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The Influence of Project Challenge on Levels of Psychosocial Development and Resilience in Adolescent Girls at Risk for ...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021251/00001

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Title: The Influence of Project Challenge on Levels of Psychosocial Development and Resilience in Adolescent Girls at Risk for Delinquency
Physical Description: 1 online resource (228 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mann, Michael Jospeh
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: adolescent, delinquent, development, evaluation, girls, intervention, resilience
Health Education and Behavior -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: At-risk girls experience a disproportionate number of intense and disruptive traumatic life events which can adversely affect healthy psychosocial development. Such disruptions contribute to higher levels of delinquency, risk behavior, poor health, and diminished quality of life. Relatively few programs focus directly on enhancing the development of at-risk adolescent girls, and little research has examined the outcomes of such programs. This study 1) described a sample of girls attending alternative schools in terms of their life-time histories of the developmental challenges associated with increased risk of delinquency and poor life outcomes, and 2) confirmed Project Challenge -- an outdoor adventure program designed specifically for at-risk girls -- as an effective program for enhancing psychosocial development and promoting individual factors related to resilience and life success including self-confidence, self-esteem, perceived social support, mattering, and identity.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Michael Jospeh Mann.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Pigg, R. Morgan.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021251:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021251/00001

Material Information

Title: The Influence of Project Challenge on Levels of Psychosocial Development and Resilience in Adolescent Girls at Risk for Delinquency
Physical Description: 1 online resource (228 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mann, Michael Jospeh
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: adolescent, delinquent, development, evaluation, girls, intervention, resilience
Health Education and Behavior -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: At-risk girls experience a disproportionate number of intense and disruptive traumatic life events which can adversely affect healthy psychosocial development. Such disruptions contribute to higher levels of delinquency, risk behavior, poor health, and diminished quality of life. Relatively few programs focus directly on enhancing the development of at-risk adolescent girls, and little research has examined the outcomes of such programs. This study 1) described a sample of girls attending alternative schools in terms of their life-time histories of the developmental challenges associated with increased risk of delinquency and poor life outcomes, and 2) confirmed Project Challenge -- an outdoor adventure program designed specifically for at-risk girls -- as an effective program for enhancing psychosocial development and promoting individual factors related to resilience and life success including self-confidence, self-esteem, perceived social support, mattering, and identity.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Michael Jospeh Mann.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Pigg, R. Morgan.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021251:00001


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THE INFLUENCE OF PROJECT CHALLENGE ON LEVELS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND RESILENCE IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS AT RISK FOR DELINQUENCY By MICHAEL JOSEPH MANN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007 1

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2007 Michael Joseph Mann 2

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To all of the women and girls who have taught me so much. You have helped me become a better man. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank Dr. R. Morgan Pigg for serving as my academic advisor and dissertation chair. Dr. Pigg possesses a real gift for understanding pe ople as individuals and accommodating their personal interests, motivations, and styles. Dr. Pigg took the time to know me well, understand my priorities, and tailor my doctoral experience to unique ly meet my needs. I will always remember and appreciate his appr oach to graduate study, and humbly attempt to provide the same type of experien ce for my students. On a persona l note, it has been said that a person is truly successful when the people who know you best love and respect you most. I have truly appreciated spending th e past 4 years with someone as successful as Dr. Pigg. I would also like to thank my entire comm ittee Dr. Barbara Rienzo, Dr. William Chen, Dr. Kathy Gratto, and Dr. David Miller for being so supportive and helpful during my dissertation. I was fortunate to have a comm ittee composed of member s who are each gifted scholars and incredible people, role models of both professional excellence and personal integrity. I deeply appreciated both the technical expertise and generous amounts of time, encouragement, kindness, and patience they provided during my dissertation. I would also like to thank Dr Robert Weiler for his assi stance. Although not on my committee, Dr. Weiler took a real interest in th e project and encouraged me to use the most rigorous research design possible. His encouragement inspired me and made an important contribution to the quality of this study. In this dissertation, I evaluate Project Challenge. Although I am a proud member of the Project Challenge team, that is all I am one proud member. Ultimately, Project Challenge was developed and delivered collaboratively. Over many late nights, Dustin Hawkins, Melissa Kondor, and myself sat by a campfire surrounde d by sleeping girls a nd discussed the days events, trying to understand what worked, what did not, and planning, planning, planning. I may 4

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have been the one who spent hours in the libr ary, but the value of their contributions, collaborations, and improvements cannot be ove rstated. Rakel Sanchez also made a big difference on the trips and wa s an essential part of the Project Challenge team during this study. Additionally, three very special people generously supported Project Challenge and this study. Mike Nebesnyk, Danielle Lyles, and T.C. Smith made Project Challenge possible every day. They provided critical administrative support that allowed the opera tional staff to focus on changing girls lives for the better I appreciated all of your help and am in deeply in debt to each of you. Silver River Marine Institute and Infinity Schools cooperated in every way possible referring girls, encourag ing girls, and attending Project Challenge functions. Conducting a true experimental study can be challenging in many ways, team members from both schools worked hard to overcome those challenges and directly contributed to the succ ess of the study. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Tami, an d all of my family and friends. Each of you provided me with limitless amounts of love, encouragement, and support. The past two years were hard. I was either on a trip or lock ed in my office reading and writing. I will always appreciate your patience and understanding. You made a lot of sacrifices, never lost faith in me, and were there when I needed you that will always mean a lot to me. I am humbled by your love and truly grateful for it. 5

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........9 LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................................10 LIST OF TERMS...........................................................................................................................11 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .15 Problem...................................................................................................................................15 Purpose...................................................................................................................................16 Rationale.................................................................................................................................16 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....19 Delimitations...........................................................................................................................19 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........19 Assumptions.................................................................................................................... .......20 Summary.................................................................................................................................20 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................21 Developmental Challenge and At-Risk Girls.........................................................................21 Stress and Coping.............................................................................................................. .....24 The Transactional Model of Stress..................................................................................24 The Hardiness Extension.................................................................................................26 Resiliency...............................................................................................................................27 The Process of Developing Resilience............................................................................28 Individual Characteristics and Resilience.......................................................................31 External Support and Resilience.....................................................................................33 The Gender Limitation in Resiliency Theory..................................................................35 Adolescent Girls and Development........................................................................................35 Theme 1: Relationship as a Context................................................................................36 Theme 2: The Legitimacy of Care...................................................................................36 Theme 3: Caring for Self and Others..............................................................................37 Theme 4: Challenge as Growth Promoting.....................................................................38 Theme 5: Differences in Learning Style.........................................................................39 Theme 6: Environmental Th reats to Girls Safety..........................................................40 The Model of Girls Resilience: Integr ating Stress, Resilience, and Womens Development.................................................................................................................... ...41 Summary.................................................................................................................................43 6

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3 METHODS...................................................................................................................... .......48 Research Design.....................................................................................................................48 Research Variables.................................................................................................................50 Instruments.................................................................................................................... .........50 Self-Confidence...............................................................................................................50 Self-Esteem.................................................................................................................... ..52 Perceived Social Support.................................................................................................52 Mattering...................................................................................................................... ...53 Identity....................................................................................................................... ......53 Developmental Challenge and Demographic Information..............................................54 Instrument Pilot............................................................................................................... 54 Participants.............................................................................................................................55 Setting........................................................................................................................ .............56 Procedures..................................................................................................................... ..........56 Pre-Program: Team Training...........................................................................................57 Phase 1: Assessment........................................................................................................57 Phase 2: Preparation........................................................................................................57 Phase 3: Challenge Trip...................................................................................................58 Phase 4: Transference......................................................................................................60 Data Collection.......................................................................................................................61 Strategy 1: Instrument Battery.........................................................................................62 Strategy 2: Project Challenge Assessment Interview.....................................................63 Strategy 3: Particip ant Exit In terviews............................................................................65 Data Analysis..........................................................................................................................65 Research Question 1........................................................................................................65 Research Questions 2-6...................................................................................................65 Quantitative Analysis...............................................................................................66 Participant Ex it Interviews.......................................................................................67 Summary.................................................................................................................................69 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........71 Participant Demographics....................................................................................................... 71 Research Question 1............................................................................................................ ...72 Research Question 2............................................................................................................ ...73 Research Question 3............................................................................................................ ...74 Research Question 4............................................................................................................ ...75 Research Question 5............................................................................................................ ...77 Research Question 6............................................................................................................ ...78 Participant Ex it Interviews.....................................................................................................79 Self-Confidence...............................................................................................................79 Trust.................................................................................................................................81 Self-Esteem.................................................................................................................... ..82 Perceived Social Support and Mattering.........................................................................83 7

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8 Identity....................................................................................................................... ......84 Participant Satisfaction....................................................................................................85 Summary.................................................................................................................................86 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.........................................94 Summary.................................................................................................................................95 Conclusions.............................................................................................................................98 Self-Confidence...............................................................................................................99 Self-Esteem.................................................................................................................... 100 Identity....................................................................................................................... ....102 Perceived Social Support and Mattering.......................................................................103 Trust...............................................................................................................................104 Recommendations................................................................................................................ .105 Future Research.............................................................................................................105 Project Challenge ..........................................................................................................106 Professional Practice.....................................................................................................107 APPENDICES A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPLICATION AND APPROVAL.....................109 B PARENT/GUARDIAN INFORMED CONSENT...............................................................114 C PARTICIPANT ASSENT SCRIPTS...................................................................................116 D PEARLIN MASTERY SCALE............................................................................................117 E THE HOPE SCALE.............................................................................................................11 8 F ROSENBERG SELF-ESTEEM SCALE..............................................................................119 G MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALE OF PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT.........................120 H INTERPERSONAL MATTERING.....................................................................................121 I APSI SENSE OF IDENTITY ITEMS..................................................................................122 J PROJECT CHALLENGE ASSESSMENT INTERVIEW...................................................123 K PROJECT CHALLENGE CURRICULUM.........................................................................138 L PROJECT CHALLENGE PA RTICIPANT JOURNAL......................................................177 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................209 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................228

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1. Bonnie Bernards list of personal qualities associated with resilience..................................45 2-2. Comparison of personal qualiti es associated with resilience................................................46 3-1. Instrument pilot re liability test results................................................................................ ...70 4-1. Population demographics.................................................................................................. ....88 4-2. Descriptive statistics: Hist ory of developmental challenge...................................................89 4-3. Interaction between treatment and time.................................................................................90 4-4. Means by variable a nd time of m easurement........................................................................91 4-5. Changes in means over time due to treatment.......................................................................92 9

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1. The Model of Girls Resilience........................................................................................... ..47 10

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LIST OF TERMS Development Aspects associated with growing, ma turing, and becoming a competent adult (Steinberg, 2005). Self-confidence Describes the individuals assessment of their ability to successfully solve problems, make decisions, and consis tently behave in ways conducive to life success. Mastery A persons confidence in their abi lity to control their personal destiny (Pearlin, Menaghan, Lieberman, & Mullan, 1981). Conceptualized as a synthesized measure of self-efficacy a nd internal locus of control. Hope An overall perception that goals can be met (Snyder, et al., 1991). Self-esteem An individuals respect for themselv es and sense of worthiness; does not include a sense of being superior to others, nor a sense of feeling worse than others. (Rosenberg, 1965) Perceived Social Support A persons perception of the extent of their support network, the reliable provision of support, and the ade quacy of support (Canty-Mitchell & Zimlet, 2000). Mattering The psychological tendency to eval uate the self as si gnificant to other people (Marshall, 2001). Identity A personality construct that pertai ns to a persons having: a firm sense of who one is, a purpose in life, a clear se t of personal valu es, know what one wants out of life and where one is he aded, and having personal goals for the future (Lounsbury, Huffstetler, Leong, & Gibson, 2005). 11

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At-risk A young person with a heighten ed chance of expe riencing poor life outcomes; typically possesses multiple risk factors associated with poor life outcomes (Rak & Patterson, 1996). Delinquent An adolescent under the supervis ion of the court for breaking a law or laws. Alternative School A school whose purpose involves educating students who misbehave in traditional school settings. Gender-specific Designed in refere nce to a specific gender; utiliz ing research and strategies pertinent to that gender. Resilience The combination of factors th at allow a young person in a challenging or stressful environment to experience better than anticipated outcomes (Christiansen & Evans, 2005; Davey, Eaker, & Walters, 2003; Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000). 12

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13 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE INFLUENCE OF PROJECT C HALLENGE ON THE PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND RESILIENCE OF GIRLS AT RISK FOR DELINQUENCY By Michael J. Mann August 2007 Chair: R. Morgan Pigg Major: Health and Human Performance At-risk girls experience a disproportionate numbe r of intense and disr uptive traumatic life events which can adversely affect healthy ps ychosocial development. Such disruptions contribute to higher levels of de linquency, risk behavior, poor hea lth, and diminished quality of life. Relatively few programs focus directly on enhancing the development of at-risk adolescent girls, and little research has examined the outcomes of such programs. This study 1) described a sample of girls attending alternat ive schools in terms of their life -time histories of developmental challenge associated with increased risk of delinquency and poor life outcomes; and 2) confirmed Project Challenge an outdoor adventure program de signed specifically for at-risk girls, as an effective program for enhancing psychosocial development and promoting resilience. The study used a component mixed methods QUAN-qual design. Quantitative methods were used as the dominant form of data collection and analysis in this st udy. The quantitative portion of the study used an experi mental cross-over design with 35 subjects alternately assigned to treatment and control conditions. Qualitative methods were utilized in a supporting role to elaborate or enhance quantitative findings. Repeated Measures ANOVA supported significa nt differences in all 5 of the target variables: self-confidence, self-esteem, perceive d social support, mattering, and identity. Effect

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size estimates suggested Project Challenge had a strong effect on se lf-confidence; a strongerthan-moderate effect on self-est eem, mattering, and identity; and a moderate effect on perceived social support. Gains in self-confidence, self -esteem, and identity persisted two weeks after treatment. Participant exit interviews confirme d the studys quantitative findings. Additionally, participants reported positive experiences with trust as a meaningful program outcome. 14

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In contemporary American culture, many a dolescent girls encounter violence, sexual exploitation, fragmented families, school failure, serious threats to emotional health, strict gender roles and stereotypes, unrealistic messages about appearance, as well as waning self-confidence, self-esteem, and sense of iden tity (Johnson, Roberts, & Worell, 1999; Pipher, 1994; AAUW, 1995). Each challenge offers girls both opportunitie s to grow and exposures to risk. Most girls navigate these obstacles successfully and grow into healthy, well-adju sted, competent women (Johnson, Roberts, & Worell, 1999). They strugg le, but overcome these difficulties; and over time, emerge strong, capable, and confident. Some girls struggle more than others. They may face more challenges or more intense threats, or they may possess fewer personal or soci al resources to meet the obstacles they face. Regardless of the specific cause or situation, these girls become overwhelmed by threats to their well-being and, as a result, develop beliefs and choose behaviors that place them at-risk of failing to succeed in life. Problem At-risk girls experience a disproportionate numbe r of intense and disr uptive traumatic life events which can adversely affect healthy ps ychosocial development. Such disruptions contribute to higher levels of risk behavior, poor health, and diminished quality of life. Relatively few programs focus directly on enhanci ng the development of at-risk adolescent girls, and little research has examined the outcomes of such programs. This study described a sample of girls attending alternative schools in term s of their lifetime hist ories of developmental challenge associated with increased risk of delin quency and poor life outco mes, and investigated 15

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the outcomes associated with Project Challenge an outdoor program designed to use adventure experiences to enhance the psychosocial deve lopment and resiliency of at-risk girls. Purpose Researchers recommend developing and evalua ting programs designed specifically to meet the needs of delinquent girls and girls at-risk for delinquenc y (Bilchik, 1998; Bilchik, 1999; A.B.A., 2001). Yet, few studies in the professional lite rature address the effectiveness of such programs (Belenko, Sprott, & Petersen; 2004). Still fewer focus on developmental programming designed to enhance and support positive psychosocial development, particularly gender-specific approaches tailored to the developmental chal lenges most often faced by girls at-risk for delinquency. This study 1) contributed to the professional literature by de scribing the effects of stress and trauma on at-risk girls psychosocia l development and resilience, and 2) confirmed Project Challenge as an effective intervention for e nhancing psychosocial development and promoting resilience among at-risk girls. Rationale Previous studies reported by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) describe painful and traumatic life even ts as the primary antecedents of delinquent and health risk behavior in adolescent girls (Bilchik, 1998; Bilchik, 1999; Chesney-Lind, 2001). These life events include: 1) physical and sexua l abuse, 2) family fr agmentation, 3) school failure, 4) untreated health problems, especially those related to mental and emotional health, and 5) convergence of risk factor s in early adolescence (Bilchi k, 1998; Bilchik, 1999; Chesney-Lind, 2001). Each of these difficult, painful, and trau matic life experiences have been described as contributing to maladaptive psychosocial develo pment in girls and predisposing girls toward maladaptive coping patterns related higher rates of delinquency (Sondheimer, 2001; Calhoun & Jurgens, 1993; Caspi, Lynham, Mofitt, & Silva, 1993). 16

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In addition to delinquency, these young women b ear a disproportionate amount of risk in four critical areas including subs tance abuse, risky sexual behavior vulnerability to violence, and mental health problems (Crosby et al., 2004). These harmful consequences associated with developmental disruptions are not limited to adolescence. Too often in the absence of intervention they last well into adulthood (Aalsma & Lapsey, 2001; Bardone, et al., 1998). Girls delinquency frequently reflects a disruption in heal thy psychosocial development characterized as a maladaptive response to trau matic or painful life experiences. As such, interventions designed to reach delinquent girls or girls at-risk for delinquency especially prevention-oriented interventions should not focus primarily on manipulating criminogenic factors typically associated with correctional re habilitation. Instead, pr ograms should be based on theories focused on recovering lost developmental progress and promoting resilience and effective coping in girls. The professional literature related to stress resiliency, and womens development confirms the unique aspects of growth and development, bot h personal and social, for adolescent girls, as well as the potential negative outcomes that can occur from failing to recognize these unique aspects of development. Synthesizing theory related to stress and coping, resilience, and girls development, and effectively usi ng insights gleaned from that synt hesis, constitutes a reasonable and promising strategy for developing programs de signed to help at-risk girls grow into strong, capable, and confident young women prepared to cope effectively with past, present, and future life challenges Prevention and early intervention programs s hould provide a continuum of services for delinquent girls that meet two criteria. First, these programs should re duce girls levels of delinquency. This purpose relates directly to the primary public safety goal of any delinquency17

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related program. Second, these programs should help girls heal from, cope with, and recover developmental progress lost to traumatic and pa inful life experiences, thereby increasing their capacity to resist delinquency and engage success at home, in school, and in their communities. To accomplish these goals, effective prevention a nd early intervention programs should develop girls internal resources, and connect girls to external resour ces for support. Both of these strategies can make an enduring impact on promoting the health, well-being, and successful life outcomes for girls. In spite of these obvious needs, commun ities rarely provide prevention or early intervention services for delinque nt girls or girls at-risk for delinquency. Delinquent girls wait longer for services than do boys (Daniel, 1999). They rarely enter programs designed to meet their gender-specific needs or that account for di fferences in their reasons for offending (Acoca, 1999; Daniel, 1999; Manigha, 1998). They often are needlessly placed in deep-end residential programs away from their home communities (Daniel, 1999). In response to increasing rates of delinquenc y among girls, a range of organizations and agencies including the federal Office of Juven ile Justice, Delinquency, and Prevention (OJJDP); American Bar Association (ABA); and a number of state government agencies call for developing gender-specific, community-based, pr evention and early intervention programs for delinquent girls (Mullis, Cornille, Mullis, & Huber, 2004; Sondheimer, 2001; Acoca, 1999; Daniel, 1999; Manigha, 1998). While some stat es have passed legislat ion requiring and funding a balanced continuum of services for delinquent girls, the literature conf irms the existence of relatively few gender-specific prevention and inte rvention programs tailored to meet the specific needs of at-risk girls. Even fewer of thes e programs have been rigorously examined using methods designed to determine their effectiveness. 18

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Research Questions 1. What levels of developmental challenge exis t among adolescent girls attending alternative schools? 2. What differences exist in participant leve ls of self-confidence based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? 3. What differences exist in participant leve ls of self-esteem based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? 4. What differences exist in participant levels of perceived social s upport based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? 5. What differences exist in participant levels of mattering based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? 6. What differences exist in participant levels of identity based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? Delimitations The study was conducted at two purposively selected alternative sc hools located in the North Central Florida geographical region. Participants included at-ri sk girls aged 13-17 who volunteered for the study. Data were collected during the 2006-2007 academic year. Study variables were measured using a protocol consisting of the Pearlin Mastery Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hope Scale, A PSI Identity Sub-scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, General Mattering S cale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Data were self-reported by program participants. Existing program records were used to obtai n demographic data and information about specific participant characteristics. The study used a mixed methods experimental cross-over design. Limitations The two alternative schools purpos ively selected for the study may not have represented all alternative schools in Florida or elsewhere. Participants who volunteered for the study ma y not have represented all at-risk girls attending alternative schools. 19

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20 Data collected during the 2006-2007 academic year may have differed from data collected during other periods of time. Instruments selected for the study protocol ma y not have fully described their associated constructs. Participant responses may not have been ca ndid or may have been based on inaccurate perceptions. Existing program records may not have cap tured all pertinent information about participants. Use of a mixed methods experimental crossover design may have limited the range of legitimate options availa ble for data analysis. Assumptions The two alternative schools sel ected purposively for the study were considered adequately representative of a lternative schools in the North Ce ntral Florida geographical area. Participants who volunteered for the study were considered adequa tely representative of atrisk girls attending alternative schools. Data collected during the 2006-2007 academic y ear were considered adequate for the purpose of the study. Instruments selected for the study protocol adeq uately described their associated constructs for the purpose of the study. Participants responded with adequate levels of honesty and perception for the purpose of the study. Existing program records captured an adequate level of demographi c and other pertinent information about participants for the purpose of the study. Use of a mixed methods experimental cross-ove r design provided adequate legitimate data analysis options for the purpose of the study. Summary Delinquent girls experience intense and tr aumatic life events disruptive to positive psychosocial development. These developmenta l disruptions often manifest as delinquent behavior, risky health decision making, and poor life outcomes. Helping girls overcome developmental delays and maladaptive developmen t represents an import ant goal for parents, teachers, counselors, youth development specialists, and health educators. Chapter 2 summarizes the professional literatu re describing risk profiles a ssociated with delinquency in girls, elements essential for the healthy deve lopment of girls, and promising interventions designed to promote the devel opment of resilience in girls.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Adolescence remains a period associated with high rates of risky health behavior (CDC, 2004). Although recent trends demonstrate overall de creases in a variety of adolescent risk behaviors, certain groups continue to engage in increasing levels of risk (CDC, 2004). Developing interventions that help vulnerable groups reduce dangerous be haviors and increase behaviors that enhance health and well-being contributes to the im portant public health goals of decreasing overall adolescent morbidity and mortality and increasing positive life outcomes (Porter & Lindberg, 2000). The 1997 Commonwealth Fund study of the he alth of adolescent girls drew attention to important issues related to girls health and we ll-being. Core issues included low levels of self-conf idence and self-esteem, high rate s of abuse and depression, and untreated mental and physical h ealth problems. The study described most girls as doing well, but in need of extra support and gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts. The report also suggested some groups of girls were more vulnerable than others. Developmental Challenge and At-Risk Girls Rak and Patterson remind us that at-risk girls are at-risk of failing to succeed in life. Often, girls are at-risk because they face challenges and adversities most young people their age do not face: poverty, family discord, violence, substance abuse, and illness (being) among the hazards (Rak & Patterson, 1996). In other words, an at-risk girl encounters circumstances that increase the likelihood of a poor overall life outcome. A few examples of such outcomes include a life in continued poverty, plagued by mental illn ess, disrupted by substance abuse, or marked by illegal activity. At-risk means that the odds are stacked against a girl. Delinquent girls and girls at-ris k for delinquency represent partic ularly vulnerable groups. Over the past ten years, girls rates of delinquency have steadi ly increased while boys rates of 21

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delinquency have steadily decr eased (Manigha, 1998; Poe-Ya magata & Butts, 1996). Most delinquent girls commit minor offenses that pose little danger to their home communities (Acoca, 1999; Manigha, 1998; Poe-Yamagata & Butts, 1996). Unfortunately, their minor offenses are frequently accompanied by a history of trauma and a variety of serious and risky health behaviors (Acoca 1999; Manigha, 1998). Research describes different reasons for gi rls and boys juvenile offending (Acoca, 1999; Manigha, 1998). Girls offending typically reflects a disrup tion of processes associated with healthy development. It can be characterized by traumatic and painful life experiences (Acoca, 1999; Manigha, 1998). Too often, these experien ces make it difficult for girls to develop healthy and responsible ways to me et their needs and cope with adversity. Further, these painful experiences present their own challenges rela ted to coping and recove ry. Challenges that demand intrapersonal and interp ersonal resources far beyond those associated with normal development. Developmental challenges relate d to girls delinquency ofte n include negative experiences in one or more of five broad categories: 1) ab use and victimization, 2) family fragmentation, 3) school and academic failure, 4) untreated health issues, and 5) the convergence of traumatic experiences in early a dolescence (Acoca, 1999). Specific examples include histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse (Mullis, et al., 2004; Acoca, 1999; Daniel, 1999; Manigha, 1998); fa mily fragmentation and separation from nurturing adults via divorce resulting in low or no contact with a parent, parental incarceration and substance abuse (Acoca, 1999; Daniel, 199 9; Manigha, 1998); academic failure and disconnection from school (Mullis et al., 2004; Acoca, 1999; Ma nigha, 1998); one or more serious health issues such as suicidal id eation, depression, pregnanc y, and substance abuse 22

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(Mullis, et al., 2004; Acoca, 1999; Daniel, 1999); lacking social and work skills (Manigha, 1998); lacking hope for the future (Mullis, et al., 2004), feeling life is oppressive (Mullis, et al., 2004); association with deviant p eers (Mullis, et al., 2004), being under the age of 15 (Mullis, et al., 2004; Manigha, 1998); and being a member of a racial minority group (Mullis, et al., 2004; Manigha, 1998). Many of these ch aracteristics are not only well-e stablished risk factors for youth offending, but are also precursors for risky health behavior, poor health, and disappointing life outcomes. In 1998, the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Preventi on summarized basic requirements for healthy development in girls and outlined common disruptions faced by delinquent girls. Th eir list included: The need for physical safety and healthy physical development being challenged by poverty, homelessness, violence, inadequate healthcare, inade quate nutrition, and substance abuse. The need for trust, love, respect, and valid ation from caring adults to foster healthy emotional development and form positive relationships being challenged by abandonment, family dysfunction, and poor communication. The need for positive female role models to develop healthy identity as a woman being challenged by sexist, racist, an d homophobic messages and a lack of community support. The need for safety to explore their sexua lity at their own pace and a pace that supports healthy sexual development being challenged by sexual abuse, exploitation, and negative me ssages about female sexuality. The need to belong, to feel competent, and to feel worthy being challenged by weakened family ties, negative peer infl uences, academic failure, and low selfesteem. In addition to youth offending, these young wo men bear a disproportionate amount of health risk in four critical ar eas (Crosby, et al., 2004). These areas include 1) substance abuse including tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use; 2) sexual behavior includi ng early onset of sexual intercourse, participation in dangerous sex, hi gh numbers of lifetime partners, incidence of 23

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sexually transmitted infections, and teen pregnancy; 3) violence including resigning themselves to abuse from family members and intimate partne rs; and 4) mental heal th including depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide a ttempts (Crosby, et al., 2004). Fu rther, delinquent girls tend to struggle with these issues well into adulthood (Aalsma & Lapsey, 2001; Ba rdone, et al., 1998). Stress and Coping Girls often commit youth offenses in response to stress and trauma Frequently, these overwhelming and painful life experiences derail the healthy psychosocial development of girls and start their journey down developmental path ways leading to maladaptive coping. Left uninterrupted, their maladaptiv e coping responses too often le ad not only to delinquency, but also risky health behavior, poor health, and disappointing life outcomes. As a result, understanding how girls cope with stress and trau ma and how to intervene when girls are coping ineffectively are critical when de veloping programs for at-risk girls. The Transactional Model of Stress The Transactional Model of St ress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) represents one of the most used theoretical frameworks in stress research and intervention (Sommerfield & McCrae, 2000). This model describes five main constructs. These constructs include stress ors, primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, coping effo rts, and health outcomes. According to the Transactional Model of Stress (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984), the subjective evaluation of a stressor can contribute more to the effects or consequences of a stressful event than the event itself. Lazarus and Folkman refer to this subject evaluation as appraisal. Appraisal consists of two stages: primary and s econdary appraisal. Primary appraisal includes the persons evalua tion of an event as stressful or not stressful. This appraisal focuses on a persons judgment about the signi ficance of an event as stressful, positive, controllable, challenging, benign, or irrelevant (Wenzel, Glanz, & Lerman; 2002). Secondary 24

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appraisal involves a persons assessment regardi ng what they can do about the situation. This assessment includes their perceived ability to change th e situation, perceived ability to manage (their) emotional reactions to th e threat, and expectations about the effectiveness of their coping resources (Wenzel, et al., 2002). Together, primary and secondary appraisals contribute to a persons overall perception of stre ss. This perception di rectly influences physiological responses to stress, emotional responses to stress, and whet her or not the person actively engages efforts to cope. Folkman and Lazarus (1987) describe coping as cognitive and behavioral efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate a st ressor. According to the model, people choose from among three primary coping strategies: problem-focused, emotionfocused, and avoidant strategies. Problemfocused strategies focus on taking action to change the problem or circumstances for the better. Emotion-focused strategies focus on regulating dist ressing emotions. Avoi dant responses tend to deny the problem. People choose coping strategies or combinations of strategies based in large part due to their appraisals (Folkman & Lazarus, 1987). Appr aising a stressor as manageable increases the probability of choosing problem-focused strategi es. Studies suggest problem-focused coping strategies are typically the most adaptive, especially among adolescent females (Wilson, Pritchard, & Revalee, 2005). Adolescent girls who choose problem-focused strategies tend to experience increased psychological health a nd decreased symptoms associated with psychological and physical health problems. Other c oping strategies show less beneficial effects. For instance, adolescent girls choosing emotion-focused strategi es corresponds with increased psychological health, but increased psychological problems and slightly increased physical problems as well. Girls who choos e avoidant responses have the worst outcomes. They tend to 25

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have strongly increased psychological proble ms, highly increased physical symptoms, and slightly decreased psychological vigor. (Wilson, Pritchard, & Revalee, 2005). The Hardiness Extension In 1979, Kobasa extended the Transactional Model of Stress to include 3 personality characteristics or psychologica l predispositions. Kobasa theo rized that certain personality characteristics or psychological pr edispositions interact with both how stress is appraised and the selection of coping strategies. Specifically, she suggested commitment, challenge, and control would have beneficial effects on stress appraisal and coping and be associated with positive health outcomes. Each of these personal charact eristics can be conceptually defined as follows: Commitment: involves belie ving in the importance, interest, value, and meaningfulness of lifes activities. Challenge: reflects the belief that change is normal in life and represents a challenge rather than a threat. Control: based on the belief that life expe riences are predictabl e and controllable. A wide range of research has examined the influence of Hardiness on health, well-being, and quality of life (Shepperd & Kashani, 1991; Florian, Mi kulincer, & Taubman, 1995; Hannah & Morrissey, 2001). Frequently, the Hardiness C oncept has been shown to predict outcomes for men while failing to predict outcomes for wo men (Shepperd & Kashani, 1991; Wiebe, 1991). For instance, in a study related to adolescent heal th the Hardiness Model accurately predicted a variety of mental health conditi ons and physical health symptoms for boys, but failed to predict either outcome for girls (Shepperd & Kashan i, 1991). Also, Wiebe (1991) conducted an investigation into the relationshi p between hardiness, appraisal, and physiological responses to stress. Again, the characteristics associated with hardin ess accurately predicted stress responses for men, while failing to adequately e xplain outcomes related to women. 26

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Over almost five decades, Kobasa, Maddi and a host of other researchers have demonstrated the value of using personality char acteristics to predict perceived stress, coping, and stress outcomes. Although existing research accurately describes male experience, it often fails to describe characteristics that most infl uence womens perceptions of stress, their coping efforts, and stress-related outcomes. Other theories and research, however, may offer opportunities to identify personal ity and psychological characteri stics that better explain womens and adolescent girls stress and coping responses. Resiliency Resiliency Theory asks why some young peopl e beat the odds and achieve success in the midst of difficult and disruptive environments and circumstances situations known to produce widespread failure and poor health and life outcomes (Masten & Coatsworth, 1998; Krovitz, 1999). Research demonstrates that luck has little to do with it Instead, it demonstrates that children and adolescents who overcome adversity share a 1) common core of personal qualities and decision-making processes (Krovitz, 1999), 2) common sour ces of external support and assistance (Krovitz, 1999), and 3) predictable res ponses to past stressful conditions (Richardson, 1990). Much like Kobasas Hardiness extension, Resilie ncy Theory describes specific factors that mediate and moderate the negative impacts commonly associated with trauma and chronic stress. Although rarely stated directly, re siliency theory and theories of stress are intimately related. Poverty, family discord, violence, substance abus e, and illness when considered objectively can be described as sources of stress, stressful liv e events, or stressful conditions of daily living. In many respects, Resiliency Theory describes fact ors related to better than anticipated responses to serious and chronic stresso rs in children and youth. 27

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The power of resilience in the lives of youth s hould not be thought of as magic bullets or oversimplifications of complex social or econom ic problems. Instead, learning to cope with stress effectively should be rec ognized as an important task central to healthy psychosocial development; and resilience should be thought of as a core contribu tor to effective coping efforts and successful life outcomes. Development describes a psychosocial grow th process whereby in dividuals learn to handle increased demands and complexity in thei r lives with greater personal efficiency and effectiveness. For most people, resilience naturally develops as they lear n to adapt to stressful life events. They develop a measure of resilience as they successfully negotiate challenge, experience life, and grow. Unfortunately, developmental challenges like abuse, family fragmentation, school and life failure, and being overwhelmed by stressors in ea rly adolescence are commonly associated with learning maladaptive coping strategi es. Strategies associated with short-term relief but long-term risk. Common maladaptive coping strategies include substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, depression, and violence; each of which is especia lly common among at-risk adolescent girls. Although everyone grows, some people do become more resilient than others. Resiliency Theory answers two important questions. First, what processes promote the development of resilience in young people? And second, which characteristics and c onditions best prepare us to effectively overcome adversity? The Process of Developing Resilience Developing effective interventions designed to 1) enhance girls ability to recover from developmental disruptions and 2) improve their ab ility to cope with trauma and developmental challenge requires understanding the processes associated with deve loping resilience. Knowing which strengths and personal qualities at-risk young people need to develop in order to achieve 28

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successful life outcomes only represents half the battle; understanding how to make these strengths a real part of young pe oples lives represents the othe r half. Although no easy answers exist for this question, research on resilience does provide us w ith clues concerning effective strategy. In 1990, Richardson proposed a model fo r the process of developing resiliency. Richardsons model describes conditions esse ntial for learning healthy and productive ways of coping with adversity and illustrates a range of possible res ponses to adversity. According to the model, all young people will inev itably encounter stress, risk, and adversity. These experiences interact with the young person in terms of their curre nt individual and environmental protective factors. These protect ive factors can be conceptualized as the young persons personal assets, strengths, or qualities that make them more or less resilient under difficult or challenging circumstances. If these qualities are sufficient, they insulate the adolescent from disruption and th ey continue life without interrupt ion, blissful in their comfort zone. If, however, the youth lacks the qualities associated with resi lience or if these qualities are weak compared to the intensity of challenges they face, they ex perience disruption. They feel out of control, out of their league, and overw helmed. Depending on the nature and duration of this disruption, they may feel this way for a re latively short or long amount of time. Most young people do not remain in disruption indefinitely. Eventually, the stressor disappears or they choose a method of dealing with the stressor. Eith er option can be associat ed with the process of reintegration. (Richardson, 1990) Reintegration consists of adol escents reordering their lives af ter disruption. Reintegration does not ensure they will learn or gain from th e experience. Possible outcomes associated with reintegration include 1) dysfunctional or maladaptiv e reintegration, 2) reinte gration with loss, 3) reintegration back to the comfor t zone, or 4) reintegration with resiliency. According to 29

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Richardson, each outcome can be framed as a respons e to life prompts or the stress, risk, or adversity prompting the overall process. Dysfunctional reintegra tion occurs when young people respond to stress by engaging in destruc tive behaviors, for instance, substance abuse, violence, delinquency, or school failure. Rein tegration with loss s uggests young people give up some motivation, hope, or drive as part of th eir response to the stressor (Richardson, 1990). Reintegration back to the comfort zone imp lies young people either cling to their comfort zones or turn down opportunities for growth. These young people break even; neither gaining nor losing from the experience. Reintegr ation with resilience, however, results in new growth and insight or improving a ccess to or the strength of resi lient qualities. In turn, these gains increase a persons overall resiliency help ing the individual to ad apt and better manage future life stresses, risks, a nd adversity. (Richardson, 1990) When considering Richardsons model, one ques tion stands out: In times of crisis, how do families, counselors, educators, and other pr actitioners help young peopl e avoid dysfunction and loss and promote resilience? Nevitt Sanford wa s one of the first developmental theorists to engage this question (Evans, Forney, & GuidoDiBrito, 1998). Sanfords theory of Challenge and Support also proposes the important role of challenge, adversity, or stressors in personal growth and development. However, the great co ntribution of Sanfords work consists of his description of the conditions under which healt hy psychosocial development or reintegration with resilience is most likely to occur. (Evans, et al., 1998) Sanford describes growth as a function of ch allenge, support, and r eadiness. Readiness suggests people cannot grow until they are suffi ciently prepared to engage the learning experience. According to Sanfor d, two factors contribute to a pe rsons readiness. These factors include the current organization of the persons personal resources, and the level of challenge. 30

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For a challenge to be growth-promoting, it must be within an individu als range of optimal dissonance. This range suggests a moderate amo unt of challenge. Too lit tle challenge fails to promote growth; too much challenge overwhelm s the person and possibly does harm. The key factor determining a persons range of optimal di ssonance is the quality a nd quantity of available support. Therefore, promoting growth, developmen t, or reintegration with resilience requires 1) evaluating a young persons readiness and prep aring them for challe nge, 2) regulating the individuals level of challe nge, and 3) providing adequate support throughout the growth process. (Evans, et al., 1998) Combined, Richardson and Sanford s descriptions provide critic al insights regarding what goes right and wrong while young people develop in a dverse circumstances. They describe the conditions under which young people learn bot h maladaptive and highly adaptive coping responses. These insights offer practitioners opp ortunities to create hi ghly controlled growth promoting experiences for at-risk girls. Growth promoting experiences de signed to help prepare and empower girls to cope more effectivel y with both past and future challenges. Individual Characteristics and Resilience Individual characteristics and ex ternal supports play critical roles in both Richardsons and Sanfords work. Historically, resilience research has focused more on describing the role individual characteristics play in promoting better than antic ipated outcomes in children and youth. Similar to Kobasas emphasis on the mediat ing and moderating effects of personality and personal characteristics on stress appraisal a nd coping, resiliency researchers have focused on identifying which individual characteristics ma ke the most substant ial contributions to overcoming adversity and achieving successful outcomes. Many descriptions and profiles outline the individual qualities most frequently associated with resilient youth. Although researchers label them differently, certai n concepts recur in study after study. 31

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Tables 2-1 and 2-2 present the findings of four different groups of resiliency researchers. Table 2-1 presents the most commonly cited descri ption of the qualities and strengths of resilient young people. Table 2-2 presents a comparis on among 3 commonly cited resiliency studies. Table 2-3 presents the Search Institutes list of 40 developmental assets. In 1991, Bernard conducted a meta-analysis of the professional lite rature related to resiliency. She reviewed a larg e number of resiliency studies removed studies with weak research methods or questionable results, and used the best data available to develop collective results. Her findings are most often cited in the work of othe r resiliency researchers. And, because educators tend to favor her description a nd have the most frequent and continual contact with young people, a mass of research literature has become available in reference to her description. Bernard suggested certain individual characte ristics contributed to resilient outcomes. These characteristics included self-efficacy, auto nomy and identity, and a sense of purpose and future-orientation. In terms of individual ch aracteristics, she suggested and subsequent research has supported the idea that young people ab le to 1) develop an authentic sense of who they are and what they want in life, and 2) retain confidence in themselves and their ability to act successfully in spite of an unpredictable and hostile envir onment experience better than anticipated life outcomes. Research conducted by the Search Institute s upports her conclusions. Years of cumulative study guided the Search Institut e as members worked to comp ile a comprehensive list of developmental assets for youth. Assets can be thought of as factor s predisposing the young person toward a positive outcome. Conversel y, each asset missing fr om a young persons life can be thought of as increasing their vulnerability to negative outcomes. Twenty of the 40 assets 32

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focus on assets external to the young person; the re maining 20 assets focus on internal assets or the personal strengths and qualities discussed so far. A list of these internal developmental assets can be found in Table 2-3. Once again, concepts re lated to identity, persona l control, confidence, self-esteem, purpose, and hope combined with pos itive goals for the future factor largely in young peoples ability to achieve succe ssful and healthy life outcomes. Further, work by Tomsen (2002), Henderson, and Millstein (1996), and Wolin and Wolin (1996) support the importance of the same individual characteristics (Tab le 2-2). All three suggest the critical importance of a cohesive personal identity, a sense of personal mastery or self-confidence, and the ability to act independently or with autonomy. Although these lists of individua l characteristics theorized to promote resilience are not identical, many common elements are evident, and considering them together helps establish an important pattern. Characterized by items incl uding identity, mastery, autonomy, and goals for the future, each list presents qualities tradit ionally associated with mature, well-adjusted adolescents no more and no less. Young people who defy the odds have somehow successfully adapted in ways similar to youth gr owing up in environments more conducive to healthy development. Young people in challenging circumstances beat the odds when they develop in healthy and adaptive ways in spit e of their challenging circumstances. These individual characteristics allow them to inte rpret challenging and difficult circumstances in adaptive ways and, as a result, choose behavi ors in the midst of challenging and difficult circumstances, behaviors that promote healt hy and successful life out comes. Resilient young people mature in relatively normal ways in spite of overwhelming challenges. External Support and Resilience Explaining resilient young people s success in terms of their individual characteristics represents only part of the picture. Over th e years, Resiliency Theory has evolved to place 33

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greater and greater emphasis on th e role of external and envir onmental sources of support. Tomsen (2002), Henderson and Mi llstein (1996), and Wolin and Wolin (1993) all describe factors related to external and environmenta l sources of support as well as individual characteristics (Table 2-2). Examples of th ese factors include acces s to caring and support (Henderson & Millstein, 1996), the ability to el icit positive responses from others (Thomsen, 2002), and maintaining fulfilling relationships with others that provide stability nurturing and love (Wolin & Wolin, 1993). Almost 50 percent of Bernards description relates directly to f actors associated with social support (Table 2-1). Bernard describes these fa ctors within two major categories 1) social competencies, and 2) social and environmental f actors. Social competencies include eliciting positive responses from others, establishing positive relationships with others, and the ability to make and keep a few good friends. Social and environmental factors in clude receiving support from caring environments, being connected to adults who communicate high expectations, and having access to people who can give assi stance when necessary. (Bernard, 1991) Exactly 50 percent of the Search Institute s 40 developmental assets are devoted to external assets and sources of social support (Tab le 2-3). Examples include a family life that provides high levels of love and support, re ceiving support and assistance from other caring adults, and growing up in a caring neighborhood and school. Further, both Richardson and Sanford describe sources of social suppor t as critical to the process of developing resilience. Sanford especially emphasizes social support as critical to promoting growth in challengi ng circumstances. According to Sanford, social support makes two important contributions to healthy psychosocial development. First, an environment rich in social support helps people feel able to take the emotional ri sks associated with growth and 34

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development. And second, access to adequate social support provides young people with access to roles models, guidance, and instrumental help when needed. The Gender Limitation in Resiliency Theory Resiliency Theory makes important contribu tions to understanding how children and youth facing adversity achieve better th an anticipated outcomes. Insi ghts related to the processes associated with promoting resilien ce, individual characteristics c ontributing to resilience, and the external supports required to foster resilient outcomes provide much needed direction when planning interventions for at-risk young people. Unfortunately, Resiliency Theory fails to suffici ently consider the influence of gender. If boys and girls develop in any substantially different ways, or if the social environment interacts with gender in any important way, then the infl uence of gender must be re-considered in the resiliency equation. Three questi ons related to gender and resili ence stand out. First, which individual characteristics best help girls achieve maturity and successful life outcomes? Second, what is the role of soci al support in girls developm ent? And third, how might the process of fostering resilience differ for girls? Extensive resiliency literature reviews returned one article de voted to developing resilience in girls. This article was a combination revi ew and editorial piece. Although resiliency studies frequently report comparisons between boys and girl s, little substantial work has been published addressing girls and resiliency. Adolescent Girls and Development Fortunately, a rich history of developmental research provides valuable insight into the healthy growth and development of adolescent girls. Developmental pioneers such as Jean Baker Miller, Carol Gilligan, Mary Field Belenky, and Ruthellen Josselson describe the unique developmental needs of girls and processes unique to young womens psychosocial growth. 35

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Considering the developmental challenges faced by at-risk adolescent girls, at least six major themes emerge from their work. Theme 1: Relationship as a Context Relationships shape girls development and serve as the primary context for girls developmental processes (Miller, 1986; G illigan, 1993; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Belenky, Holsinger, Goldberger, & Tarule, 1986; Jo sselson, 1987). Boys development has been generally characterized by increasing separa tion and individuation (Erickson, 1968), girls development has been characterized by the incr easing importance of attachment (Gilligan, 1993; Brown & Gilligan, 1992) and the refining of self as it relates to the various contexts in which relationships occur (Johnson, et al., 1999). For instance, during devel opment boys are likely to answer the question, Who am I as a totally sepa rate and unique indivi dual? whereas girls are likely to answer the questions, Who am I when I re late to my mom? Who am I when I relate to my dad? Who am I when I relate to my school friends? Who am I when I relate to my work friends? and the like (Johnson, et al., 1999). In this way, developing girls inter-mingle context and identity particularly th e context of relationships. Theme 2: The Legitimacy of Care Girls often follow a distinct developmental trajectory focused on caring and connection to others (Miller, 1986; Gilligan, 1993). Miller (1986) and Gilligan (1993) critiqued developmental psychologists tendency to focus on mens descri ptions of male development while excluding or devaluing the distinct developmental experi ences of women. Both Miller and Gilligan suggested men and women tend to develop along different developmental trajectories toward different developmental targets. In her book, In a Different Voice Gilligan (1993) outlines tw o distinct trajectories and their corresponding targets the ethic of justice and the ethic of care. According to Gilligan, 36

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boys most frequently develop toward the ethic of justice. This justice orientation focuses on hierarchy, fairness, rules, and competition. It values achievement within the rules and places little emphasis on the context of relationships. In our male-dom inated society, the ethic of justice under-girds our primary social institu tions and provides the framework on which our communities are built the rule of law, the language of rights, and competition-based economies. Girls, however, frequently develop toward the ethic of care. This care orientation focuses on building relationships, maintaining connections, meeting others needs, supporting others efforts, and preventing others harm. It values intimacy, closeness, and harmony. In our male-dominated society, people often belittle and trivialize the ethic of care ignoring the growing reality of our highly interdependent and c onnected life and characterizing the care orientation as a feminine weakness. Of course each developmental trajectory and target represent fundamentally neutral phenomenon. However, in the context of a society in which male developmental trajectories are dominant and highly valued, the developmental trajectory of care has often been considered imma ture or deviant (Gilligan, 1993). As such, girls require validation and support as th ey develop toward to the ethic of care. A developmental arc culminating in a well-refined ethic of care re presents a valid and powerful developmental outcome. Theme 3: Caring for Self and Others An important milestone in girls development includes learning to care for themselves as well as others. Gilligans (1982) descri ption of the three phases of womens moral development illuminates this issue. In the first phase, wo men are primarily concerned with survival. In the second phase, their concern shifts to responsibility for others. In this phase, girls and women often equate goodness with self-sacrifice and fail to gi ve themselves permission to include themselves as someone they should take car e of. They attempt to establish and maintain 37

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relationships regardless of the personal cost. Too readily, they sacrifice their unique voice and individual needs to maintain relationships not realizing ho w often this act undermines the relationships they hope to protect. Too often, th ese sacrifices include allowing themselves to be exploited and harmed frequently by those who are supposed to be connected to them and caring for them. In the third phase, girls more frequently women begin to equate goodness with caring for both self and others. They learn to equitably apply the ethi c of care to both themselves and those to whom they are connected. They begin to understand the importance of caring for self in maintaining the capacity to care for others. Pe rhaps more importantly, girls and women develop a self-respect that requires the condemnation of others attempts to exploit and harm them. At this final phase of development, the ethic of care has been refined and expanded to include both caring for and protecting others and caring for and protecting self. Theme 4: Challenge as Growth Promoting Crisis and challenge present important opportunities for girls to learn and grow. Miller (1968) and Gilligan (1993) both describe the importance of conflict, crisis, and challenge in girls development. Both authors acknowledge this as an element in both girls and boys developmental processes. Both authors also pro pose a special emphasis on the role of crisis and challenge in girls development. Marone (1992) suggests American culture communicates gender prescriptions that result in a strange mix of girls being over-protected and exposed to added harm. She suggests this cultural combination predisposes many girls to learned helplessness, undermines their sense of co mpetence and confidence, and limits their opportunities for personal growth. Marone highlights the importance of encouraging girls to take risks and face challenges. 38

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Theme 5: Differences in Learning Style Girls often experience the process of learning diffe rently than boys. Belenky et al. (1986) and Josselson (1987) describe the importance of connection in girls learning. Boys tend to manipulate physical and ment al objects with detachment and f eel satisfied when objective goals are met, for instance, number of tasks accomplished according to a previously established criteria. Girls tend to connect to physical and mental objects and feel satisfied when subjective goals are met; goals including a sense of unde rstanding, appreciation, and comprehension of subtly and nuance. Both Belenky and Josselson emphasize the impor tance of connection to others in the learning process. Belenky (1986) outlines 8 conditions that promote learning in girls. These conditions include 1) a safe lear ning environment in which students can speak freely without fear of ridicule or judgment, 2) teachers who role model risk, intellectual a nd otherwise, by sharing real emotion and revisions in their thinking and sk ill development with their students, 3) teachers and mentors students are able to identify personally with people gi rls are able to see themselves or future selves in, 4) facilitative instruc tion focused on helping girls develop and gain confidence in their own ideas and abilities, 5) students working together in small groups and talking through their thought processes and skills practice, 6) an educational environment that encourages reflection and nurturi ng an individuals thoughts to ma turity and their skills to mastery, 7) an educational atmosphere that values the contributions of both objective and subjective knowing both evidence and intuition, and 8) feedback and evaluation conducted by a teacher or mentor who knows the student well and demonstrates a vested interest in the students success. The role connection and relati onships play in providing a context for girls learning is pervasive in Belenkys work. 39

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Josselson (1987) supports Belenkys emphasis on connection and relationships in girls learning and development. According to Jossels on, relationships are often the critical factor deciding whether or not devel opmental transitions are fully engaged and determining the probability of successful change. Josselson sugges ts that all growth requires risk and that relationships tend to provide support for risky transitions. She calls these relationships anchors. An anchor is linked to direction of growth and cha nge and serves as a focal point during risky transitions. Theme 6: Environmental Threats to Girls Safety As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the Office of Juvenile Justice, Delinquency, and Prevention (Bilchik, 1998) summarized five basic re quirements for healthy development in girls. Below, each item is also accompanied by common threats to girls healthy development as follows: The need for physical safety and healthy physical development being challenged by poverty, homelessness, violence, inadequate healthcare, inade quate nutrition and substance abuse. The need for trust, love, respect, and valid ation from caring adults to foster healthy emotional development and form positive relationships being challenged by abandonment, family dysfunction, and poor communication. The need for positive female role models to develop healthy identity as a woman being challenged by sexist, racist, an d homophobic messages and a lack of community support. The need for safety to explore their sexua lity at their own pace and a pace that supports healthy sexual development being challenged by sexual abuse, exploitation, and negative me ssages about female sexuality. The need to belong, to feel competent, and to feel worthy being challenged by weakened family ties, negative peer infl uences, academic failure, and low selfesteem. Each of these items speaks not only to girls need s, but to an environment that is either safe or threatening. These items describe girls common needs in terms of safety. In order to develop 40

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in a healthy manner, all girls mu st feel physically, emotionally, a nd sexually safe safe in terms of both their physical environment and relations hips. Basic conditions any girl requires to develop into a healthy, vibrant, and successful woman. The Model of Girls Resilience: Integrating Stress, Resilience, and Womens Development Developing effective prevention and early intervention programs requires clearly understanding the target populati ons needs and the conditions a nd processes associated with meeting those needs. Further, designing effective programs means selecting high-leverage targets for intervention and choosing the strategies most likely to positively impact those targets. Many times, this process requires being able to meaningfully integrate and synthesize theory, research, and practice published in the pertinent professional literature as combined with experience and professional judgement. The Model of Girls Resilience was developed specifically for the Project Challenge program by the author of this study. This model summarizes and integrates the work of stress, resilience, and developmental theorists and resear chers; particularly work designed to promote the health and well-being of adolescent girls. Further, it is influenced by observations of and feedback from girls participating in the Project Challenge program. Like any good theory or model, The Model of Girls Resilience was developed with parsimony in mind. Each of the models constructs was selected sparingly and with great care. Only the highest leverage constructs were includ ed in the model those determined to be the most influential in girls outcome s. Figure 2-1 presents the model s constructs and illustrates the relationships between each construct. The model consists of 8 core propositions: 1. Girls are strong and capable. They can successfully overcome difficulty, actively engage challenge, and achieve life success. 41

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2. Developmental challenges exert discerna ble influences on girls psychosocial development both positive and negative. 3. Girls resilience is composed of factors related to both intrapersonal development (self-confidence and self-esteem) and inte rpersonal development (perceived social support and mattering). 4. Intrapersonal development and interpersonal development are intimately related to one another and equally essential as girls develop resilience. Intrapersonal development is most likely to be fostered in rich interpersonal environments. Interpersonal development is most likely to be fostered based on a strong intrapersonal foundation. 5. Self-esteem consists of a girls estimation of her value, and mattering consists of a girls estimation of the value others pl ace on her. These constructs influence whether or not she will attempt to cope effectively and the number and quality of attempts she will make. 6. Self-confidence includes a girls belief in her ability to act on her own behalf, and perceived social support incl udes girls beliefs in othe rs willingness to act on her behalf. Together, these constructs constitute the most reliable predictors of a girls level of persistence throughout the coping effort, he r coping success or failure, and her health and behavioral outcomes. 7. Girls compose their identities as both individuals and as they relate to significant others. Factors associated with girls re silience become more stable as they are more deeply integrated into girls in dependent and relationa l identities. For instance, as evidence of self-confidence b ecomes increasingly more pervasive in a 42

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girls values and goals, the more stable and influential the impact of selfconfidence will be in the rest of the model. 8. Factors associated with girl s resilience influence stre ss appraisal which, in turn, influences the selection of c oping strategies which, in tur n, influences girls health and life outcomes. The Model of Girls Resilience provides a working model desi gned to describe factors, conditions, and processes associat ed with developing resilience in girls facing developmental challenge. It accounts for the most common s ources of trauma in this population and the developmental consequences most often associat ed with those traumas. Further, it clearly delineates the developmental characteristics most likely to promote gi rls resilience, and addresses the gender-specific processes and conditi ons associated with girls development. The model suggests that developmental challe nges may contribute to decreased levels of self-confidence, self-esteem, perceived social support, mattering, and identity. In turn, these factors can foster negative stress appraisals a nd promote the selection of maladaptive coping strategies associated with delinquency, loss, an d poor life outcomes. The model also suggests that increasing levels of self-confidence, self -esteem, perceived social support, mattering, and identity will help improve a girl s ability to cope. Intervention s designed to help girls recover developmental losses associated with resilie nce-related factors will help produce outcomes conducive to healthy decision-making and successful life outcomes. Summary Chapter 2 provided an overview of the prof essional literature related to 1) the developmental challenges faced by adolescent girls, 2) theories related to stress, coping, and resilience, and 3) the growth a nd development of adolescent girls. Each of these elements was 43

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summarized in The Model of Girls Resilience a model designed specifically for the Project Challenge program. Girls experience intense and traumatic life ev ents that can lead to delinquent behavior, risky health decision-making, and poor life outcomes. Girls responses to these events often depend on their levels of psychosocial development and their ability to effectively appraise and cope with stress. Understanding how these factors interact and influence girls health and life decisions helps when developing effective prevention and early intervention programs designed to help at-risk girls improve their health and life outcomes. Chapter 3 will describe the methods associated with the study. These methods include the research design, research variables, participan t characteristics, inst rumentation, intervention program, and data collection and analysis procedures. 44

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Table 2-1. Bonnie Bernards list of personal qualities a ssociated with resilience. Social Competence Problem Solving Skills/Self-efficacy Autonomy/Identity Sense of Purpose and Future Social and Environmental Factors Elicit positive responses from others Establish positive relationships with others Ability to make and keep good friends Internal locus of control Planning skills Decision-making skills Resourcefulnessthe ability to seek and acquire help from others Sense of own identity Ability to act independently Confident in strengths Able to exert control over the environment Clear goals including educational aspirations Persistence Hopefulness Career and job success as highest priority Supported in various caring environments Adults who communicate high, positive expectations Able to participate in meaningful activities Gender differences attended to 45

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Table 2-2. Comparison of personal quali ties associated with resilience. Kate Thomsen, 2002 Henderson & Millstein, 1996 Wolin & Wolin, 1996 Having an easy temperament or disposition Having the ability to elicit positive responses from others Having empathy and caring about others Having excellent communication skills Having a sense of humor about oneself Having a sense of ones identity Ability to elicit positive responses from others Insight: Habit of asking tough questions that promote clarity Empathy and caring Independence: Emotional and physical distancing placing youth out of harms way Communication skills Autonomy or Self-efficacy Problem-solving skills Relationships: Fulfilling ties to others providing stability, nurturing, and love Sense of purpose or future Easy temperament/ability to regulate temper Initiative: A push for mastery that combats helplessness High expectations Has access to and takes advantage or opportunities for meaningful participation Creativity: Resolving ones pain through building a new world from the ruins of the old Having the ability to act independently Environmental conditions at home, school, and community that promote resilience Having the ability to separate from unhealthy situations or people Humor: Ability to minimize pain and troubles by laughing at oneself Morality: An informed sense of goodness or badness Having a sense of purpose or future Access to caring and support 46

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Figure 2-1. The Model of Girls Resilience. 47

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48 CHAPTER 3 METHODS At-risk girls experience a disproportionate numbe r of intense and disr uptive traumatic life events which can adversely affect healthy ps ychosocial development. Such disruptions contribute to higher levels of risk behavior, poor health, and diminished quality of life. Relatively few programs focus directly on enhanci ng the development of at-risk adolescent girls, and little research has examined the effectiveness of such programs. To add to this important body of literature, the study described the lifetim e incidence of developmental challenge among a sample of adolescent girls attending alternat ive schools, and examined the relationship between a developmental program for at-risk girls, Project Challenge and participant levels of intrapersonal and interpersonal development. Research Design The study utilized a component mixed methods design, where quantitative and qualitative data gathering methods [are] implemented as se parate aspects of the evaluation and remain distinct throughout a study (R allis & Rossman, 2003). Typically, one method remains dominant in data collection and analysis, while the second method corrobo rates, elaborates, or expands research findings. This study util ized a QUAN + qual design (Morse, 2003). Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used simultaneously. Quantitative methods were used as the dominant form of data collection and anal ysis in this study. Qualitative methods were utilized in a supporting role Specifically, the quali tative portion of the study used both triangulation and complementary design elements to corroborate and enhance or elaborate quantitative findings. (Rallis & Rossman, 2003)

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The quantitative portion of the study used an experimental re peated measures cross-over design. This design uses random assignment to create two separate groups Group 1 and Group 2. After assignment, the study proceeded according to the following steps: 1. Both groups completed the first round of surveys (T1). 2. Group 1 received the experimental treatment, wh ile the Group 2 received no treatment. 3. Both groups completed the second round of surveys (T2). 4. Group 1 received no treatment while, Group 2 received the experimental treatment. 5. Both groups completed the third round of surveys (T3). This design allowed each group to be a ssigned to both experimental and control conditions. Between T1 and T2, Group 1 was the experimental group while Group 2 was the control group. Between T2 and T3, Group 1 was the control group while Group 2 was the experimental group. (Streiner & Norman, 1998) The design also included conducting participan t exit interviews to explore participant perceptions of Project Challenge and the outcomes associated with their Project Challenge experience. Group discussions we re conducted as a part of the curriculum and conducted by a trained facilitator. Interviews were conducted after the intervention by a trained facilitator. The researcher observed and participated in both group discussions and i ndividual interviews and kept notes throughout the study. (Hatch, 2002; Glesne, 2006) There were several strengths associated with this design. Experime ntal designs provide clear evidence regarding the effect s of an intervention and the best protection against threats to validity (Creswell, 2005). Cro ss-over designs also contribut e substantial strength to experimental studies. This design allows both gr oups to receive the experimental treatment and requires repeated measurements from each participan t. Both procedures increase the power of a 49

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study. Participant exit interviews provide a qualitative description enhancing particular aspects of the study (Morse, 2003). In particular, inte rviewing provides opportunities for rich, detailed feedback that elaborates on the quantitative findings of the study Research Variables The study described rates of developmental ch allenge for 4 variables: abuse, family fragmentation, school failure, and convergence of problems in early adolescence. The study determined the interventions effect on 6 vari ables related to psychosocial development and resilience in girls: 2 variables related to intrapersonal development (self-confidence and selfesteem); 2 variables related to interpersonal development (perceived social support and mattering); 1 variable related to both intraa nd interpersonal developm ent (identity); and 1 variable related to in tervention status. Continuous variab les included self-c onfidence, selfesteem, perceived social support, mattering, and identity. Categorical variables included intervention status and developmental challenge. Dependent variables in cluded self-confidence, self-esteem, perceived social suppor t, mattering, and identity. The independent variable included intervention status. Instruments A battery of instruments was used to measur e the 5 dependent variab les self-confidence, self-esteem, perceived social s upport, mattering, and identity. Self-Confidence Self-confidence was measured using a combina tion of the Pearlin Mastery/Self-efficacy Scale (Pearlin et al., 1981) and the Hope Scale (Synder, et al., 1991). Both scales described participant confidence in their ability to pos itively affect the outcomes of their lives. Mastery/Self-efficacy. The Pearlin Mastery/Self-efficacy Scale (Pearlin et al., 1981) measures the extent to which people see themselv es in control of the forces that importantly 50

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affect their lives. (Pearlin et al., 1981). Higher scores sugg est higher levels of global selfefficacy or confidence in their ability to make successful life decisions and behave in ways conducive to success. The scale includes 7 items answered using a 4-point Likert-type scale. Sample items include I can do ju st about anything I set my mind to, and I often feel helpless in dealing with my problems. Responses i ndicated how strongly par ticipants agreed or disagreed with each of the 7 items. Scores may range from 7 to 28 and were analyzed as one continuous variable. The original Cronbachs alpha for this s cale was .72, and recent studies with adolescents reported Cronbach alphas between .67 and .75. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to establish the valid ity of the scale. (Ludwig & Pitman, 1999; Desocio, Kitzman, & Cole, 2003) A copy of this scale can be found in Appendix D. Hope. The Hope Scale (Synder, et al., 1991) m easures the perception that goals can be met. According to the scales designers, hope is composed of two dimensions agency and pathways. Agency involves a sense of successful goal-directed determination, while pathways involves a sense of successful goal-directed planning. Th e scale and its corresponding subscales consist of items rela ted to individuals confidence in their ability to positively influence their future. Sample items include M y past has prepared me for future success, I energetically pursue my goals, There are lots of ways around any problem, and I can think of many ways to get the things in life that are most important to me. The scale includes 12 items answered using a 4-point Likert-type scale. Responses indicated how strongly participants agreed or disagreed with each of the 12 items. Scores may range from 12 to 48 and were analyzed as a continuous variable. The orig inal Cronbachs alpha ranged between .74 and .88 for the entire scale. The original Cronbachs alpha for the agency subscale ranged from .71 to .76, and the pathways subscale reli ability scores ranged from .63 to .80. Confirmatory factor 51

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analysis was used to establish th e validity of the total scale and both subscales. A copy of this scale can be found in Appendix E. (Snyder, et al., 1991; Snyder, 2002) Self-Esteem The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenber g, 1965) measures indivi duals respect for themselves and their sense of worthiness. The self-esteem construct does not include a sense of being superior to others, nor a sense of feeling worse than othe rs. Higher scores indicate the strength to which people believe they are good enough not better or worse than others. The scale includes 10 items answered using a 4-point Li kert-type scale. Sample items include I am able to do things as well as most other people, I take a positive attitude toward myself, and I feel that I have a number of good qualities. Responses indicate how strongly participants agreed or disagreed with each of the 10 items. Sc ores may range from 10 to 40, and scores were analyzed as a continuous variable. The original coefficient of reproducibility for this scale was .92. Recent studies report Cronbachs alphas be tween .70 and .85 (Rosenberg, 1965). A copy of this scale can be found in Appendix F. Perceived Social Support The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Soci al Support (Zimlet et al., 1988) assesses individuals perceptions of their level of social support from family, friends, and a significant other (Canty-Mitchel l & Zimlet, 2000). The scale includes 12 items answered using a 7-point Likert-type scale. Sample items include My family really tries to help me, There is a special person there when I need them, and I can count on my friends when things go wrong. Responses indicate how strongly participants agree or disagree with each of the 12 items. Scores may range from 12 to 84, and were analyzed as a continuous variable. The original Cronbachs alpha for the total scale was .93. Factor analys is and comparisons with other common social 52

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support scales support the validity of the instrument (Canty -Mitchell & Zimlet, 2000; Zimlet, et al., 1988). A copy of this scale can be found in Appendix G. Mattering The short form of the Mattering Index (Ell iot, Kao, & Grant, 2004) measures the perception that we are a significan t part of the world around us (E lliot, et al., 2004). The form is conceptualized in 3 dimens ions: awareness, importance, a nd reliance. Awareness suggests others realize a person exists. Importance implies that individuals feel ot hers care about them and are concerned about them. Reliance means individuals believe others look to them for satisfaction of needs or wants. The index in cludes 15 items answered using a 5-point Likerttype scale. Sample items include For whatever reason, it is hard for me to get other peoples attention, My successes are a great source of pr ide to people in my life, and People count on me to be there in times of need. Responses in dicate how strongly participants agree or disagree with each of the 15 items. Scores may range from 15 to 75 and were analyzed as a continuous variable. Cronbachs alpha for the most recent youth administration of this scale was .84. Validity was previously estab lished by using factor analys is, comparisons with other instruments, and expert review. A copy of this scale can be found in Appendix H. (Elliot, et al., 2004; Elliot, Colangel o, & Gelles, 2005) Identity The Identity Sub-scale of the Adolescent Pers onality Style Inventory (Lounesbury, et al., 2005) measures individuals sense of their level of identity formation. The scale includes 8 items answered using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Sample items include I have a firm sense of who I am, and I have a clear set of personal values or moral stan dards. Responses indicate how strongly participants agree or disagree with each of the 8 items. Scores may range from 8 to 40 and were analyzed as a continuous variable. The original Cronbachs alpha for the scale was .84. 53

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This score was derived using a college population. Because the instrument is relatively new, reliability coefficients associated with younge r adolescent populations have not yet been extensively reported. Comparisons with other co mmon identity scales support the validity of the instrument. A copy of this scale can be found in Appendix I. (Lounsbury, et al., 2005) Developmental Challenge and Demographic Information The University of Florida Institutional Revi ew Board requested that items related to developmental challenge be obtained from exis ting student records when possible, thereby limiting the number of times participants would be asked to discuss potentially painful or traumatic issues. As part of Project Challenge participants are required to complete an assessment interview. Assessment in terviews are routinely conducted by a Project Challenge team member trained to conduct assessment intervie ws of a highly personal nature. Information related to developmental challenge was retr ieved from these records. A copy of the Project Challenge Assessment Interview can be found in Appendix K. The Project Challenge Assessment Interview also includes a variety of demographic items. Demographic information for the study was retrie ved from existing program records. A copy of the Project Challenge Assessment Interview can be found in Appendix K. Instrument Pilot The complete instrument battery (Appendix J) was administered to 10 at-risk girls attending one of the alternative sc hools participating in the study. All pilot subjects were former Project Challenge participants. The battery was administ ered two times, two weeks apart, using the same procedures and under the same cond itions outlined in the study procedures. The researcher evaluated the administration in terms of time to complete, test fatigue, participant comprehension, and instrument reliability. 54

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Results from the pilot administration were favorable. Both administrations were timed (T1, 19 minutes; T2, 17 minutes). After the seco nd administration, participants were interviewed individually regarding their ex perience with the instrument ba ttery. Participants indicated instructions were easy to understa nd and that the instrument batte ry was of a reasonable length. No participants reported test fa tigue. The battery was then reviewed with each participant itemby-item. This thought-response ev aluation indicated each part icipant clearly understood the survey items and answered using logic consistent with the intent of the instruments. The study focused on changes associated with the intervention over a two-week time period, so it was critical to eval uate the stability of the scales and their corresponding constructs over the same period of time. Results indicated adequate test-retest reliability for 4 of 6 scales. Independently, the 2 scales related to self-confidence did not de monstrate stable test-retest reliability. When used collectiv ely, test-retest reliability was adequate (.700, p=.05). Internal consistency reliability was also calculated for each scale at each administration. The combined self-confidence scales, and each of the 4 individual scales, exceeded the previously established minimum threshold of .60 reliability (Penfield, 2003) for both test-retest and internal consistency measures of reliability. Therefore, the combined self-confidence scales and each of the 4 individual scales were used for the main study. Results of reliability testing are recorded in Table 3-1. Participants Study participants included girls aged 13 to 17 years. All participants were referred by local alternative schools. Each school referred one hundred per cent of its female population for the study, and 95% (N=37) of those referred chos e to participate in Project Challenge and in this study. Program groups included 5 to 8 participants per group. 55

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Informed consent was obtained in writing from each participants parents or guardians. Each participating altern ative school sent informed consent fo rms home with participants then collected forms signed by a parent or guardian. Parent/guardian informed consent was also confirmed by telephone. Undera ge participants cannot legally consent to participate in a research study, so an assent script was read to pa rticipants before all thr ee administrations of the instrument battery. Each time, 100% of participan ts indicated they wanted to participate in the study. Participants were not asked to provide an y information that could be used to identify them individually. Survey data were collected confidentiall y. Each participant was assigned a random number. Data were collected and recorded us ing only the participant s assigned number. The list of assigned numbers, completed instruments, and data spreadsheets were kept in locked cabinets. The list of assigned numbers was kept separately from the completed instruments and data spreadsheets. At the end of the st udy, the list of assigned numbers and completed instruments were shredded. Setting The study was conducted in three settings. Data collection was conducted in a traditional classroom at each participating alternativ e school. The program was conducted 1) at Project Challenges outdoor ropes course and cl assroom located on the campus of a local alternative school in North Central Florida, and 2) in U. S. national forests on the Ocoee and Nantahala rivers in Tennessee and North Carolina and on th e cliffs of Starr Mountain in Tennessee. Procedures The Project Challenge program consisted of 4 phases. Each phase included activities unique to that phase. However, a clearly define d philosophy concerning what best promotes the development of at-risk girls unified all 4 phases. Activities associated wi th each phase included: 56

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Pre-Program: Team Training Project Challenge team members received comprehensive training prior to the study. Each team member participated in tw o types of training. First, team members were trained to be effective with the target populati on. This training included the Model of Girl s Resilience, principles of girls development, challenges f aced by girls at-risk for delinquency, and behavior counseling skills. Second, all team members were trained to maintain program fidelity. This training focused on curriculum and consistent program delivery. All Project Challenge team members worked with the organization for a mini mum of 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. Prior to the study, each team member was evaluated in terms of both effectiveness and fidelity. Each team member demons trated satisfactor y levels of both. Phase 1: Assessment Phase 1 focused on establishing contact with treatment group participants. This phases primary activity included an individual meeti ng with a program team member. During this meeting, the program team member conducted a brief orientation, answered participant questions, and conducted a brief assessment inte rview. This interview was conducted by the same Project Challenge team member at each time. This team member had been trained by Project Challenge to conduct assessment interviews and by the researcher to adhere to program fidelity and treatment protocols. Information provided during the interview was made available for the purposes of the study. During this phase, a program team member also contacted each participants parent or guardia n, requested their suppor t for the program, and encouraged active communication and involvement with th e participant during the program. Phase 2: Preparation Phase 2 focused on 1) developing safe and trusting relationships between adult team members and program participants, and 2) te aching wilderness camping, hiking, rock climbing, 57

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rappelling, and whitewater safety skills. This pha se consisted of four training sessions. Each session began with an overview of the days training activities and a 2-4 minute talk about a topic relevant to an aspect of development. Students participated in safety training activities for approximately 1 hours. These act ivities included rock climbing a nd rappelling on an artificial climbing tower, and practicing whitewater a nd swimming rescue at a local lake. Every participant received a personal j ournal where they could record their thoughts and feelings during the program. At the end of each session, a journal topic was read by a Project Challenge team member, and participants we re given 10-15 minutes to respond to the topic in their personal journal. Sessions concluded with a facilitated discussion about th e assigned journal topic, and a summary and assessment related to the days training activities. The main priority of this phase was to en courage and promote trusting, growth-promoting relationships between participants and Project Challenge team members; authentic relationships characterized by respect, caring, and trust. Relationships of this nature take time to develop. The training sessions provided time to build a safe emotional environment prior to the trips potentially stressful and demandi ng challenges. Both the journa l and the discussion activities helped participants begin thinking about topics a nd issues to be addresse d in more detail during the challenge trip. Further, the discussions al so allowed students to practice the discussion format used on the challenge trip, and to crea te group dynamics conducive to sharing openly and honestly with each other Phase 3: Challenge Trip Phase 3 consisted of a 4-day adventure campi ng trip. During this phase, participants camped in a primitive portion of the Cherokee National Forest in Tennessee where they completed a series of outdoor adventure challe nges including rafting two whitewater rivers, 58

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completing two strenuous wilderness hikes, clim bing one 75-foot rock wall, and rappelling one 75-foot cliff and one 125-foot cliff. The itinerary for the trip included: Day 1: Travel to the campsite in Tennessee Lunch on the road Camp set-up Recreational river hike Completion of one journal assignment Dinner Campfire Session 1 Day 2: Breakfast Whitewater practice on the Cl ass I-II Nantahala River Lunch Hiking Challenge 1 Rappelling Challenge 1 (75 feet) Return to camp Completion of one journal assignment Dinner Campfire Session 2 Day 3: Breakfast Whitewater Challenge on the Cl ass III-IV Nantahala River Lunch Hiking Challenge 2 Climbing Challenge Rappelling Challenge 2 (125 feet) Return to camp Completion of one journal assignment Dinner Ca mpfire Session 3 Day 4: Break down camp Breakfast on the road Celebration lunch at Sonnys Barbeque Completion of one journal assignment Personal goal setting with Project Challenge team member Campfire sessions involved facilitated di scussions about the days experiences and journal topic. Together, the journals and campf ire sessions encouraged reflection about issues 59

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pertinent to intrapersonal and interpersonal de velopment. These acti vities linked personal reflection, experience, and integrat ion of the days accomplishments. Journal assignments and campfire sessions provid ed a structured curricular framework for the challenge trip experience. The essence of the trip experien ce consisted of a combination of personal experience, individual re flection, and growth promoting relationships with others. Engaging in the authentic and reciprocal relations hip-based transactions was the first priority during this experience. As di scussed in Chapter 2, most developmental growth among girls occurs in the context of experien ce, reflection, and relationships. Project Challenges formal curriculum and behavior counseling strategies actively supported and structured participant engagement in these experiences and relationships. Project Challenges philosophy of actively using the time between journa ls and campfires to effectively build growth-promoting relationships and to explore participant experien ces represents an equally important strategy. Phase 4: Transference Phase 4 included activities designed to help par ticipates transfer what they learned on the challenge trip to their personal lives. Activi ties included goal-setting and participation in a Family and Friends Celebration. Participan ts set personal goals to help them apply developmental lessons learned on th e trip directly to real challenges they face in their personal lives. The goal-setting activity was clearly participant directed. Participants chose the challenges they wanted to address, and the step s they would take to ach ieve those goals, with some restrained guidance from the Project Challe nge team member in charge of goal setting. This Project Challenge team member did help participants set achievab le and measurable goals clearly under the participants cont rol, but actively refrained from telling participants which life challenges to work on or exactly what steps should be taken to achieve their goals. 60

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The final group session focused on participants sharing their program experiences with family and friends. This session occurred approxim ately two days after the trip. The Family and Friends Celebration session consisted of a barb eque dinner, a slide pr esentation, participant speeches and goal sharing, openi ng the climbing tower to family and friends, and climbing demonstrations conducted by participants. The goal of this se ssion included inviting participants ongoing sources of social support and mattering to engage tangibly in the participants experience, learni ng, and growth. At the conclusion of this session, participants were presented with three k eepsakes: 1) their completed Project Challenge journal; 2) a framed, personalized display of pictures taken while they completed various program challenges; and 3) a Project Challenge tee-shirt. As an addendum to the study, Project Challenge team members remained available to participants for two mont hs after the program. Project Challenge team members visited participants at their local a lternative school each week. They followed-up with participants regarding their goals and offered a variety of assistance to participants. Informally, Project Challenge team members remain available to partic ipants any time after program completion. Team members actively refer participants to a range of assistance and support. The full Project Challenge Curriculum can be found in A ppendix F. This curriculum includes the mission of the orga nization, philosophy of the organi zation, goals of the program, and the objectives and activities associated with each session. A full copy of the Project Challenge Participant Journal can be found in Appendix G. Examples of Project Challenge Family and Friends Celebration keep sakes can be found in Appendix H. Data Collection Three strategies were used to collect data during the study. The first strategy included using the instrument battery to collect informati on related to the studys 5 dependent variables. 61

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The second strategy was integrated within the intervention and included collecting demographic information and history of developmental challenges using the Project Challenge Assessment Interview. The third strategy involved the researcher making qualitative observations throughout the intervention. Strategy 1: Instrument Battery The study was conducted in three waves. Fo r each wave, participants were randomly assigned to Group 1 or Group 2. Ov er the course of each wave, qua ntitative data related to the dependent variables were collected from both gr oups three times. These data were collected throughout each wave usi ng the following schedule. 1. Data Collection 1 (T1): Both groups comple ted the instrument battery on the same day at the same time prior to either group participating in program activities. 2. Assignment 1 (I1): Group 1 received the inte rvention while Group 2 received no intervention. 3. Data Collection 2 (T2) Group 2 completed the instrument batte ry the day after Group 1 returned from the challenge tr ip, but before contact with Group 1 members; Group 1 completed the instru ment battery 1 day later. (T2). 4. Assignment 2 (I2): Group 1 received no intervention wh ile Group 2 received the intervention. 5. Data Collection 3 (T3): Both groups comple ted the instrument battery on the same day and at the same time after all of Group 2s intervention-related activities were completed. Participants completed the full instrument battery composed of scales related to selfconfidence, self-esteem, perceived social support, mattering, and identity each time (T1, T2, and T3). Procedures used each time participants completed the instrument battery included: 62

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1. Welcoming participants and thanking them for participating in the study. 2. Distributing a copy of the inst rument battery to the correct participants according to their assigned numbers, and reminding part icipants not to begin completing the survey until instru cted to do so. 3. Reading the assent script and waiting for participant response. 4. Reminding participants about: 1) the need to take their time, 2) the confidentiality of their responses, and 3) the importan ce of serious and thoughtful answers. 5. Allowing participants to complete their surveys free of distraction. 6. Answering participant questions about survey items by encouraging them to Select the answer you think is best. 7. Instructing participants to place their comp leted instrument battery in the one large envelope provided for the group and request ing the last participant who completed the survey to seal the envelope. 8. Thanking participants and supervising them as they returned to class. The researcher was blind to all preand post-te st results until after all three waves of the study were completed. All data collection was supervised by trained personnel associated with the study. Data were collected in equivalent classroom settings and conducted on the same day and at the same time unless otherw ise specified by the protocol. Strategy 2: Project Challenge Assessment Interview Demographic information and information related to Developmental Challenge were collected using the Project Challenge Assessment Interview. As requested by the University of Florida Institutional Review Bo ard, existing program records were used to collect information related to potentially sensitive topics such as abuse and family trauma. 63

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The first phase of Project Challenge involved conducting a comprehensive assessment interview. For participants assigned to the intervention condition, the interview was conducted between administration of the in strument battery and the beginni ng of program activities. The interview was conducted by the same Project Challenge team member for all participants. The team member had been trained to collect sensitive information in an interview format. Further, the researcher provided training for the Project Challenge team member concerning the importance of consistent adherence to interview procedures. Procedures followed each time an interview was conducted included: 1. Welcoming the interviewees and expressing excitement about their participation in the program and challenge trip. 2. Explaining the purpose of the interview, and asking for the interviewees permission to proceed with the interview. 3. Reassuring the interviewees about the confidentiality of their responses. 4. Asking the interview questions in the pres cribed order, and recording responses using the response codes previously established by Project Challenge. 5. Answering interviewees questions about interview questions by encouraging them to Answer however you think is best. 6. Asking interviewees if they had any ques tions about the program, then answering their questions. 7. Thanking interviewees for participating in the interview, telling them the interviewer was looking forw ard to seeing them at Project Challenge, and supervising them as they returned to class. 64

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Strategy 3: Participant Exit Interviews Qualitative data were recorded in the form of informal notes kept by the researcher. These notes included observations related to general progr am activities and participation in the informal group discussions and interviews. Additionally, the Project Challenge program routinely video tapes program activities and participant reactions to the program. The researcher had access to the video tapes taken during the st udy and reviewed them as needed. Qualitative data collection focused on documenting and exploring participants perceptions of their experiences with the Project Challenge program and participants beliefs con cerning what they learned or gained while participating in the program. Data Analysis Methods for data analysis were selected base d on the nature of the research question. A Type I error rate was set at .10 for all tests. Researchers often set a .10 error rate in social science research, particularly in conjuncti on with preliminary st udies (Agresti, 1997). Research Question 1 What levels of developmenta l challenge are prevalent am ong adolescent girls attending alternative schools? Demographic data and histories of devel opmental challenge were analyzed using descriptive statistics (Agresti & Finlay, 1999). Analyses incl uded all study participants. Frequencies and rates were reported for each vari able. Variables included age, ethnicity, total incidence of abuse, physical abuse, sexual abus e, family fragmentation, nature of family fragmentation, school behavior problems, academic failure, and substance use and abuse. Research Questions 2-6 What differences ex ist in participant levels of psychosocial development based on assignment to experimenta l and control conditions? 65

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Quantitative Analysis Primary data analysis focused on using Repeated Measures of Analysis of Variance. This statistical procedure was used to examine diff erences between groups of participants based on the timing of each groups exposure to the Project Challenge program. Group 1 participants received the treatment between Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) measurements. Group 2 did not receive the treatment during this time, and were used as a control group between these measurements. Alternately, Group 2 participants received the tr eatment between T2 and Time 3 (T3) measurements. In this case, Group 1 did not receive another dose of the treatment, and were used as a control group be tween those measurements. Results from these analyses indicated whether or not there was a si gnificant difference in the pattern of change between group means over time. Group 1 received the treatment between T1 and T2 and theoretically should have demons trated an increase in the variables targeted by the intervention between measur ements. Conversely, Group 1 di d not receive the treatment between T2 and T3 and should have demonstrated no change or a slight decrease after the T2 measurement. Group 2 did not receive the treatment between T1 and T2 and, based on the objectives of the program, there should have been no eviden ce supporting a difference between measurements. Between T2 and T3, however, Group 2 received the treatment and should have demonstrated corresponding increases in the psychosocial va riables targeted by the intervention. This interaction between treatment and time of measurement provided evidence concerning the relationship between the program and each psychosocial variable of interest. Effect size was calculated using partial eta squared which described the strength of the treatments effect on the targeted psychosocial variables. Effect size estimates were interpreted 66

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using traditional ranges. These included sm all effects/weak relati onships (.01), medium effects/moderate relationships (.09), and large effects/strong re lationships (.25). For each variable with significant evidence of a treatment-by-time effect, follow-up data analysis strategies were used to investigate th e nature of the differen ces between treatment and control groups. Follow-up data an alysis strategies were two-fold. First, means were computed for each group at each time of measurement. The data were then used to construct line graphs depicting the pattern of change for each group at each time of measurement. These line graphs illustrated whether or not changes in each variable corresponded with their assignment to the treatment or control groups. Second, One-tailed Dependent Samples t-tests we re used to examine within group preand post-test differences. These tests provided ev idence regarding the natu re of the difference between treatment and control groups, i.e. Was th ere statistically significant evidence that the treatment group experienced a pre-/post-test in crease in target variable? and Was there statistically significant evidence that the treatment group did not reflect corresponding increase during the same time period? Together, these st rategies provided evidence regarding the nature of the differences between treatment and control groups. These strategies indicated whether or not changes occurred as predicted an d in the directions predicted. Finally, data were collected from Group 1 part icipants two weeks after the intervention. Two-tailed Dependent Samples ttests were used to provide ev idence regarding post-treatment changes in each targeted psychosocial variable or changes between T2 and T3. One-tailed Dependent Samples t-tests were used to evaluate net increases between T1 and T3. Participant Exit Interviews Participant exit interviews allowed participants to describe the influence of program experiences and activities on th eir psychosocial development. An informal and adapted version 67

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of the Interpretative Analysis model (Hatch, 2002) was used to analyze the studys qualitative data. Hatch (2003) described inte rpretative analysis as a proce ss in which the researcher gives meaning to qualitative data by actively mak ing inferences, developing insights, drawing conclusions, and extrapolating lessons. Steps used to conduct this analysis included: 1. Observing one administration of the program for a sense of the whole and recording broad impressions in researchers notes. 2. Observing a second administration of the program and recording specific impressions gleaned from Participant Exit Interviews in researcher notes, then recording both specific a nd broad impressions as theme statements or memos. 3. Observing a third administra tion of the program in th e context of previously recorded impressions, theme statements, and memos, then recording new insights gleaned from Participant Exit Interviews. 4. Studying theme statements and memo s for salient interpretations. 5. Reviewing researcher notes and vi deo tapes looking for places where interpretations are supported or challenged. 6. Writing a draft summary. 7. Reviewing the draft summary with participants. 8. Writing a revised summary as informed by participant feedback. Hatch (2002) cautions against attempting to over-analyze while doing interpretative work and suggests interpretative methods be used to illuminate a previously established phenomenon. This approach to qualitative data analysis complemented the overall QUAN-qual design of the study. Qualitative data was used to confirm, enhance, and elabor ate the quantitative findings of the study. 68

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Summary This chapter described the methods associated with the study includ ing research design, variables, instruments, setting, participants, intervention, data co llection, and data analysis. These methods were used to conduct the Projec t Challenge program, coll ect data related to participant outcomes, and to an alyze that data. Chapter 4 pr esents the results of the study. 69

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70 Table 3-1. Instrument pilo t reliability test results. Scale Test-Restest Internal Consistency Time 1 Internal Consistency Time 2 Self-Confidence Combined .700* .769 .770 Pearlin Mastery Alone .307 .584 .196 Hope Scale Alone .571 .597 .869 Agency Subscale .782* .629 .850 Pathways Subscale .266 .103 .588 Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale .845** .817 .910 Perceived Social Support .814** .684 .674 Special Person Subscale .770* .749 .754 Family Subscale .913** .919 .909 Friends Subscale .692* .775 .765 Mattering .922** .798 .777 Awareness Subscale .564 .505 .333 Importance Subscale .793* .722 .717 Reliance Subscale .805** .926 .968 Identity Subscale .885** .869 .890 *Significant at the .05 level. **Significant at the .01 level.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This study examined the lifetime incidence of developmental challenges related to delinquency in girls attending alternative junior and senior hi gh schools and the influence of participating in Project Challenge on their psychosocial development and resiliency. Data collected during the study are presented in this ch apter. These data describes girls experiences with developmental challenge and the influence of participating in the Project Challenge program. Participant Demographics Participants were recruited from one altern ative junior high school and one alternative senior high school in the North Florida region. A presentation describing Project Challenge was made to 100% of eligible students at each school. To participate in Project Challenge students were required to return paperwork indicating parent al permission to participate. To participate in the study, students were required to return a copy of the IRB-approved informed consent. Thirty-seven of thirty -nine students (94.87%) returned both fo rms and participated in both the program and study. One of the remaining student s indicated she personally did not want to participate in the program; the other non-participant indicated he r parent or guardian did not want her to participate as punishment for behavior problems at home. Thir ty-five out of thirtyseven students (86.49%) participated in all aspects of the program and data collection. One participant left the study due to incarceration, two were forced to move unexpectedly, and one failed to attend program safety sessio ns and was rescheduled for a future Project Challenge program. Table 4-1 presents participant demographic data Participants ranged in age from 13 to 17 years. Seventeen percent of students were 13, 29% were 14, 23% were 15, 11% were 16, and 71

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20% were 17. Forty-nine percent of participants described themse lves as Black, 9% as Hispanic, and 43% as White. Forty percent attended the al ternative junior high sc hool, and 60% attended the alternative senior high school. Research Question 1 What levels of developmenta l challenge and psychosocial development are prevalent among adolescent girls attending alternative schools? Univariate statistics were used to describe the lifetime incidence of the four types of developmental challenge that most often precede delinquent behavior in adolescent girls: abuse, family fragmentation, and school failure. Table 42 presents the lifetime incidence of each. According to the information provided, 94.59% of participants were victims of sexual or physical abuse. Seventy-one percent described at least one incident of ph ysical abuse, and 26% described at least one incident of sexual abuse. Only 11% of participants indicated they had received some form of c ounseling or treatment related to their abuse history. Ninety-five percent (94.59%) of participants were exposed to some form of family fragmentation. Eighty-three per cent (82.86%) experienced parental divorce and subsequent lack of involvement from the parent not-in-residence as an ongoing source of family fragmentation. Forty-nine percent (48.57%) reported prolonged parental incarceration as an ongoing source of family fragmentation. Thirty-one percent (31.4 3%) described parental substance abuse as a contributing factor to family fragmentation. One hundred percent (100%) of the participants who reported family fragmentation described the father as being the primary family member who was absent, missing, or unavailable At program entry, 91.43% of pa rticipants lived with their mother in the home, while 28.57% lived with their father in the home. One hundred percent of particip ants described experiencing a buse or family fragmentation, and 94.59% described experiencing bo th abuse and family fragmentation. Of the participants 72

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who experienced either abuse or family fragme ntation, 100% experienced the problem prior to academic failure and prior to beginning the behavior resulting in their placement in alternative school. Of the participants who experienced both abuse and family fragmentation, 100% experienced both prior to other developmental challenges and ons et of behaviors resulting in their alternative school placement. School failure was examined in terms of school behavior and school grades. One hundred percent of participants indicated failure to behave appropriate ly at school. This finding reflects the source of participant referra ls alternative schools. The school district this study was conducted in requires a confirmed history of in-school behavior problems before to assignment to an alternative school. Eightynine percent (89.19%) of participants also reported academic failure defined as receiving the le tter grade D or below for half or more of their courses during the previous semester. Research Question 2 What differences exis t in participant levels of self -confidence based on assignment to experimental and c ontrol conditions? Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance supported significant differences in selfconfidence based on assignment to treatment and control groups (p =.005, F=6.171, df=1.864). Treatment groups demonstrated increased leve ls of self-confidence while control groups remained constant. The effect size estimate (partial eta squared=.310) suggested a strong relationship between the interv ention and increased Self-confid ence. Comparisons of group means demonstrated patterns for each group as h ypothesized (Table 4-4). One-tailed Dependent samples t-tests revealed signifi cant differences between prea nd post-test measurements (Group 1-p=.000, t=-3.806, df=19; Group 2-p=.000, t=-4.156, df=12). 73

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As part of the cross-over design, Group 1 wa s measured two weeks after treatment. Twotailed Dependent samples t-test provided evidence for a small decrease in self-confidence 2 weeks after treatment (p=.074, t=1.518, df=17; mean decrease=1.333, 90% CI =.194-2.861). Paired samples t-tests strongly supported a ne t improvement in self-confidence for Group 1 despite a decrease between T2 a nd T3 (p=.007, t=-2.718, df=17) Repeated Measures ANOVA showed significan t differences in the agency subscale between treatment and control groups (p= .008, F=4.408, df=2.000). The partial eta squared effect size estimate of .153 indicated the treat ment had a stronger-than-moderate effect on agency. Comparisons of group means demonstr ated patterns for each group as hypothesized (Table 4-4). Paired samples T-te sts revealed significant preand post-test differences in agency (Group 1-p=.002, t=-3.312, df=19; Group 2-p=.006, t=-2.894). Group 1 measurements taken 2 weeks post-trea tment suggested a slight decrease in agency. Paired samples t-tests provided st rong evidence of this decrease (p=.009, t=1.844, df=17). The corresponding ninety percent confidence interval s uggests the decrease was small (mean decrease=.667, 90% CI=.038-1.296). Paired samples t-test also supported a net increase in agency in spite of th e decrease between T2 and T3 (p=.002, t=-2.099, df=17). Research Question 3 What differences exis t in participant levels of self -esteem based on assignment to experimental and c ontrol conditions? Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance suppor ted significant differe nces in self-esteem between treatment and control groups (p=.016, F=4.408, df=2.000). The effect size estimate (partial eta squared=.128) suggested a str onger-than-moderate rela tionship between the intervention and increased self-e steem. Comparisons of group m eans demonstrated patterns for each group as hypothesized (Table 4-4). Paired sa mples t-tests revealed significant differences 74

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between preand post-treatment measuremen ts (Group 1-p=.001, t=-3.375, df=18; Group 2p=.009, t=-2.672, df=13). Group 1 measurements taken two weeks posttreatment suggested no decrease in selfesteem. Two-tailed Dependent samples t-tests pr ovided no evidence of a significant decrease in self-esteem between T2 and T3 (p=.208, t=.833, df=17). One-taile d Dependent samples t-tests also supported a net increase in self-esteem between T1 and T3 (p=.007, t=-2.271, df=17). Research Question 4 What differences exis t in participant levels of pe rceived social support based on assignment to experimenta l and control conditions? Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance showed significant differe nces in perceived social support between treatment and contro l groups (p=.048, F=3.209, df=2.000). The effect size estimate (partial eta squared=.100) indicated the treatment made a moderate impact on perceived social support. Comp arisons of group means demonstrated patterns for each group as hypothesized (Table 4-4). Paired samples t-tests revealed signif icant differences between preand post-treatment measurements for Group 1 (p =.015, t=-2.341, df=18), but no evidence for an increase in Group 2-(p=.179, t=-.953, df=13). In Po st Hoc analysis, Group 2 data were split into the three subgroups in which treatment occurred. After this procedure, two of three sub-groups demonstrated a significant increase in percei ved social support, while one group showed no increase between any points of measurement. Ultimately, five of six subgroups experienced statistically significant pr e-post increases in perceived social support. Group 1 measurements taken two weeks post-treat ment suggested a subs tantial decrease in perceived social support. Paired samples t-tests provided evidence of a statistically significant decrease between T2 and T3 (p=.016, t=2.310, df=16) Paired samples t-test also indicated no net increase in perceived soci al support between T1 and T3 (p=.360, t=-.365, df=16). This 75

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pattern of evidence and its co rresponding confidence intervals suggest a sharp increase in perceived social support duri ng treatment followed by a swift return to baseline. Repeated Measures ANOVA did not support di fferences in the treatment and control groups for two of the perceived social support subscales: family (p=.069, F=2.079, df=2.000), and friend (p=.242, F=1.458, df=1.812). Findings did support differences in the special person subscale (p=.046, F=3.286, df=1.927). The partial et a squared for special person was .102 which indicated a moderate treatment effect. In further analysis of the special person subscale, Paired samples t-tests revealed significant differences between preand post-treatment measurements for Group 1 (p=.020, t=2.208, df=18) but no evidence for an increase in Group 2-(p=.124, t=-1.210, df=13). In Post Hoc analysis, Group 2 data were spli t into the three subgroups in wh ich treatment occurred. After this procedure, two of the subgroups demonstrat ed a significant increase in the special person sub-scale, while one group showed no increase between any points of measurement. Ultimately, five of six subgroups experienced a significant post-treatment increase in the special person subscale. Group 1 measurements taken two weeks post-treat ment suggested a subs tantial decrease in the special person subscale. Paired samples t-te sts provided evidence of a statistically significant decrease between T2 and T3 (p=.032, t=1.979, df=16) Paired samples t-test also indicated no net increase in the special person subscale betw een T1 and T3 (p=.315, t=-.491, df=16). This pattern of evidence and its corre sponding confidence intervals s uggest a sharp increase in the special person subscale during treatment fo llowed by a swift return to baseline. 76

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Research Question 5 What differences exis t in participant levels of ma ttering based on assignment to experimental and c ontrol conditions? Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance s upported significant differences in mattering between treatment and control groups (p=.009, F=5.107, df=1.971). The effect size estimate (partial eta squared=.150) suggested a str onger-than-moderate rela tionship between the intervention and increased mattering. Comparisons of group means demonstrated patterns for each group as hypothesized (Table 4-4). Paired sa mples t-tests revealed significant differences between preand post-treatment measuremen ts (Group 1-p=.011, t=-2.510, df=18; Group 2p=.014, t=-2.474, df=13). Group 1 measurements taken two weeks post-treatment suggested a significant decrease in mattering (p=..007, t=2.799, df=16; 90%).This decrease represented an almost exact return to baseline. The T1 to T2 mean increas e of 6.053 (90%CI=1.871-10.234) was followed by a corresponding T2 to T3 mean decrease of 6.059 (90%CI=-5.233-5.233). Repeated Measures ANOVA supported differences in the treatment and control groups for one of the mattering subscales importance (p=.059, F=2.994, df= 1.979), but not for the other subscale, reliance (p=.297, F=1.167, df=1.162). Th e partial eta squared for the importance subscale was .100 which indicated a moderate treatment effect. In further analysis of the importance subscale, Paired samples t-tests revealed significant differences between preand post-treatme nt measurements for Group 1 (p=.031, t=-1.986, df=18), but no evidence for an increase in Group 2 (p=.146, t=-1.087, df=13). In Post Hoc analysis, Group 2 data were spli t into the three subgroups in wh ich treatment occurred. After this procedure, two of the subgroups demonstrat ed a significant increase in the importance sub77

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scale, while one group showed no increase. U ltimately, five of six subgroups experienced a significant post-treatment increase in the importance subscale. Group 1 measurements taken two weeks post-treat ment suggested a subs tantial decrease in the importance subscale. Paired samples t-tests provided evidence of a statistically significant decrease between T2 and T3 (p=.037, t=1.897, df=14). Further, Paired samples t-test also indicated no net increase in importance betw een T1 and T3 (p=.335, t=-.436, df=14). This pattern of evidence and its corre sponding confidence intervals s uggest a sharp increase in the Importance subscale during treatment follo wed by a swift return to baseline. Research Question 6 What differences exist in participant levels of identity based on assi gnment to experimental and control conditions? Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance s upported significant differences in identity between treatment and control groups (p=.018, F=4.505, df=1.817). The effect size estimate (partial eta squared=.139) i ndicated a stronger-than-modera te relationship between the intervention and improved identity. Comparisons of group means demonstr ated patterns for each group as hypothesized (Table 4-4). Paired sa mples t-tests revealed significant differences between preand post-treatment measuremen ts (Group 1-p=.001, t=-3.529, df=18; Group 2p=.009, t=-2.678, df=13). Group 1 measurements taken two weeks post-treatment suggested a slight decrease in identity. Paired samples t-tests provided significant evidence of a decrease in identity after the intervention (p=.063, t=1.617, df=15). The decrease appeared relatively small. However, Paired samples t-tests supported a net incr ease in identity (p=.020, t=-2.247, df=15) between T1 and T3. 78

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Participant Exit Interviews Participant exit interviews we re conducted during, immediately following, and up to 90 days after program delivery. Participants were asked the following open ended questions: Did you learn anything from your Project Challenge experience? If so, what? or Did you get anything out of participating in Project Challenge ? If so, what? Interpretive data analysis strategies were used to analyze investigator notes and help identif y several key themes related to participants Project Challenge experiences. These themes cl early supported the quantitative findings of Research Question 2. Two main them es were pervasive and unanimous increased self-confidence and positive experiences with trust. Findings related to self-esteem, perceived social support, mattering, and identity also c onsistently supported th e quantitative findings. Self-Confidence Participants clearly, unanimous ly, and most frequently described increased self-confidence as the first of two important outcomes from their Project Challenge experience. Participants consistently reported this finding during the pr ogram, one month after the program, and three months after the program. Some exam ples of participant comments include: Life is full of challenges, and you have to overcome them someway or another. Now I feel more confident in my ability to over come challenges because if I can do whitewater rafting and climb then I can do anythingANYTHING! Project Challenge changed me. I have more confiden ce now and know I can do more than before. I have learned that I can overcom e any obstacle, I just have to set my mind to it. If I really want to do somethingI focus on how much I want to do it, work hard, and (know) I can overcome it. Don't put yourself down by sayi ng, "oh, I can't, I can't", because you really can do it. Two sub-themes emerged as participants discussed Project Challenges influence on their self-confidence underestim ation and perseverance. 79

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Underestimation. Participants described their Project Challenge experience as helping them better understand their personal strengths and better estimate wh at they are actually capable of achieving. I learned I can do things I think I can't do. (I learned) there is a big difference betw een what I think I can do and what I can (actually) do. Project Challenge showed me I am so much stronger th an I think (I am). I can do a lot of stuff I didn't think I could do. Other girls should participate in Project Challenge because they will learn they can do things they never thought they could do. Participants described Project Challenge activities high level of difficulty as an important element in learning to correctly estimate th eir abilities. The presence of obvious and indisputable difficulty, and genuine doubt about their abilities, he lped participants gain better perspective about their capacities. When describing the final challenge a 120 foot rappel off a 750 foot cliff, one participant said: leaning back over a 750 foot cliff is scary. I really didnt think I could do it. (I was so scared) I cried, but knew I wanted to do it.. I told myself I could (do it) over and over again, even though I could feel tears. I cant kept trying to get in my head, but I thought about how I did everything (righ t) on the other rappels a nd I did it anyway. (At the bottom) I felt so great. I screamed, and crie d, and was so happy. I did it! -16 year old participant three months after the program Participants described the dissonance created by achieving th ings they deeply believed they could not do as a critical aspect of the pr ogram. The dramatic difference between what they believed they were capable of doing and what they actually achieved served as powerful evidence demanding they re-evaluate and re-estimate their capacities. Perseverance. Project Challenge participants described th eir budding self-confidence as fuel for perseverance. Perseverance helps people con tinue to try in the face of difficulty or to try 80

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again after a failure. Participants insisted Project Challenge helped them learn to persevere, to work hard in the face of adversity, and to resist quitting too easily or too soon. I learned to never say ne ver until you try and to al ways try your best. I learned to never give up a nd to always try my best. Its okay if things are har d. I can do hard (things). Its okay to be scared. If it hurts, I can take it. If I cry, thats okay. Just dont give up. If you dont give up you will do more (than you thought you could). A team member described observing part icipants develop self-confidence and perseverance in concert. On a girls first day, our 18 foot tower seems terrifying. It takes a lot of encouragement for many of them to even try. They are uns ure about whether they can (climb the tower) and so they dont want to risk even one failure By the last challe nge, girls are on an 80 foot cliff 700 feet above the valley below. Its safe, but can be pretty scary. (When they take a fall) before you can even ask them if th ey want to keep tryi ng, they grab the rock and start climbing again sometimes through t ears, but always determined. They know what they want and are going to make it happen. Project Challenge team member. Trust Participants clearly, unanimousl y, and most frequently descri bed positive experiences with trust as the second most im portant outcome of their Project Challenge experience. This finding was unanticipated and not evaluated quantitatively Participants consiste ntly cited trust as a central theme in their responses. You cant do any of this w ithout trusting people. My favorite activity was whitewater rafting because I had never been on a boat on water before and working together as a team taught me how to trust people. I learned it's best to work together to get th ings done, to trust others, and to get along with everyone. Before Project Challenge I used to get frustrated and mad around a bunch of girls. Now, I'm okay around other girls. Ever yone isnt out to get you. I can trust some people. Project Challenge changed me because I used to judge people I didn't really know. I learned if I get to know people, I can build a relationship with them and we can learn to trust each other. 81

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In Project Challenge I learned that I can trust other people. Participants emphasized how their developmenta l histories made it difficult to trust other people. Project Challenge asks participants literally to trust team members with their lives. Participants were aware that ty ing a knot wrong or forgetting a sa fety precaution could cost them their lives. They described the programs philosophy of relations hip building and progressively working from small to big challenges as key elements in bridging the gap from mistrust to trust. Participants also described the personal qualities of Project Challenge team members as central to having positive experien ces with Trust. Participants described team members genuine and authentic respect for, confidence in, and care for program participants as key elements in the positive trust experience. Project Challenge is special because the people support you and encourage you to never give up. The adults in Project Challenge treated me the way I was s upposed to be treated, the way I should be treated. They trusted me, and th ey had confidence in me that I could do anything. Project Challenge is special because of the people who work thereMr. Mike, Miss Melissa, Mr. Dustin, Miss Rakel. They always treat you with respect they definitely care about you. I believed in them because they believed in me (through tears) Ive never had anyone believe in me like that before. Self-Esteem Participants described increased sel f-esteem as an important outcome of Project Challenge. You are worthwhile, valuable, and speci al no matter what has happened in your past is one of the core messages of the Project Challenge program. Participants reported feeling and appreciating the infl uence of this core message. I learned to value myself Theres more to me than I thought there was. Project Challenge makes girls feel good about themselves. 82

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Project Challenge helped me not be as sad as I was. (Project Challenge) definitely improved my self esteem and my outlook on life. Participants described two important ideas related to Project Challenges influence on selfesteem. First, participants noted the importance of developing self-esteem in the context of achievement. Participants described placing more value on themselves as a result of discovering unrealized strength and capacity. In many ways, participants described self-esteem as a byproduct of, and in the context of positive, goal-oriented achieve ment. Participants reported placing more value on themselves as they realized th eir own capacities. Second, participants described developing self-e steem in the context of authentic, genuine, and caring relationships. Participants felt that being in a resp ectful and supportive environment where people obviously care abou t you a lot makes it easier to believe you are valuable, or When people treat you like you are valuable, its easier to believe you are. Many participants described team members caring enough not to give up on them as being critical to increases in self-esteem. Ive never had anyone care about me enough to spend that much time encouraging me, working with me, not giving up on me. Id say I want to quit, but (team members) would say (they) believed in me, that (they) knew I could do it. When someone refuses to give up on you because they believe in you that means a lot. Perceived Social Support and Mattering Neither increases in perceived social support nor mattering were mentioned by participants as long-term outcomes of Project Challenge. However, participants did describe Project Challenge as an environment high in perceive d social support and mattering, and they emphasized the importance of this context for developing self-confidence and self-esteem. At Project Challenge you don't have to worry about someone not respecting you because everyone there respects each other. 83

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My favorite Project Challenge activity was sitting around th e campfire hanging out with the girls. I learned I'm not the only person who has problems because they do, too. It was good to be able talk about them and feel understood. The most challenging activity for me wa s the rock climbing. It was hard because everyone wanted to give up but we also wanted to get it done. This one part was so hard, I cried. But everyone supported me and encourag ed me to keep going until I made it to the top. When I finally got to the t op, I stopped crying and SMILED! Participants described feeling safe, supported, understood, and ge nuinely cared for by staff. Without this relationship and s upport-rich environment, most participants felt they would not have been as successful. Part icipants described this supportiv e environment as providing the security and strength necessary keep trying. One participant suggeste d, Sometimes you need someone to believe in you before you can believe in yourself. Other par ticipants described the importance of knowing you would be respecte d even if you failed, knowing team members would be responsive to your requests for help, an d that other participants would be there for you. A Project Challenge team member described it this way: We maintain amazingly high expectations. We expect students to do things they sincerely believe are impossible. We try to match our levels of support to our levels of expectation. If we are going to require a lot fr om you, we better be willing to give a lot to you. This means being there when students need us. Not rescuing or saving just being there. Letting them know we are with them, we care, and that we believe in them. Project Challenge team member Identity Participants described Project Challenge as an opportunity to learn new things about themselves, and to better develop their sense of w ho they are and what they really want. One of the programs core strategies includes creating a therapeutic e nvironment in which girls can step away from the pressures of adol escence and just be themselves. Project Challenge takes you out of the environment you're normally in. You're basically in the middle of no where and nothing can distract you. At Project Challenge, you get to be yourself. After the trip, you go back as your self because you realize you don't have to change to fit in. You can be yourself and that's okay. 84

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Ninety days after the program, participants believed Project Challenges emphasis on identity helped them make what they described as better choices that were more congruent with who they really wanted to be and what they felt was most important to them. Before I went to Project Challenge if someone was talking about me I would have just fought them. But now, since I went to Project Challenge, I can ignore them and because I know who I am and it doesn't really matter what they say. Before Project Challenge, I was hanging around the wrong cr owd and getting in trouble. Project Challenge helped me change those things. Project Challenge made me a better person. I never went to church before Project Challenge and since then I go to church every Wednesday and Sunday. The Project Challenge curriculum did not speak directly to fighting, changing peer groups, or attending religious services. However, participants describe the combination of time spent unplugged from their normal routine, participation in activities encouraging them to reconsider their possibilities, and time sp ent thinking, writing, and talking about topics such as What makes you you? and, What do you want mo st in life? as beneficial. At campfire (sessions) I realized I only ha ve positive goals. I only want positive things and to be a good person. I wondered about how I got to (my alternative school). At Project Challenge, you think about what it means to be you rself. I got to be myself (on the trip), and I wanted to be like th at all the time. Who I was at Project Challenge would never have to go to (my alternative school). Participant Satisfaction The program evaluation focused primarily on participant outcomes. However, participant satisfaction remains an important part of any evaluation. In this case, participants described Project Challenge as a meaningful and valuab le experience. Participants stated they were glad they participated in the program and would highly recommend it to ot her girls. Participants often used effusive language to describe their Project Challenge experience. Descri bing it as one of the most positive experiences of their lives. 85

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Other girls should participate in Project Challenge because it's fun and it (gives you the opportunity to) do things you never thought you could do. Other girls should participate in Project Challenge because they will learn they can overcome obstacles, to believe in themselves, and how to trust the right kind of people. Project Challenge is a once in a lifetime experience. Every girl should be in Project Challenge Summary This chapter presented findings related to life time histories of developmental challenge in alternative school girls and the influence of Project Challenge Findings suggested high levels of abuse, family fragmentation, and school failure in this sample of alternative school girls. Further, quantitative and qualitative findings converged and provided strong evidence for the positive influence of the Project Challenge program on each of its targeted psychosocial variables self-confidence, self-esteem, per ceived social support, mattering, and identity. Additionally, qualitative findings suggested at least one unintended positive outcome positive experiences with trust. This study included several strengths. First, the studys experiment al design provided the strongest possible evidence concerning the influe nce of the intervention on the variables in question. True experimental designs incorpor ate randomization and control groups, and control for the influence of more threat s to validity than othe r research designs. Second, the cross-over element of this design required repeated measur ements from participants. Using repeated measurement increases the total number of data points analyzed and, thereby, the power of the study. Third, the mixed methods design elemen t strengthened the study as well. The incorporation of qualitative methods enhanced th e quantitative portion of the study. Participant exit interviews confirmed and el aborated on the quantitative findings of the study. Combined 86

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with the true experimental design, this triangulation of methods provided important evidence regarding the influence of th e intervention on participants. One limitation of the study con cerned the potential for diffusi on of treatments. In this study, there was no way to separate groups or prevent them from communicating with each other. In order to limit the effects of this th reat, the group receiving th e experimental condition did not have to attend school the day after the ch allenge trip. The group assigned to the control condition was administered the instrument batte ry on the day before they interacted with participants assigned to the expe rimental condition in school. Pa rticipants from both groups may have communicated outside of sc hool, but this communication wa s probably limited. Further, this study investigated the eff ects of a program designed arou nd highly visceral experiential activities such as rock climbing, rappelling, and whitewater rafting. Oral communication about these activities may have had an influence on c ontrol group responses. However, it is reasonable to assume that the intensity of these activities exerted a greater effect than would be possible by standard oral communication between participants Perhaps most importantly, the influence of diffusion of treatments could only minimize th e differences between treatment and control conditions. Chapter 5 will summarize the activities associated with this study, discuss the theoretical implications of this study, and offer recomm endations for future research and practice. 87

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Table 4-1. Population demographics. N Percent Age 13 years old 6 17.14 14 years old 10 25.57 15 years old 8 22.86 16 years old 4 11.43 17 years old 7 20.00 Ethnicity Black 17 48.57 Hispanic 3 8.57 White 15 42.86 88

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Table 4-2. Descriptive statistics: History of developmental challenge. N Percent Abuse 33 94.29 Physical Abuse 25 71.43 Sexual Abuse 9 25.71 Received Treatment 4 11.43 Family Fragmentation 33 94.29 Parents Divorce 29 82.86 Parents Incarceration 17 48.57 Parents Substance Abuse 11 31.43 Currently Living with Mother 32 91.43 Currently Living with Father 10 28.57 School Failure 35 100 School Behavior Problems 35 100 Academic Failure 31 88.57 89

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Table 4-3. Interaction between time and treatment. F df time df time x treatment p-value Partial Eta Squared Observed Power Self-confidence 6.171 1.706 1.864 .005 .310 .919 Agency Subscale 5.238 2.000 2.000 .008 .153 .889 Self-esteem 4.408 2.000 2.000 .016 .128 .834 Perceived Social Support 3.209 2.000 .048 .100 .713 2.000 Special Person Subscale 3.286 1.927 1.927 .046 .102 .712 Family Subscale 2.079 2.000 2.000 .134 .067 .542 Friend Subscale 1.458 1.812 1.812 .242 .048 .406 Mattering 5.107 1.971 1.971 .009 .150 .879 Importance Subscale 2.994 1.979 1.979 .059 .100 .681 Reliance Subscale 1.167 1.162 1.162 .297 .039 .296 Identity 4.505 1.817 1.817 .018 .139 .818 90

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Table 4-4. Means by variable and time of measurement. Targeted Psychosocial Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Variables Group Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Self-confidence 1 2 44.25 43.44 5.571 5.573 49.30 43.75 6.783 6.028 47.94 49.00 5.724 6.164 Agency Subscale 1 2 11.70 11.81 2.430 2.228 13.55 11.56 2.523 1.548 12.89 13.31 2.220 2.016 Self-esteem 1 2 28.21 29.71 4.984 6.101 32.00 29.47 4.410 4.888 31.22 32.71 3.490 5.210 Perceived Social Support 1 2 67.32 69.82 13.149 8.748 74.32 68.00 6.961 12.196 68.41 71.86 10.995 14.914 Special Person Subscale 1 2 24.74 26.06 3.709 2.926 26.63 24.18 1.802 4.953 23.76 25.79 6.057 4.902 Family Subscale 1 2 20.95 21.06 6.485 4.879 23.32 20.88 4.448 5.988 21.82 22.21 4.660 7.329 Friend Subscale 1 2 21.63 22.71 5.698 5.181 24.37 22.94 3.670 5.332 22.82 23.86 5.065 5.749 Mattering 1 2 56.63 58.59 9.001 9.159 62.68 57.76 7.484 8.497 56.29 61.00 8.880 9.389 Importance Subscale 1 2 22.68 24.76 4.989 3.615 25.32 23.76 4.015 4.549 22.87 24.07 5.041 5.240 Reliance Subscale 1 2 11.95 11.47 2.321 2.348 12.00 11.29 2.769 2.085 15.71 11.79 13.037 2.190 1 2 29.58 31.12 5.440 4.328 34.00 30.06 Identity 4.497 5.391 32.97 32.93 4.735 4.665 91

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Table 4-5. Changes in means over time due to treatment. Targeted Psychosocial Mean 90% CI One Tailed Variables Group T-T Diff. Upper Lower t df Prob. Self-confidence 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 5.050 -1.333 3.833 .313 4.923 7.344 .194 6.286 2.085 7.034 2.756 -2.861 1.380 -1.460 2.812 -3.806 1.518 -2.718 -.309 -4.156 19 17 17 15 12 .000 .073 .007 .356 .000 Agency Subscale 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 1.850 -.667 1.167 -.250 1.769 2.816 -.038 2.133 .438 2.859 .884 -1.296 .200 -.938 .680 -3.312 1.844 -2.099 .637 -2.894 19 17 17 15 12 .002 .041 .025 .267 .007 Self-esteem 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 3.789 -.667 3.167 -.235 3.357 5.736 .726 5.191 1.157 5.582 1.842 -2.059 1.142 -1.628 1.138 -3.375 .833 -2.721 .295 -2.672 18 17 17 16 13 .001 .208 .007 .386 .009 Perceived Social Support 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 7.00 -6.235 1.529 -1.824 4.071 12.185 -1.524 8.855 2.095 11.659 1.815 -10.95 -5.796 -5.742 -3.516 -2.341 2.310 -.365 .812 -.950 18 16 16 16 13 .015 .017 .360 .214 .179 Special Person Subscale 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 1.895 -2.941 -.882 -1.882 1.786 3.383 -.346 2.258 .052 4.399 .407 -5.537 -4.022 -3.816 -.828 -2.208 1.979 .491 1.699 -1.210 18 16 16 16 13 .020 .032 .315 .054 .124 Family Subscale 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 2.368 -1.765 .706 -.176 1.714 4.572 -.170 3.151 1.742 4.495 .165 -3.360 -1.739 -2.095 -1.067 -1.864 1.931 -.504 .161 -1.092 18 16 16 16 13 .037 .035 .360 .437 .147 Friend Subscale 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 2.737 -1.529 1.706 .235 .571 4.911 .105 5.066 2.518 3.609 .563 -3.163 -1.654 -2.048 -2.466 -2.183 1.634 -.886 -.180 -.333 18 16 16 16 13 .021 .061 .194 .427 .372 Mattering 1 1-2 2-3 1-3 6.053 -6.059 .000 10.234 -2.279 5.233 1.871 -9.839 -5.233 -2.510 2.799 .000 18 16 16 .011 .006 .500 92

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93 2 1-2 2-3 -.824 4.071 1.610 6.986 -3.257 1.157 .591 -2.474 16 13 .281 .014 Importance Subscale 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 2.632 -2.200 .733 -1.000 1.143 4.929 -.158 3.698 .605 2.979 .334 -4.242 -2.231 -2.605 -.694 -1.986 1.897 -.436 1.087 -1.102 18 14 14 16 13 .031 .037 .335 .146 .145 Reliance Subscale 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 .053 3.765 3.647 -.176 .286 1.031 8.876 8.746 .725 1.015 -.926 -1.346 -1.452 -1.078 -.443 -.093 -1.286 -1.249 .342 -6.94 18 16 16 16 13 .463 .108 .115 .363 .250 Identity 1 2 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-2 2-3 4.421 -1.406 3.281 -1.059 2.643 6.593 .119 5.842 1.018 4.390 2.249 -2.931 .721 -3.136 .895 -3.529 1.617 -2.247 .890 -2.678 18 15 15 16 13 .001 .063 .020 .193 .009

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CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Girls at-risk for delinquency represent a highly vulnerab le population (Bilchik, 2001; Acoca, 1999; Manigha, 11998). Too often, th ese girls share painful and traumatic life experiences that precede their delinquency. These life events include abuse, family fragmentation, school failure, untreated health problems, and convergence of risk in early adolescence (Acoca, 1999). Gi rls exposed to these traumatic and stressful developmental histories are frequently overwhelmed by these oc currences, and they experience developmental disruptions and delays in their psychosocia l growth (Acoca, 1999; Manigha, 1998). These disruptions may include lower levels of self-confidence and self-esteem, diffuse intrapersonal and interpersonal identities, and f eelings of isolation manifested in low levels of perceived social support and mattering. Many negative consequences are associated w ith these developmental disruptions (Crosby et al., 2004; Aalsma & Lapsey, 2001; Bardone et al., 1998), but none more damaging than their role in mediating coping responses. Learni ng maladaptive coping re sponses represents a particularly influential negative consequence of girls developmental disruptions (Li, DiGuiseppe, & Froh, 2006; Lobmann, Greve, We tzels, & Bosold, 2001). Maladaptive coping responses are strongly associated with girl s delinquency, substance abuse, risky sex, and continued victimization throughout the lifes pan (Aalsma & Lapsey, 2001). Although the professional literature related to girls development and juven ile justice has called for the development and study of prevention and early in tervention programs designed to meet the needs of at-risk girls (Bilchik, 1999; Bilchik, 1998; AB A, n.d.), almost no such efforts have been documented in the professional literature. 94

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Summary This study examined the influence of a genderspecific prevention prog ram created to meet the needs of adolescent gi rls at-risk for delinquency. Project Challenge was designed specifically to meet the needs of girls with developmental hi stories predisposing them to delinquency, risky health behavior, and poor life outcomes by promoting healthy psychosocial development and the intrapersonal and interpersonal factors associat ed with girls resilience. The program was developed based on the Model of Girls Resilience This model represents a synthesis of the pr ofessional literature related to stress, resilience, and girls development. It identifies crucial developmental constructs and processes associated with improving girls abilities to cope effectively w ith the painful and traumatic experiences that precede delinquency and risky healthy behavior. This study examined the impact of Project Challenge on six variables identified in The Model of Girls Resilience and addressed the following research questions: 1. What levels of developmental challeng e exist among adolescent girls attending alternative schools? 2. What differences exist in participant leve ls of self-confidence based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? 3. What differences exist in participant leve ls of self-esteem based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? 4. What differences exist in participant le vels of perceived social support based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? 5. What differences exist in participant le vels of mattering based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? 95

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6. What differences exist in participant levels of identity based on assignment to experimental and control conditions? The study utilized a component mixed methods QUAN-qual design. The dominant method of inquiry was quantitative and an experimental cross-over design was used for the main portion of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Each group received the treatment and control conditions at different times. Comparisons were made between groups based on the timing of their assignment to ea ch condition. Repeated Measures ANOVA was used to examine the impact of the intervention on participants assigned to the treatm ent condition as compared to participants assigned to th e control condition. This design also included collecting data from half of the participants two weeks after completing the program. This element presented opportunities to evaluate the impact of the interv ention over time. One-tailed Dependent Samples t-tests were used to de termine differences from baseline over time. Per the QUAN-qual design, the qualitative portion of the study was informal in nature and used to confirm and elaborate the quantitative findings of the study. Data were collected using informal participant exit interviews. These interviews were conducted as an integrated part of the Project Challenge curriculum and program. Results indicated the developmen tal histories of girls in this study matched the literatures description of girls likely to choose delinquent behaviors. Evid ence supporting this match was persuasive. One hundred percent of particip ants described a hist ory including 2 of 3 developmental challenges investigated in this st udy; 94.29% of participan ts reported a history including 3 of 3 developmental challenges. The rates at which particip ants experienced each individual challenge were high as well: school behavior problems, 100 %; abuse and family fragmentation, 94%; and academic failure 89%. Project Challenge was designed to help girls 96

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regain some of the developmental losses asso ciated with experiencing these challenges and contribute to preventing future delinquency. Quantitative data analysis provided strong evidence Project Challenge accomplished all of its program objectives. Congruent with the pr ograms primary objective, assignment to the treatment condition corresponded with an anticipated increase in self-confi dence. According to the data, Project Challenges influence on self-confidence was strong and remained strong two weeks after the program. Congruent with the prog rams secondary objectives, assignment to the treatment group corresponded with an ticipated increases in both se lf-esteem and identity. Data suggested the programs influen ce on self-esteem and identity was moderate. This finding is particularly important because both self-esteem a nd identity are stable constructs that resist intervention (LeCroy, 2004). Evidence also sugg ested self-esteem resisted decay two weeks after the program, and that changes in identity remained significant during that time. Data supported Project Challenges influence on variables related to each of its three main desired outcomes: increased participant levels of self-con fidence, self-esteem, and sense of identity. According to the Model of Girls Resilience Project Challenge needed to influence perceived social support and matteri ng if participants were to be nefit from activit ies related to self-confidence, self-esteem, and id entity. The model suggested incr eases in girls interpersonal development most likely occur in a caring, supportive, responsive, and developmentally rich interpersonal environment. Quantitative data analysis provided strong evidence Project Challenge accomplished its objectives re lated to perceived social support and mattering. Data suggested a moderate and stronge r-than-moderate influence on both perceived social support and mattering, followed by a return to baseline two weeks after the program. 97

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Participant exit interviews corroborated the studys quantitative fi ndings. When asked whether and how Project Challenge affected them, program part icipants consistently and passionately offered responses congruent with th e studys quantitative findings. Participants were aware of the ways Project Challenge had impacted them. They described the program as a valuable experience, an experience they would highly recommend to other girls in general, and especially to girls who faced or we re facing difficulty in their lives. Participants also described Project Challenge as a positive experience with building trust. This finding represented an unintended positiv e result associated with the program. Although clearly related to the caring a nd responsive atmosphere presente d as a central part of the program, participants described their positive experiences with trust in manner that stood on its own. Conclusions Psychosocial developmental theory focuses on how people change over time (Steinberg, 2005; Miller, 1993) and, at its core, development refers to a special type of learning. This type of learning has a limited relationship with tradit ional classroom curricula. Instead, it represents an education built on experience, observation, and relationships or, in essence, an education based on living life. This education promotes l earning in its most fundamental form, and this type of learning has the potential to change behavior in broad and far-reaching ways. Developmental learning contributes directly to changes in people in terms of their cognitive abilities, moral decision-making, id entity, social skills, personality, and temperament (Steinberg, 2005; Miller, 1993). Project Challenge effectively promotes psychosocial development and resilience in adolescent girls at-risk for delinquency. The pr ogram operates as designed. It creates an environment high in perceived social support a nd mattering; in that environment, program 98

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activities and experiences contribute to increas ed self-confidence, self -esteem, and identity. Together, these increases contribute to impr ovements in girls overall resilience. Increasing girls resilience empowers them to face adversity. This factor represents the most important outcome of the current study Project Challenge empowers girls who have been beaten down by life. Project Challenge empowers by: 1. Helping girls recover lost developmental progr ess caused by disruptions related to abuse, family fragmentation, school failure, untreated health problems, and early convergence of risk. 2. Increasing girls self-confidence, self-esteem, and sense of identity, thereby restoring their feelings of personal power and strength, faith in their ability to c ope with difficulty and challenge, and hope for the future. Self-confidence, self-efficacy, and agency repres ent reliable predictors of human behavior (DeSocio, Kitzman, & Cole, 2003; Wenzel et al., 2002) and resilient outcomes (Christiansen & Evans, 2005; Grossman et al., 1992). Before atte mpting to change a behavior, individuals must believe they are capable of performing new beha viors successfully. Given the wide ranging impact of self-confidence on behavior ( Wen zel et al., 2002; Cheng & Fernham, 2002), the tendency of victimized individuals to experien ce lower levels of self-Confidence (Compas, Orosan, & Grant, 1993), and the prevalence of a buse and victimization am ong at-risk girls, the researcher chose to focus on increasing particip ant self-confidence as the primary objective of the intervention. Self-Confidence Project Challenge significantly enhanced participan t self-confidence both immediately after program completion (p=.005) and two weeks later (p=.000). The effect size estimate (partial eta squared=.310) suggest ed participating in the program had a very strong effect on girls self-confidence. 99

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Richardsons (1990) model, which describes the process of developing resilience, suggests increasing resilience requires successfully nego tiating crisis. Josselsons (1987) work also suggests that crisis often precedes devel opmental growth in women and girls. Project Challenge intentionally simulated crisis in a physically safe and emotionally supportive environment. The program included outdoor activities girls woul d want to complete and be able to complete, and activities girls would find sufficiently mentally, physically, and emotionally challenging to increase stress and cr eate perceptions of high difficulty. Program curriculum and team-member interactions with the girls were designed to help resolve the dissonance (Aronson, 1992) between low personal e xpectations and actual high performance in a manner conducive to promoting positive psychosocial development and resilience. No published studies have investigated th e effectiveness of delinquency prevention programs designed specifically for at-risk girls. Thus, no frame of reference exists regarding the relative ease or difficulty required to increase the re silience or self-confidence of at-risk girls. In the few programs that targeted increasing the se lf-confidence of girls in the general population, evidence supporting increased self -confidence has been insufficient or minimal, and in no case was an effect size reported. During this study, Project Challenge demonstrated the ability to help at-risk girls re-evaluate th eir capabilities, increase their a ppraisal of their abilities, and describe themselves as self-confident. Self-Esteem Evidence (p=.016) sugges ts participating in Project Challenge contributed to a moderate increase in the self-esteem of at-risk girls (partial eta squared=.128). Further, evidence also suggests these changes remained two week s after program completion (p=.007). Self-esteem, one of the most widely reported factors associated with resilience (Grossman et al., 1992; Chapman & Mullis, 1999), has been used to predict a variety of health behaviors and 100

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outcomes (Chapman & Mullis, 1999). Low levels of self-esteem in girls has been associated with depression, suicide, substance abuse, school failure, disorder eating, and delinquency (Chapman & Mullis, 1999; Grossman et al., 1992). No programs designed specifically to promote se lf-esteem in girls at -risk for delinquency were found in the literature. Likewise, relatively few gender-specific programs designed to promote self-esteem in the general population of girls have been reported. Among the published gender-specific studies, only one reported a signi ficant increase in self-esteem and only when participation occurred long-term. Self-esteem in girls generally resists intervention (Steese et al., 2006; LeCroy, 2004). Steese et al. (2006) suggested that self-esteem may be a stab le construct that resists intervention, or that the Rosenbe rg Self-esteem Scale may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect short-term changes in Self-esteem. The Project Challenge approach assumes increased self-esteem will be developed in the context of achievement. The same experiences that increase self-confidence also contribute to increases in self-esteem. As we become increasin gly aware of our capacities, we learn to value ourselves more. Burwell and Shirk (2006) suppo rted this contention by concluding that selfworth contingencies the extent to which adolescents link self-w orth to external feedback and success contribute not only to increased self-esteem, but to decreased depression, a widely established correlate of self-esteem. Project Challenge and The Model of Gi rls Resilience both assume girls intrapersonal development occurs in the context of rich interp ersonal relationships. Team members attempt to build authentic, positive, and supportive relationships as a context for increasing girls selfesteem. Results of this study confirm that Project Challenge creates the emotional environment it intends to create. Both mattering and perceived social support increased while participants 101

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attended Project Challenge. The one gender-specific progra m that reported increased selfesteem did so following a long-term interv ention measured in months or years. Project Challenge required two weeks to complete and repor ted stronger evidence concerning increased self-esteem. Identity Results indicated a moderate increase in iden tity (p=.018; partial eta squared=.139) and a net increase in identity two week s after treatment (p=.001). In participant interviews, girls reported feeling free to be themselves while attending Project Challenge, and they valued taking who they really are back into their normal lives. Researchers widely report developing ident ity as one of the most important factors contributing to healthy decision-making and su ccessful life outcomes among youth in adverse circumstances (Bernard, 1991). Adolescents with a clear sense of self make decisions congruent with protecting their futures and c onsonant with their internalized view of themselves (Steinberg, 2005). Researchers also suggest women and girl s face unique challenges related to identity formation (Miller, 1986; Gilligan, 1 993; Belenky et al., 1986). Thes e challenges relate to girls discovering their own voice (Gilligan, 1993), main taining authenticity (Pipher, 1994), and reconciling their independent and relational selves (Gilligan, 1993). Further, research suggests favorable health and life outcomes for girls a nd women who achieve a secure sense of self (Johnson et al., 1999). The Project Challenge curriculum and philosophy view nature as a therapeutic environment in which girls can step away fr om the pressures of adolescence and just be themselves. This slower less plugged in envi ronment gives girls time to think, reflect, and discover who they really are and what they really want. The Project Challenge curriculum uses adventure activities followed by st ructured journal questions and group discussions to help girls 102

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clarify their sense of se lf as an individual and in relation to others. The program supports development of intrapersonal and interpersonal identities related to self-confidence, self-esteem, perceived social support, and matte ring. This approach includes he lping girls see themselves as the kind of person who believes in and valu es themselves, and as connected to people who believe in and value them as well. Perceived Social Support and Mattering Results indicate Project Challenge had a moderate impact on perceived social support (p=.048, partial eta squared=.10) and a stronge r than moderate impact on mattering (p=.009, partial eta squared=.15). These differences were pronounced during the Project Challenge program, followed by a return to base line immediately afte r the program. These trends suggest that participants were exceptionally resp onsive to treatment or that the Project Challenge intervention was exceptionally eff ective with this population. These findings are especially interesti ng considering the short-term nature of the program, only eight days over the course of 2 weeks. These results confirm findings from the literature. Previous studies suggested the importance of relationships in the lives of girls (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993; Shulman, 1993) particularly w ith adults who interact in wa rm, caring, and authentic ways (Johnson et al., 1999). The results of this study confirmed differe nces made by adding sources of caring and support. The program used three main strategies to increase these variab les: 1) creating an emotional environment characterized by warmth caring, and support; 2) sharing emotionally intense experiences and ac tivities; and 3) involving existing s ources of social support in certain aspects of the program. Participant exit interviews sugge sted the first two strategies were implemented effectively. Participants indicated the program created an emotionally safe environment characterized by 103

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respect, warmth, and responsiveness. Participants also described Project Challenge team members as genuinely caring and as believing in them. The nature of Project Challenge program activities also may have contributed to the increases as well. Participants described program activities as intense, challenging, and difficult. Completing the activities required participants to place a gr eat deal of confidence in Project Challenge team members and required Project Challenge team members to earn that confid ence. These positive interpersonal interactions, combined with the programs emotionally intense ac tivities, may be particularly effective contributors to increases in perceived social support and mattering. Perhaps most remarkably, Project Challenge effectively influenced perceived social support and mattering in an extremely short period of time. After the program, participants remained especially responsive to Project Challenge team members. Possibly the combination of warmth, caring, and high expectations, comb ined with the percei ved intensity of the experience and pride of achievement, helped ac celerate the development of helping and caring relationships. Project Challenge was developed as a supplement to longer-term care provided by schools, foster care, social work, and other youth service agencies. Although Project Challenge increased perceived social support and matte ring, those increases were no t maintained two weeks after participation in the program. This finding indicat es that the programs third strategy of involving existing sources of support in cer tain aspects of the program was insufficient to maintain these increases. Pursuing means to extend these increas es should become an important future goal of Project Challenge. Trust Wenninger and Ehlers (1998) identified an im paired ability to trust as a dysfunctional belief associated with long-term symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Symptoms include 104

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depression, substance abuse, low self-esteem, di ssociation, feelings of guilt, interpersonal and relationship problems, and sexual problems. Project Challenge did not originally identify trust as a target for intervention. Program participants included adolescent girls with histories of abuse and abandonment. Completing the program required participants to accept high leve ls of vulnerability. Team members understood this fact and designed the program to build participant trust be fore exposing participants to increasing levels of risk or vul nerability. The potential value of this process of team members earning and deserving increasing le vels of participant trust was underestimated as a discreet outcome. Perhaps because of the high incidenc e of abuse and abandonment inflicted on these girls by men, participants frequently cited the va lue of a positive trusting experience with men. Recommendations Future Research Reproducibility represents one of the core tenets of experimental science. The results from an effective intervention should be reproducib le by other researchers using the same protocols. The current study should be replicated to collect further evidence supporting or refuting the results of the original study. Future studi es should be conducted by independent researchers, both impartial and objective. Generalizability represents one of the core goals of experimental science. To further establish external validity, the study should be replicated with a variety of times, places, and people. The current study was conducted using students from two different schools, during fall and spring, and with middle and hi gh school students. All participants and program activities came from one city in the North Central Florida area. Therefore, replicating the study in a diffe rent geographic area will help establish generalizability. Due to the studys cross-over design, two w eeks was the longest period of time any postprogram comparisons could be made between the experimental and control conditions. Although the two-week time pe riod provides some evidence about changes in the dependent variables post-program, these resu lts represent fundame ntally short-term changes. Future experimental studies should examine the longer term effects of Project Challenge on self-confidence, self-esteem, per ceived social support, and mattering. Further, longer term studies should investig ate the influence of pr ogram participation on the long-term and life outcomes predicted in The Model of Gi rls Resilience 105

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The Project Challenge program was based on The Model of Gi rls Resilience This model was developed specifically for the program a nd represents a synthesis of stress theory, resiliency theory, and theories of girls development. This model incorporates the constructs and processes likel y to exert the most significan t influence on girls health, delinquency, and life outcomes. Because the model was developed specifically for Project Challenge, a large scale test of The Model of Girls Resilience has not been conducted. Although the variables examined in this st udy are strongly supporte d by the scientific literature related to stress, re siliency, and girls developmen t, a large-scale test of the model could increase its generalizability for use in other gender-specific prevention programs for both at-risk girls and girls in the general populations. Instrumentation represents one of the most difficult challenges in a behavioral study. Future studies involving self-confidence coul d benefit from improved instrumentation. Although the combined survey battery was su fficient for the purposes of this study, one survey that is reliable on its own would be beneficial. Future studies should focus on developing or identifying a single, reliable instrument that adequately assesses selfconfidence. Trust represents an unanticipated finding de scribed in the qualitative portion of the study but not examined quantitatively. In retrospect, it should not be surprising that a program of this nature helped girls with histories of a buse and victimization have a positive experience with trust. Future studies should include a quantitative examination of both the influence of Project Challenge on trust and the influence of improved trust on other health and life outcomes. One particularly difficult variable to control was the influence of the Project Challenge team members themselves. Project Challenge team members were hired with specific qualities in mind including warmth, caring, confid ence in girls, and the ability to develop effective relationships and role model effec tive behavior. Perceived social support and mattering seem particularly amenable to th e confounding effects of team member personal qualities. Selecting team members possessing the personal qualities that allow them to naturally and successf ully express the Project Challenge philosophy may c onstitute the most critical factor related to program success. Project Challenge Results indicate Project Challenge achieves its intended obj ectives and short-term outcomes. As long as Project Challenge retains those objectives, program personnel should maintain program fidelity. Evidence su ggests the program operates as intended and positively influences self-confidence, self-esteem, and identity. Project Challenge was designed to compliment the work of agencies providing long-term care. To this end, Project Challenge partners with local altern ative schools, foster care, and social work agencies, and relies on them to provide additional support after the program. Historically, Project Challenge has attempted to involve partner agencies in two ways. First, by having a member of the s ponsoring agency complete the program with participants, and second, by inviting all member s from the sponsoring agency to attend a 106

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Family and Friends Celebration. Unfortuna tely, partner agencies rarely support the program in these ways. During this st udy, no individual from a sponsoring agency attended the program, and very few attende d the Family and Friends Celebration. Results indicate Project Challenge had a moderate impact on perceived social support and a stronger than moderate impact on matteri ng. These differences were pronounced during the Project Challenge program, and the return to baseli ne was immediate after the program ended. These results suggest participants responded positively to the extra support provided by the program and that extending this support would be bene ficial. Therefore, finding ways to consistently involve and main tain the involvement of sponsoring agencies offers potential for increasing and extending the influence of the program on participant intrapersonal development percei ved social support and mattering. This study determined whether or not Project Challenge achieved its intended short-term outcomes. It did not address long-term impact associated with the program. According to the professional literature and The Model of Girls Resilience interventions influencing proximal psychosocial variables like self-confidence and self-esteem should also influence a variety of variable s involving longer-term outcomes re lated to limiting risk, promoting health, improving quality of life, and enhanc ing life outcomes. Conducting a future study to examine the longer term outcomes of the pr ogram could provide an important step in understanding the full impact of Project Challenge. Professional Practice One of the fundamental propositions of health education and promotion includes developing programs with the specific targ et population in mind. The current study supports the value of purposely tailoring program s to specific target populations. From conception, Project Challenge was designed considering gender and developmental history. All program curriculum, activities, and philosophies were developed based on these factors. The consistently positive results associated with the study support this approach to program planning. Health and Wellness are often conceptualized in terms of multiple dimensions including the physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual aspects of health. Project Challenge was designed to promote the emotional well-bei ng of program participants. Study results support the efficacy of using carefully con ceived educational experiences to promote positive psychosocial development and emoti onal health. Although none of the findings associated with this study suggest educationa l programs supplant the need for other mental health services, they do confirm the valuable role education-based programs can play in promoting emotional health and well-being. Previous studies have been conducted using outdoor adventure programming to reduce delinquency in adolescent boys. These studies fr equently yielded few significant findings. No studies were found using out door adventure programming to promote the well-being of at-risk adolescent girls. Study results suggest the Project Challenge experiences and outdoor adventure programming can promote the h ealth and well-being of adolescent girls, 107

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108 particularly their self-confidence. Results also suggest outdoor adventure programming may be more effective with at-risk girls than with boys. Both developmental theory and theories of wo mens development suggest certain levels of emotional arousal or stress can contri bute to or detract from learning. Project Challenge intentionally leverages heighten ed levels of emotional arousal in its program design. The program creates manageable levels of stress in a highly controlled and supportive environment. Project Challenge uses these highly visceral experiences to facilitate psychosocial development in at-risk girls. St udy results confirm the effectiveness of this approach. Project Challenge takes place on eight days over the course of a two week period. Structured on-task time consists of less th an 20 hours total. Study results support the efficacy of this short-term program designe d to enhance psychosocial development and emotional health. This short-term program appeared highly effective, perhaps because Project Challenge 1) intentionally uses high emo tional arousal and intense program activities, 2) creates an emo tionally supportive environment that facilitates rapid growth in girls, or 3) some combination of elements i ngrained in the program design. Time restricted programs could consider Project Challenges core design elements and incorporate them in their programming.

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APPENDIX A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPLICATION AND APPROVAL 1. TITLE OF PROJECT: The Influence of Project Challenge on Psychosocial Development, Resilience, and Perceived Stress Levels of Adolescent Girls At-Risk for Delinquency 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mr. Michael J. Mann, M.H.S.E, Ph.D. Candidate Department of Health Education and Behavior Room 5 FLG PO Box 118210 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611-8210 352-392-0583 ext.1409 352-266-1979 cell mmann@hhp.ufl.edu FAX: 352-392-1909 3. SUPERVISOR: Dr. R. Morgan Pigg, Jr. Department of Health Education and Behavior Room 5 FLG PO Box 118210 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611-8210 352-392-0583 ext. 1281 352-266-1979 cell rmpigg@hhp.ufl.edu FAX: 352-392-1909 4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROJECT: August 1, 2006 July 31, 2007 5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROJECT: Project Challenge Program Budget 6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION: At-risk girls experience a disproportionate number of intens e and disruptive traumatic life events which can adversely affect healthy psychosocial development. Such disruptions contribute to higher levels of risk behavior, poor health, and dimini shed quality of life. Relatively few programs focus directly on enhancing the development of at -risk adolescent girls, and li ttle research has evaluated the influence of such programs. This study will examine 1) the influence of Project Challenge a gender-specific, developmentally-focused, outdoo r program on at-risk girls psychosocial development, and 2) the relationships between ri sk factors for girls delinquency, psychosocial development, and perceived stress. This investigation promises particularly importa nt research opportunitie s. Programs developed specifically for adolescent girls at-risk for delinquency are ra re, and studies evaluating their effectiveness are even rarer. The professional literature clearly and consistently insists on the 109

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need for the developing and evaluating programs designed to meet the specific needs of this underserved population and the poten tial of these programs to help reduce health disparities during both adolescence and adulthood. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESE ARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE (PILOT STUDY): A draft version of the study protocol will be prepared that includes a consent script for prospective par ticipants, collection of participant profile information, and completion of the Pearlin Mastery Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Hope Scale, the Identity S ub-scale of the Adolescent Personality Style Inventory, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social S upport, the Mattering Index, and the Perceived Stress Scale. First, a panel of 3 previous program participants will review the instrument battery for readability and clarity. Second, the consent script and full instru ment battery will be administered to a group of 8-10 previous pr ogram participants to assess administrative procedures, instrument reliabil ity, and time of completion. Base d on results from pilot testing, adjustments will be made to the consent script participant profile, and the other surveys. 8. DESCRIBE THE RESE ARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE (FINAL STUDY): A final version of the study protocol will be prepared that includes distribution and collection of informed consent documentation, the development of a participant profile using existing program records, a pre-test ad ministration, participation in a treatment or control group, two post-test admini strations, a 45 day follo w-up test administration, and distribution of incentives. For each test ad ministration a protocol wi ll be developed that includes a consent script for pros pective participants and completi on of the instrument battery. For each treatment group a protocol will be deve loped outlining student participation in an informal discussion group. Signed informed consent forms will be collected by Project Challenge staff from young women who choose to participate in the study and whose parent/gua rdian(s) approve of their participation. Participants will be assigne d to either a treatment or control group. Using existing program records, th e researcher or research assistant will develop a participant profile. This profile will include demographic in formation and historical information related to developmental challenges cited as common am ong delinquent girls and girls at-risk for delinquency. These challenges include a histor y of abuse, family fragmentation, academic failure, untreated health problem s especially those related to emotional health such as depression and suicidal ideation and the convergence of risk fact ors in early adolescence. The participant profile will be used for three primary purposes 1) to ma tch participants as closely as possible for nonequivalent group co mparisons, 2) to determine whether or not the program participants in the study share developmental histories comparab le to those described in the literature, and 3) to examine the relationshi p between developmental history and program outcomes, ie. Which participants benefit the most from the program? According to previously collected Project Challenge statistics, the majority of their participants have histories of abuse and suicidal ideation approximately 90% and 50 % respectively. Typically these incidents have previously been reported and investigated. Project Challenge team members immediately report all undocumented allegations of abuse and refer all participants experienci ng suicidal ideation to an onsite counselor. No participant names will be recorded on the participant profile. Each will 110

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be marked with a confidential number. Only th e researcher and research assistant will have access to these confidential numbers. The sheet recording number assignments will kept by the researcher in a locked cabinet separate from th e completed participant pr ofiles, and destroyed at the end of the study. Both groups will be tested four times using iden tical procedures once every two weeks for one month and approximately 45 days after participati on in the program. The researcher or research assistant will 1) read the consen t script, and 2) administer the in strument battery. Participants will be allowed to complete the surveys with on ly the researcher and/or research assistant present, will be seated a reasonable distance from other participants, and will be provided a cover sheet to use at their discretion. No student na mes will be recorded on the instrument battery. Each will be marked with a confidential number. Only the researcher and research assistant will have access to these confidential numbers. The sheet recording number assignments will kept by the researcher in a locked cabinet separate from the completed instrument batteries, and destroyed at the end of the study. Treatment group participants wi ll complete the standard Project Challenge program. This program will be delivered by Project Challenge staff according to their standard operating procedures. The program involves four sess ions designed to teach camping, hiking, climbing, and rafting skills; one four day and three night ou tdoor trip in which participants camp, hike, and raft; and one Family and Friends Celebration. Participants are encouraged to set post trip personal goals, and program staff will be availa ble to provide active support for up to 60 days following program completion. Directly after the trea tment group completes the program, both treatment and control groups will be tested using identical procedures. The research er or research assistant will 1) read the consent script, and 2) administer the instrument battery. All procedures related to confidentiality will mirror those associated with the pre-test described above. All control group participants will receive the full Project Challenge intervention immediately after the second test has been administered. Di rectly following the control groups completion of program, both groups will be tested for a third tim e using procedures identic al to those described above. Approximately 45 days after the third test, both groups will be follow-up tested using identical procedures. All procedures will be the same as those used for the posttest described above. Finally, treatment group participants will be invi ted to participate in a discussion about their experiences in Project Challenge This discussion will be informal in nature. Participants will be asked questions regard ing whether they found the Project Challenge program helpful and which program elements most contributed to or de tracted from their experience. This discussion will be audio-taped. The tapes will be kept in a locked cabinet and destroyed immediately following transcription. No names will be used on the transcripts. No incentive will be offered for participation in this discussion group. 111

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9. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK: The Project Challenge staff will ensure the adequacy of training, equipment, and adult supervision for th e instructional sessions and field experience components of the program The research methods will involve using paper-and-pencil surveys that pose no physical or economic harm to participants. Psychological harm will be no greater than those experienced in daily life. To protect participants from any unforeseen harm that might arise from taking the instrument batteries, contact information associated with various community resources will be provided. Benefits include conducting research focused on a severely understudied and underserved population delinquent adol escent girls and girls at-risk for delinquency. This study offers to provide valuable insight related to program development and effectiveness for these girls. These insights may then be used to help develop more effective programs designed to eliminate health and quality of life disparities in this priority population. 10. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANTS WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION, IF ANY (PILOT STUDY): Pilot study participants will be recru ited from young women who have previously completed the Project Challenge program. Project Challenge staff members will identify and request these young womens participation in the pilot study. The pilot study will consist of between 11-13 volunteers between th e ages of 13-17. Participants who complete the protocol will receive a $5 dollar gift certificate to Wal-Mart or Target as an incentive. 11. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANTS WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION, IF ANY (FINAL STUDY): Final study participants wi ll be recruited from young wome n who are referred to the Project Challenge program between August 1, 2006 and N ovember 1, 2006. At the students intake meeting, Project Challenge staff members will request th ese young womens participation in the pilot study and present her and her parent or guardian with the informed consent form. Final study participants will consist of young women referred to the program who agree and whose parent/guardian agrees to their participation. The final study will consist of between 5080 volunteers between the ages of 13-17. All participants who comple te the pre-test, post-test, or follow-up test will receive a $5 dollar gift certificat e to Wal-Mart or Target as an incentive for each test they complete. 12. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PR OCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT: Before participating in either the pilot or final studies, all potential participants and their parent s or guardians will receive a description of the study procedures and information rega rding their rights as a participant. Participants parents or guardians will be asked to sign their informed c onsent form indicating they understand the nature of the questions asked, their childs willing par ticipation, and the parent/guardians consent to their childs participation. Fu rther, at each administration of the protocol, the researcher or research assistant will read a consent script expl aining the study to partic ipants including their rights and the guarantee of confiden tiality in the study. Participan ts will be reminded that their participation is voluntary, that they can choose not to answer any questions they do not wish to answer, and that they can withdr aw from the study at any time. Informed consent forms will be collected separately from the surveys so participan ts may not be identified with their responses. 112

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113 (Please see attached copies of the cons ent form and other project materials.) ____________________________________ Principal Investigators Signature ____________________________________ Supervisors Signature I approve this protocol fo r submission to the UFIRB: ____________________________________ Department Chair/Cent er Director, Date

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APPENDIX B PARENT/GUARDIAN INFORMED CONSENT The Influence of Project Challenge on the Psychosocial Development and Resilience of Adolescent Girls At-Risk for Delinquency Dear Parent or Guardian, My name is Michael Mann and I am a doctoral candi date in the Department of Health Education and Behavior, College of Health and Human Perfo rmance, at the University of Florida. The name of my research project is The Influence of Project Challenge on Psychosocial Development, Resilience, and Perceived Stress Levels of Adolescent Girls At-Risk for Delinquency. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the Project Challenge program on program participants. The goals of Project Challenge include improving girls self-confidence, self-esteem, hopefulness, sense of identity, and commitment to positive life goals. Project Challenge team members believe changes in these areas contribute to improvements in girls behavior at home, school performance, and decisions to avoid ill egal activity. The results of this study will help the Project Challenge team members evaluate the effectiveness of their program and help other youth professionals design effective programs for adolescent girls. This study will use pencil and paper surv eys to measure the effects of the Project Challenge program on participants. These surveys include items related to self-confidence, self-esteem, hope, identity, social support, and stress. Study participants will be asked to complete these surveys four times once every two weeks fo r one month and approximately 45 days after participation in the program. Each group of surv eys will take about 20 minutes to complete and all surveys will be completed within 90 days. Pa rticipants will receive a $5 dollar gift certificate to Wal-Mart or Target for each survey they complete. At the end of the study, your child may be invited to participate in an informal group discussion. During this discussion, she will have the opportu nity to share whether or not she found the Project Challenge program helpful and describe which progr am elements most contributed to or detracted from her experience. With your permi ssion, this discussion will be audio taped. Only the researcher and research assistant will have acce ss to these audio tapes. The tapes will be kept in a locked cabinet and destroyed immediately following transcription. No names will be used on transcripts of the discussion. No incentive will be offered for participation in this discussion group. Your child must be between the ages of 13-17 to participate in the study. Their participation will be completely voluntary. They may decline to answer any question they do not want to answer. They can withdraw from the study at any time w ithout negative consequence any decision to withdraw from the study will not affect their pa rticipation in the Project Challenge program. Their responses and identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law (for example, intentions to commit suicide or reports of abuse mu st be referred to the proper authorities). Their name will never appear on any survey they comp lete. During this study, study researchers may access Project Challenge student records. Any in formation obtained through student records will 114

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also be kept confidential accordi ng to the standards described above. The information gathered from this study will be used for my dissertation research. Depending on the results of this study, other publications may be submitted from the information provided. Your childs name will never be used in any document or reports associ ated with this study. Group study results will be available upon in request in August 2007. Allowing your child to participate in this study by taking surveys and participating in discussion groups exposes them to no more risk than your ch ild would encounter in their daily lives. The Project Challenge staff will ensure the adequacy of training, equipment, and adult supervision for the instructional sessions and field e xperience components of the program. If you have questions about the study, contact Michael Mann, P h.D. candidate, Department of Health Education and Behavior, University of Florida, 352-392-0583 (ext. 1409), or my supervisor Dr. R. Morgan Pigg, Jr., Professor, Department of Health Education and Behavior, 352-392-0583 (ext. 1285). For more information about your childs rights as a research particip ant, contact the UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville Fl 32611-2250; ph 352-392-0433. Thank you for your consideration, Michael J. Mann, Doctoral Candidate I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child, __________________, to participate in this study evaluating the Project Challenge program. I have received a copy of this study description. ____________________________ Parent/Guardian Date ____________________________ Principal Investigator Date 115

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APPENDIX C PARTICIPANT ASSENT SCRIPTS A. For surveys My name is Michael Mann and I am a doctoral candidate at the Univer sity of Florida. Today you will be asked to participate in a study to about the influence of the Project Challenge program on program participants If you choose to participate, you will be asked to complete pencil and paper surveys that measure the effects of the Project Challenge program. These surveys include items related to self-confidence, self-esteem, hope, identity, social support, and stress. You will be asked to complete these su rveys four times ,once every two weeks for one month and approximately 45 days after participation in the program. Each group of surveys will take about 20 minutes to complete and all surveys will be completed within 90 days. Participants will receive a $5 dolla r gift certificate to Wal-Mart or Target for each survey you complete. To participate, you must be between the ages of 13-17. Participation is completely voluntary and you may decline to an swer any question you do not want to answer. You also can withdraw from the study at any time without negative consequence any decision to withdraw from the study will not affect your participa tion in the Project Challenge program. Your responses and your identity will be kept confidentia l to the extent provided by law. Your name will never appear on the any survey you complete The information gathered from this study will be used for my dissertation research. Depending on the results of this study, other publications may be submitted from the information provided. Your name will never be used in any document or reports associated with this st udy. Participation in th is study exposes you to no more risk than you would encounter in your daily life. Are you willing to participate? Yes/no. B. For Informal Group Discussion My name is Michael Mann and I am a doctoral candidate at the Univer sity of Florida. Today you will be asked to participate in a study to about the influence of the Project Challenge program on program participants. If you choose to participate, you will be asked to take part in an informal group discussion about the Project Challenge program. During this discussion, you will have the opportunity to share whether or not you found the Project Challenge program helpful and describe which program elements most contributed to or detracted from your experience. With your permission, this discussion will be audio taped. Only the researcher and research assistant will have access to these audio tapes. The tapes will be kept in a locked cabinet and destroyed immediately following transcription. No name s will be used on transcripts of the discussion. No incentive will be offere d for participation in this discussion group. To participate, you must be between the ages of 13-17. Participation is completely voluntary and you may decline to an swer any question you do not want to answer. You also can withdraw from the study at any time without negative consequence. Your responses and your identity will be kept confidenti al to the extent provided by law. The information gathered from this study will be used for my dissertation resear ch. Depending on the resu lts of this study, other publications may be submitted from the information provided. Your name will never be used in any document or reports associated with this st udy. Participation in th is study exposes you to no known risks or immediate benefits. Ar e you willing to participate? Yes/no. 116

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APPENDIX D PEARLIN MASTERY SCALE How strongly do you agree or disagree w ith these statements about yourself? 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Agree 4 = Strongly Agree 1. There is really no way I can solve so me of the problems I have. 1 2 3 4 2. Sometimes I feel that Im being pushed around in life. 1 2 3 4 3. I have little control over the thi ngs that happen to me. 1 2 3 4 4. I can do just about anything I really set my mind to. 1 2 3 4 5. I often feel helpless in dealing with the problems of life. 1 2 3 4 6. What happens to me in the future mostly depends on me. 1 2 3 4 7. There is little I can do to change ma ny of the important things 1 2 3 4 in my life. (Pearlin, Menaghan, Lieberman, & Mullan, 1981) 117

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APPENDIX E THE HOPE SCALE Directions: Read each item carefully. Using th e scale shown below, please select the number that best describes YOU and circle it. 1 = Definitely False 2 = Mostly False 3 = Mostly True 4 = Definitely True 1. I can think of many ways to get out of a jam. (Pathways) 1 2 3 4 2. I energetically pursue my goals. (Agency) 1 2 3 4 3. I feel tired most of the tim e. (Filler) 1 2 3 4 4. There are lots of ways around any problem. (Pathways) 1 2 3 4 5. I am easily downed in an argument. (Filler) 1 2 3 4 6. I can think of many ways to get the things in life that are 1 2 3 4 most important to me. (Pathways) 7. I worry about my health. (Filler) 1 2 3 4 8. Even when others get discouraged I know I can find a 1 2 3 4 way to solve the problem. (Pathways) 9. My past experiences have prepared me well for my future. 1 2 3 4 (Agency) 10. Ive been pretty successful in life. (Agency) 1 2 3 4 11. I usually find myself worrying about something. (Filler) 1 2 3 4 12. I meet the goals that I set for myself. (Agency) 1 2 3 4 (Synder, et al., 1991) 118

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APPENDIX F ROSENBERG SELF-ESTEEM SCALE Instructions: Below is a list of statements dea ling with your general feel ings about yourself. Using the scale shown below, please select the number that best describes YOU and circle it. 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Agree 4 = Strongly Agree 1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. 1 2 3 4 2.*At times, I think I am no good at all. 1 2 3 4 3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. 1 2 3 4 4. I am able to do things as well as most other people. 1 2 3 4 5.*I feel I do not have much to be proud of. 1 2 3 4 6.*I certainly feel useless at times. 1 2 3 4 7. I feel that Im a person of worth, at least on an equal 1 2 3 4 plane with others. 8.*I wish I could have more respect for myself. 1 2 3 4 9.*All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. 1 2 3 4 10. I take a positive attitude towa rd myself. 1 2 3 4 (Rosenberg, 1965) 119

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APPENDIX G MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALE OF PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT Instructions: We are interested in how you feel about the following statements. Read each statement carefully. Indicate how you feel about each statement. Circle the if you Very Strongly Disagree Circle the if you Strongly Disagree Circle the if you Mildly Disagree Circle the if you are Neutral Circle the if you Mildly Agree Circle the if you Strongly Agree Circle the if you Very Strongly Agree 1. There is a special person who is around 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 when I am in need. 2. There is a special person with whom I can 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 share my joys and sorrows. 3. My family really tries to help me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. I get the emotional help and support I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 need from my family. 5. I have a special person who is a real 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 source of comfort to me. 6. My friends really try to help me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. I can count on my friends when things go 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 wrong. 8. I can talk about my problems with my 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 family. 9. I have friends with whom I can share my 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 joys and sorrows. 10. There is a special person in my life who 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 cares about my feelings. 11. My family is willing to help me make 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 decisions. 12. I can talk about my problems with my 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 friends. (Zimlet, Dahlem, Zimlet, & Farley, 1988) 120

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APPENDIX H INTERPERSONAL MATTERING 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disa gree 3 = No opinion 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly Agree 1. Most people do not seem to notice when I come or when I go. 1 2 3 4 2. In a social gathering, no one recognizes me. 1 2 3 4 3. People are usually aware of my presence. 1 2 3 4 4. For whatever reason, it is hard for me to get other peoples 1 2 3 4 attention. 5. Whatever else may happen, people do not ignore me. 1 2 3 4 6. For better or worse, people generally know when I am around. 1 2 3 4 7. People do not care what happens to me. 1 2 3 4 8. My successes are a source of pride to people in my life. 1 2 3 4 9. I have noticed that people will sometimes inconvenience 1 2 3 4 themselves to help me. 10. When I have a problem, people usua lly dont want to hear 1 2 3 4 about it. 11. There is no one who really takes pride in my accomplishments. 1 2 3 4 12. If the truth be known, no one really needs me. 1 2 3 4 13. Quite a few people look to me for advice on issues of 1 2 3 4 importance. 14. When people need help, they come to me. 1 2 3 4 15. People count on me to be there in times of need. 1 2 3 4 (Elliot, et al., 2004) 121

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APPENDIX I APSI SENSE OF IDENTITY ITEMS 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disa gree 3 = No opinion 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly Agree 1. I have a definite sense of purpose in life. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I have a firm sense of who I am. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I have a set of basic beliefs and values that guide my 1 2 3 4 5 actions and decisions. 4. I know what I want out of life. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I have a clear set of personal values or moral standards. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I dont know where I fit in the wo rld. (reverse-scored) 1 2 3 4 5 7. I have specific personal goals for the future. 1 2 3 4 5 8. I have a clear sense of who I want to be when I am an 1 2 3 4 5 adult. (Lounesbury, et al., 2005) 122

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APPENDIX J PROJECT CHALLENGE ASSESSMENT INTERVIEW Date: ___________________ Completed by: ____________ Participant Assessment Name: _________________________________________________________________ Directions: This assessment is not a survey. It is to be complete d by a staff member and participant in an interview format with staff member filling in answers. 1. How old are you? 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2. What is your ethnic background? American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Hispanic or Latino Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander White 123

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3. Referred to Project Challenge by: Diversion Probation Alternative Education_______________________ School district social services Local mental health counselor, Name:______________________ Public School________________________ Other________________________ SOCIAL DOMAIN 4. Who would you say the most supportive relations hip(s) in your life are with? Check all that apply. Mother Father Sibling___________________________ Family___________________________ Friend(s) Teacher Counselor Minister/ Pastor 5. A. Describe you relationship with your Mother. Very good Good Neutral Bad Very bad B. Have you had any significant re lationship changes in the last year with your Mother? If yes, what were they? 124

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No Dont live with Mother now Get along better with Mother now Argue with Mother more now Dont talk to Mother anymore Other_______________________ 6. A. Describe you relationship with your Father. Very good Good Neutral Bad Very bad B. Have you had any significant relationship chan ges in the last year with your Father? If yes, what were they? No Dont live with Father now Get along better with Father now Argue with Father more now Dont talk to Father anymore Other_______________________ 7. Who do you live with? Check all that apply. Mother Father Siblings____________________________ Step-parent Grandparent Other______________________________ 125

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8. Describe your family history. Check a ll that apply and li st age at event. Parents divorced; age_____ Family incarceration; age_____ Separation from one or both parents______________________; age_____ Family substance abuse; age_____ Deaths_________________________; age_____ Serious illness___________________________; age_____ Moving; age_____ 9. How do you feel you get along with kids your age? Get along well with both boys and girls my age Get along better with boys Get along better with girls Dont get along well with kids my age 10. Who, if anyone, are the adul ts you go to when you need help? Check all that apply. Mother Father Family member __________________ Teacher Counselor Minister/ pastor Other_____________________ No adult to go to INTELLECTUAL DOMAIN 11. A. What is the name of the sc hool you are currently attending?_______________________ B. If attending an alternative school, wh at happened that brought you there? Multiple suspensions__________________________ 126

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Expulsion________________________________ Felony transfer_________________________________ Law violation________________________________ Probation violation________________________________ Other_____________________________________ 12. A. Have you ever attended an alternat ive school? If yes, at what age? No Yes; age_____ B. What brought you there? Multiple suspensions__________________________ Expulsion________________________________ Felony transfer_________________________________ Law violation________________________________ Probation violation________________________________ Other_____________________________________ 13. What grade in school are you in? 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 14. Did you have any school problems in the 5th, 6th, and/or 7th grades? Examples include problems with grades, behavior, classmates, and being picked on, etc. If yes, explain. No Low GPA 127

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Failed a grade Discipline referrals Suspension/ expulsion Didnt get along with teachers Didnt get along with peers Frequent absenteeism Other___________________ 15. How would you describe your school performance over the past year? Excellent Good OK Fair Poor 16. What is your certain grad e point average in school? A B C D F 17. How many unexcused school absences ha ve you had in the past 60 days? None 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 20+ 128

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18. How many behavior referrals have you received in the past 60 days? None 1 2 3 4 5+ 19. How many school suspensions have you received in the past year? None 1 2 3 4 5+ 20. What is your academic/ school goal? Complete current grade High school diploma/ GED Trade school_________________________ College Other_______________________________ 21. If you could have any career, what would it be? ______________________________ 22. What are you doing now that is helpi ng reach your goals for the future? _________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 129

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23. Are you currently involved in any extra-curric ular activities? If ye s, Please describe. No Sports/athletics______________ Performing arts (dance, theater, music, etc.)_________________ Academic/ leadership group__________________________ Part-time job_____________________________ Volunteering_______________________________ Other_________________________________ 24. A. Have you ever been arrested? If yes, how old were you when you were first arrested? No Yes; age_____ B. If yes, what were you arrested for? Battery Burglary Assault Drugs__________________________ Weapons Other___________________________ C. Were you charged? No Yes EMOTIONAL DOMAIN 25. What are some accomplishments you are proud of? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 130

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26. Do you feel like people listen to and understand you? No Yes 27. A. Have you ever felt overwhelmed or over-stressed? No Yes B. If yes, what do you do to feel better? Check all that apply. Avoidant behavior (ex. don t think about it, listen to music, do something to get mind off of it.) Emotion-focused behavior (ex. venting fe elings to friends/ someone who listens but cant do anything to help, journal writing, doing some thing to get feelings out but not make situation better.) Problem focused behavior (ex. anything designed to impr ove the situa tion, talking to a teacher/mentor who can give advice, making a plan to fix situation.) 28. During the past 12 months, did you ever feel so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks or more in a row that you st opped doing some usual activities? No Yes 29. Have you ever thought about harming yourself ? If yes, please list age and explain. No Yes; age_____ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 30. Have you ever cut yourself? If yes, please list age and explain. No Yes; age_____ 131

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 31. During the past year, have you ever: Thought about suicide Made a plan about suicide Attempted suicide Been injured by a suicide attempt Describe: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 32. A. Have you ever been in counseling? If ye s, at what age were you first in counseling? No Yes; age_____ B. If yes, what you were counsel ed for? Check all that apply. Anxiety Depression Behavior problems Suicide related Disorders_____________________________ Other________________________________ 33. Do you feel unsafe at home, school or in your neighborhood? No Unsafe at home Unsafe at school Unsafe in neighborhood 132

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34. A. Have you ever been physically, verbally or sexually abused? Check all that apply and list age at occurrence. No Physical abuse; age_____ Verbal abuse; age_____ Sexual abuse; age_____ B. If yes, who was it who abused you? Family member_________________________ Acquaintance (someone they knew) ________________________ Friend/friend of the family_______________________________ Stranger Other_____________________________ C. Have you ever talked to someone a bout it? If yes, who did you talk to? No Family member______________________ Friend Counselor Teacher Minister/ Pastor Other_______________________________ 35. Has a boyfriend, girlfriend, or date ever threatened to or actual ly hit, slapped, or physically hurt you on purpose? If yes, how old were you? No Yes; age_____ 133

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PHYSICAL DOMAIN 36. Do you have any allergies? For example, bees, certain foods, etc. _______ If yes, please describe any me dication/treatment. For example, an Epi pen for bee stings. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 37. Do you have Asthma? ________ If yes, do you use an inhaler? ________ 38. Do you have any physical limitations/ailments th at may prevent you from fully participating in Project Challenge? For example, a history of knee pain. ________ If yes, please explain. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 39. Are you currently taking any prescription medications? _________ If yes, please describe. (Note: If the participant wants to br ing any medication (prescription or OTC) on the trip they must give it to a PC team member with their name labeled on it). ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 40. How many hours of sleep do you get per night? 0-2 hours 3-4 hours 5-6 hours 7-8 hours 9+ hours 134

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41. Are you a vegetarian or do you have any specific dietary needs we should know about for the camping trip? Vegetarian Special needs______________________________________________________ 42. How often do you exercise or enga ge in physical act ivity per week? Never At least 1x per week At least 3x per week Daily 43. A. Have you ever smoked cigarettes? If yes, at what age did you first smoke? No Yes; age_____ B. Are you a current smoker? No Yes C. If yes, how often do you smoke? Tried it once or twice A few times a year Once a month Once a week Several times a week Everyday 44. A. Have you ever drunk alcohol? If ye s, at what age did you first drink? No Yes; age_____ 135

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B. Are you a current drinker? No Yes C. If yes, how often do you consume alcohol? Tried it once or twice A few times a year Once a month Once a week Several times a week Everyday 45. A. Have you ever experimented with drugs? If yes, at what age did you first try drugs? No Yes; age_____ B. If yes, what types of drugs? Marijuana Cocaine (powder, crack, or freebase) Prescription Drugs (Ritalin, Oxycotin, etc.) Other illegal drugs (speed, crystal, crank, Ecstacy, heroin, etc.) Aerosol spray cans or paints C. Are you a current drug user? No Yes D. If yes, how often do you do drugs? Tried it once or twice A few times a year Once a month 136

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137 Once a week Several times a week Everyday 46. A. Are you sexually active? If yes, at what age did you become sexually active? No Yes; age_____ B. If yes, what type of birt h control did you use the last ti me you had sexual intercourse? Check all that apply. None Condoms Birth control pills Withdrawal Other______________________ 47. Are you, or have you ever been, pregnant? If yes, how old were you? No Yes; age_____ 48. Do you feel as though you have access to all the healthcare services you need? No Yes 49. Do you have any questions/concerns with anything regarding Project Challenge? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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APPENDIX K PROJECT CHALLENGE CURRICULUM Challenge Trip Program Curriculum 138

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Mission: To promote girls health and well-being by helping them become strong, capable, and confident young women. Program Goals: Our goals include: 1. Building girls self-confid ence, self-esteem, identit y, and coping skills, and 2. Helping girls strengthen their relationships with supportive fa mily, friends, and a community that cares. Project Challenge Philosophy: We believe Girls are strong and capable. They can succe ssfully overcome difficulty, actively engage challenging goals, and achieve life success. (D eleted beginning with, Unfortunately) Girls face a different set of ch allenges than boys do and gain the greatest benefits from learning strategies that re cognize gender differences. Challenge provides girls with opportunities to le arn and grow. Some of lifes most important lessons are learned while facing ch allenging and difficult circumstances. Girls grow in the context of authentic, caring, and safe relationships. These relationships are characterized by respect, warmth, and expect ations worthy of young women with promising futures. Nature provides a therapeutic environment in wh ich girls can step away from the pressures of adolescence and just be themselves. This slower, less plugged in environment gives girls time to think, reflect, and discover who they really are and what they really want. Youth professionals deserve to be well re spected, supported, and rewarded. Creating conditions in which team members can consisten tly bring their personal best to our mission is critical to the success of our programs. Research and evaluation contribute directly a nd meaningfully to each girl having the best possible outcome. Grounding programs in theory and research and routinely evaluating each Project Challenge program dramatically improves our ability to make a difference in girls lives. 139

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The Model of Girls Resilience: All Project Challenge programs are based on The M odel of Girls Resilience (Mann, 2007). This model represents a synthesis of stress and resilien cy theories and theories of girls development. The model consists of 8 core propositions: 1. Girls are strong and capable. They can succe ssfully overcome diffic ulty, actively engage challenge, and achieve life success. 2. Developmental challenges exert discernable influences on girl s psychosocial development both positive and negative. 3. Girls resilience is composed of factors re lated to both intrapersonal development (selfconfidence and self-esteem) and interpersonal development (perceived social support, and mattering). 4. Intrapersonal development and interpersonal development are intimately related to one another and equally essential as girls develop resilience. Intr apersonal development is most likely to be fostered in rich interpersonal e nvironments. And, interpersonal development is most likely to be fostered based on a strong intrapersonal foundation. 5. Self-esteem consists of a girls estimation of her value, and Ma ttering consists of a girls estimation of the value others place on her. These constructs influence whether or not she will attempt to cope effectively and the number and quality of attempts she will make. 6. Self-confidence includes a girls belief in her ability to act on her own behalf, and Perceived Social Support includes a girls belief in others willingness to act on her behalf. Together, these constructs consist of the most reliable predictors of a girls level of persistence throughout the coping effort, her coping success or failure, and her health and behavioral outcomes. 7. Girls compose their identities as both individual s and as they relate to significant others. Factors associated with girls resilience become more stable as they are more deeply integrated into girls independe nt and relational identities. Fo r instance, as evidence of selfconfidence becomes increasingly more pervasive in a girls values and goals, the more stable and influential the impact of self-confide nce will be in the rest of the model. 140

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8. Factors associated with girls resilience influence stress appraisal; which in turn, influences the selection of coping strategies; which in tur n, influences girls health and life outcomes. Challenge Trip Overview: Challenge Trips represent our most comprehensive program. This program consists of 1) four pre-trip training sessions, 2) a multi-day adventure camping trip, 3) a Family and Friends Celebration, and 4) 45-60 days of post-trip activities and sup port. Adventure camping trips include whitewater rafting, rappelling, and/or rock climbing activities. Challenge Trips emphasize building girls self-conf idence, self-esteem, identity, a nd coping skills and enhancing supportive relationships. Challenge Trip Outcome and Process Objectives: Primary Objective: Outcome 1. Participants will self-report increased levels of Self-Confidence as demonstrated by pre/post paper and pencil surveys a nd qualitative interviews. Secondary Objectives: Outcome 2. Participants will report increased levels of Se lf-esteem as demonstrated by pre/post paper and pencil surveys and qualitative interviews. 3. Participants will report increased levels of Id entity as demonstrated by pre/post paper and pencil surveys and qualitative interviews. Tertiary Objectives: Process 4. Participants will report increased levels of Perceived Social Support as demonstrated by pre/post paper and pencil survey s and qualitative interviews. 5. Participants will report increased levels of Ma ttering as demonstrated by pre/post paper and pencil surveys and qualitative interviews. Challenge Trip Impact Objectives: 1. Participants will cope in ways associated with less health risk behavior. This includes: a. Decreased substance misuse and abuse. b. Decreased sexual risk taking. c. Decreased ongoing victimization. d. Decreased depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. 2. Participants will cope in ways associated w ith more health protective behavior. This includes: a. Increased affiliation with pro-social behaviors and values. b. Increased goal-oriented behavior. c. Increased school and life achievement. d. Improved relationships and in creased social support. e. Increased subject well-being. 141

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Keys to the Project Challenge Experience: 1. Put girls needs first. a.k.a.) The trip is for them, not us. Well make time for us later 2. Enthusiasm is the fuel on which good progr ams run. a.k.a.) We love, they love. 3. Incrementally increase intensity based on girl s readiness. a.k.a.) Get girls ready! 4. Build genuine and authentic relationships. a .k.a.) Listening, talking, and laughing IS the job. 5. Role model every behavior you hope to see. a.k.a.) BE the change you hope to see. 6. Create opportunities to interact together. a.k.a.) Include girls in EVERY activity or inactivity. 7. Watch, wait, and engage teachable moments. a .k.a.) We are here to TEACH girls about life and TIMING is everything. Team Member Credentials and Certifications Ropes Course Certification 1 AMGA Top Rope Site Manager 1 Whitewater guide for e ach raft certified 1 Lifeguard for swim test s and recreational swimming 1 Wilderness First Responder Any personnel supervising participants alon e should be adult CPR/ First Aid Certified 142

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Challenge Trip Pre-Trip Sessions 143

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Pre-Trip Session 1 Session Goals: 1. Establish Project Challenge as a fun program that participants look forward to attending. 2. Establish Project Challenge as a physica lly and emotionally safe environment. 3. Begin building positive, supportive, and trusti ng relationships between team members and participants. 4. Begin developing teamwork and team pr oblem-solving, planning, and perseverance. Participant Object ives: Life Skills Participants will work together to: 1. Analyze 3 low ropes course challenges. 2. Develop and implement a plan of action for each challenge that considers the apparent strengths and weaknesse s of group members. 3. Persist when encountering set backs and adversity. Participants will: 4. Identify common challenges to girls self-confidence. 5. Describe how a persons level of Self-confidence affects their life choices. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skills Participants will work together to: 1. Complete 3 low ropes challenges. Time: 3 hours Curricular Materials: Pre-trip Journal 1 Experiential Equipment: Low ropes elements including Wobbling Woozy Nitro-crossing Islands The Muse Team Wall Procedures: 1. Warmly welcome all participants as they arri ve. Let them know you are glad to meet them. 2. Spend a few minutes of informal time getti ng to know each participant and helping them get to know each other. 3. Have the session leader welcome the group, intro duce their self, and fac ilitate an introduction from each participant and remaining team-members. 4. Review program expectations: 144

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a. Attend all sessions and arrive on-time. Participants who miss a safety session or arrive too late will not be able to attend the trip. b. Come prepared to do your personal best. You do not have to complete every activity to attend the trip, but you do have to try your hardest to do so. c. Treat everyone with respect including your self. At some point, everyone will struggle in this program. When this happens treat others like you want to be treated. d. Maintain confidentiality. As we get to know each other better, we tend to talk about increasingly personal subjects. Do not repeat any personal information you hear at Project Challenge. 5. Review operational procedure: a. Bathrooms b. Drinks/Snacks c. Supervision Policy 6. Share the goals for the day with participants: a. Get to know each of your team-members. b. Begin to develop teamwork and perseverance. c. Establish Project Challenge as physically and emotionally safe environment. d. Complete 3 low ropes challenges. 7. Set-up, complete, and debrief the followi ng low ropes elements in this order: a. Wobbling Woozy emphasize fun, safety, communication, and teamwork. b. Islands emphasize fun, safety, communication, and teamwork. c. Nitro-crossing emphasize challenge, fun, safety, communication & teamwork. d. Bonus for groups who are either way ahead of schedule or who have not been challenged by other activities: The Muse emphasize challenge, fun, safety, communication & teamwork. e. Super-bonus: Team Wall emphasize chal lenge, fun, safety, communication & teamwork. 8. Present participants with thei r personalized journals. Expl ain that although we use the journals as an outline for group discussion, these journals are confiden tial. They will be stored in a locked cabinet and no one will read them. 9. Conduct group discussion session. a. Read Pre-trip Journal 1 to participants out loud or allow a volunteer to read it. b. Let students find a comfortable place in th e Project Challenge classroom and give them 10 minutes to complete their journal assignment. c. Review expectations for group discussions: i. Be serious during journal time. Project Chal lenge is more than a fun trip. It is designed to help you learn about yoursel f. Respect yourself by taking these times seriously. ii. Listen and respond to each other with respect. This usually means only 1 person is talking at a time, while everyone else listens carefully. iii. Maintain each others confidentiality. d. Facilitate a discussion about Self-confide nce based on the three questions found in Pre-trip Journal 1. Ask each question and ask the group to respond. Maintain a discussion environment if at all possible not an ever yone takes a turn environment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourage 145

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participation from all members. Close th e discussion emphasizing the importance of Self-confidence and Project Challenge as an opportunity to practice Self-confidence. 10. Have the group evaluate their goal-related perf ormance for the day. Have each team member comment on the groups performance. Remind the group of the next meeting times and dismiss. 146

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Pre-Trip Session 2 Session Goals: 1. Further establish Project Challenge as a phys ically and emotionally safe environment. 2. Continue building positive, supportive, and trus ting relationships between team members and participants. 3. Introduce challenge act ivities and strategies associated w ith achieving success in stressful and difficult environments. 4. Practice challenge skills in lo w risk environments, e.g.) on fl at water and ar tificial climbing towers. Participant Object ives: Life Skills Participants will attempt to: 1. Choose problem-focused coping strategies including. a. Setting ambitious performance goals. b. Developing, implementing, and revising plans for achieving success. 2. Manage stress-related emotions by: a. Limiting negative self-talk and utiliz ing positive self-talk strategies. b. Soliciting social support using pos itive and pro-social methods. 3. Persist when encountering setbacks and adversity. Participants will: 4. Examine the influence of Self-esteem on girls decision-making processes. 5. Identify 10 or more qualities they like about themselves. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skills Participants will: 1. Complete a swim evaluation. 2. Demonstrate basic whitewater paddling and sa fety skills in a flat water environment. 3. Climb 1 beginners route on an approximately 20 foot climbing wall. 4. Rappel (standard) from a hei ght of approximately 20 feet. Time: 5 hours Curricular Materials: Pre-trip Journal 2 Experiential Equipment: Wh itewater equipment including: Rafts Paddles Throw bags Safety equipments including PDFs, lifeguard tu bes, throw bags, and rescue/first aid gear 147

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High ropes elements including: 20 foot climbing wall with a beginners route. 20 foot climbing wall with a suitab le and safe ra ppelling set-up Safety equipment including harnesses, helmets, lobster claws, and re scue/first aid gear Procedures: 1. Warmly welcome all participants as they arri ve. Let them know you are glad to meet them. 2. Spend a few minutes of informal time getti ng to know each participant and helping them get to know each other. 3. Have the session leader welcome the group. 4. Review program expectations: a. Attend all sessions and arrive on-time. Participants who miss a safety session or arrive too late will not be able to attend the trip. b. Come prepared to do your personal best. You do not have to complete every activity to attend the trip, but you do have to try your hardest to do so. c. Treat everyone with respect including your self. At some point, everyone will struggle in this program. When this happens treat others like you want to be treated. d. Maintain confidentiality. As we get to know each other better, we tend to talk about increasingly personal subjects. Do not repeat any personal information you hear at Project Challenge. 5. Share the goals for the day with participants: a. Practice whitewater padd ling and rescue skills. b. Practice climbing and rappelling skills. c. Continue building team work/supportive environment. d. Practice Self-confidence. 6. Have students and team members to load vehi cles with rafting and safety equipment. 7. Drive to practice lake. 8. Complete whitewater practice session: a. Teach participants how to inflate, prep, and transport rafts. b. Fit all participants in PDFs. c. Conduct a brief paddle talk. d. Demonstrate and practice all paddle skills and commands including: i. Forward, back, left, and right ii. Incremental commands (easy/hard and 1/2/3) e. Rearrange boats until each boat has a safe combination of paddlers. f. Demonstrate and practice all resc ue skills and commands including: i. Lean-in, All-in, High-side ii. Fall out procedures: 1. Breath 2. Grab chicken line 3. Extend/grab paddle 4. Throw bag/Towing 5. Safety guidelines a. Point toward safety, whistles, hand signals b. Avoiding foot entrapment & strainers iii. Swim positions 148

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1. Defensive swim position 2. Offensive swim position g. Teach participants how to defl ate and properly store rafts. 9. Have lunch together. 10. Return to Project Challenge facility. 11. Complete climbing and rappelling practice session: a. Set expectations for clim bing rappelling activities i. Its okay to be afraid ii. Do your personal best The top isnt the issue; going down trying is the issue. iii. Pay attention to other climbers offer help and encouragement b. Discuss equipment safety (What does 22kn mean? Why is it on everything?) c. Teach participants how to put on their harness and helmets d. Teach participants how to tie in as a climber and how to belay a climber e. Have each student climb to the top of the wall with a team member supervising the safety of the climb. Each student should t op-out with the help of the team member who will supervise the rappel. (R emember praise/enthusiasm Whooo!) f. When 3-4 students are on top of the low wall, teach a rappelling skills course. i. Clipping in ii. Brake operation (brake goes in your butt) iii. Negotiating the edge (Lead with your bu tt out like you want to pee on ____) iv. Assuming the rappel position v. Rappelling the face of the tower/cliff g. Have each student rappel the low wall face. (Remember praise/enthusiasm Whooo!) h. If possible, repeat until each participant has climbed and rappelled the low wall twice i. Have students collect all e quipment and store it properly. 12. Conduct a group discussion. a. Read Pre-trip Journal 2 to participants out loud or allow a volunteer to read it. b. Let students find a comfortable place in th e Project Challenge classroom and give them 10 minutes to complete their journal assignment. c. Review expectations for group discussions: i. Be serious during journal time. Project Chal lenge is more than a fun trip. It is designed to help you learn about yoursel f. Respect yourself by taking these times seriously. ii. Listen and respond to each other with respect. This usually means only 1 person is talking at a time, while everyone else listens carefully. iii. Maintain each others confidentiality. d. Facilitate a discussion about Self-esteem based on the three questions found in Pretrip Journal 1. Ask each question and ask the group to respond. Maintain a discussion environment if at all possible not an ever yone takes a turn environment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourage participation from all members. e. End with the $20 bill demonstration. Ta ke a $20 bill and ask who wants it. (Everyone) Crumple the $20, rub it in your armpits, stomp on it, add whatever damage you can think of. Ask who still wants the $20 bill. (Everyone) Remind participants people, like $20 bills, retain their value no matter what has been done to 149

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them. Close the discussion emphasizing the importance of Self-esteem and Project Challenge as an opportunity to practice Self-esteem. 13. Review the packing list with participants. 14. Have the group evaluate their goal-related perf ormance for the day. Have each team member comment on the groups performance. Remind the group of the next meeting times and dismiss. 150

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Pre-Trip Session 3 Session Goals: 1. Further establish Project Challenge as a phys ically and emotionally safe environment. 2. Continue building positive, supportive, and trus ting relationships between team members and participants. 3. Increase the intensity of challenges a nd practice effective coping strategies. 4. Practice climbing and rappelling skills in moderate intensity environments, Participant Object ives: Life Skills Participants will practice: 1. Choosing problem-focused coping strategies including. a. Setting ambitious performance goals. b. Developing, implementing, and revising plans for achieving success. 2. Managing stress-related emotions by: a. Limiting negative self-talk and utiliz ing positive self-talk strategies. b. Soliciting social support using pos itive and pro-social methods. 3. Persisting when encountering setbacks and adversity. Participants will: 4. Develop criteria with which to judge potential sources of social support. 5. Evaluate current sources of social support. 6. Identify their highest quality ex isting sources of social support. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skills Participants will: 1. Attempt to climb 1 beginners route on an approximately 40 foot climbing wall. 2. Rappel (helo) from a height of approximately 40 feet. Time: 3 hours Curricular Materials: Pre-trip Journal 3 Experiential Equipment: High ropes elements including: 40 foot climbing wall with a beginners route. 40 foot climbing wall with a suitab le and safe ra ppelling set-up Safety equipment including harnesses, helmets, lobster claws, and re scue/first aid gear Procedures: 1. Warmly welcome all participants as they arri ve. Let them know you are glad to meet them. 2. Spend a few minutes of informal time getti ng to know each participant and helping them get to know each other. 3. Have the session leader welcome the group. 151

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4. Review program expectations: a. Come prepared to do your personal best. You do not have to complete every activity to attend the trip, but you do have to try your hardest to do so. b. Treat everyone with respect including your self. At some point, everyone will struggle in this program. When this happens treat others like you want to be treated. 5. Share the goals for the day with participants: a. Continue practicing climbing and rappelling skills. b. Practice Self-confidence How many times did you guys say, I cant? Set a goal to reduce by half. 6. Have students and team members collect and distribute climbing and safety equipment. 7. Complete climbing and rappelling practice session: a. Set expectations for clim bing rappelling activities i. Its okay to be afraid ii. Do your personal best The top isnt the issue; going down trying is the issue. iii. Pay attention to other climbers offer help and encouragement b. Remind participants how to put on their harness and helmets. c. Remind participants how to tie in as a climber and how to belay a climber d. Have each student climb to the top of the wall with a team member supervising the safety of the climb. Each student should t op-out with the help of the team member who will supervise the rappel. (R emember praise/enthusiasm Whooo!) e. When 3-4 students are on top of the high wall, refresh rappelling skills. f. Have each student rappel the high wall face. (Remember praise/enthusiasm Whooo!) g. If possible, repeat until each participant has climbed and rappelled the high wall twice h. Have students collect all e quipment and store it properly. 8. Conduct a group discussion. a. Read Pre-trip Journal 3 to participants out loud or allow a volunteer to read it. b. Let students find a comfortable place in th e Project Challenge classroom and give them 10 minutes to complete their journal assignment. c. Review expectations for group discussions: i. Be serious during journal time. Project Chal lenge is more than a fun trip. It is designed to help you learn about yoursel f. Respect yourself by taking these times seriously. ii. Listen and respond to each other with respect. This usually means only 1 person is talking at a time, while everyone else listens carefully. iii. Maintain each others confidentiality. d. Facilitate a discussion about Social Support/Trust based on the four questions found in Pre-trip Journal 3. Ask each question and ask the group to respond. Maintain a discussion environment if at all possible not an ever yone takes a turn environment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourage participation from all members. e. End the discussion by asking for examples of good support during Project Challenge. Discuss importance of that support, especia lly its influence on completing challenges conducted so far. Close the discussion empha sizing the importance of Social Support and Project Challenge as an opportunity to develop new and existing sources of Social Support. 152

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9. Remind participants about the Family and Friends Celebration. Ask them to invite the people that support them when things are hard. 10. Have the group evaluate their goal-related perf ormance for the day. Have each team member comment on the groups performance. Remind the group of the next meeting times and dismiss. 153

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Pre-Trip Session 4 Session Goals: 1. Continue building positive, supportive, and trus ting relationships between team members and participants. 2. Make up any climbing and rappelling skills practice. At a minimum all participants should have successfully. 3. Conduct any extra skill practice deemed necessary. 4. Practice tent pitching and preparing sleep areas (pad/bag/liner/cloths). 5. Present principles of Leave No Trace Camping. 6. Pack for the trip. Participant Object ives: Life Skills Participants will practice: 1. Choosing problem-focused coping strategies including. a. Setting ambitious performance goals. b. Developing, implementing, and revising plans for achieving success. 2. Managing stress-related emotions by: a. Limiting negative self-talk and utiliz ing positive self-talk strategies. b. Soliciting social support using pos itive and pro-social methods. 3. Persist when encountering setbacks and adversity. Participants will: 4. List benefits associated with healthy relationships. 5. Develop criteria with which to judge the quality of a relationship. 6. Identify strategies for strengthe ning genuinely caring relationships. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skills Participants will: 1. Pitch a tent. 2. Prepare a sleeping area. 3. List and describe the principl es of Leave No Trace camping. Time: 3 hours Curricular Materials: Pre-trip Journal 4 Experiential Equipment: High ropes elements including: 20 & 40 foot climbing wall with a beginners route. 20 & 40 foot climbing wall with a su itable and safe rappelling set-up Safety equipment including harnesses, helmets, lobster claws, and re scue/first aid gear Tents Sleep gear 154

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Procedures: 1. Warmly welcome all participants as they arri ve. Let them know you are glad to meet them. 2. Spend a few minutes of informal time getti ng to know each participant and helping them get to know each other. 3. Have the session leader welcome the group. 4. Review program expectations: a. Come prepared to do your personal best. You do not have to complete every activity to attend the trip, but you do have to try your hardest to do so. b. Treat everyone with respect including your self. At some point, everyone will struggle in this program. When this happens treat others like you want to be treated. 5. Share the goals for the day with participants: a. If necessary, continue practicing climbing and rappelling skills. b. Practice tent pitching and sleep prep. c. Discuss Leave No Trace camping. d. Pack for trip. e. Review participant packing list. 6. If necessary, complete climbing and rappelling practice sessions. 7. Set-up tent pitching as a challenge. Have participants work in teams to pitch their tents. Provide all tent materials and instructions. Explain this is something you want them to do themselves; you will answer questions, but will not pitch the tent for them. DO NOT rescue. Typically, participants struggle to figure out the tents. Let them. Debrief strengths and weaknesses of effort. 8. Demonstrate preparing a sleep area (pad/bag/bag-l iner/clothes) and have participants practice setting-up their sleep area. 9. Discuss fundamentals of Leave No Trace camping. 10. Have participants breakdown and pack their tents and sleep gear. 11. Have participants and team members work together to pack all communal gear. 12. Conduct a group discussion. a. Read Pre-trip Journal 4 to participants out loud or allow a volunteer to read it. b. Let students find a comfortable place in th e Project Challenge classroom and give them 10 minutes to complete their journal assignment. c. Review expectations for group discussions: i. Be serious during journal time. Project Chal lenge is more than a fun trip. It is designed to help you learn about yoursel f. Respect yourself by taking these times seriously. ii. Listen and respond to each other with respect. This usually means only 1 person is talking at a time, while everyone else listens carefully. iii. Maintain each others confidentiality. d. Facilitate a discussion about Mattering based on the five questions found in Pre-trip Journal 4. Ask each question and ask the group to respond. Maintain a discussion environment if at all possible not an everyone takes a turn environment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourage participation from all members. e. Close the discussion emphasizing the importa nce of Mattering and Project Challenge as an opportunity to develop new and existing sources of Mattering. 155

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13. Review participant packing list. Remind participants about critic al gear: wet/dry shoes, swim suits, hats, layers, etc 14. Remind participants about the Family and Friends Celebration. Ask them to invite the people who really care about them. 15. Have the group evaluate their goal-related perf ormance for the day. Have each team member comment on the groups performance. Remind the group of the next meeting times and dismiss. 156

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Challenge Trip Trip Sessions & Activities 157

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Day 1: Non-session Activities Challenge Trips begin with a van ride to the trip area. How this time is spent is important. All team members should spend at least 50% of th eir passenger time interacting with and being available to participants. Upon arriving at the campsite, part icipants pitch their tents, a rrange their sleeping areas, and assist setting up the rest of the camp. When camp has been set, 2 team members help participants explore the camp area by leading a short creek hike. Shortly after participants arrive back at the campsite, they review of their earlier journal entries to prepare for the evenings campfire session. Campfire occurs after dinner a nd before roasting marsh mellows. 158

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Day 1: Campfire 1 Session Goals: 1. Set a serious and thoughtful tone for campfire sessions. 2. Create a social and emotional climate in wh ich participants can thoughtfully consider intensely personal issues related to their psychosocial development. Participant Object ives: Life Skills Participants will: 1. Identify, list, and describe the essential components of their personal identity. 2. Identify, list, and justify which relati onships mean the most in their lives. 3. Evaluate the extent to which cu rrent behavior is congruent with maintaining this identity and these relationships. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skills None Time: 1 hours Curricular Materials: Trip Journal Day 1A & 1B Experiential Equipment: None Procedures: 1. Prepare participants to complete their journals. (Before the van disembarks.) a. In the morning before the van leaves, t eam members give each participant their personalized journal. Show th em where the trip entries ar e in their journals and call their attention to the Day 1 entries. Ask th em to complete these entries during the day while traveling. b. Also in the morning before the van l eaves, show participants the Womens Thoughts and Womens Stories sections of their journals. Encourage them to read these prior to the end of Day 2. 2. Prepare participants for cam pfire. (Before dinner.) a. Read Trip Journals 1A & 1B to participan ts out loud or allow a volunteer to read it. b. Let students find a comfortable place at th e campsite and give them 10 minutes to review and add to their journal assignment. Ask them to spend this time thoughtfully preparing for campfire. 3. Conduct a campfire discussion. (After dinner.) a. Review expectations for campfire: i. Campfires are the most important part of any trip. We discuss serious and personal issues. We owe it to ourselves and other participants to demonstrate our highest levels of maturity and thoughtfulness. Remember Project 159

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Challenge is more than a fun trip. It is designed to help you learn about yourself. Respect yourself by taking these times seriously. ii. Listen and respond to each other with respect. This usually means only 1 person is talking at a time, while everyone else listens carefully. iii. Maintain confidentiality. Both Project te am members and participants will be sharing personal and possibly private information. Remember to keep what you hear in these sessions confidential. b. Facilitate a discussion about What ma kes you you? based on the question found in Trip Journal 1A. Ask the group the quest ion from the journal and allow them to respond. Allow each member to describe th ese essential personal qualities without interruption. Encourage partic ipation from all members. c. Next, ask participants why it is import ant to know, Who you are? How does knowing this help you make decisions or face difficulty? Maintain a discussion environment if at all possible not an everyone takes a turn environment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourage participation from all members. d. Facilitate a discussion about Who are the most important people in your life? And, why? based on the questions found in Tr ip Journal 1B. Ask the group the three questions from the journal and allow them to respond. Allow each member to describe these important people without in terruption. Encourage participation from all members. e. Next, ask participants why it is important to know, Who is most important to you? How does knowing this help you make deci sions or face difficulty? Maintain a discussion environment if at all possible not an ever yone takes a turn environment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourage participation from all members. f. Share the following t houghts with the group: i. Notice no one described anything negativ e as being a part of What makes you you. For instance, no one said, Tel ling my math teacher to fuck off makes me me, or stealing, doing dr ugs, dropping out of school, running away, etc... But we sometimes spend wa y more energy on things than what is most important. At our core, we ar e each made of positive qualities and attributes, and if we think a bout it seriously, we know it. ii. Notice the people you named. iii. Ask, how would your life be different if when making every decision, you tried to bring out our essential qualities and build relationships with the peopled who are most important. g. End by letting each team member share their final thoughts. h. Close the discussion emphasizing the importance of knowing who you are and the people who are most important to you and the trip as a time to think about those things. 4. Review safety precautions at the campsite a. Bear precautions/defense b. Snakes/bugs c. Bathroom procedures 5. Share the agenda for the following day. 160

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Day 2: Water Session 1 Session Goals: 1. Complete 1 outdoor river challenge. 2. Continue building positive, supportive, and trus ting relationships between team members and participants. Participant Objectives: Life Skill Participants will practice: 1. Choosing problem-focused coping strategies including. a. Setting ambitious performance goals. b. Developing, implementing, and revising plans for achieving success. 2. Managing stress-related emotions by: a. Limiting negative self-talk and utiliz ing positive self-talk strategies. b. Soliciting social support using pos itive and pro-social methods. 3. Persist when encountering setbacks and adversity. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skills Participants will: 1. Paddle 1 beginners rive r. (Class II-III) Time: 3 hours total (1 water hours; 1 preparation hours) Curricular Materials: None Experiential Equipment: Wh itewater equipment including: Rafts Paddles Safety equipments including PDFs, lifeguard tu bes, throw bags, and rescue/first aid gear Procedures: Com plete beginning whitewater session: 1. Have participants inflate, prep, and transport rafts. 2. Fit and check all participants in PDFs. 3. Conduct a brief paddle talk. 4. Remind participants of all paddle skills and commands including: a. Forward, back, left, and right b. Incremental commands (easy/hard and 1/2/3) 5. Remind participants of all rescue skills and commands including: a. Lean-in, All-in, High-side b. Fall out procedures: i. Breath ii. Grab chicken line 161

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iii. Extend/grab paddle iv. Throw bag/Towing v. Safety guidelines 1. Point toward safety, whistles, hand signals 2. Avoiding foot entrapment & strainers c. Swim positions i. Defensive swim position ii. Offensive swim position 6. Raft the beginners river. (e.g. The Nantahala) 7. Rearrange boats until each boat has the safest combination of paddlers for the challenge river. 8. Practice all commands and skills throughout the trip. Simulate any activities that would leave participants cold or uncomfortable. For instance, instead of ha ving participants enter the cold water to practice rescues, ask them If _____ fell in, then what would type scenarios. 9. Complete extra runs of difficult sect ions, if necessary. (e.g. The Falls) 10. Have participants deflate and prope rly store rafts and rafting gear. 11. Celebrate and tell/listen to everyone tell their cool rafting stories 162

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Day 2: Mountain Session 1 Session Goals: 1. Complete 2 outdoor mountain challenges. 2. Continue building positive, supportive, and trus ting relationships between team members and participants. Participant Objectives: Life Skill Participants will practice: 1. Choosing problem-focused coping strategies including. a. Setting ambitious performance goals. b. Developing, implementing, and revising plans for achieving success. 2. Managing stress-related emotions by: a. Limiting negative self-talk and utiliz ing positive self-talk strategies. b. Soliciting social support using pos itive and pro-social methods. 3. Persist when encountering setbacks and adversity. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skills Participants will: 1. Hike one strenuous mountain approach. (Appr ox. 1 mile with a 750 vertical feet/mile elevation gain) 2. Rappel (standard) from a height of approximate ly 70 feet from a cli ff top approximately 750 feet above the valley floor. Time: 4 hours Curricular Materials: Trip Journals 2A & 2B Experiential Equipment: Ropes Helmets and Harnesses Carabiners Belay devices First aid and safety equipment Procedures: Complete 1 beginning standard rappel. 1. Handout participant persona l safety equipment. 2. Make sure participants bring water. 3. Hike to rappel site. Use a slow /moderate pace with frequent breaks. 4. Set expectations for rappelling activities. a. Its okay to be afraid b. Do your personal best The top isnt the issue; going down trying is the issue. c. Pay attention to other climbers offer help and encouragement 163

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5. Have participants put on their harness and helmets and safety check each. 6. Refresh participant rappelling skills. a. Clipping in b. Brake operation (brake goes in your butt) c. Negotiating the edge (Lead with your bu tt out like you want to pee on ____) d. Assuming the rappel position e. Rappelling the face of the tower/cliff 7. Have each student rappel the beginning wall face. (Remember prai se/enthusiasm Whooo!) 8. Have students collect all equi pment and hike to the vans. 9. Have participants properly store their equipment properly. 164

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Day 2: Campfire 2 Session Goals: 1. Create a social and emotional climate in whic h participants can t houghtfully consider and discuss personal issues related to their personal goals and activities they care deeply about. Participant Objectives: Life Skill Participants will: 1. Identify, list, and describe the things they want most in life (experiences, memories, achievements, etc). 2. Identify talents and activities they love to use/ participate in and that bring out the best in them as people. 3. Evaluate the extent to which current behavior is congruent with achieving these goals and developing these talents. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skills None Time: 1 hours Curricular Materials: Trip Journals 2A & 2B Experiential Equipment: None Procedures: 1. Prepare participants to complete their journals. (After breakfast.) a. In the morning after breakfast, make sure each participant has their personalized journal for the van ride. Call participants a ttention to the Day 2 entries. Ask them to complete these entries duri ng the day while traveling. b. Also, remind participants to read the W omens Thoughts and Womens Stories sections of their journals before tonights campfire. 2. Prepare participants for cam pfire. (Before dinner.) a. Read Trip Journals 2A & 2B to participan ts out loud or allow a volunteer to read it. b. Let students find a comfortable place at th e campsite and give them 10 minutes to review and add to their journal assignment. Ask them to spend this time thoughtfully preparing for campfire. 3. Conduct a campfire discussion. (After dinner.) a. Review expectations for campfire: i. Campfires are the most important part of any trip. We discuss serious and personal issues. We owe it to ourselves and other participants to demonstrate our highest levels of maturity and thoughtfulness. Remember Project Challenge is more than a fun trip. It is designed to help you learn about yourself. Respect yourself by taking these times seriously. 165

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ii. Listen and respond to each other with respect. This usually means only 1 person is talking at a time, while everyone else listens carefully. iii. Maintain confidentiality. Both Project te am members and participants will be sharing personal and possibly private information. Remember to keep what you hear in these sessions confidential. b. Facilitate a discussion about What do you wa nt in life? based on the question found in Trip Journal 2A. Ask the group the quest ion from the journal and allow them to respond. Allow each member to describe th ese essential personal qualities without interruption. Encourage partic ipation from all members. c. Next, ask participants why it is import ant to know, What you want? How does knowing this help you make decisions or face difficulty? Maintain a discussion environment if at all possible not an everyone takes a turn environment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourage participation from all members. d. Facilitate a discussion about What do you love to do? And, how do you feel about yourself and life when you do this? based on th e questions found in Trip Journal 2B. Ask the group the three questions from the journal and allow them to respond. Allow each member to describe these important people without interruption. Encourage participation from all members. e. Next, ask participants, How might/does ha ving activities you love and pursue help you in life? Particularly, how does ha ving things you love and pursue help you make decisions or face difficulty? Mainta in a discussion environment if at all possible not an everyone takes a turn envi ronment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourag e participation from all members. f. Share the following t houghts with the group: i. Notice no one described anything negativ e as being a part of What they want, or What they love to do. In this serious thoughtful environment, when you are REALLY thinking about what you want most again, you only think of positive and worthy things. ii. Ask, how do you think having clear goals and something they loved to do affected the women in Womens Stor ies? Ask, do you think having these things in their lives helped thes e women overcome the difficulties and challenges of their childhoods and adolescent years. iii. Share the importance of having goals. Many participants may not think of themselves as the type of person who has goals. g. End by letting each team member share their final thoughts. h. Close the discussion emphasizing the importance of knowing who you are and the people who are most important to you and the trip as a time to think about those things. 4. Share the agenda for the following day. 166

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Day 3: Water Session 2 Session Goals: 1. Complete 1 outdoor river challenge. 2. Continue building positive, supportive, and trus ting relationships between team members and participants. Participant Objectives: Life Skill Participants will practice: 1. Choosing problem-focused coping strategies including. a. Setting ambitious performance goals. b. Developing, implementing, and revising plans for achieving success. 2. Managing stress-related emotions by: a. Limiting negative self-talk and utiliz ing positive self-talk strategies. b. Soliciting social support using pos itive and pro-social methods. 3. Persist when encountering setbacks and adversity. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skill Participants will: 1. Paddle 1 advanced river. (Class IV-V) Time: 3 hours (1 water hours; 1 preparation hours) Curricular Materials: None Experiential Equipment: Wh itewater equipment including: Rafts Paddles Safety equipments including PDFs, lifeguard tu bes, throw bags, and rescue/first aid gear Procedures: Complete challenge whitewater session: 1. Have participants inflate, prep, and transport rafts. 2. Fit and check all participants in PDFs. 3. Conduct a brief paddle talk. 4. Remind participants of all paddle skills and commands including: a. Forward, back, left, and right b. Incremental commands (easy/hard and 1/2/3) 5. Remind participants of all rescue skills and commands including: a. Lean-in, All-in, High-side b. Fall out procedures: i. Breath ii. Grab chicken line 167

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iii. Extend/grab paddle iv. Throw bag/Towing v. Safety guidelines 1. Point toward safety, whistles, hand signals 2. Avoiding foot entrapment & strainers c. Swim positions i. Defensive swim position ii. Offensive swim position 6. Raft the challenge river. (e.g. The Ocoee) 7. Have participants deflate and prope rly store rafts and rafting gear. 8. Celebrate and tell/listen to everyone tell their cool rafting stories 168

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Day 3: Mountain Session 2 Session Goals: 1. Complete 2 outdoor mountain challenges. 2. Continue building positive, supportive, and trus ting relationships between team members and participants. Participant Objectives: Life Skill 1. Choosing problem-focused coping strategies including. a. Setting ambitious performance goals. b. Developing, implementing, and revising plans for achieving success. 2. Managing stress-related emotions by: a. Limiting negative self-talk and utiliz ing positive self-talk strategies. b. Soliciting social support using pos itive and pro-social methods. 3. Persist when encountering setbacks and adversity. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skill Participants will: 1. Climb 1 beginners route on an approximately 75 foot rock face. 2. Rappel (helo) from a height of approximately 120 feet. Time: 5 hours Curricular Materials: Trip Journals 3A & 3B Experiential Equipment: Ropes Helmets and Harnesses Carabiners Belay devices First aid and safety equipment Procedures: 1. Handout participant persona l safety equipment. 2. Make sure participants bring water. 3. Hike to climb site. Use a slow/moderate pace with frequent breaks. 4. Complete 1 rock climb a. Set expectations for climbing activities. i. Its okay to be afraid ii. Do your personal best The top isnt the issue; going down trying is the issue. iii. Pay attention to other climbers offer help and encouragement b. Have participants put on their harness and helmets and safety check each. c. Refresh participant climbing skills. i. Tying in 169

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ii. Belay skills and commands iii. Descending d. Have each student rappel the beginning wall face. (Remember praise/enthusiasm Whooo!) 5. Hike to the rappel site. 6. Complete 1 advanced helo rappel. a. Set expectations for rappelling activities. i. Its okay to be afraid ii. Do your personal best The top isnt the issue; going down trying is the issue. iii. Pay attention to other climbers offer help and encouragement b. Have participants put on their harness and helmets and safety check each. c. Refresh participant rappelling skills. i. Clipping in ii. Brake operation (brake goes in your butt) iii. Negotiating the edge (Lead with your bu tt out like you want to pee on ____) iv. Assuming the rappel position v. Rappelling the face of the tower/cliff d. Have each student rappel the beginning wall face. (Remember praise/enthusiasm Whooo!) 7. Have students collect all equi pment and hike to the vans. 8. Have participants properly store their equipment properly. 170

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Day 3: Campfire 3 Session Goals: 1. Create a social and emotional climate in whic h participants can t houghtfully consider and discuss personal issues related to their experiences with deve lopmental challenge and lessons learned in Project Challenge Participant Objectives: Life Skill Participants will: 1. Identify life challenges commonly fa ced by girls at-risk for delinquency. 2. Identify and discuss what they learned about themselves and life while attending Project Challenge. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skill None Time: 1 hours Curricular Materials: Trip Journals 3A & 3B Experiential Equipment: None Procedures: 1. Prepare participants to complete their journals. (After all challenges are completed, before dinner.) a. Read Trip Journals 3A & 3B to participan ts out loud or allow a volunteer to read it. b. Let students find a comfortable place at th e campsite and give them 15 minutes to complete and review their journal assignm ent. Ask them to spend this time thoughtfully preparing for the last campfire. 2. Conduct a campfire discussion. (After dinner.) a. Review expectations for campfire: i. Campfires are the most important part of any trip. We discuss serious and personal issues. We owe it to ourselves and other participants to demonstrate our highest levels of maturity and thoughtfulness. Remember Project Challenge is more than a fun trip. It is designed to help you learn about yourself. Respect yourself by taking these times seriously. ii. Listen and respond to each other with respect. This usually means only 1 person is talking at a time, while everyone else listens carefully. iii. Maintain confidentiality. Both Project te am members and participants will be sharing personal and possibly private information. Remember to keep what you hear in these sessions confidential. b. Facilitate a discussion about What chal lenges do girls encounter? based on the question found in Trip Journal 3A. Set-up the discussion with a paraphrased version 171

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of the question 3A. Maintain a discussion environment if at a ll possible not an everyone takes a turn environment. Le t participants know its okay to share personal challenges, but that it is not re quired. Avoid an everyone takes a turn environment. Be aware of who is and is not participating in discussion. Encourage participation from all members. c. List the challenges most of ten faced by girls attending Project Challenge programs. Ask and discuss, What can girls learn at Project Challenge that will help them face these challenges? d. Remind participants that we conduct Challenge Trips so they can learn something that applies personally to them and their life. Share that we hope they have had an experience that can help them facing the challenges in their lives. Ask participants to think about what they have personally learned in Project Challenge; particularly the lessons they hope to remember/use when they return home. e. Conduct the last campfire ceremony. Each participant: i. Sits in a designated place next to the campfire facilitator. ii. Shares the lessons they have learned and hope to remember. iii. Receives a bracelet from a team member. iv. Allows the group to wish together that the participant will remember these lessons, especially when they think of Project Challeng e or see their bracelet. During this wish the group leader thro ws magic powder (sugar) on the fire to seal the deal. f. End by letting each team member share their final thoughts. 3. Share the agenda for the next day. Particularly instructions about breaking down camp and packing for home. 4. Watch for participants who withdraw and be pr epared to spend time with participants who are having difficulties. 172

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Day 4: Goal-Setting Session Goals: 1. Help participants apply lessons learned in Project Challenge directly to challenges they face in their daily lives. 2. Help participants set personally meaningful goals and develop individually tailored strategies for meeting those goals. Participant Objectives: Life Skill Participants will: 1. Set two-three goals in a developmenta lly challenging area of their lives. 2. Develop two-three ac tion steps per goal. 3. Create criteria with which to judge their goal achievement. 4. Write a graduation speech that describes their Project Challenge experience in terms of activities, lessons learned, and goals for the future. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skill None Time: 20-40 minutes per participant Curricular Materials: Trip Journals 4A & 4B Experiential Equipment: None Procedures: 1. Prepare participants to complete their journals. (After breakfast.) a. In the morning, make sure each participant has their personalized journal for the van ride. b. As participants wake up, call their atten tion to the Day 4 entries. Ask them to complete these entries duri ng the day while traveling. 2. Have a team member spend time with each girl helping her develop 2-3 goals for themselves. This process should be GIRL-DIRECTED. Team members may help girls state their goals in realistic or measurable ways, BUT the goals sh ould come from the girls. People are most motivated to act on what THEY wa nt. After this trip, they will want good things. Help them develop their goals, but dramatical ly avoid assigning them goals. 3. Have a team member spend time listening to each participants graduation speech. This will not be a formal speech. It should consist of th eir honest and genuine an swers to the questions provided in 173

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Challenge Trip Post-Trip Session & Activities 174

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Family & Friends Celebration Session Goals: 1. Help existing sources of social support connect with their pa rticipants Project Challenge experience and extend their s upport to help participants achieve post-program goals. 2. Create an experience that participants and their families can feel good about together. Participant Objectives: Life Skill Participants will: 1. Identify and invite existing sources of positive social support. 2. Describe their Project Challenge experience in terms of activiti es, lessons learned, and goals for the future. 3. Solicit continued social support and instrume ntal assistance related to goal attainment. Participant Objectives: Outdoor Skill Participants will: 1. Demonstrate climbing and rappelling on the climbing tower. 2. Assist and support family and friends with gear and chal lenge activities. Time: 2 hours Curricular Materials: None Experiential Equipment: Climbing equipment including: 20 & 40 foot climbing wall with a beginners route. 20 & 40 foot climbing wall with a su itable and safe rappelling set-up Safety equipment including harnesses, helmets, lobster claws, and re scue/first aid gear Procedures: 1. Prepare for Family and Friends Celebration. a. Create 1 group slideshow. b. Create 1 individual slideshow for each participant. c. Create 1 framed scrapbook page for each participant. d. Order, pick-up, and di splay catered meal. e. Shop for and display items not provided by caterer. f. Prepare climbing tower in advance. 2. Conduct a Family and Friends Celebration. a. Enthusiastically welcome participants and th e family and friends they have invited. Take a moment with each group and share something their participant did well. b. When most people have arrived, welcome the group. c. Serve dinner with the group slideshow pictures playing in the background. d. Once everyone has been served, start and conduct the presentations while attendees are eating. 175

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176 e. For each individual participant i. Conduct a chronological slideshow that shows them at every stage of the program. From the first day of low ropes, to their first whitewater practice, to the low towers all the way until the advanced rappel. Provide commentary that is ii. Bring the participant up with a picture of them still on the screen. iii. Ask the participant the graduation questi ons outlined in her journal and allow her to share her goals with her family and friends and ask for their support. Give participants the opportunity to make any other comments she wants to share. f. Again, thank all attendees for supporting their participant. g. Explain that we want to give them a taste of what their participant has been doing at Project Challenge and open the to wer to all family and friends. h. Clean-up.

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APPENDIX L PROJECT CHALLENGE PARTICIPANT JOURNAL Your Journal 177

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Pre-trip Journal 1 A. What makes someone confident? B. The nations largest study on girl s health found that most teen age girls struggle with low selfconfidence. Why do you think this is so? C. When do you feel the most conf ident about yourself and why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 178

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Pre-trip Journal 2 A. Why is it important for peopl e to feel good about themselves? B. What qualities do you have that other people admire? C. List as many things as you can th ink of that you like about yourself. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 179

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Pre-trip Journal 3 A. Most girls tell us Project Challenge helped them learn to trust pe ople. Why do you think these girls had a difficult time trusting people before their Project Challenge experience? B. How do you know when you can trust someone? What qualities or characteristics help you identify a trustworthy person? C. When you need help, who do you go to and how do you ask them for help? D. Why is it important to have people in your life you can trust and depend on? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 180

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Pre-trip Journal 4 A. How do you know when someone really ca res about you or that you matter to them? B. How do you know when someone doesnt really care about you or that they are using you? C. How do you deal with bad relationships? For example, how do you get out of a bad relationship? Or what do you do when you have to be around someone who doesnt seem to care about you? D. What are the benefits of ha ving relationships with people who genuinely care about you? E. What can a person do to strengthen their relati onships with genuinely caring people? What do people do that weakens their relations hips with genuinely caring people? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 181

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Camping Trip: Day 1: Journal A A. What are the qualities that make you who you are? These can be charac ter traits, personal interests or things that are important to you. Th ink of things that if someone took them away then you wouldnt be yourself anymore. Fo r example, maybe your sense of humor makes you who you are or maybe its a love for dance or su rfing or maybe certain values or morals? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 182

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Camping Trip: Day 1: Journal B A. Who are the most important people in your life? What is it that make s them important to you? B. Do you think these people know how important th ey are to you? How do you let them know they are important to you? C. How do your relationships with them influence the decisions that you make? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 183

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Camping Trip: Day 2: Journal A A. What are some goals that you want to accomplish in your life. What are those things that you really want? What type of job do you want in your future? What kind of person do you want to be? Where do you see yourself in 5 years, 10 years, at age 50? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 184

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Camping Trip: Day 2: Journal B A. Read through the Girls Stor ies section of your journal. B. Each of these girls/women found someth ing that loved to do that brought out the best in them. What do you love to do that brings out the best in you? What are some things youd like to like to try? C. Some people suggest having activities we love and goals for our lives helps us overcome the challenges, pain, and problems in our lives, do you believe this is true? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 185

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Camping Trip Day 3 Journal A A. Think about the challenges you have accomp lished during your time here at Project Challenge. You have been successful at doing a lot of difficult activities! However, it is probably unlikely that a white water rapid is doing to appe ar in your house and you are going to need to navigate a raft to get across it; and a rock wall most lik ely not show up in the middle of the hallway at school for you to clim b. Rather, there are many challenges that we do face in our lives on a daily basis. What ar e some of the real challenges in your life? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 186

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Camping Trip: Day 3: Journal B A. What are some lessons that you have learned from Project Challenge that you can use in your life and apply to some of your real life challenges? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 187

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Camping Trip: Day 4: Journal A A. Read The Starfish Story A man was jogging down the beach after a majo r storm had just come through the area. He was dismayed by the huge number of st arfish that the storm had washed up on the beach. He thought that there was nothing he could do because of the immense numbers. As he continued down the beach he saw an old man throw something into the water. As he got closer, he saw the old man walk a little farther down the beac h, bend over, pick up a starfish and throw it back into the wate r. As the jogger approached, the old man stopped again, bent over, picked up another starfish and was about to throw it into the water. The jogger stopped and asked "Why are you doing that? There are thousands of starfish on the beach. You can't possibly make a differ ence." The old man looked at the starfish, threw it back into the water, then replied, "I made a difference to th at one, didn't I?" B. Think of two or three goals big or small & things you can work on now that you could do that would make an impor tant difference in your life? Write these here. Read the Smart Goals section of your journal to help you write these goals. What you will need to do or change in order to meet these goals successfully? Who you will need help and support from? What might distract you or challenge you while you work toward these goals? What are the benefits of achieving them? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 188

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______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 189

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Camping Trip: Day 4: Journal B Use this page to write a speech that you will re cite at the Family & Friends Barbeque. Your speech should include: A. What you have learned while partic ipating in Project Challenge. B. What your favorite Project Chal lenge activity was and why. C. Why other girls should participate in programs like Project Challenge. D. Sharing the two to three goals you have set fo r yourself and asking the people you invite to the Family & Friends Barbeque to help you with these goals. Bonus Question: Why do you think we want you to share this experi ence with people who care about you? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 190

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Goal Setting 191

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How to Set SMART Goals S Specific MMeasurable A Achievable R Realistic T Timely Specific A specific goal has a much greater chance of being accomplished than a general goal. To set a specific goal you must answer the six "W" questions: *Who: Who is involved? *What: What do I want to accomplish? *Where: Identify a location. *When: Establish a time frame. *Which: Identify requirements and constraints. *Why: Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal. EXAMPLE: A general goal would be, "Graduate high school." But a specific goal would say, "I will go to class and turn in all my work th is semester to get an A in math. Making school a priority and getting tutoring are important to help me accomplish this goal. By accomplishing this goal, I will be on my way to su ccessfully graduating high school. Measurable Establish concrete criteria for measuri ng progress toward the attainment of each goal you set. When you measure your progress, you stay on track, re ach your target dates, and experience the exhilaration of achievement that spurs you on to continued effort required to reach your goal. To determine if your goal is measurable, ask questions such as......How much? How many? How will I know when it is accomplished? EXAMPLE: I will know I have accomplished my goal when I get an A on my report card and I can track my progress by getting good grades on all of my class work. Attainable When you identify goals that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them come true. You develop the attitudes, abilities, a nd skills to reach them. 192

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You begin seeing previously overlooked opportu nities to bring yourself closer to the achievement of your goals. You can attain mo st any goal you set when you plan your steps wisely and establish a time frame that allows yo u to carry out those steps. Goals that may have seemed far away and out of reach eventually move closer and become attainable, not because your goals shrink, but because you grow and expand to match them. Realistic To be realistic, a goal must repres ent an objective toward which you are both willing and able to work. A goal can be both high and realis tic; you are the only one who can decide just how high your goal should be. But be sure that ev ery goal represents substantial progress. A high goal is frequently easier to reach than a lo w one because a low goal exerts low motivational force. Some of the hardest jobs you ever accomplished actually seem easy simply because they were a labor of love. Your goal is probably realistic if you truly believe that it can be accomplished. Time It is also important to have a time frame in mind of when you want to accomplish your goal by. If your goal is long term, like going to college, you may want to set up a series of short term goals to help you on your way to accomplishi ng your long term goal. Lets take a look at the long term goal of going to college. This is a great long term goal. To reach this goal we you may want to set up a few short term goals like: 1. ) This semester I will get all my grades up to Bs and Cs and I will go to school everyday. 2.) Next semester I will keep all my grades at As and Bs and I will talk to my teachers about what colleges I should consider. 3.) I will apply to 3 colleges and take the SAT test. 4.) I will gra duate from high school. 5.) I will go to college. When you look at goal in a reasonable time fram e they do not seem so intimidating and you can see what you want to be working at now to accomplish the things you want later on. 193

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Womens Stories 194

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Sandra Cisneros Sandra Cisneros is an author and poet best known for her novel The House on Mango Street. Much of her writing is influenced by her Mexican-American heritage. Born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1954, Sandra grew up in poverty. As the only girl in a family of seven ch ildren, Cisneros spent a lot of time by herself. During childhood her fam ily moved through a series of apartments in the poor neighborhoods of Chicago's south side. Because her family moved often, she found it di fficult to form lasting friendships. She became very introverted and shy. Because she was too shy to volunteer or speak up in class, Cisner os often received poor grades in school. During this time she became a quiet, car eful observer of the people and events around her, and recorded her feelings through secret writi ngs at home. This abili ty to observe and write about the human experience would la ter help her in her writings. After high school, Cisneros attended Loyola Un iversity in Chicago to study English. Cisneros's old fears about sharing her writing w ith others soon came back. Many of Cisneros's classmates had come from more privileged back grounds than she had, and she felt she could not compete with them. As she explained in an intervie w, "It didn't take me long to learn -after a few days of being therethat nobody cared to hear wh at I had to say and no one listened to me even when I did speak. I became very frightened and terrified that first ye ar." She soon realized, however, that her experiences as a Mexican Amer ican and as a woman were very different, but just as important as anything her classmates wr ote about. "It was not until this moment when I separated myself, when I considered myself truly distinct, that my writing acquired a voice," she explains. Out of this insight came her first book, The House on Mango Street. In her poetry and stories, Sandra Cisneros writes about Mexican and Mexican American women who find strength to rise above the poor c onditions of their lives. Cisneros' ability to write about these strong characters comes fr om her childhood experi ences. These types of characters have not been presented so clearly in writing before. Cisneros is determined to introduce them to American readers. Cisneros is one of the first Hispan ic-American writers who has achieved commercial success. She is admire d by literary scholars and critics for her works which help bring the perspective of Chicana (M exican-American) women into the mainstream of literary feminism. 195

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Oprah Winfrey Oprah Winfrey was born on January 29, 1954 in Mississippi. Oprah had a mountain of obstacles alr eady in front of her as a newborn baby... she was born to unwed teenage parents, she was female, she was black, and she was poor. For the first six years of he r life, Oprah was raised on a Mississippi farm by her grandmother. Oprah has stated that living with her grandmother probably saved her life. While in her grandmother's care, she was taught to read at a ve ry early age, ins tilling a love of reading in her that she retains t oday. She began her public speaking career at the tender age of three when she began reading aloud and reciting sermons to the congregation of her church. The support from h grandmother in her early years of life may have be en what got Oprah through the hard years tha she was to spend w er t ith her mother. At the age of six, Oprah was sent to live with her mother in Milwauk ee. From ages six to thirteen, Oprah stayed with her mother. She was raped by a cousin when she was nine years old and later molested by a male friend of her moth er's and by an uncle. The young girl never told anyone about the abuse that she was suffering. Inst ead, she held her anger and pain inside and she rebelled. She repeatedly ran away and got into trouble. Her mother decided to put her into a dete ntion home. Fortunately for Oprah, she was denied admission to the home because there were no openings. So, in what may have been her second major stroke of good luck, she was sent to live with her father Vernon Winfrey in Nashville. Before she ceased her promiscuous and wild behavior, she became pregnant and gave birth to a stillborn baby boy wh en she was fourteen. The death of her baby devastated her and she vowed to turn her life around. Her father helped her with her mission by strapping her with hi s strict rules and discipline. Vernon made sure that his daughter st uck to her curfew, maintained high grades in school and encouraged Oprah to be her best. Oprah's father he lped her turn her life around. Oprah went on to major in radio and te levision broadcasting at Tennessee State University. After success in school and in her first television jobs, Oprah was given her own nationally broadcasted talk show in 1986 named The Oprah Winfrey Show Oprah has used the events of her troubled ch ildhood to create a talk show for exploring and helping other women with real life problem s and has gone on to become one of the most powerful and successful people in America. Oprah ha s said of life, Create the highest, grandest vision possible for your life because you become what you believe. 196

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Michelle Kwan Michelle Kwan is a figure skater who has won nine U.S. championships, five world championships, and two Olympic medals. She has remained competitive for over a decade and is the most decorated figure skater in U.S. history. Known for her consistency and expressive artistry on ice, she has routinely been called one of the greatest figure skaters of all time. Born in Torrance, California, Mi chelle is the third child of Danny an Estella Kwan, Chinese immigrants from Hong Kong. Her interest in figure skating began at the age of 5 when she followed her two older siblings onto the ice. Her brother pl ayed ice hockey and her sister was already a figure skater and she wanted to be like them. Michelle and her sister began seriously trai ning in figure skating when Michelle was 8 years old. They practiced three to four hours a day; waking up at 3am to skate before school an going back to the rink right after sc hool to skate again. Michelle skated on second-hand skates but achieved triumph after triumph. As Michelles talent in skating grew, so did the financial cost that it took to become better. Paying for the increased rink time, coaching fees and other costs led to financial hardship for Kwans working-class family. Kwans mother took on a second job and her father started working extra time. Although it was a financia lly difficult time for the family, Michelles parents could see their daughters talent and dedication and tried to do all they could to support her dreams. One Christmas the struggling family couldnt afford a Christmas tree to Michelle made it her goal to win one at school by treading the most popcorn on a string. She ended up wining a miniature Christmas tree for the familys holiday celebration. Eventually the family decided to sell their house, but that still wasnt enough to finance the sk ating. When Michelle was ten years old, her family could no longer afford a coach. With the money running out, it was going to be Michelles last year of skating. However, Michelle was not ready to give up on her dreams. She trained harder than ever and her dedication to her sport became stronger. That year, at the regional skating competition, talent scouts noticed Michelles talent and awarded her a full scholarship to the Ice Castle International Training Center in Lake Arrowhead, California. It was the second chance Michelle had been waiting for. She used th is opportunity to become the best skater she could be and went on to achieve greatest as one of the worlds best skaters. She hasnt always won every competition, including never getting an Olympic gol d metal, but she has continued skating every step of the way and has never let any set b acks stop her from achievi ng her dreams and doing what she loves. 197

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Bethany Hamilton Born February 8, 1990, Bethany Hamilton is an American surfer. She is known for surviving a shark attack in which she lost her left arm and for overcoming the serious and debilita ting injury to return to surfing. Bethany was born in Hawaii and bega n surfing at the early age of 5 years old. As a result, her family liked to joke that she had "salt water in her veins." Her surfing abil ities progressed very quickly and, while still in grade school, she was participating in the push in division of a Quicksilver surfing contest. (In this "push-in" competition, her father would push her and her mother would wait to catch her). Remarkably, Hamilton won first place. She went on to win the 7-9 short board and long board competition in challenging conditions at the age of ei ght. Her senior career as a surfer started when she won the 2001 Haleiwa Menehune Championships 25th annual contest. In this competition, she placed 1st in the "13-under girl s", 1st in the "17 under girls," and 2nd in the "12-under boys" division. She also became a Rip Curl Girl team rider and made plans to become a professional surfer. On October 31, 2003, at about 7:00 a.m., Ham ilton, her best friend Alana Blanchard, and Blanchard's father, Holt, all paddled out into th e waves of Tunnels Beach, Hawaii. It was a sunny day, and the waves were not very big, but she decided to surf anyway. As Hamilton lay on her surfboard, waiting for the next set of waves to roll into the beach, her left arm dangled beside her in the water. Then, without warning, a 14 ft tiger shark attacked, taking a 17 inch wide bite of the board and her left arm. In jerking Hamilton back and forth, the shark ripped off her arm just below her shoulder before disappearing. Although she was bleeding profusely, Hamilton was able to compose herself enough to use her right arm to paddle in to the shore. Her friend's father was able to fashion a tourniquet out of a surfboard leash around what was left of her arm before rushing her to the hospital. She lost 70% of her blood that morning and Hamilton said in her book, Soul Surfer, that the reason she kept ca lm was because of God watching over her. Despite the trauma of the incident, Hamilton wa s determined to return to surfing. Just ten weeks after the accident, she returned to her board and went surfing again. She adopted a custom-made board that was longer and slightly th icker which made it easier to paddle. Hamilton observed that she had to kick a lo t harder to make up for the loss of her left arm. Not only did she teach herself to surf with only one arm, she al so began surfing competitively in competitions again. She commented on this, saying, When I got up on my first wave, I rode it all the way into the shore, and after that, I just had like, tears of happiness, I was so stoked to be back out there." Hamilton said she wants to encourage othe r people to follow their dreams despite obstacles that seem insurmountable. "[People] can do whatever they want if they just set their heart to it, and just never give up, and just go out there and do it." 198

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Gloria Estefan Gloria Estefan's early years were not easy. Her father Jose was among the Cuban exiles who participated in the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion, the unsuccessful attempt to oust Castro from power. Jose spent a year a nd a half in a Cuban prison, and during this time Gloria and her mother lived in a Cuban ghetto near the Orange Bowl in Miami. Misfortune continued to follow her dad. He was badly poisoned while serving in Vietnam. When her mother went out to make a living, Gloria had to act as nurse and tend to her invalid father. Her one source of comfort was the guitar she had been given when she was 12. She would sing to herself the Top 40 tunes of the day, alone in her room for hours on end. In 1975, at the urging of her mo ther, Gloria sang some s ongs at a wedding which was being entertained by a local party band, The Miam i Latin Boys. The band leader, Emilio Estefan, was so impressed by her smooth alto voice that he hounded her to join his band. She reluctantly agreed, but only to sing on weekends. No longer all boys, the band was rechristened The Miami Sound Machine. That was the start of Miami Sound Machines rise to fame. By 1983, the group was well known throughout Central and South America and ha d produced four albums for a major label, CBS Discos. Then in 1984, Emilio convinced record executives at Epic to release an English only album to the US and European markets. Th e first single, Dr. Beat, became a huge hit on the dance charts. The crossover worked! The next al bum solidified their success. From this album came the single "Conga!" which carried with it a unique distinction. It is th e only song in history to appear on Billboard's Pop, Latin, Soul and Dance charts all at the same time. Tours, awards, fame, fortune and good luck followed in a steady stream. That is until the morning of March 20, 1990. As Gloria slept in her tour bus which had stopped along a Pennsylvania Interstate highway, a speeding se mi-truck smashed into it from behind. She knew immediately that her back was broken. A delicat e surgery was performed that required two 8inch titanium rods to be placed on either side of her spine. She needed 400 stitches to close the 14-inch incision. The operation was a success but in the year that followed, Gloria would have to go though the painful and difficult process of recovery. Due to her hard work and perseverance, within one year of the accident Gloria was pe rforming on stage again. Gloria is well know as one of the most successful Cuban singers and is admired for her perseverance in life and her dedication to her culture and music. 199

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Maya Angelou Maya Angelou is hailed as one of the great voices of contemporary literature and as a remarkable Renaissance woman. Through her powerful writings, she has inspired generations of women, African-Americans and all pe ople who struggle to overcome prejudice, discrimination and abuse. Maya Angelou was born in St. Louis, Missouri on April 4, 1928. In 1931, her parents divorced and she and her older brother Bailey were sent to live with their grandmother in Stamps Arkansas. After five years of being apart from their mother, the children were sent back to St. Louis to be with he r. This move eventually took a turn for the worst when Maya was 8 years old and she was raped by her mothers boyfriend. This devastating act of violence caused Maya to be silenced to everyone except her brother for nearly four years. She was sent back to Arkansas because no one could handle the awful state she wa s in. With the constant help of a woman named Mrs. Flowers, Angelou began to transform into a young girl with a renewed sense of pride and confidence. In 1940, she and her brother were sent to San Francisco to live with their mother again. Life with her mother was in constant disorder ; it soon became too much for Maya so her father came and took her to live with him and his girlfrie nd in their rundown traile r. Finding that life with him was no better, she ended up living in a graveyard of wreaked cars that mainly housed homeless children. It took her a month to get back home to her mother. Mayas dysfunctional childhood spent moving back and forth between her mother and grandmother caused her to struggle with maturity. She became determined to prove she was a woman and began to rush towards adulthood. Soon, she found herself pregnant, and at the ag e of 16 she delivered her son, Guy. In order to support her son and herself, Ma ya embarked on a remarkable career as an actress and entertainer, as a journalist, educator a nd civil rights activist, and finally, as one of the world's most eminent authors and poets. Eventually, Maya turned her love for read ing and writing into a powerful and successful career as a poet and author. Angelou's first work of literature, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is an autobiography. Angelou's sometimes disr uptive life inspired her to write this book. It reflects the essence of her strugg le to overcome the restrictions that were placed upon her in a hostile environment. Being a poet, educator, hist orian, best-selling author actress, playwright, civil-rights activist, producer and director, Dr. Angelou continues to spread her legendary wisdom. 200

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Ann Curry Ann Curry has been a news anchor on NBCs Today show since 1997, and was named co-anchor of Dateline NBC in 2005. She's reported from the scenes of big news storie s, from the 1987 Los Angeles earthquake and the September 11th attack s to the 2004 Asian tsunami. "Along the way someone will tell you that you can't do something or be who you want to be. When that happens, remember to think, 'Oh yeah, watch me.' I did and I showed 'em. I bet you will, too." -Ann Curry's advice to young girls. Ann Curry was born on November 19, 1956, in Guam, to an American career navy man and the daughter of a Japanese rice farmer. While Ann was growing up, the family moved ofte n, and she never attended the same school for more than two years. Eventually, Ann, her parents, and her four younger siblings settled in Ashland, Oregon. Ann's career prospects seemed dim, since the Currys had no money to pay for their childre n's higher education. But Ann was determined to be a journalist and enrolled in the University of Oregon School of Journalism, one of the most highly rega rded in the country. To pay for it, Ann worked constantly during the school year and throughout summer vacation at a wide variety of menial jobs. Being the first in her family to attend college was intimidating at first, but Ann was fortunate enough to have supportive prof essors, and she graduated in 1978. Ann had other challenges to overcome once she had earned her journalism degree. Television news reporters at the time were pr edominantly white men, and being both a woman and a visible minority, Ann faced her share of di scrimination. Nevertheless, she soon got a job as an intern at Medford, Oregon's NBC affiliate KTVL, and eventually rose to become that station's first female news reporter. Ann stays determined to be the best reporter she could be and eventually she was covering big stories and moving her way up through the ranks of NBC. By 1997, already successful as a correspondent for Dateline NBC, Ann was made the news anchor for the Today show. She had a wide variety of assignments over the next few years. She interviewed the parents of the McCaughey septuplets in 1997, was the first network reporter to report on the crisis in Kosovo in 1999, and was on the scene reporting at Ground Zero after September 11th, 2001. Ann Curry was named co-anchor of Dateline NBC in May of 2005, in addition to continuing work on Today Through her hard work, dedication and perseverance, Ann has become on of the most respect ed news reporters in the US today. 201

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Beth Rodden Beth Rodden is one of the strongest and most successful American rock climbers in the world. Born in California, Beth began climbing at the age of 14 at a local indoor rock gym. Beth fell in love with the sport, and thr ough dedication and hard work, she improved quickly and won the Junior National Championships in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Soon, indoor climbing competitions lost their glory to Beth, so she turned to the outdoors for rock climbing on real rock. Beth proved to be successf ul both indoors and outdoors. By the age of 18, Beth had climbe d a 5.14 route in Oregon, making her the youngest woman to ever complete such a grade. Beth also made many other notable climbing ascents and had a strong passion and talent for climb. Beth had become one of the best climbers. Beth was at the top of her sport, when a horrifying kidnapping event occurred in the year 2000 that would make her question everything. In 2000, Beth, her boyfriend, Tommy Caldwell, and two other friends traveled to the former Soviet republic on the border of China to the sheer cliffs of Kyrgyzstan test their climbing skills. But what was tested for Rodden and her climbing partners was their ability to surv ive. One early morning, as they camped on a rock face they were ascending, they awoke to the sound of gunfire and qui ckly realized they were being shot at. The four climbers were taken hostage by armed rebe ls at war with the Kyrgyz government. During the six days that followed, these American cl imbers would be pushed to limits they never dreamed possible. The group spends the next 6 days under the control of their kidnappers; hiking through the country, sleep ing in caves, starving from no food, and having their lives threatened. Although they had talk about escaping they see no opportunity to do so safely. Until late in the night on the sixth day when a couple of the captures leave for a few hours putting them in the care of only one guard. At that time, s cared and exhausted, Tommy Caldwell waits till the guard is on the edge of the cliff, runs up to him and pushes him off the 2,000 foot cliff. Several miles and several hours later, exhausted and frightened, the hikers finally stumbled into an army camp and safety. The man Tommy Caldwell thought he had killed, survived the fall, only to be eventually captured by Kyrgyz so ldiers and sentenced to death. After the traumatic event, Beth said, For the first six months, I had nightmares, and actually didn't enjoy climbing at all. I relate d climbing to being kidnapped. But through time and patience, I've learned to love climbing and en joy it again. Beth overcame her fears, began climbing again and regained her rank as one of the truly great rock climbers of the world. 202

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Womens Thoughts 203

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Womens Thoughts To have a sense of ones intrinsic wort his potentially to have everything. Joan Didion We gain strength, courage and confidence by ever y experience in which you really stop to look fear in the faceWe must do th at which we think we cannot. -Eleanor Roosevelt Life is not easy for any of us. But what of that ? We must have persever ance and confidence in ourselves. -Marie Curie Each individual womans body demands to be accepted on its own terms. -Gloria Steinem Although there may be tragedy in y our life, theres always a possibi lity to triumph. It doesnt matter who you are, where you come from. The ab ility to triumph begins with you. Always. -Oprah Winfrey Mistakes are a fact of life. It is the response to error that counts. -Nikki Giovanni Courage is very important. Like a muscle, it is strengthened by use. -Ruth Gordon When I dare to be powerful to use my strength in the service of my vision, then it becomes less and less important whether I am afraid. -Audre Lorde 204

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Remember no one can make you feel inferior without your consent. -Eleanor Roosevelt As long as you keep a person down, some part of you has to be down there to hold him down, so it means you cannot soar as you would otherwise might. -Marian Anderson The future belongs to those who belie ve in the beauty of their dreams. Eleanor Roosevelt I have not ceased to be fearful, but I have ceased to let fear control me. -Erica Jong Keep working hear and you can get anything th at you want. If God gave you the talent, you should go for it. But dont think its going to be easy. Its hard! -Aaliyah Always continue the climb. It is possible for you to do whatever you choos e, if you first get to know who you are and are willing to work with a power that is greater than ourselves to do it. -Oprah Winfrey We may encounter many defeats but we must not be defeated. -Maya Angelou 205

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Twenty dollars A well known speaker started off his semina r by holding up a $20 bill. In the room of 200, he asked. "Who wo uld like this $20 bill?" Hands started going up. He said, "I am going to give this $20 to one of you but first, let me do this." He proceeded to crumple the 20 dollar note up. He then asked. "Who still wants it?" Still the hands were up in the air. "Well," he replied, "what if I do this?" He dropped it on the ground and started to grind it into the floor with his shoe He picked it up, now crumpl ed and dirty. "Now, who still wants it?" Still the hands went into the air. "My friends, you have all learned a very valu able lesson. No matter what I did to the money, you still wanted it because it did not decrease in value. It was still worth $20. Many times in our lives, we are dropped, crumpled, and ground into the dirt by the decisions we make and the circumstances that come our way. We feel as though we are worthless; but no matter what happened or what will happen, you will never lose your value. Dirty or clean, crumpled or finely crea sed, you are still pricel ess to those who love you. The worth of our lives comes, not in what we do or who we know, but by ...WHO WE ARE. You are special don't ever forget it." 206

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A Final Thought 207

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208 Our Deepest Fear Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that most frightens us. We ask ourselves, "Who am I to be Brilliant, Gorgeous, Talented and Fabulous?" Who are you not to be? You are a child of the Universe. Your playing small does not serve the world. There is nothing enlightened about shrinking So that other people won't feel insecure around you. We were born to make manifest The Glory of God that is within us. It's not just in some of us; it is in everyone. As we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others. -Nelson Mandela

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Michael Joseph Mann was born September 24th, 1970 in Birmingham, Alabama. He grew up in Palm Bay, Florida and graduated from Pa lm Bay High School in 1988. After graduation, Michael enrolled at Asbury College (Kentucky) and completed two-years of undergraduate study before transferring to the University of Florida. While at th e UF, Michael earned a Bachelors degree and Masters degree, both in Health Science Education. Michael began working with children while he was a teenager. In 1988, he was hired as a YMCA summer camp counselor and has consistently worked with children and youth ever since. During the past 19 years, Michael has worked as a camp counselor, a coach, a church youth leader, a youth development specialist, a teacher, an alternative school director, and in several corporate leadership positions in a national yout h organization. In each position, he has been a passionate advocate for children, youth, and the people who care for them. Currently, in addition to his doctoral studies Mi chael is founder and director of Project Challenge, an outdoor adventure program for at-risk girls. Michael entered the Ph.D. program in the Department of Health Education and Behavior at the University of Florida in 2004. He will be granted a Doctor of Philosophy in Health and Human Performance with an emphasis in Health Behavior and a minor in College Student Development through the College of Health and Human Performance, in August 2007. 228