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# Comprehension and Vocabulary with Students in Primary Grades

## Material Information

Title: Comprehension and Vocabulary with Students in Primary Grades A Comparison of Instructional Strategies
Physical Description: 1 online resource (210 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Butler, Tyran Wright
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: children, comprehension, instruction, reading, vocabulary
Special Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Special Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

## Notes

General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tyran Wright Butler.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.

## Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021253:00001

## Material Information

Title: Comprehension and Vocabulary with Students in Primary Grades A Comparison of Instructional Strategies
Physical Description: 1 online resource (210 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Butler, Tyran Wright
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: children, comprehension, instruction, reading, vocabulary
Special Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Special Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

## Notes

General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tyran Wright Butler.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.

## Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021253:00001

Full Text

VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION WITH STUDENTS IN PRIMARY GRADES:
A COMPARISON OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

By

TYRAN WRIGHT BUTLER

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

2007 Tyran Wright Butler

For Sasha, the one who sacrificed the most

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Glory be to God for the great things He has done.

Many people contributed to the success of this study. The second and third grade children

who served as participants in this study were wonderful and deserve a tremendous amount of

gratitude. I am indebted to Ms. Essie Wilson for coming out of retirement to help me. The

faculty and staff at Summers Elementary School were gracious hosts, and I appreciate them as

well.

I thank Dr. Holly Lane, my doctoral committee chair, for her patience and support as she

guided me through this process. I could never have imagined that a chance meeting at a

professional development activity would lead to a Ph.D. There are no words that can express

how much I appreciate her willingness to bend over backwards for me.

I would also like to thank my committee members, Drs. Christie Cavanaugh, Cyndy

Griffin, and Lynda Hayes. Each of them made significant contributions to the soundness of this

study and the soundness of my mind, and I owe them big.

I also thank Dr. Nancy Corbett for listening and encouraging me. Her quiet way helped to

settle my storms. I also would like to thank my fellow doctoral students for "knowing my pain,"

and celebrating milestones with me. I owe a special thanks to Nicole Fenty, who really came

through for me when the going got tough.

I am especially grateful for my family. They believed I could do it when I didn't believe I

could do it. Thank you, Sasha, for your tolerance and pushing as made we this journey. This is

our Ph.D. Finally, I would like to thank Alvin for helping me to keep the important things in

perspective. I am grateful for the day that I met you.

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IST O F T A B L E S ......................................... ............................... 7

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .8

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION .............................. .................... .......... ...... ......... ............. .. 11

Rationale for the Study ........................................................ ....... .. .. ............ 13
Scope of the Study ....................................................................................................... ..... 15
L im ita tio n s ................................................................................................................. 1 6
D elim itatio n s .............................................................................16
L ist o f T e rm s ..................................................................................................................... 1 6
Theoretical Constructs ...................................................... ....... ............... 18
Vygotsky's Theory on Learning and Development ................................................18
The Interactive-Compensatory Model of Reading .......................................................19
M etacognition ........................................... 20
O overview ........................................................................................ 21

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .................................................. .............................. 23

In tro d u ctio n ....... ......... .. ............. .. .............................................................2 3
M methods ........................ .......... ......................................24
The Relationship between Vocabulary and Comprehension................... ...............25
Vocabulary Instruction ............... .. ...... ...................................28
Direct Instruction of W ord M eanings...................................................... ... .......... 29
Storybook Reading and Vocabulary Learning ..................................... ...............35
C om prehension Instruction ........................................................... ....................................39
Description of Reciprocal Teaching............................................................. .. ..................42
Reciprocal Teaching Studies with Elementary Participants................ ..................43
General Cognitive Strategy Instruction with Elementary Children .............................45
S u m m a ry ................. ............... ........................................................................................... 5 0

3 M ETHOD S AND PROCEDURES.................................................. ............................... 51

Introdu action ................ ............. ............................................5 1
H ypotheses.................................................................52
M methods ............. ............................................................. 53
In stru ctio n al S ettin g ................................................................................................... 5 4
P participant D description ..............................................................54
R research In stru m entation ................................................................................................. 56
V vocabulary M measures ...............................................................56

C om prehension M measures ....................................................................... ..................58
E x p erim mental D design ....................... .... .................................. ........ ........ .. ............ 59
In stru action al P rocedu res .............................................................................. ..................... 60
Instructor Preparation ...................... ...................... ... .... ..... ..... ....... 60
M materials .............. .. .... ... ............. ..........................................6 1
Vocabulary-Focused Intervention ............................................................................61
Strategies-Focused Intervention ............................................. ............................. 62
Fidelity of Treatm ent .......... ..... ............................... ...... .. ..... ... 63
Treatm ent of the D ata .......... ... .... .... ........... ............................................ 64

4 R E S U L T S ............................................................................6 6

Introduction ............. ......... ...............................66
Fidelity of Instructional Procedures................ ........... ...................... ................ .............66
Fidelity of Implementation and Reliability of Measurement ..................................66
Statistical A analyses of the D ata ......... ............................... ..................................... 67
Sum m ary ............................................ ................................. .........................73

5 D ISC U SSIO N ............................................................................ ..........................76

Summary of the Hypotheses and Results ..... ............................................................76
Theoretical Implications of the Research Findings ........................................................81
Im plications for F uture R research ......................................... .............................................82
Implications for Practice ........... ...................................... ..................... 82
Lim stations to the Present Study.......... ................. .. ....... ..................... ............... 83
Sum m ary ............................................ ................................. .........................84

APPENDIX

A PAREN TAL INFORM ED CON SEN T ......................................................... .....................86

B TARGET WORD VOCABULARY MEASURE..... .................... ...............87

C STO R Y B O O K R EFER EN CE S ........................................................................ ..................98

D VOCABULARY-FOCUSED LESSONS........................................................... .....................99

E STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON GUIDES ............... .......... ...................... 164

F STRATEGY INTRODUCTION SCHEDULE ............................................. ............... 197

G TREATMENT FIDELITY CHECKLISTS ........................................ ........................ 198

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ......... .. ............. .........................................................................202

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ............................................................................. ....................210

6

LIST OF TABLES

Table page

3-1 D escriptive Inform ation for G roups ............................................... ............................ 55

3-2 Pretest Means for Vocabulary and Strategies Groups...........................................................55

3-3 Split Half Reliability Coefficients .................................................. ......................... 59

3-4 Experimental Design ............................. .. .. .. ..... .......... ....... 60

3-5 Design for Testing the Null Hypotheses using a Series of Analyses of Covariance
(A N C O V A s) ..............................................................................65

4-1 Comparison of Pretest M eans by Group ................................................... ..................68

4-2 Summary of Analysis of Covariance for Expressive Vocabulary Task.................................69

4-3 Summary of Analysis of Covariance for Receptive Vocabulary Task..............................69

4-5 Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Listening Comprehension Task....................69

4-6 Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Passage Comprehension Task .........................70

4-7 Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Researcher-Created Vocabulary Task.............70

4-8 Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group
Differences for Vocabulary-Focused Group ........................................ ...............71

4-9 Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group
Differences for Strategies-Focused Group................................... .......................... 71

4-10 Correlation M atrix for Pretest M measures ........................................ ......................... 74

4-11 Correlation M atrix for the Posttest M easures.................................................................... 75

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1-1 A stage representation of an interactive model of reading. ...................................................20

2-1 The reciprocal relationship between vocabulary and comprehension...............................28

2-2 Gradual release of responsibility m odel ........................................... .......................... 41

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION WITH STUDENTS IN PRIMARY GRADES: A
COMPARISON OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

By

Tyran Wright Butler

August 2007

Chair: Holly B. Lane
Major: Special Education

My study examined the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused

instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students in primary

learning and development, Pearson and Gallagher's gradual release of responsibility model,

metacognition, and Stanovich's interactive-compensatory model of reading served as theoretical

guides for this study.

A pretest-posttest design was employed. Second and third grade students (N=60) in two

groups received 32 sessions over eight weeks, of either vocabulary-focused instruction or

strategies-focused instruction. Students in the vocabulary-focused group received instruction

similar to Text Talk, and students in the strategies-focused group received instruction similar to

reciprocal teaching.

A series of analyses of covariance revealed no statistically significant differences

between groups on measures of expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, reading

comprehension, listening comprehension, and on a researcher-created target vocabulary measure.

An analysis of covariance did reveal a statistically significant difference between groups on a

passage comprehension measure, favoring the vocabulary-focused group. Pearson product

moment correlation coefficients revealed moderate to robust correlations of the measures.

Implications for researchers and teachers emerge from these findings. Teachers should

understand that explicit vocabulary instruction does have an impact on comprehension and it

does enhance word knowledge. With a more experienced adult or peer providing scaffolding,

students' abilities were expanded beyond what they could do alone. In addition, students in

primary grades can benefit from strategies-instruction. Using a gradual release model assisted

students in proficiently using strategies. Strategies-instruction positively influenced both

comprehension and vocabulary. Class time should be dedicated to explicit vocabulary and

comprehension strategy instruction.

Researchers should consider investigating the longitudinal effects of strategies instruction

on students in primary grades. It is also recommended that researchers examine specific

combinations of strategies useful for students in primary grades, and specific teacher behaviors

that contribute to the mastery of strategies by students.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Political influences, societal influences, and educational factors have been catalysts for the

increased attention given to reading achievement and the instructional methods used to teach

reading. Political influences such as the No ChildLeft BehindAct of 2002 have forced schools to

ensure that all children reach higher levels of literacy. Our nation's evolution from an agrarian

society, to an industrial society, to an information society has changed the concept of schooling

and how students are instructed. Along with changes in our society have been changes in how

literacy is defined. The definition of literacy has evolved over time, reflecting the needs of

society, and has had a tremendous impact on what is done to ensure that students are literate

(Block, 2000). The definition of reading has expanded from a set of sub skills to a broader,

more complex task requiring the skillful integration of knowledge.

In spite of changes over time, some aspects of instruction have not kept pace with higher

demands for literacy. Reading abilities vary from the knowledge that spoken language can be

analyzed into strings of separable words, which are analyzed into sequences of syllables and

phonemes, to the ability to understand and use vocabulary words, and the ability to comprehend

difficulties become more evident and more pronounced and, in turn, harder to remediate.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics (2005), 38% of fourth grade

children cannot read well enough to effectively accomplish grade level work. Between the 2003

and 2005 administrations of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the

percentage of fourth grade students who performed at or above Basic increased in only four

states, and decreased in two states. In Florida, 35% of fourth grade students scored below the

Basic level, and only 23% scored at the Proficient level on the 2005 NAEP (NCES, 2005).

Students performing at the Basic level should demonstrate an understanding of the overall

able to make relatively obvious connections between the text and their own experiences and

extend the ideas in text by making simple inferences (NCES, 2005). The Proficient level of the

NAEP requires students to be able to demonstrate an overall understanding of text, providing

inferences as well as literal information. When they read text appropriate to fourth graders, they

should be able to extend ideas in the text by making inferences, drawing conclusions, and

making connections to their own experiences (NCES, 2005).

One of the most important goals in elementary school is for all students to be proficient

readers. The foundation on which proficient readers are developed begins well before children

enter school. Parents and other care providers begin supporting the reading development of

children through the use of conversations, storybook interactions, and other literacy related

activities that encourage active engagement (Britto, Fuligni, & Brooks-Gunn, 2006; Landry &

Smith, 2006). When children enter school, some come with requisite knowledge and skills to

become proficient readers, and others do not (Craig & Washington, 2006). Throughout the

primary grades, teachers work to ensure that children's phonological awareness is developed and

that they become efficient decoders through phonics instruction, which in turn supports their

transition into fluent readers. Despite the purposeful nature of reading instruction in primary

grades, some children still fail to comprehend text efficiently when they progress to later grades.

The assumption that fluent readers will develop into adequate comprehenders has been proven

false for many students. One reason for the low percentage of children reading grade level work

proficiently on tests like the NAEP could be that something critical is missing in some facets of

instruction.

Children who fail to become proficient readers in the primary grades tend to remain poor

as reported in the Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read (2000)

indicates that explicit, systematic instruction in various components of reading such as phonemic

awareness and phonics, helps support the development of decoding skills. Children who can

skillfully decode words develop into fluent readers. Fluent readers have more cognitive

resources to devote to the comprehension of text (Sinatra, Brown, & Reynolds, 2000). Research

also supports explicit instruction in comprehension (NRP Report, 2000). According to Durkin

(1993), comprehension is the "essence of reading." Unfortunately, reading comprehension is not

a naturally occurring event for some children. Comprehension is a complex process that is

influenced by multiple factors. A particular factor identified by the National Reading Panel

(2000) is vocabulary because children's access to the meaning of text is limited by how well they

know the meanings of words. The construct of comprehension cannot be understood well

without understanding of the role that vocabulary plays in understanding what is read.

Rationale for the Study

Students are expected to perform proficiently on standardized measures of reading

comprehension by the time they reach the intermediate grades. However, very little

comprehension instruction occurs before students actually reach the intermediate grades.

Educators have long assumed that children in primary grades were not developmentally ready to

vocabulary instruction. Although the need for reading instruction that promotes comprehension

and increases vocabulary is clear (NRP, 2000), more work is needed to understand the impact of

various forms of instruction on children in primary grades. If students are to be prepared to

comprehend text proficiently by the time they reach the intermediate grades, instruction in both

comprehension and vocabulary are necessary prior to them reaching the intermediate grades.

Because the understanding of words and understanding of connected text are closely related

(Juel, 2006; Senechal, Ouellette, & Rodney, 2006), instruction designed to promote both

vocabulary development and text comprehension can be an efficient means of promoting reading

achievement. Research is needed to clarify the impact of vocabulary instruction on

comprehension and the impact of comprehension strategy instruction on vocabulary growth and

comprehension.

The purpose of my study was to examine the effects of two explicit instructional

strategies on the comprehension skills and vocabulary development of readers in second grade

and third grade who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders of text.. One

instructional method was vocabulary-focused, and the other was strategies-focused. Through

this study, the relationship between understanding words and understanding text is examined.

The general research questions are as follows: What are the effects of vocabulary-focused

instruction on the vocabulary skills and comprehension development of primary grade students

who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? What are the effects of

strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of

Research supports the implementation of interventions that focus on explicit

comprehension strategies instruction (Duffy, Roehler, Meloth, Vavrus, Book, Putnam, &

Wesselman 1986; Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Pressley, El-Dinary, Gaskins, Schuder, Bergman,

Almasi, & Brown, 1992) and explicit instruction of word meanings through the use of

storybooks (Brett, Rothlein, & Hurley, 1996; Coyne, Simmons, Kame'enui, & Stoolmiller,

2004). Upper elementary students have been taught comprehension strategies with substantial

improvement in their understanding of text (Pressley, 2002). Pressley, Johnson, Symons,

McGoldrick, and Kurita (1989) summarized the research examining the effects of strategy

instruction on students' memory and comprehension. The researchers examined the relationship

between student characteristics and cognitive strategy instruction. They determined that poor

readers benefit more from strategy instruction than proficient readers. They also suggested that

perhaps strategies are more effective with older student in intermediate grades and beyond, than

younger students. Despite Pressley et al.'s (1989) suggestion, the impact of strategy instruction

on the reading comprehension and vocabulary development of students in primary grades is

under studied. Few researchers have actually used children in primary grades as study

participants in strategy instruction studies. Researchers often disagree about the readiness of

primary grade children to receive strategy instruction. Some researchers maintain that strategy

instruction should be reserved for older children (Cross & Paris, 1988; Pressley et al., 1989),

that more should be done to examine the most effective ways to provide the instruction.

(Williams, Hall, Lauer, Stafford, DeSisto, & deCani, 2005; Baker, 2002). Because few empirical

studies have been designed to examine comprehension strategies instruction with young children

this study focused on two instructional approaches designed support the development of reading

comprehension and vocabulary in primary grade students.

Scope of the Study

This study was conducted within a limited scope. The limitations and delimitations are

described in the following sections.

Limitations

This study was conducted with second grade and third grade students identified by their

teachers as proficient decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders of text. Previous informal

experiences and formal reading instruction of the subjects may limit this investigation. The

study may be limited further because the results from this study cannot be generalized to older

students or to students who comprehend text well. Finally, because the intervention was

conducted by researchers with small groups of students, outside of the classroom, it cannot be

generalized to larger classroom settings.

Delimitations

The study was delimited by geographical location to Lake City, Florida, a medium-sized

city located in the northern part of the state. The participants were 60 second and third grade

students in Columbia County. Second and third grade students were used as participants because

second grade and third grade are both primary grades, and the focus of this study was vocabulary

development and the comprehension skills of students in primary grades. Participants were

selected for participation in the study based on recommendations by teachers and reading

specialists in their school, and by scoring between the 30th and 45th percentile on a standardized

test. The school was selected based on its Reading First eligibility. Participants were pretested

on measures of verbal ability and reading comprehension. Participants were randomly assigned

to one of two instructional groups. Participant selection did not include consideration for gender

or ethnicity.

List of Terms

An understanding of applicable terminology is critical to the implementation and

interpretation of this investigation. The following section defines relevant terms as they apply to

this study.

Clarifying

Expressive vocabulary

Listening comprehension

Metacognition

Predicting

Questioning

Receptive vocabulary

Reciprocal teaching

Summarizing

Text Talk

a strategy used to identify the meaning of unfamiliar words or

ideas in text. It calls students' attention to the fact that some parts

of the text may be difficult to understand.

words used when an individual speaks or writes.

understanding of spoken language

knowledge about cognition and self-regulation of cognition.

a strategy that involves making a guess about future events, based

on logical evidence from a text.

a strategy that involves the use of self-generated questions in

reference to a text, for the purpose of reading comprehension.

the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning

through interaction and involvement with text (RAND, 2002).

words known well enough to understand when heard or read.

an instructional procedure in which small groups of

students learn to improve their reading comprehension through

scaffolded instruction of comprehension-fostering and

comprehension-monitoring strategies, which include predicting,

clarifying, questioning, and summarizing.

a strategy in which the reader identifies and articulates main ideas

from a text in a concise manner.

an approach to reading aloud that is designed to enhance children's

ability to construct meaning from decontextualized language,

which promotes comprehension and language development (Beck

& McKeown, 2001).

Tier two words words that mature users of language encounter and use frequently.

Theoretical Constructs

Multiple theories provide a framework for the current study. Vygotsky's (1978) theory

on the interaction between learning and development, Stanovich's (1980) interactive-

compensatory model of reading, and the theory of metacognition provide justification for the

explicit instruction in vocabulary and the direct comprehension strategy instruction used in this

study.

Vygotsky's Theory on Learning and Development

Vygotsky (1978) theorized that learning is shaped by interactions with others. His theory

of development and learning has profound implications for instruction. Classic psychological

literature suggested that development was always a prerequisite for learning. There was a

specific concern for premature instruction, instruction before a child was ready for it. However,

Vygotsky suggested that classical psychologists were incorrect. He believed that learning plays a

role in development. Development is not a precondition of learning; instead, learning and

development are interrelated from a child's first day of life.

Vygotsky (1978) suggested that learning be matched with a child's developmental level.

He stated that in order to teach students, two levels must be found, the actual developmental

level and the zone ofproximal development. The actual developmental level is the level of

development of a child's mental function as a result of some already completed developmental

cycles. Vygotsky believed that what children can do with the assistance of others might be more

indicative of their mental development than what they can do alone. The difference between the

actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level as

potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in

collaboration with more capable peers is called the zone of proximal development. The zone of

proximal development defines functions that have not yet matured, but are in the process of

maturation. According to Vygotsky (1978), "what a child can do with assistance today, she will

be able to do by herself tomorrow" (pp.87). Instructional methods in this study were performed

in the zone of proximal development.

Stanovich (1980) hypothesized the compensatory-interactive model of reading. He

extended Rumelhart's interactive model of reading, which assumes that both bottom up and top

down processes occur simultaneously. Rumelhart (1994) described five independent knowledge

sources that contain specialized knowledge-syntax, semantic, orthographic, lexical, and

pragmatic. Rumelhart suggested that each of these knowledge sources is employed concurrently

and perceptions are created through this interaction. His model provides a framework to

describe parallel, rather than linear or hierarchical processing. Rumelhart describes the message

center as a highly structured storage device that receives data. Each knowledge source scans the

message center for a hypothesis that is consistent with its domain of knowledge. This hypothesis

is then evaluated in terms of the information contained by that particular knowledge source, and

the process recurs until a decision is reached.

The message center is a highly structured three-dimensional space that incorporates the

line of the text, the level of the hypothesis from the knowledge sources, and possible alternative

hypotheses at the same level. Each level enters a hypothesis and these are evaluated in terms of

all others. Constraints from all levels are simultaneously applied. Stanovich (1980) added a

"compensatory assumption" to this model. The assumption was that deficiencies at any level in

the processing hierarchy can be compensated for by a greater use of information from other

levels, and that this compensation takes place irrespective of the level of the deficient process.

Rumelhart's model helps us understand how top-down and bottom-up processes interact with

one another, and Stanovich's extension helps us understand individual differences in reading.

Syntactical Semantic
Kno~wedge Knowledge

Pattern I Most Probable
Synthesizer I interpretation

Orthographic Lexical
Knowledge Knowledge

Figure 1-1. A stage representation of an interactive model of reading. Adapted from D.
Rumelhart (1994)

Metacognition

Research on metacognition originated over 30 years ago, with researchers focusing on

how and when children develop knowledge and control of their cognitive processes (Baker,

2002). Thinking about one's thinking appears to be the key to thoughtful, active reading. Paris,

Lipson, and Wixson (1994) stated that metacognition is the core of strategic behavior and leads

to control over one's learning. Not only do proficient readers know strategies, but they monitor

their use of the strategies. Metacognition has been firmly established in theories of reading and

learning. Metacognitive readers plan, evaluate, and regulate their own skills (Paris et al., 1994).

By definition, metacognition is two fold, including both knowledge of and control over

one's cognitive processes. Knowledge describes the ability to reflect on one's own cognitive

processes. Control refers to the self-regulation of cognitive efforts, developing a goal and plan,

checking progress toward that goal, and repairing difficulties once detected.

Myers and Paris (1978) documented that younger children have less knowledge and

control over their comprehension processes. But, the questions that remain are: Do they have

less knowledge and control because they have not been taught how to monitor? Do they have

less knowledge and control because metacognition is beyond their reach? Thinking about how

one thinks, and knowing when and how to use a strategy is the key to engaged reading and

proficient reading comprehension, which is the goal for all children. The earlier children are

taught to do this, the more time they have to practice, which greatly affects their level of

proficiency. According to Baker (2002), social interaction is an important mediator in

metacognitive development. This view is consistent with Vygotsky's (1978) proposition that

children learn through social interactions with more skilled adults. The National Research

Council (Snow et al., 1998) recommended explicit instruction in monitoring for understanding

was provided in this study. Adults assisted young children in developing an awareness of their

thinking processes and through a gradual release, assisted them in gaining control over those

processes.

Overview

The focus of this study is an investigation of vocabulary development and text

comprehension. Specifically, the effects of two instructional strategies on vocabulary

development and reading comprehension. Chapter 2 provides a review and analysis of the

relevant professional literature related to vocabulary instruction and comprehension instruction

with elementary aged children. Chapter 3 provides an explanation of methods and procedures

implemented in the study. Chapter 4 details the results obtained from the study. Finally,

Chapter 5 provides a discussion of the results as related to previous research and implications for

future research.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Introduction

Proficiency in reading is fundamental to success in school and in society. However,

national literacy rates are not keeping up with increasing demands for competence in literacy

skills (Britto et al., 2006). The goal of reading instruction is for children to become self-

regulating monitors of what they read. Numerous instructional factors influence whether or not

children are able to comprehend text. Explicitly teaching children to use comprehension

strategies has been shown to improve text comprehension. Explicitly teaching word meanings

has also been demonstrated to mediate reading comprehension. Based on expectations for levels

of proficiency on standardized assessments that evaluate what children know and can do with

grade level text, in addition to jobs that require sophisticated knowledge to complete job related

comprehension, it is important to investigate factors that influence comprehension, such as

vocabulary.

I provide a summary and analysis of the professional literature on vocabulary instruction

and comprehension instruction with elementary aged children generated over the last 30 years.

This literature review is organized into five sections. First, studies that examine the relationship

between vocabulary and comprehension are detailed. Then, studies of word learning through

direct instruction and studies that examine word learning through the use of storybooks are

detailed. Next, the reciprocal teaching model is described and reciprocal teaching studies, which

include elementary aged participants are detailed. Finally, studies of comprehension strategy

instruction are presented.

Methods

An electronic search of PsychINFO, and EBSCO Host was conducted to locate studies for

this literature review. The descriptors for the electronic search were vocabulary instruction and

instruction; comprehension strategy instruction and elementary students; and comprehension and

elementary students. The vast amount of comprehension research in the last 30 years

complicated the identification of relevant studies for this review. For example, a search of

EBSCO Host using the key words reading comprehension led to 1552 references. The key

words reading comprehension and elementary yielded 203 listings. The key words, reading

strategy instruction and elementary students yielded three studies, and not one of them was

appropriate for this review. The review process highlighted the fact that there is a dearth of

research on reading comprehension of children in elementary grades, and more specifically the

primary grades. Studies in the following refereed journals were identified: Elementary School

Reference lists from identified studies were also examined. In addition, a manual search in the

published literature was conducted in the following journals: Journal of Literacy Research,

Journal ofRet, dig. and Journal ofReading Behavior. These journals were selected because

either the word 'reading' or 'literacy' was in the title, or the journal was listed repeatedly in the

reference section of previously secured articles. Studies selected for inclusion in this review

were included based on the following criteria: (a) subjects were children for whom English is a

first language; (b) subjects receiving interventions were in kindergarten through fifth grade; (c)

designs were either correlational or experimental with a specific emphasis on vocabulary

learning and or comprehension learning; and (c) studies were published in the last thirty years

(1977-2007). Upon examination of the articles, those that featured students at the secondary

level were excluded. Some studies were included if they focused specifically on reciprocal

Age was delimited in this review due to the focus of instructional effectiveness with

elementary aged children. This review only includes studies that examined the vocabulary

instruction and comprehension instruction with elementary aged students. The results of the

literature search yielded 25 studies, which are included in this review..

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Comprehension

Anderson and Freebody (1981) offer three hypotheses for examining the effects of word

learning on reading comprehension, the instrumentalist, aptitude, and knowledge hypotheses.

The instrumentalist position suggests that knowledge of word meanings is the primary factor

responsible for reading comprehension. But, the instrumentalist position does not make

suggestions about where vocabulary knowledge originates.

The aptitude hypothesis suggests that people with large vocabularies are better at

comprehension because they possess higher mental agility. There are few instructional

implications from this hypothesis.

The third hypothesis, the knowledge hypothesis, suggests that world knowledge is crucial

to the understanding of text. Performance on vocabulary tests is seen as a reflection of a

person's background knowledge. The knowledge hypotheses emphasizes that knowing a word

well implies that one knows a lot of words related to it and this larger "chunk" of knowledge is

crucial for understanding a given text. The knowledge approach suggests an interactive

approach in which conceptually generated knowledge is combined with information in the text

(Lesgold & Perfetti, 1978). The instructional implications are that the more word meanings one

knows and the more experiences one has, the better he or she will comprehend text. Anderson

and Freebody's (1981) instrumentalist and knowledge hypotheses informed this study.

Stanovich (1986) summarized a number of studies documenting the strong association

between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Pointing out that the most

vocabulary acquisition occurs during reading. Stanovich noted that children with weak

vocabularies read less, acquire fewer new words, and fall progressively further behind their

peers. The gap in exposure to vocabulary through reading is apparent as early as first grade. In

separate studies, Allington (1984) and Biemiller (1977-1978) documented that proficient readers

read three times as many words per week as their less-proficient peers. Stanovich appropriated

the Biblical term "Matthew Effects" to describe the phenomenon of the rich (good readers)

getting richer, and the poor (struggling readers) becoming increasingly impoverished. The

"Matthew Effects" have devastating consequences for children with reading difficulties. The

knowledge of word meanings is an important factor in performance on reading comprehension

Researchers have been able to document a substantial psychometric relationship between

vocabulary and comprehension (Anderson & Freebody, 1981; Baumann, Kame'enui, & Ash,

2003; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986). Factor analyses of reading

comprehension tests consistently find a substantial proportion of variance accounted for by

vocabulary knowledge. In a longitudinal study, Cunningham and Stanovich (1997) examined the

predictive relationships between 27 students' vocabulary skills as measured by the Peabody

Picture Vocabulary Test-III in first grade and their reading comprehension and vocabulary skills

scores on a standardized reading test.

Like Cunningham and Stanovich (1997), Tabors, Snow, and Dickinson (2001) examined

the predictive relations between kindergartners' narrative production and receptive vocabulary

skills as assessed by the PPVT- R and their subsequent vocabulary skills and comprehension

skills in fourth and seventh grades. Vocabulary scores at kindergarten were strongly correlated

with vocabulary and comprehension scores at fourth and seventh grades.

Schatschneider, Buck, Torgesen, Wagner, Hassler, Hecht, and Powell-Smith (2003)

conducted a study to identify the major reading, cognitive, and linguistic skills that contribute to

individual differences in performance on the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive

Assessment Test (FCAT) at third, seventh, and tenth grades. Two hundred participants were

administered tests that measured a variety of reading, language, and cognitive skills. Results

indicated that in third grade, reading fluency was the dominant factor in explaining variability in

test performance. In seventh grade, reading fluency and verbal knowledge similarly explained

variability in test performance individual differences. However, by 10th grade, verbal knowledge

and reasoning was clearly dominant factor in explaining variability in test performance on the

FCAT.

Although researchers have been able to document a strong relationship between

vocabulary and comprehension, they have been unable to sort the exact nature of the reciprocal

relationship. A graphical representation of a model of the reciprocal nature of vocabulary and

comprehension and the influence of experiences with texts is proposed in Figure 2-1.

Experiences with text include independent book reading as well as read aloud experiences

between children and adults. The more one reads, the more his vocabulary increases. The more

vocabulary increases, the better text is understood.

Figure 2-1. The reciprocal relationship between vocabulary and comprehension.

Vocabulary Instruction

Vocabulary instruction has been identified as an essential element of reading instruction

(NRP, 2000). Like comprehension instruction for children in primary grades, vocabulary

instruction has not received attention the way other reading instructional methods have

(Biemiller & Slonim, 2001), despite its influence on reading comprehension. Readers must

understand words in order to comprehend text. Some interventions with children in both primary

and elementary grades have shown that vocabulary instruction increases word knowledge

(Biemiller, 1999; Brett et al., 1996; Coyne et al., 2004). Traditional methods of instruction, such

as copying definitions from a dictionary or attempting to use a new word in a meaningful

sentence have been demonstrated to be ineffective in promoting vocabulary growth (Nagy,

1988). Superficial learning of word meanings also contributes little to text comprehension (Beck

& McKeown, 1991; Nagy, 1988). Several effective methods have been developed for teaching

word meanings and, more importantly, for promoting deeper understanding of words. Direct

instruction of word meanings and word learning from storybooks will be discussed in the

following sections.

Direct Instruction of Word Meanings

It is estimated that children from third grade through eighth grade learn approximately

3,000 words per year (Nagy & Herman, 1987). As children get older, they encounter

increasingly difficult words that are not in their oral vocabulary. As a way to facilitate

vocabulary learning, direct instruction in word meanings has been promoted. Expanded oral

vocabularies assist in comprehending text as text complexity increases. When words in text are

accessible to children, they are able to devote more mental processes to comprehending text.

Explicitly teaching vocabulary words has also been argued to be problematic by some

researchers because the sheer number of words defies a systematic instructional approach (Nagy,

1988).

According to Stahl and Fairbanks (1986), direct instruction of vocabulary has

demonstrable effects on vocabulary learning and comprehension. However, they maintain that

vocabulary instruction should include more than definitions in order to improve reading

comprehension. Dictionary definitions provide inadequate explanations of word meanings

(McKeown, 1993). Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002) argue that the teachers should carefully

select appropriate words to teach students in order to contribute to students' vocabulary

development. According to Beck et al. (2002), the primary consideration in choosing words

should be "the nature of the words themselves." They suggest that words "should be selected

from the portion of word stock that comprises sophisticated words of high utility for mature

language users and that are characteristic of written language" (p. 253, Beck & McKeown,

2007). They refer to these words as "Tier 2" words as opposed to "Tier 1" words, which are

basic words used in everyday language, and "Tier 3" words, which are low-frequency words

specific to particular content areas. To determine which words are Tier 2 words, words should

be evaluated based on 1) usefulness across contexts, 2) relation to other useful words, and 3)

importance to the story (Beck et al., 2002). Beck et al. (2002) argue that if 'Tier Two' words,

words that mature users of language encounter frequently, are taught then the task of direct word

instruction is manageable and useful. The benefit of this approach is that it is focused on

teaching children sophisticated words that children may not regularly hear, but that they need to

know in order to understand books that are read to them and that they will read.

Beck, Perfetti, and McKeown (1982) examined the effects of long-term vocabulary

instruction on the reading comprehension of fourth-grade students and found that students who

received explicit vocabulary instruction outperformed students in a control group on measures of

vocabulary and reading comprehension. However, the gains in comprehension were marginal.

McKeown, Beck, Omanson, and Perfetti (1983) replicated and extended the previous study by

that investigated the relationship between vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension.

The original study showed substantial gains in accuracy of word knowledge, but only marginal

gains in comprehension. The initial study contained methodological problems, so researchers

revised the comprehension measure in the replication study. Forty-one fourth graders were

taught 104 difficult words over a five-month period. Following instruction, the students who

received instruction and students in the control group, matched on preinstruction vocabulary and

comprehension ability, performed tasks to measure accuracy of word knowledge and

comprehension of stories that contained target vocabulary words. Students who received

vocabulary instruction performed better than students in the control group on all tasks. Results

from the replication study support the conclusion suggested by the original study that intensive

vocabulary instruction designed to promote deep and fluent word knowledge enhances reading

comprehension.

McKeown, Beck, Omanson, and Pople (1985) conducted a study that examined the nature

of instruction and the frequency of instructional encounters on fourth graders' verbal processing

skills. The researchers designed the study to teach 24 difficult words to fourth grade children. In

30-minute lessons over 14 school days, words were presented to students using varying

instructional models: rich, rich/extended, and traditional instruction. A rich context was one that

involved elaboration and discussion about words, their meanings, and their uses. A

rich/extended context involved rich instruction and activities that allowed children to notice and

use instructed words outside the classroom. The traditional instruction was drawn from basal

readers. Children made associations between the words and their definitions or synonyms.

Multiple-choice vocabulary tests were used to assess vocabulary knowledge. Outcome measures

interpretation, and story comprehension. McKeown et al. (1985) concluded that all types and

frequencies of instruction showed an advantage of word learning over the control group.

However, only the rich and rich/extended conditions led to better performance on story recall

tasks. More encounters with words led to increased word knowledge for students. Results from

this study provide support for the idea that explicit vocabulary instruction is beneficial to

students. When students are taught words, they learn words.

Twelve-year-old participants with learning disabilities (n=64) who were presented

keyword mnemonic strategy instruction in a study conducted by Condus, Marshall, and Miller

(1986) outperformed students assigned to other instructional strategy groups. Special education

teachers presented students in each condition with a total of 50 words (grouped in sets of 10).

Instructional conditions included: keyword-image learning, picture context, sentence-experience

context, and a control group. In the keyword-image condition, students were instructed to learn

word meanings following three steps: learn a key word presented on a 5x8 card, remember the

content of a black-and-white line drawing that contained a representation of the keyword

interacting with the definition, and finally, to look at all vocabulary items and recall verbally the

key word and its illustration. The picture-context condition required students to learn word

meanings by studying black-and-white illustrations representing the definition of the word (these

illustrations did not contain the key word). The sentence-experience context involved students

learning the meaning of words in two steps: the teacher read a three-sentence passage that was

printed and displayed on paper, students had to listen, reread the passage, and then relate the

meaning of the word to a personal experience. The control condition participants were told to

choose their own method of studying to learn vocabulary word meanings. Students received

instruction for 20 minutes per day for three days per week over a period of five weeks.

Vocabulary learning was measured at four intervals during the study. The final measurement

occurred two months after the initial instruction. A series of ANOVAs indicated significant

differences among treatment groups. All treatment groups outperformed students in the control

condition. Students assigned to the keyword condition outperformed all other conditions across

all four levels of time. Results from this study provide support for the keyword method as a

strategy to facilitate the vocabulary learning of children with learning disabilities and questions

about the possible usefulness of this instructional strategy for children without learning

disabilities.

Wixson (1986) noted the effects of preteaching vocabulary of differing levels of

importance to a text using two different methods of instruction on children's comprehension of

basal stories. One hundred twenty fifth grade students were randomly assigned to one of eight

groups according to method of instruction, story, and word level. There were two instructional

methods: dictionary method and concept method. Students in the dictionary method group were

asked to look up words in dictionaries, copy them, and use them in a sentence. Students in the

concept method group were presented with words on worksheets and given two examples and

nonexamples to help them identify critical attributes of the word or concepts. Four posttest

measures were used to assess student performance.

Analyses indicated that the level of the instructed word vocabulary had a reliable effect on

word knowledge and text comprehension. Children who received instruction on noncentral

words learned more noncentral vocabulary and understood more story ideas related to noncentral

vocabulary than students who received instruction on central words. Children who received

instruction on central words learned more central vocabulary and understood more story ideas

related to central vocabulary than students who received instruction on noncentral words. In

addition, preteaching vocabulary enhances children's understanding of ideas related to the

instructed vocabulary regardless of the level of importance. The concept method of instruction

did not provide any advantage over the dictionary method in this study.

In a comparison of direct teaching of individual word meanings and practice deriving word

meanings from context, Jenkins, Matlock, and Slocum (1989) concluded that learning words

from contexts is not an automatic process. Participants included 135 fifth grade students (six

classes). Students were randomly assigned to one of six treatments: three classes were assigned

to instruction in individual word meanings and three classes were assigned to the deriving word

meanings from context condition. In each condition, classes were assigned to low, medium, or

high amounts of practice. Instructional sessions lasted between 10 and 20 minutes based on the

practice level. Participants were administered protests and posttests. On all tests of word

knowledge, students performed better on tests of individual word meanings. All students scored

low on tests that required them to derive meanings from contexts. Jenkins et al. (1989), like

McKeown (1985) concluded that a considerable amount of instruction is necessary in helping

students to derive word meanings from contexts.

In a more recent investigation, Lubliner and Smetana (2005) conducted a 24-week study

that examined the effects of a multifaceted, metacognitive intervention on the reading vocabulary

and reading comprehension of fifth grade children in a Title I school. Classroom teachers

provided 77 fifth grade students with explicit vocabulary instruction. Their performance was

compared with fifth grade students who attend a high performing school in the same school

district. Metacognitive tests and tests of both reading comprehension and vocabulary were

administered to students three times during the study. Twelve weeks of the first half of the

school year were designated as the control period. During which, teachers provided vocabulary

instruction based on guidelines in the basal text. Students were given weekly word lists and

instructed to define words using the dictionary and use them in a sentence. During the

experimental phase of the study, a second 12-week period after the winter break, students were

instructed to use a series of five metacognitive strategies to learn vocabulary words in their

Social Studies book: (a) clarify whether you know a word, (b) decide on the degree of

knowledge regarding the word, (c) consider the context, (d) study the structure of the word, and

(e) semantic mapping, word sorts, and main idea words. Children worked on word-learning

tasks in pairs or small groups. A researcher-created reading comprehension test and vocabulary

test were administered. Results from the metacognitive test revealed that students only identified

20% of missed words on the multiple-choice test before the intervention, and 38% of the

unknown words after the intervention. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs and pairwise

comparisons indicate that significant growth in reading comprehension and vocabulary

development occurred during the experimental phase of the study. When compared with the

results of students from the high achieving school, the Title I students' scores improved relative

to those of the above average children, and the achievement gap narrowed after the intervention.

However, students in the Title I school made less progress relative to the high achievers.

Results from each study reviewed in the previous section indicated significant differences

between students who received explicit instruction in word meanings when compared with

students who did not. Students who received explicit instruction in word meanings made greater

gains in word knowledge than those who received no instruction in word meanings.

Storybook reading experiences can be an exceptional opportunity for children to learn

words. The context of a story provides a backdrop for building understanding of new words

through connections with familiar words and situations. Reading aloud to children provides the

opportunity to develop understanding of words and text in an engaging way (Beck et al., 2002).

Researchers have documented that children learn vocabulary through storybook

interactions (Senechal & Cornell, 1993; Senechal, Thomas, & Monker, 1994). The majority of

experimental studies that have investigated the relationship between storybook reading and

vocabulary acquisition have been conducted with young children. Researchers are now more

focused on studying specific factors that strongly influence whether or not children learn

vocabulary from listening to stories.

Elley (1989) conducted two experiments to examine the vocabulary acquisition of seven

and eight year olds while they listened to stories. In the first experiment, 168 seven year olds

were read one book three times over a period of seven days. A 20-item multiple-choice test was

given as a pretest and posttest. Results from experiment one indicated that children made a mean

gain in vocabulary knowledge between 13% and 21%. In the second experiment, 127 eight year

olds served as participants. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: reading with

explanation, reading without explanation, and a control group. A 36-item multiple-choice test

was given as a pretest and as a posttest. Delayed posttests were administered three months later.

Elley concluded that reading aloud to children is a significant source of vocabulary acquisition.

gains more than doubled. Students who scored low on initial vocabulary measures made at least

as much progress in vocabulary acquisition as students who score higher.

In a counterbalanced treatment, posttest-only design, Robbins and Ehri (1994) found that

kindergartners expanded their recognition vocabularies when they listened to stories at least

twice and when they heard unfamiliar words repeated in the stories. Fifty-one kindergartners sat

and observed as experimenters read two stories. Eleven target words were substituted for

familiar words or phrases in each story. After the readings, children were asked what they liked

about the story and to describe something that happened in the story. The vocabulary effects

were detected using a multiple-choice test that included target words.

Brett et al. (1996) conducted a study to compare the effects of three conditions on fourth

grade students' vocabulary acquisition: listening to stories with a brief explanation of the

meaning of unfamiliar target words as they were encountered in the stories, listening to stories

with no explanation of the words, and having no systematic exposure to the stories or

vocabulary. Participants included 165 fourth grade students who were randomly assigned to the

story with word explanation group and the control group. A series of ANOVAs produced results

that indicated that the students in the story with word explanation group made significantly more

progress from pretest to posttest than the other two groups of children. They scored higher on

posttests and delayed posttests. Results from the study indicate that fourth graders can acquire

new vocabulary from listening to stories if there is a brief explanation of new words as students

encounter them in stories.

In a study which examined the development of vocabulary knowledge in elementary

school children as a function of story reading for partially known and unknown words,

Schwanenflugel, Stahl, and McFalls (1997) found that vocabulary growth was small. Forty-three

low and middle class fourth graders participated in the study. Children were given a vocabulary

checklist of 24 words that they were likely to know, 12 pseudowords, and 12 nonwords, 39

difficult words, and 57 difficult words from a different study. Participants were asked to go

through the checklist and write a definition or sentence for the words they knew. Then they had

to go back through the checklist to identify words that they were familiar with, but couldn't

define, finally, they were asked to identify words that they suspected might be a real word, but

had not heard or seen before. A week after completing the vocabulary checklist, each child read

two stories on sequential days. Children were asked to write a summary after each story was

a multiple-choice test containing the target items from the story. Each word was followed by

five randomly arranged options: the correct definition, a partial definition, two incorrect

definitions, and a "don't know" option. After repeated ANOVAs, results indicated that

vocabulary growth was small, but that word knowledge from growth was larger for partially

known words and unknown words than for known words.

Higgins and Hess (1999) examined the use of electronic books and their influence on

vocabulary learning. Participants included 22 third grade students who were randomly assigned

to either the experimental group or a control group. The supplemental vocabulary instruction

involved children being asked, after they found target words on the page of the book and had

selected the animation associated with the word, to explain the meaning of the word. The

researchers found that children who received supplemental vocabulary instruction coupled with

animations in electronic books performed significantly better than children who interacted with

electronic books without supplementary instruction. Results from their investigation add

additional support to the idea that multiple opportunities for students to encounter and interact

with words increase the likelihood that students will retain the words.

Brabham and Lynch-Brown (2002) designed a study to examine the effects of read-aloud

The studies yielded results consistent with Dickinson and Smith (1994), that the straight reading

of storybooks produced the smallest gains in vocabulary and that the interactional style of

reading storybooks produced the largest gains. Participants in this study included 117 first

styles: just reading, performance, and interactional styles. Multiple choice protests and posttests

were administered to students to assess vocabulary learning.

Like Robbins and Ehri (1994), Coyne et al. (2004) studied the effects of storybook reading

on the vocabulary knowledge of children at risk for experiencing reading difficulties through a

storybook intervention. Ninety-six kindergarten children were randomly assigned to one of three

intervention groups. One group consisted of 108, half-hour lessons taught through 40 children's

books. Another intervention group received an intervention that focused on phonologic and

alphabetic skills. The third group, the control group, received a sounds and letters module of

Open Court.

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary-III Test and a researcher-created measure to assess target

words taught were given as protests and posttests. Results from primary analyses indicate that

students in the storybook intervention group made greater growth on the researcher created

measure. Students in this study with lower receptive vocabulary skills made greater gains than

students with higher receptive vocabulary in comparison to students in the control group.

Justice, Meier, and Walpole (2005) examined the effects of elaborating on target words

during storybook reading. Fifty-seven kindergarten children were randomly assigned to a

treatment or comparison group. The treatment group consisted of the teacher elaborating on half

of the identified target vocabulary words from ten storybooks. Teachers in the comparison group

did not elaborate on target words. Results indicated that children in the treatment group showed

significantly greater gains from pre to posttest for elaborated words relative to children in the

comparison group.

Comprehension Instruction

Prior to 1977, very little attention was paid to reading comprehension instruction. A

series of observational studies conducted by Durkin (1977, 1978) caught the attention of

educators. She studied the nature of comprehension instruction in elementary schools and found

that most activities labeled comprehension instruction were little more than comprehension

assessment. Activities such as questioning after reading a section of text, dominated reading

instructional time. Durkin noted that only 20 minutes of 4,469 minutes were devoted to actual

comprehension instruction. Pressley (2000) suggested that very little has changed since Durkin's

study. We know very little about comprehension instruction in the primary grades. Most studies

of comprehension have been conducted with students in upper elementary or secondary grades.

Factors that contribute to reading failure in elementary grades are almost always related to

comprehension. Effective literacy instruction for students in both the primary grades and the

upper elementary grades should foster the development of deep-level processing of text that is

Pearson and Dole (1987) identified components of effective literacy instruction. The

researchers found when explicit instruction was used, low achieving students could be taught to

use comprehension strategies. The following components were identified by Pearson and Dole

were found in successful intervention studies: (a) teacher modeling, (b) guided practice, (c)

consolidation, (d) independent practice, and (e) application. This model of explicit

comprehension instruction was unique because it was designed to be implemented holistically

during reading, and did not focus on isolated sub skills.

Reading comprehension instruction research offers guidance for designing instruction that

capitalizes on the constructive nature of meaning. After reviewing research, a common

instructional cycle emerged (Block & Pressley, 2003; Pearson & Gallagher, 1983; Duke &

Pearson, 2002). Pearson and Gallagher (1983) coined the term, gradual release, to capture the

interactive, recursive flow of comprehension instruction. The cycle begins with explicit strategy

explanation by the teacher. The teacher details when and how the strategy should be used.

Teacher modeling of the strategy in action is the next step in the process. After modeling, the

teacher offers varying degrees of scaffolded support as students practice the strategy.

Collaborative use between the teacher and students is employed. The final phase is independent

application by the student. Figure 2-2 provides a graphical representation of the cycle.

Each phase in this cycle is mediated through dialogue between the teacher and students,

and among the students. Additionally, during each phase of this model, efforts are made to

attend to metacognition.

Explicit Strategy Explanation. Explicit strategy explanation is a verbal description of the

mental processes involved with the strategy in action. Included in this explanation is a

description of the strategy as well as why, when, and how to use it (Duffy, 2002).

Figure 2-2. Gradual release of responsibility model. Adapted from Pearson and Gallagher
(1983)

Demonstrations of strategy use must be flexible, based on feedback cues from students. The

more explicit and direct the instruction, the more students assume control of the strategy (Duffy

& Roehler, 1987; Keene & Zimmerman, 1997; Pearson, 1984).

Scaffolded Support. According to Pearson and Gallagher (1983), the process of release is

critical because teachers are actually restructuring student understanding. Scaffolded support is

consistent with Vygotsky's (1978) zone of proximal development. It is during this time that

teachers meet students in the space where growth can occur. As the learner's skill increases, the

teacher's support decreases. The dialogue used in these interactions serves as an instrument in

meaning making. Although adult-child interactions are important, peer interactions are

important as well. Foreman and Cazden (1994) examined the effects of peer interactions by

analyzing 12 peer tutoring sessions in inner-city, multi-grade primary classrooms. They

concluded that students benefited from the challenge of formulating academic concepts into

words, and the demands of peer tutoring provided that challenge. Both teacher-student

interactions and student-student interactions are essential in student internalization of learning.

Comprehension instruction must include the elements of explicit strategy explanation and

scaffolded support.

Many studies confirm the positive impact of strategy instruction on the comprehension of

text. Researchers have identified an array of strategies that improve comprehension (Duffy &

Roehler, 1987; Palincsar & Brown, 1984). Reciprocal teaching, the framework for one

instructional method in this study, incorporates four specific strategies-questioning, clarifying,

summarizing, and predicting.

Description of Reciprocal Teaching

Palincsar and Brown (1984) selected four comprehension strategies for their reciprocal

teaching model because the strategies seem to provide a dual function; that is, they embody both

comprehension monitoring and comprehension fostering activities. Developed for struggling

middle school readers, the reciprocal teaching model emphasizes social interaction as the basis

for learning. It incorporates teacher modeling and peer instruction. Palincsar and Brown's

(1984) initial research investigated the effects of two different groups of seventh grade struggling

readers. There were striking pretest to posttest gains. The instructional materials for the

reciprocal teaching studies were seventh grade level expository texts, and researcher created

comprehension assessments. The students were given a pretest to establish baseline

comprehension scores and daily comprehension assessments for a designated number of days,

prior to instruction. Students continued to take daily reading comprehension assessments

throughout the course of instruction, and received feedback on their progress.

Palincsar and Brown (1984) depict a fast-paced application of the recursive instructional

cycle. In reciprocal teaching conditions, all modeling and instruction in how to develop and

apply the four cognitive strategies takes place during the course of dialogues between teacher

and students and students and students. During the gradual release, the dialogue leader begins

the discussion with questions about the content. The rest of the group discusses the queries and

whenever any member of the group does not understand a word, concept, or idea. Next, the

leader offers an initial summary of the text and there is further discussion, revising the summary

as appropriate. Finally, the dialogue leader generates or solicits a prediction about the next

reading selection and offers justification for that prediction. Time is taken to reflect on strategy

use. Initially, the leader models that entire procedure, using dialogue to identify and explain the

process and strategies. The leader also offers suggestions for asking questions, developing

predictions, generating summaries, or using clarifying techniques as appropriate. Because

reciprocal teaching was designed for students who are adequate decoders, but poor

comprehenders, it was selected as an instructional method to be used in this study.

Initially, the teacher serves as the dialogue leader, modeling as described. Eventually,

students begin to take turns being the teacher, modeling, and providing feedback to his or her

peers. Gradually, the leader's role decreases as the students take on greater responsibility for

carrying out the process.

In the next session, reciprocal teaching studies in which elementary students served as

participants are detailed.

Reciprocal Teaching Studies with Elementary Participants

Johnson-Glenberg (2000) investigated whether teaching poor text comprehenders reading

strategies in small group format would improve their reading comprehension. She also

investigated whether students would demonstrate differential gains based on whether they were

placed in a verbally based or primarily visually based remediation program. A verbally based

reciprocal teaching program and a visually based visualizing/verbalizing program were

compared with each other and a control group. The reciprocal teaching group outperformed the

visualizing/verbalizing group on open-ended explicit questions and question generation.

ANOVAs indicated that there were significant pretest to posttest gains made by the experimental

groups on 11 dependent measures. The control group had a significant gain on only one measure.

Lederer (2000) examined the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching during social students

instruction with fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students with learning disabilities. One hundred

twenty-eight participants were instructed in the four reciprocal teaching strategies in small

groups in the classroom setting for 15 to 17 days. A mixed design MANOVA was used to

determine interaction on three researcher designed comprehension measures. Results indicated

that all students improved their comprehension performance when compared with students in the

control group.

In a replication study, Lysynchuck, Pressley, and Vye (1990) confirmed the results in

Palincsar and Brown's 1984 reciprocal teaching study. Fourth and seventh grade students who

adequately decoded text, but were poor comprehenders participated in this study. In a pretest-

posttest design, participants received instruction in small groups over 13 days. The experimental

group received training in reciprocal teaching and the control group received an alternate form of

reading instruction. Dependent measures included the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the

Gates MacGinitie Reading Test. Results indicated that the experimental groups outperformed the

control groups on all measures.

Reciprocal teaching has been demonstrated to be effective with students in upper

elementary grades. However, no study has ever explored using the strategies that comprise

reciprocal teaching, with children in primary grades. In addition to the limited age of the study

participants previously discussed, researchers often varied in their use of outcome measures.

Some studies reported student gains on researcher created measures, while others confirmed

gains on standardized assessments. In most studies, outcome measures were not identified as

norm-referenced measures or criterion-referenced measures. To simply state that measures were

standardized measures only implies standard administration of the test. This does not aid in the

interpretation of the results of the study in relation to the study's purpose. In the current era of

accountability, robust results on standardized, norm-referenced measures would be beneficial.

Further, studies were short in duration. In order for children to maintain skills, they need to

continue to self-regulate. Studies ranged from 13 to 20 days, which is an insufficient amount of

time for strategies to generalize. Researchers in the previously mentioned studies also fail to

provide information regarding treatment fidelity. Fidelity of implementation is essential, but

researchers did not report any information regarding steps taken to ensure treatment fidelity.

This too makes it difficult to interpret study results.

Most reciprocal teaching studies lasted between 13 and 20 sessions, with the first four to

six sessions devoted to strategy introduction, and the remaining sessions to scaffolded support

(Johnson-Glenberg, 2000; Lederer 2000; Lysynchuk et al., 1990). The current study was

conducted in 32 sessions. Because younger students served as participants, more time was

dedicated to strategy introduction, modeling, collaborative use of strategies, and guided practice.

General Cognitive Strategy Instruction with Elementary Children

Baumann and Bergeron (1993) investigated the effectiveness of instruction in story

mapping as a means to promote first grade students' comprehension of central story elements

using a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design. Seventy-four first grade children were

randomly assigned to one of four groups, a group in which they were taught to construct story

same instruction as in the previous group, but included using story maps to compose stories; a

group in which students read the same story, but used a predict-verify procedure; and a directed

reading activity instructed control group where children engaged in non-interactive guided

reading of stories. Tests to evaluate children's ability to comprehend central story elements were

administered to all participants. In addition, qualitative data on students' ability to understand

and apply the story mapping heuristic were collected. Both analyses revealed that explicitly

teaching students about story parts enabled them to recognize and recall important events from

narrative selections. Young children can be taught to use simple story maps as a means to

enhance their comprehension of unfamiliar stories.

Morrow (1985) reported results on two studies that investigated whether retelling stories

could improve the comprehension of kindergarten students. In study one, 59 kindergarten

students were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Children in the experimental group

retold the story to the experimenter as if they were telling it to a friend, immediately after it was

read to them, and children in the control group drew a picture about the story after the story was

read. Children in both groups were administered a comprehension test that included five story

structure questions and five traditional comprehension questions. Results from the study

indicated that total comprehension scores of children in the experimental group were better than

those of children in the control group.

In the second study, 82 children were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental

group used the same procedures as in the first study, however, additional treatments were added

and children were given increased support in story retelling. After an analysis of the results from

the investigation, Morrow found that there was a significant improvement of children in the

experimental group over children in the control group. Although children needed frequent

practice and support in retelling, they performed better than children who had no experience with

story retelling. Active engagement in the reading comprehension activity led to increased

reading comprehension of the children, even though they were kindergarten students.

Teacher participants in this study took anecdotal records on the children and reported that

children in the experimental group engaged in story retelling during free play periods more often

than children in the control group. In addition, parents of children in the experimental group

commented that their children seemed more eager to retell stories just read to them at home.

Children in the experimental group demonstrated more confidence in attempting to retell stories

than children in the control group, at the end of the study.

More recently, Williams et al. (2005) investigated the effectiveness of text structure

students and 10 second grade teachers participated in this study. Classrooms were randomly

assigned to either a text structure, content only, or no instruction group. Classroom teachers

conducted the 15-session interventions. Results of the study indicated that students who received

instruction in text structure were able to learn what they were taught and were able to

demonstrate what they learned, to content beyond that used for instruction. Findings from this

study indicate that explicit instruction might be feasible and effective for students in primary

Paris (1984) investigated the effects of Informed Learning Strategies for Learning (ISL),

a program designed to improve students' reading comprehension through cognitive strategy

instruction using a pretest-posttest design. Participants in the study included 783 third graders,

801 fifth graders, and 75 classroom teachers. Teachers were provided with instructional modules

and lesson plans. Paris identified three categories of knowledge amenable to strategy instruction:

declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, and conditional knowledge should be used when

The ISL program used explicit strategy instruction, teacher modeling, guided practice,

feedback, and group discussions, with a gradual release of responsibility. Control classes

received regular reading instruction while classroom teachers, using the ISL program, instructed

experimental classes. The Gates-MacGinitie comprehension subtest and a researcher designed

Reading Awareness Index served as dependent variables. After conducting a series of

ANCOVAs, results indicated that participants in the experimental classes made significantly

greater gains than students in the control group after one year of ISL instruction.

Cross and Paris (1988) conducted an Informed Learning Strategies Learning (ISL) study

to investigate students' use of cognitive strategies in reading, using a pretest-posttest design.

Paris identified three categories of knowledge amenable to strategy instruction: declarative

knowledge, procedural knowledge, and conditional knowledge that should be used when reading.

The ISL program used explicit strategy instruction, teacher modeling, guided practice, feedback,

and group discussions with a gradual release of responsibility. Third and fifth grade classes

training in the ISL program, while other third and fifth grade classes served as controls. After

thirty minutes of researcher provided direct instruction, twice per week, Cross and Paris

concluded that students acquire more metacognitive awareness as they get older. Using the

Gates-MacGinitie comprehension subtest and a researcher created cloze and error deletion task,

researchers concluded that reading comprehension could be improved for less skilled readers.

Dole, Brown, and Trathen (1996) examined the effects of strategy instruction on at-risk

fifth and sixth grade students' reading comprehension. Participants included 67 students who

were assigned to one of three groups, strategy instruction, story content instruction, and basal

control instruction. Researchers and teachers provided instruction for the strategy group for 50

minutes per day for five weeks. The strategy group was taught to predict and to identify the

main idea. Explicit instruction regarding the utility of the strategy and instructions for

implementing strategies during independent reading was provided. Researcher designed open-

ended comprehension tests were administered as protests, posttests, and as delayed posttests. A

series of ANCOVAs revealed that there was a significant effect in favor of strategy instruction.

In a study that examined whether transactional strategies instruction would enhance the

reading comprehension of low achieving second grade students, Brown et al., (1996) found that

conventional second grade reading instruction in the year long quasi-experimental study on

standardized measures. Five matched pairs with one transactional strategies instruction teacher

and one conventional instruction teacher in each pair, with six students per group, were

compared. Transactional strategies instruction teachers provided direct explanations and

modeling of strategic reasoning to the students while conventional reading teachers taught

reading using methods they were committed to using.

Vaughn, Chard, Bryant, Coleman, Tyler, Linan-Thompson, and Kouzekanani (2000)

investigated the effects of partner reading (PR) and collaborative strategic reading strategies

(CSR) on the reading comprehension of third grade students. Classroom teachers implemented

two interventions. Graded passages from Read Naturally were used as the expository text.

Teachers modeled either CSR or PR, and then students worked in pairs to practice one of the

strategies with the text. The intervention was conducted two to three times per week for 12

weeks. A series of 2x2 repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant

group or group by time interaction effects. However, time effect was statistically significant for

reading rate and correct words per minute.

Summary

The studies presented demonstrate that direct instruction in word meanings and cognitive

strategy instruction is beneficial for students in elementary grades. Researchers generally used

upper elementary aged students as participants. While this furthers the knowledge base

regarding how to provide effective comprehension instruction for those students, it does not

further knowledge regarding the usefulness of cognitive strategy instruction with children in the

Single cognitive strategy instruction has demonstrated that if young students are under

exceptionally strong instructional control, they can carry out strategies that improve

comprehension (Morrow, 1985; Williams et al., 2005). Skilled readers have been studied

extensively (Pressley & Afferbach, 1995; Pressley & El-Dinary, 1993), and researchers have

concluded that skilled readers coordinate a number of strategies while reading. Based on what is

known about the need for comprehension instruction, methods used by proficient readers, and

the importance of addressing comprehension instruction in the primary grades, it is logical to

examine the use of comprehension instruction as well as the effects of explicit vocabulary

instruction with students in the primary grades.

CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND PROCEDURES

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of vocabulary focused instruction

and strategies focused instruction on vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of primary

instructional procedures from Text Talk (Beck & McKeown, 2002) and Reciprocal Teaching

(Palincsar & Brown, 1984) served as guides for the instructional procedures used in this study.

Text Talk is a method of building comprehension and furthering vocabulary development

through reading aloud to children (Beck & McKeown, 2001). Through Text Talk lessons,

children are explicitly taught sophisticated vocabulary and are helped to construct meaning

through decontextualized language. According to McKeown and Beck (2006), the use of

decontextualized language, language that differs from everyday experiences, is one of the

building blocks of communication competence. Text talk is designed to scaffold children's

comprehension of stories and they are encouraged to share their ideas and synthesize ideas in

stories.

Storybooks are commonly used as a medium to teach vocabulary to students. Numerous

studies have documented their usefulness. In each of the previously mentioned investigations,

repeated exposure to words in storybooks without attention given to words and exposure to

storybooks with a focus on explicitly taught target words have yielded favorable results.

Reciprocal teaching strategies were designed to be used in an intentional, self-regulatory

manner by students during authentic reading activities. In Palincsar and Brown's (1984) study of

reciprocal teaching, students read the text. In this study, the researcher read the text. The

decision for the researcher to read the text was based on the fact that participants in the current

were younger than participants in other reciprocal teaching studies, and since the focus of the

current study was to increase the metacognitive processes of young children, the task of having

to read the text was removed from the participants. The focus was on the participants' thinking

processes and their ability to verbalize and justify strategy use. Because some instructional

procedures differed from the original strategy designs, the terms vocabulary-focused instruction

and strategies-focused instruction are used. In Chapter 3, the methods and procedures of the

study are presented. This chapter includes the research hypotheses, a description of the sampling

procedures, and a description of the participants. Subsequent sections of this chapter include

details of the experimental design, instructional procedures, and treatment of the data.

Hypotheses

This study examines the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused

instruction on vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of primary grade students who

are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. The following research question

guided the study: What are the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused

instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students who are

adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? More specifically, what are the effects of

these two types of instruction on receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary, and what are

the effects on listening and reading comprehension? To answer these research questions, the

following null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of confidence:

Hi: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of expressive

vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who

H2: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of receptive

vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who

H3: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of reading

comprehension, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those

H4: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of listening

comprehension, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those

H5: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of passage

comprehension, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those

H6: There will be no statistically significant difference on a researcher created measures of

taught vocabulary, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and

Methods

The research methods are described in this section. The first section includes a

description of the school setting, sampling techniques, selection criteria, and participants. The

subsequent sections include a description of the pretest measures and the posttest measures, and

the scoring procedures of the measures and description of the treatment procedures for the

vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group. Finally, a description of the design

and analysis is provided.

Instructional Setting

An elementary school in north Florida was selected for this study. The school was selected

because it is a Title I, Reading First school, with a high percentage of students with reading

difficulties and more than 40% of students in the school are eligible for free or reduced-price

lunch based on their families' income levels. Reading First is a focused, nationwide effort to

enable all students to become successful early readers. Funds are dedicated to help states and

local school districts eliminate the reading deficit by establishing high quality, comprehensive

is an uninterrupted 90-minute reading block in which students receive systematic, explicit

students in the school. Students receive reading instruction from the classroom teacher, in whole

group and in small group settings. During the 2005-2005 school year, 42% of students

struggling in reading failed to make a year's worth of progress in reading.

Participant Description

Sixty second grade and third-grade students participated in this study. Students were

selected for the study because they had been identified by school personnel as being proficient

decoders, but needing additional assistance in reading comprehension. Participants in this study

scored between the 30th and 45th percentile the Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition

(Harcourt, 2003). As required by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board, parental

informed consent was obtained for the participants. The parental informed consent letter is

provided in Appendix A.

Using the described procedures, consent was obtained from 60 students, and all of the

students participated in this study from the pretest phase through the posttest phase of the study.

A summary of the demographic information from the 60 participants is presented in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1. Descriptive Information for Groups
Vocabulary Strategies Total
Group Group
Gender
Male 15 13 28
Female 15 17 32
Ethnicity
White 18 17 35
Black 9 8 17
Hispanic 0 2 2
Asian 1 0 1
Other 3 2 5

Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) vocabulary-focused

instructional group and (b) strategies-focused instructional group. They were listed

alphabetically by grade level, and assigned a number. A computerized random number generator

was used to randomly assign participants to groups. Because participants were randomly

assigned to groups, differences between the groups could be more confidently attributed to the

independent variable, instructional method (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). The pretest mean scores

for all measures are provided in Table 3-2.

Table 3-2. Pretest Means for Vocabulary and Strategies Groups
Means for Means for
Pretest Measure Vocabulary Strategies
Group Group
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (Dunn & 90.97 93.27
Dunn, 1997)
Expressive Vocabulary Test (Williams, 1997) 86.50 86.87

Target Word Vocabulary Assessment (Coyne) 87.83 88.86

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Passage 23.73 23.43
Comprehension (Woodcock, 1987)
QRI-4 (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006) 9.77 9.00
QRI-4 (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006) 7.77 7.70
Listening

Research Instrumentation

The instruments used in this study were designed to assess specific elements of literacy

development. Each measure was selected based on previous studies in the areas of vocabulary

and comprehension. Pretest and posttest measures assessed general verbal abilities and

comprehension abilities. Descriptions of the assessment instruments are outlined in the

following sections. The following sections also provide an explanation of the focus and technical

qualities of each measure.

Vocabulary Measures

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (PPVT-III), (Dunn & Dunn, 1997) was

children of similar age. The PPVT-III is an individually administered, norm-referenced, wide-

range test of receptive vocabulary for Standard American English, which includes two alternate

forms. The PPVT-III measures the listening comprehension of spoken words of both children

and adults. The examiner presents items using a standing easel. After providing a word or

phrase, the student selects one of four pictures that best depicts the word or phrase described by

the examiner. The reliability coefficients for the PPVT-III are provided in Table 3-3. Reliability

coefficients are provided only for the age groups represented in this study. Each participant was

individually administered the PPVT-III by one of a team of assessors. The PPVT-III was scored

according to guidelines presented in the test examiner's manual.

The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT), (Williams, 1997) is an individually administered,

norm-referenced assessment of expressive vocabulary and word retrieval for children and adults.

The EVT measures expressive knowledge with two types of items, labeling and synonyms. Word

retrieval is evaluated by comparing expressive and receptive vocabulary skills using standard

score differences between EVT and PPVT-III. The examiner points to a picture or a part of the

body and asks a question. The examinee responds with a one-word answer that is a noun, verb,

adjective, or adverb. The reliability coefficients for the EVT are provided in Table 3-3.

Reliability coefficients are provided only for the age groups represented in this study. Each

participant was individually administered the EVT by a one of a team of assessors. The EVT was

scored according to guidelines presented in the test examiner's manual.

The target vocabulary measure is a method developed by Coyne (2004) to measure depth

of vocabulary knowledge. The measure has been used successfully with children in kindergarten

through second grade in studies of vocabulary growth and is currently undergoing the initial

steps in a large-scale validation study. It was individually administered to each participant by

one of a team of assessors. Participants were asked to identify whether a word was a real word

or make believe word (e.g. Is shallow a real word or a make believe word?), asked to define the

(e.g. What would a shallow lake be like?). The vocabulary measure consisted of target words

taught during the intervention phase. The researcher-created target vocabulary measure is

included in Appendix B.

The researcher-created target vocabulary measure was scored using the following

procedure. Participants received one point for each correct response. It was possible to receive a

point for identifying a real word or a make-believe word correctly. It was possible to receive a

point for providing the correct definition of a word along with additional information about the

word. Two people scored each researcher-created target word assessment. Since knowing a

word is a matter of degrees, it was challenging to delineate points for a word definition.

Researchers have proposed various stages of word learning: (a) never saw it before; (b) heard it

but does not know it; (c) recognizes it in context as having something to do with; (d) knows it

well; and (e) can use this word in a sentence (Nagy, 2000). Because word learning is not an all

or nothing process, the researcher attempted to gauge students' developing depth of

understanding of the target words, desiring to give credit for some knowledge of target words

even if full definitions were not developed. Students could receive up to 160 points on the

measure.

Comprehension Measures

The passage comprehension subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised

(Woodcock, 1998), an individually administered assessment, was given to each participant.

Participants were instructed to read a passage silently, and then provide a word to complete the

passage. The reliability coefficients for the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised are

provided (Table 3-3). Reliability coefficients are provided only for the age groups represented in

this study. Each participant was individually administered the passage comprehension subtest of

the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised by one of a team of assessors. The passage

comprehension subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised was scored according to

guidelines presented in the test examiner's manual.

The Qualitative Reading Inventory-4 (QRI) (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006), an individually

comprehension. To assess listening comprehension, participants listened to a story one grade

level above their current grade level, on audiocassette and were then prompted to retell all they

could remember about the story, as if the examinee had never heard the story before. To assess

they could remember about the story, as if the examinee had never heard the story before. The

use free retell gave participants the opportunity to use their own structure to generate recall and

helped to the researcher to see differences in comprehension that are reflected in children's

ability to construct a plot structure with which to guide retelling. Because the QRI is not a norm-

referenced or standardized instrument, it does not provide comparative data. However, in studies

comparing comprehension measures, the QRI has been found to be (a) a strong measure of both

reading comprehension and listening comprehension and (b) correlated with other standardized

measures of reading comprehension (Keenan, 2006). Each participant was individually

administered the QRI-4 by one of a team of assessors. The QRI-4 included a list of correct

details for the passages, and each correct detail that the participant recalled from the story was

recorded. The number of correct details constituted the participant's listening or reading

comprehension score.

Table 3-3. Split Half Reliability Coefficients
7 100 .94
PPVT-III (Dunn & Dunn, 8 100 .92
1997) 9 100 .94
7 100 .86
EVT (Williams, 1997) 8 100 .88
9 100 .91
Mastery Test-Revised
(Woodcock, 1998)
Passage Comprehension Grade 1 602 .97

Experimental Design

An experimental pretest-posttest design was employed for this study with two treatment

groups: (a) vocabulary-focused group and (b) strategies-focused group. Participants were

randomly assigned to instructional condition, assessments were conducted individually, and the

intervention was delivered in group lessons. Pretest measures of vocabulary and comprehension

were administered. Each group then received a multi-step intervention. Posttest measures of

vocabulary and comprehension were administered following the conclusion of the lessons. A

summary of the experimental design is provided in Table 3-4.

Table 3-4. Experimental Design
Group Procedures

Vocabulary Group R 01 X 02
Strategies Group R 01 X2 02
R= Random Assignment, O =Pretest, X = Treatment Intervention 1, X2 = Treatment Intervention 2, 2 = Posttest

Instructional Procedures

The instructional procedures for the study are described in this section. Instructor

preparation is described for both treatment groups. Methods for ensuring treatment fidelity are

also described.

Instructor Preparation

A graduate student in the College of Education at the University of Florida and a retired

educator provided instruction during this study. The instructors were both elementary certified

teachers. Each instructor was required to attend training in both instructional methods employed

in this study. During the training, university professors provided background information about

each instructional strategy, modeled strategy use for instructors, and gave them an opportunity to

practice teaching the strategies. Each instructor was provided instructional tips. Before

instructors began the intervention phase, mastery of the instructional procedures was

demonstrated. In addition, each instructor agreed in writing to adhere to the procedural

guidelines described in the training session. To eliminate any potential for teacher effect, each

instructor provided instruction in both methods; the instructors alternated teaching both

intervention groups throughout the study (Tuckman, 1998). Each day, the instructors rehearsed

the following day's lesson.

Materials

The lessons for the treatment groups were taught using children's storybooks selected

based on the strength of the narrative structure and available vocabulary used. Elementary grade

teachers recommended some of the books used for this study and others were recommended by

Beck et al. (2002). Thirty-two titles were carefully selected for use in each grade level. A

complete reference list of storybooks is provided in Appendix C. Before titles were selected for

the study, each second and third grade teacher from the participants' school was surveyed to

determine if the storybooks had been used for read aloud purposes or instructional purposes. If

teachers had already used books for instructional purposes, they were omitted from the study.

Vocabulary-Focused Intervention

The vocabulary-focused group received explicit instruction in groups of fifteen students.

Each lesson began with the reading and discussion of a storybook and followed with a discussion

and engagement of activities with the target words. The steps involved in the instructional

method are detailed below.

Step 1 Read and discuss the story. In Step 1 of the vocabulary focused lesson, the
instructor read the story aloud to the group and engaged participants in a
discussion of the text.

Step 2 Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the
story. Three target words were introduced to participants. Each target word was
printed on index cards and shown to participants as the instructor pronounced
each word and reminded participants of how each word was used in the story.

Step 3 Ask the participants to repeat the word to create a phonological representation of
the word. The target words were visually presented to participants, the instructor
said the target words, and invited the participants to repeat the words.

Step 4 Introduce the student-friendly definition. A student-friendly definition, a
definition that facilitates understanding of what the target word actually means,
which excludes ambiguous words that participants may not be familiar with, were
introduced one at a time. Student-friendly definitions were obtained from the
Collins Co-Build dictionary (Collins, 2006).

Step 5 Share the words in contexts that are different from the story. The instructor
engaged participants in activities that used the target words in contexts that were
different from the story.

Activities were selected from those suggested by Beck et al., 2002, such as (a)
sentence completion tasks, in which the participant used a target word to complete
an instructor-created sentence; (b) connection tasks, in which participants
explained a personal encounter with the target word's meaning; or (c) usage tasks,
in which participants indicated whether a target word was used correctly or
incorrectly by the instructor. After each activity, the instructor provided
participants with specific feedback regarding the use or definition of the target
word.

Step 6 Repeat the word. After engaging participants in activities, they were shown the
target words and asked to repeat them, one at a time.

Descriptions of each of the vocabulary-focused lessons are included in Appendix D.

Strategies-Focused Intervention

The strategies group received instruction that consisted of engaging participants in the

use of comprehension strategies used in reciprocal teaching: summarizing, questioning,

clarifying, and predicting. Participants were instructed in groups of fifteen students. A chart

containing an explanation of each strategy was reviewed before each lesson began. A copy of

the chart is included in Appendix E. Participants were instructed to use various hand signals

when they were ready to use a strategy. Strategies-focused lessons followed the following

Step 1 Explicit description of the strategy and when and how it is used. The instructor
described each strategy and discussed when it was appropriate to use it and how
the strategy is used.

Step 2 Teacher/student modeling of the strategy in action. Either the instructor or a
participant modeled the use of the strategy with text that had been read.

Step 3 Collaborative use of the strategy in action. The instructor and the participants
used the strategy together. The instructor led the use of the strategy, while the
participants provided assistance.

Step 4 Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility. The
instructor provided assistance to participants as the practiced using the strategy.

Step 5 Independent use of the strategy. The participants used the strategies
independently. They named the strategy they wanted to use and demonstrated
its use for the group.

Lesson guides for each strategy lesson are included in Appendix F. A strategy introduction

schedule is included in Appendix G

Fidelity of Treatment

Eight observations of each instructor were conducted during the course of the study to

ensure treatment fidelity. The school's reading coach and curriculum resource teacher, who were

trained in each instructional method, conducted treatment fidelity checks. A checklist was used

to indicate that instructors followed all steps in the intervention. There was difficulty to

capturing the appropriateness of the dialogue during the intervention, with the treatment fidelity

checklist. Dialogue in each lesson was dependent upon the participants' developing

understandings, so how instructors engaged children varied. The checklists for each group are

provided in Appendix H. Treatment fidelity checks were conducted together, and inter-observer

agreement was obtained. Kazdin (1982) describes inter-observer agreement as the consistency

between observers: "...it refers to the extent to which observers agree in their scoring of

behavior" (pp 48). A point-by-point agreement ratio was calculated to measure reliability.

Agreements are instances in which both observers observe the same thing. Disagreements are

instances in which one observer recorded the behavior as occurring and the other did not. The

following formula was used to compute point-by-point agreement for each session observed:

Point-by-Point Agreement = A/A+D x 100. Point-by-Point Agreement was 100% for the eight

sessions observed. If treatment fidelity checks had revealed that instructors were not following

the lesson protocols, the trainers were prepared to model instructional strategies again and

provide additional training until instructors followed lesson protocols. Treatment fidelity was

also strengthened by the provision of lessons that each of the instructors followed and

discussions between instructors before and after each lesson was conducted.

Treatment of the Data

The data were analyzed using four statistical methods. First, an independent samples t-

test was conducted on the mean pretest scores of the two groups to identify any pre-existing

differences. Next, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was carried out to measure whether the

participants in the vocabulary-focused group showed a stronger improvement in posttest

performance relative to their own pretest performance than did the strategies-focused group.

(Cook & Campbell, 1979). The pretest scores served as the covariate. A univariate analysis was

appropriate due to the interest in group mean differences and the limited sample size. To analyze

within-group differences, a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted.

Finally, a correlation analysis (Tuckman, 1998) was conducted to test the linear relationship

between the scores on the comprehension measures used and the vocabulary measures used. A

summary of the design for testing the null hypotheses using a series of Analyses of Covariance is

provided (Table 3-5).

Table 3-5. Design for Testing the Null Hypotheses using a Series of Analyses of Covariance
(ANCOVAs)

Vocabulary-Focused Group

Pretest

Posttest

Strategies-Focused Group

Pretest

Posttest

1 -EVT

2 PPVT-III

3 QRI-4

4 QRI-4

5 Woodcock Passage
Comprehension

6 Researcher-Created Measure

Hi: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on measures of expressive
vocabulary.

H2: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on measures of receptive
vocabulary

H3: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on measures of reading
comprehension.

H4: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on measures of listening
comprehension.

H5: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on a measure of passage
comprehension.

H6: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on a researcher created measures of
vocabulary.

Dependent
Measures

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Introduction

My study was to examined the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-

focused instruction on vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students who are

adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. Six hypotheses were formulated and

tested. The general question of the study was as follows: How does vocabulary-focused

instruction and strategies-focused instruction influence the vocabulary knowledge and

comprehension skills of primary grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient

comprehenders? To investigate this question, the performance of a vocabulary-focused

instructional group was examined in relation to the performance of a strategies-focused

intervention group. The effects of both types of instruction on the vocabulary knowledge and

comprehension skills of second grade students and third grade students were measured and

compared.

This chapter contains the results of the statistical analyses of data from this study. First,

the reliability of instructional procedures is provided. Then, the statistical model is described

and the results of the data analyses are reported.

Fidelity of Instructional Procedures

During the study, procedures were implemented to establish the fidelity of instructional

methods. To ensure the integrity of the differences between treatments, fidelity of

implementation checks were conducted.

Fidelity of Implementation and Reliability of Measurement

To ensure fidelity of implementation during the instructional phase, two observers

observed the implementation of eight instructional sessions in the vocabulary-focused condition

and eight instructional sessions in the strategies-focused condition. The observers used

checklists (see Appendix G) to record whether all of the steps in each instructional strategy were

followed. A point-by-point agreement ratio was calculated to measure reliability. Point-by-

Point Agreement was 100% for the sixteen sessions observed.

To establish interscorer reliability, each researcher created vocabulary pretest and posttest

was scored by two scorers using the same scoring procedures. Interscorer agreement was

calculated by using the formula recommended by Kazden (1982): Agreements/ Agreements +

Disagreements X 100 = Percent of Agreement. Interscorer reliability on the researcher created

vocabulary measure was 97%.

Statistical Analyses of the Data

The data were analyzed to determine if any statistically significant differences existed

between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on any of the measures.

This section includes a description of the analyses and the results achieved.

The means of pretest scores for the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused

group were calculated. Using t-tests, the pretest scores of the vocabulary-focused group and the

strategies-focused group were compared to determine if any group differences existed. No

significant differences between the two groups' pretest means were found. Table 4-1 includes the

pretest means and standard deviations for the two groups and the t-test results from the

comparison.

Because the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group demonstrated no

significant differences on the pretest, the use of the pretest measures as covariates was

appropriate (Tuckman, 1994). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for each of

the dependent measures: expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension,

Comprehension

Comprehension

QRI Listening
Comprehension

Researcher
Created
Vocabulary
Measure

9.7
(4.0)

7.7
(4.3)

90.27

9.0
(4.4)

7.8
(4.0)

90.02

t df p

Table 4-1. Comparison of Pretest Means by Group
Vocabulary- Strategies-
Dependent Focused Group Focused Group
Measure (n=30) (n=30)
Mean Mean
(Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.)
PPVT-III 90.97 93.27
(9.8) (11.5)

EVT 86.5 86.9
(12.2) (11.2)

Woodcock 23.7 23.4
Passage (5.4) (4.3)

.409

.904

.813

.484

.950

.621

listening comprehension, and passage comprehension. The independent variable for each of

these ANCOVAs was the instructional method (vocabulary-focused vs. strategies-focused). The

covariate was the corresponding pretest.

The assumption of homogeneity of the slope was tested before the ANCOVAs were

conducted. No violations of this assumption were found. Therefore, ANCOVA was an

appropriate analysis for the dependent measures. The results of the ANCOVA for each

dependent variable are provided in Tables 4-2 through 4-7.

This series of ANCOVAs yielded no statistically significant differences for receptive

vocabulary, F (1, 56) = 0.89, p =.348; expressive vocabulary F (1, 56) = 2.97, p = .09 ; the

-.831

-.121

.238

.705

.062

-.418

researcher created target vocabulary measure F (1, 57) = .347, p =.558, reading comprehension

on the QRI-4 measure, F (1, 56) = 1.79, p = .186 and the listening comprehension measure F (1,

60)= .537, p =.467. However, a series of ANCOVAs did yield statistically significant results

on the Woodcock passage comprehension subtest measure F (1, 56) = 7.16, p= .010). The

statistically significant difference favored the vocabulary-focused instructional group over the

strategies-focused instructional group.

Table 4-2. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for Expressive Vocabulary Task
Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F P
Method 1 141.9 2.97 .090
vocabulary-focused
strategies-focused
Error 56 2675.6

Table 4-3. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for Receptive Vocabulary Task
Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F E
Method 1 60.38 0.89 .348
vocabulary-focused
strategies-focused
Error 56 3780.3

Table 4-4. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Reading Comprehension Task
Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F E
Method 1 55.9 1.79 .186
vocabulary-focused
strategies-focused

Error

1746.9

Table 4-5. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Listening Comprehension Task
Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p
Method 1 11.9 .537 .467
vocabulary-focused
strategies-focused
Error 56 1239.6

Table 4-6. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Passage Comprehension Task
Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p
Method 1 89.9 7.16 .010*
vocabulary-focused
strategies-focused
Error 56 702.6

Table 4-7. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Researcher-Created Vocabulary Task
Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p
Method 1 .797 .347 .558
vocabulary-focused
strategies-focused
Error 57 129.42

A series of repeated measures ANOVAs conducted to analyze statistically significant

differences from pretest to posttest within the vocabulary-focused group yielded no statistically

significant differences for measures of receptive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = .840, p =.367.

However, a series of ANOVAS did yield statistically significant differences on measures of

expressive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 14.26, p = .001; reading comprehension, F (1, 29) = 5.462, p

.027; listening comprehension, F (1, 29) = 12.074, p = .002; passage comprehension, F (1, 29) =

15.464, p = .000; and the researcher created target vocabulary measure F (1, 29) = .65.2, p =.000.

A series of repeated measures ANOVAs conducted to analyze statistically significant

differences from pretest to posttest within the strategies-focused group yielded no statistically

significant differences for measures of receptive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 2.35, =. 136.

However, a series of ANOVAS did yield statistically significant differences on measures of

expressive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 24.5, p = .000; reading comprehension, F (1, 29) = 17.9, p =

.000; listening comprehension, F (1, 29) = 18.1, p = .000; passage comprehension, F (1, 29) =

31.9, p = .000; and the researcher created target vocabulary measure F (1, 29) = 29.9, p =.000.

Table 4-8. Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group
Differences for Vocabulary-Focused Group

Group

Expressive Vocabulary
Error
Receptive Vocabulary
Error
Error
Listening Comprehension
Error
Passage Comprehension
Error
Researcher Created Target Vocabulary
Error

Pretest Posttest df

Mean
86.5

90.9

9.77

7.77

23.7

87.8

Mean
94.1

89.3

12.3

10.8

28.1

89.8

Table 4-9. Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest
Differences for Strategies-Focused Group
Group Pretest Posttest
Mean Mean
Expressive Vocabulary 86.9 93.5
Error
Receptive Vocabulary 93.2 91.2
Error
Error
Listening Comprehension 7.70 12.4
Error
Passage Comprehension 23.4 27.4
Error
Researcher Created Target Vocabulary 88.9 90.5
Error

to Posttest

df

1
29
1
29
1
29
1
29
1
29
1
29

Within-Group

F p

24.5 .000

2.35 .136

17.9 .000

18.1 .000

31.9 .000

29.9 .000

Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained for the pretest results and posttest results of

each dependent measure: receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, reading comprehension,

and listening comprehension, to examine the linear relationships between the measures.

Correlation coefficients yielded several significant relationships. The correlation matrix for the

F

14.2

.840

5.46

12.07

15.5

65.2

.001

.367

.027

.000

.001

.000

pretest measures is reported in Table 4-10. The correlation matrix for the posttest measures is

reported in Table 4-11.

The receptive vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the researcher

created target vocabulary pretest scores (.398), the receptive vocabulary pretest scores were

positively correlated with the expressive vocabulary pretest scores (.422); and the receptive

vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the listening comprehension pretest

scores (.331).

The researcher created target vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the

expressive vocabulary pretest scores (.548) and the researcher created target vocabulary pretest

scores were also positively correlated with the listening comprehension pretest scores (.397). The

listening comprehension pretest scores were positively correlated with the reading

comprehension pretest scores (.378); the listening comprehension pretest scores were positively

correlated with the expressive vocabulary pretest scores (.423), and finally, the listening

comprehension pretest scores were positively correlated with the passage comprehension pretest

scores (.390).

Significant correlations were also noted for the posttest scores. The expressive vocabulary

posttest scores were positively correlated with the receptive vocabulary posttest scores (.375);

the expressive vocabulary posttest scores were positively related to the listening comprehension

posttest scores (.282), and the expressive vocabulary posttest scores were positively correlated

with the researcher created target word posttest scores (.757). The researcher created target

vocabulary posttest scores were positively correlated with the receptive vocabulary posttest

scores (.350); the researcher created target vocabulary posttest scores were positively correlated

with the listening comprehension posttest scores (.359). The listening comprehension posttest

scores were negatively correlated with the passage comprehension posttest scores (-.262).

Summary

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction

and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of

students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. To accomplish this,

participants were assessed on measures of vocabulary and comprehension and provided lessons

of intervention using either vocabulary-focused instruction or strategies-focused instruction.

A series of ANOVAs was used to test the null hypotheses of no difference between

groups on the dependent measures. No statistically significant differences between the

vocabulary-focused instructional group and the strategies-focused instructional group were

detected on measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, researcher-created target

vocabulary, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension, resulting in a failure to reject

the null hypotheses. Statistically significant differences existed between the vocabulary-focused

instructional group and the strategies-focused instructional group on the Woodcock passage

comprehension measure. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to determine

whether there were statistically significant within-group differences. No statistically significant

differences were found on measures of receptive vocabulary for both the vocabulary-focused

group and the strategies-focused group. Statistically significant differences did exist between

pretest scores and posttest scores for both the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-

focused group on measures of expressive vocabulary, reading comprehension, listening

comprehension, passage comprehension, and on the researcher-created target vocabulary

measure. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained for the pretest and posttest

results of each dependent measure, to examine the linear relationship between each measure.

Several statistically significant relationships were noted.

Table 4-10. Correlation Matrix for Pretest Measures
Rec Expr List Rdg Pass RC
Voc Voc Comp Comp Comp Voc
Pre Pre Pre Pre Pre Pre
Recep 1.000 .422** .331* .048 .042 .398**
Vocab 0.00 .001 .010 .715 .749 .002
Pre
Expr 1.00 .423* .182 .057 .548**
Vocab 0.00 .001 .165 .665 .000
Pre
List. 1.00 .315* .390** .397**
Comp 0.00 .014 .002 .002
Pre
Rdg 1.00 .240 .055
Comp 0.00 .065 .678
Pre
Pass 1.00 .049
Comp 0.00 .709
Pre
RC 1.00
Vocab 0.00
Pre
** Correlations significant at the .01 level
* Correlations significant at the .05 level

Table 4-11. Correlation Matrix for the Posttest Measures

List
Comp
Post
-.138
.295

Rdg
Comp
Post
-.101
.444

Pass
Comp
Post
-.033
.800

.282** .231 -.126
.029 .076 -.338

1.00
0.00

-.009
.943

-.262**
.043

1.00 .098
0.00 .454

1.00
0.00

Rec
Voc
Post
1.00
0.00

Recep
Vocab
Post
Expr
Vocab
Post
List
Comp
Post
Rdg
Comp
Post
Pass
Comp
Post
RC
Vocab

Post
** Correlations significant at the .01 level
* Correlations significant at the .05 level

Expr
Voc
Post
.375**
.003

1.00
0.00

RC
Voc
Post
.350**
.006

.757**
0.00

.359**
.005

.127
.333

-.181
-.167

1.00
0.00

CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

A discussion of the findings and implications in the investigation of the effects of

vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on vocabulary knowledge and

comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders

is presented in this chapter. The chapter begins with a summary of the hypotheses and the

findings of the study. The subsequent sections contain a discussion of the theoretical

implications of the research findings, the limitations of the study, and suggestions for future

research.

Summary of the Hypotheses and Results

The general question of the study was as follows: What are the effects of vocabulary-

focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and

comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders?

The following null hypotheses were test at the .05 level of significance.

Hi: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of expressive

vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who

The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT) (Williams, 1997) was used to assess expressive

vocabulary. Analyses revealed that no statistically significant group differences existed on the

measure, resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis.

H2: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of receptive

vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who

No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group

and the strategies-focused group on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (Dunn & Dunn,

1997), resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis.

H3: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of reading

comprehension, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those

No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group

and the strategies-focused group on measures of reading comprehension, using the QRI-4,

resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis.

H4: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of listening

comprehension, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those

No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group

and the strategies-focused group on measures of listening comprehension, using the QRI-4,

resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis.

H5: There will be no statistically significant difference on a measure of passage

comprehension, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those

Statistically significant differences between the vocabulary-focused group and the

strategies-focused group existed on the Woodcock Reading Mastery passage comprehension

measure. Further analyses indicated that the vocabulary-focused instructional group made

greater gains than did the strategies-focused instructional group. The null hypothesis was

rejected.

H6: There will be no statistically significant difference on a researcher-created measure of

vocabulary, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who

No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group

and the strategies-focused group on the researcher-created target vocabulary measure, resulting

in a failure to reject the null hypothesis.

Interpretation of the Results

The initial analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the vocabulary-

focused instructional group and the strategies-focused instructional group on measures of

receptive and expressive vocabulary. One possible reason for the lack of statistically significant

difference may be that the treatments were equally effective in supporting receptive and

expressive vocabulary development. Both methods gave attention to word meanings, the

vocabulary-focused method explicitly focused on word learning, and a component of the

strategies-focused method emphasized clarifying words that were unclear. Participants in the

strategies-focused group often sought clarification on many of the words that were selected to

teach participants in the vocabulary-focused group. It is possible that students in both groups

were equally adept at word learning, which in turn would make it difficult to detect any

significant differences between participants in each of the treatment groups. During the

intervention, all participants were actively engaged in producing words and conversing about

words and text, which may have contributed to the lack of differences between groups. Another

possible explanation for the lack of treatment difference is the use of standardized, norm-

referenced measures and an insufficient amount of time between the administration of the pretest

and posttest. The length of the intervention (32 sessions) may have been too short to develop the

vocabulary necessary to reveal statistically significant differences. A third possible explanation

for the lack of differences between groups is a lack of sensitivity of the standardized, norm-

referenced measures. Because norm-referenced measures are not created to assess a specifically

taught battery of knowledge, the measures may not have been sensitive enough to capture the

changes in vocabulary.

Data analysis revealed no statistically significant difference on a researcher-created target

vocabulary measure. A possible reason for these results is that although the vocabulary-focused

instruction was consistent with principles suggested by research to guide instruction, it is very

difficult to bring students to a ceiling of word knowledge (Nagy, 2000). That is, students were

active in developing their understanding of the words and they received repeated exposure to

target words (Blachowicz, 2000) and students' interactions with a more experienced adult

expanded their thinking (Vygotsky, 1978) on the meanings of various target words introduced

during instruction, but these practices were insufficient, given the constraints of the study. These

results are consistent with previous studies (Beck et al., 1982; McKeown et al., 1983; McKeown

et al., 1985). Participants may not have had enough exposures to the words to gain full and

flexible knowledge (Stahl, 1999). In addition, the target vocabulary measure contained a large

number of items. The length of the measure may have influenced students' motivation to answer

correctly. Finally, the previous possible explanation is offered again. Both groups of participants

engaged in word learning and meaning clarification. It is possible that participants in both

groups were equally skilled at word learning, which in turn would make it difficult to see

significant differences on measures of target word leaning as well.

Data analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in favor of the vocabulary-

focused instructional group on a measure of passage comprehension. This finding was

somewhat surprising because conventional wisdom would suggest that the strategies-focused

instruction would promote comprehension more effectively than a vocabulary-focused approach.

A possible explanation for this finding is the interactive-compensatory model of reading

(Stanovich, 1980). In this model, various knowledge sources work simultaneously to make sense

of text. They all influence the message center at the same time. In addition, the knowledge one

lacks is compensated for by what one knows well. It is possible that participants in the

vocabulary-focused group relied heavily on the lexical knowledge source to comprehend the

passages in the assessment measure. Perhaps their encounters with word-focused instruction

primed them to use their lexical knowledge quicker than those participants in the strategies-

focused group. This increased lexical knowledge may have compensated for what participants

lacked in other knowledge sources. Another possibility is that participants in the strategies-

focused group had various knowledge sources working simultaneously, and none outweighed the

other to compensate for what they did not know. Their instruction was focused on using

multiple strategies, and this metacognitive task focus may have interfered with their ability to use

a knowledge source for compensation. The age of the participants may have also been a factor.

It may have been more difficult for young students to use multiple strategies at once.

Participation in this study is one of the first introductions to multiple strategy instruction that

participants received, and the novelty of the task may have interfered with their ability to

perform the passage comprehension tasks proficiently enough for a significant difference to be

detected.

Data analyses revealed significant correlational relationships between scores on measures

of reading comprehension and measures of vocabulary. These results suggest that the measures

did in fact measure what they were designed to capture. For example, a very strong, positive

relationship (.757) between the researcher created target word vocabulary measure and

expressive vocabulary could be due to the fact that on the target word vocabulary measure,

students were able to express what they knew about words, which is a task similar to the

expressive vocabulary measure that was administered. There were also positive correlations

between measures of comprehension and vocabulary. These results are consistent with what is

already known. There is a strong, positive correlation between vocabulary knowledge and

reading comprehension. Researchers have documented this relationship since the early 1940s,

and the relationship continues remain robust.

Theoretical Implications of the Research Findings

Vygotsky's (1978) theory on the interaction between learning and development, Pearson

and Gallagher's (1983) gradual release of responsibility model, and Stanovich's (1980)

interactive-compensatory model of reading were applied in this study. The instruction included

an attempt to increase word knowledge and reading comprehension through vocabulary-focused

instruction and strategies-focused instruction. Operating within an explicit instruction model and

scaffolded interactions between teacher and students and amongst students, the influence of

direct instruction in word meanings was compared with direct instruction of comprehension

strategies using narrative text.

This study connected and confirmed Vygotsky's (1978) and Pearson and Gallagher's

(1983) assertions that children, through interactions with adults, are able to do more than they are

capable of doing alone. In this study, instructors provided explicit instruction, assisted students in

the use of strategies through shared dialogue, and helped students to become independent users

of new knowledge. Children were assisted in constructing new understandings about words and

how to use their own thinking to further their understanding of text.

Implications for Future Research

Explicit vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension strategies instruction would

surely continue beyond the time constraints of this study. Additional research is warranted in

which the longitudinal effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies focused

instruction are examined with students in primary grades. In addition, research examining the

effects of extension activities and the use of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-

focused instruction would be beneficial to teachers of young children. Additional investigation

of reciprocal teaching strategies with children in primary grades is warranted. It would be useful

to document strategy generalization in young children. Evidence of when children are able to

use strategies proficiently is needed. Researchers should attempt to be more precise about which

combination of strategies are manageable for children in primary grades, as well as to explore

specific teacher behaviors that support strategy mastery. Researchers should consider

investigating methods of professional development designed to help teachers learn to use each

instructional method separately, then combine the two instructional methods to see if students

benefit. Professional development activities that include opportunities for teachers to observe

others providing strategies and vocabulary instruction to children, in classrooms would be useful.

In addition, researchers should examine the appropriate scaffolding needed by teachers in order

for them to appropriately use these instructional methods with students.

Implications for Practice

Implications for reading instruction are not dichotomous. Results from this study did not

yield "either/or" results in terms of which instructional method to use with children in the

primary grades. It was learned that vocabulary-focused instruction was useful both in enhancing

comprehension and in developing word knowledge. When participants were engaged with more

experienced adults, what they were able to do was expanded beyond what they could do alone.

It was also learned that strategies-focused comprehension influenced vocabulary so much that

statistically significant differences between a strategies-focused instructional group and a

vocabulary-focused instructional group were undetectable. This suggests that a strategies-

focused approach is also useful. Both instructional methods increased word learning and

comprehension in study participants. A framework of reading instruction that includes a gradual

release of responsibility and meaningful dialogue between teachers and students and students and

students is an important issue for teachers of students who lack comprehension skills to consider

activities that engage students in thinking about word meanings, and opportunities for students to

make deep and extensive connections between vocabulary words and their definitions is

important to consider in instruction. Participants in this study demonstrated a genuine interest in

the texts used. Teachers should consider engaging in learning with peers, more about explicit

comprehension strategies instruction and explicit vocabulary instruction with children in primary

graders. Teachers might benefit from engaging in peer coaching activities to improve

instruction. Oftentimes, teachers are concerned with issues of control in the classroom, and may

be unable to attempt instruction alone. The support of a peer could provide the help needed in

order to deepen the reading comprehension and vocabulary of young children.

Limitations to the Present Study

This study had several limitations. The most powerful limitation was time. Thirty-two

sessions of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction generated gains for

participants in both instructional groups on all dependent measures, but not as significant as they

might have been if instruction was longer in duration. Instruction yielded statistically significant

gains on measures of passage comprehension. Additional, consistent, systematic instruction may

have served to strengthen and increase the differences in posttest scores for participants.

Another limitation is that this study was conducted with second and third graders who

were adequate decoders but non-proficient comprehenders. The results of this study may not be

generalized to older or younger students or students who do not have difficulties comprehending

text, without systematic replication of the procedures used with those populations.

before the beginning of the vocabulary-focused and strategies-focused instruction. Results of the

study may have been different for students with more or less prior experience in reading

instruction.

Another limitation of this study was that reciprocal teaching, was modified. The results of

this study may have been different if informational text had been used and if the students read

the text for themselves. The results may have also been different if students were older.

All of the instructional sessions in this study took place outside of the regular classroom.

Instructors other than the students' regular classroom teacher conducted the sessions. The results

may have been different for instruction that occurred within the regular classroom or that was

delivered by the students' regular teacher.

Summary

This study was conducted to examine the effect vocabulary-focused instruction and

strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of

students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders of text. Results revealed

very few statistically significant differences between participants who received vocabulary-

focused instruction and participants who received strategies-focused instruction. However,

instruction did yield one statistically significant difference between the instructional groups on a

passage comprehension measure. This contributes to the research on the notion that word

learning influences reading comprehension. Results from this study do not support the idea of

the futility of explicit instruction of words, nor does it support the premise that children in

primary grades are not mature enough to use cognitive strategies. On the contrary, it supports

the purposeful, supportive nature of explicit instruction-- in both word learning and

comprehension strategies instruction. Some things remain unclear. What remains unclear is

knowledge about the ideal combination of strategies most useful for teaching children in the

primary grades. What also remains unclear is the conditions necessary for children to generalize

strategy use. Additional knowledge is needed on the longitudinal effects of vocabulary-focused

and strategies-focused instruction. Finally, additional knowledge is needed on the specific

teacher behaviors that provide adequate scaffolding in word learning and comprehension

strategies instruction.

APPENDIX A
PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT

Dear Parent/Guardian,

I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Special Education at the University of Florida
under the supervision of Dr. Holly Lane. One of my areas of interest is the comprehension and
vocabulary development of young children. I will be implementing an intervention project that evaluates
the use of two specific teaching methods in reading instruction. Participation in this study may directly
In this project, we will conduct informal assessments that measure reading comprehension and
vocabulary and formal assessments (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III, Expressive Vocabulary Test,
comprehension group will participate in small group instruction that includes specific strategies for
understanding what is read. Students in the vocabulary group will participate in group instruction that
includes specific word learning. The sessions will be scheduled at a time designated by school personnel
and will last for approximately 30 minutes during the school day. Although results of this project will be
shared with colleagues in the field of education (e.g., participants at educational conferences, university
faculty), for the purpose of confidentiality, your child's identity will be kept confidential to the extent
provided by law. The maximum number of participants in this study is 75 children.
Participation or non-participation in this project will not affect your child's placement in any
programs. You and your child have the right to withdraw consent at any time without consequence.
There are no known risks or compensation for his/her participation in this project. This project will last
for eight weeks. Results of the project will be available by December 31, 2006. If you have any questions
be reached at P.O. Box 117050 Gainesville, FL 32611 or (352) 392-0701 ext. 246. Questions or concerns
about research participants' rights may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box
112250, Gainesville, FL 32611 (352) 392-0433.

Sincerely,

Tyran L. Wright, M.Ed.

Complete and return one copy to your child's teacher.
I have read the procedures described above. I voluntarily give consent for my child,

,to participate in Ms. Wright's reading study. I have received a copy
of this description.

Parent/Guardian Date

2nd Parent/witness Date

APPENDIX B
TARGET WORD VOCABULARY MEASURE

Name
Part 1

I am going to say a word, and you are going to tell me if it is a real word or a make-believe word.
Let's try one: Is dog a real word or a make believe word?

Yes, that's right! Dog is a real word. A dog is a Dog is a real word. A dog is a furry animal that
furry animal that barks, barks.

Let's try again. Is dog a real word or a make-
believe word?

Let's try another one: Is clute a real word or a make-believe word?

Yes, that's right! Clute is a make-believe word. Clute is a make-believe word. Clute doesn't
Clute doesn't man anything. mean anything.

Let's try again. Is clute a real word or a make-
believe word?

Let's try some more. I am going to say some words, and you are going to tell me if it is a real word or a
make-believe word.
Correct Incorrect
Here is the first word: Grape.
Is grape a real word or a make believe word?
Mellet melll) et (make-believe)
If needed, say: Is mellet a real word or a make-believe word?
Collect (real)
Unkee (un kee) (make-believe)
Nuggle (nug-gle) (make-believe)
Tidy (real)
Inspiration (real)
Taffin (taf- fin) (make-believe)
Sermon (real)
Staigin (stay-gin) (make-believe)
Ownel (oh nel) (make-believe)
Congregation (real)
Bawdoib (make-believe)
Conversation (real)
Noygeef (make-believe)
Sly (real)
Raid (real)
Tickarine (make-believe)
Absurd (real)

Correct Incorrect
Impress (real)
Chassydoolid (make-believe)
Shrink (real)
Basdin (make-believe)
Crandit (make-believe)
Display (real)
Tattered (real)
Flacker (make-believe)
Slegat (make-believe)
Shrieking (real)
Commotion (real)
Choylid (make-believe)
Grickel (make-believe)
Emergency (real)
Kelody (make-believe)
Concentrate (real)
Weltereen (make-believe)
Humble (real)
Vanivoid (make-believe)
Wail (real)
Seldom (real)
Optel (make-believe)
Weary (real)
Somber (real)
Skelig (make-believe)
Companion (real)
Maneuver (real)
Swever (make-believe)
Quavat (make-believe)
Dam (real)
Slaver (make-believe)
Bound (real)
Quarrel (real)
Yatter (make-believe)
Helig (make-believe)
Extraordinary (real)
Foreign (real)
Welchid (make-believe)
Vervage (make-believe)
Insist (real)
Invisible (real)
Cabbus (make-believe)
Klavor (make-believe)
Squint (real)
Suspicious (real)
Wander (real)

Part 2
So if I said, "What is a dog?" you could say, "A dog is a furry animal that barks."
If I said, "What does a dog like to do?" you could say, "A dog likes to dig holes."
Let's try some.

Question Response (verbatim)
What does collect mean?

If you collected something, what would you
do?

What does tidy mean?

If something is tidy, how does it look?

What is inspiration?

If something is an inspiration, how does it
make you feel?

What is a sermon?

Where does a person usually give a sermon?

What is a congregation?

Where do congregations usually meet?

What does sly mean?

If someone is sly, how do they act?

What is a raid?

Why would someone raid a place?

What does absurd mean?

Tell me something that is absurd.

What does it mean to impress someone?

What kind of thing might impress someone?

What does examine mean?

When you examine something, what do you
do?

What is a distraction?

Tell me what can be a distraction.

What does shrink mean?

Why might something shrink?

What is a display?

What do you do with a display?

What does tattered mean?

If something is tattered, how does it look?

What is a shriek?

Why might someone shriek?

What is a commotion?

What would cause a commotion?

What is an emergency?

Tell me something that would be an
emergency?

What does it mean to concentrate?

+

+

Why would someone need to concentrate?

What kinds of things might you admire?

What does humble mean?

If a man is humble, how does he act?

What is a competition?

When someone is in a competition, what do
they try to do?

What does it mean to wail? This wail is not like
the whale that lives in the ocean.

Why would someone wail?

What does seldom mean?

If something happens seldom, when does it
happen?

What does weary mean?

What does somber mean?

If someone looks somber, how would they
look?

What is a companion?

What kinds of things could you do with a
companion?

What is a maneuver?

When would someone need to maneuver?

What does descend mean?

When the bird descended, what did it do?

What does it mean to darn something?

If the woman needed to darn some socks, what
did she need to do to them?

What does bound mean?

If a boy were to bound into a room, what
problem might he cause?

What is a quarrel?

If two people begin to quarrel, what do they
do?

What does extraordinary mean?

If you saw something extraordinary, what
would you say?

What does foreign mean?

Where would a foreigner come from?

What does insist mean?

If you insist on something, how do you say it?

What does invisible mean?

If something is invisible, how does it look?

What does squint mean?

If the girl squinted when she went outside,
what did she look like?
What does suspicious mean?

If you are suspicious of someone, how do you
act?
What does wander mean?

i

i

i

i

If the little boy wandered, what did he do?

Part 3
I am going to say some more words like before, and you are going to tell me if they are real
words or make-believe words. We will do it the same way we did before.

Correct Incorrect
Disguise (real)
Hurled (make-believe)
Commenced (real)
Grokle (make-beieve)
Quiver (real)
Trudge (real)
Yeckle (make-beieve)
Delicate (real)
Bletable (make-believe)
Crucid (make-believe)
Lug (real)
Delightful (real)
Wise (real)
Flankle (make-believe)
Rage (real)
Harrodid (make-beleve)
Deserted (real)
Wetred (make-believe)
Mend (real)
Justle (make-beleve)
Scurry (real)
Ungle (make-beleve)
Villain (real)
Prostle (make-beieve)
Vicious (real)
Ostreal (make-beieve)
Scamper (real)
Oath (real)
Frustration (real)
Reakel (make-beieve) Correct Incorrect
Compassion (real)
Destination (real)
Flagrel (make-beleve)
Watid (make-believe)
Bellow (real)
Namor (make-believe)
Disbelieve (real)
Confidence (real)
Pleakle (make-beieve)
Feat (real)
Brimble (make-beieve)

Abandon (real)
Wattle (make-believe)
Complain (real)
Startle (real)
Fidget (real)
Steverel (make-believe)
Seize (real)
Frantic (real)
Sweener (make-believe)
Protest (real)
Juteral (make-believe)
Anxious (real)
Exhibit (real)
Overwhelmed (real)
Devastated (real)
Slamel (make-believe)
Scrawl (real)
Refreshing (real)
Klerid (make-believe)
Contented (real)
Emerged (real)

Part 4
I'm going to ask you about some more words, the same way I did before.
Let's try talk about the words.

Question Response (verbatim)
What is a disguise?

What would you do with a disguise?

What does commence mean?

If something commences, what happens?

What does quiver mean?

What is a reason for a person to quiver?

What does trudge mean?

When someone trudges, what do they do?

What does delicate mean?

What would you do with something delicate?

What does lug mean?

What kinds of things need to be lugged?

What does delightful mean?

If something is delightful, how does it make
you feel?

What does wise mean?

What would need from a wise person?

What is a rage?

If a child is in a rage, how does he act?

What does deserted mean?

What would a deserted place look like?

What does mend mean?

If you mend something, how will it look
afterwards?

What is a journey?

Why would someone go on a journey?

What does scurry mean?

For what reason might someone scurry?

What is a villain?

How would a villain act?

What does vicious mean?

Would you want something vicious to happen
to you? Why? Why not?

What does scamper mean?

If the girl scampered, what did she do?

What is an oath?

If you take an oath, what do you do?

What is frustration?

i

i

i

If a person feels frustration, what do the do?

What is compassion?

How do you show compassion?

What is a destination?

What does bellow mean?

If a person bellowed, what would they do?

What does disbelieve mean?

What is confidence?

If you have confidence, what do you feel like?

What is a feat?

What does abandoned mean?

If a place is abandoned, what does it look like?

What does complain mean?

Why would a person complain?

What does startle mean?

What does fidget mean?

Why would a person fidget?

What does seize mean?

If you seize something, what do you do?

What does frantic mean?

What kinds of things can make you frantic?

What does it mean to protest?

Why would one protest?

What does anxious mean?

If someone is anxious, what do they do?

i

i

i

i

i

What is an exhibit?

What kind of things would you put in an
exhibit?
What does overwhelmed mean?

If a person is overwhelmed, what will they
probably do?
What does devastated mean?

What does scrawl mean?

If you scrawl something, how will it look?

What does refreshing mean?

What does contented mean?

If you are contented, how do you feel?

What does emerge mean?

If something emerges, what does it do?

APPENDIX C
STORYBOOK REFERENCES

Allen, D. (1999). Brothers of the knight. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
Armstrong-Ellis, C. (2002). Prudy problemm and how she solved it. New York: Harry
N. Abrams.
Auch, M. J. (1992). The Easter egg farm. New York: Holiday House.
Auch, M. J. (1996). Eggs mark the spot. New York: Holiday House.
Auch, M. J. (1997). Bantam of the opera. New York: Holiday House.
Auch, M. J. (2002). The princess and the pizza. New York: Holiday House.
Best, C. (2001). \/n inkiug violet. New York: Melanie Kroupa Books.
Bloom, B. (1999). Wolf! New York: Orchard Books.
Bloom, S. (2003). Noplacefor apig. Honesdale, PA: Boyd Mills Press.
Burningham, J. (1963). Borka: The adventures of a goose i/ ith no feathers. London:
Jonathan Cape.
Calmenson, S. (2001). The frogprincipal. New York: Scholastic Press.
Campbell, A. (1998). Dora's box. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
Cannon, J. (1997). Verdi. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, and Company.
Castaldo, N. (2005). Pizza for the queen. New York: Holiday House.
David, L. (2002). Superhero Max. New York: Doubleday for Young Readers.
Dunrea, O. (1996). The tale of Hilda Louise. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
French, V. (1994). Redhen andslyfox. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Harper, C. H. (2005). The invisible mistakecase. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Harness, C. (1993). The queen i/ ith bees in her hair. New York: Henry Holt and
Company, Inc.
Heine, H. (1983). The most wonderful egg in the world. New York: Aladdin
Paperbacks.
Manton, D. (1993). Wolf comes to town. New York: Dutton Children's Books.
McGovern, A. (1982). Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III. Holiday House: New York.
McKissack, P. C. (1986). Flossie and the fox. New York: Dial Books for Young
McKissak, P. C. (2000). The honest-to-goodness 1n inh New York: Antheneum Books
McKissack, P. C. (2005). Precious and the boo hag. New York: Antheneum Books for
Osborne, M. P. (2000). Kate and the beanstalk. New York: Antheneum Books for
Osborne, M.P. (2002). The brave little seamstress. New York: Anthenuem Books for
Osborne, W., & Osborne, M. P. (2005). Sleeping Bobby. New York: Antheneum Books
Rochelle, B. (1994). When Jo Louis won the title. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Say, A. (1999). Tea ii ith milk. New York: Walter Lorraine Books.
Shannon, D. (1998). A bad case of stripes. New York: Blue Sky Press.
Zagwyn, D. T. (1998). Turtle spring. Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press.

APPENDIX D
VOCABULARY-FOCUSED LESSONS

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 1

Book Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It

Armstrong-Ellis, C. (2002). Prudy problemm and how she solved it. New York: Harry
N. Abrams.
Prudy collects so many things that everyone says she has a problem, but when a crisis convinces
her they are right, she comes up with a perfect solution.

Target Words: collect, tidy, inspiration

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Collect
Step 2
In the story, Prudy collected things.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Collect. (Show the word card) Does anyone know what it means
to collect thing%? Listen for responses. Capitalize on what is correct.

Step 4
Ifyou collect things, it means that you get a lot of that thing or similar 1hiing\ over a period
of time because you are interested in it/them.

Step 5
Do any ofyou collect anything? Wait for responses. Evaluate them to see if they
understand what collect means. If they don't, make sure they know that people collect
things over time because they are interested in them.

The man collected stamps because.... Listen to see if they understand that the man
collects them because he is interested in them or he likes them. Reiterate the
definition of collect. Ensure that they know it isn't just random gathering.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Collect

Word 2: Tidy
Step 2
In the story, it said that Prudy's dad was a very tidy person who did not like clutter.

Step 3
Say the word, iith me. Tidy. (Show the word card) Who has an idea about what tidy
means? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Sn., mehiling that is tidy is neat and arranged in an orderly way.

Step 5
How many ofyou have a tidy room? Query the volunteers to see why they think their
room is tidy. Wait for responses. Evaluate them to see if they understand what tidy
means. If they don't, make sure they know that tidy means things are neat and
orderly.

Which word goes i/ ith tidy? Baby Maid Car

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Tidy

Word 3 Inspiration
Step 2
Prudy looked around for inspiration after her collection exploded.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Inspiration. What is inspiration? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Inspiration is a feeling of excitement that you get from \,inwiethig or someone. The
excitement usually encourages you to go on and do ,,iiethilig else.

Step 5
My third grade teacher was great. She did a lot of really neat activities i/th me and I
learned a lot from her. She was so good at teaching me when I was in the third grade; she
was my inspiration to become a teacher too.

Have any ofyou ever been inspired by another person? Wait for responses. Have you ever
been inspired by ,,oiiieilig or an event? Evaluate them to see if they understand
inspiration. If they don't, make sure they know that you get encouraged/excited by
something or someone else, and you usually go on to do something.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Inspiration.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 2

Book Brothers of the Knight

Allen, D. (1999). Brothers of the knight. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
Target Words: sermon, congregation, conversation

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Sermon
Step 2
Reverend Knight was a very good man, a leader in the community, who preached a
powerful sermon every Sunday.

Step 3
Say the word iih me. Sermon. (Show the word card) What is a sermon? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A sermon is a talk given during a church service.

Step 5
Which word goes i/ ith sermon? Game Football Preacher

Which word of these words goes ii ith sermon? Dance Sleep Religious
Have students explain their choice.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Sermon.

Word 2: Congregation
Step 2
The congregation clapped and danced when the reverend gave his sermons.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Congregation. (Show the word card) What is a congregation?
Listen for responses.
Step 4
People who go to a church service are called the congregation.

Step 5
What are some reasons for people to be in a congregation?

Tell about a time when you were apart of a congregation.

Would people sitting in a movie theater watching Harry Potter be called a congregation?
Why? Why not?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Congregation.

Word 3 Conversation
Step 2
After dinner, the boys listened to the grown ups' conversation.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Conversation. What is a conversation? Listen for responses.

Step 4
When people have a conversation, they talk to one another in an easy, simple, relaxed way.

Step 5
If two kids are illqe n ith each other and shouting over a toy, would they be in a
conversation? Why? Why not? Discuss the tone of the discussion as the reason for it not
being a conversation.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Conversation.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 3

Book Flossie and the Fox

McKissack, P. C. (1986). Flossie and the fox. New York: Dial Books for Young
A wily fox notorious for stealing eggs meets his match when he encounters a bold little girl in
the woods who insists upon proof that he is a fox before she will be frightened.

Target Words: sly, raid, absurd

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Sly
Step 2
"Ever-time they corner that ol' slickster, he gets away. I tell you, that fox is one sly critter.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Sly. (Show the word card) What does sly mean? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
When someone is sly, they are good at tricking others.

Step 5
Ifyou wanted to get voiiehilig away from someone i ilthnt them kine ing. would you rush
over and take it or would you be sly?

Tell about a time when you were sly.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Sly.

Word 2: Raid
Step 2
I am the third generation offoxes who have out-smarted and out-run Mr. J. W.
McCutchin 'sfine hunting dogs. I have raided some of the best henhouses from Franklin to

Step 3
Say the word~ iith me. Raid. (Show the word card) What does it mean to raid v,,iiethiig?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
To raid means to go into a place by force, to either attack, or look for wiiethiing

Step 5
When I was young, my brother and I used to raid the cookie jar before my mom came home
from work. Have you ever raided v,,ihiiiig?

Which of these thing\ would you want to raid? Why? Why not? Be sure that kids provide
an explanation after each item.

A bee hive
An ant bed
A toy chest

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Raid.

Word 3 Absurd
Step 2
Fox went running around in circles. He was plum beside himself I am afox and I know
it, he shouted. "This is absurd!"

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Absurd. What does absurd mean?

Step 4
S. iimthing absurd doesn 't make sense.

Step 5
Are these thing\ absurd? If they are absurd, say absurd. If they are not, say not.
A fish that barks
A mother that takes good care of you?
A dog that meows
A snake that walks
A teacher that helps you learn many ihing\ ?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Absurd.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 4

Book A Bad Case of Stripes

Shannon, D. (1998). A bad case of stripes. New York: Blue Sky Press.

Target Words: impress, examine, distraction

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Impress
Step 2
It was the first day of school, and she couldn't decide what to wear. There were so many
people to impress!

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Impress. (Show the word card) What does it mean to try to
impress someone? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If \,,iiimeting impresses you, you really like and respect it.

Step 5
Would you try to impress your new teacher?

Would you try to impress a pet?

Tell about a time when you tried to impress someone.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Impress.

Word 2: Examine
Step 2
That afternoon, Dr. Bumble came over to examine Camilla.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Examine. (Show the word card) What does examine mean? Listen
for responses.
Step 4

If you examine ,oimeiliiiig. you look at it carefully.

Step 5
Raise your hand to finish each sentence.

The boy examined his dog because....

The girl examined her homework because....

The dentist examined the little girl's teeth because....

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Examine.

Word 3 Distraction
Step 2
That night, Mr. Harms, the school principal, called. "I'm sorry, Mrs. Cream, "he said.
"I'm going to have to ask you to keep Camilla home from school. She justt too much of a
distraction."

Step 3
Say the word i th me. Distraction. What is a distraction? Listen for responses.

Step 4
A distraction is ,,iinethiig that takes your attention away from whatyou are doing.

Step 5

would it be a distraction?

Ifyou are playing soccer, and the coach is giving you instructions, would the teacher be a
distraction?

distraction?

Which wordgoes i iih distraction? Focus Fun Shoes

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Distraction.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 5

Book .\h/ mking Violet

Best, C. (2001). .\/n inmkg Violet. New York: Melanie Kroupa Books.
Violet, who is very shy and hates anyone to look at her in school, finally comes out of her shell
when she is cast as Lady Space in a play about the solar system and saves the production from
disaster.

Target Words: shrink, display, impressed

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Shrink
Step 2
In the story, Violet's cheeks blushed rhubarb red and she wished she could shrink away.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. .\lh mk (Show the word card) What does shrink mean? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
When \,iiething shrinks, it becomes smaller.

Step 5
Once, Iput my jeans in the dryer and they shrunk. What do you think my jeans looked like
when they came out of the dryer? Why? Make sure students understand that when things
shrink, they get smaller.

Have you ever had anything to shrink? Describe what happened.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. .\l ink

Word 2: Display
Step 2
A fine display offlags paraded across the room.

Step 3
Say the word ihi me. Display. (Show the word card) What a display? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A display is \,,uwiehing intended to getpeople's attention.

Step 5
Ifyou would want the hingIg I name on display, give me a t/lhb'\ up. If you would not want
them displayed, give me a /thdnll, down:
A spelling test on which you made a 100.
A letter you wrote to a special friend
A picture that you created in art

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Display.

Word 3: Impressed
Step 2
Opal was impressed when Violet grumbled like King Kong.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Impressed. Does anyone know what it means to be impressed?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
If ,oiiethilig impresses you, you look at ii n ith great pleasure and respect.

Step 5
I was impressed by the stories on display in the third grade hall. What do you think may
have impressed me about the stories? Listen and evaluate responses.

Can anyone share a time when you were impressed? Probe for explanations about whey
students were impressed.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Impressed.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 6

Book Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III

McGovern, A. (1982). Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III. Honesdale, PA: Caroline
House.

Shipwrecked, a boy makes a happy life for himself on a tropical island, far away from the dull
life of his wealthy parents.

Target Words: tattered, shrieking, commotion

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Tattered
Step 2
Everyday, new treasures washed up on the shore. Three pairs of shoes and tattered
cl thw Old feather hats and funny wigs.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Tattered (Show the word card) When \,iiehiing is tattered, what
does it look like? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If \ii,,ietilng is tattered, it is torn or crumpled.

Step 5
The paper got tattered because...

The shoes were tattered because...

Would you want a tattered jacket? Why or why not?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Tattered

Word 2: Shriek
Step 2
One morning, Nicky was awakened by shrieking parrots and crying goats.

Step 3
Say the word ihi me. .\ln lek (Show the word card) What is a shriek? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A shriek is a sudden loud scream.

Step 5
Once, I was riding my bike down the street, and a dog began to chase me. I began to
shriek. Why do you think I shrieked?

What is \,,wiething that might make you shriek?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. .\h/ ik

Word 3 Commotion
Step 2
The monkey was howling and running up and down the trees. The reason for the
commotion was a rescue boat, sailing closer and closer to Monkey Island.

Step 3
Say the word, iith me. Commotion. What is a commotion?

Step 4
A commotion is a lot of noise and confusion.

Step 5
IfI describe ,,imhilig that might cause a commotion, say, "commotion." If what I
describe does not cause a commotion, say, "no."
A teacher writing on the board
A dog running around a classroom
A bee in the car while you are riding down the street
A butterfly on a flower

The small child caused a commotion in the toy store because he ...
(Have the students complete the idea-evaluate it to see if it makes sense.)

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Commotion.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 7

Book Wolf!

Bloom, B. (1999). Wolf!. New York: Orchard Books.
A wolf gets discouraged because he is having difficulty scaring educated farm animals. He
decides to become educated as well.

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Emergencies
Step 2
The wolf kept a little money for emergencies.

Step 3
Say the word iih me. Emergencies. (Show the word card) What is an emergency?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
An emergency is an unexpected, serious situation that has to be dealt in ith right away.

Step 5
Say emergency ifI describe a situation that is an emergency. Remain quiet if the situation
is not an emergency.
Someone has fallen off her bike and has broken her arm.
You want a new toy because you saw it on TV.
Your dog is wants to play catch but you have to do your homework. Isplaying
catch an emergency?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Emergencies.

Word 2: Concentrate
Step 2
In the story, the cow complained about an awful noise because he couldn't concentrate on
his book.

Step 3

Say the word~ iith me. Concentrate. (Show the word card) What does concentrate mean?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
If you concentrate on toiu.'ilng., you give it all ofyour attention.

Step 5
.\iI te some times when it is important to concentrate.

Which word goes ith concentrate? Play Study Sleep
Make sure students explain their choice.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Concentrate

Step 2

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Admire. What does admire mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou admire someone or \viiwethiug. you like and respect them/it.

Step 5
Ifyou admired someone, would you smile at them or frown at them? Why?

I admire people who work hard, even when things are tough. Who would like to share
person. Listen to see if they understand the definition.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Admire.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 8

Book The Princess and the Pizza

Auch, M. J., & Auch, H. (2002). The princess and the pizza. New York: Holiday
House.
An out-of-work princess applies to become the bride of Prince Drupert, but first she must pass
several tests, including a cooking contest.

Target Words: humble, competition, wail

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Humble
Step 2
Princess Paulina'sfather gave up his throne to become a wood carver and moved them to
a humble shack in a neighboring kingdom.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Humble. (Show the word card) Has anyone ever heard the word
humble before? What do you think it means? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Humble describes people and 1ting\ that are very ordinary.

Step 5
IfI describe ,oimeiilig that is humble, say" humble." If what I describe is not humble,
remain quiet.
A woman walking down the street wearing a fluffyfur coat and big fancy jewelry.
A tiny kitten

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Humble.

Word 2: Competition
Step 2
Pauline didn't expect much competition to be Drupert's bride. There wasn 't another
princess for hundreds of miles.

Step 3

Say the word~ iith me. Competition. (Show the word card) What does competition mean?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
A competition is an event thatpeople take part in tofind out who is best at viiethilig

Step 5
What kinds of competitions do you have here at school? (AR, Field Day, Writer of the
Month)

Describe a time when you were in a competition outside of school.

Which word goes i/th competition? Dog Contest Book

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Competition.

Word 3 Wail
Step 2
In the story, the princesses wailed when Queen Zelda told them that their final job was to
cook a feast.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Wail. What does wail mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
When someone wails, they cry out loudly.

Step 5
Have you ever wailed? Listen and evaluate responses.

Say wail if a person is likely to wail in the situations I describe:

If a kid closes his hand in the door.

Ifyou are in the library.

During a test.
Step 6
Let's say the word again. Wail.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 9

Book The Queen i/ ith Bees in Her Hair

Harness, C. (1993). The queen i/ ith bees in her hair. New York: Henry Holt and
Company.
A silly queen and a hermit king come to join their separate kingdoms into one.

Target Words: seldom, weary, somber

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Seldom
Step 2
A wall separated the people and they seldom visited back and forth.

Step 3
Say the word~ ith me. Seldom. (Show the word card) What does seldom means? Listen
for responses.

Step 4
If iiimething seldom happens, it doesn't happen very often.

Step 5
Raise your hand ifyou seldom get good grades. Ensure that the students understand the
definition of the word.

Listen to the thing\ I mention. Ifyou would like for them to happen seldom, say seldom. If
you wish they happened often, say often:

You get lots of homework

You get extra recess time.

You get to read in front of the class.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Seldom.

Word 2: Weary

Step 2
The queen thought her subjects must be weary of seeing her in an ordinary crown.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Weary. (Show the word card) Tell me if you think you know what
weary means. Listen for responses.

Step 4
If someone is weary, they are very very tired..

Step 5
Iget weary of eating the same food all of the time.

Tell me about mviiehiig you get weary of

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Weary.

Word 3 Somber
Step 2
The queen became fancier as her people became more somber.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Somber. What do you think somber means? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Somber describes afeeing of sadness or tiredness.

Step 5
Some people start to feel somber during the winter because there are no flowers blooming.
Can you describe a time when you felt somber?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Somber.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 10

Book The Tale of Hilda Louise

Dunrea, O. (1996). The tale of Hilda Louise. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
Hilda Louise lives in an orphanage and longs for a family. One day, her longing for a family
sweeps her away and over the streets of Paris.

Target Words: companion, maneuver, descend

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Companion
Step 2
Hilda Louise loved her companions and she loved Madame Zanzibar, but she longed for a
family of her own.

Step 3
Say the word iith me, companion. (Show the word card) What is a companion? Listen
for responses.

Step 4
A companion is someone you spend time i /ih.

Step 5
Say, "companion" ifI describe name possible companions. Remain quiet ifwhat I name
can't be a companion
A classmate
A shoe
A chair
A dog

What kinds of thing\ could someone do ii ith a companion?

Which word goes i/ ith companion: friend stranger doctor?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Companion.

Word 2: Maneuver
Step 2
In the story, Hilda Louse learned to maneuver in the air. She turned somersaults.

Step 3
Say the word~ iith me. Maneuver. (Show the word card) What is a maneuver? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A maneuver is a tricky move that you can do which takes a lot of skill.

Step 5

Sometimes when I drive down the road, I have to maneuver in and out of traffic. I have to
be very careful to pass people safely, and I have to be sure I stop at red lights and follow
all of the rules of the road, while still getting where I am going.

When might you need to maneuver? Why?

How would you maneuver through the lunch line to get a carton of milk that you forgot to
get when you went through thefirst time? Invite them to get up and demonstrate.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Maneuver.

Word 3 Descend
Step 2
At four o 'clock in the afternoon, Hilda Louise began to descend from the sky.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Descend. What does descend mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
When someone or v\,iiehiig comes down or moves down from a place, they descend.

Step 5
Do airplanes have to maneuver to descend from the sky? How do you know?

Is descending more like moving or sitting still?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Descend.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 11

Book Red Hen and Sly Fox

French, V. (1994). Redhen andslyfox. New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young
Red hen is renowned for her kindness. All the animals loves red hen, but sly fox loves her for a
different reason. When he captures her, she has a few tricks for him.

Target Words: darn, bound, shriek

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Darn
Step 2
"I've got a pair of socks i ith holes in the toes, and I wondered ifyou would be so kind as
to darn them for me? "

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Darn. (Show the word card) The fox wanted someone to darn his
socks, what do you think he wanted them to do to his sock? Listen for responses.

Step 4
When you darn vmetihiiig of cloth, you fix the holes in it by sewing them up.

Step 5
Complete each sentence.
The woman darned the tattered costume because...

Which word goes ii ilh darn: cut thread wash?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Darn.

Word 2: Bound
Step 2
"Come right in, invitedRed Hen. In bounded Sly Fox. Immediately, he snatched the sack
from his pocket and tried to slip it over Red Hen's head, but she was too quick for him.

Step 3
Say the word~ iith me. Bound. (Show the word card) What does it mean to bound?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
To bound means to move quickly i/ ith big leaps.

Step 5
If someone were to bound into a crowded room, what might happen?

Ifyou bound somewhere, are you most likely in a hurry or do you have a lot of time?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Bound.

Word 3 Shriek
Step 2
Yaroo! .\nh ieked, the fox as the boiling water splashed on his toes.

Step 3
Say the word i iith me. .\lhn ik Do you remember what shriek means?

Step 4
A shriek is a loud, sudden scream.

Step 5
Which word goes i/ ith shriek? Head Sleep Surprise

Is ok to shriek in the school cafeteria? Why or why not?

Is ok to shriek in the yard at home? Why or why not?

Is ok to shriek in the library? Why or why not?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. .\lh ik

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 12

Book The Most Wonderful Egg in the World

Heine, H. (1983). The most wonderful egg in the world. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks.

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Quarrel
Step 2
Three hens were quarrelling about which of them was the most beautiful.

Step 3
Say the word iitl me, quarrel. (Show the word card) What does it mean to quarrel?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
When people quarrel, they have an angry argument.

Step 5
The children on the playground quarreled because...

Which word goes i itlh quarrel: kiss fight run?

Do you think people feel good when they quarrel? Why or why not?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Quarrel.

Step 2
Since they could not e\ile' their quarrel among themselves, they decided to ask the king for

Step 3
Say the word iti me. Advice. (Show the word card) What is advice? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
Ifyou give someone advice, you tell them what you think they should do.

Step 5

Whom would you take advice from, your mother or someone you don't know?

Which wordgoes i ith advice: Help Tease Work

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Advice.

Word 3 Extraordinary
Step 2
And from that day to this, they have been the best of friends, and have happily gone on
laying extraordinary eggs.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Extraordinary. What does extraordinary mean? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
S.o methiig extraordinary is very unusual or surprising.

Step 5
I once saw a playhouse that had everything inside that a regular sized house has in it. It
was extraordinary.

Describe \,iithing extraordinary. Encourage them to explain why it was extraordinary.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Extraordinary

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 13

Book Kate and the Beanstalk

Osborne, M. P. (2000). Kate and the beanstalk. New York: Antheneum Books for
In this version of the classic tale, a girl climbs to the top of a beanstalk, where she uses her quick
wits to outsmart a giant and make her and her mother's fortune.

Target Words: despair, forlorn, astonishing

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Despair
Step 2
Long ago, a girl named Kate lived i i ih her mother in a humble cottage. One day, after a
hard winter, Kate's mother was in despair.

Step 3
Say the word ii ith me, despair. (Show the word card) What do you think despair means?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
When someone is in despair, they feel that everything is i1 i, ,g. and that thing\ won't ever
get any better.

Step 5
Which word goes ii ith despair: happiness excitement sadness?

Have you ever felt despair? Why? How did you deal in ith it?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Despair.

Word 2: Forlorn
Step 2
"Now we will surely starve!" and she tossed the beans out the window. Hungry and
forlorn, Kate went to bed.

Step 3

Say the word l ihii me. Forlorn. (Show the word card) Forlorn? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If someone is forlorn, they are lonely and sad

Step 5
Which word goes i ilh forlorn: smile frown unhappy?

The dog was forlorn because....

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Forlorn.

Word 3 Astonishing
Step 2
Through a misty haze, she saw the most astonishing sight: Above he clouds was a
countryside 1 ith fine woods, a crystal stream, a rolling sheep meadow, and a mighty
castle.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Astonishing. What does astonishing mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
St, methiilig is astonishing, it is very surprising.

Step 5
Do you think streets made of gold would be astonishing?

Do you think a straight A report card would be astonishing?

Have you ever seen \iinwiethig astonishing?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Astonishing.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 14

Book Tea ii iih Milk

Say, A. (1999). Tea ii iih milk. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
After growing up near San Francisco, a young Japanese woman returns with her parents to their
native Japan, but she feels foreign and out of place.

Target Words: foreign, conversation, insistent

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Foreigner
Step 2
She could not make friends i/ i/h any of the other students; they called her gaijin and
laughed at her. Gaijin means foreigner.

Step 3
Say the word i!th me, foreigner. (Show the word card) What is a foreigner? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
If someone is a foreigner, they belong to another country, not your own.

Step 5
Ifyou went to Spain, would you be a foreigner?

If someone came from Australia to live in the United States ofAmerica, would they be a
foreigner?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Foreigner.

Word 2: Conversation
Step 2
I was transferred here six iuvuIi ago and I haven't had a real conversation since.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Conversation. (Show the word card) We have had this word
before. What do remember about the tone of a conversation? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou have a conversation i/ ith someone, you tialk n ith each other in a relaxed, easy way.

Step 5
Have you ever had a conversation when you were not supposed to have it? When?

When is a good time to have a conversation?

Who are some people you that you have conversations i i th?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Conversation.

Word 3 Insistent
Step 2
No one had read her application yet, the clerk said. Masako asked to see the manager. She
was very insistent.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Insistent. What does insistent mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Insistent describes someone who wants \vin, hiig to be done and they say in a very firm
way, that they want it done.

Step 5
Once, I went to a restaurant and got a bad server. I decided that I wanted to speak to the
person in charge, and I was very insistent.

When a student in my class wanted to walk around during a spelling test, I was very
insistent when I asked him to sit down.

Have you ever had to be insistent?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Insistent.

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 15

Book The Invisible Mistake Case

Harper, C. M. (2005). The invisible mistakecase. New York: Houghton Mifflin
Company.
After calling her friend "big pink baby," Charlotte, a young alligator, feels terrible until Grandpa
tells her about a useful way to learn from her mistakes.

Target Words: invisible, squint, suspicious

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Invisible
Step 2
"Oh, Grandpa!" cried Charlotte, and she told him the whole story. "Ah, said Grandpa,
"this is one for the invisible mistakecase."

Step 3
Say the word iih me. Invisible. (Show the word card) What does invisible mean?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
If \iiiiuethiig is invisible, you can't see it because it is hidden or because it is very small.

Step 5
Are stars visible or invisible?

Is air visible or invisible?

Is the moon visible or invisible?

Are germs visible or invisible?

What makes \iiwlitiing invisible?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Invisible.

Word 2: Squint

Step 2
It's right here, said Grandpa, and he pointed to an empty space on the floor. Charlotte
squinted her eyes, but she couldn't see anything.

Step 3
Say the word~ ith me. Squint. (Show the word card) What does it mean to squint?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou squint at i,,ethiling. you look at it i iih your eyes partly closed.

Step 5
Would you squint while looking at the sun?

Would you squint while looking at T. V ?

Would you squint while looking at the moon?

When do people usually squint?.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Squint.

Word 3 Suspicious
Step 2
"Did you eat the pie? "It wasn 't me, I answered, and then I looked at John suspiciously
so mama would maybe think it was him that ate the pie.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Suspicious. What does suspicious mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou are suspicious of someone, you don't trust them.

Step 5
Have you ever been suspicious of someone? When/why? Evaluate whether the

Once I was missing $50 from my purse and a student was walking away from my desk, I was suspicious of him. I thought he took my money. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Suspicious. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 16 Book Bantam of the Opera Auch, M. J. (1997). Bantam of the opera. New York: Holiday House. Luigi the rooster wins fame and fortune when the star of the Cosmopolitan Opera Company and his understudy both come down with chicken pox on the same night. Target Words: wander, disguise, wail Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Wander Step 2 Finally, Luigi wanderedfarther afield each day, so he could ilig n iil,,,t being heard Step 3 Say the word iilh me. Wander. (Show the word card) What does wander mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou wander, you walk around from place to place i iith,,t going in any particular direction. Step 5 Would it be safe to wander in the road? Would it be safe to wander in your own backyard? Is it ok to wander around the halls at school? Would you want to wander around while you were carrying \,,inihiiig heavy? Would you want to wander around the park non a Saturday afternoon? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Wander. Word 2: Disguise Step 2 Louigi found the perfect disguise to hide from Baldini. Step 3 Say the word~ iith me. Disguise (Show the word card) What is a disguise? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou disguise yourself, you change your appearance so others don't know who you are. Step 5 Which word goes itih disguise? Smile Frown Trick Besides Halloween, when is a good time for a disguise? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Disguise. Word 3 Wail Step 2 Soon he was dancing around the stage, Si t, 1/ ling n ith both hands. "I itch all over, he wailed. "It is driving me crazy." Step 3 Say the word iith me. Wail. What does wail mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou let out a wail, you cry loudly. Step 5 Why might someone wail? Tell us about a time when you wailed. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Wail. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 17 Book The Honest-to-Goodness Truth McKissack, P. (2000). The honest-to-goodness n iinhi New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. After promising never to lie, Libby learns it's not always necessary to blurt out the whole truth either. Target Words: commenced, quivered, trudged Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Commenced Step 2 Libby's stomach felt like she'd swallowed a handful of chicken feathers. Her eyes commenced to fill i/ ith water.... Step 3 Say the word iith me. Commenced. (Show the word card) What do you think commenced means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If \,iiietilng commences, it begins or starts. Step 5 What time does school commence? I cannot take you out of your class once your reading time commences, why do you think that is so? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Commenced. Word 2: Quivered Step 2 Libby's bottom lip quivered when her mother asked her if she fed 01' Boss. Step 3 Say the word iith me. Quivered. (Show the word card). What does quiver mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If \, iithilng quivers, it shakes i/ ith very small movements. Step 5 What might be a reason for ,,iiehinig to quiver? .e\/si me what \,iiieting looks like if it quivers. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Quivered. Word 3 Trudged Step 2 By the time Libby trudged up her steps, she was still confused. Step 3 Say the word~ iith me. Trudged. What does trudged mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou trudge somewhere, you walk there i/ ith slow, heavy steps. Step 5 Would you trudge to the store to get \,miiething you have been waiting for for a long time? Would you trudge to the dentist's office? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Trudged. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 18 Book No Place for a Pig Bloom, S. (2003). Noplacefor apig. Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press, Inc. When a woman brings a pig back to her apartment, she is faced with the challenge of raising it in the city. Target Words: admire, delicate, lugged Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Admired Step 2 "These are spectacular! she thought, admiring the plastic pigs that filled the yard. Step 3 Say the word l ihi me, admired. (Show the word card) What does admire mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou admire ,voiiieliig. you really like it and or respect it. Step 5 Tell me about someone or voiithiig you admire. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Admire. Word 2: Delicate Step 2 "These are spectacular!" she thought, admiring the plastic pigs that filled the yard. "But too huge for my tiny apartment. The delicate little pigs must be inside that shed. Step 3 Say the word ihi me. Delicate. (Show the word card). What does delicate mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If \,iiwtiiilig is delicate, it has to be handled very carefully because it might break. Step 5 My nephew bought e a tiny elephant figurine. It is my favorite and I handle it very carefully because it is delicate. Do you have v\iethiig that is delicate? Is a football delicate? Is an egg delicate? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Delicate. Word 3 Lugged Step 2 They both grunted as Ms. Taffy hig.ed Serena back to the train station. Step 3 Say the word~ ith me. Lugged. What does h iged mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou lug \i ,ietiiig from one place to another, you carry it in ith a lot of difficulty. You have trouble carrying it. Step 5 If a backpack isfilled / iith school books, would a kid have to lug it to school? Do you have to lug flower to your mother? Would you lug your lunch tray to the lunch table? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Lugged. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 19 Book Sleeping Bobby Osborne, W., & Osborne, M. 0. (2005). Sleeping Bobby. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers. A retelling of the Grimm tale featuring a handsome prince who is put into a deep sleep by a curse until he is awakened by the kiss of a brave princess. Target Words: delightful, wise, rage Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Delightful Step 2 A year latter a baby boy was born to the royal couple. The child was so extraordinary and so delightful that the king and queen wanted him to have a very special name. Step 3 Say the word ii h me. Delightful. (Show the word card) What does delightful mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 S.,imeiiilig or someone delightful gives you a feeling of great pleasure. Step 5 Do you think your mom finds you delightful? What kinds of thing would a delightful person do? Could an animal be delightful? What behaviors are NOT be delightful? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Delightful. Word 2: Wise Step 2 They invited almost everyone in the realm, including the kingdom's twelve Wise Women. Step 3 Say the word~ iith me. Wise. (Show the word card) What does it mean to be wise? Listen for responses. Step 4 A wise person makes good decisions and judgments based on their experiences and knowledge. Step 5 Do you think your grandmother is wise? Why? Do you think a baby is wise? Why? Do you think a chair can be wise? Why? What makes someone wise? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Wise.. Word 3 Rage Step 2 "Silence!" said the thiii weeinh wise woman, who in her rage, did not seem very wise at all. Step 3 Say the word iith me. Rage. What a rage? Listen for responses. Step 4 A rage is strong, uncontrollable anger. Step 5 Which word goes i/ ith rage: happy fun upset? Describe a time when you were in a rage. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Rage. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 20 Book Borka: The Adventures of a Goose i/ ith No Feathers Burningham, J. (1963). Borka: The adventures of a goose / ith no feathers. London: Jonathan Cape. Target Words: deserted, mend, journey Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Deserted Step 2 They lived on a deserted piece of marshland near the East Coast of England. Step 3 Say the word it l me. Deserted. (Show the word card) What does deserted mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Deserted describes a place where people have left and there is nothing there. Step 5 Would you want to be alone on a deserted island? Have you ever felt like someone has deserted you? If so, have them describe. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Deserted. Word 2: Mend Step 2 Each spring the Plumpsters came back to the marshes and mended their nest. Step 3 Say the word it l me. Mend. (Show the word card) When you mend \,viiieiing. what do you do to it? Listen for responses. Step 4 If \,iimetling gets mended, it gets fixed so that it is in good working order again. Step 5 What are some things that could be mended? Help them think about various objects Step 6 Let's say the word again. Mend. Word 3 Journey Step 2 Nobody noticed that Borka was missing. They were all thinking about the journey ahead. Step 3 Say the word ii h me. Journey. What is journey? Listen for responses. Step 4 A journey is a long trip. Step 5 One summer, I took a journey to another country. The trip took 13 hours. What are some thing\ you could do on journey? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Journey. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 21 Book The Easter Egg Farm Auch, M. J. (1992). The easter egg farm. New York: Holiday House. Pauline can't concentrate on laying an egg because of all of the squabbling in the hen house. Finally, she lays a very unusual egg. Target Words: concentrate, inspiration, scurried Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Concentrate Step 2 Pauline couldn't concentrate in all the confusion. Every time she tried to lay an egg, the other hens squabbled. Step 3 Say the word iith me, concentrate. (Show the word card) What does it mean to concentrate? Listen for responses. Step 4 To concentrate means to give ,oimething all ofyour attention. Step 5 Say "concentrate" ifI describe a situation where it would be good to concentrate. Remain quiet if the situation is not one where you need to concentrate. Studying for a math test. Walking down the sidewalk Drawing picture If someone is concentrating how do they look? What are they doing? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Concentrate. Word 2: inspiration Step 2 In the story, Mrs. PeiIyi i h took Pauline on field trips for inspiration. Step 3 Say the word~ iith me. Inspiration. (Show the word card) What does it mean to get inspiration from \,vin, thing or someone? Listen for responses. Step 4 Inspiration is a feeling of excitement that you get from \vinei1iig or someone. The excitement usually encourages you to go on and do \,vinhigig else. Step 5 When I was in fifth grade, I had a really great teacher. She was my inspiration to be a really good teacher to my students. .\lhi /' a time when you felt inspired by viieIilig or someone. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Inspiration. Word 3 Scurry Step 2 The bright colored chicks scurried around the egg lady. Step 3 Say the word iith me. Scurry. What does it mean to scurry? Listen for responses. Step 4 Scurry describes a way of walking quickly, taking small steps. Step 5 When would be a time that you would scurry? Start your sentence i/ ith, "I would scurry if... (Ensure that students use the sentence stem) Tell me if the following animals scurry: Horses Ducks People Frogs Alligators * Step 6 Let's say the word again. Scurry. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 22 Book Superhero Max David, L. (2002). Superhero Max. New York: Doubleday for Young Readers. A second-grade boy has trouble fitting in at his new school, until he wears a Captain Crusader costume for Halloween. Target Words: villain, vicious, scampered Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Villain Step 2 Ifight villains and save animals from calamitous disasters Step 3 Say the word ihi me. Villain. (Show the word card) What is a villain? Listen for responses. Step 4 A villain is a someone who deliberately harms other people or breaks the law in order to get what he or she wants. Step 5 Say "villain" ifI name a villain. Say not a villain ifI don't. Harry Potter The big bad wolf in the Three Little Pigs Your teacher Which word goes i/ih villain: bad helpful mighty? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Villain. Word 2: Vicious Step 2 Captain Crusader has to help save his friends from vicious bugs and wild animals. Step 3 Say the word~ iith me. Vicious. (Show the word card) What does it vicious mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Vicious describes wiiethilig violent and cruel. Step 5 What kinds of animals are vicious? Have you ever encountered anything vicious? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Vicious. Word 3 Scampered Step 2 Max and his classmates scampered across the playground and played their buggy game. Step 3 Say the word iith me. Scampered. What does it mean to scamper? Listen for responses. Step 4 Scamper describes moving quickly i/ ith small light steps. Step 5 When would be a time thatyou would scamper? Start your sentence i ith, "Iwould scamper if... (Ensure that students use the sentence stem) Tell me if the following animals scamper: Ants Pigs Bugs Birds Cows Step 6 Let's say the word again. Scampered. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 23 Book Dora's Box Campbell, A. (1998). Dora's Box. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. In order to protect her, Dora's parents must put anything that might frighten or hurt her into a box and tell her never to open it, but when she eventually does, her life is enriched by what she finds. Target Words: oath, frustration, compassion Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Oath Step 2 "Ifyou release me," the witch cried, "I will grant you three wishes. But ifyou leave me, I will curse you in i/t three oaths." Step 3 Say the word itli me. Oath. (Show the word card) What is an oath? Listen for responses. Step 4 An oath is a formal promise. Step 5 Have you ever had to give an oath? boy/girl scouts Once, I had to testify at a meeting, and I had to take an oath to tell the n inhI Have you ever had to do anything like that? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Oath. Word 2: Frustration Step 2 Every day and every night, Dora's mother and father gathered all the hurts, fears, angers, and frustrations they encountered and put them safely into Dora's box, so that she would never know them. Step 3 Say the word~l iith me. Frustration. (Show the word card) What is a frustration? Listen for responses. Step 4 Frustration describes v,,ilehiing that makes you angry or upset because you can't do anything about the problem it creates. Step 5 Has wihiing ever caused you frustration? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Frustration. Word 3 Compassion Step 2 For, to be loved by all, she must have compassion, she must know not only goodness and joy but also some of the evil and sadness in the world, as we all do. Step 3 Say the word iith me. Compassion. What is compassion? Listen for responses. Step 4 Compassion is a feeling of understanding for others who are going through ,Iinethiing Step 5 I once gave a homeless man some food. I thought about what iffeels like to be hungry, and I felt sad for him, so I bought him food. Ifyou have compassion, what will it lead you to do? Step 6. Let's say the word again. Compassion. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 23 Book When Jo Louis Won the Title Rochelle, B. (1994). When Jo Louis won the title. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Jo's grandfather helps her feel better about herself when he tells her the story about why she is named for the heavyweight boxing champion, Joe Louis. Target Words: tattered, destination, bellowed Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Tattered Step 2 Everything I owned fit into a tattered suitcase. Step 3 Say the word ith me. Tattered. (Show the word card) What does tattered? Listen for responses. Step 4 If vIwetilig is tattered, it is torn because it has been used a lot. Step 5 Which word goes i/ ith tattered: new old good? I have a tattered robe that I wear all of the time. It is very comfortable. Do you have anything that is tattered? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Tattered. Word 2: Destination Step 2 I rode the train all day and all night. Like a snake winding its way across the Mississippi River, that train moved slowly through farmlands and flatland, over mountains and valleys until it reached its final destination. Step 3 Say the word ilth me. Destination. What is a destination? (Show the word card) Listen for responses. Step 4 Your destination is the place you are going to. Step 5 IfI leave Lake City to go to Gainesville, what is my destination? Ifyou could go to any destination, where would you go? Why? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Destination. Word 3 Bellowed Step 2 "New York City! New York! New York! the conductor bellowed as the train pulled into the station. " Step 3 Say the word iith me. Bellowed. What does it mean to bellow? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone bellows, they shout in a loud, deep voice. Step 5 Would a library be a good place to bellow? Would a playground be a good place to bellow? Would the dinner table be a good place to bellow? Why would anyone need to bellow? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Bellow. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 25 Book Precious and the Boo Hag McKissack, P. C., & Moss, O. J. (2004). Precious and the boo hag. New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Home alone with a stomachache while the family works in the fields, a young girl faces up to the horrifying Boo Hag that her brother warned hear about. Target Words: disbelieve, confidence, disguise Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Disbelieve Step 2 Before he left, Brother pulled Precious to the side. "Be sure to mind Mama, now. 'Cause ifyou let somebody in, you never know. It might just be Pruella the Boo Hag. "Who?" Precious asked, i i/h/ a disbelieving giggle. Step 3 Say the word i iih me. Disbelieve. (Show the word card) Does anyone know what disbelieve means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone disbelieves \m Step 5 Tell me I heIwher you would look in disbelief at the following statements: If someone toldyou a cow jumped over a moon. If someone toldyou that you that it was snowing outside. If someone toldyou that they want to be your friend. Ifyour mom toldyou that dinner was ready. Have the students explain why they would look in disbelief or not. Tell me about a time when you had to give a disbelieving stare. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Disbelieve. Word 2: Confidence Step 2 "There's no such thing as a Boo Hag especially one named Pruella, "she told herself 1 ilth a pinch of confidence. Step 3 Say the word~ iith me. Confidence. (Show the word card) What is confidence? Listen for responses. Step 4 Confidence describes feeling of being sure you can do ,,iiethi/ng Step 5 Because the girl had spent all week studying for her reading test, she had a lot of confidence in being able to pass the test. What gave her the confidence? Tell about a time when you had a lot of confidence. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Confidence. Word 3 Disguise Step 2 "Pruella was scary, and she was pretty tricky. I almost brought her inside when she disguised herself as a shiny new penny. " Step 3 Say the word~ ii h me. Disguise. We have talked about this word before. What does disguise mean? Listen for responses. Make sure that students understand that things are disguised so they aren't recognized. Step 4 To disguise iiimeting means to change its appearance so that people will not know about it or recognize it. Step 5 When might you wear a disguise? What word goes i/ ith disguise: sly church laugh? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Disguise. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 26 Book The Brave Little Seamstress Osborne, M. P. (2002). The brave little seamstress. New York: Antheneum books for Young readers. A seamstress who kills seven flies with one blow outwits the kind and, with the help opf a kind knight, becomes a wise and kind queen. Target Words: feat, abandoned, admired Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Feat Step 2 As she stitched each word, the little seamstress grew prouder and prouder of her amazing feat. Her heart wagged~ iihljoy like the tail of a lamb. Step 3 Say the word~ iiih me. Feat. (Show the word card) What is afeat? Listen for responses. Step 4 A feat is a difficult act or achievement. Step 5 If I describe a feat, say feat. If I don't describe a feat remain quiet. Climbing a tall tree Walking down the sidewalk. Jumping a big ramp on your bike. Making all As on your report card Tell me a about a feat you accomplished. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Feat. Word 2: Abandoned Step 2 It was not long before she spotted the wild boar near an abandoned chapel in a clearing. Step 3 Say the word 1 ith me. Abandoned. (Show the word card) What does abandoned mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou abandon \,in, hiiig. you leave it for a long time. Step 5 Would you abandon cookies baking in the oven? Would you abandon your friend at a park? Would you abandon food that didn't taste good? Would you abandon your bike on the side walk? *Be sure to get them to explain why they would or would not abandon things. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Abandoned Word 3 Admire* They have had this word a few times. Remind them. Step 2 She said that Christmas was coming soon and that it was freezing cold outside and she used words like human kindness and simple charity until she said, "Okay, okay, she can stay." Step 3 Say the word iith me. Admire. What does it mean to admire? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou admire someone, you respect them. Step 5 Tell me about someone that you admire. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Admire. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 27 Book Verdi Cannon, J. (1997). Verdi. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, & Company. A young python does not want to grow slow and boring like the older snakes he sees in the tropical jungle where he lives. Target Words: complain, startled, fidgeted Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Complain Step 2 "Stop that, Verdi. It makes me nervous, Ribbon complained. Step 3 Say the word ith me. Complain. (Show the word card) What does it mean to complain? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou complain about vi, hiiilig. you say you are not satisfied I ith it. Step 5 The lady in the restaurant complained about her soup because.... The parent complained to the teacher because.... Would you complain about a new outfit? Would you complain if someone were in your seat? Would you complain about your mom making your favorite dinner? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Complain. Word 2: Startled Step 2 Launching himself from a tree, Verdi startled aflock of colorful birds. Step 3 Say the word iith me. Sitl ded (Show the word card) What does startled mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If \,wimethiing startles you, it surprises and frightens you a little. Step 5 If someone sneaked up behind you and shouted in your ear, would it startle you? Which word goes 1 iith startled: surprised amused talked Which word goes i i/h startled: curious unexpected laugh Step 6 Let's say the word again. Startled Word 3 fidgeted Step 2 She said that Christmas was coming soon and that it was freezing cold outside and she used words like human kindness and simple charity until she said, "Okay, okay, she can stay." Step 3 Say the word~ ii h me. Fidgeted. What does fidgeted mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou fidget, you keep moving your hands or feet or changing positions. Step 5 Once I took a trip on a cruise ship, and when it was time to get off of the ship, Ifidgeted because I was really ready to get off Have you ever fidgeted? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Fidgeted. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 28 Book Wolf Comes to Town Manton, D. (1993). Wolf comes to town. New York: Dutton's Children's Books. Target Words: disguise, suspicious, seize Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Disguise Step 2 Now, that big wolfjust loved to go shopping, but whenever he left his house he would wear a disguise, for he knew thatpeople didn't like wolves very much. Step 3 Say the word iith me, disguise. (Show the word card) What is a disguise? Listen for responses. Step 4 A disguise is v\iinehiig youput on to change your appearance so people won't know who you are. Step 5 Would you wear a disguise to a church? Would you wear a disguise on Halloween? Would you wear a disguise to school? Would you wear a disguise to a family dinner? Give children an opportunity to explain why they would or would not wear the disguise. Step 6 Let's say the word again. Disguise. Word 2: Suspicious Step 2 In the story, thing\ had gotten so bad that the shopkeepers were suspicious ofjust about everybody. Step 3 Say the word ith me. Suspicious. (Show the word card) What suspicious mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is suspicious of someone else, they do not trust them. Step 5 Would you be suspicious of your mom? Would you be suspicious of someone walking around your house at night? Would you be suspicious if kept looking at your homework? Can anybody share a time when you were suspicious? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Suspicious. Word 3 Seize Step 2 The wolf seized the painting and ran from the gallery, leaving the owner quatkiig /1 ilh terror. Step 3 Say the word i th me. Seize. What does it mean to seize ,uwiething? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone seizes v,,iehiiiig. they take hold of it quickly and firmly. Step 5 Would you seize a hotpot from the stove? Would you seize a cupcake from a plate? Would you seize a cactus? Why or why not? If someone where to seize a dog's tail, what might happen? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Seize. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 29 Book Eggs Mark the Spot Auch, M. J. (1996). Eggs mark the spot. New York: Holiday House. Pauline the hen uses her talent for laying eggs with the image of what she sees to help capture the thief who has stolen a famous painting from an art gallery. Target Words: exhibit, overwhelmed, devastated Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Exhibit Step 2 We have a new exhibit ofpaintings by world-famous artists. Step 3 Say the word iith me, exhibit. (Show the word card) What is an exhibit? Listen for responses. Step 4 An exhibit is \miinhiig of interest that people come and look at. Step 5 We went to Mrs. Folsom 's class to see her exhibit. She had sculptures on display. What kinds of thing% could we put in an exhibit? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Exhibit. Word 2: Overwhelmed Step 2 At first, Pauline was overwhelmed by the wonderful works of art. Step 3 Say the word ii h me. Overwhelmed. (Show the word card) What overwhelmed mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Overwhelmed describes a feeling that affects you so much, you don't know how to deal u1 ith it. Step 5 Sometimes, when I have a lot of thing% to do, I feel overwhelmed, like I don't know how I am going to get it all done. What kinds of thing% might overwhelm a kid? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Overwhelmed.. Word 3 Devastated Step 2 Pauline was devastated because she couldn't make up her own paintings. She could only copy the ones that were there. Step 3 Say the word iith me. Devastated. What does devastated mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou are devastated by voimehiiig. you are shocked and upset by it. Step 5 The girl was devastated because.... The teacher was devastated because.... Which word goes i/ ith devastated: disappointed delighted eager? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Devastated. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 30 Book Pizza for the Queen Castaldo, N. (2005). Pizza for the queen. New York: Holiday House. In 1889 Napoli, Italy, Raffaele Esposito prepares a special pizza for the queen. Target Words: frantic, protest, anxious Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Frantic Step 2 Guiseppe was closing his shop for siesta, when everyone rested during the heat of the day; but when he saw Raffaele looking so frantic, he let him in. Step 3 Say the word ihi me, frantic. (Show the word card) What does frantic mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Frantic describes a person who is behaving in a desperate, wild, and disorganized way because they are worried, or in a hurry. Step 5 I was frantic when I could findd my computer. I thought someone had stolen it. The lady was frantic because.... The little boy frantic because..... Which word is the opposite of frantic: nervous calm happy? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Frantic. Word 2: Protest Step 2 Before Niccolo could protest any further, Raffaele hurried from the wharf Step 3 Say the word i th me. Protest. (Show the word card) What does protest mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone protests, they say or show publicly that they don't agree i ih .\,uin, hiuig Step 5 Some people have been protesting the war in Iraq. They are showing that they disagree 11 ith it. Once, I protested when I didn't like a new rule my school made. Have you ever protested? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Protest. Word 3 Anxious Step 2 The queen was anxious to taste the pizza Step 3 Say the word iith me. Anxious. What does it mean to be anxious? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone is anxious, they are worried or excited about ,,iinehiliig happening. Step 5 I am anxious to graduate from school. I sit and think about it all of the time, andI talk about it all of the time. Have you ever felt anxious? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Anxious. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 31 Book The Frog Principal Calmenson, S. (2001). The frogprincipal. New York: Scholastic Press. A frog showed up as substitute principal of P.S. 88. Now the school has to learn to get along with him. It is not always easy. Target Words: scrawled, refreshing, commotion Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Scrawled Step 2 "I can't let her see me this way! thought Mr. Bundy. He scrawled a note that said: Family emergency! Be back soon. Step 3 Say the word iih me, scrawled. (Show the word card) What does scrawledmean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Ifyou scrawl vimehi/,rig. you write it in a careless, untidy way. Step 5 Give me a tlinub up if the answer is yes, and a tlinub down if the answer is no. Would it be good to scrawl your homework? Would it be ok to scrawl a note to your friend? Would it be fine to scrawl on your math book? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Scrawl. Word 2: Refreshing Step 2 The next thing they knew- SPLASH!- their principal was swimming laps in the sink. They tried their best not to giggle. "Very refreshing, saidMr. Bundy. Step 3 Say the word i iith me. Refreshing. (Show the word card) What does refreshing mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If ,ui,,ething is refreshing, it is pleasantly different from what you are used to. Step 5 On a really hot day, a cool drink of water is very refreshing. Which word goes i iith refreshing: pleasant unpleasant hard? Have you ever had ,,iiieting refreshing? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Refreshing.. Word 3 Commotion Step 2 Ms. Moore heard the commotion and came running. Step 3 Say the word ith me. Commotion. What is a commotion? Listen for responses. Step 4 A commotion is a lot of noise and confusion. Step 5 A bee flew into the classroom and caused a commotion. Once, I was riding down the street, and a car was on the wrong side of the road, driving in the wrong direction, it caused quite a commotion. Can you think of a time when there was a commotion? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Commotion. Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 32 Book Turtle Spring Zagwyn, D. T. (1998). Turtle spring. Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press. The changing seasons bring surprises to Clee, including a new baby brother early in the year and a turtle whose life seems to crawl away inthe winter. Target Words: insisted, contented, emerged Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Insist Step 2 "Aren 'tyou the lucky one?" everyone insisted from orbits around the crib. Clee felt like a lost moon. Step 3 Say the word i ith me, insisted. (Show the word card) Insisted looks like word we have talked about before. Does anyone remember what it means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone insists, they really want \vinhiiig to happen, and they say it in afirm way. Step 5 Complete each sentence. The boy's mother insisted that he come inside the house because.... The doctor insisted that the lady be admitted to the hospital because... The baby insisted on having his bottle because.... Step 6 Let's say the word again. Insist. Word 2: Content Step 2 Clee 's turtle sunned herself. She looked content, having just gobbled three worms. Step 3 Say the word ihii me. Content. (Show the word card) What does content mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is content, they are happy and satisfied. Step 5 When I have a good book, a full stomach, and a soft chair, I am content. What has to be in place for you to be content? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Content. Word 3 Emerge Step 2 By early April the big snowbanks were disappearing. The garden emerged shabby and moist. Step 3 Say the word~ iih me. Emerge. What does it mean to emerge? Listen for responses. Step 4 When you emerge, you come out of a place where you had not been before. Step 5 The bears emerged from the cave after sleeping all winter long. The ants emerged from the hole once they smelled the cake from the picnic. The puppy emerged from under the bed when his owner came home. Can you think of a sentence using the word, emerge? Step 6 Let's say the word again. Emerge. APPENDIX E TEACHING CHART USED DURING STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON Things Good Readers Do Question Good questions begin with who, what, when, where, why, and how Clarify You can clarify by "mining the context." Look at words or phrases around what you don't know Substitute a word that you do know See if you recognize parts of the word Summarize Gather up the main parts of what has already happened, put them in order, and then create a sentence Leave out details Keep it short Predict Use pictures and things that have already happened to help you make a good guess about what might happen next Use what you already know to help you APPENDIX F STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON GUIDES Strategies-Focused Lesson Script General Directions: For each lesson, read the storybook aloud. During each reading, focus on the highlighted strategy(ies) in the script. Model strategy use for the students. Examine the marked pages of each book to identify possible strategy practice during reading. Script: Today, I am going to introduce to you, four strategies that good readers use to help them understand what they read. I want you to watch me, and think about what I am doing as I read the story. I am going to be asking questions, clarifying, summarizing, and making predictions during the story. For the first few days, I am going to be describing the strategies to you, to make sure you understand them. Then, I am going to show you how I use them. I will always do that aloud. Next, we are going to be using the strategies together. After that, I will guide you as you try to use the strategies alone. Finally, You will do it all by yourself. Throughout our time together, how much I do and how much you do will change. When I ask questions, I am going to be asking questions that begin with who, what, when, where, why, and how, because good questions begin that way. When I clarify, I am going to look for the meaning of words or ideas that aren't quite clear to me. I am going to clarify in three ways: 1. I am going to "mine the context." People who look for gold, mine. They dig. I am going to "dig" into to the words around the word I don't know, to see if they help me figure out what it means. 2. I am going to try to substitute a synonym. A synonym is a word that might mean the same thing as the word I don't know. I am going to put the synonym in the same place as the word I am confused about, to see if it makes sense. 3. I am going to look at the word to see if I recognize any part of the word, and ask myself if it looks like a word that I already know. When I summarize, I am going to think about the big ideas that have happened in the story. I am going to put them in order, and retell what has happened. When Ipredict, I am going to look at the pictures and think about what has happened, to help me make a good guess about what might happen next. Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be explicit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 1 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrations, and using these clues, Ipredict that this character, I am going to guess that she is Prudy, has a problem (because her hands are up in the air)with a lot of objects ...it looks to me like she is in her room. Now, I am going to read to see if my prediction is correct. Questioning: The author says that Prudy seemed like a normal little girl. She had a sister, a dog, two mice, and her own room. Yes, she seemed normal, but she collected things. My questions is: Why does collecting things make her not normal? Remember, it is a good question because it begins with why. Let me see if the author explains why that makes her something other than normal. Clarifying: I see this word distraction. The author says that Prudy's collection drove her dad to distraction. I am not clear on what that means. First, I am going to mine the context. I am gong to look around the word to see if I can get some clues. It says, he was a tidy person who did not like clutter. I am still not exactly sure, so I am going to see if the word looks like one I know. I see distract in distraction, and I know that to distract someone means to bother them. So let me see if it makes sense in the sentence. Prudy's collection bothered her dad because he was tidy and didn't like clutter. Yes! That makes sense. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Prudy is a little girl who has a huge collection of things. Her collection has gotten out of control, and she has to do something about it. She has been walking around looking for ideas about how to get her collection under control. Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be explicit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 2 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrations, and using these clues, Ipredict that these boys are brothers and they dance at night. Their bodies look like they are dancing and it is at night because I see the stars. But, the word Knight in the title isn't spelled like the night that comes after day, so maybe their name is Knight. I am not sure, let's read on to see what happens. Questioning: The author says that Reverend Knight lived in Harlem with his twelve sons and their dog. My question is, Where is their mother? Will the author tell me about her later on? Clarifying: I see this word sermon. I don't know what a sermon is. It doesn't look like a word that I already know. I can't think of one to substitute, so I will mine the context. The author says people came from far and wide to hear his sermons, and yet he couldn't solve his own problems in his own home. Do people listen to sermons to solve problems? He is a reverend. Are sermons something that preachers give? Do they have to do with church? I think I am in the right area. I will keep reading. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Reverend Knight has gone through a lot of nannies because they can't solve the mystery of why his sons' shoes keep getting worn out so quickly. Now, he has hired a new nanny who seems different from the others. Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be explicit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 3 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrations, and using these clues, Ipredict that the girl on the cover has a pet fox or is friends with the fox. She is kind of smiling, and the fox is right beside her. Now, I am going to read to see if that makes correct. (Be sure to emphasize that you were incorrect). Questioning: The author says that the chickens are scared. Why are the chickens scared? Do foxes eat chickens? When chickens are scared, does that mean they can't lay eggs? Clarifying: I see this word sly. I am not sure what it means. I am going to mine the context to see if it helps me. I am going to look at the words around sly to see if I can figure out what sly means. Now, "Ever-time they corer that ol' slickster, he gets away. I tell you that fox is one sly critter." Does that mean he is fast? Does it mean he is smart? Let me substitute those words to see if they make sense. (Reread the sentence and plug in the ideas). Well, it could mean both because they both make sense. I am going to keep thinking about sly to see if the meaning becomes more clear as I read on. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Flossie's grandmother told her to take some eggs to a neighbor, but Flossie has to watch out for a fox in the forest. Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be explicit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 4 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrations, and using these clues, Ipredict that the girl on the cover is sick with a condition called stripes. I think she is sick because she has a thermometer in her mouth, and she is holding a cup with a straw in it, and her face looks very sad. She is also in bed. Now, I am going to read to see if my prediction is correct. Questioning: The author says that Camilla screamed when she looked in the mirror. My question is, Why did she scream? I could guess that her dress didn't look good on her and she was worried about whether she would be able to impress people. Let's read on to see if we can figure it out. Clarifying: I see this word contagious. The author says that Other parents are afraid that Camilla's stripes might be contagious. The word doesn't look like on that I already know, so I am going to look at other words and ideas around it to see if I can figure it out. Now, why would other parents be worried about Camilla? Hmmm... maybe they think that their kids can catch Camilla's stripes. Maybe contagious means other people can catch it. Let's put that in the sentence to see if it I makes sense. They're afraid other people can catch those stripes. Yes, that works! Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Camilla Cream is a girl who cares about what people think of her. On the first day of school, she was covered in stripes. Now, different doctors and experts are trying to figure out how to make her stripes go away. Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book Q .\Nh inking Violet Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Q Wolff Q The Princess and the Pizza General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning. Throughout the story, you will generate questions as you read. Review the questioning section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to use the strategy collaboratively with the students. Allow them to help you generate questions about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 5 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called .\/N inking Violet. I want you to help me create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions that can we can ask. Remember how good questions begin, with: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Questioning: I will start with the cover. There is a boy on the cover of the book, my question is Why is he lying on his book? There is also a girl on the cover, what can we ask about her. Encourage students to help you construct. One could be: Why does the girl on the cover look like she is hiding behind her book? Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students to help you construct questions. This should be a collaborative process. Possible Questions: What does it mean for Violet's stomach to turn upside down? Why is Irwin saying mean things to Violet? Why is Violet allergic to attention? What is making Violet want to shrink away? How is Violet going to get over her shyness? Who is going to do Violet's part if she won't do it? Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book Q 1, inking Violet Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Q Wolff Q The Princess and the Pizza General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning. Throughout the story, you will generate questions as you read. Review the questioning section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to use the strategy collaboratively with the students. Allow them to help you generate questions about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 6 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III. I want you to help me create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions that can we can ask. Remember how good questions begin, with: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Questioning: I will start with the cover. There is a boy on the cover of the book, my question is, Is he Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III? Look at his face, what can we ask about him. Encourage students to help you construct. One could be: Why is he dressed so formally? Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students to help you construct questions. This should be a collaborative process. Possible Questions: Why aren't there any other kids on the ship with Nicholas? How does Nicholas feel about listening to the grown ups talk about each other? Why couldn't Nicholas eat and drink the special treats that the cook made? What was wrong with the crew, since Nicholas couldn't be with them? Who is going to save Nicholas from the sinking ship? Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book Q .\/h inking Violet Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Q Wolff Q The Princess and the Pizza General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning. Throughout the story, you will generate questions as you read. Review the questioning section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to use the strategy collaboratively with the students. Allow them to help you generate questions about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 7 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Wolff. I want you to help me create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions that can we can ask. Remember how good questions begin,: with: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Questioning: I will start with the cover. There is a pig, wolf, cow, and a duck on the cover. Some of them have on glasses, and they are all sharing a book together. Will this story be about animals reading? They look happy. Why are they all smiling. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students to help you construct questions. This should be a collaborative process. Possible Questions: Why is the wolf just wandering around? Why weren't the pig, cow, and duck afraid of the wolf? What did the pig mean when he said, Can you be big and dangerous somewhere else? What did he want the wolf to do? Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book Q Nh\ inking Violet Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Q Wolff Q The Princess and the Pizza General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning. Throughout the story, you will generate questions as you read. Review the questioning section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to use the strategy collaboratively with the students. Allow them to help you generate questions about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 8 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Princess and the Pizza. I want you to help me create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions that can we can ask. Remember how good questions begin, with: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Questioning: I will start with the cover. There is a princess on the cover with a jeweled crown and a jeweled necklace. My question is, Why is she holding apizza? Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students to help you construct questions. This should be a collaborative process. Possible Questions: Why did Princess Paulina's dad give up his throne? Why didn't Princess Paulina expect much competition it the contest? Where did all of these other princesses come from? Why did the seven girls who looked bright eyed get sent home? Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen i i/th Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying. Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 9 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Queen i/ i/h Bees in Her Hair. I want you to help me clarify things that I don't understand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I read, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of the three ways to clarify. Clarifying: I will start with the cover. I am already confused about something? I don't get why she has bees in her hair. People generally don't walk around with bees in their hair. Bees sting people. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I can't figure out what seldom means. I am not sure why the King's people never see him. I am not sure how the people can get the bees over the other side of the wall, I think they will fly back across. Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen i i/th Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying. Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 10 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Tale ofHilda Louise. I want you to help me clarify things that I don't understand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I read, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not exactly sure about what happened to her parents. Did they die? I need clarification on the word Magnifique. It looks like another word I know...magnificent. I am not sure what maneuver means. Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen i/th Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying. Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 11 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called RedHen and Sly Fox. I want you to help me clarify things that I don't understand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I read, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what dam means? What does he want her to do to his socks? What does bound mean? Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen i ith Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying. Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 12 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Most Wonderful Egg in the World. I want you to help me clarify things that I don't understand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I read, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what quarreling means. What is advice? What does modestly mean? Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea 1i ith Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying. Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 13 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Kate and the Beanstalk. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: I am looking at the cover and the title, and wondering if this story is similar to Jack and the Beanstalk. How is Kate going to make food with the beans? How did the beanstalk grow in one day? What is a giantess? Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what despair means. This is tricky, what does extraordinary mean? I recognize the words extra and ordinary. What does forlorn mean? These words are confusing; I fear nothing when I am doing right? I need to think about what means. I am confused about, from cock's crow to owl's hoot. What does that mean? Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea 1i ith Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying. Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 14 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Tea ii ilh Milk. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: The title is Tea i/ i/h Milk, but this girl is standing in a yard. How are they related? Why are they calling her a foreigner? Why didn't she tell her mom she was an elevator girl? Is Osaka a city where May will feel less like a foreigner? Possible Clarifications: I am confused about the word foreigner. If May's parents are Japanese, and so is she, why is she a foreigner to the others? What does insistent mean? Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea 1i th Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying. Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 15 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Invivisible Mistake Case. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why is the mistakecase invisible? Why didn't Charlotte just apologize to her friend? Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what suspicious means. How does one look when squinting? Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea i ith Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying. Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 16 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Bantam of the Opera. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why is Luigi different from the other roosters? Why doesn't the head rooster like the way Luigi sings? Possible Clarifications: I am confused about the word attract. I am not sure what a Rigoletto is. Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose i/th no Feathers S Easter Egg Farm General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing. Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review the summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 17 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Honest-to-Goodness Truth. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose i/th no Feathers S Easter Egg Farm General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing. Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review the summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 18 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called No Place for a Pig. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Sleeping Bobby S Borka: The Adventures ofa Goose i/ ith No Feathers General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing. Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review the summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 19 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Sleeping Bobby. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Sleeping Bobby S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose i/th No Feathers General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing. Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review the summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 20 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Borka: The Adventures of a Goose i/ ilh No Feathers. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Dora's Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: .qiuiiluig. clarifying, and summarizing. Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 21 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Easter Egg Farm. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. While I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why does the hens' squabbling bother Pauline? Why does Pauline lay such different eggs? How is Pauline going to lay enough eggs for every child in town? Possible Clarifications: What does inspiration mean? What does scurry mean? Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Dora's Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: .qiuiiluig. clarifying, and summarizing. Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 22 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Superhero Max. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. While I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Dora's Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: .qiuiiluig. clarifying, and summarizing. Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 23 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Dora's Box. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. While I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Dora's Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: .qiuiiluig. clarifying, and summarizing. Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 24 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called When Jo Louis Won the Title. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. While I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures, what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 25 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Precious and the Boo Hag. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures, what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 26 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Brave Little Seamstress. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures, what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 27 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Verdi. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures, what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 28 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Wolf Comes to Town. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lessons will be on independent use of all strategies. Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strategies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because the onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watching for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having trouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 29 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Eggs Mark the Spot. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the strategies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it and no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lessons will be on independent use of all strategies. Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strategies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because the onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watching for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having trouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 30 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Pizza for the Queen. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the strategies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it and no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lessons will be on independent use of all strategies. Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strategies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because the onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watching for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having trouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 31 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Frog Principal. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the strategies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it and no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lessons will be on independent use of all strategies. Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strategies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because the onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watching for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having trouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 32 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Turtle Spring. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the strategies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it and no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process APPENDIX G STRATEGY INTRODUCTION SCHEDULE Day Strategy Phase 1 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 2 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 3 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 4 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 5 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 6 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 7 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 8 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 9 C Guided Practice 10 C Guided Practice 11 C Guided Practice 12 C Guided Practice 13 QC Guided Practice 14 QC Guided Practice 15 QC Guided Practice 16 QC Guided Practice 17 S Guided Practice 18 S Guided Practice 19 S Guided Practice 20 S Guided Practice 21 QCS Guided Practice 22 QCS Guided Practice 23 QCS Guided Practice 24 QCS Guided Practice 25 P Guided Practice with a gradual release-toward independent use 26 P Guided Practice with a gradual release-toward independent use 27 P Guided Practice with a gradual release-toward independent use 28 P Guided Practice with a gradual release-toward independent use 29 QCSP Independent Strategy Use-with guidance if needed 30 QCSP Independent Strategy Use-with guidance if needed 31 QCSP Independent Strategy Use-with guidance if needed 32 QCSP Independent Strategy Use-with guidance if needed APPENDIX H TREATMENT FIDELITY CHECKLISTS Vocabulary-Focused Intervention Treatment Fidelity Checklist Instructor: Observer: Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Date: Yes No NA The instructor interspersed open questions throughout the story. The instructor gave children opportunities to talk about ideas in the story. The instructor encouraged children to make connections among ideas in the story as the story moved along. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time and contextualize them for their roles in the story. Yes No NA The instructor introduced the target words one at a time. The instructor contextualized the words for their roles in the story. Step 3: Repeat the word to create a phonological representation of the word. Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to repeat the target word to reinforce its phonological representation. Step 4: Introduce a student friendly definition. Yes No NA The instructor explained the words using student-friendly definitions. Step 5: Discuss the word in contexts other than the one used in the story. Yes No NA The instructor discussed the target words using multiple contexts that are different from the story. Step 6: Repeat the word again to reinforce its phonological representation. Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to repeat the target word to reinforce its phonological representation. Strategies-Focused Intervention Treatment Fidelity Checklist Instructor: Observer: Predicting Date: Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to make logical predictions based on clues from either the text or illustrations. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students engaged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practice for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged students to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy. Questioning Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to ask questions based on main ideas in the story. The instructor encouraged students to ask detail-oriented questions. The instructor encouraged students to ask inferential questions. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students engaged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practice for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged students to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy. Clarifying Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to express confusion regarding ideas or events in the text. The instructor encouraged students to identify words that were difficult to pronounce or understand. The instructor encouraged students to clarify misunderstandings in three ways. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students engaged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practice for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged students to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy. Summarizing The instructor encouraged students to give key points in a short, one or Yes No NA two-sentence summary. The instructor encouraged students to summarize in a logical order. The instructor encouraged students to use illustrations to summarize the text. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students engaged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practice for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged students to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy. 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Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading mastery tests-Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tyran Wright Butler was born in Naples, Florida. She graduated from LaBelle High School in LaBelle, Florida in 1991. Tyran received a Bachelor of Arts in Education with a specialization in early childhood from the University of Florida in 1994. She received an M.Ed. in educational leadership from St. Leo University in 2002. From 1994-2003, Tyran taught in Columbia County Florida (Lake City). Her teaching experience includes fifth grade, fourth grade and kindergarten. She also served as a reading coach and a curriculum resource teacher. The majority of her time teaching was spent working with students in intermediate grades. While completing her doctoral studies at the University of Florida, Tyran served as a graduate research assistant with Dr. Holly Lane, on Project Access to Books for Children; Dr. Alyson Adams, in the Lastinger Center for Learning; and with Dr. Lynda Hayes, on Project Raising Expectations for All Children. In addition, Tyran served as a consultant with the Northeast Florida Educational Consortium. During her doctoral program, Tyran was active in the Special Education Association of Doctoral Students, serving as secretary. She is a member of the American Educational Research Association, the Association for Teacher Educators, the International Reading Association, the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, and the Council for Exceptional Children. In the future, Tyran plans to continue research in the area of reading and to work with schools to improve learning outcomes for students. Her other research interests include family literacy, teacher professional development, and culturally responsive pedagogy. She may also teach at the university level. PAGE 1 1 VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION WITH STUDENTS IN PRIMARY GRADES: A COMPARISON OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES By TYRAN WRIGHT BUTLER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007 PAGE 2 2 2007 Tyran Wright Butler PAGE 3 3 For Sasha, the one who sacrificed the most PAGE 4 4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Glory be to God for the gr eat things He has done. Many people contributed to the success of th is study. The second and third grade children who served as participants in this study were wonderful a nd deserve a tremendous amount of gratitude. I am indebted to Ms. Essie Wilson for coming out of retirement to help me. The faculty and staff at Summers Elementary School we re gracious hosts, and I appreciate them as well. I thank Dr. Holly Lane, my doctoral committ ee chair, for her patience and support as she guided me through this process. I could neve r have imagined that a chance meeting at a professional development activity would lead to a Ph.D. There are no words that can express how much I appreciate her willingness to bend over backwards for me. I would also like to thank my committee members, Drs. Christie Cavanaugh, Cyndy Griffin, and Lynda Hayes. Each of them made significant contributions to the soundness of this study and the soundness of my mi nd, and I owe them big. I also thank Dr. Nancy Corbett for listening a nd encouraging me. Her quiet way helped to settle my storms. I also would like to thank my fellow doctoral students for knowing my pain, and celebrating milestones with me. I owe a sp ecial thanks to Nicole Fenty, who really came through for me when the going got tough. I am especially grateful for my family. They believed I could do it when I didnt believe I could do it. Thank you, Sasha, for your tolerance a nd pushing as made we this journey. This is our Ph.D. Finally, I would like to thank Alvin fo r helping me to keep the important things in perspective. I am grateful for the day that I met you. PAGE 5 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .....11 Rationale for the Study........................................................................................................ ...13 Scope of the Study............................................................................................................. .....15 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ...16 Delimitations.................................................................................................................. .16 List of Terms.................................................................................................................. .........16 Theoretical Constructs......................................................................................................... ...18 Vygotskys Theory on Lear ning and Development........................................................18 The Interactive-Compensatory Model of Reading..........................................................19 Metacognition..................................................................................................................20 Overview....................................................................................................................... ..........21 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE............................................................................................23 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........23 Methods........................................................................................................................ ..........24 The Relationship between Vocabulary and Comprehension..................................................25 Vocabulary Instruction......................................................................................................... ..28 Direct Instruction of Word Meanings..............................................................................29 Storybook Reading and Vo cabulary Learning................................................................35 Comprehension Instruction.....................................................................................................39 Description of Reciprocal Teaching................................................................................42 Reciprocal Teaching Studies with Elementary Participants............................................43 General Cognitive Strategy Instruction with Elementary Children................................45 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........50 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES.............................................................................................51 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........51 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................... .........52 Methods........................................................................................................................ ..........53 Instructional Setting.........................................................................................................54 Participant Description....................................................................................................54 Research Instrumentation.......................................................................................................56 Vocabulary Measures......................................................................................................56 PAGE 6 6 Comprehension Measures...............................................................................................58 Experimental Design............................................................................................................ ..59 Instructional Procedures....................................................................................................... ..60 Instructor Preparation......................................................................................................60 Materials...................................................................................................................... ....61 Vocabulary-Focused Intervention...................................................................................61 Strategies-Focused Intervention......................................................................................62 Fidelity of Treatment.......................................................................................................63 Treatment of the Data.......................................................................................................... ...64 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .............66 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........66 Fidelity of Instructional Procedures........................................................................................66 Fidelity of Implementation and Reliability of Measurement..........................................66 Statistical Analyses of the Data..............................................................................................67 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........73 5 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................... ..........76 Summary of the Hypotheses and Results...............................................................................76 Theoretical Implications of the Research Findings................................................................81 Implications for Future Research............................................................................................82 Implications for Practice...................................................................................................... ...82 Limitations to the Present Study.............................................................................................83 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........84 APPENDIX A PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT....................................................................................86 B TARGET WORD VOCABULARY MEASURE.....................................................................87 C STORYBOOK REFERENCES................................................................................................98 D VOCABULARY-FOCUSED LESSONS..................................................................................99 E STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON GUIDES.......................................................................164 F STRATEGY INTRODUC TION SCHEDULE........................................................................197 G TREATMENT FIDELITY CHECKLISTS.............................................................................198 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................202 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................210 PAGE 7 7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Descriptive Information for Groups.......................................................................................55 3-2 Pretest Means for Voca bulary and Strategies Groups............................................................55 3-3 Split Half Reliability Coefficients....................................................................................... ...59 3-4 Experimental Design....................................................................................................... .......60 3-5 Design for Testing the Null Hypotheses us ing a Series of Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs)......................................................................................................................65 4-1 Comparison of Pretest Means by Group.................................................................................68 4-2 Summary of Analysis of Covari ance for Expressive Vocabulary Task.................................69 4-3 Summary of Analysis of Covariance for Receptive Vocabulary Task...................................69 4-4 Summary of Analysis of Covarian ce for the Reading Comprehension Task.........................69 4-5 Summary of Analysis of Covarian ce for the Listening Comprehension Task.......................69 4-6 Summary of Analysis of Covarian ce for the Passage Comprehension Task.........................70 4-7 Summary of Analysis of Covariance fo r the Researcher-Created Vocabulary Task.............70 4-8 Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group Differences for Vocabulary-Focused Group......................................................................71 4-9 Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group Differences for Strategies-Focused Group.........................................................................71 4-10 Correlation Matrix for Pretest Measures..............................................................................74 4-11 Correlation Matrix for the Posttest Measures.......................................................................75 PAGE 8 8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 A stage representation of an interactive model of reading.....................................................20 2-1 The reciprocal relationship be tween vocabulary and comprehension....................................28 2-2 Gradual release of responsibility model.................................................................................41 PAGE 9 9 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION WITH STUDENTS IN PRIMARY GRADES: A COMPARISON OF INSTRU CTIONAL STRATEGIES By Tyran Wright Butler August 2007 Chair: Holly B. Lane Major: Special Education My study examined the effects of vocabularyfocused instruction a nd strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students in primary grades who are adequate decoders, but non-prof icient comprehenders. Vygotskys theory of learning and development, Pearson and Gallaghe rs gradual release of responsibility model, metacognition, and Stanovichs inte ractive-compensatory model of reading served as theoretical guides for this study. A pretest-posttest design was employ ed. Second and third grade students (N =60) in two groups received 32 sessions over eight weeks, of either vocabulary-focused instruction or strategies-focused instruction. Students in the vocabulary-focused group received instruction similar to Text Talk, and students in the strategies-focused group received instruction similar to reciprocal teaching. A series of analyses of covariance rev ealed no statistically significant differences between groups on measures of expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension, listening comprehension, and on a re searcher-created target vocabulary measure. An analysis of covariance did reveal a statistically significan t difference between groups on a PAGE 10 10 passage comprehension measure, favoring th e vocabulary-focused group. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients revealed moderate to robust correlations of the measures. Implications for researchers and teachers em erge from these findings. Teachers should understand that explicit vocabular y instruction does have an impact on comprehension and it does enhance word knowledge. With a more expe rienced adult or peer providing scaffolding, students abilities were expanded beyond what they could do alone. In addition, students in primary grades can benefit from strategies-instr uction. Using a gradual release model assisted students in proficiently using strategies. St rategies-instruction positively influenced both comprehension and vocabulary. Class time should be dedicated to explicit vocabulary and comprehension strategy instruction. Researchers should consider investigating the lo ngitudinal effects of strategies instruction on students in primary grades. It is also recommended that researchers examine specific combinations of strategies useful for students in primary grades, and specific teacher behaviors that contribute to the master y of strategies by students. PAGE 11 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Political influences, societal in fluences, and educational factor s have been catalysts for the increased attention given to reading achievement and the instructional methods used to teach reading. Political influences such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 have forced schools to ensure that all children reach hi gher levels of literacy. Our nati ons evolution from an agrarian society, to an industrial society, to an informa tion society has changed the concept of schooling and how students are instructed. Along with cha nges in our society have been changes in how literacy is defined. The definiti on of literacy has evolved over time, reflecting the needs of society, and has had a tremendous impact on what is done to ensure that students are literate (Block, 2000). The definition of reading has ex panded from a set of sub skills to a broader, more complex task requiring the skil lful integration of knowledge. In spite of changes over time, some aspects of instruction have not kept pace with higher demands for literacy. Reading abilities vary from the knowledge that spoken language can be analyzed into strings of separable words, whic h are analyzed into sequences of syllables and phonemes, to the ability to understand and use vo cabulary words, and the ability to comprehend text. Just as reading abilities are varied, so are reading difficulties. As children get older, reading difficulties become more evident and more pronoun ced and, in turn, harder to remediate. According to the National Center for Educa tion Statistics (2005), 38% of fourth grade children cannot read well enough to effectively accomplish grade level work. Between the 2003 and 2005 administrations of the National Assess ment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the percentage of fourth grade stude nts who performed at or above Basic increased in only four states, and decreased in two states. In Florida, 35% of fourth grade students scored below the Basic level, and only 23% scored at the Proficient level on the 2005 NAEP (NCES, 2005). PAGE 12 12 Students performing at the Basic level should demonstrate an understanding of the overall meaning of what they read. When reading text appropriate for fourth gr aders, they should be able to make relatively obvious connections be tween the text and thei r own experiences and extend the ideas in text by making simple infere nces (NCES, 2005). The Proficient level of the NAEP requires students to be able to demons trate an overall understand ing of text, providing inferences as well as literal information. When they read text appropriate to fourth graders, they should be able to extend ideas in the text by making infere nces, drawing conclusions, and making connections to their own experiences (NCES, 2005). One of the most important goals in elementary school is for all students to be proficient readers. The foundation on which proficient read ers are developed begins well before children enter school. Parents and othe r care providers begin supporti ng the reading development of children through the use of conversations, storyb ook interactions, and other literacy related activities that encour age active engagement (Britto, Fuligni, & Brooks-Gunn, 2006; Landry & Smith, 2006). When children enter school, some co me with requisite kno wledge and skills to become proficient readers, and others do not (Craig & Washington, 2006). Throughout the primary grades, teachers work to ensure that childrens phonological awar eness is developed and that they become efficient decoders through phoni cs instruction, which in turn supports their transition into fluent readers. Despite the purposeful nature of reading instruction in primary grades, some children still fail to comprehend text efficiently when they progress to later grades. The assumption that fluent readers will develop into adequate comprehenders has been proven false for many students. One reason for the low pe rcentage of children re ading grade level work proficiently on tests like the NAEP could be that so mething critical is missing in some facets of PAGE 13 13 reading instruction in primary grade classr oomseffective vocabulary and comprehension instruction. Children who fail to become proficient reader s in the primary grades tend to remain poor readers throughout school and as adults (Adams, 1990; Juel, 1988; Stanovich, 1986). Research, as reported in the Report of the National Reading P anel: Teaching Children to Read (2000) indicates that explicit, systema tic instruction in various components of reading such as phonemic awareness and phonics, helps support the develo pment of decoding skills. Children who can skillfully decode words develop into fluent r eaders. Fluent readers have more cognitive resources to devote to the comprehension of te xt (Sinatra, Brown, & Reynolds, 2000). Research also supports explicit instructi on in comprehension (NRP Report, 2000). According to Durkin (1993), comprehension is the esse nce of reading. Unfortunatel y, reading comprehension is not a naturally occurring event for some children. Comprehension is a complex process that is influenced by multiple factors. A particular factor identified by the National Reading Panel (2000) is vocabulary because childrens access to the meaning of text is limited by how well they know the meanings of words. The construc t of comprehension cannot be understood well without understanding of the role that vocabular y plays in understanding what is read. Rationale for the Study Students are expected to perf orm proficiently on standard ized measures of reading comprehension by the time they reach the intermediate grades. However, very little comprehension instruction occurs before stude nts actually reach the intermediate grades. Educators have long assumed that children in prim ary grades were not developmentally ready to receive explicit instruction in reading comprehension, and have long neglected explicit vocabulary instruction. Although th e need for reading instruction that promotes comprehension and increases vocabulary is clear (NRP, 2000), more work is needed to un derstand the impact of PAGE 14 14 various forms of instruction on children in primar y grades. If students are to be prepared to comprehend text proficiently by the time they r each the intermediate grades, instruction in both comprehension and vocabulary are necessary prior to them reaching the intermediate grades. Because the understanding of words and understa nding of connected text are closely related (Juel, 2006; Senechal, Ouellette, & Rodney, 2006), instruction designed to promote both vocabulary development and text comprehension can be an efficient means of promoting reading achievement. Research is needed to clar ify the impact of vocabulary instruction on comprehension and the impact of comprehension strategy instruction on vocabulary growth and comprehension. The purpose of my study was to examine th e effects of two explicit instructional strategies on the comprehension skills and vo cabulary development of readers in second grade and third grade who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders of text.. One instructional method was vocabulary-focused, a nd the other was strategies-focused. Through this study, the relationship between understanding words and understanding text is examined. The general research questions are as follows: What are the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction on the vocabulary skills and compre hension development of primary grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficien t comprehenders? What are the effects of strategies-focused instructi on on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of primary grade students who are adequate d ecoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? Research supports the implementation of interventions that focus on explicit comprehension strategies inst ruction (Duffy, Roehler, Me loth, Vavrus, Book, Putnam, & Wesselman 1986; Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Pressl ey, El-Dinary, Gaskins, Schuder, Bergman, Almasi, & Brown, 1992) and explicit instructi on of word meanings through the use of PAGE 15 15 storybooks (Brett, Rothlein, & Hurley, 1996; Coyne, Simmons, Kameenui, & Stoolmiller, 2004). Upper elementary students have been taught comprehension strategies with substantial improvement in their unders tanding of text (Pressley, 2002). Pressley, Johnson, Symons, McGoldrick, and Kurita (1989) summarized the research examining the effects of strategy instruction on students memory and comprehens ion. The researchers examined the relationship between student characteristics a nd cognitive strategy instruction. They determined that poor readers benefit more from strategy instruction than proficient read ers. They also suggested that perhaps strategies are more eff ective with older student in inte rmediate grades and beyond, than younger students. Despite Pressley et al.s (1989) suggestion, the impact of stra tegy instruction on the reading comprehension and vocabulary deve lopment of students in primary grades is under studied. Few researchers have actually used children in primary grades as study participants in strategy instruc tion studies. Researchers often di sagree about the readiness of primary grade children to receive strategy instru ction. Some researchers maintain that strategy instruction should be reserved for older childr en (Cross & Paris, 1988; Pressley et al., 1989), while others believe that childre n in primary grades are ready to receive strategy instruction, and that more should be done to examine the most effective ways to provi de the instruction. (Williams, Hall, Lauer, Stafford, DeSisto, & deCa ni, 2005; Baker, 2002). Because few empirical studies have been designed to examine comprehe nsion strategies instru ction with young children this study focused on two instructional approach es designed support the development of reading comprehension and vocabulary in primary grade students. Scope of the Study This study was conducted within a limited sc ope. The limitations and delimitations are described in the following sections. PAGE 16 16 Limitations This study was conducted with second grade and third grade students identified by their teachers as proficient decoders, but non-proficie nt comprehenders of text. Previous informal experiences and formal reading instruction of th e subjects may limit this investigation. The study may be limited further because the results fr om this study cannot be generalized to older students or to students who comprehend text well. Finally, because the intervention was conducted by researchers with small groups of st udents, outside of the classroom, it cannot be generalized to larger classroom settings. Delimitations The study was delimited by geographical locatio n to Lake City, Florida, a medium-sized city located in the northern part of the state. The participan ts were 60 second and third grade students in Columbia County. Seco nd and third grade students were used as participants because second grade and third grade are both primary grad es, and the focus of this study was vocabulary development and the comprehensio n skills of students in primary grades. Participants were selected for participation in the study ba sed on recommendations by teachers and reading specialists in their school, and by scoring between the 30th and 45th percentile on a standardized test. The school was selected based on its Reading First eligibility. Participants were pretested on measures of verbal ability and reading comp rehension. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two instructional groups Participant selection did not include consideration for gender or ethnicity. List of Terms An understanding of applicable terminology is critical to the implementation and interpretation of this investiga tion. The following section defines re levant terms as they apply to this study. PAGE 17 17 Clarifying a strategy used to identify the meaning of unfamiliar words or ideas in text. It calls students attention to the fact that some parts of the text may be difficult to understand. Expressive vocabulary words used when an individual speaks or writes. Listening comprehension unders tanding of spoken language Metacognition knowledge about cogni tion and self-regulation of cognition. Predicting a strategy that involves making a guess a bout future events, based on logical evidence from a text. Questioning a strategy that involves the use of self -generated questions in reference to a text, for the pur pose of reading comprehension. Reading comprehension the proc ess of simultaneously extrac ting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with text (RAND, 2002). Receptive vocabulary words known well enough to understand when heard or read. Reciprocal teaching an instructional procedure in which small groups of students learn to improve their reading comprehension through scaffolded instruction of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring strate gies, which include predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing. Summarizing a strategy in which the reader identifies and articulates main ideas from a text in a concise manner. Text Talk an approach to reading aloud that is designed to enhance childrens ability to construct meaning fr om decontextualized language, PAGE 18 18 which promotes comprehension and language development (Beck & McKeown, 2001). Tier two words words that mature users of language encounter and use frequently. Theoretical Constructs Multiple theories provide a framework for the current study. Vygotskys (1978) theory on the interaction between l earning and development Sta novichs (1980) interactivecompensatory model of reading, and the theory of metacognition provide justification for the explicit instruction in vocabulary and the direct comprehension stra tegy instruction used in this study. Vygotskys Theory on Learning and Development Vygotsky (1978) theorized that learning is shap ed by interactions with others. His theory of development and learning has profound implica tions for instruction. Classic psychological literature suggested that devel opment was always a prerequisite for learning. There was a specific concern for premature instruction, instruc tion before a child was ready for it. However, Vygotsky suggested that classica l psychologists were incorrect. He believed that learning plays a role in development. Development is not a precondition of learning ; instead, learning and development are interrelated from a childs first da y of life. Vygotsky (1978) suggested that learning be matc hed with a childs developmental level. He stated that in order to teach st udents, two levels must be found, the actual developmental level and the zone of proximal development The actual developmental level is the level of development of a childs mental f unction as a result of some already completed developmental cycles. Vygotsky believed that what children can do with the assistance of others might be more indicative of their mental development than what they can do alone. The difference between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level as PAGE 19 19 potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers is called th e zone of proximal development. The zone of proximal development defines functions that have not yet matured, but are in the process of maturation. According to Vygotsky (1978), what a child can do with assi stance today, she will be able to do by herself tomorrow (pp.87). Inst ructional methods in this study were performed in the zone of proximal development. The Interactive-Compensatory Model of Reading Stanovich (1980) hypothesized the compensatory-interactive model of reading. He extended Rumelharts interactive model of read ing, which assumes that both bottom up and top down processes occur simultaneously. Rumelhar t (1994) described five independent knowledge sources that contain speciali zed knowledgesyntax, semantic, orthographic, lexical, and pragmatic. Rumelhart suggested that each of th ese knowledge sources is employed concurrently and perceptions are created through this intera ction. His model provides a framework to describe parallel, rather than linear or hierarch ical processing. Rumelhar t describes the message center as a highly structured storage device that receives data. Each knowledge source scans the message center for a hypothesis that is consistent with its domain of knowledge. This hypothesis is then evaluated in terms of the information c ontained by that particular knowledge source, and the process recurs until a decision is reached. The message center is a highl y structured three-dimensional space that incorporates the line of the text, the le vel of the hypothesis from the knowledge sources, and possible alternative hypotheses at the same level. Each level enters a hypothesis and these are evaluated in terms of all others. Constraints from all levels are si multaneously applied. Stanovich (1980) added a compensatory assumption to this model. The a ssumption was that deficiencies at any level in the processing hierarchy can be compensated fo r by a greater use of information from other PAGE 20 20 levels, and that this compensation takes place irre spective of the level of the deficient process. Rumelharts model helps us understand how topdown and bottom-up processes interact with one another, and Stanovichs extension helps us understand individual differences in reading. Figure 1-1. A stage representation of an inte ractive model of readi ng. Adapted from D. Rumelhart (1994) Metacognition Research on metacognition originated over 30 years ago, with researchers focusing on how and when children develop knowledge and control of thei r cognitive processes (Baker, 2002). Thinking about ones thinki ng appears to be the key to t houghtful, active reading. Paris, Lipson, and Wixson (1994) stated that metacognition is the core of strategic behavior and leads to control over ones learning. Not only do profic ient readers know strate gies, but they monitor their use of the strategies. Met acognition has been firmly establis hed in theories of reading and learning. Metacognitive readers plan, evaluate, and regulate their own skills (Paris et al., 1994). By definition, metacognition is two fold, in cluding both knowledge of and control over ones cognitive processes. Knowledge describe s the ability to reflect on ones own cognitive PAGE 21 21 processes. Control refers to the self-regulati on of cognitive efforts, developing a goal and plan, checking progress toward that goal, and repairing difficulties once detected. Myers and Paris (1978) documented that younger children have less knowledge and control over their comprehension pr ocesses. But, the questions th at remain are: Do they have less knowledge and control because they have not been taught how to monitor? Do they have less knowledge and control because metacognition is beyond their reach? Thinking about how one thinks, and knowing when and how to use a strategy is the key to engaged reading and proficient reading comprehension, which is the goal for all children. The earlier children are taught to do this, the more time they have to practice, which greatly affects their level of proficiency. According to Baker (2002), social interaction is an important mediator in metacognitive development. This view is cons istent with Vygotskys (1978) proposition that children learn through soci al interactions with more skille d adults. The National Research Council (Snow et al., 1998) recommended explic it instruction in monitoring for understanding throughout the early grades, beginning in first gr ade. Adult mediated metacognitive instruction was provided in this study. Adu lts assisted young child ren in developing an awareness of their thinking processes and through a gr adual release, assist ed them in gaining control over those processes. Overview The focus of this study is an investiga tion of vocabulary development and text comprehension. Specifically, the effects of two instructional stra tegies on vocabulary development and reading comprehension. Chapte r 2 provides a review and analysis of the relevant professional literature related to vocabulary instructi on and comprehension instruction with elementary aged children. Chapter 3 provid es an explanation of methods and procedures implemented in the study. Chapter 4 details the results obtained fr om the study. Finally, PAGE 22 22 Chapter 5 provides a discussion of the results as re lated to previous research and implications for future research. PAGE 23 23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction Proficiency in reading is f undamental to success in school and in society. However, national literacy rates are not keeping up with increasing demands for competence in literacy skills (Britto et al., 2006). The goal of reading instruction is for children to become selfregulating monitors of what they read. Numerous instructional factors influence whether or not children are able to comprehend text. Explic itly teaching children to use comprehension strategies has been shown to improve text co mprehension. Explicitly teaching word meanings has also been demonstrated to mediate reading comprehension. Based on expectations for levels of proficiency on standardized a ssessments that evaluate what children know and can do with grade level text, in addition to j obs that require sophist icated knowledge to complete job related tasks, it has become increasingly important to address reading comprehension earlier than when children reach the upper elementary grades. In conjunction with addressing reading comprehension, it is important to investigate f actors that influence comprehension, such as vocabulary. I provide a summary and analysis of the professional litera ture on vocabulary instruction and comprehension instruction with elementary ag ed children generated over the last 30 years. This literature review is organize d into five sections. First, st udies that examine the relationship between vocabulary and comprehension are deta iled. Then, studies of word learning through direct instruction and studies that examine word learning through the use of storybooks are detailed. Next, the reciprocal teaching model is described and reciprocal teaching studies, which include elementary aged participants are detail ed. Finally, studies of comprehension strategy instruction are presented. PAGE 24 24 Methods An electronic search of PsychINFO, and EBSC O Host was conducted to locate studies for this literature review. The descriptors for the electronic search were vocabulary instruction and reading; vocabulary methods; vocabulary and reading comprehension; cognitive strategy instruction; comprehension stra tegy instruction and elementary students; and comprehension and elementary students. The vast amount of co mprehension research in the last 30 years complicated the identification of relevant studie s for this review. For example, a search of EBSCO Host using the key words reading comp rehension led to 1552 references. The key words reading comprehension and elementary yielded 203 listings. The key words, reading strategy instruction and elementary students yielded three studies, and not one of them was appropriate for this review. The review process highlighted the fa ct that there is a dearth of research on reading comprehension of children in elementary grades, and more specifically the primary grades. Studies in the followi ng refereed journals were identified: Elementary School Journal, Contemporary Educational Psychology Reading, Reading Research Quarterly, Reading Improvement, Reading Horizons, Reading Te acher, Journal of E ducational Psychology. Reference lists from identified studies were also examined. In addition, a manual search in the published literature was conducte d in the following journals: Journal of Literacy Research, Journal of Reading, and Jour nal of Reading Behavior These journals were selected because either the word reading or literacy was in the title, or the journal was listed repeatedly in the reference section of previously se cured articles. Studies selected for inclusion in this review were included based on the following criteria: (a) subjects were children for whom English is a first language; (b) subjects receiv ing interventions were in kinde rgarten through fifth grade; (c) designs were either correlati onal or experimental with a specific emphasis on vocabulary learning and or comprehension lear ning; and (c) studies were publis hed in the last thirty years PAGE 25 25 (1977-2007). Upon examination of th e articles, those that featur ed students at the secondary level were excluded. Some studies were included if they focused specifically on reciprocal teaching and included elementary participants in addition to middle grade participants. Age was delimited in this review due to the focus of instructional effectiveness with elementary aged children. This review only in cludes studies that examined the vocabulary instruction and comprehension instruction with elementary aged students. The results of the literature search yielded 25 studies, which are included in this review.. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Comprehension Anderson and Freebody (1981) offer three hypotheses for examining the effects of word learning on reading comprehension, the instrume ntalist, aptitude, and knowledge hypotheses. The instrumentalist position suggests that knowledge of word meanings is the primary factor responsible for reading comprehension. But, the instrumentalist position does not make suggestions about where vocabul ary knowledge originates. The aptitude hypothesis suggests that peopl e with large vocabul aries are better at comprehension because they possess higher me ntal agility. There are few instructional implications from this hypothesis. The third hypothesis, the knowledge hypothesis, suggests that world knowledge is crucial to the understanding of text. Performance on vo cabulary tests is seen as a reflection of a persons background knowledge. The knowledge hypotheses emphasizes that knowing a word well implies that one knows a lot of words relate d to it and this larger chunk of knowledge is crucial for understanding a given text. The knowledge approach suggests an interactive approach in which conceptually generated knowledge is combined with information in the text (Lesgold & Perfetti, 1978). The instructional imp lications are that the more word meanings one PAGE 26 26 knows and the more experiences one has, the bett er he or she will comprehend text. Anderson and Freebodys (1981) instrumentalist and knowledge hypotheses informed this study. Stanovich (1986) summarized a number of st udies documenting the strong association between vocabulary knowledge and reading co mprehension. Pointing out that the most vocabulary acquisition occurs dur ing reading. Stanovich note d that children with weak vocabularies read less, acquire fewer new word s, and fall progressively further behind their peers. The gap in exposure to vocabulary through reading is appare nt as early as first grade. In separate studies, Allington (1984) and Biemiller (1977-1978) documented that proficient readers read three times as many words per week as their less-proficien t peers. Stanovich appropriated the Biblical term Matthew Ef fects to describe the phenome non of the rich (good readers) getting richer, and the poor (struggling read ers) becoming increasingly impoverished. The Matthew Effects have devast ating consequences for children with reading difficulties. The knowledge of word meanings is an important fa ctor in performance on reading comprehension tasks. Researchers have been able to document a s ubstantial psychometric relationship between vocabulary and comprehension (Anderson & Freebody, 1981; Baumann, Kameenui, & Ash, 2003; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997; Stahl & Fair banks, 1986). Factor analyses of reading comprehension tests consistently find a subs tantial proportion of va riance accounted for by vocabulary knowledge. In a longitudinal study, Cunningham and Stanovich (1997) examined the predictive relationships between 27 students vocabulary skills as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III in fi rst grade and their reading comp rehension and vocabulary skills in 11th grade. They found that first grade vocabulary skills predicted 11th grade comprehension scores on a standardi zed reading test. PAGE 27 27 Like Cunningham and Stanovich (1997), Ta bors, Snow, and Dickinson (2001) examined the predictive relations between kindergartne rs narrative production a nd receptive vocabulary skills as assessed by the PPVTR and their subsequent vocabul ary skills and comprehension skills in fourth and seventh grades. Vocabulary scores at kindergarten we re strongly correlated with vocabulary and comprehension scor es at fourth and seventh grades. Schatschneider, Buck, Torgesen, Wagner, Hassler, Hecht, and Powell-Smith (2003) conducted a study to identify the major reading, cogn itive, and linguistic skills that contribute to individual differences in performance on the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) at third, seventh, and tenth grades. Two hundred participants were administered tests that measured a variety of reading, language, and cognitive skills. Results indicated that in third grade, r eading fluency was the dominant fact or in explaining variability in test performance. In seventh grade, reading fluency and verbal knowledge similarly explained variability in test performance i ndividual differences. However, by 10th grade, verbal knowledge and reasoning was clearly dominant factor in explaining variabili ty in test performance on the FCAT. Although researchers have been able to document a strong relationship between vocabulary and comprehension, they have been unable to sort the ex act nature of the reciprocal relationship. A graphical represen tation of a model of the reciprocal nature of vocabulary and comprehension and the influence of experien ces with texts is pr oposed in Figure 2-1. Experiences with text include independent book reading as well as read aloud experiences between children and adults. The more one reads, the more his vocabulary increases. The more vocabulary increases, the better text is understood. PAGE 28 28 Figure 2-1. The reciprocal relationship between vocabulary and comprehension. Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary instruction has been identified as an essential element of reading instruction (NRP, 2000). Like comprehension instruction for children in primary grades, vocabulary instruction has not received attention the wa y other reading instructional methods have (Biemiller & Slonim, 2001), despite its influen ce on reading comprehension. Readers must understand words in order to comprehend text. Some interventions with children in both primary and elementary grades have shown that vo cabulary instruction increases word knowledge (Biemiller, 1999; Brett et al., 1996; Coyne et al ., 2004). Traditional methods of instruction, such as copying definitions from a dictionary or attempting to use a new word in a meaningful sentence have been demonstrated to be ine ffective in promoting vocabulary growth (Nagy, 1988). Superficial learning of word meanings also contributes litt le to text comprehension (Beck & McKeown, 1991; Nagy, 1988). Several effective methods have been developed for teaching word meanings and, more importantly, for promo ting deeper understanding of words. Direct instruction of word meanings and word lear ning from storybooks will be discussed in the following sections. PAGE 29 29 Direct Instruction of Word Meanings It is estimated that children from third grade through eighth grade learn approximately 3,000 words per year (Nagy & Herman, 1987). As children get older, they encounter increasingly difficult words that are not in th eir oral vocabulary. As a way to facilitate vocabulary learning, direct instruction in word meanings has been promoted. Expanded oral vocabularies assist in comprehending text as text complexity increases. When words in text are accessible to children, they are able to devote mo re mental processes to comprehending text. Explicitly teaching vocabulary words has also been argued to be problematic by some researchers because the sheer number of words defi es a systematic instructional approach (Nagy, 1988). According to Stahl and Fairbanks (1986), direct instruction of vocabulary has demonstrable effects on vocabulary learning and co mprehension. However, they maintain that vocabulary instruction should include more than definitions in order to improve reading comprehension. Dictionary definitions provide inadequate explanations of word meanings (McKeown, 1993). Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002) argue that the teach ers should carefully select appropriate words to teach students in order to contribute to students vocabulary development. According to Beck et al. (2002) the primary consideration in choosing words should be the nature of the words themselves. They suggest that words should be selected from the portion of word stock that comprises sophisticated words of high utility for mature language users and that are ch aracteristic of written langu age (p. 253, Beck & McKeown, 2007). They refer to these words as Tier 2 words as opposed to Tier 1 words, which are basic words used in everyday language, and Tie r 3 words, which are low-frequency words specific to particular content ar eas. To determine which words are Tier 2 words, words should be evaluated based on 1) usefulne ss across contexts, 2) relation to other useful words, and 3) PAGE 30 30 importance to the story (Beck et al., 2002). Beck et al. (2002) argue that if Tier Two words, words that mature users of language encounter fre quently, are taught then the task of direct word instruction is manageable and useful. The benefi t of this approach is that it is focused on teaching children sophisticated words that children may not regularly hear, but that they need to know in order to understand books that are r ead to them and that they will read. Beck, Perfetti, and McKeown (1982) examin ed the effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on the reading compre hension of fourth-grade students and found that students who received explicit vocabulary inst ruction outperformed students in a control group on measures of vocabulary and reading comprehens ion. However, the gains in comprehension were marginal. McKeown, Beck, Omanson, and Perfetti (1983) rep licated and extended the previous study by that investigated the relationship between vocabulary inst ruction and reading comprehension. The original study showed substantial gains in accuracy of word knowledge, but only marginal gains in comprehension. The initial study cont ained methodological problems, so researchers revised the comprehension measure in the rep lication study. Forty-one fourth graders were taught 104 difficult words over a five-month period. Following instruction, the students who received instruction and students in the cont rol group, matched on preins truction vocabulary and comprehension ability, performed tasks to measure accuracy of word knowledge and comprehension of stories that contained ta rget vocabulary words. Students who received vocabulary instruction performed better than studen ts in the control group on all tasks. Results from the replication study support the conclusion suggested by th e original study that intensive vocabulary instruction designed to promote deep and fluent word knowledge enhances reading comprehension. PAGE 31 31 McKeown, Beck, Omanson, and Pople (1985) c onducted a study that examined the nature of instruction and the frequency of instructional encounters on f ourth graders verbal processing skills. The researchers designed the study to teac h 24 difficult words to fourth grade children. In 30-minute lessons over 14 school days, words were presented to students using varying instructional models: rich, rich/extended, and trad itional instruction. A rich context was one that involved elaboration and disc ussion about words, their meanings, and their uses. A rich/extended context involved rich instruction and activities that allowed children to notice and use instructed words outside the classroom. Th e traditional instructi on was drawn from basal readers. Children made associations between the words and their defi nitions or synonyms. Multiple-choice vocabulary tests were used to assess vocabulary knowledge. Outcome measures consisted of tasks of definition knowledge, fl uency of access to word meanings, context interpretation, and story comprehension. McKeow n et al. (1985) concluded that all types and frequencies of instruction show ed an advantage of word l earning over the control group. However, only the rich and rich/extended condi tions led to better performance on story recall tasks. More encounters with words led to incr eased word knowledge for students. Results from this study provide support for the idea that e xplicit vocabulary instruction is beneficial to students. When students are ta ught words, they learn words. Twelve-year-old participants with learning disabilities (n=64) who were presented keyword mnemonic strategy instruction in a st udy conducted by Condus, Ma rshall, and Miller (1986) outperformed students assigned to other in structional strategy gro ups. Special education teachers presented students in each condition with a total of 50 words (gro uped in sets of 10). Instructional conditions included: keyword-image learning, pictur e context, sentence-experience context, and a control group. In the keyword-imag e condition, students were instructed to learn PAGE 32 32 word meanings following three steps: learn a key word presented on a 5x8 card, remember the content of a black-and-white line drawing that contained a representa tion of the keyword interacting with the definition, a nd finally, to look at all vocabul ary items and recall verbally the key word and its illustration. The picture-c ontext condition required st udents to learn word meanings by studying black-and-white illustrations representing the definition of the word (these illustrations did not contain the key word). Th e sentence-experience context involved students learning the meaning of words in two steps: th e teacher read a three-sentence passage that was printed and displayed on paper, students had to listen, reread the passage and then relate the meaning of the word to a personal experience. Th e control condition participants were told to choose their own method of studying to learn voc abulary word meanings. Students received instruction for 20 minutes per day for three da ys per week over a period of five weeks. Vocabulary learning was measured at four intervals during th e study. The final measurement occurred two months after the initial instruction. A series of ANOVAs in dicated significant differences among treatment groups. All treatment groups outperformed students in the control condition. Students assigned to th e keyword condition outperformed all other conditions across all four levels of time. Results from this study provide support for the keyword method as a strategy to facilitate the vocabul ary learning of children with lear ning disabilities and questions about the possible usefulness of this instruc tional strategy for child ren without learning disabilities. Wixson (1986) noted the effects of prete aching vocabulary of differing levels of importance to a text using two different methods of instruction on child rens comprehension of basal stories. One hundred twenty fifth grade st udents were randomly assigned to one of eight groups according to method of instruction, story, a nd word level. There were two instructional PAGE 33 33 methods: dictionary method and concept method. Students in the dictionary method group were asked to look up words in dictionaries, copy them and use them in a sentence. Students in the concept method group were presented with words on worksheets and given two examples and nonexamples to help them identify critical attributes of the word or concepts. Four posttest measures were used to assess student performance. Analyses indicated that the level of the instru cted word vocabulary ha d a reliable effect on word knowledge and text comprehension. Children who received instruction on noncentral words learned more noncentral vocabulary and unde rstood more story ideas related to noncentral vocabulary than students who received instruct ion on central words. Children who received instruction on central words le arned more central vocabulary and understood more story ideas related to central vocabulary than students who received instruc tion on noncentral words. In addition, preteaching vocabulary enhances child rens understanding of ideas related to the instructed vocabulary regardless of the level of importance. The concept method of instruction did not provide any advantage over the dictionary method in this study. In a comparison of direct teaching of individual word meanings and practice deriving word meanings from context, Jenkins, Matlock, and Slocum (1989) concluded that learning words from contexts is not an automatic process. Par ticipants included 135 fift h grade students (six classes). Students were randomly assigned to one of six treatments: three classes were assigned to instruction in individual word meanings and three classes were assigned to the deriving word meanings from context condition. In each conditi on, classes were assigned to low, medium, or high amounts of practice. Instructional sessions lasted between 10 and 20 minutes based on the practice level. Participants were administered pretests and posttests. On all tests of word knowledge, students performed better on tests of indi vidual word meanings. All students scored PAGE 34 34 low on tests that required them to derive meani ngs from contexts. Jenkins et al. (1989), like McKeown (1985) concluded that a considerable amount of instruc tion is necessary in helping students to derive word m eanings from contexts. In a more recent investigation, Lubliner and Smetana (2005) conducted a 24-week study that examined the effects of a multifaceted, metacognitive interv ention on the reading vocabulary and reading comprehension of fifth grade child ren in a Title I school. Classroom teachers provided 77 fifth grade students with explicit voc abulary instruction. Their performance was compared with fifth grade students who atte nd a high performing school in the same school district. Metacognitive tests and tests of both reading comp rehension and vocabulary were administered to students three times during the study. Twelve weeks of the first half of the school year were designated as the control period. During wh ich, teachers provided vocabulary instruction based on guidelines in the basal text. Students were given weekly word lists and instructed to define words using the dictiona ry and use them in a sentence. During the experimental phase of the study, a second 12-week period after the winter break, students were instructed to use a series of five metacognitive strategies to learn vocabulary words in their Social Studies book: (a) clarify whether you know a word, (b) decide on the degree of knowledge regarding the word, (c) co nsider the context, (d) study the structure of the word, and (e) semantic mapping, word sorts, and main idea words. Chil dren worked on word-learning tasks in pairs or small groups. A researcher-cre ated reading comprehens ion test and vocabulary test were administered. Results from the metacognitive test revealed that students only identified 20% of missed words on the multiple-choice test before the intervention, and 38% of the unknown words after the interventio n. A series of repeated m easures ANOVAs and pairwise comparisons indicate that si gnificant growth in reading comprehension and vocabulary PAGE 35 35 development occurred during the experimental phase of the study. When compared with the results of students from the high achieving school, the Title I students scores improved relative to those of the above average children, and the achievement gap narrowed after the intervention. However, students in the Title I school made less progress relative to the high achievers. Results from each study reviewed in the previo us section indicated significant differences between students who received explicit instruct ion in word meanings when compared with students who did not. Students who received explicit instruction in word meanings made greater gains in word knowledge than those who recei ved no instruction in word meanings. Storybook Reading and Vocabulary Learning Storybook reading experiences can be an excep tional opportunity for children to learn words. The context of a story provides a b ackdrop for building understanding of new words through connections with familiar words and situ ations. Reading aloud to children provides the opportunity to develop understand ing of words and text in an engaging way (Beck et al., 2002). Researchers have documented that ch ildren learn vocabulary through storybook interactions (Senechal & Cornell, 1993; Senech al, Thomas, & Monker, 1994). The majority of experimental studies that have investigated the relationship between storybook reading and vocabulary acquisition have been conducted with young children. Researchers are now more focused on studying specific factor s that strongly influence wh ether or not children learn vocabulary from listening to stories. Elley (1989) conducted two experiments to ex amine the vocabulary acquisition of seven and eight year olds while they listened to storie s. In the first experi ment, 168 seven year olds were read one book three times over a period of seven days. A 20-item multiple-choice test was given as a pretest and posttest. Results from expe riment one indicated that children made a mean gain in vocabulary knowledge between 13% and 21% In the second experiment, 127 eight year PAGE 36 36 olds served as particip ants. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: reading with explanation, reading without explanation, and a control group. A 36-item multiple-choice test was given as a pretest and as a posttest. Delayed posttests were administered three months later. Elley concluded that reading al oud to children is a significant source of vocabulary acquisition. In addition, when teachers provide additional expl anation of words as they are read, students gains more than doubled. Students who scored lo w on initial vocabulary m easures made at least as much progress in vocabulary acqui sition as students who score higher. In a counterbalanced treatment, posttest-onl y design, Robbins and Ehri (1994) found that kindergartners expanded their recognition vocabular ies when they listened to stories at least twice and when they heard unfamiliar words repeated in the stories. Fifty-one kindergartners sat and observed as experimenters r ead two stories. Eleven targ et words were substituted for familiar words or phrases in each story. After th e readings, children were asked what they liked about the story and to describe something that happened in th e story. The vocabulary effects were detected using a multiple-choice test that included target words. Brett et al. (1996) conducted a study to compar e the effects of three conditions on fourth grade students vocabulary acquisition: listening to stories with a brief explanation of the meaning of unfamiliar target words as they were encountered in the stories, listening to stories with no explanation of the words, and havi ng no systematic exposure to the stories or vocabulary. Participants include d 165 fourth grade students who were randomly assigned to the story with word explanation group and the cont rol group. A series of ANOVAs produced results that indicated that the students in the story with word explana tion group made significantly more progress from pretest to posttest than the other two groups of children. They scored higher on posttests and delayed posttests. Results from th e study indicate that four th graders can acquire PAGE 37 37 new vocabulary from listening to stories if there is a brief explanation of new words as students encounter them in stories. In a study which examined the development of vocabulary knowledge in elementary school children as a function of story reading for partially known and unknown words, Schwanenflugel, Stahl, and McFa lls (1997) found that vocabulary gr owth was small. Forty-three low and middle class fourth graders participated in the study. Children were given a vocabulary checklist of 24 words that they were likel y to know, 12 pseudowords, and 12 nonwords, 39 difficult words, and 57 difficult words from a di fferent study. Participants were asked to go through the checklist and write a de finition or sentence for the words they knew. Then they had to go back through the checklist to identify word s that they were familiar with, but couldnt define, finally, they were asked to identify words that they suspected might be a real word, but had not heard or seen before. A week after co mpleting the vocabulary checklist, each child read two stories on sequential days. Children were asked to write a summary after each story was read to ensure that they read the story. Three days after reading, children were asked to complete a multiple-choice test containing the target items from the story. Each word was followed by five randomly arranged options: the correct definition, a partial definition, two incorrect definitions, and a dont know option. Afte r repeated ANOVAs, results indicated that vocabulary growth was small, but that word kno wledge from growth was larger for partially known words and unknown words than for known words. Higgins and Hess (1999) examined the use of electronic books a nd their influence on vocabulary learning. Participants included 22 th ird grade students who were randomly assigned to either the experimental gr oup or a control group. The suppl emental vocabulary instruction involved children being asked, after they found target words on the page of the book and had PAGE 38 38 selected the animation associated with the wo rd, to explain the meaning of the word. The researchers found that children who received supp lemental vocabulary instruction coupled with animations in electronic books performed significan tly better than children who interacted with electronic books without supplem entary instruction. Results from their investigation add additional support to the idea that multiple opport unities for students to en counter and interact with words increase the likelihood that students will retain the words. Brabham and Lynch-Brown (2002) designed a st udy to examine the effects of read-aloud styles on learning outcomes for chil dren in early elementary grades (first grade and third grade). The studies yielded results consis tent with Dickinson and Smith ( 1994), that the straight reading of storybooks produced the smallest gains in vo cabulary and that the in teractional style of reading storybooks produced the largest gains. Participants in this study included 117 first graders and 129 third graders. The students we re randomly assigned to one of three reading styles: just reading, performance, and interactional styles. Multiple choice pretests and posttests were administered to students to assess vocabulary learning. Like Robbins and Ehri (1994), Coyne et al. ( 2004) studied the effects of storybook reading on the vocabulary knowledge of children at risk for experiencing reading difficulties through a storybook intervention. Ninety-six kindergarten children were random ly assigned to one of three intervention groups. One group consisted of 108, half-hour lessons ta ught through 40 childrens books. Another intervention group received an intervention that focused on phonologic and alphabetic skills. The third group, the control group, received a sounds and letters module of Open Court The Peabody Picture Vocabulary-I II Test and a researcher-creat ed measure to assess target words taught were given as pretests and posttests. Results from primary analyses indicate that PAGE 39 39 students in the storybook intervention group made greater growth on the researcher created measure. Students in this study with lower recep tive vocabulary skills made greater gains than students with higher receptive vocabulary in comparison to students in the control group. Justice, Meier, and Walpole (2005) examined the effects of elaborating on target words during storybook reading. Fiftyseven kindergarten children were randomly assigned to a treatment or comparison group. The treatment group consisted of the teacher elaborating on half of the identified target vocabulary words from ten storybooks. Teachers in the comparison group did not elaborate on target words. Results indicated that childre n in the treatment group showed significantly greater ga ins from pre to posttest for elaborated words relative to children in the comparison group. Comprehension Instruction Prior to 1977, very little a ttention was paid to reading comprehension instruction. A series of observational studies conducted by Durkin (1977, 1978) caught the attention of educators. She studied the nature of comprehe nsion instruction in elementary schools and found that most activities labeled comprehension inst ruction were little more than comprehension assessment. Activities such as questioning afte r reading a section of text, dominated reading instructional time. Durkin noted that only 20 minutes of 4,469 minutes were devoted to actual comprehension instruction. Pressl ey (2000) suggested that very li ttle has changed since Durkins study. We know very little about comprehension instruct ion in the primary grades. Most studies of comprehension have been conducted with studen ts in upper elementary or secondary grades. Factors that contribute to readi ng failure in elementary grades are almost always related to comprehension. Effective literacy instruction fo r students in both the primary grades and the upper elementary grades should foster the developm ent of deep-level proce ssing of text that is necessary for proficient reading comprehension. PAGE 40 40 Pearson and Dole (1987) identified component s of effective literacy instruction. The researchers found when explicit instruction was us ed, low achieving students could be taught to use comprehension strategies. The following co mponents were identified by Pearson and Dole were found in successful interv ention studies: (a) teacher mode ling, (b) guided practice, (c) consolidation, (d) independent practice, and (e) application. This model of explicit comprehension instruction was unique because it was designed to be implemented holistically during reading, and did not focus on isolated sub skills. Reading comprehension instruction research o ffers guidance for designing instruction that capitalizes on the constructive nature of meaning. After reviewing research, a common instructional cycle emerged (Block & Pres sley, 2003; Pearson & Gallagher, 1983; Duke & Pearson, 2002). Pearson and Galla gher (1983) coined the term, gradual release to capture the interactive, recursive flow of comprehension instruction. The cycl e begins with explicit strategy explanation by the teacher. The te acher details when and how the strategy should be used. Teacher modeling of the strategy in action is the next step in the proce ss. After modeling, the teacher offers varying degrees of scaffold ed support as students practice the strategy. Collaborative use between the teach er and students is employed. Th e final phase is independent application by the student. Figure 2-2 provides a graphical representation of the cycle. Each phase in this cycle is mediated thr ough dialogue between the teacher and students, and among the students. Additionally, during each phase of this model, efforts are made to attend to metacognition. Explicit Strategy Explanation. Explicit strategy explanation is a verbal description of the mental processes involved with the strategy in action. Includ ed in this explanation is a description of the strategy as well as why, when, and how to use it (Duffy, 2002). PAGE 41 41 Figure 2-2. Gradual release of responsibility model. Adapted from Pearson and Gallagher (1983) Demonstrations of strategy use must be flexible based on feedback cues from students. The more explicit and direct the in struction, the more students assume control of the strategy (Duffy & Roehler, 1987; Keene & Zimmerman, 1997; Pearson, 1984). Scaffolded Support. According to Pearson and Gallaghe r (1983), the process of release is critical because teachers are ac tually restructuring student under standing. Scaffolded support is consistent with Vygotskys (1978) zone of proximal development. It is during this time that teachers meet students in the space where growth can occur. As the learners skill increases, the teachers support decreases. The dialogue used in these interactions serves as an instrument in meaning making. Although adultchild interactions are important, peer interactions are important as well. Foreman and Cazden (1994) examined the effects of peer interactions by analyzing 12 peer tutoring sessions in inner-city, multi-grade primary classrooms. They PAGE 42 42 concluded that students benef ited from the challenge of formulating academic concepts into words, and the demands of peer tutoring provi ded that challenge. Both teacher-student interactions and student-s tudent interactions are essential in student internaliz ation of learning. Comprehension instruction must include the el ements of explicit st rategy explanation and scaffolded support. Many studies confirm the positive impact of st rategy instruction on th e comprehension of text. Researchers have identified an array of st rategies that improve comprehension (Duffy & Roehler, 1987; Palincsar & Brown, 1984). Reciprocal teaching, the framework for one instructional method in this st udy, incorporates four specific st rategies-questioning, clarifying, summarizing, and predicting. Description of Reciprocal Teaching Palincsar and Brown (1984) sele cted four comprehension stra tegies for their reciprocal teaching model because the strategies seem to provide a dual function; that is, they embody both comprehension monitoring and comprehension fost ering activities. De veloped for struggling middle school readers, the recipr ocal teaching model emphasizes so cial interaction as the basis for learning. It incorporates teacher modeling and peer instruction. Palincsar and Browns (1984) initial research investigated the effects of two different groups of seventh grade struggling readers. There were striking pretest to posttest gains. The instructional materials for the reciprocal teaching studies were seventh grade level expository texts, and researcher created comprehension assessments. The students we re given a pretest to establish baseline comprehension scores and daily comprehension assessments for a designated number of days, prior to instruction. Students continued to take daily reading comprehension assessments throughout the course of instruction, and received feedback on their progress. PAGE 43 43 Palincsar and Brown (1984) depict a fast-paced application of the re cursive instructional cycle. In reciprocal teachi ng conditions, all modeling and instruction in how to develop and apply the four cognitive strategi es takes place during the course of dialogues between teacher and students and students and stude nts. During the gradual releas e, the dialogue leader begins the discussion with questions abou t the content. The rest of th e group discusses the queries and asks additional questions, taking time to address any disagreement s. Clarification is used whenever any member of the group does not unde rstand a word, concept, or idea. Next, the leader offers an initial summary of the text and there is furt her discussion, revising the summary as appropriate. Finally, the dial ogue leader generates or solici ts a prediction about the next reading selection and offers justification for that prediction. Time is taken to reflect on strategy use. Initially, the leader models that entire procedure, usi ng dialogue to identify and explain the process and strategies. The l eader also offers suggestions for asking questions, developing predictions, generating summaries, or using clarifying techniqu es as appropriate. Because reciprocal teaching was desi gned for students who are ad equate decoders, but poor comprehenders, it was selected as an instru ctional method to be used in this study. Initially, the teacher serves as the dialogue leader, modeling as described. Eventually, students begin to take turns being the teacher, modeling, and providing feedback to his or her peers. Gradually, the leaders role decreases as the students take on gr eater responsibility for carrying out the process. In the next session, reciprocal teaching studi es in which elementary students served as participants are detailed. Reciprocal Teaching Studies wi th Elementary Participants Johnson-Glenberg (2000) investigated whethe r teaching poor text comprehenders reading strategies in small group format would impr ove their reading comprehension. She also PAGE 44 44 investigated whether students would demonstrat e differential gains based on whether they were placed in a verbally based or pr imarily visually based remediation program. A verbally based reciprocal teaching program and a visually based visualizing/verbalizing program were compared with each other and a control group. The reciprocal teaching group outperformed the visualizing/verbalizing group on open-ended explicit questions and question generation. ANOVAs indicated that there were significant pretest to posttest gains made by the experimental groups on 11 dependent measures. The control gr oup had a significant gain on only one measure. Lederer (2000) examined the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching during social students instruction with fourth, fifth, a nd sixth grade students with le arning disabilities. One hundred twenty-eight participants were instructed in the four reciproc al teaching strategies in small groups in the classroom setting for 15 to 17 days. A mixed desi gn MANOVA was used to determine interaction on three re searcher designed comprehensi on measures. Results indicated that all students improved their comprehension perf ormance when compared with students in the control group. In a replication study, Lysynchuck, Pressle y, and Vye (1990) confirmed the results in Palincsar and Browns 1984 reciprocal teaching st udy. Fourth and seventh grade students who adequately decoded text, but were poor comprehe nders participated in this study. In a pretestposttest design, participants received instruction in small groups over 13 days. The experimental group received training in reciproc al teaching and the control group re ceived an alternate form of reading instruction. Dependent measures include d the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test. Results indicate d that the experimental groups outperformed the control groups on all measures. PAGE 45 45 Reciprocal teaching has been demonstrated to be effective with students in upper elementary grades. However, no study has ever explored using the stra tegies that comprise reciprocal teaching, with children in primary grades. In addition to the limited age of the study participants previously discusse d, researchers often varied in th eir use of outcome measures. Some studies reported student ga ins on researcher created meas ures, while others confirmed gains on standardized assessments. In most studies, outcome measures were not identified as norm-referenced measures or criterion-referenced measures. To simply state that measures were standardized measures only implies standard admi nistration of the test. This does not aid in the interpretation of the results of the study in relati on to the studys purpose. In the current era of accountability, robust results on stan dardized, norm-referenced measures would be beneficial. Further, studies were short in duration. In orde r for children to maintain skills, they need to continue to self-regulate. Studies ranged from 13 to 20 days, wh ich is an insufficient amount of time for strategies to generalize. Researchers in the previously mentione d studies also fail to provide information regarding trea tment fidelity. Fidelity of imp lementation is essential, but researchers did not report any in formation regarding steps taken to ensure treatment fidelity. This too makes it difficult to interpret study results. Most reciprocal teaching studies lasted betw een 13 and 20 sessions, with the first four to six sessions devoted to strate gy introduction, and the remaining sessions to scaffolded support (Johnson-Glenberg, 2000; Lederer 2000; Lys ynchuk et al., 1990). The current study was conducted in 32 sessions. Because younger students served as participants, more time was dedicated to strategy intr oduction, modeling, collaborative use of strategies, and guided practice. General Cognitive Strategy Instruction with Elementary Children Baumann and Bergeron (1993) investigated th e effectiveness of in struction in story mapping as a means to promote first grade studen ts comprehension of central story elements PAGE 46 46 using a quasi-experimental, pretes t-posttest design. Seventy-f our first grade children were randomly assigned to one of four groups, a group in which they were taught to construct story maps from unabridged childrens stories they ha d read; a group in which children received the same instruction as in the previous group, but in cluded using story maps to compose stories; a group in which students read the same story, but us ed a predict-verify pro cedure; and a directed reading activity instructed c ontrol group where children engage d in non-interactive guided reading of stories. Tests to evaluate childrens ability to comprehend central story elements were administered to all participants. In addition, qu alitative data on students ability to understand and apply the story mapping heuristic were collected. Both analyses revealed that explicitly teaching students about story parts enabled them to recognize and recall important events from narrative selections. Young childre n can be taught to use simple story maps as a means to enhance their comprehension of unfamiliar stories. Morrow (1985) reported results on two studies th at investigated whether retelling stories could improve the comprehension of kindergar ten students. In study one, 59 kindergarten students were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Children in the experimental group retold the story to the experiment er as if they were telling it to a friend, immediately after it was read to them, and children in the control group dr ew a picture about the st ory after the story was read. Children in both groups were administered a comprehension test that included five story structure questions and five traditional comp rehension questions. Results from the study indicated that total comprehensi on scores of children in the expe rimental group were better than those of children in the control group. In the second study, 82 children were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group used the same procedures as in the firs t study, however, additional treatments were added PAGE 47 47 and children were given increased support in story re telling. After an analys is of the results from the investigation, Morrow found that there was a significant improvement of children in the experimental group over children in the cont rol group. Although childre n needed frequent practice and support in retelling, they performed better than children who had no experience with story retelling. Active engagement in the re ading comprehension activity led to increased reading comprehension of the children, even though they were kindergarten students. Teacher participants in this study took anec dotal records on the children and reported that children in the experimental group engaged in stor y retelling during free play periods more often than children in the control group. In addition, parents of children in the experimental group commented that their children seemed more eager to retell stories just read to them at home. Children in the experimental group demonstrated mo re confidence in attempting to retell stories than children in the control group, at the end of the study. More recently, Williams et al. (2005) investig ated the effectiveness of text structure instruction on second graders reading comprehension. One hundr ed twenty-eight second grade students and 10 second grade teachers participated in this study. Classrooms were randomly assigned to either a text structure, content only, or no instruction group. Classroom teachers conducted the 15-session interventions. Results of the study indicated that students who received instruction in text structure were able to le arn what they were ta ught and were able to demonstrate what they learned, to content beyond that used for instruction. Findings from this study indicate that explicit instru ction might be feasib le and effective for students in primary grades. Paris (1984) investigated the effects of Informed Learning Strategies for Learning (ISL), a program designed to improve students read ing comprehension through cognitive strategy PAGE 48 48 instruction using a pretest-posttes t design. Participants in the study included 783 third graders, 801 fifth graders, and 75 classroom teachers. Teachers were provided with instructional modules and lesson plans. Paris identified three categories of knowledge amenable to strategy instruction: declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, a nd conditional knowledge should be used when reading. The ISL modules addressed each cate gory of reading related strategic knowledge. The ISL program used explicit strategy inst ruction, teacher modeling, guided practice, feedback, and group discussions, with a gradual release of responsibil ity. Control classes received regular reading instruct ion while classroom teachers, us ing the ISL program, instructed experimental classes. The Gates-MacGinitie co mprehension subtest and a researcher designed Reading Awareness Index served as dependent variables. After c onducting a series of ANCOVAs, results indicated that participants in the experimental classes made significantly greater gains than students in the control group after one year of ISL instruction. Cross and Paris (1988) conducted an Informed Learning Strategies Learning (ISL) study to investigate students use of cognitive strate gies in reading, using a pretest-posttest design. Paris identified three categories of knowledge amenable to stra tegy instruction: declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, a nd conditional knowledge that s hould be used when reading. The ISL program used explicit strategy instructio n, teacher modeling, guided practice, feedback, and group discussions with a gradual release of responsibility. Third and fifth grade classes served as participants in this study. Two th ird grade and two fifth grade classrooms received training in the ISL program, while other third and fifth grade classes served as controls. After thirty minutes of researcher provided direct instruction, twice per week, Cross and Paris concluded that students acquire more metacogn itive awareness as they get older. Using the PAGE 49 49 Gates-MacGinitie comprehension subtest and a researcher create d cloze and error deletion task, researchers concluded that readi ng comprehension could be improved for less skilled readers. Dole, Brown, and Trathen (1996) examined th e effects of strategy instruction on at-risk fifth and sixth grade students reading comprehension. Participants included 67 students who were assigned to one of three groups, strategy instruction, story conten t instruction, and basal control instruction. Researchers and teachers pr ovided instruction for the strategy group for 50 minutes per day for five weeks. The strategy gr oup was taught to predic t and to identify the main idea. Explicit instruction regarding th e utility of the strategy and instructions for implementing strategies during independent read ing was provided. Researcher designed openended comprehension tests were administered as pr etests, posttests, and as delayed posttests. A series of ANCOVAs revealed that there was a significant effect in favor of strategy instruction. In a study that examined whet her transactional strategies instruction would enhance the reading comprehension of low achieving second gr ade students, Brown et al., (1996) found that students who received transacti onal strategies instru ction outperformed students who received conventional second grade readi ng instruction in the year lo ng quasi-experimental study on standardized measures. Five matched pairs with one transactional strategies instruction teacher and one conventional instruction teacher in each pair, with six students per group, were compared. Transactional strategies instructi on teachers provided dir ect explanations and modeling of strategic reasoning to the student s while conventional reading teachers taught reading using methods they were committed to using. Vaughn, Chard, Bryant, Coleman, Tyler, Li nan-Thompson, and Kouzekanani (2000) investigated the effects of part ner reading (PR) and collaborativ e strategic reading strategies (CSR) on the reading comprehension of third grade students. Classroom teachers implemented PAGE 50 50 two interventions. Gr aded passages from Read Naturally were used as the expository text. Teachers modeled either CSR or PR, and then students worked in pairs to practice one of the strategies with the text. The intervention wa s conducted two to three times per week for 12 weeks. A series of 2x2 repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant group or group by time interaction effects. Howeve r, time effect was statistically significant for reading rate and correct words per minute. Summary The studies presented demonstrat e that direct instruction in word meanings and cognitive strategy instruction is beneficial for students in elementary grades. Researchers generally used upper elementary aged students as participants. While this furthers the knowledge base regarding how to provide effec tive comprehension instruction fo r those students, it does not further knowledge regarding the usefulness of cogn itive strategy instruction with children in the primary grades. Single cognitive strategy inst ruction has demonstrated th at if young students are under exceptionally strong instructiona l control, they can carry out strategies that improve comprehension (Morrow, 1985; Williams et al., 2005). Skilled readers have been studied extensively (Pressley & Afferbach, 1995; Pressl ey & El-Dinary, 1993), and researchers have concluded that skilled readers c oordinate a number of strategies while reading. Based on what is known about the need for comprehension instruct ion, methods used by proficient readers, and the importance of addressing comprehension instruct ion in the primary grad es, it is logical to examine the use of comprehensi on instruction as well as the effects of explicit vocabulary instruction with students in the primary grades. PAGE 51 51 CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine th e effects of vocabulary focused instruction and strategies focused instruc tion on vocabulary knowledge and comp rehension skills of primary grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. Specific instructional procedures from Text Talk (Beck & McKeown, 2002) and Reciprocal Teaching (Palincsar & Brown, 1984) served as guides for the instructional pr ocedures used in this study. Text Talk is a method of building comprehe nsion and furthering vocabulary development through reading aloud to child ren (Beck & McKeown, 2001). Through Text Talk lessons, children are explicitly taught sophisticated vocabulary and are helped to construct meaning through decontextualized language. Accordi ng to McKeown and Beck (2006), the use of decontextualized language, langua ge that differs from everyday experiences, is one of the building blocks of communication competence. Text talk is de signed to scaffold childrens comprehension of stories and they are encouraged to share their ideas and synthesize ideas in stories. Storybooks are commonly used as a medium to teach vocabulary to students. Numerous studies have documented their usefulness. In ea ch of the previously mentioned investigations, repeated exposure to words in storybooks wit hout attention given to words and exposure to storybooks with a focus on explicitly taught target words have yielded favorable results. Reciprocal teaching strategies we re designed to be used in an intentional, self-regulatory manner by students during authentic reading activities In Palincsar and Br owns (1984) study of reciprocal teaching, students read the text. In this study, the re searcher read the text. The decision for the researcher to read the text was ba sed on the fact that participants in the current PAGE 52 52 were younger than participants in other reciproc al teaching studies, and since the focus of the current study was to increase the metacognitive processes of young childre n, the task of having to read the text was removed from the particip ants. The focus was on the participants thinking processes and their ability to ve rbalize and justify strategy use. Because some instructional procedures differed from the or iginal strategy designs, the term s vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction are used. In Chapter 3, the methods and procedures of the study are presented. This chapte r includes the research hypotheses, a description of the sampling procedures, and a description of the participants. Subsequent s ections of this chapter include details of the experimental design, instructiona l procedures, and treatment of the data. Hypotheses This study examines the effects of vocabularyfocused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on vocabulary knowledge and comprehe nsion skills of primar y grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient co mprehenders. The following research question guided the study: What are the effects of vocabul ary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development a nd comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficie nt comprehenders? More specifi cally, what are the effects of these two types of instruction on receptive vocabulary and expressive voca bulary, and what are the effects on listening and read ing comprehension? To answer these research questions, the following null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of confidence: H1: There will be no statistically significan t difference on measures of expressive vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. PAGE 53 53 H2: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of receptive vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. H3: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of reading comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. H4: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of listening comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. H5: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of passage comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. H6: There will be no statistically significant di fference on a researcher created measures of taught vocabulary, between the participants w ho receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategi es-focused instruction. Methods The research methods are described in th is section. The first section includes a description of the school setting, sampling techniques, selection crit eria, and participants. The subsequent sections include a description of the pretest measures and the posttest measures, and the scoring procedures of the measures and de scription of the treatment procedures for the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focus ed group. Finally, a desc ription of the design and analysis is provided. PAGE 54 54 Instructional Setting An elementary school in north Florida was sele cted for this study. The school was selected because it is a Title I, Reading First school, with a high percentage of students with reading difficulties and more than 40% of students in th e school are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch based on their families inco me levels. Reading First is a focused, nationwide effort to enable all students to become su ccessful early readers. Funds are dedicated to help states and local school districts eliminate the reading deficit by establis hing high quality, comprehensive reading instruction in kindergarten thr ough third grade. A required framework of Reading First is an uninterrupted 90-minute reading block in which students receive systematic, explicit reading instruction. The Scott Foresman reading se ries is the core readin g text used with all students in the school. Students receive reading instruction from the classroom teacher, in whole group and in small group settings. During the 2005-2005 school y ear, 42% of students struggling in reading failed to make a y ears worth of progress in reading. Participant Description Sixty second grade and third-grade student s participated in this study. Students were selected for the study because they had been iden tified by school personnel as being proficient decoders, but needing additional assistance in read ing comprehension. Participants in this study scored between the 30th and 45th percentile the Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition (Harcourt, 2003). As required by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board, parental informed consent was obtained for the participan ts. The parental informed consent letter is provided in Appendix A. Using the described procedures, consent was obtained from 60 students, and all of the students participated in this st udy from the pretest phase through the posttest phase of the study. A summary of the demographic in formation from the 60 participan ts is presented in Table 3-1. PAGE 55 55 Table 3-1. Descriptive Information for Groups Vocabulary Group Strategies Group Total Gender Male 15 13 28 Female 15 17 32 Ethnicity White 18 17 35 Black 9 8 17 Hispanic 0 2 2 Asian 1 0 1 Other 3 2 5 Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) vocabulary-focused instructional group and (b) strategies-focus ed instructional group. They were listed alphabetically by grade level, and assigned a numbe r. A computerized random number generator was used to randomly assign participants to groups. Because participants were randomly assigned to groups, differences betw een the groups could be more confidently attributed to the independent variable, instruc tional method (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). The pretest mean scores for all measures are provided in Table 3-2. Table 3-2. Pretest Means for Vo cabulary and Strategies Groups Pretest Measure Means for Vocabulary Group Means for Strategies Group Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (Dunn & Dunn, 1997) 90.97 93.27 Expressive Vocabulary Test (Williams, 1997) 86.50 86.87 Target Word Vocabulary Assessment (Coyne) 87.83 88.86 Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Passage Comprehension (Woodcock, 1987) 23.73 23.43 QRI-4 (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006) Reading 9.77 9.00 QRI-4 (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006) Listening 7.77 7.70 PAGE 56 56 Research Instrumentation The instruments used in this study were desi gned to assess specific elements of literacy development Each measure was selected based on previ ous studies in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension. Pretest and posttest measures asse ssed general verbal abilities and comprehension abilities. Descriptions of th e assessment instruments are outlined in the following sections. The following sections also provi de an explanation of the focus and technical qualities of each measure. Vocabulary Measures The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (PPVT-III), (Dunn & Dunn, 1997) was administered to obtain information about partic ipants verbal abilitie s compared with other children of similar age. The PPVT-III is an individually administered, norm-referenced, widerange test of receptive vocabulary for Standard American English, which includes two alternate forms. The PPVT-III measures the listening co mprehension of spoken words of both children and adults. The examiner presents items usi ng a standing easel. After providing a word or phrase, the student selects one of four pictures that best depicts the word or phrase described by the examiner. The reliability coefficients for th e PPVT-III are provided in Table 3-3. Reliability coefficients are provided only fo r the age groups represented in th is study. Each participant was individually administered the PPVT-III by one of a team of assessors. The PPVT-III was scored according to guidelines presented in the test examiners manual. The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT), (Williams, 1997) is an individually administered, norm-referenced assessment of expressive vocabular y and word retrieval for children and adults. The EVT measures expressive knowledge with two types of ite ms, labeling and synonyms. Word retrieval is evaluated by comparing expressive and receptive vocabulary skills using standard score differences between EVT and PPVT-III. The ex aminer points to a picture or a part of the PAGE 57 57 body and asks a question. The examinee responds w ith a one-word answer that is a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. The reliability coefficients for the EVT are provided in Table 3-3. Reliability coefficients are pr ovided only for the age groups re presented in this study. Each participant was individually administered the EV T by a one of a team of assessors. The EVT was scored according to guidelines presented in the test examiners manual. The target vocabulary measure is a method developed by Coyne (2004) to measure depth of vocabulary knowledge. The measure has been us ed successfully with children in kindergarten through second grade in studies of vocabulary gr owth and is currently undergoing the initial steps in a large-scale validation study. It was individually administered to each participant by one of a team of assessors. Participants were asked to identify whether a word was a real word or make believe word (e.g. Is shallow a real word or a make believe word ?), asked to define the word (e.g., What does shallow mean?), and asked to provide additional information about a word (e.g. What would a shallow lake be like?). Th e vocabulary measure consisted of target words taught during the intervention phase. The resear cher-created target vocabulary measure is included in Appendix B. The researcher-created target vocabular y measure was scored using the following procedure. Participants received one point for each correct response. It wa s possible to receive a point for identifying a real word or a make-believe word correctly. It wa s possible to receive a point for providing the correct definition of a word along with additional information about the word. Two people scored each researcher-creat ed target word assessment. Since knowing a word is a matter of degrees, it was challenging to delineate points for a word definition. Researchers have proposed various stages of word learning: (a) never saw it before; (b) heard it but does not know it; (c) recognizes it in contex t as having something to do with; (d) knows it PAGE 58 58 well; and (e) can use this word in a sentence (N agy, 2000). Because word learning is not an all or nothing process, the researcher attempte d to gauge students developing depth of understanding of the target words, desiring to gi ve credit for some knowledge of target words even if full definitions were not developed. Students could receive up to 160 points on the measure. Comprehension Measures The passage comprehension subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mast ery Test-Revised (Woodcock, 1998), an individually ad ministered assessment, was given to each participant. Participants were instructed to read a passage s ilently, and then provide a word to complete the passage. The reliability coefficients for th e Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised are provided (Table 3-3). Reliability coefficients ar e provided only for the age groups represented in this study. Each participant was individually admi nistered the passage comprehension subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised by one of a team of assessors. The passage comprehension subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised was scored according to guidelines presented in the test examiners manual. The Qualitative Reading Inventory-4 (QRI) (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006), an individually administered, informal reading inventory was used to measure participants listening and reading comprehension. To assess listening comprehensi on, participants listened to a story one grade level above their current grade leve l, on audiocassette and were then prompted to retell all they could remember about the story, as if the examin ee had never heard the story before. To assess reading comprehension, participants read a grade level passage and were prompted to retell all they could remember about the story, as if the examinee had never heard the story before. The use free retell gave participants the opportunity to use their own structure to generate recall and helped to the researcher to see differences in comprehension that are reflected in childrens PAGE 59 59 ability to construct a plot structure with which to guide retelling. Becau se the QRI is not a normreferenced or standardized instrument, it does no t provide comparative data. However, in studies comparing comprehension measures, the QRI has been found to be (a) a strong measure of both reading comprehension and listening comprehensi on and (b) correlated with other standardized measures of reading comprehension (Keenan, 2006). Each participant was individually administered the QRI-4 by one of a team of assessors. The QRI-4 included a list of correct details for the passages, and each correct detail th at the participant recal led from the story was recorded. The number of correct details const ituted the participants listening or reading comprehension score. Table 3-3. Split Half Reliability Coefficients Measure Age/Grade N Reliability Coefficient PPVT-III (Dunn & Dunn, 1997) 7 8 9 100 100 100 .94 .92 .94 EVT (Williams, 1997) 7 8 9 100 100 100 .86 .88 .91 Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (Woodcock, 1998) Passage Comprehension Subtest Grade 1 Grade 3 602 582 .97 .96 Experimental Design An experimental pretest-posttest design wa s employed for this study with two treatment groups: (a) vocabulary-focused group and (b) st rategies-focused group. Participants were randomly assigned to instructional condition, asse ssments were conducted individually, and the intervention was delivered in group lessons. Pret est measures of vocabulary and comprehension were administered. Each group then received a multi-step intervention. Posttest measures of PAGE 60 60 vocabulary and comprehension were administered following the conclusion of the lessons. A summary of the experimental de sign is provided in Table 3-4. Table 3-4. Experimental Design Group Procedures Vocabulary Group R O1 X1 O2 Strategies Group R O1 X2 O2 R= Random Assignment, O1=Pretest, X1 = Treatment Intervention 1, X2 = Treatment Intervention 2, O2 = Posttest Instructional Procedures The instructional procedures for the study are described in this section. Instructor preparation is described for both treatment groups Methods for ensuring treatment fidelity are also described. Instructor Preparation A graduate student in the College of Educati on at the University of Florida and a retired educator provided instruction du ring this study. The instructors were both elementary certified teachers. Each instructor was required to atte nd training in both instructional methods employed in this study. During the training, university professors provided background information about each instructional strategy, modeled strategy use for instructors, and gave them an opportunity to practice teaching the strategies. Each instruct or was provided instruct ional tips. Before instructors began the intervention phase, mast ery of the instructi onal procedures was demonstrated. In addition, each instructor agr eed in writing to adhere to the procedural guidelines described in the traini ng session. To eliminate any potential for teacher effect, each instructor provided instruction in both methods ; the instructors alternated teaching both intervention groups throughout th e study (Tuckman, 1998). Each da y, the instructors rehearsed the following days lesson. PAGE 61 61 Materials The lessons for the treatment groups were taught using childrens storybooks selected based on the strength of the narr ative structure and available voca bulary used. Elementary grade teachers recommended some of the books used for this study and others were recommended by Beck et al. (2002). Thirty-two titles were carefully se lected for use in each grade level. A complete reference list of storybooks is provided in Appendix C. Before titles were selected for the study, each second and third grade teacher fro m the participants school was surveyed to determine if the storybooks had been used for read aloud purposes or instructional purposes. If teachers had already used books for instructiona l purposes, they were omitted from the study. Vocabulary-Focused Intervention The vocabulary-focused group received explicit instruction in groups of fifteen students. Each lesson began with the reading and discussion of a storybook and followed with a discussion and engagement of activities with the target words. The step s involved in the instructional method are detailed below. Step 1 Read and discuss the story. In Step 1 of the vocabulary focused lesson, the instructor read the story aloud to th e group and engaged participants in a discussion of the text. Step 2 Introduce the target word s one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Three target words were introduced to participants. Each target word was printed on index cards and shown to part icipants as the in structor pronounced each word and reminded participants of how each word was used in the story. Step 3 Ask the participants to repeat the word to create a phonologi cal representation of the word. The target words were visually presented to participants, the instructor said the target words, and invited the pa rticipants to repeat the words. Step 4 Introduce the student-friendly de finition. A student-friendly definition, a definition that facilitates understanding of what the ta rget word actually means, which excludes ambiguous words that participants may not be familiar with, were introduced one at a time. Student-friendl y definitions were obtained from the Collins Co-Build dictionary (Collins, 2006). PAGE 62 62 Step 5 Share the words in contexts that ar e different from the story. The instructor engaged participants in activities that used the target words in contexts that were different from the story. Activities were selected from those suggest ed by Beck et al., 2002, such as (a) sentence completion tasks, in which the par ticipant used a target word to complete an instructor-created sentence; (b) co nnection tasks, in which participants explained a personal encounter with the targ et words meaning; or (c) usage tasks, in which participants indicated whether a target word was used correctly or incorrectly by the instructor. After each activity, the instructor provided participants with specific feedback rega rding the use or definition of the target word. Step 6 Repeat the word. After engaging partic ipants in activities, they were shown the target words and asked to repeat them, one at a time. Descriptions of each of the vocabulary-focu sed lessons are included in Appendix D. Strategies-Focused Intervention The strategies group received instruction that cons isted of engaging participants in the use of comprehension strategies used in reciprocal teaching: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. Particip ants were instructed in groups of fifteen students. A chart containing an explanation of each strategy was reviewed before each lesson began. A copy of the chart is included in Appendix E. Participants were instructed to use various hand signals when they were ready to use a strategy. St rategies-focused lessons followed the following sequence as stories were read: Step 1 Explicit description of the strate gy and when and how it is used. The instructor described each strategy and discussed when it was appropriate to use it and how the strategy is used. Step 2 Teacher/student modeling of the stra tegy in action. Either the instructor or a participant modeled the us e of the strategy with text that had been read. Step 3 Collaborative use of the strategy in action. The inst ructor and the participants used the strategy together. The instruct or led the use of the strategy, while the participants provided assistance. Step 4 Guided practice using the strate gy with gradual release of responsibility. The instructor provided assistance to particip ants as the practiced using the strategy. PAGE 63 63 Step 5 Independent use of the strategy. The participants used the strategies independently. They named the strategy th ey wanted to use and demonstrated its use for the group. Lesson guides for each strategy lesson are included in Appendix F. A strategy introduction schedule is included in Appendix G Fidelity of Treatment Eight observations of each inst ructor were conducted during the course of the study to ensure treatment fidelity. The school's reading coach and curriculum resource teacher, who were trained in each instructional method, conducted tr eatment fidelity checks. A checklist was used to indicate that instructors fo llowed all steps in the interven tion. There was difficulty to capturing the appropriateness of th e dialogue during the intervention, with the treatment fidelity checklist. Dialogue in each lesson was dependent upon the par ticipants developing understandings, so how instructors engaged child ren varied. The checklists for each group are provided in Appendix H. Treatment fidelity chec ks were conducted together, and inter-observer agreement was obtained. Kazdin (1982) describe s inter-observer agreement as the consistency between observers: it refers to the extent to which observers agree in their scoring of behavior (pp 48). A point-by-point agreement ra tio was calculated to measure reliability. Agreements are instances in which both observe rs observe the same thing. Disagreements are instances in which one observer recorded the be havior as occurring and the other did not. The following formula was used to compute point-by-point agreement for each session observed: Point-by-Point Agreement = A/A+D x 100. Poin t-by-Point Agreement was 100% for the eight sessions observed. If treatment fidelity checks ha d revealed that instructors were not following the lesson protocols, the trainers were prepared to model inst ructional strategies again and provide additional training until instructors follow ed lesson protocols. Treatment fidelity was PAGE 64 64 also strengthened by the provision of lessons that each of the instructors followed and discussions between instructors before and after each lesson was conducted. Treatment of the Data The data were analyzed using four statistic al methods. First, an independent samples t test was conducted on the mean pretest scores of the two groups to identify any pre-existing differences. Next, an analysis of covariance ( ANCOVA) was carried out to measure whether the participants in the vocabulary-focused group showed a st ronger improvement in posttest performance relative to their ow n pretest performance than did the strategies-focused group. (Cook & Campbell, 1979). The pretest scores served as the covariate. A univariate analysis was appropriate due to the interest in group mean differences and the limited sample size. To analyze within-group differences, a repe ated measures analysis of va riance (ANOVA) was conducted. Finally, a correlation analysis (Tuckman, 1998) was conducted to test the linear relationship between the scores on the comprehension measures used and the vocabulary measures used. A summary of the design for testing the null hypotheses using a series of Analyses of Covariance is provided (Table 3-5). PAGE 65 65 Table 3-5. Design for Testing the Null Hypothese s using a Series of Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) Vocabulary-Focused Group Strategies-Focused Group Dependent Measures Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest 1 EVT H1: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of expressive vocabulary. 2 PPVT-III H2: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on m easures of receptive vocabulary 3 QRI-4 H3: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of reading comprehension. 4 QRI-4 H4: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of listening comprehension. 5 Woodcock Passage Comprehension H5: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on a measure of passage comprehension. 6 Researcher-Created Measure H6: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on a resear cher created measures of vocabulary. PAGE 66 66 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Introduction My study was to examined the effects of vo cabulary-focused instru ction and strategiesfocused instruction on vocabulary development a nd comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient compre henders. Six hypotheses were formulated and tested. The general question of the study was as follows: How does vocabulary-focused instruction and strate gies-focused instruction influe nce the vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of primary grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? To investigate this questi on, the performance of a vocabulary-focused instructional group was examined in relation to the performance of a strategies-focused intervention group. The effects of both types of instruction on the vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of second grade students and third grade students were measured and compared. This chapter contains the results of the statis tical analyses of data from this study. First, the reliability of instructional procedures is pr ovided. Then, the statistic al model is described and the results of the data analyses are reported. Fidelity of Instructional Procedures During the study, procedures were implemented to establish th e fidelity of instructional methods. To ensure the integrity of the di fferences between treatments, fidelity of implementation checks were conducted. Fidelity of Implementation and Reliability of Measurement To ensure fidelity of implementation dur ing the instructional phase, two observers observed the implementation of eight instructiona l sessions in the vocabulary-focused condition PAGE 67 67 and eight instructional sessions in the strategies-focused condition. The observers used checklists (see Appendix G) to record whether all of the steps in each instructional strategy were followed. A point-by-point agreement ratio was calculated to measure reliability. Point-byPoint Agreement was 100% for th e sixteen sessions observed. To establish interscorer reliability, each rese archer created vocabular y pretest and posttest was scored by two scorers using the same scor ing procedures. Interscorer agreement was calculated by using the formula recommended by Kazden (1982): Agreements/ Agreements + Disagreements X 100 = Percent of Agreement. In terscorer reliab ility on the researcher created vocabulary measure was 97%. Statistical Analyses of the Data The data were analyzed to determine if any statistically significant differences existed between the vocabulary-focused group and the stra tegies-focused group on any of the measures. This section includes a description of th e analyses and the results achieved. The means of pretest scores for the vocabul ary-focused group and the strategies-focused group were calculated. Using t -tests, the pretest sc ores of the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group were compared to de termine if any group differences existed. No significant differences between the two groups pretest means we re found. Table 4-1 includes the pretest means and standard devia tions for the two groups and the t -test results from the comparison. Because the vocabulary-focused group and th e strategies-focused group demonstrated no significant differences on the pretest, the use of the pretest measures as covariates was appropriate (Tuckman, 1994). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for each of the dependent measures: expressive vocabul ary, receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension, PAGE 68 68 Table 4-1. Comparison of Pretest Means by Group Dependent Measure VocabularyFocused Group (n=30) StrategiesFocused Group (n=30) t df p Mean (Std. Dev.) Mean (Std. Dev.) PPVT-III 90.97 (9.8) 93.27 (11.5) -.831 58 .409 EVT 86.5 (12.2) 86.9 (11.2) -.121 58 .904 Woodcock Passage Comprehension 23.7 (5.4) 23.4 (4.3) .238 58 .813 QRI Reading Comprehension 9.7 (4.0) 9.0 (4.4) .705 58 .484 QRI Listening Comprehension 7.7 (4.3) 7.8 (4.0) .062 58 .950 Researcher Created Vocabulary Measure 90.27 90.02 -.418 58 .621 listening comprehension, and passage comprehens ion. The independent variable for each of these ANCOVAs was the instructional method (voca bulary-focused vs. strategies-focused). The covariate was the corresponding pretest. The assumption of homogeneity of the slope was tested before the ANCOVAs were conducted. No violations of this assump tion were found. Theref ore, ANCOVA was an appropriate analysis for the dependent m easures. The results of the ANCOVA for each dependent variable are provided in Tables 4-2 through 4-7. This series of ANCOVAs yiel ded no statistically significan t differences for receptive vocabulary, F (1, 56) = 0.89, p =.348; expressi ve vocabulary F (1, 56) = 2.97, p = .09 ; the PAGE 69 69 researcher created target vocabulary measure F (1, 57) = .347, p =.558, reading comprehension on the QRI-4 measure, F (1, 56) = 1.79, p = .186 and the listening comprehension measure F (1, 60) = .537, p =.467. However, a series of ANCOVAs di d yield statistically significant results on the Woodcock passage comprehension subtest measure F (1, 56) = 7.16, p = .010). The statistically significant differen ce favored the vocabulary-focused instructional group over the strategies-focused in structional group. Table 4-2. Summary of Anal ysis of Covariance for Expressive Vocabulary Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 141.9 2.97 .090 Error 56 2675.6 Table 4-3. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for Receptive Vocabulary Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 60.38 0.89 .348 Error 56 3780.3 Table 4-4. Summary of Anal ysis of Covariance for the Reading Comprehension Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 55.9 1.79 .186 Error 56 1746.9 Table 4-5. Summary of Analys is of Covariance for the Listening Comprehension Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 11.9 .537 .467 Error 56 1239.6 PAGE 70 70 Table 4-6. Summary of Anal ysis of Covariance for the Passage Comprehension Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 89.9 7.16 .010* Error 56 702.6 Table 4-7. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Resear cher-Created Vocabulary Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 .797 .347 .558 Error 57 129.42 A series of repeated measures ANOVAs conduc ted to analyze sta tistically significant differences from pretest to posttest within th e vocabulary-focused group yielded no statistically significant differences for measures of receptive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = .840, p =.367. However, a series of ANOVAS di d yield statistically significant differences on measures of expressive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 14.26, p = .001; reading comprehension, F (1, 29) = 5.462, p = .027; listening comprehension, F (1, 29) = 12.074, p = .002; passage comprehension, F (1, 29) = 15.464, p = .000; and the researcher creat ed target vocabulary measure F (1, 29) = .65.2, p =.000. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs conduc ted to analyze statis tically significant differences from pretest to posttest within the strategies-focused group yielded no statistically significant differences for measures of receptive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 2.35, p =.136. However, a series of ANOVAS di d yield statistically significant differences on measures of expressive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 24.5, p = .000; reading comprehens ion, F (1, 29) = 17.9, p = .000; listening comprehension, F (1, 29) = 18.1, p = .000; passage comprehension, F (1, 29) = 31.9, p = .000; and the researcher crea ted target vocabulary measure F (1, 29) = 29.9, p =.000. PAGE 71 71 Table 4-8. Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group Differences for Vocabulary-Focused Group Group Pretest Mean Posttest Mean df F p Expressive Vocabulary 86.5 94.1 1 14.2 .001 Error 29 Receptive Vocabulary 90.9 89.3 1 .840 .367 Error 29 Reading Comprehension 9.77 12.3 1 5.46 .027 Error 29 Listening Comprehension 7.77 10.8 1 12.07 .000 Error 29 Passage Comprehension 23.7 28.1 1 15.5 .001 Error 29 Researcher Created Target Vocabulary 87.8 89.8 1 65.2 .000 Error 29 Table 4-9. Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group Differences for Strategies-Focused Group Group Pretest Mean Posttest Mean df F p Expressive Vocabulary 86.9 93.5 1 24.5 .000 Error 29 Receptive Vocabulary 93.2 91.2 1 2.35 .136 Error 29 Reading Comprehension 9.00 15.2 1 17.9 .000 Error 29 Listening Comprehension 7.70 12.4 1 18.1 .000 Error 29 Passage Comprehension 23.4 27.4 1 31.9 .000 Error 29 Researcher Created Target Vocabulary 88.9 90.5 1 29.9 .000 Error 29 Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained for the pretest re sults and posttest results of each dependent measure: receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension, to examine the linear relationships be tween the measures. Correlation coefficients yielded se veral significant relationships. The correlation matrix for the PAGE 72 72 pretest measures is reported in Table 4-10. The correlation matrix for the posttest measures is reported in Table 4-11. The receptive vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the researcher created target vocabulary pretest scores (.398), the receptive vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the expressive vocabulary pretest scores (.422); and the receptive vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the listening comprehension pretest scores (.331). The researcher created target vocabulary pret est scores were positively correlated with the expressive vocabulary pretest scor es (.548) and the researcher cr eated target vocabulary pretest scores were also positively corr elated with the listening comprehe nsion pretest scores (.397). The listening comprehension pretest scores were positively correlated with the reading comprehension pretest scores (.378); the listenin g comprehension pretest scores were positively correlated with the expressive vocabulary pretest scores (.423 ), and finally, the listening comprehension pretest scores were positively correlated with the passage comprehension pretest scores (.390). Significant correlations were also noted for the posttest scores. The expressive vocabulary posttest scores were positively correlated with the receptive vocabulary posttest scores (.375); the expressive vocabulary posttest scores were positively related to the listening comprehension posttest scores (.282), and the expressive vocab ulary posttest scores were positively correlated with the researcher created targ et word posttest scores (.757). The researcher created target vocabulary posttest scores were positively corr elated with the receptive vocabulary posttest scores (.350); the resear cher created target vocabulary posttest scores were positively correlated PAGE 73 73 with the listening comprehension posttest scor es (.359). The listening comprehension posttest scores were negatively correlated with the pa ssage comprehension posttest scores (-.262). Summary The purpose of this study was to examine th e effects of vocabular y-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. To accomplish this, participants were assessed on measures of vo cabulary and comprehension and provided lessons of intervention using either vocabulary-focused instruction or strategies-focused instruction. A series of ANOVAs was used to test the null hypotheses of no difference between groups on the dependent measures. No statis tically significant di fferences between the vocabulary-focused instructional group and the strategies-focused instructional group were detected on measures of receptive vocabulary, expr essive vocabulary, resear cher-created target vocabulary, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension, resulting in a failure to reject the null hypotheses. Statistically significant di fferences existed between the vocabulary-focused instructional group and the strategies-focused instructional group on the Woodcock passage comprehension measure. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to determine whether there were statis tically significant within-group differen ces. No statistically significant differences were found on measures of receptiv e vocabulary for both th e vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group. Statistica lly significant differences did exist between pretest scores and posttest scores for both th e vocabulary-focused group and the strategiesfocused group on measures of expressive vo cabulary, reading comprehension, listening comprehension, passage comprehension, and on the researcher-created target vocabulary measure. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficien ts were obtained for the pretest and posttest PAGE 74 74 results of each dependent measure, to examin e the linear relationship between each measure. Several statistically significant relationships were noted. Table 4-10. Correlation Matr ix for Pretest Measures Rec Voc Pre Expr Voc Pre List Comp Pre Rdg Comp Pre Pass Comp Pre RC Voc Pre Recep Vocab Pre 1.000 0.00 .422** .001 .331* .010 .048 .715 .042 .749 .398** .002 Expr Vocab Pre 1.00 0.00 .423* .001 .182 .165 .057 .665 .548** .000 List. Comp Pre 1.00 0.00 .315* .014 .390** .002 .397** .002 Rdg Comp Pre 1.00 0.00 .240 .065 .055 .678 Pass Comp Pre 1.00 0.00 .049 .709 RC Vocab Pre 1.00 0.00 ** Correlations significant at the .01 level Correlations significant at the .05 level PAGE 75 75 Table 4-11. Correlation Matrix for the Posttest Measures Rec Voc Post Expr Voc Post List Comp Post Rdg Comp Post Pass Comp Post RC Voc Post Recep Vocab Post 1.00 0.00 .375** .003 -.138 .295 -.101 .444 -.033 .800 .350** .006 Expr Vocab Post 1.00 0.00 .282** .029 .231 .076 -.126 -.338 .757** 0.00 List Comp Post 1.00 0.00 -.009 .943 -.262** .043 .359** .005 Rdg Comp Post 1.00 0.00 .098 .454 .127 .333 Pass Comp Post 1.00 0.00 -.181 -.167 RC Vocab Post 1.00 0.00 ** Correlations significant at the .01 level Correlations significant at the .05 level PAGE 76 76 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION A discussion of the findings and implicati ons in the investigati on of the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-f ocused instruction on vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of students who are adequa te decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders is presented in this chapter. The chapter begins with a summary of the hypotheses and the findings of the study. The subsequent secti ons contain a discussion of the theoretical implications of the research findings, the limita tions of the study, and suggestions for future research. Summary of the Hypotheses and Results The general question of the study was as fo llows: What are the effects of vocabularyfocused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? The following null hypotheses were test at the .05 leve l of significance. H1: There will be no statistically significan t difference on measures of expressive vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT) (Williams, 1997) was used to assess expressive vocabulary. Analyses revealed that no statis tically significant group di fferences existed on the measure, resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis. H2: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of receptive vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. PAGE 77 77 No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on the P eabody Picture Vocabular y Test-III (Dunn & Dunn, 1997), resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis. H3: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of reading comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on measures of reading comprehension, using the QRI-4, resulting in a failure to re ject the null hypothesis. H4: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of listening comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on measures of listening comprehens ion, using the QRI-4, resulting in a failure to re ject the null hypothesis. H5: There will be no statistically significant difference on a measure of passage comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. Statistically significant differences betw een the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group exis ted on the Woodcock Reading Ma stery passage comprehension measure. Further analyses indicated that the vocabulary-focused instructional group made greater gains than di d the strategies-focused instruct ional group. The null hypothesis was rejected. PAGE 78 78 H6: There will be no statistically significant di fference on a researcher-created measure of vocabulary, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on the researche r-created target vocabulary measure, resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis. Interpretation of the Results The initial analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the vocabularyfocused instructional group and the strategies-focused instru ctional group on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary. One possible r eason for the lack of statistically significant difference may be that the treatments were equally effective in supporting receptive and expressive vocabulary development. Both me thods gave attention to word meanings, the vocabulary-focused method explicitly focused on word learning, and a component of the strategies-focused method emphasi zed clarifying words that were unclear. Participants in the strategies-focused group often s ought clarification on ma ny of the words that were selected to teach participants in the vocabulary-focused group. It is possible that students in both groups were equally adept at word learning, which in turn would make it difficult to detect any significant differences between participants in each of the treatment groups. During the intervention, all partic ipants were actively engaged in producing words and conversing about words and text, which may have contributed to the lack of differences between groups. Another possible explanation for the lack of treatment difference is the use of standardized, normreferenced measures and an insufficient amount of time between the administration of the pretest and posttest. The length of the in tervention (32 sessions) may have been too short to develop the PAGE 79 79 vocabulary necessary to reveal st atistically significant differences A third possible explanation for the lack of differences between groups is a lack of sensitivity of the standardized, normreferenced measures. Because norm-referenced m easures are not created to assess a specifically taught battery of knowledge, the measures may not have been sensitive enough to capture the changes in vocabulary. Data analysis revealed no statistically signi ficant difference on a researcher-created target vocabulary measure. A possible reason for these results is that although the vocabulary-focused instruction was consistent with pr inciples suggested by research to guide instruction, it is very difficult to bring students to a ceiling of word knowledge (Nagy, 2000). Th at is, students were active in developing their understa nding of the words and they r eceived repeated exposure to target words (Blachowicz, 2000) and students interactions with a mo re experienced adult expanded their thinking (Vygotsky, 1978) on the mean ings of various target words introduced during instruction, but these practices were insuffi cient, given the constraints of the study. These results are consistent with previous studies (Beck et al., 1982; McKeow n et al., 1983; McKeown et al., 1985). Participants may not have had enough exposures to the words to gain full and flexible knowledge (Stahl, 1999). In addition, th e target vocabulary measure contained a large number of items. The length of the measure may ha ve influenced students motivation to answer correctly. Finally, the previous possible explanati on is offered again. Both groups of participants engaged in word learning and m eaning clarification. It is poss ible that participants in both groups were equally skilled at word learning, which in turn would make it difficult to see significant differences on measures of target word leaning as well. Data analysis revealed a statistically si gnificant difference in fa vor of the vocabularyfocused instructional group on a measure of passage comprehension. This finding was PAGE 80 80 somewhat surprising because conve ntional wisdom would suggest that the strategies-focused instruction would promote comprehension more e ffectively than a vocabulary-focused approach. A possible explanation for this finding is th e interactive-compensatory model of reading (Stanovich, 1980). In this model, various knowledge sources work simultaneously to make sense of text. They all influence the message center at the same time. In addition, the knowledge one lacks is compensated for by what one knows well. It is possible that participants in the vocabulary-focused group relied heavily on th e lexical knowledge source to comprehend the passages in the assessment measure. Perhaps th eir encounters with word-focused instruction primed them to use their lexical knowledge quick er than those participants in the strategiesfocused group. This increased lexical knowledge may have compensated for what participants lacked in other knowledge sources. Another possibility is that pa rticipants in the strategiesfocused group had various knowledge sources wo rking simultaneously, and none outweighed the other to compensate for what they did not know. Their instruction was focused on using multiple strategies, and this metacognitive task focu s may have interfered with their ability to use a knowledge source for compensation. The age of th e participants may have also been a factor. It may have been more difficult for young students to use multiple strategies at once. Participation in this study is one of the first introductions to multiple strategy instruction that participants received, an d the novelty of the task may have interfered with their ability to perform the passage comprehension tasks proficie ntly enough for a significant difference to be detected. Data analyses revealed significant correlationa l relationships between scores on measures of reading comprehension and measures of voca bulary. These results suggest that the measures did in fact measure what they were designed to capture. For example, a very strong, positive PAGE 81 81 relationship (.757) between the researcher created target word vocabulary measure and expressive vocabulary could be due to the fact that on the ta rget word vocabulary measure, students were able to express what they knew about words, which is a task similar to the expressive vocabulary measure that was administ ered. There were also positive correlations between measures of comprehensio n and vocabulary. These results are consistent with what is already known. There is a strong, positive co rrelation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Resear chers have documented this re lationship since the early 1940s, and the relationship continues remain robust. Theoretical Implications of the Research Findings Vygotskys (1978) theory on the interaction between learning and development, Pearson and Gallaghers (1983) gradual release of responsibility m odel, and Stanovichs (1980) interactive-compensatory model of reading were applied in this study. The instruction included an attempt to increase word knowledge and r eading comprehension through vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies -focused instruction. Op erating within an explic it instruction model and scaffolded interactions between teacher and st udents and amongst students, the influence of direct instruction in word mean ings was compared with direct instruction of comprehension strategies using narrative text. This study connected and confirmed Vygot skys (1978) and Pearson and Gallaghers (1983) assertions that children, thro ugh interactions with adults, are able to do more than they are capable of doing alone. In this study, instructors provided explicit instruction, assisted students in the use of strategies through shar ed dialogue, and helped students to become independent users of new knowledge. Children were assisted in constructing new understandings about words and how to use their own thinking to fu rther their understanding of text. PAGE 82 82 Implications for Future Research Explicit vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension strategies instruction would surely continue beyond the time constraints of th is study. Additional research is warranted in which the longitudinal effects of vocabularyfocused instruction and strategies focused instruction are examined with students in prim ary grades. In addition, research examining the effects of extension activities and the use of vocabulary-focuse d instruction and strategiesfocused instruction would be beneficial to te achers of young children. Additional investigation of reciprocal teaching strategies with children in primary grades is warranted. It would be useful to document strategy generalization in young childr en. Evidence of when children are able to use strategies proficiently is n eeded. Researchers should attempt to be more precise about which combination of strategies are manageable for ch ildren in primary grades, as well as to explore specific teacher behaviors that support strategy mastery. Re searchers should consider investigating methods of professional development designed to help teachers le arn to use each instructional method separately, then combine the two instructional methods to see if students benefit. Professional developmen t activities that include opportunities for teachers to observe others providing strategies and voc abulary instruction to children, in classrooms would be useful. In addition, researchers should examine the appropr iate scaffolding needed by teachers in order for them to appropriately use these instructional methods with students. Implications for Practice Implications for reading instruction are not dichotomous. Results from this study did not yield either/or results in terms of which in structional method to use with children in the primary grades. It was learned that vocabulary-focused instructi on was useful both in enhancing comprehension and in developing word knowledge. When participants were engaged with more experienced adults, what they were able to do was expanded beyond what they could do alone. PAGE 83 83 It was also learned that strate gies-focused comprehension influenced vocabulary so much that statistically significant differe nces between a strategies-focused instructional group and a vocabulary-focused instructional group were unde tectable. This suggests that a strategiesfocused approach is also useful. Both inst ructional methods increased word learning and comprehension in study participants. A framework of reading instruction that includes a gradual release of responsibility and meaningful dialogu e between teachers and st udents and students and students is an important issue for teachers of stud ents who lack comprehension skills to consider incorporating in reading instru ction. In addition, multiple expo sures to words, meaningful activities that engage students in thinking about word meanings and opportunities for students to make deep and extensive connections between vocabulary words and their definitions is important to consider in instructi on. Participants in th is study demonstrated a genuine interest in the texts used. Teachers should consider engaging in learning with peers, more about explicit comprehension strategies instruct ion and explicit vocabulary instru ction with children in primary graders. Teachers might benefit from enga ging in peer coaching activities to improve instruction. Oftentimes, teachers are concerned with issues of control in the classroom, and may be unable to attempt instruction alone. The support of a peer c ould provide the help needed in order to deepen the reading comprehension and vocabulary of young children. Limitations to the Present Study This study had several limitations. The most powerful limitation was time. Thirty-two sessions of vocabulary-focused inst ruction and strategies-focused instruction generated gains for participants in both instructional groups on all dependent measures, but not as significant as they might have been if instruction was longer in dura tion. Instruction yielded statistically significant gains on measures of passage comprehension. Additional, consistent, systematic instruction may have served to strengthen and increase the diffe rences in posttest scores for participants. PAGE 84 84 Another limitation is that this study was conducted with second and third graders who were adequate decoders but non-proficient compre henders. The results of this study may not be generalized to older or younger students or students who do not have difficulties comprehending text, without systematic replication of th e procedures used with those populations. Participants in the study had al ready received three months of formal reading instruction before the beginning of the vocabulary-focused and strategies-focused instru ction. Results of the study may have been different for students with more or less prior experience in reading instruction. Another limitation of this study was that reciprocal teaching, was modified. The results of this study may have been different if informationa l text had been used an d if the students read the text for themselves. The results may have also been different if students were older. All of the instructional sessions in this study took place outside of the regular classroom. Instructors other than the students' regular clas sroom teacher conducted the sessions. The results may have been different for instruction that oc curred within the regular classroom or that was delivered by the studen ts regular teacher. Summary This study was conducted to examine the e ffect vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instructi on on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficie nt comprehenders of text. Results revealed very few statistically significant difference s between participants who received vocabularyfocused instruction and partic ipants who received strategies-fo cused instruction. However, instruction did yield one statis tically significant difference betw een the instructional groups on a passage comprehension measure. This contribu tes to the research on the notion that word learning influences reading comprehension. Re sults from this study do not support the idea of PAGE 85 85 the futility of explicit instruction of words, nor does it support the premise that children in primary grades are not mature enough to use cogn itive strategies. On the contrary, it supports the purposeful, supportive nature of explicit instruction-in both word learning and comprehension strategies instruct ion. Some things remain unclear. What remains unclear is knowledge about the ideal combination of strategi es most useful for teaching children in the primary grades. What also remains unclear is th e conditions necessary for children to generalize strategy use. Additiona l knowledge is needed on the longitudi nal effects of vocabulary-focused and strategies-focused instruction. Finally, ad ditional knowledge is needed on the specific teacher behaviors that provide adequate sca ffolding in word learning and comprehension strategies instruction. PAGE 86 86 APPENDIX A PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT Dear Parent/Guardian, I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Special Education at the University of Florida under the supervision of Dr. Holly Lane. One of my areas of interest is the comprehension and vocabulary development of young childre n. I will be implementing an intervention project that evaluates the use of two specific teaching methods in reading inst ruction. Participation in this study may directly help your childs vocabulary developm ent and reading comprehension. In this project, we will conduct informal assess ments that measure reading comprehension and vocabulary and formal assessments (Peabody Pictur e Vocabulary Test-III, Expressive Vocabulary Test, and Woodcock Reading Mastery Test) that indicate your childs current reading abilities. Students in the comprehension group will participate in small group instruction that includes specific strategies for understanding what is read. Students in the vocabular y group will participate in group instruction that includes specific word learning. The sessions will be scheduled at a time designated by school personnel and will last for approximately 30 minutes during the school day. Although results of this project will be shared with colleagues in the field of education (e.g ., participants at educati onal conferences, university faculty), for the purpose of confidentiality, your childs identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. The maximum number of pa rticipants in this study is 75 children. Participation or non-participati on in this project will not affect your childs placement in any programs. You and your child have the right to wi thdraw consent at any time without consequence. There are no known risks or compensation for his/her par ticipation in this project. This project will last for eight weeks. Results of the project will be ava ilable by December 31, 2006. If you have any questions or concerns about this project, please contact me at (352) 392-0701. My supervisor, Dr. Holly Lane, can be reached at P.O. Box 117050 Gainesville, FL 32611 or (352) 392-0701 ext. 246. Questions or concerns about research participants rights may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32 611 (352) 392-0433. Sincerely, Tyran L. Wright, M.Ed. Complete and return one copy to your childs teacher. I have read the procedures described above. I voluntarily give consent for my child, ____________________ _________, to participate in Ms. Wrights reading study. I have received a copy of this description. _______________________ ___________________ Parent/Guardian Date _______________________ ___________________ 2nd Parent/witness Date PAGE 87 87 APPENDIX B TARGET WORD VOCABULARY MEASURE Name ________________________________________________ Grade_______ Part 1 I am going to say a word, and you are going to tell me if it is a real word or a make-believe word. Lets try one: Is dog a real word or a make believe word? If the student answers correctly If the student answers incorrectly Yes, thats right! Dog is a real word. A dog is a furry animal that barks. Dog is a real word. A dog is a furry animal that barks. Lets try again. Is dog a real word or a makebelieve word? Lets try another one: Is clute a real word or a make-believe word? If the student answers correctly If the student answers incorrectly Yes, thats right! Clute is a make-believe word. Clute doesnt man anything. Clute is a make-believe word. Clute doesnt mean anything. Lets try again. Is clute a real word or a makebelieve word? Lets try some more. I am going to say some words, and you are going to tell me if it is a real word or a make-believe word. Correct Incorrect Here is the first word: Grape Is grape a real word or a make believe word? Mellet (mell) et (make-believe) If needed, say: Is mellet a real word or a make-believe word? Collect (real) Unkee (un kee) ( make-believe) Nuggle (nug -gle) (make-believe) Tidy (real) Inspiration (real) Taffin (taf fin) (make-believe) Sermon (real) Staigin (stay -gin) (make-believe) Ownel (oh nel) (make-believe) Congregation (real) Bawdoib (make-believe) Conversation (real) Caladid (make-believe) Noygeef (make-believe) Sly (real) Raid (real) Tickarine (make-believe) Absurd (real) PAGE 88 88 Correct Incorrect Impress (real) Chassydoolid (make-believe) Shrink (real) Basdin (make-believe) Crandit (make-believe) Display (real) Tattered (real) Flacker (make-believe) Slegat (make-believe ) Shrieking (real) Commotion (real) Choylid (make-believe) Grickel (make-believe) Emergency (real) Kelody (make-believe) Concentrate (real) Admire (real) Weltereen (make-believe) Humble (real) Vanivoid (make-believe) Wail (real) Seldom (real) Optel (make-believe) Weary (real) Somber (real) Skelig (make-believe) Companion (real) Maneuver (real) Swever (make-believe) Quavat (make-believe) Darn (real) Slaver (make-believe) Bound (real) Quarrel (real) Yatter (make-believe) Helig (make-believe) Advice (real) Extraordinary (real) Foreign (real) Welchid (make-believe) Vervage (make-believe) Insist (real) Invisible (real) Cabbus (make-believe) Klavor (make-believe) Squint (real) Suspicious (real) Wander (real) PAGE 89 89 Part 2 Im going to ask you about some words. So if I said, What is a dog? you could say, A dog is a furry animal that barks. If I said, What does a dog like to do? you could say, A dog likes to dig holes. Lets try some. Question Response (verbatim) What does collect mean? If you collected something, what would you do? What does tidy mean? If something is tidy, how does it look? What is inspiration? If something is an inspiration, how does it make you feel? What is a sermon? Where does a person usually give a sermon? What is a congregation? Where do congregations usually meet? What does sly mean? If someone is sly, how do they act? What is a raid? Why would someone raid a place? What does absurd mean? Tell me something that is absurd. PAGE 90 90 What does it mean to impress someone? What kind of thing might impress someone? What does examine mean? When you examine something, what do you do? What is a distraction? Tell me what can be a distraction. What does shrink mean? Why might something shrink? What is a display? What do you do with a display? What does tattered mean? If something is tattered, how does it look? What is a shriek? Why might someone shriek? What is a commotion? What would cause a commotion? What is an emergency? Tell me something that would be an emergency? What does it mean to concentrate? PAGE 91 91 Why would someone need to concentrate? What does admire mean? What kinds of things might you admire? What does humble mean? If a man is humble, how does he act? What is a competition? When someone is in a competition, what do they try to do? What does it mean to wail? This wail is not like the whale that lives in the ocean. Why would someone wail? What does seldom mean? If something happens seldom, when does it happen? What does weary mean? What does somber mean? If someone looks somber, how would they look? What is a companion? What kinds of things could you do with a companion? What is a maneuver? When would someone need to maneuver? What does descend mean? PAGE 92 92 When the bird descended, what did it do? What does it mean to darn something? If the woman needed to darn some socks, what did she need to do to them? What does bound mean? If a boy were to bound into a room, what problem might he cause? What is a quarrel? If two people begin to quarrel, what do they do? What is advice? When would someone need advice? What does extraordinary mean? If you saw something extraordinary, what would you say? What does foreign mean? Where would a foreigner come from? What does insist mean? If you insist on something, how do you say it? What does invisible mean? If something is invisible, how does it look? What does squint mean? If the girl squinted when she went outside, what did she look like? What does suspicious mean? If you are suspicious of someone, how do you act? What does wander mean? PAGE 93 93 If the little boy wandered, what did he do? Part 3 I am going to say some more words like before, and you are going to tell me if they are real words or make-believe words. We will do it the same way we did before. Correct Incorrect Disguise (real) Hurled (make-believe) Commenced (real) Grokle (make-believe) Quiver (real) Trudge (real) Yeckle (make-believe) Delicate (real) Bletable (make-believe) Crucid (make-believe) Lug (real) Delightful (real) Wise (real) Flankle (make-believe) Rage (real) Harrodid (make-believe) Deserted (real) Wetred (make-believe) Mend (real) Justle (make-believe) Scurry (real) Ungle (make-believe) Villain (real) Prostle (make-believe) Vicious (real) Ostreal (make-believe) Scamper (real) Oath (real) Frustration (real) Reakel (make-believe) Correct Incorrect Compassion (real) Destination (real) Flagrel (make-believe) Watid (make-believe) Bellow (real) Namor (make-believe) Disbelieve (real) Confidence (real) Pleakle (make-believe) Feat (real) Brimble (make-believe ) PAGE 94 94 Abandon (real) Wattle (make-believe) Complain (real) Startle (real) Fidget (real) Steverel (make-believe) Seize (real) Frantic (real) Sweener (make-believe) Protest (real) Juteral (make-believe) Anxious (real) Exhibit (real) Drexelad (make-believe) Overwhelmed (real) Devastated (real) Slamel (make-believe) Scrawl (real) Refreshing (real) Klerid (make-believe) Contented (real) Emerged (real) Part 4 Im going to ask you about some more words, the same way I did before. Lets try talk about the words. Question Response (verbatim) What is a disguise? What would you do with a disguise? What does commence mean? If something commences, what happens? What does quiver mean? What is a reason for a person to quiver? What does trudge mean? When someone trudges, what do they do? What does delicate mean? What would you do with something delicate? What does lug mean? PAGE 95 95 What kinds of things need to be lugged? What does delightful mean? If something is delightful, how does it make you feel? What does wise mean? What would need from a wise person? What is a rage? If a child is in a rage, how does he act? What does deserted mean? What would a deserted place look like? What does mend mean? If you mend something, how will it look afterwards? What is a journey? Why would someone go on a journey? What does scurry mean? For what reason might someone scurry? What is a villain? How would a villain act? What does vicious mean? Would you want something vicious to happen to you? Why? Why not? What does scamper mean? If the girl scampered, what did she do? What is an oath? If you take an oath, what do you do? What is frustration? PAGE 96 96 If a person feels frustration, what do the do? What is compassion? How do you show compassion? What is a destination? What does bellow mean? If a person bellowed, what would they do? What does disbelieve mean? What is confidence? If you have confidence, what do you feel like? What is a feat? What does abandoned mean? If a place is abandoned, what does it look like? What does complain mean? Why would a person complain? What does startle mean? What does fidget mean? Why would a person fidget? What does seize mean? If you seize something, what do you do? What does frantic mean? What kinds of things can make you frantic? What does it mean to protest? Why would one protest? What does anxious mean? If someone is anxious, what do they do? PAGE 97 97 What is an exhibit? What kind of things would you put in an exhibit? What does overwhelmed mean? If a person is overwhelmed, what will they probably do? What does devastated mean? What does scrawl mean? If you scrawl something, how will it look? What does refreshing mean? What does contented mean? If you are contented, how do you feel? What does emerge mean? If something emerges, what does it do? PAGE 98 98 APPENDIX C STORYBOOK REFERENCES Allen, D. (1999). Brothers of the knight New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. Armstrong-Ellis, C. (2002). Prudys problem and how she solved it New York: Harry N. Abrams Auch, M. J. (1992). The Easter egg farm. New York: Holiday House. Auch, M. J. (1996). Eggs mark the spot New York: Holiday House. Auch, M. J. (1997). Bantam of the opera New York: Holiday House. Auch, M. J. (2002). The princess and the pizza New York: Holiday House. Best, C. (2001). Shrinking violet New York: Melanie Kroupa Books. Bloom, B. (1999). Wolf! New York: Orchard Books. Bloom, S. (2003). No place for a pig Honesdale, PA: Boyd Mills Press. Burningham, J. (1963). Borka: The adventures of a goose with no feathers. London: Jonathan Cape. Calmenson, S. (2001). The frog principal New York: Scholastic Press. Campbell, A. (1998). Doras box New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Cannon, J. (1997). Verdi San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, and Company. Castaldo, N. (2005). Pizza for the queen New York: Holiday House. David, L. (2002). Superhero Max New York: Doubleday for Young Readers. Dunrea, O. (1996). The tale of Hilda Louise New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. French, V. (1994). Red hen and sly fox New York: Simon & Schuster. Harper, C. H. (2005). The invisible mistakecase Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Harness, C. (1993). The queen with bees in her hair New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc. Heine, H. (1983). The most wonderful egg in the world New York: Aladdin Paperbacks. Manton, D. (1993). Wolf comes to town New York: Dutton Childrens Books. McGovern, A. (1982). Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Holiday House: New York. McKissack, P. C. (1986). Flossie and the fox New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. McKissak, P. C. (2000). The honest-to-goodness truth New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. McKissack, P. C. (2005). Precious and the boo hag New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Osborne, M. P. (2000). Kate and the beanstalk New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Osborne, M.P. (2002). The brave little seamstress New York: Anthenuem Books for Young Readers. Osborne, W., & Osborne, M. P. (2005). Sleeping Bobby New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Rochelle, B. (1994). When Jo Louis won the title Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Say, A. (1999). Tea with milk New York: Walter Lorraine Books. Shannon, D. (1998). A bad case of stripes New York: Blue Sky Press. Zagwyn, D. T. (1998). Turtle spring Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press. PAGE 99 99 APPENDIX D VOCABULARY-FOCUSED LESSONS Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 1 Book Prudys Problem and How She Solved It Armstrong-Ellis, C. (2002). Prudys problem and how she solved it New York: Harry N. Abrams. Prudy collects so many things that everyone says she has a problem, but when a crisis convinces her they are right, she come s up with a perfect solution. Target Words: collect, tidy, inspiration Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Collect Step 2 In the story, Prudy collected things. Step 3 Say the word with me. Collect. (Show the word card) Does anyone know what it means to collect things? Listen for responses. Capitalize on what is correct. Step 4 If you collect things, it means t hat you get a lot of t hat thing or similar things over a period of time because you are interested in it/them. Step 5 Do any of you collect anything ? Wait for responses. Evaluate them to see if they understand what collect means. If they dont, make sure they know that people collect things over time because th ey are interested in them. The man collected stamps because. Listen to see if they understand that the man collects them because he is interes ted in them or he likes them. Reiterate the definition of collect. Ensure that they know it isnt just random gathering. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Collect PAGE 100 100 Word 2: Tidy Step 2 In the story, it said that Prudys dad was a very tidy person who did not like clutter. Step 3 Say the word with me. Tidy. (Show the word card) Who has an idea about what tidy means? Listen for responses. Step 4 Something that is tidy is neat and arranged in an orderly way. Step 5 How many of you have a tidy room? Query the volunteers to see why they think their room is tidy. Wait for responses. Evaluate them to see if they understand what tidy means. If they dont, make sure they kn ow that tidy means things are neat and orderly. Which word goes with tidy? Baby Maid Car Step 6 Lets say the word again. Tidy Word 3 Inspiration Step 2 Prudy looked around for inspiration after her collection exploded. Step 3 Say the word with me. Inspir ation. What is inspiration? Listen for responses. Step 4 Inspiration is a feeling of excitement that you get from something or someone. The excitement usually encourages you to go on and do something else. Step 5 My third grade teacher was great. She did a lot of really neat ac tivities with me and I learned a lot from her. She was so good at teaching me when I was in the third grade; she was my inspiration to become a teacher too. Have any of you ever been inspired by another person? Wait for responses. Have you ever been inspired by something or an event? Evaluate them to see if they understand inspiration. If they dont, make sure they know that you get encouraged/excited by something or someone else, and yo u usually go on to do something. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Inspiration. PAGE 101 101 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 2 Book Brothers of the Knight Allen, D. (1999). Brothers of the knight New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. Target Words: sermon, congregation, conversation Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Sermon Step 2 Reverend Knight was a very good man, a leade r in the community, who preached a powerful sermon every Sunday. Step 3 Say the word with me. Sermon. (Show the word card) What is a sermon? Listen for responses. Step 4 A sermon is a talk given dur ing a church service. Step 5 Which word goes with sermon? Game Football Preacher Which word of these words goes with sermon? Dance Sleep Religious Have students explain their choice Step 6 Lets say the word again. Sermon. Word 2: Congregation Step 2 The congregation clapped and danced when the reverend gave his sermons. Step 3 Say the word with me. Congregation. (Show the word card) What is a congregation? Listen for responses. Step 4 People who go to a church service are called the congregation. PAGE 102 102 Step 5 What are some reasons for pe ople to be in a congregation? Tell about a time when you were a part of a congregation. Would people sitting in a mo vie theater watching Harry Potte r be called a congregation? Why? Why not? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Congregation. Word 3 Conversation Step 2 After dinner, the boys listened to th e grown ups conversation. Step 3 Say the word with me. Conversati on. What is a conversation? Listen for responses. Step 4 When people have a conversation, they talk to one another in an easy, simple, relaxed way. Step 5 If two kids are upset with each other and shouting over a toy, would they be in a conversation? Why? Why not? Discuss the tone of the discussion as the reason for it not being a conversation. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Conversation. PAGE 103 103 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 3 Book Flossie and the Fox McKissack, P. C. (1986). Flossie and the fox New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. A wily fox notorious for stealing eggs meets his match when he encounters a bold little girl in the woods who insists upon proof that he is a fox before she will be frightened. Target Words: sly, raid, absurd Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Sly Step 2 Ever-time they corner that ol sli ckster, he gets away. I tell y ou, that fox is one sly critter. Step 3 Say the word with me. Sly. (Show the word card) What does sly mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone is sly, they are good at tricking others. Step 5 If you wanted to get something away from someone without them knowing, would you rush over and take it or would you be sly? Tell about a time when you were sly Step 6 Lets say the word again. Sly. Word 2: Raid Step 2 I am the third generation of foxes who have out-smarted and out-run Mr. J. W. McCutchins fine hunting dogs. I have raided so me of the best henhouses from Franklin to Madison. PAGE 104 104 Step 3 Say the word with me. Raid. (Show the word card) What does it mean to raid something? Listen for responses. Step 4 To raid means to go into a place by force, to either attack, or look for something. Step 5 When I was young, my brother and I used to raid the cookie jar before my mom came home from work. Have you ever raided something? Which of these things would you want to raid? Why? Why not? Be sure that kids provide an explanation after each item. A bee hive An ant bed A toy chest Step 6 Lets say the word again. Raid. Word 3 Absurd Step 2 Fox went running around in circles. He was pl um beside himself. I am a fox and I know it, he shouted. This is absurd! Step 3 Say the word with me. Absurd. What does absurd mean? Step 4 Something absurd doesnt make sense. Step 5 Are these things absurd? If they are absu rd, say absurd. If they are not, say not. A fish that barks A mother that takes good care of you? A dog that meows A snake that walks A teacher that helps you learn many things? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Absurd. PAGE 105 105 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 4 Book A Bad Case of Stripes Shannon, D. (1998). A bad case of stripes New York: Blue Sky Press. Target Words: impress, examine, distraction Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Impress Step 2 It was the first day of school and she couldnt decide what to wear. There were so many people to impress! Step 3 Say the word with me. Impress. (Show the word card) What does it mean to try to impress someone? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something impresses you, y ou really like and respect it. Step 5 Would you try to impress your new teacher? Would you try to impress a pet? Tell about a time when you tried to impress someone. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Impress. Word 2: Examine Step 2 That afternoon, Dr. Bumble came over to examine Camilla. Step 3 Say the word with me. Examine. (Show the word card) What does examine mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 PAGE 106 106 If you examine something, y ou look at it carefully. Step 5 Raise your hand to finish each sentence. The boy examined his dog because. The girl examined her homework because. The dentist examined the lit tle girls teeth because. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Examine. Word 3 Distraction Step 2 That night, Mr. Harms, the school principal, called. Im sorry, Mrs. Cream, he said. Im going to have to ask you to keep Camilla home from school. Shes just too much of a distraction. Step 3 Say the word with me. Distrac tion. What is a distraction? Listen for responses. Step 4 A distraction is something t hat takes your attention away from what you are doing. Step 5 Raise your hand to answer each question. If you are trying to do your homework, and your puppy keeps walking over your papers, would it be a distraction? If you are playing soccer, and the coach is givi ng you instructions, w ould the teacher be a distraction? If your family is having dinner and your mom as ks if anyone is ready fo r dessert, is that a distraction? Which word goes with distraction? Focus Fun Shoes Step 6 Lets say the word again. Distraction. PAGE 107 107 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 5 Book Shrinking Violet Best, C. (2001). Shrinking Violet New York: Melanie Kroupa Books. Violet, who is very shy and hates anyone to look at her in school finally comes out of her shell when she is cast as Lady Space in a play about the solar system and saves the production from disaster. Target Words: shrink, display, impressed Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Shrink Step 2 In the story, Violets cheeks blushed rhubarb red and she wished she could shrink away. Step 3 Say the word with me. Shrink. (Show the word card) What does shrink mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 When something shrinks, it becomes smaller. Step 5 Once, I put my jeans in the dryer and they shr unk. What do you think my jeans looked like when they came out of the dryer? Why? Make sure students unders tand that when things shrink, they get smaller. Have you ever had anything to sh rink? Describe what happened. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Shrink. PAGE 108 108 Word 3: Impressed Step 2 Opal was impressed when Violet grumbled like King Kong. Step 3 Say the word with me. Impressed. Does any one know what it means to be impressed? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something impresses you, you look at it with great pleasure and respect. Step 5 I was impressed by the stories on display in the third grade hall. What do you think may have impressed me about the stories? Listen and evaluate responses. Can anyone share a time when you were impressed? Probe for explanations about whey students were impressed. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Impressed. Word 2: Display Step 2 A fine display of flags paraded across the room. Step 3 Say the word with me. Display. (Show the word card) What a display? Listen for responses. Step 4 A display is something intended to get peoples attention. Step 5 If you would want the things I name on display, give me a thumbs up. If you would not want them displayed, give me a thumbs down: A spelling test on which you made a 100. A letter you wrote to a special friend A picture that you created in art Step 6 Lets say the word again. Display. PAGE 109 109 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 6 Book Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III McGovern, A. (1982). Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Honesdale, PA: Caroline House. Shipwrecked, a boy makes a happy life for himself on a tropical island, far away from the dull life of his wealthy parents. Target Words: tattered, shrieking, commotion Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Tattered Step 2 Everyday, new treasures washed up on the shore. Three pairs of shoes and tattered clothes. Old feather hats and funny wigs. Step 3 Say the word with me. Tattered. (Show the word card) When something is tattered, what does it look like? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is tattered, it is torn or crumpled. Step 5 The paper got tattered because The shoes were tattered because Would you want a tattered jacket? Why or why not? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Tattered. Word 2: Shriek Step 2 One morning, Nicky was awakened by sh rieking parrots and crying goats. PAGE 110 110 Step 3 Say the word with me. Shriek. (Show the word card) What is a shriek? Listen for responses. Step 4 A shriek is a sudden loud scream. Step 5 Once, I was riding my bike down the street, and a dog began to chase me. I began to shriek. Why do you think I shrieked? What is something that might make you shriek? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Shriek. Word 3 Commotion Step 2 The monkey was howling and running up and down the trees. The reason for the commotion was a rescue boat, sailing cl oser and closer to Monkey Island. Step 3 Say the word with me. Commotion. What is a commotion? Step 4 A commotion is a lot of noise and confusion. Step 5 If I describe something that might cause a commotion, say, commotion. If what I describe does not cause a commotion, say, no. A teacher writing on the board A dog running around a classroom A bee in the car while you are riding down the street A butterfly on a flower The small child caused a commotion in the toy store because he (Have the students complete the ideaevaluate it to see if it makes sense.) Step 6 Lets say the word again. Commotion. PAGE 111 111 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 7 Book Wolf! Bloom, B. (1999). Wolf! New York: Orchard Books. A wolf gets discouraged because he is having difficulty scaring educated farm animals. He decides to become educated as well. Target Words: emergencies, concentrate, admire Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Emergencies Step 2 The wolf kept a little money for emergencies. Step 3 Say the word with me. Emergencies. (Show the word card) What is an emergency? Listen for responses. Step 4 An emergency is an unexpected, se rious situation that has to be dealt with right away. Step 5 Say emergency if I describe a sit uation that is an emergency. Remain quiet if the situation is not an emergency. Someone has fallen off her bike and has broken her arm. You want a new toy because you saw it on TV. Your dog is wants to play catch but you have to do your homework. Is playing catch an emergency? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Emergencies. Word 2: Concentrate Step 2 In the story, the cow complained about an aw ful noise because he couldnt concentrate on his book. Step 3 PAGE 112 112 Say the word with me. Concentrate. (Show the word card) What does concentrate mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you concentrate on something, you gi ve it all of your attention. Step 5 Share some times when it is important to concentrate. Which word goes with concentrat e? Play Study Sleep Make sure students explain their choice Step 6 Lets say the word again. Concentrate Word 3 Admire Step 2 Wolf practiced reading to become a better reader so the other animals would admire him. Step 3 Say the word with me. Admire. What does admire mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you admire someone or something, you like and respect them/it. Step 5 If you admired someone, would you smile at them or frown at them? Why? I admire people who work hard, even when th ings are tough. Who would like to share about someone they admire? Be sure to have students share why they admire the person. Listen to see if they understand the definition. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Admire. PAGE 113 113 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 8 Book The Princess and the Pizza Auch, M. J., & Auch, H. (2002). The princess and the pizza New York: Holiday House. An out-of-work princess applies to become the bride of Prince Drupert, but first she must pass several tests, includ ing a cooking contest. Target Words: humble, competition, wail Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Humble Step 2 Princess Paulinas father gave up his throne to become a wood carver and moved them to a humble shack in a neighboring kingdom. Step 3 Say the word with me. Humble. (Show the word card) Has anyone ever heard the word humble before? What do you think it means? Listen for responses. Step 4 Humble describes people and th ings that are very ordinary. Step 5 If I describe something that is humble, say humble. If what I de scribe is not humble, remain quiet. A woman walking down the street wearing a fluffy fur coat and big fancy jewelry. A tiny kitten Step 6 Lets say the word again. Humble. Word 2: Competition Step 2 Pauline didnt expect much competition to be Druperts bride. There wasnt another princess for hundreds of miles. Step 3 PAGE 114 114 Say the word with me. Competition. (Show the word card) What does competition mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 A competition is an event that people take part in to find out who is best at something. Step 5 What kinds of competitions do you have here at school? (AR, Field Day, Writer of the Month) Describe a time when you were in a competition outside of school. Which word goes with competiti on? Dog Contest Book Step 6 Lets say the word again. Competition. Word 3 Wail Step 2 In the story, the princesses wailed when Queen Zelda told them that their final job was to cook a feast. Step 3 Say the word with me. Wail. What does wail mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone wails, they cry out loudly. Step 5 Have you ever wailed? Listen and evaluate responses. Say wail if a person is likely to wa il in the situations I describe: If a kid closes his hand in the door. If you are in the library. During a test. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Wail. PAGE 115 115 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 9 Book The Queen with Bees in Her Hair Harness, C. (1993). The queen with bees in her hair New York: Henry Holt and Company. A silly queen and a hermit king come to join their separate kingdoms into one. Target Words: seldom, weary, somber Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Seldom Step 2 A wall separated the people and they seldom visited back and forth. Step 3 Say the word with me. Seldom. (Show the word card) What does seldom means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something seldom happens, it doesnt happen very often. Step 5 Raise your hand if you seldom get good grades. Ensure that the students understand the definition of the word. Listen to the things I mention. If you would like for them to happen seldom, say seldom. If you wish they happened often, say often: You get lots of homework You get extra recess time. You get to read in front of the class. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Seldom. Word 2: Weary PAGE 116 116 Step 2 The queen thought her subjects must be wear y of seeing her in an ordinary crown. Step 3 Say the word with me. Weary. (Show the word card) Tell me if you think you know what weary means. Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is weary, they are very very tired.. Step 5 I get weary of eating the same food all of the time. Tell me about something you get weary of. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Weary. Word 3 Somber Step 2 The queen became fancier as her people became more somber. Step 3 Say the word with me. Somber. What do you think somber means? Listen for responses. Step 4 Somber describes a feeing of sadness or tiredness. Step 5 Some people start to feel somber during the winter because there are no flowers blooming. Can you describe a time when you felt somber? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Somber. PAGE 117 117 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 10 Book The Tale of Hilda Louise Dunrea, O. (1996). The tale of Hilda Louise New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Hilda Louise lives in an orphanage and longs for a family. One day, her longing for a family sweeps her away and over the streets of Paris. Target Words: companion, maneuver, descend Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Companion Step 2 Hilda Louise loved her companions and she lo ved Madame Zanzibar, but she longed for a family of her own. Step 3 Say the word with me, companion. (Show the word card) What is a companion? Listen for responses. Step 4 A companion is someone you spend time with. Step 5 Say, companion if I describe name possible co mpanions. Remain quiet if what I name cant be a companion A classmate A shoe A chair A dog What kinds of things could someone do with a companion? Which word goes with companion: friend stranger doctor? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Companion. PAGE 118 118 Word 2: Maneuver Step 2 In the story, Hilda Louse learned to maneu ver in the air. She turned somersaults. Step 3 Say the word with me. Maneuver. (Show the word card) What is a maneuver? Listen for responses. Step 4 A maneuver is a tricky move that you c an do which takes a lot of skill. Step 5 Sometimes when I drive down the road, I have to maneuver in and out of traffic. I have to be very careful to pass people safely, and I have to be sure I stop at red lights and follow all of the rules of the road, while still getting where I am going. When might you need to maneuver? Why? How would you maneuver through the lunch line to get a carton of milk that you forgot to get when you went through the first time? Invite them to get up and demonstrate. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Maneuver. Word 3 Descend Step 2 At four oclock in the afternoon, Hilda Louise began to descend from the sky. Step 3 Say the word with me. Descend. What does descend mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone or something comes down or moves down from a place, they descend. Step 5 Do airplanes have to maneuver to descend from the sky? How do you know? Is descending more like moving or sitting still? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Descend. PAGE 119 119 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 11 Book Red Hen and Sly Fox French, V. (1994). Red hen and sly fox New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers. Red hen is renowned for her kindness. All the an imals loves red hen, but sly fox loves her for a different reason. When he captures he r, she has a few tricks for him. Target Words: darn, bound, shriek Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Darn Step 2 Ive got a pair of socks with holes in the to es, and I wondered if you would be so kind as to darn them for me? Step 3 Say the word with me. Darn. (Show the word card) The fox wanted someone to darn his socks, what do you think he wanted them to do to his sock? Listen for responses. Step 4 When you darn something of cloth, you fix the holes in it by sewing them up. Step 5 Complete each sentence. The woman darned the tattered costume because Your mother darned your shirt because. Which word goes with darn: cut thread wash? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Darn. Word 2: Bound Step 2 Come right in, invited Red Hen. In bounded Sl y Fox. Immediately, he snatched the sack from his pocket and tried to slip it over Re d Hens head, but she was too quick for him. PAGE 120 120 Step 3 Say the word with me. Bound. (Show the word card) What does it mean to bound? Listen for responses. Step 4 To bound means to move quickly with big leaps. Step 5 If someone were to bound into a crowded room, what might happen? If you bound somewhere, are you most likely in a hurry or do you have a lot of time? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Bound. Word 3 Shriek Step 2 Yaroo! Shrieked the fox as the boiling water splashed on his toes. Step 3 Say the word with me. Shriek. Do you remember what shriek means? Step 4 A shriek is a loud, sudden scream. Step 5 Which word goes with shriek? Head Sleep Surprise Is ok to shriek in the school cafeteria? Why or why not? Is ok to shriek in the yard at home? Why or why not? Is ok to shriek in the library? Why or why not? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Shriek. PAGE 121 121 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 12 Book The Most Wonderful Egg in the World Heine, H. (1983). The most wonderful egg in the world New York: Aladdin Paperbacks. Target Words: quarrel, advice, extraordinary Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Quarrel Step 2 Three hens were quarrelling about which of them was the most beautiful. Step 3 Say the word with me, quarrel. (Show the word card) What does it mean to quarrel? Listen for responses. Step 4 When people quarrel, they ha ve an angry argument. Step 5 The children on the playground quarreled because Which word goes with quarrel: kiss fight run? Do you think people feel good when they quarrel? Why or why not? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Quarrel. Word 2: Advice Step 2 Since they could not settle th eir quarrel among themse lves, they decided to ask the king for his advice. Step 3 Say the word with me. Advice. (Show the word card) What is advice? Listen for responses. PAGE 122 122 Step 4 If you give someone advice, you tell them what you think they should do. Step 5 Whom would you take advice from, your mother or someone you dont know? Which word goes with advice: Help Tease Work Tell about a time when y ou gave someone advice. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Advice. Word 3 Extraordinary Step 2 And from that day to this, they have been the best of friends, and have happily gone on laying extraordinary eggs. Step 3 Say the word with me. Extraordinary What does extraordinary mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Something extraordinary is very unusual or surprising. Step 5 I once saw a playhouse that had everything inside that a regular sized house has in it. It was extraordinary. Describe something extraordinary. Encourage them to explain why it was extraordinary. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Extraordinary PAGE 123 123 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 13 Book Kate and the Beanstalk Osborne, M. P. (2000). Kate and the beanstalk New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. In this version of the classic tale a girl climbs to the top of a beanstalk, where she uses her quick wits to outsmart a giant and make her and her mothers fortune. Target Words: despair, forlorn, astonishing Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Despair Step 2 Long ago, a girl named Kate lived with her mo ther in a humble cottage. One day, after a hard winter, Kates mother was in despair. Step 3 Say the word with me, despair. (Show the word card) What do you think despair means? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone is in despair, they feel that everything is wrong, and t hat things wont ever get any better. Step 5 Which word goes with despair: happiness excitement sadness? Have you ever felt despair? Why? How did you deal with it? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Despair. Word 2: Forlorn Step 2 Now we will surely starve! and she tossed the beans out the window. Hungry and forlorn, Kate went to bed. Step 3 PAGE 124 124 Say the word with me. Forlorn. (Show the word card) Forlorn? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is forlorn, they are lonely and sad. Step 5 Which word goes with forlorn: smile frown unhappy? The dog was forlorn because. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Forlorn. Word 3 Astonishing Step 2 Through a misty haze, she saw the most as tonishing sight: Above he clouds was a countryside with fine woods, a crystal st ream, a rolling sheep meadow, and a mighty castle. Step 3 Say the word with me. Astonishi ng. What does astonishing mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Something is astonishin g, it is very surprising. Step 5 Do you think streets made of gold would be astonishing? Do you think a straight A repor t card would be astonishing? Have you ever seen something astonishing? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Astonishing. PAGE 125 125 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 14 Book Tea with Milk Say, A. (1999). Tea with milk Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. After growing up near San Francisco, a young Japane se woman returns with her parents to their native Japan, but she feels foreign and out of place. Target Words: foreign, conversation, insistent Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Foreigner Step 2 She could not make friends with any of the other students; they called her gaijin and laughed at her. Gaijin means foreigner. Step 3 Say the word with me, foreigner. (Show the word card) What is a foreigner? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is a foreigner, they belong to another country, not your own. Step 5 If you went to Spain, woul d you be a foreigner? If someone came from Australia to live in the United States of America, would they be a foreigner? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Foreigner. Word 2: Conversation Step 2 I was transferred here six months ago and I havent had a real conversation since. Step 3 Say the word with me. Conversation. (Show the word card) We have had this word before. What do remember about the tone of a conversation? Listen for responses. PAGE 126 126 Step 4 If you have a conversation with someone, you talk with each other in a relaxed, easy way. Step 5 Have you ever had a conversation when you we re not supposed to have it? When? When is a good time to have a conversation? Who are some people you that you have conversations with? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Conversation. Word 3 Insistent Step 2 No one had read her application yet, the clerk said. Masako asked to see the manager. She was very insistent. Step 3 Say the word with me. Insistent. What does insistent mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Insistent describes someone who wants someth ing to be done and they say in a very firm way, that they want it done. Step 5 Once, I went to a restaurant and got a bad server I decided that I wanted to speak to the person in charge, and I was very insistent. When a student in my class wanted to walk around during a spelling test, I was very insistent when I asked him to sit down. Have you ever had to be insistent? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Insistent. PAGE 127 127 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 15 Book The Invisible Mistake Case Harper, C. M. (2005). The invisible mistakecase New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. After calling her friend big pink baby, Charlo tte, a young alligator, feels terrible until Grandpa tells her about a useful way to learn from her mistakes. Target Words: invisible, squint, suspicious Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Invisible Step 2 Oh, Grandpa! cried Charlotte, and she told him the whole story. Ah, said Grandpa, this is one for the invisible mistakecase. Step 3 Say the word with me. Invisible. (Show the word card) What does invisible mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is invisible, you cant see it becaus e it is hidden or because it is very small. Step 5 Are stars visible or invisible? Is air visible or invisible? Is the moon visible or invisible? Are germs visible or invisible? What makes something invisible? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Invisible. Word 2: Squint PAGE 128 128 Step 2 Its right here, said Grandpa, and he pointed to an empty space on th e floor. Charlotte squinted her eyes, but she couldnt see anything. Step 3 Say the word with me. Squint. (Show the word card) What does it mean to squint? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you squint at something, you look at it with your eyes partly closed. Step 5 Would you squint while looking at the sun? Would you squint while looking at T.V.? Would you squint whil e looking at the moon? When do people usually squint? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Squint. Word 3 Suspicious Step 2 Did you eat the pie? It wasnt me, I ans wered, and then I looked at John suspiciously so mama would maybe think it was him that ate the pie. Step 3 Say the word with me. Suspicious. What does suspicious mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you are suspicious of so meone, you dont trust them. Step 5 Have you ever been suspicious of someone? When/why? Evaluate whether the participants answers are appropriate. Once I was missing$50 from my purse and a student was walking away from my desk, I was suspicious of him. I thought he took my money. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Suspicious.

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129 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 16 Book Bantam of the Opera Auch, M. J. (1997). Bantam of the opera New York: Holiday House. Luigi the rooster wins fame and fortune when the star of the Cosmopolitan Opera Company and his understudy both come down with ch icken pox on the same night. Target Words: wander, disguise, wail Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Wander Step 2 Finally, Luigi wandered farther afield each day, so he could sing without being heard. Step 3 Say the word with me. Wander. (Show the word card) What does wander mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you wander, you walk around from place to place without going in any particular direction. Step 5 Would it be safe to wander in the road? Would it be safe to wander in your own backyard? Is it ok to wander around the halls at school? Would you want to wander around while you were carrying something heavy? Would you want to wander around the park non a Saturday afternoon? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Wander. Word 2: Disguise Step 2

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130 Louigi found the perfect disgui se to hide from Baldini. Step 3 Say the word with me. Disguise (Show the word card) What is a disguise? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you disguise yourself, y ou change your appearance so others dont know who you are. Step 5 Which word goes with disguise? Smile Frown Trick Besides Halloween, when is a good time for a disguise? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Disguise. Word 3 Wail Step 2 Soon he was dancing around the stage, scratching with both hands. I itch all over, he wailed. It is driving me crazy. Step 3 Say the word with me. Wail. What does wail mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you let out a wail, you cry loudly. Step 5 Why might someone wail? Tell us about a time when you wailed. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Wail.

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131 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 17 Book The Honest-to-Goodness Truth McKissack, P. (2000). The honest-to-goodness truth New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. After promising never to lie, Libby learns its not always necessary to blurt out the whole truth either. Target Words: commenced, quivered, trudged Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Commenced Step 2 Libbys stomach felt like shed swallowed a handful of chicken feathers. Her eyes commenced to fill with water. Step 3 Say the word with me. Commenced. (Show the word card) What do you think commenced means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something commences, it begins or starts. Step 5 What time does school commence? I cannot take you out of your class once your reading time commences, why do you think that is so? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Commenced. Word 2: Quivered Step 2 Libbys bottom lip quivered when her mother asked her if she fed Ol Boss. Step 3 Say the word with me. Quivered. (Show the word card) What does quiver mean? Listen for responses.

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132 Step 4 If something quivers, it shakes with very small movements. Step 5 What might be a reason fo r something to quiver? Show me what something l ooks like if it quivers. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Quivered. Word 3 Trudged Step 2 By the time Libby trudged up her steps, she was still confused. Step 3 Say the word with me. Trudged. What does trudged mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you trudge somewhere, you walk there with slow, heavy steps. Step 5 Would you trudge to the store to get someth ing you have been waiting for for a long time? Would you trudge to the dentists office? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Trudged.

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134 My nephew bought e a tiny elephant figurine. It is my favorite and I handle it very carefully because it is delicate. Do you have something that is delicate? Is a football delicate? Is an egg delicate? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Delicate. Word 3 Lugged Step 2 They both grunted as Ms. Taffy lugged Serena back to the train station. Step 3 Say the word with me. Lugged. What does lugged mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you lug something from one pl ace to another, you carry it w ith a lot of difficulty. You have trouble carrying it. Step 5 If a backpack is filled with school book s, would a kid have to lug it to school? Do you have to lug a flower to your mother? Would you lug your lunch tr ay to the lunch table? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Lugged.

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135 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 19 Book Sleeping Bobby Osborne, W., & Osborne, M. O. (2005). Sleeping Bobby New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers. A retelling of the Grimm tale featuring a handsome prince who is put into a deep sleep by a curse until he is awakened by the kiss of a brave princess. Target Words: delightful, wise, rage Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Delightful Step 2 A year latter a baby boy was born to the roya l couple. The child was so extraordinary and so delightful that the king and queen want ed him to have a very special name. Step 3 Say the word with me. Delightful. (Show the word card) What does delightful mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Something or someone delightful gives you a feeling of great pleasure. Step 5 Do you think your mom finds you delightful? What kinds of things wo uld a delightful person do? Could an animal be delightful? What behaviors are NOT be delightful? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Delightful.

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136 Word 2: Wise Step 2 They invited almost everyone in the realm, including the kingdoms twelve Wise Women. Step 3 Say the word with me. Wise. (Show the word card) What does it mean to be wise? Listen for responses. Step 4 A wise person makes good decisions and judgm ents based on their experiences and knowledge. Step 5 Do you think your gran dmother is wise? Why? Do you think a baby is wise? Why? Do you think a chair can be wise? Why? What makes someone wise? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Wise.. Word 3 Rage Step 2 Silence! said the thirteenth wise woman, who in her rage, did not seem very wise at all. Step 3 Say the word with me. Rage. What a rage? Listen for responses. Step 4 A rage is strong, uncontrollable anger. Step 5 Which word goes with rage: happy fun upset? Describe a time when you were in a rage. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Rage.

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137 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 20 Book Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with No Feathers Burningham, J. (1963). Borka: The adventures of a goose with no feathers London: Jonathan Cape. Target Words: deserted, mend, journey Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Deserted Step 2 They lived on a deserted piece of marshland near the East Coast of England. Step 3 Say the word with me. Deserted. (Show the word card) What does deserted mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Deserted describes a place where peopl e have left and there is nothing there. Step 5 Would you want to be al one on a deserted island? Have you ever felt like someone has desert ed you? If so, have them describe Step 6 Lets say the word again. Deserted. Word 2: Mend Step 2 Each spring the Plumpsters came back to the marshes and mended their nest. Step 3 Say the word with me. Mend. (Show the word card) When you mend something, what do you do to it? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something gets mended, it gets fixed so that it is in good working order again.

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138 Step 5 What are some things that could be mended? Help them think abou t various objects Step 6 Lets say the word again. Mend. Word 3 Journey Step 2 Nobody noticed that Borka was missing. They were all thinking about the journey ahead. Step 3 Say the word with me. Journey. What is a journey? Listen for responses. Step 4 A journey is a long trip. Step 5 One summer, I took a journey to anoth er country. The trip took 13 hours. What are some things you could do on a journey? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Journey.

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139 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 21 Book The Easter Egg Farm Auch, M. J. (1992). The easter egg farm New York: Holiday House. Pauline cant concentrate on layi ng an egg because of all of th e squabbling in the hen house. Finally, she lays a very unusual egg. Target Words: concentrate, inspiration, scurried Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Concentrate Step 2 Pauline couldnt concentrate in all the confusion. Every time she tried to lay an egg, the other hens squabbled. Step 3 Say the word with me, concentrate. (Show the word card) What does it mean to concentrate? Listen for responses. Step 4 To concentrate means to give someth ing all of your attention. Step 5 Say concentrate if I describe a situation wh ere it would be good to concentrate. Remain quiet if the situation is not one wh ere you need to concentrate. Studying for a math test. Walking down the sidewalk Drawing a picture If someone is concentrating how do they look? What are they doing? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Concentrate.

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140 Word 2: inspiration Step 2 In the story, Mrs. Pennyworth took P auline on field trips for inspiration. Step 3 Say the word with me. Inspiration. (Show the word card) What does it mean to get inspiration from something or someone? Listen for responses. Step 4 Inspiration is a feeling of excitement that you get from something or someone. The excitement usually encourages you to go on and do something else. Step 5 When I was in fifth grade, I had a really great teacher. She was my inspiration to be a really good teacher to my students. Share a time when you felt inspired by something or someone. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Inspiration. Word 3 Scurry Step 2 The bright colored chicks scurried around the egg lady. Step 3 Say the word with me. Scurry. What does it mean to scurry? Listen for responses. Step 4 Scurry describes a way of walki ng quickly, taking small steps. Step 5 When would be a time that you would scurry? Start your sentence with, I would scurry if (Ensure that students use the sentence stem) Tell me if the following animals scurry: Horses Ducks People Frogs Alligators Step 6 Lets say the word again. Scurry.

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141 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 22 Book Superhero Max David, L. (2002). Superhero Max New York: Doubleday for Young Readers. A second-grade boy has trouble fitting in at his new school, until he wears a Captain Crusader costume for Halloween. Target Words: villain, vicious, scampered Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Villain Step 2 I fight villains and save animals fr om calamitous disasters Step 3 Say the word with me. Villain. (Show the word card) What is a villain? Listen for responses. Step 4 A villain is a someone who deliberately harms other people or breaks the law in order to get what he or she wants. Step 5 Say villain if I name a villai n. Say not a villain if I dont. Harry Potter The big bad wolf in the Three Little Pigs Your teacher Which word goes with villain: bad helpful mighty? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Villain. Word 2: Vicious Step 2 Captain Crusader has to help save his frie nds from vicious bugs and wild animals.

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142 Step 3 Say the word with me. Vicious. (Show the word card) What does it vicious mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Vicious describes something violent and cruel. Step 5 What kinds of ani mals are vicious? Have you ever encounter ed anything vicious? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Vicious. Word 3 Scampered Step 2 M ax and his classmates scampered across the pl ayground and played their buggy game. Step 3 Say the word with me. Scampered. What does it mean to scamper? Listen for responses. Step 4 Scamper describes moving quickl y with small light steps. Step 5 When would be a time that you would scampe r? Start your sentence with, I would scamper if (Ensure that students use the sentence stem) Tell me if the following animals scamper: Ants Pigs Bugs Birds Cows Step 6 Lets say the word again. Scampered.

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143 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 23 Book Doras Box Campbell, A. (1998). Doras Box New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. In order to protect her, Doras parents must put anything that might fri ghten or hurt her into a box and tell her never to open it, but when she eventually does, he r life is enriched by what she finds. Target Words: oath, frustration, compassion Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Oath Step 2 If you release me, the witch cried, I will grant you three wishes. But if you leave me, I will curse you with three oaths. Step 3 Say the word with me. Oath. (Show the word card) What is an oath? Listen for responses. Step 4 An oath is a formal promise. Step 5 Have you ever had to give an oath? boy/girl scouts Once, I had to testify at a meeting, and I had to take an oath to tell the truth. Have you ever had to do anything like that? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Oath. Word 2: Frustration Step 2 Every day and every night, Doras mother and father gathered all the hurts, fears, angers, and frustrations they encountered and put them safely into Doras box, so that she would never know them. Step 3

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144 Say the word with me. Frustration. (Show the word card) What is a frustration? Listen for responses. Step 4 Frustration describes something that makes you angry or upset because you cant do anything about the problem it creates. Step 5 Has something ever caused you frustration? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Frustration. Word 3 Compassion Step 2 For, to be loved by all, she must have compassion, she must know not only goodness and joy but also some of the evil and sa dness in the world, as we all do. Step 3 Say the word with me. Compassion. What is compassion? Listen for responses. Step 4 Compassion is a feeling of understanding fo r others who are going through something. Step 5 I once gave a homeless man some food. I though t about what if feels like to be hungry, and I felt sad for him, so I bought him food. If you have compassion, w hat will it lead you to do? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Compassion.

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145 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 23 Book When Jo Louis Won the Title Rochelle, B. (1994). When Jo Louis won th e title. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Jos grandfather helps her feel be tter about herself when he tells her the story about why she is named for the heavyweight boxing champion, Joe Louis. Target Words: tattered, destination, bellowed Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Tattered Step 2 Everything I owned fit into a tattered suitcase. Step 3 Say the word with me. Tattered. (Show the word card) What does tattered? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is tattered, it is torn because it has been used a lot. Step 5 Which word goes with tattered: new old good? I have a tattered robe that I wear all of th e time. It is very comfortable. Do you have anything that is tattered? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Tattered. Word 2: Destination Step 2 I rode the train all day and a ll night. Like a snake winding its way across the Mississippi River, that train moved slowly through farm lands and flatland, over mountains and valleys until it reached its final destination. Step 3

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146 Say the word with me. Destination. What is a destination? (Show the word card) Listen for responses. Step 4 Your destination is the place you are going to. Step 5 If I leave Lake City to go to Gain esville, what is my destination? If you could go to any desti nation, where would you go? Why? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Destination. Word 3 Bellowed Step 2 New York City! New York! New York! the co nductor bellowed as the train pulled into the station. Step 3 Say the word with me. Bellowed. What does it mean to bellow? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone bellows, they shout in a loud, deep voice. Step 5 Would a library be a good place to bellow? Would a playground be a good place to bellow? Would the dinner table be a good place to bellow? Why would anyone need to bellow? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Bellow.

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147 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 25 Book Precious and the Boo Hag McKissack, P. C., & Moss, O. J. (2004). Precious and the boo hag New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Home alone with a stomachache while the family wo rks in the fields, a young girl faces up to the horrifying Boo Hag that her brother warned hear about. Target Words: disbelieve, confidence, disguise Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Disbelieve Step 2 Before he left, Brother pulled Precious to th e side. Be sure to mind Mama, now. Cause if you let somebody in, you never know. It mi ght just be Pruella the Boo Hag. Who? Precious asked, with a disbelieving giggle. Step 3 Say the word with me. Disbelieve. (Show the word card) Does anyone know what disbelieve means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone disbelieves something, they dont believe that it is true or real. Step 5 Tell me whether you would look in di sbelief at the following statements: If someone told you a cow jumped over a moon. If someone told you that y ou that it was snowing outside. If someone told you that th ey want to be your friend. If your mom told you that dinner was ready. Have the students explain why they would look in disbelief or not. Tell me about a time when you had to give a disbelieving stare. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Disbelieve. Word 2: Confidence

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148 Step 2 Theres no such thing as a Boo Hagespecial ly one named Pruella, she told herself with a pinch of confidence. Step 3 Say the word with me. Confidence. (Show the word card) What is confidence? Listen for responses. Step 4 Confidence describes a feeling of being sure you can do something. Step 5 Because the girl had spent all week studyi ng for her reading test she had a lot of confidence in being able to pass the te st. What gave her the confidence? Tell about a time when you had a lot of confidence. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Confidence. Word 3 Disguise Step 2 Pruella was scary, and she was pretty tricky. I almost brought her inside when she disguised herself as a shiny new penny. Step 3 Say the word with me. Disguise. We have talked about this word before. What does disguise mean? Listen for responses. Make sure that students understand that things are disguised so they arent recognized. Step 4 To disguise something means to change its appearance so that people will not know about it or recognize it. Step 5 When might you wear a disguise? What word goes with disgui se: sly church laugh? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Disguise.

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149 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 26 Book The Brave Little Seamstress Osborne, M. P. (2002). The brave little s eamstress. New York: Antheneum books for Young readers. A seamstress who kills seven flies with one blow outwits the kind and, with the help opf a kind knight, becomes a wise and kind queen. Target Words: feat, abandoned, admired Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Feat Step 2 As she stitched each word, the little se amstress grew prouder and prouder of her amazing feat. Her heart wagged with joy like the tail of a lamb. Step 3 Say the word with me. Feat. (Show the word card) What is a feat? Listen for responses. Step 4 A feat is a difficult act or achievement. Step 5 If I describe a feat, say feat. If I dont describe a feat remain quiet. Climbing a tall tree Walking down the sidewalk. Jumping a big ramp on your bike. Making all As on your report card. Tell me a about a feat you accomplished. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Feat.

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151 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 27 Book Verdi Cannon, J. (1997). Verdi San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, & Company. A young python does not want to grow slow and bori ng like the older snakes he sees in the tropical jungle where he lives. Target Words: complain, startled, fidgeted Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Complain Step 2 Stop that, Verdi. It makes me nervous, Ribbon complained. Step 3 Say the word with me. Complain. (Show the word card) What does it mean to complain? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you complain about something, you say you are not satisfied with it. Step 5 The lady in the restaurant complained about her soup because. The parent complained to the teacher because. Would you complain about a new outfit? Would you complain if someone were in your seat? Would you complain about your mom making your favorite dinner? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Complain. Word 2: Startled Step 2 Launching himself from a tree, Verdi startl ed a flock of colorful birds.

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152 Step 3 Say the word with me. Startled. (Show the word card) What does startled mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something startles you, it su rprises and frightens you a little. Step 5 If someone sneaked up behind you and shout ed in your ear, would it startle you? Which word goes with startled: surprised amused talked Which word goes with startled: curious unexpected laugh Step 6 Lets say the word again. Startled. Word 3 fidgeted Step 2 She said that Christmas was coming soon and that it was freezing cold outside and she used words like human kindness and simple charit y until she said, Okay, okay, she can stay. Step 3 Say the word with me. Fidgeted. What does fidgeted mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you fidget, you keep moving your hands or feet or changing positions. Step 5 Once I took a trip on a cruise ship, and when it was time to get off of the ship, I fidgeted because I was really ready to get off. Have you ever fidgeted? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Fidgeted.

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153 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 28 Book Wolf Comes to Town Manton, D. (1993). Wolf comes to town New York: Duttons Childrens Books. Target Words: disguise, suspicious, seize Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Disguise Step 2 Now, that big wolf just loved to go shopping, but whenever he left his house he would wear a disguise, for he knew that people didnt like wolves very much. Step 3 Say the word with me, disguise. (Show the word card) What is a disguise? Listen for responses. Step 4 A disguise is something you put on to change your appearance so people wont know who you are. Step 5 Would you wear a disguise to a church? Would you wear a disguise on Halloween? Would you wear a disguise to school? Would you wear a disguise to a family dinner? Give children an opportunity to explain why they would or would not wear the disguise. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Disguise. Word 2: Suspicious Step 2 In the story, things had gotten so bad that the shopkeepers were suspicious of just about everybody. Step 3 Say the word with me. Suspicious. (Show the word card) What suspicious mean? Listen

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154 for responses. Step 4 If someone is suspicious of someone else, they do not trust them. Step 5 Would you be suspicious of your mom? Would you be suspicious of someone walking around your house at night? Would you be suspicious if kep t looking at your homework? Can anybody share a time when you were suspicious? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Suspicious. Word 3 Seize Step 2 The wolf seized the painting and ran from th e gallery, leaving the owner quaking with terror. Step 3 Say the word with me. Seize. What does it mean to seize something? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone seizes something, they take hold of it quickly and firmly. Step 5 Would you seize a hot pot from the stove? Would you seize a cupcake from a plate? Would you seize a cactus? Why or why not? If someone where to seize a dogs tail, what might happen? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Seize.

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155 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 29 Book Eggs Mark the Spot Auch, M. J. (1996). Eggs mark the spot New York: Holiday House. Pauline the hen uses her talent for laying eggs wi th the image of what sh e sees to help capture the thief who has stolen a famous painting from an art gallery. Target Words: exhibit, overwhelmed, devastated Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Exhibit Step 2 We have a new exhibit of paintings by world-famous artists. Step 3 Say the word with me, exhibit. (Show the word card) What is an exhibit? Listen for responses. Step 4 An exhibit is something of intere st that people come and look at. Step 5 We went to Mrs. Folsoms class to see he r exhibit. She had sculptures on display. What kinds of things co uld we put in an exhibit? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Exhibit. Word 2: Overwhelmed Step 2 At first, Pauline was overwhelmed by the wonderful works of art. Step 3 Say the word with me. Overwhelmed. (Show the word card) What overwhelmed mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Overwhelmed describes a feeling that affect s you so much, you dont know how to deal with it.

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156 Step 5 Sometimes, when I have a lot of things to do, I feel overwh elmed, like I dont know how I am going to get it all done. What kinds of things might overwhelm a kid? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Overwhelmed.. Word 3 Devastated Step 2 Pauline was devastated because she couldn t make up her own paintings. She could only copy the ones that were there. Step 3 Say the word with me. Devastate d. What does devastated mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you are devastated by somethi ng, you are shocked and upset by it. Step 5 The girl was devastated because. The teacher was devastated because. Which word goes with devastated: di sappointed delighted eager? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Devastated.

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157 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 30 Book Pizza for the Queen Castaldo, N. (2005). Pizza for the queen New York: Holiday House. In 1889 Napoli, Italy, Raffaele Esposito prep ares a special pizza for the queen. Target Words: frantic, protest, anxious Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Frantic Step 2 Guiseppe was closing his shop for siesta, when everyone rested during the heat of the day; but when he saw Raffaele looki ng so frantic, he let him in. Step 3 Say the word with me, frantic. (Show the word card) What does frantic mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Frantic describes a person who is behaving in a desperate, wild, and disorganized way because they are worried, or in a hurry. Step 5 I was frantic when I couldnt find my co mputer. I thought someone had stolen it. The lady was frantic because. The little boy frantic because.. Which word is the opposite of fr antic: nervous calm happy? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Frantic. Word 2: Protest Step 2 Before Niccolo could protest any furthe r, Raffaele hurried from the wharf.

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158 Step 3 Say the word with me. Protest. (Show the word card) What does protest mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone protests, they say or show pub licly that they dont agree with something. Step 5 Some people have been protesting the war in Ir aq. They are showing that they disagree with it. Once, I protested when I didnt like a new rule my school made. Have you ever protested? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Protest. Word 3 Anxious Step 2 The queen was anxious to taste the pizza Step 3 Say the word with me. Anxious. What does it mean to be anxious? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone is anxious, they are worried or excited about something happening. Step 5 I am anxious to graduate from school. I sit and think about it all of the time, and I talk about it all of the time. Have you ever felt anxious? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Anxious.

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159 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 31 Book The Frog Principal Calmenson, S. (2001). The frog principal New York: Scholastic Press. A frog showed up as substitute principal of P.S. 88. Now the school has to learn to get along with him. It is not always easy. Target Words: scrawled, refreshing, commotion Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Scrawled Step 2 I cant let her see me this way! thought Mr. Bundy. He scrawled a note that said: Family emergency! Be back soon. Step 3 Say the word with me, scrawled. (Show the word card) What does scrawled mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you scrawl something, you wr ite it in a careless, untidy way. Step 5 Give me a thumbs up if the answer is yes and a thumbs down if the answer is no. Would it be good to scrawl your homework? Would it be ok to scrawl a note to your friend? Would it be fine to sc rawl on your math book? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Scrawl. Word 2: Refreshing Step 2 The next thing they knewSPLASH!their prin cipal was swimming laps in the sink. They tried their best not to giggle. Very refreshing, said Mr. Bundy.

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160 Step 3 Say the word with me. Refreshing. (Show the word card) What does refreshing mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is refreshing, it is pleasan tly different from what you are used to. Step 5 On a really hot day, a cool drink of water is very refreshing. Which word goes with refreshing: pleasant unpleasant hard? Have you ever had something refreshing? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Refreshing.. Word 3 Commotion Step 2 Ms. Moore heard the commotion and came running. Step 3 Say the word with me. Commotion. What is a commotion? Listen for responses. Step 4 A commotion is a lot of noise and confusion. Step 5 A bee flew into the classroom and caused a commotion. Once, I was riding down the street, and a car wa s on the wrong side of the road, driving in the wrong direction, it caused quite a commotion. Can you think of a time when there was a commotion? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Commotion.

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161 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 32 Book Turtle Spring Zagwyn, D. T. (1998). Turtle spring Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press. The changing seasons bring surprises to Clee, in cluding a new baby brother early in the year and a turtle whose life seems to crawl away inthe winter. Target Words: insisted, contented, emerged Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Insist Step 2 Arent you the lucky one? everyone insisted from orbits around the crib. Clee felt like a lost moon. Step 3 Say the word with me, insisted. (Show the word card) Insisted looks like word we have talked about before. Does anyone remember what it means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone insists, they really want someth ing to happen, and they say it in a firm way. Step 5 Complete each sentence. The boys mother insisted that he come inside the house because. The doctor insisted that the lady be admitted to the hospital because The baby insisted on having his bottle because. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Insist. Word 2: Content Step 2 Clees turtle sunned herself. She looked content, having ju st gobbled three worms. Step 3

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162 Say the word with me. Content. (Show the word card) What does content mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is content, they are happy and satisfied. Step 5 When I have a good book, a full stomach, and a soft chair, I am content. What has to be in place for you to be content? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Content. Word 3 Emerge Step 2 By early April the big snowbanks were disappearing. The garden emerged shabby and moist. Step 3 Say the word with me. Emerge. What does it mean to emerge? Listen for responses. Step 4 When you emerge, you come out of a place where you had not been before. Step 5 The bears emerged from the cave after sleeping all winter long. The ants emerged from the hole once th ey smelled the cake from the picnic. The puppy emerged from under the bed when his owner came home. Can you think of a sentence using the word, emerge? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Emerge.

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163 APPENDIX E TEACHING CHART USED DURING STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON Things Good Readers Do Question Good questions begin with who, what, when, where, why, and how Clarify You can clarify by mining the context. L ook at words or phrases around what you dont know Substitute a word that you do know See if you recognize parts of the word Summarize Gather up the main parts of what has alrea dy happened, put them in order, and then create a sentence Leave out details Keep it short Predict Use pictures and things that have already happened to help you make a good guess about what might happen next Use what you already know to help you

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165 Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be expl icit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudys Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 1 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrati ons, and using these clues, I predict that this character, I am going to guess that she is Prudy, has a problem (because her hands are up in the air)with a lot of objects it looks to me like she is in her room. Now, I am going to read to see if my prediction is correct. Questioning: The author says that Prudy seemed lik e a normal little girl. She had a sister, a dog, two mice, and her own room. Yes, she seemed norma l, but she collected things. My questions is: Why does collecting things make her not normal? Remember, it is a good question because it begins with why. Let me see if the author ex plains why that makes her something other than normal. Clarifying: I see this word di straction. The author says that Prudys collection drove her dad to distraction. I am not clear on what that means. First, I am going to mine the context. I am gong to look around the word to see if I can get some clues. It says, he was a tidy person who did not like clutter. I am still not exact ly sure, so I am going to see if the word looks like one I know. I see distract in distraction, and I know that to di stract someone means to bother them. So let me see if it makes sense in the sentence. Prudys collection bothered her da d because he was tidy and didnt like clutter. Yes! That makes sense. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Prudy is a little girl who has a huge collection of things. Her collection has gotten out of control, and sh e has to do something about it. She has been walking around looking for ideas about how to get her collec tion under control.

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166 Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be expl icit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudys Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 2 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrati ons, and using these clues, I predict that these boys are brothers and they dance at night. Their bodies look like they are dancing and it is at night because I see the stars. But, the word Kn ight in the title isnt spelled like the night that comes after day, so maybe their name is Knight. I am not sure, lets read on to see what happens. Questioning: The author says that Reverend Kni ght lived in Harlem with his twelve sons and their dog. My question is, Where is their mother? Will the author tell me about her later on? Clarifying: I see this word sermon. I dont know what a sermon is. It doesnt look like a word that I already know. I cant think of one to substitute, so I will mine the context. The author says people came from far and wide to hear his serm ons, and yet he couldnt solve his own problems in his own home. Do people listen to sermons to solve problems? He is a reverend. Are sermons something that preachers give? Do they have to do with church? I think I am in the right area. I will keep reading. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Reve rend Knight has gone through a lot of nannies because they cant solve the mystery of why his sons shoes keep getting worn out so quickly. Now, he has hired a new nanny who seems different from the others.

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167 Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be expl icit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudys Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 3 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrati ons, and using these clues, I predict that the girl on the cover has a pet fox or is friends wi th the fox. She is kind of smiling, and the fox is right beside her. Now, I am going to read to see if that makes correct. (Be sure to emphasize that you were incorrect). Questioning: The author says that the chickens are scared. Why are the chickens scared? Do foxes eat chickens? When chickens are scar ed, does that mean they cant lay eggs? Clarifying: I see this word sly. I am not sure what it means. I am going to mine the context to see if it helps me. I am going to look at the wo rds around sly to see if I can figure out what sly means. Now, Ever-time they corner that ol slic kster, he gets away. I tell you that fox is one sly critter. Does that mean he is fast? Does it mean he is smart? Let me substitute those words to see if they make sense. (Reread the sentence and plug in the ideas). Well, it could mean both because they both make sense. I am going to ke ep thinking about sly to see if the meaning becomes more clear as I read on. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Flossie s grandmother told her to take some eggs to a neighbor, but Flossie has to watch out for a fox in the forest.

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168 Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be expl icit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudys Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 4 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrati ons, and using these clues, I predict that the girl on the cover is sick with a condition called stripes. I thin k she is sick because she has a thermometer in her mouth, and she is holding a cup with a straw in it, and her face looks very sad. She is also in bed. Now, I am going to read to see if my prediction is correct. Questioning: The author says that Camilla screamed when she looked in the mirror. My question is, Why did she scream ? I could guess that her dre ss didnt look good on her and she was worried about whether she would be able to impress people. Lets read on to see if we can figure it out. Clarifying: I see this word c ontagious. The author says that Other parents ar e afraid that Camillas stripes might be contagious. The word doesnt look like on that I already know, so I am going to look at other words and ideas around it to see if I can figure it out. Now, why would other parents be worried about Camilla? Hmmmm aybe they think that their kids can catch Camillas stripes. Maybe contagious means othe r people can catch it. Lets put that in the sentence to see if it I makes sense. Theyre afraid other people can catch th ose stripes. Yes, that works! Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Camilla Cream is a girl who cares about what people think of her. On the first day of school, she was covered in stripes. Now, different doctors and experts are trying to figure out how to make her stripes go away.

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173 Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen with Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to pr ovide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaborativ ely if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 9 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Queen with Bees in Her Hair I want you to help me clarify things that I dont unde rstand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I r ead, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of th e three ways to clarify. Clarifying: I will start with the cover. I am al ready confused about something? I dont get why she has bees in her hair. People generally dont walk around with b ees in their hair. Bees sting people. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages ha ve been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. Th is should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I cant figure out what seldom means. I am not sure why the Kings people never see him. I am not sure how the people can get the bees over the other side of the wall, I think they will fly back across.

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174 Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen with Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to pr ovide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaborativ ely if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 10 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Tale of Hilda Louise I want you to help me clarify things that I dont understand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I r ead, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of th e three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages ha ve been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. Th is should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not exactly sure about what happened to her parents. Did they die? I need clarification on the word Magnifique. It looks like anot her word I knowmagnificent. I am not sure what maneuver means.

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175 Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen with Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to pr ovide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaborativ ely if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 11 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Red Hen and Sly Fox I want you to help me clarify things that I dont understand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I r ead, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of th e three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages ha ve been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. Th is should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what darn means? What does he want her to do to his socks? What does bound mean?

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176 Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen with Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to pr ovide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaborativ ely if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 12 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Most Wonderful Egg in the World I want you to help me clarify thi ngs that I dont unders tand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I read, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages ha ve been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. Th is should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what quarreling means. What is advice? What does modestly mean?

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177 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea with Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teac hing chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow th em to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 13 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Kate and the Beanstalk While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the st rategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: I am looking at the cover and the title, and wonde ring if this story is similar to Jack and the Beanstalk. How is Kate going to make food with the beans? How did the beanstalk grow in one day? What is a giantess? Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what despair means. This is tricky, what does extraordinary mean ? I recognize the words extra and ordinary. What does forlorn mean? These words are confusing; I fear nothing when I am doing right? I need to think about what means. I am confused about, from cocks crow to owls hoot. What does that mean?

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178 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea with Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teac hing chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow th em to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 14 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Tea with Milk While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the st rategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: The title is Tea with Milk but this girl is standing in a yard. How are they related? Why are they calling her a foreigner? Why didnt she tell her mom she was an elevator girl? Is Osaka a city where May will feel less like a foreigner? Possible Clarifications: I am confused about the word foreigner. If Mays parents are Japanese, and so is sh e, why is she a foreigner to the others? What does insistent mean?

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179 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea with Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teac hing chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow th em to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 15 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Invivisible Mistake Case While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questio ns and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the st rategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why is the mistakecase invisible? Why didnt Charlotte just apologize to her friend? Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what suspicious means. How does one look when squinting?

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180 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea with Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teac hing chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow th em to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 16 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Bantam of the Opera While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the st rategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why is Luigi different from the other roosters? Why doesnt the head rooste r like the way Luigi sings? Possible Clarifications: I am confused about the word attract. I am not sure what a Rigoletto is.

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181 Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with no Feathers S Easter Egg Farm General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review th e summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guid ed practice of the stra tegy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 17 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Honest-to-Goodness Truth I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you thi nk it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what st udents have to contribute, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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182 Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with no Feathers S Easter Egg Farm General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review th e summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guid ed practice of the stra tegy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 18 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called No Place for a Pig. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you thi nk it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what st udents have to contribu te, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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183 Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Sleeping Bobby S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with No Feathers General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review th e summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guid ed practice of the stra tegy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 19 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Sleeping Bobby I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be liste n and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what st udents have to contribu te, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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184 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Sleeping Bobby S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with No Feathers General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review th e summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guid ed practice of the stra tegy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 20 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with No Feathers. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what st udents have to contribute, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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185 Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Doras Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: questioning, clarifying, and summarizing Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teach ing chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having troub le. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 21 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Easter Egg Farm. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. Wh ile I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why does the hens squabbling bother Pauline? Why does Pauline lay su ch different eggs? How is Pauline going to lay enough eggs for every child in town? Possible Clarifications: What does inspiration mean? What does scurry mean?

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186 Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Doras Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: questioning, clarifying, and summarizing Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teach ing chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having troub le. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 22 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Superhero Max. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. Wh ile I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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187 Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Doras Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: questioning, clarifying, and summarizing Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teach ing chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having troub le. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 23 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Doras Box. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. While I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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188 Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Doras Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: questioning, clarifying, and summarizing Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teach ing chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having troub le. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 24 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called When Jo Louis Won the Title. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and pr acticing. While I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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189 Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use th e strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 25 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Precious and the Boo Hag. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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190 Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use th e strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 26 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Brave Little Seamstress. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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191 Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use th e strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 27 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Verdi. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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192 Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use th e strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 28 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Wolf Comes to Town. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remi nd them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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193 Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the less ons will be on independent use of all strategies Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strate gies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because th e onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watchi ng for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having tr ouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 29 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Eggs Mark the Spot. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the stra tegies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it an d no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process

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194 Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the less ons will be on independent use of all strategies Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strate gies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because th e onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watchi ng for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having tr ouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 30 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Pizza for the Queen. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the stra tegies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it an d no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process

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195 Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the less ons will be on independent use of all strategies Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strate gies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because th e onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watchi ng for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having tr ouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 31 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Frog Principal. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the stra tegies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it an d no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process

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196 Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the less ons will be on independent use of all strategies Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strate gies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because th e onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watchi ng for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having tr ouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 32 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Turtle Spring. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the strategies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it an d no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process

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197 APPENDIX G STRATEGY INTRODUCTION SCHEDULE Day Strategy Phase 1 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 2 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 3 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 4 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 5 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 6 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 7 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 8 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 9 C Guided Practice 10 C Guided Practice 11 C Guided Practice 12 C Guided Practice 13 QC Guided Practice 14 QC Guided Practice 15 QC Guided Practice 16 QC Guided Practice 17 S Guided Practice 18 S Guided Practice 19 S Guided Practice 20 S Guided Practice 21 QCS Guided Practice 22 QCS Guided Practice 23 QCS Guided Practice 24 QCS Guided Practice 25 P Guided Practice with a gradua l releasetoward independent use 26 P Guided Practice with a gradua l releasetoward independent use 27 P Guided Practice with a gradua l releasetoward independent use 28 P Guided Practice with a gradua l releasetoward independent use 29 QCSP Independent Strategy Usewith guidance if needed 30 QCSP Independent Strategy Usewith guidance if needed 31 QCSP Independent Strategy Usewith guidance if needed 32 QCSP Independent Strategy Usewith guidance if needed

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198 APPENDIX H TREATMENT FIDELITY CHECKLISTS Vocabulary-Focused Intervention Treatment Fidelity Checklist Instructor: _________________________________________ Date: _____________ Observer: _________________________________________ Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time and contextualize them for their roles in the story. Step 3: Repeat the word to create a phonological representation of the word. Step 4: Introduce a student friendly definition. Step 5: Discuss the word in contexts other than the one used in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word again to rei nforce its phonological representation. Yes No NA The instructor interspersed ope n questions throughout the story. The instructor gave children opportun ities to talk about ideas in the story. The instructor encouraged children to make connections among ideas in the story as the story moved along. Yes No NA The instructor introduced the target words one at a time. The instructor contextualized the words for their roles in the story. Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to repeat the target word to reinforce its phonological representation. Yes No NA The instructor explained the words using student-frie ndly definitions. Yes No NA The instructor discussed the target words using multiple contexts that are different from the story. Yes No NA

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199 The instructor encouraged students to repeat the target word to reinforce its phonological representation.

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200 Strategies-Focused Intervention Treatment Fidelity Checklist Instructor: _________________________________________ Date: _____________ Observer: _________________________________________ Predicting Questioning Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to make logical predictions based on clues from either the text or illustrations. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students enga ged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practi ce for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged stude nts to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy. Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to ask questions based on main ideas in the story. The instructor encouraged students to ask detail-oriented questions. The instructor encouraged student s to ask inferential questions. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students enga ged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practi ce for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged stude nts to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy.

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201 Clarifying Summarizing Yes No NA The instructor encouraged student s to express confusion regarding ideas or events in the text. The instructor encouraged students to identify words that were difficult to pronounce or understand. The instructor encouraged students to clarify misunderstandings in three ways. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students enga ged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practi ce for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged stude nts to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged students to give key points in a short, one or two-sentence summary. Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to summarize in a logical order. The instructor encouraged students to use illustrations to summarize the text. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students enga ged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practi ce for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged stude nts to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy.

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203 Biemiller, A. (1999). Language and reading success Cambridge, MA: Brookline. Biemiller, A., & Slonim, N. (2001). Estimating root word vocabulary growth in normative and advantaged populations: Evidence for a co mmon sequence of vocabulary acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology 93, 498-520. Blachowicz, C. L. (2000). Vocabulary instruction: In. M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. Vol. III Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates. Block, C. (2000). Reading instruction in the new millennium. In A. Costa (Ed.), Developing minds (pp. 472-490). Alexandria, VA: Associ ation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Block, C. & Pressley, M. (2003). Best practices in comprehension instruction. In L. Morrow, L. Gambrell, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (2nd ed.) (pp. 111126). New York: Guildford Press. Brabham, E. G., & Lynch-Brown, C. (2002). Effects of teachers reading-aloud styles on vocabulary acquisition and comprehension of st udents in the early elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology 94, 465-473. Brett, A., Rothlein, L., & Hurley, M. (1996). Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories and explanation of target words. Elementary School Journal 96, 415-422. Britto, P. R., Fuligni, A. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. ( 2006). Reading ahead: E ffective interventions for young childrens early literacy development. In D. K. Dickinson and S. B. Neuman (Eds.). Handbook of Early Literacy Research,Vol. 2 (pp. 311-332). New York: Guilford Press. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1967). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. Collins Cobuild Dictionary (2006). Glasgow, Great Britain : HarperCollins Publishers. Condus, M. M., Marshall, K. J., & Miller, S. R. (1986). Effects of keyword mnemonic strategy on vocabulary acquisition and maintena nce by learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities 19, 609-613. Coyne, M. D., Simmons, D. C., Kameenui, E. J., & Stoolmiller, M., (2004). Teaching vocabulary during shared storybook readings: An examination of differential effects. Exceptionality, 12( 3), 145-162. Craig, H. K., & Washington, J. A. (2006). Recent re search on the language and literacy skills of African American students in th e early years. In D.K. Dickinson & S. B. Neuman (Eds.). Handbook of Early Literacy Research Vol. 2 (pp. 198-210). New York: Guilford Press.

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209 Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew eff ects in reading: Some conseque nces of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly 21, 360-407. Tabors, P., Snow, C., & Dickinson, D. (2001) Home and schools together: Supporting language and literacy development. In D. Dickinson, & P. Tabors (Eds.). Beginning literacy with language: Young childr en learning at home and school (pp. 313-334). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Tuckman, B. W. (1998). Conducting educational research Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Group/Thomson Learning. Vaughn, S., Chard, D., Bryant, D. Coleman, M., Tyler, B., Lina n-Thompson, S., & Kouzekanani, K. (2000). Fluency and comprehension in terventions for thir d grade students. Remedial and Special Education 21, 325-335. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society : The development of highe r psychological processes Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Watts, S. M. (1995). Vocabulary instruction during reading lessons in six classrooms. Journal of Reading Behavior 27, 399-424. Williams, K. T. (1997). Expressive vocabulary test Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Williams, J. P., Hall, K. M., Lauer, K. D., Staffo rd, B., DeSisto, L. A, & deCani, J. S. (2005). Expository text comprehension in the primary grade classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology 97, 538-550. Wixson, K. K. (1986). Vocabulary instruction and childre ns comprehension of basal stories. Reading Research Quarterly 21, 317-329. Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading mastery tests-Revised Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

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