gainesville, FL, were introduced onto the

cardboard. The hole was plugged and the arena was inverted. Wood blocks were placed under

the concrete slabs extending outside the plastic container to stabilize the arenas in the upright

position on the laboratory counter. Pipe sleeves were trimmed flush to the top of the concrete

slab. An additional food source of a moistened, pre-weighed corrugated cardboard disk (10 cm

diam.) was placed around the pipe on top of the concrete slab. To prevent moisture loss, a

plastic container (240 ml; 7.4 cm height) was inverted over the pipe and cardboard on the

concrete surface. The cardboard was moistened as needed throughout the experiment period.

The nine treatments (2 pipes x 2 pipe sleeves x 2 blocker + CPVC pipe only) were

replicated five times. Arenas were checked daily for eight weeks to document the date that any

termites were present above the slab. The arenas were disassembled after 8 wk. The pre-

weighed cardboard disks on the concrete surface were removed, oven dried (400C for 24 h), and

re-weighed to calculate consumption by termites.

Data Analysis

In pipe sleeve length experiments, the number of experimental arenas where termites were

able to access the moist cardboard above the concrete, and cardboard consumption (g),

calculated from the dry cardboard weights before and after the assays, were analyzed with one-

way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), (P

= 0.05; SAS 2001). In addition, a t-test compared termite slab penetration and cardboard

consumption in treated and untreated sand for each combination of pipe sleeve length and

composition (SAS 2001).

For the termite blocker experiment, the day of first appearance of termites above the slab

and cardboard consumption were also analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), (P = 0.05; SAS 2001). A t-test









compared arenas having termite blocker and pipe treatments to arenas without termite blocker

and the same pipe treatments (SAS 2001).

Results

Pipe Sleeve Experiment

On the bottom of the arena, termites consumed an average of 2 g (-83%) of the cardboard

during the 28-day experimental period. There was no significant difference in consumption of

the cardboard placed on the bottom in arenas treated with the repellent termiticide compared the

untreated to arenas (F = 2.29; df = 1; P = 0.1385), or with different sleeve composition (no

sleeve, foam, and polyethylene) and sleeve length (short [20 cm] and long [50 cm]) (F= 0.84; df

= 4; P = 0.5093). Termites in the bottom of both termiticide treated and untreated arenas were

active and healthy at the end of the 28-day experimental period.

The concrete poured in the experiments did not show any visible evidence of shrinkage or

cracking around the pipe treatment penetrations on top of or below the slab after arenas were

disassembled for inspection. The pipe treatments with sleeves were easily pulled from the

concrete slab, however, the pipes without a sleeve were snugly fixed to the concrete.

At no time did the termites gain access the top of the concrete slab in arenas without pipe

sleeves in either the termiticide-treated or untreated arenas. The sleeveless CPVC pipe was

completely imbedded in the concrete slab with no gaps for termites to access the surface of the

concrete. The termites were not able to access the surface of the concrete therefore they did not

consume the cardboard on the surface (Table 4-1).

When termites were able to access the top of the concrete through the annular space

between the pipe sleeve (foam and polyethylene) and pipe, they deposited frass, chewed

cardboard, and sand on this surface and the adjacent PVC wall (Figs. 4-3A, B). Arenas in which









termites were unable to access the top of the concrete did not have frass and chewed cardboard

on this surface (Figs. 4-3C, D).

Short (20-cm) foam or polyethylene pipe sleeves terminated within the termiticide-treated

sand and were not damaged by termites (Figs. 4-4, 4-5). Termites were confined to the bottom

of the arena below the treated sand due to the presence of the repellent termiticide and were

unable to access or consume the cardboard on top of the concrete (Table 4-1). In the untreated

arenas, termites were able to tunnel into the sand directly below the concrete, access and damage

the 20-cm foam pipe sleeves (Fig. 4-4). The damage was concentrated in the upper part of the

foam pipe sleeves at the concrete-pipe sleeve interface. Polyethylene sleeves, regardless of the

termiticide treatment or length, were not damaged by termites (Fig. 4-5). In arenas with 20-cm

sleeves in untreated sand, the termites tunneled into the annular space between the sleeve and

pipe, and consumed the cardboard on the surface of the concrete in the first 24 h (Table 4-1). In

arenas with 20-cm sleeves, there was significantly more cardboard consumed on the surface of

the concrete in untreated sand compared with that of termiticide-treated sand (Table 4-1).

Long (50-cm) foam or polyethylene pipe sleeves passed through the termiticide-treated

sand and terminated in the untreated sand (Figs. 4-4, 4-5). Termites were not able to tunnel into

the termiticide-treated sand. Instead, termites tunneled in the annular space between the CPVC

pipe and sleeve interface that terminated in the untreated sand, and thereby access and consume

the cardboard on top of the concrete (Table 4-1). In both the termiticide-treated and untreated

arenas, the damage to the 50-cm foam sleeve was concentrated in the upper part of the foam pipe

sleeve at the concrete-pipe sleeve interface (Fig. 4-4). There was no damage to polyethylene

sleeves (Fig. 4-5). Termites accessed and consumed the cardboard on the surface of the concrete

in both termiticide-treated and untreated arenas in the first 24 h (Table 4-1). In arenas having 50-









cm sleeves, the consumption of cardboard on the surface of the concrete was not significantly

different in termiticide-treated and untreated arenas (Table 4-1).

Termite Blocker Experiment

When termites were released into the moistened sand, they began to tunnel and explore the

arenas. The cardboard squares at the bottom of the arena were not weighed; however, at the end

of the experiment, part of this cardboard was consumed and the termites appeared to be healthy.

Termites reached the top of the concrete slab of the arenas on average between 2.2 and 3.6

days in all treatments having no termite blocker, whereas no termites reached the top of the slab

in any termite blocker treatment (F = 15.93; df = 8; P <0.0001). The difference in cardboard

disk consumption in pipe sleeve treatments with and without termite blocker was significant (T-

test; T= 18.97; df= 38; P < 0.0001). Termites consumed an average of 1.3 + 0.1 g cardboard in

all experimental arenas without termite blocker compared to no consumption of the cardboard

disk in the termite blocker treatments (Fig. 4-6). There was no significant difference in

cardboard disk consumed between treatments without termite blocker (F = 0.5; df = 4; P =

0.7382).

Termites caused observable damage to the foam insulation, tunneling into the foam pipe

sleeves and removing foam. Termites also moved sand and fecal matter in their tunnels in the

foam pipe sleeves. In arenas with foam pipe sleeves and termite blocker, damage to the foam

pipe sleeve only occurred below the termite blocker flange. The termite blocker flange

prevented passage of termites; therefore, termites were unable to damage the pipe sleeve above

the flange. In arenas that had foam pipe sleeve treatments and no termite blocker, the foam pipe

sleeve was extensively damaged by termite tunneling. Termites caused no damage to the

polyethylene pipe sleeve material.









In arenas that had termite blocker, the flange imbedded in the concrete and the secure

collar around the pipe prevented termites from accessing the slab surface. However, when the

termite blocker was not installed, the termites constructed trails and shelter tubes in the annular

space between the pipes and the sleeves that extended from the sand to the surface of the

concrete. This tunneling behavior of lining the walls with sand and fecal matter was also

observed in arenas with no termite blocker and no pipe sleeves, which had a hole created in the

concrete with a rod.

The concrete poured in the experiments did not show any visible evidence of shrinkage or

cracking around the pipe treatment penetrations on the top of the concrete slab. As in the

previous experiment, the pipe treatments with sleeves could easily be pulled from the concrete

slab, but the pipe treatments with termite blocker or without a sleeve were snugly fixed to the

concrete.

Discussion

The pipe sleeve assays demonstrated that pipe sleeve length had a significant effect on

termite movement through sand treated with a repellent termiticide and subsequent consumption

of cardboard on the surface of the concrete. However, pipe sleeve composition and pipe type

had no significant effect. Bifenthrin, a repellent termiticide, was effective in preventing termite

passage through the slab, provided the pipe sleeve did not extend below the treated sand. If the

pipe sleeve extended below the treated sand, the termiticide treatment was bypassed by the

termites. This indicates that both foam and polyethylene sleeves are relatively impervious to

termiticide, providing a protected route for termites to tunnel through and effectively avoid

termiticide-treated sand.

Su et al. (1990a and 1993b) and Gahlhoff and Koehler (2001) found that subterranean

termites were unable to tunnel through sand treated with bifenthrin in laboratory tube tests.









Powell (2000) determined that termites were able to detect sand treated with repellent

termiticides and avoided the treated zone and access a food source through gaps in termiticide

treatment in the sand. In our study, termites were also able to avoid the termiticide-treated sand

and utilized the pipe as a guideline and the pipe sleeve as protection from the termiticide-treated

sand. The protected environment within the pipe sleeve gave termites access to the surface when

the pipe sleeve extended below the termiticide-treated sand.

Critical areas within a structure that are hidden from termite inspections include any pipe

penetrations through a slab with pipe sleeping that may extend below termiticide-treated sand.

Our study identified two commonly used pipe sleeves (foam and polyethylene) that allowed

termite access to the surface of the slab when the pipe sleeves extended beyond the termiticide-

treated sand. When the pipe sleeves terminated within the termiticide-treated sand, the termites

were unable to access the surface of the slab.

Termites are known to follow natural guidelines in the soil, tunneling along objects like

tree roots in search of food (Pitts-Singer and Forschler 2000, Campora and Grace 2001). This

behavior may easily be adapted to pipes and pipe sleeves, so a longer pipe sleeve penetrating into

untreated sand can give termites a guide to follow into the structure.

The termite blocker prevented termites from accessing the surface of the slab in all arenas

in our experiments. When installed properly, termite blocker is embedded into the concrete and

secured to the pipes, like Termimesh, to prevent termite access. In a field study, it was

determined that Heterotermes spp., a small species of subterranean termite, was able to squeeze

through the screen openings of TermimeshTM (Lentz and Runko 1994). In contrast, ImpasseTM

Termite Blocker is a solid 2-layer membrane impregnated with lamda-cyhalothrin which is

completely impenetrable to termites of any size (Su et al. 2004). Our study also showed that the









presence of termite blocker, regardless of pipe and sleeve type, prevents slab penetration by

termites and subsequent above-slab consumption of cardboard.

Protective measures are important for preventing termite entry into structures via pipe slab

penetrations. A properly installed pipe sleeve that does not extend below the termiticide-treated

sand or termite blocker embedded in the concrete around the pipe both provides reliable

protection. Current construction codes should be modified to require that pipe sleeves do not

extend more than 20-cm below the slab and must terminate in the termiticide-treated zone. This

would prevent termites tunneling inside sleeves to bypass the termiticide treatments. In addition,

termite blocker could be used as a beneficial supplemental treatment when sand surrounding

plumbing penetrations is not treated with a soil termiticide.









Table 4-1. Effect of pipe sleeve composition and length and termiticide treatment on Mean consumption (g) of cardboard ( SE) on
top of the concrete slab by termites.
Sleeve Termiticide-treateda Untreatedb
Composition Length C Termitesd Consumption (g) + SE Termites' Consumption (g) SE t df P
-- no sleeve 0.00 0.00b 0.00 + 0.00b 6
foam short 0.00 + 0.00b + 2.54 + 0.26a 9.60 6 < 0.0001
long + 2.40 + 0.25a + 2.48 0.27a 0.20 6 0.8462
polyethylene short 0.00 + 0.OOb + 2.39 0.41a 5.86 6 0.0011
long + 2.75 + 0.21a + 2.58 + 0.50a -0.27 6 0.7974

Consumption is in g. Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different. (Student-Neuman-Keuls
Means Separation, P = 0.05, SAS Institute 2001). A t-test compared data within a row. n = 4 replicates. a Termiticide-treated sand
prepared with TalstarOne, SNK termiticide-treated; F = 91.11, df = 4, P = <0.0001, b Untreated sand prepared with tap water,, SNK
untreated; F= 11.29, df = 4, P = 0.0002, Short = 20 cm; long = 50 cm, d Termites able to access concrete surface.








- (PVC cap
(cappeCPVC pipe
(capped on both ends) 4 Z Z


Short sleeve
(20 cm)


Long sleeve
(50 cm)


Figure 4-1. Pipe sleeve experimental arena.










plastic cover

pipe (capped
on both ends)

cardboard

pipe sleeve

termite blocker

concrete

vapor barrier

builders sand

cardboard


entry hole


Figure 4-2. Termite blocker experimental arena.




















































Figure 4-3. Top view of typical pipe sleeve experiment arenas at 28 d. A) and B) are
representative arenas where termites reached the top of the concrete. C) and D) are representative
arenas were termites could not access the top of the concrete.








68
















Concrete
(10 cm)


411 1 1 1


Treated sand
(30 cm)


Untreated sand
(16 cm)


Termiticide-treated


t

Concrete
(10 cm)


j
m


Untreated sand
(46 cm)


I ~Untreated 1


Figure 4-4. Foam pipe sleeves exposed to eastern subterranean termites for 28 d in termiticide-
treated and untreated arenas. Arrows indicate location of termite surface damage.


11 1








































Terniticide-treated


t
Concrete
(10 cm)


1


Treated sand
(30 cm)











Untreated sand
(16 cm)



I


t
Concrete
(10 cm)













Untreated sand
(46 cm)


Untreated


Figure 4-5. Polyethylene pipe sleeves exposed to eastern subterranean termites for 28 d in
termiticide-treated and untreated arenas.














1.48


1.35


Copper & Foam Copper &
Polyethelene


CPVC & Foam
P


CPVC &
olyethele


CPVC & No
ne Sleeve


Figure 4-6. Mean cardboard consumption (g) (+ SE) after 8 wk by termites in arenas without
termite blocker around copper and CPVC pipes, with or without foam or polyethylene
sleeves.


S1
-I

E
0
E

o
0 0.5






0









CHAPTER 5
DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF EASTERN
SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE DAMAGE TO THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

Introduction

Reticulitermesflavipes (Kollar) is a species of subterranean termite well known in North

America for the damage it causes to homes and other buildings. The damage is most commonly

thought of in terms of weakening a structure, making infested areas prone to collapse (Harris

1965, Johnston et al. 1979). Water damage is also associated with these termites, as they bring

moisture from the soil into their galleries within the structure (Hickin 1971, Grube and Rudolph

1999b).

One aspect of damage that has been overlooked is the change in the thermal properties of a

structure after infestation by subterranean termites. This is a concern in any structure built in a

climate that varies from the comfortable human range of ca. 20-25C. Materials damaged by

subterranean termites are typically filled with galleries or, in the case of wood, laminar spaces

where spring wood has been eaten away (Forschler 1999b). These spaces may facilitate the

transfer of heat through a material, compromising the material's capacity for insulation. If

material in an exterior wall is compromised, it will cost more to maintain a comfortable

temperature range within the structure. In this way, termite damage can be even more costly than

is generally believed.

In most American homes, exterior walls of structures are often made up of cellulosic

materials, such as the structural lumber (e.g., 2x4) and siding material (e.g., 5-ply plywood).

These two building materials are the most common exterior wall components in use that termites

are capable of consuming. Another class of building material highly relevant to thermal transfer

is insulation (e.g., rigid foam board). While most types of insulation are composed of plastics or









fiberglass, and thus cannot constitute a food source for termites, the soft texture found in many

types of insulation makes them easy for the termites to tunnel through (Bultman et al. 1972

missing from ref cited; Hickin 1971, NPCA 1993). In fact, the physical qualities of insulation

materials confer an appreciable amount of internal temperature stability, making them an almost

ideal habitat for termites. While termites may not be able to effectively consume most types of

insulation, they can still tunnel into and cause significant damage to insulation (Guyette 1994,

Smith and Zungoli 1995ab, Ogg, 1997).

The first objective of this experiment was to determine the relative damage by

subterranean termites to each building material. The second objective was to determine

differences in the rate of heat transfer and, consequently, temperature change between damaged

and undamaged samples of each building material.

Materials and Methods

Termites.

Five colonies of R. flavipes, separated by more than 1.5 km in Gainesville, FL, were field

collected in 6-liter plastic buckets inserted below ground with their lids accessible above the soil

surface. Each bucket was filled with 2-3 moistened corrugated cardboard rolls (15 cm long by

10 cm diam.; Gainesville Paper Co., Gainesville, FL). Termites accessed cardboard rolls through

-10 holes (4-cm diam.) in the sides and bottom of each bucket. Cardboard rolls containing

termites were collected and returned to the lab in Ziploc bags (3.8-L). Termites were removed

from the cardboard by gently separating the corrugated cardboard and allowing the termites to

fall into a 20-L plastic bucket. The termites were then placed on moistened corrugated cardboard

and reared at room temperature (-230C) in plastic boxes (27 by 19 by 9.5 cm) with moistened

cardboard for <1 wk before inclusion in experimental arenas. Worker termites of at least 3rd









instar were aspirated into groups of 300 workers with a 1% soldier population for use in the

experiments.

Termite Damage to Construction Materials.

Three building construction materials were tested: pine 2x4s, 5-ply plywood, and rigid

foam board insulation. The 2x4s were cut across the grain to a thickness of 1.27 cm [12 inch].

Five-ply plywood and rigid foam insulation had a thickness of 1.2 cm [15/32 inch] and 1.9 cm

[3/4 inch], respectively. Each material was cut into square samples (4 x 4 cm) for exposure to

termites. The building materials were oven-dried at 400C for 24 h and pre-weighed.

Moistened sand (10% water content) was evenly distributed inside a 0.74 L plastic

container (GladWare; Glad Products Co., Oakland, CA). A sample of building material was

placed on a linoleum square (7.5 x 7.5 cm) on the surface of the sand. The linoleum provided a

barrier between the moistened sand and the building material. Termites were placed on the

moistened sand next to the linoleum and the building material. Lids were placed on the

containers, which were stored in the laboratory at -230C. Control arenas containing no termites

were prepared in the same manner.

The arenas were opened 8 wk after setup. Sand and termites were brushed off the surface

of the building materials and galleries. Building materials were then oven dried at 400C for 24 h

and re-weighed to calculate termite damage. A digital image of each building material sample

was taken to record the visible damage caused by termites.

An experimental unit was defined as a plastic arena with a building material, sand,

linoleum, and 300 termites. Each building material (n=3) was evaluated using five termite

colonies with five replications per colony. The experiment had an equal number of control units

with no termites, resulting in a total of 150 experimental units tested.











Thermal Imaging.

The cleaned and oven dried building materials were photographed using an infrared (IR)

thermal imaging camera (FlexCam; Fluke Corporation. Everett, WA). A tripod held the

thermal camera in place -53 cm above a building material. An enamel container filled with dry

sand (2000 g builders sand) was placed on a hot plate and heated to 520C. The building materials

were tightly fitted to a pre-cut hole in rigid foam insulation square (10 x 10 cm) to minimize the

edge effect of heat radiating from the sand and hot plate. The building material, with the rigid

foam insulation surrounding it, was placed on the heated builders sand and thermal images were

taken at 0.5, 5, 10, and 15 min. During initial testing, the surface temperature reached

equilibrium for the samples during the 15 minutes period. The digital file associated with the

image included a thermal map of surface temperatures for the building material and a record of

the minimum, maximum, and average surface temperatures.

Data Analysis.

Percent damage from pre- and post-exposure weights of each sample of building material

was calculated, arcsine square root transformed, analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and

means separated with SNK (P = 0.05; SAS Institute 2003). The initial temperature and the

maximum temperature reached during 15 min of heating for each building material was

recorded, and the mean temperature increase for the upper surface of the building material was

calculated. Significant differences in temperature for damaged and undamaged building

materials were determined with Student's t-test (P = 0.01). The percentage increase in

temperature of a damaged sample in relation to the temperature of the same material not

damaged by termites was calculated.









Results

All three building construction materials were damaged by termites. Termites tunneled

into the insulation, removed the plastic, and caused significantly more damage, based on weight

loss, by tunneling in the insulation than by consuming either the wooden 2x4 or plywood

samples (Table 5-1). Plywood samples had significantly less damage than did the other building

materials.

2x4s.

The rings of lighter, spring wood and darker, summer wood were obvious in the visible

spectrum images (Fig. 5-1A). However, the rings were not noticeable in the thermal images

(Fig. 5-1C) indicating no noticeable difference in heat transfer between spring and summer

wood. The thermal images of undamaged 2x4 samples showed uniform heat transfer through the

wood at 0.5, 5, 10, and 15 min with the average surface temperature increasing only 0.50C, from

23.9 to 24.40C in the representative sample (Fig. 5-1C). After 15 min of heating, the undamaged

2x4 sample had a narrow range of temperatures (23.8 to 25.20C) across the surface.

Termites ate a mean of 6.7% of each exposed 2x4 sample, causing characteristic damage in

the form of distinct lamellar tunnels excavated in the annular rings of the spring wood (Table 5-

1)(Fig. 5-1A). The thermal images of damaged 2x4 samples showed a greater overall heat

transfer compared with undamaged samples. There were distinct localized hot spots in the

images of the damaged 2x4s, where heat passed through more rapidly, that coincided with the

location of termite tunnels (Fig. 5-1B). After 15 min of heating, the representative damaged 2x4

sample had a wide range of surface temperatures (24.5 to 30.60C), typical of the samples tested.









The mean temperature for all 2x4 samples was -240C at 0.5 min (Table 5-1). After 15 min

exposure, the average maximum surface temperature reached was 35% greater and significantly

more for termite damaged samples (31.00C) compared to undamaged samples (28.80C).

Plywood.

Samples of plywood showed fairly wide bands of spring and summer wood in the upper

layer, indicating a fairly oblique, longitudinal cut across the wood rings (Fig. 5-2A). Thermal

images of the undamaged samples showed almost uniform heat transfer, indicating no noticeable

difference in heat transfer for spring and summer wood areas of the plywood samples The

images showed little rise in temperature through 15 min of heating from 23.4 to 23.80C in the

representative sample (Fig.5-2C), indicating plywood is a good insulating material. After 15 min

of heating, the undamaged representative plywood sample had a narrow range of temperatures

(23.3 to 25.20C) across the surface.

Termites ate a mean of -3% of each plywood sample (Table 5-1) (Fig. 5-2A). Rather than

excavating tunnels in spring wood as seen in the 2x4 sample (Fig. 5-1A), the termites tunneled

between plywood layers and consumed portions of the spring wood bands in each layer. The

thermal images of damaged plywood showed a greater overall heat transfer compared with

undamaged samples. The damage was demarcated by increased heat transfer and localized hot

spots in the thermal images (Fig. 5-2B). After 15 min of heating, the representative damaged

plywood sample had a wider range of temperatures (24.0 to 27.20C) across the surface compared

to that of the undamaged sample.

For all the plywood samples, the mean temperature at 0.5 min was ~240C (Table 5-1).

After 15 min of heating, the average maximum temperature was 25.70C for undamaged plywood









and 27.50C for termite damaged plywood. The increase in temperature for termite damaged

plywood was 74% greater and significantly more than that for undamaged plywood.

Rigid Foam Board Insulation.

Undamaged samples of rigid foam board insulation were very homogenous in appearance.

The insulation material of foam was covered by a radiant barrier composed of kraft paper

covered by a thin layer of aluminum. The undamaged sample of rigid foam insulation showed

low heat transfer and temperatures were very uniform across the entire surface, as observed in

the representative sample (Figure 5-3C). The thermal images of the representative undamaged

insulation sample showed an average surface temperature increase of only 0.40C, from 23.4 to

23.8C, after 15 min of heating, which was typical of samples tested.

Termite-damaged rigid foam insulation was riddled with extensive termite tunnels (Fig. 5-

3A), lined with soil and fecal material. The tunnels were more extensive than those seen in the

2x4 or plywood samples, most likely due to the soft nature of the insulation. The radiant barrier

had been largely eaten away, exposing the scarified, pitted foam. The thermal pictures of

damaged insulation samples showed a greater degree of temperature variability across the

surface of the insulation. The hotspots coincided with areas where termites had tunneled and

removed the insulation material (Fig. 5-3B). After 15 min of heating, the representative

damaged rigid foam insulation had a wide range of surface temperatures (24.2 to 30.00C)

Heat transfer in damaged rigid foam insulation samples was greatly increased within the

extensive tunnel system (Table 5-1). For all the insulation samples, the mean temperature was

-230C at 0.5 min. After 15 min of heating, the average maximum surface temperature was

27.40C for undamaged samples and 28.70C for damaged samples. The temperature increase was

-27% greater and significantly more for damaged insulation compared to undamaged insulation.









Discussion

All building materials tested were damaged by termites. There was very little correlation

between the percentage damage (% weight loss) of the building material and the percentage

increase in surface temperature caused by termite damage. It appeared that intrinsic thermal

properties of the construction material and configuration of termite tunneling were important in

determining the increase of thermal conductivity in relation of weight loss. Plywood samples

had the lowest percentage damage caused by termites and the greatest percentage increase in

surface temperature of damaged versus undamaged samples. The temperature increase in

damaged and undamaged plywood was the lowest of all the materials tested. This indicates that

of the undamaged materials tested, plywood was the most resistant to heat flow through it;

however, once eaten by termites, plywood was the most thermally damaged. This may be due to

the laminar structure of the plywood. Termites tunneled with the grain and between the layers of

plywood; however, some tunnels cut through the plywood layers allowing heat to flow through

the material. Consequently, the impact of termite tunneling through the layers was more

thermally significant than expected by the amount of wood damage.

Not surprisingly, rigid foam insulation was the second-most heat resistant material tested

in its undamaged state. Nonetheless, rigid foam had greatest weight loss of all the building

materials and the termite damage created a network of tunnels allowing heat transfer. Termites

tunneled throughout the rigid foam board, leaving multiple routes of rapid heat transfer between

surfaces of the sample.

The significantly greater temperature increase seen in 2x4 materials in comparison to

plywood was due to the cross-sectional nature of 2x4 samples. Plywood had wood fibers mostly

perpendicular to the direction of heat flow; whereas the 2x4 cross-sections had the wood fibers

mostly parallel to the direction of heat transfer assayed. Termites mainly tunneled along the









fibers and within the softer spring wood. These tunnels penetrated the sample allowing heat to

flow unobstructed through the sample. As a result, small termite wood damage of only 6-7%

was responsible for 35% greater increase in temperature in damaged samples compared to

undamaged samples.

With the increasing cost of energy, houses are being built to be more energy efficient using

foam insulation as well as wooden components. The impact of termites on the thermal properties

of these building materials has been virtually overlooked. Our research documented that termites

can significantly negatively impact the thermal properties of building construction materials

designed to be energy efficient. Our research demonstrates the importance of termite control for

home energy conservation.









Table 5-1. Percent damage and surface temperature increase for building materials heated for 15-min. Damaged materials were
exposed to eastern subterranean termites (n=300) for 8 wk.
Material Damaged/ % damage Initial temp Mean highest Temp % temp
undamaged surface temp increase increase
2x4 Undamaged -24.2 0.25 28.8 0.12 4.5 0.24
Damaged 6.7 0.75b 24.9 0.24 31.0 +0.15* 6.1 0.28* 34.8
Plywood Undamaged -24.1 + 0.23 25.7 + 0.15 1.6 + 0.20
Damaged 3.1 + 0.33c 24.8 0.24 27.5 0.11* 2.7 0.29* 74.0
Insulation Undamaged 23.4 0.04 27.4 0.08 4.0 + 0.10
Damaged 12.1 1.10a 23.6 0.10 28.7 0.14* 5.1 0.19* 27.1
* significant difference between damaged and undamaged (P = 0.01, Students t-test). a Mean temperature increase at the upper surface
of the building material (4 x 4 cm) when lower surface was exposed to hot plate at 520C for 15 min, b % temperature increase
((damaged [temp increase] undamaged [temp increase])/undamaged [temp increase]).













1
Visible Spectrum
Damaged


B

Dama ed




AvV2t


29.7 OC

28

26

24

22
21.2


Thermal




0.5 min -






-- 5 min






- 10 min






- 15 min


u ned ama










*




+
Av 2.



Ma=2.


Figure 5-1. Images of a 2x4 sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk. A. Visible spectrum
images of a damaged 2x4 sample. B. Thermal images of a damaged 2x4 sample
heated over 15 min. C. Thermal images of an undamaged 2x4 sample heated over 15
min.















B

Damaged


Visible Spectrum
Damaged


N I+













,!
AN 2 .3


Ma=2.


29.7 C


28

26

24


22
21.2


C
4
Undam;


Figure 5-2. Images of a plywood sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk. A. Visible
spectrum images of damaged plywood samples. B. Thermal images of a damaged
plywood sample heated over 15 min. C. Thermal images of an undamaged plywood
sample heated over 15 min.


Thermal






0.5 min








5 min -









10 min









15 min -


Min=23.2
ANg=23.6
Max=24.8






Min=73.2
Avg=23.7
Max=24.8






Min=23.3
AvV23.8
Max=25.3















B

Damaged


A




Visible Spectrum
Damaged


tns4


29.7 OC


28


26


24


22
21.2


Thermal






- 0.5 min -









- 5 min -









- 10 min









)- 15 min -


C

Undamaged


Figure 5-3. Images of a rigid foam insulation sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk. A.
Visible spectrum images of a damaged rigid foam insulation sample. B. Thermal
images of a damaged rigid foam insulation sample heated over 15 min. C. Thermal
images of an undamaged rigid foam insulation sample heated over 15 min.


Min=
2:'
Nhx=221








A,. g=22.6
Nlax=24.4

10.





Nlin=21.9
Avg=22.7
Nlax=24.5







Nlin=22.1
A,.g=23,11
Nlax=24.8









CHAPTER 6
EFFECTS OF EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE DAMAGE ON THE THERMAL
PROPERTIES OF COMMON BUILDING MATERIALS

Introduction

Reticulitermesflavipes (Kollar) is a species of subterranean termite well known in North

America for the damage it causes to homes and other buildings. The damage is most commonly

thought of in terms of weakening the materials of the structure, making potentially costly repairs

and renovations necessary. Water damage can also result from termite infestation. Termites, R.

santanensis De Feytaud, use their labial glands to move water into structures they infest to

maintain humidity and temperature in their gallery system, increasing the moisture content of the

building construction materials (Grube and Rudolph 1999ab).

One aspect of termite damage that is often overlooked is the change in the thermal

properties of a structure. This is a concern in any structure built in a climate that varies from the

comfortable human range of ca. 20-25C (ASHRAE 2005). Solid materials damaged by

subterranean termites are typically filled with galleries that may facilitate the transfer of heat

through an object, compromising the material's capacity for insulation. If an exterior wall of a

structure is compromised by termites, it may cost more to maintain a comfortable temperature

range within the structure. Therefore, termite damage to the thermal conductivity of a building

can be more costly than previously known and precede damage that compromises the structural

integrity or appearance of a building.

Exterior walls of structures are made up of structural lumber, siding materials, insulation,

and other internal components. Typical structural lumber is 2x4 or 2x6 cut from either Southern

yellow pine or Douglas fir trees, depending on the region. Common siding materials of plywood

(5 ply) or T -11 siding (T -11) are constructed from uniform layers or veneers of wood. The

uniform layers cut from logs are stacked so that the wood fibers of each layer are perpendicular









to each other, compressed and bonded together with glue. Another common siding material is

oriented strand board (OSB), formed by layering fragments of wood (2.5 by 15 cm) in specific

orientations. The surface of the OSB is rough with wood fragments positioned unevenly across

each other. The rectangular wooden fragments are compressed and bonded together with wax

and resin adhesives. The five types of building materials referenced above are common exterior

wall components composed of wood that termites are capable of consuming

Another class of building material important in thermal transfer is insulation. While most

types of insulation are created from synthetic materials and cannot constitute a food source for

termites, the soft texture found in many types of insulation makes it easy for the termites to

tunnel through (NPCA 1993). In fact, the physical qualities of insulation materials confer

internal temperature stability, making make them a suitable habitat for termites. Even though

termites may not be able to effectively digest most types of insulation, they can still severely

damage the product (Guyettel994, Smith and Zungoli 1995ab, Ogg 1997).

Energy efficiency codes for building construction require structures to meet minimum

insulation prescriptive standards. The United Stated is divided into eight climate zone (Briggs et

al. 2002). Exterior wood frame walls are required to have an R-value that ranges from 13 to 25,

depending on the climate zone in which the structure is build (IECC 2006). Each component

that comprises the building envelope has distinct physical properties which include an assigned

R-value. The building envelope consisting of a typical exterior wall has many components,

including interior paint, plasterboard, insulation, wood studs, exterior sheathing, vapor barrier,

exterior cladding, and exterior paint. The R-values of all these components are added together to

derive an R-value for the completed wall.









The first objective of this experiment was to determine termite survivorship on seven

building materials, providing some indication of each material's suitability as a diet for termites.

The second objective was to determine the relative damage of each of the seven building

materials by subterranean termites. The final objective was to determine differences in the rate

of heat transfer between damaged and sound samples of each building material.

Materials and Methods

Termites

Five colonies of R. flavipes in Gainesville, FL, each separated by more than 1.5 km, were

field collected in 6-liter plastic buckets inserted below ground with their lids accessible above the

soil surface. Each bucket was filled with 2-3 moistened corrugated cardboard rolls (15 cm long

by 10 cm diam.; Gainesville Paper Co., Gainesville, FL). Termites accessed cardboard rolls

through -10 holes (4-cm diam.) in the sides and bottom of each bucket. Cardboard rolls

containing termites were collected and returned to the lab in Ziploc bags (3.8-L). Termites

were removed from the cardboard by gently separating the corrugated cardboard and allowed the

termites to fall into a 20-L plastic bucket. The termites were then placed on moistened

corrugated cardboard and maintained at room temperature (-230C) in plastic boxes (27 by 19 by

9.5 cm) with moistened cardboard for <1 wk before inclusion in experimental arenas. Prior to

the test, worker termites of at least 3rd instar were randomly aspirated into groups of 300 workers

with a 1% soldier population.

Test Arena

The test arenas used to evaluate damage of wood and insulation materials consisted of a

sand base with linoleum on the surface on which a building material sample was placed. Seven

building construction materials were evaluated; 2x4, 2x6, oriented stand board (OSB), T -11









plywood (Ti-11), 5-ply plywood (5-ply), extruded polystyrene (EXP), and polyisocyanurate

insulation (ISO).

Builders sand was oven-dried at ~1770C for 24 h, sifted through a 1.18 mm mesh soil sieve

to remove debris, and moistened by mixing 50 ml of distilled water in 500 g sand. Moistened

sand was evenly distributed into a 0.74 L plastic container (GladWare; Glad Products Co.,

Oakland, CA). A linoleum square (56 cm2) was placed on the surface of the moistened sand.

The linoleum provided a barrier between the moistened sand and the building materials. The

building materials dimensions were cut to the following sizes. The 2x4 and 2x6 materials were

purchased in 2.4 m [8 foot] lengths and were cut across the grain to a thickness of 1.27 cm [12

inch]. Because the nominal thickness of the two materials is fixed, the material had the

following dimensions 3.7 x 4.4 cm (-16.3 cm2). The remaining building materials were

purchased in sheets 1.2 by 2.4 m [4 by 8 feet] at a local building supply store and were cut into

squares 4 x 4 cm (16 cm2). Sample thickness varied by building material; OSB was 1.2 cm

[15/32 inch] thick, 5-ply plywood 1.8 cm [23/32 inch], TI-11 plywood 1.5 cm [19/32 inch], EXP

1.27 cm [1/2 inch] and ISO 1.9 cm [3/4 inch]. The building materials were oven-dried at 400C

for 24 h and weighed.

The termites were placed on the moistened sand next to the linoleum and the building

materials. Lids were placed on the plastic arenas, which were stored in the laboratory at -230C.

Control arenas containing no termites were prepared in the same manner. The arenas were

opened eight wk after setup and live termites were counted. The pre-weighed building materials

were then brushed off, oven dried at 400C for 24 h and re-weighed to calculate termite damage.

Digital images of the building materials were taken to record visible damage caused by termites.









An experimental unit was defined as a plastic arena containing sand, linoleum, a building

material and 300 termites. Each building material (n=7) was evaluated using five termite

colonies with five replications per colony. The experiment had an equal number of control units

with no termites, resulting in a total of 350 units tested.

Thermal Imaging Setup

All of the cleaned and oven dried building materials were photographed using a thermal

imaging camera (FlexCam; Fluke Corporation. Everett, WA). A tripod held the thermal

camera in place -53 cm above a building material. An enamel container filled with dry sand

(2000 g builders sand) was placed on a hot plate and heated to 520C. A square hole (-16 cm2)

was cut into rigid board insulation (10 by 10 cm) minimize the edge effect of heat radiating from

the sand and hot plate. The building material imbedded in the rigid board insulation was placed

on the heated builders sand and a thermal image was taken after 0.5, 5, 10, and 15 min.

Data Analysis

All analyses were conducted using SAS (SAS 2001). Mean termite survivorship was

calculated and converted to percent survivorship. Percent survivorship was arcsine square root

transformed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with material as the

main effect and was separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), (P = 0.05; SAS 2001).

Damage (g of material lost) was calculated for each material tested and analyzed using

one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with material as the main effect and was separated with

Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), (P = 0.05; SAS 2001). Damage for each material was converted

to percent damage, arcsine square root transformed, and analyzed using one-way analysis of

variance (ANOVA) with material as the main effect and were separated with Student-Newman

Keuls (SNK), (P = 0.05; SAS 2001).









A heat transfer index was derived from Fourier's Law in one dimension (Healy and Flynn

2002) and calculated for each sample using the following equation:

HTI (k)(t)(A)(AT)/L

where: HTI = heat transfer index, k = thermal conductivity (W/m C), t = time (min), A =

area (m2) for the corresponding control after 5 min reaction, AT= the change in temperature (C),

and L = thickness (m).

Heat transfer indices (HTIs) were calculated for damaged and undamaged samples of each

material. Percent increase in HTI from undamaged to damaged samples was calculated for each

material and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with material as the main

effect and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), (P = 0.05; SAS 2001). HTIs for

damaged and undamaged samples were compared for each material using a two-tailed t-test (a =

0.05; SAS 2001).

Surface temperatures for damaged and undamaged samples of each material at 0.5, 5, 10,

and 15 min were plotted and subjected to natural logarithmic regression. The coefficients of the

natural log (In) for each equation were compared between damaged and undamaged samples for

each material. The 95% confidence limits (CL) were calculated and non-overlap of the CL

determined significant differences in slopes.

Results

All seven building construction materials evaluated were damaged by termites. Termite

damage of solid wood and wood products was characteristic in that the damage was mostly to the

soft spring wood and followed the grain. The insulation, which had no nutritional value to

termites, was extensively excavated. Termites damaged EXP by creating long tunnels under the

clear plastic barrier which were randomly oriented throughout the sample. In contrast, damage









to the ISO was concentrated at the surface where termites pitted and scarified the material under

the craft paper, which they consumed.

Structural Lumber

Undamaged samples of the 2x4 and 2x6 building material had rings of lighter spring wood

and darker summer wood that were obvious in the visible spectrum (Figs. 6-2A, 6-4A,

respectively). However, the rings were absent in the thermal images of the undamaged 2x4 and

2x6 samples (Figs. 6-2B, 6-4B, respectively) indicating no noticeable difference in heat transfer

by spring and summer woods. In addition, the thermal image of undamaged samples showed

uniform heat transfer through the wood after 15 min of heating. The representative undamaged

2x4 and 2x6 samples had a narrow range of temperatures (< 3C) across the surface.

The survivorship of termites in the 2x4 and 2x6 samples was >83% after 8 wk (Table 6-1).

During that time, termites consumed significantly more 2x6 (0.33 g) than 2x4 (0.25 g; Table 6-

1). Damage in the 2x4 samples took the form of distinct lamellar tunnels excavated in the wood

annular rings (Fig. 6-2C). Damage in the 2x6s similar to the 2x4s, but tunnels were excavated

within the wider rings of less dense spring wood and the galleries extended the full thickness of

the sample (Fig. 6-4C). A thermal image of a representative damaged 2x4 sample (Fig. 6-2D)

and 2x6 sample (Fig. 6-4D) showed higher maximum temperatures by nearly 40C in damaged

wood due to greater overall heat transfer compared to that in undamaged wood. There were

distinct hot spots in the images of the damaged samples that coincided with the location of

termite tunnels, indicating that these tunnels allowed more rapid heat transfer than the

surrounding wood. After 15 min of heating, the damaged 2x4 and 2x6 samples had a wider

range of surface temperatures in the representative samples than in undamaged samples.

Southern yellow pine 2x4s have an assigned thermal conductivity value (k) of

approximately 0.12 W/m*C (Table 6-1) which is an inherent physical property of this material.









Using the k-value of the material, the calculated heat transfer index (HTI) for undamaged 2x4

samples was 1.063 (Fig. 6-1). This indicated that 2x4 was the most thermally conductive of the

undamaged materials. The HTI for termite damaged 2x4 samples was significantly greater and

30% higher than for undamaged samples, indicating that termite damage increases heat transfer

through damaged samples.

The HTI for undamaged 2x6 samples was 0.926, indicating it was the second most

thermally conductive of the undamaged building materials (Fig. 6-1). The HTI for the termite

damaged 2x6s was significantly greater and -51% higher than the HTI for undamaged samples,

indicating higher heat transfer through damaged samples. The percent HTI increase for damaged

2x6 samples was also significantly greater than that for damaged 2x4 samples (Table 6-1).

Differences in the mean surface temperatures of individual 2x4 and 2x6 samples steadily

increased through time (Figs. 6-3 and 6-5). Regression analysis of temperature and time (In)

indicated that the rate of temperature increase for damaged samples were significantly greater

than the rate of temperature increase for undamaged samples for 2x4 and 2x6 substrates.

Wood Based Siding

Representative undamaged OSB samples had thin overlapping wood fragments that were

generally long and narrow and were obvious in the visible spectrum image (Fig. 6-6A). The

pattern of wood fragments was slightly noticeable in the thermal image of the undamaged OSB

sample after 15 min of heating (Fig. 6-6B), indicating a slight difference in heat transfer between

the fragments of wood based on color difference (green and yellow). The representative

undamaged OSB sample had a narrow range of temperatures across the surface, ranging from

30.9 32.90C.

Like structural lumber, undamaged samples of T -11 (Fig. 6-8A) and 5-ply (Fig. 6-10A)

showed wide bands of spring and summer wood in the visible image, which were not visible in









the thermal image (Figs. 6-8B and 6-10B, respectively). The lack of thermal variation in the

undamaged T -11 may be partially attributed to the perpendicular layering of the material. The

thermal images of undamaged T -11 and 5-ply representative samples showed uniform heat

transfer through the wood after 15 min of heating, with temperatures across the surfaces varying

less than 1.5C.

Termite survivorship after feeding 8 wk was significantly lower (-59%) on TI-11 samples

than that of OSB (-67%), 5-ply (-79%), and the other materials tested (Table 6-1). Although

survival of termites feeding on 5-ply was good, this substrate had significantly lower wood

consumption and damage than any other substrate, including TI-11 and OSB. Wood

consumption and damage were not significantly different between T -11 and OSB.

Visual damage to wood sidings varied based on wood fiber orientation. Damage in the Tl-

11 and 5-ply samples was similar to that seen in structural lumber in that the termites tunneled

into the spring wood. Termites preferentially consumed bands of spring wood in TI-11 (Fig. 6-

8C) and 5-ply (Fig. 6-10C); however, the termite damage formed longitudinal pockets on the

surface rather than the rings seen in the structural lumber. There were distinct localized hot spots

in the thermal image of the damaged TI-11 (Fig. 6-8D) and 5-ply (Fig. 6-10D) coinciding with

the removal of the bands of spring wood, allowing heat to pass through more rapidly. The hot

spot across the top of the thermal image of the representative TI-11 was due to termite damage

of an interior layer not visible in the visible spectrum image.

In contrast, damage in the OSB took the form scarifying of the surface and short tunnels

and holes in spring wood, largely between the thin wood fragments, visible as dark breaks in the

surface (Fig. 6-6C). A thermal image of a representative damaged OSB sample (Fig. 6-6D)

showed distinct localized hot spots that coincided with the location of termite tunnels and









scarification of the wood fragments, again showing that termite damage allowed more rapid local

heat transfer.

After 15 min of heating, all the damaged wood siding samples had higher maximum

temperatures than undamaged samples, with OSB having the greatest difference between

damaged and undamaged samples (Fig. 6-6B, D). The maximum temperatures were associated

with termite damage. Damaged samples of Ti-11 (Fig. 6-8D) and OSB (Fig. 6-6D) typically had

greater range in temperatures (>4.50C) than did damaged samples of 5-ply (Fig. 6-10D). 5-ply

also had the least difference between maximum temperatures of damaged and undamaged

samples (Fig. 6-10 B, D).

The calculated HTI for undamaged OSB samples was 0.706, indicating it was the most

thermally conductive of the wood based siding materials tested (Fig. 6-1). There were no

significant differences in HTI between the damaged and undamaged OSB, although the HTI for

the damaged OSB was 12% higher than the HTI for undamaged OSB (Table 6-1).

In contrast, the calculated HTI's for undamaged samples of 5-ply and TI-11 were 0.213

and 0.502, respectively, indicating these were the most thermally resistant wood-based materials

tested (Fig. 6-1). The HTI for termite damaged samples was significantly greater for undamaged

samples for both these sidings, indicating a higher rate of heat transfer through damaged samples

(Fig. 6-1). The HTI of damaged 5-ply samples was -73% higher than undamaged samples, a

difference that was significantly greater those documented for all other materials tested (Table 6-

1).

Mean surface temperatures of individual samples steadily increased through time for OSB

(Fig. 6-7), TI-11 (Fig. 6-9) and 5-ply (Fig. 6-11). Regression analysis of temperature and time

(In) indicated that the rate of temperature increase for damaged samples was not significantly









greater for damaged samples than for undamaged samples for all three siding materials.

However, the rate of heat transfer for T 1-11 and 5-ply was greater for the damaged than for the

undamaged samples tested, as shown by the non-overlap of 95% confidence intervals through

time.

Foam Insulation

The undamaged insulation samples were very homogenous in the visible spectrum images.

EXP appeared light blue in color and faced with clear plastic (Fig. 6-12A). ISO had a reflective

metallic appearance due to a coating of aluminum foil (Fig. 6-14A). The thermal image of the

undamaged EXP (Fig. 6-12B) indicated no noticeable difference in heat transfer within the

material, showing uniform heat transfer through the material after 15 min of heating. In contrast,

the thermal image of the undamaged ISO sample (Fig. 6-14B) indicated small differences in heat

transfer through the material. The representative undamaged EXP and ISO samples had a

narrow range (<1C) of temperatures across their surfaces.

Termite survivorship in arenas with EXP samples was -69% for 8 wk was significantly

lower than ISO, which had the highest survivorship (-92%) of all materials tested (Table 6-1).

EXP contains no cellulose, unlike the other six building materials tested. Termites removed 0.24

g of plastic resulting in -6% damage, similar to 2x4, OSB, and TI-11 (Table 6-1). Termites

tunneled extensively into the EXP plastic insulation and along the clear plastic facing. The

tunnels were lined with fecal deposits and sand (Fig. 6-12C). Consumption and percent damage

of ISO was higher than that of all other materials tested. Termites tunneled under the craft paper

facing and into the plastic insulation. Most of the kraft paper was consumed, and the surface of

the ISO insulation below was pitted and scarified, coated with a layer of tan fecal deposits and

sand (Fig. 6-14C). Thermal images of a representative damaged EXP (Fig. 6-12D) and ISO (Fig.

6-14D) showed a greater overall heat transfer compared with undamaged samples.









Approximately 20% of the thermal image was covered with localized hot spots in the damaged

EXP that coincided with the location of termite tunnels and removal of plastic. There were

several distinct localized hot spots in the image of the damaged ISO that coincided with the

location of termite tunnels and the removal of aluminum foil coated craft paper. Both the kraft

paper removal and the tunnels in the insulation below allowed heat to pass through the sample

more rapidly. The minimum temperatures for the damaged and undamaged samples were the

same for each foam type. The maximum temperature for damaged samples compared to

undamaged samples was -6C higher for EXP and -10C higher for ISO. Higher temperatures

were associated with termite damage.

The calculated HTIs for undamaged samples was 0.164 for EXP and 0.109 for ISO,

indicating these were the most thermally resistant of the tested materials (Fig. 6-1), which would

be expected for materials developed to insulate buildings. The HTIs for the termite damaged

EXP and ISO was significantly greater those for undamaged insulation, indicating a greater heat

transfer through damaged samples (Fig. 6-1). The HTI of damaged EXP samples was -38%

higher than undamaged samples, and the % HTI increase was greater than that seen on ISO

(Table 6-1).

Mean surface temperatures of individual samples of EXP (Figure 6-13) and ISO (Fig. 6-

15) steadily increased through time. Regression analysis of temperature and time (In) indicated

that the rate of temperature increase for damaged samples was significantly greater than for

undamaged samples for both EXP and ISO.

Discussion

The resin in manufactured wood products appeared to decrease termite survivorship. Our

study determined that termite survivorship was significantly lower on resin based, engineered

wood (OSB, TI-11, and 5 ply) than 2x4 and 2x6. OSB contains phenol-formaldehyde resin as a









bonding agent. Other researchers have documented that Formosan termites had substantial

mortality after consuming resinous building materials; -55% mortality after 3 wk consuming

OSB (Ayrilmis et al. 2005) and 53% mortality after 5 wk consuming plywood (Tsunoda 2001).

Termites caused an intermediate percent damage to the OSB samples compared to other

building materials. The other sidings (TI-11 and 5-ply) compared to OSB had lower mean

percent damage. This difference may be due several reasons; the laminar structure of the TI-11

and 5-ply, laminations are typically cut from older trees that have denser wood or a different

resin from used in OSB used to adhere the laminations.

The wood materials that had a malleable consistency had the greatest termite damage. The

2x6 material had significantly higher percent damage than the 2x4 material, in spite of similar

composition and a lack of significant difference in mean termite survivorship. The difference in

damage was not due to wood species, since 2x4 and 2x6 samples were made from southern

yellow pine. However, 2x4 lumbers are typically cut from younger, faster-growing trees than

2x6 lumbers. One effect of this is that the 2x6 lumbers have wider layers of soft spring wood

bordered with denser summer wood. Because R. flavipes termites feed preferentially on less

dense wood (Behr et al. 1972) this difference between 2x4 and 2x6 densities could easily cause

significant differences in wood consumption, and resulting damage and heat transfer.

Structural lumber such as 2x4 and 2x6 must be strong, in both tension and compression, to

withstand structural loads. Damage due to notching and drilling may reduce structural integrity.

Notched wood should have a maximum depth of 25% of the width and bored holes should be no

larger than 40% in an exterior wall (Miller et al. 2004). In this study, the 2x4 and 2x6 samples

tested were not damaged by termites to this extent due to short duration of exposure and

relatively small number of termites.









The major component of the two insulation materials tested was plastic. EXP insulation

composed of plastic foam and a clear plastic barrier does not provide any nutritional value to

termites, so in the absence of suitable food source, termites began to starve in these trials. This

effect was not seen on ISO samples because this insulation was faced with a radiant barrier

composed of kraft paper covered with a thin layer of aluminum foil. The cellulose content of

this kraft paper provided adequate sustenance to significantly improve termite survivorship.

Termites extensively damaged the soft insulation materials. Su et al. (2003) described

insulation (molded bead-board) damaged by termites as having patches where the surface was

severely excavated and had several tunneling holes. Our study found that the damaged

insulation described by Su et al. (2003) was similar to the ISO; however, the damage to the EXP

took the form of a network of tunnels excavated under the clear plastic barrier. The ISO foam

insulation had significantly greater damage and percent damage than the EXP foam insulation.

In the ISO samples, termites stayed near to the food source (kraft paper), so most of the damage

to the underlying foam took the form of scarification rather than complete tunneling. The EXP

insulation had no kraft paper, and so the termites tunneled throughout the soft plastic material,

leaving multiple routes and extensive galleries.

The significantly greater heat transfer seen in 2x4 and 2x6 materials in comparison to

siding materials was due to the cross-sectional nature of the structural lumbers. Heat transfer

probably flowed more easily with the grain of the wood fibers in the 2x4 and 2x6 samples. The

siding materials were laminar or semi-laminar, with wood fibers mostly perpendicular to the

direction of heat transfer assayed. In contrast, the structural lumber cross-sections had the wood

fibers mostly parallel to the direction of heat transfer assayed.









OSB samples, compared to the other building materials, had no significant change in heat

transfer index between damaged and undamaged samples. This indicates that OSB is the most

resistant to thermal damage by termites of the materials tested. This may be due to the fact that

termites tunneled between fragments. In contrast to OSB, 5-ply samples had the lowest mean

percent damage, but had the greatest percent increase in heat transfer index with termite damage.

This indicates that 5-ply is the least resistant to thermal damage by termites of the materials

tested. This may be due to the laminar structure of the 5-ply. It was relatively easy for the

termites to tunnel between layers of this material. As soon as all five layers were penetrated, the

heat could flow readily through the 5-ply. This same effect was seen to a lesser extent in TI-11

siding, presumably because the thinner layers. The relatively low heat transfer in 5-ply may be

largely due to its thickness, which was greater than that of the other siding materials tested.

Not surprisingly, the insulation materials had the lowest heat transfer of all materials tested

in their undamaged state. The EXP insulation had a higher mean percent increase in heat

transfer index comparing undamaged to damaged samples. In ISO, the layer of kraft paper

influenced the termites' tunneling behavior, resulting in tunnels near the surface. In contrast, the

EXP insulation had no surface food source, so the termites tunneled through the foam, leaving

multiple routes of rapid heat transfer. While the percent damage to the EXP compared to ISO

was less, it took the form of a network of conduits for heat transfer, causing a greater overall

change in heat transfer index than that documented in the scarified ISO.

Houses are being built to be more energy efficient and new structures are required to meet

minimum energy standards. The impact of subterranean termite damage on thermal properties of

building materials has been virtually overlooked. Our research with termites and common

building construction materials demonstrates that termite damage need not be structural to affect









the thermal properties of the building materials. Our research demonstrates the importance of

termite control for home energy conservation and indicates further research is needed to identify

and develop building materials which resist termite damage and the minimize loss of thermal

properties if damage occurs.


100









Table 6-1. Mean SE percent termite survivorship, damage (g), percent damage, and percent increase in heat transfer index (HTI)
between undamaged and building material damaged by subterranean termites (n=300) and after 8 wk.
Building material Material % survivorship Damage (g) % damage k-valueb % HTIc increase
Structural lumber 2x4 83.64 + 1.75bc 0.25 0.03b 6.72 0.75b 0.12 29.95 + 2.80cd
2x6 88.65 1.35ab 0.33 0.03a 11.25 1.16a 0.12 51.15 8.19b
Wood-based siding OSB 66.71 3.65d 0.28+ 0.03b 8.44 0.99b 0.13 12.23 1.51d
T-11l 59.00 + 2.83e 0.23 0.03b 5.73 + 0.61b 0.13 26.58 8.45cd
5-ply 78.61 + 3.08c 0.17 + 0.03c 3.05 + 0.33c 0.13 72.90 8.49a
Foam insulation EXP 68.88 + 3.34d 0.24 + 0.01b 5.71 + 0.33b 0.03 37.51 + 5.73bc
ISO 92.45 0.96a 0.35 0.03a 12.07 1.10a 0.02 20.96 1.81cd


Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (Student-Neuman-Keuls Means Separation, P =
0.05, SAS Institute 2001), n = 25 replicates. a n = 300 termites per arena, b W/m oC, (ASHRAE 2005, Miller et al. 1999, NIST
2000), C HTI = Heat transfer index.













df=24
1.8 t=6.97
P<0.0001
1.6

1.4


df=24
t =4.71
P<0.0001


2x4 2x6


T1-11


5-ply


o undamaged
* damaged


EXP


Material


Figure 6-1. Differences in heat transfer index between undamaged materials and materials
damaged by subterranean termites after an 8 wk period.


























36.3

35

34

33

32 Min. 30.3, Max. 32.8, Avg. 31.2

31 *C


C 3 D


28

27

26


r2,










Min. 31.2, Max. 36.4, Avg. 33.3






Figure 6-2. The 2x4 samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images
(B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) 2x4 samples after being
heated (520C) for 15 min.


t\












32- x
x
31- x x
x N-*
30- x "

29_

S28 CL9 = 1.400 1.814@

2 6 ... ^ r 7


2 .".-.. .....

-. "y= 25.036 + 1.259x, r = 0.709
CL95 = 1.120- 1.398

23-

22'
-0.5 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5
(In)Time




Figure 6-3. Natural log linear regression of 2x4 samples, termite damaged (red lines) and
undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperature change (C) recorded at -0, 5, 10 and
15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around
the regression lines and confidence limits (95%) of the slopes are given.


























36.3

35

34

33

32 Min. 30.9, Max. 33.2, Avg. 31.4


C 31 -c D


29

28

27

26
25.5









Min. 31.3, Max. 37.1,Avg 33.2






Figure 6-4. The 2x6 samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images
(B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) 2x6 samples after being
heated (520C) for 15 min.











32-

31-

30-

29-

, 28-

Q27-

26-

25-

24-

23-

22


'4-- .-.f@
x


A


-0.5 .5 5 1 1.5 2 2.5


(In) Time




Figure 6-5. Natural log linear regression of 2x6 samples, termite damaged (red lines) and
undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperature change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and
15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around
the regression lines and confidence limits (95%) of the slopes are given.


y = 25.728 + 1.501, = 0.634
CL95 = 1.275 1.726 .


Sa--' '
... 2 .....
f. .-... y= 25.023 + 1.095 X, r2 =0.642
: CL9 = 0.928 1.262





















IW 363


II 13


B














Min. 30.9, Max. 32.9, Avg. 32.0


31 -c
30


Mi. 31.0,iM 36 333
Min. 31.0, Max. 36.2, Avg. 33.3


Figure 6-6. The OSB samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal
images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) OSB samples after
being heated (520C) for 15 min.


C
^"'ai


D









33-

32

31

30 x
x

29 x
# x


S27- v 25.016 + 0.845x. r 0.430 .-'
x U'L.-. = i16511 1 141 .,"-.'.7-- 'K
26- -

25 .... ... ... ... ... ..-

24 -Y: :::"" = 24.788 + 0.779x, r 2= 0.507 x
CL95 = 0.625 0.934
23 x


-0.5 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5
(In) Time




Figure 6-7. Natural log linear regression of OSB samples, termite damaged (red lines) and
undamaged (blue lines) comparing temperature change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and
15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around
the regression lines and confidence limits (95%) of the slopes are given.

























36,3

35

34

33

32
Min. 30.9, Max. 32.4, Avg. 32.2
31 C

30

C D

28

27

26














Min. 29.7, Max. 34.4, Avg. 33.4






Figure 6-8. The TI-11 samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal
images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) TI-11 samples after
being heated (520C) for 15 min.


n










33-

32

31

30
x
29- x

S28- x .

U 27- y = 25.201 + 0.838x, r = 0.464
CL95 = 0.657 1.0197 ............
26-r .., ..




24 .- 24.456 + 0.707x, r 0.484
CL9 0.560 0.854
23-

22
-0.5 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5
(In) Time




Figure 6-9. Natural log linear regression of T -11 samples, termite damaged (red lines) and
undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperature change (C) recorded at -0, 5, 10 and
15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around
the regression lines and confidence limits (95%) of the slopes are given.






















36,3

35

34

33

32

31 -C

30

2 Min. 27.8, Max. 29.1, Avg. 28.6

C D
27

26
25 5















Min. 27.9, Max. 30.1, Avg. 29.0





Figure 6-10. The 5-ply samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal
images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) 5-ply samples after
being heated (520C) for 15 min.












32

31

30

29
x
X
S28
x
3 27- I
v= 24.955 + 0.527x. r= 0.204
26- CL. =1 31S-, I 736





a i CL9s = 0.192 0.483
23-
22x
22 I x ---------------------
-0.5 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5
(In) Time




Figure 6-11. Natural log linear regression of 5-ply samples, termite damaged (red lines) and
undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperature change (C) recorded at -0, 5, 10 and
15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around
the regression lines and confidence limits (95%) of the slopes are given.























IF 36-3


35

34

33

32

31 -c Min. 27.9, Max. 29.3, Avg. 28.4
30

29


27


255 U


Min. 27.9, Max. 35.5, Avg. 31.2


Figure 6-12. The EXP samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal
images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) EXP samples after
being heated (520C)for 15 min.


11












32

31

30

29 x

I28-

Q27

26- y=24.155+1.1705x, r= 0.714
CL95 = 0.762 0.916 .-

245


V =23.751 + 0.839x, =2 0.828
23 -- CL95 = 0.762 0.916


-0.5 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5
(In) Time




Figure 6-13. Natural log linear regression of EXP samples, termite damaged (red lines) and
undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperature change (C) recorded at -0, 5, 10 and
15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around
the regression lines and confidence limits (95%) of the slopes are given.
























36 3

35

34

33

32

3, C Min. 28.7, Max. 29.4, Avg. 29.2

30


Min. 28.7, Max. 39.6, Avg. 34.2


Figure 6-14. The ISO samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal
images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) ISO samples after
being heated (520C) for 15 min.











33

32

31

30
x

29

U 28

S27" y =24.493 + 1.403x, i= 0.7S5
CLOI = 1.400 1. S 14
26

250

24 .-
: y= 24.077+ 1.121x, r = 0.913
23- CLos = 1.052 1.191

22
-0.5 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5
(hi) Time





Figure 6-15. Natural log linear regression of ISO samples, termite damaged (red lines) and
undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperature change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and
15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around
the regression lines and confidence limits (95%) of the slopes are given.









CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION

Termite crack size assays showed a minimum crack width of -0.7 mm is necessary for R.

flavipes worker termites to travel through a crack. Assays further showed that R. flavipes soldier

termites require a minimum crack width of-1 mm to pass through a crack.

Pipe sleeve assays indicated that both foam and polyethylene pipe sleeves allowed termite

access through a concrete slab if the sleeves extend below the termiticide-treated sand.

However, termites were not able to access pipe sleeves that terminated within the termiticide-

treated sand. Based upon these findings, it is important that protective measures are taken to

prevent termite entry into structures via pipe and conduit slab penetrations. A properly installed

pipe sleeve that does not extend below the termiticide-treated sand appeared to provide reliable

protection. Care must be taken with soil treatment to ensure that it extends below the sleeve, if

present.

Termite blocker assays showed that the presence of ImpasseTM Termite Blocker, with or

without sleeves or termiticide treatment, was sufficient to prevent slab penetration for at least 8

wk. Termite blocker properly installed and embedded in the concrete around the pipe should

provide reliable protection from termites.

A method was developed to determine heat transfer using a hot plate to heat termite

damaged and undamaged materials and document the surface temperature change through time

with a thermal camera. The building construction materials (2x4s, 5-ply plywood, and rigid

foam board insulation) were exposed to termites for 8 wk. Termites tunneled into and damaged

all the building materials. When 2x4s were heated the surface temperature (C) was -35%

higher in damaged compared to undamaged samples. Plywood damaged by termites was the









most thermally damaged with a temperature increase of 74% (damaged vs. undamaged samples)

and insulation had a temperature increase of -27% (damaged vs. undamaged samples).

A heat transfer index was developed to compare heat transfer through termite damaged

building construction materials (2x4 and 2x6 pine lumber, 5 ply plywood, TI-11 siding, oriented

strandboard, extruded polystyrene, and polyisocyanurate insulation). Termite damaged materials

had higher heat transfer indices than undamaged materials The heat transfer index of damaged

2x4 and 2x6 lumber was 37% higher than damaged 5 ply plywood and TI-11 siding: therefore

the siding materials were more thermally resistant. As would be expected the insulation

materials had lower heat transfer index values than the wood materials. Termite damaged

polyisocyanurate was 68% more conductive than the damaged expanded polystyrene insulation.

In conclusion, the most likely routes for termite entry into structures are cracks and gaps in

the foundation wider than 0.7 mm and unprotected pipe sleeves extending below soil treatments.

The former of these routes can be remedied with adequate termiticide treatment below the slab.

The latter can be remedied with termite blocker installed at construction and/or pipe sleeves cut

short enough to not extend below termiticide-treated soil. If a structure is to be built in a hot or

cold climate with concerns about termite damage and thermal transfer, OSB is a logical choice

for wood-based siding while ISO foam is a preferable form of insulation. If all of these factors

are taken into consideration while building a structure, it will be far more difficult for

subterranean termites to invade, and the termites will cost the owner less money in increased

heating and/or air conditioning bills if they do enter the structure.









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Cynthia Linton Tucker, daughter of George and Gail Gross, was born in 1964, in Miami

Florida. She graduated from Miami Killian High School (Miami, Florida) in 1982. She first

attended Miami Dade Community College in Miami and then transferred to Santa Fe

Community College in Gainesville, resulting in the completion of both Associate of Arts and

Associate of Science-Medical Emergency degrees. She also attended Ocala Fire College where

she received hazardous materials training and became a certified Fire Fighter. During the years

of 1986-1998 she worked as a baker/manager at Bageland. Also between the years 1990 and

1996, she worked as an EMT/Paramedic/ Fire Fighter for Alachua County Fire Rescue and then

for the City of Gainesville Fire Rescue. In 1999 Cynthia completed the requirements for the

Bachelor of Science degree in entomology from the University of Florida (UF). Cynthia entered

the graduate entomology program at UF in winter 2000 and completed her Master of Science in

August 2002. Also in August 2002 Cynthia chose to continue her studies working with termites

in the urban laboratory of UFs' entomology program. Additionally, Cynthia is also taking

classes in the College of Building Construction and is working on completing a second master's

degree. In 2006 Cynthia commissioned as a 1st Lieutenant with the United States Army Reserve

and is currently the commander of the 342nd Preventative Medicine Detachment in Gainesville,

Florida. Cynthia plans to continue serving in the United Stated Army, switching to active duty

as soon as she completes her degree requirements.





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1 EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE (ISOPTERA: Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)) ENTERING INTO BUILDINGS AND EFFE CTS ON THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS By CYNTHIA LINTON TUCKER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Cynthia Linton Tucker

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3 Windswake Farm

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my heartfelt gratit ude and appreciation to my academic and research advisor, Phil Koehler, for his unwav ering support. Through careful questioning and insightful comments he was able to suggest alte rnative courses of action in experimental and analytical developments. I am extremely thankful for the financial support of Dow AgroSciences. I am also thankful in particular to Ellen Thoms, Raymond Issa, and Richard Patterson who along with Phil Koehler constituted my supervisory committee an d guided the research to a successful end. I would also like to thank my office mates and compatriots for their unending support. I would also like to thank Gilman Marshal (the labs biological scie ntist and safety officer) for his patience and grateful support. Finally I thank my parents and fa mily for their unending support. And I am grateful for warm summer memories of Windswake Farm.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........9 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................16 Evolution of Termites.......................................................................................................... ...16 Important Subterranean Termites in the United States...........................................................17 Termite Caste System........................................................................................................... ..18 Process of Tunnel Formation..................................................................................................20 Feeding Habits................................................................................................................. .......22 Building Construction and Its Relevance to Termite Exploitation.........................................23 Building Codes................................................................................................................. ......23 Building code history......................................................................................................24 USA code history:...........................................................................................................24 Concrete Construction Standards...........................................................................................25 Wood Framing Standards.......................................................................................................27 Termite Control Options........................................................................................................ .28 Physical Barriers.............................................................................................................. .......30 Heat Transfer Concepts......................................................................................................... .31 Insulation..................................................................................................................... ...........33 Thermal Transmission........................................................................................................... .33 3 ABILITY OF EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES TO MOVE THROUGH CRACKS......................................................................................................................... .......35 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........35 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .36 Termites....................................................................................................................... ....36 Effect of Crack Width on Penetr ation and Consumption by Caste.................................37 Effect of Termite Head Capsule Di mension on Penetration Through Cracks................38 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. .38 Results........................................................................................................................ .............39 Effect of Crack Width on Penetr ation and Consumption by Caste.................................39 Effect Termite Head Capsule Dime nsion on Penetration Through Cracks.....................40 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........41

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6 4 METHODS TO PREVENT PENETRATI ON OF CONCRETE-PIPE INTERFACES BY THE EASTERN SU BTERRANEAN TERMITE............................................................52 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........52 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .54 Termites....................................................................................................................... ....54 Pipe Sleeve Experiment...................................................................................................54 Pipe Sleeve Treatments............................................................................................54 Pipe Sleeve Experimental Arena..............................................................................55 Termite Blocker Experiment...........................................................................................56 Treatments................................................................................................................56 Termite Blocker Experimental Arena......................................................................57 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. .58 Results........................................................................................................................ .............59 Pipe Sleeve Experiment...................................................................................................59 Termite Blocker Experiment...........................................................................................61 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........62 5 DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO EV ALUATE THE EFFECTS OF EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE DAMAGE TO THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS.....................................................................72 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........72 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .73 Termites....................................................................................................................... ....73 Termite Damage to Construction Materials....................................................................74 Thermal Imaging.............................................................................................................75 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. .75 Results........................................................................................................................ .............76 2x4s........................................................................................................................... .......76 Plywood........................................................................................................................ ...77 Rigid Foam Board Insulation..........................................................................................78 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........79 6 EFFECTS OF EASTERN SUBTE RRANEAN TERMITE DAMAGE ON THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF COMMON BUILDING MATERIALS...............................85 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........85 Materials and Methods.......................................................................................................... .87 Termites....................................................................................................................... ....87 Test Arena..................................................................................................................... ..87 Thermal Imaging Setup...................................................................................................89 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. .89 Results........................................................................................................................ .............90

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7 Structural Lumber............................................................................................................91 Wood Based Siding.........................................................................................................92 Foam Insulation...............................................................................................................95 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........96 7 CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................................117 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................119 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................130

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Percentage of termite castes located on the bottom of the arena that passed through various crack widths and consumption of filter paper by termites in arena at 5 d............44 4-1 Effect of pipe sleeve composition and length and termiticide treatment on Mean consumption (g) of cardboard ( SE) on top of the concrete slab by termites..................65 5-1 Percent damage and surface temperature increase for building materials heated for 15-min. Damaged materials were exposed to eastern subterranean termites (n=300) for 8 wk....................................................................................................................... .......81 6-1 Mean SE percent termite survivorship, dama ge (g), percent damage, and percent increase in heat transfer index (HTI) between undamaged and building material damaged by subterranean termites (n=300) and after 8 wk.............................................101

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Termite caste location and consumption test arena...........................................................45 3-2 Head capsule Petri-dish test arena.....................................................................................46 3-3 Linear regression comparing the maxi mum soldier head capsule measurements.............47 3-4 Linear regression comparing the maxi mum worker head capsule measurements.............48 3-5 Soldier head capsule width................................................................................................49 3-6 Worker head capsule width................................................................................................50 3-7 Larval head capsule width.................................................................................................51 4-1 Pipe sleeve e xperimental arena..........................................................................................66 4-2 Termite blocker experimental arena..................................................................................67 4-3 Typical pipe sleeve expe riment arenas at 28 d..................................................................68 4-4 Foam pipe sleeves exposed to eastern subterranean termites for 28 d in termiticidetreated and untreated arenas...............................................................................................69 4-5 Polyethylene pipe sleeves exposed to eastern subterranean termites for 28 d in termiticide-treated and untreated arenas............................................................................70 4-6 Mean cardboard consumption (g) ( SE) after 8 wk by termites in arenas without termite blocker around copper and CPVC pipes, with or without foam or polyethylene sleeves..........................................................................................................71 5-1 Images of a 2x4 sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk......................................82 5-2 Images of a plywood sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk..............................83 5-3 Images of a rigid foam insulation sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk...........84 6-1 Differences in heat transfer index between undamaged materials and materials damaged by subterranean termites after an 8 wk period..................................................102 6-2 The 2x4 samples............................................................................................................ ..103 6-3 Natural log linear re gression of 2x4 samples...................................................................104 6-4 The 2x6 samples............................................................................................................ ..105

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106-5 Natural log linear re gression of 2x6 samples...................................................................106 6-6 The OSB samples............................................................................................................ .107 6-7 Natural log linear re gression of OSB samples.................................................................108 6-8 The T1-11 samples.......................................................................................................... .109 6-9 Natural log linear regr ession of T1-11 samples...............................................................110 6-10 The 5-ply samples......................................................................................................... ...111 6-11 Natural log linear regr ession of 5-ply samples................................................................112 6-12 The EXP samples........................................................................................................... ..113 6-13 Natural log linear re gression of EXP samples.................................................................114 6-14 The ISO samples........................................................................................................... ...115 6-15 Natural log linear re gression of ISO samples..................................................................116

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11 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE (ISOPTERA: Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)) ENTERING INTO BUILDINGS AND EFFE CTS ON THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS By Cynthia Linton Tucker May 2008 Chair: Philip G. Koehler Major: Entomology and Nematology Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), were introduced to the t op of an arena with a divider of various crack widths. Termites were not able to pass through cracks 610 m, and feed on the bottom of the arena. The minimum crack wi dth permitting termites to pass was 711 m for workers and larvae or 813 m for soldiers. Th e percentage of termites passing through a crack increased as crack width in creased from 711 to 5000 m. For 5000 m cracks that did not restrict access to the bottom filter paper about 74% of the termites passed through and consumed ~40 mg filter paper. As crack size decrease d to 711 m only 35% of termites passed through, however, consumption of filter paper on the bot tom (~38 mg) did not significantly decrease. This suggests that any crack 711 m would not limit termite dama ge in a structure. Head capsule dimensions (length, width, and depth) were measured for termites passing through various crack widths. As crack width increa sed, the maximum head capsule dimension of termites that passed through the cr ack also increased linearly. De pth of head capsule was best correlated with crack width that allowed termites to pass through it. Termites often use plumbing penetrations of concrete slabs to enter a structure. Polyethylene and foam sleeves used to protect pi pes from physical damage were found to protect

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12 termites from residual soil termiticide treatments. When pipe sleeves extended beyond the termiticide treatment, termites utilized the sleeves as a protected route through the termiticidetreated sand. However when pipe sleeves terminated within the termiticide treatment, termites failed to pass through the slab. Impasse Termite Blocker installed on pipes prevented termites from passing through the slab at pipe penetrations. Building construction materials (2x4s, 5-pl y plywood, and rigid foam board insulation) were exposed to termites for 8 wk and a method for measuring changes in thermal properties was developed by heating one surface and imaging the temperature on the opposite surface. Termites mainly tunneled into 2x4s penetrating the sa mple resulting in ~35% increase in surface temperature (damaged vs. undamaged samples) despite a small amount of damage (6.7% consumed). Plywood damaged by termites (3.1% consumed), was the most thermally damaged with a temperature increase of 74% (damag ed vs. undamaged samples). Insulation was significantly the most damaged w ith ~12% of the material rem oved and a temperature increase of ~27% (damaged vs. undamaged samples). A heat transfer index was developed to co mpare thermal properties of termite damaged building construction materials (2x4 and 2x6 pine lumber, 5 ply plywood, T1-11 siding, oriented strandboard, extruded polystyrene, and polyisocyanurate insulation) Termite damaged materials had higher heat transfer indices than undamaged materials The h eat transfer index of damaged 2x4 and 2x6 lumber was 37% higher than damage d 5 ply plywood and T1-11 siding: therefore the siding materials were more thermally resist ant. As would be expected the insulation materials had lower heat transfer index values than the wood materials. Termite damaged polyisocyanurate was 68% more conductive than the damaged expanded polystyrene insulation.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION One of the most economically significant pest termites in North America is the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). The ab ility of termites to digest wood and the consequent potential to cause significant st ructural damage to most types of buildings distinguishes termites from the most of other insect pests. The fact that R. flavipes termites live in colonies of considerable size only serves to increase their destructive potential. Subterranean termites evolved in nature as decomposers of dead w ood. This capacity for wood digestion, while very useful in terrestria l ecosystems, is a problem for people who build structures using the same materials that the term ites have evolved to feed upon. In geographies like Florida with high termite activity, specifi c building codes are required to minimize the structures susceptibility to termite damage. In Florida, the building code also requires a termiticide-preventative treatment be applied to new construction. Subterranean termites typically enter struct ures through the foundati on. A concrete slab may seem impervious, but there are actually numer ous potential routes of en try. One entry is the cracks that inevitably develop as the poured concrete cures and sett les. Another entry is where plumbing pipes and other utilities penetrate the slab to provide a structure with water, power, and sewer access. Depending upon the space between the pipe and the concrete slab, as well as the material the pipe is wrapped in, termites may fi nd this space to be an easy point of entry. The structural damage caused by subterranean termites has been doc umented extensively over the years. The focus of this documentati on has been the structur al weakening of loadbearing timbers, causing a building to become unsafe and susceptib le to collapse. However, termite damage has other effects that have not been considered. One of thes e is the change in the thermal properties of a structure. If the walls of a building are riddled with termite galleries, it

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14 stands to reason that heat may travel more easily through damaged walls. Thus, a structure damaged in this way will lose heat more rapidly in a cold environment, or gain heat more rapidly in a hot environment. More energy is required for the heating and air conditioning systems to compensate for the loss of insulati ng properties. The price of th is energy is an added cost of termite damage. The first objective in this dissertation is to determine the minimum crack size that R. flavipes termites can travel through, re viewed in Chapter 3. The next objective concerns the passage of these termites through spaces between water pipes and a concrete slab, covered in Chapter 4. The experiments conducted in this ch apter will show the effects of different pipe sleeves on termite travel, as well as the effects of the presence and absence of termite blocker associated with the pipes. Chapter 4 will also investigate the possibility of pipe sleeves providing a safe passage for termite s through termiticide-treated soil. The next objective in this di ssertation, in Chapter 5, was to establish a method for determining heat transfer usi ng a hot plate to heat termite damaged and undamaged building materials to document the change in surface temp erature of a sample through time with a thermal camera. The objective in Chapter 6 was to determin e the differences in the rate of heat transfer between termite damaged and undamaged samples of building materials. Materials will include structural timbers, wood-based siding products, and foam insula tion. These experiments will show which materials can sustain more damage from termites before losing their insulating ability, and therefore are best for use in struct ures located in geographies with high termite activity. The final objective of this disse rtation is to obtain a better un derstanding of th e activities of R. flavipes termites within structures. A clearer understanding of their means of entry into

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15 structures will allow for more effective prevention of this entry. Knowledge of the termites effects on thermal properties will allow a more informed selection of building materials with reduced adverse effects if damaged by termites. By understanding how subterranean termites interact with a structure, we may more effectively protect stru ctures from entry and damage by termites resulting in increased cost s to the building occupants.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Evolution of Termites Termites are believed to be closely related to cockroaches and have evolved from an ancient ancestral cockroach lineage. The most primitive living termite, Mastotermes darwinensis (Froggatt), has a similar wi ng structure to cockroaches and females of this termite species lay their eggs in an ootheca (Snyder 1948) Presently, there is a primitive cockroach, Cryptocerus punctulatus (Scudder), which burrows into and consumes decaying wood and has protozoa in its digestive tract similar to those in termites (Gut hrie and Tindall 1968). These similarities suggest that the Order Isoptera dive rged from the ancient an cestral cock roach lineage ~200 million years ago (Nalepa and Bandi 2000). All termites are eusocial insects. Subterra nean termites are most commonly found within the soil, thriving in an environment of high humi dity and darkness. S ubterranean termites are also known to invade man-made structures, utiliz ing the wood within th e structures as a food source (Forschler 1999a). As cryptic, subterranean insects, termite workers are blind and possess relatively thin, water-permeable exoskeletons. Like most termites, subterranean termites subsist primarily on cellulosic materi als such as wood, roots, and grasses (Waller and LaFage 1987, Tayasu et al. 1997). Worker termites transfer nu trients to immatures, soldiers and reproductives via stomodeal and proctodeal trophallaxis. Subte rranean termites typically live in large numbers that can range from 50,000 to several million indi viduals in a colony (Su et al. 1993). Native subterranean termites consume nu merous species of wood includi ng slash pine, loblolly pine, and sugar maple (Smythe and Carter 1970). Termites have endogenous enzymes (Watanabe et al. 1998) and protozoan symbionts in the hindgu t (Ohtoko et al. 2000) which allow termites to digest cellulose and hemicelluloses (Smith a nd Koehler 2007), reducing these compounds to

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17 simple sugars that can be used in energy producti on. Their digestive proc esses recycle nutrients from dead plant materials that few other anim als are able to digest (Thorne 1999). Thus, subterranean termites are ecologically important insects because of their contributions to environmental cellulose decomposition. The Order Isoptera has been divided worldwide into seven families (Mastotermitidae, Kalotermitidae, Sterritermitidae, Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae, Termopside, Termitidae), 281 genera and ~2,600 to 2,761 species (Thorne et al. 2000, Myles 2000, respectively). The Nearctic region of the world, composed of th e U.S.A., Canada, and Northern Mexico, has 38 representative termite species (Eggelton 2000). Weesner (1965) documented the termite distribution in the U.S.A. and determined that species distribution becomes richer as one moves south within the U.S.A. Overall, Reticulitermes spp. has the widest distri bution in the region. The most commonly encountered species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) is a subterranean termite found throughout the eastern U.S.A. w ith a range extending from Toronto, Canada through Florida. This species is a major structur al pest capable of forming large colonies and constructing intricate tunnel networks to provide protection and access to resources. Important Subterranean Termites in the United States In the United States, the most economica lly important subterranean termites are represented by three genera of the family Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes, Reticulitermes and Heterotermes (Light 1934, Kofoid 1946). The genus Reticulitermes contains six species of termite considered to be economically impor tant (Su and Scheffrahn 1990b). Kofoid (1946) listed the termites of economic importance in the family Rhinotermitidae included: Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), R. calipennis (Banks), R. flavipes (Kollar), R. hagani (Banks), R. hesperus (Banks), R. humilis (Banks), R. lucifugus (Rossi), R. tibialis (Banks), R. virginicus (Banks). In

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18 addition, the species Amitermes ( Amitermes ) wheeleri (Desneux) in the family Termitidae is considered to be economically important. The Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus are an invasive species in the U.S.A. Since its accidental introduction, C. formosanus has become one of the most destructive termites in the Hawaiian Islands (Tam ashiro et al. 1990). It became established in Texas, Louisiana, and South Carolina duri ng the 1960s and in Flor ida in 1980s (Su and Scheffrahn 2000). Termite Caste System Members of the termite colony are divided into castes, each of which has a specialized function within the colony. The reproductive ca ste, consisting of primary reproductives and secondary reproductives, carry ou t tasks of reproduction and speci es distribution. The soldier caste is responsible for nest and colony defense. Termites in the worker caste carry out the majority of tasks, such as building and repair ing the nest and tending the termite larvae and reproductives. The needs of the colony determ ine what individuals will become workers, soldiers, or reproductives. When there is a suita ble balance of these thr ee basic castes, a healthy, productive, efficient colony can result (Thorne 1999). Newly hatched larvae are able to develop into any caste in Rhinotermitid termites, but the persistence of this developmental plasticity vari es between different species of termite (Krishna 1969). The earliest instar termites are often referred to as larvae. These larvae, also known as white immatures, are defined as having no signi ficant cuticular scleroti zation (Thorne 1996) and they are dependent on a liquid di et provided by the workers (McMahan 1969). As the termite larva molts and matures, the termites exoskele ton changes from white to a light tan. This change is most evident in the head capsule. Thir d instar workers are referred to as true workers if there is no divergence to a soldier or reproductive developmental line (Noirot and Pasteels

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19 1988). Soldiers comprise a low percentage of in dividuals in the colony, approximately 1-2% in R. flavipes (Howard and Haverty 1980, 1981, Haverty and Howard 1981, Grace 1986, Thorne et al. 1997) and in R. virginicus (Pawson and Gold 1996). Therefore, the majority of the termites in the colony are workers (Kofoid 1934). The division of labor within the colony, in whic h casts perform specialized tasks, is unique to social insects and allows the colony to functio n efficiently to ensure it s survival and growth. Workers are the most numerous caste in the subt erranean termite colony and are responsible for the majority of resource acquisiti on and nutrient cycling within the colony. Soldiers and larvae are almost entirely dependent on workers for hydr ation and nutrients. Workers provide social grooming to their nestmates during feeding beha vior, reducing the chances of bacterial and fungal growth within the colony. Workers also construct tunnels within the soil and mud tubes above the soil. Although the sold ier caste is primarily responsibl e for defense, termite workers are also capable of defending the colony to some extent. In subterranean termites, th e reproductive caste consists of primary and secondary reproductives (Lee and Wood 1971, Thorne 1999). Pr imary reproductives play a major role in the dispersal as alates and foundi ng of colonies, excavation of the first galleries, and feeding and care of the first young (Light 1934). The primar y reproductives consist of males (kings) and females (queens), which are highly sclerotize d, pigmented, have compound eyes, and develop from winged adults (Krishna 1969). Colony size and maturity are central to determining the production of winged primary reproduc tives, or alates (Nutting 1969). There are three types of s econdary reproductives that de velop functional reproductive organs without leaving the parent colony (Lee and Wood 1971). Neotenics develop functional reproductive organs without becoming alates, and brachypterous neotenics possess wing buds

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20 and develop from juveniles that have alre ady developed wing buds (Lee and Wood 1971). Apterous neotenics do not possess wing buds an d develop from juveniles that have not developed wing buds. Supplementary reproductives act as substitutes for the king or queen if one or both should die, or supplement the egg production of the queen after the subterranean termite colony is established (Lee and Wood 197 1, Potter 2004). There may be several hundred supplementary reproductives within the colony because as individuals they are not as prolific as the queen (Lee and Wood 1971). In Reticulitermes spp., secondary reproductives also help to expand the foraging territory of the colony (Forschl er 1999a). All of the offspring in the colony are produced by either primary or secondary re productives. Termite reproductives differ from those of social Hymenoptera in that the co lonies contain ca. 50% males and 50% females (Kofoid 1934). Soldier termites are more highly specialized th an are the workers. The soldier caste is traditionally considered the defensive caste (Wheeler 1928, Kofoid 1934). Reticulitermes spp. soldiers have a distinctively modified head with elongated mandibles. Their mandibles are effective against certain predators like ants, and certain species have also developed a chemical defense system (Lee and Wood 1971). Soldier te rmites develop from a pre-soldier stage that develops from a larva or worker (Lee and W ood 1971). Soldier termites may act aggressively toward competitors, predatory ants, and even othe r termites. Because of the soldiers modified mandibles, soldiers cannot chew wood and are en tirely dependent on trophallaxis from worker termites for food (Traniello et al. 1985, Su and LaFage 1987). Process of Tunnel Formation A newly founded colony is us ually associated with a wood food source. As time passes, the colony grows and this food source is consumed the termites must search for additional resources. Subterranean termites will construc t subterranean tunnels and above ground shelter

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21 tubes in their search for food resources. Tunne ling involves movement of soil particles, and the process begins with an individual termite. In moist sand, subterranean termites construct the tunnel network by pushing their heads forward th rough the moist sand, then pressing the sand grains from side to side with their hea d, body, or mandibles (Ebeling and Pence 1957). The smaller grains of sand are taken into the bucca l cavity (Ebeling and Pe nce 1957), combined with saliva and feces (Noirot 1970), and cemented to th e wall of the tunnel to make a smooth, hard surface. The termites are also able to carry sand grains to the su rface to deposit excess soil particles or construct ab ove ground shelter tubes. Above ground shelter tubes may be constructe d during the search fo r food and after an adequate food source has been located. Above ground foraging begins with the movement of termites on the surface of the soil, trees, buildings or other structures. As the termites search, they may find nearly any type of cellulosic mate rial to be an adequate food source, including a wooden structure (Ebeling 1975). In the process of searching a bove ground, the termites leave a faint pheromone trail (Stuart 1969, Runcie 1986). Once a food source has been located, the chemical trail is reinforced with additional phe romone, causing other termite s to be recruited to the food source (Thorne 1996). Depos its of chewed cellulose, soil, feces and saliva are laid at the food source and the tunnel network opening. So ldiers can be seen at the openings as the workers quickly build the shel ter tube (Snyder 1948, Reinhard et al. 1997). The completed shelter tube protects the term ites from predators and desiccat ion. The shelter tubes may not protect the termites during extreme temperature cha nges, and they may retreat to the more stable environment of their subterranean tunnel network (Potter 2004). The subterranean tunnel network provides th e termite colony with a protected route of travel, giving them access to food and moisture re sources. As the colony grows and searches for

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22 food, the tunnel network increases in size. Tunnel construction in the soil does not initially begin with the deposition of a trail pheromone, as is th e case of above ground shelte r tube construction. Tunneling simply begins with the movement of soil particles (Ebeling and Pence 1957). After tunnel construction, pheromones for trailing and recruitmen t are laid inside tunnels to direct termite activity. Tunnel construction may be described as non-random and may be influenced by temperature, moisture gradient food sources (Ettershank et al 1980), guidelines (Pitts-Springer and Forschler 2000) and soil compaction (Tucker et al. 2004). Puche and Su (2001c) found no indication that R. flavipes were able were able to detect w ood in sand over distance. However, the excavation of new tunnels a nd the movement of the termites within existing tunnels network are both essential for resource acqui sition. Once tunnels are construc ted to resources, individual termites may randomly select which resources to forage on (Su et al. 1984, Jones et al. 1987). Feeding Habits The food gathered by worker termites is th e basic energy source of the colony (Lee and Wood 1971). It consists of living or dead plant material th at is either partially or almost entirely decomposed (Lee and Wood 1971). Subterranean termites may feed on a wide variety of food including sound wood, decaying wood, parts of liv ing trees and shrubs, plants, books, cardboard, and paper. The major nutritional ingredient in a ll of these foods is cellu lose (Noirot and NoirotTimothee 1969). Cellulose, a ca rbohydrate continuously produ ced by plants, is the most common organic compound on earth and is an abundant potential food source (Light 1934). Subterranean termites may also chew thr ough non-nutritive materials such as foam insulation (Gyuette 1994, Smith and Zungoli 1995abc, Ogg 1997), plastic, and rubber products (Sternlicht 1977). Subterranean termites have also been known to damage or penetrate drywall, plaster, and even st ucco (Potter 2004).

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23 Termite soldiers and larvae, as well as some nymphs and reproductives, are unable to feed themselves and are fed via stomodeal and proctod eal trophallaxis from the workers. Proctodeal feeding occurs in the lower termites that co ntain protozoan intestin al fauna (Wheeler 1928, Noirot and Noirot-Timothee 1969). It consists of liquid excretions from the rectal pouches. Proctodeal feeding allows larvae to ingest the protozoa necessa ry for cellulose digestion, and allows gut refaunation in worker termites af ter a molt (Wheeler 1928). Stomodeal food may often be regurgitated as clear liquid (probably saliva) and is the only way reproductives can get nourishment (Noirot and Noirot-Timothee 1969). Building Construction and Its Relevance to Termite Exploitation Subterranean termite control begins by ex cluding termites from a structure, thereby preventing them from damaging building ma terials by their feeding and tunneling. Understanding the relationship between termite bi ology and construction de sign is essential to termite control and the prevention of termite damage within a structure. The best time to provide protection against termites is during the planni ng and construction of the building. Improper design and construction of buildings, resulting fro m lack of knowledge or indifference to termite problems, can greatly increase the chances of term ite infestation. Building codes set a standard that allow for flexibility of termite treatme nt options and protection against termites. Building Codes Building code is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as build ings and other structures. Th e main purpose of the building codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures (IBC 2006). The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate authority.

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24 The relevance of establishing building code st andards is to protect a structure and the property owner from avoidable prop erty loss due to structural failu re (Allen 1999). Subterranean termites can damage the structural load beari ng members by tunneling into the wood. They can also tunnel into and damage wooden sheathing and insulation products affecting the building envelope. Building code histor y : For thousands of years, build ing codes and regulations have protected the public. The earliest known code of law referred to as The Code of Hammurabi, king of the Babylonian Empire, wr itten in 2200 B.C. assessed severe penalties, including death, if a building was not constructed safely. The regulation of building c onstruction in the United States dates back to the 1700s. By the early 1900s, special interest groups, such as the insurance industry, joined others with similar concerns to develop a model code. This first model building code gained widespread popularity among legislative authori ties (Kofiod 1934). USA code history: Since the early 1900s, the system of building regulations was based on three regional model codes: th e Building Officials Code Admini strators International (BOCA), Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI), and the Intern ational Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) (Miller et al. 2002). Although the regional code development has been effective and responsive to the regulatory needs of the loca l jurisdictions, in the early 1990s it became obvious that the country needed a si ngle coordinated set of national model building codes. The nations three region al model code groups decided to combine their efforts and in 1994 formed the International Code Council (ICC) to develop codes that would have no regional limitations (IBC 2006). The first edition of the Inte rnational Building Code was publ ished in 1997. By the year 2000, International Code Council has completed th e International Codes series and ceased

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25 development of the legacy codes in favor of thei r national successor. The International Building Code applies to all structures in areas where it is adopted, except for one and two family dwellings, which falls under the Inte rnational Residential Code (IBC 2006). Parts of the International Building Code refe rence other codes includ ing the International Plumbing code, International Mech anical code, National Electric Code and various National Fire Protection Association Standards. Therefore, if a m unicipality adopts the International Building Code, it is adopts those parts of the other codes referenced by th e International Building Code. Often, the plumbing, mechanical, and electric codes are adopted with th e Building Code. Currently the Internationa l Building Code has been adopted by 45 states. Each state has their own state and local codes that tailor the In ternational Building Code and International Residential Code to suite the uniqueness of the state and re gion (IBC 2006, Miller et al. 2004). Concrete Construction Standards Building foundations and concrete minimum build ing standards are addressed in the codes (IBC 2006). One primary function of a foundation is to transfer the structural loads from a building safely into the ground. The foundation design is an integral part of every building. The foundation supports a number of diff erent kinds of loads: dead, liv e, wind, and snow loads (Allen 1999). If the concrete is not strong enough or the ground below se ttles, the concrete may crack allowing subterranean termites to access the st ructure from below. Termites entering the structure from cracks hidden from the exterior foundation may go undetected for a long period of time and may result in significant termite damage to the structure. Currently the building code requires the concrete slab to be a minimum of 150 cm above grade to allow a termite inspection area around the structure (IBC 2006). A satisfactory foundation for a building should meet three general requirements. First, the foundation, including the underlying soil and rock, must be safe agai nst structural failure that

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26 could result in collapse. Second, during the life of the building, the foundati on must not settle in such a way to damage the structure or impair its function. Finally, the foundation must be feasible both technically and economically, and practical to build without adverse effects to surrounding property. Satisfying the aforemen tioned requirements of a foundation would minimize the risk of concrete cracking, reducin g the possibility of undetected subterranean termite entry into a structure. A concrete foundation can be considered an initial barrier to termites if there are no concealed cracks. The Australian Standard AS 3660.1 specifies for buildings constructed on sub-floors that the concrete slab can form an in tegral part of the term ite barrier system (AS 1995). Lentz et al. (1997) reported that cracks ranging from 0.5-4.0 mm, made by splitting slabs, can allow termite access through the slab. They determined that the smallest crack width penetrated varied by termite species, and was 3.1 mm for Coptotermes acinaciformis, 1.5 mm for Sherorhinotermes breinli, 1.8 mm for Heterotermes vagus, and 1.4 mm for H. validus Minimum concrete strength standards are esta blished by the building codes to reduce the potential for foundation shri nkage and cracking (IBC 2006). The quality of a building floor or slab made of concrete is highly dependent on achieving a hard and durable surface that is flat, relatively free of crack s (ACI 2004). There are several components that contribute to the properties of the final product, such as mixture ratios, quality of concreting, and joining tec hniques. The timing of the c oncreting operations, especially finishing, jointing, and curing, is critical. Failure to address foundation and concrete design can result in unsatisfactory characteristics in the we aring surface such as cracking, low resistance to wear, dusting, scaling, high or low spots, poor drainage, and increased potential for curling.

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27 Concrete floor slabs using portland cement, regardless of consistency, will start to experience a reduction in volume as soon as they are placed and will continue al long as water and/or heat are released to the surroundings. Because of th e drying and cooling rates are dissimilar at the top and bottom of the slab, the shrinkage will vary throughout the depth, possibly causing the final product to be critic ally distorted and re duced in volume. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) has published a guide containing recommendations for controlling random cracking and edge curlin g (ACI 2004). ACI also acknowledges that even with the best foundation design a nd proper construction techniques; it is unrealistic to expect crack-free and curl-free concrete fl oor slabs. Therefore, it should be expected that some cracking and curing to occur on every project and that such occurrences may not adversely impact the slab adequacy if the design or the quality of the construction is sufficient (Campbell et al. 1976, Ytterberg 1987). Therefore, since concrete cracki ng and shrinkage is always possible, then other termite control measures should be employed. Wood Framing Standards Minimum standards for single and multi-fam ily dwellings are established in the international building code (IBC 2006). Design of exterior wall framing must be adequately sized for strength and support. Exterior wall s must be strong enough to support both live and dead loads. Walls must also be able to resist lateral wind loads and in some regions, seismic and hurricane forces (Allen 1999, Mill er et al. 2002). Top plates are doubled and lapped at corners and at bearing partition intersections to tie the building into a str ong structural unit. In addition to establishing minimum standard s for strength and design of wood framing, standards have also been established to prevent termite infestation. The building codes establish minimum standa rds for termite preven tion and control to protect the materials in service from current and future termite attack. Because termites can

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28 readily damage and consume cellulose products, a wooden structure needs to be protected. When wood is in contact with th e soil, the building code allows the use of termite resistant wood, in critical termite prone areas such as yellow cypress ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis ), western red cedar ( Thuja plicata ) and eastern white cedar ( Thuja occidentalis ) (IBC 2006), these species of wood have natural substances that prevent termite attack. Grace and Yamamoto (1994) determined that the heartwood of Chamaecyparis noothatensis (yellow cypress, or Alaska cedar) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) resists attack by the Form osan subterranean termite. Also, wood construction components can be protected ag ainst decay and termite attack by application of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) (Grace 199 8), ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ), copper azole (CA), or copper, zinc and arsenic ammonia (AZQA) (Tamashiro et al. 1988). The studs in exterior walls of one and two-stor y structures are at least 2x4 inches with the 4-inch dimension forming the basic wall thickne ss. Stud spacing is normally 16 inches in exterior walls. The studs are arranged in multiple s at corners and partition sections to provide the rigid attachment of sheathing (Allen 1999). The high resistance of wood frame construction to seismic, hurricane and other natural forces of nature are provided when exterior sh eathing adequately secured to the exterior wall stubs. Exterior wall sheathing includes plywood, pa rticle board, and other st ructural panels such as oriented strandboard, st ructural insulation, and board lumber. Sheathing is applied in strict accordance with manufacturers na iling requirements to provide a rigid wood frame system. All wooden materials that are not na turally termite resist ant should be protected against termite attack to maintain their strength and other physical properties (IBC 2006). Termite Control Options Currently there are four major categories of te rmiticide treatments to protect structures from subterranean termites; liquid soil termitic ides, wood-applied termiticides, baiting systems,

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29 and physical barriers. Liquid termiticides are typi cally classified as repellent or non-repellent and have been used to exclude subterranean te rmites from structures. Pyrethroids are among the most commonly applied soil termiticides for new construction, and are highly repellent to subterranean termites, deterring termites fr om tunneling in treated soil without causing significant mortality (Su et al. 1993). Soil term iticides are applied to the soil beneath and around the structure to create a barrier (Su and Scheffrahn 1990a). The newer, non-repellent termiticides include imidacloprid (Kuriachan a nd Gold 1998), fipronil (Osbrink et al. 2001), and chlorofenapyr (Rust and Saran 2006), all of which ar e effective at killing subterranean termites. Soil termiticide treatments have been used si nce the 1900s and are generally inexpensive and easy to use. A soil termiticide treatment is applied during the construction of a building, and is required by the building code in Florida unless another method of termite protection is approved as a stand-alone treatment (FBC 2004). Liquid soil termiticides are also used for remedial treatments. Currently available soil termiticide treatments degrade and may require reapplication after five or more years (Su et al. 1999, Richman et al. 2006) to maintain long-term protection of structures. In Florida, currently register ed termite baiting systems approved for application at new construction contain hexaflumuron (Foos 2006), noviflumuron (Foos and Daiker 2003), or diflubenzuron (FBC 2004). These compounds are chitin synthesis i nhibitors (CSIs) that prevent the successful molting and development of subte rranean termites. This disruption in termite growth causes the decline of th e colony to the point of colony death. Hexaflumuron, the most extensively studied CSI active i ngredient, has been proven to e liminate subterranean termite activity with several sp ecies of subterranean termites (S u 1994, Clement et al. 1996, Su and Scheffrahn 1996, Peters and Fitzgerald 1999, Saja p et al. 2000, Rojas and Morales-Ramos 2001,

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30 Grace and Su 2001). Noviflumuron, also produ ced by Dow Agrosciences, can eliminate colonies of Reticulitermes in about half the time as colonies baited with hexaflumuron (Smith et al. 2002). Karr et al. (2004) reported th at the lethal dose of noviflumuron for R. flavipes termites was found to be at least two-to three-fold lower than that of hexaflumuron. Su and Scheffrahn (1993) determined that R. flavipes and C. formosanus consumed diflubenzuron resulting in >90% mortality for both species in 9 wk. Physical Barriers Physical particle barriers of impenetrable materials, such as sieved soil pa rticles (Ebeling and Pence 1957, Su and Scheffrahn 1992, Yates et al. 2000) and stee l mesh (ABSAC 1992, Grace et al. 1996, Lentz and Runko 1994), have been dem onstrated to effectively exclude subterranean termites. For physic al barriers to be effective, they must be constructed of materials that cannot be moved or chewed through by termites a nd create no gaps that termites can move through. Sieved soil particles must be sp ecific size range to be large enough to prevent manipulation by termite mandibles and small e nough to not provide gaps to allow termite movement through. Research has documented the effective size range for a soil particle barrier is dependent upon the head capsule width of the termite species. Tamashiro et al. (1987, 1991) documented that Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki could not penetrat e basaltic particles with diameters in the range of 1.7-2.4 mm. Su et al. (1991) found that partic le barriers of 1.18-2.80 mm in size effectively prevented penetration of both R. flavipes and C. formosanus A physical barrier made of a fine stainl ess steal mesh wire known as Termimesh was developed in the early 1990s (ABSAC 1992, Le ntz and Runko 1994). Termimesh is typically placed in critical areas, such as along control joints and around pipe penetrations, before the concrete slab is poured. This mesh wire barrie r, with an aperture of 0.45 by 0.66 mm, has been proven effective to prevent acce ss of large termites such as, C. formosanus (Grace et al. 1996),

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31 C. acinaciformis (Froggatt), Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, and Schedorhinotermes breinli (Hill) (Lentz and Runko 1994). Smaller termites, such as Heterotermes vagus (Hill) with a maximum head width of only 0.76 mm, were able to move through this mesh wire (Lentz and Runko 1994). Impasse (Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensbor o, NC) is an insecticide-impregnated vapor retarder that contains the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin sandwic hed between construction grade polymer layers. Like Termimesh, Impasse is used to repel termites from cracks in the slab or gaps created plumbing or utility penetrati ons (Harbison 2003, Wege et al. 2003). Impasse barrier became available in 2002 with the inte nt to cover the entire undersurface of the foundation. Su et al. (2004) found that Impasse placed over a sand plot and covered with a concrete slab prevented termite penetration. The Impasse te rmite system later focused on Impasse termite blocker, installed around plumbi ng and utility pipes pe netrating the slab. Impasse termite blocker is applied in the precon struction phase and is em bedded in the concrete around the pipe penetrations when the building foundation is poured. Heat Transfer Concepts Heat is a form of energy that is sometimes e xpressed as the intensity of molecular vibration within a material. Heat is always transferred in the direction of decreas ing temperature. There are three different types of h eat transfer: radiation, convectio n, and conduction. In all cases, a temperature difference must exist for heat tr ansfer to occur (Bu eche and Wallach 1994). Radiation is the movement of energy by means of electromagnetic wave s. Radiative heat transfer does not require that objects be touching to transfer heat (Bu eche and Wallach 1994). Convective heat transfer occurs when a fluid, as a liquid or a gas, comes in contact with a material of a different temperatur e. Natural convection occurs wh en the changes in the localized densities of a fluid, due to diffe rences in thermal energy, drive the flow of the fluid. Forced

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32 convection occurs when the fluid flow is due to localized differences in pressure (Bueche and Wallach 1994). Conduction takes place within the boundaries of a solid body by the transfer of thermal energy between molecules within the material. The rate at which heat is conducted through a material is proportional to the area available to the heat flow and the te mperature gradient along the heat flow path. For a one-dimensional, st eady state heat flow th e rate is expressed by Fouriers equation (Healy and Flynn 2002): Q= k *A*( T/d) Where: k =thermal conductivity, W/m-K Q=rate of heat flow, W A=contact area, m d=distance of heat flow, m T=temperature difference, Kelvin Thermal conductivity, k is an intrinsic property of a material which describes the materials ability to conduct heat (ASHRAE 200 5). This property is independent of the materials size, shape, or orient ation. For non-homogeneous materi als the term relative thermal conductivity is generally used and is appropria te because the thermal conductivities depend on the thickness of the layers and their orientation with respect to heat flow. Another inherent thermal property of a material is its thermal resistance, R or R-value (Bueche and Wallach 1994), as defined below: R=A*( T/Q) Resistance is a measure of how a material of a specific thickness resist s the flow of heat. The relationship between k and R is shown by combining the previous two equations to form: k =d/R

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33 This equation shows resistance is directly pr oportional to the material thickness for solids (Bueche and Wallach 1994). Insulation The use of cellular thermal insulation has increa sed in recent years du e to its energy saving potential. There are many organic and inorganic substances that are capable of being processed to form stable cellular foam insulation. In orde r to be successfully processed, the substance must have the capability of being processed as a fl uid, mechanically expanded by foaming with a gas while in a liquid state, and then solidified while maintaining a cellular matrix established during the foaming process. Rigid cellular materials ar e most often used for thermal insulation within structures, but flexible and semi-rigid material s are available. The most common types of organic, cellular insulations are manufactured using polyurethane and polyisocyanurate, and resins of polystyrene, urea-formaldehyde, and phenol-formaldehyde. The most common inorganic, cellular insulation (P erlite and vermiculite) is pr oduced from glass (Yost 1991). Thermal Transmission The most important physical property of cellular thermal insulation is thermal transmission In cellular insulations, thermal en ergy is transferred by three different mechanisms: conduction through the solid portion of the foam conduction through the gaseous portion, and radiation through the ce llular matrix from cell wall to cell wall (Skochdopole 1961). Convection heat transfer within ce lls is generally not considered, because the cell size is usually too small to support significant c onvective movement (Skochdopole 1961). For many products, measures are taken to minimi ze the heat transfer contribution from one or more of these mechanisms. For example, chlorofluorocarbon blowing agents are commonly introduced not only to help foam the fluid but also to reduce conduction through the gaseous

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34 portion of the foam. The use of facings lamina ted or bonded to chlorofluorocarbon-blown foams can also decrease thermal transfer. One method of minimizing radia tion through the cellula r matrix is to increase the foam density, thus providing more materi al in the cell walls to absorb infrared radiation. Although an increase in density can reduce the radiation co mponent of heat transfer, it simultaneously increases the conduction through the solid porti on of foam. Therefore, the lowest thermal transfer for a particular foam material can be found in the optimal balance of solid and gaseous portions within the cellular matrix. For example, the optimum balance fo r cellular plastics is generally 1.8 to 2.5 lb/ft3 (28.8 to 40.0 kg/m3) (Skochdopole 1961, Norton 1967, Booth and Lee 1985). However, other factors generally need to be considered, such as raw material costs and mechanical strength requirements, so the density of the cellular products typically ranges from 1.0 to 4.0 lb/ft3 (16 to 64.0 kg/m3).

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35 CHAPTER 3 ABILITY OF EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TE RMITES TO MOVE THROUGH CRACKS Introduction The eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), is one of the most destructive structural pests in North America (Kofoid 1934, Mauldin 1986, Su and Scheffrahn 1990a). Like other subterranean termites, R. flavipes inhabits the soil, typically invades structures from the underlying soil, and can avoid detection for l ong periods of time. Preventing subterranean termite entry from the soil is consid ered a primary way to protect a structure from termite infestation and damage (Su and Scheffrahn 1990b). Concrete and good quality mortar will not normally be penetrated by termites providing that all joints are pr operly sealed (Snyder 1919, 1929). N onetheless, a concrete slab of appreciable size will crack as it sets and settles (Benboundjem a et al. 2005). Most foundation failures are attributed to excessive differential settlement (Allen 1999, Zijl et al. 2001). A preexisting crack or gap in the concrete slab is of relatively fixed width. Reticulitermes spp. are not capable of widening gaps in uncompromised c oncrete, so their body dimensions are a limiting factor for their moving through gaps. Lentz et al (1997) reported that th e smallest crack width penetrated by termites through concrete was 1.3 mm for C. acinaciformis and 1.4 mm for Heterotermes validus Hill. Cracks of 0.8 mm or more in width were reported to permit passage of subterranean termites but sp ecies were not documented (J ohnston et al. 1972, Beal et al. 1989). The factor determining the crack width pene trated by termites should be the smallest dimension of the termite head capsule. Termite s are generally soft-bodied insects with thin, flexible exoskeletons over most of their body. Th e notable exception to this is the head capsule, a rigid structure which supports the mandibular musculature, allowing the termites to chew

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36 through hard substrates like wood. This rigidity makes the head capsule incapable of being compressed. Therefore, for a termite to travel through a crack, the smallest dimension of the termite head capsule must be less than the widt h of the crack. Movement through a crack would restrict movement in one-dimension where as movement through particles or a mesh would restrict movement in two-dimensions. The only study correlating termite body dimensions to movement through various particle sizes was Su et al. (1991). No studies have been conducted evaluating the ability of different termite deve lopmental stages for passing through fixed crack widths. The objectives of this study on R. flavipes were to investigate the relationship between crack width and head capsule size for both worker and soldier termites, and evaluate the ability of different termite developmental stages to pass through cracks of different widths and subsequent consumption of matrices on either side of the cracks. Materials and Methods Termites Three colonies of R. flavipes, separated by more than 1.5 km in Gainesville, FL, were field collected in 6-liter plasti c buckets inserted below ground w ith their lids accessible above the soil surface. Each bucket was f illed with 2-3 moistened corrugate d cardboard rolls (15 cm long by 10 cm diam.; Gainesville Paper Co., Gainesv ille, FL). Termites accessed cardboard rolls through ~10 holes (4-cm diam.) in the sides a nd bottom of each bucket. Cardboard rolls containing termites were collected and returned to the lab in Ziploc bags (3.8-L). Termites were removed from the cardboard by gently separati ng the corrugated cardboard and allowing the termites to fall into a 20-L plastic bucket. The termites were then placed on moistened corrugated cardboard and reared at room temp erature (~23C) in plastic boxes (27 by 19 by 9.5 cm) with moistened cardboard for 1 wk before inclusion in experimental arenas.

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37 Prior to the test, termites were sorted by size and caste. Soldiers and workers were separated from larvae using a 1.18 mm mesh soil sieve (No. 16, Fisher Scientific Company, Pittsburgh, PA). Larvae through the 2nd instar passed throug h the sieve. The 2nd instar larvae were then separated from white immature larvae using a vacuum aspirator. Effect of Crack Width on Penetr ation and Consumption by Caste The test arena to evaluate penetration by caste and consumption by crack width was an acrylic plastic cylinder (5.08 cm I.D., 127 cm lo ng) with an acrylic divider (1.59 cm thick) placed 5.72 cm from the bottom (Fig. 3-1). An oval opening (1 by 0.5 cm) was cut into the center of the acrylic divider. Two aluminum spacers (2.5 by 1.0 by 0.1 cm) were glued over the oval opening to create a space 1 cm long. Crack widths of 406, 508, 610, 711, 813, 991, and 5,000 m were created using spark plug feeler s (Carquest Corp., Lakewood, CO) and a second acrylic divider with oval opening wa s glued over the aluminum plates before the glue set to fix plates in place. Soil was oven-dried at ~177 C for 24 h, sifted through a 1.18 mm mesh soil sieve to remove debris, and moistened by mixing 40 ml of distilled water in 400 g soil. Moistened soil was evenly distributed above and below the acryl ic dividers within the experimental arena leaving a 0.64 cm void on the top for termite in troduction. Pre-weighed filter paper (Whatman #4, ~130 mg, 4.3 cm diam.) was placed on the top and bottom of the arena. Termites were aspirated into groups of 253 ins ects, consisting of 3 soldiers, 200 workers [ 3rd instar], 50 larvae [2nd instar], that were introduced on top of each arena. The top and bottom of the arena were lidded with a plastic Petri dish (100 mm diam.) and secured with two rubber bands. The experiment was a randomized complete block design. Each crack width (n =

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38 7) was evaluated using three termite colonies wi th four replications pe r colony, resulting in 84 experimental arenas. The arenas were opened 5 d after setup, and th e numbers of each caste of termites located in the top and the bottom sections were count ed. Filter paper was co llected, oven dried, and weighed to determine consumption. Effect of Termite Head Capsule Dime nsion on Penetration Through Cracks The arena to evaluate the termite head capsule dimensions and crack width was a Petri dish (55 mm diam.) with an acrylic divider and alum inum plates built as described above. Crack widths of 711, 813, and 991 m, and were create d using spark plug feelers (Carquest Corp., Lakewood, CO) (Fig. 3-2). Groups of 125 termit es consisting of 45 soldiers, 60 workers [3rd instar] and 20 larvae [2nd instar] were then introduced to th e arena above the crack. The arena was lidded and sealed with Parafilm M (Pechin ey Plastic Packing, Chicago, IL). Each crack width (n = 3) was evaluated using three termite colonies with three replications per colony, resulting in 27 experimental arenas. The arenas were opened 24 h after setup, and th e numbers of each caste of termites located in the top and the bottom sections were recorded. The termites fr om the top and bottom sections were separated and chilled in a refrigerator for ~30 minutes before measuring. The termites head capsule width, length, and depth were measured us ing a dissecting microscope with a calibrated ocular micrometer. Data Analysis In the test arena to evaluate penetration and consumption th e percentage of the termites that passed through each crack width and survivorsh ip in the arena were arcsine transformed and analyzed with two-way analysis of variance, ( P = 0.05; SAS 2001), with termite colony and crack width as main effects, and were separate d with Student-Newman Ke uls (SNK). The effect

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39 of crack width and termite colony consumption (gm) filter paper total and filter paper on bottom of arena were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), ( P = 0.05; SAS 2001). Quantiles of the head capsule width and de pth for each caste were determined using univariate analysis (SAS 2001) for the total pop ulation of termites and termites found below the crack. Also for the soldier and worker termites located on the bottom of the Petri-dish a linear regression was performed to determine the relati onship of maximum head capsule measurements (length, width, and depth) and the termites abil ity to pass through three crack widths to the bottom of the arena. Results Effect of Crack Width on Penetr ation and Consumption by Caste Termites began tunneling immediately after intr oduction to the top of the arena and lived to the end of the test with no significant morta lity. Survivorship for each caste averaged 96% for larvae, 97% for workers, and 99% for soldiers The percentage (number) of termites passing through a crack increased as the crack width increas ed (Table 3-1). No termites were able to pass through the smallest crack widths of 406 and 508 m. Only one larva was able to pass through the crack width of 610 um. The mini mum width opening permitting functional access by each caste was 711 m for workers and larvae and 813 m for soldiers. The dimensions of 711 and 813 m did restrict movement of caste members because the proportion of each caste that passed through these dimensions were signif icantly less than those passing through gaps of 991 m or greater. Crack widths of 610 m and less that pr evented penetration by termite workers subsequently prevented feeding on the bottom of th e arena (Table 3-1). There was significantly more paper consumed, total and in the botto m of the arena, for crack dimensions 711 m

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40 compared to crack dimensions 610 m. There was no significant difference in paper consumed, total or in the bottom of the arena, for cracks from 710 5,000 m in width, even though a significantly lower proportion of workers were found in the bottom arenas with crack widths of 711 and 813 m. Effect Termite Head Capsule Dimens ion on Penetration Through Cracks Termite groups placed in the Petri-dish arena immediately began to move about the arena seeking a more hospitable environment. Termites were given two options, to stay on the surface with no food or protection above the crack or to pass through the crack (711, 813, and 991 m) in search of food and protection. Linear regressi on analysis of termite head capsule dimensions (length, width, and depth) of termites able to pass through the three cr ack widths indicated a positive relationship between crack width and h ead capsule dimensions for both solders and workers (Figure 3-3 and 3-4, respectively). As crack width increased, the maximum head capsule dimension of termites that passed through the crack also increased. The head capsule dimension of depth, compared to length and widt h, had the best correlation to crack width, with r2 values of 0.96 for soldiers and 0.92 for workers. Greater than 75% of the soldiers (Fig. 3-5, A) and 50% of the workers (Fig. 3-6, A) had head capsule widths greater than the width of th e crack that they passed through. In contrast, the head depth of 100% soldiers (Fig. 3-5, B) and workers (3-6, B) was always to 991 or 813 m wide cracks they passed through. A low percentage of soldiers (10%) a nd workers (25%) with head depths greater than 711 m were able to pa ss through cracks of this width. No larvae had head capsule depths larger than the most narrow crack width of 711 m (Fig. 3-7, B), so smaller width cracks would need to be tested to evalua te penetration by larvae. These data further

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41 confirm that head capsule depth is the best predic tor of a termites ability to penetrate fixed crack widths. Discussion Previous studies have identified the termite h ead capsule width, not de pth, as a significant factor in the termite being able to penetrate through physical barriers (Su et al. 1991, Lenz and Runko 1994, Grace et al. 1996, Toutountzis 2006). Su et al. (1991) suggested that one colony of C. formosanus was not able to move through the inters titial space of large particles forming a uniform particle barrier because the workers a nd soldiers had a large head capsule width (1.4 mm). Termi-Mesh is marine grade stainless steel wi re screen (ABSAC 1992, Lentz & Runko 1994) which is embedded in concrete during constr uction to form a physical barrier to termites (AS 1995). Grace et al. (1996) found that the Termi-Mesh screen with a rectangular aperture size of 660 by 450 m was able to exclude Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki from all test units. Another study found that smaller termites, such as Heterotermes vagus (Hill) workers with a head width of ~0.76 mm, were able to pass th rough the small Termi-Mesh screen (Lentz and Runko 1994), perhaps by aligning the head capsule to the largest dimensio n of the rectangular aperture, the hypotenuse measuring ~799 m. Our study determined the termite head depth, not head width, is the limiting factor in determini ng a termites ability to pass through the small cracks of fixed width. Our study findings concur with previous r ecommendations that no cracks greater than 0.396 mm (1/64 inch) should be present in the foundation and between masonry units (Anonymous 1980). Our study also s upports previous reports that te rmites can penetrate cracks that are 0.794 mm (1/32 inch) wide (St. George et al. 1960). Our conclusions were based on head capsule measurements for R. flavipes workers and soldiers, whic h were consistent with those previously reporte d. Banks (1946) documented R. flavipes soldiers have a head capsule

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42 lengths of 1.7-2.3 mm, head cap sule widths of 1.0-1.3 mm, and head depths of 0.85-1.1 mm. Similar soldier head capsule measurements for R. flavipes were also found by Scheffrahn and Su (1994) and Thorne et al. (1997). The mean mo rphological worker head capsule measurements collected from four field colonies of R. flavipes, were head length of 1.2 mm and width of 1.0 mm (Su et al. 1991). Our study found that termites consumed significantly less filter paper in arenas where they were confined to the top of the arena (~40 mg) than in arenas where termites accessed the top and bottom through the crack (~64 mg). Cornelius (2003) found that R. flavipes wood consumption rates were greater on large blocks of wood than on small blocks of wood. Similar results were found when food consumption rates we re measured for different combinations of wood volume and termite group size. Lentz et al. (2003) found that subterranean termites, R. speratus (Kolbe), consumed 20% more when provided a food source that was 75% larger in size. These studies as well as this study support the concept that subterranean termites vary their feeding in response available resources. Anot her plausible explanati on for the greater filter paper consumption is that the energy expens e of establishing a new tunnel network was compensated for by consuming more filter paper. Even though the proportion of termite worker s passing through crack widths of 711 and 813 m were significantly less than those in th e 991 and 5,000 m crack wi dth arenas, the total consumption of the filter paper was not significantly different in arenas with crack width ranging from 711 to 5,000 m. This suggests that, fo r the 711 and 813 m crack width arenas, the worker termites able to reach the bottom of the arena effici ently transferred larger amounts of food to nestmates confined to th e top of the arena. Therefore, any crack between roughly 700

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43 and 900 m in width will most lik ely allow damaging levels of w ood consumption in a structure, in spite of the pa rtial exclusion of R. flavipes workers and almost total exclusion of soldiers. The ability of subterranean termites to find cracks depends on their foraging behavior. Campora and Grace (2001) as well as, Puche and Su (2001a) observed a systematic pattern of tunneling regardless of the presence or absence of a food source in foraging sites. Puche and Su (2001c) determined that both Coptotermes formosanus and R. flavipes could not detect wood in a test chamber and did not alter their tunneling to inte rcept the wood discs. Another study by Puche and Su (2001b) determined that popula tion density of subterranean termites, C. formosanus and R. flavipes had no effect on the overall comp lexity of the tunnel network and tunnels were generally straight. It has been shown that termite tunneling is influenced by guidelines and passageways (Pitts-Singer a nd Forschler 2000, Swoboda and Miller 2004). Because tunneling is a necessary component of finding new resources, termites tunneling beneath a concrete slab can use cracks as foragi ng guidelines. Therefor e, it is essential to attempt to eliminate as many cracks as possibl e in structure foundati ons to build out subterranean termites and prevent ec onomic loss due to termite damage.

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44Table 3-1. Percentage of termite castes loca ted on the bottom of the arena that passe d through various crack widths and consump tion of filter paper by termites in arena at 5 d. Crack width (m) % SE Termite castes located on the bottom Mean SE filter paper consumption (mg) Workers Larvae Soldiers Total (top and bottom) Bottom < 508 0 0.0 0.0d 0 0.0 0.0c 0 0.0 0.0b 39.8 0.0b 0 0.0 0.0b 610 0 0.0 0.0d 0 0.3 0.3c 0 0.0 0.0b 37.3 0.0b 0 0.0 0.0b 711 34.7 6.1c 38.0 8.1b 0 0.0 0.0b 61.5 0.0a 37.8 0.0a 813 53.9 3.6b 30.7 8.5b 11.1 8.5b 62.9 0.0a 39.2 0.0a 991 64.1 3.2a 67.8 4.8a 72.2 9.9a 64.4 0.0a 39.5 0.0a 5,000 73.4 5.4a 80.2 8.5a 69.4 8.7a 69.0 0.0a 39.6 0.0a Means within a column followed by the same letter ar e not significantly different (Student-Neuman-Keuls, P = 0.05, SAS Institute 2001).

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45 Figure 3-1. Termite caste location and consumption test arena.

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46 Figure 3-2. Head capsule Petri-dish test arena.

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47 y = 0.9137x + 65.906 r2 = 0.9634 y = 1.407x 11.269 r2 = 0.6805 y = 1.3102x + 621.13 r2 = 0.823 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 70075080085090095010001050 Crack Width (um)Head Capsule (um) Depth Width Length Figure 3-3. Linear regression co mparing the maximum soldier head capsule measurements (length, width, and depth) ab le to pass through the thre e crack widths (711, 813, and 911 m) for each of the three termite colonies.

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48 y = 0.5577x + 322.43 r2 = 0.9277 y = 1.2248x + 108.77 r2 = 0.6506 y = 0.8915x + 351.53 r2 = 0.5564 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 70075080085090095010001050 Crack Width (um)Head Capsule (um) Depth Width Length Figure 3-4. Linear regression co mparing the maximum worker head capsule measurements (length, width, and depth) ab le to pass through the thre e crack widths (711, 813, and 911 m) for each of the three termite colonies.

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49 Figure 3-5. Quantiles of soldier head capsule width (A) and depth (B) measurements of the total population and the termites able to pa ss through the cracks of 711, 813, and 991 m.

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50 Figure 3-6. Quantiles of worker head capsule widt h (A) and depth (B) measurements of the total population and the termites ab le to pass through the cracks of 711, 813, and 991 m.

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51 Figure 3-7. Quantiles of larval head capsule widt h (A) and depth (B) measurements of the total population and the termites able to pa ss through the cracks of 711, 813, and 991 m.

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52 CHAPTER 4 METHODS TO PREVENT PENETRATION OF CONCRETE-PIPE INTERFACES BY THE EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Introduction Subterranean termites in North America typica lly nest in the ground and enter structures either around the foundation perimeter or next to pipe penetrations. Termites cannot penetrate concrete, so the foundation can act as a physical barrier to entry in to the structure (Lentz et al. 1997) provided there are no cracks or other hidden termite entry points due to construction design. It has been shown that termite tunneli ng is influenced by guidelines and passageways (Pitts-Singer and Forschler 2000, Swoboda and Miller 2004). Therefore pipes beneath structures may guide termite movement into buildings thro ugh plumbing penetrations in the foundation. Pipes for plumbing and utilities are placed duri ng the initial construction phase before the slab is poured. An average slab-on-grade foundation has multiple pipe penetrations using several pipes typically composed of metal (copper) or pl astics (chlorinated polyv inyl chloride [CPVC] and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]). Copper pipes ar e required by the current international building code (IBC 2006) to have pipe sleeving on pipe sec tions that penetrate and contact the slab to protect the pipe from corrosion and abrasion. Protective pipe sleev ing is recommended by building codes (FBC 2004, IBC 2006) and the CPVC pipe manufacturer (L ubrizol 2007). No pipe sleeving is required or r ecommended for PVC pipe (IBC 2006). The most common termiticide treatment for termite prevention at new construction is chemical treatment of the soil using a repellent or non-repellent termiticide. Chemical termiticide treatment around critical areas, such as plumbing, must extend 30 cm (1ft) below the sand-slab interface and is applied at a higher volume than elsewhere in the structure. Repellent termiticides can act as a chemical barrier (Tam ashiro et al. 1987, Jones 1990, Smith and Rust 1990, Su and Scheffrahn 1990a, Grace 1991) provided there are no gaps in the treatment.

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53 Lubrizol (2007) recommends that CPVC pipe sleeving extends at least 30 cm (1ft) below the slab, the same depth as the required termiticide tr eatment around critical areas. This could result in the soil around the bottom opening of the pipe sleeve containing rela tively little or no termiticide. Termites foraging along the pipes co uld then enter the structure through the pipe sleeve, protected from any contact with the termiticide treatment. Termite infestations originating at gaps around pipe penetrations through the conc rete slabs may go undetected long enough to result in significant da mage to structures (AS 1995). In addition to liquid termiticides, the US pe st control industry currently has used two commercial products that may potentially prev ent termite entry through gaps around pipe penetrations through slabs: Termimes h (Termimesh Australia Pty Ltd Australia) and Impasse Termite Blocker (Syngenta Crop Protec tion, Inc., Greensboro, NC). Termimesh, a stainless steel mesh with an aperture of 660 by 450 m, has been documented to prevent termites from entering through gaps in slab over whic h the mesh is attached (ABSAC 1992, Lentz and Runko 1994). Impasse Termite Blocker, herein refe rred to as termite blocker, contains the repellent termiticide lamda-cyhalothrin sealed between two thick layers of construction-grade polymer, which prevents termites from chewing through the polymer (Su et al. 2004). Both products must be secured around pipes or other conduit before the concrete slab is poured, sealing the products into the foundation of the structure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of physical and chemical products and their installation methods for preventing term ite access along pipe pene trations to the upper surface of a concrete slab. The factors evaluated with typical plumbing were pipe sleeve length and composition in combination with soil te rmiticide treatment and termite blocker.

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54 Materials and Methods Termites Eastern subterranean termites, R. flavipes were field collected using traps from several locations in Gainesville, FL. A trap consisted of a 6-liter plastic buc ket inserted below ground with its lid accessible above the soil surface. Each bucket was filled with 2-3 moistened corrugated cardboard rolls (15 cm long by 10 cm diam .; Gainesville Paper Co., Gainesville, FL). Termites accessed cardboard rolls through ~10 hol es (4-cm diam.) on the sides and bottom of each bucket. Cardboard rolls containing termite s were collected and returned to the lab. Termites were removed from the cardboard and rear ed at room temperatur e (~23C) in plastic boxes (27 by 19 by 9.5 cm) with moistened cardboard for 2 wk before inclusion in the experimental arenas. The laboratory maintained termites used in the experiment were gently shaken from clean cardboard, weighed, and th en inspected to confirm that there was approximately a 1:100 soldier:worker ratio. Pipe Sleeve Experiment Pipe Sleeve Treatments Dry builders sand (0.04 m3) was treated with TalstarOne (Bifenthrin, FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA) diluted 8.7 ml in 5.6 L tap water to obtain the maximum label concentration of 0.12% a.i. The termiticide-treated sand was mi xed in a cement mixer for 15 minutes, spread over a plastic tarp, and air-dried to allow termiticide to bind to the sand. A new termiticide mixture was prepared for each replicate. Untr eated control sand was prepared in the same manner as the termiticide sand mixtures but using only tap water. All sand was remoistened (10% moisture wt:wt) immediately prior to use in the experiment. Five treatment configurations of CPVC pipes (Flowguard, Noveon, Inc., Cleveland, OH) (60 cm long, 2.2 cm OD [3/4 in.]) were evaluated. Pipes were installed w ithout pipe sleeving or

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55 wrapped in two lengths, 20 cm or 50 cm, of sl eeving consisting of either foam (FosterKing, Thermwell Product Co., Inc., Mahwah, NJ) or po lyethylene (Great Ba y Productions, Inc. St. Petersburg, FL). Pipe Sleeve Experimental Arena The experimental arena (Figur e 4-1) was constructed by cappi ng a PVC tube (61 cm long x 15.3 cm diam.) and adding 5 cm of dry build ers sand. A CPVC pipe (60 cm long, 2.2 cm OD [3/4 in.]), with or without pipe sleeving, was embedded in th e sand. Concrete (Quickrete concrete mix #1101, Atlanta, GA) poured on top of the sand around the CPVC pipe created a slab 15.3 cm diam. by 10 cm height. After the co ncrete dried, the PVC tube arena was inverted and the sand was removed. The CPVC pipe pene trated through the cente r of the slab, extending 5 cm above slab and 45 cm below the slab. Pipe sleeves were trimmed to be flush with the upper slab surface and to extend either 20 cm or 50 cm below the slab. Temporary wax paper wrappings were used to prevent contaminati on of non-treated arena surfaces and the space between the CPVC pipe and sl eeve when treated sand was adde d. The wax paper was wrapped inside the lower 15 cm of the PVC tube distal to the concre te and around the bottom of the CPVC pipe and sleeves. Moistened sand treated with termiticide or water only was added to the PVC tube and extended ~30 cm below the concrete sl ab. This resulted in short pipe sleeves (20 cm) being contained within the termiticide treatm ent and the long pipe sleeves (50 cm) extending below the termiticide treatment. About 15 cm of untreated moistened builders sand was then added to fill the PVC tube. A preweighed, corrugated cardboard (8 cm2) was placed on the moistened untreated sand. Termites (10 g, ~2500 workers and 25 soldiers), were introduced on top of the cardboard. After termites tunneled into the sand, the bottom end of the tube was capped. Another pre-weighed corrugated cardboa rd disk (15.25 cm diam.) was placed around

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56 the pipe on the top of the slab and the concrete -slab end was of the t ube capped. The arenas were stored horizontally for 4 weeks at room temperature (~23C and ~55% RH). The ten treatments (5 CPVC pipe sleeve conf igurations x 2 sand tr eatments) were each replicated four times using a different term ite colony for each replicate for a total of 40 experimental units and ~100,000 termites. The h eadspace above the concrete slab containing the cardboard disc in each arena was inspected for the presence of te rmites after 24 h and at weekly intervals thereafter. Arenas were disassembled after 4 weeks. All pre-weighed cardboard disks were removed, oven dried (40 C for 24 h) and re -weighed to calculate c onsumption by termites. The sand and sleeves below the concrete slab of the arena were checked for presence of live termites. Termite Blocker Experiment Treatments Termite blocker (1.9 cm [ in.]) was insta lled according to manufacturer specifications around either CPVC or copper pipe (15.5 cm lon g, 2.2 cm OD [ in.]) (Fig. 4-2). The pipes were sealed at both ends with pipe caps. The termite blocker consisted of a semi-rigid plastic collar (6.5 cm long) which fit snugly along the pipe shaft and completely encircled it. A 2.5-cm flange extended at a 90 angle completely ar ound the middle of the collar. The flange was designed to extend into the concrete to block the gaps between the pipe and cement. The flanges were centered 7.75 cm from the ends of the pipe pieces and the collar secu red with two cable-ties above the flange. Control CPVC and copper pipe s were cut and capped for use without termite blockers. After installation of the termite blockers, CPVC and copper pipe were wrapped with either foam sleeving (FosterKing, Thermwell Product C o., Inc., Mahwah, NJ) or polyethylene sleeving (Great Bay Productions, Inc. St. Pe tersburg, FL). The foam or pol yethylene sleeves were cut in

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57 two 7.25 cm lengths and installed above and below the termite blocker flange. For pipes without termite blocker, sleeves were 15.5 cm long. Becau se CPVC pipes can be used in construction without sleeving, CPVC pipes were also evaluated with no pipe sleeves and no termite blocker. Termite Blocker Experimental Arena The experimental arenas were designed to represent typical plumbing penetrations through the concrete slab and vapor barriers (Fig. 4-2) The arena was constructed by placing an open plastic container (240 ml; 7.4 cm height) in the ce nter of a 6-liter plasti c bucket (20 cm diam.; 19.5 cm height), then filling th e bucket and plastic container w ith sand to 1.5 cm below the top opening of the plastic container. A 10 cm diamet er plastic vapor barrier (6-mil), with a central cross-cut to allow the pipe penetration, was pl aced flush on top of the sand in the plastic container. The lip of the plastic container extended 1.5 cm above the vapor barrier. Pipe treatments with and without termite blocker we re pushed into the sand through the cross cut in the vapor barrier, centered inside the plastic container so pipe s would extend 2.75 cm into the sand. Concrete (Quickrete c oncrete mix #1101, Atlanta, GA) was poured on top of the vapor barrier to a depth of 10 cm, embedding the termite blocker and lip of the plastic container and leaving 2.75 cm of the pipe exposed above the slab surface. For the five arenas with CPVC with no pipe sleeve and no termite blocker, a 20-cm l ong rod (1 by 4 mm) was installed adjacent to the pipe to simulate a temporary pipe support ty pically used during a conc rete pour. The rod was removed before the concrete dried to leave an open channel adjacent to the CPVC pipe, a common occurrence in current cons truction practices. After the c oncrete dried, the bucket and supporting sand were remove d from all treatments. The arenas were temporally inverted and a 6cm diam. hole was cut into the bottom of the plastic container. The dry sand in the plasti c containers was replaced with 400 g builders sand (10% moisture), and cardboard (8 cm2) was added as a food source. Termites, (4.2 g, ~1000

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58 workers:10 soldiers) collected fr om one location in Gainesville, FL, were introduced onto the cardboard. The hole was plugged an d the arena was inverted. W ood blocks were placed under the concrete slabs extending outsi de the plastic container to stab ilize the arenas in the upright position on the laboratory counter. Pipe sleeves we re trimmed flush to th e top of the concrete slab. An additional food source of a moistened, pre-weighed corrugated cardboard disk (10 cm diam.) was placed around the pipe on top of the concrete slab. To prevent moisture loss, a plastic container (240 ml; 7.4 cm height) was in verted over the pipe and cardboard on the concrete surface. The cardboard was moistene d as needed throughout the experiment period. The nine treatments (2 pipes x 2 pipe sl eeves x 2 blocker + CPVC pipe only) were replicated five times. Arenas were checked dail y for eight weeks to document the date that any termites were present above the slab. The arenas were disassembled after 8 wk. The preweighed cardboard disks on the concrete surface were removed, oven dried (40C for 24 h), and re-weighed to calculate consumption by termites. Data Analysis In pipe sleeve length experiments, the number of experimental arenas where termites were able to access the moist cardboard above th e concrete, and cardboard consumption (g), calculated from the dry cardboard weights before and after the assays, were analyzed with oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), ( P = 0.05; SAS 2001). In addition, a t -test compared termite slab penetration and cardboard consumption in treated and untreated sand fo r each combination of pipe sleeve length and composition (SAS 2001). For the termite blocker experiment, the day of first appearance of termites above the slab and cardboard consumption were also analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), ( P = 0.05; SAS 2001). A t -test

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59 compared arenas having termite blocker and pipe treatments to arenas without termite blocker and the same pipe treatments (SAS 2001). Results Pipe Sleeve Experiment On the bottom of the arena, termites consumed an average of 2 g (~83%) of the cardboard during the 28-day experimental period. There was no significant difference in consumption of the cardboard placed on the bottom in arenas treat ed with the repellent termiticide compared the untreated to arenas ( F = 2.29; df = 1; P = 0.1385), or with different sleeve composition (no sleeve, foam, and polyethylene) and sleeve length (short [20 cm] and long [50 cm]) ( F = 0.84; df = 4; P = 0.5093). Termites in the bottom of both termiticide treated and untreated arenas were active and healthy at the end of the 28-day experimental period. The concrete poured in the experiments did not show any visible eviden ce of shrinkage or cracking around the pipe treatment penetrations on top of or belo w the slab after arenas were disassembled for inspection. The pipe treatmen ts with sleeves were easily pulled from the concrete slab, however, the pi pes without a sleeve were s nugly fixed to the concrete. At no time did the termites gain access the top of the concrete slab in arenas without pipe sleeves in either the termiticide -treated or untreated arenas. The sleeveless CPVC pipe was completely imbedded in the concrete slab with no gaps for termites to access the surface of the concrete. The termites were not able to access th e surface of the concrete therefore they did not consume the cardboard on the surface (Table 4-1). When termites were able to access the top of the concrete thr ough the annular space between the pipe sleeve (foam and polyethylene ) and pipe, they deposited frass, chewed cardboard, and sand on this surface and the adjacent PVC wall (Figs. 4-3A, B). Arenas in which

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60 termites were unable to access the top of the conc rete did not have frass and chewed cardboard on this surface (Figs. 4-3C, D). Short (20-cm) foam or polyethylene pipe sleev es terminated within the termiticide-treated sand and were not damaged by termites (Figs. 4-4, 4-5). Termites were confined to the bottom of the arena below the treated sand due to the presence of the repellent termiticide and were unable to access or consume the car dboard on top of the concrete (T able 4-1). In the untreated arenas, termites were able to tunnel into the sa nd directly below the conc rete, access and damage the 20-cm foam pipe sleeves (Fig. 4-4). The da mage was concentrated in the upper part of the foam pipe sleeves at the concrete-pipe sleeve in terface. Polyethylene slee ves, regardless of the termiticide treatment or length, were not damaged by termites (Fig. 4-5). In arenas with 20-cm sleeves in untreated sand, the termites tunneled into the annula r space between the sleeve and pipe, and consumed the cardboard on the surface of the concrete in the first 24 h (Table 4-1). In arenas with 20-cm sleeves, there was significa ntly more cardboard consumed on the surface of the concrete in untreated sand compared with that of termiticide-treated sand (Table 4-1). Long (50-cm) foam or polyethylene pipe sl eeves passed through the termiticide-treated sand and terminated in the untreated sand (Figs. 44, 4-5). Termites were not able to tunnel into the termiticide-treated sand. Inst ead, termites tunneled in the a nnular space between the CPVC pipe and sleeve interface that terminated in the untreated sand, and thereby access and consume the cardboard on top of the concrete (Table 4-1) In both the termiticide-treated and untreated arenas, the damage to the 50-cm foam sleeve was c oncentrated in the upper part of the foam pipe sleeve at the concrete-pipe sleeve interface (Fi g. 4-4). There was no damage to polyethylene sleeves (Fig. 4-5). Termites accessed and consum ed the cardboard on the surface of the concrete in both termiticide-treated and untreated arenas in the first 24 h (Table 4-1). In arenas having 50-

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61 cm sleeves, the consumption of cardboard on the surface of the concrete was not significantly different in termiticide-treated and untreated arenas (Table 4-1). Termite Blocker Experiment When termites were released into the moiste ned sand, they began to tunnel and explore the arenas. The cardboard squares at the bottom of th e arena were not weighe d; however, at the end of the experiment, part of this cardboard was co nsumed and the termites appeared to be healthy. Termites reached the top of the concrete slab of the arenas on average between 2.2 and 3.6 days in all treatments having no termite blocker, whereas no termites reached the top of the slab in any termite blocker treatment ( F = 15.93; df = 8; P <0.0001). The difference in cardboard disk consumption in pipe sleeve treatments with and without termite blocker was significant (Ttest; T = 18.97; df = 38; P < 0.0001). Termites consumed an av erage of 1.3 0.1 g cardboard in all experimental arenas without termite blocker compared to no consumption of the cardboard disk in the termite blocker treatments (Fig. 4-6). There was no signi ficant difference in cardboard disk consumed between tr eatments without termite blocker ( F = 0.5; df = 4; P = 0.7382). Termites caused observable damage to the fo am insulation, tunneling into the foam pipe sleeves and removing foam. Termites also move d sand and fecal matter in their tunnels in the foam pipe sleeves. In arenas with foam pipe sleeves and termite blocker, damage to the foam pipe sleeve only occurred below the termite bl ocker flange. The termite blocker flange prevented passage of termites; therefore, termite s were unable to damage the pipe sleeve above the flange. In arenas that had foam pipe sleeve treatments and no termite blocker, the foam pipe sleeve was extensively damaged by termite tunne ling. Termites caused no damage to the polyethylene pipe sleeve material.

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62 In arenas that had termite blocker, the fla nge imbedded in the concrete and the secure collar around the pipe prevented termites from a ccessing the slab surface. However, when the termite blocker was not installed, the termites constructed trails a nd shelter tubes in the annular space between the pipes and the sleeves that extended from the sand to the surface of the concrete. This tunneling behavior of lining the walls with sand and fecal matter was also observed in arenas with no termite blocker and no pipe sleeves, which ha d a hole created in the concrete with a rod. The concrete poured in the experiments did not show any visible eviden ce of shrinkage or cracking around the pipe treatmen t penetrations on the top of th e concrete slab. As in the previous experiment, the pipe treatments with sleeves could easily be pulled from the concrete slab, but the pipe treatments with termite blocker or without a sleeve were snugly fixed to the concrete. Discussion The pipe sleeve assays demonstrated that pipe sleeve length had a significant effect on termite movement through sand treated with a repellent termiticide and subsequent consumption of cardboard on the surface of the concrete. Ho wever, pipe sleeve composition and pipe type had no significant effect. Bifenthrin, a repellent termiticide, was effective in preventing termite passage through the slab, provided the pipe sleeve did not extend be low the treated sand. If the pipe sleeve extended below the treated sand, the termiticide treatment was bypassed by the termites. This indicates that both foam and pol yethylene sleeves are rela tively impervious to termiticide, providing a protected route for term ites to tunnel through and effectively avoid termiticide-treated sand. Su et al. (1990a and 1993b) and Gahlhoff a nd Koehler (2001) found that subterranean termites were unable to tunnel thr ough sand treated with bifenthrin in laboratory tube tests.

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63 Powell (2000) determined that termites were able to detect sand treated with repellent termiticides and avoided the treated zone and access a food source through gaps in termiticide treatment in the sand. In our study, termites were also able to avoid the termiticide-treated sand and utilized the pipe as a guideline and the pipe sleeve as protection from the termiticide-treated sand. The protected environment within the pipe sleeve gave termites access to the surface when the pipe sleeve extended belo w the termiticide-treated sand. Critical areas within a structur e that are hidden from termite inspections include any pipe penetrations through a slab with pipe sleeving that may extend below termiticide-treated sand. Our study identified two commonly used pipe sl eeves (foam and polyethylene) that allowed termite access to the surface of the slab when the pipe sleev es extended beyond the termiticidetreated sand. When the pipe sleeves terminated within the termiticide-treated sand, the termites were unable to access the surface of the slab. Termites are known to follow natural guideline s in the soil, tunneling along objects like tree roots in search of food (P itts-Singer and Forschler 2000, Campora and Grace 2001). This behavior may easily be adapted to pipes and pipe sleeves, so a longer pipe sleeve penetrating into untreated sand can give termites a guide to follow into the structure. The termite blocker prevented termites from acce ssing the surface of the slab in all arenas in our experiments. When installed properly, te rmite blocker is embedded into the concrete and secured to the pipes, like Termimesh, to pr event termite access. In a field study, it was determined that Heterotermes spp ., a small species of subterranean termite, was able to squeeze through the screen openings of Termimesh (Lentz and Runko 1994). In contrast, Impasse Termite Blocker is a solid 2-layer membrane impregnated with lamda-cyhalothrin which is completely impenetrable to termites of any size (Su et al. 2004). Our study also showed that the

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64 presence of termite blocker, regardless of pi pe and sleeve type, prevents slab penetration by termites and subsequent above-s lab consumption of cardboard. Protective measures are important for preventing termite entry in to structures via pipe slab penetrations. A properly installed pipe sleeve that does not extend below the termiticide-treated sand or termite blocker embedded in the conc rete around the pipe both provides reliable protection. Current construction codes should be modified to re quire that pipe sleeves do not extend more than 20-cm below the slab and must terminate in the termiticide-treated zone. This would prevent termites tunneling in side sleeves to bypass the termiticide treatments. In addition, termite blocker could be used as a benefici al supplemental treatment when sand surrounding plumbing penetrations is not treated with a soil termiticide.

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65Table 4-1. Effect of pipe sleeve compositi on and length and termiticide treatment on Mean consumption (g) of cardboard ( SE) o n top of the concrete slab by termites. Sleeve Termiticide-treateda Untreatedb Composition Length c TermitesdConsumption (g) SE Termitesd Consumption (g) SE t df P -no sleeve 0.00 0.00b 0.00 0.00b 6 foam short 0.00 0.00b + 2.54 0.26a 9.60 6 < 0.0001 long + 2.40 0.25a + 2.48 0.27a 0.20 6 0.8462 polyethylene short 0.00 0.00b + 2.39 0.41a 5.86 6 0.0011 long + 2.75 0.21a + 2.58 0.50a -0.27 6 0.7974 Consumption is in g. Means within a column followed by the same letter are not signi ficantly different. (Student-Neuman-Keuls Means Separation, P = 0.05, SAS Institute 2001). A t -test compared data within a row. n = 4 replicates. a Termiticide-treated sand prepared with TalstarOne SNK termiticide-treated; F = 91.11, df = 4, P = <0.0001, b Untreated sand prepared with tap water, SNK untreated; F = 11.29, df = 4, P = 0.0002, c Short = 20 cm; long = 50 cm, d Termites able to access concrete surface.

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66 Figure 4-1. Pipe sleeve experimental arena.

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67 Figure 4-2. Termite blocker experimental arena.

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68 Figure 4-3. Top view of typica l pipe sleeve experiment aren as at 28 d. A) and B) are representative arenas where termites reached the t op of the concrete. C) and D) are representative arenas were termites could not access the top of the concrete.

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69 Figure 4-4. Foam pipe sleeves exposed to eastern subterranean termites for 28 d in termiticidetreated and untreated arenas. Arrows i ndicate location of termite surface damage.

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70 Figure 4-5. Polyethylene pipe sleeves exposed to eastern subterranean termites for 28 d in termiticide-treated and untreated arenas.

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71 1.4 1.21 1.3 1.35 1.48 0 0.5 1 1.5 Copper & Foam Copper & Polyethelene CPVC & FoamCPVC & Polyethelene CPVC & No SleeveConsumption (g) Figure 4-6. Mean cardboard consumption (g) ( SE) after 8 wk by termites in arenas without termite blocker around copper and CPVC pipes, with or without fo am or polyethylene sleeves.

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72 CHAPTER 5 DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO EV ALUATE THE EFFECTS OF EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE DAMAGE TO TH E THERMAL PROPERTI ES OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS Introduction Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) is a species of subter ranean termite well known in North America for the damage it causes to homes and ot her buildings. The damage is most commonly thought of in terms of weakening a structure, ma king infested areas prone to collapse (Harris 1965, Johnston et al. 1979). Water damage is also associated with these te rmites, as they bring moisture from the soil into th eir galleries within the struct ure (Hickin 1971, Grube and Rudolph 1999b). One aspect of damage that has been overlooked is the change in the thermal properties of a structure after infestation by subte rranean termites. This is a con cern in any structure built in a climate that varies from the comfortable human range of ca. 20-25oC. Materials damaged by subterranean termites are typically filled with galleries or, in the case of wood, laminar spaces where spring wood has been eaten away (For schler 1999b). These spaces may facilitate the transfer of heat thr ough a material, compromising the materi als capacity fo r insulation. If material in an exterior wall is compromised, it will cost more to maintain a comfortable temperature range within the structure. In this wa y, termite damage can be even more costly than is generally believed. In most American homes, exterior walls of structures are often made up of cellulosic materials, such as the structural lumber (e .g., 2x4) and siding material (e.g., 5-ply plywood). These two building materials are the most common exterior wall components in use that termites are capable of consuming. Anothe r class of building material highl y relevant to thermal transfer is insulation (e.g., rigid foam board). While most types of insulation are co mposed of plastics or

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73 fiberglass, and thus cannot const itute a food source for termites, the soft texture found in many types of insulation makes them easy for the te rmites to tunnel thr ough (Bultman et al. 1972 missing from ref cited; Hickin 1971, NPCA 1993). In fact, the physical qualities of insulation materials confer an appreciable amount of intern al temperature stability, making them an almost ideal habitat for termites. While termites may not be able to effectively consume most types of insulation, they can still tunnel into and cause significant da mage to insulation (Guyette 1994, Smith and Zungoli 1995ab, Ogg, 1997). The first objective of this experiment was to determine the relative damage by subterranean termites to each building materi al. The second objective was to determine differences in the rate of heat transfer and, consequently, temperature change between damaged and undamaged samples of each building material. Materials and Methods Termites. Five colonies of R. flavipes, separated by more than 1.5 km in Gainesville, FL, were field collected in 6-liter plastic bucke ts inserted below ground with th eir lids accessible above the soil surface. Each bucket was filled with 2-3 mois tened corrugated cardboard rolls (15 cm long by 10 cm diam.; Gainesville Paper Co., Gainesville FL). Termites accessed cardboard rolls through ~10 holes (4-cm diam.) in the sides and botto m of each bucket. Cardboard rolls containing termites were collected and returned to the lab in Ziploc bags (3.8-L). Termites were removed from the cardboard by gently separating the corru gated cardboard and allowing the termites to fall into a 20-L plastic bucket. The termites were then pl aced on moistened corrugated cardboard and reared at room temperature (~23C) in plastic boxes (27 by 19 by 9.5 cm) with moistened cardboard for 1 wk before inclusion in experimental ar enas. Worker termites of at least 3rd

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74 instar were aspirated into groups of 300 worker s with a 1% soldier population for use in the experiments. Termite Damage to Cons truction Materials. Three building construction materials were tested: pine 2x4s, 5-ply plywood, and rigid foam board insulation. The 2x4s were cut across the grain to a thickness of 1.27 cm [ inch]. Five-ply plywood and rigid foam insulation had a thickness of 1.2 cm [15/32 inch] and 1.9 cm [3/4 inch], respectively. Each material was cut into square samples (4 x 4 cm) for exposure to termites. The building mate rials were oven-dried at 40 C for 24 h and pre-weighed. Moistened sand (10% water content) was ev enly distributed inside a 0.74 L plastic container (GladWare; Glad Products Co., Oakla nd, CA). A sample of building material was placed on a linoleum square (7.5 x 7.5 cm) on the surface of the sand. The linoleum provided a barrier between the moistened sand and the building material. Termites were placed on the moistened sand next to the linoleum and the building material. Lids were placed on the containers, which were stored in the laboratory at ~23C. Cont rol arenas containing no termites were prepared in the same manner. The arenas were opened 8 wk after setup. Sa nd and termites were brushed off the surface of the building materials and galleries. Bu ilding materials were th en oven dried at 40 C for 24 h and re-weighed to calculate termite damage. A digital image of each building material sample was taken to record the visible damage caused by termites. An experimental unit was defined as a pl astic arena with a building material, sand, linoleum, and 300 termites. Each building mate rial (n=3) was evaluated using five termite colonies with five replications per colony. The experiment had an equal number of control units with no termites, resulting in a tota l of 150 experimental units tested.

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75 Thermal Imaging. The cleaned and oven dried building material s were photographed usi ng an infrared (IR) thermal imaging camera (FlexCam; Fluke Corp oration. Everett, WA). A tripod held the thermal camera in place ~53 cm above a building mate rial. An enamel container filled with dry sand (2000 g builders sand) was plac ed on a hot plate and heated to 52C. The building materials were tightly fitted to a pre-cut hole in rigid foam insulation square (10 x 10 cm) to minimize the edge effect of heat radiating from the sand and hot plate. The building material, with the rigid foam insulation surrounding it, was placed on the heated builders sand and thermal images were taken at 0.5, 5, 10, and 15 min. During initia l testing, the surface temperature reached equilibrium for the samples during the 15 minutes period. The digital file associated with the image included a thermal map of surface temperatur es for the building material and a record of the minimum, maximum, and average surface temperatures. Data Analysis. Percent damage from preand post-exposure we ights of each sample of building material was calculated, arcsine square root transformed, analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and means separated with SNK ( P = 0.05; SAS Institute 2003). Th e initial temperature and the maximum temperature reached during 15 min of heating for each building material was recorded, and the mean temperature increase fo r the upper surface of the building material was calculated. Significant differences in temp erature for damaged and undamaged building materials were determined with Students t -test ( P = 0.01). The percentage increase in temperature of a damaged sample in relation to the temperature of the same material not damaged by termites was calculated.

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76 Results All three building construction materials we re damaged by termites. Termites tunneled into the insulation, removed the plastic, and cau sed significantly more damage, based on weight loss, by tunneling in the insulation than by consuming either the wooden 2x4 or plywood samples (Table 5-1). Plywood samples had signifi cantly less damage than did the other building materials. 2x4s. The rings of lighter, spring wood and darker summer wood were obvious in the visible spectrum images (Fig. 5-1A). However, the ri ngs were not noticeable in the thermal images (Fig. 5-1C) indicating no noticeable difference in heat transfer between spring and summer wood. The thermal images of undamaged 2x4 sample s showed uniform heat transfer through the wood at 0.5, 5, 10, and 15 min with the average surface temperature increasing only 0.5C, from 23.9 to 24.4C in the representative sample (Fig. 5-1C). After 15 min of heating, the undamaged 2x4 sample had a narrow range of temperatures (23.8 to 25.2C) across the surface. Termites ate a mean of 6.7% of each exposed 2x4 sample, causing characteristic damage in the form of distinct la mellar tunnels excavated in the annular rings of the spring wood (Table 51)(Fig. 5-1A). The thermal images of dama ged 2x4 samples showed a greater overall heat transfer compared with undamaged samples. Th ere were distinct localized hot spots in the images of the damaged 2x4s, where heat passed through more rapidly, that coincided with the location of termite tunnels (Fig. 5-1B). Afte r 15 min of heating, the representative damaged 2x4 sample had a wide range of surface temperatures (24.5 to 30.6 C), typical of the samples tested.

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77 The mean temperature for all 2x4 samples was ~24 C at 0.5 min (Table 5-1). After 15 min exposure, the average maximum surface temperatur e reached was 35% greater and significantly more for termite damaged samples (31.0C) compared to undamaged samples (28.8 C). Plywood. Samples of plywood showed fairly wide ba nds of spring and summer wood in the upper layer, indicating a fairly obli que, longitudinal cut across the w ood rings (Fig. 5-2A). Thermal images of the undamaged samples showed almost uniform heat transfer, indicating no noticeable difference in heat transfer for spring and su mmer wood areas of the plywood samples The images showed little rise in temperatur e through 15 min of heating from 23.4 to 23.8 C in the representative sample (Fig.5-2C ), indicating plywood is a good insu lating material. After 15 min of heating, the undamaged representative plywood sa mple had a narrow range of temperatures (23.3 to 25.2 C) across the surface. Termites ate a mean of ~3% of each plywood sample (Table 5-1) (Fig. 5-2A). Rather than excavating tunnels in spring wood as seen in th e 2x4 sample (Fig. 5-1A), the termites tunneled between plywood layers and consum ed portions of the spring wood bands in each layer. The thermal images of damaged plywood showed a gr eater overall heat transfer compared with undamaged samples. The damage was demarcated by increased heat transf er and localized hot spots in the thermal images (Fig. 5-2B). Af ter 15 min of heating, the representative damaged plywood sample had a wider rang e of temperatures (24.0 to 27.2 C) across the surface compared to that of the undamaged sample. For all the plywood samples, the mean temperature at 0.5 min was ~24 C (Table 5-1). After 15 min of heating, the average maximum temperature was 25.7 C for undamaged plywood

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78 and 27.5 C for termite damaged plywood. The increas e in temperature for termite damaged plywood was 74% greater and significantly more than that for undamaged plywood. Rigid Foam Board Insulation. Undamaged samples of rigid foam board insula tion were very homoge nous in appearance. The insulation material of foam was covered by a radiant barrier com posed of kraft paper covered by a thin layer of aluminum. The undama ged sample of rigid foam insulation showed low heat transfer and temperatures were very uniform across the entire surface, as observed in the representative sample (Figure 5-3C). The thermal images of the representative undamaged insulation sample showed an average surface te mperature increase of only 0.4C, from 23.4 to 23.8 C, after 15 min of heating, which was typical of samples tested. Termite-damaged rigid foam insulation was ridd led with extensive termite tunnels (Fig. 53A), lined with soil and fecal material. The tunne ls were more extensive than those seen in the 2x4 or plywood samples, most likely due to the soft nature of the insulation. The radiant barrier had been largely eaten away, exposing the scar ified, pitted foam. The thermal pictures of damaged insulation samples showed a greater degree of temperature variability across the surface of the insulation. The hotspots coinci ded with areas where termites had tunneled and removed the insulation material (Fig. 5-3B). After 15 min of heating, the representative damaged rigid foam insulation had a wide range of surface temperatures (24.2 to 30.0 C) Heat transfer in damaged rigid foam insula tion samples was greatly increased within the extensive tunnel system (Table 5-1). For all th e insulation samples, the mean temperature was ~23C at 0.5 min. After 15 min of heating, th e average maximum surface temperature was 27.4 C for undamaged samples and 28.7 C for damaged samples. The temperature increase was ~27% greater and signif icantly more for damaged insulation compared to undamaged insulation.

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79 Discussion All building materials tested were damaged by termites. There was very little correlation between the percentage damage (% weight loss) of the building material and the percentage increase in surface temperature caused by termite damage. It appeared that intrinsic thermal properties of the construction material and confi guration of termite tunneling were important in determining the increase of ther mal conductivity in relation of weight loss. Plywood samples had the lowest percentage damage caused by term ites and the greatest percentage increase in surface temperature of damaged versus undamage d samples. The temperature increase in damaged and undamaged plywood was the lowest of a ll the materials tested. This indicates that of the undamaged materials tested, plywood was the most resistant to heat flow through it; however, once eaten by termites, plywood was the most thermally damaged. This may be due to the laminar structure of the plywood. Termites tunne led with the grain and between the layers of plywood; however, some tunnels cut through the plywood layers al lowing heat to flow through the material. Consequently, the impact of termite tunneling through the layers was more thermally significant than expected by the amount of wood damage. Not surprisingly, rigid foam insulation was the second-most heat resist ant material tested in its undamaged state. Nonetheless, rigid fo am had greatest weight loss of all the building materials and the termite damage created a networ k of tunnels allowing heat transfer. Termites tunneled throughout the rigid foam board, leaving mu ltiple routes of rapid heat transfer between surfaces of the sample. The significantly greater temperature increa se seen in 2x4 materials in comparison to plywood was due to the cross-sect ional nature of 2x4 samples. Plywood had wood fibers mostly perpendicular to the direction of heat flow; whereas the 2x4 cro ss-sections had the wood fibers mostly parallel to the direction of heat tran sfer assayed. Termites mainly tunneled along the

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80 fibers and within the softer spring wood. These tunnels penetrated the sample allowing heat to flow unobstructed through the sample. As a re sult, small termite wood damage of only 6-7% was responsible for 35% greater increase in temperature in damaged samples compared to undamaged samples. With the increasing cost of energy, houses are be ing built to be more energy efficient using foam insulation as well as wooden components. The impact of termites on the thermal properties of these building materials has been virtually ov erlooked. Our research documented that termites can significantly negatively impact the therma l properties of building construction materials designed to be energy efficient. Our research demonstrates the importance of termite control for home energy conservation.

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81Table 5-1. Percent damage and surface temperature increase for building materials heated for 15-min. Damaged materials were exposed to eastern subterran ean termites (n=300) for 8 wk. Material Damaged/ undamaged % damage Initial temp Mean highest surface temp Temp increasea % temp increaseb 2x4 Undamaged 24.2 0.25 28.8 0.12 4.5 0.24 Damaged 1 6.7 0.75b 24.9 0.24 31.0 0.15* 6.1 0.28* 34.8 Plywood Undamaged 24.1 0.23 25.7 0.15 1.6 0.20 Damaged 1 3.1 0.33c 24.8 0.24 27.5 0.11* 2.7 0.29* 74.0 Insulation Undamaged 23.4 0.04 27.4 0.08 4.0 0.10 Damaged 12.1 1.10a 23.6 0.10 28.7 0.14* 5.1 0.19* 27.1 significant difference between damaged and undamaged ( P = 0.01, Students t -test). a Mean temperature increase at the upper surface of the building material (4 x 4 cm) when lower surface was exposed to hot plate at 52C for 15 min, b % temperature increase = ((damaged [temp increase] undamaged [tem p increase])/undamaged [temp increase]).

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82 Figure 5-1. Images of a 2x4 sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk. A. Visible spectrum images of a damaged 2x4 sample. B. Thermal images of a damaged 2x4 sample heated over 15 min. C. Thermal images of an undamaged 2x4 sample heated over 15 min.

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83 Figure 5-2. Images of a plywood sample after expo sure to 300 termites for 8 wk. A. Visible spectrum images of damaged plywood sample s. B. Thermal images of a damaged plywood sample heated over 15 min. C. Thermal images of an undamaged plywood sample heated over 15 min.

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84 Figure 5-3. Images of a rigid foam insulation sample after exposure to 300 termites for 8 wk. A. Visible spectrum images of a damaged rigi d foam insulation sample. B. Thermal images of a damaged rigid foam insulation sample heated over 15 min. C. Thermal images of an undamaged rigid foam insulation sample heated over 15 min.

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85 CHAPTER 6 EFFECTS OF EASTERN SUBTERRANE AN TERMITE DAMAGE ON THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF COMMON BUILDING MATERIALS Introduction Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) is a species of subterra nean termite well known in North America for the damage it causes to homes and ot her buildings. The damage is most commonly thought of in terms of weakening the materials of the structure, making potentially costly repairs and renovations necessary. Water damage can also result from termite infestation. Termites, R. santanensis De Feytaud, use their labial glands to move water into structures they infest to maintain humidity and temperature in their gallery system, increasing the moisture content of the building construction material s (Grube and Rudolph 1999ab). One aspect of termite damage that is ofte n overlooked is the change in the thermal properties of a structure. This is a concern in an y structure built in a climate that varies from the comfortable human range of ca. 20-25oC (ASHRAE 2005). Solid materials damaged by subterranean termites are typically filled with gall eries that may facilitate the transfer of heat through an object, compromising the materials cap acity for insulation. If an exterior wall of a structure is compromised by termites, it may cost more to maintain a comfortable temperature range within the structure. Th erefore, termite damage to the thermal conductivity of a building can be more costly than previously known and precede damage that compromises the structural integrity or appearance of a building. Exterior walls of structures are made up of structural lumber, siding materials, insulation, and other internal components. T ypical structural lumber is 2x4 or 2x6 cut from either Southern yellow pine or Douglas fir tr ees, depending on the region. Comm on siding materials of plywood (5 ply) or T1-11 siding (T1-11) are constructed from uniform la yers or veneers of wood. The uniform layers cut from logs are stacked so that the wood fibers of each layer are perpendicular

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86 to each other, compressed and bonded together w ith glue. Another common siding material is oriented strand board (OSB), formed by layeri ng fragments of wood (2.5 by 15 cm) in specific orientations. The surface of the OSB is r ough with wood fragments positioned unevenly across each other. The rectangular wooden fragment s are compressed and bonded together with wax and resin adhesives. The five types of building materials referenced above are common exterior wall components composed of wood that termites are capable of consuming Another class of building material important in thermal transfer is insulation. While most types of insulation are created from synthetic ma terials and cannot constitute a food source for termites, the soft texture found in many types of insulation makes it easy for the termites to tunnel through (NPCA 1993). In fact, the physic al qualities of insula tion materials confer internal temperature stability, making make them a suitable hab itat for termites. Even though termites may not be able to effectively digest mo st types of insulation, th ey can still severely damage the product (Guyette1994, Smith and Zungoli 1995ab, Ogg 1997). Energy efficiency codes for building construc tion require structures to meet minimum insulation prescriptive standards. The United Stated is divided into eight climate zone (Briggs et al. 2002). Exterior wood frame walls are required to have an R-value that ranges from 13 to 25, depending on the climate zone in which the st ructure is build (IECC 2006). Each component that comprises the building envelope has distinct physical properties wh ich include an assigned R-value. The building envelope consisting of a typical exterior wa ll has many components, including interior paint, plaste rboard, insulation, wood studs, exte rior sheathing, vapor barrier, exterior cladding, and exterior pain t. The R-values of all these components are added together to derive an R-value for the completed wall.

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87 The first objective of this experiment was to determine termite survivorship on seven building materials, providing some indication of each materials suitability as a diet for termites. The second objective was to determine the rela tive damage of each of the seven building materials by subterranean termites. The final ob jective was to determine differences in the rate of heat transfer between damaged and sound samples of each building material. Materials and Methods Termites Five colonies of R. flavipes in Gainesville, FL, each separated by more than 1.5 km, were field collected in 6-liter plasti c buckets inserted below ground w ith their lids accessible above the soil surface. Each bucket was f illed with 2-3 moistened corrugate d cardboard rolls (15 cm long by 10 cm diam.; Gainesville Paper Co., Gainesv ille, FL). Termites accessed cardboard rolls through ~10 holes (4-cm diam.) in the sides a nd bottom of each bucket. Cardboard rolls containing termites were collected and returned to the lab in Ziploc bags (3.8-L). Termites were removed from the cardboard by gently sepa rating the corrugated cardboard and allowed the termites to fall into a 20-L plastic bucket. The termites were then placed on moistened corrugated cardboard and maintained at room temperature (~23C) in plastic boxes (27 by 19 by 9.5 cm) with moistened cardboard for 1 wk before inclusion in expe rimental arenas. Prior to the test, worker termites of at least 3rd instar were randomly aspira ted into groups of 300 workers with a 1% soldier population. Test Arena The test arenas used to evaluate damage of wood and insulation materials consisted of a sand base with linoleum on the surface on which a building material sample was placed. Seven building construction materials were evaluated; 2x4, 2x6, oriented stand board (OSB), T1-11

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88 plywood (T1-11), 5-ply plywood (5-ply), extrude d polystyrene (EXP), and polyisocyanurate insulation (ISO). Builders sand was oven-dried at ~177 C for 24 h, sifted through a 1.18 mm mesh soil sieve to remove debris, and moistened by mixing 50 ml of distilled water in 500 g sand. Moistened sand was evenly distributed into a 0.74 L plas tic container (GladWare; Glad Products Co., Oakland, CA). A linoleum square (56 cm2) was placed on the surface of the moistened sand. The linoleum provided a barrier between the mois tened sand and the building materials. The building materials dimensions were cut to the following sizes. The 2x4 and 2x6 materials were purchased in 2.4 m [8 foot] lengt hs and were cut across the grai n to a thickness of 1.27 cm [ inch]. Because the nominal thickness of the two materials is fixed, the material had the following dimensions 3.7 x 4.4 cm (~16.3 cm2). The remaining building materials were purchased in sheets 1.2 by 2.4 m [4 by 8 feet] at a local building supply st ore and were cut into squares 4 x 4 cm (16 cm2). Sample thickness varied by bui lding material; OSB was 1.2 cm [15/32 inch] thick, 5-ply plywood 1.8 cm [23/32 in ch], T1-11 plywood 1.5 cm [19/32 inch], EXP 1.27 cm [1/2 inch] and ISO 1.9 cm [3/4 inch]. The building materials were oven-dried at 40 C for 24 h and weighed. The termites were placed on the moistened sa nd next to the linoleum and the building materials. Lids were placed on the plastic arenas which were stored in the laboratory at ~23C. Control arenas containing no termites were prep ared in the same manner. The arenas were opened eight wk after setup and live termites we re counted. The pre-we ighed building materials were then brushed off, oven dried at 40 C for 24 h and re-weighed to calculate termite damage. Digital images of the building materials were take n to record visible damage caused by termites.

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89 An experimental unit was defined as a plas tic arena containing sand, linoleum, a building material and 300 termites. Each building mate rial (n=7) was evaluated using five termite colonies with five replications per colony. The experiment had an equal number of control units with no termites, resulting in a total of 350 units tested. Thermal Imaging Setup All of the cleaned and oven dried building materials were photographed using a thermal imaging camera (FlexCam; Fluke Corporation. Everett, WA). A tripod held the thermal camera in place ~53 cm above a building material An enamel container filled with dry sand (2000 g builders sand) was placed on a hot plat e and heated to 52C. A square hole (~16 cm2) was cut into rigid board insulati on (10 by 10 cm) minimize the edge e ffect of heat radiating from the sand and hot plate. The building material im bedded in the rigid boar d insulation was placed on the heated builders sand and a thermal image was taken after 0.5, 5, 10, and 15 min. Data Analysis All analyses were conducted using SAS (SAS 2001). Mean termite survivorship was calculated and converted to percent survivorship. Percent survivorship wa s arcsine square root transformed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with material as the main effect and was separated w ith Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), ( P = 0.05; SAS 2001). Damage (g of material lost) was calculated for each material tested and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with material as the main effect and was separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), ( P = 0.05; SAS 2001). Damage for each material was converted to percent damage, arcsine square root transf ormed, and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with material as the main ef fect and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), ( P = 0.05; SAS 2001).

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90 A heat transfer index was derived from Four iers Law in one dimension (Healy and Flynn 2002) and calculated for each sample using the following equation: HTI = (k)(t)(A)(T)/L where: HTI = heat transfer index, k = thermal conductivity (W/m oC), t = time (min), A = area (m2) for the corresponding control after 5 min reaction, T = the change in temperature (oC), and L = thickness (m). Heat transfer indices (HTIs) were calcula ted for damaged and undamaged samples of each material. Percent increase in HTI from undamaged to damaged samples was calculated for each material and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with material as the main effect and were separated with Student-Newman Keuls (SNK), ( P = 0.05; SAS 2001). HTIs for damaged and undamaged samples were compared for each material using a two-tailed t -test ( = 0.05; SAS 2001). Surface temperatures for damaged and undama ged samples of each material at 0.5, 5, 10, and 15 min were plotted and subjec ted to natural logarithmic regres sion. The coefficients of the natural log (ln) for each equation were compar ed between damaged and undamaged samples for each material. The 95% confidence limits (CL) were calculated and non-overlap of the CL determined significant differences in slopes. Results All seven building construction materials eval uated were damaged by termites. Termite damage of solid wood and wood produc ts was characteristic in that the damage was mostly to the soft spring wood and followed the grain. The insulation, which had no nutritional value to termites, was extensively excavated. Termite s damaged EXP by creating long tunnels under the clear plastic barrier which were randomly oriented throughout the sample. In contrast, damage

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91 to the ISO was concentrated at the surface where termites pitted and scarified the material under the craft paper, which they consumed. Structural Lumber Undamaged samples of the 2x4 and 2x6 building material had rings of lighter spring wood and darker summer wood that were obvious in the visible spectrum (Figs. 6-2A, 6-4A, respectively). However, the rings were absent in the thermal images of the undamaged 2x4 and 2x6 samples (Figs. 6-2B, 6-4B, respectively) indi cating no noticeable differ ence in heat transfer by spring and summer woods. In addition, the thermal image of undamaged samples showed uniform heat transfer through th e wood after 15 min of heating. The representative undamaged 2x4 and 2x6 samples had a narrow ra nge of temperatures (< 3oC) across the surface. The survivorship of termites in the 2x4 and 2x6 samples was >83% after 8 wk (Table 6-1). During that time, termites consumed significan tly more 2x6 (0.33 g) than 2x4 (0.25 g; Table 61). Damage in the 2x4 samples took the form of distinct lamellar tunnels excavated in the wood annular rings (Fig. 6-2C). Damage in the 2x6s similar to the 2x4s, but tunnels were excavated within the wider rings of less dense spring wood and the galleries extende d the full thickness of the sample (Fig. 6-4C). A thermal image of a representative damaged 2x4 sample (Fig. 6-2D) and 2x6 sample (Fig. 6-4D) showed higher maxi mum temperatures by nearly 4C in damaged wood due to greater overall heat transfer compar ed to that in undamaged wood. There were distinct hot spots in the images of the damaged samples that coincided with the location of termite tunnels, indicating that these tunnels allowed more ra pid heat transfer than the surrounding wood. After 15 min of heating, th e damaged 2x4 and 2x6 samples had a wider range of surface temperatures in the representative samples than in undamaged samples. Southern yellow pine 2x4s have an assigned thermal conductivity value ( k ) of approximately 0.12 W/m*oC (Table 6-1) which is an inherent physical property of this material.

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92 Using the k -value of the material, the calculated h eat transfer index (HTI) for undamaged 2x4 samples was 1.063 (Fig. 6-1). This indicated th at 2x4 was the most thermally conductive of the undamaged materials. The HTI for termite dama ged 2x4 samples was significantly greater and 30% higher than for undamaged samples, indicating that termite damage increases heat transfer through damaged samples. The HTI for undamaged 2x6 samples was 0.926, indicating it was the second most thermally conductive of the undama ged building materials (Fig. 6-1). The HTI for the termite damaged 2x6s was significantly greater and ~51% higher than the HTI for undamaged samples, indicating higher heat transfer through damaged samples. The percent HTI increase for damaged 2x6 samples was also significantly greater than that for damaged 2x4 samples (Table 6-1). Differences in the mean surface temperatures of individual 2x4 and 2x6 samples steadily increased through time (Figs. 6-3 and 6-5). Regr ession analysis of temperature and time (ln) indicated that the rate of temperature increase for damaged samples were significantly greater than the rate of temperatur e increase for undamaged samples for 2x4 and 2x6 substrates. Wood Based Siding Representative undamaged OSB samples had th in overlapping wood fr agments that were generally long and narrow and were obvious in th e visible spectrum image (Fig. 6-6A). The pattern of wood fragments was slightly noticeab le in the thermal image of the undamaged OSB sample after 15 min of heating (Fi g. 6-6B), indicating a slight diffe rence in heat transfer between the fragments of wood based on color differen ce (green and yellow). The representative undamaged OSB sample had a narrow range of te mperatures across the surface, ranging from 30.9 32.9oC. Like structural lumber, undamaged samples of T1-11 (Fig. 6-8A) and 5-ply (Fig. 6-10A) showed wide bands of spring and summer wood in the visible image, which were not visible in

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93 the thermal image (Figs. 6-8B and 6-10B, respectiv ely). The lack of thermal variation in the undamaged T1-11 may be partially at tributed to the perpendicular la yering of the material. The thermal images of undamaged T1-11 and 5-ply re presentative samples showed uniform heat transfer through the wood after 15 mi n of heating, with temperatures across the surfaces varying less than 1.5oC. Termite survivorship after feeding 8 wk was significantly lower (~59%) on T1-11 samples than that of OSB (~67%), 5-ply (~79%), and th e other materials tested (Table 6-1). Although survival of termites feeding on 5-ply was good, this substrate had significantly lower wood consumption and damage than any other s ubstrate, including T1-11 and OSB. Wood consumption and damage were not significan tly different between T1-11 and OSB. Visual damage to wood sidings varied based on wood fiber orientation. Damage in the T111 and 5-ply samples was similar to that seen in struct ural lumber in that the termites tunneled into the spring wood. Termites preferentially co nsumed bands of spring wood in T1-11 (Fig. 68C) and 5-ply (Fig. 6-10C); how ever, the termite damage formed longitudinal pockets on the surface rather than the rings seen in the structural lumber. There were distinct localized hot spots in the thermal image of the damaged T1-11 (Fi g. 6-8D) and 5-ply (Fig. 6-10D) coinciding with the removal of the bands of spring wood, allowing heat to pass through more rapidly. The hot spot across the top of the thermal image of the representative T1-11 was due to termite damage of an interior layer not visible in the visible spectrum image. In contrast, damage in the OSB took the form scarifying of the surf ace and short tunnels and holes in spring wood, largely between the thin wood fragments, visible as dark breaks in the surface (Fig. 6-6C). A thermal image of a re presentative damaged OSB sample (Fig. 6-6D) showed distinct localized hot spots that coincided with the location of termite tunnels and

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94 scarification of the wood fragments, again showi ng that termite damage allowed more rapid local heat transfer. After 15 min of heating, all the damage d wood siding samples had higher maximum temperatures than undamaged samples, with OSB having the greatest difference between damaged and undamaged samples (Fig. 6-6B, D). The maximum temperatures were associated with termite damage. Damaged samples of T111 (Fig. 6-8D) and OSB (Fig. 6-6D) typically had greater range in temperatures (> 4.5C) than did damaged samples of 5-ply (Fig. 6-10D). 5-ply also had the least differen ce between maximum temperatures of damaged and undamaged samples (Fig. 6-10 B, D). The calculated HTI for undamaged OSB samples was 0.706, indicating it was the most thermally conductive of the wood based siding ma terials tested (Fig. 6-1). There were no significant differences in HTI between the da maged and undamaged OSB, although the HTI for the damaged OSB was 12% higher than the HTI for undamaged OSB (Table 6-1). In contrast, the calculated HTIs for undama ged samples of 5-ply and T1-11 were 0.213 and 0.502, respectively, indicating th ese were the most thermally resistant wood-based materials tested (Fig. 6-1). The HTI for termite damage d samples was significantly greater for undamaged samples for both these sidings, indicating a higher rate of heat transfer through damaged samples (Fig. 6-1). The HTI of damaged 5-ply sample s was ~73% higher than undamaged samples, a difference that was significantly greater those documented for all other materials tested (Table 61). Mean surface temperatures of individual sa mples steadily increased through time for OSB (Fig. 6-7), T1-11 (Fig. 6-9) and 5-ply (Fig. 6-11) Regression analysis of temperature and time (ln) indicated that the rate of temperature increase for damaged samples was not significantly

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95 greater for damaged samples than for undamage d samples for all three siding materials. However, the rate of heat transfer for T1-11 a nd 5-ply was greater for the damaged than for the undamaged samples tested, as shown by the nonoverlap of 95% confidence intervals through time. Foam Insulation The undamaged insulation samples were very homogenous in the visible spectrum images. EXP appeared light blue in color and faced with clear plastic (Fig. 6-12A). ISO had a reflective metallic appearance due to a coating of alumin um foil (Fig. 6-14A). The thermal image of the undamaged EXP (Fig. 6-12B) indica ted no noticeable difference in heat transfer within the material, showing uniform heat tr ansfer through the material after 15 min of heating. In contrast, the thermal image of the undamaged ISO sample (F ig. 6-14B) indicated small differences in heat transfer through the material. The represen tative undamaged EXP and ISO samples had a narrow range (<1C) of temper atures across their surfaces. Termite survivorship in arenas with EXP sa mples was ~69% for 8 wk was significantly lower than ISO, which had the highest survivorship (~92%) of all materials tested (Table 6-1). EXP contains no cellulose, unlike the other six building materials tested. Termites removed 0.24 g of plastic resulting in ~6% damage, similar to 2x4, OSB, and T1-11 (Table 6-1). Termites tunneled extensively into the EXP plastic insula tion and along the clear plastic facing. The tunnels were lined with fecal deposits and sand (Fig. 6-12C). Consumption and percent damage of ISO was higher than that of all other materi als tested. Termites tunne led under the craft paper facing and into the plastic insulation. Most of the kraft paper was consumed, and the surface of the ISO insulation below was pitted and scarified, coated with a layer of tan fecal deposits and sand (Fig. 6-14C). Thermal images of a repres entative damaged EXP (Fig. 6-12D) and ISO (Fig. 6-14D) showed a greater overall heat transf er compared with undamaged samples.

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96 Approximately 20% of the thermal image was cove red with localized hot spots in the damaged EXP that coincided with the location of termite tunnels and removal of plastic. There were several distinct localized hot s pots in the image of the damaged ISO that coincided with the location of termite tunnels and th e removal of aluminum foil coated craft paper. Both the kraft paper removal and the tunnels in the insulation below allowed h eat to pass through the sample more rapidly. The minimum temperatures fo r the damaged and undamaged samples were the same for each foam type. The maximum temperature for damaged samples compared to undamaged samples was ~6oC higher for EXP and ~10oC higher for ISO. Higher temperatures were associated with termite damage. The calculated HTIs for undamaged samples was 0.164 for EXP and 0.109 for ISO, indicating these were the most thermally resistant of the tested materials (Fig. 6-1), which would be expected for materials deve loped to insulate buildings. Th e HTIs for the termite damaged EXP and ISO was significantly greater those for undamaged insulation, indicating a greater heat transfer through damaged samples (Fig. 6-1). The HTI of damaged EXP samples was ~38% higher than undamaged samples, and the % HTI in crease was greater than that seen on ISO (Table 6-1). Mean surface temperatures of individual sa mples of EXP (Figure 6-13) and ISO (Fig. 615) steadily increased through time. Regression analysis of temp erature and time (ln) indicated that the rate of temperature increase for dama ged samples was significantly greater than for undamaged samples for both EXP and ISO. Discussion The resin in manufactured w ood products appeared to decrease termite survivorship. Our study determined that termite survivorship wa s significantly lower on re sin based, engineered wood (OSB, T1-11, and 5 ply) than 2x4 and 2x6. OSB contains phenol-formaldehyde resin as a

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97 bonding agent. Other researchers have documen ted that Formosan termites had substantial mortality after consuming resinous building mate rials; ~55% mortality after 3 wk consuming OSB (Ayrilmis et al. 2005) and 53% mortality after 5 wk consuming plywood (Tsunoda 2001). Termites caused an intermediate percent damage to the OSB samples compared to other building materials. The other sidings (T1-11 and 5-ply) compared to OSB had lower mean percent damage. This difference may be due seve ral reasons; the laminar structure of the T1-11 and 5-ply, laminations are typically cut from older trees that ha ve denser wood or a different resin from used in OSB used to adhere the laminations. The wood materials that had a malleable consis tency had the greatest termite damage. The 2x6 material had significantly hi gher percent damage than the 2x4 material, in spite of similar composition and a lack of significant difference in mean termite survivorship. The difference in damage was not due to wood species, since 2x4 and 2x6 samples were made from southern yellow pine. However, 2x4 lumbers are typicall y cut from younger, faster-growing trees than 2x6 lumbers. One effect of this is that the 2x6 lumbers have wider laye rs of soft spring wood bordered with denser summer wood. Because R. flavipes termites feed preferentially on less dense wood (Behr et al. 1972) this difference between 2x4 and 2x6 densities could easily cause significant differences in wood consumption, a nd resulting damage and heat transfer. Structural lumber such as 2x4 and 2x6 must be strong, in both tension and compression, to withstand structural loads. Damage due to notch ing and drilling may reduce structural integrity. Notched wood should have a maximum depth of 25% of the width and bored holes should be no larger than 40% in an exterior wall (Miller et al. 2004). In this study, the 2x4 and 2x6 samples tested were not damaged by termites to this extent due to short dur ation of exposure and relatively small number of termites.

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98 The major component of the two insulation mate rials tested was plas tic. EXP insulation composed of plastic foam and a clear plastic barrier does not provide any nutritional value to termites, so in the absence of su itable food source, termites began to starve in these trials. This effect was not seen on ISO samples because this insulation was faced wi th a radiant barrier composed of kraft paper covered with a thin laye r of aluminum foil. Th e cellulose content of this kraft paper provided adequate sustenance to significantly improve termite survivorship. Termites extensively damaged the soft insulatio n materials. Su et al. (2003) described insulation (molded bead-board) damaged by term ites as having patches where the surface was severely excavated and had several tunneling holes. Our study found that the damaged insulation described by Su et al. (2003) was similar to the ISO; however, the damage to the EXP took the form of a network of tunnels excavated under the clear plastic barrier. The ISO foam insulation had significantly greater damage and percent damage th an the EXP foam insulation. In the ISO samples, termites stayed near to the food source (kraft paper), so most of the damage to the underlying foam took the fo rm of scarification rather than complete tunneling. The EXP insulation had no kraft paper, and so the termite s tunneled throughout the soft plastic material, leaving multiple routes a nd extensive galleries. The significantly greater heat transfer seen in 2x4 and 2x6 materials in comparison to siding materials was due to the cross-sectional natu re of the structural lumbers. Heat transfer probably flowed more easily with the grain of the wood fibers in the 2x4 and 2x6 samples. The siding materials were laminar or semi-laminar, with wood fibers mostly perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer assaye d. In contrast, the structural lu mber cross-sections had the wood fibers mostly parallel to the dir ection of heat transfer assayed.

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99 OSB samples, compared to the other building ma terials, had no significant change in heat transfer index between damaged and undamaged samples. This i ndicates that OSB is the most resistant to thermal damage by termites of the mate rials tested. This may be due to the fact that termites tunneled between fragments. In contra st to OSB, 5-ply samples had the lowest mean percent damage, but had the greatest percent increase in heat transf er index with termite damage. This indicates that 5-ply is the least resistant to thermal damage by termites of the materials tested. This may be due to the laminar structure of the 5-ply. It was relatively easy for the termites to tunnel between layers of this material. As soon as all five layers were penetrated, the heat could flow readily through the 5-ply. This sa me effect was seen to a lesser extent in T1-11 siding, presumably because the thinner layers. Th e relatively low heat transfer in 5-ply may be largely due to its thickness, which was greater th an that of the other siding materials tested. Not surprisingly, the insulation materials had the lo west heat transfer of all materials tested in their undamaged state. The EXP insulation had a higher mean percent increase in heat transfer index comparing undamaged to damaged sa mples. In ISO, the layer of kraft paper influenced the termites tunneling behavior, resulti ng in tunnels near the su rface. In contrast, the EXP insulation had no surface food source, so the termites tunneled through the foam, leaving multiple routes of rapid heat transfer. While the percent damage to the EXP compared to ISO was less, it took the form of a network of condu its for heat transfer, causing a greater overall change in heat transfer index than that documented in the scarified ISO. Houses are being built to be more energy effici ent and new structures are required to meet minimum energy standards. The impact of subter ranean termite damage on thermal properties of building materials has been virtually overlooke d. Our research with termites and common building construction materials demonstrates that te rmite damage need not be structural to affect

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100 the thermal properties of the building materials. Our research demonstrates the importance of termite control for home energy conservation and indi cates further research is needed to identify and develop building materials wh ich resist termite damage and the minimize loss of thermal properties if damage occurs.

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101Table 6-1. Mean SE percent termite survivorship, dama ge (g), percent damage, and percent in crease in heat transfer index (HTI) between undamaged and building material damaged by subterranean termites (n=300) and after 8 wk. Building material Material % survivorshipa Damage (g) % damage k -valueb % HTI c increase Structural lumber 2x4 83.64 1.75bc 0.25 0.03b 1 6.72 0.75b 0.12 29.95 2.80cd 2x6 88.65 1.35ab 0.33 0.03a 11.25 1.16a 0.12 51.15 8.19b Wood-based siding OSB 66.71 3.65d 0.28 0.03b 1 8.44 0.99b 0.13 12.23 1.51d T1-11 59.00 2.83e 0.23 0.03b 1 5.73 0.61b 0.13 26.58 8.45cd 5-ply 78.61 3.08c 0.17 0.03c 1 3.05 0.33c 0.13 72.90 8.49a Foam insulation EXP 68.88 3.34d 0.24 0.01b 1 5.71 0.33b 0.03 37.51 5.73bc ISO 92.45 0.96a 0.35 0.03a 12.07 1.10a 0.02 20.96 1.81cd Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (Student -Neuman-Keuls Means Separation, P = 0.05, SAS Institute 2001), n = 25 replicates. a n = 300 termites per arena, b W/m oC, (ASHRAE 2005, Miller et al. 1999, NIST 2000), c HTI = Heat transfer index.

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102 1.063 0.926 0.7063 0.5023 0.213 0.1642 0.1093 1.3617 1.2774 0.801 0.6285 0.3489 0.2239 0.13340 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 22x42x6OSBT1-115-plyEXPISOMaterialHeat Transfer Index (HTI) undamaged damageddf = 24 t = 6.97 P < 0.0001 df = 24 t = 4.71 P < 0.0001 df = 24 t = 4.44 P < 0.0001 df = 24 t = 2.91 P = 0.0054 df = 24 t = 1.93 P = 0.0601 df = 24 t = 5.01 P < 0.0001 df = 24 t = 4.13 P < 0.0001 Figure 6-1. Differences in heat transfer index between undama ged materials and materials damaged by subterranean termites after an 8 wk period.

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103 Figure 6-2. The 2x4 samples. Representative visibl e spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite -damaged (C, D) 2x4 samples after being heated (52C) for 15 min.

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104 Figure 6-3. Natural log linear regression of 2x4 samples, termite damaged (red lines) and undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperatur e change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and 15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around the regression lines and confidence li mits (95%) of the slopes are given.

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105 Figure 6-4. The 2x6 samples. Representative visibl e spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite -damaged (C, D) 2x6 samples after being heated (52C) for 15 min.

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106 Figure 6-5. Natural log linear regression of 2x6 samples, termite damaged (red lines) and undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperatur e change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and 15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around the regression lines and confidence li mits (95%) of the slopes are given.

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107 Figure 6-6. The OSB samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) OSB samples after being heated (52C) for 15 min.

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108 Figure 6-7. Natural log linear regression of OSB samples, termite damaged (red lines) and undamaged (blue lines) comparing temperature change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and 15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around the regression lines and confidence li mits (95%) of the slopes are given.

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109 Figure 6-8. The T1-11 samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and te rmite-damaged (C, D) T1-11 samples after being heated (52C) for 15 min.

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110 Figure 6-9. Natural log linear regression of T1-11 samples, termite damaged (red lines) and undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperatur e change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and 15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around the regression lines and confidence li mits (95%) of the slopes are given.

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111 Figure 6-10. The 5-ply samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and te rmite-damaged (C, D) 5-ply samples after being heated (52C) for 15 min.

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112 Figure 6-11. Natural log linear regression of 5-ply samples, termite damaged (red lines) and undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperatur e change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and 15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around the regression lines and confidence li mits (95%) of the slopes are given.

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113 Figure 6-12. The EXP samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and termite-damaged (C, D) EXP samples after being heated (52C)for 15 min.

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114 Figure 6-13. Natural log linear regression of EXP samples, te rmite damaged (red lines) and undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperatur e change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and 15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around the regression lines and confidence li mits (95%) of the slopes are given.

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115 Figure 6-14. The ISO samples. Representative visible spectrum images (A, C) and thermal images (B, D) of undamaged (A, B) and te rmite-damaged (C, D) ISO samples after being heated (52C) for 15 min.

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116 Figure 6-15. Natural log linear regression of ISO samples, termite damaged (red lines) and undamaged (blue lines), comparing temperatur e change (C) recorded at ~0, 5, 10 and 15 m time intervals. Confidence intervals (95%) are represented by fine line around the regression lines and confidence li mits (95%) of the slopes are given.

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117 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION Termite crack size assays showed a minimum crack width of ~0.7 mm is necessary for R. flavipes worker termites to travel through a crack. Assays further showed that R. flavipes soldier termites require a minimum crack widt h of ~1 mm to pass through a crack. Pipe sleeve assays indicated that both foam and polyethylene pipe sleeves allowed termite access through a concrete slab if the sleeves extend below the termiticide-treated sand. However, termites were not able to access pipe sleeves that terminated within the termiticidetreated sand. Based upon these findings, it is impor tant that protective m easures are taken to prevent termite entry into struct ures via pipe and conduit slab pe netrations. A properly installed pipe sleeve that does not extend be low the termiticide-treated sand appeared to provide reliable protection. Care must be taken wi th soil treatment to en sure that it extends below the sleeve, if present. Termite blocker assays showed that the pres ence of Impasse Termite Blocker, with or without sleeves or termiticide trea tment, was sufficient to prevent slab penetration for at least 8 wk. Termite blocker properly installed and em bedded in the concrete around the pipe should provide reliable protection from termites. A method was developed to determine heat tr ansfer using a hot plate to heat termite damaged and undamaged materials and document the surface temperatur e change through time with a thermal camera. The building constr uction materials (2x4s, 5-ply plywood, and rigid foam board insulation) were exposed to termite s for 8 wk. Termites tunneled into and damaged all the building materials. When 2x4s were he ated the surface temperature (C) was ~35% higher in damaged compared to undamaged sa mples. Plywood damaged by termites was the

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118 most thermally damaged with a temperature incr ease of 74% (damaged vs. undamaged samples) and insulation had a temperat ure increase of ~27% (damag ed vs. undamaged samples). A heat transfer index was developed to co mpare heat transfer through termite damaged building construction materials (2x4 and 2x6 pine lumber, 5 ply plywood, T1-11 siding, oriented strandboard, extruded polystyrene, and polyisocyanurate insulation) Termite damaged materials had higher heat transfer indices than undamaged materials The h eat transfer index of damaged 2x4 and 2x6 lumber was 37% higher than damage d 5 ply plywood and T1-11 siding: therefore the siding materials were more thermally resist ant. As would be expected the insulation materials had lower heat transfer index values than the wood materials. Termite damaged polyisocyanurate was 68% more conductive than the damaged expanded polystyrene insulation. In conclusion, the most likely routes for termite entry into structures are cracks and gaps in the foundation wider than 0.7 mm and unprotected pi pe sleeves extending below soil treatments. The former of these routes can be remedied with adequate termiticide treatment below the slab. The latter can be remedied with termite blocker installed at construction and/or pipe sleeves cut short enough to not extend below termiticide-treated so il. If a structure is to be built in a hot or cold climate with concerns about termite damage and thermal transfer, OSB is a logical choice for wood-based siding while ISO foam is a preferable form of insulation. If all of these factors are taken into consideration while building a structure, it will be far more difficult for subterranean termites to invade, and the termite s will cost the owner le ss money in increased heating and/or air conditioning bills if they do enter the structure.

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119 LIST OF REFERENCES [ABSAC] Australian Building System Appraisal Council. 1992. Technical opinion 158 termimesh termite control system. Aust. Build. Syst. Appraisal Counc., East Melbourne Australia. [ACI] American Concrete Institute. 2004. Control of cracking in concrete structures ACI 224R-01, American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills, MI. Allen, E. 1999. Fundamentals of building constructi on, materials and methods. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York, NY. Anonymous. 1980. Design of wood frame: structures for pe rformance. Nat. Forest Prod. Assoc. No. 6. Washington, D.C. [AS] Australian Standard. 1995. Protection of buildings from s ubterranean termites. Part 1: New buildings. In Australian standard AS 3660.1. Standards Australia, Homebush. [ASHRAE] American Society of Heating, Refr igerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 2005. Thermal comfort. pp. 201-220. In ASHRAE handbook of fundamentals. ASHRAE Inc. Atlanta, GA. Ayrilmis, N., S. N. Kartal, T. L. Laufe nberg, J. E. Winandy, and R. H. White. 2005. Physical and mechanical properties and fire decay, and termite re sistance of treated oriented strandboard. Fo rest Prod. J. 55: 74-81. Banks, F. A. 1946. Species distinction in Reticulitermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Dissertation. University of Ch icago. Department of Zoology. IL. Beal, R. H., J. K. Mauldin, and S. C. Jones. 1989. Subterranean termites, their prevention and control in buildings. USDA Home Ga rden Bull., No. 64. Washington D.C. Behr, E. A., C. T. Behr, and L. F. Wilson. 1972. Influence of wood hardness of feeding by the Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 65: 457-460. Benboundjema, F. F. Meftah, and J.-M. Torrenti. 2005 Structural effects of drying shrinkage. J. Eng. Mech. 131: 1195-1199. Booth, L. D., and W. M. Lee. 1985. Effects of polymer structur e on K-factor aging of rigid foam polyurethane foam. J. Cell. Plast. 21: 26-30. Briggs, R. S., R. G. Lucas, and Z. T. Taylor. 2002. Climate classification for building energy codes and standards. (http://www.energycodes.gov/implement/pdf s/climate_paper_review_draft_rev.pdf). Bueche, F. and D. L. Wallach. 1994. Technical Physics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.

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120 Bultman, J. D., C. R. Southwell, and R. H. Beal. 1972. Termite resistance of polyvinyl chloride plastics in southern temperate and tropical environments. Final Report of Phase 1 Effects with plasticizer s and insecticides. Washington, DC: Naval Res. Lab. Rep. 7417. Campbell, R. H., W. Harding, E. Misenhime r, L. P. Nicholson, and J. Sisk. 1976. Job conditions affect cracking and strength of concrete in-place. ACI J. Proc. 73: 10. Campora, C. E., and J. K. Grace. 2001. Tunnel orientation and search pattern sequence of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 11931199. Clement, J. L., M. Jequel, J. L. Leca, C. Lohou, and G. Burban. 1996. Elimination of foraging populations of Reticulitermes santonensis in one street of Paris, France using hexaflumuron baits, pp. 640. In D. B. Wildey [ed.], Proceedings of the International Conference on Insect Pests in the Urban Environment. Edinburgh, UK. Cornelius, M. L. 2003. Foraging behavior of Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae ). Sociobiology 41: 105-11. Ebeling, W. 1975. Urban Entomology. University of Ca lifornia, Division of Agricultural Services, Los Angeles, CA. Ebeling, W., and R. J. Pence. 1957. Relation of particle size to penetration of subterranean termites through barriers of sand and cinders. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 690-692. Eggleton, P. 2000. Global patterns of the diversity, pp. 25-51. In T. Abe, D. E. Bignell, and M. Higashi [eds.], Termites: evolution, socialit y, symbiosis, ecology. Kluwer Academic Pub. Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Ettershank, G., J .A. Ettershank, and W. G. Whitford. 1980. Location of food sources by subterranean termites. En viron. Entomol. 9: 645-648. [FBC] Florida Building Code. 2004. International building code. International Code Council, Inc. Country Club Hill, IL. Foos, J. F. 2006. Evaluation of 0.5% hexaflumuron (Recrui t II/Shatter) in a bait system for the prevention of subterranean termites in new construction. FDACS Report issued April 13 2006. 10 pp Available at (www.flaes.org). Foos, J. F., and D. H. Daiker. 2003. Evaluation of noviflumuron in a bait system for prevention of termites in new construction. FDAC S Report issued November 5, 2003. 9 pp. Available at (www.flaes.org).

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121 Forschler, B. T. 1999a. Biology of subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes. Part II, pp. 31-50. In National pest control association res earch report on subte rranean termites. National Pest Control Association Publications. Dunan Loring, VA. Forschler, B. T. 1999b. Subterranean termite biology in re lation to prevention and removal of structural infestation. NPCA Res. Report. Dunn Loring, VA. Gahlhoff, J. E., and P. G. Koehler. 2001. Penetration of the eastern subterranean termite into soil treated at various thicknesses and concen trations of Dursban TC and Premise 75. J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 486-491. Grace, J. K. 1986. A simple humidity chamber for mainta ining subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the la boratory. Sociobiology 62: 221-223. Grace, J. K. 1991. Response of Eastern and Formosan subterranean te rmites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to borate dusts and soil treatments. J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1753-1757. Grace, J. K. 1998. Resistance of pine treated with chro mated copper arsenate to the Formosan subterranean termite. Forest Prod. J. 48: 79-82. Grace, J. K., and N.-Y. Su. 2001. Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural prot ection. Sociobiology 37: 301-310. Grace, J. K., and R. Yamamoto. 1994. Natural resistance of Alas ka-cedar, redwood, and teak of Formosan termites. Forest Prod. J. 44: 41-45. Grace, J. K., J. R. Yates, C. H. Tome, and R. J. Oshiro. 1996. Termite-resistant construction: use of stainless steel mesh to exclude Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Sociobiology 28: 365-372. Grube, S., and D. Rudolph. 1999a. The labial gland reservoirs (water sacs) in Reticulitermes santonensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) studied the functional aspects during microclimatic moisture regulation and indi vidual water balance. Sociobiology 33: 307323. Grube, S., and D. Rudolph. 1999b. Water supply during building ac tivities in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis De Feytaud. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Insectes Soc. 46: 192-193. Guthrie, D. M., and A. D. Tindall. 1968. The biology of the cockroach. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London. Guyette, J. E. 1994. Termites targeting foam insulation. Pest Control. 62(2): 49-50, 52. Harbison, B. 2003. Impasse barrier blocks termites. Pest Control. January vol#: 52.

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122 Harris, W. V. 1965. Destructive termites. Inter. Biodeterioration Bull. 1: 53-55. Haverty, M. I., and R. W. Howard. 1981. Production of soldiers and maintenance of soldier proportions by laboratory e xperimental groups of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and R. virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitid ae). Insectes Soc. 28: 32-39. Healy, W. M., and D. R. Flynn. 2002 Thermal modeling of multiple-line-heat-source guarded hot plate apparatus. pp. 79-97. In R. R. Zarr, Insulation materials: testing and applications: Vol. 4. ASTM International. West Conshohocken, PA. Hickin, N. E. 1971. Termites, a world problem. Hutchinson, London. Howard, R. W., and M. I. Haverty. 1980. Reproductives in mature colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes : abundance, sex-ratio, and association with soldiers Environ. Entomol. 9: 458460. Howard, R. W., and M. I. Haverty. 1981. Seasonal variation in caste proportions of field colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Enviro. Entomol. 10: 546-549. [IBC] International Building Code. 2006. International building code. International Code Council, Inc. Country Club Hill, IL. [IECC] International En ergy Conservation Code. 2006 International energy conservation code. International Code Council. Palm Springs, CA. Johnston, R. H., V. K. Smith, and R. H. Beal. 1972. Subterranean termites, their prevention and control in buildings. USDA Home Garden Bull. No. 64. Washington D.C. Johnston, H. R., V. K. Smith, and R. H. Beal. 1979 Subterranean termites: their prevention and control in buildings. USDA Home Garden Bull. No 64: Washington D.C. Jones, S. C. 1990. Effects of population density on tunneling by Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) through treat ed soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 875-878. Jones, S. C., M. W. Trosset, and W. L. Nutting. 1987. Biotic and abiotic influences on foraging of Heterotermes aureus (Snyder) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) through treated soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 875-878. Karr, L. L., J J. Sheets, J. E. King, and J. E. Dripps. 2004. Laboratory performance and pharmacokinetics of the benzoylphenylurea nov iflumuron in Eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 593. Kofoid, C. A. 1934. Termites and termite control. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Kofoid, C. A. 1946. Termites and termites controla report to the termite investigations committee. University of California Press. Berkley CA.

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130 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Cynthia Linton Tucker, daughter of George and Gail Gross, was born in 1964, in Miami Florida. She graduated from Miami Killian Hi gh School (Miami, Florida) in 1982. She first attended Miami Dade Community College in Miami and then transferred to Santa Fe Community College in Gainesville, resulting in the completion of both Associate of Arts and Associate of Science-Medical Emergency degrees. She also attended Ocala Fire College where she received hazardous materials training and became a certified Fire Fighter. During the years of 1986-1998 she worked as a baker/manager at Bageland. Also between the years 1990 and 1996, she worked as an EMT/Paramedic/ Fire Fight er for Alachua County Fire Rescue and then for the City of Gainesville Fire Rescue. In 1999 Cynthia completed the requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree in en tomology from the University of Florida (UF). Cynthia entered the graduate entomology program at UF in wint er 2000 and completed her Master of Science in August 2002. Also in August 2002 Cynthia chose to continue her studies working with termites in the urban laboratory of UFs entomology pr ogram. Additionally, Cynthia is also taking classes in the College of Building Construction and is working on completing a second masters degree. In 2006 Cynthi a commissioned as a 1st Lieutenant with the United States Army Reserve and is currently the commander of the 342nd Preventative Medicine Detachment in Gainesville, Florida. Cynthia plans to con tinue serving in the United Stat ed Army, switching to active duty as soon as she completes her degree requirements.