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Relationships among Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise Behavior

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021248/00001

Material Information

Title: Relationships among Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise Behavior
Physical Description: 1 online resource (120 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Batia, Abigail S
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: determination, exercise, ffi, motivation, neo, personality, self, theory
Health Education and Behavior -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Because most Americans are sedentary, and obesity is of growing interest as a health concern in the United States, intervention methods for increasing exercise behavior are needed. Studies in the field of health promotion and exercise psychology have recently focused on determining psychological variables that influence exercise behavior. Little research has been devoted to the psychological mechanisms by which personality traits affect health-related behaviors. One possible mechanism is motivation. By adopting a self-determination theory perspective it may be possible to elucidate the motivational processes by which personality traits influence engagement in health-related behaviors such as exercise. The focus of my study was to examine the relationship between personality and the extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-determined fashion. The findings of my study suggest that personality is associated with self-determination and that there are gender and race differences on personality and exercise behavior. Additionally in this study population, self-determination fully explains the mechanism through which the openness and conscientiousness domains affect exercise behavior and partially explains the mechanism through which extraversion affects exercise behavior. The implications are numerous for health educators, practitioners, and researchers some of which include rigorous personality and motivation education for future practitioners, proper choice and implementation of exercise programs for each specific personality domain, and continued research with other health behaviors. These results can guide the development of more personalized programs and interventions to facilitate adoption of exercise behavior in non-exercisers while increasing adherence in current exercisers.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Abigail S Batia.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Varnes, Jill W.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021248:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021248/00001

Material Information

Title: Relationships among Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise Behavior
Physical Description: 1 online resource (120 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Batia, Abigail S
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: determination, exercise, ffi, motivation, neo, personality, self, theory
Health Education and Behavior -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Because most Americans are sedentary, and obesity is of growing interest as a health concern in the United States, intervention methods for increasing exercise behavior are needed. Studies in the field of health promotion and exercise psychology have recently focused on determining psychological variables that influence exercise behavior. Little research has been devoted to the psychological mechanisms by which personality traits affect health-related behaviors. One possible mechanism is motivation. By adopting a self-determination theory perspective it may be possible to elucidate the motivational processes by which personality traits influence engagement in health-related behaviors such as exercise. The focus of my study was to examine the relationship between personality and the extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-determined fashion. The findings of my study suggest that personality is associated with self-determination and that there are gender and race differences on personality and exercise behavior. Additionally in this study population, self-determination fully explains the mechanism through which the openness and conscientiousness domains affect exercise behavior and partially explains the mechanism through which extraversion affects exercise behavior. The implications are numerous for health educators, practitioners, and researchers some of which include rigorous personality and motivation education for future practitioners, proper choice and implementation of exercise programs for each specific personality domain, and continued research with other health behaviors. These results can guide the development of more personalized programs and interventions to facilitate adoption of exercise behavior in non-exercisers while increasing adherence in current exercisers.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Abigail S Batia.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Varnes, Jill W.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021248:00001


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RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERSONALITY, SELF-DETERMINATION AND EXERCISE
BEHAVIOR



















By

ABIGAIL SCHWAB BATIA


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA INT PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007
































O 2007 Abigail Schwab Batia


































To my loving husband Mark David Batia.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

"Trust in the Lord with all your heart; do not depend on your own understanding. Seek his

will in all you do, and he will direct your paths." (Proverbs 3:5-6). During the past few years,

this quote has always proven true. Without my faith and the prayers and support of family and

friends, I would not have been able to complete this amazing endeavor.

First, I want to thank Jesus for His guidance and grace, His wisdom is immense and His

timing is impeccable.

My committee has been the backbone behind the success and completion of this study.

Without them, I would not have been able to achieve this accomplishment. Dr. Jill W. Varnes,

my chair, has the patience of a saint and for that I thank her wholeheartedly. She has encouraged

me to continue on in the most caring and wise way. I am forever indebted. I thank Dr. Virginia

Dodd for always having a realistic outlook and such good advice. I thank Dr. Peter Giacobbi and

Dr. David Miller for not only the guidance related to my dissertation topic and data analyses but

also for the time and effort it took to meet with me so many times. I also want to thank Dr. R.

Morgan Pigg Jr., for always being there for a special talk. You got me through some trying

times and I will always appreciate you being there for me.

My parents, Rodney and Linda Schwab, who brought me to this earth to experience all my

gifts and graces. My dad has been my amazing prayer warrior and has taught me to do what

makes me happy even if it involves being in school for the past 10 years! My mom has also been

my rock and my light. She is such wonderful listener and such an encouragement to me. I just

want to thank mama and daddy for their love, gifts, and prayers.

I want to thank my other family members, especially the two most awesome brothers and

the most beautiful sister anyone can possibly have, and who were supportive beyond belief,

Chad, Richard, and Becky I thank you all for always being on my side and being and a









constant source of smiles. I also want to extend my special thanks to my sisters-in-law Dana

(YFSNL) and Jennifer and to all of my nieces and nephews Reece, Julie Ann, Tanner,

Caroline, Trevor, Cole, and Fletcher. I love you each and every one of you.

I also want to send heart-felt thanks to my social support network that' s seen me through

this entire journey. Chris Wirth I thank you for your constant encouragement, good and not so

good advice, amazing editing skills, and great laughs. Without your presence the last five years

school would have been boring and unbearable and my office would have been way too

organized. Thanks for expanding my knowledge and love of PE and for all the great memories

of graduate school. I want to thank Beth Johnson without you I don't think I would have been

able to survive all those statistics classes. Amanda Foote your smile and special treats made

coming to school enj oyable. Thanks for listening to me complain and for always being so

willing to help. I want to thank Matt Buman for all of his time and effort he put in helping me

finalize this project. Without you I would still be stuck in data analysis purgatory. Lisa

Emmerich and Melissa Cox my faithful editors. Thank you both so much for catching all of

my typos and for not making fun of my spelling disabilities. I also want to thank our amazing

Life Group Alex and Andrea Hart, Chris and Ivy Dix, Garrett, Audrey, and Ashton Jones, and

Patrick, Jeanne and Luke Moran. Your prayers, support, long talks, and yummy dinners all

helped me to get to where I am today. I love you all so very much.

And with great honor, appreciation, and all of my heart I want to thank my husband

Mark David Batia. Without you I would not have even attempted let alone achieve this triumph.

I am indebted to you for your patience, love, and belief. You held my hand the entire way I

love you. We did it!












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ................ ...............8............ ....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............9.....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 10...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............12.......... ......


Research Problem ................. ...............13.......... .....
Rationale ................. ...............13.................
Research Questions............... ...............1
Delimitations ................. ...............15...............
Limitations ................. ...............16.................

Assumptions .............. ...............16....
Li st of Term s ................ ...............16........... ...


2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................. ...............19.......... ....


Exercise............... ...............19

Personality ................ .... .......... ..........2
Five-Factor Model of Personality ................. ...............23.......... .....
Personality and Exercise............... ...............25
Self-Determination Theory ................. .......... ...............3.. 1....
Self-Determination Theory and Exercise .............. ...............37....
Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise ................. ...............41........... ...
Conclusion ................ ...............42.................


3 METHODS .............. ...............46....


Research Design .............. ...............46....
Research Variables .............. ...............47....

Study Population............... ...............4
Instrumentation ............. ...... ._ ...............49....
Data Collection .............. ...............52....

Data Analysis............... ...............53
Summary ............. ...... ._ ...............55....













4 RE SULT S .............. ...............57....


Participant Characteristics ................ .... ........... ........5
Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise Behavior ................. ......... ................58
Research Questions............... ...............5
Research Question One .............. ...............59....
Research Question Two............... ...............59..
Research Question Three............... ...............61.
Research Question Four .............. ...............64....
Summary ................. ...............64.................


5 SUMMARY, DISCUS SION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................. ......................72


Summary ............ _. .... __ ...............72...
Discussion ............ .... __ ...............74..

Demographics............... ..............7
Research Question One .............. ...............75....
Research Question Two............... ...............77..
Research Question Three............... ...............78.
Research Question Four .............. ...............83....
Im plications .................. ...... .. .......... ... .........8
Implications for the Role of Health Educators ......___ .......__ ......... .......8
Implications for the Role of Practitioners ............ .. ...._ ..... ...........8
Implications for Future Research .............. ...............91....
Limitations and Future Directions ............ ...... __ ...............93.

Study Strengths ............ .... __ ...............94..
Conclusion ............ .... __ ...............94...


APPENDIX


A NEO FIVE-FACTOR INVENTORY ................. ...............96................


B BEHAVIORAL REGULATION IN EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE-2 ................... ...........99


C LEISURE TIME EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE ....._____ ..... ... .__ .........._......101


D DE MO GRAPHIC INFORMATION ................. ......... ......... ............10


E UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPLICATION ......103


F PARTICIPANT INFORMED CONSENT ................ ...............107.....__._....


LIST OF REFERENCES ......__................. .......__. .........10


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........._.__............ ...............120....










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Five-Factor Model Domains and Facets and their Definitions ................. ............... ....44

4-1 Demographic distribution by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, and class. ........._...............66

4-2 Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) Scores, Alpha Levels, Skewness, and Kurtosis
for the NEO Personality Domains .............. ...............66....

4-3 Rule of Thumb for Reliability of Measurement Interpretation ................. ................ ...67

4-4 Mean (M)1, Standard Deviation (SD) Scores, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the LTEQ .......67

4-5 Correlations Between the NEO Domains and Self-Determination (RAI) ................... ......67

4-6 MANOVA follow-ups for Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences on Personality,
Self-Determination, and LTEQ Scores ................ ...............68................

4-7 Means and Standard Deviations for Personality and LTEQ Scores .............. .................68

4-8 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and t-
test Statistics for Hypothesis 1 .............. ...............69....

4-9 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and t-
test Statistics for Hypothesis 2............... ...............69...

4-10 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and t-
test Statistics for Hypothesis 3 compared to Hypothesis 2 ................ .......................69

4-11 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and t-
test Statistics for the Moderation of Personality ................. ...............70........... ..










LIST OF FIGURES

FiMr IM Le

4-1 Self-determination mediating personality and exercise behavior............... ................7

4-2 Moderation of personality ................. ...............71..._.... .....









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERSONALITY, SELF-DETERMINATION AND EXERCISE
BEHAVIOR

By

Abigail Schwab Batia

August 2007

Chair: Jill W. Varnes
Major: Health and Human Performance

Because most Americans are sedentary, and obesity is of growing interest as a health

concern in the United States, intervention methods for increasing exercise behavior are needed.

Studies in the Hield of health promotion and exercise psychology have recently focused on

determining psychological variables that influence exercise behavior. Little research has been

devoted to the psychological mechanisms by which personality traits affect health-related

behaviors. One possible mechanism is motivation. By adopting a self-determination theory

perspective it may be possible to elucidate the motivational processes by which personality traits

influence engagement in health-related behaviors such as exercise. The focus of my study was to

examine the relationship between personality and the extent to which exercise behavior is

regulated in a self-determined fashion.

The Eindings of my study suggest that personality is associated with self-determination and

that there are gender and race differences on personality and exercise behavior. Additionally in

this study population, self-determination fully explains the mechanism through which the

openness and conscientiousness domains affect exercise behavior and partially explains the

mechanism through which extraversion affects exercise behavior. The implications are










numerous for health educators, practitioners, and researchers some of which include rigorous

personality and motivation education for future practitioners, proper choice and implementation

of exercise programs for each specific personality domain, and continued research with other

health behaviors. These results can guide the development of more personalized programs and

interventions to facilitate adoption of exercise behavior in non-exercisers while increasing

adherence in current exercisers.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Considerable research has been devoted to the analysis of psychosocial factors associated

with the development of a variety of health behaviors over the past decade (Bermudez, 1999;

Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999). In the wake of this research, one important point has

become clear: the main cause of mortality can be prevented by making certain lifestyle and

behavior changes (Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beaulieu, 1999). Less attention, however, has

been paid to the reasons and mechanisms that explain why individuals keep engaging or

disengaging in behaviors that they know are beneficial to their health. Furthermore, why do

individuals fail to develop habits that could increase their quality of life and well-being?

The association between sedentary lifestyle and all-cause mortality and morbidity is well

documented (Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beaulieu, 1999) and represents one of the most

prevalent behavioral health risks in industrialized countries (US Department of Health & Human

Services, 1996). The physical benefits of exercise have also been well documented and include a

reduced risk of diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, bone density loss, premature death,

as well as improvement in weight management and overall fitness (Bouchard, Shephard, &

Stephens, 1994; Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Research suggests that the benefits of

regular exercise extend beyond the primary prevention of chronic physical diseases, as regular

exercise has been demonstrated to improve mental well-being and quality of life (Courneya,

Mackey, & Jones, 2000).

Despite the health threats posed by inactivity, research indicates that 60% of the population

remains insufficiently active to receive health benefits from physical activity and 25% of the

population is considered sedentary (Stephens & Caspersen, 1994; US Department of Health &

Human Services, 1996). Furthermore, the attrition rates from structured exercise programs









remain high. About 50% of exercise participants terminate their involvement within the first six

months of enrollment (Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beaulieu, 1999). Thus, understanding the

individual factors that influence adherence to an exercise regimen will aid in implementing

effective intervention strategies.

Research Problem

Studies in the field of health promotion and exercise psychology have recently focused on

determining psychological variables that influence exercise behavior. Little research, however,

has been devoted to the psychological mechanisms by which personality traits affect health-

related behaviors (Bermudez, 1999; Hoyle, 2000). One possible mechanism is motivation.

Researchers have examined the association between personality traits and exercise participation

motives, but it is hard to discern a consistent pattern in the findings. The study of such surface

motives does not in itself reveal much about the underlying motivational processes. By adopting

a self-determination theory perspective it may be possible to elucidate the motivational processes

by which personality traits influence engagement in health-related behaviors such as exercise.

Therefore, the focus of this study is to examine the relationship between personality and the

extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-determined fashion.

Rationale

Current research (Li, 1999; Wilson, Rodgers, & Fraser, 2002) and commentary (Vallerand

& Perreault, 1999) has highlighted the importance of understanding the motivational processes

that regulates exercise initiation and persistence. One theoretical approach that holds appeal for

understanding exercise motivation is called self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan,

1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). SDT proposes that persistence behavior and psychological well-

being are regulated via mechanisms reflecting the quality of motivation toward a particular

activity (Ryan & Deci, 2000). SDT is founded on the premise that there are innate psychological









needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness and it also recognizes a distinction between

intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Rather than simply contrasting intrinsic and extrinsic

motivation, SDT posits a differentiated view of extrinsic motivation. The theory proposes that

there are different ways in which a person's behavior can be regulated and that these different

forms of behavioral regulations form a continuum of self-determination. The continuum

includes motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated

regulation, and intrinsic regulation. Behavioral regulation within the exercise domain is assessed

by the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2; Markland & Tobin,

2004). In addition to the BREQ-2, a Relative Autonomy Index (RAI; Ryan & Connell, 1989) is

computed to represent overall self-determination of participants.

Research aimed at identifying reasons for exercise also occurs in the context of associated

personality traits. Personality characteristics are individual differences that predispose, or

facilitate, the development and preservation of certain patterns of behavior (Bermudez, 1999). In

addition, the identification of such variables and the analysis of their association with different

kinds of behavior permit researchers to assess an individual's vulnerability and facilitate the

identification of variables on which to focus to improve their health. It is valuable to include

personality traits when researching exercise motivation because those traits can provide the

framework within which motivation occurs (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985).

The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality is a version of trait theory that views humans

as people with consistent and enduring individual differences (McCrae & John, 1992). The Hyve

personality dimensions of the FFM are Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience,

Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. One maj or advantage of the FFM is that it provides a

comprehensive yet parsimonious taxonomy of personality traits. Still, it is not believed that the










five-factor factors exhaust personality but rather represent personality at the highest hierarchical

level of trait description (McCrae & John, 1992). The FFM is assessed using the NEO-Five-

Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) developed by Costa and McCrae (1992).

To date, few research designs have combined the three variables personality, self-

determination and exercise. This study aims to discern whether an individual's personality type

influences their self-determination relative to their exercise behavior (i.e., does one personality

type show higher or lower levels of self-determination than the other four types?). If personality

is linked to other known determinants of exercise such as motivation, participants can be

matched to exercise programs that meet their needs. Additionally, interventions to maximize

exercise adherence could be developed based on personality profiles. Lack of such research and

the plausible relationship between these variables establishes a need and provides the rationale

for conducting this study.

Research Questions

1. Is there an association between personality and self-determination?

2. Are there gender and/or race/ethnicity differences on personality, self-determination and
exercise behavior?

3. Using self-determination theory as a framework, do participants' self-determination scores
mediate the relationships between aspects of personality (neuroticism, extraversion,
openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and exercise behavior?

4. Do elements of the Five-Factor Model of personality moderate relationships between
participants' self-determination scores and exercise behavior?


Delimitations

This study utilized a cross-sectional, paper-pencil, survey research design.
Participants aged 18 and older, were university students enrolled in classes at a large,
public university in north central Florida.
Data was collected in calendar year of 2007.
Participants were able to read and understand the directions, the questions, and their
respective response options necessary to complete the questionnaire.










The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) was used to assess
the personality type of participants.
The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2; Markland & Tobin,
2004) was used to measure self-determination of participants.
In addition to the BREQ-2, a Relative Autonomy Index (RAI) was computed to
represent overall self-determination of participants.
The Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ; Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986) was
used to assess weekly frequency of mild, moderate, and strenuous exercise.
A Demographic Questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information about
participants.
Limitations

The use of self-report surveys may lead participants to provide responses that they
believe are socially desirable.
Data collected from a cross-sectional survey design reflects responses from participants
at a specific point in time and therefore cannot establish causation.
Findings in this study cannot be generalized to other populations of college students.
Volunteers who participated in the study may not represent all college students at a large,
public university in north central Florida.
Data collected during calendar year 2007 may differ from data collected during other
time periods.
Demographic information obtained by the demographic questionnaire may not capture all
pertinent information about participants.


Assumptions

Volunteers who agreed to participate in the study are considered adequate to represent
college students at a large, public university in north central Florida.
Data collected during the calendar year 2007 is considered adequate for the purpose of
the study.
The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory is considered adequate to address personality type
among participants.
The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 is considered adequate to
determine the self determination of participants as exercisers.
Demographic information obtained by the Demographic Questionnaire is considered
adequate to describe study participants.
The research design is considered appropriate for the purpose of the study.

List of Terms

Agreeableness: A personality type under the Five-Factor Model characterized by trust,
straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, and tender-mindedness
(McCrae & John, 1992).









Amotivation:



Autonomy :



Competence :


Conscientiousness:



Exercise:


Not acting at all or acting without intent resulting from not valuing the
activity, not feeling competent, or not expecting it to yield a desired
outcome (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

A basic psychological need in which the feeling of volition that can
accompany any act, whether independent or dependent, collectivist or
individual (Frederick & Ryan, 1993).

A basic psychological need which concerns people's inherent desire to
be effective in dealing with the environment (White, 1959).

A personality type under the Five-Factor Model characterized by
order, dutifulness, achievement-striving and self-discipline (McCrae &
John, 1992).

Planned, structured, and repetitive physical activity that is done with
the purpose of maintaining or improving physical fitness or health
(Sallis & Owen, 1999).

The most controlling form of external motivation outlined within the
Self-Determination Theory, involving participation in a behavior to
satisfy an externally imposed demand or to obtain an instrumental
reward (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

The performance of an activity because of pressure from significant
others or the desire to avoid the negative (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

A personality type under the Five-Factor Model characterized by a
keen interest in other people and external events, positive affect,
activity, assertiveness, and excitement-seeking (McCrae & John,
1992).

Occurs when a behavior is valued and deemed important or useful by
the individual and is perceived as being chosen by oneself (Deci &
Ryan, 1990).

Not performing any physical activity or activity during work or leisure
time that does not exceed half an hour per week, such as those in
clerical jobs (Al-Asfoor, Al-Lawati & Mohammed, 1999).

The most autonomous form of extrinsic motivation that occurs when
identified regulations are fully assimilated to the self, meaning they
have been evaluated and brought into congruence with one's other
values (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

The performance of an activity for the inherent satisfaction of the
activity itself (Ryan & Deci, 2000).


External Regulation:




Extrinsic Motivation:


Extraversion:




Identified Regulation:



In-active :


Integrated Regulation:




Intrinsic Motivation:









Introj ected Regulation:



Leisure-Time:


Neuroticism:



Openness to Experience:



Personality:



Physical Activity:


Relatedness:


Sedentary :


Self-Determination:


The second type of external motivation that is characterized by taking
in a regulation but not fully accepting it as one's own (Ryan & Deci,
2000).

Freedom provided by the cessation of activities; especially time free
from work or duties (Merriam-Webster, 2006).

A personality type under the Five-Factor Model characterized by
anxiety, depression, self-consciousness, and vulnerability (McCrae &
John, 1992).

A personality type under the Five-Factor Model characterized by
openness to fantasy, feelings, ideas, values, aesthetics, and action
(McCrae & John, 1992).

Stable sources of individual differences that predispose, or facilitate,
the development and preservation of certain patterns of behavior
(Bermudez, 1999).

Any movement that results in the use of energy and usually involves
the use of large muscle groups (Sallis & Owen, 1999).

A basic psychological need in which one feels they have satisfying and
supportive social relationships (Frederick & Ryan, 1993).

Undertaking little to no leisure time physical activity (Youssef, Abou-
Khatwa, & Fouad, 2003).

A relatively enduring aspect of a person's personality which reflects
being more aware of their feelings and their sense of self, and feeling a
sense of choice with respect to their behavior (Thrash & Elliot, 2002).









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Exercise

Increasing physical activity is a maj or goal of Healthy People 2010, the U. S. national

health promotion and disease prevention obj ectives (U. S. Department of Health & Human

Services, 2000). The Report of the Surgeon General (U. S. Department of Health & Human

Services) indicated that more than 60% of U. S. adults are not regularly physically active and that

25% of U.S. adults do not participate in any physical activity. The Behavioral Risk Factor

Surveillance System, completed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2001 to

measure leisure time, transportation, and household physical activity, found that nearly 55% of

U.S. adults were not active enough to meet the exercise recommendation of 30 minutes of

moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week (Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention, 2003).

A number of expert groups, such as the American College of Sports Medicine, the

National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have

introduced exercise recommendations. There is a debate over whether these guidelines should be

for maximal fitness level, which would result in the greatest health benefits, or for an activity

level realistically attainable by the general public that is still of high enough for intensity,

frequency, and duration to lead to some health benefits. Most researchers in the Hield (e.g., Sallis

& Owen, 1999) have agreed upon the definitions of the following terms used in the guidelines:

Physical activity is any movement that results in the use of energy and usually involves the use

of large muscle groups, whereas exercise is planned, structured, and repetitive physical activity

that is done with the purpose of maintaining or improving physical fitness or health. Exercise

and physical activity are often measured in terms of metabolic equivalents, called METs.









Resting required the energy equivalent of one MET (Sallis & Owen). Moderate activity has been

defined as activity that requires three to six times as much energy as rest (3-6 METS), which for

most people is equivalent to brisk walking. Vigorous activity has been defined as activity that

requires at least seven times as much energy as rest (2 7 METs), which for most people is the

equivalent of jogging (Blair, Kohl, Gordon, & Paffenbarger, 1992).

In 1990, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American College

of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommended aerobic training 3 to 5 times a week for 20 to 60

minutes at an intensity of 60 to 90% of maximal heart rate (i.e., moderate to high intensity) plus

twice-weekly resistance training (American College of Sports Medicine, 1990). These

guidelines are among the "traditional" recommendations to achieve ideal aerobic fitness.

Despite these recommendations, evidence accumulated that indicated that many Americans were

still sedentary. In addition, research suggests that, although greater levels of activity led to the

lowest risk of dying, the greatest increase in health benefits resulted when the least active and fit

became moderately active and fit (Blair et al., 1992). Even a modest level of physical activity at

moderate intensities can be healthy (Sallis & Owen, 1999).

The prevalence of physical inactivity is higher in women than in men, but it is highest

among minority women. However, it has been shown that women are less active than men in all

racial or ethnic groups (Valerie, 2000). Differences in race/ethnicity show that minorities suffer

disproportionately from chronic diseases that are more commonly observed among persons who

are physically inactive (Crespo, 2000). While information about biological and genetic

predispositions could explain some of these health disparities, it is the interaction between

societal and other environmental factors that can provide better clues on how to reduce the levels

of physical inactivity observed in minority populations (Kj elsis & Augestad, 2004).










Crespo, (2000) found the highest prevalence of physical inactivity among non-Hispanic

blacks and Mexican Americans. The prevalence of physical inactivity among both Mexican

American men and women of any age group is greater than the prevalence of physical inactivity

observed among non-Hispanic whites ages 70 to 79 years. Physical inactivity increases as

people get older, but for Mexican Americans, participation in physical inactivity during leisure

time is very high very early in their adult lives.

Of the adults who start an exercise program, 60% will drop out during the first six months

(Morgan & Dishman, 2001). Thus, sedentary behavior is a maj or health problem in the United

States. As a result, researchers have examined the determinants of adults' exercise behavior in an

attempt to understand how to increase adherence to physical activity or exercise (Dishman,

Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985; Oman & King, 1998). In fact, there are more than 300 studies

examining exercise determinants (Sallis & Owen, 1999; Trost, Owen, Bauman, Sallis, & Brown,

2002). Understanding the individual factors, such as personality and motivation, that may

influence adherence to an exercise regimen will aid in implementing effective intervention

strategies.

Personality

Personality is defined as "the underlying, relatively stable, psychological structures and

processes that organize human experience and shape a person's actions and reactions to the

environment" (Lazarus & Monat, 1979, p. 1). Personality is the sum total of all the behavioral

and mental characteristics that make an individual unique (WordReference.com, 2006). Thus,

personality includes social (e.g., extraversion and impulsiveness), perceptual (e.g., openness),

and cognitive (e.g., neuroticism) characteristics (Gill, 2000).

Several years ago, researchers suggested that there may actually be a healthy personality

(Marshall, Wortman, Vickers, Kusulas, & Hervig, 1994). Thus, personality may play a role in









health maintenance and promotion. Marshall and colleagues suggested that the broad personality

domains of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness can

"provide an adequate and valuable initial organizing framework for research aimed at

understanding linkages between personality and health" (p. 282). In other words, do people who

engage in healthy behaviors share common personality characteristics that unhealthy people do

not display? In particular, exercise is one of the healthy behaviors that is being investigated to

determine if individuals with specific personality characteristics are more likely to exercise than

others (Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999).

Past research in the relationship of personality and exercise has focused on either specific

personality traits including self-esteem, self-motivation, and locus of control (e.g., Dishman,

1983; Dishman & Steinhardt, 1990; Sullum, Clark, & King, 2000) or more global personality

dimensions through the use of measures such as Eysenck' s Personality Inventory (Eysenck &

Eysenck, 1985) and Cattell's Sixteen Personality Questionnaire (Cattell & Eber, 1964). The

main problem faced by this kind of research is the use of a large diversity of personality

constructs, frequently redundant and measured with different instruments (Smith & Williams,

1992).

In recent years, a significant consensus has been reached about the use of the Five Factor

Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) as a framework for research on the relationships between

personality and health, including exercise behavior (Bermudez, 1999; Smith & Williams, 1992).

The resulting research has demonstrated how the FFM incorporates most of the research results

generated from other theoretical models and associated with the dimensions of Extraversion,

Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Likewise, this research has shown that the

dimensions of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness are relevant for the development of healthy










behavior and the achievement of higher levels of physical welfare (Costa & McCrae, 1980;

McCrae & Costa, 1990).

Five-Factor Model of Personality

The current dominant framework for studying personality is the Five Factor Model (Costa

& McCrae, 1992), which contains the following five domains that explain personality the most:

neuroticism, openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness

(McAdams, 1994; Marshall et al., 1994; Paunonen & Ashton, 2001; Wiggins & Trapnell, 1997).

These five broad domains provide a parsimonious yet reasonably comprehensive representation

of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative

affect and emotional distress. Extraversion is the disposition toward positive emotions,

sociability and excitement. Openness to experience is characterized by a willingness to entertain

new ideas and unconventional values. Agreeableness is the inclination to be agreeable and

altruistic. Finally, conscientiousness is the temperament of a strong-willed, determined and

organized individual.

Currently, the dominant measure used to assess personality is the 240-item NEO-PI-R,

which is based on the FFM and assesses the five personality domains (neuroticism, openness,

conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness). Additionally, the NEO-PI-R assesses six

facets within each of the five domains (Costa & McCrae, 1992). These facets explain and

provide insight into the composition of each domain. That is, the neuroticism domain contains

the following six facets: anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness,

and vulnerability; while the extraversion facets are warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness,

activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions. The openness to experience facets are

fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values. The agreeableness domain facets are

trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness. Finally, the









conscientiousness domain facets are competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-

discipline, and deliberation (see Table 2-1 for a brief description of each of the FFM facets).

Within the trait or variable-centered approach, the FFM is currently the most influential

and there is growing evidence for the cross-cultural universality of these dimensions (McCrae &

Allik, 2002). Studies of indigenous trait lexicons also provide support for FFM dimensions in a

variety of languages and cultures (Saucier, Hampson, & Goldberg, 2000). For example, in the

Philippines there is support for the FFM in both lexical studies (Church, Katigbak, & Reyes,

1998) and in studies that have applied indigenous and imported inventories (Katigbak, Church,

Guanzon-Lapen~a, Carlota, & del Pilar, 2002).

There is now considerable evidence that the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-

R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) provides reliable and valid measures of personality traits in a wide

variety of cultures, from Zimbabwe to the Russian Arctic ( Draguns, Krylova, Oryol,

Rukavishnikov, & Martin, 2000; Piedmont, Bain, McCrae, & Costa, 2002). Using translations

prepared by psychologists from around the world, the American factor structure has been

replicated in a wide range of cultures (Rolland, 2002). Gender differences (Costa, Terracciano,

& McCrae, 2001) and maturational trends (McCrae et al., 1999) on FFM scales have also been

widely replicated. In general, these studies suggest that the NEO functions much the same in all

cultures. However, there are also some cross-cultural differences: Standard deviations of NEO-

PI-R scales are consistently smaller in Asian countries than in the West (McCrae, 2002), and

gender differences are less marked among Asians and Black Africans than among Americans

and Europeans (Costa et al., 2001).

To reduce participant burden, a 60-item version of the NEO-PI-R called the NEO-Five-

Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was developed (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The NEO-FFI assesses the









five broad personality domains by using one question from each facet from the NEO-PI-R. As

with many questionnaires with a short and long form, the long form allows for greater insight

into each personality domain and is more reliable than the short form (Costa & McCrae).

Personality and Exercise

In a recent review of exercise and personality literature (N= 44 studies), Hagan (2004)

found that personality was rarely defined in studies, and there were a variety of assessment

instruments used to measure both personality and exercise. The variety of questionnaires used

demonstrates an inconsistency in the definition and conceptualization of personality.

For example, eight different personality assessments were used (i.e., Eysenck Personality

Questionnaire, NEO, Adj ective Checklist, Symptom Checklist, Multiple Affect Adjective

Checklist, Cattell's Sixteen PF, Type A Personality, and the MMPI), with the Eysenck

Personality Questionnaire being the most commonly used. The questionnaires developed to

assess personality differ in length and type of assessment. For example, some measures have 60

items while other have 500 items (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943).

Additionally, the array of scales/dimension assessed include personality facet ranges from three

(Eysenck Personality Questionnaire; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964) to 25 (Adj ective Checklist;

Gough, 1952). The wide array of personality questionnaires makes it difficult to compare results

across studies.

In terms of the exercise measures, six physical activity measurements appeared equally in

the literature. Most of these measures were author-developed. One problem identified was a lack

of uniformity in the definition of regular exercise. That is, regular exercise has been defined by

governing bodies of physical activity and medicine but these definitions are rarely used in

personality and exercise research. For example, a few studies have used the number of bouts an

individual exercises during the week without reference to a time interval or the number of









sessions in a month while some studies did not define regular exercise (Brunner, 1969; Francis &

Carter, 1982; lannos & Tiggemann, 1997). Also, a standardized measure of exercise has not

consistently been employed (Arai & Hisamichi, 1998; Bamber, Cockerill, & Carroll, 2000;

Chapman & DeCastro, 1990; Goldberg & Sheppard, 1982; lannos & Tiggemann, 1997; Schnurr,

Vaillant, & Vaillant, 1990; Yates, Shisslak, Allender, Crago, & Leehey, 1992). The difficulty is

that the instruments may not be reliable and valid, making comparisons across studies

questionable.

About 50%cent of the studies examined whether differences in personality occurred

between active and non-active individuals, a classification based mostly on author-developed

questionnaires. Additionally 83% of the studies reviewed found that active people reported

higher levels of extraversion than inactive people, and that inactive people reported higher levels

of neuroticism than active people. Some of this literature will be reviewed in more detail below.

For example, Arai and Hisamichi (1998) examined the relationship between exercise and

personality. Participants (N = 22,448) completed the Japanese short form of the Eysenck

Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985) and a self-report author-

developed exercise questionnaire assessing frequency of exercise per week. Bivariate

correlations were used to examine the data and an analysis of covariance was conducted to

control for possible confounding factors of age, marital status, and education. They found that

high levels of extraversion were positively related to exercise, and high levels of neuroticism

were positively correlated to not exercising. A limitation of this study, however, was its lack of a

standardized exercise measure.

In a study using all standardized measures, Mathers and Walker (1999) examined the

relationship between extraversion and exercise behavior among 36 university students. The









students completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964), the

Commitment to Physical Exercise Scale (Corbin, Nielsen, Bordsdorf, & Laurie, 1987) and the

Negative Addiction Scale (Hailey & Bailey, 1982). Based on the students' responses to the

physical activity measures, they divided the sample into exercisers and non-exercisers. Group

differences were analyzed with planned orthogonal comparisons within analysis of variance.

They found that the exercise group scored higher on extraversion than the non-exercise group.

This study, however, is limited by its small sample size, which limits the generalizability of the

results. Additionally, a measure of exercise behavior was not used, but rather an attitude about

exercise.

To date, few studies have investigated the relationship of exercise behavior to the Five-

Factor Model (Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999; Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Giacobbi,

Hausenblas, Frye, 2005; Rhodes & Coumneya, 2003; Rhodes, Coumneya, & Hayduk, 2002;

Watson & Pennebaker, 1989). The model is derived from trait theory and perceives humans in

the context of consistent and enduring individual differences. Although it does not provide an

exhaustive description of personality, theorists of the model believe that the five factors provide

representation of personality at the highest level of trait description (Costa & McCrae, 1992).

Therefore, it seems that the FFM may contribute something to the knowledge about the

relationship between personality and exercise behavior beyond the global measures and specific

traits comprising the maj ority of past research.

Using a standardized measure of exercise behavior, Coumneya, Bobick, and Schinke (1999)

conducted two studies assessing personality and exercise. In the first study, female

undergraduate students (N= 300) completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin,

Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986) and the NEO-FFI to assess the FFM of personality (60 items; Costa &










McCrae, 1992). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine both sets of data. Positive

correlations emerged for extraversion and conscientiousness, and a negative correlation for

neuroticism, with exercise. In the second study (N= 67), women participated in an 11-week

exercise program, and their attendance was monitored. Based on their responses to the NEO-FFI

and their class attendance, a significant positive association between exercise and extraversion

and conscientiousness was found.

In another study with similar measures, Courneya and Hellsten (1998) examined exercise

behavior and personality using the FFM with 264 undergraduate students. The NEO-FFI,

Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and author-developed exercise preference questionnaire

were used to assess personality, exercise, and exercise preferences, respectively. Pearson

correlations were computed along with multivariate analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc

tests. A negative correlation with exercise was found for neuroticism, and positive correlations

were found for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, regression analysis revealed that

none of the five domains were statistically significant predictors of exercise behavior.

For exercise preferences, Courneya and Hellsten (1998) found that all the NEO domains

were related to some aspect of preferences. More specifically, individuals who scored high on

extraversion preferred to exercise in a group rather than alone and they also enjoyed supervised

sessions more than the self-directed sessions preferred by individuals who scored lower on

extraversion. Additionally, individuals scoring high on openness preferred to exercise outdoors

more than indoors compared to those scoring low on openness, while those scoring high on

agreeableness favored aerobics more than weight-training compared to those who scored low on

agreeableness. Those who preferred high-intensity exercise scored lower on neuroticism and

higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred moderate intensity, and individuals who










preferred scheduled exercise scored lower on openness and higher on conscientiousness than

those who preferred spontaneous exercise. A limitation of this study was using the short version

of the NEO versus the longer version and an author-developed measure of exercise preferences

that was not tested for reliability and validity.

Rhodes, Courneya, and Hayduk (2002) examined the moderating influence of the five-

factor model of personality on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the exercise domain.

Researchers assessed personality in undergraduate students (N =300) who completed measures

of the NEO-FFI, TPB instruments, and a two-week follow up of exercise behavior. Researchers

created two-group structural equation models of the theory of planned behavior using a median

split for each personality trait. Neuroticism was found to moderate the effect of subj ective norm

on intention and Extraversion was found to moderate the effect of subj ective norm on intention

as well as intention on behavior. Researchers also found that conscientiousness moderated the

effect on the intention and behavior relationship. Openness to Experience and Agreeableness,

however, were not found to moderate the TPB in the exercise domain. From a practical

perspective, this suggests that interventions based on normative beliefs may only benefit

individuals with high Neuroticism or low Extraversion, as these people appear to be more

motivated by social pressure. In addition, Low Conscientiousness individuals may need special

attention to get them to implement their intentions to actual behavior (Gollwitzer, 1999).

In another study, Rhodes and Courneya (2003) assessed the Five-Factor Model of

personality and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs with regard to exercise. The

purpose of their study was to investigate the theory of planned behavior' s mediating hypothesis

between the five-factor model and exercise behavior. They used an extended TPB model,

including concepts of affective and instrumental attitude, injunctive and descriptive norm,









controllability, and self-efficacy. To test the replicability of the Eindings, the research questions

were examined with undergraduate students (N= 303) prospectively and with breast, prostate,

colon, and lung cancer survivors (N= 802), using a cross-sectional design. Personality was

assessed using the NEO-FFI, exercise behavior was assessed using the Leisure-Time Exercise

Questionnaire, and TPB was assessed with various measures. Using structural equation

modeling, the results indicated that Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness,

and Agreeableness did not have significant effects for either undergraduate students or cancer

survivors. Further research is needed in order to ascertain that these personality domains would

not, in fact, have a significant direct effect upon exercise behavior while controlling for the TPB.

The results did, however, indicate that Extraversion had a significant effect for both the

undergraduate students and cancer survivors. This study suggests the importance of

Extraversion' s activity facet on exercise behavior, even when controlling for a TPB model with

additional social-cognitive concepts and disparate population samples.

Giacobbi, Hausenblas, and Frye (2005) assessed the within-subj ects association between

daily life events, positive and negative mood states, and exercise, as well as the moderating role

of personality for the exercise/mood relationship. Participants were recruited from

undergraduate classes (N= 106). They completed various instruments including the NEO-FFI to

assess personality and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire to assess exercise behavior.

Hierarchical linear modeling and the HLM/2L computer program were used to analyze the data.

Results confirmed the hypothesis that levels of exercise would result in significant increases in

positive mood states and reduction in negative mood states. The analysis of the possible

moderating role of personality on the relationship between exercise and mood revealed that, with

the exception of Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, personality variables had little









effect on this association. These results could be due to sampling issues or the limited variability

on personality scores because researchers used the 60-item NEO Five-Factor Inventory instead

of the 240-item NEO Personality Inventory Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1992).

In summary, exercise and personality research has mostly examined the personality factors

of extraversion and neuroticism, despite the fact that researchers have acknowledged the utility

of the FFM as operationalized by the NEO for explaining and predicting health behaviors

(Digman, 1994; McAdams, 1994). Thus, research that applies the NEO is needed. In particular,

research utilizing the 60-item NEO-FFI is necessary because of the tool's strong psychometric

properties and its assessment of each domain to examine the relationship between personality

and exercise. Finally, most of the research has used unstandarized exercise measures when

examining the relationship between personality and exercise (e.g., Arai, & Hisamichi, 1998;

Bamber et al., 2000) despite the need to use standardized measure of exercise (US Department of

Health & Human Services, 2000).

Self-Determination Theory

An important obj ective of human sciences is concerned with the development of

conceptual models that predict and explain human behavior. Such models have demonstrated

substantial predictive value and have helped practitioners identify the groups of individuals that

are likely to engage in socially desirable behaviors. One approach that social and health

psychologists have adopted to understand health-related behavior and well-being is self-

determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Applications of this

theory have led to identification of the most essential motivational constructs that underlie

psychological well-being as well as motivation to engage in health-related behaviors. SDT is a

macro-theory of human motivation concerned with the development and functioning of

personality within social contexts. The theory focuses on the degree to which human behaviors









are volitional or self-determined (Ryan & Deci, 2000). SDT focuses on the degree to which

human behaviors are volitional or self-determined, that is, the degree to which people endorse

their actions at the highest level of reflection and engage in those actions with a full sense of

choice (Ryan, Kuhl, & Deci, 1997).

SDT assumes that human motivation and well-being are associated with the satisfaction of

three psychological needs: competence, relatedness and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2000). At a

theoretical level, the concept of psychological needs is important because it helps researchers and

practitioners to identify the motivational constructs that are necessary for motivation, well-being

and integrity (Ryan, 1995). According to SDT, a strong sense of competence, relatedness and

autonomy constitutes the essential input that nurtures motivation and well-being.

The need for competence concerns people's inherent desire to be effective in dealing with

the environment (White, 1959). Throughout life, people engage their world in an attempt to

master it and to feel a sense of effectiveness when they do. The need for relatedness concerns

the universal propensity to interact with, be connected to, and experience caring for other people

(Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Many of life's activities involve others and are directed at

experiencing the feeling of belongingness. Finally, the need for autonomy concerns people's

universal urge to be causal agents, to experience volition, to act in accord with their integrated

sense of self, and to endorse their actions at the highest level of reflective capacity (deCharmes,

1968). To be autonomous does not mean to be independent of others, but to feel a sense of

willingness and choice when acting.

Because these needs are essential, people tend to orient toward those situations that allow

satisfaction of the needs and away from those that thwart the needs (Deci & Vansteenkiste,

2004). However, in many cases, people's behavior is not specifically intended to satisfy their









basic needs. Rather, they do what they find interesting and personally important, and they

experience need satisfaction in doing so.

The concept of motivation has been studied from several perspectives (e.g., Freud,

1923/1962; Hull, 1943; Skinner, 1953). One perspective that has proven useful over the past 20

years suggests that behavior can be seen as intrinsically or extrinsically motivated (de Charms,

1968; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan, 1995). Intrinsically motivated behaviors are those that are

engaged for personal benefit, in other words, for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from

performing a specific behavior. They are activities that people voluntarily perform in the

absence of material rewards or constraints (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Playing tennis for the sheer

pleasure of improving one's skill is an example of intrinsic motivation.

On the other hand, extrinsic motivation pertains to a wide variety of behaviors where the

goals of action extend beyond those inherent in the activity itself. People engage in such

behaviors as a means to an end, not for their own sake (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Originally, it was

thought that extrinsic motivation referred to behaviors performed in the absence of self-

determination, which thus could be prompted only by external contingencies. However, Deci,

Ryan, and their colleagues (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Ryan & Connell, 1989; Ryan, Connell, &

Deci, 1985) proposed that different types of extrinsic motivation exist, some of which are self-

determined and may be performed through self-regulation. According to these researchers, there

are four types of extrinsic motivation which can be ordered along a self-determination

continuum. From lower to higher levels of self-determination, they are external (non-self-

determined), introjected (limited self-determination), identified (moderate self-determination),

and integrated regulation (complete self-determination) (Mullan & Markland, 1997).









Behavior that is externally regulated is typically undertaken because of pressure from

significant others (e.g., family, friends, or doctor), or the desire to avoid the negative

consequences of inaction (e.g., disapproval of others). For example, some individuals may

exercise to improve their health conditions because a health professional advised it. In this case,

an activity that can or should be fun is performed in order to avoid negative consequences (e.g.,

cardiovascular disease onset). The motivation is extrinsic because the reason for participation

lies outside the activity itself. Furthermore, the behavior is not chosen or self-determined.

External regulation may also be fueled by a desire for rewards. In this case the motivation is still

extrinsic and non-self-determined, but the instigating factor is the desired reward rather than a

constraint. Regardless of whether the goal of a behavior is to obtain rewards or to avoid

sanctions, the individual experiences an obligation to behave in a specific way and feels

controlled by the reward or the constraint (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

With introj ected regulation, individuals begin to internalize the reasons for their actions.

Thus, the source of control is inside the individual. However, this form of internalization is not

truly self-determined since it is limited to the internalization of external contingencies. Rewards

or constraints are now imposed by the individual and not by others. Thus, an individual might

say, "I'll feel guilty if I don't work out today." Beliefs and controls are now internalized,

although these are not self-determined and are experienced as pressure and tension toward

specific aims.

In contrast, identified regulation occurs when a behavior is valued and deemed important

or useful by the individual and is perceived as being chosen by oneself (Deci & Ryan, 1990).

Behavior is internally regulated in a self-determined way. An example would be an individual

who exercises because they value its benefits. The motivation is extrinsic because the activity is










not performed for itself but as a means to an end (e.g., to improve one' s cardiovascular health).

However, the behavior is nevertheless self-determined: Rather than being guilted into working

out, the individual chooses to do it because they feel it will benefit them.

The last type of extrinsic motivation is integrated regulation. At this level, a person does

the behavior willingly and self-regulation is consistent with an individual's self-concept. The

focus is on how the chosen extrinsically motivated behavior fits in with the rest of the

individual's life activities and valued goals. To the extent that there is harmony between the

behavior and the individual's other facets of his or her self, there is integration. For instance,

someone exercising for integrated reasons would do so because exercising is part of what he/she

is and, therefore, maintenance of fitness is of utmost importance to that person. When there is

conflict, however, the behavior is not integrated. It should be noted that it is at this stage of

integration that the individual experiences the greatest level of self-determination for

extrinsically motivated behaviors.

Apart from intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Deci and Ryan (1985) claim that a third

construct motivation must be considered to fully understand human behavior. Individuals

are motivated when they perceive a lack of contingency between their behavior and outcomes.

There is an experience of incompetence and lack of control. Amotivated behaviors are neither

intrinsically nor extrinsically motivated: They are non-motivated. There are no rewards

(intrinsic or extrinsic) and participation in the activity will eventually cease. Amotivated

behaviors are the least self-determined because there is no sense of purpose and no expectation

of reward or of the possibility of changing the course of events.

In summary, there are Hyve types of regulation with varying degrees of self-determination:

external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation and









intrinsic regulation. Intrinsically motivated behaviors are the most self-determined, whereas

motivated behaviors are the least self-determined. External regulation, introjected regulation,

and identified regulation are three different forms of extrinsic motivation, external regulation

being the least self-determined of these types. With introjected regulation, the individual begins

to internalize the external regulatory process but does not identify with it and, thus, does not

experience self-determination. Finally, with identified regulation, the regulatory process is inte-

grated with one's self and behavior becomes self-determined.

The self-determination continuum conceptualization allows for a more meaningful

understanding of how one can simultaneously be extrinsically motivated (e.g., exercising to

improve appearance, maintain fitness, or lose weight) yet feel quite self-determined in the

regulation of behavior. Research has shown the relevance of the continuum approach in a

diverse range of settings; academic contexts (e.g., Ryan & Connell, 1989; Vallerand &

Bissonnette, 1992), couple happiness (Blais, Sabourin, Boucher, & Vallerand, 1990), among the

elderly (Vallerand & O'Connell, 1989) and exercise and sport (Biddle, Soos, & Chatzisarantis,

1999; Chatzisarantis & Biddle, 1998; Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2005; Chatzisarantis et al., 2002;

Mullan & Markland, 1997; Pelletier et al., 1995; Thompson & Wankel, 1980).

Numerous studies have revealed that motivation leads to a host of important outcomes

(Vallerand, 1997). Because the different types of regulation are hypothesized to be on a

continuum from high to low self-determination, and because self-determination is associated

with enhanced psychological functioning (Deci, 1980; Deci & Ryan, 1985), self-determination

theory predicts a corresponding pattern of consequences. That is, the self-determined forms of

regulation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) are postulated to bring about positive

consequences, whereas the least self-determined types of regulation (external regulation and









motivation) are predicted to lead to negative outcomes. Much field research over the past two

decades has shown this to be the case (Vallerand, 1997). More specifically, studies in different

life domains (e.g., health and physical activity) have found that the more self-determined forms

of motivation lead to greater interest, greater effort, better performance, higher self-esteem,

greater satisfaction, and enhanced health. At the same time, the less self-determined types of

regulation are negatively related to these outcomes (Kasser & Ryan, 1996; Pelletier et al., 1995;

Vallerand & Losier, 1999; Vallerand & Perreault, 1999; Williams, Grow, Freedman, Ryan, &

Deci, 1996).

Self-Determination Theory and Exercise

Self-determination theory has recently been used by researchers to study motivation in

exercise contexts. The results have been similar to those found in other life contexts in that self-

determined motivation to exercise has been associated with more positive behavioral, cognitive

and affective outcomes, compared with controlling motivational regulations or motivation.

These studies are valuable to the exercise behavior literature. Thompson and Wankel (1980)

tested the proposition that perceived choice is positively correlated to intrinsic motivation. They

examined the perceived choice of activities in relation to participation persistence in an adult

women's fitness program (N = 36). Registrants in a commercial fitness program were randomly

assigned to either an experimental or control condition. Subj ects in the control (no-choice)

condition were led to believe that a program of exercise had been assigned to them without

considering their preferences. Subj ects in the experimental (choice) group were told that their

exercise program had been designed based on their preferences. In actuality, both exercise

programs were designed with an equal degree of activity preferences. Therefore, only their

perception of choice actually differed. Attendance records over the next six-week period showed










significantly higher attendance among the perceived choice group. These Eindings support the

proposition that self-determination is basic to persistence in physical activities.

In terms of self-reported behavior, Ingledew, Markland and Medley (1998) examined the

relationship between different exercise motives and the stages of behavioral change proposed by

the transtheoretical model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984) (N=425). In the context of exercise

adoption, the transtheoretical model argues that individuals move through Hyve stages of

behavioral change, starting from being physically inactive and ending up as regular exercisers.

Discriminate analysis was used to examine the data. Ingledew et al. (1998) found that extrinsic,

especially body-related, motives were more important in the early stages of behavioral change,

whereas enj oyment (an intrinsic motive) was important for progression to regular exercise

patterns. However, Ingledew et al.(1998) used a descriptive questionnaire that measures motives

for exercise (some of which can be high or low in self-determination depending on how they are

operationalized), but not the underlying motivational regulations that underpin exercise behavior.

In contrast, Mullan and Markland (1997) assessed the variations in four motivational

regulations (intrinsic motivation, identified, introj ected and external regulation) across the

different stages of change. Discriminate function analysis was used to examine the data. It was

found that those individuals (N=314) who reported that they exercised infrequently (preparation

stage) had significantly lower scores on intrinsic motivation and identified regulation to exercise

than individuals who indicated that they exercised regularly but for less than six months (action

stage), and those who exercised regularly for six or more months (maintenance stage). No stages

of change differences were found in introj ected regulation and external regulation. This is

surprising given that controlling behavioral regulations are more likely to be associated with

maladaptive behavioral outcomes (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Unfortunately, Mullan and Markland










(1997) did not assess motivation. More research is needed to examine whether there are

significant variations in self-determination among the different stages of change. Such research

is important to understanding why (e.g., the underlying motivational mechanisms) individuals

participate or refrain from exercising.

One of the greatest challenges facing researchers and clinicians is how to prevent relapse

for those individuals who have recently started exercising. However, research studying relapse

in exercise settings has been mainly theoretical (e.g., Sallis et al., 1990) and SDT can provide a

potentially useful theoretical framework. For example, Mullan and Markland (1997) suggested

that controlling exercise regulations may lead to a greater number of relapses from exercise

compared with more self-determined types of exercise regulation. This is probably because

those who are self-determined engage in exercise because they find it fun or because they

consider it personally important. Therefore, they are less likely to experience motivational

setbacks than individuals who exercise out of feelings of guilt or other extrinsic reasons. In line

with this argument, Ryan, Frederick, Lepes, Rubio and Sheldon (1997) showed that adherence to

an exercise program was associated with enj oyment and competence motives (intrinsic motives)

as opposed to body appearance motives (extrinsic motives). However, this study did not assess

the motivational regulations that underpin exercise behavior. More studies are needed to

examine whether different types of exercise regulation with varying degrees of self-

determination can predict relapse from exercise. This is important in view of the high relapse

rates of exercisers (Sallis et al., 1990).

Intention to continue exercise is an important outcome variable when studying exercise

behavior. Currently, there is some support for the positive role of self-determined motivation in

predicting intentions of children to be physically active (e.g., Ntoumanis, 2001; Standage, Duda,









& Ntoumanis, 2003). In a recent meta-analysis of a small number of studies (N=21),

Chatzisarantis, Hagger, Biddle, Smith and Wang (2003) found that intentions to be physically

active were negatively correlated with motivation and external regulation, and positively

associated with introjected regulation, identified regulation and intrinsic motivation. In addition,

path analysis of corrected effect sizes supported the mediating effects of perceived locus of

causality on the relationship between perceived competence and intentions. However, all studies

in this meta-analysis were carried out with children or with sport participants. More research is

needed to examine whether the findings from this meta-analysis will apply to adult exercisers.

This is particularly important in view of the high drop-out rates from exercise programs (Berger

et al., 2002).

The physical self plays an important role in daily functioning and well-being. This is

reflected in the consistently high correlations between aspects of the physical self, such as body

image, with global self-esteem (Fox, 1997). SDT discusses the relationship between global self-

esteem and motivated behavior and suggests that true self-esteem (a type of self-esteem that is

stable and secure) may be developed through engaging in behaviors that are autonomously

regulated and engender feelings of competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 1995). The only

study that has examined the association between exercise regulations and physical self-esteem

was carried out by Wilson and Rodgers (2002) with female exercisers (N=114). Bivariate

correlations indicated that exercise motives displayed a graded pattern of relationships. It was

also shown that autonomously regulated exercise motivations (intrinsic motivation and identified

regulation) discriminated between those with high and low physical self-esteem, whereas

controlling exercise regulations (introjected and external regulation) did not. Discriminate

function analysis revealed that more autonomous exercise motives correctly classified 83.3% of









the high PSE group and 88.9% of the low PSE group. However, this study was conducted with

young female exercisers. How the Eindings apply to more general populations has yet to be

tested. More research is needed to examine the extent to which different types of exercise

motivation may be differentially related to the physical self.

Collectively, applications of SDT show that participation in exercise and physical activity

can be explained on the basis of psychological needs and, more specifically, on the basis of

behavioral regulation.

Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise

To date there is only one study that has explored the relationships existing among

personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior. Ingledew, Markland, and Sheppard

(2004) assessed attendees of a sports center (N= 214) using personality scales (the NEO-FFI

supplemented with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Psychoticism scale), exercise self-

determination scales (Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire which measures extrinsic,

introj ected, identified and intrinsic forms of regulation), and a Hyve-item Stages of Change

questionnaire. Analyses were restricted to 182 individuals in the maintenance stage of exercise

participation. Partial correlation analysis was used to examine relationships between each

personality scale and the self-determination scales, controlling for other personality scales,

gender and age. Neuroticism was associated with more introjected regulation, extraversion with

more identified and intrinsic regulation, openness with less external regulation, consci-

entiousness with less external regulation and more intrinsic regulation, and psychoticism with

more external regulation. Limitations to this study include the use of BREQ, which does not

contain a measure of the motivation variable, and the use of the Eysenck Personality

Questionnaire along with the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Eysenck, 1992). Further testing









of these ideas will require studies about how personality relates to individuals' progression over

time along the continuum of behavioral regulation.

To date, there have been no studies conducted on the mediational and moderational

relationships among personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior. Because of this, the

portion of this research study examining these relationships is by necessity exploratory.

Conclusion

Research examining personality and exercise is continuing to become more prevalent.

Research has shown the FFM to be the dominant framework to explain personality.

Additionally, the NEO is the most popular FFM personality assessment (Saucier & Goldberg,

1998). The limited research examining the relationship between exercise and FFM of

personality has shown that some personality characteristics, specifically extraversion, are

positively related to exercise. Conversely, neuroticism is negatively correlated to exercise.

However, standardized measures need to be used to assess exercise behavior and the FFM ought

to be used to evaluate personality, specifically the NEO-FFI.

SDT is founded on the premise that there are innate psychological needs for autonomy,

competence, and relatedness. It also recognizes a distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic

motivation. SDT proposes that there are different ways in which a person's behavior can be

regulated, and that these different forms of behavioral regulations form a continuum of self-

determination. The continuum includes external regulation, introjected regulation, identified

regulation, integrated regulation and intrinsic regulation. Research on behavioral regulation and

exercise concludes that adherence is positively related to more intrinsic regulation (self-

determined) and negatively related to more extrinsic regulation (non-self-determined) Also, it

was found that intentions to exercise were negatively correlated with motivation and external










regulation, and positively associated with introj ected regulation, identified regulation and

intrinsic motivation.

There is extensive evidence that personality traits are associated with health-related

behaviors, but less evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms. Studies have been conducted

on the descriptive motives of personality and exercise but they do not reveal much about the

underlying motivational processes. By adopting a SDT perspective it may be possible to

elucidate the motivational processes by which personality traits moderate engagement in health-

related behaviors such as exercise. It may also be possible to determine if SDT mediates the

relationship between personality and exercise behavior.










Table 2-1 Five-Factor Model Domains and Facets and their Definitions


Definitions


NEO Facets

Neuroticism


Anxiety

Angry Hostility

Depression
Self-Consciousness
Impulsiveness
Vulnerability


Rapid tempo, vigorous movement, and sense of energy
Tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration
and bitterness
Tendency to experience depressive affect
Amount of shyness and social anxiety
Inability to control cravings and urges
Vulnerability to stress; coping with stress and difficult situations


Extraversion


Warmth
Gregariousness
Assertiveness
Activity
Excitement-Seeking

Positive Emotions


Interpersonal intimacy; cordiality and heartiness
Preference for other people's company
Positive or confident in a persistent way
Tempo/pace of life and activities
Level of sensation seeking
Tendency to experience positive emotions such as joy, happiness,
and love


Openness


Fantasy
Aesthetics
Feelings
Actions
Ideas
Values


Imaginative and fantasizing
Appreciation for art and beauty
Receptivity to inner feelings and emotions
Willingness to try new activities and go new places
Intellectual curiosity and an openness to entertain new ideas
Readiness to reexamine social, political, and religious values










Table 2-1. Continued


Agreeableness


The disposition to believe that others are either honest and well-
intentioned or cynical and skeptical
The tendency to be frank and sincere versus using flattery and
deception
Active concern for others' welfare
Characteristic reactions to interpersonal conflict
Humble and self-effacing versus believing one is superior to others
Attitudes of sympathy and concern for others


Trust


Straightforwardness

Altrui sm
Compliance
Modesty
Tender-Mindedness

Conscientiousness


Competence
Order
Dutifulness
Achievement
Self-Di scipline
Deliberation


Capable, sensible, prudent, and effective
Neat and tidy versus unmethodical and disorganized
Governed by conscience
High aspirations versus lackadaisical
The ability to begin tasks and carry them through to completion
The tendency to think carefully before acting









CHAPTER 3
METHOD S

Research Design

According to Creswell (2005), research designs "are the specific procedures involved in

the last three steps of the research process: data collection, data analysis, and report writing" (p.

51). Specifically, research designs allow us to answer our research questions) (Cottrell &

McKenzie, 2005). A study's design is therefore important in determining whether one's findings

are scientifically sound.

This study employed correlational research design using specific survey measures for data

collection. Cottrell and McKenzie (2005) describe correlational research as "non-experimental

research that examines relationships between or among variables" (p. 7). In utilizing a

correlational design, the researcher must be careful to refrain from concluding a cause and effect

relationship between factors. Causal relationships can only be established by using experimental

design (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005).

A correlational study assumes that the researcher can first describe (by measuring or

observing) each of the variables she is trying to relate (Trochim, 2001). The most widely used

method to collect descriptive and behavioral data in health education is the survey research

design. According to Alreck and Settle (2004), a survey is "a research technique where

information requirements are specified, a population is identified, a sample is selected and

systematically questioned, and the results analyzed, generalized to the population, and reported

to meet the information needs" (p. 449). A survey's value depends on both the amount of

resources devoted to it and the care and expertise that goes into the work. Surveys frequently

take the form of questionnaires (e.g., paper-and-pencil, electronic) or interviews (e.g., one-on-

one, focus group, telephone) (Alreck & Settle, 2004).









The myriad strengths of survey research explain why this method is so popular among

social scientists. As cited earlier, surveys can be administered through several media and can be

tailored to measure a wide range of characteristics from a sample. In addition, surveys employ a

standardized method of data collection and can be designed to collect a large amount of

information in a relatively short period of time (McDermott & Sarvela, 1999).

Despite the usefulness of this type of research, survey methods have several disadvantages.

One limitation of surveys is the potential for a low response rate, as only those respondents who

are accessible and motivated to complete the survey can become sources of data. This is

especially true for self-administered surveys, where the investigator is not present to motivate the

respondent or clarify any sources of confusion (McDermott & Sarvela, 1999). Surveys are also

limited in that they depend on direct responses from the study sample. If sensitive items are

included in a survey, respondents may skip these items because they feel embarrassed or

threatened by them or may tend to over- or under-report behaviors (Alreck & Settle, 2004).

Other disadvantages of survey research include lack of a comparison group and absence of a pre-

test for assessing change scores (Aday, 1993)

This study utilized a cross-sectional, paper-pencil, survey research design. Due to the

cross-sectional nature of the research design, survey data was collected on a single occasion

(Creswell, 2005).

Research Variables

This study investigated multiple relationships among variables, including five variables

related to personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience,

and Agreeableness); one variable related to self-determination established by the Relative

Autonomy Index (RAI); and one variable related to total exercise index (LTEQ). Variables were

used as independent or dependent variables, depending on the individual research questions.










Specifically, self-determination represented different types of variables depending on the

corresponding research questions.

For all four research questions, personality represented independent variables. Personality

was measured using the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). For the first and second

research questions, self-determination represented a dependent variable and for the third and

fourth research questions, self-determination represented an independent variable. Self-

determination was measured using a composite score (RAI) of the items within the Behavioral

Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2). For the second, third and fourth research

questions exercise behavior represented the dependent variable, which was measured using a

composite score of the items within the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ).

The demographic variables included age, gender, race/ethnicity, and academic class. Age

was measured as a self-reported number. Gender was measured as either male or female.

Race/ethnicity was measured as While, Black/African American, Asian/Pacific Islander,

Hispanic/Latino, or Other. Academic class is defined as the scholastic status that participants

currently hold at the university. This variable was measured by asking participants to indicate

whether they are a freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior.

Study Population

Undergraduate students were the population for this study. The target population was a

convenient sample of undergraduate students enrolled at a large southeastern university during

the spring semester of 2007. The undergraduate students were awarded with extra credit as an

incentive for participation in the study. Each subj ect was given a one-page document with

instructions and an informed consent form to sign (see Appendix F). Instructions were available

to the participants throughout the questionnaire for reference.









Instrumentation

Data was collected on the variables of personality, self-determination, and exercise

frequency using existing instruments that have demonstrated psychometric adequacy. The

psychometrics of the scales are illustrated by internal reliability, which "reflects the extent to

which items measure various aspects of the same characteristic and nothing else summed"

(Portney & Watkins, 2000, p. 71), convergent validity, which occurs when "two measures

believed to reflect the same underlying phenomenon...yield similar results or...correlate highly"

(Portney & Watkins, 2000, p. 90), and discriminate validity, which is present when "different

results, or low correlations, [result] from measures that are believed to assess different

characteristics" (Portney & Watkins, 2000, p. 90).

Instruments for the study were selected by conducting an extensive literature review of

instruments previously used by researchers to examine personality, self-determination, and other

functions and aspects of physical activity. The protocol for this study included three main

instruments and sample population demographics: (1) NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Steffen et al.,

2002), (2) Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (Markland & Tobin, 2004), (3)

Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986), and (4) Demographic

Questionnaire.

NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992)

contains 60 statements (12 questions per domain) representing the following five personality

domains: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and

conscientiousness (see Appendix A). Each of these five domains has six facets. The facets for

each of the domains are neuroticism (N; anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self-consciousness,

impulsiveness, and vulnerability), extraversion (E; warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness,

activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions), openness to experience (O; fantasy,









aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values), agreeableness (A; trust, straightforwardness,

altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness), and conscientiousness (C, competence,

order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, and deliberation). The participants

respond to each item on a 5-point scale anchored with strongly disagree (0) and strongly agree

(4). The 12 items for each domain are added together to provide a total score for that personality

domain. Higher scores represent more characteristics of that domain. The NEO has adequate

reliability and validity (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The NEO-FFI domain scores show good

concurrent validity with the NEO-PI-R, correlating .92, .90, .91, .77, and .87 (N, E, O, A, C

respectively; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The NEO-FFI scales show correlations of .75 to .89 with

the NEO-PI validimax factors. Internal consistency values range from .74 to .89 (Costa &

McCrae, 1992).

Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2). The BREQ-2 is a 19-

item self-report measure developed to assess exercise regulations consistent with Self-

Determination Theory (Markland & Tobin, 2004). The BREQ-2 is an extension of the

behavioral regulation in exercise questionnaire (BREQ; Mullen, Markland, & Ingledew, 1997).

The BREQ contains four subscales that measure external, introj ected, identified, and intrinsic

regulation of exercise behavior, and the BREQ-2 includes an additional subscale that assesses

motivation (see Appendix B). Sample items characterizing each BREQ-2 subscale are as

follows: "I don't see the point in exercising" motivationo; four items); "I exercise because other

people say I should" (extemal regulation; four items); "I feel guilty when I don't exercise

(introj ected regulation; three items); "I value the benefits of exercise" (identified regulation; four

items); "I enj oy my exercise sessions" (intrinsic regulation; four items). Following the stem,

"Why do you exercise?", participants respond to each item on a five-point scale anchored by (0)









'Not true for me' and (4) 'Very true for me'. Previous research has supported the BREQ's

multidimensional four-factor structure (Wilson, Rodgers, & Fraser, 2002), invariance across

gender (Mullen, Markland, & Ingledew, 1997), and the ability of BREQ scores to discriminate

between physically active and non-active groups (Mullen & Markland, 1997). BREQ-2 subscale

scores were calculated by averaging the relevant BREQ-2 items. In addition, following common

practice (Ryan & Connell, 1989), a Relative Autonomy Index (RAI) was computed to represent

overall self-determination, such that a more positive score represented greater self-determination:

RAI = [(3 Intrinsic Motivation) + (2 Identified Regulation) (Introj ected Regulation) (2 *

Extrinsic Regulation) (3 Amotivation)].

Previous research has supported the BREQ-2's multidimensional four-factor structure

(Wilson, Rodgers, & Fraser, 2002), invariance across gender (Mullen et al., 1997), and the

ability of BREQ-2 scores to discriminate between physically active and non-active groups

(Mullen & Markland, 1997). Wilson & Rodgers (2002), found the fit of the oblique five-factor

measurement model implied by the BREQ-2 was deemed reasonable given the observed global

fit indices (X2 = 333.49; df=142, p < 0.01; CFI = 0.92; IFI = 0.92; RMSEA= 0.07 (90% CI

=0.06 to 0.08) and the pattern of moderate-to-strong standardized item loadings on the intended

latent factors (h= 0.75; h' s ranged from 0.63 to 0.91). Cronbach' s a for all BREQ-2 subscales

exceeded 0.75.

Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). The LTEQ (Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon,

1986) is a self-report measure that assesses the frequency of strenuous, moderate, and mild

leisure-time exercise done for at least 20 minutes during a typical week (see Appendix C). To

determine the metabolic equivalents (METS) also known as total exercise, the frequency of

exercise is multiplied by the activity intensity. Each intensity level is appointed a number that is









then multiplied by the frequency [(mild*3) + (moderate*5) + (strenuous*9)]. The values for

mild, moderate, and strenuous exercise are added to determine the total exercise index. A high

score represents a greater level of activity. The LTEQ is a reliable and valid measure of exercise

behavior (Godin et al.; Jacobs, Ainsworth, Hartman, & Leon, 1993). It has demonstrated a one-

month test-retest reliability of .62 and concurrent validity coefficients of .32 with an objective

activity indicator (CALTRAC accelerometer), .56 with VOzmax (RS measured by expired gases),

and -.43 with percentage body fat (as measured by hydrostatic weighing). These levels of

reliability and validity compared very favorably to nine other self-report measures of exercise

that were examined (Jacobs et al., 1993).

Demographic Questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire contained questions

pertaining to age, gender, academic class, and race/ethnicity (see Appendix D).

Data Collection

An application was submitted to the University of Florida Institutional Review Board

(UFIRB) prior to beginning any portion of this study. Approval from the UFIRB indicated that

the study was deemed ethical in its proposed treatment of participants and that it was acceptable

to begin data collection.

A pilot test to determine whether the format of the instruments was user-friendly was

conducted due to the fact that the instruments had not been used together before. The pilot test

also helped to determine the length of time it took the participants to complete all four

questionnaires. A convenience sample of twenty undergraduate students was selected to

participate in the pilot test. Instructions were given to the pilot test sample explaining the

purpose of the pilot test and inviting them to participate. Those students that agree to participate

signed an informed consent that was returned to the researcher. Feedback was also given by the

pilot study participants on the user-friendliness of the survey and their overall thoughts. After










completing the survey, responses to the pilot test questions were reviewed and used to determine

if any changes were to be made to improve the survey prior to disseminating it to the study

sample (Creswell, 2005).

The study used a convenience sample taken from general education classes during the

Spring 2007 semester. The undergraduate students were awarded extra credit as an incentive for

participation in the study. A proposed sample of 400 participants was necessary in order to

allow for a sufficient response rate.

A cover letter was given to the sample participants to explain the purpose of the study,

describe what was being asked of them, and invite them to participate. If they choose to

participate they were asked to sign the informed consent that was found on the cover letter.

Instructions were also available to the participants throughout the questionnaire for reference.

Completion of the 86-question survey required approximately 20 minutes.

Data Analysis

SPSS, version 15.0, was used to analyze the data by generating both descriptive and

inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics served to summarize the sample's demographic

characteristics (i.e., gender, age, race/ethnicity, academic class). The demographic variables

were considered nominal, thereby allowing for the calculation of means, standard deviations,

frequencies, and percentages. Inferential statistics were used to answer the research questions.

Research question one was answered using bivariate correlations, a method chosen because

it is designed to identify the relationship between two variables by determining to what extent

one variable is associated with another (Portney & Watkins, 2000). For the first research

question, bivariate correlations were calculated to determine if there is an association between

personality and self-determination. In terms of the second research question, two separate

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were calculated to determine whether differences










existed between gender and/or race/ethnicity on personality, self-determination, and LTEQ

scores.

Because there were significant relationships between gender and race/ethnicity among the

personality domains and LTEQ scores research questions three and four were analyzed

controlling for gender and race/ethnicity. This relationship needs to be controlled so that the

regressions calculated will reflect the true unique relationship between personality and LTEQ

and not an artifact of collinear relationships between gender/race and LTEQ.

Research question three was answered using multiple regression, which was chosen

because it is designed to determine if the independent variables can predict the dependent

variable (Portney & Watkins, 2000). As far as the third research question is concerned, multiple

regression was used to examine whether or not self-determination mediates the relationship

between personality and exercise behavior. The method for assessing mediation was guided by

Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediational model. In order to test for mediation, a series of

regression equations must be estimated and tested.

To establish mediation, the following conditions must hold: First, the independent variable
must affect the mediator in the first equation; second, the independent variable must be
shown to affect the dependent variable in the second equation; and third, the mediator must
affect the dependent variable in the third equation. If these conditions all hold in the
predicted direction, then the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
must be less in the third equation than in the second. (Baron & Kenny, 1986, p. 1177)

For this question, the five personality domains served as the independent variable, exercise

behavior served as the dependent variable, and self-determination was being tested as the

mediator. Thus, the research hypotheses related to research question three were as follows:

1)Personality domains are related to self-determination; 2) Personality domains are related to

exercise behavior; 3) Self-determination will mediate the relationship between personality and

exercise behavior.









The first step was to test whether there were statistical significant direct effects between

the personality domains and the mediating variable of self-determination (Hypothesis 1). If the

direct effects were statistically significant in the first step, then the first condition of mediation

was met. The second step was to test whether there were statistically significant direct effects

among the personality domains and the dependent variable of exercise behavior (Hypothesis 2).

If the direct effects were statistically significant in the second step, then the second condition of

mediation was met. The third step was to test whether there were statistically significant direct

effects between the dependent variable (exercise behavior) and the mediator (self-determination)

as well as between the dependent variable (exercise behavior) and the independent variable

(personality) (Hypothesis 3). If the direct effects tested in step two were no longer statistically

significant after including the mediating variable in step three, then the final condition of

mediation was met.

Concerning the fourth research question, multiple regression was used to examine whether

personality moderates the relationship between self-determination and exercise behavior. Based

on this research question, the independent variables were personality (neuroticism, extraversion,

openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and self-determination, while the dependent

variable was exercise behavior. Personality was the variable being tested for moderation.

Summary

Chapter 3 describes the methods that were used to examine associations between different

personality types, self-determination, and exercise behavior. The chapter includes a description

of the research design, the research variables, the population, the instrumentation, data collection

procedures, and the data analyses procedures. Data was collected from participants during the

Spring of 2007. A total of 400 participants was desirable.










Descriptive statistics were calculated to determine baseline frequency rates in each

personality type, self-determination scores, and frequency rates for gender, age, race/ethnicity,

and academic class. Bivariate analysis was used to analyze research questions one and

MANOVA was used to analyze research question two. Multiple regression was used to examine

whether self-determination mediates the relationship between personality and exercise behavior

and if personality moderates the relationship between self-determination and exercise behavior

(i.e. research questions three and four). Analyses for all research questions were tested at a .05

significance level for Cx









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Participant Characteristics

Study participants included undergraduate students 18 years of age or older. All

participants were undergraduates enrolled at a large southeastern university during the spring

semester of 2007. Data collection procedures produced 369 usable surveys. Of the 392 surveys

completed by participants, 23 were discarded because of excessive missing data.

Age, Gender, Race and Class: Table 4-1 provides a summary of participants by age,

gender, race/ethnicity, and academic class. A large percentage of the participants were aged 20-

21 (n=181, 46.2%) and 18-19 (n=152, 38.8%) with only a small percentage aged 22-23 (n=47,

12%), 24-25 (n=1, .3%) and over 25 (n=7, 1.8%).

The final sample had a greater number of female participants (n=315, 81%), than male

participants (n=72, 19%). Most participants were White (68.6%) and a small percentage

sampled were Black/African American (10.2%), Asian (8.7%), Hispanic (7.9%), and Other

(3.1%). This is not a representation of ethnicities in the United States but it is similar to

undergraduate enrollment during 2007. In this sample, males and Hispanics are

underrepresented based on university demographics for undergraduates, but the other groups are

similar to enrollment in 2007 (female = 54%; male 46%; Whites = 66%; Hispanic = 13%;

Black/African American = 9.6%; Asian 7.26%).

The study sample consisted of students in various academic classes. The largest academic

class represented in the sample was sophomores (n=144, 36.7%) followed by juniors (n=102,

26%), seniors (n=77, 19.6%) and freshmen (n=62, 15.8%).









Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise Behavior

First, to ensure reliable measurement instruments, internal consistency estimates were

computed for each personality domain. Internal consistency estimates (i.e., Cronbach's alpha)

ranged between .68 and .84 for the NEO domains (see Table 4-2). Because the alpha value is

higher as the number of items increases, there is no set interpretation as to what is an acceptable

value (George & Mallery, 2001). The general rule of thumb for reliability interpretations,

displayed in Table 4-3, was used to interpret the alpha levels of the study measures. Thus,

although the general rule of thumb would indicate questionable to good reliability, the reliability

values obtained in this study are comparable to those in the NEO manual (Costa & McCrae,

1992).

To ensure the reliability of the self-determination in the exercise domain measure, internal

consistency estimates were computed for the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire -

2. The internal consistency of the BREQ-2 was .78. The reliability values obtained in this study

are comparable to those found by Wilson & Rodgers (2002) (a = .75). Self-determination was

calculated from a Relative Autonomy Index (RAI). RAI was computed to represent overall self-

determination, such that a more positive score represented greater self-determination. The mean

RAI score was 9.00 (SD=5.58). RAI scores ranged from -12.75 for the lowest score to 19.25 for

the highest score.

The LTEQ was used to assess exercise behavior. To determine the metabolic equivalents

(METS) also known as total exercise, the frequency of exercise is multiplied by the activity

intensity. The values for mild, moderate, and strenuous exercise are added to determine the total

exercise index. A high score represents a greater level of activity. Means, standard deviations,

skewness, and kurtosis scores for the LTEQ are presented in Table 4-4. Examination of the

skewness scores revealed the data were normally distributed.










Research Questions


Research Question One

Is there an association between personality and self-determination? A bivariate correlation

was calculated to determine if there was an association between personality and self-

determination in a sample of undergraduate students. The bivariate correlation results presented

in Table 4-5 indicate that, among the sample, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and

agreeableness are positively associated with self-determination and neuroticism is negatively

associated with self-determination. According to Portney and Watkins (2000), the following

criteria can be used as a general guideline for measuring the strength of association between two

variables: "Correlations ranging from 0.00 to .25 indicate little or no relationship; those from .25

to .50 suggest a fair degree of relationship; values of .50 to .75 are moderate to good; and values

above .75 are considered good to excellent" (p. 494). Based on these general guidelines, the

association between the five personality variables and self-determination can be considered fair

to moderate.

Research Question Two

Are there gender and/or race/ethnicity differences on personality, self-determination and

exercise behavior? Two separate multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were conducted

with personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior (LTEQ) factors as the dependent

variables and gender as the Eixed factor in the first and race/ethnicity as the Eixed factors in the

second. In the first MANOVA, the Box 'sM2 test for the homogeneity of variance-covariance

matrices across design cells was found to be significant (p = .019) and Levene' s test of the

assumption of homogeneity of variance was significant for openness, conscientiousness, and

LTEQ and not significant for all other dependent variables. In the second MANOVA, the Box 's

M~test for the homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices across design cells was found to be










significant (p = .028) and Levene' s test of the assumption of homogeneity of variance was found

to be not significant for all dependent variables.

For the first MANOVA, gender differences were found on all five personality domains.

Females scored significantly higher on neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and

conscientiousness whereas males scored significantly higher on openness. Differences between

males and females were also found for LTEQ scores but there were no gender differences found

on self-determination scores (RAI). Males scored significantly higher on LTEQ scores than

females. Data for the first MANOVA are presented in Table 4-6 and Table 4-7. Because

significant gender differences were found among the sample for personality and exercise

behavior, all of the analyses were run again with a female only sample and a male only sample.

No differences in the findings were found for the female only sample on any of the four research

questions and the sample size for the male only sample was found to be too small to make any

significant inferences. Thus this study used the original sample of 369 participants to analyze all

four research questions.

The second omnibus MANOVA test found significant differences for race/ethnicity among

extraversion, agreeableness, and LTEQ scores (see Table 4-6). After controlling for alpha

inflation using a Bonferroni correction, post-hoc follow-up analyses were conducted to localize

the effects of race/ethnicity on extraversion, agreeableness, and LTEQ. Asians were

significantly less extraverted than Whites (p = .004). Whites were found to be significantly more

physically active than Black/African Americans (p = .000). No differences were found among

race/ethnicity and agreeableness.

Because there were significant relationships between gender and race/ethnicity among the

personality domains and LTEQ scores all of the following research questions were analyzed










controlling for gender and race/ethnicity. This relationship needs to be controlled for in research

questions three and four so that the regressions reflect the true unique relationship between

personality and LTEQ and not an artifact of collinear relationships between gender/race and

LTEQ.

Research Question Three

Using self-determination theory as a framework, do participants' self-determination scores

mediate the relationships between aspects of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to

experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and exercise behavior? The method for

assessing mediation was guided by Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediational model. In order to

test for mediation, a series of regression equations must be estimated and tested. In this study,

the five personality domains served as the independent variable, exercise behavior served as the

dependent variable, and self-determination was being tested as the mediator. The order of

variables can be viewed in Figure 4-1. The following hypotheses were constructed to test for

mediation and guide this research question.

Hypothesis 1: Personality domains are related to self-determination. Hypothesis 1 was tested

using regression analysis. To test the first condition of mediation using all five personality

domains, multiple regression was conducted to examine the degree of association among

neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness and the mediating

variable.

When testing a mediational model, the first step for testing condition one is to determine

whether there are statistically significant direct effects among the personality domains and self-

determination. For this hypothesis, the mediator (self-determination) was regressed on the

personality domains. Multiple regression coefficients permit the researcher to tease out

statistically the effects of the other personality domains. The contribution of each effect was









evaluated by testing its statistical significance with t tests. In this regression, the RZ of .218 was

statistically significant, F(8,353) =12. 18, p = .000. The results indicated there were four

statistically significant relationships: neuroticism (P = -.215, t(353) = -3.97, p = .000);

extraversion (p = .191, t(353) = 3.43, p = .001); openness (P = .088, t(353) = 1.80, p = .072); and

conscientiousness (p = .147, t(353) = 2.80, p = .005). Because the association among

neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness and self-determination were

statistically significant in hypothesis 1, the first condition of mediation was met. The estimated

model parameters are shown in Table 4-8.

Hypothesis 2: Personality domains are related to exercise behavior. Hypothesis 2 was tested

using regression analysis. To test the second condition of mediation using all five personality

domains, a multiple regression was conducted to examine the degree of association among

personality and the dependent variable.

When testing a mediational model, the second step for testing condition two is to

determine whether there are statistically significant direct effects among the personality domains

and exercise behavior for this hypothesis, the dependent variable (exercise behavior) was

regressed on the personality domains. The contribution of each effect was evaluated by testing

its statistical significance with F statistical tests. In this regression, the RZ of .217 was

statistically significant, F(9,3 53) =10.56, p = .000. The results indicated there were three

statistically significant relationships: extraversion (P = .190, t(353) = 3.27, p = .001); openness (P

=.092, t(353) = 1.80, p = .072) and conscientiousness (P = .120, t(353) = 2.18, p = .030).

Because the association among extraversion, openness and conscientiousness and self-

determination was statistically significant in hypothesis 2, the second condition of mediation was









met for these three personality domain only. The estimated model parameters are shown in

Table 4-9.

Hypothesis 3: Self-determination will mediate the relationship between personality and exercise

behavior. Hypothesis 3 was tested using regression analysis. To test the third condition of

mediation using the personality domains, a multiple regression was conducted to examine the

relationships among personality extraversionn, openness and conscientiousness), self-

determination and the exercise behavior. To test this hypothesis, the dependent variable

(exercise behavior) was regressed on the significant personality domains found in step two and

on the mediator variable (self-determination).

The contribution of each effect was evaluated by testing its statistical significance with F

statistical tests. The results indicated, after controlling for the effects of the other personality

domains, there was one statistically significant relationship: extraversion (P = .134, p = .019).

To establish full mediation, the effect of personality extraversionn, openness and

conscientiousness) on exercise behavior should be zero in the third step. Partial mediation

occurs when this effect is reduced, but remains statistically significant. After comparing the

direct effects significance from step two to the significance found in step three, it can be

concluded that self-determination does not fully mediate extraversion and exercise behavior.

Because the direct effect of openness and conscientiousness tested in step two are no longer

statistically significant after including the mediating variable in step three, it can be concluded

that the Einal condition of mediation was met. A Sobel test was conducted as a follow up to

ensure that the change in significance found from step two to step three in regards to openness

and conscientiousness were truly significant (p = .0; p = .01 respectively). The data for step

three are shown in Table 4-10 and as shown self-determination fully mediates openness and










conscientiousness and exercise behavior and partially mediates extraversion and exercise

behavior.

Research Question Four

Do elements of the Five-Factor Model of personality moderate relationships between

participants' self-determination scores and exercise behavior? Research question four was tested

using regression analysis. The method for assessing moderation was guided by Baron and

Kenny's (1986) moderation model. Based on this research question, the independent variables

were personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and

self-determination, while the dependent variable was exercise behavior. Personality was the

variable being tested for moderation. Multiple regression was used to test whether the

independent variables (personality and self-determination) were significant predictors of the

dependent variable (exercise behavior). The order of variables can be viewed in Figure4-2.

A regression was computed in which three distinct steps were stipulated. The main effect

of self-determination is entered first, the main effect of personality is entered second, and the

interaction term is entered third. The results of this calculation found that, when controlling for

gender and race/ethnicity, the interaction term did not significantly add new variance in the third

step. Thus moderation cannot be interpreted from the results. None of the FFI personality

domains moderate relationships between self-determination and exercise behavior. Table 4-11

provides a summary of these results.

Summary

This chapter reports findings from examining responses from undergraduate student

participants by personality, self-determination, exercise behavior, gender, age, race/ethnicity, or

academic class. A sample profile was illustrated; most participants were white females, aged 18-

21. Findings suggest that an individual's score of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and










agreeableness are positively associated with self-determination and that scores of neuroticism are

negatively associated with self-determination. A MANOVA indicated that gender differences

were found for all five personality domains and LTEQ scores but no differences were found on

self-determination scores. The second omnibus MANOVA test found significant differences for

race/ethnicity among extraversion, agreeableness, and LTEQ scores. Multiple regression

indicated that self-determination fully mediates openness and conscientiousness and exercise

behavior and partially mediates extraversion and exercise behavior when controlling for gender

and race/ethnicity. Finally, multiple regression suggests that none of the FFI personality

domains moderate relationships between self-determination and exercise behavior when

controlling for gender and race/ethnicity. Chapter 5 presents a summary, discussion, and

recommendations from the study.










Table 4-1 Demographic distribution by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, and class.
Demo graphical Variables N Valid %

Age
18-19 152 39.2
20-21 181 46.6
22-23 47 12.1
24-25 1 .3
Over 25 7 1.8

Gender
Male 72 18.4
Female 315 80.4

Race/Ethnicity
White 269 68.6
Black/African American 40 10.2
Hispanic/Latino 31 7.9
Asian 34 8.7
Other 12 3.2

Academic Class
Freshman 62 15.8
Sophomore 144 36.7
Junior 102 26.0
Senior 77 19.6




Table 4-2 Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) Scores, Alpha Levels, Skewness, and Kurtosis for
the NEO Personality Domains
Domain M SD Alpha Skewness Kurtosis
Neuroticism 31.92 6.61 .76 .103 -.202
Extraversion 43.47 6.02 .79 -.491 .539
Openness 38.92 5.69 .68 .018 -.206
Agreeableness 42.85 5.77 .76 -.409 .389
Conscientiousness 41.72 5.87 .84 -.204 -.254





Table 4-5 Correlations Between the NEO Domains and Self-Determination (RAI)
Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. RAI .34** .36** .13* .23** .28**
2. Neuroticism .31** -.03 -.20** -.30**
3. Extraversion -.12* .39** .32**
4. Openness -.03 -.09
5. Agreeableness -.23**
6. Conscientiousness
Note. p <.05; ** p <.01


Table 4-3 Rule of Thumb for Reliability of Measurement Interpretation
Alpha Value Interpretation


Excellent

Good

Acceptable

Questionable

Poor

Unacceptable


> .8

> .7

> .6

> .5

< .5


Table 4-4 Mean (M)1,
Variable
Strenuous Exercise
Moderate Exercise
Mild Exercise
LTEQ Total (METS)


Standard Deviation (SD) Scores,
M SD
1.79 2.02
2.64 2.20
3.88 2.63
51.56 26.63


Skewness, and Kurtosis for the LTEQ
Skewness Kurtosis
1.15 4.40
.86 2.35
.45 1.16
.91 2.60










Table 4-6 MANOVA follow-ups for Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences on Personality,
Self-Determination, and LTEQ Scores
Source Dependent df Mean F; p
Variable Square
Gender Neuroticism 1 477.58 11.25 .001*
Extraversion 1 187.28 5.42 .020*
Openness 1 205.57 6.65 .010*
Agreeableness 1 516.06 15.88 .000*
Conscientiousness 1 282.80 7.14 .008*
RAI 1 31.10 1.01 .315
LTEQ 1 3516.89 5.04 .025*

Race/Ethnicity Neuroticism 4 32.81 .747 .560
Extraversion 4 147.32 4.36 .002*
Openness 4 46.90 1.50 .202
Agreeableness 4 96.69 2.91 .022*
Conscientiousness 4 27.56 .680 .606
RAI 4 42.23 1.38 .241
LTEQ 4 4428.68 6.66 .000*
Note: p <.05


Table 4-7 Means and Standard Deviations for Personality and LTEQ Scores
Dependent Variable Gender Mean Std. Deviation
Neuroticism Male 30.39 7.11
Female 33.45 6.38

Extraversion Male 42.07 6.60
Female 43.98 5.71

Openness Male 40.66 6.38
Female 38.66 5.37

Agreeableness Male 42.34 5.43
Female 45.52 5.76

Conscientiousness Male 43.97 7.13
Female 46.32 6.10

LTEQ Male 58.48 31.25
Female 50.19 25.28










Table 4-8 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and t-
test Statistics for Hypothesis 1
Variables B Std Error B t P
Neuroticism -.179 .045 -.215 -3.97 .000*
Extraversion .179 .052 .191 3.44 .001*
Openness .086 .048 .088 1.80 (.072)
Agreeableness .075 .051 .079 1.48 .139
Conscientiousness .128 .046 .147 2.80 .005*
Note: p <.05


Table 4-9 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and t-
test Statistics for Hypothesis 2
Variables B Std Error B t P
Neuroticism -.247 .228 -.061 -1.08 .279
Extraversion .856 .261 .190 3.27 .001*
Openness .437 .242 .920 1.80 (.072)
Agreeableness -.446 .254 -.098 -1.75 .080
Conscientiousness .503 .231 .120 2.18 .030*
Note: p <.05


Table 4-10 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and t-
test Statistics for Hypothesis 3 compared to Hypothesis 2
Variables B Std Error B t P
Step 2
Extraversion .856 .261 .190 3.27 .001*
Openness .437 .242 .920 1.80 (.072)
Conscientiousness .503 .231 .120 2.18 .030*
Step 3
Extraversion .603 .257 .134 2.35 .019*
Openness .307 .235 .065 1.31 .192
Conscientiousness .337 .225 .080 1.50 .136
Note: p < .05; Change in Significance










Table 4-11 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and t-
test Statistics for the Moderation of Personality
Unstandarized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t P
1 (constant) 38.19 2.54 14.24 .000
RAI 1.72 .239 .357 7.17 .000
2 (constant) 1.92 20.12 .095 .924
RAI 1.48 .265 .308 5.57 .000
Neuroticism .040 .220 .010 .181 .856
Extraversion .641 .258 .143 2.49 .013
Openness .423 .239 .089 1.77 .077
Agreeableness -.550 .247 -.121 -.2.22 .027
Conscientiousness .343 .247 .075 1.38 .166
3 (constant) 23.77 38.15 .623 .534
RAI -.826 3.63 -. 172 -.228 .820
Neuroticism -.248 .392 -.062 -.633 .527
Extraversion .358 .519 .080 .691 .490
Openness .584 .430 .123 1.36 .176
Agreeableness -.224 .412 -.049 -.542 .588
Conscientiousness -.151 .465 -.033 -.324 .746
RAIxNeuro .033 .036 .222 .908 .364
RAIxExtra .032 .052 .310 .615 .539
RAIxOpen -.025 .040 -.219 -.635 .526
RAIxAgree -.036 .041 -.341 -.893 .372
RAIxConscien .058 .044 .539 1.32 .187
a. Dependent Variable: LTEQ


Figure 4-1 Self-determination mediating personality and exercise behavior










Independent Variables


Dependent Variable


1) Personality
2) Self-Determination
3) Personality x Self-
Determination
Figure 4-2 Moderation of personality


Exercise Behavior









CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality and the

extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-determined fashion. Studies in the field

of health promotion and exercise psychology have recently focused on determining

psychological variables that influence exercise behavior. Limited research, however, has been

devoted to the psychological mechanisms by which personality traits affect health-related

behaviors (Bermudez, 1999; Hoyle, 2000). Researchers have examined the association between

personality traits and exercise participation motives, but it is hard to discern a consistent pattern

in the findings. The study of such surface motives does not in itself reveal much about the

underlying motivational processes. By adopting a self-determination theory perspective,

findings from this study may elucidate the motivational processes by which personality traits

influence engagement in health-related behaviors such as exercise.

To date, few research designs have combined the three variables personality, self-

determination, and exercise. Furthermore, this study was the first to explore the mediation and

moderation of self-determination on the relationships between the Five Factor Model (FFM) of

personality and exercise behavior. Findings from this study indicate that an individual's

personality type does influence their self-determination relative to their exercise behavior. Since

personality was shown to be linked to other known determinants of exercise such as motivation,

participants can be matched to exercise programs that meet their needs and/or interventions to

maximize exercise adherence. Interventions could include designing physical activity programs

based upon an individual's unique personality profile, such as group exercise for those that score










high on extraversion, novel activities for those scoring high on openness, and highly intense

activities for those scoring high on conscientiousness.

The research questions addressed in this study were:

1. Is there an association between personality and self-determination?

2. Are there gender and/or race/ethnicity differences on personality, self-determination and
exercise behavior scores?

3. Using self-determination theory as a framework, do participants' self-determination scores
mediate the relationships between aspects of personality (neuroticism, extraversion,
openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and exercise behavior?

4. Do elements of the Five-Factor Model of personality moderate relationships between
participants' self-determination scores and exercise behavior?

This study took place in two stages including a pilot test of the procedures and instruments

and the administration of the approved survey. The pilot test was employed to assess the survey

completion process. A convenience sample (n = 20) was invited to take the NEO, BREQ-2,

LTEQ, and demographic questionnaire and comment on its understandability and user-

friendliness. Responses to the pilot test questions were reviewed and used to determine the

changes that were made to improve the survey prior to disseminating it to the study sample

(Creswell, 2005).

The study utilized a convenience sample taken from classes at a large Southeastern

university during the spring semester of 2007. The undergraduate students were provided extra

credit as an incentive for participation in the study.

The research questions directed the data analysis. For the first research question, bivariate

correlations were calculated to determine if there was an association between personality and

self-determination. For the second research question, two separate Multivariate Analysis of

Variance were calculated to determine whether gender differences existed, as well as the










presence of race/ethnicity differences on personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior

scores.

Research questions three and four were answered using multiple regression. For research

question three, multiple regression was used to examine whether or not self-determination

mediates the relationship between personality and exercise behavior. The five personality

domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) served as

the independent variables, exercise behavior served as the dependent variable, and self-

determination was being tested as the mediator.

For the forth research question, multiple regression was used to examine whether or not

personality moderates the relationship between self-determination and exercise behavior. Based

on this research question, the independent variables were the five personality domains and self-

determination, while the dependent variable was exercise behavior. Personality was the variable

being tested for moderation.

Discussion

The health benefits of regular moderate physical activity have been well-established

(Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006), yet participation rates across the population are generally

too low to accrue these benefits (US Department of Health & Human Services, 1996). Thus,

promotion of physical activity is a public health priority. Understanding the antecedent correlates

of participation in physical activity is considered a useful first-stage endeavor to focus on

intervention efforts. Research has provided evidence that physical activity participation is related

to many factors spanning personal, social, and environmental categories (Trost et al., 2002). The

personal factors that have received continued, albeit modest, attention in exercise and health

psychology are personality and motivation. Therefore, understanding the individual factors that

influence exercise behavior will aid in implementing effective intervention strategies. In










response to this need, this study provides a deeper knowledge of the demographic, personality,

and self-determination variables associated with exercise behavior and offers insight into the

underlying motivational mechanisms that influence personality and ultimately the exercise

behaviors of individuals. The following sections provide a discussion of these findings.

Demographics

This sample consists primarily of white female undergraduate students. This is not a

representation of ethnicities in the United States but it is similar to that of undergraduates

enrolled at this university during 2007. In this sample, males and Hispanics are underrepresented

based upon university demographics for undergraduates, but the remaining groups are similar to

university enrollment in 2007. The majority of the participants were aged 20-21 with a

sophomore academic class standing. This is consistent with the enrollment of the courses that

were surveyed. Because of the exploratory theoretical nature of this study the representation

found within this convenience sample was considered adequate. The measures used in this study

were found to be valid instruments. Both the NEO-FFI and BREQ-2 indicated questionable to

good reliability.

Research Question One

Research question one states "Is there an association between personality and self-

determination?" A bivariate correlation was calculated to determine if there was an association

between personality and self-determination in a sample of undergraduate students. Among the

sample, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and agreeableness are positively associated

with self-determination. This demonstrates that as an individual's score on extraversion,

conscientiousness, openness, or agreeableness increases, their self-determination does as well. It

was also found that neuroticism was negatively associated with self-determination. As an

individual's neuroticism score increases, their self-determination decreases. Thus, highly









extraverted, conscientious, open, and agreeable individuals are more likely to be motivated in a

self-determined fashion towards exercise than a highly neurotic individual. These findings are

supported by previous research (Ingledew, Markland & Sheppard, 2004).

The findings that neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness are related to self-

determination of exercise behavior are consistent with previous evidence that these particular

personality domains are related to exercise participation per se. Courneya, Bobick & Schinke

(1999) found that high levels of extraversion and conscientiousness were positively related to

exercise, whereas high levels of neuroticism were positively correlated to a lack of exercise. The

findings for extraversion and conscientiousness have an explanation in self-determination theory

(Deci & Ryan, 2000). It is hypothesized that extraverted individuals are able to feel self-

determined because exercise satisfies their need for relatedness; conscientiousness individuals

are able to feel self-determined because exercise satisfies their need for competence. The finding

for neuroticism may simply reflect the general tendency of neurotic individuals to experience

negative affects (Watson & Pennebaker, 1989).

Because of the significance found in research question one, personality domains can be

linked to self-determination. Knowing that highly extraverted, conscientious, open, and

agreeable individuals are more likely to be self-determined (i.e., more intrinsically motivated)

towards exercise than a highly neurotic individual, programs can be established to target their

motivation or lack thereof. Individuals, especially neurotics, can be screened and matched to

exercise programs that meet their personal and unique needs. Interventions could also be

developed to maximize exercise adherence based upon these findings.

These interpretations cannot be more than speculative, given that this study used a

convenience sample and research has only just begun to examine the relationships between










personality domains and self-determination. Further testing of these ideas will require studies of

how personality relates to individuals' progression over time along the continuum of self-

determination. More research is also needed to examine whether there are significant variations

in self-determination among the different stages of change. Such research is important to

understand why (i.e., the underlying motivational mechanisms) individuals participate or refrain

from exercising. Likewise, studies examining whether different types of exercise regulation with

varying personality domains can predict relapse from exercise are needed. This is important in

view of the high relapse rates of exercisers (Sallis et al., 1990).

Research Question Two

Research question two states "Are there gender and/or race/ethnicity differences on

personality, self-determination and exercise behavior?" Two separate multivariate analysis of

variance (MANOVA) were conducted with personality, self-determination, and exercise

behavior (LTEQ) factors as the dependent variables and gender as the Eixed factor in the first

analyses and race/ethnicity as the fixed factors in the second. In the first MANOVA, gender

differences were found on all Hyve personality domains. Females scored significantly higher on

neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness whereas males scored

significantly higher on openness. Differences between males and females were also found for

LTEQ scores but there were no gender differences found on self-determination scores (RAI).

Males scored notably higher on exercise behavior scores than females showing that males were

engaged in higher amounts of exercise than females.

The second omnibus MANOVA test found significant differences for race/ethnicity among

extraversion, agreeableness, and LTEQ scores. Bonferroni correction post-hoc follow-up

analyses were conducted to localize the effects of race/ethnicity on extraversion, agreeableness,

and LTEQ. Asians were significantly less extraverted than Whites (p = .004) and Whites were









found to be significantly more physically active than Black/African Americans (p < .000). No

differences were found among race/ethnicity and agreeableness.

Gender as well as race/ethnicity differences for the five-factor model of personality are

supported by previous research (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Draguns, Krylova, Oryol,

Rukavishnikov, & Martin, 2000; Piedmont, Bain, McCrae, & Costa, 2002). Within the trait or

variable-centered approach, the FFM, is currently the most influential and there is growing

evidence for the cross-cultural universality of these dimensions (McCrae & Allik, 2002). Studies

of indigenous trait lexicons also provide support for FFM dimensions in a variety of languages

and cultures (Saucier, Hampson, & Goldberg, 2000). Gender differences (Costa, Terracciano, &

McCrae, 2001) and maturational trends (McCrae et al., 1999) on FFM scales have also been

widely replicated. It is important to be aware of these differences when planning interventions

that are based upon FFM personality domains. Gender and race/ethnicity differences can help to

pinpoint variables such as personality that can determine ways to increase adherence to physical

activity for both females and Black/African Americans.

The differences found among males and females as well as race/ethnicity on exercise

behavior are also supported by previous research findings (Crespo, 2000; Kj elsis & Augestad,

2004; Valerie, 2000). Differences in race/ethnicity show that minorities suffer

disproportionately from health disparities that are the result of physical inactivity (Crespo, 2000).

Research question two has determined that gender and race/ethnicity differences are variables

that identify elements (i.e., personality and exercise behavior) that are influential to beginning

and maintaining physical activity.

Research Question Three

Research question three states "Using self-determination theory as a framework, do

participants' self-determination scores mediate the relationships between aspects of personality










(neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and

exercise behavior?" Because significant relationships between gender and race/ethnicity among

the personality domains and LTEQ scores were found, research questions three and four were

analyzed controlling for gender and race/ethnicity. This relationship needs to be controlled for in

these research questions so that the regressions reflect the true unique relationship between

personality and LTEQ and not an artifact of collinear relationships between gender/race and

personality and LTEQ.

In order to test for mediation while controlling for gender and race/ethnicity, a series of

regression equations were estimated and tested. Self-determination was being tested as the

mediator. The following hypotheses were constructed to test for mediation and guide the

research: (1) Personality domains are related to self-determination; (2) personality domains are

related to exercise behavior; and (3) self-determination will mediate the relationship between

personality and exercise behavior. Because the association among neuroticism, extraversion,

openness, and conscientiousness and self-determination were statistically significant in the first

hypothesis, the first condition of mediation was met.

The results for the second hypothesis indicated the association among extraversion,

conscientiousness, and openness and self-determination was statistically significant, thus the

second condition of mediation was met. The results of the third hypothesis indicated, after

controlling for the effects of the other personality domains, there were three statistically

significant relationships: extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness. It can be concluded that

the relationship of openness and conscientiousness to exercise behavior was fully mediated by

self-determination and the relationship of extraversion to exercise behavior was partially

mediated by self-determination.









The mediation findings for extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness have an

explanation in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Self-determination theory (SDT)

assumes that human motivation and well-being are associated with the satisfaction of three

psychological needs; the need for relatedness, competence, and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2000).

It is speculated that extraverted individuals are able to feel self-determined because exercise can

satisfy the need for relatedness, whereas conscientious individuals are able to feel self-

determined because exercise can satisfy the need for competence. In the same way, the finding

for openness may reflect need for autonomy. At a theoretical level, the concept of psychological

needs is important because it helps researchers and practitioners identify the motivational

constructs that are necessary for motivation and well-being (Ryan, 1995). In the case of this

study, SDT completely explains the mechanism through which the openness and

conscientiousness domains affect exercise behavior and partially explains the mechanism

through which extraversion affects exercise behavior.

Extraversion

Self-determination was found to partially mediate extraversion and exercise behavior. The

extraversion personality domain describes one's comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend

to spend much of their time maintaining and enjoying a large number of relationships.

Extraverts are inclined to lead, talk, and exert themselves physically more often than other

people. They also tend to be friendlier and more outgoing, thus the association between

extraversion and the SDT psychological need of relatedness. The need for relatedness concerns

the universal propensity to interact with, be connected to, and experience caring for other people

(Baumeister & Leary, 1995).









Because the need for relatedness is essential, individuals tend to orient toward those

situations that allow satisfaction of the need and away from those that thwart the need (Deci &

Vansteenkiste, 2004). However, in many cases, an individual's behavior is not specifically

intended to satisfy their basic needs. Rather, they do what they find interesting and personally

important and they experience need satisfaction in so doing.

Various researchers have suggested that exercise may be linked with dispositional

characteristics of the individual, such as personality. Courneya and Hellsten (1998) reported that

exercise behavior was positively linked with extraversion. Personality factors were related to the

different types of exercise behaviors that participants adopted. Extraverts preferred to exercise

with others rather than alone thus fulfilling their need for relatedness or satisfying an inherent

desire to maintain and enj oy their relationships.

However, extraversion was not fully mediated thus it needs to be addressed that other

factors play a role in explaining the mechanism through which personality affects exercise

behavior. It should be noted that extraversion was found to play a direct role in predicting

exercise behavior and it had a direct effect on self-determination. Considering these direct and

indirect effects, it seems prudent for exercise interventions to focus on increasing feelings of

relatedness within participants so that there is an increased probability for self-determined

motivation and exercise behavior outcomes. Examples of interventions for extraverted

individuals are discussed in the implication section below.

Openness

Self-determination was found to fully mediate openness and exercise behavior. The

openness personality domain addresses one's range of interests. Openness to experience

describes a dimension of personality that distinguishes imaginative, creative people from down-










to-earth, conventional people. Open individuals are intellectually curious, appreciative of art,

and sensitive to beauty. This explanation of openness helps to clarify the association between

openness and the SDT psychological need of autonomy. The need for autonomy concerns

people's universal urge to be causal agents, to experience volition, to act in accord with their

integrated sense of self, and to endorse their actions at the highest level of reflective capacity

(deCharmes, 1968). It also reflects a desire to engage in activities of one' s choosing and to be

the origin of one' s own behavior. To be autonomous does not mean to be independent of others,

but to feel a sense of willingness and choice when acting.

Motivation is one of the many correlates of openness. Although the word openness may

suggest a kind of passive tolerance of new experiences, in fact open individuals are characterized

by an active pursuit of novelty. Autonomy is embedded with freewill and choice and thus an

open individual's ability to adapt to a new situation is fundamental. This is a positive attribute

when it comes to exercise and adherence. Open individuals are more likely to try new activities

and are thus more likely to find one that they enj oy. They are also not afraid of pursuing new

situations and have more flexible attitudes. Exercise interventions for individuals scoring high

on openness should focus on these aspects of the need for autonomy.

Conscientiousness

Self-determination was also found to fully mediate the conscientiousness domain and

exercise behavior. Conscientiousness is the trait of being painstaking and careful, or the quality

of acting according to the dictates of one's conscience. It includes such elements as self-

discipline, carefulness, thoroughness, organization, deliberation (the tendency to think carefully

before acting), and need for achievement. Conscientiousness concerns the way in which

individuals control, regulate, and direct their impulses. The benefits of high conscientiousness









are obvious. Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through

purposeful planning and persistence. They are also positively regarded by others as intelligent

and reliable. This description of conscientiousness helps to explain the association between

conscientiousness and the SDT psychological need of competence.

The need for competence concerns people's inherent desire to be effective in dealing with

the environment (White, 1959). Throughout life, people engage their world in an attempt to

master it and to feel the sense of effectiveness when they do. It also implies that individuals

have a desire to experience a sense of competence in producing desired outcomes and to prevent

undesired events (Deci & Ryan, 1985). In the area of physical activity this might include feeling

confident enough to engage in an activity or to pursue an exercise goal. For a conscientious

individual this may also include trying to prevent an undesired health condition (i.e. heart disease

or becoming overweight) through being physically active. Thus, conscientious individuals are

able to feel motivated in a self-determined fashion because exercise can satisfy the need for

competence. Interventions for conscientious individuals need to concentrate on the facets of the

need for competence to be as effective as possible.

Research Question Four

Research question four states "Do elements of the Five-Factor Model of personality

moderate relationships between participants' self-determination scores and exercise behavior?"

In this question, moderation refers to the examination of the statistical interaction between

personality and self-determination in predicting exercise behavior. This suggests that the

relationship between personality and exercise behavior may differ at different levels of self-

determination. In other words, personality may adversely affect exercise behavior more under

conditions of low self-determination compared to conditions of high self-determination. Most

research has examined the main effect view of self-determination, namely, that the more self-










determined one is, the more they are likely to participate in exercise. To date, the literature on

these three variables has neglected to consider the role of self-determination as a moderator of

the personality to exercise behavior relationship. Thus this portion of the analysis is by necessity

expl oratory.

Research question four was tested using regression analysis. Personality was the variable

being tested for moderation. Multiple regression was used to test whether personality and self-

determination were significant predictors of exercise behavior. The results of this calculation for

sample controlling for gender and race found that the interaction term (personality x self-

determination) did not significantly add new variance. Thus moderation cannot be interpreted

from the results. None of the FFI personality domains moderate relationships between self-

determination and exercise behavior.

Implications

The endorsement of physical activity is a public health priority (Trost et al., 2002).

Understanding the associations between personality and motivation in the exercise domain is

considered a useful approach in targeting both active and inactive individuals. Researchers have

the responsibility to continue exploring antecedent variables and strategies to ensure that

individuals receive assistance in overcoming barriers and identifying tendencies that limit or

broaden their ability to adhere to exercise. Previous researchers suggest that past efforts have

been nominal in advancing the field of study; however, continual efforts and focusing on

underlying psychological mechanisms are imperative for future progress (Bermudez, 1999;

Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Hoyle, 2000). This study informs the numerous ways future health

education, practice, and research can collaborate to identify individual differences that affect the

quality of an exercise experience ultimately leading to life-long adherence. Recommendations

and implications for the roles of educators; practitioners; and future research follow.










Implications for the Role of Health Educators

This study's findings provide important implications for health education professionals.

Research indicates that a significant percentage of the population needs support related to

exercise, due to inadequate participation rates (US Department of Health & Human Services,

1996). Health educators have a critical role in educating practitioners and those serving in the

field of physical activity education. Health educators are in a unique position to respond to the

issues of physical inactivity and have the expertise and the resources to provide adequate

preparation and support to future practitioners and educators. In spite of the limitations of this

study (discussed later in this chapter) the specific findings related to the association between

personality and self-determination theory can be helpful in individualizing strategies for

providing education instruction to practitioners.

Health educators are also in the position to provide the necessary resources for personality

evaluation. Health educators can train health promoters to properly implement the NEO

personality screening tool with exercise participants as standard procedure. This will provide

practitioners with information about an individual's personality to help guide interventions and

program choice. This insight will allow practitioners and educators to align their training

process to more effectively meet the needs of individual exercise participants. Educating

practitioners on the scoring and interpretation of the NEO as well as providing easy access to the

necessary tools for reproduction is essential for practical implementation.

Practitioners should also be well informed on issues that they will face in the physical

activity setting. This study found there to be gender and race/ethnicity differences on exercise

participation. This is vital information for a practitioner when developing exercise programs for

new and current participants. Females and Black/African Americans are more likely to be

inactive than males and Whites. Knowing this, practitioners can target individuals that are more









likely to be non-exercisers or non-adherers to a program and design programs that anticipate

these obstacles. Health educators should also instruct future practitioners and educators on

detailed ways that they can target all exercise participants. This instruction should include

information on strategies for conveying and disseminating the information obtained through the

use of the NEO, specific activities that correspond with each unique personality domain (i.e.

team sports for extraversion; outdoor activities for openness; marathons for conscientiousness),

and physical activity resources for both the practitioner and participant (i.e. recreation parks;

fitness clubs; websites). For health educators specializing in physical activity, it is a professional

responsibility to equip both practitioners and participants with the tools necessary to assess

factors associated with exercise participation and adherence.

Furthermore, school based health educators should integrate the personality and motivation

mechanisms of exercise into the physical education and health education curriculums. This

would provide for both the educators and students to be informed proactive participants in

physical and health education in compliance with the National Standards for Physical Education

and the National Standards for School Health Education (Joint Committee on National Health

Education Standards, 1995; National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004).

Providing educators with insight to their students' personality type by integrating the NEO into

the educational curriculum increases the likelihood of providing meaningful physical activity for

every student. Providing individuals with positive physical activity experiences early in life

prevents the negative impression of exercise later in life thus leading to a lifetime of enj oyable

activity.









Undoubtedly, these recommendations will require resources and efforts to identify and

respond to each unique individual's needs. Costs, particularly in time and effort are unavoidable,

and are far outweighed by the cost of outcomes associated with inadequate physical activity.

Implications for the Role of Practitioners

In becoming more aware of individuals' personality and motivation differences and the

affects of each on exercise, physical activity practitioners can take many steps in encouraging

participation and adherence. First, practitioners should become fully competent in their

understanding of the relationships between personality, motivation and exercise behavior. This

would include an awareness of all unique personality domains and the motivational needs

associated with each. Practitioners should also have knowledge of the target audience and an

understanding of demographic factors affecting the personality, self-determination, exercise

behavior relationship. Second, health and fitness practitioners should become proficient in

administering NEO personality assessment and be able to accurately interpret the results.

Practitioners can utilize the NEO-FFI to quickly and easily identify an individual's personality

type and then provide them with effective strategies to increase their exercise participation based

upon their personality. In the physical activity setting, all new and existing participants should

have their personality evaluated so that all can receive the benefits. Third, practitioners can

increase participation and adherence by appropriately providing necessary assistance and

interventions for each unique personality type. This study found that practitioners should focus

on increasing feelings of relatedness, autonomy, and competence for extraverted, open, and

conscientious individuals respectively so that their self-determined motivation, positive exercise

behavior, and exercise adherence for a lifetime are improved.

Practitioners can utilize many simple techniques to increase participants' activity levels

and promote exercise adherence and enjoyment. Extraverted individuals that are lacking in










physical activity need to be motivated based on their unique personality characteristics. In doing

so the psychological need of relatedness would naturally be fulfilled in participation.

Extraversion concerns the differences in preference for social interaction and lively activity. The

seeking of dynamic physical activity behaviors seems a logical extension for people scoring high

in this trait, whereas the disinterest in physical activity seems likely for those scoring low in

extraversion. Research has found that individuals who scored high on extraversion prefer to

exercise in a group rather than alone, and they also enj oy supervised sessions more than self-

directed sessions, relating directly with the need for relatedness (Courneya & Hellsten, 1998).

Knowing this, health and fitness practitioners can encourage extraverts to participate in activities

that are inclusive of social interaction and energetic activity. These might include group fitness

classes, exercising with a partner/trainer, team/social interaction sports such as basketball, tennis,

or golf, and high intensity activities such as adventure racing and kick boxing. Social activity

settings such as a comprehensive fitness center or a corporate fitness facility would serve both

the physical and social needs of an extravert. These settings also provide personal training

resources and various group activities that are appealing to an extravert.

Open individuals that are not achieving adequate physical activity also need to be

supported based on their personality's uniqueness thus fulfilling the need of autonomy through

exercise. Open individuals are characterized by an active pursuit of novelty. This is a positive

attribute when it comes to exercise and adherence. Open individuals are willing to try new

behaviors and are not troubled by new situations. They are also prone to participate in activities

that they freely choose because they take pleasure in them not because they feel obligated to

participate. Knowing these characteristics, practitioners can encourage those who score high on

openness to participate in activities that are unusual or original to the individual. These novel









forms of exercise might include rock climbing, martial arts, group fitness classes or any activity

that one has not fully experienced. Research has found that individuals scoring high on openness

preferred to exercise outdoors more than indoors compared to those scoring low on openness

(Courneya & Hellsten, 1998). This is likely due to the fact that outdoor environments are ever

changing and indoor environments are unvarying. However, autonomy is rooted with freewill

and choice and thus an open individual would be drawn to an exercise setting that offered a

variety of choices. Comprehensive fitness centers offer a wide variety of activities at varying

times and would be a good resource for a highly open individual. Practitioners should use these

Endings to help guide their exercise prescription for each unique open individual. Ultimately,

health and fitness practitioners should focus on increasing feelings of autonomy within open

participants so that the possibility of self-determined motivation and positive behavioral

outcomes are increased.

Conscientious individuals that are not achieving adequate physical activity also need to be

motivated to increase their activity based upon their personality characteristics. In doing so the

psychological need of competence would be satisfied by participating in exercise. Conscientious

individuals are characterized as self-disciplined, organized, and deliberate. When it comes to

physical activity and adherence, these are positive characteristics. Individuals who score high on

conscientiousness are likely to participate in activities that they are knowledgeable in and that are

easy to schedule and plan into their day. Health and fitness practitioners should focus on

strategies that include educating the participant on the various aspects of physical activity and

providing information on the different forms of exercise available to them. Having an exercise

calendar or workout schedule available for conscientious participants would help to motivate and

encourage them to plan out their activity in advance. Because of their tendency towards









commitment, it is easier to keep conscientiousness individuals engaged in a meaningful activity

with adherence becoming inherent. Deliberation is also a positive characteristic of

conscientiousness because careful forethought goes into all their actions such as exercising for

health related reasons. Practitioners can assist in goal setting and individual program planning to

help boost the feelings of commitment and deliberation in those scoring high on

conscientiousness.

Research on exercise preference (Courneya & Hellsten, 1998) found that those who

preferred high-intensity exercise scored higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred

moderate intensity, and individuals who preferred scheduled exercise scored higher on

conscientiousness than those who preferred spontaneous exercise. Knowing this, practitioners

can encourage those high on conscientiousness to participate in activities that are intense in

nature and that are easily planned into their schedule. Activities that would appeal to a

conscientious individual might include intense cardio such as running, mountain biking, or

swimming, playing a team sport, triathlon/marathon training, or power lifting. Practitioners

should focus on increasing feelings of competence within conscientiousness participants so that

the possibility of self-determined motivation and positive exercise outcomes are increased.

Competency is based on a sense of capacity in producing desired outcomes and through specific

exercise and training accomplishments a conscientious individual can satisfy this need.

Ultimately, health and fitness practitioners will have to Eind innovative ways to respond to

the needs of an individual's personality. This commitment to providing an individualized

approach to physical activity will promote participation, increased adherence, better long term

health outcomes, and provide more satisfaction for individuals when engaging in exercise. To

advance the health of the general population as proposed by the obj ectives of Healthy People










2010, health and fitness practitioners alike will have to respond and adapt to the unique

personality needs of individuals and be willing to support all participants in increasing their

physical activity levels (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000).

Implications for Future Research

Based on the findings of this study, health behavior researchers should delve further into

the personality and motivation research to assess the relationships between the Five Factor

Model of personality, self-determination, and other health and risk behaviors. Previous research

has found personality to be associated in a health-promoting direction with a wide range of

health-related behaviors such as smoking (Friedman et al., 1995; Vollrath, Knoch, & Cassano,

1999), drinking (Friedman et al., 1995; Stewart, Loughlin, & Rhyno, 2001; Vollrath, Knoch &

Cassano, 1999), sexual behavior (Hoyle, Fejfar, & Miller, 2000; Vollrath Knoch & Cassano,

1999), mammography adoption (Siegler, Feaganes, & Rimer, 1995), and protection against sun

exposure (Castle, Skinner, & Hampson, 1999). Health-related behaviors have also been

associated with the self-determination theory. These behaviors include smoking (Levesque et

al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006; Williams, Quill, Deci., & Ryan, 1991), alcohol use (Ryan, Plant,

& O'Malley, 1995), and dieting (Levesque et al., 2006; Pellitier et al., 2004). Researchers should

examine these behaviors to see if links exist between the FFM personality domains and being

motivated in a self-determined fashion. Findings could help to explain the variables that are

affecting the adoption or letting go of such health and risk behaviors. Additionally, if these

findings hold true for other behaviors, research could help to guide planning for the

customization of future programs and interventions.

Future research should also examine whether different types of exercise regulation with

varying degrees of self-determination are associated with personality and exercise behavior.

Findings from these studies can help predict relapse from exercise. This is important in view of









the high relapse rates of exercisers (Sallis et al., 1990). Also further research examining the

relationship between personality, motivation, exercise behavior and exercise preferences may aid

in developing exercise programs that are individualized and based on people's exercise

preferences. Research should also examine if these types of exercise programs result in an

increase in exercise adherence.

Longitudinal studies that are based on the implication of this study would help to solidify

current and future findings. These studies would be critical in ascertaining personality, self-

determination development, and physical activity, as well as the symmetry and asymmetry of

personality, motivation, and physical activity-related decline with ageing. For example,

extraversion tends to decline with age and whether this matches declines in physical activity has

yet to be investigated (McCrae et al., 1999). Similarly, conscientiousness has been able to

predict longevity and health behavior from childhood (Friedman, Tucker & Tomlinson-Keasey,

1995). Its association with physical activity across this life span and mediation via physical

activity would add to this interesting finding.

Future research could also look at personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior

and how it varies across different populations. A cross-sectional study should be conducted to

explore the comparisons of the variable in this study and various other populations including

adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and the elderly. Future studies could also control

for other factors, such as Socioeconomic Status, that were not assessed in this study. As far as

moderation is concerned, other variables besides personality could be looked at as having a

moderating effect on self-determination and exercise behavior. Two possible moderating

variables are gender and race/ethnicity.









Limitations and Future Directions

Limitations of this study include self-report data, a college-aged convenience sample, and

instrumentation. The use of self-report data has limitations due to self-report bias (Krosnick,

1999). That is, individuals may report information due to how they think they should report data

rather than how they actually felt. This could alter their true responses, therefore resulting in

inaccurate data. Rather than using only a self-report personality questionnaire, future researchers

may consider using an obj ective third party appraisal of each participant (Costa & McCrae,

1992). Similarly, an objective measure of exercise should be used such as pedometers and

accelerometers rather than a self-report questionnaire.

Although personality is relatively stable throughout early to mid-adulthood, a college-aged

population does not necessarily permit these results to be generalized to all populations (McCrae

& Costa, 2003). Undergraduate students in this study represent a homogeneous, convenient

sample of participants. College students also have unique characteristics that distinguish them

from the greater population including more free time to be able to engage in activities. Greater

generalizability of these results would benefit from replication using more diverse population

samples. Any differences among populations are likely to have direct and meaningful

implications for orchestrating the most effective intervention programs. Also, because the

sample was not randomized, potentially confounding variables may have introduced error into

measurement that is not accounted for in the analysis. Thus, inferences should be made with

caution. Self-reports on the LTEQ and the participant demographics also pose a limitation to

inferences made from study findings. This sample, however, was deemed appropriate because

this study will be used to inform and guide the direction of future research in the areas of

personality, motivation, and exercise behavior research.









To reduce participant burden, a 60-item version of the NEO-PI-R called the NEO-FFI

(Costa & McCrae, 1992) was used in this study. The NEO-FFI assesses the five broad

personality domains by using one question from each facet from the NEO-PI-R. As with many

questionnaires with a short and long form, the long form allows for greater insight into each

personality domain and it is more reliable and valid than the short form (Costa & McCrae, 1992).

Future research might continue examining the relationship between exercise behavior and

personality by using the NEO-PI-R. Furthermore, research using the FFM to examine the

relationships between personality and exercise behavior should include both the personality

domains and facets, thus providing valuable information for understanding the determinants and

preferences for exercise behavior. This knowledge may aid in the creation of individualized

exercise programs that increase adherence to exercise behavior.

Study Strengths

There are also strengths of this study that must be mentioned. First, a large sample was

used with a very high response rate, especially considering the length of the instruments that

were used to assess personality, self-determination, exercise behavior and demographics.

Second, the use of validated measures of exercise, personality, and self-determination contribute

to the strength of this study. Many of the studies in the past have failed to use validated and

consistent measures to examine all the components (e.g., personality, self-determination and

exercise behavior; Costa & McCrae, 1992; Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Hagan, 2003; Markland

& Tobin, 2004).

Conclusion

In conclusion, this study was conducted to examine the relationships between personality,

self-determination, and exercise behavior. The findings suggest that personality is associated

with self-determination and that there are gender and race differences on personality and exercise









behavior. Additionally in this study population, self-determination fully explains the mechanism

through which the openness and conscientiousness domains affect exercise behavior and

partially explains the mechanism through which extraversion affects exercise behavior. The

implications are numerous for health educators, practitioners, and researchers some of which

include rigorous personality and motivation education for future practitioners, proper choice and

implementation of exercise programs for each specific personality domain, and continued

research with other health behaviors. Because most Americans are sedentary, and obesity is of

growing interest as a health concern in the United States, intervention methods for increasing

exercise behavior are needed (Center for Disease Control, 2002; United States Department of

Health and Human Services, 2000). Therefore, results from this study can guide the development

of more personalized programs and interventions to facilitate adoption of exercise behavior in

non-exercisers while increasing adherence in current exercisers.








APPENDIX A
NEO FIVE-FACTOR INVENTORY


NEO-FFI

NEO Five-Factor Inventory

Paul T Costa, Jr., PhD, and Robert R. McCrae, PhD


Instructions:

Carefully read all of the instructions before beginning. This questionnaire contains 60
statements. Read each statement carefully. For each statement choose the response that best
represents your opinion. Make sure your answer is in the correct place on the scantron.


Fill in if you strongly disagree or the statement is definitely false.

Fill in O if you disagree or the statement is mostly false.

Fill in if you are neutral on the statement, if you cannot decide, or if the statement is
about equally true or false.

Fill in if you agree or the statement is definitely true.

Fill in if you strongly agree or the statement is definitely true.


Fill in only one response for each statement. Respond to all the statements, making sure
that you fi11 in the correct response.











For each of the following statements choose the response that best represents your
opinion. Fill in only one response for each statement. The scale is:



Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree


1. I am not a worrier.
2. I like to have a lot of people around me.
3. I don't like to waste my time daydreaming.
4. I try to be courteous to everyone I meet.
5. I keep my belongings neat and clean.

6. I often feel inferior to others.
7. I laugh easily.
8. Once I find the right way to do something, I stick to it.
9. I often get into arguments with my family and co-workers.
10. I'm pretty good about pacing myself so as to get things done on time.

11. When I am under a great deal of stress, sometimes I feel like I'm going to pieces.
12. I don't consider myself especially "light-hearted".
13. I am intrigued by the patterns I find in art and nature.
14. Some people think I'm selfish and egotistical.
15. I'm not a very methodical person.

16. I rarely feel lonely or blue.
17. I really enjoy talking to people.
18. I believe letting students hear controversial speakers can only confuse and
mislead them.
19. I would rather cooperate with others than compete with them.
20. I try to perform all the tasks assigned to me conscientiously.

21. I often feel tense and jittery.
22. I like to be where the action is.
23. Poetry has little or no effect on me.
24. I tend to be cynical and skeptical of others' intentions.
25. I have a clear set of goals and work toward them in an orderly fashion.

26. Sometimes I feel completely worthless.
27. I usually prefer to do things alone.
28. I often try new and foreign foods.
29. I believe that most people will take advantage of you if you let them.
30. I waste a lot of time before settling down to work.











Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree


31. I rarely feel fearful or anxious.
32. I often feel as if I'm bursting with energy.
33. I seldom notice the moods or feelings that different environments produce.
34. Most people I know like me.
35. I work hard to accomplish my goals.

36. I often get angry at the way people treat me.
37. I am cheerful, high-spirited person.
38. I believe we should look to our religious authorities for decisions on moral issues.
39. Some people think of me as cold and calculating.
40. When I make a commitment, I can always be counted on to follow through.

41. Too often, when things go wrong, I get discouraged and feel like giving up.
42. I am not a cheerful person.
43. Sometimes when I am reading poetry or looking at a work of art, I feel a chill or
wave of excitement.
44. I'm hard-headed and tough-minded in my attitudes.
45. Sometimes I'm not as dependable or reliable as I should be.

46. I am seldom sad or depressed.
47. My life is fast-paced.
48. I have little interest in speculating on the nature of the universe or the human
condition.
49. I generally try to be thoughtful and considerate.
50. I am a productive person who always gets the j ob done.

51. I often feel hopeless and want someone else to solve my problems.
52. I am a very active person.
53. I have a lot of intellectual curiosity.
54. If I don't like people, I let them know it.
55. I never seem to be able to get organized.

56. At times I have been so ashamed I just want to hide.
57. I would rather go my own way than be a leader to others.
58. I often enjoy playing with theories or abstract ideas.
59. If necessary, I am willing to manipulate people to get what I want.
60. I strive for excellence in everything I do.









APPENDIX B
BEHAVIORAL REGULATION INT EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE-2


EXERCISE REGULATIONS QUESTIONNAIRE (BREQ-2)

WHY DO YO U ENGA GE IN EXERCISE?

We are interested in the reasons underlying peoples' decisions to engage, or not
engage in physical exercise. Using the scale below, please indicate to what extent
each of the following items is true for you. Please note that there are no right or
wrong answers and no trick questions. We simply want to know how you
personally feel about exercise. Your responses will be held in confidence and only
used for our research purposes.


Not true
for me


Sometimes
true for me


Very true
for me


1. I exercise because other people
say I should

2. I feel guilty when I don't exercise

3. I value the benefits of exercise

4. I exercise because it's fun

5. I don't see why I should have to exercise

6. I take part in exercise because my
friends/family/partner say I should

7. I feel ashamed when I miss an
exercise session

8. It's important to me to exercise regularly

9. I can't see why I should bother exercising


0 1 2 3 4


0 1 2 3 4

0 1 2 3 4

0 1 2 3 4

0 1 2 3 4

0 1 2 3 4


0 1 2 3 4


0 1 2 3 4

0 1 2 3 4









Not true
for me


Sometimes
true for me


Very true
for me


10. I enjoy my exercise sessions

11. I exercise because others will not be
pleased with me if I don't

12. I don't see the point in exercising

13. I feel like a failure when I haven't
exercised in a while

14. I think it is important to make the effort to
exercise regularly

15. I find exercise a pleasurable activity

16. I feel under pressure from my friends/family
to exercise

17. I get restless if I don't exercise regularly

18. I get pleasure and satisfaction from
participating mn exercise

19. I think exercising is a waste of time


0 1 2 3 4


0 1 2 3 4


0 1 2 3 4









APPENDIX C
LEISURE TIME EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE

Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire


1. During a typical 7-Day period (a week), how many times on the average do you do the
following kinds of exercise for more than 15 minutes during your free time (write on each line
the appropriate number).

Times Per Week

a) STRENUOUS EXERCISE
(HEART BEATS RAPIDLY)
(e.g., running, jogging, hockey, football, soccer,
squash, basketball, cross country skiing, judo,
roller skating, vigorous swimming,

vigorous long distance bicycling)



b) MODERATE EXERCISE
(NOT EXHAUSTING)
(e.g., fast walking, baseball, tennis, easy bicycling,
volleyball, badminton, easy swimming, alpine skiing,

popular and folk dancing)


c) MILD EXERCISE
(MINIMAL EFFORT)
(e.g., yoga, archery, fishing from river bank, bowling,
horseshoes, golf, easy walking)









APPENDIX D
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION


Please continue using the Scantron to answer questions 83 through 86.

1. What is your age in years?
1. 18-19
2. 20-21
3. 22-23
4. 24-25
5. Over 25

2. What is your gender?
1. Male
2. Female

3. Which one of these groups would you say best represents your race?
1. White
2. Black/African American
3. Hispanic/Latino
4. Asian/Pacific Islander
5. Other

4. What is your current academic class?
1. Freshman
2. Sophomore
3. Junior
4. Senior
5. Graduate









APPENDIX E
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPLICATION



1. TITLE OF PROTOCOL:
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY, SELF-DETERMINATION AND
EXERCISE BEHAVIOR

2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s):
Abigail S. Batia, MESS
Doctoral Candidate
Health Education and Behavior
071 Florida Gym
PO Box 118210
Gainesville, FL 32611-8210
(352) 392-0583 x 1283
aschwab @hhp.ufl .edu


3. SUPERVISOR (IF PI IS STUDENT):
Jill W. Varnes, Ed.D.
Professor Health Education & Behavior
College of Health & Human Performance
PO Box 118210
16 Florida Gym
Gainesville, FL 32611-8210
(352)-392-0583 x 1230
jvarnes@hhp.ufl.edu

4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROTOCOL: From: January 1, 2007 To: January 1, 2008


5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROTOCOL:
(A copy of your grant proposal must be included a ithr this protocol if DHHS funding is involved.)
Not Applicable


6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION
Over the past decade, much research (Bermudez, 1999; Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke,
1999) has been devoted to the analysis of psychosocial factors associated with the development
of a variety of health behaviors. In the wake of this research, one important point has become
clear: the main cause of mortality can be prevented by making certain lifestyle and behavior
changes (Blair & Morrow, 1998; Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beaulieu, 1999). Less attention,
however, has been paid to the reasons and mechanisms that explain why individuals keep
engaging or disengaging in behaviors that they know to be beneficial to their health.









Furthermore, why do individuals fail to develop habits that could increase their quality of life
and well-being?
The association between sedentary lifestyle and all-cause mortality and morbidity is well
documented (Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beaulieu, 1999), and represents one of the most
prevalent behavioral health risks in industrialized countries (US Department of Health & Human
Services, 1996). Physical benefits of exercise have also been well documented and include a
reduced risk of diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, bone density loss, premature death,
and improvement in weight management and overall fitness (Bouchard, Shephard, & Stephens,
1994). Research suggests that the benefits of regular exercise extend beyond the primary
prevention of chronic physical diseases, as regular exercise has been demonstrated to improve
mental well-being and quality of life (Courneya, Mackey, & Jones, 2000).
Despite the health threats posed by inactivity, research indicates that 60% of the
population remains insufficiently active to receive health benefits from physical activity, and
25% of the population is considered sedentary (Stephens & Caspersen, 1994; US Department of
Health & Human Services, 1996). Furthermore, the attrition rates from structured exercise
programs remain high with approximately 50% of exercise participants terminating their
involvement within the first six months of enrollment (Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beaulieu,
1999). Therefore, understanding the individual factors that may influence adherence to an
exercise regimen will aid in implementing effective intervention strategies.
Studies in the field of health promotion and exercise psychology have recently focused
on determining psychological variables that influence exercise adherence. Little research,
however, has been devoted to the psychological mechanisms by which personality traits affect
health-related behaviors (Bermudez, 1999; Hoyle, 2000). One possible mechanism is
motivation. Researchers have examined the association between personality traits and exercise
participation motives, but it is hard to discern a consistent pattern in the findings. The study of
such surface motives does not in itself reveal much about the underlying motivational processes.
By adopting a self-determination theory perspective it may be possible to elucidate the
motivational processes by which personality traits influence engagement in health-related
behaviors such as exercise. Therefore, the focus of this study is to examine the relationship
between personality and the extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-determined
fashion.
This study will seek to determine if an individual's personality type influences self-
determination relative to exercise behavior (i.e., does one personality type show higher or lower
levels of self-determination than the other four types?). If personality can be linked to other
known determinants of exercise such as motivation, participants could be matched to exercise
programs that meet their needs. Or interventions to maximize exercise adherence could be
developed based on personality profiles.


7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INTNON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE. The
UJFIRB needs to know what will be done with or to the research participantss.

The following procedures will be followed:

1. This study will utilize a cross-sectional, paper and pencil, survey research design. Due to
the cross-sectional nature of the research design, survey data will be collected on a single









occasion (Creswell, 2005). Surveys will be distributed by, completed on, and returned via
the PI (Creswell, 2005; Dillman, 2000).
2. A convenience sample of undergraduate students at the University of Florida will be
invited to participate in the study (N=450). The target population will be undergraduate
students enrolled in non-maj or classes in the College of Health and Human Performance
at the University of Florida. Each subj ect will be given a one-page cover letter that will
include an informed consent and instructions on how to complete the survey (see
attached) .
3. The following surveys will be administered via paper and pencil: NEO Five-Factor
Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Behavioral Regulation in Exercise
Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2; (Markland & Tobin, 2004), Leisure-Time Exercise
Questionnaire (LTEQ; Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986), and a demographic
questionnaire (See Attached). After each survey is completed they will be returned to the
PI.
4. Descriptive statistics will be calculated to determine baseline frequency rates in each
personality type, self-determination scores, and frequency rates for BMI, gender, age,
race/ethnicity, and academic class. Bivariate analyses will be used to analyze research
question one. Analyses for all four research questions will be tested at a .05 significance
level for &. MANOVA will be used to assess research question two. Multiple regression
will also be used to examine the mediation and moderation associations between each of
the five personality types (independent variable), total self-determination score
(independent variable), and exercise behavior (dependent variables) (i.e. research
questions three and four).


8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK. (If risk of physical, psychological or
economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.)

The study involves analyzing self-reported data. Participants will not be required to
provide their name or any personal identifying information. The identity of the participants will
remain confidential. Hence, the participants experience no more than minimal risk by
participating in this study.


9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANTS) WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE
OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any):


1. The researcher will contact instructors in the College of Health and Human
Performance at the University of Florida to inquire about their willingness to allow
their students to participate in this study during class time and the approximate
number of students enrolled in their classes.
2. The researcher will invite a convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in
classes in the College of Health and Human Performance to participate in the study
(N~450).
3. Each participant will receive a description of the study and the informed consent
before completing the surveys.











10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE
INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT (if applicable).

The participants will be asked to read and sign the attached informed consent prior to the use of
any data for research purposes. See Attachment.


Principal Investigator's Signature
Abigail S. Batia, MESS


Date


I approve this protocol for submission to the UFIRB:


P.I. Faculty Supervisor Signature
Jill W. Varnes, Ed.D.


Date


I approve this protocol for submission to the UFIRB:


Dept. Chair's Signature
Robert Weiler, Ph.D.


Date









APPENDIX F
PARTICIPANT INFORMED CONSENT

Proj ect Title: The Relationship between personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior.

Purpose of the research study: Abigail Schwab Batia (aschwab@hhp.ufl. edu) is a doctoral
candidate in the department of Health Education and Behavior. This study proposes to assess the
relationship between personality and the extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-
determined fashion.

What you will be asked to do in the study: You are being asked to complete the following
surveys.

Time required: The surveys will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

Risks and Benefits: Your participation in this study poses no more than minimal risk. Neither
your name nor your UFID will be connected with your survey results. There is no benefit to
the participant in completing this survey.

Compensation: There will be no compensation for completing the surveys.

Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. No names
will be used in any report.

Voluntary Participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no
penalty for not participating.

Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime
without consequence.

Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Abigail Schwab Batia, MESS at
aschwab@hhp.ufl.edu or Dr. Jill W. Varnes, EdD, at jvarnes@hhp.ufl.edu, Department of Health
Education & Behavior, 05 Florida Gym, (352) 392-0583.

Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box
112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-0433.

Thank you in advance for participating in this survey. The information you provide will be
extremely beneficial in enhancing an understanding of the mechanisms behind exercise behavior.
Your help in this matter is greatly appreciated.

I have read the procedure describe above. I voluntarily give my consent to participate in this
study. I have received a copy of this description.


Name Date










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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Native to Florida, born in Tallahassee, Abigail Schwab Batia has lived in north central

Florida all her life. She grew up in Perry, Florida before moving to Gainesville, Florida to attend

the University of Florida as an undergraduate in exercise and sport science. She graduated in

2002 with highest honors with a specialization in physical education.

After graduating, Abbie continued on at the University of Florida where she received a

master' s degree in exercise and sport science and a specialization in exercise and sport

pedagogy. While pursuing here master' s degree, she also taught high school health education at

P.K Yonge Developmental Research School. Abbie successfully completed her program of

study and her master' s comprehensive exams in 2004. She then returned to the University of

Florida, as a doctoral student in the College of Health and Human Performance.

Abbie received a Ph.D. in health behavior from the University of Florida, in August 2007.

Her research interests include physical activity; personality and motivation; and influences on

exercise behavior and her teaching interest include physical education and school health issues.

She plans to continue her career in education.





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1 RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERSONALITY, S ELF-DETERMINATION AND EXERCISE BEHAVIOR By ABIGAIL SCHWAB BATIA A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Abigail Schwab Batia

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3 To my loving husband Mark David Batia.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Trust in the Lord with all your heart; do not depend on your own understanding. Seek his will in all you do, and he will direct your paths. (Proverbs 3:5-6). During the past few years, this quote has always proven true. Without my faith and the prayers and support of family and friends, I would not have been able to complete this amazing endeavor. First, I want to thank Jesus for His guidan ce and grace, His wisdom is immense and His timing is impeccable. My committee has been the backbone behind the success and completion of this study. Without them, I would not have been able to achie ve this accomplishment. Dr. Jill W. Varnes, my chair, has the patience of a sa int and for that I thank her whol eheartedly. She has encouraged me to continue on in the most caring and wise wa y. I am forever indebted. I thank Dr. Virginia Dodd for always having a realistic outlook and su ch good advice. I thank Dr. Peter Giacobbi and Dr. David Miller for not only the guidance related to my dissertation topic and data analyses but also for the time and effort it took to meet with me so many times I also want to thank Dr. R. Morgan Pigg Jr., for always being there for a special talk. You got me through some trying times and I will always appreciate you being there for me. My parents, Rodney and Linda Schwab, who brought me to this earth to experience all my gifts and graces. My dad has been my amazing prayer warrior and has taught me to do what makes me happy even if it involves being in school for the past 10 years! My mom has also been my rock and my light. She is such wonderful list ener and such an encouragement to me. I just want to thank mama and daddy for th eir love, gifts, and prayers. I want to thank my other family members, es pecially the two most awesome brothers and the most beautiful sister anyone can possibl y have, and who were supportive beyond belief, Chad, Richard, and Becky I thank you all fo r always being on my side and being and a

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5 constant source of smiles. I also want to exte nd my special thanks to my sisters-in-law Dana (YFSNL) and Jennifer and to all of my ni eces and nephews Reece, Julie Ann, Tanner, Caroline, Trevor, Cole, and Fletcher. I love you each and every one of you. I also want to send heart-felt thanks to my social support network thats seen me through this entire journey. Ch ris Wirth I thank you for your consta nt encouragement, good and not so good advice, amazing editing skills, and great laughs Without your presence the last five years school would have been boring and unbearable and my office would have been way too organized. Thanks for expanding my knowledge and love of PE and for all the great memories of graduate school. I want to thank Beth Johnson without you I dont think I would have been able to survive all those statisti cs classes. Amanda Foote your smile and special treats made coming to school enjoyable. Thanks for listeni ng to me complain and for always being so willing to help. I want to thank Matt Buman for a ll of his time and effort he put in helping me finalize this project. Without you I would still be stuck in da ta analysis purgatory. Lisa Emmerich and Melissa Cox my faithful editors. Thank you both so much for catching all of my typos and for not making fun of my spelling di sabilities. I also want to thank our amazing Life Group Alex and Andrea Hart, Chris and I vy Dix, Garrett, Audrey, and Ashton Jones, and Patrick, Jeanne and Luke Moran. Your prayers, support, long talks, and yummy dinners all helped me to get to where I am today. I love you all so very much. And with great honor, apprecia tion, and all of my heart I want to thank my husband Mark David Batia. Without you I would not have ev en attempted let alone achieve this triumph. I am indebted to you for your patience, love, and belief. You held my hand the entire way I love you. We did it!

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........9 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 Research Problem............................................................................................................... ....13 Rationale...................................................................................................................... ...........13 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....15 Delimitations.................................................................................................................. .........15 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........16 Assumptions.................................................................................................................... .......16 List of Terms.................................................................................................................. .........16 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................................................19 Exercise....................................................................................................................... ............19 Personality.................................................................................................................... ..........21 Five-Factor Model of Personality...........................................................................................23 Personality and Exercise....................................................................................................... ..25 Self-Determination Theory.....................................................................................................31 Self-Determination Theory and Exercise...............................................................................37 Personality, Self-Deter mination, and Exercise.......................................................................41 Conclusion..................................................................................................................... .........42 3 METHODS........................................................................................................................ .....46 Research Design................................................................................................................ .....46 Research Variables............................................................................................................. ....47 Study Population............................................................................................................... ......48 Instrumentation................................................................................................................ .......49 Data Collection................................................................................................................ .......52 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........53 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........55

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7 4 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......57 Participant Characteristics.................................................................................................... ..57 Personality, Self-Determinati on, and Exercise Behavior.......................................................58 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....59 Research Question One...................................................................................................59 Research Question Two...................................................................................................59 Research Question Three.................................................................................................61 Research Question Four..................................................................................................64 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........64 5 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS..............................................72 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........72 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........74 Demographics..................................................................................................................75 Research Question One...................................................................................................75 Research Question Two...................................................................................................77 Research Question Three.................................................................................................78 Research Question Four..................................................................................................83 Implications................................................................................................................... .........84 Implications for the Role of Health Educators................................................................85 Implications for the Ro le of Practitioners.......................................................................87 Implications for Future Research....................................................................................91 Limitations and Future Directions..........................................................................................93 Study Strengths................................................................................................................ .......94 Conclusion..................................................................................................................... .........94 APPENDIX A NEO FIVE-FACTOR INVENTORY.....................................................................................96 B BEHAVIORAL REGULATION IN EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE-2..............................99 C LEISURE TIME EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE..............................................................101 D DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION....................................................................................102 E UNIVESITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIO NAL REVIEW BOARD APPLICATION......103 F PARTICIPANT INFORMED CONSENT...........................................................................107 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................108 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................120

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Five-Factor Model Domains a nd Facets and their Definitions..........................................44 4-1 Demographic distribution by age, ge nder, and race/ethnicity, and class...........................66 4-2 Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) Sc ores, Alpha Levels, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the NEO Personality Domains.....................................................................................66 4-3 Rule of Thumb for Reliability of Measurement Interpretation..........................................67 4-4 Mean ( M ), Standard Deviation ( SD ) Scores, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the LTEQ.......67 4-5 Correlations Between the NEO Doma ins and Self-Determination (RAI).........................67 4-6 MANOVA follow-ups for Gender and Race/ Ethnicity Differences on Personality, Self-Determination, and LTEQ Scores..............................................................................68 4-7 Means and Standard Deviations for Personality and LTEQ Scores..................................68 4-8 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, St andardized Regression Coefficients and ttest Statistics for Hypothesis 1...........................................................................................69 4-9 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, St andardized Regression Coefficients and ttest Statistics for Hypothesis 2...........................................................................................69 4-10 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, St andardized Regression Coefficients and ttest Statistics for Hypothesis 3 compared to Hypothesis 2................................................69 4-11 Unstandarized Regression Coefficients, St andardized Regression Coefficients and ttest Statistics for the Moderation of Personality................................................................70

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Self-determination mediating pe rsonality and exercise behavior......................................70 4-2 Moderation of personality..................................................................................................71

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10 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERSONALITY, S ELF-DETERMINATION AND EXERCISE BEHAVIOR By Abigail Schwab Batia August 2007 Chair: Jill W. Varnes Major: Health and Human Performance Because most Americans are sedentary, and obesity is of growing interest as a health concern in the United States, intervention methods for increasing exercise behavior are needed. Studies in the field of health promotion a nd exercise psychology have recently focused on determining psychological variables that influence exercise behavior. Lit tle research has been devoted to the psychological mechanisms by whic h personality traits affect health-related behaviors. One possible mechanism is motivat ion. By adopting a self-determination theory perspective it may be possible to elucidate the motivational processes by which personality traits influence engagement in health-related behaviors su ch as exercise. The focus of my study was to examine the relationship between personality and the extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-determined fashion. The findings of my study suggest that personality is associat ed with self-determination and that there are gender and race differences on persona lity and exercise behavior. Additionally in this study population, self-determination fully explains the mechanism through which the openness and conscientiousness doma ins affect exercise behavior and partially explains the mechanism through which extraversion affects ex ercise behavior. The implications are

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11 numerous for health educators, practitioners, and researchers some of which include rigorous personality and motivation education for future practitioners, proper choice and implementation of exercise programs for each specific personal ity domain, and continued research with other health behaviors. These results can guide the development of more pe rsonalized programs and interventions to facilitate adoption of exercise behavior in non-exer cisers while increasing adherence in current exercisers.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Considerable research has been devoted to th e analysis of psychosocial factors associated with the development of a variety of health behaviors over the past decade (Bermudez, 1999; Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999). In the wake of this research, one important point has become clear: the main cause of mortality can be prevented by making certain lifestyle and behavior changes (Craig, Russe ll, Cameron, & Beaulieu, 1999). Less attention, however, has been paid to the reasons and mechanisms th at explain why individua ls keep engaging or disengaging in behaviors that they know are beneficial to thei r health. Furthermore, why do individuals fail to develop habits that could in crease their quality of life and well-being? The association between sedentary lifestyle a nd all-cause mortality and morbidity is well documented (Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beauli eu, 1999) and represents one of the most prevalent behavioral health risks in industriali zed countries (US Departme nt of Health & Human Services, 1996). The physical benefits of exercise have also been well documented and include a reduced risk of diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, bone density loss, premature death, as well as improvement in weight management and overall fitness (Bouchard, Shephard, & Stephens, 1994; Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Research s uggests that the benefits of regular exercise extend beyond the primary preven tion of chronic physical diseases, as regular exercise has been demonstrated to improve me ntal well-being and quali ty of life (Courneya, Mackey, & Jones, 2000). Despite the health threats posed by inactivity, research indica tes that 60% of the population remains insufficiently active to receive health benefits from p hysical activity and 25% of the population is considered sedentary (Stephens & Caspersen, 1994; US Department of Health & Human Services, 1996). Furthermore, the attritio n rates from structured exercise programs

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13 remain high. About 50% of exercise participants terminate their involvement within the first six months of enrollment (Craig, Russell, Camer on, & Beaulieu, 1999). Thus, understanding the individual factors that influence adherence to an exercise regimen will aid in implementing effective intervention strategies. Research Problem Studies in the field of health promotion a nd exercise psychology have recently focused on determining psychological variables that influence exercise behavior. Li ttle research, however, has been devoted to the psychological mechanisms by which personality tr aits affect healthrelated behaviors (Bermudez, 1999; Hoyle, 2000) One possible mechanism is motivation. Researchers have examined the association betwee n personality traits and exercise participation motives, but it is hard to discer n a consistent pattern in the fi ndings. The study of such surface motives does not in itself reveal much about th e underlying motivational pr ocesses. By adopting a self-determination theory perspective it may be possible to elucidate the motivational processes by which personality traits influence engagement in health-related behaviors such as exercise. Therefore, the focus of this study is to exam ine the relationship between personality and the extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-determined fashion. Rationale Current research (Li, 1999; Wilson, Rodgers & Fraser, 2002) and commentary (Vallerand & Perreault, 1999) has highlighted the importan ce of understanding the motivational processes that regulates exercise initiation and persistence. One theoretical approach that holds appeal for understanding exercise motivation is called se lf-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). SDT proposes that persistence behavior and psychological wellbeing are regulated via mechanisms reflecting th e quality of motivation toward a particular activity (Ryan & Deci, 2000). SD T is founded on the premise that there are innate psychological

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14 needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness and it also recognizes a distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivati on. Rather than simply contra sting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, SDT posits a differentiated view of ex trinsic motivation. The theory proposes that there are different ways in whic h a persons behavior can be regul ated and that these different forms of behavioral regulations form a con tinuum of self-determination. The continuum includes amotivation, external regu lation, introjected regu lation, identified re gulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic regulation. Behavioral regulation within the exercise domain is assessed by the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2; Markland & Tobin, 2004). In addition to the BREQ-2, a Relative Au tonomy Index (RAI; Ryan & Connell, 1989) is computed to represent overall self-determination of participants. Research aimed at identifying reasons for exercise also occurs in the context of associated personality traits. Personality characteristics are i ndividual differences that predispose, or facilitate, the development and preservation of certa in patterns of behavior (Bermudez, 1999). In addition, the identification of such variables and the analysis of their association with different kinds of behavior permit researchers to assess an individuals vulnerabil ity and facilitate the identification of variables on which to focus to imp rove their health. It is valuable to include personality traits when researching exercise motivation because those traits can provide the framework within which motivation occurs (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985). The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality is a version of trait theo ry that views humans as people with consistent and enduring individu al differences (McCrae & John, 1992). The five personality dimensions of the FFM are Neuro ticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. One major advantage of the FFM is that it provides a comprehensive yet parsimonious taxonomy of personal ity traits. Still, it is not believed that the

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15 five-factor factors exhaust personal ity but rather represent personal ity at the highest hierarchical level of trait description (M cCrae & John, 1992). The FFM is assessed using the NEO-FiveFactor Inventory (NEO-FFI) developed by Costa and McCrae (1992). To date, few research designs have combin ed the three variables personality, selfdetermination and exercise. This study aims to di scern whether an individu als personality type influences their self-determination relative to th eir exercise behavior (i .e., does one personality type show higher or lower levels of self-determination than the othe r four types?). If personality is linked to other known determinants of exerci se such as motivation, participants can be matched to exercise programs that meet their needs. Additionally, interventions to maximize exercise adherence could be deve loped based on personality profiles. Lack of such research and the plausible relationship between these variable s establishes a need a nd provides the rationale for conducting this study. Research Questions 1. Is there an association between personality and self-determination? 2. Are there gender and/or race/ethnicity diffe rences on personality, self-determination and exercise behavior? 3. Using self-determination theory as a framewor k, do participants self-determination scores mediate the relationships be tween aspects of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and consci entiousness) and exercise behavior? 4. Do elements of the Five-Factor Model of personality moderate relationships between participants self-determination sc ores and exercise behavior? Delimitations This study utilized a cro ss-sectional, paper-pencil, survey research design. Participants aged 18 and older, were university students enroll ed in classes at a large, public university in north central Florida. Data was collected in calendar year of 2007. Participants were able to read and unde rstand the directions, the questions, and their respective response options necessary to complete the questionnaire.

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16 The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) was used to assess the personality type of participants. The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Qu estionnaire 2 (BREQ-2; Markland & Tobin, 2004) was used to measure self-d etermination of participants. In addition to the BREQ-2, a Relative Autonomy Index (RAI) was computed to represent overall self-deter mination of participants. The Leisure Time Exercise Questionna ire (LTEQ; Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986) was used to assess weekly frequency of m ild, moderate, and strenuous exercise. A Demographic Questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information about participants. Limitations The use of self-report surveys may lead part icipants to provide responses that they believe are socially desirable. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey design reflects responses from participants at a specific point in time and therefore cannot establish causation. Findings in this study cannot be generalized to other populations of college students. Volunteers who participated in the study may not represent all college students at a large, public university in north central Florida. Data collected during calendar year 2007 may differ from data collected during other time periods. Demographic information obtained by the de mographic questionnaire may not capture all pertinent information about participants. Assumptions Volunteers who agreed to partic ipate in the study are considered adequate to represent college students at a large, public un iversity in north central Florida. Data collected during the calendar year 2007 is considered adequate for the purpose of the study. The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory is considered adequate to addre ss personality type among participants. The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Ques tionnaire 2 is cons idered adequate to determine the self determination of participants as exercisers. Demographic information obtained by the Demographic Questionnaire is considered adequate to describe study participants. The research design is considered ap propriate for the purpose of the study. List of Terms Agreeableness: A personality type under the Five-Factor Model characterized by trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, and tender-mindedness (McCrae & John, 1992).

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17 Amotivation: Not acting at al l or acting without intent re sulting from not valuing the activity, not feeling competent, or no t expecting it to yield a desired outcome (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Autonomy: A basic psychological need in which the feeling of volition that can accompany any act, whether independent or dependent, collectivist or individual (Frederick & Ryan, 1993). Competence: A basic psychological need which concerns peoples i nherent desire to be effective in dealing with th e environment (White, 1959). Conscientiousness: A personality type unde r the Five-Factor Model characterized by order, dutifulness, achievement-striv ing and self-discipline (McCrae & John, 1992). Exercise: Planned, structured, and repetitive physical acti vity that is done with the purpose of maintaining or impr oving physical fitness or health (Sallis & Owen, 1999). External Regulation: The most controlling form of external motivation outlined within the Self-Determination Theory, involving participation in a behavior to satisfy an externally imposed dema nd or to obtain an instrumental reward (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Extrinsic Motivation: The performance of an ac tivity because of pressure from significant others or the desire to avoid th e negative (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Extraversion: A personality type under th e Five-Factor Model characterized by a keen interest in other people and external events, positive affect, activity, assertiveness, and ex citement-seeking (McCrae & John, 1992). Identified Regulation: Occurs when a behavior is valued and deemed important or useful by the individual and is perceived as being chosen by oneself (Deci & Ryan, 1990). In-active: Not performing a ny physical activity or activit y during work or leisure time that does not exceed half an hour per week, such as those in clerical jobs (Al-Asfoor Al-Lawati & Mohammed, 1999). Integrated Regulation: The most autonomous form of extrinsic motivati on that occurs when identified regulations are fully assi milated to the self, meaning they have been evaluated and brought into congruence with ones other values (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Intrinsic Motivation: The perfor mance of an activity for the inherent satisfaction of the activity itself (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

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18 Introjected Regulation: The second type of exte rnal motivation that is characterized by taking in a regulation but not fully accep ting it as ones own (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Leisure-Time: Freedom provided by the cessati on of activities; esp ecially time free from work or duties (Merriam-Webster, 2006). Neuroticism: A personality type under the Five-Factor Model characterized by anxiety, depression, self-consciousne ss, and vulnerability (McCrae & John, 1992). Openness to Experience: A personality type under the Five-Factor Model characterized by openness to fantasy, feelings, ideas, values, aesthetics, and action (McCrae & John, 1992). Personality: Stable sources of individual di fferences that predispose, or facilitate, the development and preservation of certain patterns of behavior (Bermudez, 1999). Physical Activity: Any moveme nt that results in the use of energy and usually involves the use of large muscle groups (Sallis & Owen, 1999). Relatedness: A basic psychological need in which one feels they have satisfying and supportive social relationship s (Frederick & Ryan, 1993). Sedentary: Undertaking little to no leis ure time physical activity (Youssef, AbouKhatwa, & Fouad, 2003). Self-Determination: A relative ly enduring aspect of a pers ons personality which reflects being more aware of their feelings a nd their sense of self, and feeling a sense of choice with respect to th eir behavior (Thrash & Elliot, 2002).

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19 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Exercise Increasing physical activity is a major goa l of Healthy People 2010, the U.S. national health promotion and disease prevention object ives (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2000). The Report of the Surgeon Ge neral (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services) indicated that more than 60% of U.S. a dults are not regularly phys ically active and that 25% of U.S. adults do not participate in any phy sical activity. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, completed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2001 to measure leisure time, transportation, and househol d physical activity, found that nearly 55% of U.S. adults were not active enough to meet the exercise recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). A number of expert groups, such as the American College of Sports Medicine, the National Institutes of Health and the Center s for Disease Control and Prevention, have introduced exercise recommendations There is a debate over whet her these guidelines should be for maximal fitness level, which would result in th e greatest health benefits, or for an activity level realistically attainable by the general public that is s till of high enough for intensity, frequency, and duration to lead to some health bene fits. Most researchers in the field (e.g., Sallis & Owen, 1999) have agreed upon the definitions of the following terms used in the guidelines: Physical activity is any movement that re sults in the use of energy and usually involves the use of large muscle groups, whereas exercise is planned, structured, a nd repetitive physical activity that is done with the purpose of maintaining or improving physical fitness or health. Exercise and physical activity are often m easured in terms of metabolic equivalents, called METs.

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20 Resting required the energy equiva lent of one MET (Sallis & Owen). Moderate activity has been defined as activity that requires th ree to six times as much energy as rest (3-6 METS), which for most people is equivalent to br isk walking. Vigorous activity has been defined as activity that requires at least seven times as much energy as rest ( 7 METs), which for most people is the equivalent of jogging (Blair, Kohl, Gordon, & Paffenbarger, 1992). In 1990, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommended aerobic training 3 to 5 times a week for 20 to 60 minutes at an intensity of 60 to 90% of maximal heart rate (i.e., moderate to high intensity) plus twice-weekly resistance training (American College of Sports Medicine, 1990). These guidelines are among the traditional recomme ndations to achieve ideal aerobic fitness. Despite these recommendations, evidence accumulate d that indicated that many Americans were still sedentary. In addition, research suggests th at, although greater levels of activity led to the lowest risk of dying, the greatest increase in health benefits resu lted when the least active and fit became moderately active and fit (Blair et al., 1992) Even a modest level of physical activity at moderate intensities can be healthy (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The prevalence of physical inactivity is highe r in women than in men, but it is highest among minority women. However, it has been show n that women are less active than men in all racial or ethnic groups (Valerie, 2000). Differences in race/e thnicity show that minorities suffer disproportionately from chronic diseases that are more commonly observed among persons who are physically inactive (Crespo, 2000). While information about biological and genetic predispositions could explain some of these hea lth disparities, it is the interaction between societal and other environmental factors that can provide better clues on how to reduce the levels of physical inactivity observed in minor ity populations (Kjels s & Augestad, 2004).

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21 Crespo, (2000) found the highest prevalence of physical inactivity among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans. The prevalen ce of physical inactivity among both Mexican American men and women of any age group is greater than the prevalence of physical inactivity observed among non-Hispanic whites ages 70 to 79 years. Physical inac tivity increases as people get older, but for Mexican Americans, pa rticipation in physical inactivity during leisure time is very high very early in their adult lives. Of the adults who start an exercise program 60% will drop out during the first six months (Morgan & Dishman, 2001). Thus, se dentary behavior is a major health problem in the United States. As a result, researchers have examined the determinants of adults exercise behavior in an attempt to understand how to increase adherenc e to physical activity or exercise (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985; Oman & King, 1998). In fact, there are more than 300 studies examining exercise determinants (Sallis & Owen, 1999; Trost, Owen, Bauman, Sallis, & Brown, 2002). Understanding the individual factors, such as personality and motivation, that may influence adherence to an exercise regimen will aid in implementing effective intervention strategies. Personality Personality is defined as t he underlying, relatively stable psychological structures and processes that organize human e xperience and shape a persons actions and reactions to the environment (Lazarus & Monat, 1979, p. 1). Persona lity is the sum total of all the behavioral and mental characteristics that make an indi vidual unique (WordReferen ce.com, 2006). Thus, personality includes social (e.g., extraversion and impulsiveness), perceptual (e.g., openness), and cognitive (e.g., neuroticism) characteristics (Gill, 2000). Several years ago, researchers suggested that there may actually be a healthy personality (Marshall, Wortman, Vickers, Kusulas, & Hervi g, 1994). Thus, personality may play a role in

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22 health maintenance and promotion. Marshall and colleagues suggested that the broad personality domains of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness can provide an adequate and valuable initial organizing framework for research aimed at understanding linkages between pers onality and health (p. 282). In other words, do people who engage in healthy behaviors share common pers onality characteristics that unhealthy people do not display? In particular, exerci se is one of the healthy behavior s that is being investigated to determine if individuals with spec ific personality characteristics are more likely to exercise than others (Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999). Past research in the relationshi p of personality and exercise has focused on either specific personality traits including self -esteem, self-motivation, and locus of control (e.g., Dishman, 1983; Dishman & Steinhardt, 1990; Sullum, Clar k, & King, 2000) or more global personality dimensions through the use of measures such as Eysencks Personality Inventory (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985) and Cattells Sixteen Personality Questionnaire (Cattell & Eber, 1964). The main problem faced by this kind of research is the use of a large diversity of personality constructs, frequently redundant and measured w ith different instruments (Smith & Williams, 1992). In recent years, a significant consensus has b een reached about the use of the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) as a framew ork for research on the relationships between personality and health, including exercise beha vior (Bermudez, 1999; Smith & Williams, 1992). The resulting research has demonstrated how the FFM incorporates most of the research results generated from other theoretical models and asso ciated with the dimensions of Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Li kewise, this research has shown that the dimensions of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness are relevant for the de velopment of healthy

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23 behavior and the achievement of higher leve ls of physical welfare (Costa & McCrae, 1980; McCrae & Costa, 1990). Five-Factor Model of Personality The current dominant framewor k for studying personality is th e Five Factor Model (Costa & McCrae, 1992), which contains th e following five domains that explain personality the most: neuroticism, openness to experience, consci entiousness, extraversi on, and agreeableness (McAdams, 1994; Marshall et al., 1994; Paunonen & Ashton, 2001; Wiggins & Trapnell, 1997). These five broad domains provide a parsimonious yet reasonably comprehensive representation of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Neur oticism is the tendency to experience negative affect and emotional distress. Extraversion is the disposition toward positive emotions, sociability and excitement. Openness to experience is characterized by a willingness to entertain new ideas and unconventional values. Agreeablene ss is the inclination to be agreeable and altruistic. Finally, conscientiousness is the te mperament of a strong-willed, determined and organized individual. Currently, the dominant measure used to a ssess personality is the 240-item NEO-PI-R, which is based on the FFM and assesses the fi ve personality domains (neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness ). Additionally, the NEO-PI-R assesses six facets within each of the five domains (Costa & McCrae, 1992). These facets explain and provide insight into the composition of each domai n. That is, the neuroticism domain contains the following six facets: anxiety, angry hostilit y, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability; while the extraversion facets are warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions. The openness to experience facets are fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values. The agreeableness domain facets are trust, straightforwardness, altr uism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness. Finally, the

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24 conscientiousness domain facets are competence, or der, dutifulness, achievement striving, selfdiscipline, and deliberation (see Table 2-1 for a brief description of each of the FFM facets). Within the trait or variable-centered approach, the FFM is currently the most influential and there is growing evidence for the cross-cultur al universality of thes e dimensions (McCrae & Allik, 2002). Studies of indigenous trait lexicons also provide support for FFM dimensions in a variety of languages and cultures (Saucier, Hamp son, & Goldberg, 2000). For example, in the Philippines there is support for the FFM in bot h lexical studies (Church, Katigbak, & Reyes, 1998) and in studies that have applied indigenous and imported i nventories (Katigbak, Church, Guanzon-Lapena, Carlota, & del Pilar, 2002). There is now considerable evidence that th e Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PIR; Costa & McCrae, 1992) provides reliable and valid measures of personality traits in a wide variety of cultures, from Zimbabwe to th e Russian Arctic ( Draguns, Krylova, Oryol, Rukavishnikov, & Martin, 2000; Pi edmont, Bain, McCrae, & Costa, 2002). Using translations prepared by psychologists from around the world, the American factor structure has been replicated in a wide range of cultures (Rolland, 2002). Gender differences (Costa, Terracciano, & McCrae, 2001) and maturational tr ends (McCrae et al., 1999) on FFM scales have also been widely replicated. In general, these studies suggest that the NEO functions much the same in all cultures. However, there are also some cross-cu ltural differences: Standard deviations of NEOPI-R scales are consistently smaller in Asian countries than in the West (McCrae, 2002), and gender differences are less marked among Asians and Black Africans than among Americans and Europeans (Costa et al., 2001). To reduce participant burden, a 60-item version of the NEO-PI-R called the NEO-FiveFactor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was developed (C osta & McCrae, 1992). The NEO-FFI assesses the

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25 five broad personality domains by using one question from each facet from the NEO-PI-R. As with many questionnaires with a short and long fo rm, the long form allows for greater insight into each personality domain and is more reli able than the short form (Costa & McCrae). Personality and Exercise In a recent review of exercise and personality literature ( N = 44 studies), Hagan (2004) found that personality was rarely defined in st udies, and there were a variety of assessment instruments used to measure both personality and exercise. The variety of questionnaires used demonstrates an inconsistency in the defin ition and conceptualizat ion of personality. For example, eight different personality assessments were used (i.e., Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, NEO, Adjective Checklist, Sy mptom Checklist, Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist, Cattells Sixteen PF, Type A Pers onality, and the MMPI), with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire being the most comm only used. The questionnaires developed to assess personality differ in length and type of as sessment. For example, some measures have 60 items while other have 500 items (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943). Additionally, the array of scales /dimension assessed include pers onality facet ranges from three (Eysenck Personality Questi onnaire; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964) to 25 (Adjective Checklist; Gough, 1952). The wide array of personality questi onnaires makes it difficult to compare results across studies. In terms of the exercise measures, six physic al activity measurements appeared equally in the literature. Most of these measures were au thor-developed. One problem identified was a lack of uniformity in the definition of regular exercise That is, regular exer cise has been defined by governing bodies of physical activity and medicine but these definitions are rarely used in personality and exercise research. For example, a few studies have used the number of bouts an individual exercises during the week without reference to a tim e interval or the number of

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26 sessions in a month while some st udies did not define regular exercise (Brunner, 1969; Francis & Carter, 1982; Iannos & Tiggemann, 1 997). Also, a standardized measure of exercise has not consistently been employed (Arai & Hisamich i, 1998; Bamber, Cockerill, & Carroll, 2000; Chapman & DeCastro, 1990; Goldberg & She ppard, 1982; Iannos & Tiggemann, 1997; Schnurr, Vaillant, & Vaillant, 1990; Yates, Shisslak, Allende r, Crago, & Leehey, 1992). The difficulty is that the instruments may not be reliable and valid, making comparisons across studies questionable. About 50%cent of the studies examined whet her differences in personality occurred between active and non-active individuals, a cl assification based mos tly on author-developed questionnaires. Additionally 83% of the studi es reviewed found that active people reported higher levels of extraversion than inactive people, and that inactive people reported higher levels of neuroticism than active people. Some of this literature will be reviewed in more detail below. For example, Arai and Hisamichi (1998) examined the relationship between exercise and personality. Participants ( N = 22,448) completed the Japanese short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985) and a self-report authordeveloped exercise questionnaire assessing freq uency of exercise per week. Bivariate correlations were used to examine the data a nd an analysis of cova riance was conducted to control for possible confounding fact ors of age, marital status, and education. They found that high levels of extraversion were positively rela ted to exercise, and high levels of neuroticism were positively correlated to not exercising. A lim itation of this study, however, was its lack of a standardized exercise measure. In a study using all standardized measures Mathers and Walker (1999) examined the relationship between extraversion and exercise behavior among 36 unive rsity students. The

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27 students completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964), the Commitment to Physical Exercise Scale (Cor bin, Nielsen, Bordsdorf, & Laurie, 1987) and the Negative Addiction Scale (Haile y & Bailey, 1982). Based on the students responses to the physical activity measures, they divided the samp le into exercisers and non-exercisers. Group differences were analyzed with planned orthogonal comparisons w ithin analysis of variance. They found that the exercise gr oup scored higher on extraversi on than the non-exercise group. This study, however, is limited by its small sample size, which limits the generalizability of the results. Additionally, a measure of exercise beha vior was not used, but rather an attitude about exercise. To date, few studies have investigated the rela tionship of exercise behavior to the FiveFactor Model (Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999; Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Giacobbi, Hausenblas, Frye, 2005; Rhodes & Courneya 2003; Rhodes, Courneya, & Hayduk, 2002; Watson & Pennebaker, 1989). The model is derived from trait theory and perceives humans in the context of consistent and enduring individu al differences. Although it does not provide an exhaustive description of personality, theorists of the model believe that the five factors provide representation of personality at the highest level of trait desc ription (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Therefore, it seems that the FFM may cont ribute something to the knowledge about the relationship between personality and exercise be havior beyond the global measures and specific traits comprising the majority of past research. Using a standardized measure of exercise be havior, Courneya, Bobick, and Schinke (1999) conducted two studies assessing personality a nd exercise. In the first study, female undergraduate students ( N = 300) completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986) and the NEO-FFI to assess the FFM of personality (60 items; Costa &

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28 McCrae, 1992). Hierarchical regression analysis wa s used to examine both sets of data. Positive correlations emerged for extraversion and cons cientiousness, and a negative correlation for neuroticism, with exercise. In the second study ( N = 67), women participated in an 11-week exercise program, and their attendance was moni tored. Based on their responses to the NEO-FFI and their class attendance, a si gnificant positive association between exercise and extraversion and conscientiousness was found. In another study with similar measures, Courneya and Hellsten (1998) examined exercise behavior and personality us ing the FFM with 264 undergraduate students. The NEO-FFI, Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and aut hor-developed exercise preference questionnaire were used to assess personality, exercise, and exercise preferences, respectively. Pearson correlations were computed along with multivaria te analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. A negative correlation with exercise was found for neuroticism, and positive correlations were found for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, regression analysis revealed that none of the five domains were statistically si gnificant predictors of exercise behavior. For exercise preferences, C ourneya and Hellsten (1998) f ound that all the NEO domains were related to some aspect of preferences. More specifically, individuals who scored high on extraversion preferred to exercise in a group rather than alon e and they also enjoyed supervised sessions more than the self-directed sessions preferred by individuals who scored lower on extraversion. Additionally, i ndividuals scoring high on openness preferred to exercise outdoors more than indoors compared to those scori ng low on openness, while those scoring high on agreeableness favored aerobics more than weight-training compared to those who scored low on agreeableness. Those who preferred high-intens ity exercise scored lower on neuroticism and higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred moderate intensity, and individuals who

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29 preferred scheduled exercise scored lower on openness and higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred spontaneous exercise. A lim itation of this study was using the short version of the NEO versus the longer ve rsion and an author-developed measure of exercise preferences that was not tested for reliability and validity. Rhodes, Courneya, and Hayduk (2002) examined the moderating influence of the fivefactor model of personality on the theory of pl anned behavior (TPB) in the exercise domain. Researchers assessed personality in undergraduate students ( N =300) who completed measures of the NEO-FFI, TPB instruments, and a two-week follow up of exercise behavior. Researchers created two-group structural equatio n models of the theory of pl anned behavior using a median split for each personality trait. Neuroticism was found to moderate the effect of subjective norm on intention and Extraversion was found to moderate the effect of subjective norm on intention as well as intention on behavior Researchers also found that conscientiousness moderated the effect on the intention and beha vior relationship. Openness to Experience and Agreeableness, however, were not found to moderate the TPB in the exercise domain. From a practical perspective, this suggests that interventi ons based on normative beliefs may only benefit individuals with high Neuroticism or low Extr aversion, as these people appear to be more motivated by social pressure. In addition, Lo w Conscientiousness individuals may need special attention to get them to implement their inte ntions to actual beha vior (Gollwitzer, 1999). In another study, Rhodes and Courneya ( 2003) assessed the Five -Factor Model of personality and the theory of pl anned behavior (TPB) constructs with regard to exercise. The purpose of their study was to investigate the theo ry of planned behavior s mediating hypothesis between the five-factor model and exercise be havior. They used an extended TPB model, including concepts of affectiv e and instrumental attitude, in junctive and descriptive norm,

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30 controllability, and se lf-efficacy. To test the replicability of the findings, the research questions were examined with un dergraduate students ( N = 303) prospectively and with breast, prostate, colon, and lung cancer survivors ( N = 802), using a cross-sectional design. Personality was assessed using the NEO-FFI, exercise behavior was assessed using the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and TPB was assessed with vari ous measures. Using structural equation modeling, the results indicated th at Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness did not have significant effects for either undergraduate students or cancer survivors. Further research is needed in order to ascertain that these personality domains would not, in fact, have a significant di rect effect upon exercise behavior while controlling for the TPB. The results did, however, indicate that Extrav ersion had a significant effect for both the undergraduate students and can cer survivors. This study suggests the importance of Extraversions activity facet on exercise behavior even when controlling for a TPB model with additional social-cognitive concepts and disparate population samples. Giacobbi, Hausenblas, and Frye (2005) assessed the within -subjects association between daily life events, positiv e and negative mood states, and exerci se, as well as the moderating role of personality for the exercise/mood relations hip. Participants were recruited from undergraduate classes ( N = 106). They completed various in struments including the NEO-FFI to assess personality and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire to assess exercise behavior. Hierarchical linear modeling and th e HLM/2L computer program were used to analyze the data. Results confirmed the hypothesis that levels of exer cise would result in significant increases in positive mood states and reduction in negative mood states. The analysis of the possible moderating role of personality on the relationship between exercise and mood revealed that, with the exception of Openness to Expe rience and Conscientiousness, pe rsonality variables had little

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31 effect on this association. These results could be due to sampling issues or the limited variability on personality scores because researchers used the 60-item NEO Five-Fact or Inventory instead of the 240-item NEO Personality Invent ory Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1992). In summary, exercise and personality research has mostly examined the personality factors of extraversion and neuroticism, despite the fact that researchers have acknowledged the utility of the FFM as operationalized by the NEO for explaining and predicting health behaviors (Digman, 1994; McAdams, 1994). Thus, research that applies the NEO is n eeded. In particular, research utilizing the 60-item NE O-FFI is necessary because of the tools strong psychometric properties and its assessment of each domain to examine the re lationship between personality and exercise. Finally, most of the research ha s used unstandarized exercise measures when examining the relationship between personality and exercise (e.g., Ar ai, & Hisamichi, 1998; Bamber et al., 2000) despite the need to use standa rdized measure of exercise (US Department of Health & Human Services, 2000). Self-Determination Theory An important objective of human sciences is concerned with the development of conceptual models that predict and explain human behavior. Such models have demonstrated substantial predictive value and have helped pract itioners identify the groups of individuals that are likely to engage in social ly desirable behaviors. One a pproach that social and health psychologists have adopted to understand health -related behavior and well-being is selfdetermination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Applications of this theory have led to identification of the most essential motivational c onstructs that underlie psychological well-being as well as motivation to engage in health-rela ted behaviors. SDT is a macro-theory of human motivation concerne d with the development and functioning of personality within social contexts. The theory focuses on the degree to which human behaviors

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32 are volitional or self-determi ned (Ryan & Deci, 2000). SDT focuses on the degree to which human behaviors are volitional or self-determine d, that is, the degree to which people endorse their actions at the highest leve l of reflection and engage in th ose actions with a full sense of choice (Ryan, Kuhl, & Deci, 1997). SDT assumes that human motivation and well-bei ng are associated with the satisfaction of three psychological needs: comp etence, relatedness and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2000). At a theoretical level, the concept of psychological needs is important because it helps researchers and practitioners to identify the motivational constructs that ar e necessary for motivation, well-being and integrity (Ryan, 1995). According to SDT, a strong sense of competence, relatedness and autonomy constitutes the essential input that nurtures motivation and well-being. The need for competence concerns peoples inhere nt desire to be eff ective in dealing with the environment (White, 1959). Throughout life, pe ople engage their world in an attempt to master it and to feel a sense of effectiveness when they do. The need for relatedness concerns the universal propensity to interact with, be c onnected to, and experien ce caring for other people (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Many of lifes activ ities involve others and are directed at experiencing the feeling of belongingness. Fi nally, the need for autonomy concerns peoples universal urge to be causal agents, to experience volition, to act in accord with their integrated sense of self, and to endorse their actions at th e highest level of reflec tive capacity (deCharmes, 1968). To be autonomous does not mean to be i ndependent of others, bu t to feel a sense of willingness and choice when acting. Because these needs are essential, people tend to orient toward those situations that allow satisfaction of the needs and aw ay from those that thwart the needs (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). However, in many cases, peoples behavior is not specifically in tended to satisfy their

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33 basic needs. Rather, they do what they find interesting and personally important, and they experience need satisfaction in doing so. The concept of motivation has been studied from several perspectives (e.g., Freud, 1923/1962; Hull, 1943; Skinner, 1953) One perspective that has proven useful over the past 20 years suggests that behavior can be seen as intr insically or extrinsically motivated (de Charms, 1968; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan, 1995). Intrinsica lly motivated behaviors are those that are engaged for personal benefit, in other words, for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from performing a specific behavior. They are activ ities that people voluntarily perform in the absence of material rewards or constraints (D eci & Ryan, 1985). Playing tennis for the sheer pleasure of improving ones skill is an example of intrinsic motivation. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation pertains to a wide variety of behaviors where the goals of action extend beyond those inherent in the activity itself. Pe ople engage in such behaviors as a means to an end, not for their own sake (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Originally, it was thought that extrinsic motivation referred to be haviors performed in the absence of selfdetermination, which thus could be prompted onl y by external contingencies. However, Deci, Ryan, and their colleagues (D eci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Ryan & Connell, 1989; Ryan, Connell, & Deci, 1985) proposed that different types of extrinsic motivation ex ist, some of which are selfdetermined and may be performed through self-regul ation. According to th ese researchers, there are four types of extrinsic motivation whic h can be ordered along a self-determination continuum. From lower to higher levels of self -determination, they ar e external (non-selfdetermined), introjected (limited self-determination), identified (moderate self-determination), and integrated regulation (complete self -determination) (Mullan & Markland, 1997).

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34 Behavior that is externally regulated is t ypically undertaken because of pressure from significant others (e.g., family, friends, or doctor), or the desire to avoid the negative consequences of inaction (e.g., disapproval of ot hers). For example, some individuals may exercise to improve their health conditions because a health professional advi sed it. In this case, an activity that can or should be fun is performe d in order to avoid negative consequences (e.g., cardiovascular disease onset). The motivation is extrinsic because the reason for participation lies outside the activity itself. Furthermore, the behavior is not chosen or self-determined. External regulation may also be fu eled by a desire for rewards. In this case the motivation is still extrinsic and non-self -determined, but the instiga ting factor is the desire d reward rather than a constraint. Regardless of whet her the goal of a behavior is to obtain rewards or to avoid sanctions, the individual experiences an obliga tion to behave in a sp ecific way and feels controlled by the reward or th e constraint (Deci & Ryan, 1985). With introjected regulation individuals begin to internali ze the reasons for their actions. Thus, the source of control is insi de the individual. However, this form of internalization is not truly self-determined since it is limited to the inte rnalization of external contingencies. Rewards or constraints are now imposed by the individual and not by others. Thus an individual might say, "Ill feel guilty if I dont work out today." Beliefs and controls are now internalized, although these are not self-determined and are ex perienced as pressure and tension toward specific aims. In contrast, identified regulation occurs when a beha vior is valued and deemed important or useful by the individual and is perceived as being chosen by oneself (Deci & Ryan, 1990). Behavior is internally regulated in a self-det ermined way. An example would be an individual who exercises because they value its benefits. Th e motivation is extrinsic because the activity is

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35 not performed for itself but as a means to an end (e.g., to improve ones card iovascular health). However, the behavior is nevertheless self-deter mined: Rather than being guilted into working out, the individual chooses to do it because they feel it will benefit them. The last type of extrinsic motivation is integrated regulation. At this level, a person does the behavior willingly and self-regulation is consistent with an individual's self-concept. The focus is on how the chosen extrinsically motivat ed behavior fits in with the rest of the individual's life activities and va lued goals. To the extent that there is harmony between the behavior and the individual's other facets of his or her self, there is integration. For instance, someone exercising for integrated reasons would do so because exercising is part of what he/she is and, therefore, mainte nance of fitness is of utmost importa nce to that person. When there is conflict, however, the behavior is not integrated. It should be not ed that it is at this stage of integration that the individual experiences the greatest level of self-determination for extrinsically motivated behaviors. Apart from intrinsic and extrinsic motivati on, Deci and Ryan (1985) claim that a third construct amotivation must be considered to fully understand human behavior. Individuals are amotivated when they perceive a lack of c ontingency between their behavior and outcomes. There is an experience of incomp etence and lack of control. Am otivated behaviors are neither intrinsically nor extrinsically motivated: They are non-motivated. There are no rewards (intrinsic or extrinsic) and pa rticipation in the activity will eventually cease. Amotivated behaviors are the least self-determined because there is no sense of purpose and no expectation of reward or of the possibility of changing the course of events. In summary, there are five t ypes of regulation with varying degrees of self-determination: external regulation, introjected regulation, iden tified regulation, inte grated regulation and

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36 intrinsic regulation. Intrinsically motivated be haviors are the most se lf-determined, whereas amotivated behaviors are the l east self-determined. External regulation, introjected regulation, and identified regulation are th ree different forms of extrinsi c motivation, external regulation being the least self-determined of these types. W ith introjected regulation, the individual begins to internalize the external regu latory process but doe s not identify with it and, thus, does not experience self-determination. Finally, with identi fied regulation, the regula tory process is integrated with ones self and be havior becomes self-determined. The self-determination continuum conceptua lization allows for a more meaningful understanding of how one can simultaneously be extrinsically motivated (e.g., exercising to improve appearance, maintain fitness, or lose weight) yet feel quite self-determined in the regulation of behavior. Resear ch has shown the relevance of the continuum approach in a diverse range of settings; academic contex ts (e.g., Ryan & Connell, 1989; Vallerand & Bissonnette, 1992), couple happiness (Blais, Sa bourin, Boucher, & Vallerand, 1990), among the elderly (Vallerand & OConnell, 1989) and exerci se and sport (Biddle, Soos, & Chatzisarantis 1999; Chatzisarantis & Biddle, 199 8; Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2005; Chatzisarantis et al., 2002; Mullan & Markland, 1997; Pelletier et al., 1995; Thompson & Wankel, 1980). Numerous studies have reveal ed that motivation leads to a host of important outcomes (Vallerand, 1997). Because the different type s of regulation are hypothesized to be on a continuum from high to low self-determination, a nd because self-determination is associated with enhanced psychological functioning (D eci, 1980; Deci & Ryan, 1985), self-determination theory predicts a corresponding pattern of conseque nces. That is, the self-determined forms of regulation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) are pos tulated to bring about positive consequences, whereas the least self-determined types of regulation (external regulation and

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37 amotivation) are predicted to lead to negative out comes. Much field rese arch over the past two decades has shown this to be the case (Vallerand 1997). More specifically, studies in different life domains (e.g., health and physical activity) ha ve found that the more self-determined forms of motivation lead to greater interest, greater effort, better performance, higher self-esteem, greater satisfaction, and enhanced health. At the same time, th e less self-determined types of regulation are negatively relate d to these outcomes (Kasser & Ryan, 1996; Pelletier et al., 1995; Vallerand & Losier, 1999; Vallerand & Perre ault, 1999; Williams, Grow, Freedman, Ryan, & Deci, 1996). Self-Determination Theory and Exercise Self-determination theory has recently been used by researchers to study motivation in exercise contexts. The results have been similar to those found in other life contexts in that selfdetermined motivation to exercise has been asso ciated with more positiv e behavioral, cognitive and affective outcomes, compared with controll ing motivational regulati ons or amotivation. These studies are valuable to the exercise behavior literatu re. Thompson and Wankel (1980) tested the proposition that perceived choice is pos itively correlated to intr insic motivation. They examined the perceived choice of activities in relation to particip ation persistence in an adult womens fitness program (N = 36). Registrants in a commercial fitness program were randomly assigned to either an experime ntal or control condition. Subj ects in the control (no-choice) condition were led to believe that a program of exercise had b een assigned to them without considering their preferences. S ubjects in the experimental (choi ce) group were told that their exercise program had been designed based on th eir preferences. In actuality, both exercise programs were designed with an equal degree of activity preferences. Therefore, only their perception of choice actually differed. Attendance records over the next six-week period showed

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38 significantly higher attendance among the per ceived choice group. These findings support the proposition that self-determination is basic to persistence in physical activities. In terms of self-reported be havior, Ingledew, Markland and Medley (1998) examined the relationship between different exer cise motives and the stages of behavioral change proposed by the transtheoretical model (P rochaska & DiClemente, 1984) ( N =425). In the context of exercise adoption, the transtheoretical m odel argues that individuals m ove through five stages of behavioral change, starting from being physically inactive and e nding up as regular exercisers. Discriminate analysis was used to examine the data Ingledew et al. (19 98) found that extrinsic, especially body-related, motives were more import ant in the early stages of behavioral change, whereas enjoyment (an intrinsic motive) was im portant for progression to regular exercise patterns. However, Ingledew et al.(1998) used a descriptive questionnaire that measures motives for exercise (some of which can be high or lo w in self-determination depending on how they are operationalized), but not the underl ying motivational regulations that underpin exercise behavior. In contrast, Mullan and Markland (1997) assess ed the variations in four motivational regulations (intrinsic motivati on, identified, introject ed and external re gulation) across the different stages of change. Discriminate function analysis was used to examine the data. It was found that those individuals ( N =314) who reported that they ex ercised infrequently (preparation stage) had significantly lower scores on intrinsic motivation and identified regulation to exercise than individuals who indicated that they exercise d regularly but for less than six months (action stage), and those who exercised re gularly for six or more months (maintenance stage). No stages of change differences were found in introjected regulation and external regulation. This is surprising given that controlling behavioral regulations are more likely to be associated with maladaptive behavioral outcomes (Ryan & D eci, 2000). Unfortunately, Mullan and Markland

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39 (1997) did not assess amotivation. More resear ch is needed to exam ine whether there are significant variations in self-det ermination among the different stages of change. Such research is important to understanding why (e.g., the underlying motivational mechanisms) individuals participate or refrai n from exercising. One of the greatest challenges facing researcher s and clinicians is how to prevent relapse for those individuals who have recently started exercising. However, re search studying relapse in exercise settings has been mainly atheoretical (e.g., Sallis et al., 1990) and SDT can provide a potentially useful theoretical framework. Fo r example, Mullan and Markland (1997) suggested that controlling exercise regula tions may lead to a greater numb er of relapses from exercise compared with more self-determined types of exercise regulation. Th is is probably because those who are self-determined engage in exerci se because they find it fun or because they consider it personally important. Therefore, th ey are less likely to experience motivational setbacks than individuals who exerci se out of feelings of guilt or ot her extrinsic reas ons. In line with this argument, Ryan, Freder ick, Lepes, Rubio and Sheldon ( 1997) showed that adherence to an exercise program was associated with enj oyment and competence motives (intrinsic motives) as opposed to body appearance motives (extrinsic mo tives). However, this study did not assess the motivational regulations that underpin exercise behavior. More studies are needed to examine whether different types of exercise regulation with varying degrees of selfdetermination can predict relapse from exercise. This is important in view of the high relapse rates of exercisers (Sallis et al., 1990). Intention to continue exercise is an important outcome vari able when studying exercise behavior. Currently, there is some support for th e positive role of self-d etermined motivation in predicting intentions of childre n to be physically active (e.g., Nt oumanis, 2001; Standage, Duda,

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40 & Ntoumanis, 2003). In a recent meta-analysis of a small number of studies ( N =21), Chatzisarantis, Hagger, Biddle, Smith and Wang ( 2003) found that intentions to be physically active were negatively correlated with amotiva tion and external regu lation, and positively associated with introjected regulation, identified regulation and intrinsic motivation. In addition, path analysis of corrected effect sizes supporte d the mediating effects of perceived locus of causality on the relationship betw een perceived competence and inte ntions. However, all studies in this meta-analysis were carried out with children or with sport participan ts. More research is needed to examine whether the findings from this meta-analysis will apply to adult exercisers. This is particularly important in view of the high drop-out rates from ex ercise programs (Berger et al., 2002). The physical self plays an important role in daily functioning and well-being. This is reflected in the consistently hi gh correlations between aspects of the physical self, such as body image, with global self-esteem (Fox, 1997). SDT discusses the relationshi p between global selfesteem and motivated behavior and suggests that true self-esteem (a type of self-esteem that is stable and secure) may be developed through engaging in behaviors that are autonomously regulated and engender feelings of competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 1995). The only study that has examined the association between exercise regulations and physical self-esteem was carried out by Wilson and Rodgers (2002) with female exercisers ( N =114). Bivariate correlations indicated that exercise motives displa yed a graded pattern of relationships. It was also shown that autonomously regulated exercise motivations (intrinsic mo tivation and identified regulation) discriminated between those with high and low physical self-esteem, whereas controlling exercise regulations (introjected and external regu lation) did not. Discriminate function analysis revealed that more autonomous exercise motives correctly classified 83.3% of

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41 the high PSE group and 88.9% of the low PSE group. However, this study was conducted with young female exercisers. How the findings apply to more general populations has yet to be tested. More research is needed to examine th e extent to which differe nt types of exercise motivation may be differentially related to the physical self. Collectively, applications of SDT show that participation in exerci se and physical activity can be explained on the basis of psychological needs and, more specific ally, on the basis of behavioral regulation. Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise To date there is only one study that has explored the relationships existing among personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior. Ingledew, Markland, and Sheppard (2004) assessed attendees of a sports center ( N = 214) using personality scales (the NEO-FFI supplemented with the Eysenck Personality Ques tionnaire Psychoticism s cale), exercise selfdetermination scales (Behavioral Regulation in Ex ercise Questionnaire which measures extrinsic, introjected, identified and intrinsic forms of re gulation), and a five-item Stages of Change questionnaire. Analyses were re stricted to 182 individuals in th e maintenance stage of exercise participation. Partial correlation analysis wa s used to examine relationships between each personality scale and the self-determination scal es, controlling for othe r personality scales, gender and age. Neuroticism was associated with more introjected regu lation, extraversion with more identified and intrinsic regulation, openne ss with less external regulation, conscientiousness with less external regulation and mo re intrinsic regulation, and psychoticism with more external regulation. Limitations to this study include the use of BREQ, which does not contain a measure of the amotivation variab le, and the use of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire along with the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Eysenck, 1992). Further testing

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42 of these ideas will require studies about how pe rsonality relates to individuals progression over time along the continuum of behavioral regulation. To date, there have been no studies conduc ted on the mediational and moderational relationships among personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior. Because of this, the portion of this research study examining these relationships is by necessity exploratory. Conclusion Research examining personality and exercise is continuing to become more prevalent. Research has shown the FFM to be the dom inant framework to explain personality. Additionally, the NEO is the most popular FFM personality assessment (Saucier & Goldberg, 1998). The limited research examining the re lationship between exercise and FFM of personality has shown that some personality characteristics, specifically extraversion, are positively related to exercise. Conversely, neuroticism is negativ ely correlated to exercise. However, standardized measures need to be used to assess exercise be havior and the FFM ought to be used to evaluate personali ty, specifically the NEO-FFI. SDT is founded on the premise that there ar e innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. It also recognizes a distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. SDT proposes that th ere are different ways in whic h a persons behavior can be regulated, and that these different forms of behavioral regulati ons form a continuum of selfdetermination. The continuum in cludes external regulation, in trojected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation and intrinsic regulation. Resear ch on behavioral regulation and exercise concludes that adherence is positivel y related to more intrinsic regulation (selfdetermined) and negatively related to more extr insic regulation (non-self -determined). Also, it was found that intentions to exercise were nega tively correlated with am otivation and external

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43 regulation, and positively associated with introj ected regulation, identified regulation and intrinsic motivation. There is extensive evidence that personality traits are associated with health-related behaviors, but less evidence regarding the underl ying mechanisms. Studies have been conducted on the descriptive motives of personality and ex ercise but they do not reveal much about the underlying motivational processes. By adoptin g a SDT perspective it may be possible to elucidate the motivational processes by which pers onality traits moderate engagement in healthrelated behaviors such as exerci se. It may also be possible to determine if SDT mediates the relationship between personali ty and exercise behavior.

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44 44 Table 2-1 Five-Factor Model Domains and Facets and their Definitions NEO Facets Definitions Neuroticism Anxiety Rapid tempo, vigor ous movement, and sense of energy Angry Hostility Tendency to experience anger and rela ted states such as frustration and bitterness Depression Tendency to experience depressive affect Self-Consciousness Amount of shyness and social anxiety Impulsiveness Inability to control cravings and urges Vulnerability Vulnerability to stre ss; coping with stress a nd difficult situations Extraversion Warmth Interpersonal intimacy; cordiality and heartiness Gregariousness Preference for other peoples company Assertiveness Positive or confident in a persistent way Activity Tempo/pace of life and activities Excitement-Seeking Level of sensation seeking Positive Emotions Tendency to experience positive emotions such as joy, happiness, and love Openness Fantasy Imaginative and fantasizing Aesthetics Appreciation for art and beauty Feelings Receptivity to inner feelings and emotions Actions Willingness to try new activities and go new places Ideas Intellectual curiosity and an openness to entertain new ideas Values Readiness to reexamine social, political, and religious values

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45 45 Table 2-1. Continued Agreeableness Trust The disposition to believe that othe rs are either honest and wellintentioned or cynical and skeptical Straightforwardness The tendency to be frank and sinc ere versus using flattery and deception Altruism Active concern for others welfare Compliance Characteristic reactions to interpersonal conflict Modesty Humble and self-effacing ve rsus believing one is superior to others Tender-Mindedness Attitudes of sympathy and concern for others Conscientiousness Competence Capable, sensible, prudent, and effective Order Neat and tidy versus unmethodical and disorganized Dutifulness Governed by conscience Achievement High aspirations versus lackadaisical Self-Discipline The ability to begi n tasks and carry them through to completion Deliberation The tendency to think carefully before acting

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46 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Research Design According to Creswell (2005), research designs are the specific proc edures involved in the last three steps of the research process: da ta collection, data analysis, and report writing (p. 51). Specifically, research designs allow us to answer our research question(s) (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005). A studys design is therefore important in dete rmining whether ones findings are scientifically sound. This study employed correlational research design using specific survey measures for data collection. Cottrell and McKenzie (2005) describe corr elational research as non-experimental research that examines relationships between or among variables (p. 7). In utilizing a correlational design, the researcher must be careful to refrain from concluding a cause and effect relationship between factors. Ca usal relationships can only be es tablished by using experimental design (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005). A correlational study assumes that the researcher can first describe (by measuring or observing) each of the variables she is trying to relate (Trochim 2001). The most widely used method to collect descriptive and behavioral data in health education is the survey research design. According to Alreck and Settle (2004) a survey is a research technique where information requirements are specified, a populati on is identified, a samp le is selected and systematically questioned, and th e results analyzed, ge neralized to the po pulation, and reported to meet the information needs (p. 449). A surveys value depends on both the amount of resources devoted to it and the ca re and expertise that goes into the work. Surveys frequently take the form of questionnaires (e.g., paper-and-pencil, electroni c) or interviews (e.g., one-onone, focus group, telephone) (A lreck & Settle, 2004).

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47 The myriad strengths of survey research explain why this method is so popular among social scientists. As cited earlier, surveys can be administered through several media and can be tailored to measure a wide range of characteristics from a samp le. In addition, surveys employ a standardized method of data collection and can be designed to collect a large amount of information in a relatively short period of time (McDermott & Sarvela, 1999). Despite the usefulness of this type of researc h, survey methods have several disadvantages. One limitation of surveys is the po tential for a low response rate, as only those respondents who are accessible and motivated to complete the su rvey can become sources of data. This is especially true for self-administered surveys, wher e the investigator is not present to motivate the respondent or clarify any sources of confusion (McDermott & Sarv ela, 1999). Surveys are also limited in that they depend on direct responses from the study sample. If sensitive items are included in a survey, respondents may skip th ese items because they feel embarrassed or threatened by them or may tend to overor under-report behaviors (Alreck & Settle, 2004). Other disadvantages of survey research include lack of a comparison group and absence of a pretest for assessing cha nge scores (Aday, 1993) This study utilized a cross-sec tional, paper-pencil, survey research design. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the research design, survey data was collect ed on a single occasion (Creswell, 2005). Research Variables This study investigated multiple relationships among variables, including five variables related to personality (Neuroticism, Extraversi on, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness); one variable related to self-determination established by the Relative Autonomy Index (RAI); and one variable related to total exercise index (LTEQ). Variables were used as independent or dependent variables, depending on the individual research questions.

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48 Specifically, self-determination represented di fferent types of variables depending on the corresponding research questions. For all four research questions, personality represented independent variables. Personality was measured using the NEO-Fi ve-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). For the first and second research questions, self-determination represente d a dependent variable and for the third and fourth research questions, self -determination represented an independent variable. Selfdetermination was measured using a composite sc ore (RAI) of the items within the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionna ire 2 (BREQ-2). For the second, third and fourth research questions exercise behavior re presented the dependent variable, which was measured using a composite score of the items within the Leis ure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). The demographic variables included age, ge nder, race/ethnicity, and academic class. Age was measured as a self-reported number. Gende r was measured as either male or female. Race/ethnicity was measured as While, Black /African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic/Latino, or Other. Academic class is defined as the sc holastic status that participants currently hold at the university. This variable was measured by asking participants to indicate whether they are a freshman, s ophomore, junior, or senior. Study Population Undergraduate students were the population fo r this study. The target population was a convenient sample of undergradu ate students enrolled at a large southeastern university during the spring semester of 2007. The undergraduate st udents were awarded with extra credit as an incentive for participation in the study. E ach subject was given a one-page document with instructions and an informed consent form to si gn (see Appendix F). Instructions were available to the participants throughout th e questionnaire for reference.

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49 Instrumentation Data was collected on the variables of pe rsonality, self-determination, and exercise frequency using existing instruments that have demonstrated psychometric adequacy. The psychometrics of the scales are illustrated by inte rnal reliability, which r eflects the extent to which items measure various aspects of the sa me characteristic and nothing else summed (Portney & Watkins, 2000, p. 71), convergent va lidity, which occurs when two measures believed to reflect the same underlying phenome nonyield similar results orcorrelate highly (Portney & Watkins, 2000, p. 90), and discriminate validity, which is present when different results, or low correlations, [result] from m easures that are believed to assess different characteristics (Portney & Watkins, 2000, p. 90). Instruments for the study were selected by c onducting an extensive literature review of instruments previously used by researchers to examine personality, self-determination, and other functions and aspects of physical activity. Th e protocol for this st udy included three main instruments and sample population demographics: (1) NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Steffen et al., 2002), (2) Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (Markland & Tobin, 2004), (3) Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godi n, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986), and (4) Demographic Questionnaire. NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) The NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992) contains 60 statements (12 questions per domain) representing the following five personality domains: neuroticism, extraversion, ope nness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (see Appendix A). Each of thes e five domains has six facets. The facets for each of the domains are neuroticism (N; anxiet y, angry hostility, depressi on, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability), extraversion (E; warmth, gregarious ness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions), openness to experience (O; fantasy,

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50 aesthetics, feelings, actions, id eas, and values), agreeableness (A; trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-minde dness), and conscientiousness (C, competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-dis cipline, and deliberati on). The participants respond to each item on a 5-point scale anchored with strongly disagree (0) and strongly agree (4). The 12 items for each domain are added together to provide a total scor e for that personality domain. Higher scores represent more character istics of that domain. The NEO has adequate reliability and validity (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The NEO-FFI domain scores show good concurrent validity with the NEO-PI-R, co rrelating .92, .90, .91, .77, and .87 (N, E, O, A, C respectively; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The NEO-FFI scales show correlations of .75 to .89 with the NEO-PI validimax factors. Internal cons istency values range from .74 to .89 (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Behavioral Regulation in Exerci se Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2). The BREQ-2 is a 19item self-report measure developed to assess ex ercise regulations c onsistent with SelfDetermination Theory (Markland & Tobin, 2004) The BREQ-2 is an extension of the behavioral regulation in exer cise questionnaire (BREQ; Mulle n, Markland, & Ingledew, 1997). The BREQ contains four subscales that measure external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic regulation of exercise behavior and the BREQ-2 includes an addi tional subscale that assesses amotivation (see Appendix B). Sample items characterizing each BRE Q-2 subscale are as follows: I dont see the point in exercising (amo tivation; four items); I exercise because other people say I should (external regulation; four items); I feel guilty when I dont exercise (introjected regulation; three item s); I value the benefits of exer cise (identified regulation; four items); I enjoy my exercise sessions (intrins ic regulation; four it ems). Following the stem, Why do you exercise?, participants respond to each item on a five-point scale anchored by (0)

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51 Not true for me and (4) Very true for me. Previous research has supported the BREQs multidimensional four-factor structure (Wils on, Rodgers, & Fraser, 2002), invariance across gender (Mullen, Markland, & Ingledew, 1997), and th e ability of BREQ scor es to discriminate between physically activ e and non-active groups (Mullen & Markland, 1997). BREQ-2 subscale scores were calculated by aver aging the relevant BREQ-2 items In addition, following common practice (Ryan & Connell, 1989), a Relative Autono my Index (RAI) was computed to represent overall self-determination, such that a more positive score represented greater self-determination: RAI = [(3 Intrinsic Motivation) + (2 Identified Regulation) (Introjected Regulation) (2 Extrinsic Regulation) (3 Amotivation)]. Previous research has supported the BREQ2s multidimensional four-factor structure (Wilson, Rodgers, & Fraser, 2002), invariance ac ross gender (Mullen et al., 1997), and the ability of BREQ-2 scores to discriminate between physically activ e and non-active groups (Mullen & Markland, 1997). Wilson & Rodgers ( 2002), found the fit of the oblique five-factor measurement model implied by the BREQ-2 was deemed reasonable given the observed global fit indices ( 2 = 333.49; df =142, p < 0.01; CFI = 0.92; IFI = 0.92; RMSEA = 0.07 (90% CI =0.06 to 0.08) and the pattern of moderate-to-str ong standardized item loadings on the intended latent factors ( = 0.75; s ranged from 0.63 to 0.91). Cronbachs for all BREQ-2 subscales exceeded 0.75. Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). The LTEQ (Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986) is a self-report measure th at assesses the frequency of strenuous, moderate, and mild leisure-time exercise done for at least 20 minutes during a typical week (see Appendix C). To determine the metabolic equivalents (METS) also known as total exercise, the frequency of exercise is multiplied by the activity intensity. E ach intensity level is appointed a number that is

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52 then multiplied by the frequency [(mild*3) + (mod erate*5) + (strenuous*9)]. The values for mild, moderate, and strenuous exer cise are added to determine th e total exercise index. A high score represents a greater level of activity. The LTEQ is a reliable and valid measure of exercise behavior (Godin et al.; Jacobs Ainsworth, Hartman, & Leon, 1993). It has demonstrated a onemonth test-retest reliabil ity of .62 and concurrent validity coe fficients of .32 with an objective activity indicator (CALTRAC accelerometer), .56 with VO2max (as measured by expired gases), and -.43 with percentage body fat (as measured by hydrostatic weighing). These levels of reliability and validity compared very favorably to nine other self-report measures of exercise that were examined (Jacobs et al., 1993). Demographic Questionnaire The demographic questionnai re contained questions pertaining to age, gender, academic cla ss, and race/ethnicity (see Appendix D). Data Collection An application was submitted to the Universi ty of Florida Institutional Review Board (UFIRB) prior to beginning any portion of this study. Approval from the UFIRB indicated that the study was deemed ethical in its proposed treatm ent of participants and that it was acceptable to begin data collection. A pilot test to determine whether the format of the instruments was user-friendly was conducted due to the fact that the instruments had not been used together before. The pilot test also helped to determine the length of time it took the participants to complete all four questionnaires. A convenience sample of twen ty undergraduate studen ts was selected to participate in the pilot test. Instructions were given to the pilot test sample explaining the purpose of the pilot test and inviti ng them to participate. Those st udents that agree to participate signed an informed consent that was returned to the researcher. Feedback was also given by the pilot study participants on the user-friendliness of the survey and thei r overall thoughts. After

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53 completing the survey, responses to the pilot test questions were reviewed and used to determine if any changes were to be made to improve th e survey prior to disse minating it to the study sample (Creswell, 2005). The study used a convenience sample taken fr om general education classes during the Spring 2007 semester. The undergraduate students we re awarded extra credit as an incentive for participation in the study. A proposed sample of 400 participants was necessary in order to allow for a sufficient response rate. A cover letter was given to the sample par ticipants to explain the purpose of the study, describe what was being asked of them, and invi te them to participate. If they choose to participate they were asked to sign the informed consent that was found on the cover letter. Instructions were also availabl e to the participants throughout the questionnaire for reference. Completion of the 86-question survey re quired approximately 20 minutes. Data Analysis SPSS, version 15.0, was used to analyze the data by generating bot h descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics served to summarize the samples demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, ag e, race/ethnicity, academic clas s). The demographic variables were considered nominal, thereby allowing for th e calculation of means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages. In ferential statistics were used to answer the research questions. Research question one was answered using bi variate correlations, a method chosen because it is designed to identify the relationship between two variables by determining to what extent one variable is associated with another (Por tney & Watkins, 2000). For the first research question, bivariate correlations were calculated to determ ine if there is an association between personality and self-determination. In terms of the second research question, two separate Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were calculated to determine whether differences

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54 existed between gender and/or race/ethnicity on personality, self-determination, and LTEQ scores. Because there were significant relationships between gender and race/ethnicity among the personality domains and LTEQ scores research questions three and four were analyzed controlling for gender and race/ethni city. This relationship needs to be controlled so that the regressions calculated will reflect the true un ique relationship between personality and LTEQ and not an artifact of co llinear relationships between gender/race and LTEQ. Research question three was answered us ing multiple regression, which was chosen because it is designed to determine if the i ndependent variables can predict the dependent variable (Portney & Watkins, 2000). As far as the third research question is concerned, multiple regression was used to examine whether or not self -determination mediates the relationship between personality and exercise behavior. The method for assessing mediation was guided by Baron and Kennys (1986) mediational model. In order to test for me diation, a series of regression equations must be estimated and tested. To establish mediation, the following conditions must hold: First, the independent variable must affect the mediator in the first equatio n; second, the independent variable must be shown to affect the dependent variable in the second equation; and third, the mediator must affect the dependent variable in the third equation. If these cond itions all hold in the predicted direction, then the e ffect of the independent variable on the dependent variable must be less in the third equation th an in the second. (Baron & Kenny, 1986, p. 1177) For this question, the five personality domains served as the independe nt variable, exercise behavior served as the dependent variable, a nd self-determination was being tested as the mediator. Thus, the research hypotheses related to research question three were as follows: 1)Personality domains are related to self-determination; 2) Pers onality domains are related to exercise behavior; 3) Self-determination will me diate the relationship between personality and exercise behavior.

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55 The first step was to test whether there were statistical significant direct effects between the personality domains and the mediating variable of self-determination (Hypothesis 1). If the direct effects were statistically significant in th e first step, then the fi rst condition of mediation was met. The second step was to test whether th ere were statistically si gnificant direct effects among the personality domains and the dependent vari able of exercise beha vior (Hypothesis 2). If the direct effects we re statistically significant in the sec ond step, then the second condition of mediation was met. The third step was to test whether there were statistically significant direct effects between the dependent variable (exercise behavior) and the mediator (self-determination) as well as between the dependent variable (exe rcise behavior) and the independent variable (personality) (Hypothesis 3). If th e direct effects tested in step two were no longer statistically significant after including the mediating variable in step three, then the final condition of mediation was met. Concerning the fourth research question, multiple regression was used to examine whether personality moderates the relationship between se lf-determination and exer cise behavior. Based on this research question, the independent variab les were personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and self-determination, while the dependent variable was exercise behavior. Personality was the variable being tested for moderation. Summary Chapter 3 describes the methods that were used to examine associations between different personality types, self-determination, and exercise behavior. The chapter includes a description of the research design, the resear ch variables, the population, the instrumentation, data collection procedures, and the data analyses procedures. Data was collecte d from participants during the Spring of 2007. A total of 400 participants was desirable.

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56 Descriptive statistics were calculated to determine baseline frequency rates in each personality type, self-determination scores, and frequency rates for gender, age, race/ethnicity, and academic class. Bivariate analysis was used to analyze research questions one and MANOVA was used to analyze research question tw o. Multiple regression was used to examine whether self-determination mediat es the relationship between pers onality and exercise behavior and if personality moderates the relationship be tween self-determination and exercise behavior (i.e. research questions three and four). Analyses for all research questions were tested at a .05 significance level for

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57 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Participant Characteristics Study participants included undergraduate st udents 18 years of age or older. All participants were undergraduates enrolled at a large southeastern university during the spring semester of 2007. Data collection procedures pr oduced 369 usable surveys. Of the 392 surveys completed by participants, 23 were discarded because of excessive missing data. Age, Gender, Race and Class: Table 4-1 provides a summary of participants by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and academic class. A larg e percentage of the participants were aged 2021 (n=181, 46.2%) and 18-19 (n=152, 38.8%) with onl y a small percentage aged 22-23 (n=47, 12%), 24-25 (n=1, .3%) a nd over 25 (n=7, 1.8%). The final sample had a greater number of fema le participants (n=315, 81%), than male participants (n=72, 19%). Most participants were White (68.6%) a nd a small percentage sampled were Black/African American (10.2%), Asian (8.7%), Hispanic (7.9%), and Other (3.1%). This is not a represen tation of ethnicities in the Unite d States but it is similar to undergraduate enrollment during 2007. In this sample, males and Hispanics are underrepresented based on universit y demographics for undergradua tes, but the other groups are similar to enrollment in 2007 (female = 54%; male 46%; Whites = 66%; Hispanic = 13%; Black/African American = 9.6%; Asian 7.26%). The study sample consisted of students in vari ous academic classes. The largest academic class represented in the sample was sopho mores (n=144, 36.7%) followed by juniors (n=102, 26%), seniors (n=77, 19.6%) and freshmen (n=62, 15.8%).

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58 Personality, Self-Determination, and Exercise Behavior First, to ensure reliable measurement instru ments, internal consistency estimates were computed for each personality domain. Internal consistency estimates (i.e., Cronbachs alpha) ranged between .68 and .84 for the NEO domains (s ee Table 4-2). Because the alpha value is higher as the number of items increases, there is no set interpretation as to what is an acceptable value (George & Mallery, 2001). The general rule of thumb fo r reliability interpretations, displayed in Table 4-3, was used to interpret the alpha levels of the study measures. Thus, although the general rule of thum b would indicate questionable to good reliability, the reliability values obtained in this study are comparable to those in the NEO ma nual (Costa & McCrae, 1992). To ensure the reliability of the self-determina tion in the exercise domain measure, internal consistency estimates were computed for the Beha vioral Regulation in Ex ercise Questionnaire 2. The internal consistency of the BREQ-2 was .78. The reliability values obtained in this study are comparable to those f ound by Wilson & Rodgers (2002) ( = .75). Self-determination was calculated from a Relative Autonomy Index (RAI). RAI was computed to represent overall selfdetermination, such that a more positive score re presented greater self-determination. The mean RAI score was 9.00 (SD=5.58). RAI scores ranged from -12.75 for the lowest score to 19.25 for the highest score. The LTEQ was used to assess exercise behavior To determine the metabolic equivalents (METS) also known as total exercise, the frequenc y of exercise is multiplied by the activity intensity. The values for mild, moderate, and st renuous exercise are added to determine the total exercise index. A high score repres ents a greater level of activity. Means, standard deviations, skewness, and kurtosis scores for the LTEQ are presented in Table 4-4. Examination of the skewness scores revealed the da ta were normally distributed.

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59 Research Questions Research Question One Is there an association between personality a nd self-determination? A bivariate correlation was calculated to determine if there was an association between personality and selfdetermination in a sample of undergraduate student s. The bivariate corre lation results presented in Table 4-5 indicate that, among the sample extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and agreeableness are positively associated with se lf-determination and neuroticism is negatively associated with self-determination. According to Portney and Watkins (2000), the following criteria can be used as a general guideline for m easuring the strength of association between two variables: Correlations ranging from 0.00 to .25 indi cate little or no relationship; those from .25 to .50 suggest a fair degree of re lationship; values of .50 to .75 ar e moderate to good; and values above .75 are considered good to excellent (p. 4 94). Based on these general guidelines, the association between the five personality variables and self-determination can be considered fair to moderate. Research Question Two Are there gender and/or race/ethnicity diffe rences on personality, self-determination and exercise behavior? Two separate multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were conducted with personality, self-determination, and exerci se behavior (LTEQ) factors as the dependent variables and gender as the fixed f actor in the first and race/ethnici ty as the fixed factors in the second. In the first MANOVA, the Boxs M test for the homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices across design cells was found to be significant ( p = .019) and Levenes test of the assumption of homogeneity of variance was sign ificant for openness, conscientiousness, and LTEQ and not significant for all other dependent variables. In the second MANOVA, the Boxs M test for the homogeneity of va riance-covariance matrices acro ss design cells was found to be

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60 significant ( p = .028) and Levenes test of the assump tion of homogeneity of variance was found to be not significant for all dependent variables. For the first MANOVA, gender differences we re found on all five personality domains. Females scored significantly higher on ne uroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness whereas males scored significan tly higher on openness. Differences between males and females were also found for LTEQ scor es but there were no gender differences found on self-determination scores (RAI). Males sc ored significantly highe r on LTEQ scores than females. Data for the first MANOVA are pres ented in Table 4-6 and Table 4-7. Because significant gender differences were found among the sample for personality and exercise behavior, all of the analyses were run again with a female only sample and a male only sample. No differences in the findings were found for the female only sample on any of the four research questions and the sample size for the male only sample was found to be too small to make any significant inferences. Thus this study used the or iginal sample of 369 part icipants to analyze all four research questions. The second omnibus MANOVA test found signifi cant differences for race/ethnicity among extraversion, agreeableness, and LTEQ scores (see Table 4-6). After controlling for alpha inflation using a Bonferroni correction, post-hoc follow-up analyses were conducted to localize the effects of race/ethnicity on ex traversion, agreeableness, and LTEQ. Asians were significantly less extraverted than Whites ( p = .004). Whites were found to be significantly more physically active than Black/African Americans ( p = .000). No differences were found among race/ethnicity and agreeableness. Because there were significant relationships between gender and race/ethnicity among the personality domains and LTEQ scores all of th e following research questions were analyzed

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61 controlling for gender and r ace/ethnicity. This relationship needs to be controlled for in research questions three and four so th at the regressions reflect the true unique relationship between personality and LTEQ and not an artifact of collinear relationships between gender/race and LTEQ. Research Question Three Using self-determination theory as a framewor k, do participants self-determination scores mediate the relationships between aspects of personality (neuro ticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and exercise behavior? The method for assessing mediation was guided by Baron and Kennys (1986) mediational model. In order to test for mediation, a series of regression equations must be estim ated and tested. In this study, the five personality domains served as the independent variable, ex ercise behavior served as the dependent variable, and self-det ermination was being tested as the mediator. The order of variables can be viewed in Figure 4-1. The fo llowing hypotheses were constructed to test for mediation and guide this research question. Hypothesis 1: Personality domains are related to self-determination. Hypothesis 1 was tested using regression analysis. To te st the first conditi on of mediation using all five personality domains, multiple regression was conducted to examine the degree of association among neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness and the mediating variable. When testing a mediational model, the first step for testing condition one is to determine whether there are statistically si gnificant direct effects among th e personality domains and selfdetermination. For this hypothe sis, the mediator (self-determ ination) was regressed on the personality domains. Multiple regression coe fficients permit the researcher to tease out statistically the effects of the other personality domains. The contribution of each effect was

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62 evaluated by testing its statistical significance with t tests. In this regression, the R of .218 was statistically significant, F (8,353) =12.18, p = .000. The results indicated there were four statistically significant re lationships: neuroticism ( = -.215, t(353) = -3.97, p = .000); extraversion ( = .191, t(353) = 3.43, p = .001); openness ( = .088, t(353) = 1.80, p = .072); and conscientiousness ( = .147, t(353) = 2.80, p = .005). Because the association among neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and cons cientiousness and self-determination were statistically significant in hypothesis 1, the first condition of mediation was met. The estimated model parameters are shown in Table 4-8. Hypothesis 2: Personality domains are related to exercise behavi or. Hypothesis 2 was tested using regression analysis. To test the second co ndition of mediation using all five personality domains, a multiple regression was conducted to examine the degree of association among personality and the dependent variable. When testing a mediational model, the s econd step for testing condition two is to determine whether there are statis tically significant direct eff ects among the personality domains and exercise behavior for this hypothesis, th e dependent variable (exercise behavior) was regressed on the personality domains. The contri bution of each effect was evaluated by testing its statistical significance with F statistical tests. In this regression, the R of .217 was statistically significant, F (9,353) =10.56, p = .000. The results indicated there were three statistically significant relationships: extraversion ( = .190, t(353) = 3.27, p = .001); openness ( = .092, t(353) = 1.80, p = .072) and conscientiousness ( = .120, t(353) = 2.18, p = .030). Because the association among extraversi on, openness and conscientiousness and selfdetermination was statistically significant in hypothesis 2, the second condition of mediation was

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63 met for these three personality domain only. The estimated model parameters are shown in Table 4-9. Hypothesis 3: Self-determination will mediate the relationship betw een personality and exercise behavior. Hypothesis 3 was tested using regression an alysis. To test th e third condition of mediation using the personality domains, a multi ple regression was conducted to examine the relationships among personality (extravers ion, openness and cons cientiousness), selfdetermination and the exercise behavior. To test this hypothesis, th e dependent variable (exercise behavior) was regresse d on the significant personality domains found in step two and on the mediator variable (self-determination). The contribution of each effect was evaluated by testing its statistical significance with F statistical tests. The results indicated, after c ontrolling for the effects of the other personality domains, there was one statistically significant relationshi p: extraversion ( = .134, p = .019). To establish full mediation, the effect of personality (extraversion, openness and conscientiousness) on exercise be havior should be zero in the th ird step. Partial mediation occurs when this effect is reduced, but remain s statistically significant. After comparing the direct effects significance from step two to the significance found in step three, it can be concluded that self-determination does not fully mediate extraversion and exercise behavior. Because the direct effect of openness and consci entiousness tested in step two are no longer statistically significant after including the mediati ng variable in step thr ee, it can be concluded that the final condition of medi ation was met. A Sobel test was conducted as a follow up to ensure that the change in signi ficance found from step two to st ep three in regards to openness and conscientiousness were truly significant (p = .0; p = .01 resp ectively). The data for step three are shown in Table 4-10 and as shown se lf-determination fully mediates openness and

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64 conscientiousness and exercise behavior and pa rtially mediates extraversion and exercise behavior. Research Question Four Do elements of the Five-Factor Model of personality moderate relationships between participants self-determination sc ores and exercise behavior? Re search question four was tested using regression analysis. The method for assessing moderation was guided by Baron and Kennys (1986) moderation model. Based on this research question, the independent variables were personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openne ss, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and self-determination, while the dependent variable was exercise behavior. Personality was the variable being tested for moderation. Multip le regression was used to test whether the independent variables (personality and self-determination) were significant predictors of the dependent variable (exercise behavior). The or der of variables can be viewed in Figure4-2. A regression was computed in which three distin ct steps were stipulated. The main effect of self-determination is entered first, the main effect of pers onality is entered second, and the interaction term is entered third. The results of this calculation found that, when controlling for gender and race/ethnicity, the intera ction term did not significantly add new variance in the third step. Thus moderation cannot be interpreted from the results. None of the FFI personality domains moderate relationships between self-det ermination and exercise behavior. Table 4-11 provides a summary of these results. Summary This chapter reports findings from examin ing responses from undergraduate student participants by personality, self-determination, exerci se behavior, gender, ag e, race/ethnicity, or academic class. A sample profile was illustrated; most participants were white females, aged 1821. Findings suggest that an indi viduals score of extraversio n, conscientiousness, openness, and

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65 agreeableness are positively associated with self-d etermination and that scores of neuroticism are negatively associated with self-determination A MANOVA indicated that gender differences were found for all five personality domains a nd LTEQ scores but no differences were found on self-determination scores. The second omnibus MANOVA test found significant differences for race/ethnicity among extraversion, agreeablene ss, and LTEQ scores. Multiple regression indicated that self-determina tion fully mediates openness and conscientiousness and exercise behavior and partially mediates extraversion and exercise beha vior when controlling for gender and race/ethnicity. Finally, multiple regressi on suggests that none of the FFI personality domains moderate relationships between self -determination and exercise behavior when controlling for gender and race/e thnicity. Chapter 5 presen ts a summary, discussion, and recommendations from the study.

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66 Table 4-1 Demographic distribution by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, and class. Demographical Variables N Valid % Age 18-19 152 39.2 20-21 181 46.6 22-23 47 12.1 24-25 1 .3 Over 25 7 1.8 Gender Male 72 18.4 Female 315 80.4 Race/Ethnicity White 269 68.6 Black/African American 40 10.2 Hispanic/Latino 31 7.9 Asian 34 8.7 Other 12 3.2 Academic Class Freshman 62 15.8 Sophomore 144 36.7 Junior 102 26.0 Senior 77 19.6 Table 4-2 Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) Sc ores, Alpha Levels, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the NEO Personality Domains Domain M SD Alpha Skewness Kurtosis Neuroticism 31.92 6.61 .76 .103 -.202 Extraversion 43.47 6.02 .79 -.491 .539 Openness 38.92 5.69 .68 .018 -.206 Agreeableness 42.85 5.77 .76 -.409 .389 Conscientiousness 41.72 5.87 .84 -.204 -.254

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67 Table 4-3 Rule of Thumb for Reliability of Measurement Interpretation Alpha Value Interpretation > .9 Excellent > .8 Good > .7 Acceptable > .6 Questionable > .5 Poor < .5 Unacceptable Table 4-4 Mean ( M ), Standard Deviation ( SD ) Scores, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the LTEQ Variable M SD Skewness Kurtosis Strenuous Exercise 1.79 2.02 1.15 4.40 Moderate Exercise 2.64 2.20 .86 2.35 Mild Exercise 3.88 2.63 .45 1.16 LTEQ Total (METS) 51.56 26.63 .91 2.60 Table 4-5 Correlations Between the NEO Domains and Self-Determination (RAI) Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. RAI -.34** .36** .13* .23** .28** 2. Neuroticism -.31** -.03 -.20** -.30** 3. Extraversion .12* .39** .32** 4. Openness .03 -.09 5. Agreeableness .23** 6. Conscientiousness Note p < .05; ** p < .01

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68 Table 4-6 MANOVA follow-ups for Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences on Personality, Self-Determination, and LTEQ Scores Source Dependent Variable df Mean Square F p Gender Neuroticism 1 477.58 11.25 .001* Extraversion 1 187.28 5.42 .020* Openness 1 205.57 6.65 .010* Agreeableness 1 516.06 15.88 .000* Conscientiousness 1 282.80 7.14 .008* RAI 1 31.10 1.01 .315 LTEQ 1 3516.89 5.04 .025* Race/Ethnicity Neuroticism 4 32.81 .747 .560 Extraversion 4 147.32 4.36 .002* Openness 4 46.90 1.50 .202 Agreeableness 4 96.69 2.91 .022* Conscientiousness 4 27.56 .680 .606 RAI 4 42.23 1.38 .241 LTEQ 4 4428.68 6.66 .000* Note: p < .05 Table 4-7 Means and Standard Deviati ons for Personality and LTEQ Scores Dependent Variable Gende r Mean Std. Deviation Neuroticism Male 30.39 7.11 Female 33.45 6.38 Extraversion Male 42.07 6.60 Female 43.98 5.71 Openness Male 40.66 6.38 Female 38.66 5.37 Agreeableness Male 42.34 5.43 Female 45.52 5.76 Conscientiousness Male 43.97 7.13 Female 46.32 6.10 LTEQ Male 58.48 31.25 Female 50.19 25.28

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69 Table 4-8 Unstandarized Regressi on Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and ttest Statistics for Hypothesis 1 Variables B Std Error t p Neuroticism -.179 .045 -.215 -3.97 .000* Extraversion .179 .052 .191 3.44 .001* Openness .086 .048 .088 1.80 (.072) Agreeableness .075 .051 .079 1.48 .139 Conscientiousness .128 .046 .147 2.80 .005* Note: p < .05 Table 4-9 Unstandarized Regressi on Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and ttest Statistics for Hypothesis 2 Variables B Std Error t p Neuroticism -.247 .228 -.061 -1.08 .279 Extraversion .856 .261 .190 3.27 .001* Openness .437 .242 .920 1.80 (.072) Agreeableness -.446 .254 -.098 -1.75 .080 Conscientiousness .503 .231 .120 2.18 .030* Note: p < .05 Table 4-10 Unstandarized Regressi on Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and ttest Statistics for Hypothesis 3 compared to Hypothesis 2 Variables B Std Error t p Step 2 Extraversion .856 .261 .190 3.27 .001* Openness .437 .242 .920 1.80 (.072) Conscientiousness .503 .231 .120 2.18 .030* Step 3 Extraversion .603 .257 .134 2.35 .019* Openness .307 .235 .065 1.31 .192 Conscientiousness .337 .225 .080 1.50 .136 Note: p < .05; Change in Significance

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70 Table 4-11 Unstandarized Regressi on Coefficients, Standardized Regression Coefficients and ttest Statistics for the Moderation of Personality Model Unstandarized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients B Std. Error Beta t p 1 (constant) 38.19 2.54 14.24 .000 RAI 1.72 .239 .357 7.17 .000 2 (constant) 1.92 20.12 .095 .924 RAI 1.48 .265 .308 5.57 .000 Neuroticism .040 .220 .010 .181 .856 Extraversion .641 .258 .143 2.49 .013 Openness .423 .239 .089 1.77 .077 Agreeableness -.550 .247 -.121 -.2.22 .027 Conscientiousness .343 .247 .075 1.38 .166 3 (constant) 23.77 38.15 .623 .534 RAI -.826 3.63 -.172 -.228 .820 Neuroticism -.248 .392 -.062 -.633 .527 Extraversion .358 .519 .080 .691 .490 Openness .584 .430 .123 1.36 .176 Agreeableness -.224 .412 -.049 -.542 .588 Conscientiousness -.151 .465 -.033 -.324 .746 RAIxNeuro .033 .036 .222 .908 .364 RAIxExtra .032 .052 .310 .615 .539 RAIxOpen -.025 .040 -.219 -.635 .526 RAIxAgree -.036 .041 -.341 -.893 .372 RAIxConscien .058 .044 .539 1.32 .187 a. Dependent Variable: LTEQ Figure 4-1 Self-determination mediating personality and exercise behavior Personality SelfDetermination Exercise Behavior

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71 Independent Variables Dependent Variable 1) Personality 2) Self-Determination Exercise Behavior 3) Personality x SelfDetermination Figure 4-2 Moderation of personality

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72 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose of this study was to examine th e relationship between personality and the extent to which exercise behavior is regulated in a self-determine d fashion. Studies in the field of health promotion and exercise psyc hology have recently focused on determining psychological variables that influence exercise behavior. Limited research, however, has been devoted to the psychological mechanisms by whic h personality traits affect health-related behaviors (Bermudez, 1999; Hoyl e, 2000). Researchers have exam ined the association between personality traits and exercise participation motives but it is hard to discern a consistent pattern in the findings. The study of such surface motives does not in itself reveal much about the underlying motivational processes. By adoptin g a self-determination theory perspective, findings from this study may elucidate the motiv ational processes by which personality traits influence engagement in health-relate d behaviors such as exercise. To date, few research designs have combin ed the three variables personality, selfdetermination, and exercise. Furthermore, this study was the first to explore the mediation and moderation of self-determination on the relationships between the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality and exercise behavior Findings from this study i ndicate that an individuals personality type does influence thei r self-determination relative to their exercise behavior. Since personality was shown to be linked to other known determinants of exercise such as motivation, participants can be matched to exercise programs that meet their needs and/or interventions to maximize exercise adherence. Interventions co uld include designing physical activity programs based upon an individuals unique pe rsonality profile, such as group exercise for those that score

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73 high on extraversion, novel activities for those scoring high on openness, and highly intense activities for those scoring hi gh on conscientiousness. The research questions a ddressed in this study were: 1. Is there an association between personality and self-determination? 2. Are there gender and/or race/ethnicity diffe rences on personality, self-determination and exercise behavior scores? 3. Using self-determination theory as a framewor k, do participants self-determination scores mediate the relationships be tween aspects of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and consci entiousness) and exercise behavior? 4. Do elements of the Five-Factor Model of personality moderate relationships between participants self-determination sc ores and exercise behavior? This study took place in two stages including a p ilot test of the procedures and instruments and the administration of the approved survey. Th e pilot test was employed to assess the survey completion process. A convenience sample (n = 20) was invited to take the NEO, BREQ-2, LTEQ, and demographic questionnaire and co mment on its understandability and userfriendliness. Responses to the pilot test questions were review ed and used to determine the changes that were made to improve the survey prior to disseminating it to the study sample (Creswell, 2005). The study utilized a convenience sample take n from classes at a large Southeastern university during the spring semester of 2007. Th e undergraduate students were provided extra credit as an incentive for participation in the study. The research questions directed the data analysis. For the fi rst research question, bivariate correlations were calculated to determine if th ere was an association between personality and self-determination. For the second research ques tion, two separate Multivariate Analysis of Variance were calculated to determine whethe r gender differences exis ted, as well as the

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74 presence of race/ethnicity differences on pers onality, self-determination, and exercise behavior scores. Research questions three and four were answered using multiple regression. For research question three, multiple regression was used to examine whether or not self-determination mediates the relationship between personality a nd exercise behavior. The five personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agr eeableness, and conscientiousness) served as the independent variables, exercise behavior served as the dependent variable, and selfdetermination was being tested as the mediator. For the forth research question, multiple regression was used to examine whether or not personality moderates the relationship between se lf-determination and exer cise behavior. Based on this research question, the independent variables were the five personality domains and selfdetermination, while the dependent variable was ex ercise behavior. Person ality was the variable being tested for moderation. Discussion The health benefits of regular moderate physical activity have been well-established (Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006), yet par ticipation rates ac ross the population are generally too low to accrue these benefits (US Departme nt of Health & Human Services, 1996). Thus, promotion of physical activity is a public health priority. Understanding the antecedent correlates of participation in physical activity is considered a useful firs t-stage endeavor to focus on intervention efforts. Research has provided evidence that physical activity participation is related to many factors spanning personal, social, and environmen tal categories (Trost et al., 2002). The personal factors that have received co ntinued, albeit modest, attention in exercise and health psychology are personality and motivation. Theref ore, understanding the i ndividual factors that influence exercise behavior will aid in implementing effective intervention strategies. In

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75 response to this need, this study provides a de eper knowledge of the demographic, personality, and self-determination variables associated with exercise behavior and o ffers insight into the underlying motivational mechanisms that influe nce personality and ultimately the exercise behaviors of individuals. The following sections provide a discussion of these findings. Demographics This sample consists primarily of white fe male undergraduate students. This is not a representation of ethnici ties in the United States but it is similar to that of undergraduates enrolled at this university during 2007. In this sample, males and Hispan ics are underrepresented based upon university demographics for undergraduate s, but the remaining groups are similar to university enrollment in 2007. The majority of the participants were aged 20-21 with a sophomore academic class standing. This is consis tent with the enrollment of the courses that were surveyed. Because of the exploratory theo retical nature of this study the representation found within this convenience sample was considered adequate. The measures used in this study were found to be valid instruments. Both th e NEO-FFI and BREQ-2 indicated questionable to good reliability. Research Question One Research question one states Is there an association between personality and selfdetermination? A bivariate correlation was calculated to determine if there was an association between personality and self-det ermination in a sample of unde rgraduate students. Among the sample, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness and agreeableness are positively associated with self-determination. This demonstrates th at as an individuals score on extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, or agreeableness incr eases, their self-determina tion does as well. It was also found that neuroticism was negatively associated with self-determination. As an individuals neuroticism score increases, their self-determination decreases. Thus, highly

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76 extraverted, conscientious, open, and agreeable indi viduals are more likely to be motivated in a self-determined fashion towards exercise than a highly neurotic i ndividual. These findings are supported by previous research (In gledew, Markland & Sheppard, 2004). The findings that neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness ar e related to selfdetermination of exercise behavior are consistent with previous evidence that these particular personality domains are related to exercise participation per se Courneya, Bobick & Schinke (1999) found that high levels of extraversion an d conscientiousness were positively related to exercise, whereas high levels of neuroticism were positively correlated to a lack of exercise. The findings for extraversion and cons cientiousness have an explanati on in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000). It is hypothesized that extr averted individuals are able to feel selfdetermined because exercise satisfies their n eed for relatedness; conscientiousness individuals are able to feel self-determined because exercise satisfies their need for competence. The finding for neuroticism may simply reflect the general te ndency of neurotic indi viduals to experience negative a ff ects (Watson & Pennebaker, 1989). Because of the significance found in research question one, personality domains can be linked to self-determination. Knowing that highly extraverted, c onscientious, open, and agreeable individuals are more likely to be self -determined (i.e., more intrinsically motivated) towards exercise than a highly ne urotic individual, programs can be established to target their motivation or lack thereof. I ndividuals, especially neurotics, can be screened and matched to exercise programs that meet their personal a nd unique needs. Interventions could also be developed to maximize exercise ad herence based upon these findings. These interpretations cannot be more than speculative, given that this study used a convenience sample and research has only just begun to examine the relationships between

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77 personality domains and self-determination. Furthe r testing of these ideas will require studies of how personality relates to individuals progr ession over time along the continuum of selfdetermination. More research is also needed to examine whether there are significant variations in self-determination among the different stages of change. Such research is important to understand why (i.e., the underlying motivational mechanisms) indivi duals participate or refrain from exercising. Likewise, studies examining whet her different types of exercise regulation with varying personality domains can pr edict relapse from exercise are needed. This is important in view of the high relapse rates of exercisers (Sallis et al., 1990). Research Question Two Research question two states Are there gender and/or race/ethni city differences on personality, self-determinati on and exercise behavior? Two separate multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were conducted with person ality, self-determination, and exercise behavior (LTEQ) factors as the dependent variable s and gender as the fixed factor in the first analyses and race/ethnicity as the fixed fact ors in the second. In the first MANOVA, gender differences were found on all five personality do mains. Females scored significantly higher on neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness whereas males scored significantly higher on openness. Differences be tween males and females were also found for LTEQ scores but there were no ge nder differences found on self-determination scores (RAI). Males scored notably higher on exercise behavior scores than females showing that males were engaged in higher amounts of exercise than females. The second omnibus MANOVA test found signifi cant differences for race/ethnicity among extraversion, agreeableness, and LTEQ scores. Bonferroni correction post-hoc follow-up analyses were conducted to localize the effects of race/ethnicity on extraversion, agreeableness, and LTEQ. Asians were significantly less extraverted than Whites ( p = .004) and Whites were

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78 found to be significantly mo re physically active than Black/African Americans ( p < .000). No differences were found among race/ethnicity and agreeableness. Gender as well as race/ethnicity differences for the five-factor mode l of personality are supported by previous research (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Draguns, Krylova, Oryol, Rukavishnikov, & Martin, 2000; Pi edmont, Bain, McCrae, & Costa, 2002). Within the trait or variable-centered approa ch, the FFM, is currently the most influential and there is growing evidence for the cross-cultural universality of th ese dimensions (McCrae & Allik, 2002). Studies of indigenous trait lexi cons also provide support for FFM di mensions in a variety of languages and cultures (Saucier, Hampson, & Goldberg, 2000) Gender differences (Costa, Terracciano, & McCrae, 2001) and maturational tr ends (McCrae et al., 1999) on FFM scales have also been widely replicated. It is importa nt to be aware of these differe nces when planning interventions that are based upon FFM personality domains. Ge nder and race/ethnicity di fferences can help to pinpoint variables such as personality that can de termine ways to increase adherence to physical activity for both females and Black/African Americans. The differences found among males and female s as well as race/ethnicity on exercise behavior are also supported by previous research findings (C respo, 2000; Kjelss & Augestad, 2004; Valerie, 2000). Differences in race /ethnicity show that minorities suffer disproportionately from health disparities that ar e the result of physical inactivity (Crespo, 2000). Research question two has determined that gend er and race/ethnicity differences are variables that identify elements (i.e., personality and exer cise behavior) that are influential to beginning and maintaining physical activity. Research Question Three Research question three states Using se lf-determination theory as a framework, do participants self-determination scores mediate th e relationships between aspects of personality

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79 (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experien ce, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and exercise behavior? Because significant relationships be tween gender and race/ethnicity among the personality domains and LTEQ scores were found, research questions three and four were analyzed controlling for gender a nd race/ethnicity. This relationshi p needs to be controlled for in these research questions so that the regressi ons reflect the true unique relationship between personality and LTEQ and not an artifact of collinear relationships between gender/race and personality and LTEQ. In order to test for mediation while controlli ng for gender and race/eth nicity, a series of regression equations were estimated and tested. Self-determination was being tested as the mediator. The following hypotheses were constr ucted to test for me diation and guide the research: (1) Personality domains are related to self-determination; (2) personality domains are related to exercise behavior; and (3) self-determination will me diate the relationship between personality and exercise behavior. Because the association among neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness and self-determination were statistically significant in the first hypothesis, the first condition of mediation was met. The results for the second hypothesis indi cated the associatio n among extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness and self-determi nation was statistically significant, thus the second condition of mediation was met. The re sults of the third hypothesis indicated, after controlling for the effects of th e other personality domains, there were three statistically significant relationships: extraversi on, openness, and conscientiousness It can be concluded that the relationship of openness and conscientiousness to exercise behavior was fully mediated by self-determination and the relationship of extr aversion to exercise be havior was partially mediated by self-determination.

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80 The mediation findings for extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness have an explanation in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Self-determination theory (SDT) assumes that human motivation and well-being ar e associated with the satisfaction of three psychological needs; the need for relatedness, competence, and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2000). It is speculated that extraverted individuals are ab le to feel self-determined because exercise can satisfy the need for relatedness, whereas consci entious individuals are able to feel selfdetermined because exercise can satisfy the need for competence. In the same way, the finding for openness may reflect need for autonomy. At a theoretical level, the concept of psychological needs is important because it helps researcher s and practitioners identify the motivational constructs that are necessary for motivation a nd well-being (Ryan, 1995). In the case of this study, SDT completely explains the mechanism through which the openness and conscientiousness domains affect exercise beha vior and partially explains the mechanism through which extraversion affect s exercise behavior. Extraversion Self-determination was found to partially mediat e extraversion and exer cise behavior. The extraversion personality domain de scribes one's comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to spend much of their time maintaining a nd enjoying a large number of relationships. Extraverts are inclined to lead, talk, and exer t themselves physically more often than other people. They also tend to be friendlier a nd more outgoing, thus th e association between extraversion and the SDT psycholog ical need of relatedness. The need for relatedness concerns the universal propensity to interact with, be c onnected to, and experien ce caring for other people (Baumeister & Leary, 1995).

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81 Because the need for relatedness is essential, individuals tend to orient toward those situations that allow satisfaction of the need and away from those that thwart the need (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). However, in many cases, an individuals behavior is not specifically intended to satisfy their basic needs. Rather, they do what they find interesting and personally important and they experience ne ed satisfaction in so doing. Various researchers have suggested that exercise may be linked with dispositional characteristics of the individual, such as persona lity. Courneya and Hells ten (1998) reported that exercise behavior was positively linked with extrav ersion. Personality factors were related to the different types of exercise behaviors that partic ipants adopted. Extraverts preferred to exercise with others rather than alone t hus fulfilling their need for rela tedness or satisfying an inherent desire to maintain and enjoy their relationships. However, extraversion was not fully mediated thus it needs to be addressed that other factors play a role in explaining the mechan ism through which personality affects exercise behavior. It should be noted th at extraversion was found to play a direct role in predicting exercise behavior and it had a di rect effect on self-determination. Considering these direct and indirect effects, it seems prude nt for exercise interventions to focus on increasing feelings of relatedness within participants so that there is an increased probability for self-determined motivation and exercise behavi or outcomes. Examples of interventions for extraverted individuals are discussed in the implication section below. Openness Self-determination was found to fully medi ate openness and exercise behavior. The openness personality domain addresses one's rang e of interests. Openness to experience describes a dimension of personality that distin guishes imaginative, creative people from down-

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82 to-earth, conventional people. Open individuals ar e intellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty. This explanation of openness helps to clarify the association between openness and the SDT psychological need of aut onomy. The need for autonomy concerns peoples universal urge to be causal agents, to experience volition, to act in accord with their integrated sense of self, and to endorse their ac tions at the highest level of reflective capacity (deCharmes, 1968). It also reflects a desire to engage in activities of ones choosing and to be the origin of ones own behavior. To be autono mous does not mean to be independent of others, but to feel a sense of willi ngness and choice when acting. Motivation is one of the many correlates of openness. Although the word openness may suggest a kind of passive tolerance of new experi ences, in fact open individuals are characterized by an active pursuit of novelty. Autonomy is embedded with freewill and choice and thus an open individuals ability to adapt to a new situa tion is fundamental. This is a positive attribute when it comes to exercise and adherence. Open individuals are more likely to try new activities and are thus more likely to find one that they enjoy. They are also not afraid of pursuing new situations and have more flexible attitudes. Exercise interventions for individuals scoring high on openness should focus on these asp ects of the need for autonomy. Conscientiousness Self-determination was also found to fully mediate the conscientiousness domain and exercise behavior. Conscientiousne ss is the trait of being painstak ing and careful, or the quality of acting according to the dictates of one's conscience. It includes such elements as selfdiscipline, carefulness, thoroughne ss, organization, deliberation (the tendency to think carefully before acting), and need for achievement. C onscientiousness concerns the way in which individuals control, regu late, and direct their impulses. Th e benefits of high conscientiousness

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83 are obvious. Conscientious indivi duals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence. They are also positively rega rded by others as intelligent and reliable. This description of conscienti ousness helps to explain the association between conscientiousness and the SDT psychol ogical need of competence. The need for competence concerns peoples inhere nt desire to be eff ective in dealing with the environment (White, 1959). Throughout life, pe ople engage their world in an attempt to master it and to feel the sense of effectiveness wh en they do. It also implies that individuals have a desire to experience a sense of compet ence in producing desired outcomes and to prevent undesired events (Deci & Ryan, 1985). In the area of physical activ ity this might include feeling confident enough to engage in an activity or to pursue an exercise goal. For a conscientious individual this may also include trying to prev ent an undesired health condition (i.e. heart disease or becoming overweight) through being physically ac tive. Thus, conscientious individuals are able to feel motivated in a self-determined fa shion because exercise can satisfy the need for competence. Interventions for conscientious indi viduals need to concentrate on the facets of the need for competence to be as effective as possible. Research Question Four Research question four states Do elements of the Five-Factor Model of personality moderate relationships between participants self -determination scores and exercise behavior? In this question, moderation refers to the exam ination of the statistic al interaction between personality and self-determination in predicting exercise behavior. Th is suggests that the relationship between personality a nd exercise behavior may differ at different levels of selfdetermination. In other words, personality may adversely affect exerci se behavior more under conditions of low self-determination compared to conditions of high self-determination. Most research has examined the main effect view of self-determination, namely, that the more self-

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84 determined one is, the more they are likely to part icipate in exercise. To date, the literature on these three variables has neglecte d to consider the role of sel f-determination as a moderator of the personality to exercise behavior relationship. Thus this porti on of the analysis is by necessity exploratory. Research question four was test ed using regression analysis. Personality was the variable being tested for moderation. Multi ple regression was used to test whether personality and selfdetermination were significant predic tors of exercise behavior. The results of this calculation for sample controlling for gender and race found that the interaction term (personality x selfdetermination) did not significantly add new vari ance. Thus moderation cannot be interpreted from the results. None of the FFI personality domains moderate relationships between selfdetermination and exercise behavior. Implications The endorsement of physical activity is a publ ic health priority (Trost et al., 2002). Understanding the associations between personality and motivation in the exercise domain is considered a useful approach in targeting both active and inactive individuals. Researchers have the responsibility to continue exploring anteced ent variables and strategies to ensure that individuals receive assistance in overcoming barriers and identifyi ng tendencies that limit or broaden their ability to adhere to exercise. Previous researchers suggest that past efforts have been nominal in advancing the field of st udy; however, continual efforts and focusing on underlying psychological mechanisms are impera tive for future progress (Bermudez, 1999; Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; Hoyle, 2000). This study informs the numerous ways future health education, practice, and research can collaborate to iden tify individual differen ces that affect the quality of an exercise experien ce ultimately leading to life-lo ng adherence. Recommendations and implications for the roles of educators; practitioners; and future research follow.

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85 Implications for the Role of Health Educators This studys findings provide important implicat ions for health education professionals. Research indicates that a signi ficant percentage of the popul ation needs support related to exercise, due to inadequate participation rate s (US Department of H ealth & Human Services, 1996). Health educators have a cr itical role in educa ting practitioners and those serving in the field of physical activity educat ion. Health educators are in a unique position to respond to the issues of physical inactivity and have the e xpertise and the resources to provide adequate preparation and support to future pr actitioners and educators. In spite of the limitations of this study (discussed later in th is chapter) the specif ic findings related to the association between personality and self-determination theory can be helpful in individua lizing strategies for providing education instruc tion to practitioners. Health educators are also in the position to provide the necessary resources for personality evaluation. Health educators can train heal th promoters to properly implement the NEO personality screening tool with ex ercise participants as standard procedure. This will provide practitioners with information a bout an individuals personality to help guide interventions and program choice. This insight will allow practitioners and ed ucators to alig n their training process to more effectively meet the needs of individual exercise part icipants. Educating practitioners on the scoring and in terpretation of the NEO as well as providing easy access to the necessary tools for repro duction is essential for pr actical implementation. Practitioners should also be well informed on i ssues that they will face in the physical activity setting. This study found there to be ge nder and race/ethnicity differences on exercise participation. This is vital information for a practitioner when developing exercise programs for new and current participants. Females and Bl ack/African Americans are more likely to be inactive than males and Whites. Knowing this, practitione rs can target indivi duals that are more

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86 likely to be non-exercisers or non-adherers to a program and de sign programs that anticipate these obstacles. Health educators should also instruct future practit ioners and educators on detailed ways that they can ta rget all exercise part icipants. This instruction should include information on strategies for conveying and disse minating the information obtained through the use of the NEO, specific activities that corr espond with each unique personality domain (i.e. team sports for extraversion; outdoor activities for ope nness; marathons for conscientiousness), and physical activity resources for both the pract itioner and participant (i.e. recreation parks; fitness clubs; websites). For heal th educators specializing in physic al activity, it is a professional responsibility to equip both practitioners and pa rticipants with the to ols necessary to assess factors associated with exercise participation and adherence. Furthermore, school based health educators s hould integrate the personality and motivation mechanisms of exercise into the physical educ ation and health education curriculums. This would provide for both the educators and students to be informed proactive participants in physical and health education in compliance with the National Standards for Physical Education and the National Standards for School Health Education (Joint Committee on National Health Education Standards, 1995; National Associatio n for Sport and Physical Education, 2004). Providing educators with insight to their students personality t ype by integrating the NEO into the educational curriculum increases the likeli hood of providing meaningf ul physical activity for every student. Providing indi viduals with positive physical ac tivity experience s early in life prevents the negative impression of exercise later in life thus leading to a lifetime of enjoyable activity.

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87 Undoubtedly, these recommendations will require resources and efforts to identify and respond to each unique individuals needs. Costs, particularly in time and effort are unavoidable, and are far outweighed by the cost of outcomes a ssociated with inadequate physical activity. Implications for the Role of Practitioners In becoming more aware of individuals pe rsonality and motivation differences and the affects of each on exercise, physical activity prac titioners can take many steps in encouraging participation and adherence. First, practitioners should beco me fully competent in their understanding of the relationships between persona lity, motivation and exercise behavior. This would include an awareness of all unique pe rsonality domains and the motivational needs associated with each. Practitioners should also have knowledge of the target audience and an understanding of demographic factors affecting the personality, self-determination, exercise behavior relationship. Second, health and fitnes s practitioners should become proficient in administering NEO personality assessment and be able to accurately interpret the results. Practitioners can utilize the NEO-FFI to quickly and easily identify an individuals personality type and then provide them with effective strategies to increase their exercise participation based upon their personality. In the physical activity setting, all ne w and existing participants should have their personality evaluated so that all can receive the benefits. Third, practitioners can increase participation and a dherence by appropriately provi ding necessary assistance and interventions for each unique personality type. This study found that practitioners should focus on increasing feelings of relatedness, aut onomy, and competence for extraverted, open, and conscientious individuals respectiv ely so that their self-determi ned motivation, positive exercise behavior, and exercise adheren ce for a lifetime are improved. Practitioners can utilize many simple technique s to increase participants activity levels and promote exercise adherence and enjoyment. Extraverted individual s that are lacking in

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88 physical activity need to be motivated based on thei r unique personality char acteristics. In doing so the psychological need of relatedness w ould naturally be fulfille d in participation. Extraversion concerns the differe nces in preference for social in teraction and lively activity. The seeking of dynamic physical activit y behaviors seems a logical ex tension for people scoring high in this trait, whereas the disi nterest in physical activity seems likely for those scoring low in extraversion. Research has f ound that individuals who scored high on extraversion prefer to exercise in a group rather than alone, and they also enjoy supervised sessions more than selfdirected sessions, relating directly with the need for relatedness (Cour neya & Hellsten, 1998). Knowing this, health and fitness practitioners can encourage extraverts to participate in activities that are inclusive of social in teraction and energetic activity. These might include group fitness classes, exercising with a partner/ trainer, team/social interaction s ports such as basketball, tennis, or golf, and high intensity activities such as a dventure racing and kick boxing. Social activity settings such as a comprehensive fitness center or a corporate fitness facility would serve both the physical and social needs of an extravert. These settings also provide personal training resources and various group activities that ar e appealing to an extravert. Open individuals that are not achieving ade quate physical activity also need to be supported based on their personalitys uniqueness thus fulfilling the need of autonomy through exercise. Open individuals are characterized by an active pursuit of novelty. This is a positive attribute when it comes to exercise and adhere nce. Open individuals are willing to try new behaviors and are not troubled by ne w situations. They are also pr one to participate in activities that they freely choose because they take pleasur e in them not because they feel obligated to participate. Knowing these characteristics, pr actitioners can encourage those who score high on openness to participate in activitie s that are unusual or original to the individual. These novel

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89 forms of exercise might include rock climbing, ma rtial arts, group fitness classes or any activity that one has not fully experienced. Research has found that individuals scoring high on openness preferred to exercise outdoors more than i ndoors compared to those scoring low on openness (Courneya & Hellsten, 1998). This is likely due to the fact that outdoor environments are ever changing and indoor environments are unvarying. However, autonomy is rooted with freewill and choice and thus an open indi vidual would be drawn to an ex ercise setting that offered a variety of choices. Comprehensive fitness centers offer a wide variety of activities at varying times and would be a good resource for a highly open individual. Practitioners should use these findings to help guide their exercise prescrip tion for each unique open individual. Ultimately, health and fitness practitioners should focus on increasing feelings of autonomy within open participants so that the possi bility of self-determined motiv ation and positive behavioral outcomes are increased. Conscientious individuals that are not achieving adequate physical activity also need to be motivated to increase their activ ity based upon their personality characteristics. In doing so the psychological need of competence would be satisfie d by participating in ex ercise. Conscientious individuals are characterized as self-disciplined, organized, and deliberate. When it comes to physical activity and adherence, th ese are positive charac teristics. Individuals who score high on conscientiousness are likely to part icipate in activities that they are knowledgeable in and that are easy to schedule and plan into their day. H ealth and fitness practitioners should focus on strategies that include educati ng the participant on the various aspects of physical activity and providing information on the different forms of exer cise available to them. Having an exercise calendar or workout schedule availa ble for conscientious participan ts would help to motivate and encourage them to plan out their activity in advance. Because of their tendency towards

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90 commitment, it is easier to keep conscientiousness individuals engaged in a meaningful activity with adherence becoming inherent. Deliber ation is also a positive characteristic of conscientiousness because careful forethought goes into all their actions such as exercising for health related reasons. Practiti oners can assist in goal setting a nd individual program planning to help boost the feelings of commitment and deliberation in those scoring high on conscientiousness. Research on exercise preference (Courn eya & Hellsten, 1998) f ound that those who preferred high-intensity exercise scored higher on conscientious ness than those who preferred moderate intensity, and indivi duals who preferred scheduled exercise scored higher on conscientiousness than those who preferred spontaneous exercise. Knowing this, practitioners can encourage those high on conscientiousness to participate in activities that are intense in nature and that are easily pla nned into their schedule. Activ ities that would appeal to a conscientious individual might include intense cardio such as running, mountain biking, or swimming, playing a team sport, triathlon/mara thon training, or power lifting. Practitioners should focus on increasing feelings of competence within conscientiousness participants so that the possibility of self-determined motivation and positive exercise outcomes are increased. Competency is based on a sense of capacity in producing desired outcomes and through specific exercise and training accomplis hments a conscientious indivi dual can satisfy this need. Ultimately, health and fitness pr actitioners will have to find innovative ways to respond to the needs of an individuals personality. Th is commitment to providing an individualized approach to physical activity will promote participation, increase d adherence, better long term health outcomes, and provide more satisfaction fo r individuals when engaging in exercise. To advance the health of th e general population as pr oposed by the objectives of Healthy People

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91 2010, health and fitness practitioners alike will have to respond and adapt to the unique personality needs of individuals and be willing to s upport all participants in increasing their physical activity levels (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). Implications for Future Research Based on the findings of this study, health beha vior researchers shoul d delve further into the personality and motivation re search to assess the relation ships between the Five Factor Model of personality, self-determination, and other he alth and risk behaviors. Previous research has found personality to be associated in a he alth-promoting direction with a wide range of health-related behaviors such as smoking (Friedman et al., 1995; Vollrath, Knoch, & Cassano, 1999), drinking (Friedman et al., 1995; Stew art, Loughlin, & Rhyno, 2001; Vollrath, Knoch & Cassano, 1999), sexual behavior (Hoyle, Fejfar & Miller, 2000; Vollrath Knoch & Cassano, 1999), mammography adoption (Siegler, Feaganes, & Rimer, 1995), and protection against sun exposure (Castle, Skinner, & Hampson, 1999). Health-related behaviors have also been associated with the self-determination theory. These behaviors include smoking (Levesque et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006; Williams, Quill, Deci., & Ryan, 1991), alcohol use (Ryan, Plant, & O'Malley, 1995), and dieting (Lev esque et al., 2006; Pellitier et al., 2004). Researchers should examine these behaviors to see if links exist between the FFM personality domains and being motivated in a self-determined fa shion. Findings could help to explain the variables that are affecting the adoption or letting go of such heal th and risk behaviors. Additionally, if these findings hold true for other behaviors, rese arch could help to guide planning for the customization of future pr ograms and interventions. Future research should also examine whether different types of exer cise regulation with varying degrees of self-determination are associat ed with personality and exercise behavior. Findings from these studies can help predict relapse from exercise. This is important in view of

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92 the high relapse rates of exercisers (Sallis et al., 1990). Also further research examining the relationship between personality, motivation, exerci se behavior and exercise preferences may aid in developing exercise programs that are in dividualized and based on peoples exercise preferences. Research should al so examine if these types of exercise programs result in an increase in exercise adherence. Longitudinal studies that are based on the imp lication of this study w ould help to solidify current and future findings. These studies woul d be critical in ascertaining personality, selfdetermination development, and physical activity, as well as the symmetry and asymmetry of personality, motivation, and physic al activity-related de cline with ageing. For example, extraversion tends to decline wi th age and whether this matches declines in physical activity has yet to be investigated (McCr ae et al., 1999). Similarly, consci entiousness has been able to predict longevity and health behavior from childhood (Friedman, Tucker & Tomlinson-Keasey, 1995). Its association with physi cal activity across this life span and mediation via physical activity would add to th is interesting finding. Future research could also look at personali ty, self-determination, and exercise behavior and how it varies across different populations. A cross-secti onal study should be conducted to explore the comparisons of the variable in th is study and various other populations including adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and the elderly. Future studies could also control for other factors, such as Socioeconomic Status, that were not assessed in this study. As far as moderation is concerned, other variables besides personality c ould be looked at as having a moderating effect on self-determination and ex ercise behavior. Two possible moderating variables are gender and race/ethnicity.

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93 Limitations and Future Directions Limitations of this study include self-report data, a college-aged convenience sample, and instrumentation. The use of self-report data has limitations due to se lf-report bias (Krosnick, 1999). That is, individuals may report information due to how they think they should report data rather than how they actually felt. This could alter their true responses, therefore resulting in inaccurate data. Rather than using only a self-re port personality questionnaire, future researchers may consider using an objective third party ap praisal of each participant (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Similarly, an objective measure of exerci se should be used such as pedometers and accelerometers rather than a self-report questionnaire. Although personality is relatively stable throughout early to mid-adulthood, a college-aged population does not necessarily permit these result s to be generalized to all populations (McCrae & Costa, 2003). Undergraduate students in this study represent a homogeneous, convenient sample of participants. College students also have unique characteristic s that distinguish them from the greater population includin g more free time to be able to engage in activities. Greater generalizability of these results would benefit from replication using more diverse population samples. Any differences among populations are likely to have direct and meaningful implications for orchestrating the most effec tive intervention programs. Also, because the sample was not randomized, poten tially confounding variables may have introduced error into measurement that is not accounted for in the anal ysis. Thus, inferences should be made with caution. Self-reports on the LTEQ and the participant demographics also pose a limitation to inferences made from study findings. This sa mple, however, was deemed appropriate because this study will be used to inform and guide the direction of future res earch in the areas of personality, motivation, and exer cise behavior research.

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94 To reduce participant burde n, a 60-item version of the NEO-PI-R called the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992) was used in this st udy. The NEO-FFI assesses the five broad personality domains by using one question from each facet from the NEO-PI-R. As with many questionnaires with a short and long form, the l ong form allows for greater insight into each personality domain and it is more reliable and va lid than the short form (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Future research might continue examining th e relationship between ex ercise behavior and personality by using the NEO-PI-R. Furthermore, research using the FFM to examine the relationships between personality and exercise behavior should include both the personality domains and facets, thus providing valuable info rmation for understanding the determinants and preferences for exercise behavi or. This knowledge may aid in the creation of individualized exercise programs that increase adherence to exercise behavior. Study Strengths There are also strengths of this study that mu st be mentioned. First, a large sample was used with a very high response ra te, especially considering the length of the instruments that were used to assess personality, self-determina tion, exercise behavior and demographics. Second, the use of validated measures of exerci se, personality, and self -determination contribute to the strength of this study. Many of the studi es in the past have fa iled to use validated and consistent measures to examine all the com ponents (e.g., personality, self-determination and exercise behavior; Costa & McCrae, 1992; Courneya & Hell sten, 1998; Hagan, 2003; Markland & Tobin, 2004). Conclusion In conclusion, this study was conducted to ex amine the relationships between personality, self-determination, and exercise behavior. The findings suggest that personality is associated with self-determination and that there are gender and race differenc es on personality and exercise

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95 behavior. Additionally in this study population, se lf-determination fully explains the mechanism through which the openness and conscientiousness domains affect exercise behavior and partially explains the mechanism through which ex traversion affects exercise behavior. The implications are numerous for health educators, practitioners, and rese archers some of which include rigorous personality and motivation education for future practitioners, proper choice and implementation of exercise programs for each specific personality domain, and continued research with other health behaviors. Because most Americans are sedentary, and obesity is of growing interest as a health concern in the United States, intervention methods for increasing exercise behavior are needed (Center for Diseas e Control, 2002; United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). Therefore, results from this study can guide the development of more personalized programs a nd interventions to facilitate a doption of exercise behavior in non-exercisers while increasing adhere nce in current exercisers.

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96 APPENDIX A NEO FIVE-FACTOR INVENTORY NEO-FFI NEO Five-Factor Inventory Paul T Costa, Jr., PhD, and Robert R. McCrae, PhD Instructions: Carefully read all of the inst ructions before beginning. Th is questionnaire contains 60 statements. Read each statement carefully. For each statement choose the response that best represents your opinion. Make sure your answ er is in the correct place on the scantron. Fill in if you strongly disagree or the statement is definitely false. Fill in if you disagree or the statement is mostly false. Fill in if you are neutral on the statement, if you cannot de cide, or if the statement is about equally true or false. Fill in if you agree or the statement is definitely true. Fill in if you strongly agree or the statement is definitely true. Fill in only one response for each statement. Respond to all the statements, making sure that you fill in the correct response.

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97 For each of the following statements choos e the response that best represents your opinion. Fill in only one response for each statement. The scale is: Strongly disagree Disagree Ne utral Agree Strongly agree 1. I am not a worrier. 2. I like to have a lot of people around me. 3. I dont like to waste my time daydreaming. 4. I try to be courteous to everyone I meet. 5. I keep my belongings neat and clean. 6. I often feel inferior to others. 7. I laugh easily. 8. Once I find the right way to do something, I stick to it. 9. I often get into arguments with my family and co-workers. 10. Im pretty good about pacing myself so as to get things done on time. 11. When I am under a great deal of stress, sometimes I f eel like Im going to pieces. 12. I dont consider myself esp ecially light-hearted. 13. I am intrigued by the pattern s I find in art and nature. 14. Some people think Im selfish and egotistical. 15. Im not a very methodical person. 16. I rarely feel lonely or blue. 17. I really enjoy talking to people. 18. I believe letting students h ear controversial speakers can only confuse and mislead them. 19. I would rather cooperate with ot hers than compete with them. 20. I try to perform all the tasks a ssigned to me conscientiously. 21. I often feel tense and jittery. 22. I like to be where the action is. 23. Poetry has little or no effect on me. 24. I tend to be cynical and skep tical of others intentions. 25. I have a clear set of goals and work toward them in an orderly fashion. 26. Sometimes I feel completely worthless. 27. I usually prefer to do things alone. 28. I often try new and foreign foods. 29. I believe that most people will take advantage of you if you let them. 30. I waste a lot of time before settling down to work.

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98 Strongly disagree Disagree Ne utral Agree Strongly agree 31. I rarely feel fearful or anxious. 32. I often feel as if Im bursting with energy. 33. I seldom notice the moods or feelings that different environments produce. 34. Most people I know like me. 35. I work hard to accomplish my goals. 36. I often get angry at the way people treat me. 37. I am cheerful, high-spirited person. 38. I believe we should look to our religious authorities for decisions on moral issues. 39. Some people think of me as cold and calculating. 40. When I make a commitment, I can always be counted on to follow through. 41. Too often, when things go wrong, I get discouraged and feel like giving up. 42. I am not a cheerful person. 43. Sometimes when I am reading poetry or looking at a work of art, I feel a chill or wave of excitement. 44. Im hard-headed and tough-minded in my attitudes. 45. Sometimes Im not as dependable or reliable as I should be. 46. I am seldom sad or depressed. 47. My life is fast-paced. 48. I have little interest in speculating on the nature of the universe or the human condition. 49. I generally try to be t houghtful and considerate. 50. I am a productive person who always gets the job done. 51. I often feel hopeless and want some one else to solve my problems. 52. I am a very active person. 53. I have a lot of inte llectual curiosity. 54. If I dont like people, I let them know it. 55. I never seem to be able to get organized. 56. At times I have been so ashamed I just want to hide. 57. I would rather go my own way than be a leader to others. 58. I often enjoy playing with theories or abstract ideas. 59. If necessary, I am willing to manipulate people to get what I want. 60. I strive for excellence in everything I do.

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99 APPENDIX B BEHAVIORAL REGULATION IN EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE-2 EXERCISE REGULATIONS QU ESTIONNAIRE (BREQ-2) WHY DO YOU ENGAGE IN EXERCISE? We are interested in the reasons underlyi ng peoples decisions to engage, or not engage in physical exercise. Using the scal e below, please indicat e to what extent each of the following items is true for you. Please note that there are no right or wrong answers and no trick questions We simply want to know how you personally feel about exerci se. Your responses will be held in confidence and only used for our research purposes. Not true Sometimes Very true for me true for me for me 1. I exercise because other people 0 1 2 3 4 say I should 2. I feel guilty when I dont exercise 0 1 2 3 4 3. I value the benefits of exercise 0 1 2 3 4 4. I exercise because its fun 0 1 2 3 4 5. I dont see why I should have to exercise 0 1 2 3 4 6. I take part in exerci se because my 0 1 2 3 4 friends/family/partner say I should 7. I feel ashamed when I miss an 0 1 2 3 4 exercise session 8. Its important to me to exercise regularly 0 1 2 3 4 9. I cant see why I should bother exercising 0 1 2 3 4

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100 Not true Sometimes Very true for me true for me for me 10. I enjoy my exercise sessions 0 1 2 3 4 11. I exercise because others will not be 0 1 2 3 4 pleased with me if I dont 12. I dont see the point in exercising 0 1 2 3 4 13. I feel like a failure when I havent 0 1 2 3 4 exercised in a while 14. I think it is important to make the effort to 0 1 2 3 4 exercise regularly 15. I find exercise a pleasurable activity 0 1 2 3 4 16. I feel under pressure from my friends/family 0 1 2 3 4 to exercise 17. I get restless if I dont exercise regularly 0 1 2 3 4 18. I get pleasure and satisfaction from 0 1 2 3 4 participating in exercise 19. I think exercising is a waste of time 0 1 2 3 4

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101 APPENDIX C LEISURE TIME EXERCISE QUESTIONNAIRE Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire 1. During a typical 7-Day period (a week), how many times on the average do you do the following kinds of exercise for more than 15 minutes during your free time (write on each line the appropriate number). Times Per Week a) STRENUOUS EXERCISE (HEART BEATS RAPIDLY) __________ (e.g., running, jogging, hockey, football, soccer, squash, basketball, cr oss country skiing, judo, roller skating, vigorous swimming, vigorous long distance bicycling) b) MODERATE EXERCISE (NOT EXHAUSTING) __________ (e.g., fast walking, baseba ll, tennis, easy bicycling, volleyball, badminton, easy swimming, alpine skiing, popular and folk dancing) c) MILD EXERCISE (MINIMAL EFFORT) __________ (e.g., yoga, archery, fishing from river bank, bowling, horseshoes, golf, easy walking)

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102 APPENDIX D DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Please continue using the Scantron to answer questions 83 through 86. 1. What is your age in years? 1. 18-19 2. 20-21 3. 22-23 4. 24-25 5. Over 25 2. What is your gender? 1. Male 2. Female 3. Which one of these groups would you say best represents your race? 1. White 2. Black/African American 3. Hispanic/Latino 4. Asian/Pacific Islander 5. Other 4. What is your current academic class? 1. Freshman 2. Sophomore 3. Junior 4. Senior 5. Graduate

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103 APPENDIX E UNIVESITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPLICATION 1. TITLE OF PROTOCOL: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSON ALITY, SELF-DETERMINATION AND EXERCISE BEHAVIOR 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s): Abigail S. Batia, MESS Doctoral Candidate Health Education and Behavior 071 Florida Gym PO Box 118210 Gainesville, FL 32611-8210 (352) 392-0583 x 1283 aschwab@hhp.ufl.edu 3. SUPERVISOR (IF PI IS STUDENT): Jill W. Varnes, Ed.D. Professor Health Education & Behavior College of Health & Human Performance PO Box 118210 16 Florida Gym Gainesville, FL 326118210 (352)-392-0583 x 1230 jvarnes@hhp.ufl.edu 4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROTOCOL: Fr om: January 1, 2007 To: January 1, 2008 5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROTOCOL: (A copy of your grant proposal must be included with this pr otocol if DHHS funding is involved.) Not Applicable 6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION Over the past decade, much research (Ber mudez, 1999; Courneya, Bobick, & Schinke, 1999) has been devoted to the analysis of psychos ocial factors associated with the development of a variety of health behaviors. In the wake of this research one important point has become clear: the main cause of mortality can be prev ented by making certain lifestyle and behavior changes (Blair & Morrow, 1998; Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beaulieu, 1999). Less attention, however, has been paid to the reasons and m echanisms that explain why individuals keep engaging or disengaging in behavi ors that they know to be be neficial to their health.

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104 Furthermore, why do individuals fail to develop ha bits that could increas e their quality of life and well-being? The association between sedentary lifestyle a nd all-cause mortality and morbidity is well documented (Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beauli eu, 1999), and represents one of the most prevalent behavioral health risks in industriali zed countries (US Departme nt of Health & Human Services, 1996). Physical benefits of exercise have also been well documented and include a reduced risk of diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, bone density loss, premature death, and improvement in weight management and ov erall fitness (Bouchard, Shephard, & Stephens, 1994). Research suggests that the benefits of regular exercise extend beyond the primary prevention of chronic physical diseases, as regu lar exercise has been demonstrated to improve mental well-being and quality of lif e (Courneya, Mackey, & Jones, 2000). Despite the health threats posed by inactiv ity, research indicate s that 60% of the population remains insufficiently active to receive health benefits from physical activity, and 25% of the population is considered sedentary (S tephens & Caspersen, 1994; US Department of Health & Human Services, 1996). Furthermore, the attrition rates from structured exercise programs remain high with approximately 50% of exercise participants terminating their involvement within the first six months of en rollment (Craig, Russell, Cameron, & Beaulieu, 1999). Therefore, understanding th e individual factors that ma y influence adherence to an exercise regimen will aid in implementi ng effective intervention strategies. Studies in the field of health promotion a nd exercise psychology have recently focused on determining psychological variables that infl uence exercise adherence. Little research, however, has been devoted to the psychological m echanisms by which personality traits affect health-related behaviors (Ber mudez, 1999; Hoyle, 2000). One possible mechanism is motivation. Researchers have examined the associ ation between personality traits and exercise participation motives, but it is ha rd to discern a consistent patt ern in the findings. The study of such surface motives does not in itself reveal much about the unde rlying motivational processes. By adopting a self-determination theory perspe ctive it may be possible to elucidate the motivational processes by which personality tr aits influence engageme nt in health-related behaviors such as exercise. Therefore, the focu s of this study is to examine the relationship between personality and the extent to which exerci se behavior is regulate d in a self-determined fashion. This study will seek to determ ine if an individuals persona lity type influences selfdetermination relative to exerci se behavior (i.e., does one persona lity type show higher or lower levels of self-determination than the other four types?). If personality can be linked to other known determinants of exercise such as motivati on, participants could be matched to exercise programs that meet their needs. Or interventi ons to maximize exercise adherence could be developed based on personality profiles. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE. The UFIRB needs to know what will be done w ith or to the resear ch participant(s). The following procedures will be followed: 1. This study will utilize a cross-s ectional, paper and pencil, su rvey research design. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the research de sign, survey data will be collected on a single

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105 occasion (Creswell, 2005). Surveys will be distributed by, completed on, and returned via the PI (Creswell, 2005; Dillman, 2000). 2. A convenience sample of undergraduate student s at the University of Florida will be invited to participate in the study (N=450). The target population will be undergraduate students enrolled in non-major classes in the College of Health and Human Performance at the University of Florida. Each subject will be given a one-page cover letter that will include an informed consent and instruct ions on how to complete the survey (see attached). 3. The following surveys will be administered via paper and pencil: NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) Behavioral Regula tion in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2; (Markland & Tobin, 2004), Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ; Godin, Jobin, & Bouillon, 1986), and a demographic questionnaire (See Attached). After each survey is completed they will be returned to the PI. 4. Descriptive statistics will be calculated to determine baseline frequency rates in each personality type, self-determination scores, and frequency rates for BMI, gender, age, race/ethnicity, and academic class. Bivariate analyses will be used to analyze research question one. Analyses for all four research questions will be tested at a .05 significance level for MANOVA will be used to assess res earch question two. Multiple regression will also be used to examine the mediation and moderation associations between each of the five personality types (independent va riable), total self-determination score (independent variable), and ex ercise behavior (dependent variables) (i.e. research questions three and four). 8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK. (If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe th e steps taken to protect participant.) The study involves analyzing self-reported da ta. Participants will not be required to provide their name or any persona l identifying information. The ident ity of the participants will remain confidential. Hence, the participants experience no more than minimal risk by participating in this study. 9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANT(S) WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROP OSED COMPENSATION (if any): 1. The researcher will contact instructors in the College of Health and Human Performance at the University of Florida to inquire about their willingness to allow their students to participat e in this study during class time and the approximate number of students enrolled in their classes. 2. The researcher will invite a convenience sa mple of undergraduate students enrolled in classes in the College of Health and Hu man Performance to participate in the study (N~450). 3. Each participant will receive a descrip tion of the study and the informed consent before completing the surveys.

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106 10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT (if applicable). The participants will be asked to read and sign th e attached informed cons ent prior to the use of any data for research purposes. See Attachment. __________________________ ______________ Principal Investigator's Signature Date Abigail S. Batia, MESS I approve this protocol for submission to the UFIRB: __________________________ ______________ P.I. Faculty Supervisor Signature Date Jill W. Varnes, Ed.D. I approve this protocol for submission to the UFIRB: ____________________________ _____________ Dept. Chairs Signature Date Robert Weiler, Ph.D.

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107 APPENDIX F PARTICIPANT INFORMED CONSENT Project Title: The Relationship between personal ity, self-determination, a nd exercise behavior. Purpose of the research study: Abigail Schwab Batia (aschw ab@hhp.ufl.edu) is a doctoral candidate in the department of Health Educati on and Behavior. This study proposes to assess the relationship between personality and the extent to which exercise be havior is regulated in a selfdetermined fashion. What you will be asked to do in the study: You are being asked to complete the following surveys. Time required: The surveys will take approximately 30 minutes to complete. Risks and Benefits: Your participation in this study poses no more than minimal risk. Neither your name nor your UFID will be connected with your survey results. There is no benefit to the participant in completing this survey. Compensation: There will be no compensation for completing the surveys. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. No names will be used in any report. Voluntary Participation: Your pa rticipation in this study is co mpletely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have th e right to withdraw fr om the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Abigail Sc hwab Batia, MESS at aschwab@hhp.ufl.edu or Dr. Jill W. Varnes, EdD, at jvarnes@hhp.ufl.edu Department of Health Education & Behavior, 05 Florida Gym, (352) 392-0583. Whom to contact about your righ ts as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-0433. Thank you in advance for participating in this survey. The information you provide will be extremely beneficial in enhanci ng an understanding of the mechanis ms behind exercise behavior. Your help in this matter is greatly appreciated. I have read the procedure describe above. I volunta rily give my consent to participate in this study. I have received a c opy of this description. ________________________________________ _______________ Name Date

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108 LIST OF REFERENCES Aday, L. A. (1997). Designing & conducting hea lth surveys (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Josey Bass. Al-Asfoor, D. H., Al-Lawati, J. A., & Mohamme d, A. J. (1999). Body fat distribution and the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Omani population. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 5 14-20. Alreck, P.L. & Settle, R.B. (2004). The Survey Research Handbook (3rd ed .). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. Avia, M. D., Sanz, J., Sna, J. L. (1995). The fi ve-factor modelII: Relations of the NEO-PI with other personality variables. Personality and Individual Di ff erences, 19 81-97. Arai, Y., & Hisamichi, S. (1998). Self-report ed exercise frequency and personality: A population-based study in Japan. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87, 1371-1375. Bamber, D., Cockerill, I. M., & Carroll, D. (2000). The pathological status of exercise dependence. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 34, 125-132. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderato r-mediator variable di stinction in social psychological research: Con ceptual, strategic, and st atistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 1173-1182. Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117 497-529. Berger, B. G., Pargman, D., & Weinberg, R. S. (2002). Foundations of exercise psychology Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology Bermudez, J. (1999). Personality and health protective behavior. European Journal of Personality, 13 83-103. Biddle, S. J. H., & Nigg, C. R. (2000) Theories of exercise behavior. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31 290-304. Biddle, S., Soos, I., & Chatzisarantis N. (1999). Predicting physical activity intentions using goal perspectives and self-det ermination theory approaches. European Psychologist, 4 83-89. Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W. III, Gordon, N. F ., & Paffenbarger, R. S. (1992). How much physical activity is good for health? Annual Review of Public Health, 13 99-126. Blumenthal, J. A., Williams, R. S., Wallace, A. G., Williams, R. B., & Needles, T. L. (1982). Physiological and psychological variables pr edict compliance to prescribed exercise therapy in patients recovering from myocardial infarction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44 519-527.

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120 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Native to Florida, born in Tallahassee, Abigail Schwab Batia has lived in north central Florida all her life. She grew up in Perry, Florid a before moving to Gainesville, Florida to attend the University of Florida as an undergraduate in exercise and sport science. She graduated in 2002 with highest honors with a speciali zation in physical e ducation. After graduating, Abbie continued on at the Un iversity of Florida where she received a masters degree in exercise and sport science and a specialization in exercise and sport pedagogy. While pursuing here masters degree, she also taught high school health education at P.K Yonge Developmental Resear ch School. Abbie successfully completed her program of study and her masters comprehensive exams in 2004. She then returned to the University of Florida, as a doctoral student in the College of Health and Human Performance. Abbie received a Ph.D. in health behavior fr om the University of Florida, in August 2007. Her research interests include physical activity; personality and motiva tion; and influences on exercise behavior and her teaching interest incl ude physical education and school health issues. She plans to continue he r career in education.


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