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Installing Reinforced Concrete Piles Using Jetting and Compaction Grouting

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021346/00001

Material Information

Title: Installing Reinforced Concrete Piles Using Jetting and Compaction Grouting
Physical Description: 1 online resource (97 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Forbes, Ryan H
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: compaction, foundations, grouting, jetting, pile
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, M.E.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study reports on the design, construction, installation, and load testing of reinforced concrete piles that are installed by jetting and compaction grouting. The need for a different deep foundation installation method has emerged, especially in areas that have become sensitive to noise and vibrations produced during pile driving. A full-scale testing facility was constructed at the University of Florida Coastal Engineering Lab for the purpose of testing this system. The test facility is comprised of a fully cased test shaft measuring 12? in diameter by 33? deep and two 48? concrete reaction shafts to be used for load testing. The test piles were constructed of reinforced concrete, and a specially designed network of pipes was cast with each pile for the purposes of jetting and post compaction grouting. Jetting was utilized to install the pile to the desired depth and the compaction grouting was used to displace the loose soil around the pile in order to improve the pile?s overall capacity. Compaction grouting is a very specialized technique that is often used to level structures that have undergone differential settlement or for soil improvement before construction. The success of compaction grouting is greatly dependent on the engineers understanding of the problem, the equipment, the soil behavior, and the rheology of the grout. For this research, the equipment and grout mix are the most important factors. Grout pumps are specially designed to sustain a constant grout flow volume under varying pressure situations, even pressures as high as 1,000 psi. At such high pressures, the grout mix gradation should contain sufficient fines (passing #200 sieve) to protect against separation. Flyash is a common component added to grout mix designs to provide the necessary fines and improve pumpability. Testing began by jetting the two test piles in the test chamber. Using the pipes cast within the piles, compaction grouting was performed at three levels along the length of the piles (8?, 22?, and the tip). Next, the piles were load tested to determine their capacities. These values were compared to a preliminary estimation determined from FBDeep. Finally, the piles were extracted from the test chamber to observe the grout zones and draw conclusions.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ryan H Forbes.
Thesis: Thesis (M.E.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: McVay, Michael C.
Local: Co-adviser: Bloomquist, David G.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021346:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021346/00001

Material Information

Title: Installing Reinforced Concrete Piles Using Jetting and Compaction Grouting
Physical Description: 1 online resource (97 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Forbes, Ryan H
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: compaction, foundations, grouting, jetting, pile
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, M.E.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study reports on the design, construction, installation, and load testing of reinforced concrete piles that are installed by jetting and compaction grouting. The need for a different deep foundation installation method has emerged, especially in areas that have become sensitive to noise and vibrations produced during pile driving. A full-scale testing facility was constructed at the University of Florida Coastal Engineering Lab for the purpose of testing this system. The test facility is comprised of a fully cased test shaft measuring 12? in diameter by 33? deep and two 48? concrete reaction shafts to be used for load testing. The test piles were constructed of reinforced concrete, and a specially designed network of pipes was cast with each pile for the purposes of jetting and post compaction grouting. Jetting was utilized to install the pile to the desired depth and the compaction grouting was used to displace the loose soil around the pile in order to improve the pile?s overall capacity. Compaction grouting is a very specialized technique that is often used to level structures that have undergone differential settlement or for soil improvement before construction. The success of compaction grouting is greatly dependent on the engineers understanding of the problem, the equipment, the soil behavior, and the rheology of the grout. For this research, the equipment and grout mix are the most important factors. Grout pumps are specially designed to sustain a constant grout flow volume under varying pressure situations, even pressures as high as 1,000 psi. At such high pressures, the grout mix gradation should contain sufficient fines (passing #200 sieve) to protect against separation. Flyash is a common component added to grout mix designs to provide the necessary fines and improve pumpability. Testing began by jetting the two test piles in the test chamber. Using the pipes cast within the piles, compaction grouting was performed at three levels along the length of the piles (8?, 22?, and the tip). Next, the piles were load tested to determine their capacities. These values were compared to a preliminary estimation determined from FBDeep. Finally, the piles were extracted from the test chamber to observe the grout zones and draw conclusions.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ryan H Forbes.
Thesis: Thesis (M.E.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: McVay, Michael C.
Local: Co-adviser: Bloomquist, David G.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021346:00001


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1 INSTALLING REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES USING JETTING AND COMPACTION GROUTING By RYAN HEATH FORBES A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Ryan Heath Forbes

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3 To My Wife and My Son.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Mich ael C. McVay, Dr. David G. Bl oomquist, and Peter Lai for the opportunity to work on this research. I ex press thanks to Dr. Mi chael C. McVay for his guidance throughout. The difficulties we endured taught me a lot and I have grown through those experiences. I thank Dr. David G. Bloomquist for pushing me to think outside of the box and providing comic relief when everything was going wrong. I would like to express my appr eciation to Ronnie Lewis, Bria n Bixler, and their crew at the State Materials Office for being so willing to he lp and answer questions. I also want to thank Mike Ahrens from LoadTest for his generosity a nd help with the data acquisition system. I will always be grateful to Jim Joiner, Vick Adam s, and Danny Brown for their countless hours of hard work and sacrifice to help me, despite all the other resear ch projects that demanded their attention. I appreciate the a ssistance Patrick Dunn, Mark Styl er, Scott Wasman, Joengsoo Ko, Luis Campos, and Zhihong Hu. The conversations I had with them and their willingness to work hard and get dirty was invaluab le. I would like to acknowledge my mom for her constant love and support. I thank my father for all that he has taught me. They never let me settle for less than my best and I am grateful for that now. Mo st importantly I want to recognize my wife, Jill, for her willingness to sacrifice ma ny things over the past three year s. I sincerely appreciate her patience and encouragement and willingness to list en, even if she has no idea what I’m talking about.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .13 1.1 Background................................................................................................................. ......13 1.2 Objective.................................................................................................................. .........13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................15 2.1 Pile Jetting............................................................................................................... .........15 2.1.1 Soil Conditions.......................................................................................................15 2.1.2 Jetting Equipment...................................................................................................16 2.1.3 Determing Pump a nd Jet Pipe Sizes.......................................................................17 2.2 Grouting................................................................................................................... .........19 2.2.1 Grouting Techniques..............................................................................................19 2.2.2 Grout Mix Design...................................................................................................21 2.2.3 Grouting Equipment...............................................................................................22 2.2.4 Methods of Grouting..............................................................................................23 3 TEST FACILITY DESI GN AND CONSTRUCTION..........................................................24 3.1 Test Chamber Design and Construction...........................................................................25 3.2 Design and Construction of the Twin Reaction Shafts.....................................................27 3.3 Preparing the Test Chamber.............................................................................................29 3.3.1 Installing Instrumentation.......................................................................................30 3.3.2 Constructing Water Wells......................................................................................32 3.3.3 Soil Placement........................................................................................................32 4 PILE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION...............................................................................34 4.1 Steel Reinforcement Design.............................................................................................34 4.2 Jetting Pipe Requirements................................................................................................36 4.3 Grouting Pipe Requirements.............................................................................................36 4.4 Water and Grout Delivery Pipe System Design...............................................................37 4.5 Nozzle Design.............................................................................................................. .....39 4.6 Pile Construction.......................................................................................................... ....40

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6 5 TESTING SETUP AND PROCEDURES..............................................................................44 5.1 Jetting.................................................................................................................... ............44 5.1.1 Jetting Setup...........................................................................................................4 4 5.1.2 Jetting Procedures...................................................................................................46 5.2 Grouting................................................................................................................... .........46 5.2.1 Grouting Setup........................................................................................................48 5.2.2 Grouting Procedures...............................................................................................48 5.3 Load Tests................................................................................................................. ........50 5.3.1 Load Test Setup......................................................................................................50 5.3.2 Load Test Procedures.............................................................................................51 6 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........53 6.1 Jetting Results............................................................................................................ .......54 6.1.1 West Pile................................................................................................................ .54 6.1.2 East Pile................................................................................................................ ..56 6.1.3 Jetting Summary.....................................................................................................58 6.2 Grouting Results........................................................................................................... ....59 6.2.1 Upper Level Grouting.............................................................................................59 6.2.2 Lower Level Grouting............................................................................................62 6.2.3 Tip Grouting...........................................................................................................65 6.2.4 Grouting Summary.................................................................................................67 6.3 Load Testing Results....................................................................................................... .69 7 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................... ....72 7.1 Summary.................................................................................................................... .......72 7.2 Conclusions and Recommendations.................................................................................72 APPENDIX A PILE CAPACITY ESTIMATION.........................................................................................74 B CONCRETE AND GROUT DATA.......................................................................................77 C RAW LOAD TEST DATA....................................................................................................80 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..96 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................97

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Water and Head Requirements for Pile Jetting..................................................................18 2-2 Water Flow Rate and Head Loss.......................................................................................18 2-3 Typical Quantities of Materials in Compaction Grout......................................................22 6-1 Grouting Data.................................................................................................................. ...69 C-1 Raw Load Test Data for West Pile....................................................................................80 C-2 Raw Load Test Data for East Pile......................................................................................81 C-3 Strain Gage Data from West Pile.......................................................................................82 C-4 Strain Gage Da ta from East Pile........................................................................................87

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Pile jetting in different soils...............................................................................................1 6 2-2 Different grouting methods................................................................................................ 20 2-3 Optimum sand gradation curve for compaction grout.......................................................21 3-1 Test chamber arriving and being welded onsite................................................................24 3-2 Test area layout.......................................................................................................... ........25 3-3 Test chamber construction................................................................................................. 26 3-4 Reaction shaft reinforc ing cage with anomalies................................................................28 3-5 Collapse of west reaction sh aft during initial construction................................................29 3-6 Completed test facility................................................................................................... ....30 3-7 Vibrating wire earth pressure cell......................................................................................31 3-8 Location of instrumentation in test chamber.....................................................................31 4-1 Pile reinforcing cages.................................................................................................... .....35 4-2 Schematic of grout ex it ports along pile shaft...................................................................38 4-3 Pile cross-section at various depths...................................................................................39 4-4 Elliptical jetting nozzles................................................................................................ .....40 4-5 Side grout port fittings.................................................................................................. .....41 4-6 Fittings for jetting and grouting at pile tip.........................................................................41 4-7 Steel pipes to attach fittings for jetting and grouting.........................................................42 4-8 Vibrating wire strain gage................................................................................................ ..42 4-9 Pile casting forms........................................................................................................ .......43 4-10 Completed piles.......................................................................................................... .......43 5-1 Water pump and water control unit...................................................................................45 5-2 Preparing pile for jetting................................................................................................ ....46

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9 5-3 Gradation curve of final grout mix design.........................................................................47 5-4 Loading grout pump hopper...............................................................................................49 5-5 Load test setup........................................................................................................... ........52 5-6 Load testing equipment, reference beam, and instrumentation.........................................52 6-1 Testing layout............................................................................................................ .........53 6-2 Positioning pile for jetting.............................................................................................. ...54 6-3 Repositioning steel collar to allow further pile penetration...............................................55 6-4 Spray pattern of elliptical nozzle used in jetting test #1 (west pile)..................................56 6-5 New nozzle design......................................................................................................... ....57 6-6 Spray pattern of new nozzle used in jetting test #2 (east pile)...........................................57 6-7 Water pump setup for jetting tests.....................................................................................58 6-8 Connecting the grou t hose to the pile................................................................................60 6-9 Changes in earth pressure during upper level grouting.....................................................61 6-10 Upper level grout bulbs.................................................................................................. ....61 6-11 Grout channel formed between two grout pipes................................................................62 6-12 Lower grout bulb on east pile............................................................................................ 63 6-13 Lower grout bulb on west pile...........................................................................................6 4 6-14 Changes in earth pressure during lower level grouting.....................................................65 6-15 Grout bulb at the tip of the east pile................................................................................... 66 6-16 Tip of west pile upon extraction........................................................................................6 6 6-17 Changes in earth pr essures during tip grouting..................................................................67 6-18 Grout pressure gage setup................................................................................................ ..68 6-19 Load test curve for east pile............................................................................................ ...70 6-20 Load test curve for west pile............................................................................................ ..71 B-1 Pile concrete strength envelope.........................................................................................77

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10 B-2 Test chamber plug 28 day concrete strength......................................................................77 B-3 East reaction shaft 28 day concrete strength......................................................................78 B-4 West reaction shaft 28 day concrete strength....................................................................78 B-5 Proportions of final grout mix............................................................................................ 79

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering INSTALLING REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES USING JETTING AND COMPACTION GROUTING By Ryan Heath Forbes August 2007 Chair: Michael C. McVay Cochair: David G. Bloomquist Major: Civil Engineering This study reports on the design, construction, installation, and lo ad testing of reinforced concrete piles that are installed by jetting a nd compaction grouting. The need for a different deep foundation installation method has emerged, esp ecially in areas that have become sensitive to noise and vibrations produced during pile driving. A full-scale testing facility was constructed at the University of Florida Coastal Engineering Lab for the purpose of testing this system. The test facility is comprised of a fully cased test shaft measuring 12’ in diameter by 33’ deep and two 48” concrete reaction sh afts to be used for load testing. The test piles were constructed of reinforced concrete, and a specia lly designed network of pipes was cast with each pile for the purposes of jetting and po st compaction grouting. Jetting was utilized to install the pile to the desired depth and the compaction grouting was used to displace the loose soil around the pile in orde r to improve the pile’s overall capacity. Compaction grouting is a very sp ecialized technique that is often used to level structures that have undergone differentia l settlement or for soil improvement before construction. The success of compaction grouting is greatly depe ndent on the engineers understanding of the problem, the equipment, the soil behavior, and the rheology of the grout. For this research, the

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12 equipment and grout mix are the most important f actors. Grout pumps are specially designed to sustain a constant grout flow volume under varying pressure situ ations, even pressures as high as 1,000 psi. At such high pressures, the grout mix gradation should contain sufficient fines (passing #200 sieve) to protect against separation. Flyash is a common component added to grout mix designs to provide the necessary fines and improve pumpability. Testing began by jetting the two test piles in th e test chamber. Using the pipes cast within the piles, compaction grouting was performed at three levels along the le ngth of the piles (8’, 22’, and the tip). Next, the piles were load test ed to determine their cap acities. These values were compared to a preliminary estimation dete rmined from FBDeep. Finally, the piles were extracted from the test chamber to obser ve the grout zones and draw conclusions.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Deep foundation construction (mast arms for li ghts and signage, bridges, etc) in business and metropolitan areas has become sensitive to pile driving vibration and noi se. Selection of an alternative foundation system other than driven piles has become an important issue in Florida. The Florida Department of Tran sportation (FDOT) Standard Speci fications Section 455 provides general guidelines for pile hole formation proces ses that minimize the effects of vibration on adjacent structures (i.e. jetti ng, drilled shafts, etc.). However, there are problems or disadvantages to these alternat ive methods. The FDOT Specifi cation requires that all piles installed utilizing water jetting be hammered at least the final te n feet to ensure the minimum capacity requirements are met. Consequently, vibr ation issues and noise are still a concern when employing this method. Also, the quality (internal integrity) of drilled shaf ts has always been a concern because of their construction process. To provide an alternative, the FDOT undertook re search on post-grouted drilled shaft tips. Although the results indicated that the drilled shaft capaci ties (tip resistance onl y) increased after post-grouting, other problems associated with their construction developed, for example, installation in loose, fine sa nds. Since this soil type is found throughout Florida another installation method was needed. 1.2 Objective One conceptually feasible pile installati on method, which would eliminate the vibration, noise, and integrity issues, is to install a precast concre te pile utilizing jett ing and subsequently post-grouting the pile shaft and tip. This alternative offers several advantages. First, the use of precast concrete piles eliminates the uncertainty of internal integrity as sociated with drilled

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14 shafts. Second, the jetting minimi zes the vibration and noise issues in sensitive areas. Finally, the grouting maximizes pile skin and tip resi stance. Now the question is, can this method perform as well as tradi tional installation methods? The FDOT awarded The University of Florida a grant to conduct research on the feasibility of utilizing the jetted and post-grouted piles in Florida soils. Since this type of foundation system has never been used or tested, a full-sc ale test facility was constructed to perform the research. The test facility consists of a large te st chamber and twin 48” dr illed shafts for static load testing. The test chamber, the largest of its kind, is 12’ in diameter, constructed from ”thick steel plating with 33’ of vertical heig ht for testing. The 48” reaction shafts were constructed on either side of the test chamber and extend approximately 40’ into the ground. This test facility offers significant benefits: (1) due to the size of the test chamber, the insitu stresses at the pile-soil interface can be repr oduced without interference from adjacent piles or the walls of the test chamber, (2) the test cham ber also allows for excav ation of the piles to observe the grout zones, and (3) pa rametric studies can be performe d to investigate the effects of changing the jetting and grout delivery techniques based on soil conditions. Overall, the research is focused on developing, fabri cating, and testing a jetting-grouti ng system, as well as developing a design methodology for the foundation system. However, due to construction delays, this report only discusses the construc tion of the test facility, the p ile design and construction, and the testing of the set of jet-grout pi les. At the conclusion of the research, a construction procedure and specification will also be submitted.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Pile Jetting Pile jetting, in general, has been a very eff ective method of pile driving for many decades. Jetting utilizes a stream of high-pr essure water discharged near th e tip of the pile, which loosens the surrounding soil and allows the pile to sink into the hole. Th e method, typically, is a much faster installation method than say pile driving or drilled shaft construc tion, and it requires far less energy than alternative installation methods. Moreover, jetting minimizes damage that can occur to piles that are being driven into harder soil stratas. Ho wever, pile jetting does have its limitations, namely the soil conditions in which it can be used. Also, the final pile set is usually achieved by driving the pile the fi nal ten feet, as described in F DOT Standard Specification 455. In most cases, this is necessary to verify that the pile capacity meets the minimum requirements set by the engineer. 2.1.1 Soil Conditions Pile jetting is typically only recommended when the piles are expected to be driven into sands or loose gravel. Using special techniqu es, it is possible, though, to use jetting when driving piles into hard clay. Wh en jetting a pile into sand, the wate r flow rate is more important that its velocity, but when jetti ng into clay or gravel, the water velocity is most important. For success in either case, the water velocity must be great enough to loosen the material below the pile and the flow rate (quantity of water) must be sufficient to allow the water and some of the disturbed material to escape al ong the sides of the pile (Tsinker 1988). Figur e 2-1 illustrates the results of jetting in different soil conditions. For now, the research was only concerned with jetting into sands. As time goes on, FDOT ma y consider testing in other soil conditions.

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16 Figure 2-1 Pile jetting in different soil s. A) sand. B) sand with cl ay stratum. C) sand layer underlayed with clay: 1–pile. 2–jet pipe. 3–water jet. 4–sand. 5–clay. 6–loose sand. 7–jet hole. 8–fine part icle deposition (Tsinker 1988). 2.1.2 Jetting Equipment The equipment required for jetting is typically very simple. In general, a jetting setup includes a centrifugal pump with a flow meter a nd pressure gage, properly sized jet pipes, and a sufficient water source. In situations where the vo lume of water is insufficient, air jets may be used to help the water travel up along the pile’s shaft. Proper handling of the pile and jet pipes should also be taken into consideration so as not to cause any damage. For this research, FDOT wanted a self-contained jet-grout pi le. In other words, all the pipe s required for jetting as well as grouting were to be cast within the pile. Th e idea was to help mitigate construction issues associated with other deep foundation systems as previously discussed and streamline the construction process by reducing th e amount of equipment on site. A BC

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17 2.1.3 Determing Pump and Jet Pipe Sizes Typically jet pipes have diameters between 2-4 inches. However, in some cases the pipe could be smaller or larger. Tsinker discusse s the following sequence for selecting jet pipe diameter and pump capacity: (1) using Table 21, determine water flow rate and water head required; (2) determine pressure losses thr ough hoses and pipes usi ng Table 2-2; and (3) determine required pump capacity. Based on pile size, soil type, and the estimat ed depth of driving, Table 2.1 provides the minimum jet pipe diameter, required water flow rate, and required hea d. Using the jet pipe diameter obtained from Table 2-1, the pressure losses through the hoses and jet pipe and water velocity can be determined from Table 2-2. Acco rding to Tsinker, the ve locity of water should not exceed 5 m/s, otherwise, the diameter and/or number of jet pipes should be increased. Hwang states that a pump’s output power is ty pically expressed in terms of discharge volume and the total energy head imparted on the liquid being pump ed. This relationship is directly related to a pump’s horse power rating. The required pump capacity can be calculated as follows: 000 33T s wH G Q HP (2-1) where HP = required pump horsepower; Q = required flow rate of water in gallons per minute; w = unit weight of water in pounds per gallon; Gs = specific gravity of th e fluid being pumped; and HT = total head in feet. The denominator in Equation 2.1 is a conversion to horsepower.

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18 Table 2-1 Water and Head Requirements for Pile Jetting (Marine Structures Handbook 1972) Table 2-2 Water Flow Rate in m3/hr (Numerator) and Head Loss in m (Denominator) per 100 m of Steel Pipe (Marine Structures Handbook 1972)

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19 2.2 Grouting In 1802, French engineer, Charles Berigny, “used a suspension of water and [pozzolan] cement to fill up the cavities in the foundation of a sluice in Dieppe, that had been damaged by settlement” (van der Stoel 2001). This was the firs t recorded use of grouting. Since that time huge advancements have been made in the knowle dge and technology of grouting, most of that within the last 50 years. 2.2.1 Grouting Techniques In general, there are four grouting techni ques that are used most often: permeation grouting, jet grouting, displacement grouting, and compaction grouting. Depending on one’s geographic location these techni ques may be referred to with a different name. Permeation (chemical) grouting tries to replace the air and wate r within the pore spaces of a soil stratum with grout. This technique typically uses injection pressures low e nough to prevent significant soil displacement. The term “chemical grouting” refe rs to an application where a special chemical grout is injected into the soil, which causes a reaction between the grou t and soil particles and changes the chemical properties of the improved zone. Jet grouting is a process where highpressure fluid grouts are injected into the soil at such high velocities that the soil structure is completely broken down and the grout mixes w ith the soil. Eventually, the grouted area solidifies into one large “homogeneous” mass. Displacement grouting uses a fluid mortar (low internal friction) to fracture the soil around the injection point, thus displacing it. Compaction grouting, on the other hand, aims at compacti ng loose soils by injecting a low slump grout, having high internal friction and strength, with out fracturing the soil matrix (van der Stoel 2001). Figure 2-2 depicts examples of each grouting t echnique. Of interest for this project is the compaction grouting technique for its ability to compact the soil around the test piles, which was loosened during jetting.

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20 Figure 2-2 Different grouting methods A) permeation (chemical) grou ting. B) jet grouting. C) displacement grouting. D) compac tion grouting (van der Stoel 2001). Compaction grouting has become a chosen tech nique for leveling structures that have undergone differential settlement, sinkhole remediati on, soil improvement prior to construction, and reducing liquefaction potenti al (Nichols and Goodings 2000). In recent years, increased research has been performed on the effects of grouting during deep foundation construction. Dapp and Mullins conducted research on post-grouti ng drilled shaft tips a nd found that the shaft end bearing could be improved up to 800 % in cert ain soils (2002). Researchers in China have found the capacity of bored cast-in-situ piles can be improved up to 250% by post grouting the shaft and tip of the piles. However, a neat gr out, not compaction grout, was used in both cases, only consisting of cement, water, and small amou nts of clay as needed to increase stability during pumping. Little research has been done on post-grouting piles utilizing true compaction grouting. According to Naudts and Impe, the success of compaction grouting is based upon one’s understanding of: the cause of th e problem and its geotechnical as pects, the grouting technique A B C D

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21 and equipment, the structure, how the surroundi ng soil will react to the introduction of grout, and the rheology of the grout (2000). 2.2.2 Grout Mix Design The rheology of the grout is a major factor in the success of compaction grouting. A typical compaction grout mix consists of sand, cem ent, flyash, and water. According to Brown and Warner, silty sands with higher percentages of fines produce the best mixes (1974). Weaver discussed a problem that arose on a grouting project in San Francisco where the sand used in the grout mix did not have sufficient fines. The result was a “rough” grout that produced large pressure drops through the hoses due to friction, and, at times, clogged the hoses. Figure 2-3 shows the optimum range for the grainsize distribution of compaction grout. Figure 2-3 Optimum sand gradation curve for co mpaction grout (Baker and Broadrick 1997) Best and Lane studied the relationship betw een grout flow rate and pressure during pumping. They concluded that sand gradati on strongly influences the pumpability of grout, not necessarily its slump. In fact, “very low slum p grout can be highly mobile, whereas very high 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% 0.000.010.101.0010.00Particle Diameter (mm)Percent Passing

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22 slump grouts can be formulated to have esse ntially no mobility” (Baker and Broadrick 1997). Baker and Broadrick go on to say that flyash is an important ingred ient in the grout mix design. The particles are very small, which is helpful in increasing the density of the grout, and their spherical shape significantly reduces frictional losses during pumping. Table 2-3 shows the quantities of materials in a typical compaction grout mix. Table 2-3 Typical Quantities of Materials in Comp action Grout (Baker and Broadrick 1997) DescriptionQuantityStandardComment/Effect Sand1,800-2,200 lbsASTM C-33 Well graded, rouded edge, min. 15% passing #200 sieve Cement250-500 lbsASTM C-150 Control strength of mix, increase density of mix Flyash*200-700 lbsASTM C-618 Improve pumpability, increase density, reduce cement content required for mix, Class F or C Water20-50 galControl slump Admixtures (optional) 1%-2% of cement Control set time, control shrinkage Quantitiy may vary depending on the fines available from the sand 2.2.3 Grouting Equipment On projects such as slab jacking or soil impr ovement, it is important to select the proper drilling method for installing the grout pipes. For this project, however, the only equipment of interest is the grout pump. Currently, twin cylinder piston pumps are used most often for compaction grouting. These pumps are capable of maintaining a constant flow though pressures may vary. They are also designed to provide pressures up to 1,000 psi. Pumps specifically designed for grouting are di fferent from traditional concrete pumps. Grout pumps are designed to minimize leakage of water through the valves. This is especially important during situations where sustained low delivery volumes and high pressures are

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23 required, otherwise, the water can be forced out of the grout causing a “sand block” in the pump (Baker and Broadrick 1997). 2.2.4 Methods of Grouting There are two basic compaction grouting met hods that are employed: Stage up and Stage down. Stage up grouting begins at the beari ng layer and moves upward improving the soil in stages as the grout pipe is removed from the ground. Stage down works in the opposite direction. A dense zone is crea ted at the top of the area to be improved and subsequent layers are grouted as the pipe in inserted deeper in the ground. Stage up grouting is the most common and most economical method. This information wa s considered in determining the sequence of grouting around the piles.

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24 CHAPTER 3 TEST FACILITY DESI GN AND CONSTRUCTION As mentioned before, a specially designed test f acility was needed to perform the research. Discussion began in February 2005 regarding the design and construc tion of the testing facility. Coastal Caisson of Clearwater, FL was awarded th e construction contract in July 2005. Due to prior job commitments construction was delayed un til January 2006. The rese arch test facility was to be constructed at the UF Coastal Lab in Ga inesville, FL on the South-End of the property. January 23, 2006, Coastal Caisson arrived at the UF Coastal Laboratory to begin construction of the FDOT Test Chamber and R eaction Shafts. The Test Chamber was designed as a 12’ diameter, fully-cased drilled shaft. Th e steel casing was ” thic k and approximately 40’ long. Figure 3-1 shows the casi ng arriving by truck in four 10’ sections and being welded together on site. Two 48” reaction shafts we re designed and constructed on the eastern and western sides of the test chamber, as shown in Figure 3-2, to provide the necessary uplift resistance for load testing the pile. Each re action shaft was designed to withstand 250 – 300 tons of uplift. Details on their design and construction will be discussed a little later. Figure 3-1 Test chamber arriving and being welded onsite

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25 Coastal Lab BuildingsAuxiliary Bldg. Testing PipesConcrete Slab Instrument Room Figure 3-2 Test area layout 3.1 Test Chamber Design and Construction Several considerations were made in the design of the 12’ test chamber, but most importantly, the size of the chamber needed to be substantial enough to eliminate interaction between adjacent piles and the wa lls of the chamber (ability to reproduce insitu pile-soil stresses). Coastal Caisson had the capability of drilling a 12’ diameter hole without much added cost or equipment customization. Therefore, the size of the test chamber was set based on financial limitations and equipment availabil ity. The 12’ chamber would provide enough clearance to test two 16”, square, reinforced concrete piles with minimal interaction. On February 3, construction of the in-ground te st chamber began by setting a 13’x 4’ (dia x ht) temporary casing. The “wet-hole” shaft construction method was employed using a KB polymer. Initially a 48” diameter pilot hole was drilled to help relieve some of the stress on the drill rig once the larger (12.3’ diameter) auger b it was attached. The excavation proceeded to an approximate depth of 41’, whereupon the bottom was belled (over reamed) to a diameter of about 14’. This over reaming ensured that the co ncrete plug placed at the bottom of the test North ReactionShafts TestChamber

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26 A B C D chamber would press against the lower edge of the steel casing, providing sufficient resistance against uplift due to differing hydrostatic pressu res. Figure 3-3 shows various aspects of the construction of the test chamber. Concrete cylinders from the plug were recovered and tested 28 days after casting with concre te strengths around 4500 psi. Figure 3-3 Test chamber construction. A) 40’ st eel casing. B) 12.3’ auger bit. C) wet-hole construction using polymer slurry. D) pour ing concrete plug with tremie pipes.

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27 3.2 Design and Construction of the Twin Reaction Shafts In order to verify the estimated pile capacities, traditional top-down static load test were to be performed on every jetted-grouted pile. Origin ally the reaction system would include driven steel H-piles and possibly adjacent jetted-grouted p iles. However, after further discussions with FDOT personnel a new, more permanent reaction system was desired for future testing. Therefore, a supplement for the construction of two 48” reaction shafts having lengths of approximately 40’ was submitted and approved. As part of this activity, the State Materials Office in Gainesville, FL requested that anomalies and casings for shaft inspection instrumentation, which would not affect the shaf ts’ axial capacities, be a dded to the shafts to evaluate shaft integrity and to train technician s in cross-hole sonic l ogging (CSL) and nuclear density testing (NDT) methods. The above-mentioned inclusions were to be tied to the steel reinforcement at known locations prior to its installation in the shaft. In order to simulate a soft (non cleaned) bottom condition sand bags were tied to the bottom of the reinforcing cage. Also, two 3.5 gallon plastic buckets were filled, one with sand and the other with slurry, capped, and tied inside the steel cage. The sand-filled bucket represented a so il inclusion that may have occurred during the placement of the concrete. Similarly, a slurry inclusion (e.g. improper slurry unit weight and viscosity) was simulated with the slurry-filled bucket. Finally, a gravel basket measuring 12”x12”x16” (LxWxH) was incorporated to represen t concrete that may have segregated during the pour. Figures 3-4 and 3-8 show the differe nt anomalies and their locations within the reinforcing cage. On February 8, 2006, excavation of the west reaction shaft began. Similar to the construction of the test chamber, first, a tem porary casing was installed to contain the drilling fluid (KB Polymer solution) and act as a guide for the drill operator. When the excavation

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28 reached approximately 19’ the eastern wall of th e shaft completely collapsed and the drilling fluid escaped under the temporary casing as show n in Figure 3-5. Dril ling stopped immediately to assess the situation. The failure was attributed to cavities in the soil created during the drilling of the test chamber. Several clay layers were encountered during the test chamber excavation. It is thought that the wings on the 12’ auger bit, previously show n in Figure 3-3b, along with the cohesion of the clay caused more of the material to be removed than desired. When the soil was removed for the west reaction shaft, thes e over-excavated zones could not support the overburden. The collapsed hole was filled with clean sand and abandoned to evaluate a better strategy. In the meantime, excava tion began on the east reaction shaft. Figure 3-4 Reaction shaft reinforcing cage with anomalies. A) top view. B) bottom view. Construction of the east reaction shaft commenc ed February 9, 2006. Again, a temporary casing was installed first. Excavation continue d to about 42’ with no problems, whereupon the bottom was cleaned with a cleanout bucket. Th e steel reinforcing cage, with the included anomalies, was lowered into the shaft, secured at the proper elevation, and the concrete was placed as specified. A B

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29 Figure 3-5 Collapse of west reacti on shaft during initial construction. A) pre-failure. B) postfailure. After further evaluation of the west shaft fa ilure, the UF research team and construction professionals from Coastal Caisson determined th at it would be safe to try drilling the shaft again. As further safety precautions, though, a longer temporary casing and a more stable, mineral (bentonite) slurry was utilized. A diffe rent drilling crew arrived on site on March 8, 2006 to begin the construction. The construction occurred without any further difficulties and was completed on March 10. Figure 3-6 shows the complete test facility. The 2” pipes protruding from the top of the reaction shafts are the casings for the drilled shaft integrity testing equipment. Also, extending from the tops of the reaction shaf t are 1.25”-diameter high strength steel bars that were used later during the pile load tests. Thes e high strength bars extend almost the entire length of the reaction shafts. 3.3 Preparing the Test Chamber Before actual testing could begin, several step s were taken to prepare the test chamber: installing instrumentation, construction of water wells, and soil placement. A B

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30 Figure 3-6 Completed test facility 3.3.1 Installing Instrumentation Geokon 4800 vibrating wire earth pr essure cells were used to monitor the change in soil stresses adjacent to the piles during all stages of testing (jetting, grouti ng, and load testing). Figure 3-7 shows an example of thes e pressure cells. Ten pressure cells were strategically placed at differing locations and elevations within the te st chamber. One pressure cell was to be placed horizontally at a depth of about 30’, which was approximately 2.5’ below the tip of each pile. The remaining eight pressure cells were placed at the north, south, east, and western nodes of the test chamber and at an elevation corresponding to the depths of the jet-grout exit ports along the sides of the piles. Figure 3-8 illustrates the lo cation of the earth pressure cells within the test chamber.

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31 Figure 3-7 Vibrating wire earth pressure cell A B Figure 3-8 Location of instrumentation in test ch amber. A) cross-sec tion. B) plan view. Sand Bags EPC Gravel Box Soil & Slurry Buckets 150 ksi Stress B a Down-hole Probe Casing Test Chamber Earth Pressure Cell

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32 3.3.2 Constructing Water Wells The water table location inside the test chambe r could have some effect on the successful grouting of the piles. As a means of monitori ng and controlling the wa ter table in the test chamber, four pumping wells were installed around the tank. These pumping wells were constructed of 4” perforated, thin-walled PVC pipe, which can be purchase at most home improvement stores. Each pipe was wrapped with a finely-woven filter cloth obtained from FDOT SMO personnel. The engineering proper ties of the cloth are unknown. The pipes had lengths of 30-32’, extending almost th e entire length of the test chamber. Periodically throughout the time of testing, an electronic water me ter was lowered into each well to check their water levels. Rem oving water from the test chamber was a time consuming process but the method was effective. An in-line, submersible pump was lowered into each well and the water was pumped out aw ay from the test chamber. Once a well was drained the pump was retrieved and lowered into one of the other wells, until all the wells were dry. Over time the wells would refill as the wa ter seeped from the sand through the filter fabric and into the wells. The pumping process was repeated as needed. 3.3.3 Soil Placement FDOT wanted to initially test the piles in two soil states – loose and dense. The loose state was tested first. To achieve this condition the so il was slowly rained into the test chamber using a skid-steer loader and without any compaction. The first 10’ of sand, though, was rained through water. After completing the construction of the test chamber, the drilling fluid remained in the tank. It provided the weight needed to overcome any up lift forces acting on the concrete plug during the curing process. Once the concrete had cured properly, most of the drilling fluid was pumped out of the test chamber. Approximate ly 10’ of fluid was left in the bottom of the tank. Since there was such a long free fall, the first 10’ of sand was dumped into the tank and

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33 allowed to settle through the flui d left at the bottom of the test chamber. This technique was used to help ensure the loosest soil state as possi ble. If the sand was allowed to fall the entire distance, some compaction would occur from the we ight of impact from subsequent sand layers. The technique of raining the sand through the wa ter worked well until it was time to install the horizontal earth pressu re cells near the bottom of the test chamber. The saturated conditions were extremely difficult to work in and caused a big delay in the placement of subsequent soil layers. As a result, the remaining sand was just slowly rained into the tank using the loader, without settling through water. This technique proved to be adequate. Hand penetrometer readings were taken periodically throughout this activity, which verified that the soil was in a very loose state.

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34 CHAPTER 4 PILE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Originally the proposal called for the testi ng of 18”-square reinforced concrete piles measuring 30’ long. However, the anticipated ov erlap of the pile intera ction zones required the pile widths to be decreased to 16”. Also, the pile lengths were shortened to 28’ in order to provide sufficient clear distance belo w the pile tip so as not to inte ract with the concrete plug in the bottom of the test chamber. A major goal of the project was to design a usable pile, which has all the necessary “plumbing” precast within. Since space was limited inside the piles, the pipes and fittings needed to be designed fo r use during both the jetting and grouting phases. 4.1 Steel Reinforcement Design Structurally, the pile was de signed according to Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-02). The desi gn was governed by the compressive axial loads to be applied during load testing, with an absolute maximu m anticipated load of 600 kips. The minimum required column dimensions were determin ed by the following (ACI Equation 10-2): st y st g c uA f A A f P 85 0 8 0 (4-1) where Pu = 600,000 lbs, maximum applied load; = 0.65, strength reduction factor for concrete in compression (ACI 9.3); f’c = 4,500 psi, concrete compressive strength; Ag = gross crosssectional area of pile; Ast = 0.015Ag, total area of longitudinal reinforcement assumed to be 1.5% of Ag; and fy = 60,000 psi, yield strength of longit udinal reinforcement. The results from Equation 4-1 required the pile to have a minimum gross cross-sectional area (Ag) of 247 in2. Having a cross-sectional area of 256 in2, the selected 16”x16” pile meets this criteria. The next step was to determine the amount of longitudinal steel that was needed. By substituting the actual cross-sectional area of the 16” pile (Ag = 256 in2) back into Equation 4-1

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35 and solving for Ast, it was determined 3.01 in2 of steel reinforcement was required. This most closely corresponded to the use of four #8 bars having a total cross-s ectional area of 3.16 in2. Since the pile was a compression member, latera l reinforcement was also required. Ties, instead of spirals, were selected for ease of c onstruction. According to ACI 7.10.5, lateral ties should be at least #3 in size for longitudinal ba rs #10 or smaller. Other considerations in designing lateral reinforcement are c oncrete cover and vertical spacing. ACI 7.7.3 states that at least 1.5” of cover are required for members ha ving #6 through #11 longitudinal reinforcement. The spacing between each tie, in accordance with ACI 7.10.5, should not exceed the smallest of the following: 16 longitudinal bar diameters, 48 tie bar diameters, or smallest dimension of the compression member. In summary, the pile was designed with four #8 longitudinal rebars located in each corner of the reinforcing cage, #3 lateral ties spaced 12. 5” on center, and 2” of concrete cover on all sides of the pile. The 2” concre te cover was used rather than the minimum1.5” (as stated in ACI 7.7.3) because the rebar chairs used to rais e the reinforcement cage off the ground during casting were not available in the 1.5” height. Figure 4-1 shows the comp leted reinforcement cages prior to casting. Figure 4-1 Pile reinforcing cages

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36 4.2 Jetting Pipe Requirements As previously mentioned, Tsinker di scussed a sequence for determining water requirement, jetting pipe diamet ers, and pump capacities based upon tables found in the Marine Structures Handbook (1972). Table 2-1 aided in determining the water flow and head requirements based on soil type, pile size, and depth of driving. Given the test conditions – silty sand, 16” pile, 28’ deep – data from Table 2-1 suggested using a 37 mm (1.5”) diameter jet pipe with a water flow rate of 0.4 – 1 m3/min (106 – 264 gal/min) and 0.4 – 0.9 Mpa (58 – 116 psi) of head at the tip of the pile. Table 2-2 shows that using a 37 mm diameter jet pipe would produce a velocity in excess of 5 m/sec (16.5 ft/sec) and produce head losses in excess of 80 meters. According to Tsinker, this velocity was too large due to frictional losses that would occur within the pipes and hoses. Therefore, he suggested increasing the number and/or diameter of the jet pipe. Since space is limited in the pile, adding an other pipe was not an option. The jet pipe diameter was increased to 50 mm (2”), which ge nerated a velocity less than 3.5 m/sec (11.5 ft/sec) and a total flow rate of 25.2 m3/hr (111 gal/min). Associated head losses were estimated to be 35 meters per 100 meters of steel pipe (or 0.35 meters per meter of steel pipe) as shown in Table 2-2. The values for velocity and estim ated head loss were deemed acceptable. Although the 111 gal/min flow rate generated from Table 22 was within the required range from Table 2-1 (106-264 gal/min), the research team felt it was too low. Therefore, when the pump size was calculated a water flow rate of 264 gal/min was used. 4.3 Grouting Pipe Requirements The goal of the research is to use compaction grouting to increase the lateral stress within the soil surrounding the pile and ultimately to incr ease the pile’s loading capacity. In order to displace and compact the soil, a stiffer, mortar-l ike grout was needed. Th e pipes used during the grouting process needed to have a diameter larger enough to al low the grout to flow easily.

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37 Also, hoses, valves, and fittings, and their associat ed losses, need to be considered in the design of the grout delivery system. According to Bake r and Broadrick (1997), 1. 5” diameter pipes are typically sufficient for shallow compaction grouti ng applications. For de eper applications, 3” pipes most likely should be utilized. Due to lim ited space within the pile and the rather shallow depths of grouting (28’), the smalle r pipe size was deemed sufficient. 4.4 Water and Grout Delivery Pipe System Design Again, the system of pipes within the pile needed to be sufficient for use during both the jetting and grouting phases. From the discussion above, a single 2” pipe was deemed sufficient for the jetting phase. The pipe would be cast within the pile and exit through the tip. This pipe size would also be sufficient for grouting. Howe ver, it was thought that a single pipe exiting only through the pile tip would not provide the desired soil impr ovement along the pile shaft. Additional grout exit ports were ne eded along the sides of the pile. Unfortunately, just inserting more fittings to provide the additional exit ports along the sides of the pile was not a viable option, especially during jetting, because water would be expelled from these ports unnecessarily. The only other option was to add more pipes designated for grouting the desired areas along the pile shaft. The challenge now was to figure out how to inco rporate separate pipe systems in the pile without hindering the over all pile strength and constructability As shown in Figure 4-2, the UF research team determined that a tri-level system (two levels along the p ile shaft and one at the tip) would maximize the amount of soil improve ment from grouting without impeding the constructability. The most obvious solution was to install additional pipes along each side of the pile with exit ports at 8’ and 22’. However, research conducted by Baker and Broadrick illustrated that when grouting through a pipe with multiple exit holes, the grout exited only

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38 through the upper holes due to less resistance. In order to ensu re the grout exits through the lower holes, the pipes controlling the upper and lo wer grouting zones had to be independent. Figure 4-2 Schematic of grout exit ports along pile shaft Several designs were considered but the final design integrated a 5-pi pe configuration. A 2” diameter pipe was installed at the center of the pile and runs the pile’s entire length. This pipe was designated for jetting and tip grouting. The four remaining pipes were 1.5” in diameter and were designated for grouting the pile perimete r – two for the upper leve l and two for the lower level. Each of the 1.5” pipes had two exit points on adjacent side s of the pile, meaning there is an exit port on all four sides of the pile at both the upper and lo wer grout levels. The upper level ports exit the pile at a depth of 8’ while the lowe r level exits 22’ from the top of the pile. For example, if the pipe in the upper left corner of th e pile is designated as an upper level grout pipe, then the pipe in the lower right corner will also be an upper leve l grout pipe. Consequently the other two pipes (upper right and lower left) are designated for gr outing the lower level zones. GroutExitPorts 16 ” x16 ” x28 ’ Pile 8 ’ 22 ’

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39 Figure 4-3 shows cross-sectional views of the pile at the different depths to offer a better view of the exit ports at the upper and lower grout levels. Figure 4-3 Pile cross-section at various depths. A) s ection at 8 ft. B) section at 22 ft. C) section at 28 ft (pile tip). 4.5 Nozzle Design As discussed in the previous section, the 2” pipe running down the cente r of the pile was to be used for both jetting and grouting at the tip. After further evaluati on, the research team believed the single pipe at the tip of the pile may not provide optimum distribution of grout around the entire pile tip. Therefore, a series of fittings were in stalled to provide four 2” exit ports equally spaced on the bottom of the pile. During jetting, however, the additional 2” ports would cause an extreme pressure loss (i.e. four 2” exit ports being fed by only one 2” pipe). Keeping in mind conservation of area, the exit port s needed to be restri cted during jetting to provide the optimum volume and velocity of wate r for eroding the soil. It was an interesting dilemma. What could provide the proper restriction for jetting but al so be adjusted to use the full 2” pipe diameter during grouting? The most viable solution was a nozzle utilizing an expandable, rubber membrane. With strategically placed holes, the membrane could provide the 1.5" Port 2" Center PVC Tube 1.5" PVC Perimeter Tubes with Port at 8' 1.5" PVC Perimeter Tubes with Port at 22' Steel Reinforcement Plugged End Variable Diameter Exit Port via Nozzle Prototype A B C

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40 restriction needed for je tting but would also expa nd or break to allow the grout to pass through. Figure 4-4 shows the bottom of the pile with th e rubber nozzles, which ha d 2” x ” elliptical openings. It was believed the ellipse would pr ovide sufficient restriction during jetting and expansion for grouting. Figure 4-4 Elliptical jetting nozzles 4.6 Pile Construction Due to quality assurance and budgetary concer ns, the piles were constructed onsite by the author. Since the pile design was so customized and included so many parts, constructing them onsite provided flexibility to make last minute adjustments before pourin g the concrete, without accruing additional labor costs. First, the steel reinforcement was tied together according to the design discussed earlier. Next, th e jetting and grouting pipes were assembled and tied into their proper positions within the reinforcing cage. Figu res 4-5 and 4-6 show the installed pipes with corresponding fittings and exit ports. Short lengths of threaded steel pipe were attached to the top of each delivery tube and extended from the t ops of the piles as shown in Figure 4-7. These steel pipes were later used to attach fittings and hoses during jetting and grouting. Figure 4-8 shows the installation of two vibr ating wire strain gages, which were attached to opposite sides of the steel reinforcement at the pile midpoint. These strain gage s provided internal strain data during the pile load tests.

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41 Figure 4-5 Side grout port fittings Figure 4-6 Fittings for jetti ng and grouting at pile tip 1.5" PVC Pipe 1.5" PVC Long Wye FittingNOTE: Fittings are not to scale 1.5" PVC Long 90Elbow 2" PVC Double Wye Fitting 2" PVC 22.5 Elbow 2" PVC PipeNOTE: Fittings are not to scale 2" PVC Pipe Wood or Epoxy Plug 6" x 6" Pressure-Dependent Rubber Nozzle Prototype

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42 Figure 4-7 Steel pipes to attach fittings for jetting and grouting Figure 4-8 Vibrating wire strain gage Next, casting forms were constructed and prepped with a chemical to ensure the forms would easily release from the cured concrete. W ith two of the reinforcing cages in place, the concrete forms were secured around them. Br acing was installed on the forms to support the lateral forces from the concrete as shown in Fi gure 4-9. The piles were cast and covered with plastic to protect them from the weather during th e curing process. Concrete cylinders were also cast at that time to help monitor the pile concrete strength while curing.

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43 Figure 4-9 Pile casting forms About one week later the forms were stripped fr om the piles. Initia l inspection revealed that concrete bled into several of the exit ports along the sides of the piles. The pipes may not have been completely sealed against the concrete forms, allowing some of the concrete to enter. Some of the ports were filled more that others but care was taken to re move as much of the concrete as possible. Most of the ports were cleaned out comp letely. Figure 4-10 depicts the completed piles. Figure 4-10 Completed piles

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44 CHAPTER 5 TESTING SETUP AND PROCEDURES This section will discuss the initial setup and procedures followed during each stage of testing – jetting, grouting, and load testing. 5.1 Jetting 5.1.1 Jetting Setup The pump is one of the most important aspects of the jetting process. Taking into account the head loss through all the pipes, hoses, valv es, and fittings, the pump must be properly sized to provide sufficient water pressure and volume to effectively erode the soil below the pile. By substituting Q = 264 gal/min, w = 8.34 lb/gal, Gs = 1.0, and HT = 170 ft into Equation 2-1, it was determined that an 11.3 HP pump was needed to jet the piles for this research. Unfortunately pumps are not 100% efficient. There are losses in the pump due to friction and heat. Therefore, a larger pump is actually needed to pr oduce the required 11.3 HP output. Since pump efficiencies vary, an efficiency of 75% was assu med. As a result, a 15 HP pump was needed to produced an output of 11.3 HP. Conveniently, th e UF Coastal Lab had available an old 16 HP centrifugal pump with 4” supply and disc harge lines as seen in Figure 5-1a. A 2” reduction was needed to transition from the 4” pump discharge to the 2” jetting pipe inside the pile. Not knowing what kind of st ress the restriction would put on the pump, a network of fittings and valves was constructed to try to control the pre ssure and volume of water flowing to the pile. A 4” tee fitting was placed just beyond the pump discharge to divert (“bleedoff”) some of the water back to the 3000-gallon water suppl y tank. The remaining water continued on to the pile. Figure 5-1b shows the tee configuration. Two valves were used to control the flow of water to the pile and the am ount diverted back to the storage tank. Moving downstream from the 4” tee toward the pile a coup le of pipe sections and additional fittings were

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45 incorporated to monitor the water pressure and also to introduce air into the jetting process. As discussed in Chapter 2, air jets can sometimes help reduce the volume of water used by helping move the water and eroded so il up along the pile shaft more efficiently. Finally, a 90 elbow, having a radius of 16”, was connected to the top of the pile. This fitting was used to avoid kinking the supply hoses and help reduce a ssociated head losses through the bend. A B Figure 5-1 A) 16 HP centrifugal pump. B) 4” tee used to control water flow to pile. Another obstacle to overcome wa s pile handling. The piles weighed almost 8,000 lbs and were 28’ long. There was no equipment on-hand that could handle that load or accommodate that length. Eventually, a forklift, which was once used in the logging industry, was purchased for the project to lift and move the piles. The forklift was rated at a 22,000 lb capacity with a maximum lifting height of 22’. Steps were ta ken to accommodate the remaining length of the pile. First, one end of the pile was placed on a la rge, steel “saw horse” which allowed the pile to be lifted about 4’ higher than if it were picked up from the ground. Also, a 2’-deep hole was dug in the test chamber to preset the pile. Figure 52 shows the forklift placi ng the pile onto the steel stand. With the pile resting on the stand, a steel collar was bolted around the pile to aid in stabilizing and controlling the pile penetration during jetting. The collar could be shifted up and to pile “bleed-off” from pump

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46 down the pile to provide additiona l depth as needed. The forklift was later modified and used at the conclusion of testing to remove the soil from the test chamber and extract the piles. 5.1.2 Jetting Procedures The actual procedures followed during jetting ar e very simple. All the water and air hoses were connected properly, the pile was lifted into place, the water pump and air compressor were started, and the jetting began. During jetting, the water and air valves were adjusted to maximize the pile penetration. When th e pile reached a depth of about 20’ the steel collar was shifted up the pile to allow full penetration. Once the pile reached the proper depth, the valves were closed, the pump and compressor were stopped, and the process was complete. The pile was secured in place using chains for at least 24 hours as the jetted material was se ttling and the water was seeping to the bottom of the test chamber. Using the monitoring wells, the water level in the test chamber was observed and cont rolled as described earlier. Figure 5-2 Preparing pile for jetting 5.2 Grouting From the previous discussion on compaction gr outing, the grout mix is a vital component of the success of a grouting pr oject. Figure 2-3 showed the optimum range for grain-size

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47 distribution of a compaction grout. A few grout mixes from ready-mix companies as well as one custom mix were considered fo r the project. Small batches of each mix design were prepared to observe its texture and behavior duri ng the traditional slump test and to cast test cylinders for strength testing. The final grout selection was a custom mix designed by the research team. The materi als were proportioned as follows: 52% sand, 14% cement, 23% flyash, and 11% water. Rink er Materials in Gainesville, FL agreed to provide the custom grout with a 3 slump. Fi gure 5-3 shows the grada tion of the selected grout mix design with respect to the op timum range described in Chapter 2. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% 0.000.010.101.0010.00Grain Diameter (mm)Percent PassingUpper Limit Lower Limit Grout Mix Curve Figure 5-3 Gradation curve of final grout mix design The high percentage of flyash caused the grout curve to move outside the optimum range. This was not a problem because the higher percentage of fines provided for a more dense grout and better pumpability charac teristics due the spherical shape of the flyash particles. If the grout gradatio n curve fell below the optimum range, some problems may have arisen.

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48 5.2.1 Grouting Setup Since grouting is a very sensit ive process that requires very expensive and specialized equipment, outside help was necessary. Americ an Geotechnical from Ocala, FL donated their expertise, equipment, and personnel to help during this phase of testing. The actual setup is fairly simple: grout pump, hoses and fittings, pressure gages, and grout. The perimeter grout pipes were marked at th e top of the pile with a “T” or “B” to distinguish the upper and lower grou t zones. Of course, the 2” pi pe in the center was used for grouting the tip. Specially designed fittings a nd reducers were attached to the steel pipes extending from the top of the pile. Since pr essures during grouting can reach 800-1000 psi, special high-pressure hoses, fitt ings, and clamps must be used. The grouting crew prepared the pump and connected the hoses to the pile. Part of the grouting process was to determin e a grouting sequence that would optimize the soil compaction around the pile. As described in the pile design, there were three levels of grouting pipes. Similar to the typical Stage down method, it was determined that grouting the upper section first would create a barrier or seal around the top of the pile to contain grout that may travel up along the pile from the lower zones. As part of the original proposal, the tip grouting would behave similarly to an Osterburg Cell test. The information gained from the tip grouting could be used to help estimate or conf irm the pile capacity. Therefore, it only made sense to grout the lower zone along the pile shaft second and the tip last. 5.2.2 Grouting Procedures September 28, 2006 the crew from American Geotechnical arrived on site to begin the grouting. A Schwing 750 grout pump was used to gr out the test piles. Th e grout was discharged from a ready-mix truck into the pump’s hopper, as shown in Figure 5-4, and pumped out of a 5” discharge line through a reducer to the 2” and 1 ” pile grout pipes on top of the piles. Prior to

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49 grouting the piles, slump tests we re performed on each batch of gr out and 4” x 8” cylinders were cast to monitor the grout’s strength before load testing the piles. Figure 5-4 Loading grout pump hopper As stated above, the zones along th e pile shaft were grouted firs t. The tip of the pile was grouted 24 hours later. If the tip is grouted t oo soon, the grout around the pile’s perimeter would not be strong enough to provide any resistance against the uplif t forces. This 24-hour period allowed time for the side grout to initially se t, which provided more shaft resistance, and, consequently, allowed more grout pr essure to be applied at the tip of the pile. Eventually the uplift pressure would overcome the side friction and the pile moved upward. A gage was placed on top of the pile to monitor this movement. Pressure readings and the number of pump st rokes were recorded throughout the entire grouting process,. The stroke count is important because it is used to calculate th e volume of grout pumped into the ground. Each stroke contai ns a certain volume of grout based on the size of the pump’s cylinders. Multiplying this volume per stroke times the number of strokes yields the total grout take for that zone. The Schwi ng 750 grout pump used on the project provided 0.8

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50 ft3 (5.98 gallons) of grout per stroke. Also, earth pressure data from the buried pressure cells was recorded by the data acquisition system to ev aluate the stress zones around the piles. The following criteria was established for de termining when grouting should be stopped: (1) a pressure increase greater than 100 psi w ith no more grout take, (2) formation of ground cracks around the piles, and (3) ” vertical pile movement. If one or more of these criteria were met, the grouting was stopped immediately for furthe r investigation, at wh ich point the research team evaluated if it was safe to continue grouting. 5.3 Load Tests The load test program for this project wa s adapted from ASTM D-1143: Standard Test Method for Piles Under Static Ax ial Compressive Load. A modifi ed Quick Load Test Method as described in Section 5.6 of ASTM D-1143 was utilized. 5.3.1 Load Test Setup There are 5 major components to any load test program: pile, reaction system, jack, load cell, and settlement monitoring system. The reaction system include d the two 48” reaction shafts, 150 ksi stress bars, and a girder rated at 300 tons. F DOT State Materials Office in Gainesville, FL provided the load test girder. Figure 5-5 shows the girder being supported at each end and coupled to the reaction shafts using stress bar extensions, 1”-thick bearing plates, and high-strength nuts. The gird er needed to be raised off the reaction shafts to provide sufficient space between the bottom of the girder a nd the top of the pile fo r the jack, load cell, and bearing plates. Figure 5-6 s hows the placement of the jack a nd load cell on top of the pile. Also shown in Figure 5-6 is the reference beam to which are attached tw o linear vibrating wire displacement transducers (LVWDT) and a digital di al gage (located behind the jack) used to monitor the pile top movement during load testin g. Readings from the LVWDTs were recorded using a Geokon 401 Portable Readout Unit.

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51 In addition, this project used st rain gages, installed at the midpoi nt of each pile, to evaluate the mobilized resistance. Data from these strain gages was recorded with the same data acquisition system that was used to monitor the pressure cell readings during the jetting and grouting phases. Load-Displacement curves we re generated from the st rain gage data and compared to the curve generated from the load-dis placement data at the top of the pile. This information was used to determine the design capacity of the piles. 5.3.2 Load Test Procedures Each load test was performed at 20 kip load ing increments, with each loading applied for 10 minutes. Depending on the pile behavior during loading these procedures were modified as needed to obtain the best data possible. Firs t, initial readings (time, load, VWDT1, VWDT2, digital dial gage) were taken be fore the first loading. Then, the initial load of 20 kips was applied and readings were recorded again. The load was applied for 10 minutes whereupon another set of readings was taken. Finally, the load was increased by 20 kips to a 40 kip load. Readings were recorded again and the process wa s repeated until the pile top moved 1” from its initial position. Figure 5-5 Load test setup

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52 Figure 5-6 Load testing equipment, reference beam, and instrumentation

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53 CHAPTER 6 RESULTS The following sections describe the results from the first set of jetted-grouted piles, which were tested at the end of 2006. Both piles were tested in the test chamber at the same time. They were installed in the eastern and western qu adrants of the chamber in line with the reaction shafts as shown in Figure 6-1. This figure shows the exact locations of the piles after they were jetted into place. Figure 6-1 Testing layout Since each phase of testing was performed indivi dually the results will be described in that manner. The piles will be referred to as the ea stern and western piles. Referring to Figure 6-1 above, the eastern pile is the pile on the right si de of the tank. The pipes used in grouting the sides of the piles are also referred to by their lo cation on top of the piles. This information will be particularly important in th e discussion of grouting and the ear th pressure changes gathered by the vibrating wire earth pressure cells buried in the test chamber. North

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54 6.1 Jetting Results 6.1.1 West Pile The west pile was the first pile jetted in the te st chamber. As discussed in Chapter 5, the following equipment was employed during this activity: a 16 HP centrifugal pump having 4” supply and discharge lines; air compressor to aid in the soil removal and reduce the volume of water used; four expandable, rubber nozzles to increase the water ve locity at the tip of the pile; valves to control water and air flow for optimum penetration rate; the large forklift for handling the pile; movable steel collar bolte d around the pile for added control of pile penetration. Figure 6-2 shows the pile being lifted into position before jetting began. Figure 6-2 Positioning pile for jetting Once the water pump and air compressor were started it took approximately 25 minutes for the West Pile to reach a depth of 20 feet. With the current location of the collar, the pile could not penetrate any further. The pile was tied off and the collar was shifted up the pile as shown in Figure 6-3. Meanwhile the pump and compressor continued running so the jetted hole below the pile would not fill in. This process took about 10 minutes and used a significant amount of

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55 water. With the collar repositioned, the jetti ng continued. About 10 minutes later the water pump stopped because the water tank was empty. Once the flow of water stopped, the jetting channels began closing. This required the res earch team to remove the pile from the test chamber because it would be impossible to recrea te the jetting channels through 20’ of soil with only a 16 HP pump. Figure 6-3 Repositioning steel collar to allow further pile penetration As the water tank was being refilled, the pile was inspected for damages. The research team observed that the jetting process had filled the perimeter grout pi pes with sand. These pipes had to be flushed before th e pile was jetted again. To prevent this from happening again, 2”-thick styrofoam plugs were cut and stuffe d into each exit port. The styrofoam would hopefully prevent the pipe from becoming clogged with sand while jetting, but could be blown out of the pipes during grouting. With the p ile modifications complete and the water tank refilled, jetting recommenced. Again, once the pile reached a depth of 20’, the steel collar wa s adjusted to allow further penetration. However, the pile would not pene trate any further under its own weight. The pile

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56 had to be rocked back and forth to assist in lowering it the final seven feet. This problem was attributed to the nozzle design a nd insufficient water flow rate at deeper depths. These issues were corrected before the next jetting test. All total, an estimated 3800 gallons of water was used in jetting the West Pile. This was not c onsidered acceptable or reasonable for construction in the field. 6.1.2 East Pile The first task before jetting of the East Pile could begin was to rede sign the rubber nozzles. With the pile lying on it side, the elliptical nozzl es were connected to the bottom of the pile. Figure 6-4 shows that the ellipse provides suffici ent water spray across the bottom of the pile in the plane of the larger dimensi on (2”) but not in the direction of the shorter dimension (”). Several different hole patterns were tested, but the one shown in Figure 6-5 produced the best water spray and was used in jetting the East Pile. Figure 6-6 demonstrates the spray pattern from the new nozzles. Figure 6-4 Spray pattern of elliptical no zzle used in jetting test #1 (west pile) Another improvement that was needed from the first jetting test was to increase the water flow especially when the pile was deeper in the ground. This was achie ved by renting a larger pump. The new pump, shown in Figure 6-7, wa s powered by a 100 HP diesel engine. All the hoses and valves remained the same.

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57 Figure 6-5 New nozzle design Figure 6-6 Spray pattern of new nozzle used in jetting test #2 (east pile) With the necessary improvements made jetting of the east pile began. As soon as the pump and compressor were started the pile began sinking into the soil. In less than 2 minutes the pile reached the 20’ mark. Penetration stopped long enough to reposition the steel collar. Once the collar was retightened the pile was lowere d to its final depth, whereupon, the pump and compressor were shut off and the pile was supporte d while the jetted material settled. From beginning to end, the eastern pile was jetted to 27’ in 7.5 minutes and only used an estimated

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58 1500 gallons of water (a 75% reduction in water us age from Test 1). Obviously the larger pump and new nozzle design made significant improvements to the jetting results. Figure 6-7 Water pump setup for jetting tests 6.1.3 Jetting Summary There was an obvious difference in the performan ce of the two jetting tests. However, it cannot be concluded which of the changes that were made brought about the most improvement. The pump sizes were significantly different. Sim ilarly, there was a significant difference in the spray patterns of the two nozzle designs used in the tests. Unfortunately, water flow rates were not measured during these tests. This informa tion may have offered some insight regarding any improvement due to the pump size. Another issue that arose was the accumulation of sand in the perimeter grout pipes during the jetting process. This problem was noticed during the first jetti ng test when the West Pile had to be removed from the test chamber after th e water storage tank was pumped dry. The pipes were flushed and plugged with 2”-thick styrofoam. Even with the plugs in place some sand did infiltrate the perimeter grout pipes of the West Pile. These pipes were flushed again once the Water Pum p –Test 2 Water Pum p –Test 1 3000 g al. Water Tan k Air Inlet

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59 pile was jetted in place by inserting a garden hose into the top of each pipe and allowing the water to bring the material to the surface. Un fortunately, with the configuration of exit port fittings inside the pile, there was no guarantee that all the exit ports were completely cleared. 6.2 Grouting Results As described in Chapter 5, the upper zones (at a depth of 8’) were grouted first, followed by the lower zones (around a depth of 22’), and th en finally the tip. At the conclusion of all testing, the piles were extracted from the test chamber to examine the grout bulbs that formed during grouting. The following sections discu ss the results of the grouting experiments. 6.2.1 Upper Level Grouting Grouting of the upper level grout pipes bega n around 9 AM. The sequence for grouting the upper zones was arbitrar ily selected as follows (see Figure 6-1): East Pile – North Pipe, East Pile – South Pipe, West Pile – West Pipe, West P ile – East Pipe. There is no scientific reason for why the locations of the grout pi pes are different on each pile. This is just how the piles were installed. Once the grout pump was primed and r eady, the hose was connected to the East Pile– North Pipe as shown in Figure 6-8 and grou ting began. Grouting stopped when the ground heaved and a 3/8” ground crack formed near th e pile. When grouting began on the East Pile– South Pipe there was a slight jump in pressure initially that was attrib uted to blowing out the styrofoam plug. Once the plug was out, the pressu re returned to zero a nd grouting continued as planned. Grouting ceased when another ” ground crack formed near the pile. Once the grouting was complete on the East Pile all the hoses and fittings were connected to the West Pile for grouting. The West Pipe was grouted first followed by the East Pipe. Grouting of the West Pile–West Pipe stopped when small ground cracks formed near the pile. The grout hose was then connected to the East Pipe. Immediately when grouting began on the East Pipe, pressures greater than 200 psi regi stered on the gage. The hose was disconnected,

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60 checked for clogs, and reconnected to the East Pipe. Soon after grouting recommenced the pressure rapidly increased beyond 200 psi again. Grouting stopped at once. After further investigation, the research team was still uncer tain what caused the sharp pressure increase. Table 6.1 shows the recorded pressures and gr out take for each pipe during the upper level grouting. Figure 6-8 Connecting the grout hose to the pile Also of interest was the change in earth pre ssure readings from th e pressure cells around the piles. As discussed in Chapter 3, the pressure cells were installed at the North, South, East, and West nodes of the test chamber and at levels corresponding to the eleva tions of the grout exit ports along the sides of the piles (refer back to Figure 3-8). Figure 69 shows the changes in earth pressure recorded by the upper layer of pressure cells during the upper level grouting process. The figure is marked to depict the results corresponding the grouting sequence. Excavation of the upper grout zones revealed th at the grout was not uniformly distributed around either of the piles. On the East pile, the grout exited from only one of the ports on the North Pipe and differing volumes of grout were expelled from the two ports on the South Pipe as

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61 A B seen in Figure 6-10a. Figure 6-10b shows that grout was expelled from only one exit port around the West Pile. It was also noted that ther e was no bonding between the grout and the piles. Figure 6-9 Changes in earth pre ssure during upper level grouting Figure 6-10 Upper level grout bulbs. A) east pile. B) west pile. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 02468101214161820 Elapsed Time (min)Pressure (psi) Upper East Upper South Upper West Upper North East PileWest PileNorth TubeSouth Tube

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62 6.2.2 Lower Level Grouting To allow a little time for the upper grout to sti ffen, grouting of the lower level grout pipes began several hour after the completion of the upper grouting. The se quence for grouting the lower zones was arbitrarily selected as follows (see Figure 6-1): Ea st Pile – East Pipe, East Pile – West Pipe, West Pile – North Pipe, West Pile – South Pipe. Grouting of the East Pile–East Pipe stopped when grout started oozing out of the t op of the West Pipe as shown in Figure 6-11. When grouting began on the East Pile–West Pipe grout immediately began escaping from the East Pipe. Grouting ceased and the hose was then connected the West Pile–North Pipe. After 2 pump strokes the pressure jumped over 200 psi. The hose was disconnected and the gage was disassembled to check for clogging. When the hose was reconnected to the West Pile–North Pipe and grouting was initiated th e pressure immediately spiked ag ain, so grouting was stopped. Similar results occurred in the West Pile–Sout h Pipe. After one pump stroke the pressure jumped to 300 psi. The pressure was released and the pump operator tr ied grouting the pipe again. This time the pressure gage blew off the hose. The union connecting the gage to the grout pipe was stripped and could not withsta nd the pressure. At th at point grouting was stopped. Figure 6-11 Grout channel form ed between two grout pipes

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63 Excavation of the lower grout zones again re vealed that the grout was not uniformly distributed around either of the piles. On the East pile, the grout exited from only two of the four ports – one port on each the East and West grout pipes. Figure 6-12 shows the grout bulb on the East Pile. The bulb was approximately 30” in diameter, 4.5’ tall, a nd had a volume of 24 ft3 (179.5 gallons). Also, it seemed the grout was pr etty well bonded to the pile around 80% of the visible grout-pile interface. All of the “unbonded” areas were al ong the bottom of the grout bulb. After seeing the grout formation it became a pparent how the grout had formed a channel connecting the East and West Pi pes. The two grout ports from which the grout was expelled were on adjacent sides of the pile. As the grout traveled around the corner of the pile, the exit ports were connected to the same grout bulb. The open pipes provi ded a path of least resistance causing the grout to be expelled from the top of the pile. In hindsi ght the pipes should have been capped to force the grout to find another path. Th is may have increased the grout take in this zone and increased the size of the grout bulb. Figure 6-12 Lower grout bulb on east pile

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64 As expected from the grout take information recorded, the grout bulb around the West Pile was very small as shown in Figure 6-13. Alt hough the root cause for these results is unknown, several possibilities exist: di fficulty overcoming the increased soil pressure around the pile induced during the grouting of th e East Pile; clogged grout pipe s despite flushing them with water; the water remaining in the grout pipes from the “flushing” process created an incompressible barrier behind the styrofoam plug, which could not be forced out quickly enough; or a poor pressure gage setup that may have cr eated a clog in the grout hose before the grout reached the pile. The most likely causes are thos e associated with sand and water remaining in the grout pipes. Figure 6-13 Lower grout bulb on west pile The pressure and grout take da ta recorded during this activit y is shown in Table 6-1 and Figure 6-14 shows the changes in earth pressure r ecorded by the pressure cel ls installed near the lower grout exit ports (at a depth of 22’).

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65 Figure 6-14 Changes in earth pre ssure during lowe r level grouting 6.2.3 Tip Grouting As discussed in Chapter 5, the tips of the piles were grouted 24 hours after the sides were grouted. The tip of the East Pile was grouted first. After 18 pump st rokes, 1/8” of pile movement was observed. This did not meet the stopping criteria, so grouting continued. After 31 strokes, however, the pile had move ” and ground cracks began forming around the pile. Grouting was stopped. The pressure readings r ecorded during this activity may be inaccurate by 10-20 psi. After the gage blew apart in the previous groutin g experiment, a new gage was installed. However, a member of the grouting crew mistakenly used a 5000 psi gage, which was divided into 100 psi increments. Upon completion of the East Pile, grouting bega n on the tip of the West Pile. Immediately the pressure spiked to 400 psi. The pressure wa s released and reapplied, and again the pressure shot up to 450 psi. To avoid any potential problems or danger to personnel grouting was stopped. No grout take was record ed and there was no pile movement. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0510152025303540 Elapsed Time (min)Pressure (psi) Lower East Lower South Lower West Lower North East PileWest PileEast TubeWest Tube

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66 Excavation of the East Pile tip revealed a large grout bulb having a volume of almost 25 ft3 (187 gallons) as seen in Figure 6-15. Figure 6-16 shows the tip of the West Pile upon extraction. Since there was no grout take on th e West Pile, there was no grout bulb. In looking more closely at the exit ports at the tip of the West Pile, sa nd was packed tightly in the four pipes behind the rubber nozzle. It is not certain if the sand is th e only reason no grout ex ited the pile because the pipe was mostly filled with water and no grout was seen in the pipe when the hose was removed from the pile. Once again the fitting configur ation may have hindered the flushing process. The pressure and grout take data were reco rded in Table 6-1 and Figure 6-17 shows the changes in earth pressure recorded by the horizonta l pressure cell beneath the tip of the East Pile as well as the lower level pressure cells at a depth of 22’. Figure 6-15 Grout bulb at th e tip of the east pile Figure 6-16 Tip of west pile upon extraction Lower Level Grout Ti p Grout

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67 Figure 6-17 Changes in earth pressures during tip grouting 6.2.4 Grouting Summary Similar to the jetting tests, there was a dist inct difference in the grouting results between the two piles. While the grout take around the East Pile was fairly significant, almost no improvement was observed on the West Pile. Th e poor grouting results for the West Pile are largely attributed to the issues associated with jetting, namely the infiltration of sand into the perimeter grout pipes. Although the pipes were flushed out, some sand may have remained in the pipes along with the water. It is believed that the water remaining in the grout pipes may have acted as an incompressible barrier between the grout and the styrofoam plug. The plug would not allow the water to escape quickly enou gh, therefore, the pressure readings spiked immediately. This would also help explain w hy no grout was observed in several of the grout pipes when the hoses were removed. There was one issue that was common to both grouting tests – the grout did not exit from all of the perimeter grout ports. In designing the perimeter pipe fittings, the research team 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0510152025 Elapsed Time (min)Pressure (psi) East Tip Lower South Lower North Lower East Pause in grouting @ 18 strokes to measure pile movement = 1/8" Ended grouting @ 1/4" of pile movement; grout pressure approx. 150 psi.

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68 thought the two exit ports at rough ly the same elevation on each grout pipe would maximize the soil improvement around the entire pile at that le vel. Based on the test results, it seems the fitting configurations could be simplified to only one exit port per grout pipe as long as proper measures are taken to ensure the pi pes do not get clogged during jetting. Although the effects may have been minor, it is believed that the pres sure gage setup was not the best for this type of application. Fi gure 6-18 shows the pressure gage used during the grouting test. So the pressure gage does not ge t clogged with granular ma terial, it is separated from the grout flow by a rubber membrane with in the union. Between the membrane and the pressure gage is an incompressi ble fluid for example hydraulic flui d. As the grout flows through the T-fitting and past the membra ne, the grout pressure is tran sferred through the fluid to the pressure gage. Over time, however, grout co llects behind the rubber membrane (indicated in Figure 6-18 by the red oval), which may affect th e pressure readings and impede or block the flow of grout. Figure 6-18 Grout pressure gage setup Flui d -filled p i p e

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69 Table 6-1 Grouting Data 6.3 Load Testing Results The load tests performed were adapted from ASTM D-1143 as described in Chapter 5. A modified quick test was utilized. The pile head movement was monitored by two linear vibrating wire displacement transducers (LVWDT) and a digi tal dial gage. Strain gages were embedded at the pile midpoint to analyze the load transfer through the soil. Figures 6-19 and 6-20 depict the load-displacement behavior of the East and West Piles, respectively, during load testing. The blue line represents the measured movement of th e top of the pile and the orange line depicts the loading curve at the pile midpoint calculated from the strain gage data. Using the load test Max. Grout Pressure (psi) # of Strokes Grout Take (gallons) Remarks North Pipe201059.8 grouting stopped when 3/8" ground crack formed South Pipe 45953.8 grouting stopped when 1/4" ground crack formed East Pipe3029173.4 grouting stopped when grout came up through the West Pipe West Pipe4016.0 grouting stopped when grout came up through the East Pipe 120-15031185.4 1/8" pile movement @ 18 stroke; 1/4" movement @ 31 strokes; 1/8" ground cracks formed around pile West Pipe60529.9 grouting stopped when small ground cracks formed East Pipe>2001.59.0 sharp pressure increase, pipe may have clogged North Pipe200212.0 grout build-up in gage saver gave incorrect readings; pressure gage was disassembled and cleaned South Pipe 15016.0 grouting stopped when gage blew apart; caused by a stripped fitting 40000.0no grout take; no visible pile movementWest Pile Upper Grout Zone Lower Grout ZonePile TipUpper Grout Zone Lower Grout Zone East PilePile Tip

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70 curves, the following Davisson capac ities were generated for each pile: East Pile = 140 kips and West Pile = 42 kips. The raw data fro m the tests is included in Appendix C. Figure 6-19 shows that the load at the midpoint of the East Pile, whic h was calculated from the strain gage data, was higher than the actual applied load. Theoretically, the load dissipates with depth. In this case, howev er, there are a couple of component s that may have contributed to this behavior. If the pile was not perfectly aligned and plumb, some bending stresses would result from eccentric loading. Also the grout ing process may have induced compressive stresses in the pile prior to load testing. Each of thes e scenarios could potentially create higher stresses at the pile midpoint. Figure 6-19 Load test curve for east pile 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 020406080100120140160180 Load (kips)Displacement (in) Top Movement Strain GageDavisson Capacity = 140 kips

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71 Figure 6-20 Load test curve for west pile 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 01020304050607080 Load (kips)Displacement (in) Top Movement Strain GageDavisson Capacity = 42 kips

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72 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION 7.1 Summary The field results of a full-scale deep founda tion testing program on the installation of reinforced concrete piles utiliz ing jetting and compaction grouti ng have been presented. Two piles were designed, constructed, and tested. The piles were designe d to contain all the necessary plumbing for jetting installation a nd post compaction grou ting along the shaft and below the tip. Upon completion of the grouting pha se, a static axial compressive load test was performed on each pile to determine their capac ities. Finally, the piles were excavated to observe the grout behavior. Several problems were encountered while testin g the West Pile such as insufficient water flow rate, nozzle design, and clogged gr out pipes. Consequently, only 7.6 ft3 (56.9 gallons) of grout could be pumped around the pile. Upon load ing, the Davisson capacity of the pile was only 42 kips. Changes were made prior to tes ting the East Pile, which greatly improved the results (larger pump, new nozzles, and plugs for the grout pipes). A total of 64 ft3 (478.8 gallons) of grout was pumped around the East Pile Its Davisson capacity was determined to be 140 kips, a 230% increase over that of the West Pile. 7.2 Conclusions and Recommendations The concept of designing a pile with a self -contained jetting a nd grouting system is feasible and can produce desired resu lts. However, some changes need to be made to the current design to improve results. Care needs to be taken to protect the si de grout ports from becoming clogged during jetting. While jetting the West Pile, the side grout pipes became cl ogged with sand. Steps were taken to clear the sand before grouting, but the overall test re sults were not good. Water flow rates should be monitore d in subsequent jetting tests.

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73 In regards to the internal plum bing, the phrase “the simpler the better” is pertinent. Each side grout pipe had two exit ports, but in every case except one (upper lever East Pile– South Pipe) the grout exited th rough only one of the exit ports. Also, the bends and fittings made if difficult to clean out the pipes when necessary. The grout pipe design most likely needs to be simplified to one exit port per grout pipe. The grout pipes need to be emptied of as mu ch water as possible. During grouting the water may hinder the flow of grout. The adde d water could also cause the grout mix to segregate in the pipe, potentia lly causing a sand block. An alternative pressure gage setup needs to be evaluated. The T-fitting provides an opportunity for blockage and possible faulty readings. The optimum design should allow unimpeded travel of the gr out through the gage. Although the East Pile performed fairly well the capacity could probably be improved. The grout bulb typically stayed near the injection point, which is characteristic of compaction grouting. However, if the grout could travel farther up along the pile, the capacity may increase. If uncontained the grout will follow the path of least resistance, which may not necessarily be along the shaft of th e pile. However, if the grout flow can be contained or directed, the soil improvement around the pile could be controlled better. One option is to wrap the pile with an expandabl e membrane, which would help direct the flow of grout, allow expansion of the grout bulb, ensure better bonding between the pile and grout, and offer protection against clogging th e perimeter grout pipes during jetting. The knowledge gained from the two pile tests discussed within was invaluable. However, further testing is needed to gain more knowledge on how the different stages of testing affect the overall pile capacity. Further testing is also needed to develop necessary design guidelines.

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74 APPENDIX A PILE CAPACITY ESTIMATION

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75 Florida Bridge Software Institute Date: June 28, 2007 Shaft and Pile Analysis (FB-Deep v.1.22) Time: 07:45:35 ______________________________________________________________________________ ___ General Information: ==================== Input file: .....ile\Full-S cale Testing\Pile Set 1\Load Test\Est. Pile Cap..spc Project number: Job name: jet-grout Engineer: rhf Units: English Soil Information: ================= Boring date: 3/29/07, Boring number: 1 Station number and offset: Ground Elevation: 0.000(ft) Hammer type: Safety Hammer ID Depth No. of Blows Soil Type (ft) (Blows/ft) ---------------------------------------------------------1 0.000 5.000 3Clean sand 2 33.000 5.000 3Clean sand 3 42.000 25.000 4Lime Stone/Very shelly sand Blowcount Average Per Soil Layer -----------------------------Layer Starting Bottom Thic kness Average Soil Type Num. Elevation levation Blowcount (ft) (ft) (ft) (Blows/ft) ---------------------------------------------------------------------1 0.00 -42.00 42.00 5.00 3 Clean Sand 2 -42.00 -42.00 0.00 25.00 4 Limestone, Very Shelly Sand

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76 Driven Pile Data: ================= Pile unit weight = 150.00(pcf ), Section Type: Square Pile Geometry: -------------Width Length Tip Elev. (in) (ft) (ft) ---------------------------16.00 28.00 -28.00 Driven Pile Capacity: ===================== Section Type: Square Pile Width: 16.00 Test Pile Ultimate Mobili zed Estimated Allowable Ultimate Pile Width Side End Davisson Pile Pile Length Friction Bearing Capacity Capacity capacity (ft) (in) (tons) (tons) (tons) (tons) (tons) -----------------------------------------------------28.0 16.0 14.19 9.48 23.67 11.83 42.63 NOTES ------1. MOBILIZED END BEARING IS 1/3 OF THE ORIGINAL RB-121 VALUES. 2. DAVISSON PILE CAPACITY IS AN ESTIMATE BASED ON FAILURE CRITERIA, AND EQUALS ULTIMATE SIDE FR ICTION PLUS MOBILIZED END BEARING, MINUS PILE WEIGHT. 3. ALLOWABLE PILE CAPACITY IS 1/2 THE DAVISSON PILE CAPACITY. 4. ULTIMATE PILE CAPACITY IS ULTIMATE SIDE FRICTION PLUS 3 x THE MOBILIZED E ND BEARING, MINUS PILE WEIGHT.

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77 APPENDIX B CONCRETE AND GROUT DATA Figure B-1 Pile concrete strength envelope Figure B-2 Test chamber plug 28 day concrete strength -7000 -6000 -5000 -4000 -3000 -2000 -1000 0 00.00050.0010.00150.0020.00250.0030.00350.0040.00450.005 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 00.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.007Strain (in/in)Stress (psi)

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78 Figure B-3 East reaction shaf t 28 day concrete strength Figure B-4 West reaction shaf t 28 day concrete strength 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 00.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.0090.01Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 00.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.009Strain (in/in)Stress (psi)

PAGE 79

79 Figure B-5 Proportions of final grout mix

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80 APPENDIX C RAW LOAD TEST DATA Table C-1 Raw Load Test Data for West Pile Date:Location of Instuments on Pile: Start Time:LVDT 1 = North LVDT 2 = South End Time:Dial gage = East (lbs)(kips)Reading Reading 00301302979000 200002030270.013304230040.023440.01840.0224 200002030520.037061730070.02625280.03170.0235 400004033170.288891232950.29628160.29260.277 400004033470.317400233250.32440960.32090.3123 600006039120.854319739650.92447360.88940.846 600006041181.050081541101.06042561.0553> .8907 lost contact with top of pile 740007448641.759005349191.8189441.7890> 1.8 6027560.27549861.874941949821.87801281.87650 new zero 6027560.27549861.874941949831.87895041.8769-0.0011 400004049831.87209149791.87521.8736-0.0041 400004049831.87209149791.87521.8736-0.0046 200002049711.860687449661.86301121.8618-0.0175 200002049691.858786849621.85926081.8590-0.0176 0049501.840731149411.83957121.8402-0.0343 0049471.837880249381.83675841.8373-0.0376 A vg. LVDT Displacem Load12-Dec-06LVDT 2 LVDT 1 11:55 12:49 Dial Gage

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81 Table C-2 Raw Load Test Data for East Pile Date:Location of Instuments on Pile: Start Time:LVDT 1 = North LVDT 2 = South End Time:Dial gage = West (lbs)(kips)Reading Reading 003284034390000 200002032900.005625634460.00665210.00613890.00560.0059592 200002032920.007500834470.00760240.00755160.00720.0074344 400004033170.030940834700.02945930.03020010.02910.0298334 400004033250.038441634780.03706170.03775170.03820.0379011 600006033540.06563235060.06367010.06465110.06710.0654674 600006033680.078758435200.07697430.07786640.0780.0779109 800008033960.105011235480.10358270.1042970.10850.105698 800008034190.12657635690.1235390.12505750.1260.1253717 10000010034530.158454436060.15870010.15857730.16370.1602848 10000010035480.247526436990.2470780.24730220.250.2482015 12000012036160.311283237690.3135990.31244110.31720.3140274 12000012036840.3750438280.36966670.37235340.37710.3739356 14000014037900.474425639250.46184580.46813570.47660.4709571 14000014039220.598188840630.59298720.5955880.6010.597392 16000016040740.74070442300.75168730.74619570.76890.7537638 16000016042240.88134443700.88472930.88303670.9150.8936911 8780087.842660.920723244010.91418860.91745590.91710.9173373 870008742630.917910444000.91323830.91557440.91350.9148829 400004042300.886969643680.88282870.88489920.88460.8847994 4060040.642280.885094443670.88187840.88348640.88270.8832243 1960019.642000.858841643400.85622030.8575310.85780.8576206 200002041980.856966443900.90373530.88035090.85670.8724672 0041810.841027243050.82295980.83199350.82870.8308957 Avg. Displ. Dial Gage A vg. LVDT Displacem Load05-Dec-06LVDT 2 LVDT 1 10:45 AM 12:30 PM

PAGE 82

82 Table C-3 Strain Gage Data from West Pile ActualElapsedRaw Raw 11520.25866.78710861.8160 11520.5866.7755-0.036706861.7648-0.162087 11520.75866.782-0.016035861.7857-0.095822 11531866.79190.015069861.81770.005409 11531.25866.2602-1.667813860.108-5.406241 11531.5866.1672-1.962042859.7969-6.390739 11531.75866.1732-1.943303859.5279-7.242323 11542866.1619-1.97885859.5143-7.285211 11542.25866.1677-1.96069859.4957-7.344327 11542.5866.15540859.51530 11542.75866.24950.297706859.5012-0.04482 11553866.21110.176383859.4879-0.086936 11553.25866.24340.278581859.4949-0.064719 11553.5866.19870.137165859.4702-0.142768 11553.75866.20940.17078859.5136-0.005409 11564866.25070.301763859.4634-0.164405 11564.25866.21860.200145859.4595-0.176769 11564.5866.18180.083458859.4704-0.142188 11564.75866.2590.327844859.4776-0.119392 11575866.26720.353925859.4827-0.103357 11575.25866.21950.203043859.4604-0.173678 11575.5866.17860.073606859.4521-0.200145 11575.75866.17530.06298859.4593-0.177349 11586866.26480.34639859.4616-0.170008 11586.25866.21760.196861859.4653-0.158223 11586.5866.18370.08964859.4043-0.351413 11586.75866.20450.155325859.3796-0.429656 11597866.26230.33847859.4307-0.267762 11597.25866.19480.124801859.3521-0.516591 11597.5866.25150.304082859.3607-0.489351 11597.75866.18890.106062859.4157-0.315287 12008866.17770.070515859.3552-0.506738 12008.25866.25760.323401859.3826-0.419996 12008.5866.1830.087322859.3937-0.384835 12008.75866.23960.266603859.3857-0.410143 12019866.2310.239363859.3128-0.641006 12019.25866.26720.353925859.2116-0.961316 12019.5866.26420.344265859.3404-0.553684 12029.75866.26560.348902859.2527-0.831105 120210866.22770.228737859.2204-0.933496 120210.25866.25040.300604859.2246-0.920166 120210.5866.23470.251148859.2576-0.81565 120310.75866.18010.078242859.223-0.925382 120311866.21860.200145859.1017-1.309252 120311.25866.19840.136006859.0608-1.438689 120311.5866.2070.163439859.0995-1.316013 Strain Gage Data Ch. 13Ch. 14 Time

PAGE 83

83 Table C-3 Continued 120411.75866.22670.225646859.1066-1.293796 120412866.25310.309105859.0623-1.433859 120412.25866.26250.339049859.1351-1.203576 120412.5866.0096-0.461339856.0026-11.11869 120512.75866.0535-0.322628852.8634-21.05486 120513866.27850.389665902.4064135.7601 120513.25866.33810.578412880.643366.87499 120513.5866.40880.802127887.803589.53855 120613.75866.4370.891187880.587866.69938 120614866.48571.045547880.613266.77975 120614.25866.52871.181746909.8691159.3813 120614.5866.54721.240089887.810989.56192 120714.75866.56591.299399895.0378112.437 120715866.59821.401597880.65766.91846 120715.25866.59061.377448880.59966.73474 120715.5866.63191.508238880.586566.69513 120815.75866.62491.486021880.601866.74362 120816866.67221.635937880.578866.67079 120816.25866.65521.582036873.477544.19366 120816.5866.69981.723259880.611766.77492 120916.75866.66911.626084873.47844.19502 120917866.73831.844969880.578666.67021 120917.25866.72551.804399873.485444.21858 121017.5866.72411.800148866.467822.00613 121017.75866.7811.980202873.488644.22863 121018866.74341.861197873.493144.24293 121018.25866.69041.693314866.443121.92789 121118.5866.71991.786818866.463921.99376 121118.75866.71281.764408866.440921.92093 121119866.72881.815024866.439321.9161 121119.25866.72841.813672873.486644.22226 121219.5866.72531.803819873.478844.19772 121219.75866.78611.99643866.419421.85312 121220866.81352.083172873.463344.14846 121220.25866.81432.085684866.448521.94527 121320.5866.74771.874913866.449721.94894 121320.75866.79432.022124873.421244.01535 121321866.74631.87047866.435321.90335 121321.25866.79442.022704866.454921.96537 121421.5866.76621.93345866.445921.93697 121421.75866.74041.85173873.46744.16024 121422866.73441.832604866.456321.96981 121422.25866.8112.075058866.43121.88983 121522.5866.7541.894812866.443421.92905 121522.75866.78852.003964866.435321.90335 121523866.76861.940984866.427621.87901 121523.25866.81792.097082852.655-21.7146

PAGE 84

84 Table C-3 Continued 121623.5865.8491-0.969623850.6776-27.97339 121623.75865.8678-0.910313848.4103-35.14984 121624866.1178-0.119005848.3454-35.35539 121624.25866.18810.10355848.2668-35.60422 121724.5866.38150.715771848.1414-36.00104 121724.75866.43730.892347848.1721-35.90405 121725866.5721.318718848.1002-36.13144 121725.25866.57661.333207847.806-37.06262 121825.5866.61871.466509847.9507-36.60456 121825.75866.68511.6767848.063-36.24929 121826866.79692.030625848.063-36.24929 121826.25866.75281.890948848.0244-36.37158 121926.5866.76251.921665848.027-36.36327 121926.75866.7541.894812847.99-36.48034 121927866.84092.169915848.0687-36.23113 121927.25866.74121.854242847.872-36.85378 122027.5866.85422.211837847.7714-37.17235 122027.75866.76131.917801847.9019-36.75912 122028866.79442.022704847.7668-37.18684 122028.25866.77841.972088847.7877-37.12058 122128.5866.88252.301478847.7858-37.12656 122128.75866.82152.10848847.7003-37.39742 122129866.22490.220044846.2662-41.93662 122129.25866.143-0.039218851.9489-23.94962 122229.5866.19780.134074843.956-49.24888 122229.75866.22570.222555842.8655-52.70042 122230866.7251.803046844.0528-48.94248 122230.25866.982.610196844.2156-48.42705 122330.5867.55574.432175844.8751-46.33982 122330.75867.53414.363785845.0408-45.8153 122331867.45914.126548845.1442-45.48804 122331.25868.05246.004359845.0793-45.6934 122431.5868.10146.15949845.0786-45.69572 122431.75868.13376.261881845.0639-45.74208 122432868.35566.964129845.2191-45.2508 122432.25868.39537.089896845.1636-45.4266 122532.5868.35166.951571845.2509-45.15015 122532.75868.34036.915831845.2329-45.20714 122533868.39627.0926845.2788-45.06186 122533.25868.36436.991562845.2876-45.03404 122633.5868.36636.997937845.3749-44.75778 122633.75868.35716.968958845.4077-44.65384 122634868.40347.115397846.1008-42.46017 122634.25868.37157.014551845.3557-44.81844 122734.5868.37247.017256846.131-42.36454 122734.75868.37377.021506846.142-42.32957 122735868.4327.206003846.1749-42.22544 122735.25868.41037.137227846.1835-42.19839

PAGE 85

85 Table C-3 Continued 122835.5868.37787.03445846.1728-42.2322 122835.75868.42477.18282846.1993-42.14816 122836868.41987.167365846.1891-42.18043 122836.25868.42767.1919846.2047-42.13116 122936.5868.40087.107283846.2173-42.09136 122936.75868.4057.120613846.2354-42.03418 122937868.40727.127375846.2393-42.02162 122937.25868.42557.185525846.2114-42.10991 123037.5868.45697.284825846.2399-42.01969 123037.75868.50087.423729846.2207-42.08055 123038868.41927.165433846.2334-42.04036 123038.25868.427.167945846.265-41.94029 123138.5868.79988.370169847.089-39.33222 123138.75871.431616.70035849.8674-30.538 123139871.365416.49093883.989477.46608 123139.25871.315616.33309877.66357.4417 123239.5871.324516.3613849.8295-30.65797 123239.75871.435916.71406849.8993-30.43696 123240871.362116.4803849.865-30.54553 123240.25871.382116.54367849.8597-30.56234 123340.5871.393816.58076849.8635-30.55017 123340.75871.499916.91653849.8891-30.46922 123341871.347416.43374849.852-30.58668 123341.25871.369816.50464849.8792-30.50071 123441.5871.374316.51894849.8683-30.5351 123441.75871.436916.71715849.8749-30.51404 123442871.372616.51372849.8882-30.47193 123442.25871.48116.85664849.8792-30.50071 123542.5871.441516.73184849.8494-30.59499 123542.75871.43916.72392849.8872-30.47521 123543871.479416.85161849.869-30.53278 123543.25871.463916.80274849.8643-30.54785 123643.5871.386616.55797849.8669-30.53954 123643.75871.416716.65321849.8568-30.57161 123644871.369416.50349849.8453-30.60774 123644.25871.394416.58269849.8619-30.55519 123744.5871.442316.73416849.8467-30.60349 123744.75873.173222.21284852.0744-23.55223 123745874.567426.62608854.3679-16.29291 123745.25874.750227.2045853.9332-17.66881 123845.5874.755527.2213853.9524-17.60796 123845.75874.717227.09998853.9782-17.52624 123846874.814427.40773854.0519-17.29305 123846.25874.726327.12896853.9987-17.46152 123946.5874.770827.2696853.995-17.47311 123946.75874.70327.05516854.0071-17.43486 123947874.752627.21203854.0059-17.43872 123947.25874.695327.03063854.011-17.4223

PAGE 86

86 Table C-3 Continued 124047.5874.706427.06598854.0171-17.40317 124047.75874.715427.09438854.0059-17.43872 124048874.698227.0399854.0062-17.43756 124048.25874.753727.21551854.0503-17.29808 124148.5874.709627.07603854.0235-17.38289 124148.75874.712227.08433854.0283-17.36763 124149874.738827.16837854.0252-17.37748 124149.25874.69727.03603854.0181-17.39989 124249.5874.69427.02676854.0403-17.32976 124249.75874.702627.05381854.0308-17.35971 124250874.720827.11138854.0425-17.32261 124250.25874.685627.0001854.0734-17.22505 124350.5874.988827.95987854.4564-16.01259 124350.75875.985331.1139856.6462-9.081496 124351876.137831.59668857.9733-4.880763 124351.25876.077931.40716857.8796-5.17731 124451.5876.059331.34824857.8796-5.17731 124451.75876.076331.40195857.8249-5.350602 124452876.069931.38166857.5612-6.185378 124452.25876.024431.23754857.7471-5.596727 124552.5876.048131.31269857.5509-6.217834 124552.75876.037331.2785857.7016-5.740847 124553876.031731.26092857.6804-5.807884 124553.25875.993731.14037857.5399-6.252801 124653.5876.077631.406857.6404-5.934424 124653.75876.044331.30052857.5736-6.145967 124654876.034531.26961857.6255-5.981755 124654.25876.034531.26961857.5635-6.178037 124754.5876.05331.32834857.5549-6.205083 124754.75876.063231.3606857.564-6.176298 124755875.991531.13341857.6199-5.999336 124755.25876.026131.24295857.5721-6.150604 124855.5876.010231.19272857.5521-6.214163 124855.75876.006931.18229857.5764-6.13708 124856876.0331.25551857.603-6.053043 124856.25875.997131.15118857.6124-6.023291 124956.5876.040531.28874857.5799-6.126069 124956.75876.055331.33549857.571-6.154274 124957876.017531.21571857.5815-6.121046

PAGE 87

87 Table C-4 Strain Gage Data from East Pile ActualElapsedRaw Raw 10440.5823.490601073.31300 10440.75822.5728-2.9051981201.818406.747201.9209 10451821.9229-4.9620961071.626-5.34017-5.151133 10451.25821.7974-5.3592961071.413-6.012859-5.686077 10451.5821.6191-5.9237981071.396-6.068111-5.995955 10451.75821.7234-5.5936361071.44-5.929401-5.761518 10462821.8587-5.1653331071.48-5.802668-5.484 10462.25821.8571-5.1705491071.444-5.915877-5.543213 10462.5821.8465-5.2039711071.407-6.031019-5.617495 10462.75821.7063-5.6477291071.398-6.061929-5.854829 10473821.6827-5.7224941071.54-5.611796-5.667145 10473.25821.6394-5.8594661071.423-5.981562-5.920514 10473.5821.9086-5.0074961071.444-5.915877-5.461687 10473.75821.8536-5.1813671071.352-6.206049-5.693708 10484821.874501071.31900 10484.25821.88790.0425021071.267-0.165757-0.061628 10484.5821.8558-0.0591161071.277-0.132142-0.095629 10484.75821.88980.0484911071.238-0.256943-0.104226 10495821.89720.0718671071.294-0.079208-0.003671 10495.25821.88810.0430811071.233-0.270853-0.113886 10495.5821.88640.0376721071.231-0.27974-0.121034 10495.75821.89070.0511951071.272-0.147211-0.048008 10506821.7841-0.2861151071.256-0.198213-0.242164 10506.25821.89580.0674231071.226-0.293263-0.11292 10506.5821.8694-0.0162281071.206-0.358948-0.187588 10506.75821.89250.0569911071.193-0.399518-0.171263 10517821.8421-0.1025841071.182-0.431974-0.267279 10517.25821.8627-0.0372861071.222-0.307173-0.172229 10517.5821.8563-0.0577641071.17-0.472157-0.264961 10517.75821.8663-0.0258881071.193-0.397586-0.211737 10528821.8627-0.0372861071.206-0.358948-0.198117 10528.25821.8517-0.072061071.166-0.484908-0.278484 10528.5821.8683-0.0197051071.16-0.504613-0.262159 10528.75821.8599-0.0461731071.198-0.383676-0.214924 10539821.8656-0.0282061071.152-0.528183-0.278194 10539.25821.8605-0.0442411071.167-0.481817-0.263029 10539.5821.8531-0.067811071.128-0.6043-0.336055 10539.75821.8564-0.0571841071.118-0.634824-0.346004 105410821.8605-0.0442411071.118-0.636756-0.340498 105410.25821.8429-0.1000731071.097-0.7036-0.401836 105410.5821.8309-0.1381311071.148-0.54016-0.339146 105410.75821.8421-0.1025841071.144-0.552525-0.327554 105511821.8407-0.1070271071.105-0.676553-0.39179 105511.25821.8445-0.095051071.102-0.68544-0.390245 105511.5821.8267-0.1514611071.132-0.59039-0.370926 105511.75821.8372-0.1180391071.091-0.722532-0.420286 Strain Gage Data Ch. 13Ch. 14 Avg. Time

PAGE 88

88 Table C-4 Continued 105612821.8331-0.1309831071.051-0.846947-0.488965 105612.25821.8226-0.1644051071.08-0.75692-0.460663 105612.5821.8314-0.1365861071.123-0.619369-0.377977 105612.75821.8223-0.1653711071.123-0.619369-0.39237 105713821.8152-0.1877811071.042-0.875925-0.531853 105713.25821.8136-0.1928041071.134-0.584594-0.388699 105713.5821.835-0.1249941071.078-0.761557-0.443275 105713.75821.8281-0.1468251071.27-0.155711-0.151268 105814821.8243-0.1589961071.066-0.802127-0.480561 105814.25821.8275-0.148951071.117-0.63946-0.394205 105814.5821.8312-0.1369721071.017-0.956679-0.546826 105814.75821.838-0.1155281071.098-0.699349-0.407439 105915821.8323-0.1334951070.984-1.060229-0.596862 105915.25821.8341-0.1278921071.034-0.902972-0.515432 105915.5821.8018-0.2302831071.04-0.883653-0.556968 105915.75821.8092-0.2067141071.1-0.692008-0.449361 110016821.8185-0.1773491070.999-1.012318-0.594833 110016.25821.812-0.1978271070.974-1.090367-0.644097 110016.5821.8198-0.1732921070.901-1.321423-0.747357 110016.75821.7869-0.2774211070.98-1.071434-0.674428 110117821.8139-0.1918381071.047-0.860857-0.526347 110117.25821.83-0.1410291070.978-1.078003-0.609516 110117.5821.8253-0.1559051070.894-1.344992-0.750448 110117.75820.683-3.771271070.018-4.118047-3.944659 110218817.7694-12.99361064.472-21.67288-17.33324 110218.25813.795-25.573581059.891-36.17336-30.87347 110218.5813.3115-27.104041059.916-36.09261-31.59832 110318.75813.1694-27.553591059.731-36.67952-32.11656 110319813.1614-27.57891059.709-36.74946-32.16418 110319.25813.123-27.700611059.708-36.75139-32.226 110319.5813.1383-27.652121059.698-36.78269-32.2174 110419.75813.0872-27.814011059.581-37.15438-32.4842 110420813.1119-27.735771059.54-37.28305-32.50941 110420.25813.0854-27.819421059.411-37.69184-32.75563 110420.5813.1136-27.730361059.377-37.79925-32.76481 110520.75813.1414-27.642461059.23-38.26407-32.95326 110521813.1965-27.467821059.114-38.63268-33.05025 110521.25813.2112-27.421261059.024-38.91783-33.16954 110521.5813.2248-27.378371059.039-38.86837-33.12337 110621.75813.239-27.333351059.015-38.94371-33.13853 110622813.2642-27.253571059.058-38.80809-33.03083 110622.25813.2722-27.228261059.102-38.66861-32.94843 110622.5813.2882-27.177641059.148-38.52488-32.85126 110722.75813.2809-27.200631059.128-38.58708-32.89386 110723813.2775-27.211641059.119-38.61606-32.91385 110723.25813.2746-27.220721059.167-38.46537-32.84305 110723.5813.2604-27.265741059.151-38.51406-32.8899 110823.75813.2657-27.248741059.106-38.6574-32.95307 110824813.2622-27.259941059.108-38.64929-32.95462 110824.25813.2563-27.278491059.047-38.84403-33.06126 110824.5813.2536-27.287181058.055-41.98337-34.63528

PAGE 89

89 Table C-4 Continued 110924.75813.235-27.346111057.922-42.40337-34.87474 110925813.2293-27.364071057.923-42.40066-34.88237 110925.25813.2241-27.380491057.785-42.83843-35.10946 110925.5813.2237-27.381851057.868-42.57531-34.97858 111025.75813.1893-27.490611057.774-42.87166-35.18114 111026813.1951-27.472451057.81-42.76-35.11622 111026.25813.155-27.599181057.802-42.78357-35.19138 111026.5813.1609-27.580641057.819-42.73025-35.15544 111126.75813.1583-27.588951057.816-42.74029-35.16462 111127813.1246-27.695591057.77-42.88673-35.29116 111127.25813.1192-27.712591057.787-42.83225-35.27242 111127.5813.1055-27.755861057.666-43.21477-35.48531 111227.75813.0999-27.773641057.73-43.01153-35.39258 111228813.1199-27.710461057.752-42.94121-35.32584 111228.25813.0898-27.805511057.721-43.04051-35.42301 111228.5813.0687-27.872361057.511-43.7047-35.78853 111328.75813.1028-27.764361057.637-43.30518-35.53477 111329813.0977-27.780591057.464-43.85268-35.81664 111329.25813.0645-27.885881057.391-44.08606-35.98597 111329.5813.0322-27.988081057.39-44.08915-36.03861 111429.75813.0358-27.976681057.29-44.40598-36.19133 111430813.0732-27.858251057.27-44.46703-36.16264 111430.25812.1617-30.743361056.111-48.13687-39.44012 111430.5806.6196-48.285241048.823-71.20497-59.74511 111530.75805.6204-51.448161046.126-79.74205-65.59511 111531805.512-51.791261046.163-79.62459-65.70793 111531.25805.5079-51.804011045.886-80.50207-66.15304 111531.5805.1721-52.866951045.501-81.7211-67.29402 111631.75805.1074-53.071921045.144-82.85087-67.9614 111632805.0353-53.300081044.549-84.73332-69.0167 111632.25804.9949-53.427781044.803-83.92926-68.67852 111632.5804.7377-54.242081044.85-83.77896-69.01052 111732.75804.5299-54.89971044.286-85.56675-70.23322 111733804.4669-55.099071044.112-86.11695-70.60801 111733.25804.4367-55.19471043.776-87.17911-71.18691 111733.5804.4727-55.080721043.626-87.65552-71.36812 111833.75804.4091-55.282211043.446-88.22389-71.75305 111834804.4912-55.022181043.348-88.53454-71.77836 111834.25804.5051-54.978331043.276-88.76212-71.87022 111834.5804.4561-55.133261043.206-88.98274-72.058 111934.75804.5019-54.988371043.188-89.03954-72.01395 111935804.509-54.965961043.238-88.88189-71.92393 111935.25804.5166-54.941811043.282-88.74202-71.84192 111935.5804.4988-54.998221043.317-88.63268-71.81545 112035.75804.4177-55.254781043.435-88.25943-71.75711 112036804.4219-55.241451043.261-88.80964-72.02555 112036.25804.3175-55.5721043.362-88.49049-72.03124 112036.5804.3087-55.600011043.186-89.04726-72.32364

PAGE 90

90 Table C-4 Continued 112136.75804.3857-55.356211043.243-88.86567-72.11094 112137804.4819-55.051741043.181-89.06195-72.05684 112137.25804.3938-55.330511042.911-89.91817-72.62434 112137.5804.2284-55.854061043.039-89.51363-72.68384 112237.75804.2686-55.726941042.965-89.74739-72.73716 112238804.1985-55.948721042.925-89.87257-72.91065 112238.25804.1904-55.974221042.857-90.08895-73.03158 112238.5804.171-56.035661042.882-90.00897-73.02231 112338.75804.2161-55.892891043.03-89.54145-72.71717 112339804.1117-56.223441042.994-89.65427-72.93885 112339.25804.0851-56.307671043.097-89.32932-72.8185 112339.5804.0703-56.354421043.102-89.31271-72.83356 112439.75804.062-56.38071043.028-89.54647-72.96358 112440804.074-56.342641042.981-89.69523-73.01893 112440.25804.0945-56.277921042.98-89.69948-72.9887 112440.5804.0743-56.341671042.88-90.01438-73.17802 112540.75804.0975-56.268451042.79-90.30146-73.28495 112541803.9968-56.587221042.586-90.94787-73.76754 112541.25804.0057-56.558821042.508-91.19322-73.87602 112541.5804.0438-56.438461042.47-91.31262-73.87554 112641.75804.048-56.425131042.403-91.52628-73.97571 112642804.058-56.393251042.36-91.66268-74.02796 112642.25804.0397-56.45141042.339-91.72875-74.09008 112642.5804.0201-56.513221042.355-91.67813-74.09568 112742.75804.0015-56.572341042.37-91.62868-74.10051 112743804.0172-56.522691042.32-91.78941-74.15605 112743.25801.6433-64.036451037.474-107.1264-85.58143 112743.5798.4653-74.095681032.551-122.7099-98.4028 112843.75798.5778-73.739431032.504-122.8595-98.29944 112844798.4901-74.017241031.157-127.1216-100.5694 112844.25823.99336.7064131030.84-128.1262-60.7099 112844.5816.8858-15.790421031.017-127.5656-71.678 112944.75803.5548-57.986111030.639-128.7618-93.37396 112945797.1909-78.129491030.445-129.3765-103.753 112945.25797.2272-78.014551030.423-129.4442-103.7294 112945.5797.1834-78.153061030.387-129.5601-103.8566 113045.75797.3046-77.769391030.095-130.4839-104.1266 113046797.2388-77.977651030.068-130.5689-104.2733 113046.25797.3632-77.584121030.079-130.5338-104.0589 113046.5797.3708-77.559971030.061-130.5909-104.0755 113146.75797.3709-77.559581029.956-130.9236-104.2416 113147797.4105-77.434391029.717-131.6809-104.5577 113147.25797.4803-77.213381029.646-131.9058-104.5596 113147.5797.388-77.505491029.58-132.1137-104.8096 113247.75797.458-77.28391029.658-131.8679-104.5759 113248797.4459-77.322341029.705-131.718-104.5202 113248.25797.4487-77.313461028.438-135.7294-106.5214 113248.5797.4909-77.179771028.341-136.0358-106.6078

PAGE 91

91 Table C-4 Continued 113348.75797.4572-77.286411028.212-136.4423-106.8643 113349797.3829-77.521521028.182-136.5393-107.0304 113349.25797.4289-77.376051028.185-136.5292-106.9526 113349.5797.4292-77.375091028.162-136.6026-106.9889 113449.75797.4026-77.459121028.166-136.5883-107.0237 113450797.3209-77.7181028.048-136.9635-107.3408 113450.25797.2739-77.866761027.962-137.2348-107.5508 113450.5797.3056-77.76631027.949-137.2761-107.5212 113550.75797.316-77.733261027.95-137.2722-107.5027 113551797.2797-77.84841027.957-137.2502-107.5493 113551.25797.2675-77.886851027.967-137.2185-107.5527 113551.5797.2548-77.927031027.985-137.1633-107.5452 113651.75797.28-77.847241028.001-137.1107-107.479 113652797.2169-78.0471028.01-137.0825-107.5648 113652.25797.2554-77.925291028.016-137.0651-107.4952 113652.5797.2345-77.991361028.024-137.0389-107.5151 113752.75797.2034-78.08971028.013-137.074-107.5819 113753797.2202-78.036761028.019-137.0551-107.5459 113753.25797.1888-78.136061027.995-137.1312-107.6336 113753.5797.1823-78.156731027.976-137.1911-107.6739 113853.75797.188-78.138381027.96-137.2413-107.6899 113854797.1563-78.238841027.962-137.2359-107.7374 113854.25793.0351-91.283441020.57-160.6338-125.9586 113854.5791.5928-95.848731017.733-169.6133-132.731 113954.75843.125167.263111017.791-169.428-51.08245 113955802.8447-60.233881017.421-170.6001-115.417 113955.25822.54022.1071281016.906-172.2304-85.06165 113955.5790.1074-100.55041016.9-172.2486-136.3995 114055.75790.1074-100.55041016.855-172.3896-136.47 114056790.1159-100.52341016.09-174.8132-137.6683 114056.25793.4444-89.987911017.494-170.3673-130.1776 114056.5792.4411-93.163571014.792-178.9208-136.0422 114156.75792.463-93.094411014.866-178.6865-135.8904 114157792.5484-92.823941014.562-179.6491-136.2365 114157.25792.5439-92.838051014.105-181.0969-136.9675 114157.5792.5615-92.782411014.022-181.3587-137.0705 114257.75792.5644-92.773331014.114-181.0666-136.9199 114258792.489-93.012111014.333-180.3746-136.6933 114258.25792.4907-93.00671014.002-181.4228-137.2148 114258.5792.5236-92.902381013.218-183.9034-138.4029 114358.75792.4766-93.051331013.161-184.0823-138.5668 114359792.5315-92.877461013.099-184.2807-138.5791 114359.25792.4568-93.113921013.227-183.8752-138.4945 114359.5792.4579-93.110251013.183-184.0139-138.5621 114459.75792.4579-93.110251012.721-185.4761-139.2932 114460792.4568-93.113921012.57-185.9541-139.534 114460.25792.4022-93.286831012.464-186.2885-139.7877 114460.5792.4008-93.291081012.322-186.7383-140.0147 114560.75792.4016-93.288761012.38-186.5549-139.9218 114561792.3951-93.309051012.561-185.9813-139.6452 114561.25792.379-93.360051012.669-185.6394-139.4997

PAGE 92

92 Table C-4 Continued 114661.5792.3609-93.417431012.654-185.6869-139.5522 114661.75792.338-93.490071012.691-185.5704-139.5302 114662792.3576-93.427861012.629-185.7673-139.5976 114662.25792.36-93.420321012.614-185.8135-139.6169 114762.5792.342-93.477311012.601-185.855-139.6662 114762.75792.3745-93.374541012.5-186.1753-139.7749 114763792.3569-93.430181012.505-186.1583-139.7942 114763.25792.3696-93.38981012.465-186.2854-139.8376 114863.5792.2932-93.631671012.28-186.8706-140.2511 114863.75792.2957-93.623751012.27-186.9038-140.2638 114864792.3457-93.465531012.112-187.4023-140.4339 114964.25792.2964-93.621431011.006-190.9042-142.2628 114964.5792.6061-92.641381003.796-213.7248-153.1831 114964.75786.316-112.55081002.699-217.1982-164.8745 114965786.4797-112.03271002.331-218.3614-165.197 115065.25786.5936-111.67221001.482-221.051-166.3616 115065.5817.7465-13.066241001.219-221.8823-117.4743 115065.75825.52811.563991001.701-220.3571-104.3965 115066838.116451.409331000.331-224.6926-86.64166 115166.25785.3178-115.71041000.376-224.5497-170.1301 115166.5785.2502-115.92431000.15-225.2676-170.5959 115166.75785.2469-115.9347999.9061-226.0382-170.9865 115167785.2546-115.9106999.8345-226.265-171.0878 115267.25785.2335-115.9772999.9022-226.0506-171.0139 115267.5785.2842-115.8169999.8596-226.1854-171.0012 115267.75785.2814-115.8258999.7729-226.4598-171.1428 115268785.3089-115.7386999.7202-226.6269-171.1828 115368.25785.268-115.8681999.7728-226.4603-171.1642 115368.5785.4095-115.4201999.8196-226.3122-170.8661 115368.75785.3617-115.5715999.8858-226.1025-170.837 115369785.3679-115.5518999.9068-226.0361-170.794 115469.25785.3909-115.4792999.8879-226.0958-170.7875 115469.5785.4045-115.4361999.7694-226.471-170.9535 115469.75785.3945-115.4678999.483-227.3776-171.4227 115470785.3929-115.4728999.5153-227.2752-171.374 115570.25785.377-115.5232999.2977-227.9639-171.7436 115570.5785.372-115.5389999.4763-227.3989-171.4689 115570.75785.3617-115.5715999.5099-227.2922-171.4319 115571785.3538-115.5965998.3465-230.9748-173.2856 115671.25785.316-115.7162998.142-231.6222-173.6692 115671.5785.3484-115.6137998.037-231.9543-173.784 115671.75785.3076-115.7427997.9314-232.2887-174.0157 115672785.2914-115.7941997.9403-232.2605-174.0273 115772.25785.3179-115.7101997.9478-232.2367-173.9734 115772.5785.3129-115.7261997.9369-232.2713-173.9987 115772.75785.295-115.7825998.0189-232.0117-173.8971 115773785.2364-115.9682997.9846-232.1204-174.0443 115873.25785.243-115.9473997.9455-232.2441-174.0957 115873.5785.2567-115.904997.8986-232.3926-174.1483 115873.75785.2449-115.9413997.7842-232.7547-174.348 115874785.2203-116.0192997.5947-233.3545-174.6868

PAGE 93

93 Table C-4 Continued 115974.25780.3843-131.326989.5294-258.8831-195.1046 115974.5779.3712-134.5328988.1089-263.3792-198.956 115974.75779.318-134.7013988.1705-263.1841-198.9427 115975779.3813-134.5009987.7322-264.5716-199.5363 120075.25779.1172-135.3369987.218-266.1992-200.768 120075.5778.9178-135.968986.9743-266.9704-201.4692 120075.75778.7142-136.6125986.7542-267.6673-202.1399 120076778.5332-137.1853986.7166-267.7861-202.4857 120176.25778.504-137.2776986.9315-267.1061-202.1918 120176.5778.5018-137.2846986.8733-267.2902-202.2874 120176.75778.5295-137.1971986.2104-269.3884-203.2927 120177778.4873-137.3306985.6979-271.0104-204.1705 120277.25778.5032-137.2802985.564-271.4345-204.3573 120277.5778.501-137.2873985.4584-271.7687-204.528 120277.75778.447-137.4581985.4415-271.822-204.6401 120278778.4081-137.5811985.4435-271.8157-204.6984 120378.25778.4225-137.5357985.3953-271.9683-204.752 120378.5778.4063-137.5871985.3414-272.1389-204.863 120378.75778.4207-137.5413985.2603-272.3958-204.9686 120379778.3762-137.6822985.1938-272.6062-205.1442 120479.25778.383-137.6607985.2457-272.442-205.0514 120479.5778.3582-137.7394985.2595-272.3983-205.0688 120479.75778.3519-137.7591985.0917-272.9292-205.3441 120480778.348-137.7716985.066-273.0107-205.3912 120580.25778.3385-137.8016984.8741-273.6179-205.7097 120580.5778.2976-137.931984.7672-273.9566-205.9438 120580.75778.2721-138.0118984.643-274.3495-206.1807 120581778.3075-137.8997984.5284-274.7123-206.306 120681.25778.2886-137.9596984.3448-275.2935-206.6265 120681.5778.2561-138.0624984.1821-275.8085-206.9354 120681.75778.2634-138.0392984.1424-275.9341-206.9866 120682778.222-138.1704984.0772-276.1404-207.1554 120782.25778.2076-138.2158983.9524-276.5355-207.3756 120782.5778.2039-138.2276983.9868-276.4267-207.3271 120782.75778.2109-138.2053983.9008-276.6989-207.4521 120783778.1944-138.2577983.8886-276.7374-207.4975 120883.25778.147-138.4078983.8471-276.8687-207.6383 120883.5778.1341-138.4486983.8606-276.826-207.6373 120883.75778.1111-138.5212983.9138-276.6578-207.5895 120884778.0948-138.5728983.9671-276.4889-207.5309 120984.25778.0875-138.5962983.9702-276.4791-207.5376 120984.5778.0989-138.56983.9767-276.4584-207.5092 120984.75774.3073-150.5612977.2959-297.6048-224.083 120985772.0448-157.7226975.2081-304.2131-230.9679 121085.25771.933-158.0763974.362-306.8913-232.4838 121085.5771.7338-158.7069973.8102-308.6379-233.6724 121085.75771.4526-159.5971973.0381-311.0818-235.3395 121086771.1642-160.51972.7713-311.9262-236.2181

PAGE 94

94 Table C-4 Continued 121186.25770.9965-161.0406972.6869-312.1934-236.617 121186.5770.9253-161.2661972.5128-312.7446-237.0053 121186.75770.9771-161.1023972.6724-312.2392-236.6707 121187770.8994-161.3482972.338-313.2977-237.3229 121287.25770.905-161.3304971.9776-314.4385-237.8845 121287.5770.376-163.0048971.6208-315.5677-239.2862 121287.75770.248-163.4097971.5447-315.8086-239.6092 121288770.1363-163.7635971.3439-316.4444-240.1039 121388.25770.0317-164.0944971.1385-317.0943-240.5943 121388.5770.4176-162.8731971.6782-315.3861-239.1296 121388.75770.9755-161.1073972.2234-313.6603-237.3838 121389771.2857-160.1253972.7018-312.1461-236.1357 121489.25771.5153-159.3987972.7827-311.8901-235.6444 121489.5771.7321-158.7125972.9833-311.2551-234.9838 121489.75771.9371-158.0634973.2824-310.3085-234.1859 121490772.0405-157.7361973.4603-309.7453-233.7407 121590.25772.3386-156.7928973.7911-308.6984-232.7456 121590.5772.7045-155.6344974.0746-307.8008-231.7176 121590.75772.7946-155.3493974.1891-307.4384-231.3938 121591772.854-155.1613974.2258-307.3223-231.2418 121691.25784.4175-118.56988.1447-263.2658-190.9129 121691.5784.4034-118.6048988.2529-262.9235-190.7642 121691.75784.4337-118.509989.1633-260.0417-189.2753 121692784.4119-118.5778989.2985-259.6139-189.0959 121792.25784.4948-118.3156989.4462-259.1464-188.731 121792.5784.5453-118.1557989.4028-259.2838-188.7197 121792.75784.6128-117.942989.5779-258.7293-188.3357 121793784.7014-117.6617989.702-258.3366-187.9991 121893.25784.7704-117.443989.7767-258.1001-187.7715 121893.5784.8265-117.2656989.8065-258.0058-187.6357 121893.75784.8463-117.2028989.8172-257.972-187.5874 121894784.9251-116.9534989.7186-258.284-187.6187 121994.25784.952-116.8684989.6763-258.4179-187.6432 121994.5784.9587-116.8472989.6367-258.5435-187.6953 121994.75785.0251-116.637989.5935-258.6801-187.6585 121995785.0448-116.5746989.5946-258.6766-187.6256 122095.25784.9917-116.7427989.5999-258.66-187.7013 122095.5785.0898-116.432989.6321-258.5578-187.4949 122095.75794.5118-86.60921005.536-208.2193-147.4142 122096800.5701-67.433311009.455-195.8136-131.6234 122196.25800.5745-67.41961009.656-195.177-131.2983 122196.5800.5615-67.460751009.906-194.3855-130.9231 122196.75800.5659-67.446841009.953-194.236-130.8414 122297800.5754-67.416511009.977-194.1618-130.7891 122297.25800.5891-67.373231010-194.089-130.7311 122297.5800.5665-67.444711010.02-194.0256-130.7352 122297.75800.5859-67.383281010.058-193.9062-130.6447 122398800.5548-67.48181010.07-193.8658-130.6738 122398.25800.6103-67.306191010.114-193.7289-130.5175 122398.5800.5784-67.407041010.136-193.6587-130.5329 122398.75800.598-67.345021010.129-193.6817-130.5134

PAGE 95

95 Table C-4 Continued 122499800.6136-67.295761010.129-193.6806-130.4882 122499.25805.3707-52.23851014.689-179.2465-115.7425 122499.5811.0822-34.160321021.986-156.1512-95.15575 122499.75811.1744-33.868411021.663-157.173-95.52069 1225100811.1539-33.933321021.673-157.1413-95.5373 1225100.25811.1192-34.043051021.777-156.8115-95.42728 1225100.5811.1544-33.931581021.78-156.8009-95.36623 1226100.75811.1183-34.045761021.738-156.9367-95.49123 1226101811.1307-34.006731021.762-156.8583-95.4325 1226101.25811.119-34.043821021.757-156.8753-95.45954 1226101.5811.1157-34.054061021.781-156.7978-95.42593 1227101.75811.1098-34.07281021.824-156.6635-95.36817 1227102811.1341-33.995911021.815-156.6917-95.34382 1228102.25812.1638-30.73661025.897-143.7723-87.25446 1228102.5819.5501-7.3572711028.22-136.4176-71.88741 1228102.75819.5802-7.2620281028.222-136.4129-71.83747 1228103819.6158-7.1492051028.163-136.5972-71.87322 1229103.25819.6141-7.1546141028.201-136.4782-71.81642 1229103.5819.6512-7.0371551028.266-136.2715-71.65433 1229103.75819.6538-7.0290411028.204-136.4678-71.74841 1229104819.6636-6.9979371028.217-136.4264-71.71219

PAGE 96

96 LIST OF REFERENCES ACI Standard (2002). Building Code Requirements for Stru ctural Concrete (ACI 318-02), Farmington Hills, Michigan. Baker, A. C., and Broadrick, R. L. (1997). “Compaction Grouting.” Proc., 1997 ASCE Florida Annual Meeting. Best, J. F., and Lane, R. O. (1982). “Tes ting for Optimum Pumpability of Concrete.” Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering, Proc., ASCE Conf. on Grouting in Geotech. Eng., Vol. 1, 4961. Dapp, S. D., and Mullins, G. (2002). “Pressure Grouting Drilled Shaft Tips: Full-Scale Research Investigation for Silty and Shelly Sands.” Proc., ASCE Deep Foundations 2002: An International Perspective on Theory, Design, Construction, and Performance, Reston, Va., 335-350. Florida Department of Transportation Standa rd (2002). Section 455: Stuctures Foundations. Fu, X.., and Zhou, Z. (2003). “Study on Bearing Ca pacity of Bored Cast-in-Situ Piles by Post Pressure Grouting.” Proc., ASCE 3rd Int. Conf. on Grouting and Ground Treatment, Vol. 1, 707-715. Hwang, N. H. C., and Houghtalen, R. J. (1996). Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems, Prentice-Hall, ed. 3, 131-132. Kuo, C. L., Heung, W., and Roberts, J. (1998) “Limited Mobility Displacement Grouting for a MSE Wall Foundation.” Proc., Grouts and Grouting: A Potpourri of Projects, 70-82. Naudts, A., and van Impe, R. (2000). “An Alternate Compaction Grouting Technique.” Proc., ASCE Geo-Denver: Advances in Grouting and Ground Modification, 32-47. Nichols, S. C., and Goodings, D. J. (2000). “Eff ects of Grout Composition, Depth, and Injection Rate on Compaction Grouting.” Proc., ASCE Geo-Denver: Advances in Grouting and Ground Modification, 16-31. Tsinker, G. P. (1988). “Pile Jetting.” J. Geotech. Eng., 114(3), 326-336. Van der Stoel, A. E. C. (2001). “Grouting fo r Pile Foundation Improvement.” Post-graduate thesis, Delft University of Technology, Amsterdam. Warner, J. F., and Brown, D. R. (1974). “P lanning and Performing Compaction Grouting.” J. Geotech. Eng. Div., 100(6), 653-666.

PAGE 97

97 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH R. Heath Forbes was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, on June 4, 1980. He attended grade school and high school in Clayt on, North Carolina. He began his undergraduate studies in mathematics at Gardner-Webb University in Bo iling Springs, North Carolina. In August 2001, he dual-enrolled in civ il engineering at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. He graduated in May 2004 with his bachelor of scie nce in mathematics from Gardner-Webb and his bachelor of science in civil engineering from UNC-Charlotte. During his high school and initia l years in college, Heath wo rked part-time as a skilled laborer for a general contractor in Raleigh, North Carolina and gained valuable experience and knowledge of the construction industry. His ment or at UNC-Charlotte, Dr J. Brian Anderson, strongly encouraged him to pursue a master’s degree. In August 2004, he enrolled as a graduate student at the University of Fl orida where he performed his mast er’s research under Drs. Michael C. McVay and David G. Bloomquist. The topi c of the research was installing reinforced concrete piles using jetting and post compaction gr outing. He plans to work as a Geotechnical Engineer in Charleston, SC.