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The Effects of Goals, Attitudes, and Beliefs on the Celebratory Drinking Behaviors of Residential College Students on Co...

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Title: The Effects of Goals, Attitudes, and Beliefs on the Celebratory Drinking Behaviors of Residential College Students on College Football Game Days
Physical Description: 1 online resource (139 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Nunn, Melissa M
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: academic, alcohol, celebratory, college, expectancies, football, fun, goals, health, initiative, learning, living, residential, risk, social, students
Family, Youth and Community Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Family, Youth and Community Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Alcohol abuse is a common and pressing problem on college campuses and there are many factors that support and even encourage these drinking behaviors. My research examined reasons for college students' alcohol use, specifically on college football game days. I explored 'pro-drinking' motivations (social goals, the belief that drinking is fun) as well as 'anti-drinking' motivations (academic and health goals, the belief that drinking is risky). Students in two types of residential populations were examined for factors that influence celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days; students with superior academic goals or leadership experiences (academic communities) and those with more modest academic goals or leadership experiences (traditional communities). The sample consisted of 481 residential college students (230 from the academic communities and 251 from the traditional communities) at a large coeducational university in the Southeastern United States. A survey instrument was used to measure academic goals, social goals, social outcome expectancies, health goals, the attitude and belief that drinking is risky, and the attitude and belief that drinking is fun. The attitude and belief that drinking is fun was the strongest predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days for both residential populations. The following were also predictor variables of celebratory drinking behaviors for respondents in the academic communities: academic goals, social goals, social outcome expectancies, and health goals. For traditional communities only, social outcome expectancies and the attitude and belief that drinking is risky predicted celebratory drinking behaviors.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Melissa M Nunn.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Barnett, Rosemary V.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021225:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021225/00001

Material Information

Title: The Effects of Goals, Attitudes, and Beliefs on the Celebratory Drinking Behaviors of Residential College Students on College Football Game Days
Physical Description: 1 online resource (139 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Nunn, Melissa M
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: academic, alcohol, celebratory, college, expectancies, football, fun, goals, health, initiative, learning, living, residential, risk, social, students
Family, Youth and Community Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Family, Youth and Community Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Alcohol abuse is a common and pressing problem on college campuses and there are many factors that support and even encourage these drinking behaviors. My research examined reasons for college students' alcohol use, specifically on college football game days. I explored 'pro-drinking' motivations (social goals, the belief that drinking is fun) as well as 'anti-drinking' motivations (academic and health goals, the belief that drinking is risky). Students in two types of residential populations were examined for factors that influence celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days; students with superior academic goals or leadership experiences (academic communities) and those with more modest academic goals or leadership experiences (traditional communities). The sample consisted of 481 residential college students (230 from the academic communities and 251 from the traditional communities) at a large coeducational university in the Southeastern United States. A survey instrument was used to measure academic goals, social goals, social outcome expectancies, health goals, the attitude and belief that drinking is risky, and the attitude and belief that drinking is fun. The attitude and belief that drinking is fun was the strongest predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days for both residential populations. The following were also predictor variables of celebratory drinking behaviors for respondents in the academic communities: academic goals, social goals, social outcome expectancies, and health goals. For traditional communities only, social outcome expectancies and the attitude and belief that drinking is risky predicted celebratory drinking behaviors.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Melissa M Nunn.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Barnett, Rosemary V.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021225:00001


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1 THE EFFECTS OF GOALS, ATTITUDES, AND BELIEFS ON CELEBRATORY DRINKING BEHAVIORS OF RESIDENTIAL COLLEGE STUDENTS ON COLLEGE FOOTBALL GAME DAYS By MELISSA MARIE NUNN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY O F FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Melissa Marie Nunn

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3 To my mother, Jane, who has impacted my life in so many ways and has always been there to support me.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my family and friends for all of the love and support that they have given me throughout this process. More specifically, I especially thank my mother, Jane, who has given me more than a daughter could ever ask for. Witho ut her constant encouragement, I would not be the woman that I am today. Her faith and constant belief in me oftentimes was what motivated me to push through this challenging experience. I also thank my friends who is some way shared this experience with me. Thank you for supporting me and reminding me to never get discouraged. I thank my committee members, Dr. Rose Barnett, Dr. Mickie Swisher, and Dr. Mary Kay Schneider, for making me realize my potential and for providing me with support and guidance. I would like to give a special thanks to Dr. Barnett for always believing in me, even when I did Lastly, I would like to thank God, my Father. It is because of Hi s grace, mercy, and love that I am the young woman I am today and had the ability and opportunity to accomplish all that

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 LIST OF TERMS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 13 Emerging Adulthood ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 14 Th e College Culture ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 18 How Alcohol Works ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 19 Effects of Alcohol ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 20 Traffic Related Effects ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 21 Other Effects ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 22 Purpose and Significance of Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 23 Rationale ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Future Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 25 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 25 Research Hypothesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 25 Assumptions of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 26 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................ ................................ ........................... 27 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 27 Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 28 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 29 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 30 Academic Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 31 Social Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 32 So cial Outcome Expectancies ................................ ................................ ......................... 32 Health Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 33 Attitude and Belief t hat Drinking is Risky ................................ ................................ ...... 34 Attitude and Belief t hat Drinking is Fun ................................ ................................ ......... 35 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 35 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 36 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 36 3 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 38 Collegiate Athletics and Alcohol ................................ ................................ ............................ 39

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6 Who is Drinking? ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 41 Social Context of Drinking ................................ ................................ .............................. 42 Group Differences in Alcohol Consumption ................................ ................................ ... 45 Goals and Alcohol Use ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 46 Academic Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 46 Socia l Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 47 Student Expectations of Alcohol ................................ ................................ ..................... 47 Theoretical Background ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 48 ................................ ................................ ..................... 48 Behavior potential ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 49 Expectancy ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 50 Reinforcement value ................................ ................................ ................................ 50 Predictive formula ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 51 Psychological situation ................................ ................................ ............................. 51 Locus of control ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 51 Expectancies and reinforcements ................................ ................................ ............. 52 Outcome Expectancy Theory ................................ ................................ .......................... 53 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 54 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 56 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 56 Celebratory Drinking Behaviors ................................ ................................ ............................. 60 Multivariate Analyses ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 61 Academic Communities ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 61 Traditional Communities ................................ ................................ ................................ 62 Post Hoc Bivariate Analysis of Independent Variables ................................ .......................... 63 Demogra phics ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 64 Participation in the Celebratory Environment on Football Game Days .......................... 65 Location of Celebratory Drinking Behaviors ................................ ................................ .. 66 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 68 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 73 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 74 Academic Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 74 Social Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 79 Social Outcome Expectancies ................................ ................................ ......................... 83 Health Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 85 Attitude and Belief t hat Drinking is Risky ................................ ................................ ...... 87 Attitude and Belief t hat Drinking is Fun ................................ ................................ ......... 90 ................................ ................................ ............................ 92 Outcome Expectancy Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ 93 Additional Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 94 Gender ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 94 Celebratory Drinking Behaviors ................................ ................................ ...................... 95 Location of Celebratory Drinking ................................ ................................ ................... 95

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7 Grade Point Average ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 96 Reasons for Not Drinking ................................ ................................ ................................ 97 Contribution to the Literature ................................ ................................ ................................ 99 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 105 APPENDIX A CELEBRATORY DRINKING ON COLLEGE FOOTBALL GAME DAYS QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 107 B INFORMED LETTER OF CONSENT ................................ ................................ ................ 116 C LETTER TO RESIDENCE LIFE AND EDUCATION ................................ ....................... 118 D OPEN ENDED RESPONSES ................................ ................................ .............................. 120 ................................ ................................ .................... 120 Tr ................................ ................................ ................... 122 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 129 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 139

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Gender ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 57 4 2 Gender by university population and residence halls p opulation ................................ ...... 57 4 3 Race/ethnic o rigin ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 58 4 4 Race/ethnic o rigin by university population and residence halls p opulation .................... 58 4 5 Academic classification ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 59 4 6 Academic c lassification by residence halls p opulation ................................ ..................... 59 4 7 O verall grade point a verage (GPA) ................................ ................................ ................... 60 4 8 Membership in Greek letter c ouncils ................................ ................................ ................. 60 4 9 Total hours consuming alcohol on college fo otball game d ays ................................ ......... 61 4 10 Regression analysis for independent variables predicting celebratory d rinking behaviors on college football game days academic c ommunities ................................ .. 69 4 11 Regression analysis for independent variables predicting celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game d ays traditional c ommunities ................................ 69 4 12 Differences in independent variables by sample g roups ................................ .................... 69 4 13 Cross tabulation of p articipatio n in the celebratory environment and gender in academic c ommunities ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 69 4 14 Cross tabulation of participation in the celebratory environment and gender in traditional c ommunities ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 70 4 15 Cross tabulation of partici pation in celebratory behaviors and race/ethnic origin for academic c ommunities ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 70 4 16 Cross t abulatio n of participation in celebratory behaviors and race/ethnic origin for traditional c ommu nities ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 71 4 17 Cross tabulation of participation in celebratory behaviors and academic c lassification f or academic c ommunities ................................ ................................ ................................ 71 4 18 Cross tabulation of participation in celebratory behaviors and academic classification for traditional c ommunities ................................ ................................ ................................ 72 4 19 Home football games attended during 2006 s eason ................................ .......................... 72

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9 LIST OF TERMS Academic initiative or Living/learning community. A program involving undergraduate students who live together in a discrete portion of a residence hall (or the entire hall) and participate in curricular and/or co cu rricular programming designed especially for them. The program may or may not be degree granting and may involve collaboration with formal academic departments outside the program. It provides formal and/or informal, credit and/or noncredit learning oppo rtunities. Participation is usually voluntary (Association of College and University Housing Officers International, 2006 ). Alcohol. Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is a psychoactive drug found in beer, wine, and hard liquor. It is produced by the formation of yeast, sugars, and starches (CDC, 2005). Alcohol abuse. A pattern of problem drinking that results in health consequences, social problems, or both. Alcohol abuse is different from alcoholism or alcohol dependence (CDC, 2005). Alcohol dependence. A c hronic disease characterized by a strong craving for alcohol, a constant or periodic reliance on use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, the inability to limit drinking, physical illness when drinking is stopped, and the need for increasing amounts of alcohol to feel its effects (CDC, 2005). Alcohol expectancies. Specific beliefs about the behavioral, emotional and cognitive effects of alcohol (Baer, 2002). Binge drinking. This term is gender specific. For men, binge drinking is consuming five or mor e drinks in a row on at least one occasion within a short period of time (Naimi et al., 2003). For women, binge drinking means consumption of four or more drinks in a row on at least one ed for women because women

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10 are generally of smaller stature than men, and absorb and metabolize alcohol differently than men do (NIAAA, 2002; Wechsler & Dowdall, 1998; Nelson, 2003). Large, public institution Colleges and universities having 30,000 or more enrolled students. Personal goals. The present study defines personal goals as the tasks individuals are aiming to accomplish in the following academic year (Cantor and Sanderson, 1998). The personal goals that are being examined in this study inclu de the following: academic, social, and health. Standard Drink. A standard drink is equal to 13.7 grams of pure alcohol or 12 ounces of beer, eight ounces of malt liquor, five proff distilled spirits of liquo r (gin, rum, vodka, whiskey, etc).

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11 Ab stract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science THE EFFECTS OF GOALS, ATTITUDES, AND BELIEFS ON CELEBRATORY DRINKING BEHAVIORS OF RESIDENTIAL COLLEGE STUDENTS ON COLLEGE FOOTBALL GAME DAYS By Melissa Marie Nunn August 2007 Chair: Rosemary V. Barnett Major: Family, Youth, and Community Sciences Alcohol abuse is a common and pressing problem o n college campuses and there are many factors that support and even encourage these drinking behaviors. My research examined I explored two types of residential populations were examined for factors that influence celebratory drinki ng behaviors of college students on college football game days; students with superior academic goals or leadership experiences (academic communities) and those with more modest academic goals or leadership experiences (traditional communities). The samp le consisted of 481 residential college students (230 from the academic communities and 251 from the traditional communities) at a large coeducational university in the Southeastern United States. A survey instrument was used to measure academic goals, so cial goals, social outcome expectancies, health goals, the attitude and belief that drinking is risky, and the attitude and belief that drinking is fun.

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12 The attitude and belief that drinking is fun was the strongest predictor variable of celebratory drin king behaviors of college students on college football game days for both residential populations. The following were also predictor variables of celebratory drinking behaviors for respondents in the academic communities: academic goals, social goals, so cial outcome expectancies, and health goals. For traditional communities only, social outcome expectancies and the attitude and belief that drinking is risky predicted celebratory drinking behaviors.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Among young adults, college students have the highest prevalence of high risk drinking (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2001). Although their non collegiate peers drink more often, college students tend to drink more heavily when they do drink (O'Malley an d Johnston, 2002). A large percentage of US college students report heavy episodic drinking, typically defined as having five or more drinks in a row for males and four or more drinks in a row for females (Wechsler and Nelson, 2001). In a study of over 1 7,000 undergraduates at 14 0 US four year institutions, 16% of th e students were nondrinkers, 40% drank alcohol but had not engaged in heavy episodic drinking in the past two weeks, and 44 % reported at least one episode of heavy drinking in that period (We chsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Moeykens, & Castillo, 1994). This pattern of consumption is problematic because students who drink heavily are much more likely to report negative consequences (Perkins, 2002). The perception that alcohol use is socially accep table correlates with the fact that more than 80% of American youth consume alcohol before their 21st birthday. The lack of social acceptance of other drugs, such as marijuana, correlates with comparatively lower rates of substance use. Similarly, widesp read societal expectations that young persons will engage in binge drinking may encourage this highly dangerous form of alcohol consumption (USDHHS, 2000). The tradition of alcohol consumption has developed into a culture that has become well established i necessary for social success. These beliefs and expectations have a powerful influence over Alcoholism [NIAAA], 2002). Alumni may also continue to carry on the drinking tradition,

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14 especially at sporting and alumni events. Many college to wns permit local establishments to serve or sell alcohol, and serving a clientele of college students enables these establishments to remain financially successful. The combinations of these social and environmental influences often create the drinking cul ture of a college or university. There is evidence that more extreme forms of drinking by college students are escalating. In one study, frequent binge drinkers (defined as three times or more in the past two weeks) grew from 20 % to 23% between 1993 and 1999. The number of students who reported three or more incidents of intoxication in the past month also increased (Wechsler, Lee, Kuo, Seibring, Nelson, & Lee, 2000). It should be noted, however, that the number of college students who do not drink is als o growing. In the same study, the percentage of ab stainers increased from 15 to 19% Because of the risks of alcohol abuse, including accidents, violence, property damage, academic failure, and addiction (Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, & Castillo, 1995), c ollege administrators, health professionals, and public health experts remain very concerned about the levels of alcohol consumption that have long been a common part of university life (National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Task Force on College Drinking, 2002; Straus and Bacon, 1953). Emerging Adulthood In industrialized societies, there are a variety of ways to define the transition to adulthood. Legally, the transition to adulthood takes place in most respects at age eighteen. This is the age at which a person becomes an adult for various legal purposes, such as signing legally binding documents and being able to vote. This transition could also be defined by entering roles that are typically considered to be a part of adulthood: full time work, marriage, and parenthood (Hogan & Astone, 1986). However, this conceptualization is very different when asking young people. Research reports that young people from their mid teens to their late 20s agree that the most

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15 important markers o f the transition from adolescence to adulthood are accepting responsibility for oneself, making independent decisions, and becoming financially independent, in that order (Arnett, 1994, 1998, 2004; Nelson, 2003; Scheer, Unger, & Brown, 1994). All three of these are characterized by individualism, that is they all three emphasize the importance of learning to stand alone as a self sufficient person without relying on anyone else. The proportion of Americans attending college has risen dramatically in recen t decades (Arnett & Taber, 1994; Bianchi & Spain, 1996; National Center for Education Studies, 2002). Furthermore, about one third of people who obtain an undergraduate degree enter graduate school within one year (Mogolensky, 1996). The extension of edu cation has been an important influence in creating a distinct period of emerging adulthood (Arnett, 2000; 2004). Emerging adulthood is the age period extending, roughly, from ages 18 25; the ages of many traditional college students today. Emerging adult hood is conceptualized as the age of identity exploration, instability, the self focused, feeling in between, and possibilities. It is not really a period of adolescence, nor is it adulthood or even young adulthood (Arnett, 2001). Emerging adulthood is al so characterized by exploration in a variety of aspects of life, and attending college allows young people to explore various possible educational directions that offer different occupational It is distinguished by relative independence from social roles and from normative expectations. Having left the dependency of childhood and adolescence, and having not yet entered the enduring responsibilities that are normative in adulthood, emerging adu lts often explore a variety of possible life directions in love, work, and worldviews. Emerging adulthood is a time of life when many different directions remain possible, when little about the future has been decided for certain, when the

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16 scope of indepe ndent exploration of life's possibilities is greater for most people than it will be at any other period of the life course (Arnett, 2000). For most people, the late teens through the mid twenties are the time where they made the most decisions and life ch oices. However, cultural influences structure and sometimes limit the extent to which emerging adults are able to use their late teens and twenties in this way, and not all young people in this age period are able to use these years for independent explor ation. Like adolescence, emerging adulthood is a period of the life course that is culturally constructed, not universal and absolute. One demographic area that especially reflects the exploratory quality of emerging adulthood is residential status. Most young Americans leave home by age 18 or 19 (Goldscheider & Goldscheider, 1994). In the years that follow, emerging adults' living situations are diverse. About one third of emerging adults go off to college after high school and spend the next several ye ars in some combination of independent living and continued reliance on adults, for example, in a college dormitory or a fraternity or sorority house (Goldscheider & Goldscheider, 1994). For them, this is a period of semiautonomy (Goldscheider & Davanzo, 1 986) as they take on some of the responsibilities of independent living but leave others to their parents, college authorities, or other adults. About 40 % move out of their parental home not for college but for independent living and full time work (Goldsc heider & Goldscheider, 1994). About two thirds experience a period of cohabitation with a romantic partner (Michael, Gagnon, Laumann, & Kolata, 1995). Some remain at home while attending college or working or some combinatio n of the two. Only about 10% of men and 30% of women remain at home until marriage (Goldscheider & Goldscheider, 1994).

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17 Even though there is limited research on risk behaviors and emerging adulthood, the prevalence of several types of risk behavior peaks not during adolescence but during emerging adulthood. These risk behaviors include unprotected sex, most types of substance use, and risky driving behaviors such as driving at high speeds or while intoxicated (Arnett, 1992; Bachman, Johnston, O'Malley, & Schulenberg, 1996). To a certain extent, emerging adults' risk behaviors can be understood as part of their identity explorations, that is, as one reflection of the desire to obtain a wide range of experiences before settling down into the roles and responsibilities of adult life. One of the motivations consistently found to be related to participation in a variety of types of risk behavior is sensation seeking, which is the desire for novel and intense experiences (Arnett, 1994b). Emerging adults can pursue novel and intense experiences more freely than adolescents because they are less likely to be monitored by parents and can pursue them more freely than adults because they are less constrained by roles. After marriage, adults are constrained from taking part in risk behavior by the res ponsibilities of the marriage role, and once they have a child, they are constrained by the responsibilities of the parenting role (Arnett, 2000). The peak of substance use, such as alcohol, usually occurs during emerging adulthood (Schulenberg & Maggs, 20 00). Substance use of all kinds continues to rise through the late teens and peaks in the early twenties before declining in the late twenties (Bachman, Wadsworth, among emerging adults who are college students (Kalb & McCormick, 1998; Okie, 2002; Schulenberg, 2000; Wechsler & Nelson, 2001). It is also particularly high among college students living in residence halls and fraternity and sorority houses (Crowley, 199 1990).

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18 The College Culture College students often believe that consuming alcohol is a necessity as they establish themselves in a new social environment. The college culture actively promotes drinking or passively promotes it through tolerance or an unstated approval, of college drinking as a rite of passage (NIAAA, 2002). Some social scientists have argued that experimenting with risk behaviors, such as drinking alcohol, has become one of the developmental tasks or rites of passage in Western Wadsworth & Johnston, 1996; Shedler & Block, 1990). The belief among students that high risk drinking is a "rite of passage" is supported by long held customs and traditions, alcoho l industry promotions and marketing, and lax policies and enforcement of laws (NIAAA, 2002). The effects and consequences of college student alcohol consumption are often life long. Recent studies at the Harvard School of Public Health, suggest that rou ghly 45% of college students nationwide consumed four or five drinks in one sitting within the previous two weeks (Wechsler, Lee, Kuo, Seibring, Nelson, & Lee, 2002). Moreover, 31 % of college males consume more than 21 drinks per week and 19% of females c onsume more than 14 drinks per week, exceeding standards established by the federal government as safe levels of drinking (Wechsler et al., 2002). These results continue to support the conclusion drawn by Gonzalez (1989) that the United States college stud ent population has a higher number of problem drinkers than any other group in the nation. Statistically, students who meet or exceed the binge drinking threshold are at a greater risk of experiencing negative alcohol related consequences than non binge dr inkers (Wechsler et al., 2002). Research also indicates that frequent binge drinking, (consuming alcohol three or more times in a two week period) leads to a greater risk of negative consequences than binge drinking infrequently (consuming alcohol one or t wo times in a two week period) (Wechsler et al., 2002). The fact that many college students are younger than the

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19 legal drinking age also makes such findings particularly serious, as they are less experienced in the health related effects of alcohol. Alcoho l consumption among college students is often seen as a normal life stage behavior rather than a problematic behavior (Jerslid, 2001). Even though alcohol use is one of the major concerns on college and university campuses, the number of college students that are drinking continues to rise, and the effects are often severe. Many college and university administrators are unsure of how to solve this problem. University officials are aware of this pressing problem, but believe that most students engaging in t his behavior will pass through the stages of experimentation with alcohol use without great injury or harm (Presley, Meilman & Leichliter, 2002). A landmark study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (1989) stated that more than 67% greatest threat to the quality of campus life (Presley et al., 2002). In the years following the results of this survey, alcohol use and abuse continues to be a problem among college students. How Alcohol Works The Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2005) reports ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, as a psychoactive drug found in beer, wine, and hard liquor. It is produced by the formation of yeast, sugars, and starches. A standard drink is one 12 ounce beer, one five ounce glass of wine, or one 1.5 ounce shot of distilled spirits. Each of these contains about a half an ounce of alcohol. College students o ften do not understand the effects that alcohol has on their body because they are unsure of how alcohol reacts within the human body, much less their own individual reactions. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant. It is absorbed in both the st omach and the small intestine, passes through the bloodstream, and then is widely distributed throughout the body (CDC, 2005).

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20 The effects of alcohol on the body are directly related to the amount that is consumed. If alcohol is ingested in small amounts, it can have a relaxing effect. Adverse effects can include impaired judgment, reduced reaction time, slurred speech, and loss of balance. When alcohol is consumed in large amounts and rapidly, it can result in a coma or even death. This absorption rat e can be affected by how much food is in the stomach and at what rate the alcohol is ingested. An empty stomach will absorb alcohol more quickly than if the stomach is full upon ingestion. Alcohol is also absorbed quicker if mixed with a carbonated bevera ge such as champagne, soda, or carbonated water. Water decreases the amount of concentration of alcohol; therefore, it is often common for water to be ingested with alcohol because when mixed together, alcohol is not absorbed as fast. Once the alcohol is absorbed in the stomach and small intestine, it then passes into the bloodstream and is carried to other body parts. It takes approximately one hour for the human body to digest one standard drink (CDC, 2005). Body weight and gender are also factors that influence alcohol absorption. Body weight has been used in the definition of binge drinking because the number of drinks it takes to be considered a binge drinker differs between men and women. Women often absorb and metabolize alcohol in a different wa y than men. Men typically have a smaller proportion of body fat and, therefore, the alcohol is less concentrated in their body fluids because fat carries little water. Alcohol is therefore more concentrated in the body fluids of women. Women do not prod uce a large amount of the enzyme that metabolizes alcohol in their stomach lining, and because of this a higher amount of alcohol enters the bloodstream (CDC, 2005). Effects of A lcohol Excessive drinking, including heavy drinking and binge drinking, can ha ve both chronic (long term) and acute (short include cirrhosis (damage to liver cells); pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas); various

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21 forms of cancer, including cancer of the liver mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus; high blood pressure, meningitis, sexually transmitted infections and psychological disorders. Acute health problems can include motor vehicle injuries, falls, unintentional injuries, alcohol poisoning, domestic viol ence, rape, and child abuse (CDC, 2005; Naimi, Brewer, Mokdad, Denny, Serdula, & Marks 2003). According to Naimi and fellow researchers (2003), alcohol abuse is responsible for the lives of 100,000 Americans each year and is the third leading preventable c ause of death in the United States. Traffic Related E ffects The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ( NHTSA) (2000) estimates that 56% of all crash fatalities involve intoxicated drivers in the general population and that motor vehicle crashes ar e the leading cause of death for young adults aged 16 to 24 years in the United States. Individuals between the ages of 21 to 24 years have the highest incidence of driving after drinking (33 % with a blood alcohol content of 0.08g/dl or greater). In 2000 an estimated total of 2,163,210 crashes in the United States involved alcohol. In the last ten years, around 250,000 people have died in alcohol related car accidents in the United States. Figures show that 16,000 people were killed in the year 2000, du e to alcohol related accidents. In 2004, that figure climbed to 25,000 individuals killed in alcohol related accidents. This means that 500 people die every week and 71 people die everyday in alcohol related car accidents (NHTSA, 2000). Reports indicate that during 2001, 29 % of college students reported driving after drinking, and 23% reported being a passenger of a driver who was impaired, both of which are significant increases from the same study that was completed in 1993 (Wechsler, et al., 2002). Na imi and fellow researchers (2003) reported binge drinkers were 14 times more likely to drive while impaired by alcohol compared with non binge drinkers. In 1999, there were approximately eight million college students in the United States. Of those eight million, it was reported that two

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22 million drove under the influence of alcohol and over three million rode with someone that had been drinking (Hingson, 2002). The numbers of college students that drink and drive or ride with someone who has been drinkin g are very high. This behavior has proven to be deadly for not only college students, but others living within the college community or local community. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2005) reports that non drinking students, as well as members of the community, also may experience alcohol related consequences, such as increased rates of crime, traffic crashes, rapes and assaults, and property damage. Other E ffects The misuse of alcohol among college students has also been link ed to a variety of negative outcomes that are not health related, including poor academic performance, risky sexual behaviors, vandalism, and aggressive behavior (NIAAA, 2002). More than 696,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are assaulted by anoth er student who has been drinking; more than 97,000 students are victims of alcohol related sexual assault or date rape; more than 400,000 students had unprotected sex and more than 100,000 students have reported being too intoxicated to know if they consen ted to having sex (Hingson, 2002). About 25% of college students report academic consequences of their drinking including missing class, falling behind, doing poorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall (Engs Hanson, & Diebold, 1996; P re sley et al., 2002). About 11% of college student drinkers report that they have damaged property while under the influence of alcohol (Wechsler et al., 2002), and more than 25% of administrators from schools with relatively low drinking levels and over 50 % from alcohol related property damage (Wechsler et al., 1995). Furthermore, about five percent of four year college students find themselves involved with the police or campus security as a result

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23 of their drinking behaviors (Wechsler et al, 2002). Approximately 110,000 students are arrested for an alcohol related violation such as driving under the influence or public drunkenness each year (Hingson, 2002). Las tly, it is reported that 31% of college students have met the criteria for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse, and six percent for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the past year (Knight, Wechsler, Kuo, Seibring, Weitzman, & Schuckit, 2002). College studen ts often do not realize the impact and consequences that their actions have on themselves as well as those around them. Purpose and Significance of Study The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of goals, attitudes, and beliefs on the celebrator y drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. Specifically, it goals, social outcome expectancies, the attitude and belief that drinkin g is risky, the attitude and belief that drinking is fun. In this study, alcohol consumption on college football game days was viewed as a purposive behavior of student directed goals. Understanding the goals, attitudes, and beliefs of college students an d their alcohol consumption behaviors as they negotiate the transition into the college environment is essential for planning health promotion efforts aimed at minimizing the negative consequences of alcohol misuse (Leventhal & Keeshan, 1993). Although th is study will be conducted at one large southeastern university, the findings will be particularly beneficial to other universities with competitive football teams. All colleges and universities may not have celebratory events, such as football game days, but alcohol use is still a major concern at all colleges and universities across the nation, therefore, the findings will most likely be typical of other institutions.

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24 Rationale Athletics are the center of many college and university campuses, and college football game days bring attention to the celebratory side of drinking behaviors of college students. By limiting the research to college students and Greek organizations, researchers have overlooked a large proportion of the college population and celeb ratory events that lend themselves to binge drinking behavior (Gove, 2005; Neighbors, Spieker, Oster Aaland, Lewis, & Bergstrom, 2005; Weitzman, Nelson & Wechsler, 2003; Hartford, Wechsler & Seibring, 2002; Keeling, 2002; Knight, Wechsler, Kuo, Seibring, W eitzman, & Schuckit, 2002; Presley, Meilman & Leichliter, 2002; Wechsler & Kuo, 2000; Wechsler & Dowdall, 1998; Chaloupka & Wechsler, 1996; Quigley & Marlatt, 1996; Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport & Castillo, 1995; Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport & Rimm, 1995). The college sports environment should also be examined within the college environment. Little research has been done around the drinking behaviors surrounding celebratory events (Neighbors et al., 2005), such as college football game days. Factors influe ncing the drinking environments of college students can contribute to understanding drinking patterns and aid in developing improved intervention and prevention programs (Hartford et al., 2002). In order to address problem drinking among college students, it is important for colleges and universities to understand the factors that influence drinking behaviors among college students on college football game days. In examining the goal, attitudes, and beliefs of college students regarding alcohol consumption as a celebratory behavior on college football game days, it will allow college and university administrators to implement relevant prevention and intervention programs for this growing problem on college campuses.

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25 Future Implications This study will add t o the current body of literature by examining the effect of goals, attitudes, and beliefs on the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days, one of the most popular celebratory events at larger colleges and universitie s. Alcohol consumption was selected as the risk behavior because there is a particularly high prevalence of alcohol use and binge drinking among college students, and there is the potential for serious negative consequences due to misuse. Celebratory dri nking was also selected as a focus risk behavior because so little research has been conducted on it. The study will identify factors that encourage and discourage college students to drink in this celebratory environment. This will allow administrators to review existing policies and procedures and programmatic efforts, and consider the effectiveness of each related to alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviors. Research Questions Q1 Do the academic goals of college students predict their participat ion in celebratory drinking on college football game days? Q2 Do the social goals of college students predict their participation in celebratory drinking on college football game days? Q3 Do the health goals of college students predict their participation in celebratory drinking on college football game days? Q4 Does the attitude and belief that drinking is risky predict celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days? Q5 Does the attitude and belief that drinking is fun pre dict the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days? Research Hypothesis H1 There will be a negative correlation between academic goals and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game d ays.

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26 H2 There will be a positive correlation between social goals and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. H3 There will be a negative correlation between health goals and celebratory drinking behaviors of coll ege students on college football game days. H4 There will be a negative correlation between the attitude and belief that drinking is risky and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. H5 There will be a positive cor relation between the attitude and belief that drinking is fun and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. Assumptions of Study This study assumed that many college students engage in alcohol consumption at celebrat ory events, such as college football game days. College football game days were an event representing a celebratory environment in this study. This study assumed that all participants would answer the questions honestly to give the researcher a true look at the relationship between college football game days and alcohol consumption.

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27 CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHOD S Research Design The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables us to answer the initial questions as unamb iguously as possible. The design of this study was a multiple comparison group cross sectional designs have three distinctive features: no time dimension; reliance on existing differences rather than change following intervention; and groups based on existing differences rather than random those with lower academic goals, the primary independent variable in this s tudy. Therefore, it was necessary to find a way to sample for this variable. Since no data are available that identify the academic goals of students a priori on campus residential facilities were chosen as a surrogate for this variable. The university provides an opportunity for students to elect to live in on campus housing facilities that are designated primarily for those students with superior academic achievement and leadership experience. The researcher therefore selected eight residential facil ities from this group of on campus housing facilities (e.g., academic community) to represent the population of students with high academic goals and eight non restricted residential facilities (e.g., traditional community) to represent the population of s tudent with more modest academic goals. This study examined two groups of randomly selected individuals, those living in an academic initiative or living/learning community and those living in traditional residential facilities with no academic focus. Tw o groups were chosen because of the anticipated higher academic goals of those respondents living in residential facilities with academic focus. Academic goals, as an independent variable, are a strong indicator for the outcome variable, celebratory drink ing. Using a cross sectional design permitted the researcher to examine

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28 existing differences between groups by looking at multiple variables at the same time. Although studies using a cross sectional design look for relationships between two or more vari ables, they cannot conclusively explain the direction of the relationship. Correlations can be stated, but causation cannot be established. For this study, the predictor variables (academic goals, social goals, health goals, the attitude and belief that drinking is risky, and that attitude and belief that drinking is fun) and the outcome variable (celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days) were examined to determine whether any relationships were present. Population The theoretical population for this study consisted of students enrolled at major public universities in the United States. The accessible population consisted of approximately 7,500 students enrolled at a large coeducational university in the Southeaste rn United States living in on campus (non Greek) residential facilities. The sampling frame consisted of 5,622 individuals living in the 16 on campus residential facilities. The researcher knew of no compelling reason why students at this university migh t differ in terms of the primary independent variable, academic goals, from students at other institutions. The following formula was used to determine the sample size for this study: n= (z 2 )s 2 /d 2 (n = sample size, z = z value associated with a given a lpha level, s 2 = estimated variance, d 2 = acceptable error rate) (Kish, 1995). From this formula, it was determined that a total of 240 individuals in each population were needed to obtain a sufficient sample with a confidence interval of 0.95 (alpha = 0. 05), estimated variance of 0.05 and an error rate of 0.20 (d= 0.20, s 2 = 0.05). From an alphabetical list of email addresses for each of the 16 residence halls, every eighth resident was selected until a list of 32 residents for each of the 16 halls was o btained (32 residents 16 halls = 512 total respondents).

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29 Data Collection The Residence Life and Education Office at the selected university was contacted requesting permission to survey the students living in on campus residential facilities. The offi ce agreed to allow data collection in 16 on campus residential facilities during spring 2007. Some non research variables were eliminated by using students living in on campus housing for the sampling population. An email was sent to all 512 respondents asking for them to participate in this study. All potential participants were informed by an online consent letter that their participation was Board (IRB) regulat ions. The potential participants were informed in the consent letter that they could contact the researcher by email if they wanted a copy of the results at the end of the study. act information, in case they had a question about the study at a later date. Respondents were advised that by completing the survey, they were implying their consent to participate in the research study. The letter included contact information for a local crisis center in case the participant found the survey troublesome or felt that they need to discuss their alcohol use with a professional. The email asking for their participation was followed by one additional email to remind the residents to complete the online questionnaire. Because there was no identifying information on the results of the questionnaire, there was not a way to identify those individuals who did not participate. A total of 486 participants from the two different residential faciliti es completed the questionnaire for this study. Five of the cases were excluded because the respondents did not indicate the residence hall in which they lived. A total of 481 questionnaires were used in data analysis. From the eight academic communities 230 participants completed the survey. From the eight traditional communities, 251 participants completed the survey.

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30 Instrumentation A 30 item Celebratory Drinking Behaviors Questionnaire was created for use in this study to explore research question s set out in Chapter One (see Appendix A). The self completion questionnaire took approximately 20 minutes to complete. The questionnaire was pilot tested on seven undergraduate students living in various residence halls at the selected university. Feed back was used to make any additions, deletions and/or corrections. The questionnaire consisted of the following sections: academic goals, social goals, health goals, social outcome expectancies, attitude and belief about risk of consuming alcohol, attitud e and belief about the fun of consuming alcohol, celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days, and sociodemographics. The questionnaire consisted of items that the researcher developed with the assistance of an expert panel (Bourdreau, Hir sch, Hughes, Kraemer, Marsh, Stark, Vutsinas, & Wrabel, 2006) as well as questions from the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (Brown, Christiansen, & Goldman, 1987), the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire (Fromme, Stroot, & Kaplan, 1983), Sorori ty Women and Alcohol Use Questionnaire (Gove, 2005), and questions from the Personal Goals index created by researchers Planned Alcohol Use Among College Bound High School Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was developed by Brown and colleagues (Brown et al., 1987; Brown, Goldman, Inn, & Anderson, 1980). The AEQ is a 68 item measure that reduces to six subscales of positive alcohol expectancies. These are: global positive enhancement, sexual enhancement, physical and social pleasure, social assertiveness, relaxation and tension, and arousal and power. A sample item (from the social assertiveness positive original dichotomous response format was not used in the present study 0 = disagree or 1 =

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31 agree For the purpose of this study, questions from the AEQ were changed and asked participants if they believed consumi point scale with the following options: not at all, rarely, some of the time, most of the time, all of the time, no opinion. The AEQ is a very well established measure of alcohol expectancies, and a substantial number of papers have reported data on the high internal consistency of its subscales and its good predictive validity (e.g., Brown, Goldman, & Anderson, 1980; Brown et al., 1987 ; Darkes, Greenbaum & Goldman, 2004; George, Frone, Cooper, Russell, Skinner, & Windle, 1995; Jajodia & Earleywine, 2003). Its structure appears invariant across gender and race (George et al., 1995). l Questionnaire (CEOA) assesses seven positive and negative dimensions of alcohol consequences: sociability, tension reduction, liquid courage, sexuality, cognitive/behavioral, risk and aggression, and self perception. Questions from CEOA were combined wit h AEQ questions to create a Social Outcome Expectancies index. For the purpose of this study, questions were combined into one index with the AEQ questions. Prior research has shown strong internal consistencies and predictive validity in samples of coll ege students (Fromme et al., 1993) and adolescents (Fromme & Academic G oals This section included a five item index within question 15, asking respondents to think about the current school year, and indicate how a.) Important; b.) Difficu lt; c.) Time consuming; d.) Enjoyable; and e.) Stressful it was for them to get good grades. Individual items were rated on 5 point Likert type scale (1 = Not at all, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Some of the time, 4 = Most of the time,

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32 5 = All of the time). For the pu rpose of this study, the five items were then summed together for an overall academic goals score. The academic goals index is one of three parts of the Personal Goals index that was initially developed and used to measure the personal goals of participant s in a study by researchers Rhoades and Maggs (2006). The item total correlation indicated a significant difference ( .019) for the statement getting good grades is enjoyable, therefore the Social G oals This section included questions 17, 18, and 20, all five item indices, asking respondents to think about the current school year, and indicate how a.) Important; b.) Difficult; c.) Time consuming; d.) Enjoyable; and e.) Stressful it was to 1. ) Make friends; 2.) Date and develop intimacy; and 3.) Be away and on their own away from their family. Each of the items were measured on a five point scale (1 = Not at all, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Some of the time, 4 = Most of the time, 5 = All of the time) and then for the purpose of this study, the three indices were summed together for an overall social goals score These three indices are also part of the Personal Goals instrument that was initially developed and used by researchers Rhoades and Maggs (2006) The item total correlation indicated a significant difference for the statements dating and developing intimacy is enjoyable (.137), dating and developing intimacy is important (.213), making friends is enjoyable ( .026), making friends is important (.2 00), being away from family and on my own is enjoyable (.074), and being away from family and on my own is important (.116) therefore Social O u tcome E xpectancies Despite the possib ility of serious harm from binge drinking and alcohol misuse, drinking may serve important constructive functions for students, such as helping them to make friends, let off steam, indicate a transition to a more mature status, or explore personal identiti es

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33 (Chassin, Presson, & Sherman, 1989). Alcohol related expectancies can influence the behavioral effects of alcohol and decisions regarding alcohol use. The adolescent and adult forms of the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire are designed to measure the de gree to which individuals expect alcohol to produce a variety of general and specific effects. Research using the AEQ indicates a consistent relationship between alcohol expectancies, alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, and behaviors while drinking (Brown, Christiansen, & Goldman, 1987). The Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire (CEOA) measures both the positive and negative effects people expect alcohol to have on themselves. This section included question 21, a 12 item index adapted from both the AEQ and the CEOA, asking respondents about their social outcome expectancies while consuming alcohol on college football game days. For the 12 items, respondents were asked to indicate on five point Likert consuming alcohol on college football game days resulted in a series of social outcome expectancies (makes you more socially accepted, enhances your social activity, facilitates a connection with your peers, makes y ou feel popular, allows you to express your feelings, makes you more outgoing, allows you to have more fun, is a nice way to celebrate, makes you more aggressive, makes you feel like you can meet people easier, makes it easier for you to tell someone off). For analysis purposes, two of these items (makes you more aggressive, makes it easier for you to tell someone off) were reverse coded so that a higher score reflected a stronger Health G oals This section used question 19, a five item index, asking respondents to think about the current school year, and indicate how a.) important; b.) difficult; c.) time consuming; d.) enjoyable; and e.) stressful it was for them to be in good physical shape. Each of the items were

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34 measured on a five point scale (1 = Not at all, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Some of the time, 4 = Most of the time, 5 = All of the time). This index is also part of the Personal Goals instrument that was initially developed and used to by researchers Rhoades an was 0.738. Attitude and Belief t hat Drinking is R isky This section used questions 10, 11, and 12 to examine the attitudes and beliefs that drinking is risky, how risky it is to consume alcohol on college football game days and risky behaviors associated with drinking alcohol on college football game days. Question ten asked respondents to indicate how risky they believed it was to drink alcohol. This item was measured on a five point scale (1 = Not risky at all, 2 = Some what risky, 3 = Risky, 4 = Very risky, 5 = Extremely risky). Question 11 asked respondents to indicate how risky they believed it was to drink alcohol on college football game days. This item was measured on the same five point scale as question ten. Qu estion 12, a five item index, was used to measure risky behaviors associated with consuming alcohol on college football game days. Respondents were asked to indicate how risky they believed the following behaviors to be while consuming alcohol on college f ootball game days: unprotected sex, physical altercations, drinking and driving, drinking games (i.e flip cup, beer pong, power hours, etc.), and dares (jumping off high objects, swimming, etc.). This item was measured on a six point scale (1 = Not risky at all, 2 = Somewhat risky, 3 = Risky, 4 = Very risky, 5 = Extremely risky, 0 = No opinion). The item total correlation indicated a significant difference (0.268) for the statement it is risky to play drinking games while consuming alcohol on college foo alpha was 0.754.

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35 Attitude and Belief t hat Drinking is F un This section used questions 13, 14, and 15 to examine the attitudes and beliefs that drinking is fun, how fun it is to c onsume alcohol on college football game days, and fun behaviors associated with drinking alcohol on college football game days. Question 13 asked respondents to indicate how fun they believed it was to drink alcohol. This item was measured on a five poin t scale (1 = Not fun at all, 2 = Somewhat fun, 3 = Fun, 4 = Very fun, 5 = Extremely fun). Question 14 asked respondents to indicate how fun they believed it was to drink alcohol on college football game days. This item was measured on the same five point scale as question thirteen. Question 15, a five item index, was used to measure fun behaviors associated with consuming alcohol on college football game days. Respondents were asked to indicate how fun they believed the following behaviors to be while cons uming alcohol on college football game days: dancing, hanging out with friends, watching sports, playing games (cards, board games, billiards, etc.), and celebrating an event (football victory). This item was measured on a 6 point scale (1 = Not fun at a ll, 2 = Somewhat fun, 3 =Fun, 4 = Very fun, 5 = Extremely fun, 0 = No Demographics The demographics section contained items measuring race/ethnic origin, gender, age, current academic classification, overall grade point average (GPA), and membership in a Greek Letter Council. Demographic information is collected in most research and provides important basic information for the examination of differences and similarity between and within populations. Respondents w ere first asked to indicate their race/ethnic origin, with the following choices: 1.) Hispanic; 2.) Asian/Pacific Islander; 3.) White (non Hispanic); 4.) Black (non Hispanic); and 5.) Other. They were then asked to indicate their gender, with the followin g

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36 choices: 1.) Female; and 2.) Male. Respondents were then asked their current age, in years with choices ranging from 18 23 years or older. They were also asked to indicate their current academic classification with the following choices: 1.) Freshman; 2.) Sophomore; 3.) Junior; 4.) Senior; 5.) Graduate/Professional student. Respondents were also asked to indicate their current overall grade point average (GPA), with the following choices: 1.) <2.0; 2.) 2.0 2.49; 3.) 2.5 2.99; 4.) 3.0 3.49; and 5.) >3.5 Lastly, they were asked to indicate if they were a member of one of the four Greek Letter Councils and if so which Council (Inter Fraternity Council, Panhellenic Council, National Pan Hellenic Council, or Multicultural Greek Council). Limitations In formation collected for this study relied solely on self reported alcohol use. Because of the social stigma often attached to excessive drinking behaviors, there is a possibility of social desirability bias, as some students may have chosen not to divulge such information. To address this, each student was assured that their answers would remain confidential and that the findings of this study would in no way be connected to individuals. Another limitation to this study was that parts of the research in strument had never been used before and remains untested. There was not a specific instrument that met all of the needs of the study, so one was created in order to answer the questions that the study is seeking to answer. Items were designed to respond to the research questions of this study. The creation of an instrument also has a limitation of a time constraint. The questionnaire was pre tested and modifications were made, however, further modifications were not made after the initial data collection wa s completed. Data Analysis Data was entered into and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows Release 15.0 Data collected following these methods were analyzed using a

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37 variety of tests, including descriptive statistics a nd frequencies, bivariate analyses, and binary logistic regressions.

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38 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW The college environment not only provides students with numerous opportunities to explore various ideas and lifestyles, but is also optimal for experimenti ng with risky behaviors such as alcohol and drug use (Schulenberg and Maggs, 2000). The post high school years are characterized by the exploration of future life possibilities. Changes in role patterns, obligations, normative expectations, and institution goals for the future (Nurmi & Siurala, 1994) As students move towards adulthood, they face many important life decisions that may have enduring ramifications, such as choosing a college major, care er path or romantic partner. Decisions about lifestyle issues, such as alcohol use, may also have a long term impact on the achievement of valued goals, either by interfering with goal achievement or by subjectively facilitating it (Maggs, 1997). Drinking on college campuses is becoming more pervasive and destructive. The consumption of alcohol on many college campuses has evolved into a rite of passage. Handed down through generations of college students that consume alcohol, traditions and beliefs have success (National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA], 2002). Drinking behaviors of college students are influenced by both personal and environmen tal factors. Personal factors that influence drinking behaviors include family influences, personality, and a influence drinking behaviors include the drinking cul ture on campus, alumni influence, and the collegiate environment in general (NIAAA, 2002). Many students arrive at college with expectations about the effects of alcohol and some may already have a history of alcohol use and abuse. There are certain envi ronments within college and university campuses that often

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39 encourage alcohol use. These environments include Greek systems, fraternities and sororities, and schools where sports teams have a prominent role (Presley, Meilman, Leichliter, 2002). These envi ronments often provide drinking friendly environments to students of the legal drinking age and those who are not legal. Even if a student is not legally allowed to drink, within these environments, students are given the opportunity to drink and often th ese behaviors are often in excess. Collegiate Athletics and Alcohol Binge drinking is a standard practice of young adults, especially college students (Wechsler, Kuh & Davenport, 1996). Research by the College Alcohol Study reported that sports fans are more likely to engage in binge drinking than students who are not interested in attending college sporting events. This research reports that sports fans also drink more frequently and more often drink to get drunk (Weschler & Nelson, 2002). Colleges an d universities often look the other way and the vast presence of alcohol in relation to sporting at collegiate sporting events (Weschler and Nelson, 2002). Football tailgating parties often entail consuming large amounts of alcohol and getting drunk before attending a football game and these behaviors continue after the game has ended. Post game activities often include continued excessive alcohol consumpti on at local bars, on campus residence halls, and off campus houses (National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information [NCADI], 2005). Both drinking and tailgating often lead to very destructive behavior, and when put into practice by sports fans the following can result; fighting with other fans, throwing beverages, throwing items onto the field, destruction of college/university or city property (e.g. tearing property, injury or even death. College students around the nation engage in celebratory events

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40 that are often alcohol related and are focused around college football games (NCADI, 2005). Binge drinking behaviors before the games often carry over into i ncidents long after the game has ended, spilling over into surrounding towns. College sports fans are consistently subjected to alcohol advertisements that encourage, and often even glorify, drinking as a natural part of sporting events. Many advertisemen ts show high energy crowds of sports fans holding beers and yelling in what appears to be violent mob scenes. The massive amount of alcohol advertisement on television is often accompanied by bars within a mile of college campuses (NIAAA, 2005). Many cam puses have more than 100 establishments that serve alcohol nearby. Local bars and liquor stores often compete for customers, most of them college students, by lowering prices and offering promotions such as ladies night, ten cent beers, and drink and drow n specials. These college bars specifically target sports fans on game days by offering television access to a large range of college athletic events (Weschler & Nelson, 2002). These advertisements create alcohol expectancies that are associated with dri nking. Often these advertisements only show glamour and glory, giving college students the expectations that if they drink, they also will be glamorous and glorious, but they often do not portray the negative consequences that are associated with drinking behaviors. These advertisements show beautiful people in social scenes usually laughing and having a good time (NIAAA, 2005). Partnerships between universities and the alcohol industry have assisted with legitimizing alcohol as a necessary ingredient of the collegiate sports environment (Weschler and Nelson, 2002). In a recent study, college sports fans were more likely than non fans to drink and have alcohol related issues. These issues included missing more classes, falling behind in schoolwork, vandal ism, violence, and sexua l violence. More than half, 53%, of the fans reported

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41 engaging in binge drinking behaviors, compared with the 38% of the non fans. This study also reported that schools with larger proportions of fans were more likely to have high rates of binge drinking on their campuses. In addition, schools with larger proportions of fans are more likely to have high rates of binge drinking, which lead to large numbers of students who suffer the second School of Public Health, 2002). Colleges and drunkenness, vandalism, fights and assaults. Instead of setting limits and enforcing the law, it is not uncommon for university officials to help legitimize alcohol as a necessary ingredient of college game days by partnering with the alcohol industry (Wechsler & Nelson, 2002). A USA playing Divi sion I A schools allows the sale of alcohol through public concessions, in private suites, or both at one or more venues. Eighty five percent of those schools have designated tailgating areas, and barely one in ten keep those zones alcohol free. It has been a common practice for colleges and universities to look the other way as alcohol advertisements surround college sporting events, alcohol engulfs the neighborhoods surrounding colleges, and alcohol laden traditions such as tailgating consume campuses Many college and university officials are aware of the problem facing their institutions, but because it is such a large and growing problem, they are unsure of how to solve the problem. Who is Drinking? When compared to other age groups, emerging adult s, typically ages 18 to 25, consume more alcohol than any other age group. An overwhelming majority of co llege students, about 88% (including those under the legal drinking age), have used alcohol ( Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman, 2000). Emerging adults in the 18 to 25 age group also consistently engage in high rates of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and substance use (Arnett, 2000). The National

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42 Survey on Drug Use and Health revealed that emerging adults (18 25 years of age) show the highest preva lence of problem drinking (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [S AMHSA], 2003). Specifically, 41% of emerging adults reported binge drinking, which is five or more drinks per occasion at least once in the past month, and 15% reported heavy alcohol use, five or more drinks per occasion on at least five different days in the past month. Among college students, approximately 67 % reported using alcohol at least once in the past month ( ), and 40% reported heavy episodic drinking, defined for men as drinking five or more drinks at least once in the past two weeks and, and for women as four or more drinks at least once in the past two weeks (Wechsler and Nelson, 2001). Because of the risks of alcohol abuse, including accidents, violence, property damage, academic failure, and addiction (Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, & Rimm, 1995), college administrators, health professionals, and public health experts remain very concerned about the levels of alcohol consump tion that have long been a common part of university life (National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Task Force on College Drinking, 2002). This pattern of consumption is problematic because students who drink heavily are much more likely to report negative consequences (Perkins, 2002). Social Context of D rinking Drinking in groups and serving oneself may promote higher levels of alcohol consumption. In one study, college students at bars drank more beer when in groups and when ordering pi tchers than when alone and when ordering glasses or bottles ( Geller, Russ, & Altomari, 1986). In another study, beer drinkers assigned to serve themselves at a fraternity party drank more than those assigned to receive beer from a bartender (Weschler and I saac, 1992). In simulated natural settings (i.e., a simulated tavern), the amount of alcohol consumed by college students was

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43 influenced by the social behaviors and drinking behaviors of those around them. Many individuals have the perception that it is n ecessary to consume alcohol to fit into certain organizations or social groups to be considered popular and fit in to that social network ( Marlatt, Baer, & Larimer, 1995). Studies of alcohol consumption among college students have examined female and mal e motivations (Berkowtiz & Perkins, 1986; Brennan, Walfish, & AuBuchon, 1986). There is a difference among gender for these motivations. Among young women, heavy or problem drinking is often associated with emotional distress, whereas among men, drinking patterns may be related to desire to enhance social bonds or to rebel against the standards that society has put in place (Ashneberg Straussner, 1985; Berkowitz & Perkins, 1986; Fellios, 1989). Wright (1983) found that many college women who drink often h ave the feeling of being troubled, experiencing feelings of worthlessness, and having thoughts of suicide. Brennan and fellow researchers (1986) reported that quantity and frequency of alcohol use and frequency of drunkenness were positively correlated wit h the following variables: loneliness, frustration, depression, boredom, hopelessness about the future, emotional distress, and the use of campus mental health services. Problem drinking in men was not associated with the same concepts as women, but was associated with rebellion and revolts again societal standards. Therefore, motivations for female drinking is aligned more to internal problems, while male driving motivations are associated more with external problems (Arnett, 2000). Factors that have e merged from examining the social context structure among college students include: Social f acilitation -students drink with friends at a party or a bar in order to have a good time and get drunk;

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44 Emotional p ain -whereby drinking occurs to get along better on dates, for a sense of well being, to get rid of depression, and to feel better about oneself; Relaxation -after studying; Motor v ehicle -drinking primarily occurs in or around cars or while driving; Peer a cceptance -drinking occurs in order to be part of a group, to feel older or more Also, students reporting the following behaviors were more likely to abuse alcohol: parties were important to them, affiliation with a Greek organization, lived with someone, had five or more friends, socialized four or more hours a day, watched television for three or more hours a day, studied less than five ho urs per day, played intercollegiate sports more than one hour per day, or attended an institution that was centered around sporting events (Knight, Wechsler, Kuo, Seibring, Weitzman, & Schuckit, 2002). Colleges and universities are attempting to address b inge drinking behavior rates that college students admitted to binge drinking in 2001 (USA TODAY, 2005). College students often do not realize their own excessive dr inking behaviors as well as the excessive drinking behaviors of those around them. They state that they do not binge drink, when in fact they do, but they report that their friends drink more than they do. Albert Bandura (1997) reported that 340). Wechsler and Kuo (2000) added to the definition of binge drinking by examining the relationship of the amount of alcohol consumed to the occurrence of alcohol related issues among male and female college students. They found that women who typically drink four drinks in a row were found to have about the same likelihood of experiencing drinking related issues as men who drink five drinks in a row.

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45 Group D ifferences i n Alcohol C onsumption Research on the consumption of alcohol during college has shown significant between person differences. One consistent finding is that male college students tend to consume alcohol more frequently and to consume more drinks per occ asion as compared to female college and/or organizations is an important predictor of individual differences in alcohol consumption during college (Baer, 200 2). For instance, numerous studies have shown an association between participation and/or residence in fraternities/sororities and higher levels of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking (Alva, 1998; Cashin, Presley, & Meilman, 1998). F raternities and sor orities are one of the primary types of formal social organizations at American universities. They are typically referred to as the Greek system, after the Greek letters used to identify different groups. Fraternity and sorority members have been found in some studies to drink more and more frequently than their peers ( Marlatt Baer, & Larimer, 1995; Baer, Kivlahan, & Marlatt, 1995 ) Fraternity sponsored parties also may foster heavy drinking ( Geller & Kalsher, 1990). Fewer studies have examined the pote ntial differences in alcohol consumption for students who are associated with nonsocial organizations, such as the academic Honors program. At many American universities, students who meet certain academic requirements (e.g., grade point average) choose t o be or are selected to be in the Honors program (Maggs & Rhoades, 2006). They also reported that by being part of the Honors program students can take more rigorous, intellectually challenging courses. Additionally, if they maintain these academic require ments through their tenure at a university, they can attain the prestigious distinction of graduating with honors. One might hypothesize that these students would have lower drinking rates due to their greater focus on academics (Maggs & Rhoades, 2006).

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46 Goals and Alcohol Use Personal goals can direct lives by guiding and organizing behavior, and by influencing life planning and decision making (Nurmi, 1992; Salmela Aro and Nurmi, 1997). Personal goals are defined in this study as the tasks individuals are aiming to accomplish in the following academic year (Cantor, Norem, Langston, Zirkel, Fleeson, & Cook Flannagan, 1991; Cantor and Sanderson, 1998). The active pursuit of personal goals influences social behaviors (Cantor et al ., 1991; Cantor and Sanderson 1998), and is positively related to well being (Emmons, 1986; Emmons and King, 1988; Salmela Aroand & Nurmi, 1997). Cantor and fellow researchers (1991) found that college students most frequently reported getting good grades and making new friends as t heir primary personal goals. Therefore, this study focuses on the relationship of academic, social, and health goals with planned alcohol use on college football game days. Personal goals do not simply reflect personal desires; they also reflect culturall y normative tasks and societal expectations (Cantor & Sanderson, 1998; Heckhausen & Schulz, 1998). During the transition to college, alcohol consumption may play an important role for students depending on various opportunities and the salience or import ance of social and academic goals. Academic G oals Students who drink more alcohol tend to have lower academic performance (Lall and Schandler, 1991; Maney, 1990; Musgrave Marquart, Bromley, & Dalley, 1997). For example, Maney (1990) found an inverse relat ionship between alcohol consumption and overall grade point averages (GPA) among college students. That is, students with lower GPAs tended to value theory of achie expectancies and values, which in turn influence achievement performance. This would suggest

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47 that students with lower GPAs might appraise academic goals as less important than student s with higher GPAs. Social G oals One of the primary reasons students consume alcohol is for social purposes (Cooper, Agocha, & Sheldon, 2000; Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995; Stewart and Devine, 2000). Consequently, college students drink the major ity of the alcohol they consume at social gatherings, such as parties (Baer, 2002). Students who spend more time socializing with friends and participating in physical activity, as well as those who spend less time studying and volunteering, engage in mor Bachman, & Johnston, 1996; Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, & Castillo, 1995). In addition, students who feel more accepted by their peers, who believe drinking is fun, and who rate the importance of making friends as high, drink more (Maggs, 1997). Student E xpectat ions of A lcohol Many students come to college with specific expectations, many of which are alcohol related. Even though students may be aware of the possibility of serious harm from misuse of alcohol and binge drinking, drinking may also serve important positive socially constructive functions for students. Students often feel that drinking alcohol will help them make friends, let off steam, indicate a transition to a more mature st atus, or explore their personal self identities (Chassin, Presson, & Serman, 1989). A study about alcohol use in college reported that pro drinking motivations (social goals, belief that drinking is fun) were more predictive of alcohol use and binge drink ing than were anti drinking motivations (academic goals, health goals, belief that drinking is risky). This study also suggested that even though there are potential dangers and disadvantages of drinking too much, the desire to partake in social activitie s involving alcohol is a strong force for students, especially those that are entering college (Maggs, 1997).

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48 The positive functions of drinking, such as making friends and having fun may be more significant because they are experienced more immediately t han negative functions, such as may seem more likely to students than negative physiological ones (Maggs, 1997). This means that college students believe it is more likely for them to meet new people at any given party, whereas, they do not believe it is as likely for them to gain weight in excess or have an accident on any given night. Theoretical Background There are several theories which may help to expla in alcohol consumption among college Outcome Expectancy Theory to explain the effects of goals, attitudes, and beliefs, on alcohol consumption behaviors of col lege students on college football game days. Specifically, these theories will examine the effect of academic, social, and health goals, as well as the attitude and belief that drinking is risky, and the attitude and belief that drinking is fun on the cel ebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. be so difficult as to be unattainable, individuals ma y increase efforts to attain the goal or engage in alternative behaviors to cope with real or anticipated failure. Jessor (1968) reported that in college, failure to attain difficult and stressful academic and social goals may have crucial repercussions an d may lead to lowered expectations of achieving similar goals in future. Individuals may use drinking as a way to cope with the stress of failing to achieve difficult goals or of attaining alternative goals, which can compensate for failure of the origina l goal (Karwacki and Bradley, 1996).

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49 The main idea of Rotter's social learning theory is that personality represents an interaction of the individual with his or her environment. One cannot speak of a personality, internal to the individual that is indepen dent of the environment. Neither can one focus on behavior as being an automatic response to an objective set of environmental stimuli. Rather, to understand behavior, one must take both the individual (e.g., his or her life history of learning and experie nces) and the environment (e.g., those stimuli that the person is aware of and responding to) into account. Rotter describes personality as a relatively stable set of potentials for responding to situations in a particular way (Rotter, 1960). Rotter sees personality and, therefore, behavior, as always changeable. Change the way the person thinks, or change the environment the person is responding to, and behavior will change. He does not believe there is a critical period after which personality is set. B ut, the more life experience you have building up certain sets of beliefs, the more effort and intervention required for change to occur. Rotter conceives of people in an optimistic way. Rotter believes that individuals are drawn forward by their goals, s eeking to maximize their reinforcement, rather than just avoiding punishment (Rotter, Chance, & Phares, 1972). There are four main Behavior p otential The behavior potential is the l ikelihood of engaging in a particular behavior in a specific situation. In any given situation, there are multiple behaviors in which one can engage. For each possible behavior, there is a behavior potential. The individual will exhibit whichever behavior has the highest potential (Rotter, 1982). Behavior potentials for this study would include choosing to participate or not participate in the celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days.

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50 Expectancy The subjective probability that a given behavior will lead to a particular outcome is expectancy. Having "high" or "strong" expectancies means the individual is confident the behavior will result in the outcome. Having low expectancies means the individual believes it is unlikely that his or he r behavior will result in reinforcement. If the outcomes are equally desirable, and individual will engage in the behavior that has the greatest likelihood of paying off (e.g., has the highest expectancy). Expectancies are formed based on past experiences or through observing the behaviors of others. The more often a behavior has led to reinforcement in the past, the stronger the person's expectancy that the behavior will achieve that outcome now. It is important to note that expectancy is a subjective pro bability, because one common source of pathology is irrational expectancies. There may be no relationship whatsoever between the person's subjective assessment of how likely a reinforcement will be and the actual, objective probability of the reinforcer oc curring. People can either over or underestimate this likelihood, and both distortions can potentially be problematic (Rotter, 1982). Examples of expectancies in this study include the belief that consuming alcohol on college football game days will incre ase accepted. Reinforcement v alue to the desirability of these outcomes. Outcomes an individual wants to happen, and that one is attracted to, have a high reinforcement value. Outcomes an individual does not want to happen, that one wishes to avoid, have a low reinforcement value. If the likelihood of achieving reinforcement is the same, an individual will exhibit the behavior with the greatest reinforcement value (e.g., the one directed toward the outcome the individual prefers most). As with

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51 expectancy, reinforcement value is subjective meaning that the same event or experien ce can vastly differ in desirability, depending on the individual's life experience (Rotter, 1982). Many individuals choose to drink because they believe they will be reinforced socially (e.g., making new friends, being popular, facilitating a connection within a certain social group). Predictive f ormula Behavior potential (BP), expectancy (E) and reinforcement va lue (RV) can be combined into a predictive formula for behavior: BP = f (E & RV) This formula can be read as follows: behavior potential is a fun ction of expectancy and reinforcement value. Or, in other words, the likelihood of a person exhibiting a particular behavior is a function of the probability that that behavior will lead to a given outcome and the desirability of that outcome. If expectanc y and reinforcement value are both high, then behavior potential will be high. If either expectancy or reinforcement value is low, then behavior potential will be lower (Rotter, 1982). Psychological s ituation The psychological situation is how an individua l interprets a specific situation. The psychological situation does not figure directly into Rotter's (1982) formula for predicting behavior, but it is always important to keep in mind that different people interpret the same situation differently. It is people's subjective interpretation of the environment, rather than an objective array of stimuli, that is meaningful to them and that determines how they behave. Locus of c ontrol For many, the only exposure to the ideas of Rotter (1982) is his concept of generalized expectancies for control of reinforcement, more commonly known as locus of control. Locus of control refers to people's very general, cross situational beliefs about what determines whether or

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52 not they get reinforced in life. People can be clas sified along a continuum from very internal to very external. People with a strong internal locus of control believe that the responsibility for reinforcement ultimately lies with themselves. Internals believe that success or failure is due to their own e fforts. In contrast, externals believe that the reinforcers in life are controlled by luck, chance, or powerful others. Therefore, they see little impact of their own efforts on the amount of reinforcement they receive. Expectancies and r einforcements Expe ctancies can lead to pathology when they are irrationally low. If people have low expectancies, they do not believe that their behaviors will be reinforced. Consequently, they put little effort into their behaviors. If they don't try to succeed, they are l ikely to fail, and it confirms their low expectancies when they fail. This process of decreasing expectancies is a common occurrence in pathology known as a vicious cycle (Rotter, 1982) Lastly, reinforcement value problems can lead to pathology. Reinfor cers are the goals people seek in life. If people set unrealistically high and unobtainable goals for themselves, they are likely to experience frequent failure. This failure can lead to the development of the vicious cycle described above (Rotter, 1982). perceived to be so difficult as to be unattainable, individuals may increase efforts to attain the goal or engage in alternative behaviors to cope with real or anti cipated failure. In college, failure to attain difficult and stressful academic and social goals may have crucial repercussions and may lead to lowered expectations of achieving similar goals in future. Individuals may use drinking as a way to cope with t he stress of failing to achieve difficult goals or of attaining alternative goals, which can compensate for failure of the original goal (Karwacki and Bradley, 1996).

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53 Outcome Expectancy Theory Outcome Expectancy Theory has a social learning perspective (Ro tter, Chance & Phares, 1972, Bandura, 1977). It combines the principles of learning established through research on observable behavior with constructs based on cognitive processes that are, themselves, not directly observable (White, Bates & Johnson, 1990 ). Outcome expectancy theory explains behaviors of individuals as having expectations of particular reinforcing effects as the outcome of performing the behavior in question, such as alcohol consumption. Individuals often have expectations for why they c onsume alcohol (Rotter, Chance & Phares, 1972) and for they appear to consume alcohol in a way that creates the effects they expect. It is a feature of the social learning framework that the particular alcohol outcome expectations held by an individual are the result of their direct and indirect experience with alcohol (Jones, Corbin, & Fromme, 2001). Direct and indirect experiences of individuals will differ from person to person, and the consequent variability in alcohol outcome expectations held is thoug ht to explain the consumption behavior variability that is observed. A simple view is that positive expectations motivation to drink, whereas negative expectation restrain (Jones & McMahon, 1998; Lang & Michalec, 1990; Cox & Klinger, 1988). There should be a consistent relationships bet ween the alcohol outcome expectancies that individuals hold and the alcohol they consume (Jones, Corbin, & Fromme, 2001) if outcome expectancy theory has any application in understanding the variability in alcohol consumption and consumption related proble ms. Associations between positive expectancies and consumption should be positive and associations between negative expectancies and consumption should be inverse. However, associations may not indicate causality.

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54 In 1980, Brown and her colleagues found that studies have documented an association between alcohol outcome expectancies and alcohol use. Self reported drinking behavior is significantly and positively associated with positive expectancies and inversely associated with negative expectancies (Fro Christiansen & Goldman, 1987; Christiansen & Goldman, 1983). The positive expectancies of alcoholics have also been shown to differ from those of college students (Brown, Goldman & Christiansen, 1 985). Increased drinking experience is consistently associated with increased endorsement of positive expectancies. Summary The studies reviewed in this chapter have concentrated on alcohol use and binge drinking rates of college students and the personal goals of college students in relation to alcohol consumption (Weitzman, Nelson & Wechsler, 2003; Hartford, Baer, 2002; Cooper et al ., 2000; Wechsler & Seibring, 2002; Keeling, 2002; Knight et al., 2002; Presley, Meilman & Leichliter, 2002; Stewart and De vine, 2000; Wechsler & Kuo, 2000; Wigfield and Eccles 2000; Maggs, 1997; Cantor and Sanderson, 1998; Heckhausen and Schulz, 1998; Wechsler & Dowdall, 1998; Salmela Aroand, Nurmi, 1997; Chaloupka & Wechsler, 1996; Osgood et al .,1996; Quigley & Marlatt, 1996 ; Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport & Castillo, 1995; Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport & Rimm, 1995; Cooper et al ., 1995; Nurmi, 1992; Cantor et al ., 1991; Emmons and King, 1988; Emmons, 1986). Little research has been conducted, however, about how goals, attitude s, and beliefs influence the drinking behaviors of college students and celebratory events, specifically college football game days. This study will add to the current body of literature by examining goals, attitudes, and beliefs associated with alcohol c onsumption by college students on college football games days. This study will allow college and university administrators to see the relationships between factors that influence excessive alcohol consumption and collegiate sports,

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55 specifically football g ames. It will also allow them to further investigate what contributes to this type of celebratory behavior, and implement and revise intervention and prevention programs at their institutions.

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56 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS First, the descriptive statistics for the sample are provided. Then bivariate analyses were used to examine differences between the two populations for the dependent variable (celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days). Logistic regressions were then use d to examine the influence of the independent variables on celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. Lastly, post hoc bivariate analyses were used to examine differences of the independent variables (academic goals, social goals, health goals, social outcome expectancies, the attitude and belief that drinking is risky, the attitude and belief that drinking is fun), dependent variable, and for various grouping effects (gender, age, race/ethnic origin, academic classifi cation). Post hoc analyses were only conducted for differences in the sample, not the populations. Demographics A total of 481 respondents from 16 on campus residential facilities completed an online questionnaire. Independent samples were drawn. There were 230 respondents from the academic communities and 251 from the traditional communities (Table 4 1). The response rate for the academic communities was 89.8 % The response rate for the traditional communities was 98%. The mean age of respondents in a cademic communities was 18.9 years (SD 1.027), and the mean age was 19.2 years (SD 1.140) for respondents in traditional communities. There were a total of 88 male respondents (44.4%) and 110 female respondents (55.6%) in the academic communities, and a to tal of 81 male respondents (36.8%) and 139 female respondents (63.2%) in the traditional communities (Table 4 1). As compared to the university population and the

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57 spring 2007 on campus residential population as a whole, both of these populations included a slightly larger proportion of females and a slightly smaller proportion of males (Table 4 2). Table 4 1 Gender Academic communities Traditional communities Gender Frequency Valid percent Frequency Valid percent Male 88 44.4 81 36.8 Female 110 55.6 139 63.2 Total 198 100.0 220 100.0 Table 4 2 Gender b y university population and residence halls p opulation University undergraduates On campus residents Gender Frequency Valid percent Frequency Valid percent Male 16,678 46.1 3,193 44.0 F emale 19,484 53.9 4,008 56.0 Total 36,163 100.0 7,201 100.0 The majority of respondents (n = 136, 68.7%) in academic communities identified their race/ethnic origin as White (non Hispanic) (Table 4 3). Respondents identifying as Bla ck (non Hispanic ) comprised 7.6% of the academic communities (n = 15). A total of 31 respondents (15.7%) identified their race/ethnic origin as Hispanic and ten respondents (5.1%) identified as Asian/Pacific Islander. The remaining respondents (n = 6, 3.0%) in academic communities reported that they identified with a race/ethnic origin other than the given answer choices. For traditional communities, the majority of the respondents (n = 151, 68.6%) reported their race/ethnic origin as White (non Hispanic). Respondents identifying as Black (non Hispanic) comprised 8.2% of the traditional co mmunities (n = 18). A total of 28 respondents (12.7%) identified their race/ethnic origin as Hispanic and 14 respondents (6.4%) identified as Asian/Pacific Islander. The remaining res pondents (n = 9, 4.1%) reported that they identified with a race/ethnic origin different from the given answers choices. Respondents were not given the option to indicate what race/ethnic origin they were if they chose the Other category.

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58 As compared to the university population as a whole, the academic communities had a larger proportion of Hispanic and White (non Hispanic) respondents, and a slightly smaller proportion of Black (non Hispanic) respondents. The traditional communities had a higher propo rtion of White (non Hispanic) respondents (Table 4 4). Table 4 3 Race/ethnic o rigin Academic communities Traditional communities Race Frequency Valid percent Frequency Valid percent Hispanic 31 15.7 28 12.7 Asian/Pacific Islander 10 5.1 14 6.4 White (non Hispanic) 136 68.7 151 68.6 Black (non Hispanic) 15 7.6 18 8.2 Other 6 3.0 9 4.1 Total 198 100.0 220 100.0 As compared to the spring 2007 on campus residential population as a whole, both populations had a sig nificantly larger proportion of White (non Hispanic) and Hispanic respondents and a smaller proportion of Black (non Hispanic) respondents (Table 4 5). Table 4 4 Race/ethnic origin by university population and residence halls population University undergr aduates On campus residents Race Frequency Valid percent Frequency Valid percent Hispanic 4,693 13.0 910 12.6 Asian/Pacific Islander 2,625 7.2 502 6.9 White (non Hispanic) 23,809 65.8 4,343 60.3 Black (non Hispanic) 3,456 9.6 1, 131 15.7 Other/Not reported 1,580 4.4 315 0.4 Total 36,163 100.0 7,201 100.0 The academic classification for the respondents in academic communities was as follows: 126 freshmen (63.6%); 37 sophomores (18.7%); 22 juniors (11.1%); 12 seniors ( 6.1%); and one (0.5%) graduate or professional students. For respondents in traditional communities, the academic classifications were as follows: 88 freshmen (40.0%); 66 sophomores (30.0%); 45 juniors (20.5%); 18 seniors (8.2%); and three (1.4%) graduate or professional students. As compared to the spring 2007 on campus population as a whole, the academic communities had a

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59 significantly higher percentage of freshman and significantly lower percentage of sophomores. The traditional communities had a sign ificantly higher percentage of freshman and juniors, and a significantly lower percentage of sophomores (Table 4 6). Table 4 5 Academic c lassification Academic communities Traditional communities Classification Frequency Valid percent Frequency Valid percent Freshman 126 63.6 88 40.0 Sophomore 37 18.7 66 30.0 Junior 22 11.1 45 20.5 Senior 12 6.1 18 8.2 Graduate/Professional 1 0.5 3 1.4 Total 198 100.0 220 100.0 Table 4 6 Academic c lassification by residence halls p opulation On campus residents Classification Frequency Valid percent Freshman 2,269 31.5 Sophomore 3,362 46.7 Junior 1,056 14.7 Senior 501 7.0 Graduate/Professional 13 0.2 Total 7,201 100.0 It was hypothesized that academic goals are strong predictor variables of celebratory factor to conside r when examining academic goals. Respondents in academic communities reported grade point averages that were well above average (Table 4 7). The majority (n = 132, 66.7%) reported a GPA of 3.5 or greater on a four point system. A little over one fifth (n = 46, 23.2%), reported GPAs between 3.0 and 3.49. Only 14 respondents (7.1%) reported GPAs between 2.5 and 2.99 and six respondents (3.0%) reported a grade point average between 2.0 and 2.49. Respondents in traditional communities reported very similar GPAs. The majority (n = 113, 51.4%) reported an overall GPA of 3.5 or higher. Eighty respondents (36.4%) reported a

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60 GPA between 3.0 and 3.49. Another twenty one respondents reported a GPA between 2.5 and 2.99 and six reported a grade point average betwe en 2.0 and 2.49. No one in either group reported a G PA below 2.0. Almost 90% of both populations reported GPAs of 3.0 and higher. However, a higher percentage (66.7%) of the academic communities reported GPAs of 3.5 or higher compared to 51.4 % of respon dents in traditional communities. Table 4 7 Overall grade point a verage (GPA) Academic communities Traditional communities Overall GPA Frequency Valid percent Frequency Valid percent <2.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2.0 2.49 6 3.0 6 2.7 2.50 2.99 1 4 7.1 21 9.5 3.0 3.49 46 23.2 80 36.4 >3.5 132 66.7 113 51.4 Total 198 100.0 220 100.0 Twelve respondents (6.1%) from the academic communities and 23 respondents (10.5%) from the traditional communities reported being a member of a Gre ek letter council. Both are below the total university Greek population of 15%. (Table 4 8). Table 4 8 Membership in Greek letter c ouncils Academic communities Traditional communities Member Frequency Valid percent Frequency Valid percent Yes 12 6.1 23 10.5 No 186 93.9 197 89.5 Total 13 100.0 22 100.0 Celebratory Drinking Behaviors A Mann Whitney U test was conducted to determine if the sample populations differed based on the outcome variable, celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. A Mann Whitney U test was used because the data for the outcome variable are ordinal. The Mann Whitney U test reported a significant difference (U = 24728, p = 0.05) between the two populations. Therefore the gro ups remained separate for further analyses.

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61 Multivariate Analyses A binary logistic regression was conducted to understand how well the independent variables predict the dependent variable, celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college fo otball game days. A logistic regression was used because the data for the outcome variable are categorical. The dependent variable was measured in total hours consuming alcoholic beverages on college football game days. The categories used to measure the se hours were collapsed into two groups, zero to three hours and four or more hours. These five categories were collapsed into two categories because of low frequencies in two of the categories for both populations (Table 4 9). They were also collapsed t o facilitate the statistical analysis. Collapsing these categories reduced the number of categories for the response variable in the logistic regression. A beta score for each independent variable was determined, as well as the overall significance of the model. In the following section, the findings from the logistic regressions related to the two populations will be discussed. Table 4 9 Total hours consuming alcohol on college football game d ays Academic communities Traditional communities Hours Freque ncy Valid percent Frequency Valid percent Zero 141 62.7 128 52.9 1 3 52 23.1 75 31.0 4 6 26 11.6 31 12.8 7 9 5 2.2 3 1.2 10 or more 1 0.4 5 2.1 Total 225 100.0 242 100.0 Academic C ommunities All respondents indicating tha t they lived in a residential facilities with an academic initiative or living/learning community were included in the regression model for academic communities (n = 205) (Table 4 10 see end of chapter ). This regression model was significant (p < 0.01) a nd explained approximately 29% of the variance (R 2 = 0.287). The following independent variables were significant predictors of the celebratory drinking behaviors of college

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62 students on college football game days: academic goals (p = .07), health goals ( p = 0.05), social goals (p = 0.05), social outcome expectancies (p = 0.05), and the attitude and belief that drinking is fun (p = 0.02). Even though academic goals were not significant at the 0.05 level, the p value was very close to 0.05 and therefore me rits consideration as a predictor variable in this model. The attitude and belief that drinking is risky was not a significant predictor (p = 0.586). The beta values reported for each of these independent variables indicate the order of importance in pr edicting the outcome variable and whether it is a negative or positive relationship. The strongest predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors was the attitude and belief that drinking is fun (B = 0.240). Following this variable, in order of sig nificance, were academic goals (B = 0.218), health goals (B = 0.184), social goals (B = 0.116), and social outcome expectancies (B = .109). A negative relationship was found between academic goals, health goals, and social goals indicating that as sco res on these indices went up, the total hours consuming alcohol on game days went down. A positive relationship was found between the attitude and belief that drinking is fun and social outcome expectancies indicating the opposite, as scores on these indi ces went up so did the total number of hours consuming alcohol on game days. Traditional C ommunities All respondents indicated that they lived in a residential facilities without an academic initiative or living/learning community were included in the regr ession model for academic communities (n = 220) (Table 4 11 see end of chapter ). This regression model was significant (p < 0.01) and explained approximately 22% of the variance (R 2 = 0.223). The following independent variables were significant predicto rs of the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students: social outcome expectancies (p = 0.11), attitude and belief that drinking is fun (p = <

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63 0.01), and the attitude and belief that drinking is risky (p = .07). Academic goals (p = 0.765), health goals (p = 0.923), and social outcome expectancies (p = 0.819) were not significant predictors. The beta values reported for each of these independent variables indicate the order of importance in predicting the outcome variable. The strongest predictor v ariable of celebratory drinking behaviors was the attitude and belief that drinking is fun (B = 0.221). Following this variable, in order of significance, were the attitude and belief that drinking is risky (B = 0.144) and social outcome expectancies (B = 0.097). A negative relationship was found between the attitude and belief that drinking is risky indicating that as scores on this index went up, the total hours consuming alcohol on game days went down. A positive relationship was found between the att itude and belief that drinking is fun and social outcome expectancies indicating the opposite, as scores on these indices went up so did the total number of hours consuming alcohol on game days. Post Hoc Bivariate Analysis of Independent Variables Addition al t tests were conducted to examine the possible differences between the two populations (academic communities and traditional communities) for each independent variable. The t test reported a significant difference between academic goals (t = 2.570, p = .011) and social outcome expectancies (t = 2.819, p = .005) for the two sample populations (Table 4 12 see end of chapter ). Respondents living in traditional communities reported higher scores on the Academic Goals scale (mean score 14.9) than respond ents in academic communities (mean score 14.3). The binary logistic regression also reported that academic goals were a strong predictor of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days for respondents in the academic co mmunities, but not the traditional communities. Respondents living in traditional communities also reported higher scores (mean score 33.3) on the Social Outcome

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64 Expectancy scale than respondents in academic communities (mean score 29.8). Social outcome e xpectancies were also strong predictors of the dependent variable in both regression models. significant differences were found between the two sample populations for social goals (t = .429, p = .990), health goals (t = .788, p = .431), the attitude and belief that drinking is risky (t = .395, p = .693), and the attitude and belief that drinking is fun (t = 1.486, p = .138). However, these variables were present in the regression models indicating that they are predictors of celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. Demographics Post hoc analyses were used to examine differences between groups based on the demographic variables of gender, age, r ace/ethnic origin, and academic classification, for each independent variable. These analyses were conducted to examine sample differences not differences in the populations. T tests were conducted to examine possible differences between gender and the independent variables. Female respondents reported higher scores on the Academic Goals (t = 2.978, p = .003), Health Goals (t = 2.653, p = .008), and Risk (t = 4.265, p < .000) indices. Males, however, reported higher scores on the Social Outcome Expecta ncy index (t = 2.819, p = .005). Even though there was not a difference found between gender and scores on the Fun index (t = 1.938, p = .053), it merits consideration because the p value was very close to .05. Males reported a higher mean score for th e belief that drinking is fun (mean score 15.0) than females (mean score 13.5). A Mann Whitney U test was conducted to explore the possible differences between gender and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. A Mann Whitney U test was used because the data for the outcome variable are ordinal. The Mann Whitney U test found a significant difference (U = 18638.5, p =

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65 0.018) between gender and the dependent variable. Males reported a higher score (mean score 225 .7) than females (mean score 200.3) of total hours spent consuming alcohol beverages on college football game days. ANOVAs were then used to explore the possible differences between the demographic variables of age, race/ethnic origin, and academic class ification and the independent variables. No significant differences were found. A Kruskal Wallis H test was conducted to examine the possible relationships between various demographic variables of age, race/ethnic origin, and academic classification and the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. A significant difference was found for age (p = 0.012) and academic classification (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found for race/ethnic origin (p = .858). P articipation in the Celebratory Environment on Football Game D ays Respondents were asked to indicate if they participated in the celebratory environment on college football game days. The celebratory environment is not only consuming alcoholic beverages, but may also include tailgating, hanging out with friends, and attending the football game. The majority of the respondents in academic communities (n = 181, 78.7%) reported participating in the celebratory environment on college footba ll game days and th e other 21.3% (n = 49) stated that they did not participate (Table 4 13, see end of chapter). The majority of the respondents in traditional communities (n = 198, 78.9%) also reported participating in this celebratory environm ent, whereas the other 21.1% (n = 53) reported they did not participate (Table 4 14). The participation of females and males who participate in the celebratory environment were essentially the same for both groups. Participation in the celebratory environment by race/ethnic origin fo r each sample is reported in Cross tabulations (Table 4 15, Table 4 16, see end of chapter). Respondents of all race/ethnic origins in both groups participate in the celebratory environment on college football

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66 game days. Within gender between both groups all race/ethnic origins were essentially the same. However, a greater proportion of respondents identifying as Other in the academic communities were found to participate in the celebratory environment on college football game days. For the academic com munities, the Other (83.3%) group reported the highest participation in the celebratory environment, and for the traditional communities White (non Hispanic) respondents reported the highest participation (80.8%). Participation in the celebratory environme nt by academic classification for each sample is reported in Cross tabulations (Tables 4 17, 4 18, see end of chapter). Respondents of all academic classifications in both groups participate in the celebratory environment on college football game days. T he participation of respondents in all academic classifications who participate in the celebratory environment was essentially the same for both groups except for graduate/professional students. Because of the small number of total graduate/professional s tudents in the study, this Cross tabulation may not be representative of graduate/professional students that actually participate in the celebratory environment on college football game days. Respondents were also asked to indicate how many home football g ames they attended during the 2006 fo otball season. About 17% of the academic communities respondents (n = 39) reported attending all seven home football games and about a quarter (n = 57, 24.8%) reported that they did not attend any home football games ( Table 4 19, see end of chapter). Sixty respondents (23.9%) in the traditional communities reported attending all seven home football games and about a fourth of the respondents (n = 53, 21.1%) reported that they did not attend any home football games durin g the 2006 season. Location of Celebratory Drinking B ehaviors Participants from both populations were then asked the location that they spend the majority of their time consuming alcoholic beverages on home football game days. The possible

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67 responses incl residence hall, the football stadium, or another location. The majority of the respondents (n = 161, 71.9%) in academic communities reported that they do not consume alc ohol before home football games, and 28.1% reported that they do house (n = 16, 7.1%), a bar (n = 1, 0.4%), a tailgate area (n = 31, 13.8%), a residence hall ( n = 8, 3.6%), and six respondents (2.7%) reported a location other than those listed. No participants reported drinking at a restaurant or the stadium before a home football game. Many of the respondents in academic communities(n = 198, 88.4%) also repor ted that they do not consume alcohol durin g home football games, and 11.6% reported that they do (n = 16, 7.1%), a bar (n = 2, 0.9%), a tailgate area (n = 1, 0.4 %), a residence hall (n =1, 0.4%), the stadium (n = 2, 0.9%), and three respondents (1.3%) reported a location other than those listed. No respondents reported consuming alcohol at a restaurant during a home football game. Many respondents in the academic communities (n = 143, 63.8%) also reported that they do not consume alcohol after home football games, while 36.2% reported that they do consume 59, 26.3%), a bar (n = 5, 2.2%), a tailgate area ( n = 3, 1.3%), a residence hall (n = 4, 1.8%), and nine respondents (4.0%) reported a location other than those listed. No respondents reported drinking at a restaurant or the stadium after a home football game. The ma jority of the respondents (n = 146, 60.3%) in traditional communities reported that they do not consume alcohol befo re home football games and 39.7% reported that they do consume alcohol before football games in the following locations, home (n = 5, 2.1%),

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68 house (n = 36, 14.9%), a restaurant (n = 1, 0.4%), a tailgate area (n = 40, 16.5%), a residence hall (n = 4, 1.7%), the stadium (n = 1, .04%), and nine respondents (3.7%) reported a location other than those listed. No participants reported dr inking at a bar before a home football game. A little over two hundred respondents (n = 209, 86.4%) in traditional communities reported that they do not consume alcohol during home foo tball games, and 13.6% reported that they do consume alcohol before gam house (n = 15, 6.2%), a residence hall (n =1, 0.4%), the stadium (n = 14, 5.8%), and one respondents (0.4%) reported a location other than those listed. No respondents reported consuming alcohol at a restaurant, a bar, or a tailgate area during a home football game. The majority of the respondents (n = 130, 53.7%) reported that they do not consume alcohol after home foo tball games, while 46.3% reported that they do consume alcohol after football restaurant (n = 1, 0.4%), a bar (n = 11, 4.5%), a residence hall (n = 2, 0.8%), and ten respondents (4.1%) reported a location other than those listed. No respondents reported drinking at a tailgate area after a home football game. Summary The analyses presented in this chapter helped to explore the relationships between the demographic variables of this sample, the independent variables (academic goals, social goals, health goals, social outcome expectancies, the attitude and belief that drinking is risky, the attitude and belief that drinking is fun), and the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. Interesting findings were r evealed through the binary logistic regression model for each sample regarding the variables that predict the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. These two regression models differed greatly and resulted in so me unexpected relationships between the variables that

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69 these results answer the research questions, as well as the implications the findings of this study have fo r programmatic efforts and future research within higher education. Table 4 10 Regression analysis for independent variables predicting celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days academic communities Independent variables B Std. error p value Academic goals 0.218 0.121 0.07 Social goals 0.116 0.059 0.05 Health goals 0.184 0.096 0.05 Social outcome expectancies 0.109 0.037 0.003 Risk 0.041 0.075 0.586 Fun 0.240 0.077 0.002 *R 2 = 0.287, p < 0.01 Table 4 11 Regression analysis for independent variables predicting c elebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days traditional c ommunities Independent variables B Std. error p value Academic goals 0.034 0.114 0.765 Social goals 0.009 0.040 0.819 Health goals 0. 008 0.083 0.923 Social outcome expectancies 0.097 0.038 0.011 Risk 0.144 0.065 0.027 Fun 0.221 0.060 < .01 *R 2 = 0.223, p < 0.01 Table 4 12 Diff erences in independent variables by sample g roups Independent variable s Mean Academic Traditional t value p value Academic goals 14.3 14.9 2.570 0.01 Social goals 22.6 22.6 0.012 0.99 Health goals 16.6 16.3 0.788 0.43 Social outcome expectancy 29.8 33.3 2.819 0.01 Ris k 16.0 16.1 0.395 0.69 Fun 13.4 14.5 1.486 0.14

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70 Table 4 13 Cross tabulation of participation in the celebratory environment and gender in academic communities Gender Academic Participation Ye s No Total Female Frequency 87. 0 23.0 110.0 % of gender 79.1 20.9 100.0 % of total 43.9 11.6 55.6 Male Frequency 69.0 19.0 88.0 % of gender 78.4 21.6 100.0 % of total 34.8 9.6 44.4 Total Frequency 156.0 42.0 198.0 % of total 78.8 21.2 100.0 i Square = 0.014, p = .917 Table 4 14 Cross tabulation of participation in the celebratory environment and gender in traditional c ommunities Gender Traditional Participation Yes No Total Female Frequency 110.0 29.0 139.0 % of gen der 79.1 20.9 100.0 % of total 50.0 13.2 63.2 Male Frequency 64.0 17.0 81.0 % of gender 79.0 21.0 100.0 % of total 29.1 7.7 36.8 Total Frequency 174.0 46.0 220.0 % of total 79.1 20.9 100.0 983 Table 4 15 Cross tabulation of participation in celebratory behaviors and race/ethnic origin for academic c ommunities Participation Race/ethnic origin Yes No Total Hispanic Frequency 23.0 8.0 31.0 % of classification 74.2 25.8 100.0 % of total 11.6 4.0 15.7 Asian/Pacific Islander Frequency 7.0 3.0 10.0 % of classification 70.0 30.0 100.0 % of total 3.5 1.5 5.1 White (non Hispanic) Frequency 111.0 25.0 136.0 % of classification 81.6 18.4 100.0 % of total 56.1 12.6 68.7 Black (non Hispanic) Frequency 10.0 5.0 15.0 % of classification 66.7 33.3 100.0 % of total 5.1 2.5 7.6 Other Frequency 5.0 1.0 6.0 % of classification 83.3 16.7 100.0

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71 Table 4 15 Continued % of total 2.5 0.5 3.0 Total Frequency 156.0 42.0 198.0 % of total 78.8 21.2 100.0 Table 4 16 Cross t abulati on of participation in celebratory behaviors and race/ethnic origin for traditional c ommu nities Participation Race/ethnic origin Yes No Total Hispanic Frequency 22.0 6.0 28.0 % of classification 78.6 21.4 100.0 % of total 10.0 2.7 12.7 Asian/Pacific Islander Frequency 11.0 3.0 14.0 % of classification 78.6 21.4 100.0 % of total 5.0 1.4 6.4 White (non Hispanic) Frequency 122.0 29.0 151.0 % of classification 80.8 19.2 100.0 % of total 55.5 13.2 68.6 Black (non Hispanic) Frequency 12.0 6.0 18.0 % of classification 66.7 33.3 100.0 % of total 5.5 2.7 8.2 Other Frequency 7.0 2.0 9.0 % of classification 77.8 22.2 100.0 % of total 3.2 0.9 4.1 Total Frequency 174.0 46.0 220.0 % of total 79.1 20.9 100.0 T able 4 17 Cross tabulation of participation in celebratory behaviors and academic classification for academic c ommunities Participation Academic classification Yes No Total Freshman Frequency 98.0 28.0 126.0 % of classification 77.8 22.2 100.0 % of total 49.5 14.1 63.6 Sophomore Frequency 30.0 7.0 37.0 % of classification 81.1 18.9 100.0 % of total 15.2 3.5 18.7 Junior Frequency 17.0 5.0 22.0 % of classification 77.3 22.7 100.0 % of total 8.6 2.5 11.1 Senior Frequency 10.0 2.0 12.0 % of classification 83.3 16.7 100.0 % of total 5.1 1.0 6.1 Grad/Professional Frequency 1.0 0.0 1.0

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72 Table 4 17 Continued % of classification 100.0 0.0 100.0 % of total 0.5 0.0 0.5 Total Frequency 156. 0 42.0 198.0 % of total 78.8 21.2 100.0 *Pearson Chi Squared = 0.641, p = 0.958 Table 4 18 Cross tabulation of participation in celebratory behaviors and academic classification for traditional c ommunities Participation Academic classification Yes No Total Freshman Frequency 71.0 17.0 88.0 % of classification 80.7 19.3 100.0 % of total 32.3 7.7 40.0 Sophomore Frequency 53.0 13.0 66.0 % of classification 80.3 19.7 100.0 % of total 24.1 5.9 30.0 Junior Frequency 3 4.0 11.0 45.0 % of classification 75.6 24.4 100.0 % of total 15.5 5.0 20.5 Senior Frequency 14.0 4.0 18.0 % of classification 77.8 22.2 100.0 % of total 6.4 1.8 8.2 Grad/Professional Frequency 2.0 1.0 3.0 % of classification 66.7 33.3 100.0 % of total 0.9 0.5 1.4 Total Frequency 174.0 46.0 220.0 % of total 79.1 20.9 100.0 Pearson Chi Squared = 0.832, p = 0.934 Table 4 19 Home football games attended during 2006 s eason Academic communi ties Traditional communities Games attended Frequency Valid percent Frequency Valid percent 0 57 24.8 53 21.1 1 33 14.3 27 10.8 2 19 8.3 14 5.6 3 10 4.3 19 7.6 4 15 6.5 21 8.4 5 25 10.9 28 11.2 6 32 13.9 29 1 1.6 7 39 17.0 60 23.9 Total 230 100.0 251 100.0

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73 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The college years represent an opportunity to postpone the assumption of full adult responsibilities while continuing to learn, explore ideas, and pursue personal and academic i nterests for many individuals (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991). Likewise, individuals can experiment with various adult behaviors, values, and lifestyles. The normative lifetime peak of alcohol use occurs during the late teens and early twenties when many individuals have obtained some behavioral autonomy, but have not yet fully adopted adult social roles and responsibilities particularly high among American emerging adults who attend college. National prevalence data across the last de cade show that approximately 40% of college students at four year universities & Bachman, 2003; Presley, Meilman, Cashin, & Lyerla, 1996; Wechsler, Dowdall, Maenner, Glendhill Hoyt & Lee, 1998). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of goals, attitudes, and beliefs of college students on celebratory drinking behaviors on colle ge football game days. Celebratory drinking behaviors, measured by total hours spent consuming alcohol on college football game days, were examined in a social learning context to look for relationships with each of the independent variables. This chapte r presents a review and discussion of the research questions and offers an interpretation of the results. Contributions to the literature will be discussed, as well as implications for future research and programmatic efforts within higher education. The following research questions were analyzed using binary logistic regressions, t tests and ANOVAs.

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74 Research Questions A Mann Whitney U test was conducted to determine if the two sample populations (academic communities and traditional communities) differed based on the outcome variable, celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. A significant difference was found between the two sample populations; therefore the populations remained separate for further analyses. Aca demic G oals Research Question 1: Do the academic goals of college students predict their participation in celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days? Hypothesis: There will be a negative relationship between academic goals and celebrator y drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. Academic goals were the primary independent variable in this study. An unstandarized beta revealed that the academic goals of respondents living in academic communities were the secon d highest predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days (B = 0.218). The model accounted for 29% of the variance in celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. These findings sho w that students in the academic population consider the possible consequences of drinking on their academic performance when deciding whether or not to consume alcohol on game days. The relationship between academic goals and the outcome variable was neg ative. For the academic population, the hypothesis was accepted; there is a negative relationship between academic goals and celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. This suggests that the more important students perceive their acade mic goals to be, the less time they spend drinking on game days. Getting good grades is important to the respondents in this population, even if sometimes it may be difficult or stressful. Living with other individuals with

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75 high academic expectations and goals often motivates and encourages others to excel themselves. However, the fact that respondents report that academic goals are important to them does not mean that they reject participating in the celebratory environment and enjoying the atmosphere of collegiate sports. It is possible that students in academic communities are more self disciplined than respondents in traditional communities. It is possible that these individuals understand the importance of completing tasks, such as homework and pr ojects, and studying for exams in a timely manner in order to achieve academic excellence. An open ended response question asked respondents how they typically celebrate on college football game days. Respondents in the academic communities indicate in th eir responses that their school work is Then after the games since I usually have so much work to do I attempt to do some work at home in the dorm while having academically oriented students enjoy the sports environment, but alcohol is not always involved. Other respondents reported that homework is a typical activity on college football game d ays. sleep and do homework as if it was a normal day with exception s to championships and what A binary logistic regression showed that academic goals were not a significant predictor of celebratory drinking behaviors for respondents living in traditional communities. For the traditional population, the hypothesis was not accepted; there a positive relationship between academic goals and celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. A t test was

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76 then used to examine possible differences between the academic goals of the two populations. The t test showed a significant difference, but, perhaps surprising, respondents in traditional communities reported higher scores on the Academic Goals index (mean score 14.9) than respondents in academic communities (mean score 14.3). The Academic Goals index ask ed respondents to think about the current school year, and indicate how a) important, b) difficult, c) time consuming, and d) stressful getting good grades was to them. The results indicate that getting good grades was more important all of the time for re spondents in traditional communities than it was for respondents in academic communities. The majority of respondents in the traditional population found getting good grades to be time consuming, stressful and difficult some of the time. These results su ggest that a goal can be important to an individual, but when making certain life decisions, such as consuming alcohol, these important factors may not play a primary role in the rational choice of whether or not to engage in a particular behavior. Respon ses from the open ended question suggest that some respondents consider their academic The results show that both populations of student s think about their grades and academic achievements, but the factors that influence their decision to drink on college football game days are very different. Cantor et al. (1991) found that college students most frequently reported getting good grades and making new friends as their primary personal goals. The findings from the academic communities support this research. Students in the academic communities were either chosen or self selected to be a part of their community. These communities are focuse d

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77 around academic goals, honors programs, career goals, leadership, and particular areas of interest within majors. As with most programs, there are certain qualifications that participants must meet before they can be a member. Students have to maintain certain grade point averages or leadership involvement to remain living in these facilities. These students are aware of the guidelines set out before them and know that if they are to remain in their selected programs and residential facilities they must make academics a priority. These findings also suggest that even though their academic goals are important, they are still able to find a balance between academics and social life. Getting good grades is important, but it is also important for these ind ividuals to hang out with friends and enjoy life as a college student. suggested that when an important goal is perceived to be so difficult as to be unattainable, individu als may increase efforts to attain the goal, which is what respondents in academic communities appear to do, or individuals may engage in alternative behaviors to cope with real or anticipated failures and consequences, which is what respondents in the tra ditional communities appear to do. For the traditional population, even though academic goals are important, they may be too challenging or difficult to achieve. Therefore, respondents engage in alternative behaviors, such as alcohol consumption on game days, to handle the anticipated reinforcement value refers to the desirability of these outcomes. If an individual wants something to happen, there is a high reinforcemen t value. If an outcome is not something the individual wants and they wish to avoid the outcome, the behavior has a low reinforcement value. It is possible that respondents in academic communities have the desire to maintain good grades and excel academi cally, therefore, there is a high reinforcement value placed on getting

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78 good grades and this is the behavior they choose. They understand that it is necessary to maintain good grades to remain in the Honors program or in the Leader/Scholar program. Parti positive outcome than studying and getting good grades. These participants may believe that they will be reinforced socially if they choose to participate in celebr atory behaviors on game days, and therefore, choose not to focus on their academics. Maggs and Hurrelmann (1999) found that students were not as concerned with their academic goals as they were with social goals, such as making friends and creating a soc ial network. The lack of consistent inhibitory effects of academic goals on alcohol use and binge drinking suggests that: 1) students do not view drinking during the first few weeks of the semester as having a negative effect on their academic performance ; 2) drinking is so subjectively rewarding that any negative consequences are viewed as acceptable side effects; 3) drinking behavior is guided by forces other than rational decision making; or 4) some combination of these three factors (Maggs & Hurrelmann 1999). Findings from the academic communities do not corroborate with the findings of Maggs and Hurrelmann. These findings show that academic goals are a strong predictor of celebratory drinking behaviors. Respondents are placing their academic goal s ahead of their social goals and health goals. The findings from academic communities suggest that these respondents would rather excel academically than focus on making friends or being popular. The findings from the traditional communities do, however Respondents in traditional communities reported that getting good grades could be stressful and time consuming, but were still important. However, academic goals were not a factor they considered when c hoosing to participate in celebratory drinking behaviors on game days. As

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79 Maggs and Hurrelmann stated, these respondents may not see drinking on game days as potentially having a negative effect on their academic performance. Therefore, they choose to par ticipate in this celebratory environment, or they see the expected rewards, such as making friends, and choose to participate to gain these rewards. In either case, academics are not a deciding factor for respondents in traditional communities. Also, oth er factors that did predict this behavior, such as fun and social outcome expectancies, indicate that respondents in the traditional population focus on the subjective rewards, and not the negative consequences, of choosing to consume alcohol. All too oft en students consume alcohol to fit into the popular social scene. As discussed below, social goals and social outcome expectancies are often the main factors that students consider when choosing to consume alcohol. There were some individuals in the trad itional population that indicated in the open ended party set up, I w the biggest football fan, so homework and necessity of studying comes first, but if I have nothing else to do, I love were not a strong predictor variable of alco hol consumption for all respondents, there are still some students that choose to study and do homework rather than drinking on game days. Social G oals Research Question 2: Do the social goals of college students predict their participation in celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days?

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80 Hypothesis: There will be a positive relationship between social goals and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. An unstandarized beta revealed that social goals were a predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students living in academic communities on college football game days (B = 0.116). Social goals were the fourth strongest predictor of the outcome variable. The relationship between social goals and the outcome variable was negative, indicating that respondents in academic communities have high social goals. However, contrary to some findings in the literature, these social goals did not increase their alcohol consumption on college f ootball game days, but rather decreased this behavior. These respondents spend less time participating in celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. A possible explanation for this finding is that while social goals are important to th ese respondents, it does not mean that they have to consume alcohol while making friends, dating or developing intimacy, or finding their own identity within a social organization. Another possible explanation is that these students are part of a positive peer group that does not engage in risky behaviors such as consuming alcohol. These individuals may not need alcohol to feel a connection with their social network of friends or to make new friends, but being part of a social group and meeting new people is still a goal of many respondents in this population. Social goals were not a predictor of celebratory drinking behaviors for respondents living in traditional communities either, and there were no significant differences in social goals for the two sa mples. The hypothesis was not accepted for either population. There was not a positive relationship between social goals and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days.

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81 The negative relationship between social goals a nd celebratory drinking in the academic population was interesting. It indicates that the more a respondent believed that making friends, dating and developing intimacy, and being on their own and away from their family were important and enjoyable, the l ess time they spent consuming alcohol on college football game days. The literature states that one of the primary reasons that students consume alcohol is for social purposes (Cooper, Agocha, & Sheldon, 2000; Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995; Stewar t and Devine, 2000). Responses to the open response item from respondents in the academic communities show that a majority of the respondents enjoyed hanging out with friends and having a good time, but many reported that alcohol was not always necessary t o have fun before the game and then walk around with my frie nds and see all the tailgaters. Then I go to the friends, in someon These findings differ from those in the contemporary literature. The literature reports that the majority of college students who consume alcohol do it at social gatherings (Baer, 2002), and those studen ts who spend more time socializing with friends engage in more frequent heavy Davenport, & Castillo, 1995). There were also a lot of responses from participants in the usually being about 2 3 hours before a home game in the residence hall and split a bottle of

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82 go to the house parties or clubs after the game. Usually d As Cantor and fellow researchers (1991) found, making friends is one of the primary goals of college students. College students need to feel connected with others, develop social networks, and find peer groups with simil ar interests. A recent study reported that students who said that parties were important to them, affiliated with a Greek organization, had a social network of five or more friends, socialized for more than four hours a day, or attended an institution tha t was centered around sporting evens were more likely to use and abuse alcohol (Knight, Wechsler, Kuo, Seibring, Weitzman, & Schuckit, 2002). Some of the findings of this Upsilon Chi A possibl e explanation for this interesting relationship is that social goals are important for these individuals, but having high social goals does not mean that they are surrounding themselves with individuals that are engaging in risky behaviors, such as partici pating in celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. A positive peer group is important in setting norms for both beliefs and actions. Individuals that surround themselves with a positive peer group that strongly believe that that exces sive alcohol use on college football game days is a risky behavior will tend to avoid this behavior. The results for importance of social goals supports the proposition that drinking alcohol can be a rational behavior directed toward the attainment of dev elopmentally and situationally relevant personal goals (Cantor, 1994;

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83 Silbereisen & Eyferth, 1986). When examining the open ended response question, it is evident that being with friends and having a good time is very important to many of the respondents in Even though social goals were not a predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of respondents in traditional communities, it is also evident through the open ended responses of respondents that they enjoy hanging out with their friends and having fun, and it does not always ernity house, drink with my brothers, BBQ, talk with some sorority girls, throw the football around, go to the game, go to an off campus have good food and hang to the game sober and have a good time. I like to actually concentrate on the game and not on Social Outcome E xpectancies An unstandarized beta also revealed that social outcome expectancies were a predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days for respondents in both academic communities (B = 0.109) and traditional communities (B = 0.097). The relationship between social outcome expectancies and the outcome variable was positive for both populations. A t test was used to examine difference s between the two samples for social outcome expectancies. Respondents in traditional communities reported significantly higher scores on the Social Outcome Expectancy scale (mean score 33.3) than respondents in academic communities (mean score 29.8).

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84 I ndividuals often have expectations for why they consume alcohol (Rotter, Chance & Phares, 1972), and they appear to consume alcohol in a way that delivers the effects they expect. Many students have positive expectations of alcohol consumption (e.g., drink ing makes me more popular, enhances my social activity, make it easier to tell someone off). The literature reports that students who feel more accepted by their peers, who believe drinking is fun, and who rate the importance of making friends as high, dr ink more (Maggs, 1997). Respondents in both populations reported high scores on the Social Outcome Expectancy index indicating that as their social outcome expectancies increase, so do their drinking behaviors. The Social Outcome Expectancy index consiste d of the following items: Do you believe consuming alcohol on college football game days makes you more socially accepted, enhances your social activity, facilitates a connection with your peers, makes you feel popular, allows you to express your feelings makes you feel more outgoing, allows you to have more fun, is a nice way to celebrate, makes you more aggressive, makes you feel like you can meet people easier, makes it easier for you to tell someone off. As the results suggest, respondents in both pop ulations have positive expectations of alcohol consumption and believe that consuming alcohol on game days will allow them to be popular, find that connection with their peers, meet people, feel more outgoing, and have more fun. Alcohol expectancy models (e.g., Rotter, 1954; Goldman, 1994; Jones, Corbin & Fromme, 2000) conceptualize expectancies as anticipatory processes in which an organism expects certain outcomes to occur as a consequence of a particular action (Rotter, 1954; Goldman, 1994; Leigh, 1989a ; 1989b; Smith & Goldman, 1994; Stacy, Widaman & Marlatt, 1990). Such cognitive operations may combine both conscious and automatic processing, and may result from vicarious as well as direct learning experiences (Goldman, Brown, Christiansen & Smith, 1991 ; Oei &

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85 behavior will result in the outcome. The more often an individual has seen a behavior led to reinforcement and positive outcomes in the past, the strong and the belief that they can achieve that outcome now (Rotter, 1982). If individuals have consumed alcohol in the past and it has lead to making new friends, being popular, or feeling part of a social network or organiz ation, they are more likely to continue to engage in this behavior. It is evident through the findings that both populations believe alcohol consumption on game days increases their social outcome expectancies and encourages them to continue to engage in this behavior. Health G oals Research Question 3: Do the health goals of college students predict their participation in celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days? Hypothesis: There will be a negative relationship between health goals a nd celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. An unstandarized beta revealed that health goals were a predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students living in academic communities on college football game days (B = 0.184). Health goals were the third strongest predictor of the outcome variable. The regression model reported a negative relationship between health goals and the outcome variable, indicating that respondents in academic communi ties associate health goals with drinking, and consider these goals when deciding whether or not to participate in celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. For this population, the hypothesis was accepted. Health goals were not a pred ictor of celebratory drinking behaviors for respondents living in traditional communities, even though the scores on the health goals index did not differ significantly for the two populations in the bivariate analyses. For the traditional population, the

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86 hypothesis was not accepted. The lack of consistent inhibitory effects of health goals on celebratory drinking behaviors for this group suggests that these students do not believe that alcohol consumption on game days has a negative effect on their health or that drinking on game days is so subjectively rewarding that the negative consequences that could come from this behavior are acceptable. For respondents living in academic communities being in good physical shape is an important health goal, and as this goal increases, their drinking behaviors on college football game days decrease. Respondents were asked to indicate during the current academic year how important, difficult, time consuming, stressful, and enjoyable it was for them to be in good phys ical shape. A majority of the respondents reported that it was important most of the time and that it was enjoyable to them some of the time. They also reported that it is sometimes difficult and stressful to be in good physical shape. Maintaining good physical shape is an important goal of respondents in the academic population, but the pressures (e.g., academic, involvement, social life) of being a college student often make it difficult, stressful, and time consuming to maintain good health. Finding time to workout and having the money and resources to eat healthy are often challenges for college students. Respondents in the academic population reported that even though it can be difficult to attain this goal, their physical health remains important to them when making the decision to consume alcohol on college football game days. For example, one respondent described the following reason for choosing not to ut alcohol and I think it would just make me sick to drink before spending 4 hours in the crowded,

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87 The majority of the respondents in the traditional communities also reported that good physical condition was important most of the time and enjoyable some of the time. The majority of these respondents also reported that maintaining good physical condition was difficult, time consuming, and stressful some of the time. However, health goals were not a predictor of celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days for these traditional students. perceived to be so difficult as to be unattainable, individua ls engage in alternative behaviors to cope with the outcomes. For this population, health goals are important, but they may be too challenging, time consuming, or difficult to achieve. Therefore, respondents engage in the alternative behaviors, such as a lcohol consumption on game days, to handle the anticipated negative consequences of failure to meet health goals. Another possible explanation is that similar to academic goals, the lack of consistent inhibitory effects of health goals on alcohol use and binge drinking suggests students do not view drinking as having a negative effect on their overall physical health. Or drinking is so subjectively rewarding that the negative health consequences, such as a hangover or vomiting, may be viewed as acceptabl e side effects (Maggs & Hurrelmann, 1999). Students may not be aware of the physical effects that alcohol has on the human body and the damage that they could possibly be doing to themselves. Negative physiological outcomes may not seem as likely to stu dents as positive social outcomes. Students may believe that it is more likely for them to meet people at a party, whereas they may not believe it is as likely for them to gain weight in excess or cause harm to their body (Maggs, 1997). Attitude and B elie f t hat Drinking is R isky Research Question 4: Does the attitude and belief that drinking is risky predict the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days?

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88 Hypothesis: There will be a negative correlation between the att itude and belief that drinking is risky and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. The attitude and belief that drinking is risky was not a predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students living in academic communities on game days. For this population, the hypothesis was not accepted. The relationship between the attitude and belief that drinking is risky and the celebratory drinking behaviors was not negative. The regression model did, h owever, reveal that the attitude and belief that drinking is risky is a predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students living in traditional communities (B = 0.144). For the traditional communities, the hypothesis was accepted. T here is a negative relationship between the attitude and belief that drinking is risky and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. Scores on the index for attitude and belief that drinking is risky did not differ significantly between the two populations in thebivariate analyses. The negative relationship that was found between the attitude and belief that drinking is risky and celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days supports the current litera ture. As the attitude and belief that drinking is risky goes up, alcohol consumption decreases. Respondents were asked in a single item to indicate how risky they believe it was to consume alcohol on college football game days. A majority of the respond ents indicated that it was somewhat risky. They were also asked to indicate how risky the following behaviors to be while consuming alcohol on college football game days: physical altercations, drinking and driving, and dares (e.g., jumping off high obje cts, swimming, etc). The possible responses for each item included not at all risky, somewhat risky, risky, very risky, extremely risk, and no opinion. The majority of the respondents indicated that each of these items were very risky to

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89 extremely risky w hile consuming alcohol on college football game days. These results suggests that respondents in traditional communities are aware of the risks associate with consuming alcohol on college football game days, and indicates they do consider the consequences of their actions when choosing to participate in celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. However, unfortunately sometimes even being aware of the risks and dangers does not keep students from engaging in this risky behavior. Thes e results underscore the importance of taking seriously the perspective of college students and the factors they consider when they make decisions about potentially risky yet immediately rewarding behaviors such as alcohol use (Furby & Beyth Marom, 1992). Even though there are potential dangers and disadvantages of drinking too much, the desire to partake in social activities involving alcohol is a strong force for students, (Maggs, 1997). However, even though the literature indicates that most students c onsume alcohol for social reasons, college students are still aware of the potential risks and dangers and this study suggests that they take these risks into consideration when consuming alcohol on college football game days. The following are responses from respondents in the traditional population to the open ended th em will have a drink and I may taste some of their drink but it is just a sip because drinking to days is a factor that is considered among students and it is sho wn to influence their behaviors. necessarily mean that I have to drink but when it's available I might, as long as I'm not the one

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90 Attitude and Belief t h at Drinking is F un Research Question 5: Does the attitude and belief that drinking is fun predict the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days? Hypothesis: There will be a positive correlation between the attitude an d belief that drinking is fun and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. An unstandarized beta revealed that the attitude and belief that drinking is fun is the number one predictor variable of celebratory drinkin g behaviors of college students on college football game days for respondents living in both academic communities (B = 0.240) and traditional communities (B = 0.221). Scores on the index for the attitude and belief that drinking is fun did not differ sign ificantly between the two groups. For both populations, the hypothesis was accepted. There was a positive correlation between the attitude and belief that drinking is fun and celebratory drinking behaviors on game day. These findings suggest that when de ciding to consume alcohol on college football game days, fun is the most important factor for students. Students enjoy spending time with friends, watching sports, dancing, playing games (e.g. cards, board games, billiards), and celebrating an event (e.g. football victory, championship). Responses to the open ended question truly capture with friends, not alone, and hang out with friends, go out t o dinner, play pool, a movie...trivial things kids do. It usually just respondents surround themselves in on game days.

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91 Fun is the number one predictor variable of celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days, but what is fun to college students? When examining the open ended responses, fun appears to be hanging out with friends, gathering at a social event, hanging out, and ju st having a good time. Having fun does not indicate that alcohol consumption is a necessity. Many respondents indicated in the open ended response question that they do not enjoy consuming alcohol on game days, but rather they enjoy spending time with th eir friends, hanging out, going to the game, discussing the game, and just having fun. It is possible from the findings of this study that one could assume that the social environment is fun to these individuals and that there is an association between th e two variables. Students believe making new friends, dating and developing intimacy, hanging out with old friends, and playing games These findings are very inte resting for college and university administrators. On college fans to participate in, therefore they are often found gathered under tents with friends and family consuming large amounts of alcohol. A possible suggestion to university administrators and athletic departments would be to provide non alcoholic activities that individuals would want to participate in on game days instead of engaging in excessiv e alcohol consumption. If colleges and universities were to provide environments like those described by respondents in this study, it is possible many institutions would see a decrease in this excessive behavior on game days. Students are just looking f or a place to hang out with their friends, meet new people, relax, and enjoy the game or the game day atmosphere. In addition to the support provided by the analyses described thus far, participants were asked to type their answer to a question asking how they typically celebrate on college football game days. The responses were numerous and varied, and

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92 there were responses to support the research questions. Representative responses can be found in Appendix D. ial Learning theory (1954) proposes that when an important goal is perceived to be so difficult as to be unattainable, individuals may increase efforts to attain the goal or engage in alternative behaviors to cope with the real or anticipated failure, or n egative consequences. In college, failure to attain difficult and stressful personal goals, such as academic, social, and health goals may have critical repercussions and may lead to lowered expectations of achieving similar goals in future (Jessor et al. 1968). Often individuals use drinking as a way to cope with the stress of not being able to attain difficult goals or of attaining alternate goals. Individuals believe this can compensate for failure of the original goal (Jessor et al., 1968; Karwacki a nd Bradley, 1996). The value of this model was supported by the findings of this study, as significant relationships between each of the independent variables and celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days were reve aled among the two populations. Academic and health goals were found to be difficult, stressful and time consuming for respondents in academic communities however instead of choosing to engage in a risky behavior such as alcohol consumption, these individ ual chose to increase efforts to attain these goals. Respondents in the traditional communities also identified academic goals and health goals as being difficult, stressful, and time consuming but instead of increasing efforts to attain these goals, they chose to participate in celebratory drinking behaviors to cope with the anticipated consequences. potential. Respondents are faced with many decisions and behavio rs in which they can engage,

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93 and students often chose to engage in the behavior that they believe will have the highest potential (Rotter, 1982). The decision to engage in a particular behavior is due to life experiences and expectancies. If an individua l has experienced positive outcomes from a behavior in the past, they are more likely to engage in that behavior again than if they were to have experienced a negative outcome. The respondents in this study indicated that they believed consuming alcohol o n college football game days were associated with positive social outcomes such as being popular, enhancing social activity and so on. Through these findings it is evident that many respondents either have positive expectancies of alcohol or they have eng aged in this particular behavior and it has resulted in a positive experience. According to Rotter (1954; 1982), life is all about a series of choices and reinforcement. Past behaviors and an individuals environment add to the rational decision making pr ocess of individuals. Rotter suggests that if communities had a very different focus and considered different factors when choosing to participate in celebratory drinking behaviors than respondents in traditional communities. It is possible that the focus and guidelines of the academic communities are more rigorous and demanding, a very different environment from the traditional communities. Outcome Expectancy Theory Outcome expectancy theory has a social learning perspective (Rotter, Chance & Phares, 1972, Bandura, 1977). Outcome expectancy theory explains behaviors of individuals as having expectations of particular reinforcing effects as the outcome of performing the behavior in question (alcohol consumption). Individuals often have expectations for why they consume alcohol (Rotter, Chance & Phares, 1972), and when they consume alcohol they expect it to deliver the effects that they expect. This study supported that direct and indirect experiences of

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94 individuals will differ from person to person. Positive associations were found between positive certain al cohol outcome expectancies and when they are positive, they are going to engage in this risky behavior more frequently. Increased drinking experience is consistently associated with increased endorsement of positive expectancies. Different personal exper iences and beliefs contribute to these expectations and it is important to know that associations do not entail causality (Bandura, 1977). Additional Findings Post hoc bivariate analyses were used to examine differences in the samples between the indepen dent variables and the dependent variable for various grouping effects of gender, age, race/ethnic origin, and academic classification of the samples. These analyses were only used for sample differences not the populations. Grade point average frequencie s were also examined for each population. Gender T tests were conducted and several differences were found between male and female respondents and the independent variables. Females reported higher scores on the Academic Goals, Health Goals, and Risk indi ces, suggesting that they had higher academic and health goals, and believed that risk was important when deciding whether or not to consume alcohol on college football game days. Males, however, reported higher scores on the Social Outcome Expectancy ind ex, suggesting that their motivations for drinking include making friends, feeling popular, meeting new people, and having more fun. Gender also had an effect on the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. Specif ically, males

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95 reported higher scores, suggesting that they consumed a greater amount of alcohol on game days. A consistent finding that this study supports is that male college students tend to consume alcohol more frequently and to consume more drinks pe r occasion as compared to female college Celebratory Drinking B ehaviors A Kruskal Wallis H test was conducted to examine the possible relationships between various demographic variables of age, race/ethnic origin, an d academic classification and the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. A significant difference was found for age and academic classification. Results from this study suggest that respondents of different race /ethnic origins have different celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. Respondents identifying as Other reported spending the most hours consuming alcohol on college football game days (mean rank 224.9), followed by those participant s identifying as Asian/Pacific Islander (mean rank 221.4). The race/ethnic origin that reported the least amount of hours consuming alcohol on college football game days were Hispanic respondents (mean rank 198.7). Location of Celebratory D rinking The maj ority of respondents in both communities reported that they do not consume alcohol before, during, and after the game. However, many respondents report consuming alcohol during these specific times and indicated the location celebratory drinking occurs. Before home football games, respondents in academic communities reported spending a majority Respondents in traditional communities report spending their time be fore games consuming

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96 A larger percentage of respondents in both communities reported not consuming alcohol ents in the traditional community also reported a higher percentage of drinking in the stadium during the game. Alcohol is not allowed in the stadium, nor is it sold in the stadium. These findings suggest that many students are bringing alcoholic beverag es into the stadium illegally and consuming it during the game. These findings are important for university officials because even though students are searched before entering the stadium, many of them are still able to sneak alcoholic beverages in and co nsume it. After the game, the largest proportion of respondents The findings from the location of consuming alcohol on game days suggest that the pattern of alcohol on game days is similar for bot h communities, as well as the locations they are in both communi ties report alcohol consumption after the game. Future research would benefit by exploring if alcohol consumption is greater after a win or a loss, and if the time of game has any affect on the amount consumed. It is important for the university and the local community to work together to combat the issue of excessive alcohol consumption on game days. If the institution is attempting to provide alternate ways to celebrate after a game, and local bars are providing drink specials, this is a conflict of in terest. These two stakeholders need to work together in order to provide a safe celebratory environment for college students. Grade Point A verage Another interesting finding was the grade point averages (GPA) of both populations. The reported GPAs of a ll respondents were very similar to each other. The majority of respondents in both populations reported a GPA of 3.5 or higher. Almost 90% of both populations reported a

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97 GPA of 3.0 and higher. The only significant difference was that respondents in aca demic communities reported a higher percentage (66.7%) of GPAs above a 3.5 compared to the 51.4% of traditional community respondents. These findings are interesting because it is evident that academics are important to both populations, but again, just b ecause something is important does not mean that it is always considered when making rational decisions. Maney (1990) found an inverse relationship between alcohol consumption and overall grade point averages among college students. Students with lower G PAs tended to consume more alcohol than students with was not a major difference in GPAs, respondents in traditional communities reported lower GPAs and they also reported more alcohol consumption on college football game days. Reasons for Not D rinking Respondents that indicated that they do not consume alcohol on college football were asked to indicate their reasons. They were given the options religious reason personal reasons, and other. If they indicated other, they were then asked to explain their reasons for not engaging in this behavior. Surprisingly, many individuals indicated that they did not drink because they drink because it is illegal and because I am not religiously allowed to do it in the US. I have ndividuals reported that health reasons

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98 [For] h consumption of alcohol is detrimental to the health of society and puts pedestrians and innoc ent by standers at risk of injury and even death when they are in the presence (voluntarily or involuntarily) of someone who has bee drinking. I know alcohol is a complete loss of all rational thinking and reasoning analysis and that it should be banned f rom society because it leads to immoral and unethical behavior and causes human beings to become completely devoid of human characteristics (i.e., people lose their sense of reason and in turn act like barbarians). The existence of alcohol in society is t he cause of almost 17,000 deaths a year through alcohol related accidents (this includes drunk driving) and it serves no beneficial purpose to the greater picture of mankind. Human beings exhibit their selfishness, laziness, apathetic attitude about everyt hing both religious and personal reasons influenced their decision not to consume alcohol on college esus Christ is quite fulfilling. owned a bar and growing up I saw the effects it had on people, their attitude, and their actions. I ion of both believe that the act of getting drunk is stupid (and my religion is against it but my morals are too. I am a lady and I do not think ladies get d Lastly, some individuals reported they just wanted to enjoy the game and have a good

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99 responses to this question further support the research questions of this study. Many individuals w ould rather enjoy their friends and have a good time without drinking. Others understand the negative consequences associate with consuming alcohol, such as health issues and risky behaviors. Individuals also indicate that their religion is important to them and they choose not to consume alcohol because of their religious beliefs. These open ended responses further support the literature and the findings of this study that there are many factors that determine an make decisions. Respondents indicated here that family, religion, personal reasons, friends, and health reasons were just a few factors they thought about when choosing whether or not to consume al cohol on game days. Contribution to the Literature This study added to the literature about the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. There has been little research conducted on the factors that motivate student s to consume alcohol on college football game days. The collegiate sports environment is a very prominent one at many institutions, and the drinking culture on game days continues to grow. This study looked at the goals, attitudes, and beliefs of college students and how each of these influenced celebratory drinking on football game days. This study brings to light the importance of studying this drinking culture and examining the factors that influence in order to provide effective and efficient policie s and programmatic efforts within higher education. Research has shown that the active pursuit of personal goals predicts well being (Emmons, 1986; Emmons a nd King, 1988; Salmela Aro and Nurmi, 1997). During college, having

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100 academic, social, and health goals are important and healthy for college students and should be encouraged and supported. However, as the present study demonstrates, personal goals are also associated with celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. Particularly evi alcohol consumption during college. University administrators who wish to address drinking problems on their campuses must keep this in mind when selecting, developing, and implementing drinking p revention relevant to college drinking prevention. Recent strategies recommended by the National National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) tas k force on college drinking indicate t hat personal goals are a crucial component to promoting changes in college drinking (2002). Motivational enhancement (ME), which is based on the theory that in order to change drinking behavior, the individual must hav e the desire or motivation to change, is one such strategy. In programs that use ME, students receive nonjudgmental feedback about their drinking behaviors and the associated negative consequences and then through motivational interviewing make a plan to c hange their drinking behaviors to meet their own personal goals (Maggs & Hurrelmann, 2006). This study also contributed to the literature by examining two populations of students living in on campus residential facilities. This study compared students wi th high academic goals and leadership experience to those with assumed lower academic goals, the primary independent variable in this study. The selected university for this study provides an opportunity for students to elect or be selected to live in on campus housing facilities that are designated primarily for those students with superior academic achievement and leadership experience. These students live together in a section of a residence hall (or the entire hall) and participate in

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101 curricular and/o r co curricular programming designed especially for them. The program may or may not result in a degree and may involve collaboration with formal academic departments outside the program. These programs provide formal and/or informal, credit and/or noncr edit learning opportunities (Association of College and University Housing Officers International, 2006). Traditional facilities are residence halls without an academic achievement or leadership experience. There are no academic or co curricular requirem ents to live in these facilities. Very different results were found for each of these populations in regards to goals, attitudes, and beliefs. In examining these two populations, the researcher was able to discover that there are many factors to consider when examining alcohol consumption as a goal directed behavior. change their behaviors. The findings from this study indicate that these two populations of studen ts are very different, as are the focus of the facilities in which they live. Focusing on changing environments and placing more of an emphasis on academic and health goals, and the risks of alcohol consumption would also be worth exploring in future rese arch. The predictor variables for these two populations were very different and suggest that it is possible for an association to exist between an environment and celebratory drinking behaviors. The findings of this study support the creation and impleme ntation of academic initiative and living learning communities on college and university campuses. Even if institutions are not experiencing the effects of these communities on retention rates and the number of students that are graduating, there are othe r positive outcomes associated with these communities, such as an increased awareness of academic and health goals and a decrease in alcohol consumption on college football game days.

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102 Recommendations for Future Research The current results support the ar gument that there are many factors that influence the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. It also supports that these factors often differ from individual to individual. The strong relationship between pro dr inking motivations (fun, social goals, social outcome expectancies) and anti drinking motivations (risk, academic goals, health goals) and alcohol consumption on college football game days shows the importance of taking very seriously the subjective functi ons served by risky behaviors such as drinking for college students. Future research would benefit by examining campus and housing alcohol policies (e.g., no alcohol verses limited use permitted versus designated areas for consuming alcohol), recreational opportunities (e.g. active campus culture versus commuter community), further exploring inter and intracampus variations (e.g., residence halls versus living with parents versus off campus housing versus fraternity/sorority house), and multiple types of i nstitutions (four year public versus private versus community college), and sports environment (e.g., focus of the institution versus secondary entity of the Futur e research would also benefit by exploring the total number of drinks consumed on game days, not only the total number of hours. This information would provide a better picture of the drinking behaviors of college students on game days. Many students may have indicated that they spend a large total number of hours consuming alcohol on game days, but may not actually consume a large amount of alcohol during that period of time. It would also benefit future research to explore differences, if any, between the normal drinking behaviors of college students and their celebratory drinking behaviors on college football game days. Also, the time of game was not examined in this study. It would be interesting to see if the time of game (e.g.,

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103 noon versus three o of college students on college football game days. The location that students are drinking before, during, and after the game would also be beneficial to further explore. Not o nly exploring where students are drinking at different periods of time throughout the day, but also the amount they are consuming would be beneficial to future research. University administrators and Resident Assistants do not and cannot care for individua l students and protect them from harm to the same extent as parents do. Thus, opportunities for potentially risky activities such as eating unhealthy foods, drinking, using drugs, and having risky sex are likely to increase. Future research would benefit from exploring the on campus programmatic efforts provided by Resident Assistants that focus on alcohol consumption. Resident Assistants could benefit from knowing what motivates students to drink, and could focus their programming models around these fa ctors to further educate students about the consequences of consuming excessive amounts of alcohol on game days. The results of this study provided strong evidence that respondents in academic communities and those in traditional communities are two disti nct groups of students. Understanding this distinction and the factors that important to these individuals may help Residence Life staff at colleges and university to work more effectively with both populations, specifically in the realm of alcohol consum ption, in general, and in celebratory environments. It is important as researchers and university administrators to determine the more effective approach to alcohol education, but understanding that different individuals have different past experiences an d beliefs and an intervention that may work for one population may not work for another. It is evident from this study that different variables are significant in each of these communities. Focusing on academic goals, health goals, and the risks associat ed with excessive

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104 alcohol consumption on college football game days is important, but it is more important to understand the population of students one is working with and what they are passionate about. In order for programs to be effective, the audience must be interested. Instead of focusing on the negative effects of alcohol for respondents in academic communities, it would be more beneficial to focus on ways to have fun on game days that do not include consuming alcohol. For respondents in tradition al communities, they are aware that consuming alcohol on game days is risky, therefore programmatic efforts that show the consequences of excessive alcohol consumption such as injuries from a drunken driving accident or a sexual assault, may be more appeal ing and effective for these respondents. It is important not to forget the other variables, because they too are important, but begin with what the students in a particular community are already focused on and build from there. It is important for colle ge and university administrators to focus their programmatic efforts around the consequences of alcohol. Students do not often realize that alcohol consumption, especially in excess, and have a negative consequence on their academics, health, social life, and can also cause serious harm to the self or to others around them. This study suggests that students are aware of these risks, but often do not see the long term consequences that can be associate with this behavior. Programmatic efforts that show in dividuals experiencing the negative consequences of alcohol consumption on their academics, health, and social networks may be more effective than just encouraging students not to drink. The literature and this study show that college students are going t o drink. As researchers, we need to provide them with the information about how to make wise decisions when choosing to consume alcohol, and then show them the possible consequences if they are not responsible.

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105 Fun should also be a main focus for colleg e and university administrators when examining the college football game day atmosphere. As already discussed, many students indicated that having fun did not always mean consuming alcohol. It is believed that if students were provided ies on game days that did not involve alcohol, they would participate and it could possibly decrease the number of individuals consuming alcohol. As most football game days are at a number of institutions, individuals gather under tents, hang out with fam ily and friends, and drink. Universities should really explore the possibilities of providing alternative activities to tailgating. This could be very beneficial to this celebratory environment that is unlike any other college atmosphere. It is also impo rtant for youth development workers, Student Affairs staff, and other professionals within the collegiate environment to focus on building self efficacy within students. Often students do not have the self efficacy to make new friends or become a member o f an organization without relying on alcohol to make them more socially acceptable. This is not the case for all students whereas many students are well established in a social network and organizations and feel comfortable with their peers, where others are not as established and comfortable and see alcohol consumption as a necessity for social success. If individuals continue to have expectancies associated with alcohol consumption, they will continue to drink to reach these desired outcomes. However, if we as researchers continue to assist in the development of their personal identity and self efficacy, it is possible that they will see past these desired outcomes and be confident in who they are as a person without having to consume alcohol. Summar y Alcohol consumption of college students on college football game days is becoming a pressing topic among college and university administrators. The most effective way to handle

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106 this increasingly risky behavior is to understand that factors that are inf luencing it, and focusing programmatic efforts around these influential motivations. This study examined the effects of goals, attitudes, and beliefs on the celebratory drinking behaviors of college students on college football game days. Results of this important goal is believed to be unattainable, an individuals will either increase efforts to attain the goal, or engage in alternative behaviors in order to face the possible consequences. The findi ngs of this study also support Outcomes Expectancy Theory. Outcome expectancy theory explains behaviors of individuals as having expectations of particular reinforcing effects as the outcome of performing the behavior in question (alcohol consumption). C onclusions reached through this study provide implications for college and university administrators, and other individuals working with college students. This study also indicates that alcohol consumption is not a necessity for many college students. Th ey are aware of the risks associated with this behavior, such as academic failure, health issues, and negative consequences. The majority of respondents in this study indicated that fun was the most important variable to them, and that fun does not always mean consuming alcohol. This study only opens a small window of exploration into the celebratory environment on college football game days. It is the hope of the researcher that these findings will inspire and encourage professionals within higher educa tion to work together to create and implement programs that will work to combat this ever growing mystery of alcohol co nsumption of college students.

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107 APPENDIX A CELEBRATORY DRINKING ON COLLEGE FOOTBALL GAME DAYS QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Please indicate which resi dence hall or floor in which you live. a. Hume East/West Honors Residential College b. Leader Scholar Program at Trusler Hall c. Career Exploratory Community Floors at Graham Hall d. GatorWell at the Springs e. GatorWell at Jennings f. East Hall Engineering g. Fine Arts Livi ng Learning Community at Reid Hall h. Global Living Learning Community at Yulee Hall i. Graham Hall Non Career Exploratory j. Beaty Towers East/West k. Broward Hall l. Keys Complex m. Lakeside Complex n. Murphree Hall o. Simpson Hall p. Sledd Hall q. Tolbert Hall 2. Do you participate in the celebratory environment on college football game days? (i.e. tailgating, consuming alcohol, hanging out with friends, attending the game, etc.) a. Yes b. No 3. How many home football games did you attend in 2006? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3 e. 4 f. 5 g. 6 h. 7 Drinking on College Footbal l Game Days 4. How many total hours do you spend consuming alcohol beverages on a home football game day? a. 0 hours b. 1 3 hours c. 4 6 hours d. 7 9 hours e. 10 or more hours

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108 5. Where do you spend the majority of your time consuming alcoholic beverages on a home football ga me day? (Choose only one answer per location) a. Before the game? Please select the appropriate answer below. i. ii. Home iii. iv. Restaurant v. Bar vi. Tailgate area vii. Residence hall viii. Stadium ix. Other b. During the Game? Please select the appropriate answer bel ow. i. ii. Home iii. iv. Restaurant v. Bar vi. Tailgate area vii. Residence hall viii. Stadium ix. Other c. After the game? Please select the appropriate answer below. Please select the appropriate answer below. i. ii. Home iii. iv. Restaurant v. Bar vi. Tailgate a rea vii. Residence hall viii. Stadium ix. Other 6. a. Personal reasons b. Religious reasons c. Other (please specify) ____________________________ 7. Think back over the last two weeks How many times h ave you had four or more drinks in a sitting ? (A drink consists of a bottle of beer, a glass of wine, a wine cooler, a shot glass of liquor or a mixed drink.) a. None

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109 b. Once c. Twice d. Three times e. Four or more times 8. What is the average number of day s per week that you consume alcohol? a. 0 b. 1 2 c. 3 4 d. 5 6 e. 7 9. What is the average number of drinks you consume in a typical week? a. 0 b. 1 3 c. 4 6 d. 7 9 e. 10 or more Risk 10. Please indicate how risky you think it is to drink alcohol: a. Not risky at all b. Somewhat risky c. Risky d. Very risky e. Extremely risky 11. Please indicate how risky you think it is to drink alcohol on college football game days: f. Not risky at all g. Somewhat risky h. Risky i. Very risky j. Extremely risky 12. Please indicate how risky you believe the fo llowing behaviors to be while consuming alcohol on college football game days: a. Unprotected sex Not at all risky Somewhat risky Risky Very risky Extremely risky b. Physical altercations Not at all risky Somewhat risky Risky Very risky Extr emely risky c. Drinking and driving Not at all risky Somewhat risky Risky Very risky Extremely risky

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110 d. Drinking Games (i.e. flip cup, & beer pong, power hours, etc.) Not at all risky Somewhat risky Risky Very risky Extremely risky e. Dares (i.e. jumping off high objects, swimming, etc). Not at all risky Somewhat risky Risky Very risky Extremely risky Fun 13. Please indicate how fun you think it is to drink alcohol: a. Not fun at all b. Somewhat fun c. Fun d. Very fun e. Extremely fun 14. Please indi cate how fun you think it is to drink alcohol on college football game days: a. Not fun at all b. Somewhat fun c. Fun d. Very fun e. Extremely fun 15. Please indicate how fun you believe the following behaviors to be while consuming alcohol on college football game days: a. Da ncing Not at all fun Somewhat fun Fun Very fun Extremely fun b. Hanging out with friends Not at all fun Somewhat fun Fun Very fun Extremely fun c. Watching sports Not at all fun Somewhat fun Fun Very fun Extremely fun d. Playing games (i.e, cards, board games, pool, etc.) Not at all fun Somewhat fun Fun Very fun Extremely fun e. Celebrating an event (i.e., football victory) Not at all fun Somewhat fun Fun Very fun Extremely fun Personal Goals 16. When I think abou a. Important to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time b. Difficult for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of t he time

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111 c. Time consuming for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time d. Enjoyable for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time e. Stressful to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time 17. a. Important to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time b. Diff icult for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time c. Time consuming for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time d. Enjoyable for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time e. Stressful to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time 18. a. Impo rtant to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time b. Difficult for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time c. Time consuming for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time d. Enjoyable for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time e. Stressful to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time

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112 19. a. Important to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time b. Difficult for me Not at all Rarely Som e of the time Most of the time All of the time c. Time consuming for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time d. Enjoyable for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time e. Stressful to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time 20. a. Important to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time b. Difficult for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time c. Time consuming for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the tim e All of the time d. Enjoyable for me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time e. Stressful to me Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time 21. Do you believe co a. Makes you more socially accepted Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time b. Enhances your social activity Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time c. Facilitates a connection with your peers Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time

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113 d. Makes you feel popular Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time e. Allows you to express your feelings Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time f. Makes you feel more outgoing Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All o f the time g. Allows you to have more fun Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time h. Is a nice way to celebrate Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time i. Makes you more aggressive Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time j. Makes you feel like you can meet people easier Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time k. Makes it eas ier for you to get into an argument Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time l. Makes it easier for you to tell someone off Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the ti me 22. a. Male students Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time b. Female students Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time c. Faculty and staff Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time d. Alumni Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the t ime All of the time e. Fraternities Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time

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114 f. Sororities Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time g. Students living in resid ence halls Not at all Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time Demographics 23. What is your race/ethnic origin? a. Hispanic b. Asian/Pacific Islander c. White (non Hispanic) d. Black (non Hispanic) e. Other 24. Gender a. Female b. Male 25. Ho w old are you? a. a. 18 b. b. 19 c. c. 20 d. d. 21 e. e. 22 f. f. 23 or older 26. What is your current classification? a. a. Freshman b. b. Sophomore c. c. Junior d. d. Senior e. e. Graduate/Professional student 27. What is your current overall GPA? a. a. <2.0 b. b. 2.0 2.49 c. c. 2.5 2.99 d. d. 3.0 3.49 e. >3.5 Greek Affiliation 28. Are you a member of one of the four Greek Letter Councils? a. Yes b. No (If no, proceed to question #30)

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115 29. Please indicate which of the following Greek Letter Council in which you are a member: a. Inter Fraternity Council (IFC ) b. Panhellenic Council (NPC) c. National Pan Hellenic Council (NPHC) d. Multicultural Greek Council (MGC) Celebration 30. How do you typically celebrate on a home football game day? _____________________________________________

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116 APPENDIX B INFORMED LETTER OF CONSENT Dear Resident, I am a graduate student in the Department of Family, Youth & Community Sciences at the University of Florida, conducting research about attitudes, beliefs, and goals about alcohol consumption on college football game days. You are being asked to participate in this study because you are a student living in on campus housing here at the University of Florida. If you agree to participate, you will be asked to complete a 29 item survey that will take you approximately 20 minutes to complete. There are no potential or anticipated risks expected with completing this survey and there is no compensation for completing the survey. Potential benefits of participating in this study include increased awareness for educational programming for resident ial living and alcohol awareness programs. All surveys are confidential and there are no identifying features in this survey that can be tracked back to individual responses. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by the law. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary and there is no penalty for not participating. You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. You may only participate in this study if you are at least 18 years of age. B y completing this survey, you are actively giving your consent to participate in this study. Please click on the link below to complete the survey. http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.asp?u=614043192778 If you have any questions about this research protocol, ple ase contact me at 392 6011 or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Rose Barnett, at 392 2202, ext. 248. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392 0433. If you find responding to this survey troublesome, or feel that you need to discuss the issue of alcohol use with a professional, you can contact the Alachua Country Crisis Center at (352)334 0888. By clicking on the link to the survey, yo u are stating that you have read this letter and agree to complete the questionnaire, and you are giving me permission to report your responses anonymously in the final manuscript to be submitted to my faculty supervisor for possible publication. Thank yo u for your time! I sincerely appreciate your honest feedback. Sincerely, Melissa M. Nunn Masters Candidate Department of Family, Youth & Community Sciences ______________________________________________________ ________________________

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117 By going to th e website and completing this survey, you voluntarily agree to participate in this study. Print a copy of this procedure to maintain for your own records. IRB Approved Protocol # 2006 U 1152

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118 APPENDIX C LETTER TO RESIDENCE LIFE AND EDUCATION Dear Ms. Blansett, My name is Melissa Nunn and I am a graduate student here at the University of Florida in the Family, Youth, and Community Sciences department. I am also the Graduate Hall Director for Hume West Residential Honors College. I am working towards conducting research about college students living in on campus housing and alcohol use on college football game days. My thesis research is chaired by Dr. Rose Barnett, Asst. Professor, Youth Development & Public Policy. In addi tion, Dr. Mickie Swisher, Associate Professor and Graduate Coordinator, FYCS and Dr. Mary K. Schneider, Associate Dean of Students, are members of my committee. As part of my research I would like to survey students living on campus here at UF. As a Grad uate Hall Director, I am hope that you will allow me to distribute surveys via the internet to your on campus residents mid January 2007. In order to meet my thesis timeline, please respond to this request in writing by December 15, 2006 so that I may plan accordingly. You may do this via email at the following address: MelissaNu@housing.ufl.edu My research study pertains to the attitudes, beliefs, and goals that effect alcohol consumption of college studen ts on college football game days. My research explores how social, academic, and health goals may influence alcohol consumption. I am asking you to allow me to use the residents living on campus because of the living learning communities that the Univers ity of Florida offers in the residence halls. I am exploring how the attitudes, goals, and beliefs of students living in residence halls with academic initiatives may differ from with their answers. The residents will however be asked to indicate what residence hall they live in and if the hall is confidentiality to the extent provided by the la w. The survey consists of 29 items and takes approximately 20 minutes to complete. There are no perceived risks associated with completing this survey and there is no compensation. Potential benefits of participating in this study include increased aware ness for educational programming for residential living and alcohol awareness programs. Participation is completely voluntary. They will be sent an email with the informed consent letter and then if they choose to participate in the study they will be aske d to click on a link that will direct them to the survey. By choosing to complete this survey, by clicking on the link, residents are actively indicating consent. To protect their confidentiality, residents will not be asked to put any identifying informa tion on the questionnaire. If you have any questions or concerns about this survey, please contact me at 392 6011 or 846 8029. You may also contact my faculty supervisor, Dr. Rose Barnett, at 392 2201, ext. 248. You may also email me at MelissaNu@housi ng.ufl.edu. If at any time the residents find responding to this survey troublesome, or feel that they need to discuss the issue of alcohol use

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119 with a professional, they can contact the Alachua Country Crisis Center at (352)334 0888. I look forward to work ing with you and the residents! Sincerely, Melissa M. Nunn Masters Candidate Department of Family, Youth & Community Sciences

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120 APPENDIX D OPEN ENDED RESPONSES How do you typically celebrate on a home college football game day? sponses my friends and see all the sick to drink before spending 4 hours in the crowded, hot stadium. I mainly go out after the 3 hours before a home game in the residence hall and split a bottle of vodka or bourbon between nds or get tickets to watch the games. Then after the games since I usually have so much work to do I attempt to do some work at home in the dorm while

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121 Usually my friends and I go out the game. If we do not hav e tickets we go to a nearby apartment and watch the game, occasionally drinking. Normally, after the game we do not go out and celebrate more unless good time and get away from the large amounts of crowds until the g apartment. Go to the game, stay until half time, go home, eat, change and go out drinking it on TV. house or do another activity. If it is a noon game, then I have more time to devote to other or friends, or watch it from my do es or clubs after

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122 to game: drink a few beers with friends. Game: watch the game at the dorm or at a game: celebrate victory or was down defeat with a few more beers (more than before) Sometimes earlier on I will drink liquor s house, start drinking heavily from a kegerator or drinking hard liquors. Just whatever is there. I drink continuously and watch the other football games on TV until it is time to go to the stadium. Then I chug another few beers and stumble to the stad ium. Get drunk in the game and try to drink as much as I can sneak in. After the game I either drink some more and go to the clubs and try to pick up broads with my friends or a friends house or just go back to the dorm and pass out wasted and naked and wake up confused and with a we win, I u company. Then they will go to the game and I go to Library West (you can always find a seat in there on game days

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123 crow ds gathering near my residence hall Most of the time, I stay in to watch the game with my boyfriend and learn more about football as I am watching it. Other times, I join a group of friends in my hall to watch the game in the lounge. Alcohol is almost ne ver involved. If I go to the game, I do not drink. If it watch it at home or at a party, then I drink a few, but ring r Food is usua We would to go Publix pick up tailgating supplies then drive a car we had already parked along Lake Alice. We would cook hamburgers and tailgate for a few hours then walk to the game. After the game, we usually got something to eat and hung out with friends. I never drank

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124 by University Avenue where I play drinking games for an hour with some friends. Then we chant Gator cheers on our way to the Swamp. After our win, I go back to my hall and take a shower and a nap. I will hang around the hall for a while until I find out about something going on that night. That is where I end up going to a house, or another hall, and drink for 2 or 3 more hours and celebrate how awesome it is ls, dance and a watching other football games and talking. If it is an earlier game, I usually have other have to maybe enjo starts and go if we have tickets. If not we just watch the game in the dorms. After the game we try to find a party to go to or we just drin game somewhere, get lunch and go back to a friends or the dorm (drink some more), then go to a party or go to a party or go downtown.

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125 I attend a BBQ at a fraternity before the game and after the game I either go out or go back to feel like it, I hang out with my other non Greek friends until it is time to go to the game, but mostly just enjoy each others company and being able to see one another while sharing a meal. Then walk to the game, cheer on the Gators, and afterwards, usually eat again with ho campus apartment (where alcohol is usually sometimes have a few drinks, but

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126 game with my friends, go to the game. And of course the celebration parties of which tch the game, with no ta relax until game time, then head over and watch a Gator victory. Afterwards, I often head out with my friends and get dinner somewhere, or something of that and neither do most of the people I hang out with on game day, so there is usually no alcohol clubbing, or partying is necessary to have a good time. You just need a good group of

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127 ng the people I am with and watching the game, without the need or desire for tually concentrate on the game and girlfriend, BBQ at either a tailgating pla make sure I drink plenty of liquids because of fear of dehydration, and after the game I go do the same routine but drink a little more considering I am in a more comfortable/safe environment where my friends and I play drinking games and have fun playing whatever Saturday. We go tailgating at wherever our friends are going. We drink Bud Light, play before, we all walk over and leave the tailgating mess for the people hosting it. We also go flirt with Alumni to get free stuff like beer or burgers. We used to bring a keg, but not so much anymore since they took our tap at the beginning of the season. Now we drink cans. Sometimes during half time, if we have extra tickets from out block, so we can get back in, we will go to the bar in the middle and co me back. After we win, we always go eat on University. Everyone in our block tried to plan to go out after, but I have only done it once ith them for a while. game, and drink. If we win (which we always do) we either remain at the house party or go ootball fan, so homework and necessity of

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128 home and hang o fraternity house, drink with my brothers, BBQ, talk with some sorority girls, throw the football around, go to the game, go to an off campus party house, celebr ate with girls until about 4am.

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129 LIST OF REFERENCES Alva, S. A. (1998). Self reported alcohol us e of college fraternity and sorority members. J. Coll. Stud. Dev. 39: 3 10. Arnett, J. J. (1994). Are college students adults? Their conceptions of the transition to adulthood. J Adult Dev. 1: 154 168. Arnett, J. J. (1998). Learning to stand alone: The contemporary American transition to adulthood in cultural and historical context. Hum Dev., 41: 295 315. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. Am. Psychol. 55: 469 480. Arn ett, J. J. (2001). Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging Adulthood: Their Winding Road From the Late Teens Through the Twenties. New York: Oxford University Press. Arnett, J. J., a nd Taber, S. (1994). Adolescence terminable and interminable: When does adolescence end? J. Youth Adolesc., 23: 517 537. Ashenberg Straussner, S. L. (1985). Alcoholism in women: Current knowledge and implications for treatment. Psychosoc. Issues Treat Alcoholism, 4: 61 77. Association of College and University Housing Officers International (2006). Academic initiatives. Retrieved February 1, 2007, from http://www.acuho.ohio state.edu/ committees/acdintro.html Baer, J. S. (2002). Student factors: Un derstanding individual variation in college drinking. J. Stud. Alcohol 14 : 40 54. Baer, J. S Kivlahan, D. R., and Marlatt, G. A.(1995). High risk drinking across the transition from high school to college. Alcsm Clin. Exp. Res. 19: 54 61. Bachman, J (1997). Smoking, Drinking, and Drug Use in Young Adulthood: The Impacts of New Freedoms and New Responsibilities, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Le arning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (1997). Self Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.

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130 Baumrid, D. (1995). Familial antecedents of adolescent drug use: A developmental perspective. In C. LaRue Jones and R. J. Battjes (Eds.), Etiology of drug use: Implications for prevention. NIDA Research Monograph 56, A RA US Report, (pp.13 44). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Use. Berkowitz, A. D. and Perkins, H. W. (1986). Problem drink ing among college students: A review of recent research. J. Am. Coll. Health 35: 21 28. Bianchi, S. M., and Spain, D. (1996). Women, work, and family in America. Popul. Bull., 51: 1 48. Brennan, A. F., Walfish, S., and AuBuchon, P. (1986). Alcohol use and abuse in college students. II. Social environmental correlates, methodological issues, and implications for intervention. Int. J. Addict. 21: 457 493. Brown S. A., Christiansen, B. A., and Goldman, M. S. (1987). The alcohol expectancy questionnaire: A n instrument for the assessment of adolescent and adult alcohol expectancies. J. Stud. Alcohol 48: 483 491. Brown, S. A., Goldman, M. S., Inn, A. and Anderson, L. R. (1980). Expectations of reinforcement from alcohol: Their domain and relation to drinki ng patterns. J. Cons. Clin. Psychol. 48: 419 426. Cantor, N., Norem, J., Langston, C., Zirkel, S., Fleeson, W., and Cook Flannagan, C. (1991). Life tasks and daily life experiences. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 59: 425 451. Cantor, N., and Sanderson, C. (1998). The functional regulation of adolescent dating relationships and sexual behavior: An interaction of goals, strategies and situations. In Heckhausen, J. and Dweck, C. (eds.), Motivation and Self Regulation Across the Life Span Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 185 215. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement o f Teaching. (1989, June 30). A Classification of Institutions of Higher E ducation Princeton NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Cashin, J. R., Presley, C. A. and Meilman P. W. (1998). Alcohol use in the Greek system: Follow the leader? J. Stud. Alcohol 59 : 63 71. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2005, September 9). General alcohol information. Retrieved September 9, 2006, from http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/ factsheets/general_information.htm Chaloupka, F. J. and Wechsler, H. (1996). Binge drinking in college: The impact of price, availability, and alcohol control prices. Contem porary Econ. Pol., 14 : 112 125. Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., and Sherman, S. J. (1989). "Constructive" vs "destructive" deviance in adolescent health related behaviors. J. Youth Adolesc. 18 : 245 262.

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139 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Melissa Marie Nunn was born in Munster, Indiana, and lived in Indiana until she was 11 years old. In 1993, she moved to Blue Ridge Georgia, where she completed high school at Fannin County High School. I n 2000, she moved to Macon, Georgia, to attend Mercer University. She graduated with a B.A. in Communications and Theatre Arts in May of 2004. udent Affairs, she entere d the master of s cience program in the Department of Family, Youth, and Community Sciences at the University of Florida in 2005. Through her gr aduate career, she worked as a graduate hall d irector for the Department of Housing and Residence Education. Sh e is currently employed as a Residence Hall Coordinator for Campus Living at East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina.