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Dove Love

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021325/00001

Material Information

Title: Dove Love Online Consumer-Generated Content as a Gauge of Corporate Reputation in the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty
Physical Description: 1 online resource (89 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Antonio, Sara E
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: analysis, campaign, communication, computer, content, corporate, dove, evaluation, forum, internet, measurement, online, public, relations, reputation
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Corporate reputation has been recognized in academia and practice as an important resource that must be protected and nurtured by organizations. A solid corporate reputation is likened to a savings account for a 'rainy day'; a safety net of positive reputation allows an organization to rebound more quickly from potential crises. A strong corporate reputation additionally provides advantages over industry competitors and facilitates hiring and retaining the best employees. Bill Margaritis, senior vice president of Worldwide Communications & Investor Relations, has credited a positive reputation as 'a preserver in difficult times and a tail wind in good times.' Yet, despite recognition of the importance of a strong reputation, the current corporate reputation measurement standard, Fortune's 'Most Admired Companies' rankings, has been criticized as biased towards larger organizations, centered on financial indicators, and capable of delivering only relative reputation measures lacking vital detail. This study ultimately proposes online consumer-generated content (CGC) as a supplement to current corporate reputation ranking systems. CGC-centered measures of corporate reputation, such as content analysis of online forums and weblogs, offer unprecedented reputation measurement opportunities for smaller organizations, as well as those in pursuit of a customized, detail-oriented measure of corporate reputation. Using the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty (CFRB) as a case study, this study addresses four campaign-specific research questions including online forum members' response to the CRFB, Dove's achievement of campaign goals, audience opinion of campaign tactics, and Dove's corporate reputation as measured in Davies' (2003) corporate personality dimensions. A fifth and final research question examines the viability of consumer-generated content as an alternative source of corporate reputation measurement data. The researcher proposes that the corporate reputation measurement instrument developed in this study can be readily adapted to other organizations, offering a new level of detailed corporate reputation information and allowing organizations to harness the opinions of one of their most important publics: online consumers.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sara E Antonio.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Hon, Linda L.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021325:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021325/00001

Material Information

Title: Dove Love Online Consumer-Generated Content as a Gauge of Corporate Reputation in the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty
Physical Description: 1 online resource (89 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Antonio, Sara E
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: analysis, campaign, communication, computer, content, corporate, dove, evaluation, forum, internet, measurement, online, public, relations, reputation
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Corporate reputation has been recognized in academia and practice as an important resource that must be protected and nurtured by organizations. A solid corporate reputation is likened to a savings account for a 'rainy day'; a safety net of positive reputation allows an organization to rebound more quickly from potential crises. A strong corporate reputation additionally provides advantages over industry competitors and facilitates hiring and retaining the best employees. Bill Margaritis, senior vice president of Worldwide Communications & Investor Relations, has credited a positive reputation as 'a preserver in difficult times and a tail wind in good times.' Yet, despite recognition of the importance of a strong reputation, the current corporate reputation measurement standard, Fortune's 'Most Admired Companies' rankings, has been criticized as biased towards larger organizations, centered on financial indicators, and capable of delivering only relative reputation measures lacking vital detail. This study ultimately proposes online consumer-generated content (CGC) as a supplement to current corporate reputation ranking systems. CGC-centered measures of corporate reputation, such as content analysis of online forums and weblogs, offer unprecedented reputation measurement opportunities for smaller organizations, as well as those in pursuit of a customized, detail-oriented measure of corporate reputation. Using the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty (CFRB) as a case study, this study addresses four campaign-specific research questions including online forum members' response to the CRFB, Dove's achievement of campaign goals, audience opinion of campaign tactics, and Dove's corporate reputation as measured in Davies' (2003) corporate personality dimensions. A fifth and final research question examines the viability of consumer-generated content as an alternative source of corporate reputation measurement data. The researcher proposes that the corporate reputation measurement instrument developed in this study can be readily adapted to other organizations, offering a new level of detailed corporate reputation information and allowing organizations to harness the opinions of one of their most important publics: online consumers.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sara E Antonio.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Hon, Linda L.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021325:00001


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D O V E L O V E : O N L I N E C O N S U M E R G E N E R A T E D C O N T E N T A S A G A U G E O F C O R P O R A T E R E P U T A T I O N I N T H E D O V E C A M P A I G N F O R R E A L B E A U T Y B y S A R A E A N T O N I O A T H E S I S P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S I N M A S S C O M M U N I C A T I O N U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2007

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i i 2007 S a r a E A nt oni o

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i i i T o m y pa r e nt s R obe r t a nd N a nc y A nt oni o I t ha nk t he m bot h f o r i ns t i l l i ng a l ove a nd a ppr e c i a t i on f or e duc a t i on a s a l i f e l ong pur s ui t

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i v A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S M y de e pe s t t ha nks go t o t hos e w ho ha ve he l pe d t hi s pa pe r pr ogr e s s f r om a f l e dgl i ng a ppr e c i a t i on f or t he D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a u t y t o a s ubs t a nt i a l a nd s i gni f i c a nt gr a dua t e t he s i s I t ha nk m y w onde r f u l s upe r vi s or y c om m i t t e e m e m be r s w ho s o ge ne r ous l y w or ke d w i t h m e a c r os s 2, 000 m i l e s t h r ough e m a i l a nd l ong di s t a nc e t e l e phone c a l l s dur i ng m y t i m e a w a y f r om G a i ne s vi l l e F i r s t I m us t t ha nk D r L i nda H o n, w hos e pubi c r e l a t i ons t he or y c ou r s e i gni t e d m y i nt e r e s t i n r e s e a r c h a nd i n pa r t l e d m e t o t he t h e s i s t r a c k. D r H on ha s a ddi t i ona l l y s e r ve d a s m y f e a r l e s s c om m i t t e e c ha i r of f e r i ng i nva l ua bl e a dvi c e a nd gui da nc e a m i d t he r e s pons i bi l i t i e s of s e r vi ng a s s e ni or a s s oc i a t e de a n. D r M i c ha e l M i t r ook a ddi t i ona l l y de s e r ve s m uc h a ppr e c i a t i on f or t he m e t hodol ogy a s s i s t a nc e he ha s of f e r e d, a s w e l l a s pr ovi di ng m y i ni t i a l i nt r oduc t i on t o c om m uni c a t i ons r e s e a r c h. I w oul d a l s o l i ke t o t ha n k D r Y ouj i n C hoi f or he r c ont i nue d a dvi c e a nd s ugge s t i ons w hi c h ha ve he l pe d m y pa pe r t o f l our i s h. T hou gh not a n of f i c i a l c om m i t t e e m e m be r I a ddi t i ona l l y w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk m y p r o f e s s or a nd f r i e nd R i c ha r d W a t e r s f or gr a c i ous l y s ha r i ng hi s w i s dom i n c om put e r m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i ons M os t of a l l I w a nt t o e xp r e s s m y gr e a t e s t a ppr e c i a t i on t o m y pa r e nt s R obe r t a nd N a nc y A nt oni o, a nd t o D a ni e l M ur phy w ho ha ve e a c h p r o vi de d boundl e s s s uppor t gui da nc e a nd l ove t hr oughout t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s A s t e a c he r a nd a u t hor J a c qui e M c T a gge r t ha s s a i d, J us t a s a hous e ne e ds a f ounda t i on i n o r de r t o s t a nd f i r m s o doe s a pe r s on. T ha nk you t o m y f a m i l y f or of f e r i ng a n unw a ve r i ng f ounda t i on now a nd a l w a y s

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... iv LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... vii LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. viii ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 4 Unilever Dove and the Campaign for Real Beauty (CFRB) ................................ .................. 4 Corporate Reputation Management (CRM) ................................ ................................ .......... 7 Corporate Reputation Overview ................................ ................................ .................... 7 Corporate Reputation and Public Relations/Corporate Communication ....................... 10 Corporate Reputation and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ............................... 12 Corporate Reputation and Corporate Branding ................................ ............................ 15 Corporate Reputation Measurement ................................ ................................ ............ 16 Consumer Generated Content (C GC) ................................ ................................ ................. 21 Consumer Generated Content Overview ................................ ................................ ..... 21 Online Forums ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 22 Consumer Generated Content Popularity and Demographics ................................ ....... 23 Consumer Generated Cont ent and Public Relations ................................ ..................... 25 Content Analysis and Netnography ................................ ................................ .................... 26 Content Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 26 Netnography ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 27 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 30 Campaign for Real Beauty Research Questions ................................ ........................... 30 Corporate Reputatio n Measurement Research Question ................................ .............. 30 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 31 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 31 Coding Pr ocedure and Inter Coder Agreement ................................ ................................ ... 32 Instrument Development ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 32 Research Based Measures ................................ ................................ ........................... 32 Inductively Gathered Measures ................................ ................................ ................... 34

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vi 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 36 Profile of the Sample/Forum Member Demographics ................................ ......................... 36 Gender and Age of Posters ................................ ................................ .......................... 36 Forum Postings ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 37 Campaign for Real Beauty Research Questions ................................ ................................ .. 37 Research Question 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 37 Research Question 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 40 Research Question 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 41 Research Question 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 43 Positive Tonality and Praise Trends ................................ ................................ ................... 46 Personally Inspiring: Emotional Responses ................................ ................................ 46 Positive Messages: Positive Images of Women and Real Advertising ....................... 48 Social Responsibility ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 49 Potential Areas for Growth: Online Consumers Criticism and Suggestions ....................... 50 Lack of Diversity ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 51 Lack of Campaign Attention to Boys and Young Men ................................ ................. 51 Marketing Ploy ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 52 Additional Suggestions ................................ ................................ ............................... 52 Corporate Reputation Measurement Research Question (Research Question 5) .................. 53 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 5 5 Implications for Corporate Reputation Measurement ................................ .......................... 55 Implications for Strategic Public Relations ................................ ................................ ......... 57 Study Limitations and Areas of Future Research ................................ ................................ 59 Study Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 59 Areas of Future Research ................................ ................................ ............................ 59 APPENDIX A CODEBOOK FOR DOVE CORPORATE REPUTATION CONTENT ANALYSIS ......... 62 B CODE SHEET FOR DOVE CORPORATE REPUTATION CONTENT ANALYSIS ....... 67 LIST OF RE FERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 72 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 79

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vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1. Demographic Profile of Se lf E stee m Forum Members ................................ ........................ 37 4 2. Posting Topic: Praise and Criticism ................................ ................................ .................... 38 4 3. The CFRB Tactics ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 45 5 1. Fortune s Americas Most Admired Companies Data: Unilever ................................ ...... 56 5 2. Fortune s Americas Most Admired Companies Data: Consumer Food Products ............ 56

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viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1. Corporate Personality Scale ................................ ................................ ............................... 20 4 1. Overall Tona lity of Postings ................................ ................................ ............................... 40 4 2. Prevalence of Corporate Personality Sub Dimensions in Posting Sample ........................... 43

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ix Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Arts in Mass Communication DOVE LOVE: ONLINE CONSUMER GENERATED CONTENT AS A GAUGE OF CORPORATE R EPUTATION IN THE DOVE CAMPAIGN FOR REAL BEAUTY By Sara E. Antonio August 2007 Chair: Linda Hon Major: Mass Communication Corporate reputation has been recognized in academia and practice as an important resource that must be protected and nurtured by or ganizations. A solid corporate reputation is likened to a savings account for a rainy day ; a safety net of positive reputation allows an organization to rebound more quickly from potential crises. A strong corporate reputation additionally provides advan tages over industry competitors and facilitates hiring and retaining the best employees. Bill Margaritis, senior vice president of Worldwide Communications & Investor Relations has credited a positive reputation as a preserver in difficult times and a ta il wind in good times. Yet, despite recognition of the importance of a strong reputatio n, the current corporate reputation measurement standard, Fortune s Most Admired Companies rankings, has been criticized as biased towards larger organizations, centered on financial indicators, and capable of delivering only relative reputation measures lacking vital detail. This study ultimately proposes online consumer generated content (CGC) as a supplement to current corporate reputation ranking systems. CGC centered measures of corporate reputation, such as content analysis of online forums and webl ogs, offer unprecedented reputation measurement opportunities for

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x s m a l l e r or ga ni z a t i ons a s w e l l a s t hos e i n pur s ui t o f a c us t om i z e d, de t a i l o r i e nt e d m e a s ur e of c or por a t e r e put a t i on U s i ng t he D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y ( C F R B ) a s a c a s e s t udy, t hi s s t u dy a ddr e s s e s f our c a m pa i gn s pe c i f i c r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i nc l udi ng onl i ne f o r um m e m be r s r e s pons e t o t he C R F B D ove s a c hi e ve m e nt of c a m pa i gn goa l s a udi e nc e opi ni on of c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s a nd D ove s c or por a t e r e put a t i on a s m e a s ur e d i n D a vi e s e t a l s ( 2003) c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i ons A f i f t h a nd f i na l r e s e a r c h que s t i on e xa m i ne s t he vi a bi l i t y o f c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt a s a n a l t e r na t i ve s our c e of c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt da t a T he r e s e a r c he r pr opos e s t ha t t he c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt i ns t r um e nt de ve l ope d i n t hi s s t udy c a n be r e a di l y a da pt e d t o ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons of f e r i ng a ne w l e ve l of de t a i l e d c or por a t e r e put a t i on i nf or m a t i on a nd a l l ow i ng or g a ni z a t i ons t o ha r ne s s t he opi ni ons of one of t he i r m os t i m po r t a nt publ i c s : onl i ne c ons um e r s

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1 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N A t a t i m e w he n publ i c s c r ut i ny of bus i ne s s i s hi gh, c or por a t e r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt e m e r ge s a s a n i nva l ua bl e m e a ns of bui l di ng publ i c c onf i de nc e T he pr ol i f e r a t i on o f m e di a a nd i nf or m a t i on o f t he pa s t t w o de c a de s t he de m a nds of i nv e s t or s f o r i nc r e a s e d t r a ns pa r e nc y, a nd t he gr ow i ng a t t e nt i on pa i d t o s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y a l l s pe a k f or a gr e a t e r f oc us on t he pa r t o f or ga ni z a t i ons t o bui l di ng a nd m a i nt a i ni ng s t r ong r e put a t i ons ( A r ge nt i & D r uc ke nm i l l e r 2004 p. 368) W hi l e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt i s i nhe r e nt l y vi t a l a nd ne c e s s a r y f or or ga ni z a t i ons i nt e r e s t e d i n m a na gi ng t he i r c or po r a t e r e put a t i on c ur r e nt m e a s ur e m e nt ne a r l y s ol e l y r e l i e s on r e put a t i on r a nki ngs s uc h a s F or t une m a ga z i ne s M os t A dm i r e d C om pa ni e s T hi s s t udy pr opos e s a n a l t e r na t i ve m e a s ur e m e nt t ool f or or ga ni z a t i ons i nt e r e s t e d i n c onduc t i ng a r e put a t i ona l a udi t : onl i ne c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c o nt e nt ( C G C ) T ypi f i e d i n m e di um s s uc h a s onl i ne f or um s a nd w e bl ogs c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt of f e r s unp r e c e de nt e d oppor t uni t i e s i n c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt T hi s s t udy s e e ks t o e xa m i ne onl i ne di a l ogue a s a c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt t ool us i ng t he D ove C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y a s a c a s e s t udy. T h r ough a qua nt i t a t i ve c ont e nt a na l ys i s of onl i ne f o r um pos t i ngs t hi s s t udy e xa m i ne s onl i ne a udi e nc e opi ni on of t he c a m pa i gn a nd t he or ga ni z a t i on a s a ga uge of c or por a t e r e put a t i on. T he i nc or po r a t i on o f t he D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y i s a n a pp r opr i a t e f i t due t o t he c a m pa i gn f oc us on b r a nd a nd r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt A ddi t i ona l l y, t he D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y w a s a 2006 S i l ve r A nvi l A w a r d w i nne r f or U ni l e ve r D ove a nd E de l m a n P ubl i c R e l a t i ons W or l dw i de W hi l e t he c a m pa i gn w a s e va l ua t e d f or i t s i m pa c t be t w e e n 20 04 a nd 2005, i t i s s t i l l a n a c t i ve c a m pa i gn, w i t h ne w a nd i nnova t i ve t a c t i c s a dde d i n 2006 a nd 2007 T he t r ue s i gni f i c a nc e of t he c a m pa i gn i s e vi de nt i n t he P R S A S i l ve r A nvi l s um m a r y, i n w hi c h t he D ove C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y i s

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2 c r e di t e d w i t h i ndus t r y i m pa c t s e r vi ng a s a c a t a l ys t f or ot he r m a j or c om pa ni e s t o be gi n u s i ng m e s s a ge s f e a t ur i ng a nd t a r ge t e d t o r e a l w om e n. F o r t hi s r e a s on, t he c ur r e nt s t udy e xt e nds be yond a c a s e s t udy t o a n i ndus t r y s i gni f i c a nt a na l ys i s C ont e nt a na l ys i s of onl i ne c om m uni c a t i ons ha s a n e m br yoni c ye t dyna m i c hi s t or y i n c om m uni c a t i ons r e s e a r c h. P r i o r t o t he c ur r e nt s t ud y, t he body of r e s e a r c h ha s pr i m a r i l y c e nt e r e d on t he r e l a t i ons hi p bui l d i ng oppor t uni t i e s m a de a v a i l a bl e vi a onl i ne c om m uni c a t i ons ( K e nt & T a yl or 1998; T a yl or K e nt & W hi t e 2001; K e nt T a yl or & W hi t e 2003; K e l l e he r & M i l l e r 2006; S e l t z e r & M i t r ook n d. ) K e nt a nd T a yl or ( 1 998) m a y be c r e di t e d w i t h pi one e r i ng t he s t udy of onl i ne c om m uni c a t i ons t hr ough a publ i c r e l a t i ons l e ns by s e e ki ng a n a ns w e r t o t he que s t i on, I f r e l a t i ons hi p bui l di ng i s t he f ounda t i o n of publ i c r e l a t i o ns how c a n t he t e c hnol ogy of t he W e b a f f e c t c om m uni c a t i ve r e l a t i ons hi ps ? ( p. 324) T he a ut hor s o f f e r e d f i ve p r i nc i pl e s f or t he i nt e gr a t i on o f di a l ogi c publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd t he W or l d W i de W e b, a l l ow i ng f or t he s t r a t e gi c us e of onl i ne c om m uni c a t i ons f or r e l a t i ons hi p bui l di ng. S e l t z e r a nd M i t r ook ( n d. ) bui l t upon K e nt a nd T a yl or s f i ve di a l ogi c c a t e gor i e s w i t h a f oc us on t he pot e nt i a l f or di a l ogi c r e l a t i ons hi p bui l di ng i n o r ga ni z a t i ona l w e bl ogs K e l l e he r a nd M i l l e r ( 2006) a l s o f oc us e d on o r ga ni z a t i ona l w e bl ogs c onc l udi ng t ha t w e bl ogs a l l ow f or a m o r e c onve r s a t i ona l t one t ha n t r a di t i ona l c or po r a t e W e b s i t e s T a yl or K e nt a nd W hi t e ( 2001 ) a nd K e nt T a yl or a nd W hi t e ( 2003 ) e xa m i ne d t he di a l ogi c r e l a t i ons hi p bui l di ng oppor t uni t i e s m a de a va i l a bl e f or a c t i vi s t gr oups t hr ough onl i ne c om m uni c a t i ons T he s e a ut hor s r e ve a l t he a c a de m i c f oc us on r e l a t i ons hi p b ui l di ng w he n e xa m i ni ng onl i ne c om m uni c a t i ons be ne f i t s f or pu bl i c r e l a t i ons W hi l e t he r e l a t i ons hi p bui l di ng oppor t un i t i e s m a d e a va i l a bl e t hr ough on l i ne c om m uni c a t i ons ha ve be e n t hor oughl y a dd r e s s e d, t he r e s e a r c h ha s ye t t o l ook t o c om put e r m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i ons a s a di r e c t t ool f o r c or p or a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt T hi s s t udy

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3 pos i t i ons i t s e l f i n publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd c or po r a t e r e put a t i on r e s e a r c h a s a uni que e xt e ns i on o f c om put e r m e di a t e d a nd c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c om m uni c a t i ons r e s e a r c h. T he pu r pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o e xa m i ne c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt t h r ough or ga ni z a t i on s pons or e d onl i ne c om m uni c a t i ons w hi c h t he r e s e a r c he r ha s i de nt i f i e d a s a pr e vi ous l y un ut i l i z e d be ne f i t o f t he W or l d W i de W e b f o r t he pr a c t i c e of publ i c r e l a t i o ns

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4 C H A P T E R 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W U n i l e ve r D ove an d t h e C am p ai gn f or R e al B e au t y ( C F R B ) B y i t s ow n de f i ni t i on t he D ove C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y ( C F R B ) i s a gl oba l e f f or t t ha t i s i nt e nde d t o s e r ve a s a s t a r t i ng poi nt f or s oc i e t a l c ha nge a nd a c t a s a c a t a l ys t f o r w i de ni ng t he de f i ni t i on a nd d i s c us s i on of be a ut y ( C a m pa i gnf or R e a l B e a ut y. c om ) T he D ove C F R B i s c e nt e r e d on t he c onc e pt o f e m pl oyi ng r e a l w om e n w om e n w i t h w r i nkl e s a nd c ur ve s a nd not ove r l y t hi n m ode l s i n t he i r r a nge o f c om m uni c a t i on m a t e r i a l i nc l udi ng bo t h publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd a dve r t i s i ng ( C a m pa i gnf or R e a l B e a ut y. c om ) P r i or t o i ni t i a t i ng c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s E de l m a n s r e s e a r c h di vi s i on, S t r a t e gyO ne c onduc t e d a s ur ve y of 3 000 w om e n i n 10 c ount r i e s T he m a j o r f i ndi ng of t he 2004 D ove G l oba l S t udy, w hi c h w o ul d be t he f ounda t i on o f t he c a m pa i gn, w a s t ha t onl y t w o pe r c e nt of w om e n s ur ve ye d de s c r i be d t he m s e l ve s a s be a ut i f ul ( C a m pa i gnf or R e a l B e a ut y. c om ) A s pa r t of a dyna m i c c a m pa i gn, D ove a l s o c om m i s s i one d a 2005 a nd 2006 G l oba l S t udy t o l e a r n m o r e a bout t he s e l f e s t e e m a nd be a ut y c onc e r ns of w om e n a nd young gi r l s T he goa l s of t he C F R B a s s t a t e d i n t he P R S A S i l v e r A nvi l s um m a r y ( S i m m ons 2006 ) a r e : G e ne r a t e s a l e s of D ove be a ut y pr oduc t s a nd t he ne w pr oduc t l i ne D ove F i r m i ng U s e t he C F R B t o c r e a t e di a l ogue a nd de ba t e a bout t he de f i ni t i ons of be a ut y R e c e i ve na t i ona l T V a nd p r i nt m e di a a t t e nt i on G a i n l oc a l m a r ke t c ove r a ge i n t he hom e t ow ns of m ode l s f e a t ur e d i n t he c a m pa i gn D r i ve c ons um e r s t o t he C F R B W e b s i t e t o s ha r e t h e i r vi e w s on t hi s c a m pa i gn C r e a t e a c a l l t o a c t i on f or c ons um e r s t o j oi n t he c a m pa i gn t hr ough a n onl i ne p l e dge t ha t t r i gge r s a dona t i on by D ove t o s e l f e s t e e m pr og r a m s D ove l a unc he d t he c a m pa i gn i n S e pt e m be r 2004 w i t h t he T i c k box pr om o t i on f e a t ur e d on t he C F R B W e b s i t e m a ga z i n e a dve r t i s e m e nt s a nd a bi l l boa r d i n T i m e s S qua r e t ha t a s ke d

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5 vi e w e r s t o j udge f e a t ur e d w om e n out s i de o f t r a di t i ona l be a ut y m e a s ur e s V i e w e r s w e r e a bl e t o vot e be t w e e n O ve r s i z e d a nd O ut s t a ndi ng, W r i nkl e d a nd W onde r f ul W i t h t hi s pha s e of t he c a m pa i gn, t he r e w a s a l s o t e l e vi s i on a dve r t i s i ng t ha t c ha l l e nge d a one s i z e f i t s a l l pe r c e pt i on of be a ut y de ve l ope d by O gi l vy & M a t h e r t he a ge nc y r e s pons i bl e f or t he a dve r t i s i ng e l e m e nt s of t he c a m pa i gn. I n J une 2005, D ove l a unc he d t he s e c ond pha s e of t he C F R B w i t h i t s us e of t he D ove R e a l W om e n. D ove s e l e c t e d s i x w om e n w i t h r e a l bod i e s a nd r e a l c ur ve s w ho w e r e not pr of e s s i ona l m ode l s t o s e r ve a s t he publ i c f a c e of t he D ove c a m pa i gn. T he D ove c a m pa i gn us e d t he C F R B W e b s i t e a s w e l l a s t e l e vi s i on a ppe a r a n c e s w i t h O pr a h W i nf r e y a nd E l l e n D e G e ne r e s t o t ur n t he s i x w om e n i nt o a pop c ul t ur e phe nom e n on w i t h c e l e br i t y s t a t us T he 2006 S u pe r B ow l i nc l ude d a c or po r a t e a dve r t i s e m e nt ( S e l f E s t e e m ) p r ovi di ng i nf or m a t i on on t he ne w l y de ve l ope d D ove S e l f E s t e e m F und. T he S e l f E s t e e m F und w a s de ve l ope d a s a n a ge nt of c ha nge t o e duc a t e a nd i n s pi r e gi r l s on a w i de r de f i ni t i on of be a ut y a nd s uppor t s r e gi ona l pr og r a m s t ha t p r om ot e he a l t hy body i m a ge a nd s e l f e s t e e m i n young w om e n. T he U S di vi s i on of t he S e l f E s t e e m F un d w or ks w i t h t he G i r l S c out s of A m e r i c a I n O c t obe r 2006 a vi r a l vi d e o a vi de o w i t h a l i n k t ha t c a n be e m a i l e d t o f r i e nds a nd f a m i l y w a s a dde d t o t he C F R B W e b s i t e E nt i t l e d D ove E vol ut i on t he vi de o f e a t ur e s a n a ve r a ge l ooki ng w om a n t r a ns f or m e d i nt o a bi l l bo a r d m ode l w i t h num e r ous c os m e t i c a nd phot o r e t ouc hi ng e f f or t s a nd c l os e s w i t h t he t a gl i n e N o w onde r our pe r c e pt i on of be a ut y i s di s t or t e d. A s w i t h t he S upe r B ow l c or por a t e c om m e r c i a l t he pur pos e of E vol ut i on i s t o r a i s e a w a r e ne s s of t he D ove S e l f E s t e e m F und. T he vi d e o out di d t he 2006 S upe r B ow l a d ve r t i s e m e nt i n publ i c i t y w i t h a ppe a r a nc e s on t e l e vi s i on t a l k s h ow s s uc h a s E l l e n, T he V i e w C N N a nd E nt e r t a i nm e nt T oni ght a s w e l l a s de l i ve r i ng t he l a r ge s t t r a f f i c i nc r e a s e t o t he C F R B W e b s i t e

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6 t hus f a r i n t he c a m pa i gn. T he vi de o w a s upl oa de d t o t he c ons um e r m e di a W e b s i t e Y ouT ube on O c t obe r 6, 2006, a nd r e c e i ve d ove r 1. 7 m i l l i on i m pr e s s i ons w i t hi n t he f i r s t m ont h, br i ngi ng i t i nt o t he T op 15 bl og l i nke d vi de os a c c or di ng t o w e bl og s e a r c h e ngi ne T e c hnor a t i ( N e f f 2006 ) 1 I n a 2005 P R W e e k. c om w e bc a s t i nt e r vi e w t he C F R B c om m uni c a t i ons t e a m e xpl a i ne d t he goa l s a nd m ot i va t i ons be hi nd t he c a m pa i gn. T he k e y r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s i nc l ude d S t a c i e B r i ght S e ni or M a r ke t i ng C om m uni c a t i ons M a na ge r U n i l e ve r ; L i s a S upul ve da E V P a nd G e ne r a l M a na ge r C ons um e r B r a nds E de l m a n; a nd M a ur e e n S hi r r e f f C r e a t i ve D i r e c t or O gl i vy & M a t he r B r i ght di s c us s e d t he i m pe t us of t he c a m pa i gn a nd how i t t ook s ha pe a s pa r t of U ni l e ve r s bus i ne s s goa l t o m ove D ove i nt o be i ng a be a ut y i c oni c br a nd ( P R W e e k. c om ) H ow a r e w e goi ng t o b r i ng D ove a s a pe r s ona l w a s h br a nd i nt o be i ng a be a ut y i c on? I n or de r t o do t ha t w e r e a l l y ne e de d t o go a nd l i s t e n t o pe opl e w ho us e our pr oduc t s T ha t s s uc h a huge pa r t o f U ni l e ve r w hi c h i s a bout r o ot i n g our s e l ve s i n c ons um e r i nput W e s e t out us i ng S t r a t e gyO ne a nd w e nt a c r os s 10 c ount r i e s a nd i nt e r vi e w e d t hous a nds upon t hous a nds of w om e n t o r e a l l y de l ve i nt o t hi s i s s ue of how w om e n vi e w e d t he i r be a ut y how w om e n de f i ne d i t w ha t w e r e t he i r l e ve l s of s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd w ha t w a s t he i r i m pa c t of s e l f on t he i r ove r a l l w e l l be i ng I t w a s a bs ol ut e l y s t a r t l i ng t o f i nd out t ha t onl y t w o pe r c e nt of w om e n a r ound t he w or l d vi e w t he m s e l ve s a s be a ut i f ul W e r e a l i z e d t he r e r e a l l y i s a r i c h t e r r i t or y t ha t D ove be l ongs t o w he r e w e c a n m a ke a d i f f e r e nc e W e r e a l l y ha ve a n oppor t uni t y t o w i de n t hi s na r r ow de f i ni t i o n of be a ut y I n or de r t o do t ha t w e r e a l l y ne e de d t o pr ovoke di s c us s i on a nd e nc our a ge de ba t e T hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w B r i ght c ont i nua l l y t i e d t he C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y t o t he ul t i m a t e goa l of r e put a t i on a nd br a nd m a na ge m e nt B r i ght a ddi t i ona l l y di s c us s e d t he i m por t a nc e of t he onl i ne f or u m f o r t he c om pa ny i n c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h t he i r t a r ge t a udi e nc e a nd t he or ga ni z a t i on s us e of onl i ne di s c us s i on a s a ga uge of c a m pa i gn s uc c e s s W e s e t up a W e b s i t e a r e a w he r e pe opl e c a n c ha t o nl i ne a nd s ha r e t he i r vi e w s ; m i l l i ons o f pe opl e ha ve gone on t he r e f r o m a l l ove r t he w or l d Y ou ha ve t o t a ke pu l s e r e a di ngs ; you c a n t j us t e xpe c t t o w a ke up t he ne xt da y a nd be s om e t hi ng. T ha t i s one of t he be s t ga uge s t ha t you c a n ha ve w he n you ha ve pe opl e h a vi ng a di r e c t d i a l ogue w i t h a c om pa ny. Y ou c a n t hope f or a nyt hi ng m o r e t ha n t o ha ve t ha t one on one r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h your 1 T h e t e r m i m p r e s s i o n i n a n o n l i n e m a r k e t i n g o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s e t t i n g r e p r e s e n t s t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s a W e b p a g e i s a c c e s s e d o r a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t i s d i s p l a y e d ( M u l t i c h a n n e l M e r c h a n t c o m )

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7 c us t om e r a nd you r c ons um e r T ha t s be e n r e a l l y p ow e r f ul t o s e e t ha t w e r e t ouc hi ng l i ve s c he c ki ng t o s e e t ha t our m e s s a ge s a r e ge t t i ng out F r e d A c os t a s e ni or V i c e P r e s i de nt D ove not e s t h a t w hi l e t he a dve r t i s i ng ha s be e n t hought pr ovoki ng publ i c r e l a t i ons i s t he gui di ng pr i nc i pl e a nd l e a d di s c i pl i ne of t he gl oba l c a m pa i gn. A c os t a r e a f f i r m s t ha t [ R e a l B e a ut y '] w or ks gl oba l l y be c a us e i t i s a nc hor e d i n t r ue unde r s t a ndi ng a nd i ns i ght s W e s a y i t ve r y s i m pl y a nd w e t ouc h a c hor d w he n w e t a l k a bout w om e n's ha ng ups a bou t be a ut y ( W e nt z 2007 ) C or p or at e R e p u t at i o n M an age m e n t ( C R M ) C or p or at e R e p u t at i o n O ve r vi e w G ot s i a nd W i l s on ( 2001) c onduc t e d a r e vi e w of c or por a t e r e put a t i on l i t e r a t u r e i n pu r s ui t of a f ul l a nd c om pl e t e de f i ni t i on of t he t e r m T he i r r e s e a r c h r e s ul t e d i n t he f o l l ow i ng a c c e pt e d unde r s t a ndi ng of c or po r a t e r e put a t i on : a s t a ke hol de r s ove r a l l e va l ua t i on of a c om pa ny ove r t i m e ba s e d on t he s t a ke hol de r s di r e c t e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h t he c om pa ny, a ny ot he r f or m of c om m uni c a t i on a nd s ym bol i s m t ha t p r ovi de s i nf o r m a t i on a bout t he f i r m s a c t i ons a nd/ or a c om pa r i s on w i t h t he a c t i ons o f ot he r l e a di ng r i va l s ( p. 29) C or por a t e r e put a t i on i s t he r e f l e c t i on of a n or ga ni z a t i on ove r t i m e a s s e e n t hr ough t he e ye s of i t s s t a ke hol de r s a nd e xpr e s s e d t hr ough t he i r t ho ught s a nd w or ds ( S a xt on 1998 ) ; t he r e by, i t i s t he or ga ni z a t i on s r e s pons i bi l i t y t o he l p s ha pe t hos e t hought s a nd w or ds ( F or m a n & A r ge nt i 2005) R e put a t i on i s t a ke n t o r e pr e s e nt t he s um o f a n or ga ni z a t i on s c ons t i t ue nc i e s c ol l e c t i ve vi e w s of a n or ga ni z a t i on ( A r ge nt i & F or m a n, 2000 ) M or e ove r c or po r a t e r e put a t i on i s not a s i ngl e s our c e c ons t r uc t ; r a t he r c or por a t e r e put a t i o n r e s ul t s f r om e ve r yt hi ng a n or ga ni z a t i on, i t s e m pl oye e s a nd ot he r s s a y a bout i t a s w e l l a s a l l o f t he bus i ne s s a c t i vi t i e s a nd c om m uni c a t i ons i t i nt e nt i ona l l y a nd uni nt e nt i ona l l y unde r t a ke s i n i nc l udi ng a dve r t i s i ng, pr om ot i on di r e c t m a r ke t i ng, pe r s ona l s e l l i ng t r a de r e l a t i ons a nd pu bl i c r e l a t i ons a nd c om m uni t y r e l a t i ons ( N a kr a

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8 2000) N a kr a ( 2000 p 35) de f i ne s c or po r a t e r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt a s a c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on f unc t i on t ha t c ons i s t s of a m e t hod of bui l di ng a nd s us t a i ni ng of a n or ga ni z a t i on's good na m e ge ne r a t i ng pos i t i ve f e e d ba c k f r om s t a ke hol de r s t ha t w i l l r e s ul t i n m e e t i ng s t r a t e gi c a nd f i na nc i a l obj e c t i ve s B ur ke ( 1998) be l i e ve d r e put a t i on t o be s o vi t a l t o t he l i f e of a n or ga ni z a t i on he s t a t e d, M ode r n f i r m s a r e of t e n s e e n a s l i t t l e m or e t ha n be a r e r s of r e put a t i ons w i t h na m e s r a t he r t ha n phys i c a l bus i n e s s e s be i ng bought a nd s ol d ( B ur ke 1998 p 7) I n F or m a n a nd A r ge nt i s ( 2005 ) s t udy o f c or po r a t e c om m uni c a t i on s r ol e i n de ve l opi ng c or por a t e r e put a t i on a nd t he c o r por a t e br a nd t he r e s e a r c he r s c onc l ude d t ha t t he s e ni or c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on l e a de r s i nt e r vi e w e d va l ue d t he m e di a a t t e nt i on r e put a t i on r a nki ngs r e c e i ve t hou gh t he y w e r e a l s o a w a r e of t he bot t om l i ne be ne f i t s t ha t a s ol i d br a nd a nd r e put a t i on c a n c onf e r i nc l udi ng pr ot e c t i ng c om pa ni e s i n a hos t i l e bus i ne s s e nvi r onm e nt c r e a t i ng a r e s e r voi r o f goodw i l l i n a c r i s i s de ve l opi ng a s us t a i na bl e c om pe t i t i ve a dva nt a g e a ga i ns t r i va l f i r m s a nd he l pi ng f i r m s hi r e a nd r e t a i n t he be s t e m pl oye e s ( p. 254) B ur ke ( 1998) a ppl i e s a D a r w i ni a n s ur vi va l of t he f i t t e s t m e t a phor t o r e put a t i on m a n a ge m e nt s t a t i ng t ha t a s t r ong r e put a t i on l ow e r s i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l t r a ns a c t i on c o s t s t he r e by i m pr ovi ng a n or ga ni z a t i on's c ha nc e s of s ur vi va l U nde r B ur ke s m ode l t he r ol e of c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on i s t o s us t a i n, f os t e r a nd de ve l op a n or ga ni z a t i on s r e put a t i on t he r e by r e du c i ng t r a ns a c t i on c os t s i nc l udi ng c os t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pr odu c t i on a nd phys i c a l di s t r i but i o n a nd c os t s due t o r i s k a nd unc e r t a i nt y P e t r i c k e t a l ( 1999) i de nt i f y t he gl oba l l e a de r s hi p pr a c t i c e s t ha t e nha nc e r e put a t i on i n t he e ye s of r e l e va nt s t a ke hol de r s a nd t he e ns ui ng r e put a t i ona l be ne f i t s S uc c e s s f ul gl oba l l e a d e r s obt a i n r e put a t i ons f o r r e l i abi l i t y a m ong c us t om e r s a nd s uppl i e r s by e ns ur i ng qua l i t y s e r vi c e a nd i nnova t i on. T he y ga i n r e put a t i ons f or r e s pons i bi l i t y a m ong c om m uni t y a nd publ i c c ons t i t ue nc i e s by pr ude nt l y s t e w a r di ng or ga ni z a t i ona l s oc i a l a nd na t ur a l a s s e t s F i na l l y, s uc c e s s f ul gl oba l l e a de r s a c hi e ve r e put a t i ons f or

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9 ac c ount abi l i t y a m ong gove r nm e nt a nd c om pe t i t or i nt e r e s t s by c om pl yi ng w i t h r e gul a t i ons a nd bui l di ng a l e ve l pl a yi ng f i e l d f or f a i r c om pe t i t i on ( p. 60, e m pha s i s a dde d) T he c ons e que nc e s of i gnor i ng r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt or pe r m i t t i ng t he e xi s t e nc e of a ne ga t i ve c or por a t e r e put a t i on s houl d not be i gnor e d. N os e di vi ng s ha r e p r i c e s a nd w e a k m a r ke t c a pi t a l i z a t i on a r e j us t a f e w of t he r a m i f i c a t i ons of a t a r ni s he d r e put a t i on ( N a kr a 2000) M or e ov e r r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt c a n be s e e n a s a pr e e m pt i ve s t r i ke a ga i ns t t he ne e d f o r c r i s i s m a na ge m e nt A s s e r t s N a kr a ( 2000, p. 41) P l a nni ng a he a d t o ha ndl e a c r i s i s i s a good m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gy; P l a nni ng a he a d t o pr e ve nt a c r i s i s i s e ve n be t t e r I n pr o po s i ng or ga ni z a t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s f or a s us t a i na bl e c or por a t e r e put a t i on, N a kr a ( 2000 ) s t a t e s t ha t a s uc c e s s f ul c om pa ny m ove s be yond r e l yi ng on c r i s i s m a na ge m e nt t a c t i c s d e a l i ng w i t h pr obl e m s onl y a f t e r a di s a s t e r oc c ur s a nd i ns t e a d e m pl oys a n e nt e r pr i s e w i de r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gy a nd a c om m uni c a t i ons s t a f f t ha t i s p r e pa r e d a nd e qui ppe d t o a c t pr oa c t i ve l y by bui l di ng t he c om pa ny's m os t i m por t a nt a s s e t I n R ona l d J A l s op s T he 18 I m m ut abl e L aw s of C or por at e R e put at i on t he a ut hor p r ovi de s a s e r i e s of gui di ng pr i nc i pl e s de s i gne d t o s e r ve a s a r oa dm a p f o r ut i l i z i ng t he be ne f i t s of a n or ga ni z a t i on s c or por a t e r e put a t i on. I n L a w 1 M a xi m i z e Y our M os t P ow e r f ul A s s e t A l s op a s s e r t s t ha t t he ke y que s t i on f or a n or ga ni z a t i on s m a na ge m e nt i s w he t he r t he y w i l l a c t pa s s i ve l y a nd a l l ow s t a ke hol de r s t o f o r m opi n i ons a bout t he m or w he t he r t he y w i l l a c t i ve l y m a na ge t he i r m os t va l ua bl e a s s e t P ut m os t s i m pl y, a good c or por a t e r e put a t i on a t t r a c t s c us t om e r s i nve s t or s a nd t a l e nt e d e m pl oye e s l e a di ng t o h i ghe r pr o f i t s a nd s t oc k pr i c e s A nd, ove r t i m e c om pa ni e s t ha t nur t ur e t he i r r e put a t i ons e nj oy a ha l o e f f e c t t ha t m a ke s pe opl e t r us t t he m a nd gi ve t he m t he be ne f i t of t he doubt dur i ng r oc ky pe r i ods ( A l s op, 2004, p. 10) A l s op f ur t he r t out s t he be ne f i t s of r e put a t i on c a pi t a l a s m uc h l i ke a s a vi ngs a c c ount f or a r a i ny da y ; a s a f e t y ne t of pos i t i ve r e put a t i on a l l ow s a n o r ga ni z a t i on t o r e b ound m or e qui c kl y f r om pot e nt i a l c r i s e s

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10 I n L a w 7, C r e a t e E m ot i ona l A ppe a l A l s op c i t e s t h e i m por t a nc e of de ve l opi ng e m ot i ona l t i e s w i t h s t a ke hol de r s e s pe c i a l l y i n c us t om e r o r i e nt e d bus i ne s s e s F i na nc i a l pe r f or m a nc e l e a de r s hi p, c or por a t e r e s pons i bi l i t y, a nd p r oduc t q ua l i t y a r e a l l e s s e nt i a l but e m ot i on i s t he pr i m a r y d r i ve r o f r e put a t i on. I t s a f e e l i ng o f e xc i t e m e nt a nd e nga ge m e nt t ha t m a ke s c us t om e r s dr i ve out o f t he i r w a y t o buy you r p r oduc t a nd t o r e c om m e nd your c om pa ny a nd i t s br a nds t o ot he r pe opl e ( A l s op, 2004, p. 104) A l s op poi nt s t o t he us e of c or por a t e a dve r t i s i ng i n f ue l i ng e m ot i ona l a ppe a l a t a c t i c t ha t D ove ha s e m pl oye d a s pa r t of t he ove r a l l C F R B T he r e a r e t hos e i n t he c om m un i c a t i ons r e s e a r c h f i e l d t ha t be l i e ve r e put a t i on a nd i m a ge c a nnot be m a na ge d di r e c t l y, but a r e r a t he r t he r e s ul t of a n or ga ni z a t i on s a gg r e ga t e be ha vi or A t t e m pt i ng t o m a na ge one s r e put a t i on m i ght be l i ke ne d t o t r yi ng t o m a na ge one s ow n popul a r i t y ( a r a t he r a w kw a r d, s upe r f i c i a l a nd pot e nt i a l l y s e l f de f e a t i ng e nde a vor ) ( H ut t on e t a l 2001, p 249) O t he r r e s e a r c he r s a r gue t ha t c om m u ni c a t i ons t e c hni que s c a n be m a na ge d s t r a i ght f o r w a r dl y t o m a xi m i z e t he i r i m pa c t on r e put a t i on ( F o r m a n & A r ge nt i 2005) S a xt on ( 1998) s uppor t s t he va l ue of i nve s t i ng i n c om m uni c a t i ons de s i gne d t o i m pr ove c or po r a t e r e put a t i on a s c a pa bl e of pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t i ng c us t om e r a nd e m pl oye e l oya l t y a nd f i na nc i a l pe r f or m a nc e R i ndova a nd F om br u n ( 1999 ) a s s e r t t ha t a c om pa ny c a n bui l d c om pe t i t i ve a dva nt a ge by m a na gi ng c om m uni c a t i ons i n o r de r t o m ol d t he i nt e r pr e t a t i ons a nd pe r c e pt i ons of de s i r e d publ i c s ( a s r e f e r e nc e d i n F or m a n & A r ge nt i 2005 ) P e t r i c k e t a l ( 199 9) r e c ogni z e c or por a t e r e put a t i on a s a f r a gi l e r e s our c e w hi c h t a ke s t i m e t o bui l d c a nnot be bought a nd c a n e a s i l y be da m a ge d C or p or at e R e p u t at i o n an d P u b l i c R e l at i on s / C or p or at e C om m u n i c at i on C or por a t e c om m uni c a t i o n t he ove r a l l i nt e r na l / e x t e r na l c om m uni c a t i on f unc t i on of a n or ga ni z a t i on ( H ut t on e t a l 2001 ) c a n be de f i ne d i n i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o C R M a s t he uni t

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11 r e s pons i bl e f or or ga ni z a t i ona l c om m uni c a t i on w i t h ke y c ons t i t ue nc i e s i n i m p l e m e nt i ng s t r a t e gy a nd bui l di ng a c om pa ny's r e p ut a t i on a nd b r a nd ( F or m a n & A r ge nt i 2005, p. 246) F r e e m a n ( 2006) a s s e r t s t ha t c or por a t e r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt f a l l s unde r t he p ur vi e w o f publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd c or po r a t e c om m uni c a t i on a nd c a l l s on pr a c t i t i one r s t o t a ke on t he C R M r ol e D o not l e t t he l e g a l c om pl i a nc e or hum a n r e s our c e f unc t i ons t a ke t he pl a c e of pub l i c r e l a t i ons a nd publ i c a f f a i r s pr o f e s s i ona l s on i s s ue s w he r e c or por a t e r e s pons i bi l i t y c onve r ge s w i t h c or por a t e r e put a t i on e s pe c i a l l y not i n a c r i s i s B e a t t he t a bl e i n t he e xe c ut i ve s ui t e w he n de c i s i ons a r e m a de on a c c ount a bi l i t y or s us t a i na bi l i t y i s s ue s t ha t w i l l be j udge d c a r e f ul l y a nd pe r ha ps c r i t i c a l l y by s t a ke hol de r s B ut be i ng a t t he t a bl e m e a ns not j us t f e ndi ng of f c r i t i c i s m t a c t i c a l l y i n a n i m m e di a t e c ont e xt but f oc us i ng s t r a t e gi c a l l y on t he c om pa ny's c or e i nt e r e s t s a nd t hi nki ng c r e a t i ve l y a bout ne w c om m i t m e nt s a nd i ni t i a t i ve s ( F r e e m a n, 2006, p. 18) A ddi t i ona l l y, F r e e m a n ( 2006 ) s t a t e s t ha t a c c ount a bi l i t y i s not a c c ount i ng; non f i na nc i a l r e por t i ng f or c o r por a t e r e s p ons i bi l i t y c om m uni c a t i ons a s pa r t of C R M s houl d be ke pt unde r t he r e a l m of t he c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on pos i t i on T ha t i s t he t a s k a s a P R pr of e s s i ona l : s ha pi ng a nd c om m uni c a t i ng t he s ubs t a nc e of how our c om pa ni e s a nd i ndus t r i e s a r e c r e a t i ng e c onom i c va l ue w hi l e bui l di ng a m or e s us t a i na bl e a nd j us t w or l d a t t he s a m e t i m e ( F r e e m a n, 2006, p. 19) W he n de ve l opi ng c or por a t e r e put a t i on s t r a t e gi e s i t i s e s s e nt i a l t ha t a n or ga ni z a t i on s c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on o r publ i c r e l a t i ons l e a de r ha ve a s e a t a t t he C E O s t a bl e I n F or m a n a nd A r ge nt i s i nt e r v i e w s w i t h c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on di r e c t or s t he y f ound t ha t t he be s t c om m uni c a t i on pr a c t i c e s r e por t e d a c r os s f i r m s i nc l ude d a c l os e a l i gnm e nt be t w e e n t he c o r por a t e c om m uni c a t i on f unc t i on a nd t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f s t r a t e gy. I n i nt e r vi e w i ng t he s e c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on di r e c t or s i t w a s f ound t ha t t he y m a de e f f or t s t o ha ve a s e a t a t t he C E O 's t a bl e H a vi ng a s e a t i m pl i e s s e ve r a l t hi ngs bu t m os t of a l l i t m e a ns ha vi ng a vo i c e i n c onve r s a t i ons a bout s t r a t e gy f or m u l a t i on a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on ( F or m a n & A r ge nt i 2005, p. 252) N a kr a ( 2000) a s s e r t s t ha t publ i c r e l a t i ons pr a c t i t i one r s s houl d be i nvol ve d e a r l y i n t he p r oc e s s of c or por a t e i m a ge a nd r e put a t i on s t r a t e gi c de ve l opm e nt

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12 R e s e r vi ng a s e a t a t t he c or por a t e boa r dr oom t a bl e s f or P R e xe c ut i ve s a nd i nvol vi ng t he m i n s t r a t e gy de ve l opm e nt w oul d be t he l ogi c a l f i r s t s t e p. P R i ndus t r y m us t de ve l op t he a bi l i t y t o m a na ge t he c l i e nt 's c or por a t e r e put a t i on by t a ki ng a 360 de g r e e vi e w a nd c om m uni c a t i ng w e l l w i t h a l l s t a ke hol d e r s e m pl o ye e s s uppl i e r s c ons um e r s a nd m e di a w i t h a uni f i e d m e s s a ge ( A nonym ous 1999, a s c i t e d i n N a kr a 2000 p 42) C or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on i s gi ve n t he r e s pons i bi l i t y by m a ny r e s e a r c he r s t o c om m uni c a t e w i t h i t s r e l e va nt c ons t i t ue nc i e s i n o r de r t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t he i r opi ni ons ( V a r e y & W hi t e 2000) F or m a n a nd A r ge nt i ( 2005) a dvoc a t e us i ng c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on t o c r e a t e a d i a l ogue w i t h c ons t i t ue nc i e s i n or de r t o ga i n a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he i r i nt e r e s t s H ow e ve r s e ve r a l a ut hor s of f e r w or ds of w a r ni ng f or publ i c r e l a t i ons or c o r por a t e c om m uni c a t i on i nvol ve m e nt i n r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt P ubl i c r e l a t i ons pr a c t i t i on e r s c l a i m s t o be m a na ge r s of t he i r or ga ni z a t i on s r e put a t i ons c a n be i n t e r pr e t e d a s a d a nge r ous m ove pol i t i c a l l y, w i t h t he pot e nt i a l t o be bl a m e d f or o r ga ni z a t i ona l f a i l u r e s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he y m a y r i s k t he pe r c e pt i on t ha t publ i c r e l a t i ons de pa r t m e nt s a r e s i m pl y a c t i ng a s s pi n do c t or s f or t he i r or ga ni z a t i on ( H ut t on e t a l 2001) H ut t o n e t a l ( 2001, p. 258) a dd t ha t p r a c t i t i one r s s houl d r e m e m be r t he ul t i m a t e goa l of r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt : t he bo t t om l i ne J us t a s publ i c r e l a t i ons pr a c t i t i one r s ha ve ha d a t e n de nc y t o t r e a t c om m u ni c a t i on, pe r s e a s t hough i t w e r e t he ul t i m a t e goa l t he r e i s a da nge r t ha t t he y w i l l t r e a t r e put a t i on, pe r s e a s t he ul t i m a t e goa l W ha t e ve r t he i m m e di a t e obj e c t i ve i m pr ove d c om m uni c a t i on, s t r onge r r e l a t i ons hi ps or e nha nc e d r e put a t i on i t i s onl y r e l e va nt t o a n o r ga ni z a t i on i ns of a r a s i t a f f e c t s bot t om l i ne be ha vi o r s of r e l e va nt s t a ke hol de r s a nd he l ps a c c om pl i s h ove r a l l or ga ni z a t i ona l goa l s C or p or at e R e p u t at i o n an d C or p or at e S oc i al R e s p on s i b i l i t y ( C S R ) F r e e m a n ( 2006) m a ke s a bol d s t a t e m e nt a s t o t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c or por a t e r e put a t i on a nd c or por a t e s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y ( C S R ) I n t hi s ne w e r a of a c c ount a bi l i t y a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y, c or por a t e r e put a t i on a nd c or por a t e r e s pons i bi l i t y a r e i ns e par abl e ( F r e e m a n, 2006 p 12 e m pha s i s a dde d) F r e e m a n s t r e s s e s t ha t t he r e ha s b e e n a l ongs t a ndi ng but i nt e ns i f yi ng m e l di ng of c or por a t e r e s pons i bi l i t y a nd c or po r a t e r e put a t i o n, w hi c h he be l i e ve s i s m os t a pt l y t yp i f i e d i n

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13 t he c a s e s t udi e s of J ohns on & J ohns on s m ode l ha ndl i ng of t he T y l e nol c ya ni de c r i s i s a nd E xxon s a bys m a l f a i l ur e t o r e a c t e f f e c t i ve l y t o t he E xxon V a l de z c r i s i s M or e ove r c or po r a t e s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y ( C S R ) i s no l onge r r e l e ga t e d t o t he out pos t s of a c t i vi s t m ove m e nt s but ha s r a t he r m ove d t o c e nt e r s t a ge w i t h a t op bi l l i ng on t he c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on a ge nda s of m ul t i na t i ona l c or por a t i ons W he n e xa m i ni ng t he c onve r ge nc e be t w e e n c or por a t e r e put a t i on a nd c o r por a t e s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y, F r e e m a n ( 2006) i de nt i f i e s f i ve ke y f a c t or s e xpl a i ni ng t he uni on T he f i r s t i nf l ue nt i a l f a c t or i s t he pow e r a nd i m pa c t of N G O s ( non gove r n m e nt a l or ga ni z a t i ons ) i n c ha l l e ngi ng m ul t i na t i ona l c or po r a t i ons C o m pa ny a f t e r c om pa ny i n s e c t or a f t e r s e c t or ha s s i nc e be e n c onf r ont e d w i t h i nt e r ne t c onne c t e d a nd m e di a s a vvy N G O c a m pa i gns r a i s i ng t ough i s s ue s a nd pos i ng s e ve r e c ha l l e nge s t o t he i r r e put a t i ons a nd e ve n t o t he i r f unda m e nt a l s oc i a l l i c e ns e t o ope r a t e ( F r e e m a n, 2006, p. 13) T he s e c ond not a bl e t r e nd i s t he r i s i ng p r opor t i on of s t a ke hol de r s w ho be l i e ve t ha t c om pa ni e s be a r r e s p ons i bi l i t y f or w or ki ng a l ongs i de gove r nm e nt s t o a l l e vi a t e a r a nge of s oc i a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s ue s V i r t ua l l y e ve r y i ndus t r y i s be i ng c ha l l e nge d t o a ddr e s s one or m o r e of t he m os t i m p or t a nt a nd i nt r a c t a bl e i s s ue s on t he gl oba l pol i c y a ge nda i n w a ys t ha t a r e pos i ng bot h p r obl e m s a nd oppor t uni t i e s f o r ne a r l y e ve r y m a j or m ul t i na t i ona l c or por a t i on i n t he w or l d ( F r e e m a n, 2006, p 14) A t hi r d r e a s on f o r t he t i e s be t w e e n C R M a nd C S R i s t he i m pa c t of c or por a t e gove r na nc e s c a nda l s ove r t he l a s t s e ve r a l ye a r s on f ur t he r di m i ni s hi ng t r us t i n bus i ne s s a nd pl a c i ng c or por a t e a c c ount a bi l i t y a s a hot t opi c i n publ i c opi ni on T he s c a nda l s ha ve a l s o i m pos e d, s om e t i m e s br ut a l l y t he ul t i m a t e s a nc t i on on c om pa ni e s t he r ui n of t he i r r e put a t i on, br a nd a nd e ve n bus i ne s s a l t oge t he r a s w i t h E n r on, A nde r s on, W or l dC om a nd ot he r s ( F r e e m a n, 2006 p 14) A f our t h e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t c or po r a t e r e s pons i bi l i t y i s ga i ni ng t r a c t i on w i t h t w o f o r m s of bus i ne s s r a t i ona l e : t he de f e ns i ve j us t i f i c a t i on

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14 f or m a na gi ng r e put a t i on r i s k, s a f e gua r di ng s oc i a l l i c e ns e t o ope r a t e a nd m a na gi ng s t a ke hol de r r e l a t i ons ; a nd t he m o r e a f f i r m a t i ve pr oa c t i ve r a t i o na l e f or ga i ni ng c us t om e r a nd e m pl oye e l oya l t y, bui l d i ng m a r ke t s f or i nnova t i ve pr oduc t s a nd s e r vi c e s c r e a t i ng c om pe t i t i ve a dva nt a ge a nd a t t r a c t i ng s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e i nve s t or s a m ong i ndi vi dua l s a nd publ i c i ns t i t ut i ons c ont r ol l i ng bi l l i ons of dol l a r s of a s s e t s a l i ke ( F r e e m a n, 2006 p. 14) A f i f t h a nd f i na l e xpl a na t i on f or t he m e r ge r be t w e e n C R M a nd C S R i s t he r e c e nt w a v e of i nt e r e s t pa i d t o t he c or po r a t e r e s pons i bi l i t y a ge nda bot h i n a c a de m i a a nd i n pr a c t i c e F r e e m a n r e f e r e nc e s a 2005 s ur ve y c onduc t e d by C one a s oc i a l m a r ke t i ng f i r m i n w h i c h 77 pe r c e nt o f t he 1, 033 s ur ve y pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d t ha t c om pa ni e s ha ve a r e s pons i bi l i t y t o he l p s uppor t s oc i a l pr ob l e m s T he s t udy a ddi t i ona l l y s he d l i ght on t he i m pa c t C S R c a n ha v e on pur c ha s e i nt e nt a s 90 pe r c e nt of t hos e s ur ve ye d s a i d t ha t t he y w oul d c ons i de r no l onge r p ur c ha s i ng s e r vi c e s or goods f r om a c om pa ny w i t h a ne ga t i ve c or po r a t e c i t i z e ns hi p t r a c k r e c or d ( F r e e m a n, 2006) C om pa ni e s t e m pt e d t o r e l e ga t e s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y a s a m or a l r a t he r t ha n pr a c t i c a l ve nt u r e ought t o c ons i de r t he r i s i ng de ve l opm e nt of s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e i nve s t i ng ( S R I ) w hi c h c a n a f f e c t a c om pa ny s s t oc k popul a r i t y a nd s ha r e pr i c e ( H a nc oc k, 2005) A c t i vi s t s ha r e hol de r s r e l y upon S R I i nve s t m e nt f unds t ha t w e e d out c om pa ni e s de e m e d s oc i a l l y i r r e s pon s i bl e pa yi ng a t t e nt i on t o m a na ge m e nt m e t hods e m pl oye e pol i c i e s a nd s oc i a l e t hi c a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l a c t i vi t i e s ( H a nc oc k, 2005) F u r t he r m or e w he n a s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt pl a n i s i gnor e d, or ga ni z a t i ons c a n e xpe c t t o s e e m or e c a s e s of a ggr e s s i ve l i t i ga t i on w i t h a c t i vi s t gr oups e m pl oye e di s s a t i s f a c t i on, a nd poor c om m uni t y r e l a t i ons P r ope r a t t e nt i on t o s oc i e t a l c onc e r ns e m e r ge s a s a w a y f or or ga ni z a t i ons t o di f f e r e nt i a t e t he m s e l ve s f r om t he i r c om pe t i t i on i n t oda y s gl oba l e c onom y ( N a kr a 2000)

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15 C or p or at e R e p u t at i o n an d C or p or at e B r an d i n g W hi l e t hi s s t udy i s pr i m a r i l y i nt e r e s t e d i n de ve l opi ng a c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e r e s e a r c h on t he c or por a t e br a nd a nd br a nd m a na ge m e nt i s i nc l ude d due t o t he a c a de m i c a nd pr a c t i c a l t i e s be t w e e n c or por a t e r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt a nd c or por a t e br a nd m a na ge m e nt a s w e l l a s D ove s s t a t e d e m pl oym e nt of t he C F R B f o r br a nd m a na ge m e nt pur pos e s A r ge nt i a nd D r uc ke nm i l l e r ( 2004 ) a s s e r t t ha t c or p or a t e br a ndi ng i s de e pl y t i e d t o r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt T he a ut hor s i de nt i f y t he c or por a t e br a nd a s m or e c om p r e he ns i ve t ha n a pr oduc t br a nd, w hi c h onl y e nc om pa s s e s t he c om pa ny s goods a nd s e r vi c e s T he c or por a t e b r a nd i s de f i ne d a s a br a nd t ha t s pa ns a n e nt i r e c om pa n y ( w hi c h c a n a l s o ha ve d i s pa r a t e unde r l yi ng pr oduc t br a nds ) [ a nd] c o nve ys e xpe c t a t i ons of w ha t t he c om pa ny w i l l de l i ve r i n t e r m s o f pr oduc t s s e r vi c e s a nd c us t om e r e xpe r i e nc e a nd w hi c h a ns w e r s t he que s t i on, W ho do you s a y you a r e a nd w a nt t o be ? ( A r ge nt i & D r uc ke nm i l l e r 2004 p 369 ) F or m a n a nd A r ge nt i ( 2005 p 246 247) f ur t he r di f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n a n o r ga ni z a t i on s br a nd ( pr oduc t b r a nd) a nd c or por a t e br a nd B r a nd r e l a t e s t o how a n or ga ni z a t i on pos i t i ons i t s e l f or i t s pr oduc t s v i s vi s c ul t ur a l l y a nd pe r s ona l l y r e l e va nt m e a ni ngs B e c a us e pr oduc t s a nd c or por a t i ons of t e n a s s um e t he pe r s ona l i t y r e pr e s e nt e d by t he i r br a nd bui l di ng a s t r ong br a nd i s a w a y t o bui l d r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h c ons um e r s B ui l di ng a s t r ong b r a nd c a n de l i ve r s i gni f i c a nt va l ue t o a n or ga ni z a t i on, a s r e f l e c t e d i n i t s a bi l i t y t o c ha r ge a pr e m i um f o r i t s p r oduc t s or s e r vi c e s C or por a t e br a ndi ng i s t he n, f oc us e d on t he c or por a t i on i t s e l f a s i t r e l a t e s t o a va r i e t y o f c ons t i t ue nc i e s a nd de r i ve s a t l e a s t i n pa r t f r om a n a l i gnm e nt be t w e e n s t r a t e gy a nd c om m uni c a t i on. T he c onc e pt of br a ndi ng i s i nc r e a s i ng l y e xt e nde d f r om i t s t r a di t i ona l r ol e i n m a r ke t i ng pr oduc t s t o m a r ke t i ng c or por a t i ons t he m s e l ve s ; i n t hi s r e s pe c t c or por a t e b r a ndi ng a nd c or por a t e r e put a t i on a r e c l os e l y l i nke d ( F o r m a n & A r ge nt i 2 005) W he n e xa m i ni ng t he t r e nd t ow a r d vi e w i ng c or por a t i ons m o r e l i ke b r a nds A r ge nt i a n d D r uc ke nm i l l e r i de nt i f y s e ve r a l i nf l ue nc i ng f a c t or s i nc l udi ng t he c ha ngi ng dyna m i c s of pr oduc t m a r ke t i ng; br oa de ni ng s a l e s c ha nne l s ; t he

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16 ne e d f or c ons i s t e nc y a c r os s di ve r s i f i e d c om m uni c a t i ons c ha nne l s ; m e r ge r s a nd ot he r s t r uc t ur a l c ha nge s ; a nd i nc r e a s e d gl oba l a c t i vi s m A r ge nt i a nd D r uc ke nm i l l e r t i e t he t e r m r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt t o publ i c r e l a t i ons pr of e s s i ona l s a s t he e f f or t t ha t m a na ge s r e l a t i ons w i t h a l l of a c om pa ny's ke y c ons t i t ue nc i e s t hr ough t he a pp r opr i a t e m e di a ( A r ge nt i & D r uc ke nm i l l e r 2004, p. 371) A l t e r na t i ve l y A r ge nt i a nd D r uc ke nm i l l e r c ont e nd br a nd m a na ge m e nt pos s e s s e s a n e m pha s i s on m a r ke t i ng a nd a dve r t i s i ng a s t he l e a d di s c i pl i ne s i n a f ul l y i n t e gr a t e d c om m uni c a t i ons pr ogr a m W hi l e c or por a t e r e put a t i on a nd t he c o r por a t e br a nd m a y be c l os e l y c oupl e d, B i l l M a r ga r i t i s s e ni or vi c e pr e s i de nt of W or l dw i de C om m uni c a t i ons & I nve s t or R e l a t i ons f or F e dE x C or por a t i on di s t i ngui s he s be t w e e n t he r ol e s of a n o r ga ni z a t i on s r e put a t i on a nd b r a nd. R e put a t i on i s t i e d t o be ha vi o r B r a nd i s t he e xpe c t a t i on or pr om i s e of pe r f o r m a nc e [ R e put a t i on] c ons i s t s of t he a c t i ons you de l i ve r t h e pe r f or m a nc e o f t he c om pa ny i n br i ngi ng t he br a nd t o l i f e R e put a t i on i s bu i l t t h r ou gh a c t i ona bl e r e s ul t s D oe s i t do t he r i ght t hi n g? D oe s i t w a l k t he t a l k? I f i t m a ke s bol d c l a i m s t o t he m a r ke t pl a c e doe s i t f ol l ow t hr ough? I t i s a p r e s e r ve r i n di f f i c ul t t i m e s a nd a t a i l w i nd i n good t i m e s ( F or m a n & A r ge nt i 2005 p 255 ) M a r ga r i t i s e m pha s i z e s t ha t br a nd a nd r e put a t i on a r e i ne xt r i c a bl y l i nke d a nd t ha t r e put a t i on br i ngs t he br a nd t o l i f e t h r ough s pe c i f i c a c t i ona bl e a c t i vi t i e s t ha t r e a l pe opl e c a n r e l a t e t o ( F or m a n & A r ge nt i 2005 ) A ddi t i ona l l y, t he c or po r a t e br a nd o f f e r s a p r om i s e of w ha t t he or ga ni z a t i on s t a nds f or ; w he n c us t om e r s ge t w ha t t he y e xpe c t f r om a c om pa ny t i m e a nd t i m e a ga i n ( i e t he c o r por a t e b r a nd pr om i s e i s ke pt ) r e p ut a t i on i s s t r e ngt he ne d ( A r ge nt i & D r uc ke nm i l l e r 2004, p. 372) C or p or at e R e p u t at i o n M e as u r e m e n t T he m os t c om m on c onc e r ns of r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt a d voc a t e s c e nt e r on m e a s ur e s of c or por a t e r e put a t i on w hi c h ha ve be e n c r i t i c i z e d a s uns t a bl e a nd i nva l i d ( H ut t on e t a l 2001 ) M a ny c or por a t e r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt r e s e a r c he r s ha ve e xa m i ne d t he c ur r e nt s t a t e of c o r por a t e

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17 r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt a nd t he ne e d f or ne w m e a s ur e m e nt t ool s B e r e ns a nd va n R i e l ( 2004) de ve l ope d a n ove r vi e w of s t udi e s t ha t di s c us s t he di f f e r e nt t ype s o f c or po r a t e a s s oc i a t i ons t ha t pe opl e hol d a s m e a s ur e s of c or po r a t e r e put a t i on T he a ut hor s i de nt i f i e d t hr e e m a i n c onc e pt ua l s t r e a m s i n t he i r a na l ys i s of c or por a t e r e put a t i on l i t e r a t ur e di s t i ngui s he d by a s s oc i a t i ons ba s e d on 1) s oc i al e x pe c t at i ons t he e xpe c t a t i ons t ha t pe opl e ha ve r e ga r di ng t he be ha vi or o f c om pa ni e s ; 2) c or por at e pe r s onal i t y t he pe r s ona l i t y t r a i t s t ha t pe opl e a t t r i b ut e t o c om pa ni e s ; a nd 3 ) t r us t t he pe r c e pt i on of a c om pa ny's hone s t y, r e l i a bi l i t y a nd be ne vol e nc e ( B e r e ns & va n R i e l 2004 p. 161) T he B e r e ns a nd va n R i e l l i t e r a t ur e a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d a n e m pha s i s on t he c onc e pt o f s oc i a l e xpe c t a t i ons a s t he m os t f r e q ue nt l y us e d t o di s t i ng ui s h be t w e e n t he di f f e r e nt t ype s of c or por a t e a s s oc i a t i on s T he t w o m os t pr om i ne nt m e a s ur e s of r e put a t i on a r e bot h r a nki ng s ys t e m s t ha t f a l l w i t hi n t he s oc i a l e xpe c t a t i on a s s oc i a t i on c a t e gor y ( H e l m 2005) T he f i r s t F or t une m a ga z i ne s A m e r i c a s M os t A dm i r e d C om pa ni e s c ons i s t s of r a nki ngs c om pi l e d f r om s ur ve ys of s e ni or e xe c ut i ve s out s i de di r e c t or s a nd f i na nc i a l a na l ys t s a s ke d t o r a t e a l i s t of t he t e n l a r ge s t c om pa ni e s ( de t e r m i ne d by t he F or t une 1000 ) i n t h e i r ow n i ndus t r y on e i gh t c r i t e r i a of e xc e l l e nc e ( F om br un 1998 ) T he e i gh t c r i t e r i a of e xc e l l e nc e by w hi c h t he c om pa ni e s a r e r a t e d i nc l ude i nnov at i on ; pe opl e m anage m e nt ; us e of c o r por at e as s e t s ; s oc i al r e s pon s i bi l i t y ; qual i t y of m anage m e nt ; f i nanc i al s oundne s s ; l ong t e r m i nv e s t m e nt ; a nd qual i t y of pr oduc t s / s e r v i c e s ( C N N M one y. c om ) T he M os t A dm i r e d C om pa ni e s l i s t ha s be e n publ i s he d s i nc e J a nua r y 1983, a nd i s c ons i de r e d by m a ny i n t he r e put a t i on m a na g e m e nt f i e l d t o be t he m os t vi s i bl e a nd c om m onl y c i t e d s our c e of c or por a t e r e pu t a t i ona l d a t a ( F om br un 1998 ) F or t une s a nnua l s ur ve y ha s be e n c r e di t e d w i t h s pa w ni ng a n e nt i r e i ndus t r y de vot e d t o p r of i l i ng c or por a t e r e put a t i ons ( F om br un 1998)

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18 T he s e c ond pr om i ne nt r e put a t i on r a nki ng i s t he R e put a t i on Q uot i e nt ( R Q ) T he R e put a t i on I n s t i t ut e ( a ne t w o r k of c or por a t e r e put a t i on a c a de m i c s a nd pr a c t i t i one r s ) a nd t he m a r ke t r e s e a r c h f i r m H a r r i s I nt e r a c t i ve c ol l a bor a t e d t o de ve l op a s t a nda r di z e d i ns t r um e nt t o m e a s ur e r e put a t i ons a c r os s i ndus t r i e s a nd w i t h m ul t i pl e s t a ke hol de r s ( F om br un, 200 1 ) T he a nnua l R Q r a nki ngs a r e de ve l ope d f r om a n onl i ne s ur ve y i n w hi c h m e m be r s of t he ge ne r a l publ i c a r e a s ke d t o r a t e a pr e s e l e c t e d gr oup of 60 c om pa ni e s on 20 a t t r i but e s i n s i x c a t e gor i e s ( A l s op, 2004; F om br un 2001 ) T he s i x di m e ns i ons i nc l ude : e m ot i o nal appe al : ho w m uc h t he c om pa ny i s l i ke d, a dm i r e d, a nd r e s pe c t e d ; pr oduc t s & s e r v i c e s : pe r c e pt i ons of t he qua l i t y, i nnova t i on, va l ue a nd r e l i a bi l i t y of t he c om pa ny's pr oduc t s a nd s e r vi c e s ; f i nanc i al pe r f or m anc e : pe r c e pt i ons of t he c om pa ny's pr of i t a bi l i t y p r os pe c t s a nd r i s k ; v i s i on & l e ade r s hi p : how m uc h t he c om pa ny de m ons t r a t e s a c l e a r vi s i on a nd s t r ong l e a de r s hi p ; w or k pl ac e e nv i r onm e nt : pe r c e pt i ons of how w e l l t he c om pa ny i s m a na ge d, how i t i s t o w or k f or a nd t h e qua l i t y of i t s e m pl oye e s ; a nd s oc i al r e s pon s i bi l i t y : pe r c e pt i ons of t he c om pa ny a s a g ood c i t i z e n i n i t s de a l i ngs w i t h c om m uni t i e s e m pl oye e s a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt ( F om b r un, 2001 p. 14A ) W hi l e F or t une m a ga z i ne a nd i t s s uppor t e r s a t t e s t t o t he t r e nd of c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e s t o e ndur e ( N a kr a 2000) a nd de s pi t e t he popul a r i t y of t he a f o r e m e nt i one d r a nki ng s ys t e m s not a l l r e s e a r c he r s be l i e ve t he y of f e r s t a bl e m e a s ur e s of r e put a t i on. I n H ut t on e t a l s ( 2001) e m pi r i c a l s t udy of F or t une 500 c om pa ni e s t he a ut hor s e xpl a i n t he di s pa r i t i e s i n r e s e a r c h r e s ul t s f r om a ne a r i de nt i c a l s t udy c onduc t e d t he p r e vi ous ye a r by T hom a s L H a r r i s / I m pul s e R e s e a r c h a s pr i m a r i l y due t o t he i ns t a bi l i t y of t he r e put a t i on m e a s ur e e m pl oye d; de s pi t e c l a i m s by F or t une t ha t r e put a t i on s c or e s a ppe a r t o ha ve gr e a t s t a yi ng pow e r t ha t doe s not a ppe a r t o be t he c a s e ( H ut t on e t a l 2001, p. 253) T he a ut hor s s t r e s s t ha t t he i ns t a bi l i t y o f t he F or t une r e put a t i on r a nki ngs i s e s pe c i a l l y s i gni f i c a nt f or bot h c or por a t e r e put a t i on t he or y a nd

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19 m a na ge m e nt due t o t he p r om i ne nc e of t he m e a s ur e T he y of f e r t w o pr opos i t i ons f o r t he i ns t a bi l i t y of r e s ul t s ; a ) de f i c i e nc i e s i n F or t une s m e a s ur e m e nt s c a l e or b) i nhe r e nt i ns t a bi l i t y i n t he ba s i c c onc e pt of c or po r a t e r e put a t i on T he c r e a t i on of be t t e r m e a s ur e m e nt s ys t e m s a nd m e t hods m a y s ol ve t he f o r m e r p r obl e m t hough t h e l a t t e r m a y i ndi c a t e t he f r a gi l e a nd i m m e a s ur a bi l i t y of c o r por a t e r e put a t i on a s a m a na ge m e nt c on c e pt ( H ut t on e t a l 2001 ) O t he r r e s e a r c he r s di s pa r a ge t he s e t r a di t i ona l c or po r a t e r e put a t i on r a nki ng m e t hods due t o pe r c e i ve d bi a s e s R a nki ng s ys t e m s t e nd t o f oc us o n l a r ge r publ i c c om pa ni e s w i t hi n pa r t i c u l a r i ndus t r i e s or c ount r i e s a nd s a m pl e pr i m a r i l y m a na ge r i a l a udi e nc e s a nd f i na nc i a l a na l ys t s t he r e by e m pha s i z i ng f i na nc i a l i ndi c a t or s ove r non f i na nc i a l m e a s ur e s ( F om br un 1998 ) R e l e va nt t o t he c ur r e nt s t udy i s a n a r gum e nt m a de by A l s op ( 2004 ) w ho a s s e r t s t ha t e ve n t he be s t of r e put a t i on r a nki ngs ha ve l i m i t e d va l ue f or c om pa ni e s i nt e r e s t e d i n ga i ni ng a t r ue m e a s ur e of t he i r ow n r e put a t i on. C om pa ni e s t r ul y i nt e r e s t e d i n c onduc t i ng a r e put a t i ona l a udi t ( P e t r i c k e t a l 1999) m us t m ove be yond one s i z e f i t s a l l s ur ve ys a nd pe r i odi c a l l y pe r f o r m t he i r ow n c us t om i z e d r e s e a r c h t hr ough t he i r i nt e r na l m a r ke t r e s e a r c h de pa r t m e nt or i nde pe nde nt publ i c r e l a t i ons o r r e s e a r c h f i r m ( A l s op, 2004 ) W i t h t he ul t i m a t e goa l of pr ovi d i ng a n a l t e r na t i ve r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt t ool t hi s s t udy i nt r oduc e s a not he r r e c ogni z e d m e a s ur e of c or por a t e r e put a t i on: c or po r a t e pe r s ona l i t y. D a vi e s e t a l ( 2001 ) i ndi c a t e t ha t pe opl e c a n a n d do e m pl oy pe r s ona l i t y t r a i t s a s a c or po r a t e m e t a phor a ppl yi ng t he m t o c om pa ni e s a s t he y w oul d i ndi v i d ua l s F ur t he r m o r e B e r e ns a nd va n R i e l ( 2004 ) not e t ha t c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y ha s be e n e f f e c t i ve l y us e d i n r e put a t i on r e s e a r c h, bot h t o e va l ua t e ga ps be t w e e n t he pe r c e pt i ons of i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l s t a ke hol de r s a nd t o m e a s ur e t he i n f l ue nc e of c or por a t e r e put a t i on on s t a ke hol de r s pr e f e r e nc e s ( D a vi e s & C hun, 2002; D a vi e s e t a l 2003; S e n & B ha t t a c ha r ya 2001 ) B e r e ns a nd va n R i e l p r ovi de a ddi t i ona l s uppor t f o r t he us e of

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20 Dimens ion Sub Dimension Item Agreeableness Warmth Friendly Pleasant Open Straightforward Empathy Concerned Reassuring Supportive Agreeable Integrity Honest Sincere Trustworthy Socially responsible Enterprise Modernity Cool Trendy Young Adventure Imaginat ive Up to date Exciting Innovative Boldness Extrovert Daring Competence Conscientious Reliable Secure Hardworking Drive Ambitious Achievement oriented Leading Technocracy Technical Corporate Ruthlessness Egotism Arrogant Aggressive Selfish Domina nce Inward looking Authoritarian Controlling Chic Elegance Charming Stylish Elegant Prestige Prestigious Exclusive Refined Snobbery Snobby Elitist Informality Casual Simple Easy going Machismo Masculine Tough Rugged Figure 2 1 Corporate Personality Scale 2 2 Berens and van Riel (2004) renamed the second level of Davies et al.s Corporate Personality Sca le as sub dimensions. In the original scale the sub dimensions are referred to as facets of a dimension. This study uses the term sub dimension, which the researcher believes to be more intuitive than the original label

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21 c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y a s a f i t t i ng a ppr oa c h f o r t he e va l ua t i on of t he C F R B R e put a t i on r e s e a r c h us i ng t he pe r s ona l i t y a ppr oa c h s e e m s t o be us e d m os t f r e que nt l y by r e s e a r c he r s w ho a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n c om pa r i ng t he pe r c e pt i ons of ke y s t a k e hol de r gr oups f o r one s pe c i f i c or ga ni z a t i on, a i m i ng a t di s c ove r i ng ga ps i n pe r c e pt i ons t ha t ne e d t o be i r one d out ( B e r e ns & va n R i e l 2004 p. 172) T hi s s t udy f oc us e s on D a vi e s e t a l s ( 200 3) C or por a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e ( F i g. 2 1 ) I n t he s e a r c h f o r a m or e de t a i l or i e nt e d m e a s ur e of c or por a t e r e put a t i on, t hi s s t udy t ur ns t o c ons um e r ge ne r at e d c ont e nt a nd onl i ne c ont e nt an al y s i s C on s u m e r G e n e r at e d C on t e n t ( C G C ) C on s u m e r G e n e r at e d C on t e n t O ve r vi e w C ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt ( C G C ) a l s o know n a s c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d m e di a us e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt a nd us e r ge ne r a t e d m e di a i s t he t e r m du j our w i t hi n onl i ne m a r ke t i ng a nd c om m uni c a t i on c i r c l e s ( H a l pe r n, 2006) C G C i nc l ude s c om m e nt s opi ni ons e xpe r i e nc e s a nd c om pl a i nt s pu bl i s he d on t he w e b by c ons um e r s ( F oux, 2006 p 38 ) N ot a bl e e xa m pl e s i nc l ude onl i ne f or um s w e bl ogs podc a s t s R S S f e e ds w i ki s c ol l a bor a t i ve publ i s hi ng i ns t a nt m e s s a gi ng, a nd s m a r t m obs ( T r uf e l m a n 2005 ) F oux ( 2006) di s c us s e s t he a dva nt a ge s of i m pl e m e nt i ng C G C oppor t uni t i e s B e ne f i t s f or c om pa ni e s e nc our a gi ng C G C i nc l ude bui l di ng t r us t w i t h c ons um e r s de m ons t r a t i ng ope nne s s a nd hone s t y put t i ng a hum a n f a c e t o t he c om pa ny p r o vi di ng be t t e r c us t om e r s e r vi c e ge t t i ng c us t om e r i ns i ght a nd f a c i l i t a t i ng p r oduc t i nnova t i o n. C us t om e r i ns i ght i s one of t he c l e a r e s t a r e a s of oppor t uni t y w i t h C G M I t goe s be yond a s i m pl e one w a y, c ont a c t us t ype f unc t i ona l i t y. I ns t e a d i t ope ns up t he pot e nt i a l t o c r e a t e unpr om pt e d s ha r i ng a nd i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n c us t om e r s w hi c h br a nds c a n t he n us e t o m a ke i m por t a nt m a r ke t i ng de c i s i ons ( F oux 2006, p 38) A ddi t i ona l l y, C G C of f e r s c us t om e r s c ont e nt a nd i nf or m a t i on a nd b r i ngs t he m i nt o c ont a c t w i t h t he i r pe e r s f a c t or s t ha t t r a ns l a t e i nt o i nc r e a s e d s a t i s f a c t i on a nd br a nd a ppr ova l

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22 C om pa ni e s i ni t i a t i ng C G C oppor t uni t i e s c a n e xpe c t t o s e e i nc r e a s e d c us t om e r pur c ha s e s l oya l t y a nd c us t om e r r e t e nt i on i n t he l ong r un B r a nds t h a t e nc our a ge c ons um e r s t o ge ne r a t e c ont e nt on t he c om pa ny s ow n pl a t f o r m w i l l f i nd t ha t i t i s e a s y t o m on i t o r di s c us s i ons c a r r y ou t r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt a nd r e s pond t o ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s ( F oux, 2006 p 39 ) T he i m por t a nc e o f c ons t r uc t i ve d i a l ogue m a de a va i l a bl e t hr ough C G C s houl d not be i gnor e d, i nc l udi ng bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s r e ga r di ng t he o r ga ni z a t i on. F e r na ndo ( 2007) not e s t ha t w i t h C G C i s s ue s unf l a t t e r i ng t o t he br a nd a r e no t r e m ove d f r om t he pub l i c f or um I n t he ol d br a nd w or l d, s uc h c om m e nt s w oul d ha ve be e n he r e s y, be c a us e br a nd m a na ge r s c ont r ol l e d t he i n f or m a t i on f l ow I n t he n e w br a n d w or l d of s oc i a l ne t w or ki ng, m a r ke t e r s know t ha t a l l ow i ng c us t om e r s t o i n i t i a t e c onve r s a t i on i s w ha t ke e ps br a nds a l i ve ( F e r na ndo, 2007, p. 10) W i l l a nd P o r a k ( 2000 p 199 ) s t a t e t ha t a de f i ni ng di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n onl i ne c om m uni c a t i on a nd t r a di t i ona l o f f l i ne c om m uni c a t i on i s t he oppo r t uni t y f or us e r s of t he c or por a t e W e b s i t e t o i ns t a nt l y i nt e r a c t w i t h c or po r a t e c om m uni c a t i on by p r ovi di ng di r e c t f e e dba c k on t he s i t e t hi s i s a g r e a t oppor t uni t y f o r bot h: t he us e r m e m be r of a c e r t a i n t a r ge t g r oup or c om m uni t y, c a n d i r e c t l y t e l l w ha t he or s he t hi nks a bout t he w e b s i t e a nd c a n m a ke s ugge s t i ons [ s i c ] w ha t c oul d be be t t e r or j us t a s k a que s t i on; t he c or por a t e c om m un i c a t i on t e a m c a n di r e c t l y obs e r ve how t he i r c om m uni c a t i o n w or k w i t hi n t he d i f f e r e nt t a r ge t gr oups l e a r n f r om t he m a nd a da pt t he i r c om m uni c a t i on. O n l i n e F or u m s T he onl i ne f or um i s one t ype of c om put e r m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i on t a c t i c t ha t c a n be i m pl e m e nt e d by a n o r ga ni z a t i on i nt e r e s t e d i n ut i l i z i ng c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt S c hul t z ( 2000) s t a t e s t ha t f or um s a r e of t e n c e nt e r e d on a c om m on s ubj e c t m a t t e r a nd a l l ow f or m o r e c ohe r e nt di s c us s i ons be t w e e n pe opl e of s i m i l a r kn ow l e dge l e ve l s a nd ba c kgr ounds a c ha r a c t e r i s t i c t ha t di s t i ngui s he s t he m f r om c ha t r o om s t ha t l a c k de f i ne d t opi c s O nl i ne f or um s

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23 ha ve be e n c a l l e d a r e na s of di s c our s e ( S c hul t z 2 000, p 214) a nd m or e f or m a l l y de f i ne d a s c ont e xt s i n w hi c h c ons um e r s of t e n pa r t a ke i n di s c us s i ons w hos e goa l s i nc l ude a t t e m pt s t o i nf or m a nd i nf l ue nc e f e l l ow c ons um e r s a bout pr od uc t s a nd b r a nds ( K oz i ne t s 2002, p 61) A ke y f e a t ur e o f t he onl i ne f or um i s t he r ol e of t he m ode r a t or ; f or um m ode r a t i ng c a n r a nge f r om m e r e l y r e s pondi ng t o c om pl a i nt s a bout pa r t i c ul a r pos t s t o r e vi e w i ng a l l pos t s be f or e publ i s hi ng t he m ( G ol ds bor ough 2004 p 2 14) C ool e y ( 1999) pl a c e s t he publ i c r e l a t i ons pr a c t i t i one r a s t he c e nt r a l m oni t o r w i t h t he r e s pons i bi l i t y t o i ni t i a t e di s c us s i on, m ot i va t e pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd m oni t or m e s s a ge s C ool e y ( 1999 p. 42) a ddi t i ona l l y di s c us s e s t he dua l pur pos e s e r ve d by a n or ga ni z a t i on i m pl e m e nt e d f or um : ga i ni ng t r us t by f a c i l i t a t i ng pu bl i c pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd p r ovi di ng t he P R pr a c t i t i one r w i t h va l ua bl e i nput C on s u m e r G e n e r at e d C on t e n t P op u l ar i t y an d D e m ogr ap h i c s W hi l e t he D ove S e l f E s t e e m F or um i s not s pe c i f i c a l l y a w e bl o g w e bl og r e s e a r c h i s i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t udy a s pa r t of a b r oa de r f oc us on c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt 3 A s one of t he m os t r e c ogni z e d f or m s o f c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c on t e nt w e bl og popul a r i t y a nd a w a r e ne s s c a n be us e d a s a pr oxy f o r C G C pr e va l e nc e S ur ve ys c o nd uc t e d i n 2005 by t he P e w I nt e r ne t a nd A m e r i c a n L i f e P r oj e c t i ndi c a t e t ha t a n i m pr e s s i ve 27 pe r c e nt of I nt e r ne t us e r s r e gul a r l y r e a d w e bl og s i ndi c a t i ng a 58 pe r c e nt i nc r e a s e i n r e a de r s f r om a P e w s ur ve y c onduc t e d a m e r e one ye a r pr i or ( R a i ni e 2005) A dd i t i ona l l y t he P e w C e nt e r s 2005 r e s e a r c h r e ve a l s t ha t I nt e r ne t us e r s a r e a l s o pos t i ng on w e bl og s a t a gr e a t e r r a t e t ha n e ve r be f or e M or e t ha n one i n t e n ( or 12 pe r c e nt ) I nt e r ne t us e r s c l a i m t o ha ve pos t e d m a t e r i a l or c om m e nt s on a not he r pe r s on s w e bl og r e pr e s e nt i ng a n e s t i m a t e d 14 m i l l i on A m e r i c a n bl o g pos t e r s 3 W e b l o g ( a k a b l o g ) i s h y b r i d o f t h e w o r d s W e b a n d l o g ( S m u d d e 2 0 0 5 ) H e r r i n g e t a l ( 2 0 0 4 a p 1 ) d e f i n e w e b l o g s a s f r e q u e n t l y m o d i f i e d w e b p a g e s c o n t a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l e n t r i e s d i s p l a y e d i n r e v e r s e c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e T o b l o g i s t o c o n t i n u a l l y p o s t o n e s i d e a s o p i n i o n s I n t e r n e t l i n k s a n d o t h e r m a t e r i a l o n o n e s o w n W e b s i t e o r a n o t h e r s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y o f b l o g s k n o w n a s t h e b l o g o s p h e r e ( S m u d d e 2 0 0 5 ; W r i g h t 2 0 0 5 )

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24 T he de m ogr a phi c s of I nt e r ne t ve t e r a ns s houl d a l s o be t a ke n i nt o c ons i de r a t i on w he n a ddr e s s i ng t he i m pa c t of C G C on t he c om m uni c a t i ons f i e l d. C i t i z e ns of c ybe r s pa c e a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be a bo ve a ve r a ge i n i nc om e hi gh l y e duc a t e d a nd m a ny a r e c ons i de r e d i nf l ue nt i a l i n onl i ne publ i c opi ni on o r w ha t t he publ i c r e l a t i ons f i r m B ur s on M a r s t e l l e r ha s t e r m e d e f l ue nt i a l s ( A l s op, 2004) A s on l i ne publ i c opi n i on l e a de r s t he y a r e m uc h m or e l i ke l y t ha n t he a ve r a ge pe r s on t o pa s s on bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i nf or m a t i on a bout c om pa ni e s vi a t he I nt e r ne t B ur s on M a r s t e l l e r s r e s e a r c h s how s t ha t e f l ue nt i a l s pa s s on pos i t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s t o e l e ve n pe opl e on a ve r a ge but r e l a t e ne ga t i ve ne w s t o s e ve nt e e n ( A l s op, 2004, p. 176) F or a n o r ga ni z a t i o n s uc h a s D ove i nt e r e s t e d i n t he opi ni ons of f e m a l e a nd yout h publ i c s c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt f or um s a r e a pa r t i c ul a r l y a ppl i c a bl e c hoi c e o f c om m uni c a t i ons S e ve r a l a ut hor s a r g ue t ha t t he m a j or i t y o f bl og pa t r ons ( bl ogge r s ) t e nd t o be w om e n a nd t e e na ge r s ( G ue r ns e y, 2002; O r l ow s ki 2003; H e r r i ng e t a l 2004a ) T e e n C ont e nt C r e at or s and C ons um e r s ( P e w I nt e r ne t a n d A m e r i c a n L i f e P r oj e c t ) of f e r s i ns i ght i nt o t he de m ogr a phi c s of young o n l i ne c ont e nt c r e at or s ( L e nha r t & M a dde n, 2005 ) C ont e nt c r e at i on a c t i vi t i e s i nc l ude bl oggi ng, f i l e s ha r i ng c r e a t i ng c ont e nt f or a pe r s ona l o r or ga ni z a t i on w e bpa ge a nd s ha r i ng or i gi na l c ont e nt s uc h a s phot os s t or i e s vi de os or a r t w or k; c ont e nt c r e at or s a r e onl i ne t e e ns w ho ha ve c r e a t e d or w or ke d on a bl og or w e bpa ge s ha r e d or i gi na l c r e a t i ve c ont e nt or r e m i xe d c ont e nt t he y f ound onl i ne i nt o a ne w c r e a t i on ( L e nha r t & M a dde n, 2005 p 1 ) A c c or di ng t o t he s ur ve y, m o r e t ha n ha l f ( 57 pe r c e n t ) of a l l onl i n e t e e ns a r e c ons i de r e d c ont e nt c r e a t or s M or e ove r ol de r on l i ne gi r l s a ge s 15 t o 1 7 a r e m or e l i ke l y t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c r e a t i ng a nd s ha r i ng s e l f a ut hor e d c ont e nt N ot a bl y, 38 pe r c e nt of ol de r gi r l s s ha r e t he i r pe r s ona l c r e a t i ve c ont e nt onl i ne i n c ont r a s t t o onl y 29 pe r c e nt o f ol de r boys T he da t a t he r e by pr ovi de s s uppor t f or

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25 D ove s de c i s i on t o us e t he onl i ne f or um t o a c c e s s t he t hought s a nd opi ni ons o f t he i r yout h a nd f e m a l e publ i c s C on s u m e r G e n e r at e d C on t e n t an d P u b l i c R e l a t i on s T he r i s e of C G C c a n be s e e n a s bot h a bl e s s i ng a nd a c ur s e f r om a pub l i c r e l a t i ons s t a ndpoi nt ( S m udde 2005) T he i m pa c t o f i nc r e a s i ng t r a ns pa r e nc y r e s ul t i ng f r om t he a bunda nc e of c or por a t e i nf or m a t i on a va i l a bl e vi a t he I nt e r ne t ha s c ont r i but e d t o t he r e ne w e d i nt e r e s t i n c or por a t e r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt B e c a us e of t hi s W e b ba s e d t r a ns pa r e nc y, i t i s e ve n e a s i e r f or a n or ga ni z a t i on s s t a ke hol de r s t o obt a i n bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i nf o r m a t i on a bout c om pa ny ha ppe ni ngs a t t he t ouc h of a ke y ( N a kr a 2000 p 37 ) J us t a s or ga ni z a t i ons c a n e l e c t t o a c t pr oa c t i ve l y b y w or ki ng w i t h a r e put a t i on m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gy r a t he r t ha n c r i s i s m a na ge m e nt publ i c r e l a t i ons pr a c t i t i one r s c a n e i t he r t a ke a r e a c t i ve or pr oa c t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d t he onl i ne c om m uni t y s a s s e s s m e nt s a bout a n or ga ni z a t i on or i s s ue ( S m udde 20 05) A l s op ( 2004 ) de s c r i be s W e b ba s e d t hr e a t s t o a n or ga ni z a t i on s r e put a t i on a s a pa r t i c ul a r l y da nge r ous vi r us t ha t c a n a f f e c t m i l l i on s of pe opl e i n a m a t t e r of m i nut e s ; t he a ppr opr i a t e r e s pons e ha s t o be de t e r m i ne d s w i f t l y a nd i m pl e m e nt e d w i t hout de l a y R a t he r t ha n a t t e m pt i ng t o i n f i l t r a t e a popul a r w e bl og or f o r um w i t h c ove r t m e s s a gi ng, a m or e e t hi c a l a nd e f f e c t i ve s t r a t e gy w oul d be t o de ve l op a c om pa ny s pons or e d C G C oppor t uni t y t o a l l ow r e l e va nt pa r t i e s t o e xpr e s s t he i r opi n i ons S m udde ( 2005) p r ovi de s t ha t w e bl ogs c a n be a n e f f e c t i ve publ i c r e l a t i ons t a c t i c w he n e m pl oye d e t hi c a l l y a nd s t r a t e gi c a l l y t o a c hi e ve c e r t a i n pub l i c r e l a t i ons obj e c t i ve s T he i nvol ve m e nt o f o r ga ni z a t i ons a nd s t a ke hol de r s t oge t he r i n a bl og f os t e r s di a l og a bo ut t he good, t he ba d a nd a nyt hi ng i n be t w e e n, w hi c h s houl d he l p s t a ke hol de r s t o i de nt i f y w i t h a n or ga ni z a t i on a nd i t s m e s s a ge s bui l d c om m uni t y r a ppor t a nd m a i nt a i n i m a ge r e put a t i on a nd c r e di bi l i t y ( S m udde 2005 p 38 ) S i m i l a r l y, t he s a m e c a n be a r gu e d f or c om pa ny s pons or e d onl i ne f or um s

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26 B y pr om ot i ng t w o w a y c om m uni c a t i on v i a f o r um s or w e bl og c om m uni c a t i on be t w e e n a n or ga ni z a t i on a nd i t s s t a ke hol de r s a n or ga ni z a t i on i s l i ke l y t o i nc r e a s e t r us t t ha t i t i s a c t i ng i n t he i nt e r e s t s of ot he r s a nd t he r e b y f os t e r t he i r w i l l i ngn e s s t o a c t i n t he i n t e r e s t of t he or ga ni z a t i on ( H e a t h & B r ya nt 1992 p 263 a s quot e d i n S m ud de 2005, p. 37) C om pa ni e s t ha t e m pl oy C G C oppor t uni t i e s e a r n t r us t by c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h c u s t om e r s w hi l e pr ovi di ng e xt e r na l t r a ns pa r e nc y a nd vi s i bi l i t y. C on t e n t A n a l ys i s an d N e t n ogr ap h y C on t e n t A n a l ys i s C ont e nt a na l ys i s i s a s oc i a l s c i e nc e m e t hodol ogy t ha t s e e ks t o a ns w e r t he c or e que s t i ons pos e d by H a r ol d L a s s w e l l ( 1948) : W ho s a ys w ha t t o w hom w hy, t o w ha t e xt e nt a nd w i t h w ha t e f f e c t ? A s t r a i ght f or w a r d de f i ni t i on c a n be f ound i n B e r e l s on s ( 1952) pr i nc i pa l e xa m i na t i on of t he us e of c ont e nt a na l ys i s m e t hodol ogy i n c om m u ni c a t i ons r e s e a r c h. B e r e l s on e m pha s i z e s t he ke y f e a t ur e s of c ont e nt a na l ys i s a s a r e s e a r c h t e c hni que f or t he obj e c t i ve s ys t e m a t i c a nd qua nt i t a t i ve de s c r i pt i on of t he m a ni f e s t c ont e nt of c om m uni c a t i on ( B e r e l s on, 1952, p 18) C ont e nt a na l ys i s ha s l ong be e n a f a vor e d m e t hodol ogy i n c om m uni c a t i ons r e s e a r c h, a s i t i s m os t of t e n us e d i n t he s t udy of m a s s m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i on. I t ha s be e n c i t e d a s uni que l y de s i gne d f or c om m uni c a t i ons a bove ot he r s oc i a l s c i e nc e s B ut one m e t hod, c ont e nt a na l ys i s i s s pe c i f i c a l l y a ppr opr i a t e a nd ne c e s s a r y f or ( a r gua bl y) t he c e nt r a l w or k of c om m un i c a t i on s c hol a r s i n pa r t i c ul a r t hos e w ho s t udy m a s s c om m uni c a t i on: t he a na l ys i s of m e s s a ge s ( L om ba r d e t a l 2002 p 587 ) C ont e nt a na l ys i s i s vi a bl e f or t he s t udy of m a ny m a s s m e di a i nc l udi ng t e l e vi s i on, r a di o, I nt e r ne t a nd pr i n t m e s s a ge s ; a r e l e va nt m ode r n a ppl i c a t i on br i ngs c ont e nt a na l ys i s t o t he qua nt i t a t i ve e xa m i na t i on of c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt W i m m e r a nd D om i ni c k ( 2006) di s c us s s e ve r a l of t he be ne f i t s of b r i ngi ng c ont e nt a na l ys i s t o t he I n t e r ne t F i r s t t he I nt e r ne t p r ovi de s e ve n m o r e a r e a s of c ont e nt t o be s t udi e d, i nc l udi ng

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27 ba n ne r or pop up a ds c ha t r oom di s c us s i ons pe r s ona l w e b pa ge s e m a i l hom e pa ge s of c om m e r c i a l m e di a po l i t i c a l c a m pa i gn w e bs i t e s o nl i ne ne w s c ove r a ge a nd m e s s a ge s boa r ds ( W i m m e r & D om i ni c k, 2006, p. 171) S e c ond s e a r c h e ngi ne s a nd e l e c t r oni c a r c hi ve s m a ke r e s e a r c hi ng onl i ne c ont e nt r e l a t i ve l y qui c k a nd e f f i c i e nt T hi r d, t he e l e c t r oni c na t ur e o f t he onl i ne c ont e nt w r i t t e n i n c ybe r s pa c e a nd not on p a pe r r e duc e s t he e f f or t r e qui r e d t o obt a i n a nd s t or e c ont e nt P a i ne a nd L a r k ( 2005 p 4 ) poi nt t o t he c a pa bi l i t i e s f or c ont e nt a na l ys i s of onl i ne c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt a s a m e a ns t o ga t he r o pi ni on r e s e a r c h w i t h t a r ge t publ i c s a nd a n a l t e r na t i ve t o c ons um e r s ur ve ys I n t he t r a di t i ona l m a r ke t i ng s pa c e w e w oul d r e c o m m e nd s ur ve yi ng c us t om e r s t o de t e r m i ne t he s t r e ngt h of t he i r f e e l i ngs t ow a r ds yo ur br a nd on i s s ue s l i ke t r us t s a t i s f a c t i on, c om m i t m e nt a nd c ont r ol m ut ua l i t y. H ow e ve r t he na t ur e of t he bl ogos phe r e i s t o e s c he w t r a di t i ona l m a r ke t i ng t e c hni que s i n f a vor o f f a r m o r e di r e c t i n t e r a c t i ons N e t n ogr ap h y A s t hi s s t udy i s i nt e r e s t e d i n ut i l i z i ng c om put e r m e di a t e d c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt i n or de r t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o c or po r a t e r e put a t i on i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o r e vi e w s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h m e t hods T he s t udy of onl i ne f or um s f or c ons um e r opi ni ons ha s a l r e a dy be e n ut i l i z e d i n t he m a r ke t i ng r e s e a r c h f i e l d. K oz i ne t s ( 1998, 1999, 2002, 2006) ha s de ve l ope d a ne w m e t hodol ogy f o r pr ovi di ng c ons um e r i ns i ght vi a t he s t udy of o nl i ne c om m uni t i e s : ne t nogr a phy K oz i ne t s de f i ne s ne t nogr a phy, or e t hnogr a phy on t he I nt e r n e t by i t s r e c e nt c i t a t i on i n T he Sage D i c t i onar y of Soc i al R e s e ar c h M e t hods a s a qua l i t a t i ve i n t e r pr e t i ve r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy t ha t a da pt s t he t r a di t i ona l i n pe r s on e t hnog r a phi c r e s e a r c h t e c hni que s of a nt hr opol ogy t o t he s t udy of t he onl i ne c ul t ur e s a nd c om m uni t i e s f or m e d t hr ough c om put e r m e di a t e d c om m uni c a t i ons ( J upp, 2006, c i t e d i n K oz i ne t s 2006 p 281 ) I n K oz i ne t s 2002 de s c r i pt i on of ne t nogr a phy, t he a ut ho r l i s t s m e s s a ge boa r ds i nde pe nde nt W e b pa ge s a nd l i s t s e r vs a s a ppr oa c ha bl e t ype s of onl i n e

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28 c om m uni t i e s i n w hi c h t o c onduc t m a r ke t or i e nt e d ne t nogr a phy. K oz i ne t s 2006 publ i c a t i on f e a t ur e s a n upda t e d l i s t i nc l udi ng bl ogs ne t w or ke d ga m e s pa c e s i ns t a nt m e s s a gi ng c ha t w i ndow s a nd m obi l e t e c hnol ogi e s a s va l ua bl e onl i ne s i t e s f or c onduc t i ng ne t nog r a phi e s B a s e d i n m a r ke t i ng r e s e a r c h, ne t nog r a phy ut i l i z e s publ i c l y a va i l a bl e i nf o r m a t i on f r om onl i ne f or um s i n or de r t o unde r s t a nd t he opi ni ons ne e ds de c i s i on i nf l ue nc e s a nd c ons um pt i on pa t t e r ns of onl i ne c ons um e r gr oups ( K oz i ne t s 200 2) C om pa r e d w i t h ot he r t r a di t i ona l m a r ke t i ng a nd c om m uni c a t i on m e t hodol ogi e s us e d t o r e s e a r c h c ons um e r opi ni ons s uc h a s f oc us gr oups i nt e r pe r s ona l i nt e r vi e w s a nd s ur ve y s ne t nogr a phy i s f a r l e s s obt r us i ve a nd m or e na t ur a l i s t i c ( K oz i ne t s 2002, 2006) A s a m a r ke t i n g r e s e a r c h s c hol a r K oz i ne t s c i t e s t he be ne f i t s p r ovi de d i n t e r m s of i m p l e m e nt i ng m a r ke t i ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd a d ve r t i s i ng c a m pa i gns t hough i t c a n be a r gue d t ha t s i m i l a r be ne f i t s c a n be a c c r ue d f o r s t r a t e gi c c o m m uni c a t i on a nd publ i c r e l a t i ons c a m pa i gns A c c or di ng t o K oz i ne t s ( 2006) ne t nogr a phy t e c hni que s ha ve r e c e nt l y a ppe a r e d i n m a ny m a r ke t i ng a nd c ons um e r r e s e a r c h publ i c a t i ons i nc l udi ng S c ha u a nd G i l l y ( 2003 ) M ol e s w or t h a nd D e ne gr i K not t ( 2004) D e V a l c k ( 2005) N e l s on a nd O t ne s ( 2005) M uni z a nd S c ha u ( 2005 ) L a nge r a nd B e c km a n ( 2005 ) J e ppe s e n a nd F r e de r i ks e n ( 2006) a nd F ong a nd B ur t on ( 2006) W hi l e L a nge r a nd B e c km a n ( 2005) c r e di t K oz i ne t s w i t h de ve l opi ng a m e a ns t o c onc e pt ua l i z e onl i ne di s c our s e f or m a r ke t a nd c ons um e r r e s e a r c h pur pos e s t he i r r e s e a r c h pr i m a r i l y s e r ve s a s a c r i t i que of ne t nogr a phy s l i m i t a t i ons a nd a n a t t e m pt t o a da pt ne t nog r a phy t o c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h. A s c om m uni c a t i on s c hol a r s L a nge r a nd B e c km a n ul t i m a t e l y pr opos e t ha t ne t nog r a phy, w hi c h i s i de nt i f i e d by K oz i ne t s ( 2002 p 64) a s b a s e d pr i m a r i l y on t he obs e r va t i on o f t e xt ua l di s c our s e i s t r ul y a f or m of onl i ne c ont e nt a na l ys i s L a nge r a nd B e c km a n ( 2005 p 193) pr ovi de a pow e r f ul de f e ns e f o r t he pl a c e m e nt of ne t nogr a phy i n t he c om m uni c a t i on c e nt e r e d r e a l m of c ont e nt a na l ys i s

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29 A ny t r a i ne d c om m uni c a t i on s c hol a r w ho i s f a m i l i a r w i t h t he r i c h t r a di t i on of m e t hods f or t he a na l ys i s of t e xt ua l di s c our s e m i ght w onde r w hy t he s t udy of t e xt ua l di s c our s e on t he i nt e r ne t s houl d be c l a s s i f i e d a s a ( qua s i ) e t hno gr a phi c m e t hod. W i t hout de nyi ng i t s e t hnogr a phi c r e l e va nc e i t a ppe a r s e ve n m or e l e gi t i m a t e t o c l a s s i f y or pos i t i on c ont e nt a na l ys i s of onl i ne c om m uni c a t i on i n be t w e e n di s c our s e a na l ys i s c ont e nt a na l ys i s a nd e t hnogr a phy. C ont e nt a na l ys i s i t s e l f i s a l r e a dy a w e l l e s t a bl i s he d m e t ho d i n c om m uni c a t i on a nd m e di a s t udi e s i n i t s ow n r i g ht w i t h a m or e t ha n 70 ye a r s ol d t r a di t i on. O r i gi na l l y a ppl i e d t o t r a di t i ona l m a s s m e di a t e xt s ( s uc h a s t e xt s a nd s how s i n ne w s pa pe r s on r a di o o r T V ) t he r e i s no r e a s on not t o a ppl y i t t o t he i nt e r ne t a s w e l l D ue t o t he i r r e c l a s s i f i c a t i on of ne t nog r a phy unde r c ont e nt a na l ys i s L a nge r a nd B e c km a n poi nt t o t he us e of e s t a bl i s he d c om m uni c a t i on r e s e a r c h e t hi c a l s t a nda r ds r a t he r t ha n t hos e pr opos e d by K oz i ne t s w hi c h a r e c r i t i c i z e d a s ove r l y r i gor ous W hi l e K oz i ne t s a dvi s e s f ul l r e s e a r c he r di s c l os ur e w he n obs e r vi ng a n onl i ne c o m m uni t y, L a nge r a nd B e c km a n ( 2005) he a r t i l y r e c om m e nd a ga i ns t i t a s pot e nt i a l l y e nda nge r i ng onl i ne c om m uni c a t i on s t udi e s gr e a t e s t s t r e ngt h : unobt r us i ve ne s s T he a ut hor s a s s e r t t ha t i nf or m e d c ons e nt i s i m pl i e d i n a publ i c f or um ( t hos e not r e qui r i ng a pa s s w or d t o vi e w pos t i ngs ) c om pa r i ng onl i ne t e xt ua l a na l ys i s t o t he a na l ys i s of ne w s pa pe r l e t t e r s t o t he e di t o r w hi c h a r e c ons i de r e d t o be i nt e nt i ona l l y publ i c pos t i ngs B y c ove r t obs e r v a t i on r e s e a r c he r s m a y ga i n a m or e r e a l a nd un r e s t r a i ne d m e a s ur e of c ons um e r opi ni ons a be ne f i t w hi c h m a y be l os t w i t h i nf or m e d c ons e nt r e que s t s D e s pi t e di s a gr e e m e nt a s t o t he t he or e t i c a l pos i t i oni ng of ne t nog r a phy, t he pr e c e di ng s e c t i on of t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w de m ons t r a t e s e vi de nc e f or t he va l ue a nd l e gi t i m a c y of s t udyi ng t he di a l ogue of onl i ne c om m uni t i e s T hi s r e s e a r c he r a r gue s t ha t t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m a r ke t i ng r e s e a r c h onl i ne c ont e nt s t udi e s c a n s i m i l a r l y be m i r r or e d w i t h i n publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd t he pur s ui t of c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt W hi l e ne t no gr a phy pr i m a r i l y r e l i e s on a qua l i t a t i ve a na l ys i s of f or um c ont e nt e nt e r i ng i nt o t he s t udy w i t h a pr e vi ous l y a c c e pt e d l i s t o f di m e ns i ons a l l ow s f or a qua nt i t a t i ve a na l ys i s M or e ove r w hi l e t hi s s t udy t a ke s he e d of K oz i ne t s a nd L a nge r a nd B e c km a n s e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h ne t nogr a phy/ onl i ne c ont e nt a na l ys i s t he r e s e a r c he r obs e r ve s

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30 the advice of fellow communication scholars Langer and Beckman by not revealing her presence as a researcher in the online forum Research Questions Since the researcher is interested in the Campaign for Real Beauty both as a laboratory to test the use of a new corporate reputation measurement tool and for the campaigns own achievements in reputation management, the research quest ions are divided into campaign specific questions and a broader corporate reputation measurement question. Campaign for Real Beauty Research Questions RQ 1: How do Self Esteem Forum members respond to the Dove 'Real Beauty' Campaign? RQ 2: How well is Do ve able to meet the campaign goal to "act as a catalyst for widening the definition and discussion of beauty" in the forum community? RQ 3: Which corporate personality sub dimensions/dimensions do forum members assign to Dove? RQ 4: Which tactic of the cam paign generated the most positive discussion in the forum community? Corporate Reputation Measurement Research Question RQ 5: Based on the application of corporate personality dimensions found in the Dove Self Esteem Forum comments, can consumer generated content (via online forum or weblog commentary), be utilized as an effective corporate reputation measurement tool and a viable alternative to current measurement methods, primarily including survey based ranking systems?

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31 C H A P T E R 3 M E T H O D O L O G Y T hi s s t udy of f e r s T he D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y a s a c a s e s t udy f or a ne w f o r m o f c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s u r e m e nt : c ont e nt a na l ys i s of c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt S am p l e T he popul a t i on o f i n t e r e s t i s t he D ove C F R B S e l f E s t e e m F o r um T he uni t s of a na l ys i s a r e t he S e l f E s t e e m F or um pos t i ngs w hi c h ha ve be e n c ode d f or pos t i ng c ont e nt a nd pos t e r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s T he f o r um ha s r e c e i ve d ove r 10, 00 0 pos t i ngs s i nc e i t w a s l a unc he d i n F e b r ua r y 2006. A s ys t e m a t i c r a ndom s a m pl e w a s s e l e c t e d of 10 pe r c e nt o f pos t i ngs ove r a one ye a r pe r i od f r om F e b r ua r y 1 2006 t o F e br ua r y 1, 2007. A s a m pl e of 1 071 pos t i ngs w a s s e l e c t e d us i ng a s a m pl i ng i nt e r va l of 10, w i t h t he f i r s t s a m pl e i t e m de t e r m i ne d us i ng a r a ndom num be r ge ne r a t or ( r a ndom or g) S ys t e m a t i c s a m pl i ng w a s c hos e n a s i t i s m or e e f f i c i e nt t ha n s i m pl e r a ndom s a m pl i ng a nd ne a r l y e qua l l y a s e f f e c t i ve s i nc e t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of i nt e r e s t a r e be l i e ve d t o be di s t r i but e d r a ndom l y t hr oughout t he popul a t i on T he C F R B W e b s i t e pr ovi de s a f or um s um m a r y of t he S e l f E s t e e m F o r um s m i s s i on e nc our a gi ng m e m be r s t o s ha r e your opi ni on a bou t t he i s s ue of l ow s e l f e s t e e m a m ong young gi r l s ( C a m pa i gnf or R e a l B e a ut y. c om ) T he f or um s m ode r a t or ha s a pa s s i ve r ol e i n f o r um di s c us s i on, c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h f o r um m e m be r s o nl y by i ni t i a t i ng di s c us s i on t opi c s ( e g I s s e l f e s t e e m i n young gi r l s t oo f oc us e d on a ppe a r a nc e ? ) S e l f E s t e e m F or u m m e m be r s hi p i s publ i c a nd w i t hout c ha r ge M e m be r s m us t r e gi s t e r vi a D ove s C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y W e b s i t e i n or de r t o pos t m a t e r i a l t hough un r e gi s t e r e d o nl i ne us e r s m a y r e a d pos t i ngs w i t hout be c om i ng a m e m be r A t t i m e of r e gi s t r a t i on us e r s a r e i nf or m e d t ha t t he y m us t be a t l e a s t 13 ye a r s ol d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he di s c us s i on f or um H o w e ve r da t a a na l ys i s i ndi c a t e s t ha t a s m a l l pe r c e nt a ge of f o r um m e m be r s w e r e unde r a ge

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32 C od i n g P r oc e d u r e a n d I n t e r C od e r A gr e e m e n t A s ubs e t of f or u m pos t i ngs w a s s e l e c t e d t o t e s t f o r i nt e r c ode r a gr e e m e nt A t ot a l of 10 pe r c e nt of s a m pl e pos t i ngs w e r e a na l yz e d by t w o c ode r s a s s ur i ng a r e c ogni z e d l e v e l o f a gr e e m e nt w a s r e a c he d be f or e t he r e s e a r c he r c ont i nue d t o c ode t he f ul l s a m pl e H ol s t i s ( 196 9) f or m ul a w a s ut i l i z e d t o c he c k f o r i n t e r c ode r r e l i a b i l i t y, r e s ul t i ng i n a ve r y hi gh l e ve l of i nt e r na l va l i di t y w i t h a r e l i a bi l i t y m e a s ur e of 97. 2 pe r c e nt a gr e e m e nt S i m i l a r r e qui r e m e nt s of r e l i a bi l i t y w e r e us e d i n B a r I l a n s ( 2005) c ont e nt a na l ys i s of w e bl ogs i n w hi c h a r a ndom 10 pe r c e nt of onl i ne m e s s a ge s w e r e c ode d by a s e c ond c ode r w i t h a gr e e m e nt r a ngi ng be t w e e n 85 pe r c e nt a nd 100 pe r c e nt I n s t r u m e n t D e ve l op m e n t W he n de ve l opi ng t he s t udy i ns t r um e nt t he m e a s ur e s f or c ont e nt a na l ys i s e m e r ge d bot h i nduc t i ve l y t hr ough a p r e l i m i na r y a na l ys i s of t he D ove f or u m a nd vi a C R M a nd C G C l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w R e s e ar c h B a s e d M e as u r e s F or t he c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on of pos t i ngs a nd pos t e r s t h i s s t udy ut i l i z e d e l e m e nt s f r o m s e ve r a l a ut hor s s t udyi ng w e bl ogs B a r I l a n ( 2005 ) p r ovi de d c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on ba s e d on pos t i ng t op i c di vi de d i nt o t he m e ( pos t i ng c l os e l y r e l a t e d t o t he de f i ne d pur pos e of t he bl og p. 300) a nd ge ne r al / ot he r B a r I l a n s r e s e a r c h a ddi t i ona l l y p r o vi de d c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on ba s e d on l e ngt h of pos t i ng S i nc e B a r I l a n di d not p r ovi de di r e c t m e a s ur e s of s hor t o r e xt e ns i ve s uc h m e a s ur e s w e r e de f i ne d f r om L a nge r a nd B e c km a n s ( 2005) onl i ne c ont e nt s t udy, i n w hi c h t he a ve r a ge l e ngt h of f or um pos t i ngs w a s 34 w or ds pe r pos t i ng T he r e by, t hi s s t udy r e c ogni z e s s hor t pos t i ngs a s t hos e be t w e e n 0 a nd 34 w or ds a nd e xt e ns i ve pos t i ngs a s t hos e c ont a i ni ng 35 or m or e w o r ds H e r r i ng e t a l ( 2004a ) p r ovi de d de m ogr aphi c c l as s i f i c at i ons of pos t e r s i nc l udi ng age of pos t e r w hi c h c a n be de t e r m i ne d by i nf o r m a t i on e x pl i c i t l y pr ovi de d by t he pos t e r or i nf e r r e d by

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33 pos t i ng c ont e nt ; a nd ge nde r of pos t e r w hi c h c a n b e de t e r m i ne d by e i t he r e xpl i c i t or i m pl i e d i nf or m a t i on, w i t h t he a ddi t i on of ge nde r i ndi c a t i ve or t r a di t i ona l l y m a l e or f e m a l e l ogi n na m e s A ge c l a s s i f i c a t i ons w e r e de ve l ope d f r om t he c om b i ne d m e t hodol ogi e s of H e r r i ng e t a l ( 2004a ) a nd H e nni ng ( 2003) i nc l ud i ng T e e n, i m pl i e d or s t a t e d t o be 19 ye a r s o f a ge o r younge r ; Y oung A dul t a ge s 20 t o 29; a nd A dul t 30 ye a r s of a ge or ol de r A n a ddi t i ona l a ge g r oup not di s t i ngui s he d by e i t he r a ut hor but c ons i de r e d e s pe c i a l l y r e l e va nt f o r D ove s i n t e r e s t i n t he s e l f e s t e e m of young gi r l s i s t he T w e e na ge r R a ngi n g be t w e e n 8 a nd 12 ye a r s ol d a nd num be r i ng 29 m i l l i on t he t w e e na ge r s ha ve e m e r ge d a s a ne w c ons um e r gr oup t ha t s houl d be a c know l e dge d i n de m ogr a phi c a ge c l a s s i f i c a t i ons ( P r a h 2006 ) T he r e s e a r c he r a ddi t i ona l l y i nc l ude d t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of par e nt t o be t t e r e s t i m a t e a ge P a i n e a nd L a r k ( 2005) of f e r t ona l i t y a s a n i ndi r e c t m e a s ur e of t he he a l t h of a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a n onl i ne c om m uni t y a nd a n or ga ni z a t i on I f t he t one of t he pos t i ng l e a ve s a r e a de r l e s s l i ke l y t o do bus i ne s s w i t h your or ga ni z a t i on i t i s ne ga t i ve I f t he pos t i ng l e a ve s a r e a de r m or e l i ke l y t o do bus i ne s s w i t h your or ga ni z a t i on o r r e c om m e nds t he br a nd, i t i s pos i t i ve I f i t e s s e nt i a l l y j us t di s c us s e s f a c t s i t i s ne ut r a l or ba l a nc e d ( P a i ne & L a r k, 2005, p. 5) T he r e s e a r c he r f ound t he i nc l us i on o f D a vi e s e t a l s ( 2003) C or por a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e t o a pt l y f i t w i t h t he s t udy s f oc us on c o r por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt D i m e ns i ons a nd s ub di m e ns i ons of D a vi e s e t a l s ( 2003) C or por a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e w e r e s e l e c t e d a s a ppr opr i a t e m e a s ur e s f ol l ow i ng t he pr e l i m i na r y r e vi e w of pos t i ngs i n w hi c h pos t e r s w e r e f ound t o r e f e r t o t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd c a m pa i gn us i ng f a m i l i a r pe r s ona l i t y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e g. T hnk [ s i c ] you f o r be i ng s o hone s t a bout t he i ndus t r y you be l ong t o P os t i ng I D 10192006: 1412 ) 4 W hi l e s uc h 4 S a m p l e p o s t i n g s a r e i d e n t i f i e d b y a u n i q u e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n n u m b e r t h a t c o n s i s t s o f t h e d a t e a n d t i m e i n t h i s f o r m a t : m o n t h d a y y e a r : m i l i t a r y t i m e F o r e x a m p l e a m e s s a g e t h a t w a s p o s t e d o n F e b r u a r y 1 s t 2 0 0 6 a t 5 : 1 0 p m w o u l d h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g i d e n t i f i e r : 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 6 : 1 7 1 0

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34 pe r s ona l i t y m e a s ur e s ha ve t r a di t i ona l l y be e n us e d i n a s ur ve y or f oc us gr oup m e t hodol ogy t hi s s t udy s e e ks t o a ppl y pe r s ona l i t y m e a s ur e s w i t hi n a n onl i ne c ont e nt a na l ys i s s e t t i ng. P os t i ngs w e r e c ode d f or t he pr e s e nc e or a bs e nc e of e a c h s ub di m e ns i on, us i ng t he c or r e s pondi ng i t e m s a s i de nt i f i e r s I n t he c a s e of t he f i na l t w o di m e ns i ons ( I nf or m a l i t y a nd M a c hi s m o) no s ub di m e ns i ons a r e l i s t e d. P os t i ngs w e r e c ode d d i r e c t l y f or t he pr e s e nc e or a bs e nc e of t hos e di m e ns i ons s i m i l a r l y us i ng t he c or r e s pondi ng i t e m s a s i de nt i f i e r s R e f e r t o F i gur e 2 1 f or a f ul l l i s t of D a vi e s e t a l s ( 20 03) C or po r a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e di m e ns i ons s ub di m e ns i ons a nd i t e m s I n d u c t i ve l y G at h e r e d M e as u r e s T he i nf o r m a t i on ga t he r e d i nduc t i ve l y w a s de ve l op e d a f t e r r e vi e w i ng a n i ni t i a l s a m pl i ng o f 50 pos t i ngs T he pr e l i m i na r y r e vi e w y i e l de d t he m a i n t opi c s of c am pai gn pr ai s e a nd c am pai gn c r i t i c i s m a s w e l l a s t he c or r e s pondi ng s ub a t t r i but e s i de nt i f yi ng s pe c i f i c e xa m pl e s of e a c h t opi c S ub a t t r i but e s of c am pai gn pr ai s e i nc l ude pos t e r s s t a t e m e nt s t ha t t he c a m pa i gn pr ov i de s pos i t i v e m e s s age s i s pe r s onal l y i ns pi r i ng a f f e c t s pur c has e i nt e nt c r e a t e s a s e ns e of c om r adr y a nd pr om ot e s di al ogue on i s s ue s of s e l f e s t e e m S ub a t t r i but e s of c am pai gn c r i t i c i s m i nc l ude d pos t e r s s t a t e m e nt s t ha t t he c a m pa i gn i gnor e s boy s / y oung m e n doe s not r e pr e s e nt e t hni c a nd r ac i al di v e r s i t y a nd i s a m a ni pul a t i ve m ar k e t i ng pl oy ; ge ne r a l di s a gr e e m e nt w i t h c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s ( ant i C F R B ) w a s a l s o i nc l ude d. A t hi r d c a t e gor y w a s i nc or por a t e d t o c ove r t he ge ne r al di s c us s i on of t he de f i ni t i on of be aut y and s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s t he m i s s i on of t he c a m pa i gn a nd f or um t ha t doe s not di r e c t l y r e f e r e nc e t he C F R B S ub a t t r i but e s of ge ne r a l di s c us s i on i nc l ude pe p t al k of c ons ol a t i on o r pe r s ona l a dvi c e r e l a t e d t o t he s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s of a not he r pos t e r o r pos t e r s a nd p e r s onal s t or i e s r e ga r di ng t he de f i ni t i o n of be a ut y a nd/ or s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s unr e l a t e d t o c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s S e e t he c ont e nt a na l ys i s c ode book ( A ppe ndi x A ) f or a f ul l de s c r i pt i on of t opi c i de nt i f i e r s

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35 A d di t i ona l l y, t he s t udy c ode s f or t he p r e s e nc e a nd t ona l i t y of f i ve m a i n c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s i n t he onl i ne di a l ogue i n or de r t o a s c e r t a i n w hi c h a s pe c t of t he c a m pa i gn w a s m os t popul a r w i t h f or um m e m be r s R e l e va nt t a c t i c s i nc l ude t he R e al W om e n Se l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l ( 2006 S upe r B ow l c or por a t e a dve r t i s e m e nt ) D ove E v ol ut i on ( v i r a l vi de o) C F R B W e b s i t e a nd D ove Se l f E s t e e m F und P os t i ngs a r e a l s o c ode d f or t he pr e s e nc e or a bs e nc e of di r e c t r e f e r e nc e s t o t he ge ne r a l C am pai gn f or R e al B e aut y

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36 C H A P T E R 4 R E S U L T S P r of i l e o f t h e S am p l e / F or u m M e m b e r D e m ogr a p h i c s 5 T he f or u m s a m pl e hol ds di s t i nc t i ve s i gni f i c a nc e be yond i t s va l ue a s a s t udy s a m pl e T he s a m pl e de m ogr a phi c s m a y be us e d a s a m e a s ur e of D ove s onl i ne a udi e nc e a l l ow i ng t he or ga ni z a t i on t o i de nt i f y i m po r t a nt c ons um e r gr oup s a nd a s s e s s t he publ i c opi ni on o f t he s e s pe c i f i c c ohor t s F or t hi s r e a s on, pa r t i c ul a r i nt e r e s t i s pa i d t o t he c om pos i t i on o f t he s a m pl e I t s houl d be r e i t e r a t e d t ha t f or um s a m pl e de m ogr a phi c i nf or m a t i on ha s be e n i nf e r r e d b y t he c ode r a nd a s s uc h, s e r ve s a s a n i m pe r f e c t s ubs t i t ut e f o r s e l f r e por t e d de m ogr a phi c i n f or m a t i on G e n d e r an d A ge of P os t e r s T he S e l f E s t e e m F o r um yi e l de d a s a m pl e of pr e do m i na nt l y f e m a l e pos t e r s O f t he 1, 071 pos t i ngs i n t he s a m pl e 884 ( 82 5% ) pos t e r s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s f e m a l e 48 ( 4. 5% ) pos t e r s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s m a l e a nd 139 ( 13. 0 % ) w e r e uni de nt i f i a bl e 6 A ge of pos t e r w a s l e s s r e a di l y di s t i ngui s ha bl e by t hi r d pa r t y a na l ys i s ; 775 ( 72 3% ) pos t i ngs w e r e uni de nt i f i a bl e W he n a ddr e s s i ng t hos e pos t i ngs t ha t c oul d be c a t e gor i z e d, 155 ( 14. 5% of t ot a l pos t i ngs ) w e r e w r i t t e n by t e e n pos t e r s be t w e e n t he a ge s of 13 a nd 19 ye a r s o l d; 71 ( 6. 6 % o f t ot a l pos t i ngs ) w e r e w r i t t e n by a dul t p os t e r s 30 ye a r s ol d or ol de r ; 51 ( 4. 8 % of t ot a l pos t i ngs ) w e r e w r i t t e n by youn g a dul t pos t e r s be t w e e n t he a ge s of 20 a nd 29 ye a r s o l d; a nd 19 ( 1. 8% of t ot a l pos t i ngs ) w e r e w r i t t e n by t w e e na ge r pos t e r s be t w e e n t he a ge s of 8 a nd 12 ye a r s ol d T he l a r ge s t de m ogr a phi c t e e ns e nc om pa s s e d 52. 3 pe r c e nt o f t he 296 a ge i de nt i f i a bl e pos t i ngs R e f e r t o T a bl e 4 1 f o r ge nde r a nd a ge de m ogr a phi c s 5 R e s u l t s r e l a t e d t o t h e s a m p l e d e m o g r a p h i c s a r e b a s e d o n t h e f u l l 1 0 7 1 p o s t i n g s s a m p l e w h e r e a s r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s t a t e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s u s e a m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e o f 1 0 2 1 o n t o p i c p o s t i n g s o r t h o s e c o d e d a s r e l a t i n g t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c a m p a i g n a n d / o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o r t h e g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f b e a u t y a n d s e l f e s t e e m i s s u e s 6 I t s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p o s t i n g s w e r e n o t c o d e d f o r r e p e a t p o s t e r s T h e s t u d y u s e s t h e 1 0 7 1 p o s t i n g s s a m p l e a s a p r o x y f o r a d i r e c t m e a s u r e o f p o s t e r d e m o g r a p h i c s t h o u g h t h e r e i s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c o d i n g t h e s a m e p o s t e r

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37 T a bl e 4 1 D e m ogr a phi c P r of i l e of S e l f E s t e e m F o r um M e m be r s D e m ogr a phi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s F r e que nc y P e r c e nt a ge ( % ) of t ot a l pos t i ngs G e n d e r F e m a l e 884 82. 5 M a l e 48 4. 5 U ni de nt i f i a bl e 139 13. 0 T ot a l 1, 071 100. 0 A ge of P os t e r T e e n ( 13 19) 155 14. 5 A dul t ( 30 a nd ol de r ) 71 6. 6 Y oung a dul t ( 20 29 ) 51 4. 8 T w e e na ge r ( 8 12 ) 19 1. 8 U ni de nt i f i a bl e 775 72. 3 T ot a l 1, 071 100. 0 F or u m P os t i n gs S e l f E s t e e m F or um pos t i ngs w e r e c ode d a s m os t l y o r i gi na l s t a t e m e nt s ( 847, or 79. 1 % ) r a t he r t ha n r e s pons e s t o ot he r pos t i ngs ( 224 or 20. 9% ) T he m a j or i t y of pos t i ngs w e r e e xt e ns i ve i n l e ngt h, w i t h 813 ( 75 9% ) pos t i ngs c ons i s t i ng of 35 or m o r e w or ds a nd 258 ( 24. 1 % ) pos t i ngs c ons i s t i ng of 34 w or ds o r l e s s C am p ai gn f or R e al B e au t y R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on s R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on 1 H ow do Se l f E s t e e m F or um m e m be r s r e s pond t o t he D ov e R e al B e aut y C am pai gn? A m a j or i t y 625 or 61 2 pe r c e nt of on t opi c pos t i ngs ( t hos e c ode d a s r e l a t i ng t o t he di s c us s i on of t he c a m pa i gn a nd/ or o r ga ni z a t i on or t he ge ne r a l di s c us s i on of t he de f i ni t i on o f be a ut y or s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s ) 7 w e r e pr i m a r i l y f oc us e d on c a m pa i gn pr a i s e ( T a bl e 4 2) O f t hos e pos t i ngs f oc us e d on pr a i s e 322 ( 51. 5 % o f pr a i s e p os t i ngs ) i nc l ude d c a m pa i gn/ or ga ni z a t i on pr a i s e f or de l i ve r i ng pos i t i v e m e s s age s f or young w om e n/ gi r l s ; 312 ( 49. 9% of pr a i s e pos t i ngs ) 7 A s a n i s s u e o f n o t e a s m a l l g r o u p o f 3 9 p o s t i n g s w e r e c o d e d a s i n c l u d i n g m o r e t h a n o n e o f t h e t h r e e m a i n t o p i c a r e a s ( p r a i s e c r i t i c i s m a n d g e n e r a l o n t o p i c d i s c u s s i o n ) W i t h i n t h i s s u b s e t 2 5 p o s t i n g s i n c l u d e d b o t h c a m p a i g n p r a i s e a n d c a m p a i g n c r i t i c i s m W h i l e g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n p o s t i n g s a r e d e f i n e d a s t h o s e w i t h o n t o p i c d i s c u s s i o n u n r e l a t e d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r c a m p a i g n 1 3 p o s t i n g s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s i n c l u d i n g c a m p a i g n p r a i s e a n d g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s e p a r a t e l y w i t h i n t h e s a m e p o s t i n g ; o n e p o s t i n g w a s s i m i l a r l y i d e n t i f i e d a s p o s s e s s i n g b o t h c a m p a i g n c r i t i c i s m a n d g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n

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38 i nc l ude d pr a i s e f or t he c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s a s pe r s onal l y i ns pi r i ng ; 90 ( 14 4% of pr a i s e pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d c a m pa i gn/ or ga ni z a t i on pr a i s e f o r de ve l op i ng c om r adr y w i t h f or um m e m be r s or ot he r r e l e va nt w om e n on s e l f e s t e e m or be a ut y i s s ue s ; 8 34 ( 5. 4 % o f pr a i s e pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d pr a i s e i ndi c a t i ng pur c has e i nt e nt or c ont i nue d pr oduc t pu r c ha s e due t o t he C F R B ; 23 ( 3. 7 % o f pr a i s e pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d pr a i s e a nd a ppr e c i a t i on f or ope ni ng di al ogue on t he di s c us s i on of s e l f e s t e e m a nd be a ut y i s s ue s A t ot a l o f 110 ( 17. 6 % o f pr a i s e pos t i ngs ) pr ovi de d uns pe c i f i e d pr a i s e t ha t di d not i ndi c a t e a p r e vi ous l y de f i ne d s ub a t t r i but e w hi l e 290 ( 46 4% ) i nc l ude d one of t he s ub a t t r i but e s a nd 225 ( 36% ) i nc l ude d t w o or m or e o f t he s ub a t t r i but e s T a bl e 4 2 P os t i ng T opi c : P r a i s e a nd C r i t i c i s m T opi c F r e que nc y P e r c e nt ( % ) of on t opi c pos t i ngs P r ai s e 625 61. 2 P e r c e nt ( % ) of pr a i s e pos t i ngs P os i t i ve m e s s a ge s 322 31. 5 51. 5 P e r s ona l l y i ns pi r i ng 312 30. 6 4 9. 9 C om r a dr y 90 8. 8 14. 4 P ur c ha s e i nt e nt 34 3. 3 5. 4 D i a l ogue 23 2. 3 3. 7 N ot a l i s t e d s ub a t t r i bu t e 110 10. 8 17. 6 T ot a l C r i t i c i s m 55 5. 4 P e r c e nt ( % ) of c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs R a c i a l di ve r s i t y 14 1. 4 25. 5 B oys / M e n 13 1. 3 23. 6 M a r ke t i ng pl oy 12 1 2 21. 8 A nt i C R F B 7 0. 7 12. 7 N ot a l i s t e d s ub a t t r i bu t e 12 1. 2 21. 8 T ot a l * P os t i ngs w e r e c ode d f o r m ul t i pl e t a c t i c s ; t he r e f o r e t ot a l s do not e qua l 100 % 8 P o s t i n g s t h a t r e f e r e n c e d f e e l i n g s o f c o m r a d r y w i t h f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y m e m b e r s w e r e a l s o c o d e d f o r t h i s s u b a t t r i b u t e

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39 A f a r l e s s f r e que nt l y c i t e d t op i c a r e a w a s c a m pa i g n c r i t i c i s m w hi c h a ppe a r e d i n onl y 55 ( 5. 4% ) on t opi c pos t i ngs ( T a bl e 4 2 ) W i t hi n t hi s t opi c c a t e gor y, 14 ( 25 5% of c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs ) pos t i ngs pr ovi de d c r i t i c i s m on t he l a c k o f r ac i al di v e r s i t y w i t hi n c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s ; 13 ( 23. 6% of c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs ) c r i t i c i z e d t he c a m pa i gn a nd/ or o r ga ni z a t i on f o r i gno r i ng t he s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s of boy s / y oung m e n ; 12 ( 21. 8% of c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs ) c r i t i c i z e d t he C F R B a s a m ar k e t i ng pl oy ; a nd 7 ( 12. 7% of c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs ) pr ovi de d ant i C F R B s e nt i m e nt s ge ne r a l l y di s a gr e e d w i t h c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s or m a y ha ve p r ovi de d hos t i l e c om m e nt s a ga i ns t t he c a m pa i gn or or ga ni z a t i on A t ot a l o f 12 ( 21. 8 % ) c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs di d not i ndi c a t e a pr e vi ous l y de f i ne d s ub a t t r i but e w hi l e 41 ( 74 5% ) i nc l ude d o ne of t he l i s t e d s ub a t t r i but e s a nd 2 ( 3 6% ) i nc l ude d t w o or m or e s ub a t t r i but e s F i gur e 4 1 O ve r a l l T ona l i t y of P os t i ngs P e r c e nt a ge s a r e ba s e d on 1, 021 on t op i c pos t i ngs

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40 F ur t he r e vi de nc e o f a udi e nc e a ppr ova l of t he C F R B i s i ndi c a t e d i n t he ove r a l l t ona l i t y of pos t i ngs a s i nf e r r e d by t he r e s e a r c he r ( F i g. 4 1) O ve r a l l t ona l i t y w a s e va l ua t e d i n r e l a t i on t o t he f e a t ur e d or ga ni z a t i on r a t he r t ha n t he ge ne r a l t one o f t he pos t e r T he r e by pos t i ngs w i t h pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve s t a t e m e nt s a ga i ns t ot he r f or um m e m be r s or f i gu r e s unr e l a t e d t o U ni l e ve r D ove w oul d be c ode d a s ne ut r a l F i gur e 4 1 s how s t he l ow pe r c e nt a ge of pos t i ngs c ha r a c t e r i z e d a s ne ga t i ve c om pr i s i ng onl y 26 pos t i ngs ( 2. 5 % ) ou t o f 1 021 o n t opi c pos t i ngs A l t e r na t i ve l y, a l a r ge pe r c e nt a ge of pos t i ngs w e r e c ode d a s pos i t i ve ( 60. 2% or 614 pos t i ngs ) a nd ne ut r a l ( 37. 3 % o r 381 pos t i ngs ) c oi nc i di ng w i t h t he f r e que nc y of pos t i ngs c e nt e r e d on e i t he r c a m pa i gn pr a i s e ( pos i t i ve ) or ge ne r a l di s c us s i on of t he de f i ni t i on of be a ut y a nd s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s ( ne ut r a l ) I n s um m a r y, da t a f r om t he f i r s t r e s e a r c h que s t i on e s t a bl i s he s t ha t t he S e l f E s t e e m F or um m e m be r s pos s e s s a s i gni f i c a nt pos i t i ve r e s pons e t o t he D ove C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y. A m a j or i t y ( 61 2 % ) o f on t op i c pos t i ngs w e r e c e nt e r e d on c a m pa i gn p r a i s e w i t h a s ub a t t r i but e f oc us on D ove s pr ovi s i on o f pos i t i ve m e s s a ge s f or young w om e n a nd gi r l s vi a t he C F R B a s w e l l a s pr a i s e f or m e s s a ge s t ha t w e r e f ound t o be pe r s ona l l y i ns pi r i ng f or t he pos t e r T he ove r a l l t ona l i t y of pos t i ngs s e r ve s a s t he s e c ond t e s t f or a u di e nc e a ppr ova l w i t h 60. 2 pe r c e nt o f on t opi c pos t i ngs c ode d a s pos i t i ve a nd a m e r e 2 5 pe r c e nt c ode d a s ne ga t i ve R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on 2 H ow w e l l i s D ov e abl e t o m e e t t he c am pai gn goa l t o "ac t as a c at al y s t f or w i de ni ng t he de f i ni t i on and d i s c us s i on of be aut y i n t he f or um c om m uni t y ? F ol l ow i ng c a m pa i gn pr a i s e t he s e c ond m os t f r e qu e nt l y c i t e d t opi c a r e a w a s t he ge ne r a l di s c us s i on of t he de f i ni t i on of be a ut y a nd s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s W he n a ddr e s s i ng on t opi c pos t i ngs 377 ( 36. 9 % ) c onc e nt r a t e on be a ut y a nd s e l f e s t e e m di s c us s i on unr e l a t e d t o t he C F R B O f t hos e pos t i ngs 194 ( 51 5% ) i nc l ude d pe r s onal s t or i e s r e ga r di ng t he de f i n i t i on o f be a ut y a nd s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s a nd 97 ( 25. 7 % ) i nc l ude d pe p t al k of c ons ol a t i on or pe r s ona l a dvi c e r e l a t e d t o t he

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41 s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s of a not he r pos t e r or pos t e r s A t ot a l of 119 ( 31 6% ) ge ne r a l di s c us s i on pos t i ngs i nc l ude d ge ne r a l di s c us s i on of t opi c i s s ue s unr e l a t e d t o pe r s onal s t or i e s or pe p t al k w hi l e 225 ( 59 7% ) i nc l ude d one of t he l i s t e d s ub a t t r i but e s a nd 33 ( 8. 8 % ) i nc l ude d bot h of t he l i s t e d s ub a t t r i but e s T he da t a s uppl i e d f o r t he s e c ond r e s e a r c h que s t i on pr ovi de s s uppor t f or t he s uc c e s s of t he D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y i n one of t he o r ga ni z a t i on s s t a t e d c a m pa i gn goa l s T he pr e va l e nc e of be a ut y a nd s e l f e s t e e m di s c us s i on i ndi c a t e s s uc c e s s f or D ove s s t r a t e gi c goa l t o i ni t i a t e dyna m i c di s c our s e A ddi t i ona l l y, w hi l e onl y a s m a l l pe r c e nt a ge of pos t e r s ( 3 7% o f pr a i s e pos t i ngs ) out w a r dl y p r a i s e d t he di a l ogi c c a p a bi l i t i e s of t he c a m pa i gn ( T a bl e 4 2) t he f or um a c t i vi t y w i t h a t o t a l of 10, 706 uni que pos t i ngs i n a one ye a r pe r i od f u r t he r i ndi c a t e s t he s uc c e s s of t he C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y w i t hi n t hi s s c ope T he hi gh l e ve l of f or um t r a f f i c i s c om pa r a bl e t o K oz i ne t s ( 2002 ) ne t nog r a phy s t udy of a popul a r on l i ne c of f e e a f i c i ona do c om m uni t y, i n w hi c h t he f e a t ur e d f or um w a s c i t e d a s ge ne r a t i ng 1, 087 m e s s a ge s pe r m ont h a c c or di ng t o onl i ne A r b i t r on d a t a ( K oz i n e t s 2002 p. 66) R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on 3 W hi c h c or por at e pe r s onal i t y s ub di m e ns i ons / di m e ns i ons do f or um m e m be r s as s i gn t o D ov e ? O f t he pos t i ngs i ndi c a t i ng t he us e of c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y s ub di m e ns i ons s e ve r a l i nc l ude d t w o or m or e s ub di m e ns i ons w i t hi n a s i n gl e pos t i ng. T he r e by, t he t ot a l of 262 s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ( i nc l udi ng m u l t i pl e r e f e r e nc e s w i t hi n a s i ngl e pos t i ng) i s us e d t o a s c e r t a i n t he m os t pr e va l e nt c or po r a t e pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i ons T he m os t r e a di l y i de nt i f i a bl e s ub di m e ns i ons i nc l ude I nt e gr i t y ( 83, or 31. 7 % of s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ) E m pat hy ( 54 o r 20 6% of s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ) B o l dne s s ( 39, o r 14 9% of s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ) W ar m t h ( 25, or 9. 5 % o f s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ) Snobbe r y ( 2 5, or 9. 5 % o f s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ) a nd

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42 A dv e nt ur e ( 20, o r 7 6% of s ub d i m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ) A f i na l 6. 2 pe r c e nt i s c om pos e d of t he c om bi ne d pe r s ona l i t y s ub di m e ns i ons of M ode r ni t y D om i nanc e D r i v e T e c hnoc r ac y a nd E l e ganc e T he s ub di m e ns i ons C ons c i e nt i ous E go t i s m P r e s t i ge I n f or m al i t y a nd M ac hi s m o ha d no r e f e r e nc e s w i t hi n t he pos t i ng s a m pl e R e f e r t o F i gur e 4 2 f or gr a ph of c o r por a t e p e r s ona l i t y s ub di m e ns i on pr e va l e nc e F i gur e 4 2 P r e va l e nc e of C or po r a t e P e r s ona l i t y S u b D i m e ns i ons i n P os t i ng S a m pl e T he ot he r s c a t e gor y r e pr e s e nt s t he c om bi ne d f r e que nc i e s of t he M ode r ni t y D om i nanc e D r i v e T e c hnoc r ac y a nd E l e ganc e s ub di m e ns i ons W he n a dvi s i ng or ga ni z a t i ons on t o how be s t m a na ge t he i r c or po r a t e r e put a t i on D a vi e s e t a l a ddr e s s t he s e ve n pr i m a r y pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i o ns r a t he r t ha n t he l ow e r l e ve l s ub di m e ns i ons T hi s s t udy ut i l i z e s t he s ub di m e ns i ons f o r t he c ont e nt a na l ys i s c a t e gor i e s t hough t he p r i m a r y pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i ons of f e r oppo r t uni t y f or f u r t he r a na l ys i s T h r e e of t he s i x s ub di m e ns i ons w i t h t he gr e a t e s t num be r of r e f e r e nc e s f a l l unde r t he s a m e pr i m a r y di m e ns i on. I n t e gr i t y ( c ons i s t i ng of t he i t e m s H one s t S i nc e r e T r us t w or t hy, a nd S oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e ) E m pat hy ( c ons i s t i ng of t he i t e m s C onc e r ne d, R e a s s ur i ng, S u ppor t i ve a nd A gr e e a bl e ) a nd W ar m t h ( c ons i s t i ng of t he i t e m s F r i e ndl y P l e a s a nt O pe n, a nd S t r a i ght f or w a r d) a r e s ub d i m e ns i ons of A gr e e abl e ne s s B ol dne s s ( c ons i s t i ng of t he i t e m s E xt r ove r t a nd D a r i ng) a nd A dv e nt ur e

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43 ( c ons i s t i ng of t he i t e m s I m a gi na t i ve U p t o da t e E xc i t i ng, a nd I nnova t i ve ) a r e s ub di m e ns i ons of E nt e r pr i s e T he f i na l t op s i x s ub di m e ns i on, Snob be r y i s pa r t of t he C hi c d i m e ns i on; w hi l e t he di m e ns i on i t s e l f r e pr e s e nt s a m e a s ur e of s ophi s t i c a t i on, D a vi e s e t a l ( 2003) i de nt i f y t he s ub di m e ns i on Snobbe r y a s t he l e s s a t t r a c t i ve s i de t o t he di m e ns i on, w hi c h c oul d a l i e na t e po t e nt i a l c us t om e r s ( D a vi e s e t a l 2 003, p. 155) T he t hi r d r e s e a r c h q ue s t i on da t a r e ve a l s t he pr ope n s i t y of onl i ne c ons um e r s t o r a t e t he D ove or ga ni z a t i on a nd t he D ove C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y hi ghl y i n t he t op t w o di m e ns i ons ( A gr e e a bl e ne s s a nd E nt e r pr i s e ) i n D a vi e s e t a l s C or por a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e w hi c h i s r a nke d i n o r de r of gr e a t e s t i m po r t a nc e t o a n o r ga ni z a t i on s r e put a t i on. D a vi e s e t a l ( 2003 ) s t a t e t he i m por t a nc e gi ve n t o A gr e e a bl e ne s s r e f l e c t s a n e m pha s i s on s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y a nd t r us t w or t hi ne s s i n e nha nc i ng a n or ga ni z a t i on s c or por a t e r e put a t i on. F ur t he r m or e D a vi e s e t a l a s s e r t t ha t A gr e e a bl e ne s s i s s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t a ke hol de r s s a t i s f a c t i on. T he a ut hor s f ur t he r l i nk c us t om e r s a t i s f a c t i on t o c us t om e r l oya l t y a nd, a s r e s ul t of t ha t c onne c t i on, s a l e s gr ow t h a nd f i na nc i a l s uc c e s s R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on 4 W hi c h t ac t i c of t he c am pai gn ge ne r at e d t he m os t p os i t i v e di s c us s i on i n t he f or um c om m uni t y ? W he n e xa m i ni ng t he num be r of on t opi c pos t i ngs w i t h s pe c i f i c r e f e r e nc e s t o D ove s c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d a hi gh l e ve l of t a c t i c di s c us s i on i nc l udi ng bot h pr a i s e a nd c r i t i c i s m O f t he on t opi c pos t i ngs a t ot a l o f 756 ( 74. 0% ) m a de s pe c i f i c r e f e r e nc e s t o t he pr e vi ous l y de f i ne d c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s 9 S pe c i f i c r e f e r e nc e s i nc l ude t he pr e c i s e t i t l e s of e a c h t a c t i c 9 T h e t o t a l o f 7 5 6 ( 7 4 0 % o f o n t o p i c p o s t i n g s ) d o e s i n c l u d e g e n e r a l b e a u t y a n d s e l f e s t e e m d i s c u s s i o n t h a t r e f e r s t o a c a m p a i g n t a c t i c a s a n e n t r y p o i n t t o g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n u n r e l a t e d t o t h e C F R B T h e s e i n s t a n c e s c o m p r i s e t a c t i c r e f e r e n c e s c o d e d w i t h n e u t r a l t o n a l i t y

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44 a s w e l l a s de s i gna t e d s yno nym s i de nt i f i e d dur i ng t he pr e l i m i na r y r e vi e w of t he S e l f E s t e e m F or um ; de t a i l e d t a c t i c i de nt i f i e r s c a n be f ound i n t he c ont e nt a na l ys i s c ode book ( A ppe ndi x A ) T he di s t r i but i on of t a c t i c r e f e r e nc e s i s a s f ol l ow s : 371 ( 36. 3 % o f on t opi c pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d r e f e r e nc e s t o t he Se l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l a i r e d dur i ng t he 2006 S upe r B ow l ; 214 ( 21. 0% of on t opi c pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d s pe c i f i c r e f e r e nc e s t o t he ge ne r a l C am pai gn f or R e al B e aut y ; 63 ( 6. 2 % of on t opi c pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d r e f e r e nc e s t o t he D ove E v ol ut i on vi r a l vi de o; 50 ( 4. 9% of on t opi c pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d r e f e r e nc e s t o t he C F R B W e b s i t e ; 34 ( 3. 3 % of on t opi c pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d r e f e r e nc e s t o t he D ove Se l f E s t e e m F und ; a nd 24 ( 2 4% of on t opi c pos t i ngs ) i nc l ude d r e f e r e nc e s t o t he D ove R e al W om e n T he t ona l i t y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h e a c h t a c t i c w a s pr e dom i na nt l y pos i t i ve ( s e e T a bl e 4 3 f or m or e s pe c i f i c pe r c e nt a ge s ) T he t w o t a c t i c s w i t h t h e m os t pos i t i ve di s c us s i on w e r e t he S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l a nd t he ge ne r a l C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y. 1 0 W hi l e t he ge ne r a l c a m pa i gn ha d a s l i ght l y l a r ge r pe r c e nt a ge of pos t i ngs c ode d a s pos i t i ve ( 94. 4% ) w he n c om pa r e d t o t he S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l ( 90 0% ) a be t t e r m e a s ur e of t he pos i t i ve di s c us s i on ge ne r a t e d i s t he pe r c e nt a ge of t ot a l on t opi c pos t i ngs c ode d a s pos i t i ve f or e a c h t a c t i c T he 2006 S upe r B ow l S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l e m e r ge s a s t he t a c t i c t o g e ne r a t e t he m os t pos i t i ve di s c us s i on, w i t h 334 pos i t i ve pos t i ngs ( 32. 7% of on t opi c pos t i ngs ) ; t he ge ne r a l C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y w a s c ode d a s ha vi ng 202 pos i t i ve pos t i ngs ( 19 8% of on t opi c pos t i ngs ) T he da t a de r i ve d f r om t he f our t h or ga ni z a t i on r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h que s t i on une xpe c t e dl y r e ve a l s t ha t t he D ove S e l f E s t e e m c o m m e r c i a l w a s t he t a c t i c a r e a t ha t ge ne r a t e d t he m os t pos i t i ve di s c us s i on, w i t h pos i t i ve t ona l i t y c om m e r c i a l r e l a t e d pos t i ngs c om pr i s i ng a f ul l 32 7 pe r c e nt of a l l on t opi c pos t i ngs T h i s w a s a s ur pr i s i ng f i ndi ng s i nc e D ove r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s s t a t e d 1 0 W h i l e t h e g e n e r a l c a m p a i g n i s n o t s t r i c t l y a t a c t i c i t w a s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n o r d e r t o g a u g e w h e t h e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l t a c t i c s o r t h e s u m o f a l l t a c t i c s r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r p o s i t i v e a t t e n t i o n

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45 t ha t t he E vo l ut i on vi de o c a us e d t he hi ghe s t t r a f f i c s pi ke t o t he C F R B W e b s i t e ove r t h r e e t i m e s t he onl i ne t r a f f i c r e s ul t i ng f r om t he S e l f E s t e e m c o m m e r c i a l ( N e f f 2006 ) T he s a m pl e t i m e f r a m e m a y e xpl a i n t he f oc us on t he S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l i n f o r um di a l ogue T he t i m e pe r i od s e l e c t e d, w hi l e a ppr opr i a t e f or t he s t udy obj e c t i ve s pl a c e s a n e m pha s i s on t he pe r i od of t i m e f ol l ow i ng t he S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l T he pos t i n g s a m pl e s pa ns f r om t he l a unc h of t he f o r um on F e br ua r y 1, 2006 ove r a one ye a r pe r i od t o F e b r ua r y 1 2007 S i nc e t he S upe r B ow l a dve r t i s e m e nt w a s a i r e d na t i ona l l y on F e br ua r y 5, 2006, t he s a m pl e c ont a i ne d a f ul l ye a r o f pos t i ng r e s pons e s pot e nt i a l l y r e l e va nt t o t he S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l A l t e r na t i ve l y t he vi r a l vi de o w a s l a unc he d i n O c t obe r 2006 a l l ow i ng f o r onl y f i ve m o nt hs of pot e nt i a l l y r e l e va nt f or u m r e s pons e s i n t he s e l e c t e d s a m pl e T a bl e 4 3 T he C F R B T a c t i c s P o s i t i v e t o n a l i t y N e u t r a l t o n a l i t y N e g a t i v e t o n a l i t y T a c t i c T o t a l f r e q u e n c y ( f r e q ) P e r c e n t ( % ) o f o n t o p i c p o s t i n g s F r e q P e r c e n t ( %) o f p o s t i n g s c o d e d f o r t a c t i c P e r c e n t ( %) o f o n t o p i c p o s t i n g s F r e q P e r c e n t ( % ) o f p o s t i n g s c o d e d f o r t a c t i c P e r c e n t ( % ) o f o n t o p i c p o s t i n g s F r e q P e r c e n t ( % ) o f p o s t i n g s c o d e d f o r t a c t i c P e r c e n t ( % ) o f o n t o p i c p o s t i n g s S e l f E s t e e m c o m m e r c i a l 3 7 1 3 6 3 3 3 4 9 0 0 3 2 7 2 1 5 7 2 1 1 6 4 3 1 6 G e n e r a l C a m p a i g n 2 1 4 2 1 0 2 0 2 9 4 4 1 9 8 6 2 8 < 1 6 2 8 < 1 D o v e E v o l u t i o n 6 3 6 2 5 2 8 2 5 5 1 9 1 4 3 < 1 2 3 2 < 1 C F R B W e b s i t e 5 0 4 9 3 8 7 6 0 3 7 9 1 8 0 < 1 3 6 0 < 1 S e l f E s t e e m F u n d 3 4 3 3 3 2 9 4 1 3 1 2 5 9 < 1 0 0 0 0 0 R e a l W o m e n 2 4 2 4 2 2 9 1 7 2 2 1 4 2 < 1 1 4 2 < 1 T o t a l * * * P os t i ngs w e r e c ode d f o r m ul t i pl e t a c t i c s ; t he r e f o r e t ot a l s do not e qua l 100 %

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46 T he pr e c e di ng r e s ul t s r e ve a l D ove s a c hi e ve m e nt s w i t h t he C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y t hr ough t he r e l e va nt r e s e a r c h que s t i ons A ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on on a udi e nc e opi n i on w a s gl e a ne d t hr oughout t he c odi ng pr oc e s s T he r e s e a r c he r w a s a bl e t o hi gh l i ght s e ve r a l not a bl e t r e nds i n t he pos i t i ve t ona l i t y a nd p r a i s e pos t i ngs a s w e l l a s pot e nt i a l a r e a s of gr ow t h f o r t he or ga ni z a t i on a nd c a m pa i gn. P os i t i ve T on al i t y an d P r ai s e T r e n d s P e r s on al l y I n s p i r i n g: E m ot i on al R e s p on s e s M a ny of t he pos t i ngs c ode d a s pe r s ona l l y i ns pi r i ng i nc l ude d a n e m ot i ona l r e s pons e by t he pos t e r s s om e of w hom a dm i t t e d t o ha vi ng be e n m ove d t o t e a r s by t he c a m pa i gn. E xp r e s s i ons of gr a t i t ude t ow a r ds t he o r ga ni z a t i on f o r c r e a t i ng t he c a m pa i gn w e r e a l s o c om m on. D ove l ove t ypi f i e d by p os t e r s de c l a r i ng t he i r a ppr e c i a t i on f or t he or ga ni z a t i on, w a s a l s o pr e s e nt a t t i m e s i nc l udi ng pos t e r s s t a t e m e nt s t ha t t he c a m pa i gn w a s l i f e c ha ngi ng f o r t he m A s pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w A l s op ( 2004) r e c ogni z e s t he i m pa c t of e m ot i ona l a ppe a l on de ve l opi ng a nd m a i nt a i ni ng a pos i t i ve c or por a t e r e put a t i on I f you a r e i n r e t a i l i ng or a l m os t a ny c us t om e r o r i e nt e d bus i ne s s c r e a t i ng e m ot i ona l a ppe a l w i t h you r c us t om e r s c a n m a ke a n e nor m ous di f f e r e nc e T he pa s s i on pe opl e f e e l a bout your c om pa ny pl a ys a n i nva l ua bl e r ol e i n s ha pi ng r e put a t i on ( A l s op, 2 004, p 101) T he D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y i s a c om m uni c a t i on c a m pa i gn r oo t e d i n de ve l opi ng a nd nur t u r i n g t ha t e l us i ve e m ot i ona l s pa r k w i t h i t s publ i c s a c onne c t i on t ha t m a ke s s om e r e put a t i ons s oa r a nd ne ve r l os e a l t i t ude a nd pr oduc e s a n i nt e ns e l oya l t y t ha t s houl d be pr ot e c t e d a t a l l c os t s ( A l s op, 2004 p 104 105) T he f ol l ow i ng s e l e c t i ons a r e e xa m pl e s of t hi s t ype of e m ot i ona l c onne c t i on w i t h t he D ove or ga ni z a t i on.

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47 I l ove t he [ S e l f E s t e e m ] c om m e r c i a l ; I l ove i t be c a us e I c a n r e l a t e t o i t I c a n s e e m ys e l f i n i t unl i ke ot he r c om m e r c i a l s w he r e t he y ha ve s upe r m ode l s a nd be a ut i f ul w om e n t r yi ng t o s e l l a pr oduc t I t 's a good s t e p t ow a r ds he l pi ng y oung w om e n f e e l good a bout t he m s e l ve s T ha nk you s o m uc h f or f i na l l y he a r i ng t he voi c e o f w om e n a c r os s t he w or l d. T ha nk you f or m a ki ng us f e e l be a ut i f ul ( P o s t i ng I D 02062006: 1651 ) [ H ] e r e I s i t a t m y c om put e r 1a m [ s i c ] i n t he m o r ni ng a nd i m [ s i c ] c r y i ng I m i s s e d t he s upe r bow l c om e r i c a l [ s i c ] but i t ha nk m s n t ha t i t w a s pos t e d on m y c om put e r a nd i w a s a bl e t o e xpe r i e nc e t he pow e r of t he s e l i t t l e gi r l s uns poke n w or ds a nd f e e l t he i r e m ot i ona l pa i n of ne ve r r e a l l y m e a s ur i ng up t o s om e one e l e s [ s i c ] e xpe c a t a t i ons [ s i c ] of be a ut y i w a s s o ve r y m ove d a l m os t a r e l i gous [ s i c ] e xpe r i e nc e f o r m e [ ] T H A N K Y O U D O V E ! ( P os t i ng I D 02072006: 0409) I A M I N L O V E W I T H D O V E t he f i r s t t i m e i s a w t he c om m e r c i a l i s t a r t e d c r yi ng. w he n i s a w t he pi c t ur e s i n t he m a ga z i ne i r i ppe d i t out a nd put i t i n m y l oc ke r i l ove i t s o m uc h, i m [ s i c ] s o s i c k of gi r l s t ha t w e i gh one pound be i ng o n t he c ove r o f m a ga z i ne s t ha nks d ove f or w ha t your doi n g. i l ove i t a l l ( P os t i ng I D 0207 2006: 1705) W or ds c a nnot de s c r i be t he pow e r a nd i m pa c t t hi s c a m pa i gn a nd i t s c om m e r c i a l s m a y ha ve on our p r e s e nt c ul t ur e I a m t hr i l l e d a t t hi s T R U T H t ha t c a n f i na l l y i m pa c t i ns pi r e m ot i va t e a nd e n c our a ge f e m a l e s of t he a m a z i ng b e a ut y t he y pos s e s on t he i ns i de a nd out M a y t hi s br i ng t he be gi nni ngs of c ha nge t o our e nt i r e ge ne r a t i on, r a i s i ng up w om e n of hi ghe r s t r e ngt h a nd di gni t y ( P os t i ng I D 02102006: 2003) [ H ] e y dove i a m 16. i s uf f e r f r om bul i m i a no on e not m y f r i e nds or f a m i l y know t he y a l l t hi nk i a m j us t l os i ng w e i ght t h r u [ s i c ] di e t a nd e xe r c i s e i s a w your ne w c om m e r c i a l j us t a m om e nt a go be f or e i w a s a bout t o go t o t he ba t hr oom a nd pu r ge i w a s s o m ove d t ha t i c r i e d f or qui t e a w hi l e a nd i ve [ s i c ] de c i de d t o s e e k he l p f or m y p r obl e m t ha nk you r [ s i c ] s o m uc h f o r t h i s i a m s o g r a t e f ul i hope t ha t e ve r y gi r l i n t he w or l d l e a r ns t ha t s he i s be a ut i f ul t hr u [ s i c ] t hi s c a m pa i gn. t ha nks a ga i n s ooooo m uc h ( P os t i ng I D 02122006: 2253) [ I ] m s o gl a d i w e nt on t hi s w e b s i ght [ s i c ] i l uv [ s i c ] dove Y ou c ha nge d m y l i f e l i f e 4 e va [ s i c ] ! ( P os t i ng I D 03042006: 1725) I a m t r ul y t ha nk f ul f or dove [ ] R e a l be a ut y i s r a r e l y c e l e br a t e d i n t hi s w or l d a nd s houl d be hi ghl y va l ue d. T hi s i s w hy I t h a nke d G od a nd d ove f or t hi s c ha nge ( P os t i ng I D 04192006: 2203) I w a nt t o s a y t ha nk you f or s how i ng t hi s pr oc e s s [ i n t he D ove E vol ut i on v i de o] I c a nnot t e l l you t he i m pa c t i t ha s ha d on m e a nd I 'm g r a t e f ul t ha t you c r e a t e d a f i l m t ha t t e l l s m i l l i ons of pe o pl e ( w i t hout ut t e r i ng a s i ngl e w or d ) how I f e e l w he n I l ook a t a pi c t ur e o f t he pe r f e c t w om e n w e s e e i n m a ga z i ne s I l ook m o r e l i ke t he gi r l a t t he be gi nni ng t ha n t he one a t t he e nd a nd I a ppr e c i a t e you gi v i ng m e s om e one I c a n r e l a t e t o be f o r e a nd a f t e r ( P os t i ng I D 10162006: 0131)

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48 P os i t i ve M e s s age s : P os i t i ve I m age s of Wo m e n a n d R e al A d ve r t i s i n g P r a i s e f or pos i t i ve m e s s a ge s e m e r ge d i n t he t op t w o m os t popul a r t opi c s of p r a i s e r e l a t e d pos t i n gs c om pr i s i ng ove r ha l f o f a l l pr a i s e pos t i ng s W i t hi n t hi s s ub a t t r i but e c a t e gor y t he r e w e r e m a ny pos t e r s w ho pr a i s e d D ove a nd t he C F R B f or t he us e of r e a l a dve r t i s i ng t ha t de pi c t e d w om e n i n a pos i t i ve m a nne r M a ny pos t e r s s t a t e d t ha t t he y w i s he d t he c a m pa i gn ha d be e n a va i l a bl e f or t he m a s young w om e n ( e g I w i s h D ove ha d r un t hi s c a m pa i gn 30 ye a r s a go, P os t i ng I D 03172006: 0007) but a ppr e c i a t e d t ha t a r e s our c e s uc h a s t he C F R B e xi s t e d f or t oda y s gi r l s a nd young w om e n. M a ur e e n S hi r r e f f O gl i vy & M a t he r s C r e a t i ve D i r e c t or on t he c a m pa i gn, r e c ogni z e d t he f oc us on a dve r t i s i ng t o a nd f o r w om e n i n a w e bc a s t i nt e r vi e w ( P R W e e k. c om ) D ove i s a ge nde r ba s e d pr oduc t T he s e a r e pr oduc t s f or w om e n. A l l t he r e s e a r c h t ha t w e c onduc t e d, a nd a l l t he w or k t ha t w e ve done r e a l l y r e vol ve s a r ound unc ove r i ng t he w a ys t ha t a dve r t i s i ng be a ut y a dve r t i s i ng ha s be e n pr e s e nt e d t o w om e n a nd w he r e w e m i ght be a bl e t o e xpa nd t ha t of f e r i ng a l i t t l e b i t T he f ol l ow i ng pos t i ngs pr a i s e t he D ove o r ga ni z a t i on s f oc us on de l i v e r i ng pos i t i ve m e s s a ge s f or a dul t w om e n yout h a nd gi r l s i n t he i r a dve r t i s i ng a nd ot he r c om m uni c a t i ons I t hi nk t hi s i s s uc h a n a m a z i ng c a m pa i gn a nd t he m os t w onde r f ul i de a f or our be a ut i f ul young da ught e r s [ ] T ha nk you D O V E f or r e a c hi ng out a nd unde r s t a ndi ng. I l ove you! ( P os t i ng I D 02152006: 1920) I a m s o ha ppy t o s e e a c om pa ny t a ke a n e a r l y i nt e r e s t i n t he l i ve s a nd e m ot i ona l he a l t h o f our gi r l s I be l i e ve t hi s c a m pa i gn w i l l he l p bot h yo ung a nd ol de r ( P os t i ng I D 02222006: 1818) E ve r y young gi r l i n t he w or l d ne e ds t o s e e t hi s c o m m e r c i a l T he C a m pa i gn F o r R e a l B e a ut y i s a w onde r f ul s e l f e s t e e m boos t e r T ha nks D ove ( P os t i ng I D 03042006: 0907 ) I a m s o gl a d t o s e e t hi s a dve r t i s i ng be c a us e i t not o nl y t e a c he s gi r l s a bout f e e l i ng good a bout t he m s e l ve s but i t a l s o t e a c he s boys t ha t be a ut i f ul i s m o r e t ha n l ooks ( P os t i ng I D 02082006: 1627) I a m s o ha ppy t ha t a c om m e r c i a l l i ke t hi s e xi s t s i n m a i ns t r e a m m e di a a nd put s t he m e s s a ge out t he r e a bout how e l e m e nt s i n ou r c ul t u r e a f f e c t e ve n t he younge s t f e m a l e s I w a s e x t r e m e l y ha ppy t o s e e i t dur i ng t he S upe r bow l [ s i c ] a m ong a l l t he be e r a nd c a r

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49 c om m e r i c a l s [ s i c ] [ ] I t h i nk t hi s c om m e r c i a l a n d t he r e s t o f t he c a m pa i gn i s t he s t e p i n t he r i ght di r e c t i on t ow a r ds pos i t i ve a nd di ve r s e i m a ge s of w om e n i n a dve r t i s i ng. I a l s o t hi nk i t i s a w onde r f ul m e c ha ni s m t o a f f e c t w om e n of t he f ut u r e ( P os t i ng I D 02082006: 1727) I a m s ur e t ha t you f a c e d a pa ne l o f doubt e r s w he n t hi s A D c a m pa i gn w a s f i r s t pi t c he d ( ha l f na ke d N O R M A L w om e n? ) ; but D ove 's S e l f E s t e e m c a m pa i gn i s w or ki ng i t 's m or e t ha n pos i t i ve a dve r t i s i ng, i t i s pos i t i ve t hi nki ng! W ho kne w t ha t one ba r o f s oa p c oul d be s o r e vol ut i ona r y? ( P os t i ng I D 04242006: 2146) I t hi nk i t 's s o a w e s om e f or D ove t o r un t he s e a ds T he y'r e t e l l i ng a l l w om e n young a nd o l d t ha t i t 's ok t o l ook t he w a y you do. [ ] W hi l e D ov e i s us i ng t he s e [ R e a l ] w om e n t o s e l l t he i r pr oduc t s t he m e s s a ge i s e ve n m or e i m por t a nt [ ] T ha nks D ove f or f i na l l y br i ng i ng a dve r t i s i ng t o a R E A L l e ve l ( P os t i ng I D 0427200 6: 1044) W ha t a w onde r f ul i ni t i a t i ve F i na l l y a c om pa ny i s t a r ge t i ng t o r e a l pe opl e r e a l hum a n be i ngs not buyi ng m a c hi ne s A ppl a us e A ppl a us e . [ s i c ] A ppl a us e ( P os t i ng I D 10132006: 1728) I ha ve ne ve r i n m y l i f e pos t e d s e nt a l e t t e r t o a c e l e br i t y, j oi ne d a f a n c l ub, or r e s ponde d t o a n a dve r t i s i ng c a m pa i gn. e ve r H ow e ve r f or s e ve r a l m ont hs now I 've be e n s e e i ng a l l o f t he s e r e a l w om e n" i n t he D ove c om m e r c i a l s on b i l l boa r ds e t c a nd e ve r y s i ngl e t i m e I s e e t he m I t hi nk t he y a r e s t unni ng. I 'm s o c om f or t a bl e w i t h t he s e i m a ge s a nd c a n t ot a l l y r e l a t e t o t he m I t 's a w onde r t ha t i t ha s t a ke n s o l on g f or a bi g c om pa ny t o f i na l l y u t i l i z e i t 's e xa c t c us t om e r ba s e t o a dve r t i s e i t s pr oduc t s goo d j ob D ove K e e p t he r e a l l y be a ut i f ul pe opl e c om i ng, i t 's w ha t w e l ove t o s e e ( P os t i ng I D 10212006: 0810) T ha n k you D ove f or put t i ng out a ds t ha t s how w om e n i n s om e t hi ng ot he r t ha n a s i z e 1 a nd a bl a nk s t a r e ( P os t i ng I D 11022006 : 1934) S oc i al R e s p on s i b i l i t y A r ge nt i a nd D r uc ke nm i l l e r ( 2004 ) o f f e r a s t a t e m e nt on t he e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f r i e ndl y ba t h a nd s ki n c a r e r e t a i l e r T he B ody S hop w hi c h s i m i l a r l y a ppl i e s t o D ove s e m pha s i s on c o r por a t e s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y i n t he i r s pons or s hi p of t he S e l f E s t e e m F und a nd r e l e va nt c om m uni c a t i ons T he a ut hor s not e t ha t s om e c us t om e r s m a y be w i l l i ng t o pa y $3 00 f or a ba r of s oa p, know i ng t ha t s om e of t he m one y i s goi ng t o a w or t hy c a us e B ut m or e i m por t a nt l y i t i s be c a us e T he B ody S hop's c om m i t m e nt t o t he e nvi r onm e nt w a s s o i nt e gr a l t o t he 's oul of t he bus i ne s s i t s e l f i t w a s a l s o ve r y c r e di bl e t o c ons um e r s w hi c h c ont r i but e d t o t he c om pa ny's s t r ong r e put a t i on ( A r ge nt i & D r uc ke nm i l l e r 2004 p 373 ) T he f ol l ow i ng pos t i ng s e l e c t i ons i ndi c a t e t ha t D ove s

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50 c om m i t m e nt t o s e l f e s t e e m bui l di ng pr og r a m s a nd c om m uni c a t i ons vi a t he C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y i s r e c o gni z e d by i t s onl i ne c ons um e r s a s a n e s s e nt i a l a nd ge nui ne f ounda t i on t o t he c om pa ny. K udos t o D ove a nd t he G i r l S c out s of A m e r i c a f or t a ki ng s uc h a publ i c s t a nd a ga i ns t s uc h a s oc i a l l y i nva s i ve i s s ue a s t he s e l f e s t e e m of our y out h, s o m a ny of w hom s uf f e r f r om t hi s di s t or t e d s e ns e of s e l f [ ] I a m t r ul y pl e a s e d w i t h t he s uc c e s s of t he c a m pa i gn ove r t he pa s t f e w ye a r s a nd t he da r i ng c hoi c e of a i r i ng t he U ni que l y M e c om m e r c i a l a t t he m os t unl i ke l y t i m e a nd t o s uc h a d i a m e t r i c a l l y oppos e d a udi e nc e a s one w oul d t ypi c a l l y e xpe c t dur i ng t he S upe r B ow l ( P os t i ng I D 0205206: 2012 ) T he r e ne e d t o [ be ] m or e c om pa ni e s l i ke dove t ha t a c c e pt r e s pons i bl i t y [ s i c ] f or t he a ds t he y us e t o m a r ke t t he i r pr oduc t s ( P os t i ng I D 02082006 : 1406) I j us t w i s h t he r e w e r e m o r e c om pa n i e s out t he r e l i ke you w ho c a r e e nough a bout m a ki ng t he w or l d a be t t e r pl a c e T ha t s [ s i c ] w ha t you a r e d oi ng w i t h t hi s c a m pa i gn. I m [ s i c ] gl a d a nd pr oud t o buy you r p r oduc t s a nd s uppor t w ha t y ou a r e doi ng T ha nk you ( P os t i ng I D 02112006: 2037) I a m a m ot he r o f a young gi r l a nd ha ve be e n c onc e r ne d w i t h t he c ons t a nt c om m e r c i a l s a nd T V s how s t ha t m a ke m os t pe opl e f e e l ugl y or l e s s t ha n. S o I a m e ve r s o ha ppy t ha t a l a r ge c om pa ny ha s t a ke n ow ne r s hi p i n t r yi ng t o c or r e c t t he di s t r uc t i on [ s i c ] t ha t s oc i e t y ha s c r e a t e d. I ha ve us e d D ove s oa p f or a bout 10 ye a r s a nd now I pl a n t o us e t he i r p r oduc t s e ve n m or e I ha ve dow n l oa de d t he o r de r f or m a nd w i l l t e l l e ve r yone a bout t he gr e a t ne w s T ha nk you D ove f or a c know l e dgi ng a l l be a ut y ( P o s t i ng I D 04242006: 1820 ) [ I ] t ha s l i f t e d m y s pi r i t s a nd gi ve n m e hope t ha t s o m e c om pa ni e s t a ke t he i r s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t i e s s e r i ous l y, know t he R E A L e f f e c t t he y ha ve on t he i r c ons um e r s a nd c a r e s o i 'd l i ke t o s a y a ve r y s i nc e r e t ha nk you t o dove a nd t he f ounde r s o f t hi s c a m pa i gn i ha v e s how n e ve r yone i know t hi s w e bs i t e ( P os t i ng I D 05122006: 0312 ) B r i l l i a nt W e l l done D ove i t i s a bout t i m e a c o m pa ny c a m e up w i t h a n a d c a m pa i gn a s pr ogr e s s i ve a s t hi s Y ou ha ve done s om e t hi ng t ha t nobody e l s e c a n do f o r t he i r br a nd you ha ve l i nke d t he na m e D ove t o s oc i a l c ha nge a nd i m pr ovi ng s e l f e s t e e m T ha t i s e nough t o m a ke m e buy your pr oduc t s f or l i f e K e e p i t up! ( P os t i ng I D 1101 2006: 1341) P ot e n t i al A r e as f or G r ow t h : O n l i n e C on s u m e r s C r i t i c i s m a n d S u gge s t i on s W hi l e pos t i ngs w i t h ne ga t i ve ove r a l l t ona l i t y, t a c t i c s pe c i f i c ne ga t i ve t ona l i t y, a nd c a m pa i gn c r i t i c i s m ha d not a bl y l ow f r e que nc y, i nv a l ua bl e s ugge s t i ons w e r e m a de a va i l a bl e f r om t he s e pos t i ngs T he t hr e e m a i n a r e a s of c r i t i c i s m w e r e ne a r l y i ne xt r i c a bl y c l os e i n f r e que nc y. C r i t i c i s m f or l a c k of r a c i a l di ve r s i t y i n c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s ( 25. 5% o f c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs ) a nd l a c k of

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51 a t t e nt i on pa i d t o t he s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s of boys / young m e n ( 23 6% of c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs ) c o nt r i but e d t o t he onl y ne ga t i ve t op s i x pe r s ona l i t y s ub di m e ns i on r e pr e s e nt e d, S nobbe r y ( 9 5% of s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ) C r i t i c i s m o f t he c a m pa i gn a s a m a ni pul a t i ve m a r ke t i ng pl oy ( 21. 8% of c r i t i c i s m pos t i ngs ) c ont r i but e d t o t he f e w pos t i ngs c ode d f or t h e s ub di m e ns i on D om i na nc e ( 1. 5 % o f s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ) L ac k of D i ve r s i t y C r i t i c i s m f or l a c k of di ve r s i t y i s a n i s s ue t ha t D ove s houl d a ddr e s s i n f ut u r e c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s P os t i ng c r i t i c i s m s i nc l ude d pos i t i ve s ugge s t i ons a s w e l l a s ne ga t i ve c r i t i que of t he or ga ni z a t i on a s e l i t i s t ( r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he S nobbe r y s ub di m e ns i on) T he f ol l ow i ng s e l e c t i ons a r e e xa m pl e s of bot h t ype s of pos t i ngs I l ove d t he c om m e r c i a l [ ] B ut i t w oul d ha ve be e n e xt r a r e f r e s hi ng t o s e e a da r ke r c om pl e xi on e d gi r l i n t he a d m a ybe s om e one of A f r i c a n, C a r r i be a n [ s i c ] or e ve n A s i a n I ndi a n or i gi n S om e of t he i s s ue s gi r l s ha ve w i t h s e l f e s t e e m i nvol ve s ki n c ol o r a nd ha i r t e xt ur e ( P os t i ng I D 02072006: 1933 ) I a ppr e c i a t e t he i de a of t he f und but w oul d ha ve l i k e d t o s e e s om e bl a c k gi r l s i n t he c om m e r c i a l I t gi ve s t he pe r c e pt i on t ha t m os t l y yo ung w hi t e gi r l s a r e be a ut i f ul a nd w or t h he i ght e ni ng t he i r s e l f e s t e e m ( P os t i ng I D 0205200 6: 1933) I w a t c he d t he a d dur i ng t he ga m e a nd t he n onl i ne a nd I s e e no da r ks ki nne d gi r l s a t a l l W a y t o go f o r di ve r s i t y! ( P os t i ng I D 02062006: 0057) D oe s n't a ppe a r t o be t o m e I 'm 15 a nd w a s w onde r i ng w hy t he r e w a s e ve r yt hi ng s how n e xc e pt f or B l a c k! ( P os t i ng I D 02062006: 0126 ) L ac k of C am p a i gn A t t e n t i o n t o B oys an d Y ou n g M e n W hi l e t he or ga ni z a t i on r e a di l y e xpl a i ns t he f oc us o n young w om e n a nd gi r l s i n t he c i t e d w e bc a s t i nt e r vi e w a nd c a m pa i gn s um m a r i e s s om e pos t e r s e xpr e s s e d t he ne e d f or s i m i l a r c a m pa i gn a t t e nt i on pa i d t ow a r ds young m e n a nd b oys T he pos t e r de m ogr a phi c i n f or m a t i on pr ovi de s s uppor t f o r D ove s f oc us on young, f e m a l e c ons um e r s ( or pot e nt i a l f ut u r e c ons um e r s ) ; 82. 5 pe r c e nt o f a l l pos t e r s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s f e m a l e a nd 52. 3 pe r c e nt of a ge i de nt i f i a bl e pos t i ngs

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52 w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s t e e na ge r s I n r e s pons e t o c om m e nt s s i m i l a r t o t he f ol l ow i ng pos t i ngs D ove m a y c ons i de r e m pha s i z i ng i nf or m a t i on de t a i l i ng t h e r e s e a r c h ba s e d i m pe t us of t he c a m pa i gn on t he C F R B W e b s i t e [ T ] hi s i s s a dl y a r a t he r na r r ow m i nde d [ S e l f E s t e e m ] a d, s ugge s t i n g t ha t onl y young w om e n f a c e s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s D ove i s not a f e m a l e or i e nt e d pr od uc t a nd t he c a m pa i gns s houl d i nc l ude c ons i de r a t i on of t he i r m a l e c ount e r pa r t s ( P os t i ng I D 02052006: 1931b) I l ove t he a d, but w i s h i t a l s o i nc l ude d a boy or t w o. P ube r t y i s s uc h a f r a gi l e s t a ge i n a young pe r s on's l i f e a nd bo t h s e xe s s t r uggl e w i t h s e l f i m a ge / s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s ( P os t i ng I D 02082006: 0757) I w a nt t o s e e s om e r e a l m e n a s w e l l w e c oul s [ s i c ] a l l us e a boos t t o ou r s e l f i m a ge ( P os t i ng I D 02092006: 0129) M ar k e t i n g P l oy C r i t i c i s m a ga i ns t t he c a m pa i gn a s a m a r ke t i ng pl o y m a y not ne e d t o be a ddr e s s e d di r e c t l y vi a c ha nge s t o t he c a m pa i gn, t hough i t i s a p i e c e of i nf or m a t i on r e l e va nt t o a udi e nc e opi ni on t ha t s houl d be a c know l e dge d i nt e r na l l y by t he or ga n i z a t i on. T he f ol l ow i ng pos t i ngs a r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t hos e c r i t i qu i ng t he c a m pa i gn a s s a l e s or i e nt e d. [ A ] t hough t hi s c a m pa i gn i s a s t e p i n t he r i ght di r e c t i on, you've got t o r e m e m be r i t 's s t i l l a n a d t ha t a t t he e nd of t he da y a i m s t o i nc r e a s e s a l e s of do ve be a ut y p r oduc t s i t pur po r t s t o be a bout r e a l be a ut y a nd i t c e r t a i nl y ha s a m or e di ve r s e r a nge of body s i z e s e t c t ha n a ny c onve nt i ona l a dve r t i s i ng i 've s e e n but i t S T I L L p ut s w om e n i n na r r ow c a t e gor i e s of be a ut y none o f t he m ode l s a r e T H A T d i f f e r e n t f r om c ul t ur a l no r m s ( P os t i ng I D 04162006: 0736) [ S ] e l f e s t e e m i s gr e a t but i dont [ s i c ] t hi nk t he ke y t o s e l f e s t e e m s houl d be buyi ng dove pr oduc t s w a y t o c a pi t a l i z e on i ns e c ur i t i e s t hr ough r e ve r s e ps yc hol ogy ( be nny a nd t he j e t s 02/ 06/ 2006) 1 2 A d d i t i on a l S u gge s t i on s T he pos t i ngs r e vi e w e d pr ovi de d m a ny s ugge s t i ons f or t he f u t ur e o f D ove s C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y. T he f o l l ow i ng s ugge s t i ons w e r e ga r n e r e d f r om t he pos t i ng s a m pl e 1 2 T h i s e x a m p l e w a s n o t p a r t o f t h e p o s t i n g s a m p l e a n d a s s u c h d o e s n o t h a v e a P o s t i n g I D n u m b e r

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53 M ode r at or : S ugge s t i ons t o i nt r oduc e a n a c t i ve m o de r a t o r t o t he S e l f E s t e e m F o r um i n or de r t o pr e ve nt hos t i l e o r i na pp r opr i a t e c om m e nt s f r om be i ng pos t e d T he r e a r e young l a di e s he r e f or a ve r y i m por t a nt r e a s on t he y a r e r e a c hi ng out hopi ng t o de ve l op a m or e pos i t i ve a t t i t ude a bout t h e m s e l ve s a nd l i f e P l e a s e don't r ui n i t f or t he m a nym o r e t ha n you a l r e a dy ha ve [ ] I w r ot e dove a nd s ugge s t e d ha vi ng a m ode r a t or i nvol ve d on t hi s s i t e i t j us t ha s got t e n a l i t t l e unc om f o r t a bl e i n he r e ( P os t i ng I D 02072006: 2208) O ppor t uni t i e s f or i nv ol v e m e nt : S ugge s t i ons t o m a ke a va i l a bl e oppor t uni t i e s f o r ha nds on i nvol ve m e nt i n t he S e l f E s t e e m F und p r ogr a m s i n a ddi t i on t o t he f i na nc i a l s uppor t oppor t uni t i e s a l r e a dy pr e s e nt e d. H ow c a n I ge t i nvol ve d i n t he c a m pa i gn? ( P os t i ng I D 02142006: 1048) A ge i s m : S ugge s t i ons t o i nc l ude s e l f e s t e e m a w a r e ne s s f oc us e d on a ge r e l a t e d i s s ue s I a l w a ys t hought m y m ot he r 's a gi ng f a c e w a s be a ut i f ul but I know s he di dn' t I hope D ove c a n a ddr e s s t hi s e nd of t he popul a t i on s pe c t r um a l s o ( P os t i ng I D 10242006: 1900) C or p or at e R e p u t at i o n M e as u r e m e n t R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on ( R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on 5 ) R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on 5 B as e d on t he appl i c at i on of c or por at e pe r s onal i t y di m e ns i ons f ound i n t he D ov e Se l f E s t e e m F or um c om m e nt s c an c ons um e r ge ne r at e d c ont e nt ( v i a onl i ne f or um or w e bl og c om m e nt ar y ) be ut i l i z e d as an e f f e c t i v e c or por at e r e put at i on m e as ur e m e nt t ool and a v i abl e al t e r nat i v e t o c ur r e nt m e as ur e m e nt m e t hods pr i m ar i l y i nc l udi ng s ur v e y bas e d r ank i ng s y s t e m s ? T he vi a bi l i t y of c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt a s a s our c e of c or po r a t e r e put a t i on da t a a s de t a i l e d i n t hi s s t udy de pe nds i n pa r t on t he p r e s e nc e of t he C or po r a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e di m e ns i ons i n f or um di a l ogue I n s uppor t of t he ne w c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e a l a r ge num be r of s a m pl e pos t i ngs i ndi c a t e d t he us e of c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y s ub di m e ns i ons i de nt i f i a bl e by t hi r d pa r t y a na l ys i s A t ot a l o f 227 pos t i ngs r e f e r e nc e d one or m or e o f D a vi e s e t a l s ( 2003 ) c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y s ub di m e ns i ons T hi s r e pr e s e nt s 35. 2 pe r c e nt of t he on t opi c t ot a l

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54 e xc l udi ng t he 377 pos t i ngs c ode d a s ge ne r a l be a ut y/ s e l f e s t e e m di s c us s i on ( 644) 1 3 I t s houl d be r e c ogni z e d t ha t i n R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 3, t he da t a f o c us e s on t he t ot a l num be r of s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ( 262) w hi l e R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 5 a dd r e s s e s t he t ot a l num be r of pos t i ngs w i t h s ub di m e ns i on r e f e r e nc e s ( 227) I t i s t he l a t t e r f i gur e w hi c h pr ovi de s a m e a s ur e of how r e a di l y i ndi vi dua l onl i ne f or um m e m be r s pr ovi de de s c r i pt i ons of c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y w i t hi n a c om put e r m e di a t e d c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt a r e na W i t h ove r one t hi r d o f on t opi c pos t i ngs t ha t r e f e r e nc e d t he f e a t ur e d or ga ni z a t i on or c a m pa i gn ha vi ng be e n c ode d f o r t he p r e s e nc e of a t l e a s t one of t he l i s t e d s ub di m e ns i ons t he m e a s ur e m e nt t ool a nd i t s us e o f t he C or po r a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e a ppe a r s t o e m e r ge a s vi a bl e m e a s ur e m e nt t ool T he pr e va l e nc e of t he s e c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i ons pr ovi de s e vi de nc e a s t o t he c om m on us e o f i de nt i f i a bl e pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i ons i n c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt w i t hi n t hi s s t udy s e t t i ng. F ur t he r d i s s e c t i on of t he vi a bi l i t y of t he i ns t r um e nt i nc l udi ng a c om pa r i s on w i t h t he e xi s t i ng m e a s ur e m e nt s t a nda r d c a n be f ound i n t he di s c us s i on s e c t i on ( C ha pt e r 5) 1 3 T h e d e c i s i o n t o s u b t r a c t g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n p o s t i n g s f r o m t h e t o t a l o f o n t o p i c p o s t i n g s w a s m a d e i n o r d e r t o g a i n a m o r e a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e o f t h e u s e c o r p o r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y s u b d i m e n s i o n s i n p o s t i n g s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r c a m p a i g n W h i l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p o s t i n g s c o d e d a s b o t h c a m p a i g n o r i e n t e d ( p r a i s e o r c r i t i c i s m ) a n d g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n c e n t e r e d i t d o e s n o t a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e i s a n y i n f l u e n c e o n t h e d a t a b y e x c l u d i n g g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n p o s t i n g s d u e t o a ) t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f c o m b i n e d c a m p a i g n a n d g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n p o s t i n g s ( a t o t a l o f 1 4 ) ; a n d b ) t h e e x a m i n a t i o n a n d j u d g m e n t o f a l l 1 4 p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f l i c t i n g p o s t i n g s a s n o t p o s s e s s i n g a n y o f t h e l i s t e d c o r p o r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s

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55 C H A P T E R 5 D I S C U S S I O N I m p l i c at i on s f or C or p or at e R e p u t a t i on M e as u r e m e n t B a s e d on t he s t udy a t ha nd, t he r e s e a r c he r a r gue s t ha t w hi l e t he p r opos e d c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt t ool m a y not s e r ve a s a r e pl a c e m e nt f or c ur r e nt r a nki ng s ys t e m s i t c a n s e r ve a s a va l ua bl e r e s our c e f or or ga ni z a t i ons i nt e r e s t e d i n de ve l opi ng a m o r e f ul l de t a i l or i e nt e d unde r s t a ndi ng of t he i r c or por a t e r e put a t i o n w i t h a s pe c i f i c a udi e nc e ( onl i ne c ons um e r s ) A s a s uppl e m e nt t o F or t une s M os t A dm i r e d C o m pa ni e s r a nki ngs t he us e of c or po r a t e pe r s ona l i t y m e a s ur e m e nt of onl i ne c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt of f e r s oppor t uni t i e s c ur r e nt l y una va i l a bl e w i t h r e put a t i on r a nki ng s ys t e m s F i r s t t he ne w l y pr opos e d r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt t ool of f e r s m e a s ur e m e nt oppor t uni t i e s f or o r ga ni z a t i ons not f e a t ur e d i n t he F or t une 1000 t he r a nki ng s ys t e m s popul a t i on of i nt e r e s t S m a l l e r or ga ni z a t i ons a nd t hos e s ub he a de d unde r pa r e nt or ga ni z a t i ons a r e c ur r e nt l y una bl e t o m a ke us e of r a nki ng s ys t e m s de pe nde nt on F or t un e 1000 s t a t us T h i s i s s pe c i f i c a l l y a ppl i c a bl e t o D ove a pe r s ona l c a r e b r a nd unde r t he l a r ge r U ni l e ve r or ga ni z a t i on. W hi l e t he F or t une r a nki ngs pr ovi de i nf o r m a t i on f or U ni l e ve r a s a pa r e nt br a nd U ni l e ve r s W e b s i t e boa s t s ove r 400 g l oba l br a nds f a l l i ng i nt o t hr e e c a t e gor i e s f ood, hom e c a r e a nd pe r s ona l c a r e t ha t a r e not i ndi vi dua l l y di s t i ngui s he d i n t he F or t une r a nki ngs D ove i s one o f 11 bi l l i on e u r o U ni l e ve r br a nds w i t h a nnua l r e ve nue gr e a t e r t ha n 1 bi l l i on ( U ni l e ve r c om ) D ue t o c om pa ny s t r uc t ur e F or t une r a nki ngs pr ovi de a br oa d m e a s ur e of c o r p or a t e r e put a t i on f or t he pa r e nt or ga ni z a t i on w i t hout s pe c i f i c f i gu r e s f or t he D ove b r a nd. S e c ond, c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt vi a C G C of f e r s oppor t uni t y f or m or e c us t om i z e d de t a i l t ha n r a nki ng s ys t e m s A s s t a t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w A l s op ( 2004) di s c us s e s t he i m por t a nc e of r e a c hi ng be yond one s i z e f i t s a l l s ur ve ys a nd pe r i odi c a l l y

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56 pe r f or m i ng c us t om i z e d r e s e a r c h. O r ga ni z a t i on s pe c i f i c r e s e a r c h a l l ow s f or t a i l or e d e va l ua t i on of c ur r e nt t i m e s e ns i t i ve or ga ni z a t i on a c t i vi t i e s t ha t m a y ha ve di r e c t a nd i m m e di a t e e f f e c t s on r e put a t i on. A t hi r d a nd f i na l l i m i t a t i on t o r a nki ng s ys t e m s t ha t t he ne w l y p r opos e d c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt t ool ove r c om e s i s t ha t r a nki ng s ys t e m s of f e r c om pa r i s on i nf or m a t i on onl y. F or t une s M os t A dm i r e d l i s t pr ov i de s r a nki ng s t a t us i n r e l a t i on t o i ndus t r y c om pe t i t or s W hi l e va l ua bl e i nf or m a t i on c a n be de r i ve d f r om t h i s da t a i t of f e r s l i t t l e gui da nc e i n w ha t s pe c i f i c c om pa ny a c hi e ve m e nt s c ont r i but e d t o s uc c e s s or w he r e ne c e s s a r y i m pr ove m e nt s s houl d be m a de R e f e r t o T a bl e 5 1 a nd T a bl e 5 2 f or U ni l e ve r s 2006 a nd 2007 F or t une r a nki ng. T a bl e 5 1 F or t une s A m e r i c a s M os t A dm i r e d C om pa ni e s D a t a : U ni l e ve r E i ght ke y a t t r i but e s of r e put a t i on I ndus t r y r a nk ( C ons um e r F ood P r oduc t s ) 2006 I ndus t r y r a nk ( C ons um e r F ood P r oduc t s ) 2007 I nnova t i on 5 5 P e opl e m a na ge m e nt 5 5 U s e of c or por a t e a s s e t s 5 5 S oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y 5 5 Q ua l i t y of m a na ge m e nt 5 5 F i na nc i a l s oundne s s 5 5 L ong t e r m i nve s t m e nt 5 5 Q ua l i t y of p r oduc t s / s e r vi c e s 5 5 D a t a i n T a bl e 5 1 w a s r e t r i e ve d f r om t he C N N M one y. c om T a bl e 5 2 F or t une s A m e r i c a s M os t A dm i r e d C om pa ni e s D a t a : C ons um e r F ood P r oduc t s R a nk C om pa ny O ve r a l l s c or e 2006 2007 2006 2007 1 N e s t l e N e s t l e 7. 97 7. 82 2 P e ps i C o P e ps i C o 7. 83 7. 59 3 G e ne r a l M i l l s G e ne r a l M i l l s 7. 37 7. 16 4 K e l l ogg K e l l ogg 7. 10 6. 80 5 U ni l e ve r U ni l e ve r 6. 54 6. 28 6 H J H e i nz C a m pbe l l S oup 6. 27 5. 99 D a t a i n T a bl e 5 2 w a s r e t r i e ve d f r om C N N M one y. c om

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57 I m p l i c at i on s f or S t r at e gi c P u b l i c R e l at i on s W ha t c a n t hi s s t udy c ont r i but e t o t he body o f publ i c r e l a t i ons a nd c om m uni c a t i ons r e s e a r c h a nd pr a c t i c e ? U s i ng t he D ove o r ga ni z a t i on a nd t he C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y a s a c a s e s t udy, i t i s e vi de nt t ha t t hi s s t udy of f e r s oppor t uni t i e s f or not onl y c or po r a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt but a l s o c a m pa i gn e va l ua t i on U ni l e ve r D ove s S i l ve r A nvi l s um m a r y de t a i l s i t s s t r a t e gi c us e of r e s e a r c h, pl a nni ng e xe c ut i on a nd e va l ua t i on i n t he D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y. Y e t w hi l e t he pr i m a r y c a m pa i gn obj e c t i ve s i de nt i f i e d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e r e vi e w w e r e i nt e r na l l y e va l ua t e d vi a m e di a r e s ul t s be ha vi or c h a nge ( i nc l udi ng vi s i t s t o t he C F R B W e b s i t e ) a nd i ndus t r y i m pa c t t he c u r r e nt s t udy i ns t r um e nt a l l ow s f or t he e va l ua t i on of c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s ne c e s s a r y i n a n ongoi ng a nd gr ow i ng c a m pa i gn. W he n a ddr e s s i ng t he us e of t he s t udy i ns t r um e n t f or c a m pa i gn e va l ua t i on, i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o t ur n t o L i nde nm a nn s ( 2006) a na l ys i s of m e a s ur e m e nt a nd e va l ua t i on r e s e a r c h t ool s a nd t e c hni que s T he a ut hor i de nt i f i e s s e ve r a l m e a s ur e m e nt a r e a s t ha t publ i c r e l a t i ons pr a c t i t i one r s f oc us on i n e va l ua t i on a nd p l a nni ng ( L i nde nm a nn 2006, p 3) T he f o l l ow i ng i t e m s s e l e c t e d by L i nde nm a nn s our c e pr e f e r e nc e i m por t a nc e of m e s s a ge s t a r ge t a udi e nc e opi ni ons a nd m os t e f f e c t i ve c om m uni c a t i ons c ha nne l s i ndi c a t e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of a publ i c r e l a t i ons c a m pa i gn t ha t t he m e a s ur e m e nt i ns t r um e nt pr opos e d i n t hi s s t udy c a n e f f e c t i ve l y m e a s ur e T he c r e di bi l i t y a nd/ or be l i e va bi l i t y o f t he i nf or m a t i on s our c e s ; T he r e l e va nc e a nd ove r a l l i m por t a nc e of t he m e s s a ge s be i ng di s s e m i na t e d; F i ndi ng out a s m uc h a s t he y pos s i bl y c a n a bout t he opi ni ons a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi or pa t t e r ns of t hos e i n t he t a r ge t a udi e nc e gr oups a s t he y r e s pond or do not r e s pond, a s t he c a s e m a y be t o t he va r i ous m e s s a ge s be i ng di s s e m i na t e d; P i npoi nt i ng t he be s t a nd m os t e f f e c t i ve c om m uni c a t i ons c ha nne l s t o us e w he n di s s e m i na t i ng m e s s a g e s

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58 I n a pa pe r publ i s he d f or t he I ns t i t ut e of P ubl i c R e l a t i ons P a i ne ( 2007 ) s t a t e s t ha t s oc i a l m e di a ( c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt ) of f e r s m e a s ur e m e nt oppor t uni t i e s s i m i l a r t o t hos e a va i l a bl e w i t h t r a di t i ona l c om m uni c a t i ons A s w i t h t r a di t i on a l c om m uni c a t i ons m e a s ur e m e nt pr ogr a m s pr a c t i t i one r s c a n m e a s ur e out put s out t ak e s a nd out c om e s ( P a i ne 2007) A c c or di ng t o t he de f i ni t i on l i s t e d i n t he D i c t i ona r y of P ubl i c R e l a t i ons M e a s ur e m e nt a nd R e s e a r c h, t he c ur r e nt s t udy i ns t r um e nt a l l ow s f o r t he un i que m e a s ur e m e nt of ou t t ak e s O ut t a ke s a r e : ( 1) m e a s ur e m e nt of w ha t a udi e nc e s ha ve unde r s t ood a nd/ or he e de d o r r e s ponde d t o a c om m uni c a t i on p r oduc t 's c a l l t o s e e k f ur t he r i nf o r m a t i on f r om P R m e s s a ge s pr i or t o m e a s ur i ng a n out c om e ; ( 2 ) a udi e nc e r e a c t i on t o t he r e c e i pt of a c om m uni c a t i on pr oduc t i nc l udi ng f a vor a bi l i t y o f t he p r oduc t r e c a l l a nd r e t e nt i on of t he m e s s a ge e m be dde d i n t he pr oduc t a nd w he t he r t he a udi e nc e he e de d or r e s ponde d t o a c a l l f or i nf or m a t i on o r a c t i on w i t hi n t h e m e s s a ge ( S t a c ks 2006, a s c i t e d i n P a i ne 2007, p. 5) T he r e s ul t s s e c t i on of t hi s pa pe r e num e r a t e s t he s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s of t he C F R B i de nt i f i e d t hr ough t he c ont e nt a na l ys i s of c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt U s i ng e va l ua t i on r e s e a r c h t e r m i nol ogy, t h e s e r e s ul t s c a n be l a be l e d a s out t a k e s M e a s ur a bl e out t a ke s di s c ove r e d t hr ough t hi s s t udy i nc l ude pr e f e r r e d c am pai gn t ac t i c s ( t he S upe r B ow l S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l ) ; ar e as of e x c e l l e nc e s uc h a s t he e f f e c t i ve de ve l opm e nt of e m ot i ona l r e s pons e s t he e m pl oym e nt of pos i t i ve i m a ge s of w om e n i n a dve r t i s i ng a nd ot he r r e l e va nt c om m uni c a t i ons a nd t he f oc us on s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e m e s s a g e s a nd pr ogr a m s ; a nd a r e as i n ne e d of c ont i nue d gr ow t h p r i m a r i l y i nc l udi ng i nc r e a s e d e m pha s i s on e t hni c a nd r a c i a l di ve r s i t y. I n s um m a r y, i t i s t he f oc us on c us t om i z a bl e de t a i l or i e nt e d a na l ys i s of onl i ne c ons um e r opi ni on t ha t m a ke s t hi s s t udy r e l e va nt f o r bot h c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt a nd publ i c r e l a t i ons c a m pa i gn e va l ua t i on. W he r e publ i c r e l a t i ons pr a c t i t i one r s m a y ha ve p r e vi ous l y r e l i e d upon t r a di t i ona l e va l ua t i on m e a s ur e s s uc h a s s ur ve ys a nd f oc us gr oups c ont e nt a na l ys i s of c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt m a y s e r ve a s a n e va l u a t i on s uppl e m e nt s i m i l a r t o t he r ol e pr opos e d i n r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt

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59 S t u d y L i m i t at i on s an d A r e as of F u t u r e R e s e ar c h S t u d y L i m i t at i on s A not a bl e l i m i t a t i on t o t he s t udy i s t he a da pt a t i on of t he C or po r a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e a t ool de s i gne d t o m e a s ur e a n or ga ni z a t i on s i m a ge ( e xt e r na l r e put a t i on) a nd i de nt i t y ( i nt e r na l r e put a t i on) vi a a dm i ni s t e r e d q ue s t i onna i r e s I n t he s c a l e s or i gi na l us a ge r e l e va nt publ i c s ( c us t om e r s a nd e m pl oye e s s pe c i f i c a l l y) w e r e a bl e t o di r e c t l y r e por t on c or po r a t e r e put a t i on by r a t i ng a n o r ga ni z a t i on on a f i ve poi n t s c a l e f or e a c h pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i on a nd s ub di m e ns i on. I n t hi s s t udy, t hi r d pe r s on a na l ys i s i s us e d r a t he r t ha n di r e c t s ur ve yi ng T hi s pl a c e s a gr e a t e r e m pha s i s on t he c ode r t o a c c ur a t e l y a nd c ons i s t e nt l y a s s e s s c or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i ons a s w e l l a s t he ot he r m e a s ur e s i nc l ude d i n t he c ont e nt a na l ys i s T he pot e nt i a l f or r e s e a r c he r bi a s doe s e xi s t t hough t he hi gh l e ve l of i nt e r c ode r r e l i a bi l i t y 97. 2 pe r c e nt i ndi c a t e s c ons i s t e nc y i n c odi ng. A n a ddi t i ona l l i m i t a t i on t o t he s t udy i s t he us e of o nl y one r e l e va nt pub l i c onl i ne c ons um e r s t o m e a s ur e c o r por a t e r e put a t i on. W hi l e c ons um e r s a r e a n a ppr opr i a t e gr oup w i t h w hi c h t o m e a s ur e t he e xt e r na l i m a ge o f a n o r ga ni z a t i on, D a vi e s e t a l ( 2003 ) a s s e r t t ha t r e put a t i on i nc l ude s bot h t he e xt e r na l i m a ge a nd t he i nt e r na l i de nt i t y of a n o r ga ni z a t i on. I n t hi s r e g a r d, t he c ur r e nt s t udy m a y not m e a s ur e a n o r ga ni z a t i on s f ul l c o r por a t e r e put a t i on, but r a t he r a por t i on o f w ha t c ons t i t ut e s c or por a t e r e put a t i on G i ve n t he c ons t r a i nt s of t he r e s e a r c h e nvi r onm e nt ( t i m e a nd f i na nc i a l r e s our c e s ) t h i s m e a s ur e i s t a ke n a s a n a de qua t e r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he o r ga ni z a t i on s c or por a t e r e put a t i on. A r e as of F u t u r e R e s e ar c h I t s houl d be no t e d t ha t t he C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y i s a dyna m i c a nd c ont i nua l l y gr ow i ng c a m pa i gn. S i nc e t he s t a r t of t hi s s t udy, D ove l a unc he d a n e xt e ns i on of t he C F R B D ove pr o a ge w hi c h a i m s t o i ns t i l l a ne w a t t i t ude i n t he a nt i a gi ng c a t e gor y f r om ne ga t i ve a nd

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60 f e a r dr i ve n t o a f f i r m a t i ve a nd hope dr i ve n ( D ove pr o a ge c om ) W i t h t he t r a de m a r k B e a ut y ha s no a ge l i m i t pr o a ge i s a r e s pons e t o t he 2006 D ove G l oba l S t udy a r e s e a r c h i ni t i a t i ve c om m i s s i one d by D ove t o e xpos e e xi s t i ng s t e r e ot ype s a r ound be a ut y a nd a gi ng ( C a m pa i gnf or R e a l B e a ut y. c om ) T he s t udy f ound t ha t 91 pe r c e nt of r e s ponde nt s f e l t t he m e di a a nd a dve r t i s i ng ne e d t o do a be t t e r j ob of de pi c t i ng r e a l i s t i c i m a ge s of w om e n ove r 50 ye a r s ol d ( D ove pr o a ge c om ) T he pr o a ge c a m pa i gn pr om o t e s D ove s ne w l i ne o f pr oduc t s de s i gne d t o m e e t t he s ki n a nd ha i r ne e ds of w om e n pr i or t o dur i ng a nd pos t m e n opa us e T he c a m pa i gn f e a t u r e s t a c t i c s m i r r or i ng t hos e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y, s uc h a s t hought pr ovoki ng m a ga z i ne a nd t e l e vi s i on a dve r t i s e m e nt s onl i ne f o r um s c e nt e r e d on be a ut y a t e ve r y a ge a nd a n onl i ne c om m e r c i a l f e a t u r i ng nude p r o a ge w om e n I n t he F r e que nt l y A s ke d Q ue s t i ons of t he pr o a ge W e b s i t e t he or ga ni z a t i on e xpl a i ne d t he i r de c i s i on t o us e nude w om e n ove r 50 a s pa r t of t he ne w c a m pa i gn. T he a dve r t i s i ng c a m pa i gn i s a bout r e a l hone s t be a ut y. T he s t a t e m e nt w e c l e a r l y w a nt e d t o m a ke i s t ha t i t i s t i m e f or w om e n t o s t op hi di ng t he s i gns o f a gi ng, a nd i ns t e a d, be pr oud of how t he y l ook. W e di dn't w a nt t o c ove r t he s e w om e n or e nha nc e t he i r a ppe a r a nc e s be c a us e t he y a r e be a ut i f ul j us t a s t he y a r e W e be l i e ve i t w a s ne c e s s a r y t o s how s ki n, a ge s pot s w r i nkl e s a nd gr e y ha i r t o s how w om e n a r e s t u nni n g a t a ny a ge ( D ove pr o a ge c om ) F ut ur e r e s e a r c h on t he C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y s houl d i nc l ude c ont e nt a na l ys i s on t he s i s t e r pr o a ge c a m pa i gn, w hi c h s i m i l a r l y pr ovi de s a n ope n w e a l t h of a udi e nc e opi ni on t h r ough c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt on c om pa ny s po ns or e d publ i c f o r um s A ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s houl d be pa i d t o i nt r o duc i ng ne w unr e pr e s e nt e d pe r s ona l i t y di m e ns i ons s ub di m e ns i ons a nd i t e m s t o t he c u r r e nt C or por a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e S e ve r a l s ub di m e ns i ons a nd i t e m s t ha t w oul d ha ve be e n a ppl i c a bl e t o D ove s c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt i nc l ude S e ns i t i vi t y, a pr opos e d i t e m t o t he E m pa t hy s ub di m e ns i on; I ns e ns i t i vi t y, a

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61 pr opos e d i t e m t o t he E go t i s m s ub di m e ns i on; C r e a t i vi t y, a pr opos e d i t e m t o t he A dve nt ur e s ub di m e ns i on; a nd I nt e l l i ge nc e a pr o pos e d s ub di m e n s i on of t he C om pe t e nc e di m e ns i on. F i na l l y, t he r e s e a r c he r pr opos e s t ha t t he c or por a t e r e put a t i on i ns t r um e nt de ve l ope d i n t hi s s t udy c a n be r e a di l y a da pt e d t o ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons T he C or por a t e P e r s ona l i t y S c a l e a s or i gi na l l y de s i gne d by D a v i e s e t a l i s i nt e nde d t o a ppl y t o a ny t ype of or ga ni z a t i on. C onduc t i ng a pr e l i m i na r y r e vi e w of a n o r ga ni z a t i on a nd i t s on l i ne c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt c a n a l l ow f or a da pt a t i on of c om m uni c a t i on t a c t i c s a nd r e l e va nt t opi c s f or c ont e nt a na l ys i s F or t hos e or ga ni z a t i ons i nt e r e s t e d i n i m pl e m e nt i ng a n or ga ni z a t i on s pons or e d C G C oppor t uni t y s i m i l a r t o t he D ove S e l f E s t e e m F o r um i t i s r e c om m e nde d t ha t c om pa ny r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s r e vi e w w e bl og c om m e nt a r y t hr oughout t he bl ogos phe r e i n or de r t o de ve l op pe r s ona l i z e d m e a s ur e s T he l e ve l of de t a i l e d c or po r a t e r e put a t i on i nf o r m a t i on a c hi e ve d i n t he D ove c a s e s t ud y c ons um e r de m ogr a phi c s t ona l i t y t ow a r d t he or ga n i z a t i on, pr a i s e a nd c r i t i c i s m t a c t i c popul a r i t y a nd c ons um e r i de nt i f i e d di m e ns i ons of c or por a t e p e r s ona l i t y c oul d r e a di l y be m i m i c ke d f o r ot he r or ga ni z a t i ons F or t une s M os t A dm i r e d l i s t m a y pe r s i s t a s t he s e l f p r oc l a i m e d de f i ni t i ve r e por t c a r d on c or po r a t e r e put a t i ons ( C N N M one y. c om ) ye t c ons um e r ge ne r a t e d c ont e nt c or por a t e r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt of f e r s o r ga ni z a t i ons t he opi ni ons of r e a l pe opl e W hi l e r a nki ng s ys t e m s f e a t ur e t he opi ni ons o f i ndus t r y e x pe r t s ( e xe c ut i ve s di r e c t or s a nd a na l ys t s ) t he C G C t ool pr opos e d i n t h i s s t udy l ooks t o t he m os t not a bl e de t e r m i na nt of e xt e r na l i m a ge a s i de nt i f i e d by D a vi e s e t a l ( 2003) : c ons um e r s

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62 A P P E N D I X A C O D E B O O K F O R D O V E C O R P O R A T E R E P U T A T I O N C O N T E N T A N A L Y S I S S ou r c e : A l l f o r um pos t i ngs w e r e r e t r i e ve d f r om t h e D ove C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y S e l f E s t e e m F or um D at e r an ge : 02/ 01/ 2006 0 2 / 01 / 200 7 E ve r y m e s s a ge i n t he s a m pl e s houl d r e c e i ve a uni q u e i de nt i f i c a t i on num be r t ha t c ons i s t s of t he da t e a nd t i m e i n t hi s f o r m a t : m ont hda yye a r : m i l i t a r yt i m e F o r e xa m pl e a m e s s a ge t ha t w a s pos t e d on F e br ua r y 1 s t 2006 a t 5: 10 p. m w ou l d ha ve t he f ol l ow i ng i de nt i f i e r : 02012006: 1710 I f m or e t ha n one pos t i ng i n t he s a m pl e i s l i s t e d a t t he s a m e da t e a nd t i m e t he m i l i t a r y t i m e w i l l be f ol l ow e d by a b c a nd s o on i n c hr onol ogi c a l or de r P l e a s e s e e t he a t t a c he d m i l i t a r y t i m e c onve r s i on c ha r t f or c onve r t i ng s t a nda r d t i m e t o m i l i t a r y t i m e I D e m ogr ap h i c C h ar ac t e r i s t i c s of P os t e r F or um m e s s a ge s a r e c ode d f or ge n d e r ( A ) a nd age ( B ) o f pos t e r a s i nf or m a t i on i s a va i l a bl e G e nde r a nd a ge c a n be de t e r m i ne d by i n f or m a t i on e xpl i c i t l y pr ov i de d by t he pos t e r or i n f e r r e d by pos t i ng c ont e nt ; ge nde r m a y a l s o be de t e r m i ne d by ge nde r i ndi c a t i ve or t r a di t i ona l l y m a l e or f e m a l e l ogi n na m e s G e nde r of pos t e r i s c ode d a s m al e ( 1) f e m al e ( 2 ) or u n i d e n t i f i a b l e ( 0 ) A ge of pos t e r i s c ode d a s t w e e n age r ( 1) ( be t w e e n t he a ge of 8 ye a r s ol d t o 12 ye a r s 1) ol d) t e e n ( 2) ( 19 ye a r s ol d o r youn ge r ) you n g a d u l t ( 3) ( 20 ye a r s o l d t o 29 ye a r s ol d ) a d u l t ( 4 ) ( 30 ye a r s ol d or o l de r ) a nd u n i d e n t i f i ab l e ( 0 ) A ddi t i ona l l y, pos t e r s a r e c ode d f or w he t he r o r not t he y c a n be i de nt i f i e d a s a p ar e n t ( C ) I M P O R T A N T : M a r k t e e n i f una bl e t o de t e r m i ne i f pos t e r i s you nge r t ha n 13 ye a r s ol d, but i s c l e a r l y younge r t ha n 19 ye a r s ol d I f pos t e r m a ke s r e f e r e nc e s t o a t t e ndi ng c ol l e ge or uni ve r s i t y, m a r k young a dul t unl e s s ot he r w i s e s t a t e d P a r e nt s w i t h c hi l dr e n s t a t e d t o be 1 5 ye a r s of a ge o r ol de r s houl d be m a r ke d a s a dul t I I P os t i n g I n f or m a t i on A L e n gt h of p os t i n g L e ngt h of pos t i ng i s c ode d a s e i t he r s h or t ( 1) ( 34 w or ds or l e s s ) or e xt e n s i ve ( 2 ) ( 35 w or ds or m o r e ) B O r i gi n al / R e s p on s e F or um pos t i ngs s houl d be c ode d a s e i t he r a n or i gi n al m e s s age ( 1) or r e s p on s e m e s s age ( 2) A pos t i ng s houl d be c ons i de r e d a r e s pons e m e s s a ge i f i t s pe c i f i c a l l y r e f e r e nc e s a pr e vi ous pos t i ng or i nc l ude s a quot a t i on f r om a not he r pos t i ng; m e s s a ge s di r e c t e d t o a not he r pos t e r ( by na m e or by m e s s a ge c ont e nt ) a r e c ons i de r e d r e s pons e s D O N O T c ode c ont e nt f r om t he quot e d or i gi na l m e s s a ge

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63 I I I P os t e r R e s p on s e t o t h e C F R B A T ac t i c s M e s s a ge s w i l l be c ode d f or t he p r e s e n c e ( 1) or a b s e n c e ( 0) of t he f o l l ow i ng t a c t i c s a s w e l l a s t he i r t on al i t y n e gat i ve ( 1) n e u t r al ( 0) or p os i t i ve ( 1 ) 1 4 i f pr e s e n t 1. R e al Wom e n P os t i ng di s c us s e s D ove s us e of t he s i x R e a l W om e n s poke s w om e n i n t he i r a dve r t i s i ng a nd publ i c r e l a t i ons m a t e r i a l T he R e a l W om e n a r e a l s o know n a s t he D ove G i r l s 2. S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i al P os t i ng di s c us s e s D ove s 2006 S upe r B ow l c or por a t e a dve r t i s e m e nt ; C om m e nt s t ha t r e f e r e nc e t he t e r m c om m e r c i a l or a d pr i or t o O c t obe r 2006 ( t he pos t da t e f or t he E vol ut i on vi de o) a r e t a k e n t o s i gni f y t he S e l f E s t e e m c om m e r c i a l 3. D ove E vol u t i on P os t i ng di s c us s e s D ove s onl i ne vi r a l vi de o e nt i t l e d D ove E vol ut i on pos t e d on t he C a m pa i gn f o r R e a l B e a ut y W e b s i t e S ynony m s f or E vol ut i on i nc l ude vi de o, vi de o c l i p f i l m m ovi e a nd s i m i l a r t e r m s 4. C am p ai gn f or R e al B e au t y We b s i t e P os t i ng di s c us s e s D ove s us e of onl i ne c om m uni c a t i ons r e f e r e nc i ng t he C F R B W e b s i t e a nd/ or S e l f E s t e e m F o r um i m pl i c i t l y ( e g. : us e of on l i ne c om m uni c a t i ons i n ge ne r a l ) o r e xpl i c i t l y ( e g di r e c t r e f e r e nc e t o a s pe c i f i c m e di um s uc h a s t he f or um ) 5. T h e D ove S e l f E s t e e m F u n d P os t i ng di s c us s e s D ove s S e l f E s t e e m F und di r e c t l y o r m a ke s r e f e r e nc e t o t he G i r l S c out s of A m e r i c a ( t he F und s l a r ge s t be ne f a c t or i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ) ; uni que l y M E B ody T al k or B e y on d C om par e ( t he pr i m a r y s e l f e s t e e m pr ogr a m s i n t he U S U K a nd C a na da ) ; a s w e l l a s r e f e r e nc e s t o f undi ng a nd/ or dona t i ons 6. G e n e r al c am p ai gn P os t i ng di s c us s e s t he c a m pa i gn i n ge ne r a l ; A n e xa m pl e o f a pos i t i ve t ona l i t y ge ne r a l c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge w oul d be I a m s o i m pr e s s e d w i t h t hi s c a m pa i gn. l ong ove r due a nd kudos t o D O V E f o r m a ki ng a s t a r t i n f oc us i ng on t he young gi r l s of ou r s oc i e t y ( P os t i ng I D 02062006: 2054 ) S ynonym s f or c a m pa i gn i nc l ude m ove m e nt pr ogr a m pr oj e c t a nd s i m i l a r t e r m s *** A f t e r c odi ng f or p r e s e n c e / ab s e n c e a nd t on al i t y of e a c h t a c t i c c od e f or t h e ove r al l t on al i t y of t h e p os t i n g *** B T op i c P os t i ng t opi c i s c ode d f or ge n e r al / ot h e r ( 0 ) ( onl i n e c onve r s a t i on unr e l a t e d t o t he s t a t e d t he m e of t he f or um ) o r f or u m t h e m e ( 1) ( di a l ogue c e nt e r e d on t he c a m pa i gn, D ove a s a n or ga ni z a t i on, a nd t he de f i ni t i on of be a ut y a nd s e l f e s t e e m di s c us s i on ) I f t he pos t i ng i s unr e l a t e d t o t he s t a t e d t he m e of t h e f or um s t op c od i n g I f t he pos t i ng t opi c i s r e l a t e d t o s t a t e d t he m e of t he f or um m a r k t he p r e s e n c e ( 1) o r ab s e n c e ( 0) of di a l ogue c e nt e r e d on t he a t t r i but e s of c am p ai g n p r ai s e a nd/ or c am p ai gn 1 4 O v e r a l l t o n a l i t y s h o u l d b e r e v i e w e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f e a t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n I f t h e t o n e o f t h e p o s t i n g l e a v e s a r e a d e r l e s s l i k e l y t o d o b u s i n e s s w i t h y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n i t i s n e g a t i v e I f t h e p o s t i n g l e a v e s a r e a d e r m o r e l i k e l y t o d o b u s i n e s s w i t h y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n o r r e c o m m e n d s t h e b r a n d i t i s p o s i t i v e I f i t e s s e n t i a l l y j u s t d i s c u s s e s f a c t s i t i s n e u t r a l o r b a l a n c e d ( P a i n e a n d L a r k 2 0 0 5 p 5 )

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64 c r i t i c i s m O R ge n e r al d i s c u s s i on of t h e d e f i n i t i o n of b e au t y an d / or s e l f e s t e e m i s s u e s u n r e l at e d t o c am p ai g n m e s s age s F or t hos e pos t i ngs c ode d f o r c a m pa i gn p r a i s e a nd/ or c a m pa i gn c r i t i c i s m m a r k t he s pe c i f i c s ub a t t r i but e of pr a i s e or c r i t i c i s m m e nt i o ne d. I f no s pe c i f i c s ub a t t r i but e i s m e nt i one d or t he a t t r i but e i s not l i s t e d, m a r k onl y t he m a i n a t t r i but e 1. C am p ai gn p r ai s e P os t i ngs a r e c ode d f or t he c a m pa i gn p r a i s e i f t he y i nc l ude pr a i s e f or i ndi vi dua l t a c t i c s or t he ge ne r a l c a m pa i gn. I M P O R T A N T : C ode f o r t he m a i n a t t r i but e i f t he p os t e r i nc l ude s non de s c r i pt i ve pr a i s e f or D ove ( i e I l ove w ha t D ove i s doi ng! ; G r e a t j ob! ; T ha nks ) t ha t doe s not f a l l i nt o a ny of t he l i s t e d s ub a t t r i but e s a P os i t i v e m e s s age s T he pos t e r pr a i s e s D ove f or pr ovi di ng pos i t i ve m e s s a ge s f or young w om e n/ gi r l s r e l a t i ng t o s e l f e s t e e m a nd be a ut y i s s ue s ; M a y m e nt i on t he ne e d f or s uc h m e s s a ge s t o c ount e r ba l a nc e s t e r e ot ypi c a l de f i ni t i ons of be a ut y f r om T V / H ol l yw ood, e a t i ng di s or de r s b. P e r s onal l y i ns pi r i ng T he pos t e r f ound t he m e s s a ge s pe r s ona l l y he l pf ul / m ovi ng/ i ns pi r i ng; T he pos t e r m a y di s c us s pe r s ona l s t or i e s of s e l f e s t e e m or be a ut y i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s ( s e e g e ne r a l di s c us s i on f or pe r s ona l s t or i e s unr e l a t e d t o c a m pa i gn i s s ue s ) c P ur c has e i nt e nt B e c a us e of t he c a m pa i gn a nd c a m pa i gn t a c t i c s t he pos t e r w oul d be i nc l i ne d t o pur c ha s e D ove p r oduc t s a nd/ or w i l l c on t i nue t o pu r c ha s e D ove pr oduc t s d. C om r adr y T he pos t e r s t a t e s t ha t be c a us e of t he C F R B he or s he f e e l s t ha t t he y a r e not a l one i n s e l f e s t e e m or be a ut y i s s ue s ; di s c us s e s a pe r c e i ve d s e ns e of uni t y ba s e d a r ound c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s ; T he pos t e r m a y pa r t i c i pa t e i n a pe p t a l k of s uppor t f o r a not he r pos t e r on s e l f e s t e e m or be a ut y i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s ( s e e ge ne r a l di s c us s i on f or pe p t a l k un r e l a t e d t o c a m pa i gn i s s ue s ) e D i al ogue T he pos t e r e xpr e s s e s a ppr e c i a t i on f or o pe ni ng di a l ogue on di s c us s i on of be a ut y a nd s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s 2. C am p ai gn c r i t i c i s m P os t i ngs a r e c ode d f or t he c a m pa i gn c r i t i c i s m i f t h e y i nc l ude c r i t i c i s m f or i ndi vi dua l t a c t i c s or t he ge ne r a l c a m pa i gn. a B oy s / M e n T he pos t e r c r i t i que s D ove s t a c t i c s ( a d ve r t i s e m e nt s W e b s i t e s vi de o, e t c ) f o r i gno r i ng boys / m e n b. L ac k of r ac i al and e t hni c di v e r s i t y T he pos t e r c r i t i que s D ove s t a c t i c s ( a dve r t i s e m e nt s W e b s i t e s vi de o, e t c ) f or not r e p r e s e nt i ng A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns a nd L a t i no w om e n a nd gi r l s c M ar k e t i ng pl oy T he pos t e r c r i t i que s D ove s c a m pa i gn a s a m a r ke t i ng pl oy, publ i c r e l a t i ons s pi n, o r ot he r w i s e a s a m a ni pul a t i ve c om m uni c a t i ons pl a n d. A nt i C F R B T he pos t e r ge ne r a l l y di s a gr e e s w i t h c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s a nd m a y pr ovi de hos t i l e c om m e nt s a ga i ns t D ove or t he C F R B

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65 3. G e n e r al d i s c u s s i on of b e au t y an d / or s e l f e s t e e m i s s u e s P os t i ngs a r e c ode d f or ge ne r a l di s c us s i on i f t he po s t e r c ont r i but e s t o t he ge ne r a l di s c us s i on of t he de f i ni t i on of be a ut y a nd/ o r s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s unr e l a t e d t o c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s a P e p t al k T he pos t e r o f f e r s c ons ol a t i on a nd/ o r pe r s ona l a dvi c e r e l a t e d t o t he s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s of a not he r pos t e r ( s ) unr e l a t e d t o c a m pa i gn m e s s a ge s b. P e r s onal s t or i e s T he pos t e r s ha r e s a pe r s ona l s t o r y r e ga r di ng t he de f i n i t i on o f be a ut y a nd/ or s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s unr e l a t e d t o c a m p a i gn m e s s a ge s C C or p or at e p e r s on al i t y C ode f or t he p r e s e n c e ( 1) o r ab s e n c e ( 0 ) o f s ub di m e ns i ons ; D O N O T c ode f o r t he pr e s e nc e or a bs e nc e of t he m a i n di m e ns i on ( i n pa r e nt he s e s ) e xc l udi ng t he f i na l t w o di m e ns i ons f or w h i c h t he r e a r e no s ub di m e ns i ons ( I nf or m a l i t y a nd M a c hi s m o) U s e t he l i s t e d de f i ni ng i t e m s t o i de nt i f y t he p r e s e nc e or a bs e nc e of e a c h s ub di m e ns i on. 1. War m t h ( A gr e e a bl e ne s s ) I t e m s i nc l ude F r i e ndl y P l e a s a nt O pe n a nd S t r a i ght f or w a r d 2. E m p at h y ( A gr e e a bl e ne s s ) I t e m s i nc l ude C onc e r ne d, R e a s s ur i ng, S uppor t i ve a nd A gr e e a bl e 3. I n t e gr i t y ( A gr e e a bl e ne s s ) I t e m s i nc l ude H one s t S i nc e r e T r us t w or t hy a nd S oc i a l l y R e s pons i bl e 4. M od e r n i t y ( E nt e r pr i s e ) I t e m s i nc l ude C ool T r e ndy a nd Y oung 5. A d ve n t u r e ( E nt e r pr i s e ) I t e m s i nc l ude I m a gi na t i ve U p t o da t e E xc i t i ng a nd I nnova t i ve 6. B ol d n e s s ( E nt e r pr i s e ) I t e m s i nc l ude E xt r ove r t a n d D a r i ng 7. C on s c i e n t i ou s ( C om pe t e nc e ) I t e m s i nc l ude R e l i a bl e S e c ur e a nd H a r dw or ki ng 8. D r i ve ( C om pe t e nc e ) I t e m s i nc l ude A m bi t i ous A c hi e ve m e nt or i e nt e d a nd L e a di ng 9. T e c h n oc r ac y ( C om pe t e nc e ) I t e m s i nc l ude T e c hni c a l a nd C or por a t e 10. E got i s m ( R ut hl e s s ne s s ) I t e m s i nc l ude A r r oga nt A ggr e s s i ve a nd S e l f i s h 11. D om i n an c e ( R ut hl e s s ne s s ) I t e m s i nc l ude I nw a r d l ooki ng, A ut hor i t a r i a n a nd C ont r ol l i ng 12. E l e gan c e ( C hi c ) I t e m s i nc l ude C ha r m i ng S t yl i s h a nd E l e ga nt 13. P r e s t i ge ( C hi c ) I t e m s i nc l ude P r e s t i gi ous E xc l u s i ve a nd R e f i ne d 14. S n ob b e r y ( C hi c ) I t e m s i nc l ude S nobby a nd E l i t i s t 15. I n f or m al i t y I t e m s i nc l ude C a s ua l S i m pl e a nd E a s y goi ng 16. M ac h i s m o I t e m s i nc l ude M a s c ul i ne T ough a nd R u gge d

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66 C od e r A i d e : M i l i t ar y T i m e C on ve r s i on C h ar t R e gu l ar T i m e M i l i t ar y T i m e R e gu l ar T i m e M i l i t ar y T i m e M i dni ght 0000 N oon 1200 1: 00 a m 0100 1: 00 p. m 1300 2: 00 a m 0200 2: 00 p. m 1400 3: 0 0 a m 0300 3: 00 p. m 1500 4: 00 a m 0400 4: 00 p. m 1600 5: 00 a m 0500 5: 00 p. m 1700 6: 00 a m 0600 6: 00 p. m 1800 7: 00 a m 0700 7: 00 p. m 1900 8: 00 a m 0800 8: 00 p. m 2000 9: 00 a m 0900 9: 00 p. m 2100 10: 00 a m 1000 10: 00 p. m 2200 11: 00 a m 1100 11: 00 p. m 2300

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67 A P P E N D I X B C O D E S H E E T F O R D O V E C O R P O R A T E R E P U T A T I O N C O N T E N T A N A L Y S I S P os t I D ( P os t D a t e / T i m e ) : ____________ C ode r I ni t i a l s : ____________ C odi ng D a t e : ____________ I D e m ogr ap h i c C h ar ac t e r i s t i c s of P os t e r A G e nde r U ni de nt i f i a bl e ( 0) M a l e ( 1) F e m a l e ( 2) B A ge U ni de nt i f i a bl e ( 0) T w e e na ge r ( 1) T e e n ( 2) Y oung A dul t ( 3 ) A dul t ( 4) C P a r e nt U ni de nt i f i a bl e ( 0) P a r e nt ( 1) I I P os t i n g I n f or m a t i on A L e ngt h of pos t i ng S hor t ( 1) E xt e ns i ve ( 2) B O r i gi na l / R e s pons e O r i gi na l m e s s a ge ( 1) R e s pons e m e s s a ge ( 2) I I I P os t e r R e s p on s e t o t h e C F R B A T a c t i c s 1. R e a l W om e n a P r e s e nc e A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) b. T ona l i t y N e ga t i ve ( 1) N e ut r a l ( 0) P os i t i ve ( 1)

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68 2. S e l f E s t e e m a P r e s e nc e A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) b. T ona l i t y N e ga t i ve ( 1) N e ut r a l ( 0) P os i t i ve ( 1) 3. D ove E vol ut i on a P r e s e nc e A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) b. T ona l i t y N e ga t i ve ( 1) N e ut r a l ( 0) P os i t i ve ( 1) 4. C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y W e b s i t e a P r e s e nc e A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) b. T ona l i t y N e ga t i ve ( 1) N e ut r a l ( 0) P os i t i ve ( 1) 5. T he D ove S e l f E s t e e m F und a P r e s e nc e A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) b. T ona l i t y N e ga t i ve ( 1) N e ut r a l ( 0) P os i t i ve ( 1) 6. G e ne r a l c a m pa i gn a P r e s e nc e A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) b. T ona l i t y N e ga t i ve ( 1) N e ut r a l ( 0) P os i t i ve ( 1)

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69 O ve r al l T on al i t y o f P os t i n g N e ga t i ve ( 1) N e ut r a l ( 0) P os i t i ve ( 1) B T opi c G e ne r a l / O t he r ( 0) B l og T he m e ( 1 ) 1. C a m pa i gn p r a i s e A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) a P os i t i ve m e s s a ge s A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) b. P e r s ona l l y i ns pi r i ng A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) c P ur c ha s e i nt e nt A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) d. C om r a dr y A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) e D i a l ogue A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) 2. C a m pa i gn c r i t i c i s m A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) A B oys / M e n A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) B L a c k of r a c i a l a nd e t hni c di ve r s i t y A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) C M a r ke t i ng pl oy A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) D A nt i C F R B A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1)

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70 3. G e ne r a l di s c us s i on of be a ut y a nd/ or s e l f e s t e e m i s s ue s A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) a P e p t a l k A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) b. P e r s ona l s t or i e s A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) C C or por a t e pe r s ona l i t y A W a r m t h ( A gr e e a bl e ne s s ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) B E m pa t hy ( A g r e e a bl e ne s s ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) C I nt e gr i t y ( A gr e e a bl e ne s s ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) D M ode r ni t y ( E nt e r pr i s e ) A b s e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) E A dve nt ur e ( E nt e r pr i s e ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) F B ol dne s s ( E nt e r pr i s e ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) G C ons c i e nt i ous ( C om pe t e nc e ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) H D r i ve ( C om pe t e nc e ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) I T e c hnoc r a c y ( C om pe t e nc e ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1)

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71 J E got i s m ( R ut hl e s s ne s s ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) K D om i na nc e ( R ut hl e s s ne s s ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) L E l e ga nc e ( C hi c ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) M P r e s t i ge ( C hi c ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) N S nobbe r y ( C hi c ) A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) O I nf or m a l i t y A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1) P M a c hi s m o A bs e nt ( 0) P r e s e nt ( 1)

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72 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S A l s op, R J ( 2004) T he 18 i m m ut abl e l aw s of c or por at e r e put at i on: C r e at i ng, pr ot e c t i ng, and r e pai r i ng y our m os t v al uabl e as s e t N e w Y or k, N Y : F r e e P r e s s A nonym ous ( 1999, M a y 27 ) R e put a t i on ke e ps bus i ne s s buoya nt M ar k e t i ng 50 52. A r ge nt i P A & D r uc ke nm i l l e r B ( 2004) I n p r a c t i c e : R e put a t i on a nd t he c or po r a t e br a nd C or por at e R e put at i on R e v i e w 6 ( 4) 368 374. A r ge nt i P A & F or m a n, J ( 2000) T he c om m uni c a t i on a dva nt a ge : A c ons i s t e nc y f oc us e d a ppr oa c h t o f o r m ul a t i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng s t r a t e gy. I n M S c hul t z M J H a t c h, & M H L a r s e n ( E ds ) T he e x pr e s s i v e or gani z at i on: L i nk i ng i de nt i t y r e put at i on, and t he c or por at e br and. ( pp. 233 244) O xf o r d: T he O xf o r d P r e s s B a r I l a n, J ( 2005 ) I nf o r m a t i on hub bl ogs J our nal of I n f or m at i on Sc i e nc e 31 ( 4) 297 307. B a us c h, P H a ughe y, M & H our i ha n, M ( 2002) W e bl og: P ubl i s hi ng onl i ne w i t h w e bl ogs I ndi a na pol i s I N : W i l e y. B e r e l s on, B ( 1952 ) C ont e nt anal y s i s i n c om m uni c at i on r e s e ar c h. N e w Y or k: F r e e P r e s s B e r e ns G & va n R i e l C B M ( 2004 ) C or por a t e a s s oc i a t i ons i n t he a c a de m i c l i t e r a t ur e : T hr e e m a i n s t r e a m s of t hought i n t he r e put a t i on m e a s ur e m e nt l i t e r a t ur e C or por at e R e put at i on R e v i e w 7 ( 2) 161 178 B ul ke l e y, W M ( 2005 J une 23) M a r ke t e r s s c a n bl ogs f or b r a nd i ns i ght s W al l St r e e t J our nal B 1. B ur ke T ( 1998) R i s ks a nd r e put a t i ons : T he e c on om i c s of t r a ns a c t i on c os t s C or por at e C om m uni c at i ons 3 ( 1) 5 10. C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y. ( n. d ) B e aut y c om e s of age : 2006 gl obal s t udy R e t r i e ve d A pr i l 4, 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w c a m pa i gnf or r e a l be a ut y. c om / f l a t 4. a s p? i d= 7137 C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y. ( n. d ) Se l f e s t e e m f or um R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 20 2007 f r om ht t p: / / boa r ds c a m pa i gnf or r e a l be a ut y. c om / f or um / m e s s a ge vi e w a s px? c a t i d= 9& t hr e a di d= 13 & e nt e r t hr e a d= y C a m pa i gn f or R e a l B e a ut y. ( n. d ) T he c am pai gn f o r r e al be aut y b ac k gr ound R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 13, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w c a m pa i gnf or r e a l be a ut y. c om / p r e s s a s p? i d= 4562& s e c t i on= ne w s & t a r ge t = pr e s s C N N M one y. ( n. d) A m e r i c a s m os t adm i r e d c om pani e s 2007 R e t r i e ve d F e b r ua r y 3 20 07 f r o m ht t p: / / m one y. c nn. c om / m a ga z i ne s / f or t une / m os t a dm i r e d/ 2007/ be s t _w or s t / i nde x. ht m l

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79 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H S a r a E l i z a be t h A nt on i o w a s bor n i n F o r t M ye r s F l or i da on F e br ua r y 3, 1983. S he gr a dua t e d f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of V i r gi ni a i n M a y 2005 w i t h a ba c he l or s de gr e e i n bot h e c onom i c s a nd A m e r i c a n gove r nm e nt D ur i ng he r t i m e a t U V a he r i n t e r e s t i n pol i t i c a l c om m uni c a t i on l e d he r t o c om m uni c a t i ons i n t e r ns hi ps i n f undr a i s i ng a nd e ve nt pl a nni ng w hi c h ul t i m a t e l y i ns pi r e d a n e nt hus i a s m a nd e xc i t e m e nt f or publ i c r e l a t i ons I n A ugus t 2005, s he m a t r i c ul a t e d t o t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da w he r e s h e be ga n he r gr a dua t e s t udi e s i n t he S c hool of J our na l i s m a nd C om m uni c a t i ons D ur i ng t he s um m e r a nd f a l l 2006 s e m e s t e r s s he he l d a c or por a t e c om m uni c a t i on i nt e r ns hi p w i t h a l e a di ng bi o t e c hnol ogy c om pa ny. S he c om pl e t e d he r M a s t e r of A r t s i n M a s s C om m uni c a t i on w i t h a s pe c i a l i z a t i on i n publ i c r e l a t i ons i n A ugus t 200 7 A f t e r gr a dua t i on s he i nt e nds t o pur s ue a c a r e e r i n i nt e gr a t e d c om m uni c a t i on or a ge nc y publ i c r e l a t i ons