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Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music, Developmentally Appropriate Practice, and the Relationship bet...

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Title: Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music, Developmentally Appropriate Practice, and the Relationship between Music and Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Physical Description: 1 online resource (149 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kim, Hae Kyoung
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: beliefs, childhood, dap, music, preservice, teacher
Teaching and Learning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Curriculum and Instruction (ISC) thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine early childhood preservice teachers? beliefs about music, developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and the relationship between music and DAP. A total of sixty-five early childhood preservice teachers participated in this study. The Music Beliefs Questionnaire, the Teacher Beliefs Scale, the teacher information questionnaire, and the music basic questionnaire were used to measure the teachers? beliefs about music and DAP. Follow-up interviews were implemented with three participants demonstrating stronger, incongruent, and weaker relationships between music and DAP. This study found that preservice teachers have relatively strong beliefs about the importance of music, including the aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits of music. The participants believed literacy is the most important subject in early childhood, while music was ranked fourth in importance. Teachers? level of confidence in their ability to implement music activities and support musical development varied. Most preservice teachers believed music teachers? role is more important than early childhood teachers? in supporting music development. There was a significant difference in music beliefs depending on teachers? confidence level. Higher levels of confidence indicated stronger beliefs about the importance of music. Depending on teachers? ability to read music notation, a significant difference was found. The teachers who were able to slightly read musical notation demonstrated more positive beliefs about the importance of music than the teachers who were not able to read musical notation. This study suggests that early childhood preservice teachers possess relatively strong beliefs about the importance of using practices that have been identified as developmentally appropriate. This study also found that it is important to avoid those practices that have been identified as developmentally inappropriate for young children. There was a statistically significant difference between DAP and DIP beliefs based upon academic status. Preservice teachers who were further along in the teacher training program demonstrated stronger DAP beliefs and lower DIP beliefs than preservice teachers who had just begun the teacher training program. A statistically significant relationship between DAP and field experiences was identified. Teachers who experienced more field placements reported stronger beliefs about DAP. Lastly, this study found a relationship between beliefs about music and DAP. This implies that a preservice teacher who possess positive beliefs about the importance of music demonstrates stronger beliefs about the importance of DAP. Three interviewees reporting various levels (e.g., stronger, incongruent, and weaker) of relationship between music and DAP reported different beliefs. Personal background, confidence level, teacher education, and professional experience influenced teachers? beliefs about music at different levels. The preservice teachers demonstrated diverse features of appropriate practice and inappropriate practice, including definitions, the general principles to implement DAP, and experiences related to DAP. The interview participants generally agreed that music is somewhat related to DAP; however, the teacher who possessed the stronger music beliefs thought that music should be part of DAP. The other teachers reported beliefs that music could be used in limited ways used within DAP.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Hae Kyoung Kim.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Kemple, Kristen M.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021304:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021304/00001

Material Information

Title: Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music, Developmentally Appropriate Practice, and the Relationship between Music and Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Physical Description: 1 online resource (149 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kim, Hae Kyoung
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: beliefs, childhood, dap, music, preservice, teacher
Teaching and Learning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Curriculum and Instruction (ISC) thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine early childhood preservice teachers? beliefs about music, developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and the relationship between music and DAP. A total of sixty-five early childhood preservice teachers participated in this study. The Music Beliefs Questionnaire, the Teacher Beliefs Scale, the teacher information questionnaire, and the music basic questionnaire were used to measure the teachers? beliefs about music and DAP. Follow-up interviews were implemented with three participants demonstrating stronger, incongruent, and weaker relationships between music and DAP. This study found that preservice teachers have relatively strong beliefs about the importance of music, including the aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits of music. The participants believed literacy is the most important subject in early childhood, while music was ranked fourth in importance. Teachers? level of confidence in their ability to implement music activities and support musical development varied. Most preservice teachers believed music teachers? role is more important than early childhood teachers? in supporting music development. There was a significant difference in music beliefs depending on teachers? confidence level. Higher levels of confidence indicated stronger beliefs about the importance of music. Depending on teachers? ability to read music notation, a significant difference was found. The teachers who were able to slightly read musical notation demonstrated more positive beliefs about the importance of music than the teachers who were not able to read musical notation. This study suggests that early childhood preservice teachers possess relatively strong beliefs about the importance of using practices that have been identified as developmentally appropriate. This study also found that it is important to avoid those practices that have been identified as developmentally inappropriate for young children. There was a statistically significant difference between DAP and DIP beliefs based upon academic status. Preservice teachers who were further along in the teacher training program demonstrated stronger DAP beliefs and lower DIP beliefs than preservice teachers who had just begun the teacher training program. A statistically significant relationship between DAP and field experiences was identified. Teachers who experienced more field placements reported stronger beliefs about DAP. Lastly, this study found a relationship between beliefs about music and DAP. This implies that a preservice teacher who possess positive beliefs about the importance of music demonstrates stronger beliefs about the importance of DAP. Three interviewees reporting various levels (e.g., stronger, incongruent, and weaker) of relationship between music and DAP reported different beliefs. Personal background, confidence level, teacher education, and professional experience influenced teachers? beliefs about music at different levels. The preservice teachers demonstrated diverse features of appropriate practice and inappropriate practice, including definitions, the general principles to implement DAP, and experiences related to DAP. The interview participants generally agreed that music is somewhat related to DAP; however, the teacher who possessed the stronger music beliefs thought that music should be part of DAP. The other teachers reported beliefs that music could be used in limited ways used within DAP.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Hae Kyoung Kim.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Kemple, Kristen M.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021304:00001


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EARLY CHILDHOOD PRESERVICE TEACHERS' BELIEFS ABOUT MUSIC,
DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE, AND
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MUSIC AND DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE
PRACTICE




















By
HAE YOUNG KIM














A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2007



































(D2007 Hae Kyoung Kim
































To my Parents, Sungkyu, and Kwangkyu
for their unconditional love and support.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank all of my committee members for their support, understanding, and

advice. I would like to especially thank my chair, Dr. Kristen Kemple, for being a wonderful

supporter, mentor, listener and advisor. I would not have completed my doctoral journey without

her. I also would like to thank Dr. Elizabeth Bondy who supported me with insightful guide to

broaden my perspectives. Sincere thanks go to Dr. Jane Townsend for her commitment, passion

and encouragement. I would like to thank Dr. Timothy Brophy for providing me with useful help

and guidance in the field of music education.

Special and endless thanks go to my parents who have always trusted, loved, and

supported me in every step of my life. I thank my two brothers, Sungkyu and Kwangkyu, for

being a source of support, encouragement and good humor. I also thank my friends Stacy,

Caitie, Yiyeon, Sora, Sungok, and Jiyoung. They made the journey enjoyable and meaningful.









TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

L IST O F T A B L E S ......................................................................................................... ........ .. 8

LIST OF FIGURES ............................................. .. ......... ........................... 10

L IS T O F T E R M S ........................................................................................................................... 1 1

A B S T R A C T .......................................................................................................... ..................... 12

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION .................................... .. ........... ..................................... 14

State ent of the Problem ............... .. .................. ................. .......................... ............... 14
Research Questions ............................... .. ........... ............................... 17
L im station s of th e Stu dy ......................................................................................................... 17
Significance of the Study ............. .. .................. .................. ............ ........ .... ............... 18

2 R E V IEW O F L ITER A TU R E ... ......................................................................... ............... 21

The Importance of Music for Young Children..................................................................21
Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)..................................................................24
E arly C childhood T teacher B eliefs........................................... ......................... ................ 26
D definition of B elief C onstruct ......................................... ........................ ................ 26
S elf E ffic a cy .................................................................................................................... 2 8
P reservice T teacher B eliefs ......................................................................... ................ 30
Subjects of Beliefs: Domain-Specific Beliefs ............... ... ................32
Beliefs about Music, DAP, and the Relationship between the Two..................................33
B beliefs about M u sic .............. .. ................... .................. .............. ......... ... ............ 34
B eliefs ab o u t D A P .............................. ................................................. ..................... 3 6
Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP...........................................39
S u m m a ry ........................................................................................................ .................... 4 1

3 METHODOLOGY .................................... .. .......... .............................44

D ata C collection P procedure ................................................... ............................................. 44
P artic ip an ts ...................................................................................................................... 4 4
Sam pling P procedure ............. .. .................. .................. ............................. ....... .... .......... 4 5
Q u e stio n n aire s ................................................................................................................ 4 5
Follow -up Individual Interview s ....................................... ...................... ................ 46
Instrum entation ..................................................................... ..... .. ..................... 47
Teacher Inform ation Q uestionnaire............................................................ ................ 47
M usic B asic Q questionnaire ...................................................................... ................ 47









M usic B elief Q questionnaire .................................................................. ................ 48
T teacher B eliefs Scale (T B S) .......................................... ......................... ................ 49
F ollow -up Individual Interview s ....................................... ...................... ................ 51
C concept W eb .............. ......................................................................... . ......53
D ata A n aly sis ........................................................................... ............. .................. 54

4 R E S U L T S ..................................................................................................... ..................... 5 9

Demographic Descriptive Information................................................................................59
Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music ................................ ...............60
Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about DAP ..................................................67
Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and
D A P .......................................................................................... ...... ..... ..................... 69
Taxonom y ...................................... ...................... ......................72
Teachers' B eliefs about M usic.....................................................................................73
The Meanings and Roles of Music for Young Children .......................................73
Personal B background .............................................................................................74
Professional Experiences .......................................................................................76
Teacher Education.....................................................................................77
Confidence in Implementing and Supporting Music ............................. ...............79
T teachers' B eliefs about D A P ..................................................................... ............... 81
M meaning of D A P ...................................................................................................82
Principles to Im plem ent D A P ...............................................................................83
Characteristics of D AP .................. ..... .. .. ........ ..................... ............... 84
Characteristics of Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP) ........................... 86
Teachers' Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP ............................... 90
Music as a Developmental Tool of DAP Music is Part of DAP ...........................90
Music as a Supplemental Activity Partially Related to DAP ................................... 91
S u m m a ry ........................................................................................................ ..................... 9 4

5 D IS C U S S IO N ....................................................................................................................... 1 1 0

Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music .............................................110
Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about DAP ..............................................115
Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about the Relationship between Music
a n d D A P ......................................................... .................................................... ...........1 1 7
Jen's Story: a Strong Relationship between Music and DAP Beliefs............................119
Tara's Story: an Incongruent Relationship between Weaker Music and Strong DAP
B beliefs ......... ........ ... ..... ... .. ... ............................... ..... ......... 12 1
Cindy's Story: a Weaker Relationship between Music and DAP Beliefs ................123
Im plications for T teacher E education ...................................................................................... 125
Im plications for Future R research .......................................... ........................................ 129
L im station s of the Stu dy ...........................................................................................13 1

APPENDIX

A LETTER S O F CON SEN T FORM ............................................... ...................................... 135









B TEACHER INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE ........................................................137

C MUSIC BASIC QUESTIONNAIRE......................................................... ................ 138

D INSTRUMENT INFORMATION............................................................. ................ 140

E INTERVIEW QUESTIONS .............................. 141

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ....................................................... ................................................ 142

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .................................................... ............................................. 149












































7









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1 D em graphic and descriptive data....................................... ...................... ................ 97

4-2 C oursew ork list of the participants ...................................... ...................... ................ 98

4-3 M ean scores for the benefits of m usic .......................................................... ................ 99

4-4 The rank of six subjects. ............. ...................................................................99

4-5 One-way ANOVA for music beliefs depending on academic status...............................99

4-6 Correlations between beliefs about music and field experiences. ................................99

4-7 Correlations between beliefs about music and teaching experiences............................100

4-8 One-way ANOVA for Music depending on confidence about the ability to
im plem ent m usic activities. ................... .............................................................. 100

4-9 Post-hoc comparison tests for confidence about the ability to implement music
a ctiv itie s ................................................................................................ .................... 1 0 0

4-10 One-way ANOVA for Music depending on confidence about the ability to support
music development. ................................ ........... ........................... 101

4-11 Post-hoc comparison tests for confidence about the ability to support music
d ev elop m ent.................................................................................................... ........ .. 10 1

4-12 One-way ANOVA for music depending on ability to read musical notation............... 101

4-13 Post-hoc comparison tests for ability to read musical notation in music beliefs ...........102

4-14 One-way ANOVA for music depending on confidence about the ability to implement
m u sic a ctiv itie s............................................................................................................... .. 10 2

4-15 M ean scores for D AP and D IP...................................... ........................ ................ 102

4-16 One-way ANOVA for DAP and DIP depending on academic status. ...........................102

4-17 Post-hoc comparison tests for academic status in DAP beliefs .................................103

4-18 Correlations between beliefs about DAP/DIP and field experiences ........................... 103

4-19 Correlations between beliefs about DAP/DIP and teaching experiences ..................... 103

4-20 Correlations for D AP and m usic.................................... ....................... ................ 104









4-21 Frequency of stronger, weaker, and incongruent relationships. ................................ 104

4-22 Basic information of the interview participants...... .......... ...................................... 105

4-23 Coursework of the interview participants. ............. ......................106

4-24 Com prison of D AP principles .................................... ........................ ............... 106

4-25 Comparison of teachers' roles in DAP. ...... ........ ........ ...................... 106

4-26 Comparison of developmentally appropriate physical environment............................ 106









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 H hypothetical fram ew ork of present study..................................................... ................ 20

4 -1 R an k o f m u sic ................................................................................................................ 10 7

4-2 Confidence about ability to implement music activities and support musical
dev elopm ent.................................................................................................... ........... 107

4-3 Comparison of early childhood teachers' roles and music teachers 'roles....................108

4-4 In-depth patterns of relationship between music and DAP beliefs............................... 108

4-5 The representative taxonomy of the early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs
about music, DAP and the relationship between music and DAP.................................109

4-6 Jen's beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP ............... ..................... 109

4-7 Tara and Cindy's beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP ...................... 109

5-1 The relationship among knowledge, beliefs, confidence, and implementation of
m u sic ............................................................................................ ......... 134










LIST OF TERMS


Teachers' Beliefs


DAP


Self-efficacy




Teaching about music


Using music


Evaluation or values that teachers regard as valid, that influence
teachers' behavior and decisions, and that are formed through
teachers' experiences, training, and educational contexts.

(Developmentally Appropriate Practice) A wide range of
statements outlining inappropriate/appropriate practices for
children ages 0-8. DAP includes three dimensions: age
appropriateness, individual appropriateness, and cultural
appropriateness. It was originally published in 1986, and then
revised in 1997, by the National Association for the Education of
Young Children (NAEYC).

Teachers' beliefs about their own teaching ability to facilitate
students' engagement and achievement particularly when working
with difficult or challenging students who seem uninterested or
unmotivated to learn.

The instruction of musical activities related solely to musical
content goals (i.e., teaching a new song, dancing).

The implementation of music in diverse contexts that are unrelated
to musical goals (i.e., singing the alphabet song, playing
background music during nap time).









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EARLY CHILDHOOD PRESERVICE TEACHERS' BELIEFS ABOUT MUSIC,
DEVELOPMNETALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE, AND THE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN MSUIC AND DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE

By

Hae Kyoung Kim

August 2007

Chair: Dr. Kristen Kemple
Major: Curriculum and Instruction

The purpose of the study was to examine early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about

music, developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and the relationship between music and

DAP. A total of sixty-five early childhood preservice teachers participated in this study. The

Music Beliefs Questionnaire, the Teacher Beliefs Scale, the teacher information questionnaire,

and the music basic questionnaire were used to measure the teachers' beliefs about music and

DAP. Follow-up interviews were implemented with three participants demonstrating stronger,

incongruent, and weaker relationships between music and DAP.

This study found that preservice teachers have relatively strong beliefs about the

importance of music, including the aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits of

music. The participants believed literacy is the most important subject in early childhood, while

music was ranked fourth in importance. Teachers' level of confidence in their ability to

implement music activities and support musical development varied. Most preservice teachers

believed music teachers' role is more important than early childhood teachers' in supporting

music development. There was a significant difference in music beliefs depending on teachers'

confidence level. Higher levels of confidence indicated stronger beliefs about the importance of

music. Depending on teachers' ability to read music notation, a significant difference was found.









The teachers who were able to slightly read musical notation demonstrated more positive beliefs

about the importance of music than the teachers who were not able to read musical notation.

This study suggests that early childhood preservice teachers possess relatively strong

beliefs about the importance of using practices that have been identified as developmentally

appropriate. This study also found that it is important to avoid those practices that have been

identified as developmentally inappropriate for young children. There was a statistically

significant difference between DAP and DIP beliefs based upon academic status. Preservice

teachers who were further along in the teacher training program demonstrated stronger DAP

beliefs and lower DIP beliefs than preservice teachers who had just begun the teacher training

program. A statistically significant relationship between DAP and field experiences was

identified. Teachers who experienced more field placements reported stronger beliefs about

DAP.

Lastly, this study found a relationship between beliefs about music and DAP. This implies

that a preservice teacher who possess positive beliefs about the importance of music

demonstrates stronger beliefs about the importance of DAP. Three interviewees reporting various

levels (e.g., stronger, incongruent, and weaker) of relationship between music and DAP reported

different beliefs. Personal background, confidence level, teacher education, and professional

experience influenced teachers' beliefs about music at different levels. The preservice teachers

demonstrated diverse features of appropriate practice and inappropriate practice, including

definitions, the general principles to implement DAP, and experiences related to DAP. The

interview participants generally agreed that music is somewhat related to DAP; however, the

teacher who possessed the stronger music beliefs thought that music should be part of DAP. The

other teachers reported beliefs that music could be used in limited ways used within DAP.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem

In early childhood education, music is a primary resource. It is a beneficial and appropriate

activity that encourages children's development across cultures and histories. It is difficult to

imagine a young children's classroom without music. A number of studies report that children

innately enjoy music and naturally express their emotions through music (Fox, 2000; Gruhn,

2002; Snyder, 1997). Music also facilitates communication skills, provides opportunities for

social interaction, stimulates cognitive development, and provides background for cultural

development (Custodero, 2002a, 2002b; Custodero, 2003a; Eisner, 2001; Mueller, 2003). Music

is not only an interesting 'subject' to which children are naturally drawn, it is also an important

'tool' that enhances all areas of child development.

In spite of general agreement regarding the importance of music in early childhood

education, music has recently been deemphasized in early childhood education due to the

increased emphasis on academic achievement that is influenced by social and political pressures

(Hill, 2003; Raver & Zigler, 2004). However, given the variety of important functions that music

provides for young children, music should be implemented in early childhood education. In such

a challenging educational climate that is influenced by political and social pressures, teachers'

beliefs about music have an even more critical impact on the implementation of music in the

classroom because teachers' beliefs play a primary role in educational practices. Teachers'

beliefs impact their classroom practices because their beliefs are closely related to the decision-

making process, teaching implementations, and daily interactions with children (File, 1994;

Kowalski, Pretti-Fronczak, & Johnson, 2001; McMullen, 1997; Pajares, 1992; Piotrkowski,

Botsko, & Matthews, 2000; Stipek & Byler, 1997; Vartuli, 1999). To illustrate, if teachers hold









positive beliefs about music, those beliefs may influence their decision making, planning, and

implementation of music into their curriculum. Therefore, an examination of teachers' beliefs

regarding music is important.

Music functions as a developmental tool, and as such is involved with several areas of

child development. Therefore, teachers' beliefs about music should not be separated from their

beliefs regarding development as a whole. Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) is the

umbrella concept that includes diverse subject areas and whole child development. Figure 1

explains the hypothetical conceptual framework of how teachers' beliefs about music and DAP

are related, and how the beliefs about music and DAP are connected to implementation of music

in the classroom. This study focuses on beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP.

The relationship may vary depending on teachers' beliefs. Some teachers may hold beliefs that

music is part of DAP as shown figure 1; others may view music as separate from DAP.

Teachers hold beliefs about diverse domains that range from abstract to specific concepts.

In order to understand teachers' belief system and the relationship among specific domains at a

deeper level, research on the relationship between beliefs in multiple domains (i.e., music and

DAP) is necessary. Beliefs about DAP may provide details that are pertinent or incompatible to

planning and implementing music in the curriculum.

DAP is a key concept in early childhood education and many research investigations on

beliefs about DAP and the relationship between DAP beliefs and teaching practices have been

carried out. DAP was first published in 1986, and then revised in 1997 by the National

Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). The NAEYC influences early

childhood educational curricula and practices worldwide (Bredekamp, 1987; Bredekamp &

Copple 1997). DAP statements include appropriate practices for children ages 0-8, and provides









examples that emphasize age appropriateness, individual appropriateness, and cultural

appropriateness. Early childhood educators hold the DAP guidelines in high regard. However,

the belief studies regarding DAP reveal disagreement about what DAP is (Bredekamp, 1997;

Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Smith, 1997; Swadener & Kessler, 1991). This is due, in part, to the

fact that DAP is a broad, overarching concept that pertains to diverse developmental areas

(Wilcox-Herzog, 2000). Furthermore, DAP may be interpreted in various ways. Therefore,

research that examines different beliefs about the definitions of DAP among early childhood

educators is required to encourage understanding among educators and researchers.

Among the belief studies that have been conducted, there has been more research on

inservice teachers' beliefs than on preservice teachers' beliefs. This may be due to the fact that

many studies about teachers' beliefs focus on the relationship between beliefs and teaching

practices. The preservice educational stage, however, is a critical period in which new teachers

begin to develop and elaborate upon their own beliefs (Tschannen-Moran, Woolfok Hoy, & Hoy,

1998; Weinstein, 1998). Teacher education is one of the most important factors in becoming a

professional educator and profoundly influences teachers' beliefs and teaching practices (Smith,

1997; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Preservice teachers' beliefs are constructed through

teacher education programs and through personal and professional experiences (i.e., practicum,

internship). Once beliefs are shaped, it is difficult to change them (Smith, 1997; Tschannen-

Moran et al., 1998). Therefore, an examination of preservice teachers' beliefs throughout a range

of professional stages is needed to determine the factors that influence beliefs regarding music

and DAP.

The purpose of the study is to examine early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs

regarding the importance of music for young children, to investigate the teachers' beliefs about









the importance of DAP based on teachers' own description of what DAP is and what features of

DAP are, and to explore the beliefs about dynamic relationship between music and DAP with

early childhood preservice teachers to include a variety of professional stages. Reflecting upon

the needs discussed, the present study will explore early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs

about music, early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP, and early childhood

preservice teachers' beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP.

Research Questions

1. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about music (the benefits of
music, the importance of music, confidence in their ability to implement music activities and
support music development, and the importance of teachers' roles regarding music)?

2. What is the relationship between early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music
and teachers' individual characteristics (academic status, field experiences, teaching
experiences, ability to read musical notation, and music education)?

3. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about developmentally
appropriate teaching practice (DAP)? What is the relationship between early childhood
preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP and their individual characteristics (academic status,
field experiences and teaching experiences)?

4. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about the relationship between
music and DAP?

5. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers who demonstrated various levels
of beliefs (stronger, incongruent, and weaker) about music, DAP, and the relationship
between music and DAP?

Limitations of the Study

Limitations to this study involve the level of teaching experience, sample of participants,

and the researchers' knowledge of the participants. The study was conducted with preservice

teachers at universities located in the southeastern United States. Most participants are

Caucasian middle class females. Generalization of the results of this study will be limited in

terms of teaching context, race, gender, and socioeconomic status.









The researcher had previous professional experience with two interviewees (i.e., served as

their practicum supervisor). The participants' perceptions of the researcher as a former

supervisor may have influenced their interactions with the researcher. This may have limited the

participants' responses during the interview.

The researcher's personal beliefs and biases cannot be separated from the data. These

perspectives include those as a former preschool/kindergarten classroom teacher, former college

instructor teaching music in early childhood education, a music enthusiast, a doctoral student,

and researcher of early childhood education. Additionally, the researcher's ethnic and racial

identity as an international, Asian, middle-class female may influence the interpretation,

description, and analysis of the beliefs and dynamics related to the preservice teachers' thoughts

during the interviews.

Significance of the Study

Teacher educators may benefit from this study in designing a music curriculum for early

childhood teacher education and integrating music into other courses because this study provides

new and useful information on early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music and the

components that influence those music beliefs. The current study addresses a description of

preservice teachers' beliefs about music for young children; the various areas of teachers' beliefs

studied are the benefits of music, the importance of music relative to other subjects, the

confidence of the participants in implementing music activities and supporting music

development, and the roles of early childhood and music teachers. Preservice teachers' music

content knowledge, confidence level, music education, and field/teaching experiences were also

taken and compared to teacher beliefs about music. This information may help educators in

teacher preparation programs understand what components are missed in music curriculums and









what areas need to be changed to equip early childhood preservice teachers with information

about appropriate music content and practical knowledge.

This study also aids in developing appropriate teacher education curriculums and field

(practicum/internship) experiences related to DAP for early childhood programs. This study

provides information on how preservice teachers understand DAP in relation to influences from

teacher education programs and field experiences. This study adds to existing information

regarding preservice teachers' beliefs based on current understandings of DAP. Although DAP

is a widely accepted construct, there has been disagreement among educators regarding how

DAP should be implemented. This study outlines reports from preservice teachers describing

their definitions of DAP, the general principles that early childhood teachers believe in order to

implement DAP, the features of both appropriate and inappropriate practices, and reflections on

DAP from field or teaching experiences. This information could inform the design and

implementation for preservice teaching program curriculums such as balance of pedagogy and

content knowledge of DAP. Teacher educators and field supervisors may have a better

understanding as a result of this study about what factors and components need to be changed in

order to operate effective field experiences in the practice and internships.

This study may influence the design and implementation of teacher education programs

with regard to not only music curricula but other subjects as well, because the findings from this

study will provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between the beliefs of early

childhood preservice teachers about DAP and music. This illuminates an understanding of the

relationship among different domains of beliefs. Findings demonstrate how stronger,

incompatible, and weaker relationships between beliefs about music and DAP exist amongst

preservice teachers. This study provides the manner in which other subjects and music interact in









early childhood education curricula. Also, descriptions from preservice teachers about the

relationship between music and DAP beliefs, how these beliefs have developed, and how these

beliefs have changed over time will give the field a better understanding of the process of belief

development in preservice teachers.

This study provides in-depth information regarding early childhood preservice teachers'

beliefs about music and DAP using multiple methods (i.e., questionnaires, interviews, concept

webs). Utilizing a variety of data collection methods can help strengthen the significance of the

research. Previous belief studies showed limitations in terms of methods and measurements

(Fang, 1996). Quantitative data collection methods involving a large number of participants may

explain general beliefs about music and DAP. However, beliefs can be thoroughly investigated

using qualitative data from a small number of participants providing a more detailed

understanding of the links between teacher beliefs about music and DAP. Consequently, the

power of the study is improved by providing quantitative results as well as information from the

interviews regarding early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music and DAP.



Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs


Beliefs about Music Beliefs about Developmentally s
~_ appropriate practice




Developmentally appropriate
Implementing music practice practice


Practice


Figure 1-1. Hypothetical framework of present study.









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The purpose of this study is to examine early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about

music and developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), and the relationship between music and

DAP. This chapter presents an overview of relevant research pertaining to teachers' beliefs about

music and DAP. Several topic areas are covered, including: 1) the importance of music for

young children, 2) DAP, 3) early childhood teachers' beliefs toward music and DAP, and 4) the

relationship between beliefs about music and DAP.

The Importance of Music for Young Children

The importance of music for young children will be presented in this section. A number of

studies have found that music plays a critical role in early childhood education. Music has

diverse functions and roles for the development of young children. First of all, music is a

'communicative tool' for young children. Children express their feelings and thoughts, as well as

respond to others, through music. Music is a natural medium to communicate human emotions

and thoughts (Andress, 1998; Custodero, 2002b; Levinowitz, 2001). Since young children's

language is not fully developed, music is another language for communication available to

children. Music represents a pathway for children to communicate their thoughts and can be

compared to school-aged children using verbal and written language to communicate with people

in conventional ways. Music can offer an advantage over traditional communication media to

express an individual's thoughts and feelings. This is due to a limitation of traditional language

that relies only on linguistic methods during the representation process (Custodero, 2002a;

Eisner, 2001).

Music is a social activity. Being engaged in music provides social interaction and sharing

meanings in the context. Custodero (2002b) emphasized 'musical child-in-context', which









explains children's interdependent relationships by sharing and understanding meanings through

music. Just singing a song with a caregiver includes diverse social aspects. For example, it helps

a child feel attachment and connection with significant others. A child also has the opportunity to

respond to the melody, create a different pitch, or remember different experiences that the lyrics

provoke. That is, children actively interpret and represent the music in their minds. These

representations and creations are socially interdependent in a comfortable emotional

environment. Therefore, being involved in musical interaction is important for young children.

Music is a cognitive activity for young children. Music stimulates children's cognition by

arousing young children's perceptions. Children cognitively construct knowledge through music.

While music as a communicative tool that reflects an 'outward aspect' of music, the cognitive

component of music is also related to the 'inward aspect' because it occurs in children's minds

(Custodero, 2002b). Musical experiences provide opportunities to explore sounds, rhythmic

movements of the body or objects, and playing instruments. Through the exploration and

experimentation of sound, children realize how sounds can become music through their

knowledge of musical elements, such as melody and rhythm. Specifically sound-making

mechanisms and involvement in music making are important to the development of musical

ability (Custodero, 2002a; Mueller, 2003).

Music can be a joyful and aesthetic form of play in which young children innately want to

be involved. Children love to play with music. It is widely known that children naturally love to

sing, move, dance, explore instruments, and invent sounds as play (Mueller, 2003; Tarnowski,

1999; Temmerman, 1998). Music provides a 'flow' experience for children, which is defined as

"a state of optimal enjoyment defined by the individual's perception of high skill and high

challenge for a given activity" (p. 3, Custodero, 2002a). This implies that musical activities









provide intrinsic motivation for children to become involved in challenges by making them

enjoyable.

The evidence that children naturally enjoy music has been supported by research about

children's attitude and preference toward music. Much research suggests that young children

respond to any type of music with 'non-discriminating and receptive' attitudes, and they showed

positive reactions to all types of music that they have had the opportunities to listen and sing to

(Sims & Cassidy, 1997). Young children do not demonstrate a particular attitude toward or

preference for different types of music characteristics such as style, tempo, familiarity of songs,

and songs with or without lyrics. Children over fourth grade demonstrate a strong, specific

attitude or preference when selecting music characteristics in style, tempo, medium, and amount

of vibrato (Greer, Dorow, & Hanser, 1973; Greer, Dorow, & Randall, 1974; LeBlanc &

McCrary, 1983; Schuckert & McDonald, 1968; Sims, 1987; Sims & Cassidy, 1997).

Music is a component of culture for young children. Music reflects social, historical, and

local characteristics in the culture. Music has been created in every culture; time and regional

factors have influenced music (Eisner, 2001). One can experience a culture by experiencing the

culture's music. Music exists within culture and music has been conveyed and imbedded within

cultures (Custodero, 2003a). Group members in a certain culture and the activities that are

influenced by the people in that culture strongly affect children's musical experience and basic

attitude toward music. Therefore, music includes a framework that limits the range of the

experience through culture (Eisner, 2001). Culture influences the messages in that particular

culture's music, music styles, and genres. Not only is music a part of the culture for young

children, but also for older children and adults. However, the degree of influence of culture at a









younger age is stronger than the influence at an older age since young children are more sensitive

and flexible than older children.

Given that music has important and diverse roles for young children, music is not only 'a

favored subject' among children, but also 'a developmental tool' that can provide many

developmental benefits for young children. Therefore, music should be actively implemented in

early childhood classrooms because music can be incorporated into enjoyable activities that

provide fun and interests for children as well as opportunities to help children's development

appropriately. This implies that music can be an important medium for developmentally

appropriate practice since it positively and actively facilitates children's development. However,

due to increased academic pressure influenced by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and

state wide standardized tests such as the FCAT, music has recently been neglected in early

childhood education (Hill, 2003; Raver & Zigler, 2004). In this challenging situation, in order to

encourage approaching and using music appropriately in early childhood, the components that

affect music implementation need to be investigated so that music can be highlighted in terms of

critical roles and functions in early childhood education.

Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)

Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) is a major topic and umbrella concept in early

childhood education. DAP is a known and accepted concept for early childhood educators world

wide, but is subject to multiple approaches, varied perspectives and interpretations. It seems that

early childhood educators agree with DAP, but they understand and adapt DAP in their own

ways. This section outlines the history of DAP and key concepts about DAP.

DAP was published in 1987 and revised in 1997 by the National Association for the

Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (Bredekamp, 1987; Bredekamp & Copple 1997). Since

its establishment in 1926, NAEYC as the largest organization involved in early childhood









education has strongly influenced early childhood curricula and practices worldwide working for

young children, teachers, and families. The first edition of DAP published in 1987 was presented

in response to increased academic pressure in early childhood classrooms. Since NAEYC has

worked on accreditation for early childhood institutes, the administrators and educators has

needed to clarify DAP in specific accreditation criteria. In the first edition, DAP included a wide

range of statements with inappropriate/appropriate practices for children ages birth to eight

including two dimensions age appropriateness and individual appropriateness. Since the first

edition of DAP has been published, the statements and guidelines have been considered to

represent specific goals to be accomplished for children among early childhood educators (Smith,

1997). However, DAP were interpreted in various ways and there was disagreement about what

DAP.

Based on significant debates and a growing need to clarify DAP, a revised version of

developmentally appropriate practices was published in 1997. Revised DAP dimensions have

been more extended and clarified with examples of appropriate and inappropriate practices than

the first edition. It emphasized age appropriateness, individual appropriateness and cultural

appropriateness based on children's development knowledge. Also revised were guidelines

including five components of early childhood practice: 1) creating a caring community of

learners 2) teaching to enhance children's learning and development, 3) constructing appropriate

curriculum, 4) assessing children's learning and development and 5) establishing reciprocal

relationships with families.

Although the revised version of DAP clarified and provided more specific examples than

the first edition, child centered, individual centered and culturally respected teaching practices

are still debated and criticized. First of all, there have been different interpretations about DAP









guidelines on how the guidelines should be adapted and interpreted from abstract statements to

concrete practices (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Smith, 1997; Swadener & Kessler, 1991). For

example, if a teacher were asked what a developmentally appropriate practice should look like,

the answers might correspond to different aspects of DAP. Furthermore, limited studies have

investigated the impact of DAP (Jones & Gullo, 1999). Research on DAP mostly focused on

teachers' self-reported practices rather than observed practices. This is related to lack of

validated measures to assess DAP (Horn & Ramey, 2004). Although there are observational

rating tools of DAP, the validity of measurements are still debated whether the measurements

reflect appropriately the extent of whole components of DAP.

Early Childhood Teacher Beliefs

Beliefs are referred to as "the heart of teaching" (Vartuli, 2005, p.76). Research on

teachers' beliefs is considered critical in teacher education research because teachers' beliefs are

closely related to the process of making decisions and to behavior (Fang, 1996). Investigation on

beliefs pose fundamental questions: how teachers make decisions daily in the classrooms, what

teachers refer to or rely on when planning, making decisions, or interacting with students, how

teachers develop their personal beliefs about a variety of developmental issues with respect to

specific areas, and the specific beliefs that operate in specific situations. This chapter will

provide an overview of the research related to teacher beliefs including definitions of belief, self-

efficacy, preservice teachers' beliefs, and domain specific beliefs.

Definition of Belief Construct

This category of teacher beliefs involves the definition of the construct 'beliefs'.

Researchers have debated the construct of beliefs in order to attain a universal definition of

beliefs. However, due to the fact that beliefs are invisible, the construct is difficult to investigate.









Several definitions of 'beliefs' have been introduced in research, each with different layers of

specificity (Pajares, 1992; K. E. Smith, 1997).

The term 'teachers' beliefs' is related to a variety of concepts, such as self-efficacy,

knowledge, attitude about education, epistemological beliefs, motivation, attributions, self-

concept, educational beliefs about specific subjects, and thought processes (Cassidy & Lawrence,

2000; Clark & Peterson, 1986; Pajares, 1992; K. E. Smith, 1997; M. L. Smith & Shepard, 1988).

Among these concepts, beliefs are most likely to be confused with knowledge (Pajares, 1992). It

could be distinguished that a belief is evaluative and judgmental compared to knowledge

represents the facts (Pajares, 1992). Teachers have gained knowledge from dominant theories

espoused by scholars throughout preservice and in-service education programs. Conversely,

beliefs are more likely to be drawn from value-laden thoughts regarding education, child

development, teaching, and learning that have been affected by a teacher's professional and

personal experiences.

Beliefs are values that teachers consider to be right and true (Smith & Shepard, 1988).

Teachers' beliefs are closely related to teachers' thought processes and essential to establishing

an emotional attitude (Clark & Peterson, 1986; K. E. Smith, 1997; Smith & Shepard, 1988).

Therefore, a belief system is composed of beliefs, attitudes, and values (Pajares, 1992). Similarly,

beliefs may be defined in terms of a disposition that an individual possess regarding the truth of a

proposition (Smith & Shepard, 1988). At times, beliefs represent a teacher's disposition toward

action (Brown & Cooney, 1982). Related to action, beliefs can be inferred from a teacher's

behavior. Research has demonstrated that teachers' beliefs and decision-making process are

related because daily decisions are based on their beliefs (Piotrkowski et al, 2000). Based on

diverse definitions, beliefs have been defined as "values, which house the evaluative,









comparative, and judgmental functions of beliefs and replace predisposition with an imperative

to action" (Pajares, 1992, p.314).

Self Efficacy

Teachers' self-efficacy refers to their beliefs and evaluation of their own abilities. A

teacher's sense of self-efficacy can facilitate their students' engagement and achievements,

particularly when working with difficult or challenging students who appear to be uninterested or

unmotivated to learn (Bandura, 1977, 1997; Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2004; Tschannen-

Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 1998, 2001). Teachers' self-efficacy refers to their beliefs and

evaluation of their own abilities. A teacher's sense of self-efficacy can facilitate students'

engagement and achievement, particularly when working with difficult or challenging students

who appear to be uninterested or unmotivated to learn (Bandura, 1977, 1997; Goddard, Hoy, &

Woolfolk Hoy, 2004; Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 1998, 2001). Efficacy beliefs

influence the degree of effort, persistence, resilience, and strategies for handling stressful

teaching situations with students during specific tasks (Bandura, 1997). A teacher's sense of

self- efficacy is differentiated from other self-terms (i.e., self-concept, self-esteem) because

teachers' self-efficacy is contextual and represents a task-specific concept (Goddard, Hoy, &

Woolfolk Hoy, 2000). To illustrate, teachers may perform differently (i.e., better or worse) when

teaching certain subjects or in a certain atmosphere. Therefore, teachers' self-efficacy varies

depending on the different subjects they teach and the influence of the teaching environment.

Furthermore, self-efficacy reflects a judgment about what teachers believe in terms of the extent

to which they are able to perform tasks with a diverse group of children; self-efficacy does not

represent what teachers are actually capable of teaching (Gist & Mitchell, 1992; Goddard, Hoy,

& Woolfolk Hoy, 2004).









There are four factors that influence teachers' self-efficacy. These factors involve mastery

experiences, physiological and emotional arousals, vicarious experiences, and verbal persuasion

(Bandura, 1997; Goddard et al., 2000; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Mastery experiences refer

to meaningful information that teachers use to guide their expectations for effective future

performance. Physiological and emotional cues refer to the physical and emotional reactions that

teachers experience while they are teaching and learning. Depending on whether the teachers'

reactions during teaching and learning are negative or positive, self-efficacy may be affected.

Vicarious experiences are obtained through observing skillful teachers who are respected,

credible models of teaching and learning. Verbal persuasion refers to a variety of feedback

teachers receive (i.e., coursework, workshops, interaction with co-workers). Teachers do not just

accumulate the information; they develop and reconceptualize their self-efficacy through

dynamic experiences.

Since Bandura (1977) introduced the concept of 'self-efficacy', it has been developed and

reconceptualized in various ways. A new perspective has recently emerged from individual

teachers' self-efficacy to a 'collective efficacy' by adding the organization attribute (Goddard et

al., 2000). Teachers are involved in shared experiences as well as shared beliefs in a school

community. The shared beliefs influence teachers' perceived efficacy since teachers are

interwoven in a school system. Thus, collective efficacy refers to the combined perceived ability

of all teachers in the school community, not simply the sum of each person's self-efficacy.

(Goddard et al., 2004)

Teacher efficacy research has primarily occurred in liberal arts and elementary/ secondary

education. Such investigations have demonstrated that teachers' self-efficacy is closely related

to teachers' performance and students' outcomes. Teachers' sense of self-efficacy is significantly









related to teachers' level of enthusiasm, commitment, and effective teaching behavior.

Additionally, teachers who have a higher sense of self-efficacy demonstrate the ability to

enhance students' beliefs about learning, students' self-esteem, motivation, and family

involvement (Anderson, Greene, & Loewen, 1988; Ashton & Webb, 1986; Gibson & Dembo,

1984; Goddard et al., 2004; Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler & Brissie, 1992; Pajares, 1992; Ross,

1992; Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001).

Even though there have been very few studies about teachers' self-efficacy in early

childhood education, teachers' perceived self-efficacy is important because early childhood is a

critical period that may influence children's self-concept and identity development (Bandura,

1997; Vartuli, 2005). Teachers with higher self-efficacy effectively use individual interactions to

meet each child's needs by constructing a supportive atmosphere; this is considered important in

early childhood education (Vartuli, 2005). Early childhood education differs from elementary

and secondary education by focusing on a child-centered approach and developmentally

appropriate practices; therefore, early childhood teachers' self-efficacy may be different from

that of elementary/secondary teachers'. Thus, it will be necessary to examine early childhood

teachers' self-efficacy by considering the distinct characteristics of children's development and

diverse educational backgrounds.

Preservice Teacher Beliefs

As with research that focuses on early childhood inservice teachers, there has been limited

research that centers on preservice teachers. Preservice teachers' beliefs are important because

teachers develop their own perspectives and beliefs early in the preservice teaching stage; once

beliefs are developed, it is difficult to change them (Smith, 1997; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998).

Coursework has been demonstrated to affect preservice teachers' self-efficacy; however,

teaching experience (i.e., internship, apprenticeship) has a greater influence on self-efficacy for









elementary preservice teachers (Housego, 1992; Hoy & Woolfolk, 1990; Tschannen-Moran et al.,

1998). Specifically, some preservice teachers' self-efficacy declined with teaching experience

due to the fact that teachers encounter the difficulties and challenges of teaching in actual school

settings (Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Prospective teachers experience the reality of complex,

dynamic situations and make multiple decisions as teachers upon entering a student teaching

practicum or internship. Therefore, student teachers may negotiate their previous beliefs as they

adapt and protect their self-efficacy (Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998; Weinstein, 1998).

There are studies about early childhood education preservice teachers' beliefs. The

difference between elementary and early childhood preservice teachers has been investigated.

The research revealed that early childhood preservice teachers possessed more beliefs about

DAP than elementary preservice teachers (File & Gullo, 2002; Smith, 1997). In school settings

with cooperating teachers, there is no significant evidence of correlations between cooperating

teachers' beliefs and student teachers' beliefs (Smith, 1997). Likewise, there is no significant

change in beliefs about DAP after student teaching experience has occurred (i.e., internship).

Research on beliefs regarding family involvement revealed preservice teachers'

misconceptions and concerns about teacher-family relationships, meeting children's needs in

connection with the needs of the family, and approaching families as a resource (Baum,

McMurray-Schwarz, 2004). Additionally, prospective teachers demonstrated insufficient

knowledge of and experience with family involvement strategies during teacher education

programs. There have not been many studies conducted about preservice teacher beliefs;

however, preservice teachers' beliefs at this initial professional stage may represent a foundation

on which professional development begins. Thus, extending the research to include an









examination of preservice teachers' beliefs may enhance the professional development of

prospective teachers and impact teacher preparation programs.

Subjects of Beliefs: Domain-Specific Beliefs

Beliefs require subjects to believe in. Teachers hold beliefs about specific domains in

education such as math, art, or music. The reason specific domain beliefs are important is

because they may enhance teachers' understanding of how children learn in different domains,

how teachers define their roles to improve children's learning skills, and how to select classroom

teaching strategies in the subjects (Schirmer, Casbon, & Twiss, 1997). Teachers' beliefs about

specific domains may reveal important information; this is how teachers understand complexity

of children's learning styles related to the subjects (Pajares, 1992). Beliefs about specific

subjects may also affect their decision making process for planning and implementing the

curriculum. In spite of the importance of researching specific subject areas, very few studies

have been conducted on early childhood education.

First, there have been studies on beliefs about school readiness. School readiness is a

controversial topic in early childhood education. This is based, in part, on the fact that education

is experiencing challenges due to poverty and failure to establish harmony among the diverse

ethnic groups in schools. To promote school readiness for children in poverty, many programs

have been implemented. In spite of the emphasis on school readiness, there has not been a

universally accepted definition of school readiness construct. Piotrkowski, Botsko, & Matthews

(2000) have researched preschool and kindergarten teachers' and parents' beliefs about

children's school readiness in culturally diverse, low-income urban schools. This study revealed

that there is no difference in general school readiness in terms of health, peer relations, or

emotional maturity between the parents and the teachers; however, parents emphasized that









classroom-related readiness, such as communication in English, compliance with teacher

authority, or basic knowledge was different among students.

'Beliefs about family competence' is another subject in belief studies since the importance

of family in education has been emphasized. Active inclusion of the family in diverse areas, such

as decision making, the curriculum, and children's development, represents a critical addition to

the educational process. In terms of a traditional family-school partnership, communication

generally flows from school-to-home. However, recently communication in family-school

partnerships emphasized from 'home-to-school' communication (Jones, White, Aeby, & Benson,

1997; Moseman, 2003). Teachers' beliefs are important in facilitating a home-to-school

partnership because teachers play a critical role in contacting families and gain valuable

information from families about their children. It was reported that many primary school teachers

believed that families could provide information but do not have capability in decision-making

(Moseman, 2003). As discussed, there are few studies related to subject-specific beliefs of early

childhood educators, since many belief studies on early childhood education have focused on

developmentally appropriate practices. Therefore, there is a growing need to research beliefs

about specific domains.

Beliefs about Music, DAP, and the Relationship between the Two

Throughout this review of the research, the importance of music, information of DAP, the

meanings and roles of teacher beliefs and relevant beliefs research was discussed. First, this

section outlines research on the beliefs of teachers about music education, including the

importance of teacher beliefs in implementing music. Then the section discusses beliefs about

DAP and the relationship between teacher beliefs about DAP and actual teaching practices.

Finally, beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP will be discussed.









Beliefs about Music

Relevant research on music for young children demonstrated the important roles and

functions of music as an active agent to facilitate children's development. Teachers' beliefs

about the implementation of musical education in the classroom may have an influence on

teachers' music practice and children's perceptions of music.

There is evidence that teachers' beliefs affect teaching practices and interactions with

students (File, 1994; Kowalski et al, 2001; McMullen, 1997; Pajares, 1992; Piotrkowski et al,

2000; Pretti-Frontczak, & Johnson, 2001; Stipek & Byler, 1997; Vartuli, 1999). Therefore, if

teachers hold positive beliefs about music, it may influence their decision making and planning

of the curriculum to include a variety of musical activities. Most of the research on teacher

beliefs about music was conducted through music education disciplines. However, outcomes

from music education research imply noteworthy findings that are related to early childhood

education.

First of all, a teacher's beliefs about music affect the decision on the amount of exposure to

music that is related to children's musical perceptions. Teachers provide opportunities for

children to enjoy and experience music. Children who have more opportunities to experience

music at an earlier stage of life demonstrate greater potential to develop musically (Gordon,

1999). This is similar to language development in that language cannot be developed solely by

intentional teaching (e.g., direct instruction), but must also include the experience of social

context through interaction with significant adults (Lindfors, 1991). Likewise, children's musical

ability cannot be developed simply by having opportunities to be surrounded by music in various

environments. Thus, teachers with strong beliefs about the importance of music may provide

increased exposure to music and interact with children using music since teachers plan and create









the classroom environment and curriculum that children experience. Also, teachers' beliefs about

implementing music in the classroom may significantly influence children's perceptions of music.

Teacher beliefs influence the incorporation of physical activity within the music

environment. Active physical involvement represents a method of enhancing children's

experience with music (Mueller, 2003). Providing musical centers is one way to implement

music in the classroom because children have the freedom to explore sounds and have

opportunities to make sounds by themselves in these centers (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004;

Turner, 1999). Engaging in music center activities allows children to create music even if they

are exposed to outside noises during their experience (Turner, 1999). Music centers may support

children's self-initiated music play in small groups or individually, and teachers serve as

observer, supporter, guide, conversationalist, cooperator, and facilitator for activities that

children direct (Kemple et al., 2004; Tarnowski, 1999; Turner, 1999).

Even though teachers may believe that music is important, there are obstacles to

implementing music in the classroom. For example, teachers may hesitate to actively implement

music based on a lack of confidence in their own musical knowledge, insufficient resources, or

inadequate support (Gharavi, 1993; Hildebrandt, 1998; I'Etoile, 2001; Isenberg & Jalongo, 1993;

McDonald, 1993). Teachers who had access to inservice music education however, were able to

implement a variety of music activities and facilitate children's development of musical abilities

(I'Etoile, 2001).

There is research on music preservice teachers' beliefs about music. Preservice teachers'

beliefs relating to success and failure in teaching music was investigated (Legette, 2002). The

preservice teachers reported which factor ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck -influenced

their beliefs about the cause of success and/or failure in teaching music. The results showed that









the music preservice teachers believe their ability and effort are major factors of their successes

and failures in teaching music. This implies that teachers perceive that the cause of success

and/or failure might be linked to their inward aspect (ability and effort) rather than outward

attributors (task difficulty and luck).

Another study of preservice music teachers' beliefs about music revealed that student

teachers believe philosophical statements regarding the importance of music education including

aesthetic, social-emotional, and quality-of-life benefits of music are most likely true rather than

false (Austin & Reinhardt, 1999). Beliefs about the validity of music education are highly

correlated with the advocacy of music education among prospective music teachers; the more

preservice teachers believe in the validity of music education, the more they act as advocates for

music education. Despite the importance of teachers' beliefs about music, there has been very

little research on early childhood teachers' beliefs related to music. To gain a better

understanding of the effect of teachers' beliefs toward music, this area needs to be investigated

further.

Beliefs about DAP

Although a great deal of research has been done on DAP, teachers continue to have

different understandings of how to implement DAP. One reason for this could be different forms

of adaptation to DAP implementations and the variety of ways in which DAP can be interpreted.

Therefore, how teachers think and what they believe about DAP has become an important

research topic. Research on beliefs about DAP has focused on (1) the differences among teachers

in how they consider the significance of DAP and (2) the practice of how teachers implement the

DAP curriculum compared to their own self-reported beliefs.

Depending on the grade level, beliefs and teaching practices are different (Stipek & Byler,

1997; Vartuli, 1999). For example, in a recent study kindergarten and Head Start teachers were









found to consider DAP more important than first and second grade teachers. Kindergarten and

Head Start teachers also demonstrated developmentally appropriate practices during the observed

practices than did the higher grade classrooms (Vartuli, 1999). It has been reported that

preschool, kindergarten, and primary teachers who possessed child-centered beliefs

demonstrated a positive social environment (Stipek & Byler, 1997). Additionally, the teachers

who believed DAP was important followed specific guidelines about appropriate/ inappropriate

practices.

There are differences in the relationship between beliefs and practice depending on

teachers' levels of education. Many teachers who majored in early childhood education and had

higher degrees scored higher in terms of possessing developmentally appropriate beliefs and

implementing such practices (McMullen, 1999; Snider & Fu, 1990). Teachers' educational levels

are negatively correlated with inappropriate beliefs related to classroom quality. This may

explain why teachers with lower educational levels reported more inappropriate beliefs regarding

child development (Abbott-Shim, Lambert, & McCarty, 2000).

In a comparison studies on beliefs about DAP in general, and special early childhood

educators, agreement was demonstrated regarding DAP among both general and special

educators. However, there was a difference in behavioral teaching and classroom management

strategies among general and special educators (Sexton, Snyder, Lobman, & Daly, 2002). In a

study of teachers' beliefs about specific areas of developmental skills and abilities, the majority

of the teachers believed that the social-emotional items were more important than language,

literacy, and early math items (Kowalski et al., 2001). Also, this research demonstrated different

beliefs between Head Start teachers, preschool teachers and preschool special educators.









Preschool special education teachers emphasized the importance of social-emotional competence

among developmental skills more so than did Head Start teachers.

One of issues associated with researching teachers' beliefs revolves around the

investigation of the relationship between beliefs and practice. The emphasis on teachers' beliefs

is based on the fact that beliefs are related to and affect teaching practices and interactions with

children (File, 1994; McMullen, 1997; Kowalski et al, 2001; Pajares, 1992; Piotrkowski et al.,

2000; Stipek & Byler, 1997; Vartuli, 1999). The research involving the relationship between

beliefs and practices can be categorized in two ways. First, the relationship that exists between

teachers' stated beliefs and observed practice. Second, the relationship between teachers' stated

beliefs and self-reported practice.

Research demonstrates a positive relationship between teachers' beliefs and observed

practices (Clark & Peterson, 1986; Dunn & Kontos, 1997; Pajares, 1992; Stipek & Byler, 1997;

Vartuli, 1999). However, congruence does not always exist between teachers' beliefs and their

teaching practices. A few studies have demonstrated a weak relationship between teachers'

beliefs and observed classroom practice (Bryant, Clifford, & Piesner, 1991; Munby, 1982;

Wilcox-Herzog, 2000). There are reasons explaining the incongruence in the literature. This

discrepancy may reflect the reality of classrooms. It could also be related to teachers' pressure

from different expectations among parents, administrators, and the government policy like

NCLB or state-wide tests (Hitz & Wright, 1988; Kowalski et al., 2001; Wilcox-Herzog, 2000).

Furthermore, confusion regarding definitions of DAP may affect participants' responses. This is

related to the poor and unspecific measurements of DAP beliefs (Wilcox-Herzog, 2002; Vartuli,

2005).









Studies show that teachers' stated beliefs and self-reported teaching practices are positively

related. For example, teachers who possessed inappropriate beliefs reported low classroom

quality. Teachers who portrayed themselves as possessing appropriate beliefs evaluated their

teaching practices to be of a higher quality (McCarty, Abbott-Shim, & Lambert, 2001). This may

imply that teachers with low self-reported classroom quality may have a tendency toward

inappropriate beliefs and implement inappropriate teaching practices. Cassidy & Lawrence

(2000) investigated teachers' beliefs and self-stated rationales for their behavior during

classroom interactions. The rationales for teachers' interactions are based upon teachers'

personal beliefs and professional experiences, not theories or philosophies learned in formal

teacher education programs (Cassidy & Lawrence, 2000). This supports the perspective that

teachers' beliefs do not mimic espoused theories, but tend to come from their own personal and

professional experience (Cassidy & Lawrence, 2000, Schoonmaker & Ryan, 1996; Williams,

1996). Teachers do not merely incorporate a formal theory or philosophy because prominent

scholars propose them; rather, they have developed their own beliefs about education and

development that reflects their experiences.

Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP

Research has demonstrated that music is not only a preferred activity for children, but can

also act as a developmental tool, and that ways in which music is approached can be easily

tailored to meet the needs of children in a variety of developmental areas. DAP is considered to

be the foundation and overarching term for early childhood educators. DAP includes all

developmental domains, stages, and practices. As an active agent of implementing DAP,

teachers' beliefs about DAP have been researched a great deal. However, in terms of specific

domains related to DAP, there is little research on teachers' beliefs about the relationship among

such constructs (i.e., 'Do teachers who support DAP as a recommended guideline for young









children also support specific domains such as music, math, science, or art?', 'How does DAP

affect the implementation of curriculum planning and making decisions about teaching music?',

'Among teachers who strongly support DAP, do they possess the ability to teach and approach

music appropriately?').

In terms of implementing developmentally appropriate musical activities, it is important to

provide child-initiated and child-centered interaction that is supported by peers and teachers

during musical experiences (Turner, 1999). This requires not only knowledge about music, but

also an understanding of children's developmental level, since developmental stages are closely

related and are not separate (Scott, 2004). Therefore, it is crucial for teachers to possess a holistic

perspective of development. A study of developmentally appropriate practices in kindergarten

music classrooms revealed that a better understanding of and positive music teachers' beliefs

toward DAP are congruent with more interactions, activities, and instruction in music (Miranda,

2004). A child-centered curriculum, combined with appropriate and diverse grouping of students,

has been suggested to promote musical learning as well as balanced development for children by

providing children with options. Teaching beliefs may also affect specific teaching strategies.

For example, a comparison study on song teaching strategies that used both a rote approach (e.g.,

phrase by phrase teaching) and an immersion approach (e.g., teaching the whole song)

demonstrated that teaching the whole song is effective when implemented during children's

singing time because this is developmentally appropriate for young children (Klinger, Campbell,

& Goolsby, 1998). Teaching strategies may reflect teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward

children's acquisition of the subject matter.

A study of musical development and DAP investigated developmentally appropriate

practices for teaching children to sing, including pitch matching and vocal range, using an early









childhood perspective (Kim, 2000). Musical development may represent developmental

milestones that encourage children's overall development, as well as illuminate obstacles that

limit teachers' perceptions (i.e., children may be able to sing at a higher pitch than their

developmental stage indicates, but teachers might not notice this enhanced ability due to the

developmental information teachers acquired in their professional preparation programs). This

reveals a necessary emphasis on teachers' flexibility and adaptability in understanding the

dynamics of musical development in the context of DAP (Kim, 2000). Teachers' beliefs

concerning the relationship between DAP and music may vary. Some teachers may understand

that DAP is an umbrella term and that music is a subcategory of DAP. Other teachers may

believe that DAP and music represent separate concepts. To illustrate, certain teachers may

believe that music is not an area that they need to teach because there are teachers who specialize

in music. Moreover, incompatible beliefs related to different subjects may exist within a

teacher's belief system. This topic is important because understanding teachers' beliefs may

enhance the profession's understanding of teachers' behavior.

Summary

Music as a meaningful tool and mode of fun play for young children, important specific

domain beliefs, the meaning of music for young children, and belief studies about music have

been presented. Research on DAP and early childhood teachers' beliefs followed. This included

background information as well as the definition of teachers' beliefs, teachers' beliefs related to

their self-efficacy, preservice teacher beliefs, and domain specific beliefs. Finally, beliefs about

music, beliefs about DAP, and beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP were

presented.

Despite the importance of music as play and as an important medium for development,

implementation of music has been deemphasized and limited in terms of the range of methods to









approach music, and the frequency with which music is used and taught. There has been no

research investigating the beliefs of early childhood teachers toward music. Teachers may have

various beliefs on the importance of music, how they perceive their own ability to teach and

implement music, and their perceptions of the relationship between music and other subjects. An

examination of teacher beliefs about music may provide information that could be helpful in the

planning and implementation of music curriculum. Teacher beliefs toward music may vary based

on subject knowledge, background, teaching experience, and teaching context. Teachers' beliefs

about music may influence their attitude toward music, teaching practices, and the decision

making process in planning and evaluating music.

DAP is considered to be one of the critical issues in early childhood education, and a great

deal of research regarding teacher beliefs has focused on beliefs about DAP. However, studies

related to DAP have revealed disagreement about the definition of DAP and the best way to

implement DAP in the classroom. This is due, in part, to the fact that DAP is a broad,

overarching concept that pertains to diverse developmental areas (Wilcox-Herzog, 2000).

Research is needed to examine early childhood teachers' personal interpretations of the

definitions of DAP to encourage agreement among educators and researchers.

Thus, it is important to understand not only beliefs about music, but also music in a larger

context, not separate from other developmental areas. Teacher beliefs about the importance of

music and how to approach music may be closely related to DAP. A better understanding of

music within DAP can help teachers implement music in developmentally appropriate ways.

This knowledge can also help teachers discover ways to implement DAP in other subject areas.

Specific relationships among beliefs that may be helpful to identify are: the relationship between

music and DAP, the factors that affect teacher beliefs about the relationship between music and









DAP, how music can be integrated into DAP, and whether teachers who demonstrate strong or

weak beliefs about music also possess strong or weak beliefs about DAP.

The preservice stage of a teacher's professional development is a critical period that shapes

teachers' beliefs (Smith, 1997). Preservice teachers begin to establish firm beliefs based on

teacher education curriculum and their own experiences during their practicum and internship

placements. Their beliefs can also be affected through exposure to model teachers. Therefore, it

is valuable to study how preservice teachers' beliefs about music and DAP develop, what factors

influence the construction of beliefs about music and DAP, what background and experience

effect preservice teachers' beliefs, and what the process may be.

Reflecting upon the main findings of research on teachers' beliefs in early childhood

education, several questions will be answered with this study. First, this study will look at early

childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music and importance of music, confidence in

teaching music, content knowledge of music, and the teachers' perceived role in music.

Secondly, early childhood preservice teacher beliefs about DAP will be examined. Finally, the

relationship between music and DAP will be investigated along with teacher beliefs about ways

in which music and DAP can be combined in early childhood curriculum.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study is to examine early childhood preservice teachers beliefs' about

music, developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), and the relationship between music and

DAP. Early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music will be examined because music

is a subject that young children are innately interested in and engaging in musical activities may

enhance their development. Beliefs concerning DAP as an umbrella concept in early childhood

education will be investigated. Then, beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers regarding the

relationship between DAP and music will be explained.

Data Collection Procedure

Participants

The participants in the study were sixty five preservice teachers who enrolled in early

childhood education program (ECE) in a university located in North Florida. The teacher

education program that the participants attended was intended for early childhood preservice

teachers in order to equip them with the ability to teach a diverse population of children from

birth through age eight by pursuing developmentally and individually appropriate practices. The

program also emphasized culturally sensitivity, inclusion, and the importance of family (Correa,

Rapport, Hartle, Jones, Kemple, & Simth-Bonahue, 1997).

The participants were in their junior, senior, and graduate years of study. 38.5% of the

participants were juniors and 36.9% were seniors. Participants ranged in age from nineteen to

thirty two (M=21.86) years, and all were female. The majority of the participants were

Caucasians (74%). Graduate students in the study had also completed a full-time internship for

twelve weeks, and all participants have been involved in practicum experiences. Junior students

in this study were completing the second practicum placement, and forty students (61.5%) had









completed more than four practicum placements. The average number of field placements for the

participants was approximately four placements. Average time spent in field placements was

about twenty weeks. Thirty-one participants (48.5%) had prior teaching experience, and 64.5%

of the participants had part-time teaching positions. Three students were selected for qualitative

interviews. The three teachers were twenty-one years old and all were females. Two interviewees

categorized their race as Caucasian and one categorized her race as Hispanic. Two of the

interviewees were in their senior year and one was in her junior year.

Sampling Procedure

The research was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the participants'

university. Upon IRB approval, faculty members at ECE were contacted and asked for their

permission to conduct the study. After receiving permission from faculty members in the ECE

program, participants agreed to engage in the study. Then, teacher information questionnaire, the

Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) and the Music Beliefs Questionnaires were administered by the

researcher in person. Each survey packet was given a number, and these numbers were used

instead of names to identify each participant and to maintain confidentiality of participants.

Questionnaires

The teacher information questionnaire, music basic questionnaire, the Music Beliefs

Questionnaire and the Teacher Belief Scale (TBS) were administered by the researcher during

the participants' classes in early spring 2007. Participants were informed that the researcher is

interested in early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music and DAP. Before

administering the questionnaires, the researcher explained to participants that the situations

referred to in the questionnaires were focused on preschool and kindergarten classrooms and

target children in that age range. Questionnaire instructions were written on the surveys and

orally presented to participants by the researcher. Approximately forty minutes were required to









complete all scales. Questionnaires were administered individually at a later date for students

who were absent. All sixty-three questionnaires were administered in classes, and two were

returned to the researcher at a later date.

Follow-up Individual Interviews

Three of the participants from the larger questionnaire study were contacted to participate

in follow-up interviews. These participants were specifically selected because they showed

stronger, incongruent, or weaker beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP: One of

the interviewees showed a strong relationship between her beliefs about music and DAP, the

second participant showed an incongruent relationship in her beliefs between music and DAP,

and the third interview participant showed a weaker relationship between her beliefs about music

and DAP. A strong relationship was identified as having both music belief scores and DAP belief

scores that ranged higher than 75% in both scores. An incongruent relationship was identified as

having a music score ranging under 25% of all scores with a DAP scores ranging above 75% of

all scores. A weaker relationship was identified if both music and DAP belief scores ranged in

the bottom 25% of all scores.

One formal interview was administered with each participant. Each interview required

approximately one to one and a half hours in late February and middle March of 2007. The

interviews were arranged in advance and were conducted at the university at a time chosen by

the preservice teachers. Upon the permission of participants, each interview was audio-taped.

Before the interview, interviewees were asked to complete the informed consent form (Appendix

A). The researcher took notes describing the interviewees' gestures, facial expressions, and body

language. Each interview lasted one to one and a half hours. All interviews were transcribed by

the researcher that conducted the interview. All interviewees were compensated.









Instrumentation

Multiple methods including questionnaires, follow-up interviews and concept web

analyses have been used in this study. Quantitative methods of data collection using the

questionnaires provided belief scores and quantify the relationship between demographic factors

and teachers' beliefs about music and DAP. The measurements were from a teacher information

questionnaire, a music basic questionnaire, the TBS, and the Music Beliefs Questionnaire. In

order to obtain understanding of the diverse levels of teachers' beliefs (stronger, weaker, and

incongruent beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP), qualitative methods were

also utilized. Qualitative data were gathered and interpreted using follow-up interviews and

concept web analysis to address stronger, incongruent, and weaker beliefs of preservice teachers

regarding music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP. These data address the

importance and role of music, the confidence in implementing music in the early childhood

classroom, the definition of DAP, experiences with DAP and DIP, and the relationship between

music and DAP in early childhood curriculum.

Teacher Information Questionnaire

This questionnaire was created by the researcher to ask a teacher for background

information (Appendix B). This questionnaire includes items related to gender, age, ethnicity,

academic status, field experiences (i.e. numbers of placements, length of experiences), and

teaching experiences (i.e., types of teaching experiences, length of teaching experiences).

Frequency of each question was computed and used as an independent variable to analyze the

teachers' beliefs about music and DAP.

Music Basic Questionnaire

The music basic questionnaire was created by the researcher to examine music background

and basic music knowledge of early childhood preservice teachers (Appendix C). This









questionnaire asks the participants to indicate their background with regard to formal and

informal music education, and confidence level in implementing music activities and supporting

music development. The questionnaire includes items related to the importance of the roles of

early childhood teachers and music teachers. In terms of basic knowledge of music, participants

answered items inquiring as to their ability to read musical notation, the meaning of using music

and teaching music, and definitions of musical terms (i.e., tempo, beat, melody, rhythm, and

articulation). Finally, regarding the importance of music related to other subjects, participants

were asked to rank six subjects (music, art, literacy, physical education, math, and science) from

most important to least important.

Music Belief Questionnaire

The Music Beliefs Questionnaire was originally developed as a Q-sort designed by Payne

(1990), and adapted by Austin and Reinhardt (1994) for rating scales. The Music Belief

questionnaire (Austin & Reinhardt, 1999) has been modified to clarify a few items and to

eliminate duplicate/ unclear items (Appendix D). The Music Belief questionnaire consists of two

sections, although only the first section was used for this study. Section one of the Music Belief

questionnaire includes items related to the validity of beliefs about music, and section two

contains items pertaining to the advocacy of these beliefs. Because the primary purpose of this

study was to examine beliefs about music, section one was the most appropriate section for this

study. This questionnaire includes thirty six items and allows for participants to rate their beliefs

about music using a Likert-type scale (e.g., ranging from one for definitely false to six for

definitely true). Participants were asked to indicate the extent to which they believe the

statements are true. To score the music belief questionnaire, all items are added for a single total

score. The possible range of scores for the music belief questionnaire is 36 to 216. Higher scores

indicate strong beliefs about the benefits and importance of music.









Factor analysis was calculated for one hundred thirty-seven preservice music education

teachers. Three factors were produced and accounted for forty percent of the total variance. The

three factors included an aesthetic benefits, quality-of-life benefits, and social-emotional benefits.

The aesthetic benefit factor is related to children's direct benefit from musical experiences, and it

includes ten items. The quality-of-life factor contains nine items that measure the productive

benefits of experiencing music in promoting the quality of life. The social-emotional factor is

composed of nine items, and it represents children's social and emotional benefits that are gained

from musical experiences. Factor loadings were greater than or equal to .35. Eigenvalues were

10.22 (aesthetic), 2.25 (quality-of-life), and 1.92 (social-emotional). The percentage of variance

for each factor was 28.5 % for Aesthetic factor, 6.2% for Quality-of-Life factor, and 5.3% for

Social-Emotional Factor (Austin & Reinhardt, 1999). Adequate reliability coefficients were

presented for Aesthetic benefit(r=.86), Quality-of-life benefit (r=.72), and Social-Emotional

(r=.76) (Austin & Reinhardt, 1999). Internal consistency of the music beliefs scale was

computed using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Reliability levels of .70 or higher are generally

accepted as representing high reliability (Litwin, 1995). The Cronbach's alpha based on the 36

items in the music beliefs scale was .93 for this study. This indicates a high level of reliability.

Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS)

The Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) was developed to assess the early childhood teachers'

beliefs and practices about DAP (Appendix D). TBS was originally developed by Charlesworth,

Hart, Burts, & Hernandez (1991) based on NAEYC DAP guidelines published in 1986. Then,

TBS has been revised based on revised NAEYC guidelines (Bredekamp, 1987) by eliminating

and changing a few items of initial TBS (Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, Thomasson, Mosley, &

Fleege, 1993). TBS statements include six components that reflect NAEYC DAP guidelines:

curriculum goals, teaching strategies, guidance of socio-emotional development, language and









literacy development, cognitive development, physical development, aesthetic development,

motivation and assessment.

TBS consists of thirty-seven items including one item that asks the amount of influence in

planning and implementing instruction and thirty-six items related to twenty-two

developmentally appropriate and fourteen inappropriate beliefs questions. It is measured on a

Likert 5-point scale (l=not important at all; 5 = extremely important). TBS calculates both DAP

(developmentally appropriate practice) scores and DIP (developmentally inappropriate practice)

scores. DAP consisted of appropriate social, appropriate individualization, appropriate literacy

activities, and appropriate integrated curriculum beliefs. DIP consisted of inappropriate

activities and materials and inappropriate structure. For the purposes of scoring the TBS, scale

points from both DAP and DIP items are added to make total DAP and DIP scores respectively.

DAP scores can range from 22 to 60, and DIP scores can range from 14 to 56. High scores on the

DAP portion of the TBS represent strong beliefs about teaching practices that are aligned with

DAP. High scores on the DIP portion of the TBS represent strong beliefs about developmentally

inappropriate practice.

Factor analysis has been conducted with 204 early childhood teachers, and six factors were

produced: inappropriate activities and materials, appropriate social, appropriate

individualization, appropriate literacy activities, appropriate integrated curriculum beliefs, and

inappropriate structure. The six components accounted for 52.3% of the item variance with

eighenvalues greater than 1. Internal consistency was conducted using Cronbach's alpha:

developmentally inappropriate activities and materials (r =.84), appropriate social item (r =.77),

appropriate individualization (r =.70), appropriate literacy activities (r =.60), appropriate

integrated curriculum beliefs (r =.66), and inappropriate structure (r =.58) (Charlesworth, Hart,









Burts, Thomasson et al., 1993). Internal consistency of the TBS in this study was computed

using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Reliability levels of .70 or higher are generally accepted as

representing high reliability (Litwin, 1995). The Cronbach's alpha based on the 36 items in the

TBS was .82 for this study. This indicates a high level of reliability.

Follow-up Individual Interviews

To examine preservice teachers' beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship between

music and DAP, individual follow-up interviews with open-ended questions per each participant

were conducted with three preservice teachers. Interviews may provide a deep understanding of

participants and their experience due to the detailed descriptions interviewees provide (Glesne,

1999). Using descriptive analysis to understand the relationship between DAP and music is

effective because people have their own relevance structure, and teachers have their own

definitions and beliefs with respect to music and DAP. Therefore, in order to discover the full

complexity of participants' beliefs within their diverse cultural contexts, interviews were an

effective tool.

The interviewees described their beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship through

the interviews based on their personal background, content knowledge from coursework, and

field/teaching experiences. Interview questions include three categories: 1) beliefs about music

2) definition and experiences of DAP 3) relationship between music and DAP. The music

interview questions were developed and placed into five categories: 1) roles of music, 2)

importance of music relative to the importance of other subjects, 3) personal background with

music, 4) confidence in music, and 5) future implementation of music (Appendix E). The

questions were derived from various resources (e.g., information from the music belief

questionnaire, NAEYC DAP guidelines, Florida state standards, music association standards, and

research on music education and music in early childhood education). Interview questions









related to DAP included the definition of DAP, features of DAP and DIP, the general principles

of DAP, and experiences with implementing DAP in their field and/or teaching experiences.

Finally, the interviews contained questions about relationships between music and DAP.

Questions inquired about the beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP, and

interviewees were asked to give a description of this relationship. Questions were also asked

about the different ways music could be incorporated into DAP, and the relationship between

music and developmental areas.

The researcher conducted all three interviews at a building in the university that the

participants attended. Interview questions were prepared prior to the interviews, yet the direction

of the interviews was flexible depending on the preservice teachers' responses. Due to this

flexibility in the interviews, there were variations in content between each interview. Interview

times for the participants lasted between fifty minutes and one hour and twenty minutes.

All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed by the researcher that conducted the

interview. Three interview transcripts were coded from the interviews based on open coding

system (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). All protocols included basic information about interviewees

(i.e., age, length of experiences). Based on participants' responses to the questions, their

interview content was transcribed using numbered sheets. Domain analysis was used to code

protocols (Spradley, 1979). Domains represent semantic relationship, for example, 'X is a role of

music'. The domain analysis worksheets include the location and definitions of terms used in the

protocols.

Based on all of the domain analyses, a taxonomy and cultural psychological theme were

drawn. Taxonomy is a way to display findings, and it helps outline participants' perceptions and

beliefs (Glesne, 1999). Taxonomy consists of classification schemes and domains, and it









demonstrates the relationship between subcategories. Building taxonomy helps the researcher

visually understand the relationships and components of the findings. After a thorough analysis

of the data, taxonomy is built to appropriately fit the data (Glesne, 1999; Spradley, 1979). Based

on all of the protocols, domains, and the taxonomy, the cultural psychological theme for each

participant was drawn. The cultural psychological theme represents a common and essential

dilemma that the participants have to solve (Spradley, 1979). This is a central cultural

psychological problem that every early childhood preservice teacher faces and has to solve

related to beliefs about music, DAP and the relationship between the two.

To reduce researcher bias and to support trustworthiness of the study, two techniques were

employed. These techniques were member checking and peer review (Creswell, 1998). First, all

protocols, domains, and results were reviewed by one of the interviewees. The researcher

contacted all three interviewees, but only one of the interviewees was available to review the

data and results. The interviewee provided feedback in written form confirming that the analysis

appropriately conveyed her beliefs and ideas. Second, a peer review was conducted to enhance

trustworthiness because peer review provides external reflection (Creswell, 1998). An outside

reviewer with experience in qualitative methodology reviewed the protocols, domains, and

results. After reviewing the data, the reviewer provided feedback on interpretations.

Confidentiality of the participants was protected.

Concept Web

As part of the interview on the relationship between DAP and music, the participants were

asked to draw a concept web. Concept web is a drawing an individual creates that represents

their perspective on specific subjects. In this study, the concept webs were used to demonstrate

visualized representation about the relationship between music and DAP, which shows how

preservice teachers conceive and understand music and DAP. During the interviews, the









interviewees were asked to brainstorm about music and DAP. Then, the participants were asked

to draw both music and DAP as a circles and to create a concept web to visually show their

views on the relationship between music and DAP. After drawing the concept web, the

interviewees were asked to explain their concept web and the relationship between music and

DAP.

Data Analysis

The purpose of this study was to examine early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs

about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP.

Q1. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about music (the benefits

of music, the importance of music, confidence in their ability to implement music activities and

support music development, and the importance of teachers' roles regarding music)?

In order to investigate early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music, the music

belief questionnaire was administered. Participants responded to thirty-six items related to

statements of music education with responses ranging from one for definitely false to six for

definitely true. The mean and standard deviation were computed for each item. All thirty-six

participants' responses were combined to compute total scores. The mean and standard deviation

of total scores of each participant were computed.

Benefits of music were addressed. First, the total aesthetic benefit scores of each

participant were calculated for items 7, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 33, 35, and 36 of section one. The

mean for the aesthetic items was computed. In order to investigate quality-of-life benefit of

music beliefs, the total scores of each participant were calculated for items 1, 5, 6, 17, 21, 23, 28,

31 and 34 of section one. The mean for the quality-of-life aspect of music scores was computed.

In order to examine the social-emotional benefits of music beliefs, the total scores of each









participant were calculated for items 3, 8, 9, 11, 19, 25, 27, 29, and 30 of section one. The mean

for the social-emotional benefits of music scores was computed.

In order to investigate the importance of music in relation to other subjects, the participants

were asked to rank, in order of importance, the following six subjects: music, art, literacy, math,

science, and PE. The frequency of each response was computed along with ranking. To evaluate

the participants' confidence level regarding their ability to implement and support music

development, the participants were asked to rate their confidence level in five areas, with ratings

ranging from 'not confident' to 'extremely confident'. The frequency of each response was

computed. To examine early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about the importance of early

childhood teachers' roles and music teachers' roles, the participants were asked to indicate the

level of importance of each type of teacher, with ratings ranging from 'not important' to

'extremely important'. The frequency of each response was computed.

Q2. What is the relationship between early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about

music and teachers' individual characteristics (academic status, field experiences, teaching

experiences, ability to read musical notation, and music education)?

Teachers' individual characteristics (i.e., academic status, field experiences, teaching

experiences, ability to read musical notation, and music education) were categorized.

Participants' academic status was categorized based on their year in the program. Three

categories, juniors, seniors and graduate students, were used. Teaching experiences were

categorized based on type of teaching (i.e., full-time teaching, part-time teaching, and no

experience). Ability to read musical notation was categorized into three groups (i.e., able to read,

somewhat able to read, not able to read). Then, music education was categorized in two groups

(i.e., having music education, not having music education).









In order to examine the differences in preservice early childhood teachers' beliefs about

music depending on academic status, and ability to read musical notation, a one-way ANOVA

was conducted. To address the difference depending on having music education, an independent

t-test was conducted. To address the relationship between music beliefs and field experiences

(i.e., numbers of field placements and length of field experiences) and length of teaching

experiences among early childhood preservice teachers, Pearson Product correlations were

conducted.

Q3. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about DAP? What is the

relationship between early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP and their individual

characteristics (academic status, field experiences and teaching experiences)?

In order to address early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about DAP, the Teacher

Belief Scale (TBS) was administered. The first question asked participants to rank the amount of

influence of planning and implementing instruction from one to six. Also, teachers responded to

items two through thirty-seven on a Likert-type scale (i.e., from one for not important at all to

five for extremely important). The DAP scores were calculated for items 5, 6, 12, 18, 26, 27, 28,

29, 30, 31, 33, 34, and 35. The mean and standard deviation of DAP was computed and total

score of DAP for each participant was calculated. The DIP scores were calculated for items 2, 4,

7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24, and 32. The mean and standard deviation of DIP was

computed and total score of DIP for each participant was calculated. To examine the differences

in early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP depending on academic status, a one-

way ANOVA was conducted. In order to investigate the relationship between DAP and field

experience (i.e., numbers of field placements and length of field experiences) and length of

teaching experiences, Pearson Product correlations were performed.









Q4. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about the relationship

between beliefs about music and DAP?

In order to address whether a significant relationship exists between early childhood

education preservice teachers' beliefs about music and DAP, a Pearson Product correlations was

conducted with the music beliefs scores measure by music belief questionnaire, and the DAP

beliefs scores as measured by the TBS. Based on the correlation, in order to investigate in-depth

patterns of relationships between music and DAP beliefs, the relationship between music and

DAP beliefs was analyzed for each individual participant. The relationship between music and

DAP beliefs was categorized in three groups: 1) stronger relationship, 2) incongruent

relationship, and 3) weaker relationship. A strong relationship was identified as having both

music belief scores and DAP belief scores that ranged higher than 75% of all scores. An

incongruent relationship was identified as having a music score ranging under 25% of all scores

with a DAP scores ranging above 75% of all scores. A weaker relationship was identified if both

music and DAP belief scores ranged in the bottom 25% of all scores. Frequencies of participants

falling into each of these three categories were computed.

Q5. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers who demonstrated various

levels of beliefs (stronger, incongruent, and weaker) about music, DAP, and the relationship

between music and DAP?

In order to examine preservice teachers' in-depth beliefs about music, DAP, and the

relationship between music and DAP, three preservice teachers volunteered to participate in a

follow-up interview. One of these interviewees showed a stronger relationship in her beliefs

about music and DAP, another showed an incongruent relationship, and the third interviewee

demonstrated a weaker relationship in her beliefs. One formal interview for each participant was









conducted for a total of three interviews. Interview questions focused on three main categories:

1) beliefs about music, 2) beliefs about DAP, and 3) beliefs about the relationship between music

and DAP. Each category had four to five sub-questions totaling fourteen questions.

All interviews were transcribed and coded totaling forty eight pages. The pseudo names -

Jen, Tara, and Cindy are used to identify each interviewee to protect participant confidentiality.

Coded data were analyzed for patterns and taxonomies that may explain the beliefs of the

interviewees. The coded data analysis focused on experiences that affected early childhood

preservice teachers' beliefs about music (i.e., the participants' personal experience, family

background).

All interview content was transcribed into text in numbered transcription forms. A domain

analysis was used to code protocols (Spradley, 1979). Domain analysis utilizes semantic

relationships to organize qualitative data, for example, 'X is a role of music'. The domain

analysis worksheets include the location and definitions of terms used in the protocols. The

location of protocols refers to the participant's name, the page number, and the line number. For

example, J-5-3 means Jen's interview, page five, and the third line. Based on the interview

protocol, fifty-two coding forms were created after a review of the transcribed interviews. The

researcher reviewed domain analyses and protocols for each interview and modified coding

structures when appropriate to better reflect preservice teacher beliefs. After these modifications

were made, the researcher combined and rearranged codes, and this process resulted in the

creation of forty-three coding forms. Based on the domain analyses, an overall taxonomy that

reflected the participants' belief systems was established. Finally, a cultural psychological theme

was created for each participant and will be introduced in the results chapter.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The purpose of this study is to examine early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about

music, developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), and the relationship between music and

DAP. This chapter presents the results of the study, including descriptive data and various

statistical analyses related to each research question.

Demographic Descriptive Information

Demographic teacher information and descriptive data were collected from the participants

using a teacher information questionnaire and a basic music questionnaire. Demographic

information collected from the teachers included gender, age, academic status, ethnicity, field

experiences, and teaching experiences. In the basic music questionnaire, the participants were

asked to give information regarding their formal and informal music education, ability to read

musical notation, and knowledge of musical terms. Table 4-1 shows the demographic and

descriptive information of the participants.

A total of sixty-five early childhood preservice teachers participated in this study. All of

the participants were females. Ninety-seven percent of all participants were between the ages of

nineteen and twenty four years old (M=21.85, SD=1.82). The majority of the participants were

Caucasian (74 %) and Hispanic (14 %). Twenty-five (38.5 %) of the participants were juniors

and twenty four (36.9%) of the participants were seniors. Each junior participant had two

practicum experiences, and each senior participant had four practicum experiences. All of the

graduate students had completed four practicum experiences for two semesters and one semester

of internship. The average length of time spent in field placements for all participants was about

twenty weeks. Approximately half of the participants in this study had teaching experience,

including full-time and part-time teaching. The average length of time that participants who had









taught full-time was less than two months, and the average length of time that participants with

part-time positions had been teaching was approximately seven months. The majority of the

participants (86.2%) had informal or formal music education (i.e., playing instruments, dance, or

band). About 50% of the participants were able to read musical notation. To assess knowledge of

music terms, five basic music concepts were presented in the questionnaire. The participants

were asked to write brief definitions of the terms tempo, beat, melody, rhythm, and articulation.

The term that was most frequently identified correctly was tempo. Forty-one of the participants

(63.1%) were able to provide the correct definition of tempo. The most correctly identified to

least correctly identified terms were tempo, melody, rhythm, beat, and articulation respectively.

Seven of the participants were able to correctly identify four of the five terms, and none of the

participants identified all five terms correctly. Sixteen of the participants (24.6%) were not able

to identify any term correctly.

An outline of the coursework the participants has taken is shown in Table 4-2. Because all

of the participants attended the same program which has a rigidly structured sequence of courses

in a university in Florida, the preservice teachers at each year (e.g., junior, senior, graduate year)

had taken the same courses. At the time of this study, junior students were taking math, science,

emergent literacy, and multicultural education. Senior students were taking technology,

measurement and evaluation, language arts for diverse learners, and curriculum and management.

Junior and senior students had not had taken music related courses before. Only graduate level

students were taking a creativity course that included a portion on music.

Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music

Q1. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about music (the benefits

of music, the importance of music, confidence in their ability to implement music activities and

support music development, and the importance of teachers' roles regarding music)?









To address early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music, total scores on the 36-

item Music Belief Scale were computed by summing individual scores. The music belief scale

scores in this study ranged from 118 to 213 (the possible range is from 36 to 216). The mean

score was 167.8 (SD = 16.3). Higher scores on the music belief scale indicate that respondents

felt the statements about music were true, and lower scores indicate that respondents felt the

statements about music were false. The mean score on individual questions was 4.66 out of a

possible six points. This score was calculated by taking the total scores divided by the total

number of questions answered. The range of mean scores on individual questions was 3.28 to

5.92. Average scores on eight of the test items were above five, indicating that respondents felt

the statements about music were true. Average scores on twenty seven of the items were above

four, indicating that the respondents felt the statements were more true than false. The average

score of only one item was below three, indicating that respondents felt the statement was more

false than true.

To assess early childhood teachers' beliefs about the benefits of music, the scores of

teacher beliefs on the aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits of music were

computed. First, 'aesthetic' benefit scores were analyzed by summing the responses. The mean

score of beliefs on the aesthetic benefits of music was 48.23 with a standard deviation of 4.8. The

scores ranged from 31 to 60 (the possible range is 10-60). The mean score of individual items

was 4.82, and the range of individual item scores was 3.10 to 6. Second, 'quality-of-life' benefit

scores were analyzed by summing the responses. The total mean score of aesthetic benefit was

37.38 with a standard deviation of 4.7. The score ranged from 26 to 52 (possible range is 9-54).

The mean score of individual items was 4.15 and it ranged from 2.89 to 5.78. Third, 'social -

emotional growth' benefit scores were analyzed by summing the responses. The total mean score









of social-emotional growth benefit was 44.52 with a standard deviation of 4.4. The score ranged

from 34 to 54 (possible range is 9-54). The mean score was 4.94 and it ranged from 3.78 to 6.

Table 4-3 provides mean scores of three benefits of music.

To identify teacher beliefs on the importance of music relative to the importance of other

subjects, the participants were asked to rank six subjects (e.g., music, physical education [P.E],

literacy, art, math, and science) from the most important subject to the least important subject in

early childhood education. Results of this assessment were, in order of most important to least

important, literacy, math, science, music, art, and P.E. Of all the participants, 96.9% ranked

literacy the most important subject. Fifty of the subjects (78.1%) ranked math as the second most

important subject. Almost half of the participants (45.3%) ranked science the third most

important subject. Music was ranked the fourth most important subject by twenty-four (37.5%)

participants. Art was ranked the fifth most important subject by 37.5% of the participants.

Finally, P.E. was ranked the least important subject thirty four (52.3%) participants. Table 4-4

outlines the rank of six subjects.

No participant ranked music as the most important subject. One participant ranked music

as the second most important subject. Twelve participants ranked music as the third important

subject. Twenty four participants ranked music as the fourth most important subject. Nineteen

participants ranked music as the fifth important subject, and eight participants ranked music as

the least important subject. Figure 4-1 provides the results of the rankings on music.

In order to address early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about their ability to

implement music activities and support music development in the classroom, the participants

were asked to report their confidence levels in various areas from 'not confident' to 'extremely

confident'. Figure 4-2 provides a summary of the teachers' beliefs about their ability to









implement music activities and support music development. Over 50% of the respondents

answered they feel either very or extremely confident in their ability to implement music

activities in the classroom. Twenty-three (35.4%) participants were moderately confident in their

ability to implement music activities, and 12% of the participants felt either somewhat confident

or not confident in their ability to implement music activities. Several of the respondents

(41.5 %) also indicated that they are very confident in supporting music development. Over 20%

of the respondents reported that they felt either somewhat confident or not confident in

supporting music development.

Figure 4-3 provides a summary of participants' beliefs about the roles of early childhood

teachers and music teachers to support music development. Over 80% of the participants stated

that both music teachers' roles and early childhood teachers' roles are very or extremely

important. Thirty six (55.4%) of the participants responded that they felt early childhood

teachers' roles are very important. Twenty (31%) of the participants indicated that early

childhood teachers' roles are extremely important. Twenty eight (43.1%) of the respondents

responded that they felt music teachers' roles are very important. Finally, thirty four (52%) of the

participants responded that they felt music teachers' roles are extremely important in supporting

music development.

Q2. What is the relationship between early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about

music and teachers' individual characteristics (academic status, field experiences, teaching

experiences, ability to read musical notation, and music education)?

To determine there are differences in early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about

music depending on academic status, one-way between subjects ANOVA was performed, where

academic status served as the factor and music belief scores served as the outcome variable.









Means (with standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who are juniors, seniors, and graduate

students were 169.76(16.99), 168.74(14.02), and 163.38(18.24), respectively. With an alpha

level of .05, the effect of ethnicity was not statistically significant, F (2, 61) = .807, p = .451.

Results of ANOVA are presented in Table 4-5.

To examine the relationship between music beliefs and field experience (numbers of

placements and length of experiences), a Pearson product correlation was performed. There was

no statistically significant relationship between beliefs about music and numbers of practicum

placements with an alpha level of .05 (n = 64, r = -. 147, p = .246). Also, There was no

statistically significant relationship between beliefs about music and number of length of

practicum with an alpha level of .05 (n = 64, r = -.136, p = .284). Table 4-6 shows the results of

correlation.

To identify the relationship between music beliefs and teaching experiences, a Pearson

Product correlation was performed. There was no statistically significant relationship between

beliefs about music and length of teaching experiences with an alpha level of .05 (n = 64, r = -

.066, p = .606). Table 4-7 presents the results of correlation.

In order to determine there are differences in early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs

about music depending on confidence level of implementing music activities, one-way between

subjects ANOVA was performed, where academic status served as the factor and music belief

scores served as the outcome variable. Means (with standard deviations in parenthesis) for

groups who feel somewhat/not confident, moderately confident, very confident and extremely

confident were 164.75(11.61), 160.78(16.48), 167.13(11.96) and 187.90(12.21), respectively.

With an alpha level of .05, the effect of confidence level of implementing music activities was









statistically significant, F (3, 60) = 9.215, p = .000. Table 4-8 shows one-way ANOVA summary

table 4-8.

On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the

statistically significant mean differences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level

of .05. First, the difference between teachers who feel extremely confident and somewhat/not

confident was statistically significant, t(60) = 23.15, p = .009. Secondly, the difference between

teachers who feel extremely confident and moderately confident was statistically significant,

t(60) = 27.12, p= .000. Thirdly, the difference between teachers who feel extremely confident

and very confident was statistically significant, t(60) = 20.77, p = .003. Table 4-9 shows post-

hoc comparisons.

To determine there are differences in early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about

music depending on confidence level of supporting musical development, one-way between

subjects ANOVA was performed, where confidence level of supporting musical development

served as the factor and music belief scores served as the outcome variable. Means (with

standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who feel somewhat/not confident, moderately

confident, very confident and extremely confident were 163.46(20.43), 163.53(10.87),

168.27(14.47) and 188.67(14.73), respectively. With an alpha level of .05, the effect of

confidence level of supporting musical development was not statistically significant, F (3, 60) =

4.770, p = .005. The result of One-way ANOVA is summarized in Table 4-10.

On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the

statistically significant mean differences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level

of .05. First, the difference between teachers who feel extremely confident and somewhat/not

confident was statistically significant, t(60) = 25.21, p = .013. Secondly, the difference between









teachers who feel extremely confident and moderately confident was statistically significant,

t(60) = 25.14, p = .008. Thirdly, the difference between teachers who feel extremely confident

and very confident was statistically significant, t(60) = 20.40, p = .037. The summary of the

pairwise post-hoc comparisons were presented in Table 4-11.

In order to determine there are differences in early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs

about music depending on ability to read musical notation, one-way between subjects ANOVA

was performed, where ability to read musical notation served as the factor and music belief

scores served as the outcome variable. Means (with standard deviations in parenthesis) for

groups who could read, could read somewhat, and couldn't read musical notation were

171.37(13.53), 162.94(15.53), and 183.75(26.12), respectively. With an alpha level of .05, the

effect of ability to read musical notation was statistically significant, F (2, 61) = 4.496, p = .015.

The result is shown in Table 4-12.

On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the

statistically significant mean differences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level

of .05. The difference between teachers who could somewhat read musical notation and who

couldn't read musical notation statistically significant, t(61) = 20.81, p = .046. Table 4-13

presents post-hoc comparisons.

To identify there are differences in early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about

music depending on having music education, independent T-test was performed, where music

education served as the factor and music belief scores served as the outcome variable. Means

(with standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who have had music education and no music

education were 169.13(15.14) and 160.63(22.46). With an alpha level of .05, the effect of having









music education was not statistically significant, t(61) = 1.39, p= .169. Table 4-14 shows the

summary of one-way ANOVA.

Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about DAP

Q3. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about DAP? What is the

relationship between early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP and their individual

characteristics (academic status, field experiences and teaching experiences)?

DAP and DIP scores were computed to assess teacher beliefs about DAP and DIP. First,

DAP scores were analyzed by summing the response. The mean score of items assessing DAP

was 57.32 with a standard deviation of 4.8. The scores ranged from 47 to 65 with a possible

range of 13 to 65. The mean score was DAP 4.41 and the score is between very important and

extremely important. Second, DIP scores were analyzed by summing the responses. The mean

score of items assessing DIP was 37.42 with a standard deviation of 5.5. The scores ranged from

26 to 52 with a possible range of 13 to 65. The mean score of DIP was 2.9 and it is between not

important and fairly important. Table 4-15 shows the results of DAP and DIP.

In order to determine weather there are significantly differences in early childhood

preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP depending on academic status, one-way between subject

ANOVA was conducted, where academic status served as the factor and DAP scores served as

the outcome variable. Means (with standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who are juniors,

seniors and graduate students were 54.68(5.45), 59.29(3.09), and 58.50(4.36), respectively. With

an alpha level of .05, the effect of academic status was statistically significant, F (2, 62) = 7.40, p

= .001. Table 4-16 shows a summary of one-way ANOVA.

On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the

statistically significant mean differences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level









of .05. First, the difference between juniors and seniors was statistically significant, t(62) = 4.61,

p = .002. Secondly, the difference between juniors and graduates was statistically significant,

t(62) = 3.82, p = .032. Post-hoc comparisons were presented in Table 4-17.

To identify whether there are significantly differences in early childhood preservice

teachers' beliefs about DIP depending on academic status, one-way between subject ANOVA

was conducted, where academic status served as the factor and DIP scores served as the outcome

variable. Means (with standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who are juniors, seniors and

graduate students were 39.96(4.98), 33.88(5.66), and 38.75(3.22), respectively. With an alpha

level of .05, the effect of academic status was statistically significant, F (2, 62) = 10.24, p = .000.

Table 4-15 demonstrated a summary of ANOVA.

On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the

statistically significant mean differences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level

of .05. First, the difference between juniors and seniors was statistically significant, t(62) = 4.61,

p = .002. Secondly, the difference between seniors and graduates was statistically significant,

t(62) = 4.88, p = .012. The results of post-hoc comparisons were summarized in Table 4-16.

To examine the relationship between beliefs about DAP and field experience (numbers of

placements and length of experiences), a Pearson product correlation was performed. There was

statistically significant relationship between beliefs about music and number of practicum

placements with an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r =.364, p = .003). It indicates that beliefs about

music positively related to numbers of practicum placements. Also, There was statistically

significant relationship between beliefs about music and length of practicum experience with an

alpha level of .005 (n = 64, r = .384, p = .002). It implies stronger beliefs about DAP is related to

longer field experiences. Table 4-17 presents the summary of correlations.









In order to examine the relationship between beliefs about DIP and field experiences

(numbers of placements and length of experiences, a Pearson product correlation was performed.

There was no statistically significant relationship between beliefs about music and numbers of

field placements with an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r = -. 192, p = .126). Also, There was no

statistically significant relationship between beliefs about music and length of practicum with an

alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r = -.222, p = .076). Table 4-18 presents the results of correlations.

In order to determine weather there are significantly relationships between early childhood

preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP and teaching experiences, a Pearson product correlation

was performed. There was no statistically significant relationship between beliefs about DAP

and length of teaching experiences with an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r = -.093, p = .461). Table

4-18 presents the results of correlation.

In order to determine weather there are significantly relationships between early childhood

preservice teachers' beliefs about DIP and teaching experiences, a Pearson product correlation

was performed. There was no statistically significant relationship between beliefs about DIP and

length of teaching experiences with an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r = -.138, p = .275). The results

of correlations were summarized in table 4-19.

Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and
DAP

Q4. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about the relationship

between beliefs about music and DAP?

The relationship between early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP and

music was assessed using a Pearson Product Correlation with music belief scores and DAP

scores. There was a statistically significant relationship between beliefs about music and DAP

with an alpha level of .05 (n = 64, r = .305, p = .014). This indicates that stronger beliefs about









music are positively correlated with stronger beliefs about DAP. Also, weaker music beliefs are

correlated with weaker level of beliefs of DAP. Table 4-20 presents a summary of correlations.

Based on the correlations found between beliefs about music and DAP, in-depth patterns

of the relationships between music and DAP beliefs was assessed. This was done by conducting

an analysis on the correlation between music and DAP for each participant. The participants

were divided into three brackets. These brackets were created based on scores of music and DAP

beliefs. Figure 4-4 shows how the three groups were divided in each belief. Participants placed in

the 'stronger beliefs' category had belief scores on both music and DAP belief assessments that

were above 75% of the participants. This means that these participants had the strongest beliefs

about music and DAP of the participants. The participants placed in the incongruentt' category

received scores in one category that were over 75%, but scored below 25% in the other category.

Participants placed in the 'weaker beliefs' category had belief scores on both music and DAP

that were below 25% of the participants. This means that these participants had the weakest

beliefs about music and DAP of the participants.

Table 4-21 shows the numbers of participants with stronger, incongruent, and weaker

relationships. Three juniors and two seniors had stronger beliefs in both music and DAP. No

graduate students demonstrated a stronger relationship between music and DAP. Seven juniors

and one graduate student demonstrated a weaker relationship between music and DAP. No senior

students demonstrated a weaker relationship between music and DAP. Only one junior

demonstrated an incongruent relationship through demonstrating strong music beliefs and weak

DAP beliefs. One senior and one graduate student showed an incongruent relationship through

demonstrating weak music beliefs and strong DAP beliefs.









Q5. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers who demonstrated various

levels of beliefs (stronger, incongruent, and weaker) about music, DAP, and the relationship

between music and DAP?

The purpose of this research question was to investigate deeper levels of early childhood

preservice teacher beliefs who demonstrate stronger, incongruent, and weaker beliefs of music

and DAP. In-depth interviews with three participants were conducted to answer this question.

The interviews used for these participants covered three areas in depth: 1) beliefs about music,

including the meaning and role of music, personal and professional background related to music,

teacher education, and confidence levels, 2) beliefs about DAP including the meaning of DAP

and description of DAP and DIP (i.e., general principles to implement DAP, teacher roles,

physical environment), and 3) beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP. The

analysis presented in this section was based on questionnaire results (i.e., Teacher Beliefs Scale,

music belief scale, teacher information questionnaire, and music basic questionnaire), interviews

with the participants, including protocols and domains, and concept webs created by the

interviewees. The interview participants were Jen, Tara, and Cindy (pseudo names). Jen

demonstrated a 'stronger' relationship between music and DAP with both strong music and DAP

beliefs. Tara demonstrated an incongruentt' relationship with weak music beliefs and strong

DAP beliefs, and Cindy demonstrated a 'weaker' relationship with both weak music and DAP

beliefs. Table 4-22 outlines the basic information of the three teachers who participated in the

follow-up interviews.

Jen and Tara were senior students and Cindy was junior. They were all twenty-one years

old. Jen and Cindy reported that they were Caucasian, and Tara reported that she was Hispanic.

Jen and Tara had six-month of practicum experiences at four different practicum placements.









Cindy was in her second practicum at the time of her interview. Only Tara had part-time

teaching experience. All of the interviewees had informal or formal music education (i.e.,

learning to play instruments, playing in a band). Jen received the strongest music belief score of

the three participants. Tara showed the strongest DAP score of the three participants. Jen

reported that she was extremely confident with her ability to implement and support music

activities. Tara reported that she was moderately confident with her ability to implement and

support music activities. Cindy stated that she was moderately confident in her ability to

implementing music activities; however she reported that she was not confident in her ability to

support music development. Only Jen was able to read musical notation and correctly defined

four of the five musical terms (i.e., tempo, beat, melody, and rhythm).

Taxonomy

Figure 4-5 shows the taxonomy that outlines the three teachers' beliefs about music, DAP,

and the relationship between music and DAP. Important components that influence teachers'

beliefs in these areas were found. These areas include personal background, confidence level,

professional experience, and teacher education. The primary layers of connections among the

components in the taxonomy exist in music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP. The

taxonomy was built from second-order constructs. Second-order constructs are an explanatory

structure created through the researcher's reflections based on the first-order constructs from the

participants responses (Spradley, 1979). In other words, second-order constructs are the

interpretations of the beliefs of the participants made by the researcher.

Reflecting upon all three interview transcripts, domain analyses, concept webs, and the

questionnaires, the important factors of beliefs were drawn: personal background (i.e., people or

events that influence beliefs), teacher education (i.e., coursework), professional experiences (i.e.,









field experiences, teaching experiences), and confidence (confidence level in implementing

music or DAP). The arrows represent the relationships.

The taxonomy outlines: 1) how the three participants overall perceive and believe music

and DAP are related, 2) what factors and components may have had an effect in their

establishment of beliefs regarding music and DAP, and 3) how various factors and components

may have influenced beliefs about music and DAP and the differing degrees of influence these

factors may have had. Based on the representative taxonomy, the beliefs of the three participants

in the areas of music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP will be described,

explained, and compared.

Teachers' Beliefs about Music

The participants' beliefs about music were analyzed from the results of the interviews. In

the analysis of beliefs about music, the meanings and roles of music for young children arose as

a core concept. Also, there arose various components that were found to have an effect on music

beliefs. These components were: 1) personal background (i.e., events, people, or formal and

informal music education), 2) professional experiences (i.e., practicum, teaching, cooperating

teachers, and children), 3) teacher education (i.e., coursework, faculty), and 4) confidence in

their ability to implement and support music development.

The Meanings and Roles of Music for Young Children

All three preservice teachers basically agreed that music is important for young children.

However, each teacher had a different definition of the meaning of music. Jen reported that the

meaning of music included several diverse functions of music, such as using music as a means of

expression, a tool to support other learning, and a source of emotion. This definition varied with

the definitions of Tara and Cindy. The italic font reflects the key words and important

components.









Jen: Music is a means of expression. (J-13-21) I mean you can express your emotions or
even by listening to music. (J-13-40)

It's a tool that can be used to supplement learning as well (J-8-39).

Something they [children] enjoy (J-9-9). It [music] makes me happy. It influences my
moods. (J-13-40)

Tara stated that music plays an important role and can be both fun and educational for

young children. Also, she felt music could speak to 'the different types of learning styles and

different kinds of multiple intelligence' (T-10-23). However, she explained that music is not a

core subject, which implies that she felt core subjects were separate from music. She

distinguished her definition of core (literacy, math, science) and non-core (music, art, PE)

subjects. Tara stated that music is positive, but merely a supplementary subject that might help

children succeed in school.

Tara: Music, it's just...not so core... It's not as core subject as academic. (T-10-43)

It was never something that 'oh this is what you're gonna do because you have to'. It was
just if you wanted to do it, you could choose to do it. (T-1 1-43)

I mean the role of music can help students succeed even better in the classroom if they
have that. (T-10-23)

Cindy described music as both a 'backdrop' and a 'good supplement'. Cindy reported that music

could be used as a supplement to support other academic areas.

Cindy: it's a good supplement to different activities. Using it as.. .1I think sometimes it's
good to use as a backdrop to your classroom. (C-7-28)

Like a background music. I think like having a special like music class is good for a lot of
kids because they like music and music class gives them something other than academics
all day long. (C-7-34)

Personal Background

All three preservice teachers had different personal backgrounds related to music. Among

three participants, Jen and Tara described a positive background experience with music. The









effect of Jen's personal experiences with music on her positive beliefs toward music was evident

in her interviews.

Jen: music is personally very important to me. It's apart of my life. I guess that's why it
[music] should be important for everyone else. (J-9-29)

There was always music in my house. .... I always remember singing in church when I
was young so that probably play a factor. As I grow up there were the specials like an
elementary school and I love to. They had Orff instruments. I just loved playing those (J-9-
38)... I went in middle school; I started playing with the band. I played music all through
high school. (J-10-1)

Tara reported that she enjoyed music when she was younger and played clarinet in band. She

personally enjoyed listening to the music, but she considered music an extracurricular activity

that should be based on choice rather than necessary for all students.

Tara: I did music when I was in band when I was in middle school. I liked it, but it was
always something that was just extracurricular. (T-11-34)

I wanted to learn to play different instruments. I thought it was interesting, but it was never
something that 'oh this is what you're gonna do because you have to'. (T-11-42)

Like my mom, we've always listened to music (laughter) since I was young. Even now. I
mean I like music. I was very sad in Italy when I couldn't listen to music. (T-12-27)

Jen and Tara had similar positive attitudes toward music. However, their positive

backgrounds related to music had different effects on their beliefs about music for young

children. Jen's personal background with music had a positive effect on her perspective and

beliefs about music for young children. This was revealed in her report of her roles of music and

the meaning of music for young children. However, Tara's positive personal experiences with

music did not seem to have an effect on her beliefs about music for young children.

Cindy had negative experiences in relation to music. She recalled her experience of trying

to learn hand bells when she was in the sixth grade. She described that she was not good at

learning music and she did not like music at that time.









Cindy: but my mom tried to make me play hand bells. I wasn't very good at it. I didn't
understand and read music. (C-8-30)

I think I didn't like it because I didn't get it. I couldn't do it. They highlighted the notes on
the page for me because I didn't know what my note was like to play. I was very bad at
reading music so I think I didn't like it because of that experience. (C-8-38)


Tara and Cindy mentioned that their mothers influenced their beliefs and experiences with

music. Tara had positive memories related to her mother with music. Cindy, however, received a

negative musical influence from her mother related to the pressure when her mother attempted to

urge Cindy to learn a new instrument. Cindy had difficulties learning how to read music and

understand musical concepts. She also did not like music. These factors influenced her attitude

toward music and appear to currently have an affect on her beliefs toward music as well.

Cindy: I think that my mom was probably the most [influential]. She is the one that tried to
make me take hand bells that I didn't want to. The reason she wanted me to do that is
because her mom made her take piano. She didn't really do well in piano as a child, but as
an adult, she really regretted not knowing how to read music, not knowing how to play
piano and so she thought if she encourage to me to learn something, I would be
appreciative of that when I got older. I would be appreciative that I learned how to read
music but it kind of backfired on her. I think (laughter). I was stubborn. (C-10-14)

I do [regret]. I know I do [regret]. I wish that I could. I think the way she tried to make me
do it didn't work. She tried to force me into it more than encouraging or letting me do it on
my own. She is not really like that except when playing hand-bells. She really really
wanted me to do it and I just resisted it. (C-10-27)

Professional Experiences

All of the interviewed preservice teachers had their musical beliefs influenced by their

practicum experiences. Overall, the participants did not see evidence of diverse music activities

at their practicum sites. Most of the music activities they observed during practicum were

comprised of singing and a few dances. Jen especially did not have many opportunities to

observe music in her early childhood practicum classrooms. Also, she explained her reflection

about her cooperating teacher's attitude toward music.









Q: Have you seen a lot of music activities in your practicum?
Jen: No. Not at all, really.
Q: at all?
Jen: I can't really remember. I'm sure that it was little bit, but I think at least in the public
school setting, they think 'oh, they are going to music on Tuesday.' So you know, 'I don't
need to do music if they are going to music' maybe that's their thinking.
I don't remember dancing, but I know in circle time, it was probably the most usual time
that singing what happened. (J-11-7 to J-11-24)


Jen reported what she guessed regarding her co-teacher's beliefs about music 'I don't

need to do music if they [children] are going to music [special]'. This statement could reflect the

current educational attitude toward music. Because there are special classes for music, some

early childhood educators tend to see music as a special, not a part of early the childhood

curriculum (I'Etoile, 2001). Tara observed that the music activities in her practicum and part-

time teaching sites were mostly singing and dancing. Also, she reported that the purpose of the

music activities was 'being active with the music.' This is only a part of the various goals and

potential benefits of music.

Tara: I have always seen it where in the mornings and circle times there is consistently
music playing. Kids are participating by singing and dancing. Just being active with the
music. (T-10-15)



Teacher Education

For the purposes of this study, teacher education includes all coursework that the

preservice teachers have taken, including readings, content knowledge, discussions, and faculty

and peer influence. Because all three preservice teachers were in same early childhood pro-teach

program as juniors, seniors, and graduate students, coursework required by the program is the

same for each academic status. Therefore, their teacher education backgrounds are similar in

regards to their academic status. Table 4-23 shows the courses that the participants were taking at

the time of the interview. Cindy and Jen had not taken any early childhood education music









course. Tara individually had taken an introductory art/music class that was not early childhood

focused in her sophomore year.

Among the three interviewees, Cindy frequently mentioned that she had no opportunities

to take music classes. She explained that the main reason for her low level of confidence in

implementing music is due to the lack of her opportunities to take a music class.

Cindy: personally, I'm not trained musically to be able to. We didn't have music class. I
haven't taken any music class at college(C-8-29) I wouldn't be able to implement music
practices. (C-7-38) I think elementary education takes a class on music in the classroom,
but we don't. (C-8-4)


Cindy explained the reasons why she believed literacy and math were more important

subjects than music and art; many of the courses she had taken emphasized the subjects of

literacy, math, and science. Also, she said that academic subjects are very important to her

because she wants to be a 'normal classroom teacher.' The normal classroom may imply a

typically developing classroom. She revealed her beliefs that 'literacy, math, and science' are

important for typically developing children. Also, it seems as though she believed literacy, math,

and science are helpful for all children, but music, art, and PE is only helpful for 'some' children.

Cindy: The first three [literacy, math and science].. .Iwanna be a normal classroom
teacher, so those three [literacy, math and science] are really important to me. Particularly,
because that's what I have been taught to consider looking for it I guess. (C-9-5) Music,
PE, and art are important for different reasons for different children. I know some students
thrive in music, but little boys hate music and never wanna go to music and they only
wanna go to PE. (C-9-16) I've taken reading class and math and science class. And I
haven't taken any other classes on music, PE or art. There is always talk about those
[music and art], how they are good like in addition to your class, but I haven't been taught
really how to use music, PE and art in my classroom. (C-9-36) My learning in this
program has been primarily focused on literacy, math, and science. (C- 10-9)

Tara discussed her experiences in her introductory music and art class. However, she

mentioned that she did not learn how to teach music for young children in that class because the

class was not specifically for early childhood educators. Tara and Cindy frequently mentioned









they did not learn 'how to teach music.' They both agreed that music is somewhat important for

some children, but they both stated that they do not know how to implement specific music

activities.

Tara: cause right now the class [music/art introductory class] that they give that is half art
and half music. I didn't feel like it was a lot of how to teach art and how to teach music. It
was just learning about basic stuff but maybe in those classes they can talk more about it.

Tara believed a major component of early childhood education is an emphasis on literacy

and math. Also, she stated that it is important to prepare teachers to teach these academic

subjects. She believed that early childhood educators do not need to learn music content

knowledge and how to teach music.

Tara: I think the biggest thing% right now in education would be literacy and math, but
also to learn how to integrate the subjects. (T-12-44) It's just how to teach and how to
read sounds, how to teach math, things like that. I mean those are very important to teach
math and literacy (T-13-21).
I don't know if it necessarily needs to be taught how to teach music but it's more if you
have the ability to play instruments or to sing, you can bring that into your classroom. I
don't know if it specifically has to be a class that is taught. (T-14-3)
Like the tempo and rhythm, actual music content knowledge, it's not necessary to learn
that in an early childhood classroom. (T- 18-14)


Confidence in Implementing and Supporting Music

All three preservice teachers demonstrated different levels of confidence in their ability to

use and teach music to young children. These different levels of confidence were influenced by

personal experience, professional experience, and teacher education. Jen demonstrated stronger

confidence levels in the area of music implementation than the other two teachers. Regarding the

sources of the confidence, she mentioned her personal music background and positive

experiences related to music.

Jen: I guess it's just because my background includes a lot of music. And also because I
know that most children love music. They love to sing or hum or whatever. So I think it's
something they'll enjoy. I should be confident about using it in a classroom.









Tara demonstrated separate levels of confidence between using music and teaching music.

She mentioned that she is confident in using and incorporating music into other core subjects, but

she is not confident in her ability to teach music content knowledge. She repeated her opinion

that early childhood teachers do not necessarily need to know music content knowledge.

Tara: I'm more comfortable in incorporating music into my classroom.
Q: how do you feel that you are confident in teaching about music?

Tara: No. I don't know. I'm not at all. (T-16-6)
I don't think they [early childhood teachers] have to know about it [music content
knowledge] and it would be good if they did, but I don't feel also a lot of kids at that three
or four year age are like 'oh, what's a tempo or what's rhythm?' I think you could provide
them with instrument like drums and things like that is not necessarily you have to do like
'this is a rhythm or this is... you know'. I feel like it's not something I would know about
it to sit and to talk about it with my students. (T-16-21)

Tara also had different opinions on roles of early childhood educators and music educators in

terms of music content knowledge and implementation of music activities in the classroom. She

supported the idea that music educators are more responsible for teaching music than early

childhood educators.

Tara: I think it's important to have the actual classroom teacher to introduce them to music
but I feel it will be more like that the music educators to teach them [children] about the
tempo or rhythm cause they [music educators] are the ones that know about it. (T-16-12)


Additionally, Tara mentioned that she feels most competent in teaching literacy skills. She

explained the sources of her confidence with literacy as "it's my coursework, the books because

I've always been interested in from when I was younger. Also seeing it [literacy] done in the

kindergarten classroom and working with the kids..." (T-19-21). This indicates that her

confidence may derive from her own personal interest, strong content knowledge in this area,

and several positive experiences related to the subject through field experience.









Cindy expressed that she did not feel confident in her music content knowledge and her

skills with teaching students about music. She explained that her lower level of confidence in

music was due to the lack of coursework related to music. Among three interviewed teachers,

Cindy showed the lowest level of confidence in teaching about music.

Cindy: Personally,_'m not trained musically to be able to.(C-7-38)
Cindy: I feel I can play music and we can talk about like 'is this song faster or slow'. I can
probably do that, but other than that I don't feel I can [teach music]. I haven't taken class
on music (C-8-1).

Similar to Tara, she believed that she is able to implement some music activities, but she

reported that she is not able to teach music content knowledge such as musical notation and signs

(i.e., flat).

Cindy: I think it's appropriate for teachers to know and understand to be able to talk to kids
about patterns and music like 'here we hear the drum and then we hear the horn, then,
that's a pattern. I can tell you that kind of thing, but if you ask me like is this flat whatever
the other, I wouldn't be able to tell you. I don't think that's necessarily something I need to
know. For the age that I want to teach, I don't think it would be incredibly important that I
would be able to tell them or explain the notes drawn. (C-12-26)

Based on Tara and Cindy's interviews, most of their low levels of confidence were

influenced by their lack of sufficient music content knowledge and training in how to implement

music activities appropriately. This may implicate the importance of content knowledge and

opportunities to learn how to approach music for young children.

Teachers' Beliefs about DAP

Three preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP have been investigated using interviews and

TBS questionnaire information. This section begins with three preservice teachers' definitions of

DAP and the principles of DAP. Then, characteristics of DAP and DIP will be explained in terms

of teacher roles, features of DAP and DIP practices, and the physical environment.









Meaning of DAP


Regarding DAP, all three preservice teachers addressed their own definitions of DAP. Jen

mentioned three essential components to consider when implementing DAP, which are

individual, age, and cultural appropriateness. The three terms are key concepts in the revised

DAP guidelines (Bredcamp & Copple, 1997). Jen was the only participant who mentioned about

the three components in DAP. This may indicate that Jen has correct and sufficient knowledge of

DAP. Tara described the components of age and ability level, and Cindy did not discuss any of

the three components.

Jen: I think DAP is all about looking at each child individually and seeing what they need
and what their strengths are, what their weaknesses are, what you should focus on? Of
course, that would include you always hear about that it is needs to be culturally
appropriate. You need to look at where they are coming from what their life is like outside
of a school. In fact, what's happening in the classroom. Of course, it is age-appropriate.
For what level they're at, what their ages- just individually looking at them as a person
because no teacher would be at the same place and need to realize that in your classroom."
(J-1-2 to J-1-13)
Jen: what they [children] are interested in, what they need to focus on, what you [teachers]
think it would be important for them [children] as an individual (J-1-36)


Tara and Cindy had some similarities in their definition, particularly pertaining to the provision

of appropriate activities depending on children's ability through a modification of difficulty level.

Tara: DAP is just a way to have an appropriate practice in your classroom so that you're
applying activities and giving activities to students so that they are able to complete that.
They [the activities] are easy enough for them to complete but also difficult enough for
them to be challenged but it's completed successfully, eventually with help of the teacher
or help of the students (T-2-3).
It's not just academic work and in a classroom kids need to play and have fun in order to,
also to learn also just the activities they're doing appropriate to their age and to 11eir
abilities. Not things that are too easy like coloring in paper that really has no significance
to them. (T-2-28)

Cindy: I would define (them) as practices particularly in education thatfit the needs of the
child and that they fit the needs the child in a way that is not asking like two year-old to
write a paragraph. Something like that is just ridiculous. We can't do that or vice versa,
asking someone that's in fifth grade to do something that isn't appropriate for them
because you know a baby can do it. That one would be inappropriate either. (C-1-31)









Principles to Implement DAP


The principles needed to implement DAP have been analyzed based on the interview
participants' explanations and examples pertaining to DAP. The participants had similarities and
differences in their discussions of important principles and definitions surrounding DAP. Diverse
perspectives on the principles of DAP were evident. Jen mentioned that activities should be
'interest' based, 'active', 'hands-on', involve 'making choices', and involve an 'exchange
between peers'.
Jen: what they are interested in, what they need to focus on, what you think it would be
important for them as an individual (J-1-36)
I think they need to be active and involved in learning in to use the term 'hands-on'
they need to be just be very active what they are doing cause that's the way that they learn
as children (J-2-5)
I think children are involved in making choices, and you know there are of course
plans made by the teachers, but the children are involved in making choices about what
they learn (J-2-14)
I think that the exchange between peers is very valuable. (J-7-44)


Tara stated that DAP needs to be 'interactive and communicative', and she also emphasized the

'importance of rules and structure' as principles.

Tara: also just during circle time, it's interactive type of circle time, where kids are
communicating and teachers communicating back to them. It's just interactive type of
classroom where the kids feel safe to talk and discuss anything they want to talk about. (T-
2-42)
Like an indefinable structure. Like kids understand it. The teachers understand it. There
is a rule that are set; you know you have to take turns, you have to but now everybody
can see there is structure. But the kids and the teacher know that 'cause it has been
established before. (T-4-42)

Cindy described that DAP principles need to allow the child to 'succeed', involve 'scaffolding',

'interaction,' and be 'specialized to each child.'


Cindy: making practices that help the child grow particularly in areas that will help them
succeed in school.(C-2-1).... it's to take their potential that they have and to grow that
potential and make them be able to do things that they want. Kind of scaffolding them up,
so they'll be able of succeed either that means just passing third grade, or it that means
being a professor at UF or being the president whatever (laughter). Whatever the most, it's
different for different kids.(C-2-15)









Cindy: It was very wide range of students in this classroom. From very high functioning to
very low functioning, so the practices on that classroom very like specialized to each child
because they all were at such different levels. (C-7-19)

The most commonly mentioned aspect of all three interviews about DAP principles was

the concept of the need for interaction. Jen primarily focused on the children's perspective, and

Tara emphasized classroom structure. Cindy focused on helping each individual child's needs.

Table 4-24 shows the comparison of the principles.

Characteristics of DAP

In terms of the characteristics of DAP, the following areas will be discussed in this

section: 1) teacher roles, 2) features of DAP, and 3) physical environment.

Teachers' roles: The three teachers discussed the various roles of teachers who

implement DAP. Table 4-25 presents the comparison of the perceived roles of teachers. Jen and

Tara shared some common perceptions of teacher roles as did Tara and Cindy. Jen and Tara

emphasized the importance of 'making plans', 'observing children', and 'asking questions'. Tara

and Jen stated that teachers who implement developmentally appropriate practice make plans

that are 'flexible' and 'lenient' to meet children's needs and reactions. In addition to this, Tara

and Jen discussed the importance of 'asking questions' to understand children and their abilities.

Jen also discussed the teacher's need to assess children based on observations while

understanding the three basic concepts of DAP.

Jen: what's happening in her classroom, what the children are already succeeding, what
they don't need more practice what necessarily, what they need to work on more, and what
they need to be focused on' (J-3-5).

Tara emphasized 'providing appropriate materials', 'communicating with children',

'getting to know children and parents' and 'continuing looking for the new resources' as the

roles of early childhood educators who implement DAP. Cindy added to this list by discussing









other teacher roles, which are 'fostering the growth and challenging the children', and

'scaffolding.'

Cindy: They [teachers] had activity set up in the room that matched students' abilities or a
little bit higher than students' abilities so that it would promote gi ,,\\ i1i with the students'
(C-5-28). Teachers need to be aware of 'where the students were and could be(C-5-32).

Tara and Cindy both discussed the importance of 'knowing children' to properly implement

DAP. As seen the in the table 4-25, Jen and Tara proposed more aspects and examples of teacher

roles than Cindy.

Features of developmentally appropriate activities: In describing developmentally

appropriate practice, the three teachers all described common features. They all emphasized the

importance of diverse and child-centered activities, the importance of play in centers, and

involvement or engagement. Jen talked about the importance of hands-on and center activities.

Jen: activities that offer them tangible objects' so that they can grasp the concept (J-2-36)
They're reading, they're looking at books or writing... .they're drawing all those things (J-
2-27) Implement maybe free choice, I mean center time where children can make choices
but there are still, you know, learning the objectives that need to be covered all of that. (J-
7-36)

Tara also discussed the importance of centers and engagement in activities in developmentally

appropriate classroom.

Tara: In general, engaging in activities themselves with different learning centers around
the classroom. (T-2-22)

Cindy focused on play, including the utilization of diverse activities (i.e., blocks, sand, books,

puzzles, pictures, C-2-41) for younger children. Then, as children are getting older, she

expressed that practice needs to move from play-based activities to academic preparation for first

graders.


Cindy: it needs to be like a lot of play especially in the beginning of the year emphasis on
activities (J-3-35). I think it's usually like a spectrum how like in the beginning of the year
we have a long time. We have a lot ofplay and then moving slowly as the children mature,









and they mature so much in the beginning of kindergarten to the end of the year and
maturing into so that they'll be prepared for first grade (C-3-40).

Developmentally appropriate physical environment: The three teachers explained

components of a developmentally appropriate physical environment. Jen and Tara described

several aspects of the environment. Cindy only mentioned 'no desks and chairs' as a component

of the developmentally appropriate environment. Jen was the primary interviewee to describe the

emotional atmosphere of environment, which is an environment that feels welcoming and safe.

Table 4-26 shows the components of a developmentally appropriate physical environment

presented by the three teachers.

Tara emphasized the importance of learning centers and boundaries between the centers.

Tara: A classroom would have certain boundaries within centers within different areas of
the classroom like say the teacher's area. Between the centers, there is not like, the library
is not right next to dramatic play where more blocks and dramatic play together. Library
and writing center together. You know things like that so that one activity is not disturbing
the other activity. Things like that, and where a center time is it's not, it's a space just for
center time they are not being distracted by different objects in the classroom like blocks.
(T-4-3)

It appeared as though Tara held strong beliefs about the physical environment because she had

positive experiences during her part-time teaching experience. She described how she and her

co-teacher had changed the classroom furniture arrangement, and how this had an effect on the

classroom atmosphere and children's behavior.


Tara: I said this is what we do. Can we try to move furniture around, it maybe work? And it
worked (laughter). It really changed the behavior like the students in the classroom.

Characteristics of Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP)

The characteristics of developmentally inappropriate practice that the participants

described primarily are related to practicum experiences. They illustrated specific examples of

DIP through their own reflections. The main characteristics of DIP that the teachers discussed









were a lack of interaction and a lack of rules or structure (C-5-3, T-4-24, T-4-32). These

concepts are opposite to DAP principles. The teachers descriptions of DIP will be discussed

pertaining to the following three areas: 1) characteristics of teachers using DIP, 2) features of

DIP, and 3) developmentally inappropriate physical environment.

Characteristics of teachers in DIP: All three preservice teachers explained the characteristics

of teachers who are implementing inappropriate practice with various examples. Jen stated that

the reason inappropriate practice was implemented was because of the teachers. She said that

teachers in developmentally inappropriate classroom are inflexible and overly structured in their

teaching. She stated that teachers implementing DIP use a direct approach with worksheets and

workbooks, and they did not adapt to the needs of the students.

Jen: I feel like the teachers were the problem. The environment was pretty good
environment but it was just the teachers were (laughter) not quite doing everything right I
think.(J-4-17) They didn plann really ahead of time at all. They would... .be there in the
morning. "Oh. What are we gonna do science for today?" I don't know.(J-4-30)

Then, she mentioned about aspects that the teachers missed compared with the teachers who

implement DAP. For example, Jen mentioned commonly observation in DAP and DIP. However,

she pointed out the difference between them.


Jen: I am sure they [teachers who implement DIP] did observe some obviously they were
watching the children, but I don't think they took the opportunity to really use what they
saw in their observing and use it to help children and support them and scaffold their
learning as much as they really could have. (J-5-14)

Also Jen made a distinction between personality and teachers' ability to implement DAP.

Jen: I know that they [teachers who implement DIP] definitely cared about the children and
wanted to be a good teacher.









Jen considered that teacher ability was more important in relation to implementation of DAP

than personality. Thus, it seems that Jen believes that a good personality is not sufficient to

ensure that a teacher will implement good teaching practices.

Tara described teacher characteristics in developmentally inappropriate classrooms as 'not

engaging' and as having 'no communication with children.' Cindy also mentioned that students

were less involved in their learning. Tara and Jen proposed more diverse examples than Cindy in

terms of teacher characteristics.

Tara: Not engaging herself with the students. Not trying to communicate with them just
kind of sitting back or just giving a rule or just giving demands of what... you need to do
this, you need to do that. But not really explaining to them why they should be doing this
or there is no intent like learning outcome that she is giving them. (T-5-5)

The teacher really didn't do much to try to fix the problem. It was 'well, they always do
that', 'Why don't we do something about it', but I never said anything, but I mean that just
how it seemed. (T-6-44)

Cindy: the teacher is not less involved, just like expecting students to do things rather than
being involved helping them figure it out things, talking to the children. (C-4-43)

Features of DIP: There are common features of DIP that were mentioned by the three

preservice teachers. Jen and Cindy frequently discussed how inappropriate practice involved

teacher activities such as sitting at the desk for longer periods of time, giving students

worksheets, and lack of interaction with the students. They both described the atmosphere of

developmentally inappropriate classrooms as 'rigid' and 'isolated.'

Jen: Just from my personal experience I have been in a kindergarten classroom and they
were all day long doing worksheets sitting at their desks. (J-2-2)
It was like listen to the teacher, sitting in a chair, don't talk, just do your worksheets, color
in the lines, you know very just a rigid. (J-3-29)

Cindy: Sitting in a desk, isolated, they are not working in groups. They're doing
individualized work, they're not on groups. (C-4-40)

Really hard worksheets or try to make them like read the book by themselves of regular
chapters books. (C-5-11)









They [children] did their work and they didn't interact with their peers at all. (C-5-42)

Also, the teaching approach in DIP was described as having more lecture-based and direct

instruction while not having many opportunities for center activities (J-2-41, J-7-5, & C-5-41).

Tara described the atmosphere of DIP as chaotic because of a lack of rules and structure. Along

with principles of DAP, she considered structure of classroom practice important component in

teaching. Tara stated that if the classroom operates in well-organized way and agreed upon rules

exist, this will prevent chaos.

Tara: They're mostly likely being in a center. They aren't teaching them anything or giving
them knowledge of anything like.... There is kind a jumping around and playing that
they're..... Kids are not spending enough time in one center and they are just running off
doing something that has nothing to do with what the teacher intended them to do. It's just
a chaotic classroom. (T-4-18)

I felt like it was a lot like the kids are out of control. (T-6-43)

Developmentally inappropriate physical environment: Jen and Tara described

characteristics of the physical environment in DIP. Jen described emotional aspects, such as

'uncomfortable' and 'not meaningful' for children. Jen considered physical environment as not

only pertaining to physical features and classroom arrangement, but also meanings and emotions.

Jen: I guess so an inappropriate one would be not child's size, not comfortable for the
children and I guess ... inappropriate one probably have things that you know they might
be pretty to look at, they might have nice bulletin board but they are not meaningful to the
children in the classroom. (J-4-2)


Compared with Jen, Tara talked about an imbalanced and inappropriate arrangement for children

in centers. Also Cindy mentioned issues surrounding desk and chair setting in a developmentally

inappropriate environment.

Tara: it will probably be like an imbalanced environment. There might not be well-defined
centers like areas. They might just all be cluttered around together. There are no
boundaries between different places in the classroom. (T-5-14)









Jen was the only interviewee who iterated the importance of the socio-emotional aspect of the

environment in relation to DAP. Tara and Cindy primarily described the physical arrangement of

the environment.

Teachers' Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP

Reflecting upon interviews, questionnaires, and concept webs, three early childhood

preservice teachers' beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP have been examined.

The relationships are categorized in two ways: 1) music as a developmental tool used to

implement DAP, and 2) music as a supplemental activity that is a part of DAP. Jen's beliefs

about the relationship reflect the idea expressed in the first category, and Tara and Cindy's

beliefs reflect the idea expressed in the second category.

Music as a Developmental Tool of DAP Music is Part of DAP

Jen considered music a part of DAP and insisted that music should be a part of DAP. This

relationship was also found in her concept web (Figure 4-6). She placed music inside of the DAP

circle.

Jen: It would be developmentally appropriate to include music in an early childhood
classroom. (J-12-21)

Jen believed that a relationship exists between music and other developmental areas. She

mentioned that social development and cognitive development were related to music.

Jen: music and social development. I could definitely see it [relationship]. (J-13-16) You
have heard about like 'if you play this music, then it will make your children smart' which
I don't necessarily think that. But it does have a relationship. But I don't know how. (J-13-
27)


Jen talked about music activities that she is able to implement in the classroom, such as

singing. She emphasized the use of songs in different ways, such as during transition time or









throughout the day. It appeared as though she thinks it is important for children to be exposed to

music continuously in the curriculum and routine.

Jen: I think maybe it will be good in a kindergarten classroom to have maybe just some
songs that you teach the children just to use even like during transition time would be
maybe good time. You could start singing the song, and then they just sing along. It
doesn't even like to be like 'okay, let's sit down on the carpet, and we'll sing that song
together. They'll sing that song.' You can just be fairly informal just throughout the day,
once if they learn the song, you know, sing the song. Just incorporate however you can (J-
11-43 to J -12-7)

She also described how music could be used in DAP through integration with other activities

related to the theme.

Jen: just to include it don't necessarily make it one section of it. They just integrate it
throughout the day whatever ways you see are fitting or whatever ways be beneficial. (J-
12-41)

If you had a unit on some particular thing, find music that goes along with that. Theme and
include with that. (J- 12-13)

Music as a Supplemental Activity Partially Related to DAP

This relationship represents the idea that music can play a partial role in DAP. Within this

concept, music is not considered a primary tool to facilitate DAP, but as a supplemental activity

to aide the implementation of DAP. Figure 4-7 explains the relationship between music and DAP

that Tara and Cindy drew.

Cindy viewed the relationship between music and DAP as being appropriate for 'some'

children who have had musical background or musical experiences at their homes. This indicates

that she views music as important only for certain children who have a personal musical

background. She did not believe music was necessary for all students.

Cindy: there is probably a relationship between like one that atmosphere that music can
bring to classroom like exploring or doing their own things. I also think like music might
in some children be part of their life even when they are very young, the parents might
play the music and I think that it can help them understand concepts that they might not
get otherwise. That each child probably has something that makes them understand ideas
better than other children. Music could be one of things that help some children, so I can









see where [it can be] developmentally appropriate for some children to use music as their
means for learning. (C- 11-24)


Also, Cindy described functions of music as supplementary, such as to refresh students or calm

them down from the pressure of academics. However, these functions are not major roles of

music, but partial and minor aspects. As discussed in literature review, there are many diverse

functions of music such as cognitive, social, aesthetic, cultural, and emotional.

Cindy: I think having a special like music class is good for a lot of kids because they like
music and music class gives them something other than academics all day long. (C-7-35)

Cindy: during rest nap period using calm music like quite classroom down. I liked that. I
think that's one of music is not better points, but something really good about music that
has ability to calm you down. (C-i 1-5)


When describing ways to integrate and implement music in the classroom, Cindy described

the experience that she liked in her practicum. This may imply positive experiences and good

demonstrations of music integration into the classroom that could help preservice teachers better

understand how to implement music activities into their own classrooms. Therefore, experience

from field or teaching practice is important because it demonstrates a specific approach for the

implementation of music activities in the classroom. If Cindy had more opportunities to observe

diverse music activities, she may possess more positive beliefs about music, including a belief of

music as an active medium of development.

Cindy: I liked how they used music. They also had a time in the morning, it was like circle
time, talking about the calendar and then they had one kid got to pick a song that they
wanted to listen to, so they either dance to it or sing to it. I thought that the kids really
enjoyed that and made them learn the things that we were going to, along with the songs.
(C-13-20)


Regarding the relationship between music and other developmental areas, Cindy recognized

relationship between music and social, cognitive, and motor development. Although she









recognized the relationship between music and important developmental areas, this relationship

was not reflected in her descriptions of the meaning and role of music.

Cindy: socially you can dance that's building social skills. Cognitively like understanding
the notes would be cognitive development. Gross motor can be dancing and building most
muscles. I think that you could definitely use it with all those if you knew how or wanting
to your classroom. (C-13-4)

Tara saw a partial relationship between music and DAP, and saw the possibility of music

being integrated into DAP practices, as did Cindy. However, Tara considered more diverse uses

for music in DAP than Cindy. Tara emphasized how music could be integrated into academic

subjects. She explained that certain topics related to music could be overlapped with other

academic areas, and that the remaining areas of music could focus on music specific knowledge

(i.e., tempo, rhythm, beat).

Tara primarily considered music as a supplemental tool to facilitate academic or core

subjects related to DAP in terms of 'integration'. She did not see a clear place for activities

focused solely on music. For example, she stated music can be integrated with literacy and math

(i.e., rhyming, counting) using repetition.

Tara: You can use art and music to integrate into there [literacy and math], but it's not
specifically that I'm just gonna teach 'oh this is a kind of music, and teach like specific
things about music'. I think music and art always are gonna be integrated in early
childhood but through like reading and through math things like that. It's not just separate
subject. (T-12)



Tara: It's still iinmething that kids need to be introduced to _whether different songs that
they are learning different words to. Also songs will teach kids rhyming. Kids count even
memorizing singing songs. Kids like memorizing words and they don't even realize that
they were just remembering them. Just sing it over and over again. I don't know exactly
how to explain like how it's developmentally... you know... I know it's something that
has always incorporated into a classroom. And it helps kids in different ways to learn. (T-
17-25)


Tara mentioned relationships between music and cognitive, physical, and social development.









I mean music can help kids cognitively whether it's like they learn better while listening to
music. Also physically you dance it helps when you're listening to music. Socially you can
give kids like common interests of something that they like, you know, specific. I mean I
think it's integrated in all the different domains. (T-28-34)


Tara described some ways that developmentally appropriate music activities can be

approached. She described the purposes of music activities as providing fun and interest for the

children. Tara was able to recognize more benefits of music than Cindy. However, Tara

primarily emphasized music's role in relation to academic areas (i.e., literacy, math) instead of

the importance of a focus on music alone.

Tara: doing it to integrate different subjects also provide like instruments in the classroom
to have maybe during center time or in the morning when everybody gets there just to have
them play or just to introduce them to different musical instruments like maraca, a recorder,
and things like that. Just get them to introduce that there are different instruments to create
music.(T-16-39)



Tara: Just for fun. Like the song 'we're going to a bear hunt'. Kids are listening to the
music and should pay attention to what's going on. To get them interested or just to get
energy out because that's what you do with music. You dance and you let energy out. You
sing. It's just supposed to be fun. (T-18-25)



Tara: Music doesn't, music just can be songs from that you use that teachers nowadays use
during circle time things like that. (T-14-6)

Summary

Early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship

between music and DAP have been analyzed using teacher information questionnaire, music

basic questionnaire, the TBS questionnaire, music belief scale, and follow-up interviews. First,

the study demonstrated that preservice teachers have relatively positive beliefs about the

importance of music, including the aesthetic, quality of life, and social emotional benefits. The

participants believed that literacy is the most important subject in early childhood, and music is









the fourth most important subject. Confidence levels on individual ability to implement and

support music development in the classroom varied. Most preservice teachers believed that the

role of music teachers in facilitating music development is more important than the role of early

childhood teachers.

There was a significant difference in music beliefs that was correlated with the teachers'

confidence level in their ability to implement music activities and to facilitate music

development in early childhood classroom. Higher levels of confidence were correlated with

strong beliefs about the importance of music. A significant difference was also found in beliefs

about the importance of music in relation to the ability to read musical notation. The teachers

who were able to slightly read musical notation demonstrated more positive beliefs about the

importance of music than the teachers who were not able to read musical notation.

This study also showed that these early childhood preservice teachers possess relatively

strong beliefs about DAP and weak beliefs about DIP. There was a statistically significant

difference in DAP and DIP beliefs depending on academic status. Preservice teachers with a

higher academic status demonstrated stronger beliefs in relation to DAP, and lower beliefs in

relation to DIP than preservice teachers at junior level. A statistically significant relationship

between DAP and field experience was identified. Teachers who had more field experiences

demonstrated stronger beliefs about DAP.

Lastly, there was a statistically significant relationship between beliefs about the

importance of music and DAP such that teachers who strongly believed in the importance of

music showed positive beliefs about DAP. In order to examine in-depth beliefs about music and

DAP, three participants who represented stronger, incongruent and weaker relationships were

interviewed. Based on the taxonomy and cultural psychological theme, beliefs of each









interviewee varied in different areas, including: 1) beliefs about music in relation to personal

background, teacher education, professional experience, and confidence, 2) beliefs about DAP

including descriptions of characteristics of DAP and DIP, and 3) beliefs about the relationship

between music and DAP. In the next chapter, the implications and significance of the study will

be examined.









Table 4-1. Demographic and descriptive data.
Frequencies Percentage (%)
Age
19-20 11 16.9 %
21-22 36 55.4 %
23-24 16 24.6 %
25- 2 3.0 %

Ethnicity
Caucasian 48 73.8 %
Hispanic 9 13.8 %
African-American 5 7.7 %
Other 3 4.6 %

Academic status
Junior 25 38.5 %
Senior 24 36.9 %
Graduate 16 24.6 %
Numbers of field placements
2-3 25 38.5 %
4-5 24 36.9 %
5-6 16 24.6 %

Length of field experiences
1-2 months 25 38.5 %
5-6 months 24 36.9 %
7-9 months 16 24.6 %

Teaching experiences
Full time 11 16.9%
Part time 21 32.3 %
None 33 50.8 %

Length of teaching experiences
None 33 50.8%
0-1 year 15 23.1%
1- 2 years 10 15.4%
More than 2 years 7 10.7%

Having formal/informal music
Education
Yes, I did 56 86.2 %
No, I did not 8 12.3 %









Table 4-1. Demographic and descriptive data.


Frequencies


Percentage (%)


Ability to read music notation
Able to read
Somewhat able to read
Not able to read

Knowledge on musical terms
Tempo
Beat
Melody
Rhythm
Articulation


Table 4-2. Coursework list of the participants.
Fall

Inclusive EC studies
The young child
Junior Social foundation of education
Teachers & learners
Language acquisition
Family involve in ECSE

Social competence in EC
EC program for infant/toddler
EC science & social studies
Senior Severely handicapped
Practicum


Spring


EC math & science
Assessment in ECSE
Practicum
Emergent literacy
Multicultural issues ECSE


Technology
Measurement and evaluation
Language arts for diverse learners
ECSE curriculum and management
EC curriculum and management



EC background & concepts
Reading/primary grades



Internship in EC
Trasdiscipline
exceptional students



Creativity in EC curriculum
Issues in child care
administration
ESOL curriculum methods
assessment
EC children's literature
Intervention for language &
learning disabilities


43.1%
6.2%
50.8%


63.1%
29.2 %
43.1%
33.8%
6.2 %


Graduate









Table 4-3. Mean scores for the benefits of music.
Aesthetic benefit Quality-of-Life benefit


Social-emotional benefit


Total mean 48.23 37.38 44.52

Mean 4.82 4.15 4.94

SD 4.8 4.7 4.4

Range 31-60 26-52 34-54


Table 4-4. The rank of six subjects.
Rank Subjects
1st Literacy
2nd Math
3rd Science
4th Music
5th Art
6th Physical education


Table 4-5. One-way ANOVA for music beliefs depending on academic status.
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
Music Between Groups 429.615 2 214.807 .807 .451
Within Groups 16238.745 61 266.209
Total 16668.359 63



Table 4-6. Correlations between beliefs about music and field experiences.
Numbers of Length of
field placements field experience
Music Pearson Correlation -.147 -.136
Sig. (2-tailed) .246 .284
n 64 64









Table 4-7. Correlations between beliefs about music and teaching experiences.
Length of teaching experiences
Music Pearson Correlation -.066
Sig. (2-tailed) .606
n 64



Table 4-8. One-way ANOVA for Music depending on confidence about the ability to
implement music activities.
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
MUSIC Between Groups 5257.428 3 1752.479 9.215 .000***
Within Groups 11410.922 60 190.182
Total 16668.359 63
***p< .001



Table 4-9. Post-hoc comparison tests for confidence about the ability to implement music
activities.
Mean
Groups differences Std. Error Sig.
differences
Not and somewhat confident Moderately confident 3.97 5.661 .920
Very confident -2.38 5.661 .981
Extremely confident -23.15** 6.541 .009

Moderately confident Not and somewhat confident -3.97 5.661 .920
Very confident -.6.35 4.067 .492
Extremely confident -27.12** 5.224 .000

Very confident Not and somewhat confident 2.38 5.661 .981
Moderately confident 6.35 4.067 .492
Extremely confident -20.77** 5.224 .003

Extremely confident Not and somewhat confident 23.15** 6.541 .009
Moderately confident 27.12** 5.224 .000
Very confident 20.77** 5.224 .003
**p < .005, ***p < .001









Table 4-10. One-way ANOVA for Music depending on confidence about the ability to support
music development.
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
MUSIC Between Groups 3209.943 3 1069.981 4.770 .005*
Within Groups 13458.416 60 224.307
Total 16668.359 63

*p <.05



Table 4-11. Post-hoc comparison tests for confidence about the ability to support music
development.
Mean
Groups differences Std. Error Sig.
differences
Not and somewhat confident Moderately confident -.06 5.391 1.000
Very confident -4.81 5.087 .827
Extremely confident -25.21* 7.392 .013

Moderately confident Not and somewhat confident .06 5.391 .1000
Very confident -4.74 4.520 .777
Extremely confident -25.14* 7.014 .008

Very confident Not and somewhat confident 4.81 5.087 .827
Moderately confident 4.74 4.520 .777
Extremely confident -20.40* 6.783 .037

Extremely confident Not and somewhat confident 25.21* 7.392 .013
Moderately confident 25.14* 7.014 .008
Very confident 20.40* 6.783 .037
*p<.05



Table 4-12. One-way ANOVA for music depending on ability to read musical notation.
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
MUSIC Between Groups 2141.434 2 1070.717 4.496 .015*
Within Groups 14526.925 61 238.146
Total 16668.359 63

*p <.05









Table 4-13. Post-hoc comparison tests for ability to read musical notation in music beliefs.
Mean
Groups differences Std. Error Sig.
differences
Yes I can read No I can't read 8.43 4.005 .118
Yes I cant read somewhat -12.38 8.268 .333

No I can't read Yes I can't read -8.43 4.005 .118
Yes I can't read somewhat -20.81* 8.170 .046

Yes I can read somewhat Yes I can read 12.38 8.268 .333
No I can't read 20.81* 8.170 .046
*p< .05



Table 4-14. One-way ANOVA for music depending on confidence about the ability to
implement music activities.
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
MUSIC Between Groups 5257.428 3 1752.479 9.215 .000***
Within Groups 11410.922 60 190.182
Total 16668.359 63
***p <.001



Table 4-15. Mean scores for DAP and DIP.
DAP DIP
Total means 57.32 37.42
Mean score 4.41 2.9
SD 4.8 5.5
Range 47 65 26-52


Table 4-16. One-way ANOVA for DAP and DIP depending on academic status.
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
DAP Between Groups 289.817 2 144.909 7.398 .001**
Within Groups 1214.398 62 19.587
Total 1504.215 64

DIP Between Groups 491.200 2 245.600 10.243 .000***
Within Groups 1486.585 62 23.977
Total 1977.785 64

**p <.005, ***p <.001









Table 4-17. Post-hoc comparison tests for academic status in DAP beliefs.
Groups Mean differences Std. Error Sig.
DAP Junior Senior -4.61** 1.265 .002
Graduate -3.82* 1.417 .032


Senior


Junior
Graduate


Graduate Junior
Senior


Junior


Senior


Senior
Graduate

Junior
Graduate


Graduate Junior
Senior
*p < .05, **p < .005, ***p< .001


Table 4-18. Correlations between beliefs about DAP/DIP and field experiences.
Numbers of Length of
Field Field
Placements Experience
DAP Pearson Correlation .364** .384**
Sig. (2-tailed) .003 .002
n 65 65
DIP Pearson Correlation -.192 -.222
Sig. (2-tailed) .126 0.76
n 65 65
**p < .005


Table 4-19. Correlations between beliefs about DAP/DIP and teaching experiences.
Length of teaching experiences
DAP Pearson Correlation -.093
Sig. (2-tailed) .461
n 65
DIP Pearson Correlation -.138
Sig. (2-tailed) .275
n 65


DIP


4.61**
.79

3.82*
-.79

6.09***
1.21

-6.09***
-4.88*


1.265
1.428

1.417
1.428

1.399
1.568

1.399
1.580

1.568
1.580


.002
.858

.032
.858

.000
.743

.000
.012

743
.012


-1.21
4.88*









Table 4-20. Correlations for DAP and music.
DAP MUSIC
DAP Pearson Correlation 1 .305*
Sig. (2-tailed) .014
N 65 64
MUSIC Pearson Correlation .305* 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .014
N 64 65
*p <.05


Table 4-21. Frequency of stronger, weaker, and incongruent relationships.
Juniors Seniors Graduate total
Stronger 3 2 0 5
Weaker 7 0 1 8
higher music vs.
lower DAP
Incongruent lower DAP
lower music vs. 0 1 1
higher DAP
Total 11 3 2 15









Table 4-22. Basic information of the interview participants.


The relationship
between
music and DAP
Age
Academic Status
Ethnicity


Jen
Stronger:
Strong music vs.
Strong DAP
21


Senior
Caucasian


Tara
Incongruent:
Weaker music vs.
Strong DAP
21


Senior
Hispanic


Cindy
Weaker:
Weaker music vs.
Weaker DAP


Junior
Caucasian


Field Experiences 4 (6 months) 4 (6 months) 2 monthsh)
Part-time teaching Babysitting
Teaching experiences None ( m ya
(4 months) (10 years)
Band (bassoon,
Music education Band (bassoon, Clarinet Singing, Hand bells
percussion), Piano

Music Belief Scores 195 143 156

DAP scores 61 63 50

Confidence about the
ability to implement Extremely confident Moderately confident Moderately confident
music activities
Confidence about the
ability to support Extremely confident Moderately confident Not confident
children's musical
development
Importance of the
role of early Extremely confident Very important Somewhat important
childhood educators
Importance of the
role of music Extremely confident Very important Very important
teachers
Ability to read
Yes No No
musical notation
Music content 4of
4 of 5
knowledge tempo, N No
knowledge tempo, (tempo, beat, melody, None None
beat, melody, and rhythm)
rhythm, articulation









Table 4-23. Coursework of the interview participants.
Jen & Tara (Senior)


Technology
Measurement and Evaluation
Language arts for diverse learners
ECSE curriculum and management
EC curriculum and management


Cindy (Junior)


EC math and science
Assessment in EC special education
Practicum
Emergent literacy
Multicultural Issues in ECSE (ESOL)


Table 4-24. Comparison of DAP principles.
Jen Tara Cindy
'interest' based 'interactive 'succeed'
'being active' communicative' 'scaffolding'
'hands-on' 'rules and structure' 'interaction'
'making choices' 'specialized to each child'.
'exchange between peers'


Table 4-25. Comparison of teachers' roles in DAP.
Jen Tara Cindy

*Making plans *Fostering the growth and
*Observing children challenging the children
*Asking questions Scaffolding

*Flexible *Lenient
*Assessing by observation *Providing appropriate materials
*Communicating with children
*Getting to know children and
parents
*Continuing looking for the new
resources'
*Be aware of and knowing children's ability



Table 4-26. Comparison of developmentally appropriate physical environment.
Jen Tara Cindy
*Welcoming environment *Learning centers library with No desks and chairs
*Feeling safe different types of books, dramatic
*Assessable furniture with play, writing center, manipulative
appropriate size center with blocks, computers
*Display of children's work *certain boundaries
*certain rules in center
arrangement


























1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th


Figure 4-1. Rank of music.





30
251
20 implement music
activities
15

10 3 support music
development
5
0
not somewhat moderately very extremely
confident confident confident confident confident

Figure 4-2. Confidence about ability to implement music activities and support musical
development.






















noi somewnai moaeraiely very extremely
important important important important important


3 early childhood
teachers

I music teachers


Figure 4-3. Comparison of early childhood teachers' roles and music teachers 'roles.


Beliefs about Music

75-100%




25-75%


IWeakerr


Beliefs about DAP

75-100%




25-75%




0- 25 %


Figure 4-4. In-depth patterns of relationship between music and DAP beliefs


0-25%


II






























Figure 4-5. The representative taxonomy of the early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs
about music, DAP and the relationship between music and DAP.


Figure 4-6. Jen's beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP


Integration/background


Figure 4-7. Tara and Cindy's beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP.









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

This chapter discusses the findings and implications of this study. First, early childhood

preservice teachers' beliefs about music will be discussed. Then, the teachers' beliefs about DAP,

including the relationship between these beliefs and individual teacher variables will be

presented. Finally, early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about the relationship between

music and DAP will be introduced with in-depth explanations of this relationship from teachers

who possess stronger, incongruent, and weaker beliefs about music and DAP.

Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music

An analysis of a music belief questionnaire led to the current understanding regarding

these early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music in this study. This study

demonstrates that these early childhood preservice teachers possess strong beliefs about the

importance of music. Specifically, most early childhood preservice teachers believe that over

97% of the statements about the importance of music are more true than false. This result is

consistent with a study of music education preservice teachers' beliefs about music conducted by

Austin and Reinhardt (1999). The study contends that preservice music teachers also believed the

overall statements are more true than false. Since a recent review of the literature yielded little

research on early childhood teachers' beliefs about music, this outcome provides new and useful

information to understand how early childhood teachers perceive the importance of music.

Overall music beliefs, aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits of music

were analyzed. The findings showed that these early childhood preservice teachers relatively

hold strong beliefs in three domains. The early childhood preservice teachers believe that the

statements of aesthetic and social-emotional growth benefits are true and the statements of

quality-of-life benefits are more true than false. In addition, early childhood preservice teachers









believe music has more social-emotional growth than other two benefits. This outcome was

supported by follow-up interviews concerning the relationship between music and other

developmental areas. All of the interviewees discussed the social and emotional value of music;

for example, music has a calming effect on the classroom atmosphere and it is an enjoyable

activity for both children and teachers. Furthermore, the teachers emphasized that music

facilitates children's social development through activities such as singing and dancing. Early

childhood preservice teachers noticed that music activities help develop social-emotional

competence. This result is consistent with research indicating that music functions as a social

development tool. The term 'musical child in context' implies music assists children in

developing interdependent relationships (Custodero, 2002b).

This study on early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs regarding the importance of

music relative to other subjects reveals a belief that literacy is the most important subject in early

childhood education. The teachers rank order of the subjects from the most important to the least

important was literacy, math, science, music, art and PE. Music was not ranked as important

relative to academic subjects (i.e., literacy, math, science). Over 97% of the participants

indicated that literacy is the most important subject for young children, while music was ranked

as the fourth most important subject. This finding reflects the current educational dilemma; there

has been an increase in the high stakes testing emphasizing academic subjects in early childhood

education. Since the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), many schools must focus on academic

outcomes, while other developmental areas have been overlooked (Hill, 2003; Raver & Zigler,

2004). The top three subjects literacy, math, and science that the participants ranked were the

subjects of Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (Florida Department of Education, 2007).

This finding is also supported by follow-up interviews. All three interviewees nominated literacy









as the most important subject. They addressed two major reasons for their beliefs. First, the

priority of literacy has been influenced by their practicum experiences. Most of the teaching

practice at practicum sites was related to literacy and math for young children. The preservice

teachers reported that they have not seen many music activities in their practicum experiences.

Second, the interviewees explained that the coursework in the teacher education for early

childhood education (i.e., Proteach program) consisted of literacy, language, math and science.

Music and art were reserved for graduate courses. This may influence teachers' beliefs about

music and art. This result may imply the importance of providing diverse contents and

approaches in teacher preparation programs and field experiences.

This study shows that confidence level of these early childhood preservice teachers varied

in implementing and supporting music. The early childhood preservice teachers reported that

about half of the participants feel very confident about their ability to implement music activities

and support children's musical development compared with other participants, who answered

that they were somewhat or moderately confident in implementing music in the classroom. Many

teachers do not feel confident in their ability to implement musical activities although they do

believe music is important in early childhood education. Relevant studies of music

implementation for young children have also demonstrated that teachers may hesitate to actively

implement music in the classroom due to a lack of confidence in their knowledge of music or

inadequate support (Gharavi, 1993; Hildebrandt, 1998; McDonald, 1993, I'Etoile, 2001).

This is supported by the follow-up interview analyses. Through the interviews, the reasons

for the low level of confidence in implementing music stem from lack of music content

knowledge and the assumption that music should be taught by music teachers. However, one of

the interviewees distinguished between teaching music and incorporating music in the classroom.









Although she reported a lower level of confidence in teaching music content knowledge, she

demonstrated a higher level of confidence in integrating music into other subject areas (i.e.,

literacy, math). Additionally, another interviewee who has not taken any music related class

pointed out the lack of instruction in teacher education courses regarding how to specifically

implement music in the classroom. In order to improve this low level of confidence, research

suggests that music education including music activities and content knowledge helps facilitate

teachers' confidence in implementing music (I'Etoile, 2001).

The early childhood preservice teachers in the current study believe that the roles of early

childhood educators and music teachers are important. However, the teachers believe music

teachers' roles are more important than early childhood education teachers' roles to support the

musical development of young children. This finding is consistent with the follow-up interview

analysis. All interviewees agreed that music is important for young children. However, two

interviewees described music as an extracurricular activity in the early childhood curriculum and

believe it is a special subject that needs to be taught by music teachers. These beliefs may be due

to limited experiences with music activities in practicum placements. Additionally, the

supervising teachers' attitudes toward music may have influenced the preservice teachers' beliefs.

One of the participants discussed a co-teacher's negative attitude toward music. In addition to

that, the early childhood teachers' lack of music subject knowledge may have affected their

beliefs about the role of early childhood teachers.

There are significant differences in music beliefs depending on teachers' level of

confidence in implementing music activities and the ability to read musical notation. First,

teachers who feel more confident in implementing musical activities, supporting music

development, and supporting musical development have stronger beliefs about music. This









finding is related to teachers' self-efficacy research. Confidence in one's ability to implement

and support music represents self -efficacy, a self-evaluation of one's own ability (Bandura

1977; 1997). Teachers' self-efficacy acts as beliefs about their own abilities, which influences

their practice and behavior. For example, higher self-efficacy is positively related to children's

social interaction and supportive atmosphere (Vartuli, 2005). The source of teachers' beliefs may

be based on their confidence in their own ability and knowledge. If a teacher feels confident in

implementing music, that might influence his or her beliefs about music. This finding is

supported by follow-up interviewees who reported that they are not confident in teaching music

and demonstrated a weaker level of belief in the importance of music.

Next, the preservice teachers who are able to read musical notation have more positive

beliefs about the importance of music than teachers who are not able to read such notation. This

study showed that there is difference between teachers who can 'somewhat' read musical

notation and teachers who are unable to read musical notation. This implies that music content

knowledge may affect the ability to build positive beliefs about music although the knowledge is

not perfect or complete. During the interviews, the two teachers who had lower scores on their

beliefs about the importance of music frequently mentioned their lack of knowledge about

musical content; for example, they were not able to read musical notation. They were also less

knowledgeable of musical terms than the interviewee who held stronger beliefs about the

importance of music.

There was no significant difference in these early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs

about music based upon academic status. This is consistent with research on music educators'

beliefs about music in different academic status (Austin & Reinhardt, 1999). The participants

were enrolled in the same early childhood program and the program operated one 'creativity in









early childhood curriculum' course that includes music contents and implementations for early

childhood educators during the three-year teacher education program as a graduate course.

Therefore, all junior and senior participants had not taken the course. Graduate students had

started to take the course, but the present study was implemented early in the semester.

Therefore, the graduate participants did not have the opportunity to learn musical content at the

time of the study. This may explain why the results show no difference in music beliefs

depending on academic status.

There has been no difference in early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music in

terms of field and teaching experience. The participants in this study had average twenty-week

practicum experience; however, as stated previously, music activities in practicum experiences

have been reported as limited in terms of frequency and diversity. Also only half of the

preservice teachers had teaching experiences for less than eight months. Therefore, teaching

experience may not affect their beliefs about music.

Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about DAP

Preservice teachers in this study demonstrated stronger beliefs about DAP than DIP. This

suggests that the participants possess strong beliefs about DAP and weak beliefs about DIP. The

mean score for individual DAP items on a questionnaire was 4.4. This supports the idea that

preservice teachers believe that it is important to use practices that are identified as

developmentally appropriate. This result is similar to previous studies on preservice teachers

(File & Gullo, 2002; Stipek & Byler, 1997). The DIP means score was 2.8. This implies that

preservice teachers believe that it is important to avoid the practices that are identified as

developmentally inappropriate for young children. Therefore, the participant preservice teachers

possess stronger beliefs about developmentally appropriate practice and weaker beliefs about

developmentally inappropriate practice.









This study also investigated the relationship between DAP and DIP beliefs and teacher

demographic variables (i.e., academic status, field experiences, and teaching experiences). There

were several findings in this area. First, there were significant differences in beliefs about DAP

and DIP in relation to academic status. Seniors and graduate students held more positive beliefs

about DAP than did the junior students. Also, the senior students, more so than the junior

students believed the practices that are identified as developmentally inappropriate are not as

important. The graduate students believed DIP is not important for young children more so than

senior students did. This indicates that the length of teacher education and amount of coursework

has a positive affect on beliefs about DAP, and has a negative effect on the preservice teacher

beliefs toward DIP. This is consistent with research on the influence of coursework in teacher

education (Hoy & Woolfolk, 1990; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998).

The graduate students had received significantly more experiences in relation to DAP than

junior and senior level students. Particularly, the graduate students had completed an internship

and had taken more than 60 credits in early childhood education coursework, including early

childhood curriculum. Therefore, graduate students had more opportunities to gain DAP related

knowledge and develop their own beliefs about DAP than did the juniors and seniors. Also, in

the follow-up interviews, the two senior students were able to identify general principles of DAP

in relation to three key concepts: age, individuality, and cultural appropriateness. The junior

student was unable to identify any of these concepts. The senior interviewees were also able to

elaborate on a variety of examples exemplifying characteristics of DAP and DIP (i.e., teacher

roles, features of DAP and DIP, physical environment) than the junior student was.

There was also a significant relationship between amount of field experience and early

childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about DAP. Preservice teachers who had more field









placements for longer period displayed stronger beliefs about DAP. Previous studies have also

demonstrated a relationship between field experience (i.e., internship, apprenticeship) and

teacher beliefs (Housego, 1992; Hoy & Woolfolk, 1990; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). These

studies showed internship or apprenticeship has a significant influence on teacher beliefs.

Diverse experiences in different settings and length of experience may affect teacher beliefs

about DAP because these experiences may offer opportunities to observe DAP as well as DIP

and reflect on DAP concepts.

Finally, there was no statistically significant relationship between teaching experience and

beliefs about DAP. As was previously discussed in the music beliefs section, over 50% of the

teachers did not have teaching experience. Also, the preservice teachers who did have teaching

experience had an average of less than nine months experience, and the majority of the teaching

experience was part-time. This may have not been enough experience to have an impact of

beliefs relating to DAP.

Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and
DAP

The findings of this study show a statistically significant relationship between early

childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music and DAP. This implies that preservice

teachers who have more positive beliefs about the importance of music also believe that DAP is

more important. This result supports the idea that music can act as a developmental tool. This

idea has been iterated in several studies. Previous studies have introduced several diverse

functions of music that facilitate children's cognitive, social, emotional, aesthetic, and cultural

development (Caulfiedl, 1999; Custedero, 2002; Esner, 2001; Fox 2000; Mueller, 2003; Sims &

Cassidy, 1997; Tarnowski, 1999; Temmerman, 1998). Therefore, if a teacher believes that music

can be an active medium for instruction and that it has the potential to help the holistic









development of young children, he or she might be able to see the role of music in DAP. This

outcome is also consistent with the results of a study by Miranda (2004). The study investigated

the link between beliefs about DAP and teaching practice for three music teachers. Interviews

and observations were used to investigate music teacher practice. The results of the study

showed a positive relationship between DAP beliefs and ideas of how to implement music

activities appropriately. The teachers in the study who possessed positive beliefs about DAP also

were seen implementing more developmentally appropriate music practice.

To conduct a more thorough investigation about the relationship between beliefs of music

and DAP, stronger, incongruent, and weaker beliefs were analyzed. Fifteen of the participants

met the criteria for the stronger, incongruent, and weaker belief categories. Of these participants,

preservice teachers in their junior year were more likely to show both weaker and stronger

relationships in their beliefs. These three relationships were drawn from the extremely highest

and lowest portion within the belief range. Senior and graduate students had more practicum

experience and a longer amount of time receiving teacher education. Thus, these preservice

teachers had longer periods of time and a greater number of opportunities to develop and change

their personal beliefs through practical experience and content knowledge from class. This

process may have had an influence in their beliefs and caused them to change and modify their

beliefs from an extreme level to a moderate level. However, junior level preservice teachers may

not have had enough opportunities to fully develop their beliefs about music and DAP as the

senior and graduate students.

Based on an analysis of the relationship between the beliefs, three teachers, one who

showed stronger beliefs about both music and DAP, one who showed weaker beliefs about both

music and DAP, and one who showed incongruent beliefs about music and DAP, were









interviewed. Using the transcription of interviews, domain analyses, results from the

questionnaires, and a concept web drawn by each of the interviewees, an overall taxonomy and

cultural psychological theme that represent the teachers' beliefs created to demonstrate

preservice teacher beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship between the two.

The overarching cultural psychological theme is 'how to best use music along with

developmentally appropriate practice using music as an active developmental tool, as

integration, or as a supplemental activity'. A cultural psychological theme represents a core issue

or dilemma that all participants are commonly faced with and need to solve (Spradley, 1979). In

this study, three teachers had to reflect the degree of the importance of music, significance of

DAP, and how to approach music within DAP. Although the teachers believed that music could

be used in DAP practice in their future classrooms, the core issue addressed was the different

beliefs and perspectives toward how music could be used in DAP. One teacher held strong

beliefs that music could be used in implementing DAP. The other teachers considered music as

secondary to other activities in the classroom. The following section discusses the distinctive

belief patterns of each interview participant. These beliefs will be explained through a reflection

on the taxonomy and cultural psychological theme.

Jen's Story: a Strong Relationship between Music and DAP Beliefs

Jen showed strong beliefs about music and DAP. Her cultural psychological theme was

'music as a developmental tool in DAP'. She was able to define music using a broader

perspective than the other two interviewees. She stated that music could be a fun and enjoyable

activity for children, a means of expression, and a tool of learning. She also discussed essential

aspects of music for young children. As discussed in the literature review chapter, music has

traditionally been considered a way to implement fun activities that children naturally want to

participate in, and a way for children to express their emotions and thoughts (Mueller, 2003;









Tarnowski, 1999; Temmerman, 1998). Furthermore, music is also a learning and developmental

tool that facilitates children's whole development. Jen was able to recognize all three of these

aspects of music.

As seen in her taxonomy and the results, Jen had a strong personal music background,

sufficient music content knowledge, and received a positive influence from family in regards to

music. Jen was the only interviewee with the ability to read musical notation. She was also the

most knowledgeable interviewee in four of the five musical content knowledge areas (i.e.,

rhythm, tempo, melody, beat). Jen had also received music experience and music education

throughout her childhood. She revealed a strong confidence in her ability to implement and

support music development in the classroom than the other interviewees. She emphasized the

ability of music to be a natural part of the early childhood classroom routine.

Jen discussed some of the attitudes about music that she discovered in her practicum

experiences. She stated that many of her cooperating teachers felt that music needs to be taught

by music teachers, not early childhood educators. She also reported that she did not observe

many experiences with music in her practicum. However, she continued to express the necessity

of using music in early childhood classrooms because music is an area that children love. Jen

also believed that early childhood educators should use music activities in their classroom

because music can provide both fun and appropriate activities for young children. It appeared as

though her lack of positive experiences with music in her practicum sites did not have an effect

on her beliefs about music. This suggests that personal background can play an important role in

establishing strong beliefs about music, and that these experiences can overcome professional

experiences.









Jen was knowledgeable about content knowledge in DAP. These content areas are

individual, age, and cultural appropriateness. She explained the principles of DAP using a wide

range of terms and adding examples from her experiences. Jen was also able to identify

important teacher roles in DAP, such as planning, observing and assessing. She experienced

positive and negative DAP in her practicum, and she reflected on what would be

developmentally appropriate for young children based on her own principles and content

knowledge. Also, she considered the creation of an emotionally safe environment important. She

was able to describe diverse features of both DIP and DAP, and showed a strong preference for

DAP.

Jen was also the only interviewee to identify a strong link between music and DAP, and to

understand music as an integral part of DAP. She expressed her beliefs as to why music should

be a part of DAP. However, she did not present diverse examples of music practices that can be

implemented in the early childhood curriculum. This may be due to a lack of opportunities to

observe music activities in her field experience. If Jen had the opportunity to take music related

coursework and field experience, this could help her identify possible music activities to

implement in the classroom, and to extend her understanding of music development in the

classroom.

Tara's Story: an Incongruent Relationship between Weaker Music and Strong DAP Beliefs

Tara showed incongruent beliefs for music and DAP. Her cultural psychological theme

was 'music as an integration tool for core subjects'. She demonstrated more negative beliefs

about music, and more positive beliefs about DAP. This relationship between her beliefs will be

discussed. Tara's DAP belief score was the highest amongst the interview participants; however,

her music belief scores were lower than 25% of all participants.









Tara considered music as addressing a different type of learning style. She also

consistently described music as 'not a core' subject. She stated that core subjects for early

childhood education were literacy and math. Especially, literacy was one of her favorite subjects.

She agreed that 'fun and joyful' music could have a positive influence on young children, but she

believed that music was merely a good supplement for the learning of 'core' subjects. Tara had a

positive musical background through her experience in a band when she was young, but merely

considered music an extra-curricular activity. This assumption may have affected her current

beliefs about music for young children.

Although Tara had formal and informal music education, she was not able to read musical

notation at the time of this study, and she reported that she did not know musical terms. This was

different from Jen. Unlike Jen, Tara did not feel confident in her ability to implement music

activities in the classroom. She stated that she did not feel confident because she is not

knowledgeable about music terms and how to teach music. However, she expressed a higher

level of confidence in her ability to incorporate music with core subjects (i.e., math, literacy).

Tara was able to identify more diverse and critical components about teacher roles in DAP

than the other interviewees. She emphasized the importance of structure, creating agreed upon

rules with children, and interacting with children in the early childhood classroom. Tara also had

four-month part-time teaching experience unlike the other interviewees. Through her part-time

teaching experience, she had an opportunity to change from inappropriate practice to appropriate

practice using her DAP content knowledge from coursework (i.e., ECERS, physical

environment, literacy, etc). That experience had a positive influence on her beliefs about DAP,

because she was able to see a positive change in both children's behavior and the classroom

atmosphere after developmentally appropriate changes had been made. Most of her









developmentally appropriate changes in her part-time teaching experience related to literacy

education. Literacy was her favorite subject and she ranked it as being more important than any

other academic subject. These experiences may have strengthened her beliefs about DAP and

literacy. Tara was also able to provide diverse examples of DAP and DIP pertaining to teacher

roles, various features, and the physical environment.

Tara believed that music is only partially related to DAP. She believed that music is a fun

and enjoyable activity for children, but she admitted that the link between music and DAP exists

in limited ways by focusing on the integration of music into other subjects. She considered music

content knowledge (i.e., tempo, rhythm, etc) as not being related to DAP. This may reflect her

conception of music as an 'extra-curricular activity'. Along with integration, she recognized the

relationship between music and other developmental areas. However, she did not believe music

should be an independent subject in the early childhood curriculum. In her beliefs, there was a

distinctive separation between core subjects (i.e., literacy, math) and non-core subjects (i.e.,

music, art). Therefore, she believed that the possibilities of using and teaching about music are

limited for young children.

Cindy's Story: a Weaker Relationship between Music and DAP Beliefs

Cindy demonstrated a weaker relationship in the areas of music and DAP. Her cultural

psychological theme was 'music as a supplemental activity and backdrop'. She also continued to

demonstrate low levels of music beliefs throughout her interviews. She regarded music as

backdrop, or a supplemental function of the classroom. Cindy felt that music was only useful for

'some' children who have a musical background. Cindy had negative experiences with music in

her childhood. Her mother wanted her to learn hand-bells when she was young. She discovered

that she had difficulty reading musical notation, and she did not like playing an instrument. That

experience gave her a negative attitude toward music. She never learned how to read musical









notation, and she reported that she did not know musical terms. Therefore, she felt unconfident in

musical areas both personally and professionally.

Cindy discussed her lack of opportunities to take music related courses that focused on

how to approach music for young children during her explanation as to why she felt unconfident

in musical areas. Jen did not have the benefit of music courses either. Despite this, Jen continued

to have strong beliefs about music. This suggests that factors of beliefs vary depending on

individuals, and that beliefs pertaining to music could be significantly affected by personal

background or experience.

Also, Cindy felt that her weak confidence in musical areas derived from her lack of

knowledge in how to teach or approach music activities in the classroom. She felt that in the

future, she would only be able to implement a limited number of music activities in the

classroom. Another explanation that Cindy gave about her weak confidence levels in music was

that her coursework focused on literacy, math, science and so forth. Because of the focus on

these subjects, Cindy believed that these subjects were core subjects, unlike music and art.

Cindy, like the other interviewees, had experience with music that was not diverse in her

practicum. Most of the music activities she observed in the classroom were the utilization of

music as a background for nap or transition time, and singing during circle time. She thought that

these uses of music were sufficient for children in early childhood education. This experience

affected the activities that she wants to implement in her future classroom. This implies that

practicum experience can have an important influence in determining a teacher's utilization of a

range of music activities.

To define DAP, Cindy mentioned the importance for children to 'succeed' and for

activities to be 'individualized for each child using scaffolding'. She presented a narrower









definition of DAP and mentioned fewer DAP principles than the other preservice teachers. This

is possibly because she was a junior student and had less opportunities to gain knowledge about

DAP. Regarding features of DAP, she emphasized the importance of 'playing'. When asked

about necessities in the physical environment, she only mentioned that it would be helpful to

have no desks and chairs in a classroom. Compared with the other two interviewees, her

examples and descriptions were limited, vague, and unspecific. When discussing DIP practice,

she only gave one example, which was the use of worksheets placed on the desks. She primarily

described observable aspects of DIP and DAP instead of invisible yet crucial components of

these areas, such as teacher roles and principles. This may be because of her smaller amount of

coursework and practicum experience in relation to the other two interviewees.

Cindy considered music as having a partial relationship with DAP, and primarily being in

the background (such as being played during nap or transition time). She had the narrowest

descriptions of music used in DAP amongst the three interviewees. Out of various functions of

music, she only recognized the refreshing or relaxing functions. Tara also considered music

plays a partial role in DAP; Tara emphasized active use as integration to facilitate learning for

core subjects. However, Cindy only focused on background function. She described weak link

between music and DAP because Cindy primarily thought music was a supplemental subject.

Implications for Teacher Education

The findings of this study suggest that early childhood preservice teachers possess strong

beliefs about music. Confidence levels on preservice teachers' ability to implement and support

music development in the classroom varied. Most preservice teachers believed that music

teachers had a more important role in the facilitation of music development than early childhood

teachers. The participants believed that literacy is the most important subject in early childhood

education, compared to music which was ranked the fourth most important subject. Teachers









who demonstrated higher confidence levels and were able to read musical notation demonstrate

stronger music beliefs. Also, the preservice teachers in this study believed that DAP is very

important. Beliefs about the importance of DAP varied depending on academic status. In

addition, a relationship was found between field experiences and DAP beliefs. Furthermore,

there was a significant relationship between beliefs about music and beliefs about DAP. These

findings indicate several implications.

First, level of confidence and music content knowledge has been found to be a key factor

in beliefs about music. The preservice teachers who had greater confidence levels demonstrated

stronger beliefs about music. Through the interviews, it was found that low levels of confidence

in musical areas derived from a lack of music content knowledge and practical knowledge about

how to implement musical activities in the classroom. The main sources of music content

knowledge came from personal music background instead of teacher education. This could be

because the music course was a graduate level course. None of the interviewees had taken this

graduate level course. If these teachers had more opportunities to take courses that facilitate their

music subject knowledge and how to implement music activities in early childhood education,

they may have been able to better recognize the importance of music.

A relationship was also found between knowledge, beliefs, confidence, and

implementation of music activities (Figure 5-1). Beliefs were described using a more evaluative

aspect than knowledge, which was described using facts and theories (Pajares, 1992). In this

study, the results of the interviews showed that low confidence levels derived from a lack of

content knowledge, and this can lead to lower levels of music beliefs. Research reported that

early childhood educators felt that music was a special subject that required professional training

(I'Etoile, 2001). Providing basic music content knowledge with information on how to









implement appropriate activities may enhance teachers' confidence and comfort levels in the

area of music. Also, this education may lead to stronger beliefs about music. Using workshops or

demonstrations of appropriate music activities could expand teachers' beliefs about how to use

music in the classroom.

Second, this study provides support for the importance of field experiences in developing

preservice teachers' beliefs. The results of the interviews highlighted a limited use of music

practices in the participants' practicum experiences. Although the preservice teachers held

positive beliefs about music, many of the experiences they encountered at their practicum sites

were not diverse and did not demonstrate sufficient music practice for the early childhood

curriculum. Discussions with the preservice teachers are important to help them reflect on

importance of music through supervision regarding the current educational problems of

academic pressure and test focused curriculums. It is important to make music an integral part of

teacher training to overcome possible influences of personal experiences with music and to teach

preservice teachers how to implement music activities in the classroom.

Third, the findings of this study highlight the importance of teacher education in music and

DAP beliefs. The teacher education program influences beliefs of preservice teachers (File &

Gullo, 2002; Smith, 1997). Particularly related to music beliefs, the majority of the participants

had not taken music courses specified for early childhood educators in the teacher education

program. Because the creativity class that addresses music is only given at the graduate level,

preservice teachers at the undergraduate level might not have enough opportunities to learn about

music. Preservice teachers also should be aware of the importance of music because of the role

music can play for child development. Therefore, preservice teachers should learn how to teach

about music using diverse music activities and how to integrate music in other courses, such as









math, literacy, science, or special education. To meet more of a music focus in early childhood

education curriculums, coursework should help early childhood preservice teachers creatively

develop ideas for music integration, implementation, and provide them with content/practical

knowledge about music. Music coursework that includes information about the diverse

implications music can have in child development may help increase preservice teachers'

confidence levels with music, and thus increase the implementation of music activities for future

classroom.

Fourth, the findings demonstrated that early childhood preservice teachers possess strong

beliefs about DAP. The results, however, revealed an imbalance between pedagogical knowledge

and subject knowledge among preservice teachers. Through the interviews, the teachers who

held stronger beliefs about DAP demonstrated knowledge about key principles of DAP and were

able to provide rich examples of both DAP and DIP. They were able to reflect on their practicum

work and able to offer constructive criticism about the DAP in these schools. They noticed that

teachers play a key role in the implementation of DAP. However, their descriptions of DAP and

criticisms of DIP were primarily focused on 'how to teach', not 'what to teach'. The discrepancy

between DAP and teaching content has been proposed in terms of how to implement DAP on

teaching subjects and learning standards (Da Ros-Voseles, Danyi, & Aurillo, 2003; Goldstein,

2007). Although some teachers strongly supported DAP, they might have faced with difficulties

in teaching specific subjects in developmentally appropriate ways because their beliefs about

DAP were focused on how to teach rather than what to teach.

The interviewees in this study described DIP by describing the utilization of too many

worksheets, desk and chair settings, and an insufficient number of learning centers and free

choice activities. The descriptions were not aimed at subjects and content. All of the participants









believed that literacy and math were the most important subjects. This implies an imbalance in

the perception of subject importance. All of the teachers agreed that music and other creative

subjects were important. However, when the teachers discussed the implementation of subjects,

they stated that core subjects need to be taught before other non-core subjects are addressed. It

appeared as though the preservice teachers were knowledgeable in pedagogical aspects of DAP,

but they revealed disagreements and differences in their understandings of various subjects

necessary for a developmentally appropriate classroom. For example, the participants did not

have sufficient music content knowledge and did not have ideas about how music could be

approached in DAP, although they all acknowledged the importance of music.

Implications for Future Research

The results of this study highlight a number of possible research extensions. First, this

study was implemented only with preservice teachers, and similar research could be done to

assess inservice teacher beliefs about music. Research supports the idea that beliefs are affected

by teaching experiences, because inservice teachers encounter different situations than preservice

teachers may expect when entering a classroom (Smith, 1997). Therefore, inservice teacher

beliefs about music may be different than preservice teacher beliefs because of their greater

exposure to practical teaching experience. There are several possible questions to ask for this

research extension. What do inservice teachers believe about music? What do inservice teachers

believe about their ability to implement and support music for young children? What do

inservice teachers know about music content knowledge?

Second, it is important to examine the relationship between music beliefs and music

practice in early childhood classrooms. A number of studies investigated the relationship

between beliefs about DAP and actual teaching practices. Most of the results of these studies

showed congruent relationships between beliefs and practices. However, there have not been









many investigations on the relationship between beliefs about specific domains of DAP and

practice. Beliefs about DAP may also influence developmentally appropriate music practice.

There are many possible research questions for this topic area. Are there positive or negative

relationships between music beliefs and practice? What components may influence this

relationship? What are the practices of early childhood teachers who have strong beliefs about

music or who have weak beliefs about music? Do beliefs about DAP affect music practice?

Third, along with studies of the relationship between teacher beliefs and practice, music

practice and the components that affect music practice needs to be studied. It is important to

understand how teachers approach music in the classroom and what types of music activities

they use for young children. In order to facilitate and encourage the more frequent use of music

in the classroom, music practices of teachers needs to be shared. There are several questions that

can be asked in this area. What do early childhood teachers use to implement music activities in

the classroom, and what do they teach students about music? How do early childhood teachers

integrate music into other subject areas? What are the factors that determine music planning and

implementation?

Fourth, teacher beliefs, including beliefs about music and DAP, develop and change

through experiences and learning. Specifically, once the teachers enter the teaching practice as

novice teachers, they may encounter different beliefs, conflicts with their own beliefs, or

difficulties implementing certain practices. As reported in this study, music is primarily

considered a non-core subject. Although preservice teachers possess strong beliefs about music,

they may have conflicts between their understanding of the importance implementing music

activities and the pressure of academic achievement. How do early childhood teacher beliefs









about music change as time progresses? How might this change in beliefs occur? What are the

factor that influence this change?

Fifth, research on teacher beliefs in early childhood education needs to be extended to

address diverse domain areas and the relationships between specific domains. Many belief

studies in early childhood education have been implemented with a focus on development. As

demonstrated in this study, there is a dynamic relationship between beliefs about music and DAP.

Examining domain specific beliefs may offer a better understanding of teachers' belief systems.

For example, what are the relationships in beliefs about different academic subjects? What is the

subjects' relation to each other? What is the relationship between the subjects and

developmentally appropriate practice?

Limitations of the Study

There are limitations to this study. First, this study was conducted with a small group of

preservice teachers at a university located in the northern region of Florida in the United States.

Most of the participants were Caucasian, middle class females. Generalization of the results of

this study is limited in terms of race, gender, socioeconomic status, teaching context, and early

childhood teacher education programs.

Another limitation is related to instruments. It is debatable how to measure beliefs about

DAP supporting construct validity and reliability of DAP (Horn & Ramey, 2004). Since the

statements in the Teachers Beliefs Scale were partially drawn from DAP guidelines, the extent

and range of the DAP construct might be limited in the measurement. Confusion regarding

definitions of beliefs may also affect participants' responses. This is related to the poor and

unspecific measurements of beliefs (Wilcox-Herzog, 2002; Vartuli, 2005). The TBS asks

respondents to rate the importance of specific practice examples. However, the DAP construct

refers to the extent that age, individual and cultural appropriateness are reflected. To address this









weakness, in this study the follow-up interviews on beliefs about DAP were implemented;

however, only three teachers who showed different types of beliefs in relationship between

music and DAP were selected for interviews among the participants. Therefore, the description

of beliefs about DAP is limited in generalization of the outcomes.

The Music Beliefs Questionnaire was developed in the music teacher education research.

Although validity and reliability have been proven strong and valid, the contents and

explanations of the questionnaire were more related to general music education rather than

specified music implementation in early childhood education. Although the researcher

emphasized that music education in the questionnaire means music implementation for young

children in early childhood classrooms, when the participants completed the questionnaire, their

perceived understanding of music education may have affected their interpretation the statements

in the questionnaire

Then, the researcher had previous professional experience with two of the interviewees. In

2006, the researcher was a practicum supervisor for the two interviewees. During the supervision,

there were weekly meetings, two lesson observations, and evaluations. Therefore, the researcher

had a previously influential relationship with the interviewees, and possibly had influence on

their beliefs of classroom issues. This relationship could have affected the interview process and

the participant interactions with the researcher. This may, however, have also been a strength.

Because of a previously established relationship with rapport, the interviews were implemented

in a positive atmosphere. However, the participants may have been preoccupied with thoughts

about the previous relationship, and this could have limited the interactions between the

interviewees and the research, or affected their reflections during the conversation.









The researcher's personal beliefs and biases cannot be separated from the data. These

perspectives have been influenced by experience as a former preschool/kindergarten classroom

teacher, college instructor teaching music, a music enthusiast who plays piano, a doctoral student,

and a researcher in the area of early childhood education. Based on the researcher's personal

background, the researcher held strong beliefs that music should be a part of early childhood

education curriculum. The researcher also strongly supports the idea that music is a tool for child

development and that music should be actively integrated into other subjects in terms of DAP.

Therefore, the researcher believes music could not be separated from DAP. These strong beliefs

of the researcher about the importance of music may have had an effect on the interview

atmosphere, and she may have provided non-verbal cues during interviews.

Additionally, the researcher's ethnic and racial identity as an international, Asian, middle-

class female may have influenced the interpretation, description, and analysis of the beliefs and

dynamics related to the preservice teachers' responses in the interviews. For example, the

researcher's interpretations of DAP may be different from American teachers' interpretations of

DAP because DAP can be interpreted differently depending on cultures. Also, the researcher

received a different elementary and secondary music curriculum in South Korea compared to the

elementary and secondary music curriculum that the participants had received in the United

States. This culturally different perspective may have had an effect on the interpretation of data.






















Figure 5-1. The relationship among knowledge, beliefs, confidence, and implementation of
music.









APPENDIX A
LETTERS OF CONSENT FORM



Hae Kyoung Kim Phone: 352-392-9191 ext. 241
School of Teaching and Learning Email: haekyoung@gmail.com
PO Box 117048, University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Informed Consent Form

Dear early childhood preservice teacher,

I am Hae Kyoung Kim, a doctoral candidate in the School of Teaching and Learning at the
University of Florida. As part of my dissertation conducting research, I am conducting
interviews to examine teachers' beliefs about music, developmentally appropriate practice
(DAP) and the relationship between music and DAP under the supervision of Dr. Kemple. The
purpose of this study is to investigate how early childhood preservice teachers understand and
perceive music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP.

You will be asked to participate in two interviews lasting no longer than one hour at each time.
The interviews will take place during the month of February in the Norman Hall at the
University of Florida. With your permission, your interview will be audio taped during the
interviews. You will not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer. The audio will
be accessible only to the researcher for the research purposes, which I will personally transcribe,
removing any identifiers during transcription. Your identity will be kept confidential to the
extent provided by law and your identity will not be revealed in the final manuscript.

You have the right to withdraw consent for participation at any time without consequence. There
are no known risks or immediate benefits to the participants. There are no penalties for
nonparticipation and $20 will be offered for participation. The results of this study will be
available in May upon request. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please
contact me at (352)392-9191 ext.241, haekyoung@gmail.com or my dissertation advisor, Dr.
Kemple, at (352) 392-9191 ext.250, kkemple@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about your
rights as a research participant may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box
112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433. A second copy is provided for your records. By
signing this letter, you give me permission to report your responses anonymously in the final
manuscript to be submitted to University of Florida as part of dissertation.
Sincerely,
Hae Kyoung Kim

I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in Hae Kyoung
Kim's study. I have received a copy of this description.


Signature of participant Date









Hae Kyoung Kim Phone: 352-392-9191 ext. 241
School of Teaching and Learning Email: haekyoung@gmail.com
PO Box 117048, University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Informed Consent Form


Dear early childhood preservice teacher,

I am Hae Kyoung Kim, a doctoral candidate in the School of Teaching and Learning at the
University of Florida. As part of my dissertation, I am conducting a study of teachers' beliefs
about music, developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) and the relationship between music
and DAP under the supervision of Dr. Kemple. The purpose of this study is to investigate early
childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about music and DAP.

You will be asked to complete Music Belief Questionnaire and Teacher Belief Scale lasting no
longer than forty minutes. Completion of questionnaires will take place during the month of late
January at the classroom in Norman Hall. The surveys that you will complete will be accessible
only to the researcher for the research purposes, which I will personally analyze, removing any
identifiers during coding data. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by
law and your identity will not be revealed in the final manuscript.

There are no anticipated risks, compensation or other direct benefits to you as a participant in
this interview. There are no penalties for nonparticipation. You are free to withdraw your consent
to participate and may discontinue your participation in the interview at any time without
consequence. The results of this study will be available in May upon request. If you have any
questions about this research protocol, please contact me at (352)392-9191 ext.241,
haekyoung@gmail.com or my dissertation advisor, Dr. Kemple, at (352) 392-9191 ext.250,
kkemple@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be
directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352)
392-0433. A second copy is provided for your records. By signing this letter, you give me
permission to report your responses anonymously in the final manuscript to be submitted to
University of Florida as part of dissertation.

Sincerely

Hae Kyoung Kim

I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in Haekyoung Kim's
study. I have received a copy of this description.


Signature of participant Date









APPENDIX B
TEACHER INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE


All information will remain completely anonymous and will be used for research only.

Gender Female Male

Age

Ethnicity
Caucasian __ African-American __ Hispanic
Asian__ Other

Your current status or class standing is
Junior Senior Other

Field Experience
Have you had field experience (i.e. pre-internship, practicum)?
YES NO
How many placements have you had?
How long have these placements lasted? __ Months total __

Teaching Experience
Full time teaching year month (preschool kindergarten daycare )
Part time teaching year month (preschool kindergarten daycare )
Babysitting year month
Other



Your Name Email Address










APPENDIX C
MUSIC BASIC QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Have you had formal or informal music education before? Yes __ No
What kinds of music education have you had (i.e. instruments, singing, dance, marching band,
etc)?


2. How confident do you feel about the ability to implement music activities (singing songs,
dance, movement, etc)? Mark an 'X' in the appropriate box below.


Not Somewhat Moderately
confident confident confident


Very
confident


Extremely
confident


3. How confident do you feel about the ability to support children's musical development? Mark
an 'X' in the appropriate box below.


Somewhat Moderately
confident confident


Very Extremely
confident confident


4-1. How important do you think about the role of early childhood regular classroom teachers to
support music development of young children? Mark an 'X' in the appropriate box below.


Somewhat Moderately
important important


Very Extremely
important important


4-2. How important do you think about the role of music teachers to support music development
of young children? Mark an 'X' in the appropriate box below.


Not
important


Somewhat Moderately
important important


Very
important


Extremely
important


5. Can you read musical notation? Yes No __


6. Explain the meaning of 'using music'




7. Explain the meaning of 'teaching music'


Not
confident


Not
important










8. Briefly define the following musical terms.
Tempo
Beat
Melody
Rhythm
Articulation


9. Please consider the following six subject areas and indicate their importance using the chart
below. Place ONLY one subject in each blank space. Be sure to fill every blank!

Math, Art, Music, Science, Literacy, and PE
Importance Subjects
1
(Most important subject for children's
development in early childhood education)

2


3


4


5

6
(Least important)









APPENDIX D
INSTRUMENT INFORMATION

1. The Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) can be obtained by request through one of its authors.

Rosalind Charlesworth, Ph.D.
Professor
Department Chair
Child and Family Studies
Weber State University
Ogden, Utah 84408
Phone: 801-626-7386
Email: rcharleswort@weber.edu

Craig H. Hart, Ph.D.
Professor
Department: School of Family Life
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602
Phone: 801-422-5939
Email: CraigHart@byu.edu

2. The Music Belief questionnaire can be obtained by request through its author.

James R. Austin, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Music
Music Education Chair
Associate Dean for Undergraduate Studies
College of Music, 301 UCB
University of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309-0301
Phone: 303-492-1782; 303-492-6353
Fax: 303-492-5619
Email: James.Austina(colorado.edu









APPENDIX E
INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

DAP
1) How would you define DAP?
2) If a teacher wants to provide developmentally appropriate practice for young children, wh
at are important things that she/he should keep in mind?
Are there general principles the teacher should keep in mind?
3) What would you see in a developmentally appropriate early childhood classroom?
What are children doing?
What is the teacher doing?
Would you describe the physical environment?
4) What would you see in a developmentally inappropriate early childhood classroom?
What are children doing?
What is the teacher doing?
Would you describe the physical environment?
5) Have you been in a developmentally appropriate early childhood classroom?
How you know it was a developmentally appropriate practice?
(If a participant says no,) What changes would need to be made to make it more
developmentally appropriate practice?

Music
1) What is the role of music in early childhood education?
2) In your survey, you ranked music as the ------ most important subject for young childr
en. Tell me more about why you ranked music this way in the survey.
3) Are there particular events or people that have affected your attitude toward music and k
knowledge of music? Please explain.
4) Do you think you are confident and comfortable in using music and teaching about music
? Why or Why not?
5) Think about your future classroom. If you are a kindergarten teacher, how would you pla
n for and implement music in your curriculum?

Relationship between Music and DAP
1) Is there a relationship between music and DAP? Can you explain more about the relation
ship between them?
2) Think of DAP as a circle, think of music as a circle, show me how the DAP circle and th
e music circle relate to each other?
3) How would you see music used in a developmentally appropriate practice?
4) How is music related to children's other developmental areas? (e.g. cognitive, social, em
otional, or physical)









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Weinstein, C. S. (1998). "I want to be nice, but I have to be mean": Exploring prospective
teachers' conceptions of caring and order. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14, 153-164.

Wilcox-Herzog, A. (2000). Music, brain research, and better behavior. The Education Digest,
65(6), 10-15.

Wilcox-Herzog, A. (2002). Is there a link between teachers' beliefs and behaviors? Early
Education and Development, 13(1), 81- 106.

Williams, L. R. (1996). Does practice lead to theory? Teachers' constructs about teaching:
Bottom-up perspectives. Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 8, 153-184.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Hae Kyoung Kim was born in Seoul, South Korea. She graduated from Ewha Women's

University with a bachelor degree in early childhood education. She was a preschool and

kindergarten teacher for five years. She returned to the graduate school at Ewha Women's

University and she received her master's degree in early childhood education.

After completing master degree, she worked as a professor at the Education and Training

Center of the Korean Association for the Fostering and Education of the New Generation. Also

she was an instructor at colleges in South Korea. She began her doctoral program at University

of Florida in 2003. She worked as a research assistant and a teaching assistant. She was also an

instructor of creativity in early childhood curriculum course in spring 2007. She is going to be an

assistant professor at University of Texas at Brownsville in August 2007.





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EARLY CHILDHOOD PRESERVICE TEACH ERS BELIEFS ABOUT MUSIC, DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE, AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MUSIC AN D DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE By HAE KYOUNG KIM A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Hae Kyoung Kim

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3 To my Parents, Sungkyu, and Kwangkyu for their unconditional love and support.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank all of my committee members for th eir support, understanding, and advice. I would like to especia lly thank my chair, Dr. Kriste n Kemple, for being a wonderful supporter, mentor, listener and advisor. I would not have completed my doctoral journey without her. I also would like to thank Dr. Elizabeth Bondy who supported me with insightful guide to broaden my perspectives. Sincere thanks go to Dr. Jane Townsend for her commitment, passion and encouragement. I would like to thank Dr. Ti mothy Brophy for providing me with useful help and guidance in the field of music education. Special and endless thanks go to my pare nts who have always trusted, loved, and supported me in every step of my life. I thank my two brothers, Sungkyu and Kwangkyu, for being a source of support, encouragement and go od humor. I also thank my friends Stacy, Caitie, Yiyeon, Sora, Sungok, and Jiyoung. They made the journey enjoyable and meaningful.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .......10LIST OF TERMS.................................................................................................................. .........11ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................14Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .14Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....17Limitations of the Study....................................................................................................... ..17Significance of the Study...................................................................................................... ..182 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.................................................................................................21The Importance of Music for Young Children.......................................................................21Developmentally Approp riate Practice (DAP).......................................................................24Early Childhood Teacher Beliefs............................................................................................26Definition of Belief Construct.........................................................................................26Self Efficacy.................................................................................................................. ..28Preservice Teacher Beliefs..............................................................................................30Subjects of Beliefs: Domain-Specific Beliefs.................................................................32Beliefs about Music, DAP, and th e Relationship between the Two.......................................33Beliefs about Music.........................................................................................................34Beliefs about DAP...........................................................................................................36Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP................................................39Summary........................................................................................................................ .........413 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................44Data Collection Procedure......................................................................................................44Participants................................................................................................................... ...44Sampling Procedure.........................................................................................................45Questionnaires.................................................................................................................45Follow-up Individual Interviews.....................................................................................46Instrumentation................................................................................................................ .......47Teacher Information Questionnaire.................................................................................47Music Basic Questionnaire..............................................................................................47

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6 Music Belief Questionnaire.............................................................................................48Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS)...........................................................................................49Follow-up Individual Interviews.....................................................................................51Concept Web...................................................................................................................53Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........544 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......59Demographic Descriptive Information...................................................................................59Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about Music..................................................60Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about DAP.....................................................67Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs a bout the Relationship between Music and DAP............................................................................................................................ .........69Taxonomy....................................................................................................................... .72Teachers Beliefs about Music........................................................................................73The Meanings and Roles of Music for Young Children..........................................73Personal Background................................................................................................74Professional Experiences..........................................................................................76Teacher Education....................................................................................................77Confidence in Implementing and Supporting Music...............................................79Teachers Beliefs about DAP..........................................................................................81Meaning of DAP......................................................................................................82Principles to Implement DAP..................................................................................83Characteristics of DAP.............................................................................................84Characteristics of Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP)...........................86Teachers Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP...............................90Music as a Developmental Tool of DAP Music is Part of DAP...........................90Music as a Supplemental Activit y Partially Related to DAP...................................91Summary........................................................................................................................ .........945 DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................... ..110Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about Music................................................110Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about DAP..................................................115Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Belief s about the Relationship between Music and DAP........................................................................................................................ ....117Jens Story: a Strong Relationship between Music and DAP Beliefs...........................119Taras Story: an Incongruent Relations hip between Weaker Music and Strong DAP Beliefs........................................................................................................................121Cindys Story: a Weaker Relationshi p between Music and DAP Beliefs.....................123Implications for Teacher Education......................................................................................125Implications for Future Research..........................................................................................129Limitations of the Study.......................................................................................................131 APPENDIX A LETTERS OF CONSENT FORM.......................................................................................135

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7 B TEACHER INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE..............................................................137C MUSIC BASIC QUESTIONNAIRE....................................................................................138D INSTRUMENT INFORMATION........................................................................................140E INTERVIEW QUESTIONS.................................................................................................141LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................142BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................149

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Demographic and descriptive data.....................................................................................974-2 Coursework list of the participants....................................................................................984-3 Mean scores for th e benefits of music...............................................................................994-4 The rank of six subjects................................................................................................... ..994-5 One-way ANOVA for music belief s depending on academic status.................................994-6 Correlations between beliefs a bout music and field experiences......................................994-7 Correlations between beliefs about music and teaching experiences..............................1004-8 One-way ANOVA for Music depending on confidence about the ability to implement music activities..............................................................................................1004-9 Post-hoc comparison tests for confiden ce about the ability to implement music activities..................................................................................................................... ......1004-10 One-way ANOVA for Music depending on co nfidence about the ability to support music development..........................................................................................................1014-11 Post-hoc comparison tests for confid ence about the ability to support music development.................................................................................................................... .1014-12 One-way ANOVA for music depending on ability to read musical notation..................1014-13 Post-hoc comparison tests for ability to read musical notation in music beliefs.............1024-14 One-way ANOVA for music depending on c onfidence about the ability to implement music activities............................................................................................................... ..1024-15 Mean scores for DAP and DIP.........................................................................................1024-16 One-way ANOVA for DAP and DIP depending on academic status.............................1024-17 Post-hoc comparison tests for academic status in DAP beliefs.......................................1034-18 Correlations between beliefs about DAP/DIP and field experiences..............................1034-19 Correlations between beliefs about DAP/DIP and teaching experiences........................1034-20 Correlations for DAP and music......................................................................................104

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9 4-21 Frequency of stronger, weaker and incongruent relationships.......................................1044-22 Basic information of th e interview participants...............................................................1054-23 Coursework of the interview participants........................................................................1064-24 Comparison of DAP principles........................................................................................1064-25 Comparison of teachers roles in DAP............................................................................1064-26 Comparison of developmentally a ppropriate physical environment...............................106

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Hypothetical framework of present study..........................................................................204-1 Rank of music.............................................................................................................. ....1074-2 Confidence about ability to implement music activities and support musical development.................................................................................................................... .1074-3 Comparison of early childhood teachers roles and music teachers roles......................1084-4 In-depth patterns of relations hip between music and DAP beliefs..................................1084-5 The representative taxonomy of the ear ly childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music, DAP and the relationship between music and DAP...................................1094-6 Jens beliefs about the rela tionship between music and DAP.........................................1094-7 Tara and Cindys beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP......................1095-1 The relationship among knowledge, beliefs, confidence, and implementation of music.......................................................................................................................... ......134

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11 LIST OF TERMS Teachers Beliefs Evaluation or values that teachers regard as valid, that influence teachers behavior and decisions, and that are formed through teachers experiences, training, and educational contexts. DAP (Developmentally Appropriat e Practice) A wide range of statements outlining inappropriate/appropriate practices for children ages 0-8. DAP includes three dimensions: age appropriateness, individual a ppropriateness, and cultural appropriateness. It was origina lly published in 1986, and then revised in 1997, by the National As sociation for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Self-efficacy Teachers beliefs about thei r own teaching ability to facilitate students engagement and achieveme nt particularly when working with difficult or challenging st udents who seem uninterested or unmotivated to learn. Teaching about music The instruction of musi cal activities related solely to musical content goals (i.e., teaching a new song, dancing). Using music The implementation of music in diverse contexts that are unrelated to musical goals (i.e., singi ng the alphabet song, playing background music during nap time).

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12 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EARLY CHILDHOOD PRESERVICE TEACH ERS BELIEFS ABOUT MUSIC, DEVELOPMNETALLY APPROPRIATE PR ACTICE, AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MSUIC AND DEVELOPMEN TALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE By Hae Kyoung Kim August 2007 Chair: Dr. Kristen Kemple Major: Curriculum and Instruction The purpose of the study was to examine early childhood preservice te achers beliefs about music, developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and the relationship between music and DAP. A total of sixty-five early childhood preser vice teachers participated in this study. The Music Beliefs Questionnaire, the Teacher Beliefs Scale, the teach er information questionnaire, and the music basic questionnaire were used to measure the teachers beliefs about music and DAP. Follow-up interviews were implemented with three participants demonstrating stronger, incongruent, and weaker relati onships between music and DAP. This study found that preservice teachers ha ve relatively strong beliefs about the importance of music, including th e aesthetic, quality-of-life, a nd social-emotional benefits of music. The participants believed literacy is the most important subject in early childhood, while music was ranked fourth in importance. Teacher s level of confidence in their ability to implement music activities and support musical development varied. Most preservice teachers believed music teachers role is more importa nt than early childhood teachers in supporting music development. There was a significant diff erence in music beliefs depending on teachers confidence level. Higher levels of confidence indi cated stronger beliefs a bout the importance of music. Depending on teachers ability to read mu sic notation, a significa nt difference was found.

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13 The teachers who were able to slightly read mu sical notation demonstrated more positive beliefs about the importance of music than the teachers who were not able to read musical notation. This study suggests that early childhood preservice teachers possess relatively strong beliefs about the importance of us ing practices that ha ve been identified as developmentally appropriate. This study also found th at it is important to avoid t hose practices that have been identified as developmentally inappropriate for young children. Ther e was a statistically significant difference between DAP and DIP be liefs based upon academic status. Preservice teachers who were further along in the teacher training program demonstrated stronger DAP beliefs and lower DIP beliefs than preservice te achers who had just begun the teacher training program. A statistically signi ficant relationship between DAP and field experiences was identified. Teachers who experienced more fi eld placements reported stronger beliefs about DAP. Lastly, this study found a relationship between beliefs about music and DAP. This implies that a preservice teacher who possess positiv e beliefs about the importance of music demonstrates stronger beliefs about the importan ce of DAP. Three intervie wees reporting various levels (e.g., stronger, incongruent and weaker) of relationship between music and DAP reported different beliefs. Personal background, confiden ce level, teacher education, and professional experience influenced teachers beliefs about mu sic at different levels. The preservice teachers demonstrated diverse features of appropriate practice and inappropriate practice, including definitions, the general principles to implement DAP, and experiences related to DAP. The interview participants generally agreed that music is somewhat related to DAP; however, the teacher who possessed the stronger music beliefs thought that music should be part of DAP. The other teachers reported beliefs that music coul d be used in limited ways used within DAP.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem In early childhood education, music is a primary re source. It is a benefi cial and appropriate activity that encourages childrens development acr oss cultures and histories. It is difficult to imagine a young childrens classroo m without music. A number of studies report that children innately enjoy music and na turally express thei r emotions through music (Fox, 2000; Gruhn, 2002; Snyder, 1997). Music also facilitates co mmunication skills, provides opportunities for social interaction, stimulates cognitive development, and prov ides background for cultural development (Custodero, 2002a, 2002b; Custodero, 2003a; Eisner, 2001; Mueller, 2003). Music is not only an interesting subject to which child ren are naturally drawn, it is also an important tool that enhances all ar eas of child development. In spite of general agreement regarding the importance of music in early childhood education, music has recently been deemphasized in early childhood education due to the increased emphasis on academic achievement that is influenced by social and political pressures (Hill, 2003; Raver & Zigler, 2004). However, given th e variety of important functions that music provides for young children, music should be implem ented in early childho od education. In such a challenging educational climate that is influenc ed by political and social pressures, teachers beliefs about music have an even more critical impact on the implementation of music in the classroom because teachers beli efs play a primary role in educational practices. Teachers beliefs impact their classroom practices because their beliefs are closely related to the decisionmaking process, teaching implementations, and da ily interactions with children (File, 1994; Kowalski, Pretti-Fronczak, & Johnson, 2001; McMu llen, 1997; Pajares, 1992; Piotrkowski, Botsko, & Matthews, 2000; Stipek & Byler, 1997; Vartuli, 1999). To illustrate, if teachers hold

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15 positive beliefs about music, those beliefs ma y influence their decision making, planning, and implementation of music into their curriculum. Th erefore, an examination of teachers beliefs regarding music is important. Music functions as a developmental tool, and as such is involved with several areas of child development. Therefore, teachers' beliefs about music should not be separated from their beliefs regarding development as a whole. De velopmentally appropriate practice (DAP) is the umbrella concept that includes diverse subjec t areas and whole child development. Figure 1 explains the hypothetical conceptual framework of how teachers beliefs about music and DAP are related, and how the beliefs about music and DAP are connected to implementation of music in the classroom. This study focuses on beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP. The relationship may vary depending on teachers beliefs. Some teachers may hold beliefs that music is part of DAP as shown figure 1; othe rs may view music as separate from DAP. Teachers hold beliefs about diverse domains that range from abstract to specific concepts. In order to understand teachers belief system and the relationsh ip among specific domains at a deeper level, research on the relationship betw een beliefs in multiple domains (i.e., music and DAP) is necessary. Beliefs about DA P may provide details that are pertinent or incompatible to planning and implementing music in the curriculum. DAP is a key concept in early childhood education and many research investigations on beliefs about DAP and the relationship between DAP beliefs and teaching practices have been carried out. DAP was first published in 1986, and then revised in 1997 by the National Association for the Educati on of Young Children (NAEYC). The NAEYC influences early childhood educational curricula and practices worldwide (Bredekamp, 1987; Bredekamp & Copple 1997). DAP statements include appropriate practices for children ages 0-8, and provides

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16 examples that emphasize age appropriatene ss, individual appropria teness, and cultural appropriateness. Early childhood educators hold the DAP guidelines in high regard. However, the belief studies regarding DAP reveal disa greement about what DAP is (Bredekamp, 1997; Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Smith, 1997; Swadener & Kessler, 1991). This is due, in part, to the fact that DAP is a broad, overarching concept that pertains to diverse developmental areas (Wilcox-Herzog, 2000). Furthermore, DAP may be interpreted in various ways. Therefore, research that examines different beliefs a bout the definitions of DAP among early childhood educators is required to encourage unders tanding among educators and researchers. Among the belief studies that have been c onducted, there has been more research on inservice teachers beliefs than on preservice teache rs beliefs. This may be due to the fact that many studies about teachers beliefs focus on the relationship between beliefs and teaching practices. The preservice educational stage, howev er, is a critical period in which new teachers begin to develop and elaborate upon their own beliefs (Tschannen-Moran, Woolfok Hoy, & Hoy, 1998; Weinstein, 1998). Teacher education is one of the most important factors in becoming a professional educator and profoundly influences t eachers beliefs and teaching practices (Smith, 1997; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Preservi ce teachers beliefs are constructed through teacher education programs and through personal a nd professional experiences (i.e., practicum, internship). Once beliefs are sh aped, it is difficult to change them (Smith, 1997; TschannenMoran et al., 1998). Therefore, an examination of preservice teachers be liefs throughout a range of professional stages is needed to determine the factors that influence beliefs regarding music and DAP. The purpose of the study is to examine ear ly childhood preservice teachers beliefs regarding the importance of musi c for young children, to investigat e the teachers beliefs about

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17 the importance of DAP based on teac hers own description of what DAP is and what features of DAP are, and to explore the beliefs about dyna mic relationship between music and DAP with early childhood preservice teachers to include a variety of professiona l stages. Reflecting upon the needs discussed, the present study will expl ore early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music, early childhood preservice teac hers beliefs about DAP and early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP. Research Questions 1. What are the beliefs of early childhood preser vice teachers about music (the benefits of music, the importance of music, confidence in their ability to implem ent music activities and support music development, and the importan ce of teachers role s regarding music)? 2. What is the relationship betw een early childhood preservice te achers beliefs about music and teachers individual characteristics (aca demic status, field experiences, teaching experiences, ability to read musi cal notation, and music education)? 3. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about developmentally appropriate teaching practice (DAP)? What is the relationship between early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about DAP and their individual char acteristics (academic status, field experiences and teaching experiences)? 4. What are the beliefs of early childhood preser vice teachers about the relationship between music and DAP? 5. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservi ce teachers who demonstrated various levels of beliefs (stronger, incongruent, and weak er) about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP? Limitations of the Study Limitations to this study invol ve the level of teaching experi ence, sample of participants, and the researchers knowledge of the partic ipants. The study was conducted with preservice teachers at universities located in the south eastern United States. Most participants are Caucasian middle class females. Generalization of the results of this study will be limited in terms of teaching context, race, gender, and socioeconomic status.

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18 The researcher had previous professional experi ence with two interviewees (i.e., served as their practicum supervisor). The participants perceptions of the researcher as a former supervisor may have influenced their interactions with the researcher. This may have limited the participants responses during the interview. The researchers personal beliefs and biases cannot be separated from the data. These perspectives include those as a former preschoo l/kindergarten classroom teacher, former college instructor teaching music in early childhood edu cation, a music enthusia st, a doctoral student, and researcher of early childhood education. Add itionally, the researchers ethnic and racial identity as an international, Asian, middle-cl ass female may influence the interpretation, description, and analysis of the beliefs and dynamics relate d to the preservi ce teachers thoughts during the interviews. Significance of the Study Teacher educators may benefit from this st udy in designing a music curriculum for early childhood teacher education and integrating music into other c ourses because this study provides new and useful information on early childhood pres ervice teachers beliefs about music and the components that influence those music beliefs. The current study addre sses a description of preservice teachers beliefs about music for young ch ildren; the various areas of teachers beliefs studied are the benefits of music, the importa nce of music relative to other subjects, the confidence of the participan ts in implementing music ac tivities and supporting music development, and the roles of early childhood an d music teachers. Pres ervice teachers music content knowledge, confidence level, music educa tion, and field/teaching experiences were also taken and compared to teacher beliefs about mu sic. This information may help educators in teacher preparation programs understand what co mponents are missed in music curriculums and

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19 what areas need to be changed to equip early childhood preservice teachers with information about appropriate music conten t and practical knowledge. This study also aids in deve loping appropriate teacher edu cation curriculums and field (practicum/internship) experiences related to DAP for early childhood programs. This study provides information on how preservice teachers unde rstand DAP in relation to influences from teacher education programs and field experien ces. This study adds to existing information regarding preservice teachers beliefs based on current understandings of DAP. Although DAP is a widely accepted construc t, there has been disagreement among educators regarding how DAP should be implemented. This study outlines reports from preservice teachers describing their definitions of DAP, the gene ral principles that early childhood teachers believe in order to implement DAP, the features of both appropriate and inappropriate practices, and reflections on DAP from field or teaching experiences. This information could inform the design and implementation for preservice teaching program curriculums such as balance of pedagogy and content knowledge of DAP. Teacher educators and field supervisors may have a better understanding as a result of this study about what factors and components need to be changed in order to operate effective field experien ces in the practica and internships. This study may influence the design and im plementation of teacher education programs with regard to not only music curricula but other subjects as well, because the findings from this study will provide a clearer understanding of th e relationship between the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about DAP and music. This illuminates an understanding of the relationship among different domains of be liefs. Findings demonstrate how stronger, incompatible, and weaker relationships betw een beliefs about music and DAP exist amongst preservice teachers. This study provi des the manner in which other subjects and music interact in

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20 early childhood education curricula. Also, desc riptions from preservice teachers about the relationship between music and DAP beliefs, how these beliefs have developed, and how these beliefs have changed over time will give the field a better understanding of the process of belief development in preservice teachers. This study provides in-depth information re garding early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music and DAP using multiple methods (i.e., questionnaires, interviews, concept webs). Utilizing a variety of data collection me thods can help strengthen the significance of the research. Previous belief studies showed limita tions in terms of methods and measurements (Fang, 1996). Quantitative data collection methods involving a large number of participants may explain general beliefs about music and DAP. Ho wever, beliefs can be thoroughly investigated using qualitative data from a small number of participants providing a more detailed understanding of the links between teacher be liefs about music and DAP. Consequently, the power of the study is improved by providing quantitative results as well as information from the interviews regarding early childhood preser vice teachers beliefs about music and DAP. Figure 1-1. Hypothetical fr amework of present study.

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21 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The purpose of this study is to examine early ch ildhood preservice teachers beliefs about music and developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), and the relationship between music and DAP. This chapter presents an overview of relevant research pertaining to teachers beliefs about music and DAP. Several topic ar eas are covered, including: 1) the importance of music for young children, 2) DAP, 3) early childhood teachers beliefs toward music and DAP, and 4) the relationship between belie fs about music and DAP. The Importance of Music for Young Children The importance of music for young children will be presented in this section. A number of studies have found that music plays a critical role in ea rly childhood education. Music has diverse functions and roles for the developmen t of young children. First of all, music is a communicative tool for young child ren. Children express their feelings and thoughts, as well as respond to others, through music. Music is a natural medium to communicate human emotions and thoughts (Andress, 1998; Custodero, 2002b; Levinowitz, 2001). Since young childrens language is not fully developed, music is an other language for communication available to children. Music represents a pathway for child ren to communicate their thoughts and can be compared to school-aged children using verbal an d written language to communicate with people in conventional ways. Music can offer an adva ntage over traditional communication media to express an individuals thoughts a nd feelings. This is due to a limitation of traditional language that relies only on linguistic methods during the representation pro cess (Custodero, 2002a; Eisner, 2001). Music is a social activity. Being engaged in music provides social in teraction and sharing meanings in the context. Custodero (2002b) em phasized musical child-in-context, which

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22 explains childrens interdepende nt relationships by sharing an d understanding meanings through music. Just singing a song with a caregiver includ es diverse social aspects. For example, it helps a child feel attachment and connection with signif icant others. A child also has the opportunity to respond to the melody, create a diffe rent pitch, or remember different experiences that the lyrics provoke. That is, children activel y interpret and represent the music in their minds. These representations and creations are socially interdependent in a comfortable emotional environment. Therefore, being involved in mu sical interaction is important for young children. Music is a cognitive activity for young children. Music stimulates childrens cognition by arousing young childrens perceptions. Children c ognitively construct kn owledge through music. While music as a communicative tool that reflect s an outward aspect of music, the cognitive component of music is also related to the inwar d aspect because it occurs in childrens minds (Custodero, 2002b). Musical expe riences provide opportunities to explore sounds, rhythmic movements of the body or objects, and playi ng instruments. Through the exploration and experimentation of sound, children realize how sounds can become music through their knowledge of musical elements, such as melody and rhythm. Specifically sound-making mechanisms and involvement in music making ar e important to the de velopment of musical ability (Custodero, 2002a; Mueller, 2003). Music can be a joyful and aesth etic form of play in which young children innately want to be involved. Children love to play with music. It is widely known that chil dren naturally love to sing, move, dance, explore instruments, and inve nt sounds as play (Mueller, 2003; Tarnowski, 1999; Temmerman, 1998). Music provi des a flow experience for children, which is defined as a state of optimal enjoyment defined by the individuals perception of high skill and high challenge for a given activity (p. 3, Custodero, 2002a). This implies that musical activities

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23 provide intrinsic motivation for children to be come involved in challenges by making them enjoyable. The evidence that children naturally enjoy music has been supported by research about childrens attitude and preference toward musi c. Much research suggests that young children respond to any type of music with non-discriminating a nd receptive attitude s, and they showed positive reactions to all t ypes of music that they have had th e opportunities to listen and sing to (Sims & Cassidy, 1997). Young children do not demons trate a particular attitude toward or preference for different types of mu sic characteristics such as styl e, tempo, familiarity of songs, and songs with or without lyrics. Children ove r fourth grade demonstrate a strong, specific attitude or preference when se lecting music character istics in style, tempo, medium, and amount of vibrato (Greer, Dorow, & Hanser, 1973; Greer, Dorow, & Randall, 1974; LeBlanc & McCrary, 1983; Schuckert & McDonal d, 1968; Sims, 1987; Sims & Cassidy, 1997). Music is a component of culture for young ch ildren. Music reflects so cial, historical, and local characteristics in the culture. Music has b een created in every culture; time and regional factors have influenced music (Eisner, 2001). One can experien ce a culture by e xperiencing the cultures music. Music exists within culture a nd music has been conveyed and imbedded within cultures (Custodero, 2003a). Group members in a certain culture and th e activities that are influenced by the people in that culture strongl y affect childrens musi cal experience and basic attitude toward music. Therefore, music incl udes a framework that limits the range of the experience through culture (Eisner, 2001). Culture influences the messages in that particular cultures music, music styles, and genres. Not only is music a part of the culture for young children, but also for older children and adults. Ho wever, the degree of influence of culture at a

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24 younger age is stronger than the influence at an older age since young children are more sensitive and flexible than older children. Given that music has important and diverse roles for young children, music is not only a favored subject among children, but also a developmental tool that can provide many developmental benefits for young children. Theref ore, music should be actively implemented in early childhood classrooms because music can be incorporated into enjoyable activities that provide fun and interests for children as well as opportunities to help childrens development appropriately. This implies that music can be an important medium for developmentally appropriate practice since it posit ively and actively fac ilitates childrens development. However, due to increased academic pressure influenced by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and state wide standardized tests such as the FC AT, music has recently b een neglected in early childhood education (Hill, 2003; Rave r & Zigler, 2004). In this challe nging situation, in order to encourage approaching and using music appropriately in early childhood, the components that affect music implementation need to be investigated so that music can be highlighted in terms of critical roles and functions in early childhood education. Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) Developmentally appropriate prac tice (DAP) is a major topic a nd umbrella concept in early childhood education. DAP is a known and accepted concept for early childhood educators world wide, but is subject to multiple approaches, varied perspectives and interpretations. It seems that early childhood educators agree with DAP, but they understand and adapt DAP in their own ways. This section outlines the history of DAP and key concepts about DAP. DAP was published in 1987 and revised in 1997 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (Brede kamp, 1987; Bredekamp & Copple 1997). Since its establishment in 1926, NAEYC as the larg est organization invol ved in early childhood

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25 education has strongly influen ced early childhood curricula and practices worldwide working for young children, teachers, and families. The first edition of DAP published in 1987 was presented in response to increased academic pressure in early childhood classrooms. Since NAEYC has worked on accreditation for early childhood institut es, the administrators and educators has needed to clarify DAP in specific accreditation cr iteria. In the first edit ion, DAP included a wide range of statements with inappr opriate/appropriate practices for children ages birth to eight including two dimensions age appropriateness a nd individual appropriat eness. Since the first edition of DAP has been published, the statemen ts and guidelines have been considered to represent specific goals to be accomplished for children among early childhood educators (Smith, 1997). However, DAP were interpreted in variou s ways and there was disagreement about what DAP. Based on significant debates and a growing n eed to clarify DAP, a revised version of developmentally appropriate practices was publ ished in 1997. Revised DAP dimensions have been more extended and clarified with examples of appropriate and inappr opriate practices than the first edition. It emphasized age appropriateness, individual appropriateness and cultural appropriateness based on childrens developm ent knowledge. Also revised were guidelines including five components of early childhood pr actice: 1) creating a caring community of learners 2) teaching to enhance childrens learni ng and development, 3) constructing appropriate curriculum, 4) assessing childre ns learning and development a nd 5) establishing reciprocal relationships with families. Although the revised version of DAP clarified and provided more specific examples than the first edition, child centered, individual center ed and culturally respected teaching practices are still debated and criticized. Fi rst of all, there have been di fferent interpretations about DAP

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26 guidelines on how the guidelines should be adapted and interpreted from abstract statements to concrete practices (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Smith, 1997; Swadener & Kessler, 1991). For example, if a teacher were asked what a deve lopmentally appropriate practice should look like, the answers might correspond to different aspect s of DAP. Furthermore, limited studies have investigated the impact of DAP (Jones & Gu llo, 1999). Research on DAP mostly focused on teachers self-reported practices rather than obs erved practices. This is related to lack of validated measures to assess DAP (Horn & Ramey, 2004). Although there are observational rating tools of DAP, the validity of measuremen ts are still debated whether the measurements reflect appropriately the extent of whole components of DAP. Early Childhood Teacher Beliefs Beliefs are referred to as the heart of teaching (Vartuli, 2005, p.76). Research on teachers beliefs is considered critical in teacher education research beca use teachers beliefs are closely related to the process of making decisi ons and to behavior (F ang, 1996). Investigation on beliefs pose fundamental questions: how teachers ma ke decisions daily in the classrooms, what teachers refer to or rely on when planning, maki ng decisions, or interacting with students, how teachers develop their personal beliefs about a vari ety of developmental issues with respect to specific areas, and the specific beliefs that oper ate in specific situations. This chapter will provide an overview of the resear ch related to teacher beliefs incl uding definitions of belief, selfefficacy, preservice teachers beli efs, and domain specific beliefs. Definition of Belief Construct This category of teacher beliefs involves the definition of the construct beliefs. Researchers have debated the construct of beliefs in order to attain a universal definition of beliefs. However, due to the fact th at beliefs are invisible, the cons truct is difficult to investigate.

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27 Several definitions of beliefs have been introdu ced in research, each with different layers of specificity (Pajares, 1992; K. E. Smith, 1997). The term teachers beliefs is related to a variety of concepts, such as self-efficacy, knowledge, attitude about education, epistemolo gical beliefs, motivation, attributions, selfconcept, educational beliefs about specific subj ects, and thought proces ses (Cassidy & Lawrence, 2000; Clark & Peterson, 1986; Pajares, 1992; K. E. Smith, 1997; M. L. Smith & Shepard, 1988). Among these concepts, beliefs are most likely to be confused with knowledge (Pajares, 1992). It could be distinguished that a belief is evaluative and judgm ental compared to knowledge represents the facts (Pajares, 1992). Teachers have gained knowledge from dominant theories espoused by scholars throughout preservice a nd in-service education programs. Conversely, beliefs are more likely to be drawn from value-laden thoughts rega rding education, child development, teaching, and learning that have been affected by a teachers professional and personal experiences. Beliefs are values that teachers consider to be right and true (Smith & Shepard, 1988). Teachers beliefs are closely related to teachers thought processes and essential to establishing an emotional attitude (Clark & Peterson, 1986; K. E. Smith, 1997; Smith & Shepard, 1988). Therefore, a belief system is composed of belief s, attitudes, and values (Pajares, 1992). Similarly, beliefs may be defined in terms of a disposition that an individual possess regarding the truth of a proposition (Smith & Shepard, 1988). At times, belie fs represent a teachers disposition toward action (Brown & Cooney, 1982). Rela ted to action, beliefs can be inferred from a teachers behavior. Research has demonstrated that t eachers beliefs and decision-making process are related because daily decisions are based on th eir beliefs (Piotrkowski et al, 2000). Based on diverse definitions, beliefs have been defi ned as values, which house the evaluative,

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28 comparative, and judgmental functions of beliefs and replace predisposition with an imperative to action (Pajares, 1992, p.314). Self Efficacy Teachers self-efficacy refers to their beliefs and evaluation of their own abilities. A teachers sense of self -efficacy can facilitate their students engagement and achievements, particularly when working with difficult or challenging students w ho appear to be uninterested or unmotivated to learn (Bandura, 1977, 1997; G oddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2004; TschannenMoran & Woolfolk Hoy, 1998, 2001). Teachers se lf-efficacy refers to their beliefs and evaluation of their own abilities. A teachers sense of self-eff icacy can facilitate students engagement and achievement, particularly when working with difficult or challenging students who appear to be uninterested or unmotivated to learn (Bandura, 1977, 1997; Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2004; Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 1998, 2001). Efficacy beliefs influence the degree of effort, persistence, resilience, and st rategies for handling stressful teaching situations with students during specifi c tasks (Bandura, 1997). A teachers sense of selfefficacy is differentiated from other self -terms (i.e., self-concept, self-esteem) because teachers self-efficacy is contextual and repr esents a task-specific concept (Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2000). To illustrate, teachers may perf orm differently (i.e., better or worse) when teaching certain subjects or in a certain atmos phere. Therefore, teachers self-efficacy varies depending on the different subjects they teach and the influence of the teaching environment. Furthermore, self-efficacy reflects a judgment about what teachers believe in terms of the extent to which they are able to perform tasks with a diverse group of children; self-efficacy does not represent what teachers are actually capable of teaching (Gist & Mitchell, 1992; Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2004).

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29 There are four factors that in fluence teachers self-efficacy. These factors involve mastery experiences, physiological and emotional arousals, vicarious experiences, and verbal persuasion (Bandura, 1997; Goddard et al., 2000; Tschanne n-Moran et al., 1998). Mast ery experiences refer to meaningful information that teachers use to guide their expectations for effective future performance. Physiological and emotional cues refe r to the physical and emotional reactions that teachers experience while they are teaching a nd learning. Depending on wh ether the teachers reactions during teaching and learning are negative or positive, self-efficacy may be affected. Vicarious experiences are obtai ned through observing skillful teachers who are respected, credible models of teaching and learning. Verbal persuasion refers to a variety of feedback teachers receive (i.e., coursework, workshops, inte raction with co-workers). Teachers do not just accumulate the information; they develop and reconceptualize their self-efficacy through dynamic experiences. Since Bandura (1977) introduced the concept of self-efficacy, it has been developed and reconceptualized in various ways. A new pers pective has recently emerged from individual teachers self-efficacy to a collective efficacy by adding the organization attribute (Goddard et al., 2000). Teachers are involved in shared experien ces as well as shared beliefs in a school community. The shared beliefs influence teach ers perceived efficacy since teachers are interwoven in a school system. Thus, collective effi cacy refers to the combined perceived ability of all teachers in the school community, not simply the sum of each persons self-efficacy. (Goddard et al., 2004) Teacher efficacy research has primarily occurred in liberal arts and elementary/ secondary education. Such investigations have demonstrated that teachers self-efficacy is closely related to teachers performance and students outcomes. Teachers sense of self-efficacy is significantly

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30 related to teachers level of enthusiasm, commitment, and effective teaching behavior. Additionally, teachers who have a higher sense of self-efficacy demonstrate the ability to enhance students beliefs about learning, stude nts self-esteem, motivation, and family involvement (Anderson, Greene, & Loewe n, 1988; Ashton & Webb, 1986; Gibson & Dembo, 1984; Goddard et al., 2004; Hoover-Dempsey, Ba ssler & Brissie, 1992; Pajares, 1992; Ross, 1992; Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). Even though there have been very few studi es about teachers se lf-efficacy in early childhood education, teachers perceived self-effi cacy is important because early childhood is a critical period that may influence childrens self-concept and identity development (Bandura, 1997; Vartuli, 2005). Teachers with higher self-effi cacy effectively use individual interactions to meet each childs needs by constructing a supportive atmosphere; this is considered important in early childhood education (Vartuli, 2005). Early childhood education differs from elementary and secondary education by focusing on a child -centered approach and developmentally appropriate practices; therefore, early childhood teachers self-e fficacy may be different from that of elementary/secondary teachers. Thus, it will be necessary to examine early childhood teachers self-efficacy by considering the distinct characteristics of childrens development and diverse educational backgrounds. Preservice Teacher Beliefs As with research that focuses on early chil dhood inservice teachers, th ere has been limited research that centers on preservice teachers. Pr eservice teachers beliefs are important because teachers develop their own perspectives and beliefs early in the preservice teaching stage; once beliefs are developed, it is diffi cult to change them (Smith, 1997; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Coursework has been demonstrated to affect preservice teachers self-efficacy; however, teaching experience (i.e., internship, apprentices hip) has a greater influence on self-efficacy for

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31 elementary preservice teachers (Housego, 1992; H oy & Woolfolk, 1990; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Specifically, some preser vice teachers self-efficacy dec lined with teaching experience due to the fact that teachers encounter the difficulties and challenges of teaching in actual school settings (Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Prospec tive teachers experience the reality of complex, dynamic situations and make multiple decisions as teachers upon entering a student teaching practicum or internship. Therefor e, student teachers may negotiate their previous beliefs as they adapt and protect their self-efficacy (Tscha nnen-Moran et al., 1998; Weinstein, 1998). There are studies about early childhood e ducation preservice teachers beliefs. The difference between elementary and early childho od preservice teachers has been investigated. The research revealed that early childhood pres ervice teachers possessed more beliefs about DAP than elementary preservice teachers (File & Gullo, 2002; Smith, 1997). In school settings with cooperating teachers, there is no signifi cant evidence of correlations between cooperating teachers beliefs and student teachers beliefs (Smith, 1997). Likewise, there is no significant change in beliefs about DAP after student teach ing experience has occurr ed (i.e., internship). Research on beliefs regarding family i nvolvement revealed preservice teachers misconceptions and concerns about teacher-family relationships, meeting childrens needs in connection with the needs of the family, and approaching families as a resource (Baum, McMurray-Schwarz, 2004). Additionally, prosp ective teachers demonstrated insufficient knowledge of and experience with family invol vement strategies during teacher education programs. There have not been many studies conducted about preservice teacher beliefs; however, preservice teachers belief s at this initial professional stage may represent a foundation on which professional development begins. T hus, extending the resear ch to include an

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32 examination of preservice teachers beliefs may enhance the professional development of prospective teachers and impact teacher preparation programs. Subjects of Beliefs: Domain-Specific Beliefs Beliefs require subjects to believe in. Teach ers hold beliefs about specific domains in education such as math, art, or music. The r eason specific domain beliefs are important is because they may enhance teachers understanding of how children learn in different domains, how teachers define their roles to improve childrens learning skill s, and how to select classroom teaching strategies in the subjects (Schirmer, Casbon, & Twiss, 1997). Teachers beliefs about specific domains may reveal important informati on; this is how teachers understand complexity of childrens learning styles related to the s ubjects (Pajares, 1992). Be liefs about specific subjects may also affect th eir decision making process for planning and implementing the curriculum. In spite of the importance of resear ching specific subject areas, very few studies have been conducted on early childhood education. First, there have been studies on beliefs a bout school readiness. School readiness is a controversial topic in early childhood education. This is based, in pa rt, on the fact that education is experiencing challenges due to poverty and failure to establish harmony among the diverse ethnic groups in schools. To promote school re adiness for children in poverty, many programs have been implemented. In spite of the empha sis on school readiness, there has not been a universally accepted definition of school readine ss construct. Piotrkowski, Botsko, & Matthews (2000) have researched preschool and kinderg arten teachers and pa rents beliefs about childrens school readiness in cult urally diverse, low-income urba n schools. This study revealed that there is no difference in ge neral school readiness in terms of health, peer relations, or emotional maturity between the parents and the teachers; howe ver, parents emphasized that

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33 classroom-related readiness, such as communi cation in English, compliance with teacher authority, or basic knowledge wa s different among students. Beliefs about family competence is another subject in belief studi es since the importance of family in education has been emphasized. Active inclusion of the family in diverse areas, such as decision making, the curriculum, and childrens de velopment, represents a critical addition to the educational process. In terms of a traditional family-school partnership, communication generally flows from school-to-home. Howeve r, recently communication in family-school partnerships emphasized from home-to-sc hool communication (Jones, White, Aeby, & Benson, 1997; Moseman, 2003). Teachers beliefs are impor tant in facilitating a home-to-school partnership because teachers play a critical role in contacting families and gain valuable information from families about their children. It was reported that many primary school teachers believed that families could provide information but do not have capability in decision-making (Moseman, 2003). As discussed, there are few studie s related to subject-sp ecific beliefs of early childhood educators, since many belief studies on early childhood education have focused on developmentally appropriate practices. Therefore, there is a growing need to research beliefs about specific domains. Beliefs about Music, DAP, and the Relationship between the Two Throughout this review of the research, the im portance of music, in formation of DAP, the meanings and roles of teacher beliefs and releva nt beliefs research was discussed. First, this section outlines research on the beliefs of teachers about music education, including the importance of teacher beliefs in implementing mu sic. Then the section discusses beliefs about DAP and the relationship between teacher belie fs about DAP and actual teaching practices. Finally, beliefs about the relationship be tween music and DAP will be discussed.

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34 Beliefs about Music Relevant research on music for young children demonstrated the important roles and functions of music as an active agent to facilitate childrens development. Teachers beliefs about the implementation of mu sical education in the classr oom may have an influence on teachers music practice and ch ildrens perceptions of music. There is evidence that teachers beliefs aff ect teaching practices a nd interactions with students (File, 1994; Kowalski et al, 2001; McMullen, 1997; Pajares, 1992; Piotrkowski et al, 2000; Pretti-Frontczak, & Johnson, 2001; Stipek & By ler, 1997; Vartuli, 1999). Therefore, if teachers hold positive beliefs about music, it may influence their decision making and planning of the curriculum to include a variety of musical activities. Mo st of the research on teacher beliefs about music was conducted through musi c education disciplines. However, outcomes from music education research imply noteworth y findings that are re lated to early childhood education. First of all, a teachers beliefs about music a ffect the decision on the amount of exposure to music that is related to ch ildrens musical perceptions. Teachers provide opportunities for children to enjoy and experience music. Children who have more opportunities to experience music at an earlier stage of life demonstrate greater potentia l to develop musically (Gordon, 1999). This is similar to language development in that language cannot be developed solely by intentional teaching (e.g., direct instruction), but must also include the experience of social context through interaction with si gnificant adults (Lindfors, 1991) Likewise, childrens musical ability cannot be developed simply by having oppor tunities to be surrounde d by music in various environments. Thus, teachers with strong beliefs about the importance of music may provide increased exposure to music and interact with chil dren using music since teachers plan and create

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35 the classroom environment and cu rriculum that children experience. Also, teachers beliefs about implementing music in the classr oom may significantly influence childrens perceptions of music. Teacher beliefs influence th e incorporation of physical activity within the music environment. Active physical involvement re presents a method of enhancing childrens experience with music (Mueller, 2003). Providi ng musical centers is one way to implement music in the classroom because children have the freedom to explore sounds and have opportunities to make sounds by themselves in these centers (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004; Turner, 1999). Engaging in music center activities allows children to create music even if they are exposed to outside noises during their e xperience (Turner, 1999). Music centers may support childrens self-initiated music play in small groups or i ndividually, and teachers serve as observer, supporter, guide, conve rsationalist, co operator, and facilitato r for activities that children direct (Kemple et al., 2004; Tarnowski, 1999; Turner, 1999). Even though teachers may believe that musi c is important, there are obstacles to implementing music in the classroom. For exampl e, teachers may hesitate to actively implement music based on a lack of confidence in their ow n musical knowledge, insu fficient resources, or inadequate support (Gharavi, 1993 ; Hildebrandt, 1998; IEtoile, 2001; Isenberg & Jalongo, 1993; McDonald, 1993). Teachers who ha d access to inservice music educ ation however, were able to implement a variety of music activ ities and facilitate childrens development of musical abilities (IEtoile, 2001). There is research on music preservice teachers beliefs about music. Preservice teachers beliefs relating to success and failure in teachi ng music was investigated (Legette, 2002). The preservice teachers reported which factor ability effort, task difficulty, and luck influenced their beliefs about the cause of success and/or failure in teaching music. The results showed that

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36 the music preservice teachers believe their ability and effort are major factors of their successes and failures in teaching music. This implies th at teachers perceive th at the cause of success and/or failure might be linked to their inward as pect (ability and effort ) rather than outward attributors (task difficulty and luck). Another study of preservice music teachers beliefs about music revealed that student teachers believe philosophical statements regard ing the importance of music education including aesthetic, social-emotional, and quality-of-life benefits of musi c are most likely true rather than false (Austin & Reinhardt, 1999). Beliefs about the validity of music education are highly correlated with the advocacy of music educati on among prospective music teachers; the more preservice teachers believe in the validity of musi c education, the more they act as advocates for music education. Despite the importance of teacher s beliefs about music, there has been very little research on early childhood teachers beliefs related to music. To gain a better understanding of the effect of teachers beliefs to ward music, this area needs to be investigated further. Beliefs about DAP Although a great deal of research has been done on DAP, teachers continue to have different understandings of how to implement DAP. One reason for this could be different forms of adaptation to DAP implementations and the vari ety of ways in which DAP can be interpreted. Therefore, how teachers think and what they believe about DAP has become an important research topic. Research on beliefs about DAP ha s focused on (1) the differences among teachers in how they consider the significance of DAP a nd (2) the practice of how teachers implement the DAP curriculum compared to their own self-reported beliefs. Depending on the grade level, beliefs and teachi ng practices are different (Stipek & Byler, 1997; Vartuli, 1999). For example, in a recent stu dy kindergarten and Head Start teachers were

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37 found to consider DAP more important than fi rst and second grade teachers. Kindergarten and Head Start teachers also demonstrated developm entally appropriate practices during the observed practices than did the higher grade classroom s (Vartuli, 1999). It ha s been reported that preschool, kindergarten, and primary teach ers who possessed child-centered beliefs demonstrated a positive social environment (S tipek & Byler, 1997). Additionally, the teachers who believed DAP was important followed specifi c guidelines about approp riate/ inappropriate practices. There are differences in the relationship between beliefs and practice depending on teachers levels of education. Many teachers w ho majored in early childhood education and had higher degrees scored higher in terms of posse ssing developmentally appropriate beliefs and implementing such practices (McMullen, 1999; Snid er & Fu, 1990). Teachers educational levels are negatively correlated with inappropriate beliefs related to classroom quality. This may explain why teachers with lower educational levels reported more inappropriate beliefs regarding child development (Abbott-Shim, Lambert, & McCarty, 2000). In a comparison studies on beliefs about DAP in general, and special early childhood educators, agreement was demonstrated re garding DAP among both general and special educators. However, there was a difference in behavioral teaching and classroom management strategies among general and special educators (Sexton, Snyder, Lobman, & Daly, 2002). In a study of teachers beliefs about sp ecific areas of developmental sk ills and abilities, the majority of the teachers believed that the social-emoti onal items were more important than language, literacy, and early math items (Kowalski et al., 2 001). Also, this research demonstrated different beliefs between Head Start t eachers, preschool teachers and preschool special educators.

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38 Preschool special education teachers emphasized the importance of social-emotional competence among developmental skills more so than did Head Start teachers. One of issues associated with research ing teachers beliefs revolves around the investigation of the relationshi p between beliefs and practice. The emphasis on teachers beliefs is based on the fact that beliefs are related to an d affect teaching practices and interactions with children (File, 1994; McMullen, 1997; Kowalski et al, 2001; Pajares, 1992; Piotrkowski et al., 2000; Stipek & Byler, 1997; Va rtuli, 1999). The research invo lving the relationship between beliefs and practices can be categorized in two wa ys. First, the relationshi p that exists between teachers stated beliefs and obs erved practice. Second, the relationship between teachers stated beliefs and self-reported practice. Research demonstrates a positive relationship between teachers beliefs and observed practices (Clark & Peterson, 1986; Dunn & Kontos, 1997; Pajares, 1992; Stipek & Byler, 1997; Vartuli, 1999). However, congruence does not alwa ys exist between teache rs beliefs and their teaching practices. A few studies have demonstr ated a weak relationship between teachers beliefs and observed classroom practice (Bry ant, Clifford, & Pies ner, 1991; Munby, 1982; Wilcox-Herzog, 2000). There are reasons explaining the incongruence in th e literature. This discrepancy may reflect the reality of classrooms. It could also be related to teachers pressure from different expectations among parents, administrators, and the government policy like NCLB or state-wide tests (H itz & Wright, 1988; Kowalski et al., 2001; Wilcox-Herzog, 2000). Furthermore, confusion regarding definitions of DAP may affect participants responses. This is related to the poor and unspecific measurements of DAP beliefs (Wilcox-Herzog, 2002; Vartuli, 2005).

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39 Studies show that teachers stated beliefs and self-reported teaching practices are positively related. For example, teachers who possessed in appropriate beliefs reported low classroom quality. Teachers who portrayed themselves as possessing appropriate be liefs evaluated their teaching practices to be of a higher quality (M cCarty, Abbott-Shim, & Lambert, 2001). This may imply that teachers with low self-reported classroom quality may have a tendency toward inappropriate beliefs and implement inappropr iate teaching practices. Cassidy & Lawrence (2000) investigated teachers beliefs and self-sta ted rationales for their behavior during classroom interactions. The rationales for t eachers interactions are based upon teachers personal beliefs and professional experiences, not theories or philosophies learned in formal teacher education programs (Cassidy & Lawrence 2000). This supports the perspective that teachers beliefs do not mimic espoused theories but tend to come from their own personal and professional experience (Cassidy & Lawrence, 2000, Schoonmaker & Ryan, 1996; Williams, 1996). Teachers do not merely incorporate a form al theory or philosophy because prominent scholars propose them; rather, they have deve loped their own beliefs about education and development that reflects their experiences. Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP Research has demonstrated that music is not only a preferred activity for children, but can also act as a developmental tool, and that ways in which music is appr oached can be easily tailored to meet the needs of children in a variet y of developmental areas. DAP is considered to be the foundation and overarching term for early childhood educators. DAP includes all developmental domains, stages, and practices. As an active agent of implementing DAP, teachers beliefs about DAP have been researched a great deal. However, in terms of specific domains related to DAP, there is little research on teachers beliefs about the relationship among such constructs (i.e., Do teachers who support DAP as a recommended guideline for young

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40 children also support specific domains such as musi c, math, science, or art?, How does DAP affect the implementation of curri culum planning and making deci sions about teaching music?, Among teachers who strongly support DAP, do they possess the ability to teach and approach music appropriately?). In terms of implementing developmentally appropr iate musical activities, it is important to provide child-initiated and child-centered interaction that is suppor ted by peers and teachers during musical experiences (Turner, 1999). This requires not only knowle dge about music, but also an understanding of childrens developmental level, since developmen tal stages are closely related and are not separate (Scott, 2004). Therefore, it is crucial for teachers to possess a holistic perspective of development. A study of developmentally appropria te practices in kindergarten music classrooms revealed that a better unde rstanding of and positive music teachers beliefs toward DAP are congruent with more interactions activities, and instruction in music (Miranda, 2004). A child-centered curriculum, combined with appropriate and diverse grouping of students, has been suggested to promote musical learning as well as balanced development for children by providing children with options. Te aching beliefs may also affect specific teaching strategies. For example, a comparison study on song teaching stra tegies that used both a rote approach (e.g., phrase by phrase teaching) and an immersi on approach (e.g., teaching the whole song) demonstrated that teaching the whole song is effective when implemented during childrens singing time because this is developmentally a ppropriate for young children (Klinger, Campbell, & Goolsby, 1998). Teaching strategies may reflect teachers attitudes and beliefs toward childrens acquisition of the subject matter. A study of musical development and DAP i nvestigated developmentally appropriate practices for teaching children to sing, includi ng pitch matching and vocal range, using an early

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41 childhood perspective (Kim, 2000). Musical de velopment may represent developmental milestones that encourage childrens overall development, as well as illuminate obstacles that limit teachers perceptions (i.e., children may be able to sing at a higher pitch than their developmental stage indicates, but teachers might not notice this enhanced ability due to the developmental information teachers acquired in th eir professional preparation programs). This reveals a necessary emphasis on teachers flex ibility and adaptability in understanding the dynamics of musical development in the c ontext of DAP (Kim, 2000) Teachers beliefs concerning the relationship between DAP and music may vary. Some teachers may understand that DAP is an umbrella term and that musi c is a subcategory of DAP. Other teachers may believe that DAP and music represent separate concepts. To illustrate, certain teachers may believe that music is not an area that they need to teach because there are teachers who specialize in music. Moreover, incompatible beliefs related to different subjects may exist within a teachers belief system. This topic is importa nt because understanding teachers beliefs may enhance the professions understa nding of teachers behavior. Summary Music as a meaningful tool and mode of fun play for young children, important specific domain beliefs, the meaning of music for young children, and belief stud ies about music have been presented. Research on DAP and early ch ildhood teachers beliefs followed. This included background information as well as the definition of teachers beliefs, teache rs beliefs related to their self-efficacy, preservice teacher beliefs, and domain specific beliefs. Finally, beliefs about music, beliefs about DAP, and beliefs about the re lationship between music and DAP were presented. Despite the importance of music as play and as an important medium for development, implementation of music has been deemphasized a nd limited in terms of the range of methods to

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42 approach music, and the frequency with whic h music is used and taught. There has been no research investigating the beli efs of early childhood teachers toward music. Teachers may have various beliefs on the importance of music, how they perceive their own ability to teach and implement music, and their perceptions of the re lationship between music and other subjects. An examination of teacher beliefs about music may pr ovide information that could be helpful in the planning and implementation of music curriculum. Teacher beliefs toward music may vary based on subject knowledge, background, teaching experien ce, and teaching context. Teachers beliefs about music may influence their attitude towa rd music, teaching practices, and the decision making process in planning and evaluating music. DAP is considered to be one of the critical issues in early childhood education, and a great deal of research regarding teacher beliefs ha s focused on beliefs about DAP. However, studies related to DAP have revealed disagreement about the definition of DAP and the best way to implement DAP in the classroom. This is due, in part, to the fact that DAP is a broad, overarching concept that pertains to dive rse developmental areas (Wilcox-Herzog, 2000). Research is needed to examine early chil dhood teachers personal in terpretations of the definitions of DAP to encourage agreement among educators and researchers. Thus, it is important to understa nd not only beliefs about music, but also music in a larger context, not separate from other developmental areas. Teacher beliefs about the importance of music and how to approach music may be clos ely related to DAP. A be tter understanding of music within DAP can help te achers implement music in deve lopmentally appropriate ways. This knowledge can also help te achers discover ways to implement DAP in other subject areas. Specific relationships among beliefs that may be he lpful to identify are: the relationship between music and DAP, the factors that affect teacher beliefs about the relatio nship between music and

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43 DAP, how music can be integrated into DAP, a nd whether teachers who demonstrate strong or weak beliefs about music also possess strong or weak beliefs about DAP. The preservice stage of a teachers professional development is a critical period that shapes teachers beliefs (Smith, 1997). Preservice teac hers begin to establish firm beliefs based on teacher education curriculum and their own expe riences during their prac ticum and internship placements. Their beliefs can also be affected th rough exposure to model teachers. Therefore, it is valuable to study how preservice teachers be liefs about music and DAP develop, what factors influence the construction of beliefs about music and DAP, what background and experience effect preservice teachers beliefs, and what the process may be. Reflecting upon the main findings of resear ch on teachers beliefs in early childhood education, several questions will be answered with this study. First, this study will look at early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about musi c and importance of music, confidence in teaching music, content knowledge of music, a nd the teachers percei ved role in music. Secondly, early childhood preservice teacher beli efs about DAP will be examined. Finally, the relationship between music and DAP will be inves tigated along with teacher beliefs about ways in which music and DAP can be combined in early childhood curriculum.

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44 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study is to examine early chil dhood preservice teachers beliefs about music, developmentally appropriate practice ( DAP), and the relationship between music and DAP. Early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music will be examined because music is a subject that young children are innately interested in and enga ging in musical activities may enhance their development. Beliefs concerning DAP as an umbrella concept in early childhood education will be investigated. Then, beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers regarding the relationship between DAP and music will be explained. Data Collection Procedure Participants The participants in the study were sixty five preservice teachers who enrolled in early childhood education program (ECE) in a universit y located in North Florida. The teacher education program that the participants atte nded was intended for early childhood preservice teachers in order to equip them with the ability to teach a diverse population of children from birth through age eight by pursui ng developmentally and individua lly appropriate practices. The program also emphasized culturally sensitivity, in clusion, and the importan ce of family (Correa, Rapport, Hartle, Jones, Kemple, & Simth-Bonahue, 1997). The participants were in their junior, seni or, and graduate year s of study. 38.5% of the participants were juniors and 36.9% were seniors. Participants ra nged in age from nineteen to thirty two (M=21.86) years, and all were fema le. The majority of the participants were Caucasians (74%). Graduate students in the stud y had also completed a full-time internship for twelve weeks, and all participants have been i nvolved in practicum expe riences. Junior students in this study were completing the second pract icum placement, and forty students (61.5%) had

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45 completed more than four practicum placements. The average number of field placements for the participants was approximately four placements. Average time spent in field placements was about twenty weeks. Thirty-one participants (48.5%) had prio r teaching experience, and 64.5% of the participants had part-time teaching positions Three students were selected for qualitative interviews. The three teachers were twenty-one y ears old and all were females. Two interviewees categorized their race as Caucasian and one categorized her race as Hispanic. Two of the interviewees were in their senior ye ar and one was in her junior year. Sampling Procedure The research was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the participants university. Upon IRB approval, faculty members at ECE were contacted and asked for their permission to conduct the study. After receiving pe rmission from faculty members in the ECE program, participants agreed to engage in the study. Then, teacher information questionnaire, the Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) and the Music Beli efs Questionnaires were administered by the researcher in person. Each survey packet was given a number, and these numbers were used instead of names to identify each participant and to maintain confidentia lity of participants. Questionnaires The teacher information questionnaire, musi c basic questionnaire, the Music Beliefs Questionnaire and the Teacher Belief Scale (TBS) were administered by the researcher during the participants classes in early spring 2007. Participants were in formed that the researcher is interested in early childhood preservice teachers belie fs about music and DAP. Before administering the questionna ires, the researcher explained to participants that the situations referred to in the questionnaires were focused on preschool an d kindergarten classrooms and target children in that age range. Questionnaire instructions were written on the surveys and orally presented to participants by the researcher. Approximately forty minutes were required to

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46 complete all scales. Questionnaires were administ ered individually at a later date for students who were absent. All sixty-thre e questionnaires were administer ed in classes, and two were returned to the researcher at a later date. Follow-up Individual Interviews Three of the participants from the larger que stionnaire study were c ontacted to participate in follow-up interviews. These participants we re specifically selected because they showed stronger, incongruent, or weaker beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP: One of the interviewees showed a st rong relationship between her be liefs about music and DAP, the second participant showed an incongruent rela tionship in her beliefs between music and DAP, and the third interview participan t showed a weaker relationship between her beliefs about music and DAP. A strong relationship was identified as having both music belief scores and DAP belief scores that ranged higher than 75% in both scores. An incongruent relationship was identified as having a music score ranging under 25% of all sc ores with a DAP scores ranging above 75% of all scores. A weaker relationship was identified if both music and DAP belief scores ranged in the bottom 25% of all scores. One formal interview was administered with each participant. Each interview required approximately one to one and a half hours in late February and middle March of 2007. The interviews were arranged in advance and were conducted at the university at a time chosen by the preservice teachers. Upon the permission of participants, each interview was audio-taped. Before the interview, interviewees were asked to complete the informed consent form (Appendix A). The researcher took notes de scribing the interview ees gestures, facial expressions, and body language. Each interview lasted one to one and a half hours. All interviews were transcribed by the researcher that conducted the intervie w. All interviewees were compensated.

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47 Instrumentation Multiple methods including questionnaires, follow-up interviews and concept web analyses have been used in this study. Qu antitative methods of data collection using the questionnaires provided belief scor es and quantify the relationship between demographic factors and teachers beliefs about music and DAP. The m easurements were from a teacher information questionnaire, a music basic ques tionnaire, the TBS, and the Mu sic Beliefs Questionnaire. In order to obtain understanding of the diverse leve ls of teachers beliefs (stronger, weaker, and incongruent beliefs about the relationship betw een music and DAP), qualitative methods were also utilized. Qualitative data were gathered and interpreted using follow-up interviews and concept web analysis to address stronger, incongru ent, and weaker beliefs of preservice teachers regarding music, DAP, and the relationship be tween music and DAP. These data address the importance and role of music, the confiden ce in implementing musi c in the early childhood classroom, the definition of DAP, experiences with DAP and DIP, and the relationship between music and DAP in early childhood curriculum. Teacher Information Questionnaire This questionnaire was creat ed by the researcher to ask a teacher for background information (Appendix B). This que stionnaire includes items relate d to gender, age, ethnicity, academic status, field experiences (i.e. numbers of placements, length of experiences), and teaching experiences (i.e., types of teaching experiences, length of teaching experiences). Frequency of each question was computed and used as an independent variable to analyze the teachers beliefs about music and DAP. Music Basic Questionnaire The music basic questionnaire was created by the researcher to examine music background and basic music knowledge of early childhood preservice teachers (Appendix C). This

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48 questionnaire asks the participan ts to indicate their backgroun d with regard to formal and informal music education, and confidence level in implementing music activities and supporting music development. The questionnaire includes it ems related to the importance of the roles of early childhood teachers and music teachers. In te rms of basic knowledge of music, participants answered items inquiring as to their ability to read musical notation, the meaning of using music and teaching music, and definitions of musical terms (i.e., tempo, beat, melody, rhythm, and articulation). Finally, regarding th e importance of music related to other subjects, participants were asked to rank six subjects (m usic, art, literacy, physical edu cation, math, and science) from most important to least important. Music Belief Questionnaire The Music Beliefs Questionnaire was originally developed as a Q-sort designed by Payne (1990), and adapted by Austin and Reinhardt (1994) for rating scales. The Music Belief questionnaire (Austin & Reinhard t, 1999) has been modified to clarify a few items and to eliminate duplicate/ unclear items (Appendix D). The Music Belief questionna ire consists of two sections, although only the first section was used fo r this study. Section one of the Music Belief questionnaire includes items related to the vali dity of beliefs about music, and section two contains items pertaining to the advocacy of th ese beliefs. Because the primary purpose of this study was to examine beliefs about music, section one was the most appropriate section for this study. This questionnaire includes th irty six items and allows for part icipants to rate their beliefs about music using a Likert-type scale (e.g., rangin g from one for definitely false to six for definitely true). Participants were asked to indicate the extent to which they believe the statements are true. To score the music belief que stionnaire, all items are added for a single total score. The possible range of scores for the musi c belief questionnaire is 36 to 216. Higher scores indicate strong beliefs about the be nefits and importance of music.

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49 Factor analysis was calculated for one hundr ed thirty-seven pres ervice music education teachers. Three factors were produced and account ed for forty percent of the total variance. The three factors included an aesthetic benefits, quality-of-life benefits, and social-emotional benefits. The aesthetic benefit factor is related to children s direct benefit from mu sical experiences, and it includes ten items. The quality-of-life factor c ontains nine items that measure the productive benefits of experiencing music in promoting the quality of lif e. The social-emotional factor is composed of nine items, and it repr esents childrens social and emo tional benefits that are gained from musical experiences. Factor loadings were greater than or equal to .35. Eigenvalues were 10.22 (aesthetic), 2.25 (quality-of-life), and 1.92 (soc ial-emotional). The percentage of variance for each factor was 28.5 % for Aesthetic factor, 6 .2% for Quality-of-Life factor, and 5.3% for Social-Emotional Factor (Austin & Reinhardt, 19 99). Adequate reliability coefficients were presented for Aesthetic benefit( r =.86), Quality-of-life benefit ( r =.72), and Social-Emotional ( r =.76) (Austin & Reinhardt, 1999) Internal consistency of the music beliefs scale was computed using Cronbachs coefficient alpha. Reli ability levels of .70 or higher are generally accepted as representing high reliability (Litw in, 1995). The Cronbachs alpha based on the 36 items in the music beliefs scale was .93 for this study. This indicates a high level of reliability. Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) The Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) was devel oped to assess the early childhood teachers beliefs and practices about DAP (Appendix D). TBS was originally developed by Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, & Hernandez (1991) based on NAE YC DAP guidelines pub lished in 1986. Then, TBS has been revised based on revised NAEYC guidelines (Bredekamp, 1987) by eliminating and changing a few items of initial TBS (Cha rlesworth, Hart, Burts, Thomasson, Mosley, & Fleege, 1993). TBS statements include six co mponents that reflect NAEYC DAP guidelines: curriculum goals, teaching strategies, guidance of socio-emotional development, language and

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50 literacy development, cognitive development, phys ical development, aesthetic development, motivation and assessment. TBS consists of thirty-seven items including one item that asks the amount of influence in planning and implementing instruction and th irty-six items related to twenty-two developmentally appropriate and fourteen inappropriate beliefs questions. It is measured on a Likert 5-point scale (1=not impor tant at all; 5 = extremely impor tant). TBS calculates both DAP (developmentally appropriate practice) scores a nd DIP (developmentally inappropriate practice) scores. DAP consisted of appropr iate social, appropriate indivi dualization, appropriate literacy activities, and appropriate integrated curricu lum beliefs. DIP consisted of inappropriate activities and materials and inappropriate structur e. For the purposes of scoring the TBS, scale points from both DAP and DIP items are added to make total DAP and DIP scores respectively. DAP scores can range from 22 to 60, and DIP scor es can range from 14 to 56. High scores on the DAP portion of the TBS represent strong beliefs a bout teaching practices th at are aligned with DAP. High scores on the DIP portio n of the TBS represent strong beliefs about developmentally inappropriate practice. Factor analysis has been conducted with 204 early childhood teachers, and six factors were produced: inappropriate activities and mate rials, appropriate social, appropriate individualization, appropriate lite racy activities, appropriate in tegrated curriculum beliefs, and inappropriate structure. The six components a ccounted for 52.3% of the item variance with eighenvalues greater than 1. Internal cons istency was conducted using Cronbachs alpha: developmentally inappropriate activities and materials ( r =.84), appropriate social item ( r =.77), appropriate individualization ( r =.70), appropriate literacy activities ( r =.60), appropriate integrated curriculum beliefs ( r =.66), and inappropriate structure ( r =.58) (Charlesworth, Hart,

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51 Burts, Thomasson et al., 1993). Internal consis tency of the TBS in this study was computed using Cronbachs coefficient alpha. Reliability levels of .70 or hi gher are generally accepted as representing high reliability (Litwin, 1995). The Cronbachs alpha based on the 36 items in the TBS was .82 for this study. This indi cates a high level of reliability. Follow-up Individual Interviews To examine preservice teachers beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP, individual follow-up interviews with open-ended questions per each participant were conducted with three preservice teachers. Interviews may provide a deep understanding of participants and their experience due to the detailed descriptions interviewees provide (Glesne, 1999). Using descriptive analysis to understand the relati onship between DAP and music is effective because people have their own releva nce structure, and teac hers have their own definitions and beliefs with respect to music and DAP. Therefore, in order to discover the full complexity of participants beliefs within thei r diverse cultural contexts interviews were an effective tool. The interviewees described th eir beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship through the interviews based on their personal background, content know ledge from coursework, and field/teaching experiences. Interv iew questions include three categories: 1) beliefs about music 2) definition and experiences of DAP 3) relationship betw een music and DAP. The music interview questions were devel oped and placed into five categor ies: 1) roles of music, 2) importance of music relative to the importance of other subjects, 3) personal background with music, 4) confidence in music, and 5) futu re implementation of music (Appendix E). The questions were derived from various resources (e.g., information from the music belief questionnaire, NAEYC DAP guidelines Florida state standards, musi c association standards, and research on music education and music in ear ly childhood education). Interview questions

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52 related to DAP included the definition of DAP, fe atures of DAP and DIP, the general principles of DAP, and experiences with implementing DA P in their field and/or teaching experiences. Finally, the interviews contai ned questions about relations hips between music and DAP. Questions inquired about the beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP, and interviewees were asked to give a description of this relations hip. Questions were also asked about the different ways music could be incorporated into DAP and the relationship between music and developmental areas. The researcher conducted all three interviews at a building in the university that the participants attended. Interview que stions were prepared prior to the interviews, yet the direction of the interviews was flexible depending on th e preservice teachers responses. Due to this flexibility in the interviews, there were variati ons in content between each interview. Interview times for the participants lasted between fi fty minutes and one hour and twenty minutes. All interviews were audio-taped and transc ribed by the researcher that conducted the interview. Three interview transcripts were coded from the interviews based on open coding system (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). All protocols in cluded basic information about interviewees (i.e., age, length of experiences). Based on pa rticipants responses to the questions, their interview content was transcribed using numbered sheets. Domain analysis was used to code protocols (Spradley, 1979). Domains represent seman tic relationship, for example, X is a role of music. The domain analysis worksheets include th e location and definitions of terms used in the protocols. Based on all of the domain analyses, a ta xonomy and cultural psychological theme were drawn. Taxonomy is a way to display findings, an d it helps outline participants perceptions and beliefs (Glesne, 1999). Taxonomy consists of classification scheme s and domains, and it

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53 demonstrates the relationship between subcateg ories. Building taxonomy helps the researcher visually understand the relations hips and components of the fi ndings. After a thorough analysis of the data, taxonomy is built to appropriately f it the data (Glesne, 1999; Spradley, 1979). Based on all of the protocols, domains, and the ta xonomy, the cultural psychological theme for each participant was drawn. The cultu ral psychological theme represents a common and essential dilemma that the participants have to solve (Spradley, 1979). This is a central cultural psychological problem that every early childhoo d preservice teacher faces and has to solve related to beliefs about music, DAP and the relationship between the two. To reduce researcher bias and to support trus tworthiness of the study, two techniques were employed. These techniques were member checking and peer review (Cresw ell, 1998). First, all protocols, domains, and result s were reviewed by one of th e interviewees. The researcher contacted all three interviewees, but only one of the interviewees was available to review the data and results. The interviewee provided feedback in written form confirming that the analysis appropriately conveyed her beliefs and ideas. Se cond, a peer review was conducted to enhance trustworthiness because peer review provides ex ternal reflection (Creswell, 1998). An outside reviewer with experience in qualitative methodology reviewed the protocols, domains, and results. After reviewing the data, the revi ewer provided feedback on interpretations. Confidentiality of the part icipants was protected. Concept Web As part of the interview on th e relationship between DAP and mu sic, the participants were asked to draw a concept web. Concept web is a drawing an individual cr eates that represents their perspective on specific subj ects. In this study, the concept webs were used to demonstrate visualized representation a bout the relationship between music and DAP, which shows how preservice teachers conceive and understand music and DAP. During the interviews, the

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54 interviewees were asked to brai nstorm about music and DAP. The n, the participants were asked to draw both music and DAP as a circles and to create a concep t web to visually show their views on the relationship between music and DAP. After drawing the concept web, the interviewees were asked to e xplain their concept web and the relationship between music and DAP. Data Analysis The purpose of this study was to examine early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP. Q1. What are the beliefs of early childhood pres ervice teachers about music (the benefits of music, the importance of music, confidence in their ability to implement music activities and support music development, and the importan ce of teachers role s regarding music)? In order to investigate early childhood preservi ce teachers beliefs about music, the music belief questionnaire was administer ed. Participants responded to thirty-six items related to statements of music education wi th responses ranging from one for definitely false to six for definitely true. The mean and standard deviati on were computed for each item. All thirty-six participants responses were combined to comput e total scores. The mean and standard deviation of total scores of each participant were computed. Benefits of music were addressed. First, th e total aesthetic benefit scores of each participant were calculated for items 7, 13, 15, 16, 18, 24, 26, 33, 35, and 36 of section one. The mean for the aesthetic items was computed. In order to investig ate quality-oflife benefit of music beliefs, the total scores of each participant were calcu lated for items 1, 5, 6, 17, 21, 23, 28, 31 and 34 of section one. The mean for the quality -of-life aspect of music scores was computed. In order to examine the social-emotional benefits of music beliefs, the total scores of each

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55 participant were calculated fo r items 3, 8, 9, 11, 19, 25, 27, 29, and 30 of section one. The mean for the social-emotional benefits of music scores was computed. In order to investigate the importance of music in relation to other subjects, the participants were asked to rank, in order of importance, the fo llowing six subjects: music, art, literacy, math, science, and PE. The frequency of each respons e was computed along with ranking. To evaluate the participants confidence level regarding their ability to impl ement and support music development, the participants were asked to rate their confidence level in five areas, with ratings ranging from not confident to extremely confident. The frequency of each response was computed. To examine early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about the importance of early childhood teachers roles and music teachers roles, the participants were asked to indicate the level of importance of each type of teacher, wi th ratings ranging from not important to extremely important. The frequency of each response was computed. Q2. What is the relationship between early childhood preservice teac hers beliefs about music and teachers individual characteristics (academic status, field experiences, teaching experiences, ability to read musi cal notation, and music education)? Teachers individual characteristics (i.e., acad emic status, field experiences, teaching experiences, ability to read musical notati on, and music education) were categorized. Participants academic status was categorized based on their year in the program. Three categories, juniors, seniors and graduate st udents, were used. Teaching experiences were categorized based on type of teaching (i.e., full-time teaching, part-time teaching, and no experience). Ability to read musical notation was cat egorized into three groups (i.e., able to read, somewhat able to read, not able to read). Th en, music education was categorized in two groups (i.e., having music education, not having music education).

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56 In order to examine the differences in pres ervice early childhood teachers beliefs about music depending on academic status, and ability to read musical not ation, a one-way ANOVA was conducted. To address the difference dependi ng on having music education, an independent t-test was conducted. To address the relationship between music beliefs and field experiences (i.e., numbers of field placements and length of field experiences) a nd length of teaching experiences among early childhood preservice te achers, Pearson Produc t correlations were conducted. Q3. What are the beliefs of early childhood pr eservice teachers about DAP? What is the relationship between early chil dhood preservice teachers beliefs about DAP and their individual characteristics (academic status, field experiences and teaching experiences)? In order to address early childhood preservi ce teachers beliefs about DAP, the Teacher Belief Scale (TBS) was administer ed. The first question asked part icipants to ra nk the amount of influence of planning and implementing instructi on from one to six. Also, teachers responded to items two through thirty-seven on a Likert-type scal e (i.e., from one for not important at all to five for extremely important). The DAP scores were calculated for items 5, 6, 12, 18, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, and 35. The mean and standard de viation of DAP was computed and total score of DAP for each participan t was calculated. The DIP scores were calculated for items 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24, and 32. The mean and standard deviation of DIP was computed and total score of DIP for each participant was calculat ed. To examine the differences in early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about DAP depending on academic status, a oneway ANOVA was conducted. In order to investig ate the relationship between DAP and field experience (i.e., numbers of field placements a nd length of field experi ences) and length of teaching experiences, Pearson Product correlations were performed.

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57 Q4. What are the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers about the relationship between beliefs about music and DAP? In order to address whethe r a significant relationship exists between early childhood education preservice teachers beliefs about mu sic and DAP, a Pearson Product correlations was conducted with the music beliefs scores measur e by music belief questionnaire, and the DAP beliefs scores as measured by the TBS. Based on th e correlation, in order to investigate in-depth patterns of relationships between music and DAP beliefs, the relationship between music and DAP beliefs was analyzed for each individual pa rticipant. The relationship between music and DAP beliefs was categorized in three groups : 1) stronger relations hip, 2) incongruent relationship, and 3) weaker re lationship. A strong relationship was identified as having both music belief scores and DAP belief scores th at ranged higher than 75% of all scores. An incongruent relationship was identi fied as having a music score ranging under 25% of all scores with a DAP scores ranging above 75% of all scor es. A weaker relationship was identified if both music and DAP belief scores ranged in the bottom 25% of all scores Frequencies of participants falling into each of these th ree categories were computed. Q5. What are the beliefs of early childhood pr eservice teachers who demonstrated various levels of beliefs (stronger, incongruent, and w eaker) about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP? In order to examine preservice teachers in -depth beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP, three preser vice teachers volunteered to participate in a follow-up interview. One of these interviewees showed a stronger relationship in her beliefs about music and DAP, another showed an incong ruent relationship, and the third interviewee demonstrated a weaker relationship in her belief s. One formal interview for each participant was

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58 conducted for a total of three in terviews. Interview questions focused on three main categories: 1) beliefs about music, 2) beliefs about DAP, a nd 3) beliefs about the re lationship between music and DAP. Each category had four to five sub-questions totaling fourteen questions. All interviews were transcribed and coded to taling forty eight pages. The pseudo names Jen, Tara, and Cindy are used to identify each inte rviewee to protect part icipant confidentiality. Coded data were analyzed for patterns and ta xonomies that may explai n the beliefs of the interviewees. The coded data analysis focuse d on experiences that affected early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music (i.e., the participants personal experience, family background). All interview content was transcribed into text in numbered transcription forms. A domain analysis was used to code protocols (Spradle y, 1979). Domain analysis utilizes semantic relationships to organize qualitati ve data, for example, X is a role of music. The domain analysis worksheets include the location and defi nitions of terms used in the protocols. The location of protocols refers to the participants name, the page number, and the line number. For example, J-5-3 means Jens interview, page fi ve, and the third line. Based on the interview protocol, fifty-two coding forms were created after a review of the transcribed interviews. The researcher reviewed domain analyses and pr otocols for each interview and modified coding structures when appropriate to better reflect pr eservice teacher beliefs. After these modifications were made, the researcher combined and rearra nged codes, and this process resulted in the creation of forty-three coding forms. Based on the domain analyses, an overall taxonomy that reflected the participants belief systems was es tablished. Finally, a cultural psychological theme was created for each participant and will be introduced in the results chapter.

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59 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study is to examine early ch ildhood preservice teachers beliefs about music, developmentally appropriate practice ( DAP), and the relationship between music and DAP. This chapter presents the results of the study, including descrip tive data and various statistical analyses relate d to each research question. Demographic Descriptive Information Demographic teacher information and descriptive data were collected from the participants using a teacher information questionnaire a nd a basic music questionnaire. Demographic information collected from the teachers included gender, age, academic status, ethnicity, field experiences, and teaching experiences. In the ba sic music questionnaire, the participants were asked to give information regarding their formal and informal music education, ability to read musical notation, and knowledge of musical te rms. Table 4-1 shows the demographic and descriptive information of the participants. A total of sixty-five early childhood preservice teachers participated in this study. All of the participants were females. Ninety-seven percent of all participants were between the ages of nineteen and twenty four years old (M=21.85, SD= 1.82). The majority of the participants were Caucasian (74 %) and Hispanic (14 %). Twenty-five (38.5 %) of the participants were juniors and twenty four (36.9%) of the participants were seniors. Ea ch junior participant had two practicum experiences, and each senior participan t had four practicum experiences. All of the graduate students had completed four practicum experiences for two semesters and one semester of internship. The average length of time spent in field placements for all participants was about twenty weeks. Approximately half of the par ticipants in this study had teaching experience, including full-time and part-time teaching. The average length of tim e that participants who had

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60 taught full-time was less than two months, and the average length of time th at participants with part-time positions had been teaching was approximately seven months. The majority of the participants (86.2%) had informal or formal music education (i.e., playing instruments, dance, or band). About 50% of the participants were able to read musical notation. To assess knowledge of music terms, five basic music concepts were pr esented in the questionnaire. The participants were asked to write brief definitions of the terms tempo, beat, melody, rhythm, and articulation. The term that was most frequently identified correctly was tempo. Forty-one of the participants (63.1%) were able to provide the correct definitio n of tempo. The most correctly identified to least correctly identifie d terms were tempo, melody, rhythm, beat, and articulation respectively. Seven of the participants were able to correctly identify four of the five terms, and none of the participants identified all five terms correctly. Sixteen of the participants (24.6%) were not able to identify any term correctly. An outline of the coursework the participants has taken is shown in Table 4-2. Because all of the participants attended the same program wh ich has a rigidly structur ed sequence of courses in a university in Florida, the preservice teachers at each year (e.g., junior, senior, graduate year) had taken the same courses. At the time of this study, junior st udents were taking math, science, emergent literacy, and multicul tural education. Senior stud ents were taking technology, measurement and evaluation, language arts for diverse learners, and curriculum and management. Junior and senior students had not had taken music related courses before. Only graduate level students were taking a creativity course that included a portion on music. Early Childhood Preservice Te achers Beliefs about Music Q1. What are the beliefs of early childhood pres ervice teachers about music (the benefits of music, the importance of music, confidence in their ability to implement music activities and support music development, and the importan ce of teachers role s regarding music)?

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61 To address early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music, total scores on the 36item Music Belief Scale were computed by summ ing individual scores. The music belief scale scores in this study ranged from 118 to 213 (the possible range is from 36 to 216). The mean score was 167.8 (SD = 16.3). Higher scores on the music belief scale indicate that respondents felt the statements about music were true, and lower scores indicate that respondents felt the statements about music were false. The mean score on individual questions was 4.66 out of a possible six points. This score was calculated by taking the tota l scores divided by the total number of questions answered. The range of mean scores on individua l questions was 3.28 to 5.92. Average scores on eight of the test items we re above five, indicating that respondents felt the statements about music were true. Average sc ores on twenty seven of the items were above four, indicating that the respondent s felt the statements were more true than false. The average score of only one item was below three, indicati ng that respondents felt the statement was more false than true. To assess early childhood teachers beliefs abou t the benefits of music, the scores of teacher beliefs on the aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional bene fits of music were computed. First, aesthetic benefit scores we re analyzed by summing the responses. The mean score of beliefs on the aesthetic benefits of mu sic was 48.23 with a standard deviation of 4.8. The scores ranged from 31 to 60 (the possible range is 10-60). The mean score of individual items was 4.82, and the range of individua l item scores was 3.10 to 6. Second, quality-of-life benefit scores were analyzed by summing the responses. The total mean sc ore of aesthetic benefit was 37.38 with a standard deviation of 4.7. The score ra nged from 26 to 52 (possible range is 9-54). The mean score of individual items was 4.15 a nd it ranged from 2.89 to 5.78. Third, social emotional growth benefit scores were analyzed by summing the responses. The total mean score

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62 of social-emotional growth benefit was 44.52 with a standard deviation of 4.4. The score ranged from 34 to 54 (possible range is 9-54). The m ean score was 4.94 and it ranged from 3.78 to 6. Table 4-3 provides mean scores of three benefits of music. To identify teacher beliefs on th e importance of music relative to the importance of other subjects, the participants were asked to rank six subjects (e.g., mu sic, physical education [P.E], literacy, art, math, and science) from the most im portant subject to the le ast important subject in early childhood education. Results of this assessme nt were, in order of mo st important to least important, literacy, math, science, music, art, and P.E. Of all the participants, 96.9% ranked literacy the most important subject Fifty of the subjects (78.1%) ranked math as the second most important subject. Almost half of the participants (45.3%) ra nked science the third most important subject. Music was ranked the fourth most important subject by twenty-four (37.5%) participants. Art was ranked the fifth most im portant subject by 37.5% of the participants. Finally, P.E. was ranked the leas t important subject th irty four (52.3%) par ticipants. Table 4-4 outlines the rank of six subjects. No participant ranked music as the most impor tant subject. One part icipant ranked music as the second most important subject. Twelve pa rticipants ranked music as the third important subject. Twenty four participants ranked music as the fourth most important subject. Nineteen participants ranked music as the fifth important subject, and eight particip ants ranked music as the least important subject. Figure 4-1 provides the results of the rankings on music. In order to address early ch ildhood preservice teachers beliefs about their ability to implement music activities and support music deve lopment in the classroom, the participants were asked to report their confidence levels in va rious areas from not confident to extremely confident. Figure 4-2 provides a summary of th e teachers beliefs about their ability to

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63 implement music activities and support music development. Over 50% of the respondents answered they feel either very or extremely confident in their abil ity to implement music activities in the classroo m. Twenty-three (35.4%) participants were moderately c onfident in their ability to implement music activities, and 12% of the participants felt either somewhat confident or not confident in their abil ity to implement mu sic activities. Severa l of the respondents (41.5 %) also indicated that they are very confident in supporti ng music development. Over 20% of the respondents reported that they felt ei ther somewhat confident or not confident in supporting music development. Figure 4-3 provides a summary of participants beliefs about the ro les of early childhood teachers and music teachers to support music devel opment. Over 80% of the participants stated that both music teachers roles and early ch ildhood teachers roles are very or extremely important. Thirty six (55.4%) of the particip ants responded that they felt early childhood teachers roles are very important. Twenty (31% ) of the participants indicated that early childhood teachers roles are extremely important Twenty eight (43.1%) of the respondents responded that they felt music teach ers roles are very important. Fi nally, thirty four (52%) of the participants responded that they felt music teach ers roles are extremely important in supporting music development. Q2. What is the relationship between early childhood preservice teac hers beliefs about music and teachers individual characteristics (academic status, field experiences, teaching experiences, ability to read musi cal notation, and music education)? To determine there are differences in early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music depending on academic status, one-way between subjects ANOVA was performed, where academic status served as the factor and music belief scores served as the outcome variable.

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64 Means (with standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who are juniors, seniors, and graduate students were 169.76(16.99), 168.74(14.02), and 163.38( 18.24), respectively. With an alpha level of .05, the effect of ethnicity was not statistically significant, F (2, 61) = .807, p = .451. Results of ANOVA are presented in Table 4-5. To examine the relationship between music be liefs and field experi ence (numbers of placements and length of experiences), a Pearso n product correlation was performed. There was no statistically significant relati onship between beliefs about mu sic and numbers of practicum placements with an alpha level of .05 (n = 64, r = -.147, p = .246). Also, There was no statistically significant relati onship between beliefs about mu sic and number of length of practicum with an alpha level of .05 (n = 64, r = -.136, p = .284). Table 4-6 shows the results of correlation. To identify the relationship between music beliefs and teaching experiences, a Pearson Product correlation was performed. There was no statistically significan t relationship between beliefs about music and length of teaching expe riences with an alpha level of .05 (n = 64, r = .066, p = .606). Table 4-7 presents the results of correlation. In order to determine there are differences in early childhood preservi ce teachers beliefs about music depending on confidence level of implementing music activi ties, one-way between subjects ANOVA was performed, wher e academic status served as the factor and music belief scores served as the outcome variable. Means (w ith standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who feel somewhat/not confident, modera tely confident, very confident and extremely confident were 164.75(11.61), 160.78(16.48), 167.13(11.96) and 187.90(12.21) respectively. With an alpha level of .05, the effect of conf idence level of implementing music activities was

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65 statistically significant, F (3, 60) = 9.215, p = .000. Table 4-8 shows one-way ANOVA summary table 4-8. On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the statistically significant mean di fferences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level of .05. First, the difference between teachers w ho feel extremely confident and somewhat/not confident was statistically significant, t (60) = 23.15 p = .009. Secondly, the difference between teachers who feel extremely confident and modera tely confident was statistically significant, t (60) = 27.12 p = .000. Thirdly, the difference between teac hers who feel extremely confident and very confident was statistically significant, t (60) = 20.77 p = .003. Table 4-9 shows posthoc comparisons. To determine there are differences in early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music depending on confidence level of suppor ting musical development, one-way between subjects ANOVA was performed, where confiden ce level of supporting musical development served as the factor and music belief scores served as the outcome variable. Means (with standard deviations in parenthe sis) for groups who feel somewh at/not confident, moderately confident, very confident and extrem ely confident were 163.46(20.43), 163.53(10.87), 168.27(14.47) and 188.67(14.73), respectively. With an alpha level of .05, the effect of confidence level of supporting musical devel opment was not statis tically significant, F (3, 60) = 4.770, p = .005. The result of One-way ANOVA is summarized in Table 4-10. On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the statistically significant mean di fferences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level of .05. First, the difference between teachers w ho feel extremely confident and somewhat/not confident was statistically significant, t (60) = 25.21 p = .013. Secondly, the difference between

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66 teachers who feel extremely confident and modera tely confident was statistically significant, t (60) = 25.14 p = .008. Thirdly, the difference between teac hers who feel extremely confident and very confident was statistically significant, t (60) = 20.40 p = .037. The summary of the pairwise post-hoc comparisons were presented in Table 4-11. In order to determine there are differences in early childhood preservi ce teachers beliefs about music depending on ability to read mu sical notation, one-way between subjects ANOVA was performed, where ability to read musical not ation served as the factor and music belief scores served as the outcome variable. Means (w ith standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who could read, could read somewhat and couldnt read musical notation were 171.37(13.53), 162.94(15.53), and 183.75(26.12), respective ly. With an alpha level of .05, the effect of ability to read musical notation was statistically significant, F (2, 61) = 4.496, p = .015. The result is shown in Table 4-12. On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the statistically significant mean di fferences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level of .05. The difference between teachers who co uld somewhat read musical notation and who couldnt read musical notation statistically significant, t (61) = 20.81 p = .046. Table 4-13 presents post-hoc comparisons. To identify there are differences in early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music depending on having music education, inde pendent T-test was performed, where music education served as the factor and music belief scores served as the outcome variable. Means (with standard deviations in parenthesis) for groups who have had music education and no music education were 169.13(15.14) and 160.63(22.46). With an alpha level of .05, the effect of having

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67 music education was not statistically significant, t (61) = 1.39 p = .169. Table 4-14 shows the summary of one-way ANOVA. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about DAP Q3. What are the beliefs of early childhood pr eservice teachers about DAP? What is the relationship between early chil dhood preservice teachers beliefs about DAP and their individual characteristics (academic status, field experiences and teaching experiences)? DAP and DIP scores were computed to assess teacher beliefs about DAP and DIP. First, DAP scores were analyzed by summing the resp onse. The mean score of items assessing DAP was 57.32 with a standard deviation of 4.8. The scores ranged from 47 to 65 with a possible range of 13 to 65. The mean score was DAP 4.41 and the score is between very important and extremely important. Second, DIP scores were analyzed by summing the responses. The mean score of items assessing DIP was 37.42 with a sta ndard deviation of 5.5. Th e scores ranged from 26 to 52 with a possible range of 13 to 65. The mean score of DIP was 2.9 and it is between not important and fairly important. Table 415 shows the results of DAP and DIP. In order to determine weather there are significantly differenc es in early childhood preservice teachers beliefs a bout DAP depending on academic status, one-way between subject ANOVA was conducted, where academic status served as the factor and DAP scores served as the outcome variable. Means (with standard deviati ons in parenthesis) for groups who are juniors, seniors and graduate students were 54.68( 5.45), 59.29(3.09), and 58.50(4.36), respectively. With an alpha level of .05, the effect of academ ic status was statistically significant, F (2, 62) = 7.40, p = .001. Table 4-16 shows a summary of one-way ANOVA. On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the statistically significant mean di fferences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level

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68 of .05. First, the difference be tween juniors and seniors wa s statistically significant, t (62) = 4 .61, p = .002. Secondly, the difference between juniors a nd graduates was statis tically significant, t (62) = 3.82 p = .032. Post-hoc comparisons were presented in Table 4-17. To identify whether there ar e significantly differences in early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about DIP depending on acad emic status, one-way between subject ANOVA was conducted, where academic status served as th e factor and DIP scores served as the outcome variable. Means (with standard de viations in parenthesis) for gr oups who are juniors, seniors and graduate students were 3 9.96(4.98), 33.88(5.66), and 38.75(3.22), resp ectively. With an alpha level of .05, the effect of academic st atus was statistically significant, F (2, 62) = 10.24, p = .000. Table 4-15 demonstrated a summary of ANOVA. On the basis of the F test, the group means were inspected. To find the location of the statistically significant mean di fferences the Scheffe procedure was implemented at alpha level of .05. First, the difference be tween juniors and seniors wa s statistically significant, t (62) = 4 .61, p = .002. Secondly, the difference between seniors a nd graduates was statis tically significant, t (62) = 4.88 p = .012. The results of post-hoc comparisons were summarized in Table 4-16. To examine the relationship between beliefs about DAP and field experience (numbers of placements and length of experiences), a Pearso n product correlation was performed. There was statistically significant relati onship between beliefs about mu sic and number of practicum placements with an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r =.364, p = .003). It indicates that beliefs about music positively related to numbers of practic um placements. Also, There was statistically significant relationship between be liefs about music and length of practicum experience with an alpha level of .005 (n = 64, r = .384, p = .002). It implies stronger beli efs about DAP is related to longer field experiences. Table 4-17 presents the summary of correlations.

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69 In order to examine the relationship between beliefs about DIP and field experiences (numbers of placements and length of experience s, a Pearson product correlation was performed. There was no statistically signi ficant relationship between belief s about music and numbers of field placements with an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r = -.192, p = .126). Also, There was no statistically significant relationshi p between beliefs about music and length of practicum with an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r = -.222, p = .076). Table 4-18 presents th e results of correlations. In order to determine weather there are sign ificantly relationships between early childhood preservice teachers beliefs a bout DAP and teaching experiences, a Pearson product correlation was performed. There was no statistically signi ficant relationship between beliefs about DAP and length of teaching experiences w ith an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r = -.093, p = .461). Table 4-18 presents the resu lts of correlation. In order to determine weather there are sign ificantly relationships between early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about DIP and teaching experiences, a Pearson product correlation was performed. There was no statistically signifi cant relationship between beliefs about DIP and length of teaching experiences with an alpha level of .05 (n = 65, r = -.138, p = .275). The results of correlations were summarized in table 4-19. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP Q4 What are the beliefs of early childhood pr eservice teachers about the relationship between beliefs about music and DAP? The relationship between early childhood pres ervice teachers beliefs about DAP and music was assessed using a Pearson Product Corr elation with music be lief scores and DAP scores. There was a statistically significant rela tionship between beliefs about music and DAP with an alpha level of .05 (n = 64, r = .305, p = .014). This indicates that stronger beliefs about

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70 music are positively correlated with stronger beli efs about DAP. Also, weaker music beliefs are correlated with weaker level of beliefs of DAP. Table 4-20 pres ents a summary of correlations. Based on the correlations found between beliefs about music and DAP, in-depth patterns of the relationships between music and DAP beliefs was assessed. This was done by conducting an analysis on the correlation between music and DAP for each pa rticipant. The participants were divided into three brackets. These brackets were created ba sed on scores of music and DAP beliefs. Figure 4-4 shows how the three groups were divided in each belief. Participants placed in the stronger beliefs category had belief scores on both music a nd DAP belief assessments that were above 75% of the participants. This means th at these participants ha d the strongest beliefs about music and DAP of the participants. The pa rticipants placed in the incongruent category received scores in one category that were over 75%, but scored below 25% in the other category. Participants placed in the weaker beliefs ca tegory had belief scores on both music and DAP that were below 25% of the participants. This means that these participants had the weakest beliefs about music and DAP of the participants. Table 4-21 shows the numbers of participants with stronger, incongruent, and weaker relationships. Three juniors a nd two seniors had stronger belie fs in both music and DAP. No graduate students demonstrated a stro nger relationship be tween music and DAP Seven juniors and one graduate student demonstrated a weaker relationship between mu sic and DAP. No senior students demonstrated a weak er relationship between musi c and DAP. Only one junior demonstrated an incongruent relationship thr ough demonstrating strong music beliefs and weak DAP beliefs. One senior and one graduate student showed an incongruent relationship through demonstrating weak music beliefs and strong DAP beliefs.

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71 Q5. What are the beliefs of early childhood pres ervice teachers who demonstrated various levels of beliefs (stronger, incongruent, and w eaker) about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP? The purpose of this research question was to investigate deeper leve ls of early childhood preservice teacher beliefs who demonstrate strong er, incongruent, and we aker beliefs of music and DAP. In-depth interviews with three partic ipants were conducted to answer this question. The interviews used for these participants covere d three areas in depth: 1) beliefs about music, including the meaning and role of music, person al and professional background related to music, teacher education, and confidence levels, 2) beliefs about DAP including the meaning of DAP and description of DAP and DIP (i.e., general principles to implement DAP, teacher roles, physical environment), and 3) beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP. The analysis presented in this section was based on qu estionnaire results (i.e., Teacher Beliefs Scale, music belief scale, teacher information questionn aire, and music basic questionnaire), interviews with the participants, includi ng protocols and domains, and concept webs created by the interviewees. The interview participants we re Jen, Tara, and Cindy (pseudo names). Jen demonstrated a stronger relationship between music and DAP with both strong music and DAP beliefs. Tara demonstrated an incongruent re lationship with weak music beliefs and strong DAP beliefs, and Cindy demonstrated a weaker relationship with both weak music and DAP beliefs. Table 4-22 outlines the basic information of the three teachers who participated in the follow-up interviews. Jen and Tara were senior st udents and Cindy was junior. They were all twenty-one years old. Jen and Cindy reported that th ey were Caucasian, and Tara reported that she was Hispanic. Jen and Tara had six-month of practicum experi ences at four different practicum placements.

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72 Cindy was in her second practicum at the time of her intervie w. Only Tara had part-time teaching experience. All of the interviewees had informal or formal music education (i.e., learning to play instruments, play ing in a band). Jen received the strongest music belief score of the three participants. Tara showed the strongest DAP scor e of the three participants. Jen reported that she was extremely confident with her ability to implement and support music activities. Tara reported that she was moderately confident with her ability to implement and support music activities. Cindy stat ed that she was moderately confident in her ability to implementing music activities; however she reported that she was not confident in her ability to support music development. Only Jen was able to read musical notation and correctly defined four of the five musical terms (i.e., tempo, beat, melody, and rhythm). Taxonomy Figure 4-5 shows the taxonomy that outlines th e three teachers beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP. Im portant components that influence teachers beliefs in these areas were f ound. These areas include personal background, confidence level, professional experience, and teacher education. The primary layers of connections among the components in the taxonomy exist in music, DAP, and th e relationship between music and DAP. The taxonomy was built from second-order constructs. Second-order constructs are an explanatory structure created through the res earchers reflections ba sed on the first-order constructs from the participants responses (Sprad ley, 1979). In other words, s econd-order constr ucts are the interpretations of the beliefs of the participants made by the researcher. Reflecting upon all three interview transcript s, domain analyses, concept webs, and the questionnaires, the important fact ors of beliefs were drawn: pe rsonal background (i.e., people or events that influence beliefs), teacher education (i.e., coursework ), professional experiences (i.e.,

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73 field experiences, teaching experiences), and confidence (confidence level in implementing music or DAP). The arrows represent the relationships. The taxonomy outlines: 1) how the three partic ipants overall perceive and believe music and DAP are related, 2) what factors and components may have had an effect in their establishment of beliefs regarding music and DAP, and 3) how various factors and components may have influenced beliefs about music and DAP and the differing degrees of influence these factors may have had. Based on the representative taxonomy, the beliefs of the three participants in the areas of music, DAP, and the relati onship between music and DAP will be described, explained, and compared. Teachers Beliefs about Music The participants beliefs about music were analyzed from the results of the interviews. In the analysis of beliefs about music, the meani ngs and roles of music for young children arose as a core concept. Also, there arose various componen ts that were found to have an effect on music beliefs. These components were: 1) personal back ground (i.e., events, people, or formal and informal music education), 2) professional e xperiences (i.e., practicum, teaching, cooperating teachers, and children), 3) teacher education (i .e., coursework, faculty), and 4) confidence in their ability to implement a nd support music development. The Meanings and Roles of Music for Young Children All three preservice teachers basically agreed that musi c is important for young children. However, each teacher had a different definition of the meaning of music. Jen reported that the meaning of music included several diverse functions of music, such as using music as a means of expression, a tool to support other learning, and a source of emotion. This definition varied with the definitions of Tara and Cindy. The italic font reflects the key words and important components.

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74 Jen: Music is a means of expression (J-13-21) I mean you can e xpress your emotions or even by listening to music. (J-13-40) Its a tool that can be used to supplement learning as well (J-8-39). Something they [children] enjoy (J-9-9). It [music] makes me happy. It influences my moods. (J-13-40) Tara stated that music plays an important role and can be both fun and educational for young children. Also, she felt music could speak to the different types of learning styles and different kinds of multiple intelligences (T-10-23). However, she explained that music is not a core subject, which implies that she felt core subjects were separate from music. She distinguished her definition of core (literacy, math, science) and non-core (music, art, PE) subjects. Tara stated that music is positive, but merely a supplementary subject that might help children succeed in school. Tara: Music, its just not so core Its not as core subject as academic. (T-10-43) It was never something that oh this is what youre gonna do because you have to. It was just if you wanted to do it, you c ould choose to do it. (T-11-43) I mean the role of music can help students succeed even better in the classroom if they have that. (T-10-23) Cindy described music as both a backdrop and a good supplement. Cindy reported that music could be used as a supplement to support other academic areas. Cindy: its a good supplement to different activities. Using it asI think sometimes its good to use as a backdrop t o your classroom. (C-7-28) Like a background music. I think like having a special like music class is good for a lot of kids because they like music and music class gives them something other than academics all day long. (C-7-34) Personal Background All three preservice teachers had different personal backgrounds re lated to music. Among three participants, Jen and Tara described a positive background experience with music. The

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75 effect of Jens personal experi ences with music on her positive beliefs toward music was evident in her interviews. Jen: music is personally very important to me. Its a part of my life I guess thats why it [music] should be important for everyone else. (J-9-29) There was always music in my house. I al ways remember singing in church when I was young so that probably play a factor. As I grow up there were the specials like an elementary school and I love to. They had Orff instruments. I just loved playing those (J-938) I went in middle school; I started playi ng with the band. I pl ayed music all through high school. (J-10-1) Tara reported that she enjoyed music when sh e was younger and played clarinet in band. She personally enjoyed listening to th e music, but she considered musi c an extracurricular activity that should be based on choice rather than necessary for all students. Tara: I did music when I was in band when I was in middle school. I liked it, but it was always something that was just extracurricular (T-11-34) I wanted to learn to play diffe rent instruments. I thought it wa s interesting, but it was never something that oh this is what youre gonna do because you have to. (T-11-42) Like my mom, weve always listened to mu sic (laughter) since I was young. Even now. I mean I like music. I was very sad in Italy when I couldnt listen to music. (T-12-27) Jen and Tara had similar positive attitudes toward music. However, their positive backgrounds related to music had different e ffects on their beliefs about music for young children. Jens personal backgr ound with music had a positive effect on her perspective and beliefs about music for young children. This was reveal ed in her report of her roles of music and the meaning of music for young children. However, Taras positive personal experiences with music did not seem to have an effect on her beliefs about music for young children. Cindy had negative experiences in relation to music. She recalled he r experience of trying to learn hand bells when she was in the sixth grade. She described that she was not good at learning music and she did not like music at that time.

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76 Cindy: but my mom tried to make me play hand bells. I wasnt very go od at it. I didnt understand and read music. (C-8-30) I think I didnt like it because I didnt get it. I couldnt do it. They highlighted the notes on the page for me because I didnt know what my note was like to play. I was very bad at reading music so I think I didnt like it because of that experience. (C-8-38) Tara and Cindy mentioned that their mothers in fluenced their beliefs and experiences with music. Tara had positive memories related to he r mother with music. Cindy, however, received a negative musical influence from her mother related to the pressure when her mother attempted to urge Cindy to learn a new instrument. Cindy ha d difficulties learning how to read music and understand musical concepts. She also did not like music. These factors in fluenced her attitude toward music and appear to currently have an affect on her beliefs toward music as well. Cindy: I think that my mom was probably the most [influential]. She is the one that tried to make me take hand bells that I didnt want to. The reason she wanted me to do that is because her mom made her take piano. She didn t really do well in piano as a child, but as an adult, she really regretted not knowing how to read music, not knowing how to play piano and so she thought if she encourage to me to learn something, I would be appreciative of that when I got older. I woul d be appreciative that I learned how to read music but it kind of backfired on her. I think (laughter). I wa s stubborn. (C-10-14) I do [regret]. I know I do [regret]. I wish that I could. I think the way she tried to make me do it didnt work. She tried to force me into it more than encouraging or letting me do it on my own. She is not really lik e that except when playing ha nd-bells. She really really wanted me to do it and I just resisted it. (C-10-27) Professional Experiences All of the interviewed preser vice teachers had their musical beliefs influenced by their practicum experiences. Overall, the participants did not see evidence of diverse music activities at their practicum sites. Most of the music activities they observed during practicum were comprised of singing and a few dances. Jen es pecially did not have many opportunities to observe music in her early ch ildhood practicum classrooms. Also, she explained her reflection about her cooperating teachers attitude toward music.

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77 Q: Have you seen a lot of musi c activities in your practicum? Jen: No. Not at all, really. Q: at all? Jen: I cant really remember. Im sure that it wa s little bit, but I think at least in the public school setting, they think oh, they are goi ng to music on Tuesday. So you know, I dont need to do music if they are going to music maybe thats their thinking. I dont remember dancing, but I know in circle time, it was probably the most usual time that singing what happene d. (J-11-7 to J-11-24) Jen reported what she guessed regarding her co-teachers beliefs about music I dont need to do music if they [children] are going to music [special]. This statement could reflect the current educational attitude towa rd music. Because there are sp ecial classes for music, some early childhood educators tend to see music as a special, not a part of early the childhood curriculum (IEtoile, 2001). Tara observed that th e music activities in her practicum and parttime teaching sites were mostly singing and danc ing. Also, she reported that the purpose of the music activities was being active wi th the music. This is only a part of the various goals and potential benefits of music. Tara: I have always seen it where in the morn ings and circle times there is consistently music playing. Kids are partic ipating by singing and dancing. Just being active with the music. (T-10-15) Teacher Education For the purposes of this study, teacher educ ation includes all coursework that the preservice teachers have taken, including readin gs, content knowledge, discussions, and faculty and peer influence. Because al l three preservice teachers were in same early childhood pro-teach program as juniors, seniors, a nd graduate students, coursework required by the program is the same for each academic status. Therefore, their teacher education backgrounds are similar in regards to their academic status. Table 4-23 shows the courses that the participants were taking at the time of the interview. Cindy and Jen had not taken any early ch ildhood education music

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78 course. Tara individually had taken an introdu ctory art/music class th at was not early childhood focused in her sophomore year. Among the three interviewees, Cindy frequently mentioned that she had no opportunities to take music classes. She explained that the main reason for her low level of confidence in implementing music is due to the lack of her opportunities to take a music class. Cindy: personally, Im not trained musically to be able to We didnt have music class. I havent taken any music class at college(C-8-29) I wouldnt be able to implement music practices. (C-7-38) I think elementary educat ion takes a class on music in the classroom, but we dont. (C-8-4) Cindy explained the reasons why she believed literacy and math were more important subjects than music and art; many of the c ourses she had taken emphasized the subjects of literacy, math, and science. Also, she said that academic subjects are very important to her because she wants to be a normal classroom teacher. The normal classroom may imply a typically developing classroom. She revealed her beliefs that literacy, math, and science are important for typically developing children. Als o, it seems as though she believed literacy, math, and science are helpful for all chil dren, but music, art, and PE is only helpful for some children. Cindy: The first three [lit eracy, math and science] I wanna be a normal classroom teacher, so those three [literacy, math and science] are really important to me Particularly, because thats what I have been taught to consider looking for it I guess. (C-9-5) Music, PE, and art are important for different reasons for different childre n. I know some students thrive in music, but little boys hate music and never wanna go to music and they only wanna go to PE. (C-9-16) Ive taken reading class and math and science class. And I havent taken any other classes on music, PE or art. There is always talk about those [music and art], how they are good like in addi tion to your class, but I havent been taught really how to use music, PE and art in my classroom. (C-9-36) My learning in this program has been primarily focused on literacy, math, and science. (C-10-9) Tara discussed her experiences in her intr oductory music and art class. However, she mentioned that she did not learn how to teach mu sic for young children in that class because the class was not specifically for early childhood ed ucators. Tara and Cindy frequently mentioned

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79 they did not learn how to teach music. They bot h agreed that music is somewhat important for some children, but they both stated that they do not know how to impl ement specific music activities. Tara: cause right now the class [mus ic/art introductory class] that they give that is half art and half music. I didnt feel like it was a lot of how to teach art and how to teach music. It was just learning about basic stuff but maybe in those classes they can talk more about it. Tara believed a major component of early ch ildhood education is an emphasis on literacy and math. Also, she stated that it is important to prepare teachers to teach these academic subjects. She believed that early childhood educators do not n eed to learn music content knowledge and how to teach music. Tara: I think the biggest things right now in education would be literacy and math, but also to learn how to integrate the subjects. (T-12-44) Its just how to teach and how to read sounds, how to teach math, things like th at. I mean those are very important to teach math and literacy (T-13-21). I dont know if it necessarily needs to be taugh t how to teach music but its more if you have the ability to play instruments or to sing, you can bring that into your classroom. I dont know if it specifically has to be a class that is taught. (T-14-3) Like the tempo and rhythm, actual music conten t knowledge, its not necessary to learn that in an early childhood classroom. (T-18-14) Confidence in Implementing and Supporting Music All three preservice teachers demonstrated diffe rent levels of confidence in their ability to use and teach music to young child ren. These different levels of confidence were influenced by personal experience, professional experience, a nd teacher education. Jen demonstrated stronger confidence levels in the area of music implementation than the ot her two teachers. Regarding the sources of the confidence, she mentione d her personal music background and positive experiences related to music. Jen: I guess its just because my background includes a lot of music And also because I know that most children love music. They love to sing or hum or whatever. So I think its something theyll enjoy. I should be c onfident about using it in a classroom.

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80 Tara demonstrated separate levels of conf idence between using music and teaching music. She mentioned that she is confident in using and incorporating music into other core subjects, but she is not confident in her ab ility to teach music content knowledge. She repeated her opinion that early childhood teachers do not necessari ly need to know music content knowledge. Tara: Im more comfortable in incorporating music into my classroom. Q: how do you feel that you are conf ident in teaching about music? Tara: No. I dont know. Im not at all. (T-16-6) I dont think they [early childhood teachers] have to know about it [music content knowledge ] and it would be good if they did, but I dont feel also a lot of kids at that three or four year age are like oh, whats a tempo or whats rhyt hm? I think you could provide them with instrument like drums and things like that is not necessarily you have to do like this is a rhythm or this is you know. I feel like its not something I would know about it to sit and to talk about it with my students. (T-16-21) Tara also had different opinions on roles of early childhood educators an d music educators in terms of music content knowledge and implementation of music activities in the classroom. She supported the idea that music educ ators are more responsible for teaching music than early childhood educators. Tara: I think its important to have the actual classroom teacher to introduce them to music but I feel it will be more like that the music educators to te ach them [children] about the tempo or rhythm cause they [music educators] are the ones that know about it. (T-16-12) Additionally, Tara mentioned that she feels most competent in teaching literacy skills. She explained the sources of her confidence with lite racy as its my coursework, the books because Ive always been interested in from when I was younger. Also seeing it [literacy] done in the kindergarten classroom and working with the kids (T-19-21). This indicates that her confidence may derive from her own personal intere st, strong content knowl edge in this area, and several positive experiences related to the subject through field experience.

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81 Cindy expressed that she did not feel confid ent in her music content knowledge and her skills with teaching students about music. She explained that her lower level of confidence in music was due to the lack of coursework rela ted to music. Among three interviewed teachers, Cindy showed the lowest level of c onfidence in teaching about music. Cindy: Personally, Im not trained musically to be able to. (C-7-38) Cindy: I feel I can play music and we can talk about like is this song fa ster or slow. I can probably do that, but other than that I dont feel I can [teach music]. I havent taken class on music (C-8-1). Similar to Tara, she believed that she is ab le to implement some music activities, but she reported that she is not able to teach music c ontent knowledge such as musical notation and signs (i.e., flat). Cindy: I think its appropriate fo r teachers to know and understand to be able to talk to kids about patterns and music like here we hear the drum and then we hear the horn, then, thats a pattern. I can tell you th at kind of thing, but if you ask me like is this flat whatever the other, I wouldnt be able to tell you. I dont think thats n ecessarily something I need to know. For the age that I want to teach, I dont th ink it would be incredibly important that I would be able to tell them or explain the notes drawn. (C-12-26) Based on Tara and Cindys interviews, most of their low levels of confidence were influenced by their lack of sufficient music c ontent knowledge and training in how to implement music activities appropriately. This may implicate the importa nce of content knowledge and opportunities to learn how to a pproach music for young children. Teachers Beliefs about DAP Three preservice teachers beliefs about DAP ha ve been investigated using interviews and TBS questionnaire information. This section begins with three preservice t eachers definitions of DAP and the principles of DAP. Then, characteri stics of DAP and DIP will be explained in terms of teacher roles, features of DAP and DIP practices, and the physical environment.

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82 Meaning of DAP Regarding DAP, all three preservice teachers addressed their own definitions of DAP. Jen mentioned three essential components to consider when implementing DAP, which are individual, age, and cultural appropriateness. Th e three terms are key co ncepts in the revised DAP guidelines (Bredcamp & Copple, 1997). Jen wa s the only participant who mentioned about the three components in DAP. This may indicate that Jen has corre ct and sufficient knowledge of DAP. Tara described the components of age and ab ility level, and Cindy did not discuss any of the three components. Jen: I think DAP is all a bout looking at each child individually and seeing what they need and what their strengths are, what their weaknesses are, what you should focus on? Of course, that would include you always hear about that it is needs to be culturally appropriate. You need to look at where they are comi ng from what their life is like outside of a school. In fact, whats happening in the classroom. Of course, it is age-appropriate. For what level they're at, what their agesju st individually looking at them as a person because no teacher would be at the same place a nd need to realize that in your classroom. (J-1-2 to J-1-13) Jen: what they [children] are interested in, what they need to focus on, what you [teachers] think it would be important for them [children] as an individual (J-1-36) Tara and Cindy had some similarities in their de finition, particularly pe rtaining to the provision of appropriate activities depending on childrens ability through a modification of difficulty level. Tara: DAP is just a way to have an appropriate practice in your clas sroom so that youre applying activities and giving activities to students so that they are abl e to complete that. They [the activities] are eas y enough for them to complete but also difficult enough for them to be challenged but its completed successfully, eventually with help of the teacher or help of the students (T-2-3). Its not just academic work and in a classroom kids need to play and have fun in order to, also to learn also just the activities theyre doing appropriate to their age and to their abilities. Not things that are too easy like coloring in paper that really has no significance to them. (T-2-28) Cindy: I would define (them) as practic es particularly in education that fit the needs of the child and that they fit the need s the child in a way that is not asking like two year-old to write a paragraph. Something like that is just ridiculous. We cant do that or vice versa, asking someone thats in fifth grade to do something that isnt appropriate for them because you know a baby can do it. That one would be inappropriate either. (C-1-31)

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83 Principles to Implement DAP The principles needed to implement DAP ha ve been analyzed based on the interview participants explanations and examples pertaini ng to DAP. The participants had similarities and differences in their discussions of important pr inciples and definitions surrounding DAP. Diverse perspectives on the principles of DAP were evid ent. Jen mentioned that activities should be interest based, active, hands-on, involve making choices, and involve an exchange between peers. Jen: what they are interes t ed in, what they need to focus on, what you think it would be important for them as an individual (J-1-36) I think they need to be active and involved in learning in to use the term hands-on they need to be just be very active what they are doing cause thats th e way that they learn as children (J-2-5) I think children are involved in making choices, and you know there are of course plans made by the teachers, but the children are involved in making choices about what they learn (J-2-14) I think that the exchange between peers is very valuable. (J-7-44) Tara stated that DAP needs to be interactiv e and communicative, and she also emphasized the importance of rules and st ructure as principles. Tara: also just during circle time, its interactive type of circle time, where kids are communicating and teachers communicating back to them. Its just interactive type of classroom where the kids feel safe to talk and discuss anything they want to talk about. (T2-42) Like an indefinable structure. Like kids understand it. The teachers understand it. There is a rule that are set; you know you have to take turns, you have to but now everybody can see there is structure. But the kids a nd the teacher know that 'cause it has been established before. (T-4-42) Cindy described that DAP principles need to allo w the child to succeed, involve scaffolding, interaction, and be sp ecialized to each child. Cindy: making practices that help the child grow particularly in areas that will help them succeed in school.(C-2-1). its to ta ke their potential that they have and to grow that potential and make them be able to do things that they want Kind of scaffolding them up, so theyll be able of succeed either that means just passing third grade, or it that means being a professor at UF or being the president whatever (laughter). Whatever the most, its different for differe nt kids.(C-2-15)

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84 Cindy: It was very wide range of students in this classroom. From very high functioning to very low functioning, so the practi ces on that classroom very like specialized to each child because they all were at such different levels. (C-7-19) The most commonly mentioned aspect of all three interviews about DAP principles was the concept of the need for inte raction. Jen primarily focused on th e childrens perspective, and Tara emphasized classroom structure. Cindy focused on helping each individual childs needs. Table 4-24 shows the comparison of the principles. Characteristics of DAP In terms of the characteristics of DAP, the following areas will be discussed in this section: 1) teacher roles, 2) features of DAP, a nd 3) physical environment. Teachers roles: The three teachers discussed th e various roles of teachers who implement DAP. Table 4-25 presents the comparison of the perceived roles of teachers. Jen and Tara shared some common perceptions of teach er roles as did Tara and Cindy. Jen and Tara emphasized the importance of making plans, obs erving children, and asking questions. Tara and Jen stated that teachers who implement de velopmentally appropriate practice make plans that are flexible and lenient to meet children s needs and reactions. In addition to this, Tara and Jen discussed the importance of asking quest ions to understand child ren and their abilities. Jen also discussed the teachers need to assess children based on observations while understanding the three ba sic concepts of DAP. Jen: whats happening in her classroom, wh at the children are already succeeding, what they dont need more practice wh at necessarily, what they need to work on more, and what they need to be focused on (J-3-5). Tara emphasized providing appropriate ma terials, communicating with children, getting to know children and parents and c ontinuing looking for the new resources as the roles of early childhood educators who implement DAP. Cindy added to th is list by discussing

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85 other teacher roles, which ar e fostering the growth and challenging the children, and scaffolding. Cindy: They [teachers] had activity set up in the room that matched students abilities or a little bit higher than students abilities so that it would promote growth with the students (C-5-28). Teachers need to be aware of where the students were and could be(C-5-32). Tara and Cindy both discussed the importance of knowing children to properly implement DAP. As seen the in the table 4-25, Jen and Tara proposed more aspects and examples of teacher roles than Cindy. Features of developmenta lly appropriate activities : In describing developmentally appropriate practice, the three teachers all described common feat ures. They all emphasized the importance of diverse and childcentered activities, the importan ce of play in centers, and involvement or engagement. Jen talked about th e importance of hands-on and center activities. Jen: activities that offer them tangible objects so that they can gras p the concept (J-2-36) Theyre reading, theyre looking at books or wr iting.theyre drawing all those things (J2-27) Implement maybe free choice, I mean cen ter time where children can make choices but there are still, you know, learning the objectiv es that need to be covered all of that. (J7-36) Tara also discussed the importance of centers an d engagement in activities in developmentally appropriate classroom. Tara: In general, engaging in activities themse lves with different l earning centers around the classroom. (T-2-22) Cindy focused on play, including the utilization of diverse activi ties (i.e., blocks, sand, books, puzzles, pictures, C-2-41) for younger children. Then, as children are getting older, she expressed that practice needs to move from play-b ased activities to academic preparation for first graders. Cindy: it needs to be like a lot of play especi ally in the beginning of the year emphasis on activities (J-3-35). I think its usually like a spectrum how like in the beginning of the year we have a long time. We have a lot of play and then moving slowly as the children mature,

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86 and they mature so much in the beginning of kindergarten to the end of the year and maturing into so that theyll be prepared for first grade (C-3-40). Developmentally appropriate physical environment : The three teachers explained components of a developmentally appropriate ph ysical environment. Jen and Tara described several aspects of the environm ent. Cindy only mentioned no desk s and chairs as a component of the developmentally appropriate environment. Jen was the primary interviewee to describe the emotional atmosphere of environment, which is an environment that feels welcoming and safe. Table 4-26 shows the components of a devel opmentally appropriate physical environment presented by the three teachers. Tara emphasized the importance of learning cen ters and boundaries between the centers. Tara: A classroom would have certain boundaries within centers within different areas of the classroom like say the teachers area. Betwee n the centers, there is not like, the library is not right next to dramatic play where more blocks and dramatic play together. Library and writing center together. You know things like that so that one activ ity is not disturbing the other activity. Things like that, and where a center time is its not, its a space just for center time they are not being di stracted by different objects in the classroom like blocks. (T-4-3) It appeared as though Tara held strong beliefs about the physical environment because she had positive experiences during her part-time teachin g experience. She described how she and her co-teacher had changed the classroom furniture a rrangement, and how this had an effect on the classroom atmosphere and childrens behavior. Tara: I said this is what we do. Can we try to move furniture around, it maybe work? And it worked (laughter). It really changed the behavior like the students in the classroom. Characteristics of Developmentall y Inappropriate Practice (DIP) The characteristics of developmentally inappropriate practice that the participants described primarily are related to practicum experiences. They illustrated specific examples of DIP through their own reflections. The main char acteristics of DIP that the teachers discussed

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87 were a lack of intera ction and a lack of rules or stru cture (C-5-3, T-4-24, T-4-32). These concepts are opposite to DAP principles. The teac hers descriptions of DIP will be discussed pertaining to the following three ar eas: 1) characteristics of teache rs using DIP, 2) features of DIP, and 3) developmentally inap propriate physical environment. Characteristics of teachers in DIP : All three preservice teachers explained the characteristics of teachers who are implementing inappropriate pr actice with various examples. Jen stated that the reason inappropriate practice was implemented was because of the teachers. She said that teachers in developmentally inappropriate classroom are inflexible and overly structured in their teaching. She stated that teachers implementing DI P use a direct approach with worksheets and workbooks, and they did not adapt to the needs of the students. Jen: I feel like the teachers were the problem. The environment was pretty good environment but it was just the teachers were (laughter) not quite doing everything right I think.(J-4-17) They didnt plan really ahead of time at all. They would.be there in the morning. Oh. What are we gonna do scie nce for today? I dont know.(J-4-30) Then, she mentioned about aspects that the te achers missed compared with the teachers who implement DAP. For example, Jen mentioned comm only observation in DAP and DIP. However, she pointed out the difference between them. Jen: I am sure they [teachers who implemen t DIP] did observe some obviously they were watching the children, but I dont think they took the opportunity to re ally use what they saw in their observing and use it to help children and support them and scaffold their learning as much as they really could have. (J-5-14) Also Jen made a distinction between personal ity and teachers ability to implement DAP. Jen: I know that they [teachers who implement DIP] definitely cared about the children and wanted to be a good teacher.

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88 Jen considered that teacher ability was more important in relation to implementation of DAP than personality. Thus, it seems that Jen believes that a good pe rsonality is not sufficient to ensure that a teacher will implement good teaching practices. Tara described teacher characteristics in deve lopmentally inappropriate classrooms as not engaging and as having no co mmunication with children. Cindy also mentioned that students were less involved in their lear ning. Tara and Jen proposed more diverse examples than Cindy in terms of teacher characteristics. Tara: Not engaging herself with the students. Not trying to communicate with them just kind of sitting back or just giving a rule or just giving de mands of what you need to do this, you need to do that. But not really explai ning to them why they should be doing this or there is no intent like learning out come that she is giving them. (T-5-5) The teacher really didnt do much to try to fix the problem. It was well, they always do that, Why dont we do something about it, but I never said anything, but I mean that just how it seemed. (T-6-44) Cindy: the teacher is not less involved, just like expecting students to do things rather than being involved helping them figure it out things, talking to th e children. (C-4-43) Features of DIP : There are common features of DI P that were mentioned by the three preservice teachers. Jen and Cindy frequently discussed how ina ppropriate practice involved teacher activities such as sitting at the desk for longer periods of time, giving students worksheets, and lack of interaction with the st udents. They both described the atmosphere of developmentally inappropriate classr ooms as rigid and isolated. Jen: Just from my personal experience I have been in a kindergarten classroom and they were all day long doing worksheets sitting at their desks. (J-2-2) It was like listen to the teacher, sitting in a chair, dont ta lk, just do your worksheets color in the lines, you know very just a rigid (J-3-29) Cindy: Sitting in a desk, isolated, they are not working in groups. Theyre doing individualized work, theyre not on groups. (C-4-40) Really hard worksheets or try to make them like read the book by themselves of regular chapters books. (C-5-11)

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89 They [children] did their work and they didnt interact with their peers at all. (C-5-42) Also, the teaching approach in DIP was described as having mo re lecture-based and direct instruction while not having ma ny opportunities for center activi ties (J-2-41, J-7-5, & C-5-41). Tara described the atmosphere of DIP as chaotic because of a lack of rules and structure. Along with principles of DAP, she considered structur e of classroom practice important component in teaching. Tara stated that if th e classroom operates in well-organ ized way and agreed upon rules exist, this will prevent chaos. Tara: Theyre mostly likely being in a center. They arent teaching th em anything or giving them knowledge of anything like. There is kind a jumping around and playing that theyre.. Kids are not spending enough time in one center and they are just running off doing something that has nothing to do with what the teacher intended th em to do. Its just a chaotic classroom. (T-4-18) I felt like it was a lot like the kids are out of contro l. (T-6-43) Developmentally inappropriate physical environment : Jen and Tara described characteristics of the physical environment in DI P. Jen described emotional aspects, such as uncomfortable and not meani ngful for children. Jen considered physical environment as not only pertaining to physical features and classroo m arrangement, but also meanings and emotions. Jen: I guess so an ina ppropriate one would be not childs size, not comfortable for the children and I guess inappropriate one probably have things that you know they might be pretty to look at, they might have nice bulletin board but they are not meaningful to the children in the classroom. (J-4-2) Compared with Jen, Tara talked about an imbala nced and inappropriate arrangement for children in centers. Also Cindy mentioned issues surroundi ng desk and chair setting in a developmentally inappropriate environment. Tara: it will probably be like an imbalanced environment. There might not be well-defined centers like areas. They might just all be cluttered around together. There are no boundaries between different places in the classroom. (T-5-14)

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90 Jen was the only interviewee who iterated the importance of the so cio-emotional aspect of the environment in relation to DAP. Tara and Cindy pr imarily described the p hysical arrangement of the environment. Teachers Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP Reflecting upon interviews, questionnaire s, and concept webs, three early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP have been examined. The relationships are categorized in two ways: 1) music as a developmental tool used to implement DAP, and 2) music as a supplemental ac tivity that is a part of DAP. Jens beliefs about the relationship reflect the idea expresse d in the first category, and Tara and Cindys beliefs reflect the idea expressed in the second category. Music as a Developmental Tool of DAP Music is Part of DAP Jen considered music a part of DAP and insist ed that music should be a part of DAP. This relationship was also found in her concept web (F igure 4-6). She placed music inside of the DAP circle. Jen: It would be developmentally appropria te to include music in an early childhood classroom. (J-12-21) Jen believed that a relationship exists betw een music and other deve lopmental areas. She mentioned that social development and cogni tive development were related to music. Jen: music and social development. I could de finitely see it [relat ionship]. (J-13-16) You have heard about like if you play this music, then it will make your children smart which I dont necessarily think that. But it does have a relationshi p. But I dont know how. (J-1327) Jen talked about music activities that she is able to implement in the classroom, such as singing. She emphasized the use of songs in differe nt ways, such as during transition time or

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91 throughout the day. It appeared as though she thinks it is important for children to be exposed to music continuously in the curriculum and routine. Jen: I think maybe it will be good in a kinderg arten classroom to have maybe just some songs that you teach the children just to use even like during transition time would be maybe good time. You could start singing the song, and then they just sing along. It doesnt even like to be like okay, lets sit down on the carpet, and well sing that song together. Theyll sing that song. You can just be fairly informal just throughout the day, once if they learn the son g, you know, sing the song. Just in corporate however you can (J11-43 to J -12-7) She also described how music could be used in DAP through integration with other activities related to the theme. Jen: just to include it dont necessarily make it one section of it. They just integrate it throughout the day whatever ways you see are f itting or whatever ways be beneficial. (J12-41) If you had a unit on some particular thing, find music that goes along with that. Theme and include with that.(J-12-13) Music as a Supplemental Activity Partially Related to DAP This relationship represents the idea that musi c can play a partial role in DAP. Within this concept, music is not considered a primary tool to facilitate DAP, but as a supplemental activity to aide the implementation of DAP. Figure 4-7 explains the relationshi p between music and DAP that Tara and Cindy drew. Cindy viewed the relationship between music and DAP as being appropriate for some children who have had musical ba ckground or musical experiences at their homes. This indicates that she views music as important only for cer tain children who have a personal musical background. She did not believe music was necessary for all students. Cindy: there is probably a relationship between like one that atmosphere that music can bring to classroom like explor ing or doing their own things. I also think like music might in some children be part of their life ev en when they are very young, the parents might play the music and I think that it can help them understand concepts that they might not get otherwise. That each child probably ha s something that makes them understand ideas better than other children. Music could be one of things that help some children, so I can

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92 see where [it can be] developmentally appropriate for some children to use music as their means for learning. (C-11-24) Also, Cindy described functions of music as supp lementary, such as to refresh students or calm them down from the pressure of academics. Howe ver, these functions are not major roles of music, but partial and minor aspects. As discusse d in literature review, there are many diverse functions of music such as cognitive, so cial, aesthetic, cultural, and emotional. Cindy: I think having a special like music class is good for a lot of ki ds because they like music and music class gives them something other than academics all day long. (C-7-35) Cindy: during rest/nap period using calm music like quite classroom down. I liked that. I think thats one of music is not better point s, but something really good about music that has ability to calm you down. (C-11-5) When describing ways to integrate and impl ement music in the classroom, Cindy described the experience that she liked in her practicum. This may imply positive experiences and good demonstrations of music integration into the classr oom that could help preservice teachers better understand how to implement music activities into their own classr ooms. Therefore, experience from field or teaching practice is important becau se it demonstrates a specific approach for the implementation of music activitie s in the classroom. If Cindy ha d more opportunities to observe diverse music activities, she may possess more positiv e beliefs about music, including a belief of music as an active medium of development. Cindy: I liked how they used music. They also had a time in the morning, it was like circle time, talking about the calendar and then they had one kid got to pick a song that they wanted to listen to, so they either dance to it or sing to it. I thought that the kids really enjoyed that and made them learn the things that we were going to, along with the songs. (C-13-20) Regarding the relationship between music a nd other developmental areas, Cindy recognized relationship between music and social, cogni tive, and motor development. Although she

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93 recognized the relationship between music and im portant developmental areas, this relationship was not reflected in her descriptions of the meaning and role of music. Cindy: socially you can dance thats building social skills. Cognitively like understanding the notes would be cognitive development. Gr oss motor can be dancing and building most muscles. I think that you could definitely us e it with all those if you knew how or wanting to your classroom. (C-13-4) Tara saw a partial relationship between musi c and DAP, and saw the possibility of music being integrated into DAP practic es, as did Cindy. However, Tara considered more diverse uses for music in DAP than Cindy. Tara emphasized ho w music could be integrated into academic subjects. She explained that certain topics re lated to music could be overlapped with other academic areas, and that the remaining areas of music could focus on mu sic specific knowledge (i.e., tempo, rhythm, beat). Tara primarily considered music as a supplem ental tool to facilitate academic or core subjects related to DAP in term s of integration. She did not see a clear place for activities focused solely on music. For example, she stated music can be integrated with literacy and math (i.e., rhyming, countin g) using repetition. Tara: You can use art and music to integrate into there [literacy and math], but its not specifically that Im just gonna teach oh this is a kind of music, and teach like specific things about music. I think music and art always are gonna be integrated in early childhood but through like reading and through math things like th at. Its not just separate subject. (T-12) Tara: Its still something that kids need to be introduced to whether different songs that they are learning different words to. Also s ongs will teach kids rhyming. Kids count even memorizing singing songs. Kids like memorizi ng words and they dont even realize that they were just remembering them. Just sing it over and over agai n. I dont know exactly how to explain like how its developmen tally you know I know its something that has always incorporated into a classroom. And it helps kids in different ways to learn. (T17-25) Tara mentioned relationships between music and cognitive, physical, and so cial development.

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94 I mean music can help kids cognitively whether its like they learn be tter while listening to music. Also physically you dance it helps when youre listening to music. Socially you can give kids like common interest s of something that they lik e, you know, specific. I mean I think its integrated in all the different domains. (T-28-34) Tara described some ways that developmen tally appropriate music activities can be approached. She described the purposes of music activities as providing fu n and interest for the children. Tara was able to recognize more be nefits of music than Cindy. However, Tara primarily emphasized musics role in relation to academic areas (i.e., lite racy, math) instead of the importance of a focus on music alone. Tara: doing it to integrat e different subjects also provide like instru ments in the classroom to have maybe during center time or in the mo rning when everybody gets there just to have them play or just to introduce them to diffe rent musical instruments like maraca, a recorder, and things like that. Just get them to introdu ce that there are different instruments to create music.(T-16-39) Tara: Just for fun Like the song were going to a bear hunt. Kids are listening to the music and should pay attention to whats going on. To get them interested or just to get energy out because thats what you do with mu sic. You dance and you let energy out. You sing. Its just supposed to be fun. (T-18-25) Tara: Music doesnt, music just can be songs from that you use that teachers nowadays use during circle time things like that. (T-14-6) Summary Early childhood preservice teac hers beliefs about music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP have been analyzed us ing teacher information questionnaire, music basic questionnaire, the TBS questionnaire, music belief scale, and follow-up interviews. First, the study demonstrated that preservice teachers have relatively posi tive beliefs about the importance of music, including the aesthetic, quality of life, and social emotional benefits. The participants believed that liter acy is the most important subjec t in early childhood, and music is

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95 the fourth most important subject. Confidence levels on individual ability to implement and support music development in the classroom varie d. Most preservice teachers believed that the role of music teachers in facilitating music develo pment is more important than the role of early childhood teachers. There was a significant difference in music beli efs that was correlated with the teachers confidence level in their abil ity to implement music activiti es and to facilitate music development in early childhood classroom. Higher levels of confidence were correlated with strong beliefs about the importance of music. A significant difference was also found in beliefs about the importance of music in relation to the ability to re ad musical notation. The teachers who were able to slightly read musical notation demonstrated more positive beliefs about the importance of music than th e teachers who were not able to read musical notation. This study also showed that these early ch ildhood preservice teachers possess relatively strong beliefs about DAP and weak beliefs abou t DIP. There was a stat istically significant difference in DAP and DIP beliefs depending on academic status. Preservice teachers with a higher academic status demonstrated stronger be liefs in relation to DAP, and lower beliefs in relation to DIP than preservice te achers at junior level. A statistically significant relationship between DAP and field experience was identifie d. Teachers who had more field experiences demonstrated stronger beliefs about DAP. Lastly, there was a statistically signifi cant relationship between beliefs about the importance of music and DAP such that teacher s who strongly believed in the importance of music showed positive beliefs about DAP. In orde r to examine in-depth beliefs about music and DAP, three participants who repr esented stronger, incongruent a nd weaker relationships were interviewed. Based on the ta xonomy and cultural psychological theme, beliefs of each

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96 interviewee varied in different areas, including: 1) beliefs about music in relation to personal background, teacher education, professional experi ence, and confidence, 2) beliefs about DAP including descriptions of charac teristics of DAP and DIP, and 3) beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP. In the next chapter, th e implications and significance of the study will be examined.

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97 Table 4-1. Demographic and descriptive data. Frequencies Percentage (%) Age 19-20 21-22 23-24 2511 36 16 2 16.9 % 55.4 % 24.6 % 3.0 % Ethnicity Caucasian Hispanic African-American Other 48 9 5 3 73.8 % 13.8 % 7.7 % 4.6 % Academic status Junior Senior Graduate 25 24 16 38.5 % 36.9 % 24.6 % Numbers of field placements 2-3 4-5 5-6 25 24 16 38.5 % 36.9 % 24.6 % Length of field experiences 1-2 months 5-6 months 7-9 months 25 24 16 38.5 % 36.9 % 24.6 % Teaching experiences Full time Part time None 11 21 33 16.9 % 32.3 % 50.8 % Length of teaching experiences None 0 -1 year 12 years More than 2 years 33 15 10 7 50.8% 23.1% 15.4% 10.7% Having formal/informal music Education Yes, I did No, I did not 56 8 86.2 % 12.3 %

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98 Table 4-1. Demographic and descriptive data. Table 4-2. Coursework list of the participants. Fall Spring Junior Inclusive EC studies The young child Social foundation of education Teachers & learners Language acquisition Family involve in ECSE EC math & science Assessment in ECSE Practicum Emergent literacy Multicultural issues ECSE Senior Social competence in EC EC program for infant/toddler EC science & social studies Severely handicapped Practicum Technology Measurement and evaluation Language arts for diverse learners ECSE curriculum and management EC curriculum and management Graduate EC background & concepts Reading/primary grades Internship in EC Trasdiscipline exceptional students Creativity in EC curriculum Issues in child care administration ESOL curriculum methods assessment EC childrens literature Intervention for language & learning disabilities Frequencies Percentage (%) Ability to read music notation Able to read Somewhat able to read Not able to read 28 4 33 43.1% 6.2% 50.8% Knowledge on musical terms Tempo Beat Melody Rhythm Articulation 41 19 28 22 4 63.1 % 29.2 % 43.1 % 33.8 % 6.2 %

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99 Table 4-3. Mean scores for the benefits of music. Aesthetic benefit Quality-of-Life benefit Social-emotional benefit Total mean 48.23 37.38 44.52 Mean 4.82 4.15 4.94 SD 4.8 4.7 4.4 Range 31-60 26-52 34-54 Table 4-4. The rank of six subjects. Rank Subjects 1st Literacy 2nd Math 3rd Science 4th Music 5th Art 6th Physical education Table 4-5. One-way ANOVA for music belie fs depending on academic status. Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. Music Between Groups Within Groups Total 429.615 16238.745 16668.359 2 61 63 214.807 266.209 .807 .451 Table 4-6. Correlations between beliefs about music and field experiences. Numbers of field placements Length of field experience Music Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) n -.147 .246 64 -.136 .284 64

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100 Table 4-7. Correlations between beliefs about music and teaching experiences. Length of teaching experiences Music Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) n -.066 .606 64 Table 4-8. One-way ANOVA for Music depe nding on confidence about the ability to implement music activities. Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. MUSIC Between Groups Within Groups Total 5257.428 11410.922 16668.359 3 60 63 1752.479 190.182 9.215 .000*** ***p < .001 Table 4-9. Post-hoc comparison tests for conf idence about the ability to implement music activities. Groups Mean differences Std. Error Sig. Not and somewhat confident Moderately confident Very confident Extremely confident Moderately confident Not and somewhat confident Very confident Extremely confident Very confident Not and somewhat confident Moderately confident Extremely confident Extremely confident Not and somewhat confident Moderately confident Very confident 3.97 -2.38 -23.15** -3.97 -.6.35 -27.12** 2.38 6.35 -20.77** 23.15** 27.12** 20.77** 5.661 5.661 6.541 5.661 4.067 5.224 5.661 4.067 5.224 6.541 5.224 5.224 .920 .981 .009 .920 .492 .000 .981 .492 .003 .009 .000 .003 ** p < .005, *** p < .001

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101 Table 4-10. One-way ANOVA for Music depending on confidence ab out the ability to support music development. Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. MUSIC Between Groups Within Groups Total 3209.943 13458.416 16668.359 3 60 63 1069.981 224.307 4.770 .005* p < .05 Table 4-11. Post-hoc comparison tests for c onfidence about the ability to support music development. Groups Mean differences Std. Error Sig. Not and somewhat confident Moderately confident Very confident Extremely confident Moderately confident Not and somewhat confident Very confident Extremely confident Very confident Not and somewhat confident Moderately confident Extremely confident Extremely confident Not and somewhat confident Moderately confident Very confident -.06 -4.81 -25.21* .06 -4.74 -25.14* 4.81 4.74 -20.40* 25.21* 25.14* 20.40* 5.391 5.087 7.392 5.391 4.520 7.014 5.087 4.520 6.783 7.392 7.014 6.783 1.000 .827 .013 .1000 .777 .008 .827 .777 .037 .013 .008 .037 p < .05 Table 4-12. One-way ANOVA for music depending on ability to read musical notation. Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. MUSIC Between Groups Within Groups Total 2141.434 14526.925 16668.359 2 61 63 1070.717 238.146 4.496 .015* p < .05

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102 Table 4-13. Post-hoc comparison tests for ability to read musical notation in music beliefs. Groups Mean differences Std. Error Sig. Yes I can read No I cant read Yes I cant read somewhat No I cant read Yes I cant read Yes I cant read somewhat Yes I can read somewhat Yes I can read No I cant read 8.43 -12.38 -8.43 -20.81* 12.38 20.81* 4.005 8.268 4.005 8.170 8.268 8.170 .118 .333 .118 .046 .333 .046 p < .05 Table 4-14. One-way ANOVA fo r music depending on confidence about the ability to implement music activities. Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. MUSIC Between Groups Within Groups Total 5257.428 11410.922 16668.359 3 60 63 1752.479 190.182 9.215 .000*** *** p < .001 Table 4-15. Mean scores for DAP and DIP. DAP DIP Total means 57.32 37.42 Mean score 4.41 2.9 SD 4.8 5.5 Range 47 65 26-52 Table 4-16. One-way ANOVA for DAP and DIP depending on academic status. Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. DAP Between Groups Within Groups Total 289.817 1214.398 1504.215 2 62 64 144.909 19.587 7.398 .001** DIP Between Groups Within Groups Total 491.200 1486.585 1977.785 2 62 64 245.600 23.977 10.243 .000*** ** p < .005, *** p <.001

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103 Table 4-17. Post-hoc comparison tests for academic status in DAP beliefs. Groups Mean differences Std. Error Sig. DAP Junior Senior Graduate Senior Graduate Junior Graduate Junior Senior -4.61** -3.82* 4.61** .79 3.82* -.79 1.265 1.417 1.265 1.428 1.417 1.428 .002 .032 .002 .858 .032 .858 DIP Junior Senior Graduate Senior Graduate Junior Graduate Junior Senior 6.09*** 1.21 -6.09*** -4.88* -1.21 4.88* 1.399 1.568 1.399 1.580 1.568 1.580 .000 .743 .000 .012 743 .012 p < .05, ** p < .005, *** p < .001 Table 4-18. Correlations between beliefs about DAP/DIP and field experiences. Numbers of Field Placements Length of Field Experience DAP Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) n .364** .003 65 .384** .002 65 DIP Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) n -.192 .126 65 -.222 0.76 65 ** p < .005 Table 4-19. Correlations between beliefs a bout DAP/DIP and teaching experiences. Length of teaching experiences DAP Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) n -.093 .461 65 DIP Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) n -.138 .275 65

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104 Table 4-20. Correlations for DAP and music. DAP MUSIC DAP Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 1 65 .305* .014 64 MUSIC Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N .305* .014 64 1 65 p < .05 Table 4-21. Frequency of stronger, w eaker, and incongrue nt relationships. Juniors Seniors Graduate total Stronger 3 2 0 5 Weaker 7 0 1 8 higher music vs. lower DAP 1 0 0 1 Incongruent lower music vs. higher DAP 0 1 1 2 Total 11 3 2 15

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105 Table 4-22. Basic information of the interview participants. Jen Tara Cindy The relationship between music and DAP Stronger : Strong music vs. Strong DAP Incongruent : Weaker music vs. Strong DAP Weaker : Weaker music vs. Weaker DAP Age 21 21 21 Academic Status Senior Senior Junior Ethnicity Caucasian Hispanic Caucasian Field Experiences 4 (6 months) 4 (6 months) 2 (2months) Teaching experiences None Part-time teaching (4 months) Babysitting (10 years) Music education Band (bassoon, percussion), Piano Clarinet Singing, Hand bells Music Belief Scores 195 143 156 DAP scores 61 63 50 Confidence about the ability to implement music activities Extremely confident Moderately confident Moderately confident Confidence about the ability to support childrens musical development Extremely confident Moderately confident Not confident Importance of the role of early childhood educators Extremely confident Very important Somewhat important Importance of the role of music teachers Extremely confident Very important Very important Ability to read musical notation Yes No No Music content knowledge tempo, beat, melody, rhythm, articulation 4 of 5 ( tempo, beat, melody, and rhythm) None None

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106 Table 4-23. Coursework of the interview participants. Jen & Tara (Senior) Cindy (Junior) Technology Measurement and Evaluation Language arts for diverse learners ECSE curriculum and management EC curriculum and management EC math and science Assessment in EC special education Practicum Emergent literacy Multicultural Issues in ECSE (ESOL) Table 4-24. Comparison of DAP principles. Jen Tara Cindy interest based being active hands-on making choices exchange between peers interactive communicative rules and structure succeed scaffolding interaction specialized to each child. Table 4-25. Comparison of teachers roles in DAP. Jen Tara Cindy *Making plans *Observing children *Asking questions *Flexible *Assessing by observation *Lenient *Providing appropriate materials *Communicating with children *Getting to know children and parents *Continuing looking for the new resources *Fostering the growth and challenging the children *Scaffolding *Be aware of and know ing childrens ability Table 4-26. Comparison of developmentally appropriate physical environment. Jen Tara Cindy *Welcoming environment *Feeling safe *Assessable furniture with appropriate size *Display of childrens work *Learning centers library with different types of books, dramatic play, writing center, manipulative center with blocks, computers *certain boundaries *certain rules in center arrangement No desks and chairs

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107 Figure 4-1. Rank of music. Figure 4-2. Confidence about ability to im plement music activities and support musical development.

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108 Figure 4-3. Comparison of early childhood teach ers roles and music teachers roles. Beliefs about Music Beliefs about DAP 75-100% Stronger 75-100% 25-75% 25-75% Incongruent 0-25% Weaker 025 % Figure 4-4. In-depth patterns of rela tionship between music and DAP beliefs

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109 Figure 4-5. The representative taxonomy of the early childh ood preservice teachers beliefs about music, DAP and the relationship between music and DAP. Figure 4-6. Jens beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP Figure 4-7. Tara and Cindys beliefs about the relationship between music and DAP. Music DAP Integration/background Music DAP

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110 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This chapter discusses the findings and impli cations of this study. First, early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music will be discussed. Then, the teachers beliefs about DAP, including the relationship between these beliefs and individual teacher variables will be presented. Finally, early childhood preservice teachers beliefs a bout the relationship between music and DAP will be introduced with in-depth e xplanations of this rela tionship from teachers who possess stronger, inc ongruent, and weaker belie fs about music and DAP. Early Childhood Preservice Te achers Beliefs about Music An analysis of a music belief questionnaire led to the current unde rstanding regarding these early childhood preservice teachers beli efs about music in this study. This study demonstrates that these early childhood preser vice teachers possess strong beliefs about the importance of music. Specifically, most early childhood preservice teache rs believe that over 97% of the statements about the importance of music are more true than false. This result is consistent with a study of music education pres ervice teachers beliefs about music conducted by Austin and Reinhardt (1999). The study contends th at preservice music teachers also believed the overall statements are more true than false. Si nce a recent review of th e literature yielded little research on early childhood teachers beliefs abou t music, this outcome provides new and useful information to understand how early childhood te achers perceive the importance of music. Overall music beliefs, aesthetic, quality-oflife, and social-emotional benefits of music were analyzed. The findings showed that these early childhood preservice teachers relatively hold strong beliefs in three domains. The early childhood preservice teache rs believe that the statements of aesthetic and soci al-emotional growth benefits ar e true and the statements of quality-of-life benefits are more true than fals e. In addition, early childhood preservice teachers

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111 believe music has more social-emotional growth than other two benefits. This outcome was supported by follow-up interviews concerning the relationship between music and other developmental areas. All of the interviewees disc ussed the social and emo tional value of music; for example, music has a calming effect on the classroom atmosphere and it is an enjoyable activity for both children and teachers. Furthe rmore, the teachers emphasized that music facilitates childrens social de velopment through activities such as sing ing and dancing. Early childhood preservice teachers noticed that musi c activities help deve lop social-emotional competence. This result is consistent with resear ch indicating that music functions as a social development tool. The term musical child in context implies music assists children in developing interdependent rela tionships (Custodero, 2002b). This study on early childhood preservice teacher s beliefs regarding the importance of music relative to other subjects re veals a belief that literacy is th e most important subject in early childhood education. The teachers rank order of the s ubjects from the most important to the least important was literacy, math, science, music, art and PE. Music was not ranked as important relative to academic subjects (i.e., literacy, ma th, science). Over 97% of the participants indicated that literacy is the most important subject fo r young children, while music was ranked as the fourth most important subject. This findi ng reflects the current e ducational dilemma; there has been an increase in the high stakes tes ting emphasizing academic subjects in early childhood education. Since the No Child Left Behind Ac t (NCLB), many schools must focus on academic outcomes, while other developmental areas have been overlooked (Hill, 2003; Raver & Zigler, 2004). The top three subjects literacy, math, and sc ience that the participants ranked were the subjects of Florida Comprehens ive Assessment Test (Florida Department of Education, 2007). This finding is also supported by follow-up interv iews. All three interviewees nominated literacy

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112 as the most important subject. They addressed two major reasons for th eir beliefs. First, the priority of literacy has been influenced by th eir practicum experiences. Most of the teaching practice at practicum sites was related to lite racy and math for young children. The preservice teachers reported that they have not seen many music activities in their practicum experiences. Second, the interviewees explaine d that the coursework in the teacher education for early childhood education (i.e., Proteach program) consiste d of literacy, language, math and science. Music and art were reserved for graduate course s. This may influence teachers beliefs about music and art. This result may imply the im portance of providing diverse contents and approaches in teacher preparati on programs and field experiences. This study shows that confidence level of these early childhood preservice teachers varied in implementing and supporting music. The ear ly childhood preservice teachers reported that about half of the participants f eel very confident about their abili ty to implement music activities and support childrens musical development compar ed with other partic ipants, who answered that they were somewhat or moderately confid ent in implementing music in the classroom. Many teachers do not feel confident in their ability to implement musical act ivities although they do believe music is important in early chil dhood education. Relevant studies of music implementation for young children have also demonstr ated that teachers may hesitate to actively implement music in the classroom due to a lack of confidence in their knowledge of music or inadequate support (Gharavi, 1993; Hildebrandt, 1998; McDonald, 1993, IEtoile, 2001). This is supported by the follow-up interview an alyses. Through the interviews, the reasons for the low level of confidence in implemen ting music stem from lack of music content knowledge and the assumption that music should be taught by music teachers. However, one of the interviewees distinguished between teaching music and incorporating music in the classroom.

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113 Although she reported a lower leve l of confidence in teaching music content knowledge, she demonstrated a higher level of confidence in integrating music into other subject areas (i.e., literacy, math). Additionally, another interviewee who has not taken any music related class pointed out the lack of instruction in teacher education courses regarding how to specifically implement music in the classroom. In order to imp rove this low level of confidence, research suggests that music education including music act ivities and content knowle dge helps facilitate teachers confidence in implementing music (IEtoile, 2001). The early childhood preservice teac hers in the current study belie ve that the roles of early childhood educators and music teachers are importa nt. However, the teachers believe music teachers roles are more important than early childhood education teachers roles to support the musical development of young children. This findi ng is consistent with the follow-up interview analysis. All interviewees agreed that musi c is important for young children. However, two interviewees described music as an extracurricular activity in the early childhood curriculum and believe it is a special subject that needs to be taught by music teachers. These beliefs may be due to limited experiences with music activities in practicum placements. Additionally, the supervising teachers attitudes toward music may ha ve influenced the preservice teachers beliefs. One of the participants discusse d a co-teachers negative attitude toward music. In addition to that, the early childhood teachers lack of music subject knowle dge may have affected their beliefs about the role of early childhood teachers. There are significant differences in musi c beliefs depending on teachers level of confidence in implementing music activities and the ability to read musical notation. First, teachers who feel more confident in implem enting musical activities, supporting music development, and supporting musical developmen t have stronger beliefs about music. This

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114 finding is related to teachers self-efficacy res earch. Confidence in ones ability to implement and support music represents se lf efficacy, a self-evaluation of ones own ability (Bandura 1977; 1997). Teachers self-efficacy acts as beliefs about their own abilities, which influences their practice and behavior. For example, higher self-efficacy is positively related to childrens social interaction and supportive atmosphere (Var tuli, 2005). The source of teachers beliefs may be based on their confidence in their own ability and knowledge. If a teacher feels confident in implementing music, that might influence his or her beliefs about music. This finding is supported by follow-up interviewees who reported th at they are not confident in teaching music and demonstrated a weaker level of belief in the importance of music. Next, the preservice teachers who are able to read musical notation have more positive beliefs about the importance of mu sic than teachers who are not able to read such notation. This study showed that there is difference between teachers who can somewhat read musical notation and teachers who are unable to read musi cal notation. This implies that music content knowledge may affect the ability to build positive beliefs about music although the knowledge is not perfect or complete. During the interviews, the two teachers who had lower scores on their beliefs about the importance of music frequen tly mentioned their lack of knowledge about musical content; for example, they were not able to read musical notatio n. They were also less knowledgeable of musical terms than the inte rviewee who held str onger beliefs about the importance of music. There was no significant difference in thes e early childhood preservi ce teachers beliefs about music based upon academic status. This is c onsistent with research on music educators beliefs about music in different academic status (Austin & Reinhardt, 1999). The participants were enrolled in the same early childhood program and the program operated one creativity in

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115 early childhood curriculum course that includes music contents and implementations for early childhood educators during the three-year teacher education program as a graduate course. Therefore, all junior and senior participants had not taken the course Graduate students had started to take the course, but the present study was implemented early in the semester. Therefore, the graduate particip ants did not have the opportunity to learn musical content at the time of the study. This may explain why the re sults show no difference in music beliefs depending on academic status. There has been no difference in early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music in terms of field and teaching experience. The part icipants in this study had average twenty-week practicum experience; however, as stated previously, music activities in practicum experiences have been reported as limited in terms of fr equency and diversity. Also only half of the preservice teachers had teaching experiences for less than eight months. Therefore, teaching experience may not affect their beliefs about music. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about DAP Preservice teachers in this study demonstrated stronger beliefs about DAP than DIP. This suggests that the participants possess strong beliefs about DAP a nd weak beliefs about DIP. The mean score for individual DAP items on a questio nnaire was 4.4. This supports the idea that preservice teachers believe that it is important to use prac tices that are identified as developmentally appropriate. This result is sim ilar to previous studies on preservice teachers (File & Gullo, 2002; Stipek & Byler, 1997). The DIP means score was 2.8. This implies that preservice teachers believe that it is important to avoid the pr actices that are identified as developmentally inappropriate for young children. Th erefore, the participant preservice teachers possess stronger beliefs about de velopmentally appropriate pract ice and weaker beliefs about developmentally inappropriate practice.

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116 This study also investigated the relationshi p between DAP and DIP beliefs and teacher demographic variables (i.e., academic status, fiel d experiences, and teaching experiences). There were several findings in this area. First, there were significant differen ces in beliefs about DAP and DIP in relation to academic status. Seniors an d graduate students held more positive beliefs about DAP than did the junior students. Also, th e senior students, more so than the junior students believed the practices that are identified as developmentally in appropriate are not as important. The graduate students believed DIP is not important for young children more so than senior students did. This indicate s that the length of teacher edu cation and amount of coursework has a positive affect on beliefs about DAP, and ha s a negative effect on the preservice teacher beliefs toward DIP. This is consistent with re search on the influence of coursework in teacher education (Hoy & Woolfolk, 1990; Ts channen-Moran et al., 1998). The graduate students had receiv ed significantly more experien ces in relation to DAP than junior and senior level students. Particularly, th e graduate students had completed an internship and had taken more than 60 credits in early childhood education coursework, including early childhood curriculum. Therefore, graduate student s had more opportunities to gain DAP related knowledge and develop their own beliefs about DAP than did the juniors and seniors. Also, in the follow-up interviews, the two senior students we re able to identify general principles of DAP in relation to three key concepts: age, individu ality, and cultural appropriateness. The junior student was unable to identify any of these concepts. The senior interviewees were also able to elaborate on a variety of examples exemplifyi ng characteristics of DAP and DIP (i.e., teacher roles, features of DAP and DIP, physical e nvironment) than the junior student was. There was also a significant relationship be tween amount of field experience and early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about DAP Preservice teachers who had more field

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117 placements for longer period displayed stronger be liefs about DAP. Previous studies have also demonstrated a relationship between field expe rience (i.e., internship, apprenticeship) and teacher beliefs (Housego, 1992; Hoy & Woolfolk 1990; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). These studies showed internship or apprenticeship has a significant influence on teacher beliefs. Diverse experiences in different settings and le ngth of experience may affect teacher beliefs about DAP because these experiences may offe r opportunities to observe DAP as well as DIP and reflect on DAP concepts. Finally, there was no statistica lly significant relationship be tween teaching experience and beliefs about DAP. As was previously discussed in the music beliefs section, over 50% of the teachers did not have teaching e xperience. Also, the preservice teachers who did have teaching experience had an average of less than nine mont hs experience, and the ma jority of the teaching experience was part-time. This may have not been enough experience to have an impact of beliefs relating to DAP. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Beliefs about the Relationship between Music and DAP The findings of this study show a statisti cally significant relationship between early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about mu sic and DAP. This implies that preservice teachers who have more positive beliefs about the importance of music also believe that DAP is more important. This result supports the idea that music can act as a developmental tool. This idea has been iterated in several studies. Prev ious studies have intr oduced several diverse functions of music that facilitate childrens cognitive, social, emotional, aesthetic, and cultural development (Caulfiedl, 1999; Cu stedero, 2002; Esner, 2001; Fox 2000; Mueller, 2003; Sims & Cassidy, 1997; Tarnowski, 1999; Temme rman, 1998). Therefore, if a teacher believes that music can be an active medium for instruction and th at it has the potential to help the holistic

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118 development of young children, he or she might be able to see the role of music in DAP. This outcome is also consistent with the results of a study by Miranda (2004) The study investigated the link between beliefs about DAP and teaching practice for three music teachers. Interviews and observations were used to investigate mu sic teacher practice. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between DAP be liefs and ideas of how to implement music activities appropriately. The teachers in the study who possessed positive beliefs about DAP also were seen implementing more developm entally appropriate music practice. To conduct a more thorough investigation about the relationship between beliefs of music and DAP, stronger, incongruent, and weaker beliefs were analyzed. Fifteen of the participants met the criteria for the stronger, incongruent, and weaker belief cat egories. Of these participants, preservice teachers in their junior year were more likely to show both weaker and stronger relationships in their beliefs. These three rela tionships were drawn from the extremely highest and lowest portion within the belief range. Se nior and graduate students had more practicum experience and a longer amount of time receiving teacher education. Thus, these preservice teachers had longer periods of time and a greater number of opportunities to develop and change their personal beliefs through pr actical experience and conten t knowledge from class. This process may have had an influence in their beli efs and caused them to change and modify their beliefs from an extreme level to a moderate level. However, junior level preservice teachers may not have had enough opportunities to fully develo p their beliefs about music and DAP as the senior and graduate students. Based on an analysis of the relationship be tween the beliefs, three teachers, one who showed stronger beliefs about both music and DAP, one who show ed weaker beliefs about both music and DAP, and one who showed incongr uent beliefs about music and DAP, were

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119 interviewed. Using the transcription of in terviews, domain analyses, results from the questionnaires, and a concept web drawn by each of the interviewees, an overall taxonomy and cultural psychological theme that represent th e teachers beliefs cr eated to demonstrate preservice teacher beliefs about music, DAP and the relationship between the two. The overarching cultural psychological theme is how to best use music along with developmentally appropriate pr actice using music as an active developmental tool, as integration, or as a supplemental activity. A cult ural psychological theme represents a core issue or dilemma that all participants are commonly faced with and n eed to solve (Spradley, 1979). In this study, three teachers had to reflect the degree of the importance of music, significance of DAP, and how to approach music within DAP. Although the teachers believed that music could be used in DAP practice in their future classr ooms, the core issue addressed was the different beliefs and perspectives toward how music coul d be used in DAP. One teacher held strong beliefs that music could be us ed in implementing DAP. The othe r teachers considered music as secondary to other activities in the classroom. The following sec tion discusses the distinctive belief patterns of each interview participant. Th ese beliefs will be expl ained through a reflection on the taxonomy and cultural psychological theme. Jens Story: a Strong Relationsh ip between Music and DAP Beliefs Jen showed strong beliefs about music a nd DAP. Her cultural psychological theme was music as a developmental tool in DAP. Sh e was able to define music using a broader perspective than the other two interviewees. She stated that music could be a fun and enjoyable activity for children, a means of expression, and a tool of learni ng. She also discussed essential aspects of music for young childre n. As discussed in the literatur e review chapter, music has traditionally been considered a way to implement fun activities that children naturally want to participate in, and a way for children to expr ess their emotions and thoughts (Mueller, 2003;

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120 Tarnowski, 1999; Temmerman, 1998) Furthermore, music is also a learning and developmental tool that facilitates ch ildrens whole development. Jen was ab le to recognize all three of these aspects of music. As seen in her taxonomy and the results, Jen had a strong personal music background, sufficient music content knowledge, and received a positive influence from family in regards to music. Jen was the only interviewee with the abi lity to read musical not ation. She was also the most knowledgeable interviewee in four of th e five musical content knowledge areas (i.e., rhythm, tempo, melody, beat). Jen had also re ceived music experience and music education throughout her childhood. She reveal ed a strong confidence in her ability to implement and support music development in the classroom than the other interviewees. She emphasized the ability of music to be a natural part of the early childhood classroom routine. Jen discussed some of the at titudes about music that she discovered in her practicum experiences. She stated that many of her cooperati ng teachers felt that music needs to be taught by music teachers, not early chil dhood educators. She also report ed that she did not observe many experiences with music in her practicum. Ho wever, she continued to express the necessity of using music in early childhood classrooms because music is an area that children love. Jen also believed that early chil dhood educators should use music activities in th eir classroom because music can provide both fun and appropria te activities for young children. It appeared as though her lack of positive experiences with music in her practicum sites did not have an effect on her beliefs about music. This suggests that personal background can play an important role in establishing strong beliefs about music, and th at these experiences can overcome professional experiences.

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121 Jen was knowledgeable about content knowle dge in DAP. These content areas are individual, age, and cultural appropriateness. She explained the principles of DAP using a wide range of terms and adding examples from her e xperiences. Jen was also able to identify important teacher roles in DAP, such as plan ning, observing and assessing. She experienced positive and negative DAP in her practicum, and she reflected on what would be developmentally appropriate for young childre n based on her own principles and content knowledge. Also, she considered th e creation of an emotionally sa fe environment important. She was able to describe diverse features of bot h DIP and DAP, and showed a strong preference for DAP. Jen was also the only interviewee to identify a strong link between music and DAP, and to understand music as an integral pa rt of DAP. She expressed her beliefs as to why music should be a part of DAP. However, she did not present diverse examples of music practices that can be implemented in the early childhood curriculum. This may be due to a lack of opportunities to observe music activities in her field experience. If Jen had the opportunity to take music related coursework and field experience, this could help her identif y possible music activities to implement in the classroom, and to extend he r understanding of musi c development in the classroom. Taras Story: an Incongruent Relationship between Weaker Music and Strong DAP Beliefs Tara showed incongruent beliefs for musi c and DAP. Her cultura l psychological theme was music as an integration tool for core s ubjects. She demonstrated more negative beliefs about music, and more positive beliefs about DAP. This relationship between her beliefs will be discussed. Taras DAP belief score was the highe st amongst the interview participants; however, her music belief scores were lowe r than 25% of all participants.

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122 Tara considered music as addressing a di fferent type of learning style. She also consistently described music as not a core subject. She stated that core subjects for early childhood education were literacy a nd math. Especially, literacy wa s one of her favorite subjects. She agreed that fun and joyful music could have a positive influence on young children, but she believed that music was merely a good supplement fo r the learning of core subjects. Tara had a positive musical background through her experience in a band when she was young, but merely considered music an extra-curricular activity. This assumption may have affected her current beliefs about music for young children. Although Tara had formal and informal music e ducation, she was not able to read musical notation at the time of this study, and she reported that she did not know musical terms. This was different from Jen. Unlike Jen, Tara did not feel confident in her ability to implement music activities in the classroom. She stated that she did not feel confid ent because she is not knowledgeable about music terms and how to te ach music. However, she expressed a higher level of confidence in her ability to incorporate music with core subjects (i.e., math, literacy). Tara was able to identify more diverse and critical components about teacher roles in DAP than the other interviewees. Sh e emphasized the importance of structure, creating agreed upon rules with children, and interacting with children in the early childhood classroom. Tara also had four-month part-time teaching e xperience unlike the ot her interviewees. Through her part-time teaching experience, she had an opportunity to cha nge from inappropriate practice to appropriate practice using her DAP content knowledge fr om coursework (i.e., ECERS, physical environment, literacy, etc). That experience ha d a positive influence on her beliefs about DAP, because she was able to see a positive change in both childrens behavior and the classroom atmosphere after developmen tally appropriate changes had been made. Most of her

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123 developmentally appropriate changes in her part -time teaching experience related to literacy education. Literacy was her favorit e subject and she ranked it as being more important than any other academic subject. These experiences may have strengthened her beliefs about DAP and literacy. Tara was also able to provide diverse examples of DAP and DI P pertaining to teacher roles, various features, a nd the physical environment. Tara believed that music is only partially re lated to DAP. She believed that music is a fun and enjoyable activity for children, but she adm itted that the link between music and DAP exists in limited ways by focusing on the in tegration of music into other subjects. She considered music content knowledge (i.e., tempo, rhythm, etc) as not being related to DAP. This may reflect her conception of music as an extra -curricular activity. Along with integrati on, she recognized the relationship between music and other developmen tal areas. However, she did not believe music should be an independent subject in the early childhood curriculum. In her beliefs, there was a distinctive separation between co re subjects (i.e., literacy, ma th) and non-core subjects (i.e., music, art). Therefore, she believed that the possibilities of using and teaching about music are limited for young children. Cindys Story: a Weaker Relationship between Music and DAP Beliefs Cindy demonstrated a weaker relationship in the areas of music and DAP. Her cultural psychological theme was music as a supplemental activity and backdrop. She also continued to demonstrate low levels of music beliefs thr oughout her interviews. Sh e regarded music as backdrop, or a supplemental function of the clas sroom. Cindy felt that music was only useful for some children who have a musical background. Cindy had negative experiences with music in her childhood. Her mother wanted her to lear n hand-bells when she was young. She discovered that she had difficulty reading mu sical notation, and she did not lik e playing an instrument. That experience gave her a negative at titude toward music. She neve r learned how to read musical

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124 notation, and she reported that she did not know musi cal terms. Therefore, she felt unconfident in musical areas both personally and professionally. Cindy discussed her lack of opportunities to ta ke music related courses that focused on how to approach music for young children during he r explanation as to why she felt unconfident in musical areas. Jen did not have the benefit of music courses either. Despite this, Jen continued to have strong beliefs about music. This sugge sts that factors of be liefs vary depending on individuals, and that beliefs pe rtaining to music could be si gnificantly affected by personal background or experience. Also, Cindy felt that her weak confidence in musical areas derived from her lack of knowledge in how to teach or approach music ac tivities in the classroom. She felt that in the future, she would only be able to implement a limited number of music activities in the classroom. Another explanation th at Cindy gave about her weak c onfidence levels in music was that her coursework focused on literacy, math, science and so forth. Because of the focus on these subjects, Cindy believed that these subjects were core subjects, unlike music and art. Cindy, like the other interviewees had experience with music that was not diverse in her practicum. Most of the music act ivities she observed in the cla ssroom were the utilization of music as a background for nap or transition time, and singing during circle time. She thought that these uses of music were sufficient for children in early childhood edu cation. This experience affected the activities that she wants to implem ent in her future classroom. This implies that practicum experience can have an important influe nce in determining a teach ers utilization of a range of music activities. To define DAP, Cindy mentioned the importa nce for children to succeed and for activities to be individualized for each child using scaffolding. She presented a narrower

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125 definition of DAP and mentioned fe wer DAP principles than the ot her preservice teachers. This is possibly because she was a junior student a nd had less opportunities to gain knowledge about DAP. Regarding features of DAP, she emphasi zed the importance of playing. When asked about necessities in the physical environment, she only mentioned that it would be helpful to have no desks and chairs in a classroom. Co mpared with the other two interviewees, her examples and descriptions were limited, vague, and unspecific. When discussing DIP practice, she only gave one example, which was the use of worksheets placed on the desks. She primarily described observable aspects of DIP and DAP in stead of invisible yet crucial components of these areas, such as teacher roles and principles This may be because of her smaller amount of coursework and practicum experience in relation to the other two interviewees. Cindy considered music as having a partial re lationship with DAP, a nd primarily being in the background (such as being played during na p or transition time). She had the narrowest descriptions of music used in DAP amongst the th ree interviewees. Out of various functions of music, she only recognized the refreshing or relaxing functions. Tara also considered music plays a partial role in DAP; Tara emphasized activ e use as integration to facilitate learning for core subjects. However, Cindy only focused on background function. She described weak link between music and DAP because Cindy primarily thought music was a supplemental subject. Implications for Teacher Education The findings of this study suggest that ea rly childhood preservice teachers possess strong beliefs about music. Confidence levels on preser vice teachers ability to implement and support music development in the classroom varied. Most preservice teachers believed that music teachers had a more important role in the facilitation of music development than early childhood teachers. The participants believed that literacy is the most important subject in early childhood education, compared to music wh ich was ranked the fourth most important subject. Teachers

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126 who demonstrated higher confidence levels and we re able to read musi cal notation demonstrate stronger music beliefs. Also, the preservice teache rs in this study believed that DAP is very important. Beliefs about the importance of DAP varied depending on academic status. In addition, a relationship was found between field experiences and DAP beliefs. Furthermore, there was a significant relations hip between beliefs about musi c and beliefs about DAP. These findings indicate several implications. First, level of confidence and music content knowledge has been found to be a key factor in beliefs about music. The preservice teachers who had greater confidence levels demonstrated stronger beliefs about music. Through the interv iews, it was found that lo w levels of confidence in musical areas derived from a lack of musi c content knowledge and practical knowledge about how to implement musical activities in the cl assroom. The main sources of music content knowledge came from personal music background in stead of teacher education. This could be because the music course was a graduate level co urse. None of the interviewees had taken this graduate level course. If these teachers had more opportunities to take course s that facilitate their music subject knowledge and how to implement music activities in ea rly childhood education, they may have been able to better recognize the importa nce of music. A relationship was also found between knowledge, beliefs, confidence, and implementation of music activities (Figure 5-1). Beliefs were described using a more evaluative aspect than knowledge, which was described usi ng facts and theories (Pajares, 1992). In this study, the results of the interviews showed that low confidence le vels derived from a lack of content knowledge, and this can l ead to lower levels of music beliefs. Research reported that early childhood educators felt that music was a speci al subject that required professional training (IEtoile, 2001). Providing basic music conten t knowledge with information on how to

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127 implement appropriate activities may enhance te achers confidence and comfort levels in the area of music. Also, this education may lead to stronger beliefs about music. Using workshops or demonstrations of appropriate music activities could expand teachers beliefs about how to use music in the classroom. Second, this study provides support for the import ance of field experiences in developing preservice teachers beliefs. The results of th e interviews highlighted a limited use of music practices in the participants practicum experiences. Although the preservice teachers held positive beliefs about music, many of the experien ces they encountered at their practicum sites were not diverse and did not demonstrate su fficient music practice for the early childhood curriculum. Discussions with the preservice te achers are important to help them reflect on importance of music through supervision regard ing the current educa tional problems of academic pressure and test focused curriculums. It is important to make music an integral part of teacher training to overcome possible influences of personal experiences with music and to teach preservice teachers how to implement music activities in the classroom. Third, the findings of this study highlight the im portance of teacher education in music and DAP beliefs. The teacher education program influe nces beliefs of preser vice teachers (File & Gullo, 2002; Smith, 1997). Particularly related to music beli efs, the majority of the participants had not taken music courses specified for early childhood educators in the teacher education program. Because the creativity class that addresse s music is only given at the graduate level, preservice teachers at the underg raduate level might not have enough opportunities to learn about music. Preservice teachers also s hould be aware of the importance of music because of the role music can play for child development. Therefore, preservice teachers should learn how to teach about music using diverse music activities and how to integrate music in other courses, such as

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128 math, literacy, science, or special education. To meet more of a music focus in early childhood education curriculums, coursework should help early childhood preservice teachers creatively develop ideas for music integration, implementa tion, and provide them with content/practical knowledge about music. Music coursework th at includes information about the diverse implications music can have in child devel opment may help increase preservice teachers confidence levels with music, and thus increase the implementation of music activities for future classroom. Fourth, the findings demonstrated that ea rly childhood preservice teachers possess strong beliefs about DAP. The results, however, reveal ed an imbalance between pedagogical knowledge and subject knowledge among pres ervice teachers. Through the in terviews, the teachers who held stronger beliefs about DAP demonstrated kn owledge about key principles of DAP and were able to provide rich examples of both DAP and DIP. They were ab le to reflect on their practicum work and able to offer construc tive criticism about the DAP in th ese schools. They noticed that teachers play a key role in the implementation of DAP. However, their descriptions of DAP and criticisms of DIP were primarily focused on how to teach, not what to teach. The discrepancy between DAP and teaching content has been prop osed in terms of how to implement DAP on teaching subjects and learning standards (Da Ro s-Voseles, Danyi, & Aurillo, 2003; Goldstein, 2007). Although some teachers strongly supported DAP, they might have faced with difficulties in teaching specific subjects in developmentally appropriate ways because their beliefs about DAP were focused on how to teach rather than what to teach. The interviewees in this st udy described DIP by describing the utilization of too many worksheets, desk and chair sett ings, and an insufficient number of learning centers and free choice activities. The descriptions were not aimed at subjects and content. All of the participants

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129 believed that literacy and math were the most important subjects. This implies an imbalance in the perception of subject importance. All of th e teachers agreed that music and other creative subjects were important. However, when the teac hers discussed the implementation of subjects, they stated that core subjects need to be taught before other non-core subjects are addressed. It appeared as though the preservice teachers were knowledgeable in pedagogical aspects of DAP, but they revealed disagreements and differences in their understandings of various subjects necessary for a developmentally appropriate cla ssroom. For example, the participants did not have sufficient music content knowledge and di d not have ideas about how music could be approached in DAP, although they all ac knowledged the importance of music. Implications for Future Research The results of this study high light a number of possible res earch extensions. First, this study was implemented only with preservice teachers, and simila r research could be done to assess inservice teacher beliefs about music. Resear ch supports the idea that beliefs are affected by teaching experiences, because inservice teachers encounter different situations than preservice teachers may expect when entering a classroom (Smith, 1997). Therefor e, inservice teacher beliefs about music may be different than pres ervice teacher beliefs be cause of their greater exposure to practical teaching experience. There are several possible ques tions to ask for this research extension. What do inservice teachers be lieve about music? What do inservice teachers believe about their ability to implement and support music for young children? What do inservice teachers know about music content knowledge? Second, it is important to examine the rela tionship between music beliefs and music practice in early childhood classr ooms. A number of studies i nvestigated the relationship between beliefs about DAP and actual teaching pract ices. Most of the resu lts of these studies showed congruent relationships between beliefs and practices. However, there have not been

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130 many investigations on the relationship between beliefs about specific domains of DAP and practice. Beliefs about DAP may also influen ce developmentally appropriate music practice. There are many possible research questions for this topic area. Are there positive or negative relationships between music beliefs and pract ice? What components may influence this relationship? What are the practices of early childhood teachers who have strong beliefs about music or who have weak beliefs about music? Do beliefs about DAP affect music practice? Third, along with studies of the relationship between teacher beliefs and practice, music practice and the components that affect music pract ice needs to be studied. It is important to understand how teachers approach music in the cl assroom and what types of music activities they use for young children. In order to facilitate and encourage the more frequent use of music in the classroom, music practices of teachers need s to be shared. There are several questions that can be asked in this area. What do early childhoo d teachers use to implement music activities in the classroom, and what do they teach stude nts about music? How do early childhood teachers integrate music into other subject areas? What are the factors that determine music planning and implementation? Fourth, teacher beliefs, including beliefs about music and DAP, develop and change through experiences and learning. Specifically, once the teachers enter the teaching practice as novice teachers, they may encounter different be liefs, conflicts with their own beliefs, or difficulties implementing certain practices. As reported in this study, music is primarily considered a non-core subject. Although preservi ce teachers possess strong beliefs about music, they may have conflicts between their unders tanding of the importance implementing music activities and the pressure of academic achie vement. How do early childhood teacher beliefs

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131 about music change as time progr esses? How might this change in beliefs occur? What are the factor that influence this change? Fifth, research on teacher beliefs in early childhood education needs to be extended to address diverse domain areas and the relati onships between specific domains. Many belief studies in early childhood educat ion have been implemented with a focus on development. As demonstrated in this study, there is a dynamic relationship between belie fs about music and DAP. Examining domain specific beliefs may offer a better understanding of teach ers belief systems. For example, what are the relationships in belief s about different academic subjects? What is the subjects relation to each other? What is the relationship between the subjects and developmentally appropriate practice? Limitations of the Study There are limitations to this study. First, th is study was conducted with a small group of preservice teachers at a university located in the northern region of Florida in the United States. Most of the participants were Caucasian, middle class females. Ge neralization of the results of this study is limited in terms of race, gender, so cioeconomic status, teaching context, and early childhood teacher education programs. Another limitation is related to instruments. It is debatable how to measure beliefs about DAP supporting construct validity and reliab ility of DAP (Horn & Ramey, 2004). Since the statements in the Teachers Beliefs Scale were pa rtially drawn from DAP guidelines, the extent and range of the DAP construct might be limited in the measurement. Confusion regarding definitions of beliefs may also affect participan ts responses. This is related to the poor and unspecific measurements of beliefs (WilcoxHerzog, 2002; Vartuli, 2005). The TBS asks respondents to rate the importan ce of specific practice examples. However, the DAP construct refers to the extent that age, individual and cultural appropriaten ess are reflected. To address this

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132 weakness, in this study the follow-up intervie ws on beliefs about DAP were implemented; however, only three teachers who showed different types of be liefs in relationship between music and DAP were selected for interviews am ong the participants. Ther efore, the description of beliefs about DAP is limited in generalization of the outcomes. The Music Beliefs Questionnaire was developed in the music teacher education research. Although validity and reliability have been proven strong and valid, the contents and explanations of the questionnaire were more re lated to general music education rather than specified music implementation in early childhood education. A lthough the researcher emphasized that music education in the quest ionnaire means music implementation for young children in early childhood classr ooms, when the participants completed the questionnaire, their perceived understanding of music education may have affected their interpretation the statements in the questionnaire Then, the researcher had previous professional experience with two of the interviewees. In 2006, the researcher was a practicum supervisor fo r the two interviewees. During the supervision, there were weekly meetings, two lesson observati ons, and evaluations. Therefore, the researcher had a previously influential re lationship with the interviewees and possibly had influence on their beliefs of classroom issues. This relationshi p could have affected the interview process and the participant interactions with the researcher. This may, however, have also been a strength. Because of a previously established relationship with rapport, the interviews were implemented in a positive atmosphere. However, the particip ants may have been preoccupied with thoughts about the previous relationship, and this coul d have limited the inte ractions between the interviewees and the researc h, or affected their reflecti ons during the conversation.

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133 The researchers personal beliefs and biases cannot be separated from the data. These perspectives have been influenced by experien ce as a former preschool/kindergarten classroom teacher, college instructor teaching music, a musi c enthusiast who plays piano, a doctoral student, and a researcher in the area of early childhood education. Base d on the researchers personal background, the researcher held strong beliefs that music should be a part of early childhood education curriculum. The research er also strongly supports the idea that music is a tool for child development and that music should be actively inte grated into other subjects in terms of DAP. Therefore, the researcher believes music could not be separated from DAP. These strong beliefs of the researcher about the im portance of music may have ha d an effect on the interview atmosphere, and she may have provided non-verbal cues during interviews. Additionally, the researchers et hnic and racial identity as an international, Asian, middleclass female may have influenced the interpretation, description, a nd analysis of the beliefs and dynamics related to the preservice teachers re sponses in the intervie ws. For example, the researchers interpretations of DAP may be differ ent from American teachers interpretations of DAP because DAP can be interpreted differently depending on cultures. Also, the researcher received a different elementary and secondary mu sic curriculum in South Korea compared to the elementary and secondary music curriculum that the participants had received in the United States. This culturally different perspective may have had an eff ect on the interpretation of data.

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134 Figure 5-1. The relationship among knowledge, be liefs, confidence, and implementation of music. Knowledge Beliefs Implementation Confidence

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135 APPENDIX A LETTERS OF CONSENT FORM Hae Kyoung Kim Phone: 352-392-9191 e xt. 241 School of Teaching and Learning Email: haekyoung@gmail.com PO Box 117048, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 Informed Consent Form Dear early childhood preservice teacher, I am Hae Kyoung Kim, a doctoral candidate in the School of Teaching and Learning at the University of Florida. As part of my di ssertation conducting re search, I am conducting interviews to examine teachers beliefs abou t music, developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) and the relationship between music and DAP under the supervision of Dr. Kemple. The purpose of this study is to investigate how early childhood preservice teachers understand and perceive music, DAP, and the relationship between music and DAP. You will be asked to participate in two intervie ws lasting no longer than one hour at each time. The interviews will take place during the mont h of February in the Norman Hall at the University of Florida. With your permission, your interview will be audio taped during the interviews. You will not have to answer any question you do not wi sh to answer. The audio will be accessible only to the researcher for the rese arch purposes, which I will personally transcribe, removing any identifiers during transcription. Y our identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law and your identity will not be revealed in the final manuscript. You have the right to withdraw consent for part icipation at any time without consequence. There are no known risks or immediate benefits to th e participants. There are no penalties for nonparticipation and $20 will be offered for part icipation. The results of this study will be available in May upon request. If you have any questions about th is research protocol, please contact me at (352)392-9191 ex t.241, haekyoung@gmail.com or my dissertation advisor, Dr. Kemple, at (352) 392-9191 ext.250, kkemple@coe.uf l.edu. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant ma y be directed to the UFIRB offi ce, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433. A second copy is provided for your records. By signing this letter, you give me permission to report your respon ses anonymously in the final manuscript to be submitted to University of Florida as part of dissertation. Sincerely, Hae Kyoung Kim I have read the procedure de scribed above. I voluntarily agr ee to participate in Hae Kyoung Kims study. I have received a copy of this description. ____________________________ ___________ Signature of participant Date

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136 Hae Kyoung Kim Phone: 352-392-9191 e xt. 241 School of Teaching and Learning Email: haekyoung@gmail.com PO Box 117048, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 Informed Consent Form Dear early childhood preservice teacher, I am Hae Kyoung Kim, a doctoral candidate in the School of Teaching and Learning at the University of Florida. As part of my dissertation, I am conducting a study of teachers beliefs about music, developmentally appropriate prac tice (DAP) and the relationship between music and DAP under the supervision of Dr. Kemple. The purpose of this study is to investigate early childhood preservice teachers beliefs about music and DAP. You will be asked to complete Music Belief Qu estionnaire and Teacher Belief Scale lasting no longer than forty minutes. Completion of questionnair es will take place dur ing the month of late January at the classroom in Norm an Hall. The surveys that you will complete will be accessible only to the researcher for the research purposes which I will personall y analyze, removing any identifiers during coding data. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law and your identity will not be rev ealed in the final manuscript. There are no anticipated risks, compensation or ot her direct benefits to you as a participant in this interview. There are no penalties for nonpartic ipation. You are free to withdraw your consent to participate and may disconti nue your participation in the interview at any time without consequence. The results of this study will be available in May upon request. If you have any questions about this resear ch protocol, please contact me at (352)392-9191 ext.241, haekyoung@gmail.com or my disse rtation advisor, Dr. Kemp le, at (352) 392-9191 ext.250, kkemple@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433. A second copy is provided for your reco rds. By signing this letter, you give me permission to report your responses anonymously in the final manuscript to be submitted to University of Florida as part of dissertation. Sincerely Hae Kyoung Kim I have read the procedure described above. I vol untarily agree to partic ipate in Haekyoung Kims study. I have received a c opy of this description. ____________________________ ___________ Signature of participant Date

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137 APPENDIX B TEACHER INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE All information will remain completely anonym ous and will be used for research only. Gender Female Male Age Ethnicity Caucasian African-American Hispanic Asian Other Your current status or class standing is Junior Senior Other Field Experience Have you had field experience (i.e pre-internship, practicum)? YES NO How many placements have you had? How long have these placements lasted? Months total Teaching Experience Full time teaching year month (preschool kindergarten daycare ) Part time teaching year month (preschool kindergarten daycare ) Babysitting year month Other Your Name Email Address

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138 APPENDIX C MUSIC BASIC QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Have you had formal or informal mu sic education before? Yes No What kinds of music education have you had (i .e. instruments, singing, dance, marching band, etc)? 2. How confident do you feel about the ability to implement music activities (singing songs, dance, movement, etc)? Mark an X in the appropriate box below. Not Somewhat Moderately Very Extremely confident confident confiden t confident confident 3. How confident do you feel about the ability to support childrens musical development? Mark an X in the appropriate box below. Not Somewhat Moderately Very Extremely confident confident confiden t confident confident 4-1. How important do you think about the role of early childhood regular classroom teachers to support music development of young children? Ma rk an X in the appropriate box below. Not Somewhat Moderately Very Extremely important important importa nt important important 4-2. How important do you think about the role of music teachers to support music development of young children? Mark an X in the appropriate box below. Not Somewhat Moderately Very Extremely important important importa nt important important 5. Can you read musical notation? Yes No 6. Explain the meaning of using music 7. Explain the meaning of teaching music

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139 8. Briefly define the following musical terms. Tempo Beat Melody Rhythm Articulation 9. Please consider the following six subject areas and indicate their importance using the chart below. Place ONLY one subject in each bla nk space. Be sure to fill every blank! Math, Art, Music, Science, Literacy, and PE Importance Subjects 1 ( Most important subject for childrens development in early childhood education) 2 3 4 5 6 ( Least important)

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140 APPENDIX D INSTRUMENT INFORMATION 1. The Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) can be obtai ned by request through one of its authors. Rosalind Charlesworth, Ph.D. Professor Department Chair Child and Family Studies Weber State University Ogden, Utah 84408 Phone: 801-626-7386 Email: rcharleswort@weber.edu Craig H. Hart, Ph.D. Professor Department: School of Family Life Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 Phone: 801-422-5939 Email: Craig_Hart@byu.edu 2. The Music Belief questionnaire can be obtained by request through its author. James R. Austin, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Music Music Education Chair Associate Dean for Undergraduate Studies College of Music, 301 UCB University of Colorado at Boulder Boulder, CO 80309-0301 Phone: 303-492-1782; 303-492-6353 Fax: 303-492-5619 Email: James.Austin@colorado.edu

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141 APPENDIX E INTERVIEW QUESTIONS DAP 1) How would you define DAP? 2) If a teacher wants to provid e developmentally a ppropriate practice for young children, wh at are important things that she/he should keep in mind? Are there general principles th e teacher should keep in mind? 3) What would you see in a developmentall y appropriate early childhood classroom? What are children doing? What is the teacher doing? Would you describe the physical environment? 4) What would you see in a developmentall y inappropriate early childhood classroom? What are children doing? What is the teacher doing? Would you describe the physical environment? 5) Have you been in a developmentally a ppropriate early childhood classroom? How you know it was a developmen tally appropriate practice? (If a participant says no,) What changes would need to be made to make it more developmentally appropriate practice? Music 1) What is the role of music in early childhood education? 2) In your survey, you ranked music as the --------most important subject for young childr en. Tell me more about why you ranked music this way in the survey. 3) Are there particular events or people that ha ve affected your attit ude toward music and k nowledge of music? Please explain. 4) Do you think you are confident and comfortabl e in using music and teaching about music ? Why or Why not? 5) Think about your future classroom. If you are a kindergarten teacher, how would you pla n for and implement musi c in your curriculum? Relationship between Music and DAP 1) Is there a relationship between music and DAP? Can you explain more about the relation ship between them? 2) Think of DAP as a circle, think of music as a circle, show me how the DAP circle and th e music circle relate to each other? 3) How would you see music used in a de velopmentally appropriate practice? 4) How is music related to childrens other de velopmental areas? (e.g. cognitive, social, em otional, or physical)

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145 Hildebrandt, C. (1998). Creativity in music and early childhood. Young Chidlren, 53 (6), 68-74. Hill, W. L. (2003). Connecting the policy-to-practice dots. Music Educators Journal, 8 9(3),4-6. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C., & Brissie, J. S. (1992). Explorat ion in parent school relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85 (5), 287-294. Horn, M. L., & Ramey, S. L. (2004). A new meas ure for assessing develo pmentally appropriate practices in early elementary school, a deve lopmentally appropriate practice template. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19 569-587. Housego, B. (1992). Monitoring student teachers feeling of preparedness to teach, personal teaching efficacy, and teaching efficacy in a new secondary teacher education program. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 38 (1), 49-64. Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1990). Socialization of student teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 27 279-300. IEtoile, S. K. (2001). An in-ser vice training program in music for child-care personnel working with infants and toddlers. Journal of Research in Music Education, 49 (1), 6-20. Isenberg J. P., & Jalongo, M. R. (1993). Creative expression and play in the early childhood curriculum New York: Maxwell Macmillan International. Jones, I., & Gullo, D. (1999). Differential soci al and academic effects of developmentally appropriate practices and beliefs. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 14 2635. Jones, I., White, C. S., Aeby, V., & Benson, B. (1997). Attitudes of early childhood teachers toward family and community involvement. Early Education and Development, 8 (2), 152-168. Kemple, K. M., Batey, J. J., & Hartle, L. C. (2004). Music play: Creati ng centers for musical play and exploration. Young Children, 59 (4), 30-37. Kim, J. (2000). Childrens pitch matching, voc al range, and developmentally appropriate practice. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 14 (2), 152-160. Klinger, R., Campbell, P. S., & Goolsby, T. ( 1998). Approaches to childrens song acquisition: Immersion and phrase-by-phrase. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46 (1), 24-34. Kowalski, K., Pretti-Frontczak, K., & Johnson, L. (2001). Preschool teachers beliefs concerning the importance of various devel opmental skills and abilities. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 16 (1), 5-14.

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146 LeBlanc, A., & McCrary, J. (1983). E ffect of tempo on music preference. Journal of Research in Music Education, 31 283-294. Legette, M. R. (2002). Pre-Service Teachers' Belie fs about the Causes of Success and Failure in Music. Applications of Research in Music Education, 21 (1), 12-19. Levinowitz, L. (2001). A golden age for early childhood music education. Teaching Music, 9 (3), 40-43. Lieber, J., Capell, K., & Sandall, S. R. (1998). Inclusive preschool programs: teachers' beliefs and practices. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13 (1), 87-105. Lindfors, J. W. (1991 ). Childrens language and learning Needhan Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Litwin, M. S. (1995). How to measure survey reliability and validity Thousand oaks, CA: Sage. McCarty, F., Abbott-Shim, M., & Lambert, R. (2 001). The relationship between teacher beliefs and practices, and Head Start classroom Quality. Early Education & Development 12 (2), 225-238. McDonald, D. T. (1993). Long-range program goa ls. In M. Palmer & W. L. Sims (Eds.), Music in preskindergarten : Planning and teaching (pp. 15-18). Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. McMullen, M. (1997). The effects of early chil dhood teacher education on self perceptions and beliefs about developmentally appropriate practices. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 18 (3), 55-68. McMullen, M. (1999). Characteris tics of teachers who talk the DAP talk and walk the DAP walk. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 13 (2), 216-232. Miranda, L. M. (2004). The implications of de velopmentally appropriate practice for the kindergarten general classroom. Journal of Research in Music Education, 52 (1), 43-63. Moseman, C. (2003). Primary teachers beliefs a bout family competence to influenceclassroom practices. Early Education & Development, 14 (2), 125-153. Mueller, A. K. (2003). Making connections be tween movement and music for young children. General Music Today, 16 (3) 1-5. Munby, H. (1982). The place of teachers beliefs in research on teacher thinking and decision making, and an alternative methodology. Instructional Science, 11 201-225. Pajares, F. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and educat ional research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62 307-332.

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149 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Hae Kyoung Kim was born in Seoul, South Ko rea. She graduated from Ewha Womens University with a bachelor degree in early childhood educa tion. She was a preschool and kindergarten teacher for five years. She return ed to the graduate school at Ewha Womens University and she received her maste rs degree in early childhood education. After completing master degree, she worked as a professor at the Education and Training Center of the Korean Association for the Fost ering and Education of the New Generation. Also she was an instructor at colleges in South Kor ea. She began her doctoral program at University of Florida in 2003. She worked as a research assi stant and a teaching assistant. She was also an instructor of creativity in early childhood curriculum course in sp ring 2007. She is going to be an assistant professor at University of Texas at Brownsville in August 2007.