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Assessing the Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Skills of Migrant Preschoolers at Risk for Reading Diffic...

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Title: Assessing the Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Skills of Migrant Preschoolers at Risk for Reading Difficulties
Physical Description: 1 online resource (179 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Tardaguila, Joyce M
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: at, dialogic, migrant, preschoolers, reading, risk, storybook
Special Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Special Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study investigated whether mothers from migrant populations could be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques during reading interactions with their children. The study also examined the effects of the mothers' implementation of the techniques on the oral language development of migrant preschoolers with language delays. Four mother/child dyads from north central Florida participated in the research. Participating mothers used predominately Spanish in the home and agreed to read aloud to their children at least four times a week. The children who participated in this study had low language skills. The mothers were trained to implement dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading sessions conducted in the homes of the participants. Data regarding the mothers? implementation of the techniques and the effect of the implementation of dialogic reading on the children?s oral language production were collected using a multiple baseline design across participants. Analyses of the data indicated that the migrant mothers increased their use of dialogic reading techniques following training. Likewise, the children's production of oral language increased following the mothers? implementation of the techniques. In addition, the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques and the children's increase in oral language production were maintained two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention. Furthermore, results of social validity measures indicated that migrant mothers were satisfied with the intervention and agreed that it was effective and practical.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Joyce M Tardaguila.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Correa, Vivian I.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021191:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021191/00001

Material Information

Title: Assessing the Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Skills of Migrant Preschoolers at Risk for Reading Difficulties
Physical Description: 1 online resource (179 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Tardaguila, Joyce M
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: at, dialogic, migrant, preschoolers, reading, risk, storybook
Special Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Special Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study investigated whether mothers from migrant populations could be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques during reading interactions with their children. The study also examined the effects of the mothers' implementation of the techniques on the oral language development of migrant preschoolers with language delays. Four mother/child dyads from north central Florida participated in the research. Participating mothers used predominately Spanish in the home and agreed to read aloud to their children at least four times a week. The children who participated in this study had low language skills. The mothers were trained to implement dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading sessions conducted in the homes of the participants. Data regarding the mothers? implementation of the techniques and the effect of the implementation of dialogic reading on the children?s oral language production were collected using a multiple baseline design across participants. Analyses of the data indicated that the migrant mothers increased their use of dialogic reading techniques following training. Likewise, the children's production of oral language increased following the mothers? implementation of the techniques. In addition, the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques and the children's increase in oral language production were maintained two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention. Furthermore, results of social validity measures indicated that migrant mothers were satisfied with the intervention and agreed that it was effective and practical.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Joyce M Tardaguila.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Correa, Vivian I.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021191:00001


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ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF DIALOGIC READING ON THE ORAL LANGUAGE
SKILLS OF MIGRANT PRESCHOOLERS AT RISK FOR READING DIFFICULTIES



















By

JOYCE MARIE TARDAGUILA-HARTH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































2007 Joyce Marie Tardaguila-Harth




























To Julio Luis Tardaguila and Michael Harth with eternal love









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I owe a tremendous amount of gratitude to the chairperson of my dissertation committee,

Dr. Vivian I. Correa. Dr. Correa has been a mentor, teacher, and above all, a friend. I cannot

thank her enough for her unfaltering support and patience throughout my doctoral program and

dissertation process.

I would also like to thank my mother, Sonia Tardaguila, for her constant words of

encouragement, for making me laugh and for providing a shoulder to cry on when I needed it.

I give special thanks to my husband, George Harth, for his love and for believing in me at

all times.

I would also like to thank the families who were willing to participate in this research.

They allowed me into their homes and their lives for many months. Without their commitment

this study would not have been possible.

Last, but most important, I thank God. It is my hope that He will continue to guide me and

use this accomplishment for His glory.









TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

L IST O F T A B L E S ......................................................................................................... ........ .. 8

LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................... ...........................9

A B S T R A C T .......................................................................................................... ..................... 10

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................ ... ................. .. ........... ..................................... 12

M igrant C children A t-R isk................ .......... ........................... ...... ............... 13
Importance of Language in Literacy Development........................................... ............... 14
H om e L literacy A ctivities............... .. ................... .. .............. .......................... ............... 14
State ent of the Problem ............... .. .................. ................. .......................... ............... 15
Purpose of the Study ..................................... .. .......... .............. ............... 16
E xperim mental Q questions .............. .. .................. .................. ............ ........ .... ............... 16
S u m m a ry ........................................................................................................ .................... 1 6

2 REV IEW O F TH E LITER A TU RE ........................................... ........................ ............... 18

Conceptual Fram ew ork ................................................................... ............... 18
The Migrant Profile: Children at Risk..................... ................21
Importance of Language in Literacy Development........................................... ................ 26
Second Language Learners and Language Development..................................................28
Importance of Early Literacy Activities/Shared Book Reading ........................................29
D ialogic R leading ................. ... ................. ....... ........................................ 31
Review of the Empirical Literature on the Efficacy of Dialogic Reading ..........................32
Dialogic Reading and Children with Developmental Delays............................................33
Dialogic Reading and Children From Low SES Backgrounds ........................................38
Dialogic Reading and Children Learning English as a Second Language ..........................42
Summary of Findings ................................ .. .......... ....................................45
L im station s ........................................................................................................... ....... .. 4 7
Rationale of the Study ........................................... ............................. 49
Research Questions ........... .. ... ................. .. ........... ............................... 50

3 M ETH OD S AN D PR O CED U RE S ........................................ ........................ ................ 57

P articip an ts ........................................................................................................... ....... .. 5 7
S ettin g s .......................................................................................................... ......... . ....... 5 8
M a te ria ls ....................................................................................................... .................... 5 9
Dependent Measures .......................................... ............................... 61
D efin itio n s ............................................................................................................. ........ .. 6 2









E xperim ental P procedures .................................................... .............................................. 62
D ata R e c o rd in g .......................................................................................................................6 8
D ata A n aly sis ........................................................................... ............. .................. 6 8
Interob server A greem ent .................................................... .............................................. 68
Treatment Integrity .................................. .. .......... ............................. 69
S o c ia l V a lid ity ........................................................................................................................6 9
P ilo t S tu d y ..............................................................................................................................7 0

4 R E S U L T S ..................................................................................................... ..................... 7 3

D y a d 1 ............................................................................................................ ........ . ....... 7 5
Dyad 2 .................................................................................. 81
D y a d 3 ............................................................................................................ ........ . ....... 8 7
Dyad 4 .......................................................................................93
T reatm en t In teg rity ...............................................................................................................10 0
S o c ia l V a lid atio n ..................................................................................................................1 0 0
Summary ........................................................................ 101

5 D IS C U S S IO N ....................................................................................................................... 1 0 9

O v erv iew o f th e S tu dy ..........................................................................................................1 10
Summary of Findings ......................................................................................................111
D iscu ssio n o f F in d in g s .........................................................................................................1 13
S o c ia l V a lid ity ......................................................................................................................12 5
L im station s ............................................................................ .... ................. ....................12 6
Im p location s for R research .....................................................................................................12 8
Im p licatio n s fo r P practice .......................................................................................................13 1
Summary ........................................................................ 132

APPENDIX

A IRB APPROVAL AND CONSENT FORMS............... ..... .........................134

B PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE ........................................................................................141

C FLYER FOR THE STUDY ............................................................................................143

D RESEARCHER'S TRAINING GUIDE............ ...........................144

E PARENT HANDBOOK ON DIALOGIC READING............................................146

F P E E R H A N D O U T ................................................................................................................ 150

G CROWD/FRASE HANDOUT .......................................................................................152

H BOOKS .......................................................................... 154

I G U ID E L IN E S F O R M L U ....................................................................................................158



6









J IN T E G R IT Y C H E C K ..................................................... ............................................... 162

K SO C IA L V A L ID IT Y ....................................................... ............................................... 163

L PA R E N T E V A LU A TIO N .................................................. ............................................ 165

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ....................................................... ................................................ 169

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .................................................... ............................................. 179














































7









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Dialogic reading and children with developmental delays...........................................52

2-2 Dialogic reading and children from low SES backgrounds..........................................54

2-3 Dialogic reading and children learning English as a second language...........................56

3-1 D em graphic data on m other participants.................................................... ................ 71

3-2 D em graphic data on child participants ....................................................... ................ 72









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2 -1 C on ceptu al fram ew ork .................................................................... ...................................5 1

4-1 Mother 1-Child I/Mother 2-Child 2: Mother implementation of PEER ........................103

4-2 Mother 1-Child I/Mother 2-Child 2: Mother implementation of FRASE .....................104

4-3 Mother 1-Child I/Mother 2-Child 2: Children's oral language production ................... 105

4-4 Mother 3-Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Mother implementation of PEER ........................ 106

4-5 Mother 3-Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Mother implementation of FRASE ..................... 107

4-6 Mother 3-Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Children's oral language production ...................108









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

ASSESING THE EFFECTS OF DIALOGIC READING ON THE ORAL LANGUAGE
SKILLS OF MIGRANT PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AT RISK OF READING DIFFICULTIES

By

Joyce Marie Tardaguila-Harth

August 2007

Chair: Vivian I. Correa
Major: Special Education

This study investigated whether mothers from migrant populations could be trained to

implement dialogic reading techniques during reading interactions with their children. The study

also examined the effects of the mothers' implementation of the techniques on the oral language

development of migrant preschoolers with language delays. Four mother/child dyads from north

central Florida participated in the research. Participating mothers used predominately Spanish in

the home and agreed to read aloud to their children at least four times a week. The children who

participated in this study had low language skills. The Mothers were trained to implement

dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading sessions conducted in the homes of the

participants. Data regarding the mothers' implementation of the techniques and the effect of the

implementation of dialogic reading on the children's oral language production were collected

using a multiple baseline design across participants. Analyses of the data indicated that the

migrant mothers increased their use of dialogic reading techniques following training. Likewise,

the children's production of oral language increased following the mothers' implementation of

the techniques. In addition, the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques and the

children's increase in oral language production were maintained two weeks after the conclusion









of the intervention. Furthermore, results of social validity measures indicated that migrant

mothers were satisfied with the intervention and agreed that it was effective and practical.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The United States is currently undergoing a dramatic change in its cultural and linguistic

composition. In the year 2000, the Hispanic population was estimated at 35,305,818,

representing an increase from 9% to 12.5% of the total population since 1990 (U.S. Census

Bureau, 2000). Immigrants from Mexico along with those from other Latin American countries

constitute the largest proportion (nearly 38%) of legal immigrants and an estimated 80% of

undocumented immigrants (Garza, Reyes & Trueba, 2004). The population of children also

reflects these demographic changes as the number of students who speak Spanish as a first

language increases in schools all over the country. According to the National Center for

Educational Statistics (2000), Hispanic students comprise 12% of the total school population in

the country. A significant number of these children fall into the category "migrant".

Federal law defines migrant workers as agricultural, dairy or fishing workers who

migrate in order to obtain temporary or seasonal employment and who "have moved from one

school district to another within the preceding 36 months" (Public Law 103-382, 1994, as cited

in Riley, 2002). According to Cranston-Gingras (2003), there are between three and five million

migrant farm workers in the United States. The majority of these workers travel in family

groups and 50% are accompanied by their children (National Agriculture Workers Survey,

2000). There were approximately 628,150 migrant children in 1992 and as many as 800,000 in

1994 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1995). Garza et al. (2004) add that the number of migrant

children rose by 17% during the 1980s. Migrant children are among the students with the

highest risk factors for developing reading difficulties and failing to complete their education due

to the difficult circumstances that characterize migratory work (Cranston-Gingras, 2003;

Martinez & Cranston-Gingras, 1996).









Migrant Children At-Risk

While educational success or failure cannot be predicted with a 100% accuracy, research

suggests that certain variables are associated with higher incidences of reading and academic

failure. Group risk factors such as low socioeconomic background, minority ethnic status, and

limited English proficiency are considered reliable predictors of future reading and writing

difficulties for preschool children (Jones & Fuller, 2003; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).

Children from migrant populations share the group risk factors mentioned above in addition to

facing other variables which heighten their risk of developing reading problems and cause them

to have the highest school dropout rates in the United States (Garza et al., 2004; Gouwens, 2001;

Romanowski, 2003).

Migrant children face numerous obstacles in their path to academic achievement.

Compounding the effects of poverty, minority status, and a lack of English proficiency are the

high mobility rates that characterize migrant farm work, and the low levels of education

prevalent among migrant parents (Henderson, 1992; Lopez, 2004). The constant need to move

often makes it impossible for migrant families to participate in the preschool and family literacy

programs that will help them prepare their children for school. Approximately 75% of all

migrant families often find themselves in dire financial stress just to meet basic survival needs

(Diaz, 1991; Garza et al., 2004). Acquiring literacy materials that can be used at home to

prepare children for school becomes a secondary priority. Even in the event that literacy

materials were provided to the families, many migrant parents do not feel confident enough to

prepare their children for school due to their own lack of educational attainment (Lopez, 2004;

Valdez, 1999). Due to these factors, numerous migrant children begin school without the skills

they need to become successful readers (Henderson, 1992). Such lack of skills might result in









migrant children's inability to become literate and to continue reading at grade level (Cranston-

Gingras, 2003; Garza et al., 2004; Henderson, 1992).

Given migrant children's vulnerability for academic failure, it is critical to find

interventions that will prepare them for formal reading instruction before they begin

kindergarten. Accomplishing this is the first step towards breaking the cycle of illiteracy and

academic failure prevalent among the migrant population.

Importance of Language in Literacy Development

Research suggests that the most effective way to ensure that young children are ready to

begin formal reading instruction is to support and enhance their early language development

(Dickinson & Tabors, 2001; Tabors, 1997). Children's level of oral language at school entrance

is a strong predictor of reading skill development during the elementary school years, and can

ultimately predict academic success as defined by high school graduation (Snow et al., 1998).

In the case of young children from non-English backgrounds, it is vital to continue

fostering the development of first language skills as these skills will facilitate the acquisition of

English (Cummins, 1976; Hakuta, 1986; Krashen, 1981). A solid foundation in the first

language will allow young children to acquire a second language and to prepare for early literacy

in the second language (Cummins, 1980; Krashen, 1991). One of the most effective ways of

helping young children develop the language skills they need to be ready for reading instruction

is by offering a supporting interaction between parents and children and by offering a language

rich environment at home (Vygotsky, 1978; Wells, 1987).

Home Literacy Activities

Early literacy activities at home are crucial to foster the development of oral language

skills and other literacy skills that set the foundation for future reading achievement (Wells,

1987). Shared book reading, especially shared book reading that involves the active









participation of the child, improves the expressive and receptive language of young children

(Hargrave & Senechal, 2000). One shared reading strategy that has shown great promise for

helping children from all socioeconomic backgrounds develop the language they need to be

successful readers is dialogic reading (Whitehurst et al., 1988).

Dialogic reading is a joint storybook reading practice between the child and the caregiver

(Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998). This intervention promotes the use of evocative or interactive

techniques by the caregiver that will encourage the young child to talk about the pictures in the

book and will allow him/her to have an active role during shared book reading (Whitehurst,

Arnold, Epstein, Angell, Smith, & Fishel, 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein, Angell, Payne, Crone &

Fishel, 1994; Whitehurst, Falco, Lonigan, Fishel, DeBaryshe, Valdez-Menchaca, & Caufield,

1988). Several studies have demonstrated that dialogic reading can have powerful effects on the

oral language and emergent literacy skills development of monolingual young children from all

socioeconomic backgrounds (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Hardgrave & Senechal, 2000;

Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998; Whitehurst et al., 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1988).

Statement of the Problem

Evidence supports the statement that children from migrant populations are among the

most educationally vulnerable students in the nation (Garza et al., 2004; Gouwens, 2001;

Romanowski, 2003). Due to poverty, lack of English proficiency and other factors that

characterize migratory farm work, migrant children often begin school without the skills they

need to become successful readers. The lack of reading skills will set these students on a path of

academic failure that might lead to leaving school before high school graduation. Teaching

migrant parents a strategy that will help them prepare their children for formal reading

instruction may prove to be an effective intervention tool that will break the cycle of academic

failure prevalent among migrant populations.









Purpose of the Study

The current study aims to increase knowledge about the effects of dialogic reading on a

population of linguistically diverse families from migrant backgrounds. First, this investigation

examined whether Spanish-speaking parents from a low SES and with minimal education could

be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading interactions with

their children. Next, the investigation examined the effects of the parents' implementation of

dialogic reading techniques on the oral language development of their preschool children.

Experimental Questions

1. Can migrant mothers with a low educational level be trained to implement dialogic reading
techniques?

2. What is the effect of the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques on the oral
language production of migrant preschool children?

3. Will the effects of dialogic reading on the oral language development of preschool children
be maintained following the conclusion of the intervention?

Summary

The number of young children who speak Spanish as a first language is increasing rapidly

in classrooms all over the United States. A large number of these children are part of the migrant

farm worker population. Migrant children are at a high risk of developing reading difficulties

and experiencing academic failure due to the high mobility rates, poverty and other factors that

characterize the migrant lifestyle (Cranston-Gingras, 2003; Romansowski, 2003). Therefore, it

is crucial to find interventions that will set migrant children on the path to academic success by

preparing them for formal reading instruction before they enter kindergarten.

The most effective way to ensure that children are ready for reading instruction is to foster

their early language development. Shared book reading interactions that involve the active

participation of the child have been found to be very effective in fostering the development of









early language skills needed for reading success. One shared book reading strategy that has

proven to be very effective with children from different backgrounds is dialogic reading.

The goal of this study was to determine whether migrant mothers could be trained to

implement dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading interactions with their

children and whether the parents' implementation of these techniques improved the oral

language development of the preschoolers.









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Migrant children often begin reading instruction without the skills they need to become

successful readers. Such lack of skills may result in the students' inability to become literate.

One way to ensure that migrant children are ready to begin reading is by enhancing and

supporting their early language development. Shared book reading and particularly shared book

reading techniques that encourage the active participation of the child have proven to be effective

tools for fostering the development of early language.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework underlying this investigation is influenced by the works of

Vygotsky (1978) and Bronfenbrenner (1979) (Figure 2-1). The sociocultural theory of learning

emphasizes the importance of social interactions in stimulating children's development

(Vygotsky, 1978). According to Vygotsky, young children's cognitive, linguistic and social

development is supported and enhanced through social interactions with others (Ibid., 1978). An

important component of Vygotsky's work is the concept of the zone of proximal development

(Ibid., 1978). The zone of proximal development refers to "the area of development into which

children can be led in the course of interactions with a more competent partner" (Ibid., 1978, p.

36). In terms of language, children reach the zone of proximal development when they interact

with adults who mediate the children's attempts to communicate by responding to the children's

linguistic level. This is accomplished when adults provide a linguistic scaffold by modeling,

questioning, and explaining during conversations with the child. The use of such scaffolding

techniques will give children the opportunity to engage in conversation thus fostering the

development of receptive and expressive language skills (Otto, 2002; Vygotsky, 1979).









Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) focuses on child

development within the context of environment. Bronfenbrenner (1979) describes four layers or

systems of a child's environment. The microsystem includes the settings that impact the child in

a direct manner such as the home environment, the classroom, and/or the childcare center. The

mesosystem consists of the linkages among the components of the different settings such as the

connection between parents and teachers. The exosystem is composed of the larger social

system that affects the child but does not impact him directly such as the child's community, and

the parents' workplace. The outermost layer of the child's environment is the known as the

macrosystem and is comprised of the cultural values, customs, and laws. Bronfenbrenner (1979)

proposes that interactions between the child and his environment, particularly the mycrosystem

will shape every aspect of the child's development.

The conceptual framework underlying this investigation incorporates components from

the two models discussed previously and provides a basis for how training migrant parents to

promote the first language development of their children may prevent future reading difficulties

thus improving the children's chances for achieving academic success. As in Bronfenbrenner's

ecological model the child is the focus of this framework. The way in which migrant families

help prepare their children for school and formal reading instruction is going to be influenced by

the constant interactions between the characteristics of the child, the characteristics of the other

components in the child's ecological system such as the parents, and the environment.

The interactions between the migrant child and the members of his/her microsystem at

home are impacted by the high mobility rates and long hours that characterize migrant farm

work. In addition, the constant need to move often makes it impossible for migrant families to

participate in the preschool and family literacy programs that will help them prepare their









children for school. The high levels of poverty, along with the low educational levels of these

families, constitute another major obstacle to getting children ready for school. Migrant families

often find themselves in dire financial stress just to meet basic survival needs (Diaz, 1991; Garza

et al., 2004). Therefore, acquiring literacy materials that can be used at home to prepare children

for school becomes a secondary priority. Even in the event that literacy materials were provided

to the families, many migrant parents do not feel confident enough to prepare their children for

school due to a lack of educational attainment (Lopez, 2004).

These factors along with child characteristics that will place the child at an increased risk

for future reading difficulties (such as low first language skills and disabilities) make it crucial to

intervene in order to ensure that migrant children are ready for formal instruction once they

begin school.

A promising form of intervention is to teach parents how to interact with their children in a

manner that fosters language development. When the parents are taught to interact with their

children in a supportive manner that encourages children to be active participants in the

interaction, children have the opportunity to develop a strong base on their first language.

Having a strong foundation in the first language will facilitate the acquisition of English and

subsequent literacy development (Cummins, 1980).

In keeping with this framework, the investigation provides a structure for selecting

participants from migrant populations that have been identified as being at risk for reading

failure due to factors such as delays in the first language (LI), poverty, and limited educational

levels. The investigation involves training parents to implement dialogic reading, a shared book

reading intervention that will lead to more effective language interactions and to the









development of a stronger foundation in the child's first language. Such a foundation will ensure

a greater likelihood of future reading success.

The Migrant Profile: Children at Risk

The migrant population constitutes the most academically vulnerable subgroup in the

United States, making the education of migrant children and their families an issue of utmost

concern in today's society (Gouwens, 2001; Romanowski, 2004). Of all children in the nation,

migrant children are the most undereducated and the least likely to complete high school and go

on to postsecondary education (Garza et al., 2004; Gouwens, 2001). Chief among the factors

that hinder the academic success of migrant students are the lack of stability, poverty, and lack of

English proficiency (Cranston-Gingras, 2003; Gouwens, 2001). It is important to point out that

these risk factors are usually overlapping and interactive.

High Mobility Rate

The lives of migrant families revolve around working and moving. These families move

often in order to secure job opportunities and usually follow one of three well-established

migrant routes (Gouwens, 2001). The routes include the East Coast Stream, the Midcontinent

Stream, and the West Coast Stream (Shotland, 1989). The East Coast Stream includes the states

along the eastern seaboard and the southern region of the United States. The Mid-continent

Stream begins in south of Texas and expands north through the Midwestern and western states.

The West Coast Stream starts in California and moves up through Oregon and Washington.

The constant mobility serves as one of the most significant impediments to the educational

success of migrant children (Romanowski, 2004). As families migrate from one work site to the

next, migrant preschoolers have very limited opportunities to participate in the early childhood

programs that will prepare them for school entrance (Lopez, 2004). As a result, many migrant

children begin school without the early literacy skills they need to become successful students.









During the elementary and secondary school years, migrant students attend an average of two to

three schools a year (Garza et al., 2004). In addition, they often miss valuable days of instruction

and academic content by enrolling late in the year and leaving early. These disruptions place

migrant children at a high risk of failing to perform at grade level (Gouwens, 2001). The

Migrant Education Secondary Assistance Project (1989) points out that by second grade, 50% of

migrant students nationally are already below grade level, compared with 19% of the general

population. It is estimated that migrant children's academic performance is usually 6-18 months

behind grade level and over 40% of these children are achieving below the 35th percentile in

reading (Cranston-Gingrass, 2003; Garza et al., 2004; Hinojosa and Miller, 1984). There is no

doubt that the high mobility of migrant farm work sets migrant children on a path of academic

failure. The previous is demonstrated by the high drop-out rates of migrant students, which

range from 45 to 90% (Cranston-Gingrass, 2003).

Poverty

The high levels of poverty prevalent among migrant families also have a dismal effect on

the education of these students (Diaz, 1991; Cranston-Gingrass, 2003). Approximately 75% of

all migrant families in the United States live well below the national poverty level with an

income of less than $10,000 annually (Garza et al., 2004). This amount often includes the

contributions of migrant children who work along side their parents in order to help the family

earn enough money to subsist.

Most migrant children begin working in early adolescence, however, it has been reported

that children as young as four or five are working with their parents instead of attending

preschool programs (Cranston-Gingrass, 2003; Whitener, 1985). The previous is due to severe

economic necessity, which along with high mobility rates and a lack of available early childhood

programs restricts migrant children's access to preschool instruction.









The need to work plays a crucial role in the high dropout rates of migrant children.

Martinez and Cranston-Gingrass (1996) found that among the 300 migrant adolescents they

studied, the predominant reason (37%) cited for dropping out of school was to work in order to

contribute to the family's finances.

Parents' Low Educational Levels

The lack of economic resources combines with the low educational levels of migrant

parents to further complicate the educational outcomes of migrant children. Children from

homes that foster the development of early literacy by providing access to books and

opportunities to engage in literacy activities have better academic outcomes than those from

homes where these opportunities are not available (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). Migrant families

want their children to be successful and view education as their children's way out of the cycle

of migrancy (Henderson, 1992; Whitaker, Salend, & Gutierrez, 1997). However, they must

utilize all their financial resources to meet basic needs, relegating the acquisition of books and

other literacy related materials to a low priority (Garza et al., 2004; Henderson, 1992). Migrant

children usually do not have access to books, encyclopedias, computers or other learning

materials in their homes (Ezell, Gonzales, & Randolph, 2000; Garza et al., 2004). Furthermore,

the low educational levels of migrant parents make it very difficult for them to engage their

children in literacy-related activities. Over 75% of migrant adults have had limited educational

opportunities, resulting in marginal reading skills and a lack of knowledge about the significant

contribution of preschool literacy activities to later school success (Henderson, 1992;

Romanowski, 2004).

Lack of English Proficiency

Another obstacle that migrant children and their families face on their path to academic

success is the lack of English proficiency. Approximately 90% of migrant children come from









homes where a language other than English is spoken (Garza et al., 2004). The vast majority of

these families speak Spanish as a first language. Spanish-speaking children, and particularly,

Spanish-speaking children from low-income backgrounds are twice as likely as non-Hispanic

whites and African Americans to read below grade level and to drop out of school (Snow et al.,

1998; Jones & Fuller, 2003). When the high level of poverty experienced by migrant families is

added to these variables, the risk of academic failure is further exacerbated.

Approximately 40% of migrant children have academic difficulties due to a lack of English

proficiency (Whitaker et al., 1997). These children are not able to participate and achieve

academic success unless they receive adequate language support (Gouwens, 2001).

Unfortunately, a large proportion of migrant children do not receive the support they need due to

their lack of stability (Whitaker et al., 1997). As mentioned previously, migrant children attend

an average of two to three schools every school year. By the time the schools receive the records

they need to make instructional decisions, it is time for the children to move on to another

school. Thereby, missing the instructional language support they need throughout their school

careers.

A large number of migrant parents speak little or no English at all, making communication

with their children's schools difficult at best, and nonexistent at worst (Gouwens, 2001). School

officials often interpret this lack of communication as the parents' lack of interest in the

education of their children. Such interpretations lower teachers' expectations for migrant

students, which will affect their educational performance.

Limited Access to Health Care Services

The migrant lifestyle is also characterized by a lack of access to health care services and

vast health problems (Ibid., 2001). Although migrant farm work is considered the second most

dangerous occupation in the United States, the vast majority of migrant families do not have









health insurance and very few receive services through Medicaid (National Center for

Farmworker Health 2004). It is estimated that only one sixth of all migrant children are served

in health care programs making them less likely to be fully immunized than other children (Ibid.,

2004; Garza et al., 2004). The health profile of migrant children is not encouraging. The infant

mortality rate for migrants is 125% higher than the national average (Gouwens, 2001). The rate

of parasitic infections among migrant children is 59 times higher that that of the general

population and the incidence of malnutrition and dental disease is higher than among any other

subpopulation in the country (Diaz, 1991). Furthermore, the substandard housing typically

available to migrant families leads to an increased prevalence of lead poisoning, respiratory

illnesses, otitis media and diarrhea among children (National Center for Farmworker Health,

2004).

The constant exposure to dangerous chemicals, the lack of prenatal care, and poor living

conditions place migrant children at high risk for disabilities (Cranston-Gingrass, 2003). Yet,

they are often not identified for special education services and fall behind their peers

academically (Ibid., 2003; Lozano-Rodriguez, & Castellano, 1999). Although, migrant children

have not attracted much attention from researchers in the field of special education, migrant

students with disabilities may be the most severely affected by physical and mental conditions

resulting from poverty, and multiple health issues (Baca & Harris, 1988).

Given the numerous obstacles faced by migrant children in their path to academic

achievement it is critical to intervene early by helping them acquire the skills they need to

become successful readers before they begin school. Research has demonstrated that the most

effective way to prepare young children to become effective readers is by supporting their early

language development (McGee & Richgels, 2003).









Importance of Language in Literacy Development

The first years of life comprise the most important developmental period for language

and literacy skills that serve as the foundation for formal reading instruction (Dickinson &

Tabors, 2003; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; McGee & Richgels, 2003). Children who begin

school with limited early literacy skills, such as general verbal abilities, phonological awareness

and letter knowledge, are at a high risk for future reading failure as these skills are predictive of

reading performance during the latter elementary school years (Hart & Risley, 1995; Snow et al.,

1998). According to Dickinson and Tabors (2001), language plays a crucial role in the

acquisition of letter knowledge and phonological awareness. They explain that in order to learn

about letters and sounds, children need to have knowledge about the "internal structure of

words", and this knowledge cannot be acquired without knowing numerous words in the first

place (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). Therefore, the most effective way to ensure that young

children develop the literacy skills they need for future reading success is to support and enhance

their early language development (Ibid., 2001; Tabors, 1997).

Children develop language skills by engaging in social interactions with more competent

language users (Vygotsky, 1962, 1978). Several studies examining the influence of the home

environment on the acquisition of literacy have shown that young children who have numerous

opportunities to interact with adults who facilitate language are more likely to develop the

literacy-related knowledge necessary for future reading achievement (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin,

1990; Hart & Risley, 1995; Snow & Tabors, 1996; Tabors, Snow, & Dickinson, 2001).

These research findings support the sociocultural learning theory formulated by Lev

Vygotsky (1978). According to Vygotsky, children's mental, language, and social development

is supported and enhanced through social interactions with other children, older peers, and

adults. An important component of this theory is the concept of the zone of proximal









development (Vygotsky, 1978). The zone of proximal development refers to "the area of

development into which children can be led in the course of interactions with a more competent

partner" (Ibid., 1978, p. 36). In other words, children are able to perform at a higher cognitive

and linguistic level when they have the guidance of a supportive adult (Morrison, 2003; Ibid.,

1978). The results obtained by Hart and Risley (1995) in their longitudinal study of parent-child

interactions support the idea that adults play an important role in scaffolding children's language

development. Hart and Risley (1995) compared the interactions within families from

professional, working-class, and welfare backgrounds. They found that differences in the length

and nature of the parent-child interactions resulted in dramatic differences in the language

development of the children. Parents from the professional category averaged 42 minutes of

interaction with their children per hour, while parents from the welfare category averaged 18

minutes of interaction. The nature of the interactions was very different as well. The children of

parents who used more affirmations (or encouraging statements) and a greater variety of words

had more extensive vocabularies than the parents of children who were not as supportive in their

interactions (Hart & Risley, 1995). Furthermore, the differences in the language skills of the

children were predictive of differences in literacy achievement in the third grade (Hart & Risley,

2002). These findings support the role of language as a critical precursor to literacy.

The level of children's oral language development at school entry is a strong predictor of

later reading achievement (National Reading Panel, 2000; Snow et al., 1998). Moreover, reading

ability in kindergarten is highly predictive of reading skills in third and fourth grade, which is

highly correlated with academic success as defined by high school graduation (Senechal &

LeFevre, 1998; Snow et al, 1998). Dickinson and Tabors (2003) and Whitehurst (2002) also

emphasize the importance of supporting language development and point out that having an









extensive vocabulary at the time of school entrance will set children on the path to reading

success. The role of vocabulary is so critical for long-term reading achievement that elementary

school children with limited language skills continue to lag behind their peers despite having

adequate decoding skills (Davies & Brembers, 1997).

Most children acquire oral language at a very fast rate during the preschool years

(Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). However, for children who are learning English as a second

language and come from impoverished backgrounds, acquiring the language they need to ensure

good reading outcomes may be more problematic (Snow et al., 1998; Tabors & Snow, 2002).

Second Language Learners and Language Development

During the preschool years, monolingual children expand their oral language by 6 to 10

new words a day (Tabors & Snow, 2002). Most native speakers of English have a vocabulary of

approximately 7,000 words by the time they begin formal reading instruction (August & Hakuta

1997). However, for some children language acquisition is a more complicated issue. The

previous statement is particularly true for young children learning English as a second language.

According to Tabors & Snow (2002), the development of precursor abilities for literacy,

particularly the acquisition of new vocabulary, could be problematic for children who experience

a change in their language environment during the preschool period.

Most children learning English as a second language have their first formal and extensive

exposure to English when they begin participating in early childhood programs. It is also at this

time that many parents are advised to stop using the first language at home and to interact with

their children in English. Although well intentioned, such advice can be detrimental to the first

and second language development of young children (Cummins, 1984; Krashen, 1968; Wong-

Fillmore, 1992). An extensive body of research in the field of second language acquisition has

demonstrated that development in the child's first language facilitates the development of the









second language (Cummins, 1981; Hakuta, 1990; Krashen, 1991; McLaughlin, 1995).

Furthermore, home language ability has been found to be a significant predictor of second

language acquisition (Cummins, 1980; Green, 1998; Snow, 1990). Cummins (1980) proposes

that language and preliteracy skills transfer from one language to another. However, Tabors and

Snow (2002) cautioned that for these skills to transfer, "they must have been developed in the

first place. And if there has been a discontinuity in the first language environment leading to

truncated development of these aspects of preliteracy development in the child's first language,

there may be nothing to transfer to the new language"(p. 171). This situation will require young

second language learners to attain these preliteracy skills in a new language they may not yet

have under sufficient control to use in the service of literacy acquisition. By continuing to use

the first language at home, parents are preparing their children for both school and for acquiring

English.

Importance of Early Literacy Activities/Shared Book Reading

Early literacy activities play an important role in the development of literacy-related

knowledge that will set the foundation for future reading success (Hammer, Wagstaff, & Miccio,

2003). Children who have many high-quality literacy experiences at home and in preschool are

more likely to become proficient readers and writers (Hammer et al., 2003; McGee & Richgels,

2003; Neuman & Dickinson, 2002; Snow et al., 1998). Experiences that influence the future

literacy success of children include: watching the parents or caregivers engage in reading and

writing independently, parents engaging in activities with their children such as writing notes,

and shared book reading (parents listening to children read and parents reading to children)

(Auerbach, 1989).

Shared book reading has proven to have a significant effect on children's reading

outcomes (Wells, 1987). A study conducted by Wells (1987) suggested that children's reading









achievement at the end of elementary school could have been predicted by differences in the

early literacy experiences they possessed upon kindergarten entrance. After analyzing the

different kinds of literacy activities the children had experienced during the preschool period,

Wells (1987) concluded that the primary influence on the differences in later achievement could

be the frequency of exposure to shared book reading. Engaging young children in shared book

reading promotes their language and literacy skills (Dickinson & Tabors, 2002; Dickinson &

Sprague, 2001). Shared book reading has numerous benefits some of which include learning

about the concepts of print, knowledge of the alphabet, familiarity with the language of books,

and the acquisition of new vocabulary (Hargrave & Senechal, 2000). For example, Senechal and

Cornell (1993), and Robbins and Ehri (1994) found that young children acquire receptive and

expressive vocabulary after a single reading of a book. There is no doubt that children who

participate in book reading with their parents or caregivers are better prepared for formal reading

instruction than those without such experiences (Sawyer, 2000;Vemon-Feagans, Hammer,

Miccio, & Manlove, 2001).

Inquiry in the area of shared book reading has led to an increased interest in the nature of

interactions between children and their caretakers during this activity. As a result, there is more

information on different techniques that may be utilized to enhance the benefits of shared-book

reading (Dale & Cole, 1996; Hockenberger, Goldstein, & Haas, 1999).

Parents and/or caregivers read to their children in different ways. Some see the child as a

passive participant in the activity while others encourage interaction (Anglum, Bell, & Roubinek,

1990; Moustafa, 1997). Although, shared book reading in general has been found to promote the

language and literacy skills of young children (Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Vernon-Feagans et

al., 2002), its effects are more powerful when it involves the active participation of the child









(Whitehurst et al., 1988; Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998; Arnold, Lonigan, Whitehurst & Epstein,

1994). Findings of a study conducted by Hammer, Miccio and Wagstaff (2003) suggest that the

traditional way in which most parents read to children (with the child as a passive participant)

might not be enough to support the literacy development of young Spanish/English bilinguals.

Yaden, Tam, Madrigal, Brassell, Massa, Altamirano, and Armendariz (2000) found similar

results when they implemented a shared book reading program for Spanish/English bilingual

four year olds in a poor neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Both Hammer et al. (2003)

and Yaden et al. (2000) suggest that a more interactive way of reading between child and

caregiver might be needed to foster the early literacy skills of these children. One shared reading

approach that involves interaction between adults and young children and holds considerable

potential for promoting early language and literacy skills is dialogic reading.

Dialogic Reading

Dialogic reading is a shared book reading intervention that incorporates discussion

between the caregiver and the child. Designed by Whitehurst and colleagues, dialogic reading

involves active participation from the child and provides numerous opportunities for language

development (Arnold et al., 1994; Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998; Whitehurst et al., 1988;

Whitehurst et al. 1994). The three guiding principles of dialogic reading include: (a)

encouraging the child to participate by using prompts, (b) providing feedback to the child, and

(c) adapting the reading style of the adult to the child's linguistic abilities (Whitehurst et al.,

1988; Whitehurst et al., 1994). Based on Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, dialogic

reading provides a natural context for scaffolded adult-child interactions that facilitate the

language development of the young child (Zevenbergen & Whitehurst, 2004). Contrary to

typical shared book interactions, in dialogic reading, the child is taught gradually to become the

storyteller (Whitehurst et al., 1988; Zevenbergen & Whitehurst, 2004).









The acronym PEER is utilized to help parents remember the steps they will follow when

engaging their children in dialogic reading: Prompt and wait, Evaluate the child's response,

Expand the child's answer, and Repeat what the child says and encourage him/her to repeat it.

The acronym CROWD is used to describe the different kinds of prompts that may be utilized by

the adult: Completion prompts, Recall prompts, Open-ended prompts, Wh- prompts and

Distancing prompts (see training section for more details). Whitehurst and colleagues (1988)

discourage the use of "yes/no" questions during dialogic reading, as they do not stimulate the

children's use of language. Once the child provides an answer to the prompt, the adult provides

feedback by recasting what the child has said and by expanding with more information, praising,

or correcting errors. During a dialogic reading interaction, it is important for the adult to adjust

his reading style to the language level of the child. As the child becomes more adept at talking

about the story, the adult provides less support (Whitehurst et al., 1988; Lonigan & Whitehurst,

1998; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992).

Review of the Empirical Literature on the Efficacy of Dialogic Reading

Research conducted over the last 15 years provides convincing evidence of a positive

correlation between dialogic reading and the development of oral language skills of children at-

risk for future reading problems (Dale, Crain-Thoreson, Notari-Syverson, & Cole, 1996; Valdez-

Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Whitehurst et al., 1988; Whitehurst et al., 1994). In establishing

this relationship, researchers have examined the effects of dialogic reading on preschool children

with developmental delays, children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and children with

limited English proficiency.

The articles chosen for review in this section were identified through a comprehensive

search in the Psych Info, ERIC, Wilson, Prodigital Dissertation and EBSCO databases. The key

words dialogic reading, oral language, vocabulary, early literacy, emergent literacy, storybook









reading, shared book reading, and parent involvement were combined for the searches. Other

articles were obtained through a hand search of relevant studies by Whitehurst, Senechal and

Lonigan. Finally, a review of the references within selected studies provided additional articles.

The search concentrated on empirical studies that met the following criteria: (a) articles were

published in English from 1985 to the present (b) dissertations were written in English from

1985 to the present (c) participants included children between the ages of 2.5 and 6 years old. (d)

study focused specifically on dialogic reading (e) study participants included children considered

to be at-risk for future reading difficulties (children from low socioeconomic backgrounds,

children with disabilities, children learning English as a second language). An initial search

yielded a total of 17 articles and 6 unpublished dissertations. Once the exclusionary criteria were

applied, 11 articles and 1 unpublished dissertation were chosen for inclusion in this review. The

studies were divided for discussion based on the characteristics of the participants:

developmental delays, low socioeconomic status, and English language learners.

Dialogic Reading and Children with Developmental Delays

The use of dialogic reading techniques as a treatment for improving the language and

emergent literacy skills of preschool children with developmental delays was first posited by

Whitehurst, Fischel, Lonigan, Valdez-Menchaca, Arnold, and Smith (1991). These researchers

proposed that a shared book reading program that incorporated prompts and open-ended

questions would have a powerful impact on the language skills of preschool children with

expressive language delays (ELD). The results of the study confirmed the previous hypothesis

and demonstrated that a dialogic reading program implemented at home by the caregivers could

accelerate the vocabulary skills and increase the oral language production of children with ELD.

Similarly, Dale, Crain-Thoreson, Notari-Syverson, and Cole (1996) compared the effects

of a dialogic reading program to those of a conversational language training program on the









expressive language development of young children with language delays. Study participants

included thirty-three (33) mother-child dyads that were randomly assigned to the book-reading

program or to the conversational program for eight weeks of intervention. The children ranged

in ages from 3 to 6 years old and were primarily male (24 males and 9 females). All of them had

mild-to-moderate language delays, functioning at the 2 to 4 year old level. The researchers

utilized the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities General Cognitive Index (GCI) and the

Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) as pre- and post-intervention measures. In

addition, every dyad was videotaped reading a book and playing before and after the

implementation of the treatments. The videotapes were transcribed and a computerized language

analysis program was used to calculate the mean length of utterance (MLU) and the total number

of different words used by the child. The results of this study revealed that the language

production of both groups increased as measured by MLU and the number of words produced by

the children. However, children in the dialogic reading group experienced greater gains in both

measures than those assigned to the conversational language training program.

Another important finding of this study, suggests that the effects of dialogic reading on the

children's literacy skills are related to their level of language functioning. Upon comparison of

pre- and post-test measures it was found that children functioning at the lower level made greater

gains in verbal engagement and vocabulary skills, whereas children at the higher levels of

functioning showed greater gains in their knowledge of grammar. Dale et al. (1996) concluded

that dialogic reading has considerable potential for facilitating the language production and

literacy skills of children with language delays, but add that the intervention needs to be

monitored for a longer period of time in order to determine its full effects on this population.









Continuing to investigate the effects of dialogic reading on the emergent literacy skills of

children with language delays, Crain-Thoreson and Dale (1999) conducted a study that included

thirty-two children, their parents and preschool teachers. The children ranged in age from 39 to

66 months and were enrolled in special needs preschool programs in the Pacific Northwest

region of the country. All children had been diagnosed with mild to moderate language delays.

Upon completion of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test -Revised (PPVT-R) and the

Expressive Once-Word Vocabulary Test-Revised (EOWPVT-R), the children were randomly

assigned to one of three treatment groups: One-on-one dialogic book reading with the parent,

One-on-one dialogic book reading with the teacher, and Conversational interaction with the

teacher without book reading (control). Children assigned to dialogic reading groups participated

in the activity at least four times a week for 10-minute sessions. All children were videotaped

during a shared book interaction at the beginning and at the end of the eight-week study. Results

showed that children in all three groups displayed an increase in language production and lexical

complexity during the interactions. However, children in the dialogic reading interventions used

a greater variety of words than children in the conversational interactions group. In addition, the

degree of treatment fidelity of the adult reader was related to changes in children's linguistic

performance during the sessions. Children in dyads that followed the dialogic reading

techniques as outlined showed greater improvement in the post-intervention measures. Crain-

Thoreson and Dale (1999) conclude that dialogic reading can help improve the language skills of

young children with language delays and suggest the need for more rigorous longitudinal studies

testing the effect of the technique on the literacy skills of these children.

More recently, Hargrave and Senechal (2000) examined whether implementing a dialogic

reading program in a preschool setting would improve the vocabulary of children with poor









expressive language skills. These researchers included two reading conditions in their study: a

typical reading condition in which teachers read in their customary manner, and a dialogic

reading condition in which teachers were taught to read in a dialogic manner. Regardless of

condition, all of the participants were exposed to the same books over the four-week

intervention. One important feature of this study is that the reading did not take place in a one-

on-one situation but in a small group setting. Hargrave and Senechal (2000) added that using a

ratio of 8 students per every teacher facilitated the implementation of the intervention within the

existing structures of the preschool programs. The participants were 36 children (21 girls and 15

boys) between the ages of 3 and 5. The expressive vocabulary skills of the children averaged 13

months behind their chronological ages. In addition, one of the children had been diagnosed

with a learning disability. Pre- and post-test measures included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary

Test-Revised (PPVT-R), the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised

(EOWPVT-R) and a test of new words labeled Book Vocabulary test. The results revealed that

children participating in the dialogic reading condition made greater gains in language than

children in the typical reading condition. The gains were notable in expressive language skills,

but not in receptive language. Hargrave and Senechal (2000) explained that, over the course of

the four-week study, children in the dialogic reading condition experienced an increase in

expressive vocabulary that would normally occur in four months. Furthermore, the results

showed that these preschoolers were able to acquire expressive vocabulary after listening to two

readings of books in which the words were introduced in print and illustrations. A novel

contribution of this study is that it demonstrates that conducting a dialogic reading session is

both feasible and effective within the teacher/children ratio found in most preschools. Hargrave

and Senechal (2000) concluded that although, children in both reading conditions benefited from









storybook reading, the benefits were more extensive for the children in the dialogic reading

condition.

The important effect of dialogic reading on the language knowledge of children with

language delays has been well established in the literature (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Dale

et al., 1996; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Whitehurst et al., 1991). Fielding-Barnsley and Purdie

(2003) expanded this body of research by examining the effects of dialogic reading on the

phonological awareness and print awareness of children with developmental delays and a family

history of reading disabilities. The experimental group included 26 children raging in age from 4

to 5 years old. Twenty-three children in the same age range were part of the control group. All

the children were enrolled in preschool programs and had been identified as having

developmental delays by their teachers. In addition, the children's families indicated that one or

more members of the household had been diagnosed with a reading disability. Fielding-Barnsley

and Purdie (2003) conducted home visits to train the experimental group parents on dialogic

reading techniques and provided them with pictures books, and literature on how to foster the

literacy development of the children. Families were asked to engage in dialogic book reading

with their children at least five times during the eight-week intervention. Families of children in

the control group did not receive any support. Post-test results revealed that children in the

experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group in phonological awareness

skills such as rhyme awareness, and recognition of initial and final consonant sounds. The print

awareness of children in the experimental group was also significantly higher than that of

children in the control group as measured by the Concepts about Print Test (CAP). Fielding-

Barnsley and Purdie (2003) emphasize the importance of involving parents in early intervention









efforts and add that a dialogic reading program implemented by parents can improve the

emergent literacy skills of children with developmental delays.

These studies reveal that dialogic reading can improve the oral language skills, grammar

knowledge, print awareness and phonological awareness of young children with developmental

delays (particularly language delays). This technique appears to be particularly beneficial for

increasing oral language production. An overview of studies examining the effects of dialogic

reading on the language skills of children with developmental delays is presented in Table 2-1.

Dialogic Reading and Children From Low SES Backgrounds

The efficacy of dialogic reading on improving emergent literacy skills was initially

examined on European-American children from upper and middle class backgrounds

(Whitehurst et al., 1988; Arnold et al., 1994). These studies demonstrated that dialogic reading

increased the language production (as measured by MLU), vocabulary skills, and print awareness

of typically developing preschoolers (Whitehurst et al., 1988; Arnold et al., 1994). In order to

determine whether dialogic reading could also benefit young children from low-income families

and different cultural backgrounds, Valdez-Menchaca and Whitehurst (1992) implemented the

technique in a preschool for working class families in Monterey, Mexico. Twenty monolingual

speakers of Spanish ranging in age from 27 to 35 months participated in the study. A graduate

assistant implemented dialogic reading techniques while reading to the children in the

experimental group on an individual basis. The children in the control group received instruction

on arts and crafts. Children receiving the dialogic reading intervention experienced significant

gains in both their receptive and expressive language skills, as measured by Spanish translations

of the EOWPVT, PPVT-R and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA).

Furthermore, children in the treatment group produced longer utterances, had a higher level of

sentence complexity, and used a greater variety of nouns and verbs than children in the control









group. Valdez-Menchaca and Whitehurst (1992) concluded that dialogic reading had a positive

effect on the language knowledge of young children from low SES and different language

backgrounds. They added that dialogic reading training programs hold promise in developing

countries that lack the resources to conduct more intensive interventions programs such as Head

Start.

Whereas the previous study investigated the effects of dialogic reading on the skills of

Spanish speaking children in Mexico, Whitehurst, Arnold, et al. (1994) analyzed the

effectiveness of the technique with low-income families in the United States. Their study

included 73 preschool children (3 years old) from families that qualified for publicly subsidized

daycare in Long Island, New York. The children were randomly assigned to one of three

conditions: daily dialogic reading in groups of five or less by the daycare teacher, daily dialogic

reading at home and in a small group at school, and group play activities on a daily basis.

Children in the first condition engaged in small group dialogic reading sessions with their

teachers (or the teacher's aides). These interactions lasted ten minutes per day and were

conducted five times a week. The group in the second condition experienced the classroom

dialogic reading sessions described previously. In addition, this group participated in individual

dialogic reading interactions with their parents at home. The third group (control) participated in

small group play activities under the supervision of a teacher or aide. Results of the six-week

intervention revealed that dialogic reading had a positive impact on the language knowledge of

the participants. Children in the intervention conditions obtained higher scores on the measures

of expressive language (EOWPVT) and vocabulary (Our Word) than children in the control

group. Furthermore, children who engaged in dialogic reading at home and at school scored

significantly higher on the language knowledge measure than children who were only exposed to









the intervention at school. The gains made by the students in the dialogic reading conditions

were maintained six months after the treatment had ended.

Continuing their research with families from low socioeconomic backgrounds, Whitehurst,

Epstein, et al. (1994) assessed the effectiveness of dialogic reading with families participating in

a Head Start program in Suffolk County, New York. These researchers investigated the efficacy

of a yearlong dialogic reading program to enhance the emergent literacy skills of 153 preschool

students in several Head Start centers. Parents and Head Start teachers received training on

dialogic reading techniques. In addition, teachers also received training on Sound Foundations

(Byrne & Fielding-Barnsley, 1991), a phonemic awareness curriculum. Students were randomly

assigned to a treatment or a control group. Students in the treatment group received small group

dialogic reading two to five times a week for one year, Sound Foundations curriculum

instruction in the classroom for five months, and storybooks which were sent home following

parent training on dialogic reading. Students in the control group received general education

curriculum instruction. All children were administered the PPVT-R, the EOWPVT-R, the ITPA,

and 18 subscales from the Developing Skills Checklist (DSC; CTB, 1990) at the beginning and

at the end of the school year. Results of this study demonstrated that children in the treatment

condition performed better at the end of the year on print awareness, and language skills. It is

important to note that the children who experienced an improvement in language skills were

those whose parents had actually implemented the dialogic reading program at home.

Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) hypothesized that the group dialogic reading interactions

offered in the classroom were not sufficient to foster the language skills of preschoolers from

low-income backgrounds. They added that the language skills of this group of children would be

enhanced by one-on-one interactions with an adult. Although, children in the dialogic reading









condition showed robust gains in the ability to identify the first sounds in words, there were no

significant differences between groups on phonological awareness skills.

The question of whether or not the effects of a dialogic reading program implemented

during preschool can endure into the elementary school years was investigated by Whitehurst,

Zevenbergen, Crone, Schultz, Velting, & Fishel (1999). These researchers conducted a

longitudinal inquiry focusing on the participants of the study led by Whitehurst, Epstein, et al.

(1994) and a replication cohort from different Head Start centers in the New York area.

Whitehurst et al. (1999) found that the effects of dialogic reading reported by Whitehurst,

Epstein, et al. (1994) were replicated with the new cohort of Head Start students. The gains in

print awareness, and language skills attained by the children in the dialogic reading conditions

were maintained through the end of the kindergarten year. In addition, children with the dialogic

reading advantage performed better in phonological awareness tasks than children who had not

experienced the intervention. Unfortunately, the effects did not generalize to reading scores at

the end of first or second grade. Whitehurst et al. (1999) concluded the following:

It may be that dialogic reading and other similar shared reading interventions conducted
in the preschool years will yield more advantages for children during the later elementary
school years, when they are reading to learn, than in the early elementary school years,
when they are learning to read. (p.269)

Expanding the research on the effects of dialogic reading on the literacy skills of children

from poor backgrounds, Lonigan, Anthony, Bloomfield, Dyer, & Samwel (1999) analyzed how

typical shared book reading compared to dialogic reading. They used three conditions that

included (a) typical shared reading condition (teacher read while the children listened), (b)

dialogic reading condition, and (c) no treatment control. The assessment measures included the

PPVT-R, EOWPVT-R, ITPA Verbal Expression, Woodcock-Johnson Listening Comprehension

subtest (WJ-LC), and four phonological sensitivity measures (rhyme, blending, elision, and









alliteration). Upon completion of these pretest measures, 95 children between the ages of 2 and

5 years old were randomly assigned to one of the study's conditions. The two reading

conditions, dialogic and typical, were conducted by undergraduate college students and were

scheduled daily for 10 to 15 minutes. Lonigan et al. (1999) found that both treatment conditions

had positive effects on the emergent literacy skills of the children. However, the nature of the

improvements was related to the type of shared book reading condition, dialogic or typical.

Children in the typical reading group had higher scores on listening comprehension skills and

phonological awareness skills whereas children in the dialogic reading condition had an

improvement in the use of descriptive language. Based on the results, Lonigan et al. (1999)

hypothesized that the effects of shared book reading on children's phonological awareness skills

might have been underestimated. However, they warned that the effect was found on only one of

the four measures (alliteration), so it must be interpreted with caution.

The research has shown that dialogic reading has a positive effect on the language

knowledge, print awareness and phonological awareness skills of children from low

socioeconomic backgrounds (Whitehurst, Arnold, et, al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et,al. 1994;

Whitehurst et al., 1999; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992). Like with the previous group of

children (children with developmental delays) the strongest effect of dialogic reading appears to

be on language particularly oral language production. The technique's influence on

phonological awareness remains unclear. An overview of studies examining the effects of

dialogic reading on the language and emergent literacy skills of children from low

socioeconomic backgrounds is presented in Table 2-2.

Dialogic Reading and Children Learning English as a Second Language

Although several dialogic reading studies have been conducted with children and

caregivers from diverse linguistic backgrounds (Chow & McBride-Chang, 2003; Valdez-









Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992), there is a scarcity of research that examines the effects of the

intervention on the literacy skills of children learning English as a second language and living in

the United States. The limited amount of dialogic reading research concentrating on bilingual

children suggests that dialogic reading can have a positive effect on the vocabulary of young

children growing up in bilingual environments (Lim & Cole, 2002; Brickman, 2002).

Lim and Cole (2002) examined the impact of dialogic reading on the first language

knowledge of Korean children living in Seattle, Washington. The researchers worked with

twenty-one mother-child dyads. The children ranged in age from 2 to 4 years old and were

reported to be developing in a typical manner. All of them were growing up bilingual, learning

Korean at home and English in their preschools. Dyads were randomly assigned to a treatment

condition or to a control condition. The treatment condition consisted of training the mothers on

dialogic reading techniques and discussing information on the importance of first language and

literacy development. Parents in the control group received information about the importance of

the first language and literacy development. The mothers in the experimental group were asked

to engage their children in dialogic reading every day. After four weeks of intervention, the

children in the experimental group produced more language, longer utterances and used a greater

variety of words than the children in the control group. Lim and Cole (2002) note that although

the dialogic reading interaction was carried out in Korean, the children used both Korean and

English words during the events. They concluded that the dialogic reading intervention had a

positive effect on the children's expressive vocabulary in both Korean and English.

In contrast, Brickman (2002) analyzed whether a dialogic reading program conducted in

the second language could benefit the development of bilingual children's receptive and

expressive language skills in English. This study focused on thirty-four mother-child dyads that









spoke Spanish as a first language. The children were between the ages of three and five and

were eligible for participation in the Even Start program of Norman, Oklahoma. Like in the

previous study, dyads were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. Mothers of

children in the experimental group participated in a workshop that taught them how to implement

dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading and received free storybooks. The

mothers in the control group received free storybooks but were not allowed to participate in the

workshop until the data collection process was finalized. Participating mothers were asked to

implement dialogic reading techniques during daily reading sessions with their children. After

six weeks of intervention, the children in the experimental group showed noticeable

improvement in print awareness skills. Children in this group also showed larger gains in

receptive language skills than the children in the control group. There were no significant

differences between the experimental and control groups in expressive language skills. As found

in the Lim and Cole (2002) study, the children in Brickman's experimental group used both their

first and second language during dialogic reading interactions with their mothers. Brickman

(2002) added that a longer intervention period might be necessary to assess the full effects of

dialogic reading on the second language skills of young children.

The scarce literature available in this area suggests that dialogic reading can result in the

growth of first and second language knowledge as well as print concepts of young children from

non-English backgrounds. There is a definite need for more attention and research on how

dialogic reading can foster the language skills of young children growing up in bilingual

environments. An overview of studies examining the effects of dialogic reading on the emergent

literacy skills of children with Limited English Proficiency is presented in Table 2-3.









Summary of Findings

The research demonstrates that dialogic reading can have a positive effect on the

language and early literacy skills of young children at-risk for developing reading difficulties.

The most important effect of dialogic reading appears to be on language knowledge (Brickman,

2000; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1999;

Whitehurst et al., 1991). Dialogic reading stimulates the oral language production of children

with developmental delays (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Dale et al., 1996; Hargrave &

Senechal, 2000; Whitehurst et al., 1991), children from low-income families (Lonigan et al.,

1999; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Whitehurst, Arnold, et al., 1994; Whitehurst,

Epstein, et al., 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1999) and children learning English as a second language

(Lim & Cole, 2002). Results showed that preschool children at educational risk who received

dialogic reading intervention experienced an increase in the mean length of spoken phrases and

exhibited greater gains in expressive vocabulary scores than the children in the control groups.

Only one study, Brickman (2002), found that children in the control group experienced higher

gains in expressive language skills. Brickman attributed this result to pre-existing differences

between the experimental and control groups such as the children's length of time in the Even

Start program.

The influence of dialogic reading on receptive language skills was not clearly established.

Only one of the studies (Brickman) asserted that dialogic reading had a positive effect on young

children's receptive language skills. However, the difference between the control and dialogic

reading group in the PPVT-R scores did not reach statistical significance.

It is important to point out that the context of the intervention can magnify the influence

that dialogic reading has on language knowledge. Children in home-plus-preschool conditions

demonstrated greater gains in language measures than children in classroom conditions









(Whitehurst, Arnold, et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994). Whitehurst, Epstein, et al.

emphasized that the dialogic reading effects on language were impressive but only for children

whose parents had implemented the at-home component of the program. Moreover, these

findings point to the importance of one-to-one dialogic reading interactions that are more likely

to happen at home than in the classroom. It is possible that individual interactions may not be

sufficient to produce significant improvements in the oral language skills of children from low-

income backgrounds. This is also important for children with developmental delays as research

demonstrates that they need more individual attention in order to develop language and early

literacy skills (Hammer et al, 2003).

Most of the research on dialogic reading has focused on the effects of the intervention on

language knowledge. However, a small number of studies suggest that dialogic reading might

also foster the development of other emergent literacy skills such as print and phonological

awareness. Children across the three categories of risk for reading failure showed an

improvement in print awareness skills such as knowledge of standard print format (left-to-right,

front-to-back orientation), and understanding the form and function of print (Brickman, 2002;

Fielding-Barnsley & Purdie, 2003; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994).

The findings regarding the effects of dialogic reading on phonological awareness also

suggest that the intervention can help children with developmental delays and low-income

backgrounds improve their alliteration awareness, rhyme awareness, and recognition of initial

and final consonants (Fielding-Barnsley & Purdie, 2003; Lonigan et al., 1999; Whitehurst,

Epstein, et al., 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1999). An interesting trend is that although Whitehurst,

Epstein, et al. (1994) did not find significant differences between the treatment and control

groups in this measure, the follow-up study conducted by Whitehurst et al. (1999) showed that









by the end of kindergarten, children who had received dialogical reading performed better in

phonological awareness tasks than children who had not been exposed to the technique. Another

surprising result was obtained by Lonigan et al. (1999), who pointed out that the type of shared

book reading interaction made a difference in preschool children's phonological awareness

skills. The results of their study suggested that typical shared book reading might have a small

effect on the phonological awareness skills of children. Children in the typical shared book

reading group had higher scores than children in the dialogic reading group in the alliteration

measure. No between group differences were found in the remaining three phonological

awareness measures. The results of Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., Whitehurst et al., and Lonigan et

al., raise significant questions about the long-term effects of dialogic reading on the phonological

awareness skills of preschool children.

The effects of dialogic reading on the first and second language skills of bilingual children

are also promising. The studies surveyed (Brickman, 2002; Lim & Cole, 2002) showed that

bilingual children used both their first and second language during the intervention regardless of

the language in which it was implemented and that the technique had significant results in the

English print awareness of Spanish/English bilinguals. These results suggest that dialogic

reading can promote the second language acquisition of young English language learners. The

research on dialogic reading proposes that relatively simple changes in the way adults conduct

shared reading interactions can make an important contribution to the expressive language

development of young children at-risk for reading failure.

Limitations

Any interpretation of the outcomes obtained by these studies must be viewed with caution

due to several limitations. The magnitude of the effects of dialogic reading depends on the

degree of fidelity with which the intervention is carried out. The fact that one third of the studies









did not include fidelity measures or relied on logs completed by the parents and teachers to

determine fidelity level represents a problem (Brickman, 2002; Dale et al., 1996; Lim & Cole,

2002; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994). Research shows that parents and teachers who engage in

frequent reading interactions with children have preferred reading styles that become ingrained

part of their routines and are not easy to change (Teale, 1986). Therefore, any subtle adjustments

to the standard dialogic reading routine by parents and teachers might have gone unnoticed and

not recorded on the logs. Other treatment fidelity issues relate to the duration and reported

frequency of the book reading episodes. Upon revision of dialogic reading videotaped

interactions, it was found that teachers in the treatment conditions were reading for longer

periods of time than accorded. The previous made it difficult to determine if any effects were due

to the implementation of dialogic reading or to an increase in the duration of book reading

interactions. An example of this problem is offered by Hargrave and Senechal (2000), who point

out that there was substantial variability in teacher compliance with the dialogic reading

intervention schedule. In addition, parent and caregivers' reported frequency of shared book

reading interactions might have been influenced by a "social desirability effect". Shared book

reading is promoted as a practice that sets children in the path to academic success, therefore,

parents who want successful children need to engage in shared book reading as often as possible

(Brickman, 2002; Teale, 1986). Additional limitations pertain to the facts that one third of the

studies (Dale et al., 1996; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Whitehurst et al., 1991) did not include a

no-treatment control group, and 66% utilized small samples that might have led to low power in

the statistical significance of analyses (Brickman, 2002; Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Dale et

al., 1996; Fielding-Barnsley & Purdie, 2003; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Lim & Cole, 2002;

Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Whitehurst et al., 1991).









With regard to external validity, it must be noted that in two of the studies (Lonigan et al.,

1999; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992) college students implemented the reading

treatments. In the case of Valdez-Menchaca and Whitehurst, the implementer was a doctoral

student who interacted with participants on an individual basis, whereas in the Lonigan et al.

study, undergraduate students implement the two reading conditions to groups of five or less

children. This raises concerns about the degree to which typical preschool teachers and parents

from low income backgrounds can be trained and motivated to engage in dialogic reading

Rationale of the Study

There is a critical dearth of research in the area of language development of students from

migrant populations. Migrant students are at risk for beginning formal schooling without the

skills needed for future reading achievement. The area of oral language development is of

particular interest as it is a strong predictor of future reading skills.

Dialogic reading is a shared reading technique that has proven to promote the oral

language development of young learners from all socioeconomic backgrounds. However, most

of the dialogic reading studies have been conducted with monolingual speakers of English.

Although many of the studies included children from diverse backgrounds (European-American,

African-American, and Hispanic), none of them concentrated on the language development of

children from migrant populations and only two (Chow & McBride-Chang, 2003; Valdez-

Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992) examined the skills of monolingual speakers of other languages

(Chinese and Spanish). The Valdez-Menchaca and Whitehurst (1992) study is of particular

interest as it is the only study that focused on the language development of native speakers of

Spanish. However, this particular study was conducted with children who lived outside the

United States and who had not been exposed to a second language.









The current study aimed to determine whether Spanish speaking migrant mothers with

minimal formal education could be trained to facilitate their children's oral language

development through the implementation of dialogic reading techniques during shared book

reading. The findings of the study will offer information that will help parents from language

minority and low SES backgrounds prepare their children for future reading achievement.

Research Questions


1. Can migrant mothers with a low educational level be trained to implement dialogic
reading techniques?

2. What is the effect of the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques
on the oral language production of migrant preschool children?

3. Will the effects of dialogic reading on the oral language development of
preschool children be maintained following the conclusion of the intervention?


























1Cc.3







4-qq rP


Strong Oral Language
I- Skills


Reading Success


Figure 2-1. Conceptual framework


MIGRANT PROFILE

Poverty
Limited Educational Opportunities
Non-English Background
High Mobility Rate


Impact on the Parent
Low educational level
High mobility rate
Dangerous working conditions
Poor access to health care
Limited English Proficiency


Impact on the Child
Limited opportunity for participation in
preschool programs
Lack of access to learning materials at home
Low LI oral language skills
Disability
Limited English Proficiency


Interventions that
Promote Language
Development









Table 2-1. Dialogic reading and children with developmental delays
Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) and Type Components
of Delay
Whitehurst,Fischel, 25 24 to 36 Video, group


Lonigan, Valdez-
Menchaca, Arnold,
& Smith (1991)


discussion


Details/Findings: Storybook interactions that included open-ended questions and prompts
increased the oral language production and vocabulary skills of the children

Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) and Type Components
of Delay
Dale.Crain- 32 36 to 72 Video. grouD


Thoreson, Notari-
Syverson, & Cole
(1996)


discussion


Details/Findings: Increased oral language production and greater vocabulary variety. Lower
functioning children responded to dialogic reading with increased verbal engagement and
vocabulary skills. Higher functioning children used input as a source for gaining in MLU and to
learn about grammar

Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) and Type Components
of Delay
Crain-Thoreson & 32 39 to 66 Video, modeling,


Dale (1999)


role-play


Details/Findings: Children in treatment group used a greater variety of words than children in a
conversation program group









Table 2-1. continued
Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) and Type Components
of Delay
Hargrave & 36 36 to 60 Video, group


Senechal
(2000)


discussion, role-play


Details/Findings: Children experienced gains in oral language production and vocabulary

Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) and Type Components
of Delay
Fielding-Barnsley & 26 48 to 60 Group training
Purdie
(2003)


Details/Findings: Gains in print awareness and phonological awareness skills-rhyme awareness,
and recognition of initial and final consonant sounds









Table 2-2. Dialogic reading and children from low SES backgrounds
Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) Components
Valdez-Menchaca & 20 27 to 35 Intervention
Whitehurst* delivered by the
(1992) researcher


Details/Findings: Children in treatment showed greater expressive and receptive vocabulary,
longer utterances, and greater vocabulary complexity than children in the control group

Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) Components


36 to 41


Whitehurst, Arnold,
et al. (1994)*


Video, practice
session with direct
feedback


Details/Findings: Children in treatment conditions showed greater expressive vocabulary scores
than children in the play group. Children who received dialogic reading at home and school
made greater gains than children in other groups. Six-month follow-up indicated expressive
vocabulary growth was maintained

Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) Components


36 to 41


Whitehurst, Epstein,
et al. (1994)


Video, practice
session with direct
feedback


Details/Findings: Children receiving dialogic reading showed gains in print awareness and
language skills. Gains in language skills were exhibited by children receiving dialogic reading at
home and school.









Table 2-2. continued
Study


Sample Size


Whitehurst, 153
Zevenbergen,
Crone, Schultz,
Velting & Fischel
(1999)


Children's Age (in
months)
36 to 41


Training
Components
Video, group
discussion


Details/Findings: Replication of Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) study. Children receiving
dialogic reading performed better at the end of the preschool year in language and print
awareness. No difference in phonological awareness. Gains in print awareness and language
were maintained through the end of kindergarten. Gains did not generalized to first and second
reading scores

Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) Components
Lonigan, Anthony, 95 25 to 64 Video, direct
et al. (1999) instruction, role-
play, group
discussion



Details/Findings: Children in dialogic reading condition made gains on the measure of
descriptive language, whereas results favoring typical shared book reading were found on a
phonological awareness measure and on listening comprehension


* Study included children with language delays









Table 2-3. Dialogic reading and children learning English as a second language
Study Sample Size Children's Age (in Training
months) Components
Lim & Cole (2002) 21 24 to 48 Direct teaching,
video





Details/Findings: Participants were native speakers of Korean from working class backgrounds.
Effects in the first language -children participating in the dialogic reading condition produced
more language, longer utterances and displayed greater vocabulary complexity than children in
the control group. Effects on production of English words increased during interactions


Sample Size


Brickman (2002) 34


Children's Age (in
months)
36 to 60


Training
Components
Video, direct
instruction


Details/Findings: Participants were native speakers of Spanish from low-income backgrounds.
Children in the treatment group made greater gains in Spanish language receptive skills. No
significant differences between groups in expressive language skills (Spanish). Children in
treatment group produced showed an increase in English language words.


Study









CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND PROCEDURES

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the procedures that were utilized during the

implementation of the current study. The criteria for selecting the participants, the setting of the

study, and the materials needed to conduct the study will be discussed in the first section of the

chapter. A description of the dependent measures, data analysis, experimental procedures and

study design will follow. Details about interobserver agreement, treatment integrity and social

validity will be presented in the last part of the chapter.

Participants

The purpose of this study was to determine whether mothers from the migrant population

could be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques while reading to their children and to

further investigate the effects of such implementation on the oral language skills of the children.

The participants of the study were four parent/child dyads who speak Spanish as a first language

and are members of the migrant workers population.

Mother Participants

Four migrant mothers of children between the ages of 48 and 67 months participated in the

investigation. Mothers identified as migrant under federal guidelines were nominated and

contacted by Alachua County's Office of Migrant Education regarding their initial eligibility to

participate in the study. Once the mothers agreed, they were visited by the primary investigator

who determined whether the mothers met all the criteria to be included in the study. Further

eligibility criteria included the following:

1. The mother signed an informed parent consent form (Appendix A).

2. The mother used predominately Spanish to communicate with the child at home as
indicated by a parents' questionnaire (Appendix B).









3. The mother was able to read in Spanish at a second grade level as observed by the
researcher during the initial meeting.

4. The mother gave permission to evaluate the child's language skills.

Two of the participating mothers lived in the city of Gainesville while the others lived in

the cities of Newberry and High Springs. Demographic information about each parent and

family was obtained from the mother (Table 3-1).

Child Participants

Four children between the ages of 48 and 67 months participated in the investigation. In

addition, every child participating in the study met the following selection criteria:

1. The child spoke Spanish as a first language.

2. The child's formal exposure to the second language (English) as determined by
participation in a day-care, preschool, or community enrichment program happened
after the age of two (if at all).

3. The child displayed a language delay in the first language as demonstrated by scores at
least 1 standard deviation below the mean on two standardized instruments.

4. The child did not exhibit significant behavior problems as indicated by the parents.

5. The child's parent signed an informed consent form (Appendix A).

6. The child gave assent.

Demographic information about each child was obtained from the parent (Table 3-2).

Settings

The pre-baseline, baseline, intervention and maintenance phases of the study were

conducted in the homes (living room or child's bedroom) of the participants. The living rooms

and bedrooms had either a sofa or a bed and adequate lighting so that the parent/child dyad could

sit next to each other and be able to see the books during the reading sessions. The pre- and

post-study administrations of the PLS-4 Spanish (Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002.), the

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R; Dunn & Dunn, 1981), and the "Test de









Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody" (TVIP; Dunn, Padilla, Lugo & Dunn, 1986) also took place

at the dyads' homes. Pre- and post-study language samples were collected in the homes of the

participants while the children played.

Materials

During the initial meeting with prospective participants (mothers) flyers (Appendix C)

describing the study were distributed. Parent questionnaires in Spanish regarding the

families'use of the first language, exposure to the second language and home literacy practices

were also utilized during this meeting. Other materials needed for the baseline, intervention and

maintenance phases of the study included an audiotape recorder and 90-minute audiotapes.

Assessment Instruments

During the prebaseline phase of the study, the researcher evaluated the first and second

language oral skills of the children. To accomplish this, the researcher utilized the Spanish

version of the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4, Zimmerman et al., 2004), the Peabody Picture

Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R, Dunn & Dunn, 1981), and the Spanish version of the PPVT-

R named the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (Dunn et al., 1986). The researcher and

the children sat on a sofa or on the floor of the homes' living room during the administration of

these assessments.

The Preschool Language Scale-4 Spanish (Zimmerman et al.) is an individually

administered standardized test for use with infants and children from 2 days to 6 years, 11

months. It assesses young children's receptive and expressive language abilities using two

subscales: Auditory Comprehension and Expressive Communication. The standardization

sample of the PLS-4 Spanish was composed of 1,188 children (2 days to 6 years, 11 months).

Approximately 50% of the sample within each age level was male and 50% was female. The

test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .73 to .86 for the subscale scores and .80 to .89 for









the total language score. The assessment yields a raw score, standard score, percentile rank, and

age equivalent for auditory comprehension (AC), expressive communication (EC) and total

language. In this investigation, language skills were considered delayed when children obtained

a total language standard score below 85 (one standard deviation below the mean).

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (Dunn & Dunn, 1981) is an individually

administered norm referenced test of single-word receptive vocabulary. The child's performance

on the assessment yields a raw score, standard score, percentile rank, stanine, and age equivalent

score. Children with scores below 85 (one standard deviation below the mean for the normative

sample) were considered to have low language skills.

The Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (Dunn, Padilla, Lugo & Dunn, 1986) is

an individually administered norm referenced test of single-word receptive vocabulary for use

with children ranging from 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months. The norming samples for

the TVIP included 1,219 Mexican children ranging from 2 years, months to 15 years, 11

months and 1, 488 Puerto Rican children ranging from 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months.

Children's performance on the TVIP yields a raw score, standard score, percentile rank, and an

age equivalent score. Children with scores below 85, one standard deviation below the mean for

the normative sample, were considered to have language delays.

Language Sample Materials

Language samples were collected at the beginning and end of the study as alternate

measures. Materials needed for the collection of the children's language samples included an

audiotape recorder, 90-minute tapes, and the child's favorite toys.

Parent Training Materials

During the parent training component of the intervention phase, the researcher employed a

videotape/DVD of a parent demonstrating the dialogic reading techniques in Spanish ("Lectura









Interactive" by Circle Videos), a researcher's training guide (Appendix D), copies of a parent

handbook explaining the basics of dialogic reading in Spanish (Appendix E), and flyers with

Spanish versions of the PEER sequence and the types of prompts, FRASE (Whitehurst et al.,

1994, Landry, 2002;Appendices F and G). Papers and pencils were also be utilized for the

parent training comprehension checks. To analyze the data, the researcher utilized a computer

software program (Excel), graphing materials (grid, paper, pencils, rulers), and a calculator.

Books

During the baseline, intervention and maintenance phases of the study the dyads received

children's books in Spanish. The dyads received two books for every week of participation in

the study for a total of approximately 17 books. The books selected for the study included books

translated from English to Spanish (e.g. "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" by Eric Carle) and books

that were originally written in Spanish (e.g. "Tortillas de Barro" by Barbara Flores). The

selection criteria for the books were as follows: (a) books had colorful illustrations, (b) texts

were at a second grade reading level or below and were not excessively long, (c) books were

appropriate the age range of children participating in the study. For a complete list of books

utilized during the investigation and the books chosen by every dyad see Appendix H.

Dependent Measures

During the baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases of the study, data were

collected on three dependent measures:

1. The PEER steps implemented by the mothers during the shared book interactions.

2. The different kinds of prompts (FRASE) utilized by the mothers.

3. The nouns, verbs, and others uttered by the child during the shared book interactions.

The researcher utilized rate of response to record the occurrence of the dependent variables.









Definitions

The following definitions were utilized by the researcher to identify the occurrence of the

target behaviors:

PEER. Acronym for the steps of dialogic reading: prompt, evaluate, expand, repeat.

The Spanish equivalents of the PEER steps are: preguntar, evaluar, expandir and repetir.

FRASE. The Spanish version of the acronym CROWD which summarizes the different

kinds of prompts that can be utilized during dialogic reading sessions: finalizar (completion

prompts), recorder (recall prompts), abrir (open-ended prompts), seleccionar (Wh-prompts),

experiencia (distancing prompts).

Nouns. A word used to name a thing, animal, or person. Unintelligible utterances are not

counted as nouns.

Verbs. A word used to express existence, action, or occurrence. Non-intelligible

utterances are not counted as verbs.

Others. Any intelligible word that cannot be classified as a noun or a verb. Includes

articles, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, etc. Unintelligible sounds such as ah, oh, hah, mmm,

etc... were not counted.

Experimental Procedures

Prebaseline Phase

Prior to beginning the investigation, the researcher conducted an initial visit to the homes

of the potential participants to talk to the parents about the study and to ask for permission to

assess the children's first language skills.

After securing parental consent, the children's language skills were evaluated. The

language skills were assessed using the Spanish version of the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth

Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-R









(PPVT-R; Dunn & Dunn, 1981), and the "Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody" (TVIP;

Dunn et al., 1986). In addition, a language sample was collected while the child was engaged in

a play session with the investigator.

Before the beginning of the intervention and after its conclusion, language samples were

collected in order to detect any changes that might have taken place during the duration of the

investigation. In order to elicit verbalizations from the child, the researcher asked the child to

bring his/her favorite toys and encouraged him/her to play. The researcher played with the

children and asked questions accordingly. The language samples were audio taped. The

researcher listened to the audiotapes, transcribed the dialogue and then calculated the Mean

Length of Utterance using to the guidelines designed by Linares (1979). The guidelines used to

analyze the language samples are included in Appendix I.

Baseline

During the baseline home visits, the researcher provided Spanish language children's

books to the parents (2 per week) and instructed them to read to their children. Books chosen by

the dyads during the baseline of the investigation can be found in Appendix H. The researcher

observed and audiotaped the reading sessions. Baseline data were gathered for a minimum of

four sessions per dyad or until it reached stability. The tapes were analyzed by the researcher to

determine the rate of PEER steps, the different types of prompts (FRASE) utilized by the

mothers, the rate of words uttered by the children during the shared reading sessions, and the rate

of nouns, verbs, and others the children produced during the sessions. The baseline phase of the

investigation began on the same day for Dyads 1 and 2 and continued until the intervention phase

began for Dyad 1. Baseline data collection continued with Dyad 2 until the rate of words uttered

by the child was stabilized and until Dyad 1 demonstrated a consistent trend in the intervention









data. At that time, Dyad 2 began the intervention phase of the experiment. The same general

pattern was replicated for Dyads 3 and 4.

Intervention Phase

The intervention phase of the study consisted of two components. The components

included parent training and implementation of the intervention.

Parent training

Once a stable baseline trend was established, every mother participated in two individual

training sessions that lasted approximately one hour each. Once training was completed

implementation of dialogic reading techniques during shared book interactions began a day

following the training. The mother in Dyad 2 received the training once the baseline data for the

rate of words uttered by the child were stable and once the intervention data for Dyad 1

demonstrated an upward trend. Similarly, the mother in Dyad 4 received the training once its

baseline data were stable and after the intervention data for Dyad 3 displayed an upward trend.

A number of guidelines were established in order to ensure consistent training across

parents. A detailed description of the training sessions is provided in Appendix D. Parent

training consisted of the following elements:

1. A brief overview of the benefits of shared book reading: "Why should we read to young
children?" was offered.

2. The researcher introduced the dialogic reading method and discussed its benefits.

3. The mothers watched a video and/or DVD demonstration of dialogic reading ("Lectura
Interactive" by Circle Videos), which was followed by a discussion about the content of
the video.

4. The researcher described the steps in the dialogic reading technique.

a. The researcher and the mother discussed the PEER sequence (Prompt, Evaluate,
Expand, Repeat). A handout with the acronym was provided to the parents (See Appendix
F).









b. The researcher explained the five different kinds of prompts that can be utilized during
dialogic reading (FRASE) and the parents were asked to verbally provide an example of
each one before they practiced the technique. A handout was also provided to the mothers
(Appendix G).

5. The mothers were asked to implement the dialogic reading techniques during two
practice sessions. During those sessions the researcher played the child's role if the child
was not present in the room. At this time mothers received feedback from the researcher
and were allowed to ask questions. The parents received a dialogic reading guide they
could utilize to review the procedure (Appendix E).

6. A written or verbal (depending on the mothers' preference) assessment of understanding
was conducted wherein mothers identified the four components of the dialogic reading
sequence and provided an example for every one of the five kinds of prompts (FRASE).
Mothers were required to get 8 out of the 9 items correct before proceeding with the next
phase of the investigation. Mothers that did not obtain a score of 88% (8/9) participated
in a coaching session. Two mothers indicated that they preferred the verbal assessment of
understanding while the other two completed the written assessment.

Coaching session

If the mother did not obtain a score of 88% (8/9 correct answers) in the written/verbal

comprehension check, she participated in a coaching session. During the coaching session, the

researcher reviewed the PEER and FRASE sequences. The mother was asked to offer

information as to what sections of the dialogic reading program were most difficult and why.

The researcher and the mother discussed strategies to make following the sequence easier, (such

as posting the handout with the acronyms in a visible place) and the researcher offered examples

for every one of the five prompts (FRASE). After the coaching session the mother was asked to

take another written/verbal comprehension check. Two of the four mothers (Mothers 2 and 3)

participating in the current study required a coaching session before proceeding with the

implementation component of the intervention phase.

Implementation

After participating in the training, mothers were asked to engage in dialogic reading

sessions with the preschoolers a minimum of four times a week. Every session took place at the









dyads' homes. Every week, the dyads received two new children's books in Spanish. The child

was allowed to choose which books) he/she wanted to read during every session. Mothers

chose the best time for implementation, which remained the same during the remainder of the

investigation. During those sessions they were asked to read to their children utilizing the

dialogic reading techniques they had learned during training. The researcher observed and

audiotaped every reading session.

The post administration of the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition (PLS-4;

Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-R (PPVT-R; Dunn &

Dunn, 1981), and the "Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody" (TVIP; Dunn et al., 1986)

was conducted immediately after the intervention phase to compare the pre- and post-

intervention language scores. A language sample was also obtained at this time.

Once the intervention data for Dyad 1 were stable and once the rate of words produced by

the child in Dyad 2 was stabilized, intervention began with Dyad 2. Once the intervention phase

was completed for Dyads 1 and 2, the procedures were replicated with Dyads 3 and 4.

Maintenance

The purpose of the maintenance phase was to determine if the mothers would continue

implementing dialogic reading techniques during reading sessions after the conclusion of the

intervention phase and to determine if there had been any post-intervention changes in the

children's language skills. Follow-up observations were conducted two weeks after the

termination of the intervention phase. For this phase of the study, the dyads were provided with

an additional two new children's books in Spanish. The children were still allowed to choose

which book they wanted to read out of all the books they had received. Three to four reading

maintenance sessions were audiotaped for each dyad.









Study Design

A multiple baseline design across participants was utilized in this study in order to

establish the effects of the treatment on the mothers' shared book reading styles and on the

children's oral language skills. Data collection began with the baseline phase for two of the

dyads. Once the baseline data were stable for Dyad 1, intervention began for Dyad 1. Dyad 2

remained in baseline until it displayed a stable trend in (a) the number of PEER steps utilized by

the mother, (b) the rate of words produced by the child and (c) until Dyad 1's intervention data

showed an upward trend. Once this was evidenced, Dyad 2 began the intervention phase of the

study. Data on maintenance was collected two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention. A

replication began with Dyads 3 and 4 after the completion of the investigation with the first two

dyads. Staggering the experimental procedures in such manner provided with a replication

within a single experiment, which strengthened the internal validity of the study. Kucera and

Axelrod (1995) confirm the previous when they state "repeating like phases within experiments

not only confirms that response changes can be made to occur more than once and are therefore

reliable, but also adds more assurances that the intervention, rather than extraneous variables,

was decisive in these changes" (p. 27).

In order to examine the effectiveness of the intervention on the mothers' shared book

reading styles and on the children's oral language skills, the baseline, intervention and

maintenance data were graphically displayed for visual inspection of the results. Visual

inspection of the data was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Each graph

was inspected for the magnitude of change in means across experimental phases, the level of

stability within the data points across phases and the trend of the data (Kazdin, 1982).









Data Recording

The researcher utilized rate of response per minute for this investigation (Kazdin, 1982).

The type of data recorded included: (1) the rate of PEER steps implemented by the mothers, (2)

the rate of different prompts (FRASE) utilized by the mothers, and (3) the rate of nouns, verbs

and others uttered by the children during the sessions.

Data Analysis

The audiotapes were transcribed and coded by the researcher after every reading session.

The data obtained during this study were graphed using a multiple baseline across subjects

design. Baseline and intervention phases were graphed using the Excel computer program and

visually inspected every day to analyze the mother's and children's progress. Visual inspection

comparing the baseline and intervention phases were completed to determine whether mothers

were implementing the PEER and FRASE sequences and to investigate whether the

implementation of dialogic reading techniques was increasing the rate of nouns, verbs and others

uttered by the child. The baseline and intervention phases were evaluated graphically via visual

analysis in terms of (a) the magnitude of change in means from baseline to intervention (b) the

level of stability within the data points across phases and (c) the trend of the data (Kazdin, 1982).

The data obtained during the maintenance phase were utilized to determine if the mothers

had continued to implement dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading after the

intervention had ended. These data were also used to determine if there had been any changes in

the participating children's utterances since the conclusion of the study.

Interobserver Agreement

Kazdin (1982) defines interobserver agreement (IOA) as the extent to which observers

agree on the occurrence of a particular behavior. To assess interobserver agreement the

researcher and a trained assistant, who is also an English/Spanish bilingual early childhood









professional with over 31 years of experience, scored the transcripts for approximately 30% of

the sessions. The researcher and the assistant scored randomly selected transcripts of the

sessions independently and completed the following steps:

1. Counted the number of PEER steps utilized by the mother and obtained a rate,

2. Counted the number of different types of prompts (FRASE) implemented by the
mothers and computed a rate for every type of prompt,

3. Counted the number of nouns, verbs and others produced by the child and computed a
rate for each one of them.

Reliability estimates were conducted using the point-by-point agreement method in

which the number of agreements is divided by the number of agreements plus disagreements,

multiplied by 100 (Point-by Point Agreement=A/A+D xl00) (Kazdin, 1982). An agreement of

at least 80% was required. For more information on interater reliability see Chapter 4.

Treatment Integrity

Parent training was conducted using guidelines developed by the researcher in order to

ensure the consistency of training among participating mothers. The researcher observed the

mothers conducting all the dialogic reading sessions and utilized the audiotapes to conduct

treatment integrity checks at least twice a week. A task analysis checklist was utilized for the

treatment integrity checks (Appendix J).

Social Validity

In an effort to establish the social validity of the intervention, every mother was asked to

complete a questionnaire at the end of the maintenance phase. The purpose of the questionnaire

was to obtain the mothers' opinions on five questions regarding the usefulness of the dialogic

reading techniques and its effect on the children's vocabulary development. Each question was

completed using a 5-point Likert scale. The social validity questionnaire can be found in

Appendix K.









Pilot Study

Prior to beginning the experimental phases of the investigation, a pilot study was

conducted to determine whether the parent training, data collection procedures, and data

recording system chosen for implementation during the experiment needed any modifications.

The pilot study included one migrant mother/child dyad nominated by the Migrant Education

Office of the School Board of Alachua County. The materials, design, and procedures used in

the pilot study were similar to those described in this chapter. However, there were differences in

the eligibility criteria for the child participant. Although, the mother reported that her child

displayed language delays in the first language, the language skills' of the child were not

formally evaluated and language samples were not collected.

Modifications made as a result of the pilot study were minimal. No changes were made

to the parent training protocol and the data collection system was varied only slightly. While the

actual data collection procedures did not change, it was determined that the time assigned for the

mother/child reading interactions (10 minutes per session) was not reasonable. The duration of

the pilot baseline sessions ranged from 1.5 to 3.2 minutes per session. During the intervention

phase of the pilot study the duration of the sessions ranged from 11.6 to 16.7 minutes per session.

Therefore, there was no pre-established duration for the reading interactions of the current

investigation. All sessions were timed as they occurred naturally for the mother/child dyads.

Finally, the data recording system was changed from frequency counts to rate of response per

minute. This change was made because of the difference in duration between sessions during the

baseline and intervention phases of the pilot study.









Table 3-1. Demographic data on mother participants
Parent Age Ethnic Gendert Highest Income Level Size of Years Type of
Participant Background* Level of Family with work
Education Migrant
Status
1 25 M F Grade 5 $13,000/year 4 2 Agricultural/
Construction
2 22 M F Grade 10 $9,000/year 4 3 Agricultural
3 37 M F Grade 3 $14,000/year 5 4 Agricultural/
Construction
4 24 M F Grade 12 $12,000/year 5 2 Agricultural
Note: *Ethnic Background: M=Mexican tGender: F=Female











Table 3-2. Demographic d
Child Age Gender Eth
*


1 5-2 F


lata on child participants
nicityT Health PLS-4
Issues (Spanish)
Pre-
intervention
M Seizure AC: 76
Disorder EC: 93
Total: 83


2 4-2 M M Severe AC: 52
Asthma EC: 69
Total: 52





3 5-7 M M Asthma AC: 61
EC: 75
Total: 64


4 4-3 F


M Severe AC: 62
Asthma EC: 75
Total: 64


PLS-4
(Spanish)
Post-
intervention
AC: 86
EC: 101
Total: 93




AC: 52
EC: 72
Total: 55





AC: 67
EC: 79
Total: 68




AC: 61
EC: 77
Total: 65


TVIP
(Spanish)
Pre-
intervention
84


TVIP
(Spanish)
Post-
intervention
88


PPVT-R
(English)
Pre-
intervention
Failed to
establish a
basal. Did
not answer
any item
correctly
(0/11)
Failed to
establish a
basal.
Answered 13
items. All of
them
incorrectly

Failed to
establish a
basal.
Answered
one item
(out of eight)
correctly
Failed to
establish a
basal.
Answered a
total of 6
items. None
of them
correctly


PPVT-R
(English)
Post-
intervention
Failed to
establish a
basal




Failed to
establish a
basal





Failed to
establish a
basal




Failed to
establish a
basal


Language
Samples: Pre-
and Post-
intervention
Pre-
intervention
MLU: 2.8
Post-
intervention
MLU: 3.1

Pre-
intervention
MLU:
Approximately
0.7
Post-
intervention
MLU: 1.68
Pre-
intervention
MLU: 2.5
Post-
intervention
MLU: 3.1

Pre-
intervention
MLU:
Approximately
0.5
Post-
intervention
MLU: 0.6


Note: *Gender: F=Female; M=Male tEthnicity: M=Mexican









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of an intervention

provided to mothers from migrant populations to use with their preschool children who are at-

risk for reading difficulties. The research questions were (a) Will mothers from migrant

populations with a minimal amount of education implement dialogic reading techniques

following a brief training? (b) What is the effect of the mothers' implementation of dialogic

reading techniques on the oral production of children at risk for reading difficulties? (c) Will the

effects of dialogic reading on the oral language development of the children be maintained

following the conclusion of the intervention?

To investigate these questions, 4 mother/child dyads participated in the research. The

participants were selected with the help of the Migrant Education Office of the School

Board of Alachua County. Participating dyads were members of the migrant worker population,

and spoke Spanish as their first language. The children were evaluated using standardized

measures to determine the presence of delays in the first language. Baseline data were collected

regarding the mothers' use of dialogic reading techniques and the children's oral language

production during shared book reading sessions.

Dialogic reading techniques for children 4 to 5 years of age include four steps that mothers

implement during the reading sessions. The acronym PEER was developed to help mothers

remember the following steps: Prompt, Evaluate, Expand and Repeat (Whitehurst, Epstein, et

al., 1994). The participants of this study were migrant mothers who spoke Spanish, therefore, the

PEER sequence was taught in Spanish (Preguntar, Evaluar, Expandir, and Repetir). The

acronym FRASE (Landry, 2002) was utilized to help mothers remember the different types of

prompts they can use. These prompts are as follows:









1. Finalizar: Completion prompts. Fill-in-blank questions (e.g., "Good night ")

2. Recordar: Recall prompts. Prompts that require the child to remember details of the
story (e.g., Who said "Good night moon"?)

3. Abrir: Open-ended prompts. Prompts that require the child to talk about the story
using his/her own words (e.g., "Tell me what happen in this page")

4. Seleccionar: Wh-prompts. Prompts that begin with wh- and require the child to talk
about a picture in the story (e.g., "What color is the car in the picture?")

5. Experiencia: Distancing prompts. Prompts that require the child to relate the content
of the story to an aspect of his/her life (e.g., "Do you have a dog like the one in the
story?")

During the intervention phase, the mothers were trained to use dialogic reading techniques

during book reading sessions with their children. The effectiveness of the intervention was

measured by comparing mothers' use of dialogic reading techniques (PEER/FRASE) and

children's oral language production (nouns, verbs and others) during reading sessions prior to

training with mothers' use of the techniques and children's oral language production during the

intervention phase. Data were also collected two weeks following the conclusion of the

intervention to examine maintenance.

A single-subject multiple baseline across participants was utilized. The dependent

variables across all phases of the study were the mothers' use of prompts, evaluations,

expansions and repetitions (PEER), the kinds of prompts they were implementing (FRASE), and

the children's language production. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined by

measuring the shift in the average rate of performance across experimental phases also referred

to as the change of magnitude in means. Baseline, intervention, and maintenance data were

completed with two dyads first. Data collection with the remaining two dyads was initiated

approximately 8 weeks later.









This chapter is organized by dyads and experimental phases (baseline, intervention and

maintenance). Interobserver agreement information has been provided, treatment integrity and

the results of the procedures have been addressed. In addition, data have been graphically

displayed in Figures 4-1 through Figure 4-6.

Dyad 1

Baseline

During baseline sessions, Dyad 1 was audiotaped during shared book reading sessions

conducted in the dyad's home. Data were collected from the audiotapes on the mother's use of

PEER and FRASE, and on the oral language production of the children during the reading

session. Baseline data were collected for 6 sessions until a stable trend occurred in the mother

l's rate of prompts, evaluations, expansions, repetitions (PEER) and the child's oral language

production (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). The duration of baseline reading sessions ranged from 3.18

minutes to 7.2 minutes with a mean reading session duration of 5.59 minutes.

PEER

During Baseline, Mother l's use of the PEER sequence occurred at a low rate with

prompts ranging from 0.0/minute to 1.80/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.30/minute (Figure

4-1). The rate of evaluations ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.69/minute, with a mean occurrence of

0.12/minute. Expansions ranged from 0.16/minute to 1.25/minute, with a mean occurrence of

0.29/minute. While the rate of repetitions ranged from 0.0/minutes to 0.13/minute, with a mean

occurrence of 0.022/minute.

FRASE

Mother 1's implementation of FRASE during baseline was very low (Figure 4-2). The rate

of "Finalizar" prompts utilized by this mother remained at 0.0/minute during baseline while the

rate of "Recordar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.69/minute, with a mean occurrence of









0.115/minute. The rate of "Abrir" prompts implemented by Mother 1 during baseline ranged

from 0.0/minute to 0.28/minute with a mean rate of 0.047/minute. Mother l's use of

"Seleccionar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.14/minute. The mean rate for "Seleccionar"

prompts during baseline was 0.023/minute. The rate of "Experiencia" prompts ranged from

0.0/minute to 0.69/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.115/minute.

Child's oral language

The oral language production of Child 1 was low during baseline and will be described in

terms of nouns, verbs and others (Figure 4-3). The rate of production of nouns ranged from

0.0/minute to 2.22/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.99/minute. Verb production ranged

from 0.0/minute to 1.81/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.59/minute. Finally, the rate of

others during baseline was variable and ranged 0.16/minute to 6.25/minute, with a mean

occurrence of 1.71/minute.

Intervention

Once baseline data on Mother l's use of PEER and on the child's oral language

production were stable, the mother participated in two individual training sessions conducted by

the researcher. Each session lasted for approximately one hour (for a total of two hours) and

took place in the dyad's home. The researcher used trainer and parent manuals (Appendices D

and E) to train the mother to use Dialogic Reading techniques (PEER and FRASE). The mother

was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps and examples of the different kinds of

prompts that can be implemented (FRASE). Upon completion of the training the mother

completed a written evaluation with 100% (9/9) accuracy. Intervention commenced a day after

the last training session.









PEER

Intervention data for Dyad 1 was collected over six sessions (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). During

intervention, Mother l's use of Dialogic Reading techniques (PEER and FRASE) increased

dramatically (Figures 4-1, 4-2). The rate of prompts during intervention ranged from

3.13/minute to 6.6/minute, with a mean occurrence of 5.27/minute (Figure 4-1). The magnitude

of change in means for Mother l's use of prompts was 4.97/minute. Mother l's use of

evaluations ranged from 1.38/minute to 2.78/minute, with a mean occurrence of 2.51/minute.

From baseline to intervention, there was a magnitude of change of 2.39/minute. During

intervention, the rate of expansions ranged from 0.3 1/minute to 4/minute, with a mean

occurrence of 2.60/minute. The magnitude of change in expansions was 2.31/minute. There was

little difference between Mother l's use of repetitions during the baseline and intervention

phases of the investigation. During intervention, the rate of repetitions ranged from 0.0/minute

to 0.32/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.10/minute. From baseline to intervention, the

magnitude of change in means was 0.3/minute for repetitions.

FRASE

The kinds of prompts utilized by Mother 1 changed as well (Figure 4-2). There was a

modest increase in the rate of "Finalizar" prompts utilized by Mother 1. That rate ranged from

0.0/minute to 0.66/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.265/minute. Mother l's use of

"Finalizar" prompts displayed a slight magnitude of change of 0.265/minute. The rate of

"Recordar" prompts increased during intervention. The intervention rate of "Recordar" prompts

ranged from 0.20/minute to 3.2/minute. The mean level for "Recordar" prompts during

intervention was 1.39/minute. Mother l's use of "Recordar" prompts had a magnitude of change

of 1.27/minute from baseline to intervention. This mother's use of "Abrir" prompts also

increased during the intervention phase of the study. The intervention rate of "Abrir" prompts









ranged from 0.22/minute to 1.78/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.00/minute. The magnitude

of change for Mother l's use of"Abrir" was 0.95/minute from the baseline mean rate to the

intervention mean rate. The mother's implementation of"Seleccionar" prompts showed a more

notable increase during the intervention phase. Mother l's use of "Seleccionar" prompts ranged

from 0.93/minute to 3.19/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.78/minute. From baseline to

intervention, Mother l's implementation of "Seleccionar" displayed a notable magnitude of

change of 1.76/minute. Mother l's use of"Experiencia" prompts also evidenced a rate increase

during intervention ranging from 0.18/minute to 1.58/minute with a mean level of 0.61/minute.

There was a magnitude of change of 0.49/minute from baseline to intervention.

Child's oral language

The child's oral language production increased during intervention (Figure 4-3). Child l's

use of nouns during intervention ranged from 1.81/minute to 6.16/minute, with a mean

occurrence 4.22/minute. The magnitude of change for Child 1's use of nouns, as measured by the

shift in means from baseline intervention, was 3.23/minute. During intervention, the rate of

verbs ranged from 2.82/minute to 4.5/minute, with a mean of 3.49/minute. The rate of verbs

from baseline to intervention displayed a change of magnitude of 2.9/minute between the two

phases of the investigation. The child's use of others during intervention ranged from

9.05/minute to 18.35/minute. The mean rate of others during intervention was 14.06/minute.

This represents a positive magnitude of change of 12.35/minute.

Maintenance

Maintenance data collection with Dyad 1 commenced two weeks after the conclusion of

the intervention study (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). Maintenance data for Dyad 1 were collected over 4

sessions. Maintenance sessions ranged in duration from 10.2 minutes to 12.26 minutes with an

average duration of 11.34 minutes.









PEER

During the maintenance phase Mother l's use of the PEER Dialogic Reading techniques

was variable, decreasing slightly for two of the steps and remaining constant for the remaining

two (Figure 4-1). Mother l's use of prompts decreased slightly after the two-week hiatus and

recovered quickly after the first maintenance session. The rate of prompts during maintenance

sessions for this mother ranged from 5.14/minute to 6.1/minute with a mean occurrence of

5.74/minute. Similarly, the rate of evaluations decreased slightly after two weeks but recovered

after the first maintenance session. Mother 1's use of evaluation during maintenance ranged

from 2.13/minute to 3.09/minute with a mean level of 2.73/minute. The maintenance rate of

expansions appeared to remain constant after the conclusion of the intervention. Mother 1's use

of expansions during maintenance ranged from 2.15/minute to 3.43/minute with a mean of

2.76/minute. Finally, Mother l's use of repetitions remained constant during maintenance

ranging from 0.0/minute to 0.2/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.05/minute.

FRASE

During maintenance, Mother 1's use of different type of prompts was very variable (Figure

4-2). Mother 1's use of "Finalizar" prompts appeared to increase after the two weeks hiatus and

then remained constant during the remainder of the maintenance phase. The mother's

implementation of "Finalizar" prompts ranged from 0.2/minute to 0.65/minute with a mean of

0.345/minute. Similarly, the maintenance rate of"Recordar" prompts increased during the first

maintenance session and decreased during the second before reaching a constant level. The rate

of "Recordar" prompts during maintenance ranged from 0.78/minute to 1.77/minute with a mean

of 1.43/minute. Mother l's use of"Abrir" prompts increased during the first session of

maintenance and then remained constant during the remainder of the maintenance phase ranging

from 0.78/minute to 1.77/minute. The mean for "Abrir" prompts during maintenance was









1.37/minute. Mother l's use of "Seleccionar" prompts decreased after the two week hiatus and

then proceeded to recover remaining stable during the rest of the maintenance sessions. The

maintenance rate of"Seleccionar" prompts for Mother 1 ranged from 0.65/minute to 2.67/minute

with a mean occurrence of 1.99/minute. The implementation of"Experiencia" prompts by this

mother was variable during maintenance; decreasing after the two week break, increasing after

the first maintenance session and then decreasing again. Mother l's rate of"Experiencia"

prompts ranged from 0.16/minute to 0.88/minute with a mean of 0.585/minute.

Child's oral language

Child 1's oral language production as evidenced by the use of nouns, verbs, and others

decreased slightly after the conclusion of intervention remaining constant during the

maintenance session (Figure 4-3). Child l's production of nouns ranged from 5.95/minute to

9.05/minute with a mean level of 7.3/minute. The rate of verbs ranged from 3.91/minute to

6.73/minute with a mean occurrence of 5.59/minute during maintenance. Finally, Child l's

production of others during maintenance ranged from 15.41/minute to 18.8/minute. The mean

rate level of others was 17.6/minute during maintenance.

Language Samples and Supplemental Measures

In addition to the rate of nouns, verbs and others, language samples were obtained before

and after the intervention in order to determine any differences in the mean length of utterance

(MLU) produced by the children. There was a difference of .3 between the pre and post-

intervention MLU's for child 1. The results of the PLS-4, and TVIP did show a difference

between their pre- and post-intervention administrations (Table 3-2). The measure utilized to

measure any changes in English, the PPVT-R Form M (Dunn & Dunn, 1981), failed to show any

differences between its pre and post-administrations.









Dyad 2


Baseline

During baseline sessions, Dyad 2 was audiotaped during shared book reading sessions

conducted in the dyad's home. Data were collected from the audiotapes on the mother's use of

PEER and FRASE, and on the oral language production (Nouns, verbs, others) of Child 2 during

the reading sessions. Baseline data were collected for 10 sessions until a downward and stable

trend in the child's oral language production was evidenced (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). During

baseline, the duration of the reading sessions ranged from 3.5 minutes to 11.73 minutes with a

mean duration of 7.627 minutes for all baseline sessions.

PEER

Mother 2's use of the PEER sequence during baseline occurred at a stable rate (Figure 4-

1). The rate of prompts used by Mother 2 was variable ranging from 0.0/minute during baseline

to 3.34/minute, with a mean of 1.421/minute. Mother 2's use of evaluations during baseline was

low, ranging from 0.18/minute to 1.024/minute, with a mean of 0.566/minute. The rate of

expansions was very low. The use of expansions by this mother ranged from 0.0/minute to

1.36/minute and the mean of occurrence from expansions was 0.583/minute. Mother 2's use of

repetitions during the book reading sessions remained constant at a rate of 0.0/minute.

FRASE

Mother 2's implementation of FRASE during baseline was very low (Figure 4-2). The rate

of "Finalizar" prompts utilized by Mother 2 remained at 0.0/minute during baseline while the

rate of "Recordar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.62/minute, with a mean occurrence of

0.125/minute. The rate of"Abrir" prompts implemented by this mother during baseline ranged

from 0.0/minute to 1.39/minute with a mean rate of 0.44/minute. Mother 2's use of

"Seleccionar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.82/minute. The mean rate for "Seleccionar"









prompts during baseline was 0.647/minute. The rate of "Experiencia" prompts ranged from

0.0/minute to 0.89/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.21/minute.

Child's oral language

Child 2's use of nouns, verbs and others was variable during baseline (Figure 4-3). The

rate of nouns ranged from 0.093/minute to 4.86/minute with a mean occurrence of 2.56/minute.

Child 2's use of verbs ranged from a rate of 0.85/minute to 5.14/minute. The mean occurrence

rate of verbs during baseline for Child 2 was 2.45/minute. Finally, Child 2's oral production of

others ranged from a rate of 1.45/minute to 7.45/minute with a mean of 4.68/minute.

Intervention

Once there was a downward trend in the Child 2's oral language production, the mother's

use of the PEER was stable and the intervention data for Dyad 1 demonstrated an upward trend,

Mother 2 participated in two individual training sessions conducted by the researcher. Each

session lasted for approximately one hour (for a total of two hours) and took place in the dyad's

home. The researcher used trainer and parent manuals (Appendices D and E) to train the mother

to use the PEER sequence and FRASE. The mother was asked to provide verbal examples of the

PEER steps that may be utilized during the reading sessions and the different kinds of prompts

that can be implemented (FRASE). At the end of the training the mother completed a written

evaluation with a 77% accuracy rate (7/9), failing to meet the 88% accuracy criteria (8/9).

Immediately after the evaluation, the mother participated in a coaching session conducted by the

researcher. During the coaching session, the mother reviewed dialogic reading techniques

(PEER) and the kinds of prompts that may be implemented during the reading sessions. In

addition, Mother 2 was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps and of the different

kinds of prompts (FRASE). Once the researcher answered the mother's questions about the

intervention, she proceeded to complete a new evaluation with an 88% accuracy (8/9). The









coaching session lasted for approximately 35 minutes. The overall training time for Mother 2

was approximately 2 hours and 35 minutes. The intervention phase of the study was initiated a

day after the last training session. Intervention data for Dyad 2 were collected over 5 reading

sessions (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). The duration of Dyad 2's sessions during the intervention phase of

the study ranged from 5.17 minutes to 10.3 minutes with a mean length of 8.168 minutes.

PEER

During intervention Mother 2's use of prompts increased, ranging from 6.12/minute to

8.49/minute with a mean level of 7.9/minute (Figure 4-1). The magnitude of change in means

for Mother 2's use of prompts from baseline to intervention increased was positive, 6.48/minute.

The mother's use of evaluations also increased during the intervention phase. The change in

level for the rate of evaluations shifted from 0.18/minute to 3.29/minute with a mean occurrence

of 2.22/minute. The magnitude of change in Mother 2's use of evaluations from baseline to

intervention was 3.1/minute. Mother 2's implementation of expansions during intervention

ranged from 0.81/minute to 1.81/minute. The mean level of expansions during intervention was

1.31/minute. Mother 2's use of expansions from baseline to intervention had a positive change

of magnitude of 1.26/minute. Finally, there was no magnitude of change in the rate of

repetitions (0.0/minute) utilized by Mother 2 during intervention.

FRASE

The variety of prompts implemented by Mother 2 increased variably during intervention

(Figure 4-2). There was an increase in the rate of "Finalizar" prompts utilized by Mother 2.

That rate ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.58/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.116/minute.

Mother 2's use of "Finalizar" prompts from baseline to intervention had a positive magnitude of

change of 0.116/minute. The rate of "Recordar" prompts also underwent an increase during

intervention. The intervention rate of "Recordar" prompts ranged from 0.21/minute to









1.16/minute. The mean level for "Recordar" prompts during intervention was 0.594/minute.

Mother 2's use of "Recordar" prompts evidenced a magnitude of change of 0.5/minute from

baseline to intervention. Mother 2's use of"Abrir" prompts also increased during the

intervention phase of the study. The intervention rate of"Abrir" prompts ranged from

0.58/minute to 1.53/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.02/minute. The magnitude of change in

Mother 2's use of"Abrir" presented an increase of 0.58/minute from the baseline mean rate to

the intervention mean rate. The mother's implementation of"Seleccionar" prompts showed an

increase during the intervention phase. Mother 2's use of "Seleccionar" prompts ranged from

1.93/minute to 3.89/minute with a mean occurrence of 2.788/minute. From baseline to

intervention, Mother 2's implementation of "Seleccionar" prompts displayed a magnitude of

change of 2.14/minute. Mother 2's use of"Experiencia" prompts also evidenced a rate increase

during intervention ranging from 2.07/minute to 2.64/minute with a mean level of 2.30/minute.

There was a positive magnitude of change of 2.09/minute from baseline to intervention.

Child's oral language

The oral language production of Child 2 during intervention increased as evidenced by

Child 2's production of nouns, verbs, and others (Figure 4-3). Child 2's use of nouns during this

phase, ranged from 6.41/minute to 8.47/minute with mean occurrence of 7.19/minute. The

change of magnitude from baseline to intervention in the rate of nouns used by Child 2 was

4.63/minute. Child 2's oral production of verbs during intervention ranged from 2.32/minute to

3.6/minute with a mean occurrence of 2.76/minute. The magnitude of change in Child 2's

production of verbs presented a change of 0.31/minute. Finally, Child 2's rate of others during

intervention ranged from 7.74/minute to 11.94/minute with a mean occurrence of 10.56/minute.

The magnitude of change in Child 2's production of others showed a difference of 5.88/minute

between both phases (baseline and intervention).









Maintenance

Maintenance data collection with Dyad 2 began two weeks after the conclusion of the

intervention phase (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). Maintenance data for Dyad 2 were collected over 3

sessions. Maintenance sessions ranged in duration from 6.18 minutes to 7.6 minutes with an

average duration of 7.06 minutes.

PEER

Mother 2's use of the PEER Dialogic Reading techniques remained very stable during

maintenance (Figure 4-1). The mother's use of prompts decreased after the two-week hiatus and

then remained constant during maintenance. The maintenance rate of prompts for Mother 2

ranged from 9.05/minute to 9.34/minute with a mean occurrence of 9.24/minute. The rate of

evaluations did not decrease after the conclusion of the intervention phase and remained constant

during maintenance. Mother 2's use of evaluation during maintenance ranged from 1.84/minute

to 2.16/minute with a mean level of 1.95/minute. The mother's implementation of expansions

showed an increase during the first maintenance session and remained constant during the

remainder of the sessions. Mother 2's rate of expansions during maintenance ranged from

1.05/minute to 1.22/minute with a mean of 1.11/minute. Finally, Mother 2's use of repetitions

remained constant during maintenance (0.0/minute).

FRASE

Mother 2's implementation of different kinds of prompts as evidence by her use of

"Finalizar", "Recordar", "Abrir", "Seleccionar" and "Experiencia" prompts was variable (Figure

4-2). This mother's use of "Finalizar" prompts increased during maintenance ranging from

0.0/minute to 0.41/minute with a mean level of 0.22/minute. The rate of "Recordar" prompts for

Mother 2 appeared to increase during maintenance ranging from 3.39/minute to 3.68/minute with

a mean occurrence of 3.53/minute. Mother 2's implementation of "Abrir" prompts during









maintenance shows a different story. The rate of"Abrir" prompts showed no difference after the

two-week hiatus and then decreased after the second maintenance session. The mother's use of

"Abrir" prompts ranged from 1.18/minute to 1.62/minute. The mean occurrence for "Abrir"

prompts was 1.47/minute. Similarly, Mother 2's implementation of "Seleccionar" prompts

showed no change after the two-week break and then decreased during the second maintenance

session. The maintenance rate of "Seleccionar" prompts for Mother 2 ranged from 2.16/minute

to 3.88/minute with a mean of 2.76/minute. Finally, the mother's use of "Seleccionar" prompts

was also variable during maintenance ranging from 1.35/minute to 2.58/minute with a mean of

1.97/minute.

Child's oral language

Child 2's oral language production during maintenance, as evidence by the use of nouns,

verbs, and others was variable (Figure 4-3). Child 2's use of nouns decreased during the first

maintenance session and then recovered. The maintenance rate of nouns for Child 2 ranged from

2.43/minute to 10.8/minute with a mean occurrence of 7.71/minute. Unlike the production of

nouns, Child 2's rate of verbs did not show any difference after the two-week hiatus and

increased steadily during maintenance ranging from 3.88/minute to 5.53/minute with a mean

level of 4.62/minute. Child 2's implementation of others showed a decrease two weeks after the

conclusion of intervention and remained constant during the remainder of the maintenance

sessions. Child 2's rate of other ranged from 7.8/minute to 8.68/minute during maintenance.

The mean occurrence of others during this phase was 8.29/minute.

Language Samples and Supplemental Measures

The pre and post-intervention language samples for Child 2 yielded scores of .7 and 1.68

respectively, displaying a difference of .97 from pre to post-intervetion MLU. Child 2's results

in the PLS-4 (Zimmerman et al., 2004) showed a difference of 2 points between its pre and post-









administrations (pre-administration score = 52; post-adminstration score = 55). However, the pre

and post-scores of the TVIP (Dunn et al., 1986) display a greater change (pre-score = 77; post-

score = 82). Child 2 failed to establish a basal score in both the pre and post-administrations of

the PPVT-R (Dunn & Dunn, 1981).

Dyad 3

Baseline

Baseline data collection for Dyad 3 commenced a week after Dyads 1 and 2 had

concluded the maintenance phase of the study. This represents a replication of the investigation.

During baseline sessions, Dyad 3 was audiotaped during shared book reading sessions

conducted in the dyads' home. Data were collected from the audiotapes on the Mother's use of

PEER and FRASE, and on the oral language production (Nouns, verbs, others) of Child 3 during

the reading session (Figures 4-4 to 4-6). Baseline data were collected for 6 sessions until a stable

trend occurred in the child's oral language production and on the mother's use of dialogic

reading techniques. The duration of baseline reading sessions ranged from 3.33 minutes to 8.35

minutes with a mean session length of 4.89 minutes.

PEER

During baseline, Mother 3's use of dialogic reading techniques (prompts, evaluations,

expansions, repetitions) occurred at a low rate (Figure 4-4). The rate of prompts for Mother 3

ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.88/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.52/minute. Mother 3's use

of evaluations during baseline ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.72/minute, with a mean of

0.25/minute. The rate of expansions ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.48/minute and the mean of

occurrence from expansions is 0.21/minute. Mother 3's use of repetitions during the book

reading sessions remained constant at a rate of 0.0/minute.









FRASE

Mother 3's use of different kinds of prompts, FRASE, was very low during baseline

(Figure 4-5). The rate of "Finalizar" prompts remained constant at 0.0/minute. The rate of

"Recordar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.71/minute, with a mean of 0.29/minute. The

mother's use of"Abrir" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.26/minute, with a mean occurrence

of 0.06/minute. "Seleccionar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.24/minute. The mean

occurrence for "Seleccionar" prompts during baseline was 0.09/minute. Finally, the rate of

"Experiencia" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.24/minute, with a mean occurrence of

0.08/minute.

Child's oral language

Child 3's rate of oral language production during baseline was variable (Figure 4-6). The

rate of nouns ranged from 0.73/minute to 4.2/minute, with a mean overall occurrence of

2.08/minute. Child 3's use of verbs ranged from 0.73/minute to 5.41/minute. The mean

occurrence of verbs during baseline was 2.59/minute. The rate of others ranged from

2.87/minute to 15.62/minute, with a mean of 7.18/minute.

Intervention

Once there was a stable trend in the child's baseline oral language production and the

mother's use of dialogic reading techniques, Mother 3 participated in two individual training

sessions conducted by the researcher. Each session lasted for approximately one hour (for a total

of two hours) and took place in the dyad's home. The researcher used trainer and parent manuals

(Appendices D and E) to train the mother to use PEER and FRASE. The mother was asked to

provide verbal examples of the PEER steps and the different kinds of prompts that can be

implemented (FRASE). At the end of the training, the mother completed a written evaluation

with a 66% (6/9) accuracy rate, failing to meet the 88% accuracy criteria (8/9). Immediately









after, the mother participated in a coaching session conducted by the researcher, which lasted for

approximately 45 minutes. During the coaching session, the mother reviewed dialogic reading

techniques (PEER) and the kinds of prompts that may be implemented during the reading

sessions. In addition, the mother was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps and of

the different kinds of prompts (FRASE). Once the researcher answered Mother 3's questions

about the intervention, the mother proceeded to complete a verbal evaluation with a 88%

accuracy (8/9). The overall training time for Mother 3 was approximately 2 hours and 45

minutes. The intervention phase of the study was initiated a day after the last training session.

Intervention data for Mother-Child Dyad 3 were collected over 7 sessions. The length of the

reading sessions ranged from 5 minutes to 22.65 minutes with a mean duration of 13.86 minutes

(Figures 4-4 to 4-6).

PEER

During intervention Mother 3's use of PEER increased (Figure 4-4). The rate of prompts

utilized by Mother 3 during intervention ranged from 4.97/minute to 6.97/minute with a mean

occurrence of 5.71/minute. The magnitude of change in Mother 3's presented a difference of

2.79/minute. The rate of evaluations ranged from 1.57/minute to 3.19/minute with a mean of

2.57/minute. There was a magnitude of change of 2.32/minute between baseline and

intervention. The use of expansions during intervention ranged from 0.55/minute to 2.39/minute

with a mean occurrence of 2/minute. This represents an increase of 1.79/minute in means

between the baseline and intervention phases. Finally, there was no difference between Mother

3's rate of repetitions during baseline (0.0 minute) and intervention (mean = 0.0/minute).

FRASE

During intervention, the rate of "Finalizar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.1/minute

with a mean occurrence of 0.32/minute (Figure 4-5). The difference in means or magnitude of









change between baseline and intervention equals 0.32/minute. Mother 3's use of "Recordar"

prompts ranged from 0.28/minute to 3.43/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.62/minute. This

represents a magnitude of change of 1.33/minute between the phases of baseline and

intervention. The rate of"Abrir" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.38/minute with a mean

occurrence of 0.53/minute. The magnitude of change between baseline and intervention for

"Abrir" prompts was 0.24/minute. Mother 3's use of"Seleccionar" prompts displayed great

variability ranging from 2.53/minute to 8/minute. The mean occurrence for "Seleccionar"

prompts during intervention was 3.89/minute. This represents a magnitude of change of

3.8/minute between baseline and intervention means. The rate of "Experiencia" prompts ranged

from 0.0/minute to 0.59/minute with a mean of 0.17/minute. There was little difference

(magnitude of change =.09/minute) between the baseline and intervention in the rate of Mother

3's use of"Experiencia" prompts.

Child's oral language

Child 3's oral language production showed an increase in nouns, verbs and others during

the intervention phase (Figure 4-6). The rate of nouns utilized by Child 3 during this phase

ranged from 3.59/minute to 13.38/minute with a mean occurrence of 9.31/minute. The

magnitude of change in Child 3's use of nouns from baseline to intervention was 3.9/minute.

During intervention, the rate of verbs ranged from 5.2/minute to 12.63/minute. The mean rate of

occurrence for verbs at this phase was 9.52/minute. This represents a magnitude of change of

6.93/minute in Child 3's rate of use of verbs from baseline to intervention. Finally, Child 3's

rate of others ranged from 12.43/minute to 31.1/minute with a mean occurrence level of

22/minute. There was a mean difference of 14.82/minute between baseline and intervention.









Maintenance

Like the other dyads, maintenance data collection with Mother -Child Dyad 3

commenced two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention study. Maintenance data for

Dyad 3 were collected over 4 sessions (Figures 4-5 to 4-6). Maintenance sessions ranged in

duration from 2.23 minutes to 6.38 minutes with an average duration of 4.22 minutes.

PEER

Mother 3's implementation of PEER was very stable during maintenance (Figure 4-5).

The mother's use of prompts remained stable two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention.

Mother 3's rate of prompts during maintenance ranged from 5.0/minute to 5.83/minute with a

mean occurrence of 5.44/minute. The rate of evaluations implemented by Mother 3 showed a

decreased after the two week break and then recovered to reveal a very stable trend during

maintenance. Mother 3's use of evaluations ranged from 2.19/minute to 3.59/minute. The mean

level for evaluations was 3.14/minute. Mother 3's use of expansions two weeks after

intervention showed an increase during the first maintenance session. The mother's use of

expansions decreased during the second maintenance session and then shows a steady increase

for the remaining sessions. Mother 3's maintenance rate of expansions had a mean occurrence of

2.29/minute. The rate of expansions ranged from 1.13/minute to 2.98/minute. Finally, Mother

3's use of repetitions did not change during maintenance, remaining at the same level during all

three phases of the investigation (0.0/minute).

FRASE

Mother 3's use of different kinds of prompts was variable during maintenance (Figure 4-

5). The rate of "Finalizar" prompts showed no difference two weeks after the conclusion of the

intervention. Mother 3's use of "Finalizar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.45/minute with

a mean of 0.23/minute. Mother 3's implementation of "Recordar" prompts decreased after the









two week hiatus and then recovers to remain stable during maintenance. The maintenance rate

of "Recordar" prompts for Mother 3 ranged from 1.25/minute to 2.25/minute with a mean

occurrence of 1.85/minute. The mother's use of "Abrir" prompts showed an increase after the

two week break followed by a steady decrease during the remaining maintenance sessions.

Mother 3's use of"Abrir" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.94 minute. The mean level for

"Abrir" prompts during intervention was 0.41/minute. Mother 3's implementation of

"Seleccionar" prompts evidenced a decrease during the first two sessions after the two-week

hiatus and then recovered to end in an upward trend. The rate of "Seleccionar" prompts ranged

from 1.58/minute to 3.59/minute with a mean of 2.7/minute. Finally, Mother 3's use of

"Experiencia" prompts showed an increase two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention.

After the initial increase, Mother 3's use of "Experiencia" prompts went back to its intervention

levels. The rate of "Experiencia" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.78/minute with a mean of

0.26/minute.

Child's oral language

During maintenance, Child 3's oral production of nouns, verbs and others was variable

(Figure 4-6). The child's use of nouns ranged from 6.26/minute to 10.31/minute with a mean of

7.51/minute. Child 3's use of verbs remained stable and showed no decrease after the two-week

hiatus. The maintenance rate of Child 3's use of verbs ranged from 9.61/minute to 12.64/minute

with a mean level of 11.03/minute. Finally, Child 3's production of others increased after the

two-week break and then returned to its intervention levels. Child 3's rate of others during

maintenance ranged from 17.04/minute to 26.08/minute. The mean occurrence of others for

Child 3 was 21.39/minute.









Language Samples and Supplemental Measures

In addition to the rate of nouns, verbs and others, language samples were obtained before

and after the intervention in order to determine any differences in the mean length of utterance

(MLU) produced by Child 3. The difference between the pre and post-intervention MLU's for

Child 3 was .6. The results of both the PLS-4 (Zimmerman et al., 2004), and TVIP (Dunn et al.,

1986) displayed an increase between their pre- and post-intervention administrations (PLS-4 pre-

score = 64, PLS-4 post-score = 68; TVIP pre-scor = 77, TVIP post-score = 79). The measure

utilized to measure any changes in English, the PPVT-R Form M (Dunn & Dunn, 1981), failed

to show a difference between its pre and post-administrations (Table 3-2).

Dyad 4

Baseline

The original Dyad 4 recruited for the study was not able to continue participating due to

their sudden relocation to another state in search of work. The baseline data collection with the

new Mother-Child Dyad 4 commenced at the time that Dyad 3 had completed baseline session 3.

During baseline sessions, Dyad 4 was audiotaped during shared book reading sessions

conducted in the dyad's home. Data were collected from the audiotapes on the mother's use of

PEER and FRASE, and on the first language oral production of the children during the reading

session. Baseline data were collected for 9 sessions until a stable trend occurred in the mother's

use of PEER, and the oral language production of the child. Baseline reading sessions ranged

from 2 to 4.48 minutes. The mean duration of reading sessions during baseline was 3.43 minutes

(Figures 4-4 to 4-6).

PEER

During Baseline, Mother 4's use of prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.33/minute, with a

mean occurrence of 0.036/minute (Figure 4-4). The rate of evaluations did not change during









baseline (0.0/minute) while the rate of expansions ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.33/minute with a

mean of 3.068/minute. Mother 4 did not use repetitions (0.0/minute) during the baseline phase

of the experiment.

FRASE

Mother 4's use of different kinds of prompts during baseline was very low (Figure 4-5).

The mother did not use "Finalizar", "Recordar", "Abrir" or "Seleccionar" prompts (0.0/minute)

during this phase of the experiment. The rate of "Experiencia" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute

to 0.33/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.037/minute.

Child's oral language

Child 4's production of nouns ranged from 0.0/minute to 2.22/minute with a mean

occurrence of 1.20/minute during baseline (Figure 4-6). Child 4's use of verbs ranged from a

rate of 0.0/minute to 0.98/minute. The mean occurrence rate of verbs during baseline for Child 4

was 0.39/minute. Finally, Child 4's oral production of others ranged from a rate of 0.33/minute

to 2.71/minute with a mean of 2.31/minute.

Intervention

When the PEER baseline data were stable and the intervention data for Dyad 3

demonstrated an upward trend, Mother 4 participated in two individual training sessions

conducted by the researcher. Each session lasted for approximately one hour (for a total of two

hours) and took place in the dyad's home. The researcher used trainer and parent manuals

(Appendices D and E) to train the mother to use the PEER sequence and FRASE during reading

sessions with the child. The mother was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps

and the different kinds of prompts that can be implemented (FRASE). Upon completion of the

training the mother completed a written evaluation with 100% accuracy (9/9). Mother 4 began

implementing the intervention a day after the last training session. Intervention data for Dyad 4









were collected over 5 reading sessions. The duration of Dyad 4's sessions during the

intervention phase of the study ranged from 4.3 minutes to 7.6 minutes with a mean length of

5.57 minutes (Figures 4-4 to 4-6).

PEER

During intervention, Mother 4's use of prompts increased, ranging from 5.78/minute to

10.26/minute with a mean level of 8.09/minute (Figure 4-4). The magnitude of change in

Mother 4's use of prompts had a difference of 8.053/minute from baseline to intervention. The

mother's use of evaluations also increased during the intervention phase. The intervention rate

of evaluations ranged from 2.1/minute to 4.65/minute with a mean occurrence of 3.058/minute.

The magnitude of change in means for Mother 4's use of evaluations was 3.058/minute. Mother

4's implementation of expansions during intervention increased and it ranged from 2.1/minute to

5.43/minute. The mean level of expansions during intervention was 3.068/minute. Mother 4's

use of expansions from baseline to intervention displayed a magnitude of change of 3.01/minute.

Finally, there was no difference in the rate of repetitions (0.0/minute) utilized by Mother 4

during intervention.

FRASE

The variety of prompts implemented by Mother 4 increased during intervention (Figure 4-

5). Mother 4's rate of "Finalizar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.79/minute with a mean

occurrence of 0.158/minute. Mother 4's use of "Finalizar" prompts evidenced a magnitude of

change of 0.158/minute from baseline to intervention. The rate of "Recordar" prompts

underwent an increase during intervention. The intervention rate of "Recordar" prompts ranged

from 3.93/minute to 4.28/minute. The mean level for "Recordar" prompts during intervention

was 4.072/minute. The magnitude of change for Mother 4's use of "Recordar" prompts was

4.072/minute from baseline to intervention. Mother 4's use of "Abrir" prompts also increased









during the intervention phase of the study. The intervention rate of "Abrir" prompts ranged from

0.23/minute to 1.16/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.844/minute. The magnitude of change

in Mother 4's use of"Abrir" prompts displayed a difference of 0.844/minute from the baseline to

the intervention mean rate. The mother's implementation of"Seleccionar" prompts also

increased during the intervention phase. Mother 4's use of"Seleccionar" prompts ranged from

1.4/minute to 3.68/minute with a mean occurrence of 2.438/minute. From baseline to

intervention, Mother 4's implementation of "Seleccionar" prompts showed a magnitude of

change of 2.438/minute. Mother 4's use of"Experiencia" prompts during intervention ranged

from 0.0/minute to 1.27/minute with a mean level of 0.572/minute. There was a mean difference

of 0.535/minute from baseline to intervention.

Child's oral language

The oral language production of Child 4 during intervention increased as evidenced by

Child 4's production of nouns, verbs, and others (Figure 4-6). Child 4's use of nouns during this

phase, ranged from 3.23/minute to 11.86/minute with mean occurrence of 8.89/minute. There

was a magnitude of change of 7.69/minute between baseline and intervention for the child's

production of nouns. Child 4's oral production of verbs during intervention ranged from

2.5/minute to 9.05/minute with a mean occurrence of 5.43/minute. The magnitude of change in

Child 4's production of verbs was 5.04/minute. Finally, Child 4's rate of others during

intervention ranged from 7.14/minute to 19.86/minute with a mean occurrence of 11.25/minute.

The magnitude of change in Child 4's production of others presented a difference of 8.94/minute

between both phases (baseline and intervention).

Maintenance

Maintenance data collection with Mother-Child Dyad 4 began two weeks after the

conclusion of the intervention phase. Maintenance data for Dyad 4 were collected over 4









sessions. Maintenance sessions ranged in duration from 3.09minutes to 5.33 minutes with an

average duration of 4.23 minutes (Figures 4-4 to 4-6).

PEER

Mother 4's implementation of PEER revealed an initial decrease followed by a rising trend

during maintenance (Figure 4-4). As mentioned before, the mother's use of prompts decreased

two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention to recover to intervention levels during the

remainder of the maintenance phase. Mother 4's rate of prompts during maintenance ranged

from 4.78/minute to 8.09/minute with a mean occurrence of 6.16/minute. The rate of evaluations

implemented by this mother showed a decrease after the two week break and then recovered to

reach intervention rate levels. Mother 4's use of evaluations ranged from 0.48/minute to

3.55/minute. The mean level for evaluations was 2.17/minute. Mother 4's use of expansions

two weeks after intervention revealed a slight decrease during the first maintenance session.

Such decrease in expansions was followed by a stable trend line which never reached the levels

evidenced during the intervention phase of the study. Mother 4's maintenance rate of expansions

had a mean occurrence of 3.7/minute with rates ranging from 3.24/minute to 4.07/minute.

Finally, the mother's use of repetitions during maintenance revealed a rising trend reaching

higher levels than those shown during intervention. Repetition rates ranged from 0.0/minute to

0.46/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.2/minute.

FRASE

The rate of "Finalizar" prompts showed no difference two weeks after the conclusion of

the intervention (Figure 4-5). Mother 4's use of "Finalizar" prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to

0.97/minute with a mean of 0.24/minute. The mother's implementation of"Recordar" prompts

decreased after the two-week hiatus and remained stable during maintenance. The maintenance

rate of "Recordar" prompts for Mother 4 ranged from 1.7/minute to 2.31/minute with a mean









occurrence of 2.06/minute. The mother's use of"Abrir" prompts showed an increase after the

two week break followed by a decrease. Such decrease brought the rate of "Abrir" prompts back

to intervention levels during the remaining maintenance sessions. Mother 4's use of "Abrir"

prompts ranged from 1.3/minute to 2.62 minute. The mean level for "Abrir" prompts during

intervention was 1.41/minute. Her implementation of"Seleccionar" prompts evidenced a sharp

decrease during the first maintenance sessions after the two-week hiatus. The rate of

"Seleccionar" prompts then recovered to reach rate levels similar to those revealed during

intervention. The rate of"Seleccionar" prompts ranged from 0.48/minute to 2.62/minute with a

mean of 2.06/minute. Finally, Mother 4's use of "Experiencia" prompts showed a rising trend

two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention. Mother 4's rate of "Experiencia" prompts

ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.97/minute with a mean of 0.40/minute.

Child's oral language

Child 4's oral language production as evidence by the use of nouns, verbs, and others rose

steadily during maintenance (Figure 4-6). Child 4's use of nouns decreased during the first

maintenance session and ended in an upward trend. The maintenance rate of nouns for Child 4

ranged from 7.39/minute to 11.33/minute with a mean occurrence of 9.21/minute. Similarly, the

production of nouns revealed a decrease after the two-week break and then recovers. Child 4's

rate of verbs during maintenance ranged from 3.83/minute to 8.54/minute with a mean level of

4.92/minute. Finally, Child 4's implementation of others showed a decrease two weeks after the

conclusion of intervention and remained constant during the remainder of the maintenance

sessions. Child 4's rate of other ranged from 3.09/minute to 5.33/minute during maintenance.

The mean occurrence of others during this phase was 5.06/minute.









Language Samples and Supplemental Measures

The pre and post-intervention language samples for Child 4 yielded scores of .5 and .6

respectively. Displaying a difference of. 1 from pre to post-intervetion MLU. Child 4's results

in the PLS-4 (Zimmerman et al., 2004) showed a gain of one point between its pre and post-

administrations (PLS-4 pre-administration score = 64; PLS-4 post-adminstration score = 65).

Likewise, the pre and post-scores of the TVIP (Dunn et al., 1986) showed a difference of one

point (pre-score = 72; post-score = 73) between the pre and post-administration. Child 4 failed

to establish a basal score in both the pre and post-administrations of the PPVT-R (Dunn & Dunn,

1981).

Interobserver Agreement

Interobserver agreement was calculated on each dyad's sessions across baseline,

intervention, and maintenance phases. The primary researcher and a secondary researcher, who

is a Spanish/English bilingual early childhood professional with over 31 years of experience,

analyzed the dyad's transcripts independently to determine agreement. For Mother-Child Dyad

1, interobserver agreement was calculated on 31% of the sessions. Interobserver agreement for

Mother l's use of PEER steps ranged from 85% to 100%. Mean agreement for PEER steps was

94%. Interobserver agreement for Mother l's use of different kinds of prompts (FRASE) ranged

from 93.6% to 100% with a mean agreement of 97.4%. Interobserver agreement for Child l's

oral language production ranged from 93% to 99% and had a mean agreement of 96.8 %.

For Mother-Child Dyad 2, interobserver agreement was calculated on 33 % of the

sessions. Interobserver agreement for Mother 2's use of PEER steps ranged from 88.5% to

100%. Mean agreement for PEER steps was 95.4%. Interobserver agreement for Mother 2's use

of different kinds of prompts (FRASE) ranged from 87.8% to 100% with a mean agreement of









94.02%. Interobserver agreement for Child 2's oral language production ranged from 92 % to

99% and had a mean agreement of 97.2%.

For Mother-Child Dyad 3, interobserver agreement was calculated on 35% of the sessions.

Interobserver agreement for Mother 3's use of PEER steps ranged from 88% to 100%. Mean

agreement for PEER steps was 92.8%. Interobserver agreement for Mother 3's use of different

kinds of prompts (FRASE) ranged from 83% to 100% with a mean agreement of 93.6%.

Interobserver agreement for Child 3's oral language production ranged from 97% to 98.8% and

had a mean agreement of 97.9%.

For Mother-Child Dyad 4, interobserver agreement was calculated on 33% of the sessions.

Interobserver agreement for Mother 4's use of PEER steps ranged from 92% to 100%. Mean

agreement for PEER steps was 96.3%. Interobserver agreement for Mother 4's use of different

kinds of prompts (FRASE) ranged from 95% to 100% with a mean agreement of 99.2%.

Interobserver agreement for Mother 4's oral language production ranged from 97% to 100% and

had a mean agreement of 98.2%.

Treatment Integrity

The investigator used the treatment fidelity checklist previously discussed in Chapter 3 to

ensure that the mothers were implementing the treatment as outlined (Appendix J). The

researcher completed a treatment fidelity checklist twice a week during the mother-child reading

sessions. The outlined treatment steps were completed 90% of the time by all 4 mothers.

Social Validation

Following the completion of maintenance data, participating mothers were asked to

complete a social validity questionnaire to obtain information regarding their satisfaction with

the intervention (Appendix K). Specifically, the mothers completed 5 questions that targeted the









importance, effectiveness, and practicality of the intervention. The mothers completed each

question using a 5-point Likert scale.

All mothers agreed strongly that the Dialogic Reading training was very useful. All of

them either agreed or strongly agreed that they would continue using Dialogic Reading

techniques in the future. The mothers also strongly agreed that other migrant parents would be

interested in learning about dialogic reading. When asked whether the training took too much

time, all four mothers strongly disagreed. Finally, all the mothers strongly agreed that the

children's first language oral skills had improved.

Summary

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether migrant mothers with low

educational levels would implement dialogic reading techniques following training, to examine

the effects of the implementation of dialogic reading techniques on the oral language skills of

migrant preschool children and to investigate whether any changes on the oral language skills of

the children would be maintained following the conclusion of the intervention. The data indicate

that migrant mothers implemented the dialogic reading techniques (PEER and FRASE)

following training. The data also indicate that following the implementation of dialogic reading

techniques increased the rate of words per minute produced by the children during the shared

book reading sessions. Furthermore, two weeks after the completion of the intervention phase of

the study, all four mothers continued implementing dialogic reading techniques during shared

book reading sessions and the children's production of oral language during those sessions

continued at levels that were similar to those displayed during intervention.

The results of the social validation measure were positive. The mothers agreed that the

dialogic reading training was very useful and that they were likely to continue utilizing the

techniques in the future. Mothers also strongly agreed that: (a) other migrant parents might be









interested in learning about dialogic reading (b) the training was time efficient and (c) the oral

language skills of the children improved following the intervention.





-G-PPrompt
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 146 17 18 19 20 21
SeseBIO


Figure 4-1. Mother 1-Child I/Mother 2-Child 2: Mother implementation of PEER


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Figure 4-2. Mother 1-Child 1/Mother 2-Child 2: Mother implementation of FRASE











Dyad 1




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Figure 4-3. Mother 1-Child I/Mother 2-Child 2: Children's oral language production


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Figure 4-4. Mother 3-Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Mother implementation of PEER


Dyad 4


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65




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Dyad 4

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Sesians


Figure 4-5. Mother 3-Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Mother implementation of FRASE











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Figure 4-6. Mother 3-Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Children's oral language production


13114 iS 16 1?


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Mainianaoce









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The theoretical framework underlying the current investigation is influenced by the

works of Vygotsky (1978) and Bronfenbrenner (1979). Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of

Learning emphasizes the importance of social interactions in stimulating children's development

(Vygotsky, 1978). This theory proposes that children develop new language skills by engaging

in social interactions with more competent language users such as the parents or caregivers.

Parents who provide a linguistic scaffold by modeling, questioning, and explaining during

conversations facilitate the development of children's receptive and expressive language skills.

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) emphasizes child

development within the context of the environment. Bronfenbrenner (1979) proposes that

interactions between children and their parents are influenced by their individual characteristics

and by the characteristics of their environment.

The interactions between migrant children and their parents, are impacted by the numerous

characteristics often associated with a migrant lifestyle. The poverty and low levels of education

prevalent among migrant families influences the parents' ability to engage their children in

interactions that will help them develop new language skills.

In order to ameliorate the effects that migrancy could have on the language development of

young children, it is crucial to help migrant parents acquire strategies they can implement to help

their children develop the language skills they need to become successful readers. The current

study aimed to address this need by training migrant mothers to implement a strategy that has

proven to promote the language skills of children from different backgrounds.









Overview of the Study

This study was designed to investigate migrant mothers' ability to implement a shared

book reading strategy known as dialogic reading and its effects on the oral language

development of young children with language delays. The following questions were addressed:

1. Can migrant mothers with a low educational level be trained to implement dialogic
reading techniques?

2. What is the effect of the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques on the
oral language production of migrant preschool children?

3. Will the effects of dialogic reading on the oral language development of preschool
children be maintained following the conclusion of the intervention?

The participants included four mother/child dyads. The mothers were members of the

migrant population, used Spanish to communicate with their children, and were able to read at

least a second grade level. Children participants included two males and two females who spoke

Spanish as a first language and ranged in age from 4 years 2 months to 5 years 7 months. The

children displayed language delays as determined through evaluation using the Preschool

Language Scale-4 Spanish (PLS-4; Zimmerman et al., 2004), and the Test de Vocabulario en

Imagenes Peabody (TVIP; Dunn et al., 1986). In addition, the children had never attended any

preschool, childcare or community enrichment programs.

A single subject, multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate mothers'

implementation of dialogic reading techniques, the effects of such implementation on the oral

language production of the children. The maintenance phase of the study examined whether the

mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques and its effect on the children's oral

language were maintained following the conclusion of the intervention. The researcher began

data collection with Dyads 1 and 2. The study was replicated with Dyads 3 and 4 after data

collection concluded for Dyads 1 and 2.









The study consisted of four phases: prebaseline, baseline, intervention and maintenance.

During the prebaseline phase the researcher contacted potential participants and determined

whether they were eligible to participate in the study. Baseline data were collected on the

mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques and on the children's production of oral

language. During the intervention phase mothers participated in a brief training, ranging from

two to three hours, on dialogic reading techniques. Following the training, data were collected

on the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques and on the children's production

of oral language. Two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention phase, the maintenance

phase was conducted. During this phase data were collected to determine whether the effects of

dialogic reading on the oral language production of the children were still visible after the

conclusion of the treatment. In addition, data were collected to determine mothers' continued

implementation of dialogic reading techniques. Finally, social validity information was gathered

through the completion of a questionnaire by the participating mothers.

Summary of Findings

Parent Training and Implementation of Dialogic Reading

Following a brief training conducted in Spanish, all mothers displayed a dramatic increase

in their use of 3 out of the 4 components of the PEER sequence: prompts, evaluations, and

expansions. Conversely, the mothers' rate of repetitions failed to show considerable gains for

any of the participants. These findings mirrored the results of the few studies that examined

parent implementation in a direct manner (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Dale et al.,1996; and

Lim & Cole, 2002). The previous studies reported that the parents' implementation of prompts

and expansions increased substantially following training. Crain-Thoreson and Dale (1999) also

reported an increase in the parents' use of praiseful evaluations following a child's response.

The parents' implementation of repetitions was not examined in these studies.









On average, the mothers' implementation of the FRASE prompts illustrated a preference

for Seleccionar prompts (Wh-prompts) followed by Recordar prompts (Recall prompts), Abrir

prompts (Open-ended prompts), and Experiencia prompts (Distancing prompts). The rate of

Finalizar prompts (Completion prompts) did not show a substantial increase following training.

Once again, the current results are consistent with the findings reported by Crain-Thoreson and

Dale (1999), Dale et al. (1996), and Lim and Cole (2002). The implementation of Finalizar

prompts (completion prompts) and Experiencia prompts (Distancing prompts) was not analyzed

by these researchers.

Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Production of the Children

As the mothers increased their implementation of the techniques, the oral language

production of the children, as measured by the production of nouns, verbs, and "others"

(adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, articles) increased as well. The production of "others" increased

substantially for all the children, followed by the production of nouns and verbs. The oral

language increase experienced by the children in this study is supported by the literature on

dialogic reading, which demonstrates that implementation of a dialogic reading program can

increase the oral language skills of young children at risk (Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst,

1992; Whitehurst, Epstein et al., 1994).

Maintenance

The overall effect of dialogic reading on the children's oral language and the mothers' use

of dialogic reading techniques were maintained two weeks after the conclusion of the

intervention.

The mother's implementation of PEER and FRASE continued at levels very similar to

those displayed during the intervention phase. In a similar manner, the children's overall









production of nouns, verbs, and others during this phase was comparable to that witnessed during

intervention.

Social Validity

Social validity data revealed that migrant mothers found the intervention to be both

effective and practical. Furthermore, mothers agreed that the intervention had a positive effect

on the oral language skills of their children and would continue using dialogic reading techniques

in the future.

Discussion of Findings

Dialogic Reading Training and Migrant Mothers

The literature describing dialogic reading training supports the use of role-play, modeling,

practice sessions with direct feedback, and didactic instruction (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999;

Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Whitehurst, Arnold et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et al., 1994;

Whitehurst, Zevenbergen, et al., 1999). In addition, the research suggests that adding a

videotape component to dialogic reading training will further improve its degree of effectiveness

(Arnold et al., 1994).

In order to design a dialogic reading training program for migrant mothers it was important

to consider the factors mentioned above along with the unique issues often faced by migrant

populations. This section of the chapter will offer a discussion of these issues as they relate to

the training implemented in the current study.

The lives of migrant families are often characterized by several risk factors that impede the

educational success of migrant students. Chief among those factors are limited English

proficiency, limited financial resources, and low levels of educational attainment. Consideration

of these issues during the development of the parent training conducted in this research likely

contributed to its success. Like most members of the migrant population, the mothers









participating in this study had limited English proficiency and low levels of education, which

hindered their participation in the literacy programs available in the community. In order to

ensure the full participation of the mothers, the training was conducted in Spanish. In addition,

all training materials were either translated to Spanish or created for Spanish speakers. An

important part of the training was the videotape utilized to show mothers how to implement

dialogic reading. "Lectura Interactiva" (Landry, 2002) allowed mothers to watch and hear other

Spanish speaking mothers modeling the use of dialogic reading techniques. By engaging in

observational learning the mothers were not only able to see how other Hispanic mothers

implemented the techniques, but also witnessed the potential outcomes that such implementation

could exert in the language production of their children. Watching the potential outcomes of the

techniques in a population similar to their own might have allowed the parents to perceive the

intervention as valuable and to start viewing themselves as their children's first teachers

(Rodriguez-Brown, 2003). Thus, motivating them to learn and implement the dialogic reading

techniques. In addition, it is likely that the inclusion of "Lectura Interactiva" (Landry, 2002) in

the training validated the mothers' first language and background knowledge, allowing them to

counteract the notion that they needed to speak English and have a high level of education to

help prepare their children for school (Rodriguez-Brown, 2003; Rodriguez-Brown & Shanahan,

1989). Rodriguez-Brown and Shanahan (1989) encountered these beliefs when working with

Hispanic families at a community literacy program. These researchers queried Hispanic parents

about their roles as teachers of their own children and found that most parents felt they were not

serving or could not serve in that role due to their lack of English proficiency and limited

schooling (Rodriguez-Brown & Shanahan, 1989). Therefore, it is critical for any literacy

program targeting Spanish speakers to empower parents by counteracting these beliefs and by









helping parents utilize the background knowledge they posses to help prepare their children for

academic success (Rodriguez-Brown & Shanahan, 1989).

Another important issue that was taken into consideration when developing the training for

the current study was the lack of financial resources experienced by most migrant families

(Garza et al, 2004). The mothers participating in this investigation did not have the financial

resources to secure a stable means of transportation. Therefore, conducting the training in their

homes was crucial to ensure the full participation of the mothers. Although, conducting the

training in the homes contributed to the social validity of the investigation, it also meant that the

mothers were exposed to numerous distractions that would not be encountered in a more

controlled setting such as a classroom (Kazdin, 1982). The research sessions were often

interrupted by unexpected phone calls, visitors, and sudden changes in the families' routines.

For example, the first training session for Mother 3 had to be suspended for approximately

twenty minutes when the father arrived with a large group of friends. Interruptions such as this

might have accounted for the initial difficulties experienced by Mothers 2 and 3 during the

evaluation phase of the training. These mothers failed to obtain the score they needed to begin

implementing the dialogic reading techniques; therefore, they had to participate in a remedial

coaching session immediately after the training.

Despite the difficulties mentioned above, the parent training program implemented during

the current study was demonstrated to be effective. Incorporating aspects of the family's culture

into the training program appeared to improve the mothers'sense of self-efficacy and allowed

them to visualize themselves as their children's first teacher.

Mothers Implementation of Dialogic Reading

There are four findings related to the implementation of PEER and FRASE that necessitate

further explanation: (a) mothers' successful implementation of three out of four dialogic reading









steps, (b) mothers' rate of success with four out of five dialogic reading prompts, (c) the

influence of the mothers' level of education on the rate of implementation of PEER and FRASE,

(d) the mothers' constant efforts to mediate the shared book interactions through the

implementation of different prompts.

PEER and FRASE

Following training, the migrant mothers participating in the current study were able to

implement three out of the four steps outlined by the PEER sequence at a high rate of frequency.

Those steps were: Prompt, Evaluate, and Expand. Conversely, the mothers' rate of

implementation for Repetitions was negligible. Only Mother 1 implemented this step during one

of the reading sessions in the intervention phase of the study.

Along the same lines, the mothers were able to implement 4 out of 5 different kinds of

prompts (FRASE) at a high rate of frequency. The rate of implementation for Recordar (Recall)

prompts, Abrir (Open-ended) prompts, Seleccionar (Wh-) prompts, and Experiencia (Distancing)

prompts displayed a notable increase following training. However, the rate of implementation for

Finalizar (Completion) prompts did not evidence a notable post-training increase.

The idiosyncrasies in the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques might be

explained by the verbal patterns of interaction followed by Hispanic families when socializing

their children (Rogers, 2001). This notion is congruent with the answer provided by the migrant

mothers when questioned about their implementation patterns. The mothers reported that they

did not implement repetitions and/or Finalizar (completion) prompts because they were difficult

to remember and not consistent with the way they spoke to their children.

The literature addressing the interaction of Hispanic parents and their children supports

these findings and points out that mothers of Mexican descent socialize their children by being

direct, by asking numerous questions, and providing direct evaluations. In addition, the research









suggests that Hispanic mothers do not engage their children in verbal interactions that involve

repetitions or the completion of phrases (Valdes, 1996). During her work with Hispanic families,

Valdes (1996) studied and compared the parent/child interactions in three different regions of

Mexico. She describes how only infants learning their first words were encouraged to repeat or

complete phrases uttered by the parents. These requests appeared to cease once a child had

acquired a basic language repertory around the age two. Therefore, asking children older than

two years of age to engage in interactions that involve repetition and the completion of phrases is

seldom encountered within the Hispanic population (Madding 1999; Valdes, 1996; Wong-

Fillmore, 1982). These findings might lead to the conclusion that extensive training and

consistent coaching might be necessary to make repetitions and Finalizar prompts an ingrained

part of the shared book reading routine of migrant Spanish speaking mothers. In more general

terms, the findings underscore the importance of considering participants' cultural background

when determining the level of effectiveness of any intervention.

Influence of educational level on the implementation of dialogic reading

The strong influence that the mothers' level of education exerted on their implementation

of dialogic reading techniques was another of the major findings of the current study. Although

there were similarities in the way migrant mothers implemented the techniques, close

examination of the data demonstrates that every mother had an individual pattern of

implementation. This was particularly true when the mothers selected different kinds of prompts

(FRASE). Careful examination of the mothers' background information shows that mothers with

different levels of education chose to implement the prompts at slightly different rates. For

example, during the intervention phase of the study, Mother 4 implemented Recordar (Recall)

prompts at a higher rate than any of the other participants. Upon analysis of the mother's

background information it was noted that Mother 4 had the highest level of education. The









educational level of this mother might have facilitated the implementation of Recordar (Recall),

a prompt that did not require her to rely on the book pictures.

This finding is consistent with the Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979),

which is part of the theoretical framework underlying this investigation. Bronfenbrenner (1979)

proposes that the interactions between children and the members of their microsystem at home,

particularly the parents, are impacted by their individual characteristics. The mothers' level of

education appeared to influence the rate at which they implemented different kinds of prompts,

thus impacting the way in which they conducted reading interactions with their children.

Mothers' use of prompts to mediate the reading interaction of children

Upon close examination of the data and after direct observation of the dyads, it was noted

that the migrant mothers participating in the current study appeared to be mediating the reading

interactions by utilizing different kinds of prompts and by varying their use contingent on the

level of participation of the children. The mothers' constant attempts to mediate the interactions

are consistent with the Sociocultural Theory of Learning (Vygotsky, 1978). The Sociocultural

Theory of Learning posits that children develop language skills by engaging in social

interactions with more competent language users such as the parents or caregivers. The parents

will adjust the level of the language they utilize to the linguistic capacities of the child. Such

scaffolding will lead children to more opportunities for language development. Dyad 2

illustrates this finding clearly. Mother 2's implementation of Experiencia (Distancing) prompts

during intervention appeared to elicit more participation from the child than Recordar (Recall) or

Abrir (Open-ended) prompts. Therefore, it is likely that Mother 2 sustained the implementation

of this particular kind of prompt to promote the participation of the child. During different

phases of the investigation, Child 2 began displaying behavior difficulties and changing his rate

of oral language production. Mother 2 appeared to be responding to the child's level of









performance by scaffolding her language, by implementing a higher number of prompts and by

changing the kinds of prompts she implemented. Once again this finding is consistent with the

theoretical framework of the current investigation and with the available literature on

parent/child reading interactions which suggests that parents mediate the reading interaction by

implementing different kinds of guidance and by adjusting that guidance when necessary

(Mason, 1990).

Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Production of the Children

Analysis of the rate of nouns, verbs and others indicate that the production of the migrant

children's oral language increased during the intervention. These results are supported by

previous research on the effects of dialogic reading on the language development of children

with language delays who come from low socioeconomic backgrounds (Crain-Thoreson & Dale,

1999; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Whitehurst, Arnold et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et al.,

1994; Whitehurst, Fishel et al., 1991; Whitehurst, Zevenbergen, et al.,1999) and by the findings

of previous dialogic reading investigations involving children who had first languages other than

English (Brickman, 2002; Canning, 2002; Lim & Cole, 2002; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst,

1992). This section of the chapter will expand on three findings regarding the effects of dialogic

reading on the oral language skills of children from migrant backgrounds that must be explored

further: (a) irregularities in the initial baseline data, (b) the children's use of code mixing during

the interactions and (c) the inconsistencies in the results of the supplemental measures.

Irregularities in baseline data

Upon analysis of the changes in the language production of the children, it is important to

note that the baseline data for children 1, 2 and 3 displayed an initial spike in oral language

production followed by a dramatic decrease within the first sessions of the baseline phase of the

study. In the case of children 1 and 3, this trend might be explained by the effects of novelty.









Novelty is defined as an unfamiliar stimulus that generates arousal and attention in human and

nonhuman organisms (Comerford & Witryol, 1991). Many studies in the field of psychology

have demonstrated that children are attracted to novel stimuli and will change their behaviors

when presented with novel stimuli (Bradbury & Plichon, 2001; Comerford & Witryol, 1991;

Wentworth & Witryol, 1984). The mothers of children 1 and 3 reported that they did not usually

engage their children in traditional shared book reading interactions. Therefore, it is possible

that the initial reading interactions required for the study during baseline were perceived as novel

stimuli by these children, commanding their full attention and causing them to produce more

language during the first baseline sessions of the study. Once the children became familiar with

the interactions (baseline session 2 for Child 1 and baseline session 3 for Child 3) their rate of

language production decreased and remained constant during the remainder of the baseline phase

of the study. In the case of Child 2, the variability in the language production during baseline

might be due to both the effects of novelty and behavioral difficulties that would arise every time

the mother attempted to engage the child in a reading interaction during this phase. Some of the

behavior difficulties displayed by Child 2 included refusing to turn off the television before the

reading interactions and refusing to sit down next to his mother. Child 4 did not appear to

experience the effects of novelty. This finding might be explained by Mother 4's report that she

engaged her children in reading interactions on occasion. Therefore, this child might have

already been familiar with reading interactions.

Code mixing

An interesting finding refers to the fact that most of the children used code mixing

(Spanish to English or vice versa) during the interactions with their mothers. The code mixing

happened even though the mothers spoke primarily Spanish to the children at home. For

example, one child named the colors "rojo, verde, green, blue, morado" as she described the









objects in a picture. Another child would count "one, two, three, cinco, four, dos" while pointing

to objects shown in the book. Lim and Cole (2002) reported similar findings in their study with

Korean mothers and their children. These researchers worked with children ages 2-4 and their

mothers and reported that the children engaged in code mixing quite often by either counting or

by implementing English grammar rules to Korean words (Lim & Cole, 2002).

It is important to note that the children included in the current study had never participated

in a child care or preschool program and most of them lived in very isolated areas which

provided limited opportunities to interact with English speakers. Two of the children (1 and 4)

lived in rural areas with no neighbors within a 2 mile radius. The other two lived in more

populated areas but were only allowed to interact with family members living in the same

household. In the case of Child 3, the code mixing phenomenon might be explained by the

presence of two older siblings who had probably exposed the child to the language. However,

the mothers of the other children in the study reported that their children's only exposure to

English happened during the occasional trip to the grocery store and through television viewing

of 3 or more hours a day. When asked about their children's television viewing habits, mothers

reported that the children watched movies and cartoons in English such as "Dora the Explorer"

and "Spongebob". The constant exposure to television programs in English might account for

these children's incipient knowledge of English. This hypothesis is supported by studies on

television exposure and development of language in young children (Anderson & Pempeck,

2005; Linebarger & Walker, 2005; Wright et al., 2001). These studies suggest that television

viewing might promote the language development of young monolingual children. Furthermore,

the content of the program watched by the children made a difference in the development of oral









language with programs such as the bilingual "Dora the Explorer" resulting in higher expressive

language scores (Linebarger & Walker, 2005).

Understanding this code mixing phenomenon is not a simple task as no single explanation

accounts for all bilingual code mixing (Goldstein, 2004). It is possible that the code mixing

reflected the children's flexibility in using all the linguistic resources they had acquired up to that

point. The dialogic reading book interactions might have been offering the ideal opportunity for

the children to use all the linguistic resources they had acquired through sibling interaction and

television viewing in order to meet their communication needs (Genesse, Paradis & Crago,

2004). While working with English language learners and their families in Canada, Genesse et

al. (2004) found that the children would code mix using both their native French and English

during interactions with monolingual adults. Genesse et al. (2004) add that the children appeared

to be making use of all the language they possessed to meet their need for social interaction.

Inconsistencies with the supplemental measures

The children's language skills were assessed before the initiation of the study to determine

eligibility and after the intervention to determine whether any changes in language would be

reflected in the results of standardized measures. The instruments utilized included the Spanish

version of the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4, Zimmerman et al., 2004), and the Spanish

version of the PPVT or TVIP (Dunn et al., 1986). In addition, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary

Test-Revised, Form M (PPVT-R, Dunn & Dunn, 1981) was administered to assess the English

language abilities of the children. Findings resulting from the administration of these measures

were ambiguous in regards to the effectiveness of the intervention.

Comparison of the pre and post-administrations of the previous measures revealed that

only Child 1 had an important improvement in both the PLS-4 and the TVIP. This child had the

highest level of language functioning at the beginning of the study; therefore, she might have









been "better equipped" to develop more language with the help of the intervention (Stanovich,

1986). Stanovich (1986) proposes that children at a higher level of language performance usually

elicit more advanced patterns of stimulation than children at a lower level and are better prepared

to take advantage of interactions that promote language development.

The results for Child 2 appeared to be contradictory. Child 2's PLS-4 pre and post-scores

did not show gains. However, the child's scores for the TVIP showed a more significant

increase. This lack of consistency between assessments might be attributed to the behavior

difficulties experienced by Child 2 during the administration of the PLS-4 (Zimmerman et al.,

2004). The pre and post-administrations of the assessments for Children 3 and 4 failed to show

important results for either child. This finding might suggest that children with language delays,

particularly English language learners with language delays, may need more intense and longer

periods of interventions in order to show any improvements in standardized assessments.

The pre and post-intervention results for the PPVT-R (Dunn & Dunn, 1981) confirmed that

Spanish was the children's dominant language. All of the children were unable to establish a

basal score in both the pre and post-administrations of this measure.

Prior to the beginning of the intervention and following its conclusion, the researcher also

collected language samples during two individual play sessions with each of the children. The

samples were analyzed to determine the mean length of utterance in morphemes. Although the

post language samples showed increases in the MLU of all the children, these differences are not

considered important. This finding might also be attributed to the short duration of the

intervention. Children from low-income backgrounds and with language delays might need

shared reading interventions that last longer and are more intensive in order to generalize the









effects to contexts that do not involve reading interactions (Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst,

1992).

Finally, it is important to point out that measuring MLU in languages other than English

has proven to be problematic for research purposes because languages vary significantly in their

syntactic structure (Guitierrez-Clellen et al., 2000; Lim & Cole, 2002). In addition, the lack of a

"gold standard" to which ELL children's language samples can be compared presents another

challenge when using MLU to determine the effects of an intervention (Guitierrez-Clellen et al.,

2000; Restrepo, 1996). Guitierrez-Clellen et al. (2000) add that the developmental milestones for

English monolinguals are not comparable to bilingual (Spanish/English) learners, therefore, there

are no clear uniform criteria available which can be utilized when determining the MLU of

Spanish speaking children learning English as a second language.

Maintenance

The present study was also designed to evaluate the maintenance of the intervention on the

mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques and on the children's language. Two

weeks after the conclusion of the intervention, the mothers were asked to engage in shared book

reading sessions with their children.

Maintenance effects on mothers

The slight initial decrease and subsequent recovery in the mothers' use of dialogic reading

techniques during this phase might be explained by previous research, which emphasizes that

once a particular reading behavior is incorporated into a parents' reading routine it might be very

difficult to change (Neuman & McCormick, 1995). On the other hand, that initial decrease also

suggests that migrant parents might need a longer, more continuous intervention in order to

implement dialogic reading techniques in a regular basis (Reese & Gallimore, 2000).









Another finding that deserves further explanation is the increases in mothers'

implementation of different kinds of prompts (FRASE) during maintenance. Mother 3 serves as

the best example to illustrate this point. Mother 3's rate of implementation for Seleccionar (Wh-

prompts) prompts increased dramatically during the maintenance phase of the current study.

This increase might be attributed to this mother's attempt to mediate the reading interaction by

adjusting the implementation of different prompts to the changes in the child's performance

(Vygotsky, 1978).

Maintenance effects on the oral language of the children

The maintenance of the effects of dialogic reading on the oral language production of the

children might serve as strong evidence that the intervention provided in the study promoted the

oral language development of migrant children over time. It is important to note that the

children's production of oral language did not display an initial decrease following intervention.

On the contrary, Child 3 for example displayed a higher rate in the production of "other" words

after the conclusion of the intervention.

Social Validity

According to Foster and Mash (1999) and Kazdin (1982), social validity refers to the social

importance and acceptability of treatment goals, procedure, and outcomes. In order for

participants to implement and maintain the use of an intervention, they must believe that the

intervention produces an important outcome and be able to implement the intervention without

undue difficulty (Neuman & McCormick, 1995).

Results of the social validity measure utilized in the current study reflect the conditions

outlined above. The mothers' attitude toward the importance of this study and its ease of

implementation might have contributed to the implementation and maintenance of dialogic

reading techniques during shared book reading interactions.









It can be reported anecdotally that the mothers seemed to enjoy the reading interactions

with their children and appeared to feel empowered by their new role as the "teachers of the

family". One of the mothers mentioned that she felt proud she could help prepare her son for

Kindergarten and added that following the intervention she felt more appreciated by the whole

family. That growing sense of pride and accomplishment was prevalent among all the mother

participants following the intervention. Mother 3 reported that her daily interactions with her

young son changed dramatically following the intervention. She added that she felt respected and

valued by her son and the other male members of the family.

The fact that the intervention was conducted in Spanish was pointed as another advantage

by the mothers. In addition, the daily visits of the researcher were perceived as social visits and

not as research sessions. Most of the mothers mentioned that they seldom had opportunities to

interact with members of the university community and had numerous questions about what it

was like to "go to college" and how they could help prepare their young children for college.

When asked informally about the social validity of the intervention all mothers reported that

participating in the current study had a major positive influence in their lives.

Limitations

Although the results of this study extend the literature regarding the effectiveness of

dialogic reading with families from diverse backgrounds there are notable limitations that may

have impacted the findings. As with most single subject studies, the small size limits the

external validity of the study (Kazdin, 1982). Because the participants of the current study were

all migrant mothers it is unknown whether the study's findings could be replicated with fathers

from the same population. Another replication of the study should include migrant mothers with

higher levels of education than those held by the present group in order to determine whether the









effects of the intervention would be as dramatic as they were on the rate of implementation of the

mothers in the current study.

Second, the difference in duration among reading sessions might have influenced the

results. On average, once mothers began implementing the dialogic reading techniques they

were reading for longer periods of time. As the dyads engaged in longer reading interactions the

mothers had more opportunity to practice the techniques and the children had more opportunities

to produce oral language. Therefore, any effects of the intervention might have been impacted

by the change of duration in the sessions.

The third limitation refers to the increased access to books given to the participants during

the current study. The available research on the literacy environments of children suggests that

many children from low socieocomic backgrounds begin school without ever having heard a

book read aloud (Moustafa, 1997). Adams (1990) points out that the average child from a

middle-class background will begin school with over 1,000 hours of shared book experiences,

while the typical child from a low-income home will have only 25 hours of experience (Adams,

1990). The striking differences among children from low and middle-income families in shared

book experiences can be attributed to differences in the access to books (Neuman & Celano,

2001; Neuman, 1999). Limited access to children's books and other print materials in the home

may have adverse consequences on the development of children's early literacy skills (Madden,

Slavin, Karweit, Dolan, & Wasik, 1993). Furthermore, providing books to children and families

from low socioeconomic backgrounds may have a positive effect on the children's language

development and might encourage parents to engage their children in early literacy activities

(McCormick & Mason, 1986; Neuman, 1996). The dyads participating in the current study, all

of whom had very limited access to printed materials prior to the current investigation, received









new books every week and were allowed to keep them after the reading interactions were audio

taped. Therefore, it is not known whether increasing the families' access to children books could

have influenced the results.

A fifth limitation involves the way in which the books were distributed during the study.

As mentioned previously, the number of books in the dyad's homes increased every week during

the development of the research. It is not known whether increasing the number of books in a

gradual manner (two books per week) had any impact on the results of the investigation.

However, it is also not certain that providing the dyads with all the books on the first day of

baseline would have been beneficial. It might have overwhelmed the mothers and the children.

It is important to note that the distribution system utilized for the current study was consistent

with they way in which previous dialogic reading studies provided books to their participants

(Whitehurst, Arnold et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et al., 1994).

Sixth, the presence of the principal investigator and the audiotape recorder in the home

during the investigation may have introduced a high level of reactivity as the mothers and, to a

lesser extent, the children knew that their interactions were being monitored during the reading

sessions (Kazdin, 1982). Potentially, the mothers may not have implemented any dialogic

reading steps if the principal investigator had not been present.

Implications for Research

The results of this study provide evidence that mothers from migrant populations can be

trained to implement dialogic reading techniques and that the implementation of the techniques

has a positive effect on the oral language production of migrant preschool children with language

delays. This research adds to the scarce literature available on migrant populations and how

migrant mothers can help prepare their children for formal reading instruction ameliorating the

effects of the risk factors often associated with migrant life.









Furthermore, the study extends the literature on dialogic reading as it examined the effects

of the intervention on a population that differs from those included in previous dialogic reading

studies. Few dialogic reading studies have concentrated on the changes that the intervention

produces on the parents' reading behaviors (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Dale et al., 1996;

Lim & Cole, 2002). This investigation makes an additional contribution to the dialogic reading

literature by accomplishing this and by evaluating mothers' use of different kinds of prompts.

Finally, most of the findings on the efficacy of dialogic reading on the linguistic skills of

young children have been obtained through the interpretation of group data (1998; Valdez-

Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Whitehurst, Arnold et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et al., 1994).

This study contributes to the literature by utilizing single subject multiple baseline across

participants allowing for the evaluation of the intervention in individual children and mothers.

To analyze the effects of the intervention on the oral language of the children, the

researcher measured the rate per minute of nouns, verbs and others produced during the reading

interactions. This analysis demonstrated that the implementation of dialogic reading techniques

had a positive effect on the oral language skills of the children. However, future replications of

the study should include more sensitive linguistic measures and analyses that will allow

researchers to examine changes in the lexical and synctatical aspects of the children's language.

Although the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques were maintained two

weeks after the conclusion of the study, the initial decrease displayed during the maintenance

phase might be an indication that migrant populations need longer, and more intensive

intervention in order to implement shared book reading interventions. It is important to

remember that the mothers in the current study did not learn all the parts of the dialogic sequence

(PEER and FRASE) and used a handout in order to help remember the techniques when reading









to their children. Therefore, it is imperative to find better ways of training parents to remember

the intervention for a longer period of time. Future replications of the study might include extra

coaching sessions as part of the parent-training component. After completing the instructional

portion of the training, parents would engage in several dialogic reading coaching sessions with

their children. During these sessions the researcher would provide feedback on the utilization of

the technique and determine which parts of the intervention are more difficult to implement. In

addition, the coaching sessions could be videotaped to allow parents to evaluate their use of the

dialogic reading techniques.

The present study checked for maintenance two weeks after the conclusion of the

intervention. Extensions of the study need to examine whether the effects of dialogic reading

can be maintained for a longer period of time. Along those lines, another important replication of

the study should follow the children during preschool and kindergarten in order to determine

whether the effects of the intervention on the oral language have facilitated the students'

acquisition of English and the acquisition of preliteracy skills that will set the students on a path

to reading success.

The current study did not examine the generalization of the effects of dialogic reading on

the language production of migrant children in settings other than the home or in situations that

did not involve reading interactions. A replication of the study must analyze the generalization

of the effects of the intervention to different settings and to situations that do not involve the use

of books.

Finally, another implication for future research involves the anecdotal observations

regarding the family dynamics in the homes of the participants. The researcher noted that once

the intervention phase of the study began there were changes in the non-reading interactions









between the migrant mothers and their children. Both mothers and children appeared to be using

more language and the children seemed to be more compliant with their mothers' instructions.

Another important change involved the way in which different members of the family interacted

with the mothers once they began participating in the study. Mothers reported that they felt

empowered and more valued by all the members of the family. One mother added that the male

members of the family treated her in a more respectful manner once she began reading to her

child. Future replications of the study should include methodology that will allow researchers to

measure changes in the daily interactions and dynamics of the families participating in the

investigation.

Implications for Practice

The results of the current study have powerful implications for early childhood

practitioners working with Spanish speaking children and their families. Professionals must

adapt interventions and programs to the families they aim to serve. Taking into account the

social, cultural and linguistic strengths of families will increase the effectiveness of interventions

by allowing teachers and practitioners to use the family's background knowledge to foster the

development of new skills. In addition, learning about the culture of the populations they serve

will send parents the message that they are important and appreciated, thus increasing their level

of participation, trust and satisfaction (Reese & Gallimore, 2000).

In the case of migrant populations it is also critical to implement interventions that involve

children's parents and that allow the parents to use their first language. This is supported by

recent research on family literacy and the literacy development of young migrants, which posits

that the influence of the home environment and the involvement of the family are crucial for the

development of literacy skills (Bryant & Wasik, 2004; Ezell, 2000). Research on family literacy

demonstrates that including parents in literacy programs has numerous advantages (Wasik,









2004). Children who participate in literacy programs that involve their families develop better

oral language skills (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pellegrini, 1995; Jordan, Snow & Porche, 2000),

display higher achievement in reading (Shanahan, Mulhern, & Rodriguez-Brown, 1995), are

better prepared to take advantage of learning opportunities both at home and at school

(Rodriguez-Brown, 2003), are healthier (Romanowski, 2004) and have a more favorable concept

of self (Askov, 2004). In addition, encouraging parents to use the language they know best

when engaging their children in literacy-related experiences is a component of any effective

family literacy program (Auerbach, 1989). Rodriguez-Brown (2003) adds that encouraging

parents to use their first language allows them to counteract the notion that they need to know

English to help their young children acquire the language and literacy skills they need to be

successful in school.

Along the same line, it is important to implement family literacy programs that will meet

the needs of migrant families by having bilingual staff, reading materials for all reading levels,

and printed materials that reflect the needs of the migrant population.

Summary

The literature on migrant families points out that the factors which characterize this

population make migrant parents and their children the most academically vulnerable subgroup

in the United States today (Gouwens, 20001; Romanowski, 2004). Migrant parents want their

children to be successful and view education as their children's way out of the cycle of migrancy

(Ezell et al., 2000; Henderson, 1992; Whitaker et al., 1997). However, the low educational

levels, lack of financial resources, high mobility rates, and limited English proficiency prevalent

among migrant families make it very difficult for migrant parents to participate in family literacy

programs that would prepare them to engage their children in literacy-activities (Henderson,

1992; Romanowski, 2004).









This study addressed this situation by training mothers from migrant populations to

implement dialogic reading, a shared book reading interaction that has proven to be effective in

promoting the language development of young children from diverse backgrounds (Arnold et al.,

1994; Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998; Whitehurst et al., 1988; Whitehurst et al. 1994; Valdez-

Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992). The results of this investigation demonstrated that mothers from

migrant populations can be successfully trained to implement dialogic techniques and that the

mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques increased the oral language production

of migrant preschool children with delays. Furthermore, the results of the current study revealed

that the mothers' implementation of dialogic reading techniques and the effects of the

implementation on the oral language production of the children were maintained following the

conclusion of the intervention.









APPENDIX A
IRB APPROVAL AND CONSENT FORMS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD

1. TITLE OF PROTOCOL: Assessing the Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language
Skills of Migrant Preschool Children At-Risk of Reading Difficulties

2.PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(S): Joyce Tardaguila-Harth, Doctoral Student, Department
of Special Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050,
392-0701.

3.SUPERVISOR: Vivian I. Correa, Ph.D., Department of Special Education, P.O. Box 117050,
G-315 Norman Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050, 392-0701.

4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROTOCOL: From October 15, 2006 to October 14, 2007

5.SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROTOCOL: Unfunded

6.SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION: The purpose of this study is to
determine if a shared book reading intervention (dialogic reading) implemented by the parents
will promote the first language development of preschool children with language delays.

7 DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE.
Preschool teachers will nominate four children who speak Spanish as a first language, and who
are members of the migrant population. The children will be included in the study if they meet
the following criteria:
1. The child has been diagnosed with a language delay
2. The child does not exhibit significant behavior problems as indicated by the teacher
3. The child's parent or guardian provides informed consent
Parent participants must meet the following criteria to be included in the study:
1. The parent uses predominately Spanish to communicate with the child at home
2. The parent is able to read in Spanish at a second grade level.
3. The parent gives informed consent.

The language skills of the children will be evaluated prior to the onset of the study (pre-
baseline) and upon completion of the study. The investigator will utilize the Preschool Language
Scale (PLS-4), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III), and the Spanish version of the
PPVT-III (Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody, TVIP). A language sample will also be
collected at the beginning and at the end of the study.

The study will occur in phases. During the first phase of the study, parents will be asked to read a
storybook to their children at least four times a week. Every reading session should last between
10 and 15 minutes. No further instructions will be offered during this phase of the investigation.
The reading interactions will be observed and audio taped by the researcher. Data will be
collected on the number of words uttered by the child during the reading sessions and will be
used to establish a baseline.









The second phase of the investigation will be comprised of individual parent training sessions.
This phase will include a discussion about the importance of developing a strong foundation in
the first language and how a strong base in the first language assists the acquisition of a second
language. The importance of early literacy activities such as shared book reading will be
discussed and parents will be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques in the shared
book interactions with their children. The researcher will model the dialogic reading techniques
and parents will get to practice the intervention with the researcher before they implement it with
their children. Two verbal checks of the parents' understanding of dialogic reading will be
conducted.
The third phase of the experiment will include implementation of the intervention by the parents
in their homes. Parents will read to their children using dialogic reading techniques for at leas
four times a week. Every reading session will last between 10 and 15 minutes. The reading
sessions will be audio taped. Data will be collected on the number of words uttered by the
children during the reading interactions. The researcher will utilize event recording or frequency
measures to collect the data. In this phase, parents and children will be observed and data
recorded on the measure mentioned above at least four times a week for a period of 10-15
minutes.
The last phase of the study is the maintenance phase. Two weeks following the conclusion of the
study, the researcher will return to observe and collect data to determine if the parents are
continuing to implement the reading technique and to examine whether there have been any
changes in the number of words uttered by the children during shared book reading sessions. A
single subject multiple baseline across participants will be used to conduct the investigation. The
first phase of the study will take approximately 4-8 weeks. The final phase will take
approximately two weeks. Once all the phases have been completed, findings will be used for
the principal investigator's doctoral dissertation.

The audio tapes of the participants will be destroyed upon completion of the study.

8.POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK. This study proposes no risks to the
participants. The potential benefits include training parents of children with language delays to
implement an intervention that will foster the language and emergent literacy development of
children at-risk for future reading difficulties. Participating parents and children will receive
children books during the study.

9.DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANTS WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND
AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any): The
principal investigator will provide a verbal explanation of the study to Head Start teachers in a
rural county in Florida. The teachers will be asked to nominate 4 children ages 36 -48 months
who have language delays. The principal investigator will approach the parents or guardians of
the children and provide a written and verbal explanation of the study.

Each parent will receive a $50.00 gift certificate upon completion of the study.

10.DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY THE
INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT (if applicable). See attached.









Parents will receive an informed consent form in their first language (Spanish). The investigator
will explain the consent form and the details of the study in the parents' first language (See
attached)


Principal Investigator's Signature






Supervisor's Signature



I approve this protocol for submission to the UFIRB:









University of Florida
Department of Special Education
P.O. Box 117050/G-315 Normal Hall
Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050
Parent Consent

Protocol Title: Assessing the Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Skills of
Migrant Preschool Children At-Risk of Reading Difficulties.

Purpose of the research study: The purpose of the study is to determine if a shared book
reading intervention (dialogic reading) implemented by the parents will promote the first
language development of preschool children with language delays.

Time Required: Two to Four hours of training, and 15 minute observations at least four times
per week for up to one year.

Risk and Benefits: This study poses no risk. The potential benefits include (1) learning an
intervention that will foster the language and early literacy skills of children and (2) getting
children's books for your child.

Parent's role: You will attend two training sessions lasting between one and two hours each
and an additional one hour training if needed. Upon completion of the training you will be asked
to implement the intervention during shared book reading sessions with your child. You will be
ask to read to your children at least four times a week for 10-15 minutes. The principal
investigator will observe and audiotape the reading sessions for up to three months.

Child's role: Before the start of the study, your child's language skills will be evaluated using
the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) and the
Spanish version of the PPVT-III known as the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody
(TVIP). The PLS-4, PPVT-III and TVIP are language assessment instruments that measure the
child's receptive and expressive language. As you begin to implement the intervention with your
child, I will observe to see if your child's production of oral language increases. The principal
investigator will audiotape the sessions.

Compensation: You will receive a $50.00 gift certificate upon completion of the study.

Confidentiality: Results of the study may be shared with colleagues in the field of education,
for purposes of confidentiality, your name and identity will be kept confidential to the extent
provided by law. Audiotapes will be coded during the study and may be heard by the primary
investigator (Joyce Tardaguila-Harth), and members of the primary investigator's doctoral
committee (Dr. Vivian Correa, Dr. Hazel Jones, Dr. Holly Lane, and Dr. Candace Harper).

Voluntary Participation: You and your child's participation are completely voluntary. There
is no penalty for not participating.









Right to withdraw from the study: You and your child have the right to withdraw from the
study at anytime without consequence.

Contact Persons: Joyce Tardaguila-Harth, Doctoral Student, Department of Special Education,
P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050, 392-0701.

Vivian I. Correa, Ph.D., Department of Special Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman
Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050

Contact regarding your rights as a research participant:

UFIRB office, Box 112250 University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. 32611-2250; 392-0433

Agreement:

I have read the above procedures. I give my consent to participate in the study. I have received
a copy of this description.



Parent Date



Witness Date









University of Florida
Department of Special Education
P.O. Box 117050/G-315 Normal Hall
Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050
Formulario de Permiso Para Padres


Nombre de la Investigaci6n: Evaluando los Efectos de la Lectura Interactiva en el Lenguaje
Oral de Nihos Migrantes con Riesgo de Desarrollar Problemas de Lectura

Prop6sito de la Investigaci6n: El prop6sito de esta investigaci6n es determinar si la intervenci6n
de lectura interactive, implementada por los padres, promovera el desarrollo del primer idioma
de nifios en edad pre-escolar con problems de lenguaje.

Tiempo Requerido: Dos a cuatro horas de entrenamiento y observaciones de 15 minutes por lo
menos cuatro veces por semana por un aflo.

Riesgos y Beneficios: Esta investigaci6n no present riesgo alguno. Los beneficios pueden
incluir (1) aprender a utilizar una tecnica de lectura que puede ayudar a su nifio(a) a mejorar sus
destrezas orales y a fomentar destrezas que le ayudaran a aprender a leer y (2) recibir libros de
cuentos para su nifio (a).

Participaci6n del Padre: Usted participara en dos sesiones de adiestramiento que duraran entire
una y dos horas (con una hora extra cuando sea necesario). Una vez que el adriestramiento
termine se le pedira a usted que utilize la tecnica aprendida cuando le lea libros de cuento a su
nifio (a). Se le pedira que le lea a su niho (a) por lo menos cuatro veces a la semana por 10 o 15
minutes. La investigadora o su asistente observara y grabara (audio) las sesiones de lectura. La
investigaci6n podria durar hasta tres meses.

Participaci6n del Niio (a): Las destrezas orales del niho seran evaluadas antes de que la
investigaci6n comience. La investigadora tomara una muestra de lenguaje y utilizara el
Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), el Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) y su version
en Espahol conocida como el Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (TVIP). El PLS-4,
PPVT-III, y el TVIP son utilizados para evaluar las destrezas de lenguaje receptivas y
expresivas. Una vez que usted comience a utilizar las tecnicas de lectura interactive con su nifio
(a), yo observare para determinar si la producci6n de lenguaje oral de su nifio (a) aumenta. La
investigadora utilizara una audiograbadora para grabar las sesiones de lectura.

Compensaci6n: Usted recibira un certificado de regalo de $50 dolares una vez que la
investigation termine.


Confidencialidad: Los resultados de la investigaci6n seran compartidos con miembros del
recinto de educaci6n. Para propositos de confidencialidad, su nombre e identidad seran obviados
mientras sea possible antes los ojos de la ley. Las cintas de audio seran codificadas durante el
studio y seran evaluadas por la investigadora principal (Joyce Tardaguila-Harth), y miembros









del comite doctoral de la investigadora principal (La Dra. Vivian Correa, la Dra. Hazel Jones, la
Dra. Holly Lane, y la Dra. Candace Harper).

Las cintas de grabaci6n seran destruidas una vez la investigaci6n termine.

Participaci6n Voluntaria: Su participaci6n y la participaci6n de su nifio (a) en esta
investigaci6n es completamente voluntaria. Ni usted ni su hijo (a) seran penalizados si decide
no participar.

Derecho a retirarse de la Investigaci6n: Usted y su nifio(a) tienen el derecho de abandonar o
darse de baja de la investigaci6n en cualquier moment sin repercusion o consecuencia alguna.

Personas a contactar: Joyce Tardaguila-Harth, Doctoral Student, Department of Special
Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050, 392-0701.

Vivian I. Correa, Ph.D., Department of Special Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman
Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050.


Contacto con relaci6n a sus derechos como participate de esta investigaci6n:

UFIRB office, Box 112250 University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. 32611-2250; 392-0433

Acuerdo:

He leido y entiendo los procedimientos incluidos en este formulario. Doy mi consentimiento
de participaci6n. He recibido una copia de este formulario




Padre o Madre Fecha:



Testigo Fecha:









APPENDIX B
PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE

A Spanish version of this survey will be utilized during the initial contact with the parents

to determine whether they are able to read at the second grade level and to gather other

information about home-language use, exposure to English, and home literacy practices.

1. Do you speak Spanish or English in your home?

2. Does your child speak to you in English or Spanish? Can you give me example

3. How long have you lived in the United States?

4. How old was your child when he was first exposed to English?

5. How many years did you go to school?

6. Do you have any kind of reading materials at home (newspaper, magazines, books,
etc...)?

7. Do you read during your spare time? Can you give me examples

8. Do you read to your child? Can you give me an example









Formulario de Preguntas para los Padres

1. ,Que idioma habla usted en casa, Ingles o Espafiol? Si utiliza los dos idiomas, en
que idioma prefiere hablarle a su hijo(a)?

2. ,Cuando su hijo(a) habla con usted, le hace en Ingles o en Espafiol? Espahol ,Me
puede dar un ejemplo?

3. ,Cuanto tiempo ha vivido en los Estados Unidos?

4. ,Cuantos afios tenia su hijo(a) cuando comenzo a aprender Ingles (o cuando
escucho el Ingles por primera vez)?

5. ,Obtuvo usted su diploma de escuela superior (bachillerato)? Si no, cual fue el
grado mas alto que termin6 en la escuela?

6. ,Le gusta leer en su tiempo libre? ,Lee usted frecuentemente? ,Me puede dar un
ejemplo?

7. ,Tiene ousted libros, revistas, y peri6dicos en casa?

8. ,Le lee usted a su hijo(a)? ,Me puede dar un ejemplo?








APPENDIX C
FLYER FOR THE STUDY

;Aprendiendo a Traves de los Libros de Cuento!














Quiero invitarlo a participar en una investigation sobre como los

padres de familiar pueden ayudar a sus hijos a desarrollar el lenguaje que

necesitan (en Espafiol) para aprender a leer. Si esta interesado puede

comunicarse con Joyce Tardiguila al (352) 392-0701 ext. 301 6 al (352)

384-9929.









APPENDIX D
RESEARCHER' S TRAINING GUIDE

Session 1
1. The investigator will thank the parents for participating in the study

2. The investigator will review the information regarding the importance of first language
development (information that had been previously shared with the parents during the first home
visit, Appendix D).

3. The investigator will offer a brief overview of the benefits of shared book reading and will
discuss why parents should introduce the dialogic reading method and discuss its benefits (.

4. The parents will watch a video demonstration of dialogic reading ("Lectura Interactiva" by
Dr. Susan H. Landry from the Center for Improving the Readiness of Children for Learning and
Education, CIRCLE).

A. The video will be watched in parts. After watching the introduction and the segment that
discusses the PEER sequence, the video will be stopped. At this point, the investigator
will review the meaning of every letter in the acronym PEER and answer any questions.

B. The investigator will proceed to read a story to the parents in order to model the PEER
sequence. An example of every step will be provided. Afterwards, the parents will read a
story to the investigator utilizing the peer sequence. The investigator will once again
review the PEER sequence.

C. After engaging in a dialogic reading role-play with the investigator, parents will proceed
to watch the different vignettes shown in the video demonstrating the implementation of
the PEER sequence.

After watching the vignettes, the investigator will answer any questions about the PEER
sequence.
The first day of parent training will conclude at this point.

Session 2

1. At the beginning of the second day of training, the investigator will answer any questions that
the parents might have about dialogic reading and the PEER sequence.

2. After all questions have been answered, the parents will proceed to watch the video of the
dialogic reading demonstration ("Lectura Interactiva" by Dr. Susan H. Landry from the
Center for Improving the Readiness of Children for Learning and Education, CIRCLE).

A. In order to review the information discussed during the previous session parents will
watch the segments of the video that introduce dialogic reading, the PEER sequence
again.










B. Parents will continue watching the final segment of the video, which discusses the types
of questions they can utilize during dialogic reading sessions (FRASE).

C. After watching the segment that discusses the acronym FRASE, the video will be
stopped. At this point, the investigator will review the meaning of every letter in the
acronym FRASE and answer any questions.

D. The investigator will then proceed to read a story to the parents utilizing the PEER
sequence and demonstrating the different types of questions (FRASE) they can ask their
children during the reading sessions. An example of every type of question will be
provided. Afterwards, the parents will read a story to the investigator utilizing the PEER
sequence and asking at least one question from each kind.

E. The investigator will read another story to the parents utilizing the PEER sequence and
asking them for different examples of the types of questions (FRASE) they could ask
their children.

F. The parents will then proceed to watch the different vignettes shown in the video
demonstrating the implementation of the five different types of questions.

G. After watching the vignettes, the investigator will answer any questions about the FRASE
acronym and the five different types of questions parents can ask their children when
conducting a dialogic reading session.

3. The investigator will then conduct a comprehension check utilizing the evaluation
included in Appendix H.

A. When a parent is not able to meet the 88% criterion (8/9), the researcher will review the
steps of the intervention with the parent and the parent will engage in another practice
session with the researcher.

4. At the end of the training session, parents will receive a "parent manual" they can use to
review ( Appendix E).









APPENDIX E
PARENT HANDBOOK ON DIALOGIC READING

La Lectura Interactiva


I _..


II~
I ~t L


Guia para los Padres



Parent Handbook on Dialogic Reading
Familia: Hernandez









Guia para los Padres


Queridos padres,

Gracias por participar en esta investigaci6n sobre la lecture interactive. Los experts en el

campo de la lectura recomiendan a los padres que le lean a sus hijos con frecuencia y que lo

hagan de una manera que fomente el desarrollo del lenguaje. Cuando usted le lee libros de

cuentos a sus hijos de una manera interactive .los esta ayudando a adquirir las destrezas y el

vocabulario que necesitan para convertirse en lectores exitosos. Este manual le ayudara a

repasar los pasos que debe seguir para leerle a sus hijos de una manera interactive.

Recuerde que usted es el maestro mas important que su nifio(a) puede tener y va a

desempefiar un papel muy important en su educaci6n.


Instrucciones
1. Leale a su hijo(a) por los menos cuatro (4) veces a la semana.

2. La lectura interactive utiliza una secuencia que es representada por las siglas PEER.
Ademas, puede utilizar cinco tipos diferentes de preguntas o comentarios. La palabra
FRASE le ayudara a recorder las preguntas o comentarios que puede utilizar cuando le
lea un cuento a su nifio (a). Coloque los letreros con las siglas y la informaci6n sobre los
comentarios donde los pueda ver con facilidad mientras le lee a su hijo(a). A
continuaci6n describiremos la secuencia PEER

a. Pregunte y espere-Mientras le lee un cuento a su hijo(a) preguntele sobre lo que
esta leyendo y dele tiempo al niho para que piense y contest (Hay cinco tipos de
preguntas que usted le puede hacer a su nifio. En la pr6xima secci6n hablaremos
sobre esto). Es muy important que usted le de al niho la oportunidad de hablar
mientras compare los libros de cuentos con el o ella.

b. Evalie la respuesta del nifio. Cuando el nifio contest la pregunta correctamente,
animelo. Por ejemplo, le podria decir "Muy bien" o "Buen trabajo". Si el nifio
contest de una manera incorrect, dirijalo hacia la respuesta correct sin
regafiarlo o hacerlo sentir mal. Muestrele la pagina donde aparece la contestaci6n
correct. Por ejemplo si estan leyendo el libro "%Donde esta mi Perrito?" y su
hijo le dice que el perrito estaba en la calle incorrectto, podria decirle lo
siguiente: ",Tu crees que estaba en la calle? Vamos a ver. !Mira aqui esta!
,Que lugar es ese?" Recuerde que es muy important que el nifio sienta comodo
y que sienta que puede cometer errors y nadie lo va a regafiar.










c. Expanda la respuesta del nifio. Cuando el nifio contest la pregunta de una
manera correct, repita usted la respuesta y afiada mas informaci6n. Por ejemplo:
Padre: ",Me puedes decir que esta pasando en esta pagina?
Nifio: "El nifio busca al perro en el coche"
Padre: "jSi! iMuy bien! El nifio busca a su perrito en el coche rojo"

d. Repita la respuesta y anime al ninfo a que repita la repuesta. Por ejemplo,
continuando con el ejemplo de arriba:
Padre: "%Puedes decir coche rojo?"
Nifio: "Coche rojo"
Padre: "jQue bien! Si! El nifio buscaba al perro en el coche rojo"

3. Cuando usted le lee un cuento a su hijo de una manera interactive hay cinco tipos de
preguntas o comentarios que usted puede usar para animarlo(a) a que participe de una
manera active. La palabra FRASE le ayudara a recorder estas preguntas y comentarios.
En esta secci6n hablaremos sobre este tema y ofreceremos ejemplos.
a. Finalizar-Haga comentarios o preguntas que requieren que el nifio complete la
oraci6n. Por ejemplo: "El nifio buscaba a su "La familiar
encontr6 al perro en la "El titulo del cuento es ". ,Donde esta
mi ?

b. Recordar-Utilize preguntas que requieren que el nifio recuerde detalles del cuento
y repita detalles: ",Que le pas6 al perrito?" ",Quien lo encontr6 primero?"
",Donde encontraron al perro?"

c. Abrir el dialogo- Abra el dialogo con su nifio (a) hacienda comentarios o
preguntas que requieren que el nifio hable sobre el cuento usando sus proprias
palabras. Por ejemplo: "Ahora te toca a ti decirme lo que pasa en esta pagina"
",Que pas6 en esta pagina?" ",Que va a pasar ahora?"



d. Seleccionar-Seleccione un dibujo en el cuento y haga preguntas que comienzan
con "%Que?, "%Donde?", ",Cuando?" y "%Por que?". Estas preguntas son
similares a los anteriores pero requieren que el niho se concentre en los dibujos
del cuento. Por ejemplo: ",Que esta hacienda el niho en esta lamina?" "jMira!
,Donde se esconde el perro en esta lamina?"

e. Experiencias-Haga comentarios o preguntas que requieren que el nifio relacione
detalles del cuento con aspects de su vida diaria. Por ejemplo: "Al igual que la
familiar del cuento, nosotros hemos tenido mascotas. ,Que clase de mascotas
hemos tenido?" ".Recuerdas cuando tuvimos un perro igual al del cuento? ,Se
nos perdi6 alguna vez? ,Que pas6 entonces?"









Mas Instrucciones
1. Deje que su hijo(a) escoja el libro que quiere leer con usted. Escojer el libro que le
interest motivara al (a la) nifio(a) a participar en la sesi6n.
2. Si el niho no quiere participar, no lo obligue.

3. De la misma manera, si el niho quiere terminar la lectura del cuento antes de tiempo (en
menos de diez minutes) trate de relacionar el tema del libro con algo que este pasando en
la vida de su hijo(a) (como en los comentarios de la E en FRASE). Relacionar detalles
de la historic a algun event en la vida del (de la) nifio(a) usualmente mantiene al nifio
interesado en la historic.

4. Recuerde que lo mas important es divertirse y compartir un buen moment con su
nifio(a) mientras los prepare para aprender a leer.

5. Cuando le lea un libro por primera vez a su nifio(a) sigua las siguientes intrucciones.

a. Lea el titulo del libro en la cubierta y apuntando cada palabra con el dedo segun
va leyendo.

b. Pidale al niho que repita el titulo mientras usted sefiala cada palabra.

c. Apunte al dibujo en la cubierta del libro y preguntele al nifio sobre el dibujo.

d. Comience a leer la historic y apunte con su dedo las palabras segun las va
leyendo.

e. Pidale al niho que le indique cuando escuche palabras que riman (que terminan
con los mismos sonidos) en la historic. Proveale ejemplos cuando los vea.

f. Cuando termine de leer la historic, hagale al niho preguntas que requieran que el
recuerde y repita detalles de la historic (vea el letrero). Por ejemplo: ",Que
dibujaba el nifio del cuento?" ".Quien vi6 a las vacas volar primero?"

g. Espere hasta que el nifio le de una contestaci6n.

h. Lea el libro mas de una vez.







APPENDIX F
PEER HANDOUT

Dialogic Reading-PEER

(Whitehurst et al., 1994)


There are four steps to remember when reading to your child

Prompt and wait


Evaluate-provide feedback to the child


Expand the child's answer


Repeat the expanded answer and encourage the


child to repeat






Lectura Interactiva- PEER
(Landry, 2002; Whitehurst et al., 1994)


Pregunte y espere -Ejemplos
,Que es esto? Esto es un_____

Evalufe-Ejemplos
"Bien hecho" "Si, es una casa" "Es una
casa" "Esa no es una casa"

Expanda-Ejemplos
"Es una casa roja" "Es un gato grande"

Repita-Ejemplos
"Si, es una casa roja" ",Puedes decir casa
roja?"








APPENDIX G
CROWD/FRASE HANDOUT

CROWD Parent Handout
(Whitehurst et al., 1994)









There are five kinds of prompts or questions you can use when reading a book to
your child.

Completion prompts which require the child to complete the sentence or question.
Example: "The boy in the story was looking for his "

Recall prompts that require the child to recall and retell what happened in the story
he/she has just heard.
Example: "Do you remember what the dog was doing when the boy found him?"

Open-ended prompts which require the child to talk about the story using his/her
own words.
Example: "Now it's your turn to tell what happens in this page"

"Wh" prompts such as what, when where, when and why. This prompts are
similar to the previous ones (Open-ended) but require the child to concentrate on
the pictures in the book.
Example: "What's the name of this?"

Distancing prompts that require the child to relate events in the story to real life
experiences.
Example: "Do you remember when we lost our dog? What did we do to find
him?"








Lectura Interactiva-FRASE
(Landry, 2002)


Final izar-Ejemplos


"Aqui esta la


" "La oruga comio


Recordar detalles del cuento-Ejemplos

"Cuentame lo que le pas6 a la oruga"

Abrir el didlogo-Ejemplos
"Dime lo que esta pasando en esta pagina"

Seleccione un dibujo y pregunte-Ejemplos
"iQuien es esta? "',Donde est la oruga?

Experiencias-Relacione algo del cuento con la vida del nifio-Ejemplos
"iRecuerdas cuando a ti te dolia el estomago como a la oruga?"









APPENDIX H
BOOKS


Books read by Dyad 1 during the Investigation
Session Number
Book Title

Baseline
1 Hermana, Hermana; En las Montanas
2 La Oruga muy Hambrienta
3 Hermana, Hermana
4 Hermana, Hermana; La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
5 A Sembrar Sopa deVerduras
6 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta, A Sembrar Sopa de Verdura
Intervention
7 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta, Oso Polar, Oso Polar que Ruido es Ese?
8 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
9 En las Montafias
10 La Noche,
11 En el Lavado de Autos
12 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa
Maintenance
13 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa
14 La Pinata Vacia
15 Tortillas de Barro
16 Siete Galletas, Tortillas de Barro










Books read by Dyad 2 during the Investigation

Session Number Book Title
Baseline
1 Hermana, Hermana, En las Montafias
2 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
3 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
4 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
5 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras
6 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
7 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras, En el Lavado de Autos, La Oruga Muy
Hambrienta
8 Oso Polar, Oso Polar, Que Ruido es Ese?, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
9 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
10 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
Intervention
11 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
12 La Pifiata Vacia
13 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa, Sam El Silencioso
14 En el Lavado de Autos, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
15 En La Estacion de Bomberos con Papa

Maintenance
16 La Caperucita Roja (Tal Como se la Contaron a Jorge)
17 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
18 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta, A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras










Books read by Dyad 3 during the Investigation

Session Number Book Title
Baseline
1 En Las Montafias
2 En Las Montafias
3 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras
4 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
5 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta, A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras
6 Oso Polar, Oso Polar Que Ruido es Ese?
Intervention
7 En El Lavado de Autos
8 En El Lavado de Autos
9 Buenas Noches Luna
10 Sam El Silencioso
11 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa
12 Sam El Silencioso
13 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
Maintenance
14 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras
15 En el Lavado de Autos
16 En El Lavado de Autos
17 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta









Books read by Dyad 4 during the Investigation

Session Number Book Title
Baseline
1 En Las Montafias, Hermana, Hermana
2 Hermana, Hermana, En Las Montafias
3 Hermana, Hermana, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
4 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta
5 En el Lavado de Autos, La Noche
6 En el Lavado de Autos, La Noche
7 En el Lavado de Autos, Hermana, Hermana
8 Sam el Silencioso
9 Sam el Silencioso, En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa
Intervention
10 Siete Galletas
11 Tortillas de Barro
12 Sam el Silencioso, Hermana, Hermana
13 En las Montafias, Siete Galletas
14 Siete Galletas, Tortillas de Barro
Maintenance
15 Los Trucos de Twister
16 Los Trucos de Twister, Siete Galletas
17 Siete Galletas
18 Los Trucos de Twister, Tortillas de Barro
*Dyad 4 commenced the baseline phase of the investigation after Dyad 3's third
baseline session









APPENDIX I
GUIDELINES FOR MLU

Guidelines for counting the words uttered by the child during the reading sessions:

* Count only intelligible words.

* Do not count fillers such as ah, ajd, or mm as words.


* Count only words that are related to the reading interaction. For example, if the child says
I want to go now" during the middle of the reading session do not add those words to the
count.

* Count mispronounced words only if they are intelligible. For example, saying "apa" for
"papa".

* Do not count memorized dialogues and/or songs.


The guidelines for calculating the mean length of utterance will be adapted from Linares'
(1983) rules for calculating the mean length of utterance in morphemes for Spanish:

1. Transcribe the recording of the reading session. Mark each utterance for later ease in
separating them.

a. Count the free morphemes that are included in the utterances whether they are inflected
correctly or not.


b. Count interrogative words as one morpheme.

c. Consider the contractions del (de el), della (de ella) as having two roots and thus count as
two morphemes.


d. Do not count fillers like ah, eh, porque si, porque no, ajd

e. Count compound words, proper names and ritualized reduplications as single words (for
example Juan Perez, c ilu,/idetv'i/, (hbi i/hdy), subibaja (sesaw).


f. Do not count memorized dialogues, songs, or stereotypic responses.

g. Determine how many bound morphemes (inflections) appear in the utterance (see the
rules below).









h. Add the free morphemes and the bound morphemes in each of the utterances.

i. Add the morphemes in all the utterances.

j. Divide the total number of morphemes by the number of utterances

k. The quotient is the MLU value for the child.

Rules for Counting Bound Morphemes

1. Nouns

a. Gender: Count as one morpheme the generic ending -a (feminine) or -o (masculine)
only when the root can have different generic endings. For example, the noun gat-o (cat
+ masculine + singular) counts as two morphemes (one for the root gat and one for the
masculine inflection -o); however, the noun luz (light + no gender+ singular) counts as
one morpheme because it has no gender and thus nouns like luz-a do not appear in
Spanish.


b. Number: Count as one morpheme the plural ending -s (for singular ending in vowel) or
-es (for singular ending consonant). Singular are not given points because the child is not
adding morphemes to them. For example, the noun gat-a-s (cat + feminine + plural)
counts as three morphemes (one for the root gat, one for the feminine inflection a, and
one for the plural inflection s); and the nounflor-es (flower + no gender + plural) counts
as two morphemes (one for the rootflor and one for the plural inflection -es).

c. Diminutives: Count as one morpheme the diminutive endings -it- and -cit- as in cas-it-a
orpece-ci-to.


d. Augmentatives: Count as one morpheme the agumentative ending ot- as in cas-ot-a.


2. Adjectives

a. Gender: Count as one morpheme the generic ending a (feminine) or o (masculine) only
when the root can have different generic endings. For example, the adjectives baj-o
(short + masculine + singular) counts as two morphemes (one for the root baj and one for
the masculine inflection -o); however, the adjective grand-e (big + no gender + singular)
counts as one morpheme because it has no gender, and thus adjectives like grand-a do
not appear in Spanish.


b. Number: Count as one morpheme the plural ending s or -es. Singulars do not count
because the child is not adding morphemes to them. For example, the adjective alt-o-s









(tall + masculine + plural) counts as three morphemes (one for the root alt, one for the
masculine inflection -o, and one for the plural inflection s); The adjective gris-es (gray
+ no gender + plural) counts as two morphemes (one for the root gris and one for the
plural inflection -es).


c. Superlatives: Count as one morpheme the superlative ending -isim- or -im- For
example, the adjective car-isim-o (very expensive + superlative + masculine + singular)
counts as three morphemes (one for the root car, one for the superlative inflection -isim-,
and one for the masculine inflection -o); and the adjective pauper-im-o (very poor +
superlative + masculine + singular) counts as three morphemes (one for the root pauperr,
one for the superlative inflection -im-, and one for the masculine inflection -o).


d. Diminutives: Count as one morpheme the diminutive endings -it- and -cit- as in chiqu-
it-o or precio-cit-o.


e. Augmentatives: Count as one morpheme the augmentative ending ot- as in grand-ot-a.

3. Adverbs

Count as one morpheme the adverbial ending mente. For example, the adverb fdicl-
mente (easi-ly) counts as two morphemes (one for the rootfdacil and one for the adverbial
inflection mente).

4. Pronouns

a. Gender: Count as one morpheme the generic ending a (feminine), -o (masculine), or o
(neuter) only when the root can have different generic endings. For example, the
pronoun mi-a (mine + feminine possessed object + singular) counts as two morphemes
(one for the root mi and one for the masculine inflection -o); however, the pronoun se (a
form of the copula + no gender + no number) counts as one morpheme (for the copula
se).


b. Number: Count as one morpheme the plural ending s or -es only when the root can
have singular number. Singulars do not count because the child is not adding morphemes
to them. For example, the pronoun nosotr-o-s (we + masculine + plural + no singular
number) counts as two morphemes (one for the root nostr and one for the masculine
inflection -o); and the pronoun usted-es (you + no gender + plural) counts as two
morphemes (one for the root usted and one for the plural inflection -es).

c. Prepositional case: Count as one morpheme the prepositional ending sigo, -migo, or -
tigo when added to the root con. For example, the pronoun con-tigo counts as two
morphemes (one for the root con and one for the preopositional case inflection -tigo).









5. Articles


a. Gender: Count as one morpheme the generic ending a (feminine (masculine), and o
(neuter) only when the root can have different generic endings. For example, the article
1-a (the + feminine + singular) counts as two morphemes (one for the / and one for the
feminine inflection a); however, the article el (the + masculine + singular) counts as
one morpheme (for the root el) cannot be inflected to any other gender.

b. Number: Count as one morpheme the plural ending s. Singulars do not count because
the child is not adding morphemes in them. For example, the article l-o-s (the +
masculine + plural) counts as three morphemes (one for the root 1, one for the masculine
inflection -o, and one for the plural inflection s).

6. Verbs

Verbs in Spanish can take combined inflections related to the mood, tense, number, and
person. When scoring a Spanish verb, decide whether or not it is conjugated in the particular
utterance; then examine whether the verb is correctly conjugated in all inflectional aspects in
the particular utterance. Determine if the verb is or is not an infinitive (inflected with ar or
-er), a participial (inflected with do), or a gerund (inflected with ndo). In addition,
consider whether the verb (root) can take various different inflections (suffixes). Then apply
the following scoring system:

a. When the verb is used correctly in all inflectional aspects, is not an infinitive, participial,
or gerund, and the root can take various inflections, count it as having five morphemes
(one for the root, one for the number inflection, one for the person inflection, one for the
tense inflection, and one for the mood inflection).


b. When the verb is not conjugated, count it as having one morpheme (for the root).

c. If the root cannot take various inflections, count it as having one morpheme.

d. When the verb is correctly used in only some of the inflectional aspects, count it as
having 2.5 morphemes (one for the root and 1.5 for whatever other inflections might be
correct).
e. If the verb has an ending like ar, -er (infinitive), -do (participial), or ndo (gerund),
count it as having two morphemes (one for the root and one for any of these inflections).









APPENDIX J
INTEGRITY CHECK


Dyad:


Date:


Session #:


Parent uses the complete PEER sequence during YES NO
90% of the time (9 minutes in a 10 minute session;
13.5 minutes in a 15 minute session)



Parent uses a variety of prompts (FRASE) YES NO



Parents waits for a reasonable amount of time after YES NO
asking a question


Parent redirects child (as discussed during YES NO
training) when he/she provides an incorrect answer










APPENDIX K
SOCIAL VALIDITY

Social Validity Checklist (English Version)

Read each statement carefully. Five possible choices as to your level of agreement and
disagreement have been placed after each statement. For each of the statements, please
circle the phrase that best describes your feelings about the statement. Circle only one
phrase for each statement. Please be sure to answer every item.
Dyad:

Date:

1. The dialogic reading training was very helpful.


Disagree


Strongly agree


2. The training was too time consuming.


Disagree


Strongly agree


3. My child's Spanish oral language skills have improved.


Disagree


Strongly agree


4. I will continue using dialogic reading techniques in the future.


Disagree


Strongly agree


5. Other Spanish-speaking parents might be interested in learning dialogic reading techniques.

Disagree Strongly agree










Formulario sobre la Utilidad de 6sta Investigaci6n


Lea cada pregunta cuidadosamente. Haga un circulo alrededor de la respuesta que
mejor indique su opinion sobre cada una de los siguientes comentarios. Cada numero
indica cuan de acuerdo o cuan en desacuerdo esta ousted con los comentarios (Por
ejemplo: 1= No estoy de acuerdo; 5=Estoy totalmente de acuerdo). Marque una
contestaci6n para cada pregunta.


Dyad:

Fecha:

1. El adiestramiento sobre la lectura interactive fue muy util


No estoy de acuerdo


Estoy totalmente de acuerdo


2. El adiestramiento tom6 demasiado tiempo.


No estoy de acuerdo


Estoy totalmente de acuerdo


3. Las destrezas orales en Espahol de mi nifio(a) han mejorado


No estoy de acuerdo


Estoy totalmente de acuerdo


4. Continuare utilizando las tecnicas de lectura interactive en el future.


No estoy de acuerdo


Estoy totalmente de acuerdo


5. A otros padres les interesaria aprender sobre la lectura interactive.


Estoy totalmente de acuerdo


No estoy de acuerdo









APPENDIX L
PARENT EVALUATION

Evaluation (English Version)

Answer the following Questions

The acronym P.E.E.R. reminds us the steps we must follow when we read a story to our children
in a dialogical manner. Identify those steps.
P




E




E




R

There are five kinds of prompts we can utilize when we read to our children, FRASE. Identify
the prompts and give an example of each.
1. F

Example:



2. R

Example:



3. A

Example:









4. S

Example:



5. E

Example:








Score /9









Evaluaci6n (Spanish Version)


Conteste las siguientes preguntas

Las siglas P.E.E.R. nos recuerdan los pasos que debemos seguir cuando le leemos un cuento a
nuestros hijos de una manera interactive. Identifique los pasos.
P




E




E




R

La palabra FRASE nos ayuda a recorder las preguntas o comentarios que podemos utilizar
cuando le leemos de una manera interactive a nuestros hijos. Identifique cuales son y provea un
ejemplo.
1. F

Ejemplo:





2. R

Ejemplo:





3. A

Ejemplo:











4. S

Ejemplo:





5. E

Ejemplo:






Nota: /9









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Joyce Marie Tardaguila-Harth grew up in Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico. She is the daughter of

Julio and Sonia Tardaguila and the oldest of four siblings.

Joyce received a bachelor's degree in psychology and master's degrees in special

education and ESOL/bilingual education from the University of Florida.

Joyce Marie began her doctoral program at the University of Florida as a full-time student

in 2002. Her major areas of study included early childhood special education, bilingual special

education, ESOL, and mild disabilities.





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1 ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF DIALOGI C READING ON THE ORAL LANGUAGE SKILLS OF MIGRANT PRESCHOOLERS AT RISK FOR READING DIFFICULTIES By JOYCE MARIE TARDAGUILA-HARTH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Joyce Marie Tardguila-Harth

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3 To Julio Luis Tardguila and Mi chael Harth with eternal love

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I owe a tremendous amount of gratitude to th e chairperson of my dissertation committee, Dr. Vivian I. Correa. Dr. Correa has been a me ntor, teacher, and above all, a friend. I cannot thank her enough for her unfaltering support and patience throughout my doctoral program and dissertation process. I would also like to thank my mother, Sonia Tardguila, for her constant words of encouragement, for making me laugh and for provi ding a shoulder to cry on when I needed it. I give special thanks to my husband, George Harth, for his love and for believing in me at all times. I would also like to thank the families who were willing to participate in this research. They allowed me into their hom es and their lives for many mont hs. Without their commitment this study would not have been possible. Last, but most important, I thank God. It is my hope that He will continue to guide me and use this accomplishment for His glory.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........9 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 Migrant Children At-Risk.......................................................................................................13 Importance of Language in Literacy Development................................................................14 Home Literacy Activities....................................................................................................... .14 Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .15 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... ....16 Experimental Questions......................................................................................................... .16 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........16 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................................................18 Conceptual Framework...........................................................................................................18 The Migrant Profile: Children at Risk....................................................................................21 Importance of Language in Literacy Development................................................................26 Second Language Learners and Language Development.......................................................28 Importance of Early Literacy Activities/Shared Book Reading.............................................29 Dialogic Reading............................................................................................................... .....31 Review of the Empirical Literature on the Efficacy of Dialogic Reading.............................32 Dialogic Reading and Children with Developmental Delays.................................................33 Dialogic Reading and Childre n From Low SES Backgrounds..............................................38 Dialogic Reading and Children Learning English as a Second Language.............................42 Summary of Findings............................................................................................................ .45 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........47 Rationale of the Study......................................................................................................... ...49 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....50 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES........................................................................................57 Participants................................................................................................................... ..........57 Settings....................................................................................................................... ............58 Materials...................................................................................................................... ...........59 Dependent Measures............................................................................................................. ..61 Definitions.................................................................................................................... ..........62

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6 Experimental Procedures........................................................................................................62 Data Recording................................................................................................................. ......68 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........68 Interobserver Agreement........................................................................................................68 Treatment Integrity............................................................................................................ .....69 Social Validity................................................................................................................ ........69 Pilot Study.................................................................................................................... ..........70 4 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......73 Dyad 1......................................................................................................................... ............75 Dyad 2......................................................................................................................... ............81 Dyad 3......................................................................................................................... ............87 Dyad 4......................................................................................................................... ............93 Treatment Integrity............................................................................................................ ...100 Social Validation.............................................................................................................. ....100 Summary........................................................................................................................ .......101 5 DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................... ..109 Overview of the Study..........................................................................................................110 Summary of Findings...........................................................................................................111 Discussion of Findings.........................................................................................................113 Social Validity................................................................................................................ ......125 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ........126 Implications for Research.....................................................................................................128 Implications for Practice...................................................................................................... .131 Summary........................................................................................................................ .......132 APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL AND CONSENT FORMS......................................................................134 B PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE..............................................................................................141 C FLYER FOR THE STUDY..................................................................................................143 D RESEARCHERS TRAINING GUIDE...............................................................................144 E PARENT HANDBOOK ON DIALOGIC READING.........................................................146 F PEER HANDOUT................................................................................................................150 G CROWD/FRASE HANDOUT.............................................................................................152 H BOOKS.......................................................................................................................... .......154 I GUIDELINES FOR MLU....................................................................................................158

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7 J INTEGRITY CHECK..........................................................................................................162 K SOCIAL VALIDITY............................................................................................................163 L PARENT EVALUATION....................................................................................................165 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................169 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................179

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Dialogic reading and children with developmental delays................................................52 2-2 Dialogic reading and childr en from low SES backgrounds...............................................54 2-3 Dialogic reading and children l earning English as a second language..............................56 3-1 Demographic data on mother participants.........................................................................71 3-2 Demographic data on child participants............................................................................72

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Conceptual framework.......................................................................................................51 4-1 Mother 1Child 1/Mother 2-Child 2: Mother implementation of PEER........................103 4-2 Mother 1Child 1/Mother 2-Child 2: Mother implementation of FRASE.....................104 4-3 Mother 1Child 1/Mother 2-Child 2: Childrens oral language production...................105 4-4 Mother 3Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Mother implementation of PEER........................106 4-5 Mother 3Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Mother implementation of FRASE.....................107 4-6 Mother 3-Child 3/Mother 4-Child 4: Childrens oral language production...................108

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10 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy ASSESING THE EFFECTS OF DIALOGI C READING ON THE ORAL LANGUAGE SKILLS OF MIGRANT PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AT RISK OF READING DIFFICULTIES By Joyce Marie Tardguila-Harth August 2007 Chair: Vivian I. Correa Major: Special Education This study investigated whether mothers from migrant populations c ould be trained to implement dialogic reading techni ques during reading in teractions with their children. The study also examined the effects of the mothers impl ementation of the techniques on the oral language development of migrant preschoolers with language delays. Four mother/child dyads from north central Florida participated in the research. Pa rticipating mothers used predominately Spanish in the home and agreed to read aloud to their children at least four times a week. The children who participated in this study had low language skills. The Mothers were trained to implement dialogic reading techniques dur ing shared book reading sessions conducted in the homes of the participants. Data regarding the mothers implem entation of the techniques and the effect of the implementation of dialogic reading on the chil drens oral language production were collected using a multiple baseline design across participants. Analyses of the data indicated that the migrant mothers increased their use of dialogic reading techniques following training. Likewise, the childrens production of oral lang uage increased following the mothers implementation of the techniques. In addition, the mothers implementation of dialog ic reading techniques and the childrens increase in or al language production were maintain ed two weeks after the conclusion

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11 of the intervention. Furthermore, results of so cial validity measures indicated that migrant mothers were satisfied with the intervention a nd agreed that it was effective and practical.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The United States is currently undergoing a dramatic change in its cultural and linguistic composition. In the year 2000, the Hispanic population was estimated at 35,305,818, representing an increase from 9% to 12.5% of the total population since 1990 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Immigrants from Mexico along w ith those from other Latin American countries constitute the largest proporti on (nearly 38%) of lega l immigrants and an estimated 80% of undocumented immigrants (Garza, Reyes & True ba, 2004). The population of children also reflects these demographic changes as the numbe r of students who speak Spanish as a first language increases in schools all over the count ry. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics (2 000), Hispanic students comprise 12% of the total school population in the country. A significant number of these children fall into the category migrant. Federal law defines migrant workers as ag ricultural, dairy or fishing workers who migrate in order to obtain temporary or s easonal employment and who have moved from one school district to another within the preced ing 36 months (Public Law 103-382, 1994, as cited in Riley, 2002). According to Cranston-Gingras (2003), there are between three and five million migrant farm workers in the United States. The majority of these workers travel in family groups and 50% are accompanied by their childr en (National Agricultu re Workers Survey, 2000). There were approximately 628,150 migran t children in 1992 and as many as 800,000 in 1994 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1995). Garza et al. (2004) add that the number of migrant children rose by 17% during th e 1980s. Migrant ch ildren are among the students with the highest risk factors for developi ng reading difficulties and failing to complete their education due to the difficult circumstances that characte rize migratory work (C ranston-Gingras, 2003; Martinez & Cranston-Gingras, 1996).

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13 Migrant Children At-Risk While educational success or fa ilure cannot be predicted w ith a 100% accuracy, research suggests that certain variables are associated w ith higher incidences of reading and academic failure. Group risk factors such as low so cioeconomic background, minor ity ethnic status, and limited English proficiency are considered reliab le predictors of future reading and writing difficulties for preschool children (Jones & Fuller, 2003; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Children from migrant populations share the group risk factors mentioned above in addition to facing other variables which height en their risk of developing r eading problems and cause them to have the highest school dropout rates in the United States (G arza et al., 2004; Gouwens, 2001; Romanowski, 2003). Migrant children face numerous obstacles in their path to academic achievement. Compounding the effects of poverty, minority status, and a lack of English proficiency are the high mobility rates that characterize migrant fa rm work, and the low levels of education prevalent among migrant parents (Henderson, 1992; Lopez, 2004). The constant need to move often makes it impossible for migrant families to pa rticipate in the preschool and family literacy programs that will help them prepare their ch ildren for school. Approximately 75% of all migrant families often find themselves in dire fi nancial stress just to m eet basic survival needs (Diaz, 1991; Garza et al., 2004). Acquiring literacy materials th at can be used at home to prepare children for school becomes a secondary priority. Even in th e event that literacy materials were provided to the families, many mi grant parents do not feel confident enough to prepare their children for school due to their ow n lack of educational attainment (Lopez, 2004; Valdez, 1999). Due to these factors, numerous migrant children begin school without the skills they need to become successful readers (Henderson, 1992). Such la ck of skills might result in

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14 migrant childrens inability to b ecome literate and to continue reading at grade level (CranstonGingras, 2003; Garza et al., 2004; Henderson, 1992). Given migrant childrens vulnerability fo r academic failure, it is critical to find interventions that will prepare them for form al reading instruction before they begin kindergarten. Accomplishing this is the first st ep towards breaking the cycle of illiteracy and academic failure prevalent among the migrant population. Importance of Language in Literacy Development Research suggests that the most effective way to ensure that young children are ready to begin formal reading instruction is to support and enhance their early language development (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001; Tabors, 1997). Childrens level of or al language at school entrance is a strong predictor of readi ng skill development during the elem entary school years, and can ultimately predict academic success as defined by high school graduation (Snow et al., 1998). In the case of young children from non-E nglish backgrounds, it is vital to continue fostering the development of first language skills as these skills wi ll facilitate the acquisition of English (Cummins, 1976; Hakuta, 1986; Kras hen, 1981). A solid foundation in the first language will allow young children to acquire a second language and to prepare for early literacy in the second language (Cummins, 1980; Krashe n, 1991). One of the most effective ways of helping young children devel op the language skills th ey need to be ready for reading instruction is by offering a supporting interaction between parents and children and by offering a language rich environment at home (Vygotsky, 1978; Wells, 1987). Home Literacy Activities Early literacy activities at hom e are crucial to foster the development of oral language skills and other literacy skills that set the foundation for fu ture reading achievement (Wells, 1987). Shared book reading, especially shar ed book reading that involves the active

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15 participation of the child, improves the expr essive and receptive language of young children (Hargrave & Snchal, 2000). One shared read ing strategy that has shown great promise for helping children from all soci oeconomic backgrounds develop th e language they need to be successful readers is dialogic r eading (Whitehurst et al., 1988). Dialogic reading is a joint storybook reading practice between the child and the caregiver (Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998). This intervention pr omotes the use of evocative or interactive techniques by the caregiver that will encourage the young child to talk about the pictures in the book and will allow him/her to have an active role during shared book reading (Whitehurst, Arnold, Epstein, Angell, Smith, & Fishel, 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein, Angell, Payne, Crone & Fishel, 1994; Whitehurst, Falco, Lonigan, Fishel DeBaryshe, Valdez-Menchaca, & Caufield, 1988). Several studies have dem onstrated that dialogic reading can have powerful effects on the oral language and emergent literacy skills de velopment of monolingual young children from all socioeconomic backgrounds (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Hardgrav e & Snchal, 2000; Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998; Whitehurst et al., 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1988) Statement of the Problem Evidence supports the statem ent that children from migr ant populations are among the most educationally vulnerable students in the nation (Garza et al., 2004; Gouwens, 2001; Romanowski, 2003). Due to poverty, lack of English proficiency a nd other factors that characterize migratory farm wor k, migrant childre n often begin school without the skills they need to become successful readers. The lack of reading skills will set these students on a path of academic failure that might lead to leaving school before high school graduation. Teaching migrant parents a strategy that will help th em prepare their children for formal reading instruction may prove to be an e ffective intervention tool that wi ll break the cycle of academic failure prevalent among migrant populations.

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16 Purpose of the Study The current study aims to increase knowledge about the effects of di alogic reading on a population of linguistically diverse families from migrant backgrounds. First, this investigation examined whether Spanish-speaking parents from a low SES and with minimal education could be trained to implement dialogic reading techni ques during shared book reading interactions with their children. Next, the investigation examined the effects of the parents implementation of dialogic reading techniques on the oral language development of their preschool children. Experimental Questions 1. Can migrant mothers with a low educational le vel be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques? 2. What is the effect of the mothers implemen tation of dialogic readi ng techniques on the oral language production of migrant preschool children? 3. Will the effects of dialogic reading on the or al language development of preschool children be maintained following the conc lusion of the intervention? Summary The number of young children who speak Spanish as a first language is increasing rapidly in classrooms all over the United St ates. A large number of these ch ildren are part of the migrant farm worker population. Migrant ch ildren are at a high risk of developing reading difficulties and experiencing academic failure due to the high mobility rates, poverty and other factors that characterize the migrant lifestyle (Cranston-Gi ngras, 2003; Romansowski, 2003). Therefore, it is crucial to find interventions that will set mi grant children on the path to academic success by preparing them for formal reading instru ction before they enter kindergarten. The most effective way to ensure that children are ready for reading inst ruction is to foster their early language development. Shared book reading interactions th at involve the active participation of the child have been found to be very effective in fostering the development of

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17 early language skills needed for reading succe ss. One shared book reading strategy that has proven to be very effective with children fr om different backgrounds is dialogic reading. The goal of this study was to determine wh ether migrant mothers could be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading inte ractions with their children and whether the parents implementa tion of these technique s improved the oral language development of the preschoolers.

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18 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Migrant children often begin reading instruct ion without the skills th ey need to become successful readers. Such lack of skills may result in the students inability to become literate. One way to ensure that migrant children ar e ready to begin reading is by enhancing and supporting their early language development. Sh ared book reading and particularly shared book reading techniques that encourage the active particip ation of the child have proven to be effective tools for fostering the deve lopment of early language. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework underlying this in vestigation is influenced by the works of Vygotsky (1978) and Bronfenbrenner (1979) (Figure 2-1). The soci ocultural theory of learning emphasizes the importance of social interac tions in stimulating childrens development (Vygotsky, 1978). According to Vygotsky, young ch ildrens cognitive, li nguistic and social development is supported and enhanced through soci al interactions with ot hers (Ibid., 1978). An important component of Vygotskys work is the concept of the zone of proximal development (Ibid., 1978). The zone of proximal development re fers to the area of development into which children can be led in th e course of interactions with a mo re competent partner (Ibid., 1978, p. 36). In terms of language, childre n reach the zone of proximal de velopment when they interact with adults who mediate the ch ildrens attempts to communicat e by responding to the childrens linguistic level. This is accomplished when a dults provide a linguistic scaffold by modeling, questioning, and explaining during conversations with the child. The use of such scaffolding techniques will give children the opportunity to engage in conversation thus fostering the development of receptive and expressive language skills (Otto, 2002; Vygotsky, 1979).

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19 Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) focuses on child development within the context of environment. Bronfenbrenner (1979) desc ribes four layers or systems of a childs environment. The microsyste m includes the settings that impact the child in a direct manner such as the home environment, th e classroom, and/or the childcare center. The mesosystem consists of the linkages among the co mponents of the different settings such as the connection between parents and teachers. The e xosystem is composed of the larger social system that affects the child but does not impact him directly such as the childs community, and the parents workplace. The outermost layer of the childs environment is the known as the macrosystem and is comprised of the cultural valu es, customs, and laws. Bronfenbrenner (1979) proposes that interactions between the child and his environment, particularly the mycrosystem will shape every aspect of the childs development. The conceptual framework underlying this investigation incorpor ates components from the two models discussed previously and provide s a basis for how training migrant parents to promote the first language development of their children may prevent future reading difficulties thus improving the childrens chances for achievi ng academic success. As in Bronfenbrenners ecological model the child is th e focus of this framework. The way in which migrant families help prepare their children for school and formal reading instruction is going to be influenced by the constant interactions between the characteristics of the child, the characteristics of the other components in the childs ecological system su ch as the parents, and the environment. The interactions between the migrant child and the members of his/her microsystem at home are impacted by the high mobility rates and long hours that characterize migrant farm work. In addition, the constant need to move often makes it impossible for migrant families to participate in the preschool and family liter acy programs that will help them prepare their

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20 children for school. The high leve ls of poverty, along with the low educational levels of these families, constitute another major obstacle to gett ing children ready for school. Migrant families often find themselves in dire financial stress just to meet basic survival needs (Diaz, 1991; Garza et al., 2004). Therefore, acquiring literacy materials that can be us ed at home to prepare children for school becomes a secondary priority. Even in the event that literacy materials were provided to the families, many migrant parents do not feel confident enough to prepare their children for school due to a lack of educational attainment (Lopez, 2004). These factors along with child characteristics th at will place the child at an increased risk for future reading difficulties (such as low first language skills and disabilities) make it crucial to intervene in order to ensure that migrant child ren are ready for formal instruction once they begin school. A promising form of intervention is to teach pare nts how to interact with their children in a manner that fosters language development. When the parents are taught to interact with their children in a supportive manner that encourages children to be active participants in the interaction, children have the oppor tunity to develop a strong base on their first language. Having a strong foundation in the first language w ill facilitate the acquisition of English and subsequent literacy development (Cummins, 1980). In keeping with this framework, the invest igation provides a structure for selecting participants from migrant populatio ns that have been identified as being at risk for reading failure due to factors such as delays in the first language (L1), povert y, and limited educational levels. The investigation involves training pare nts to implement dialogi c reading, a shared book reading intervention that will lead to more effective langua ge interactions and to the

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21 development of a stronger foundation in the child s first language. Such a foundation will ensure a greater likelihood of future reading success. The Migrant Profile: Children at Risk The migrant population constitutes the most academically vulnerable subgroup in the United States, making the education of migrant ch ildren and their families an issue of utmost concern in todays society (Gouwens, 2001; Roma nowski, 2004). Of all children in the nation, migrant children are the most undereducated and the least likely to complete high school and go on to postsecondary education (Garza et al., 2004; Gouwens, 2001). Chief among the factors that hinder the academic success of migrant students are the lack of stabil ity, poverty, and lack of English proficiency (Cranston-Gingras, 2003; Gouwen s, 2001). It is important to point out that these risk factors are usually overlapping and interactive. High Mobility Rate The lives of migrant families revolve ar ound working and moving. These families move often in order to secure job opportunities and usually follow one of three we ll-established migrant routes (Gouwens, 2001). The routes in clude the East Coast Stream, the Midcontinent Stream, and the West Coast Stream (Shotland, 1989) The East Coast Stream includes the states along the eastern seaboard and th e southern region of the Unite d States. The Mid-continent Stream begins in south of Texas and expands nor th through the Midwestern and western states. The West Coast Stream starts in California and moves up through Oregon and Washington. The constant mobility serves as one of the most significant impediments to the educational success of migrant children (Romanowski, 2004). As families migrate from one work site to the next, migrant preschoolers have very limited opportuni ties to participate in the early childhood programs that will prepare them for school entr ance (Lopez, 2004). As a result, many migrant children begin school without the early literacy sk ills they need to become successful students.

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22 During the elementary and secondary school years, migrant students attend an average of two to three schools a year (Garza et al., 2004). In additi on, they often miss valuable days of instruction and academic content by enrolling late in the year and leaving early. These disruptions place migrant children at a high risk of failing to perform at grade level (Gouwens, 2001). The Migrant Education Seconda ry Assistance Project (1989) points out that by second grade, 50% of migrant students nationally are already below grade level, comp ared with 19% of the general population. It is estimated that migrant childrens academic performance is usually 6-18 months behind grade level and over 40% of th ese children are achieving below the 35th percentile in reading (Cranston-Gingrass, 2003; Garza et al., 2004; Hinojosa and Miller, 1984). There is no doubt that the high mobility of migrant farm work sets migrant children on a path of academic failure. The previous is demonstrated by the high drop-out rates of migrant students, which range from 45 to 90% (Cranston-Gingrass, 2003). Poverty The high levels of poverty prevalent among migr ant families also have a dismal effect on the education of these students (Diaz, 1991; Cr anston-Gingrass, 2003). Approximately 75% of all migrant families in the United States live well below the national poverty level with an income of less than $10,000 annually (Garza et al., 2004). This amount often includes the contributions of migrant children who work along side their parent s in order to help the family earn enough money to subsist. Most migrant children begin working in early adolescence, however, it has been reported that children as young as four or five are work ing with their parents instead of attending preschool programs (Cranston-Gingr ass, 2003; Whitener, 1985). The previous is due to severe economic necessity, which along with high mobility rates and a lack of available early childhood programs restricts migrant childrens access to preschool instruction.

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23 The need to work plays a crucial role in the high dropout rates of migrant children. Martinez and Cranston-Gingrass (1996) found that among the 300 migrant adolescents they studied, the predominant reason (3 7%) cited for dropping ou t of school was to work in order to contribute to the familys finances. Parents Low Educational Levels The lack of economic resources combines w ith the low educational levels of migrant parents to further complicate the educational outcomes of migrant ch ildren. Children from homes that foster the development of ear ly literacy by providing access to books and opportunities to engage in liter acy activities have better academic outcomes than those from homes where these opportunities are not availabl e (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). Migrant families want their children to be successful and view e ducation as their childrens way out of the cycle of migrancy (Henderson, 1992; Whitaker, Sale nd, & Gutierrez, 1997). However, they must utilize all their fi nancial resources to meet basic needs, relegating the acquisition of books and other literacy related materials to a low priority (Garza et al., 2004; Henderson, 1992). Migrant children usually do not have access to books, en cyclopedias, computers or other learning materials in their homes (Ezell, Gonzales, & Randolph, 2000; Garza et al., 2004). Furthermore, the low educational levels of migrant parents ma ke it very difficult for them to engage their children in literacy-related activities. Over 75% of migrant adults have had limited educational opportunities, resulting in margin al reading skills and a lack of knowledge about the significant contribution of preschool literacy activi ties to later school success (Henderson, 1992; Romanowski, 2004). Lack of English Proficiency Another obstacle that migrant children and th eir families face on their path to academic success is the lack of English proficiency. Appr oximately 90% of migrant children come from

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24 homes where a language other than English is spoken (Garza et al., 2004). The vast majority of these families speak Spanish as a first language. Spanish-speaking childr en, and particularly, Spanish-speaking children from low-income b ackgrounds are twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites and African Americans to read below grade level and to drop out of school (Snow et al., 1998; Jones & Fuller, 2003). When the high leve l of poverty experienced by migrant families is added to these variables, the risk of academic failure is further exacerbated. Approximately 40% of migrant children have ac ademic difficulties due to a lack of English proficiency (Whitaker et al., 1997). These childr en are not able to participate and achieve academic success unless they receive adequa te language support (Gouwens, 2001). Unfortunately, a large proportion of migrant children do not receiv e the support they need due to their lack of stability (Whitake r et al., 1997). As mentioned pr eviously, migrant children attend an average of two to three schools every school y ear. By the time the schools receive the records they need to make instructiona l decisions, it is time for the children to move on to another school. Thereby, missing the instructional langu age support they need throughout their school careers. A large number of migrant pare nts speak little or no Englis h at all, making communication with their childrens schools difficult at best and nonexistent at worst (Gouwens, 2001). School officials often interpret this la ck of communication as the parent s lack of interest in the education of their children. Su ch interpretations lower teacher s expectations for migrant students, which will affect th eir educational performance. Limited Access to Health Care Services The migrant lifestyle is also characterized by a lack of access to health care services and vast health problems (Ibid., 2001). Although migrant farm work is considered the second most dangerous occupation in the United States, the va st majority of migrant families do not have

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25 health insurance and very few receive serv ices through Medicaid (National Center for Farmworker Health 2004). It is estimated that only one sixth of all migrant children are served in health care programs making them less likely to be fully immunized than other children (Ibid., 2004; Garza et al., 2004). The health profile of mi grant children is not encouraging. The infant mortality rate for migrants is 125% higher than the national av erage (Gouwens, 2001). The rate of parasitic infections among migrant children is 59 times higher that that of the general population and the incidence of malnutrition and de ntal disease is higher than among any other subpopulation in the country (Diaz, 1991). Furt hermore, the substandard housing typically available to migrant families le ads to an increased prevalence of lead poisoning, respiratory illnesses, otitis media and diarrhea among childre n (National Center for Farmworker Health, 2004). The constant exposure to dangerous chemicals, the lack of prenatal care, and poor living conditions place migrant children at high risk for disabilities (Cranston-Gingrass, 2003). Yet, they are often not identified for special e ducation services and fall behind their peers academically (Ibid., 2003; Lozano-Rodriguez, & Castellano, 1999). Although, migrant children have not attracted much attention from research ers in the field of sp ecial education, migrant students with disabilities may be the most seve rely affected by physical and mental conditions resulting from poverty, and multiple h ealth issues (Baca & Harris, 1988). Given the numerous obstacles faced by migr ant children in their path to academic achievement it is critical to intervene early by helping them acquire the skills they need to become successful readers before they begin school. Research ha s demonstrated that the most effective way to prepare young children to become effective readers is by supporting their early language development (McGee & Richgels, 2003).

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26 Importance of Language in Literacy Development The first years of life comprise the most important developmental period for language and literacy skills that serve as the foundation for formal r eading instruction (Dickinson & Tabors, 2003; Hargrave & Snchal, 2000; Mc Gee & Richgels, 2003). Children who begin school with limited early lit eracy skills, such as general verb al abilities, p honological awareness and letter knowledge, are at a high risk for future reading failure as these skills are predictive of reading performance during the latter elementary school years (Hart & Ri sley, 1995; Snow et al., 1998). According to Dickinson and Tabors (200 1), language plays a cr ucial role in the acquisition of letter knowl edge and phonological awareness. They explain that in order to learn about letters and sounds, children need to have knowledge about the internal structure of words, and this knowledge cannot be acquired without knowing numerous words in the first place (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). Therefore, th e most effective way to ensure that young children develop the liter acy skills they need for future read ing success is to support and enhance their early language developm ent (Ibid., 2001; Tabors, 1997). Children develop language skills by engaging in social interactions with more competent language users (Vygotsky, 1962, 1978). Several studi es examining the influence of the home environment on the acquisition of literacy have shown that yo ung children who have numerous opportunities to interact with a dults who facilitate language ar e more likely to develop the literacy-related knowledge necessary for future re ading achievement (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990; Hart & Risley, 1995; Snow & Tabors, 1996; Tabors, Snow, & Dickinson, 2001). These research findings support the socioc ultural learning theory formulated by Lev Vygotsky (1978). According to Vygotsky, children s mental, language, and social development is supported and enhanced through social interactions with othe r children, older peers, and adults. An important component of this theo ry is the concept of the zone of proximal

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27 development (Vygotsky, 1978). The zone of pr oximal development refers to the area of development into which children can be led in the course of interactions with a more competent partner (Ibid., 1978, p. 36). In other words, ch ildren are able to perf orm at a higher cognitive and linguistic level when they have the guidan ce of a supportive adult (Morrison, 2003; Ibid., 1978). The results obtained by Hart and Risley (1995) in their l ongitudinal study of parent-child interactions support the idea that a dults play an important role in scaffolding childrens language development. Hart and Risley (1995) comp ared the interactions within families from professional, working-class, and welfare backgro unds. They found that differences in the length and nature of the parent-child interactions resu lted in dramatic differences in the language development of the children. Parents from th e professional category averaged 42 minutes of interaction with their children per hour, while parents from the welfare category averaged 18 minutes of interaction. The nature of the interactions was very di fferent as well. The children of parents who used more affirmations (or encourag ing statements) and a gr eater variety of words had more extensive vocabularies than the parents of children who were not as supportive in their interactions (Hart & Risley, 1995). Furthermore, the differences in the la nguage skills of the children were predictive of differe nces in literacy achievement in the third grade (Hart & Risley, 2002). These findings support the role of langua ge as a critical precursor to literacy. The level of childrens oral language development at school en try is a strong predictor of later reading achievement (National Reading Pane l, 2000; Snow et al., 19 98). Moreover, reading ability in kindergarten is highly predictive of read ing skills in third and fourth grade, which is highly correlated with academic success as defined by high school graduation (Snchal & LeFevre, 1998; Snow et al, 1998). Dickinson and Tabors (2003) and Whitehurst (2002) also emphasize the importance of supporting language development and point out that having an

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28 extensive vocabulary at the time of school entr ance will set children on the path to reading success. The role of vocabulary is so critical for long-term read ing achievement that elementary school children with limite d language skills continue to la g behind their peers despite having adequate decoding skills (Davies & Brembers, 1997). Most children acquire oral language at a very fast rate during the preschool years (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). However, for ch ildren who are learning English as a second language and come from impoverish ed backgrounds, acquiring the language they need to ensure good reading outcomes may be more problematic (Snow et al., 1998; Tabors & Snow, 2002). Second Language Learners and Language Development During the preschool years, monolingual chil dren expand their oral language by 6 to 10 new words a day (Tabors & Snow, 2002). Most na tive speakers of English have a vocabulary of approximately 7,000 words by the time they begin formal reading instruction (August & Hakuta 1997). However, for some children language acqui sition is a more complicated issue. The previous statement is particularly true for young children learning English as a second language. According to Tabors & Snow (2002), the develo pment of precursor abilities for literacy, particularly the acquisition of new vocabulary, c ould be problematic for children who experience a change in their language envir onment during the preschool period. Most children learning English as a second la nguage have their first formal and extensive exposure to English when they begin participating in early childhood programs. It is also at this time that many parents are advised to stop using the first language at home and to interact with their children in English. A lthough well intentioned, such advice ca n be detrimental to the first and second language development of young ch ildren (Cummins, 1984; Krashen, 1968; WongFillmore, 1992). An extensive body of research in the field of second language acquisition has demonstrated that development in the childs fi rst language facilitates the development of the

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29 second language (Cummins, 1981; Hakuta, 1990; Krashen, 1991; McLaughlin, 1995). Furthermore, home language ability has been found to be a significant predictor of second language acquisition (Cummins, 1980; Green, 1 998; Snow, 1990). Cummins (1980) proposes that language and preliteracy skil ls transfer from one language to another. However, Tabors and Snow (2002) cautioned that for these skills to tran sfer, they must have been developed in the first place. And if there has b een a discontinuity in the first language environment leading to truncated development of these aspects of prelite racy development in the childs first language, there may be nothing to transfer to the new la nguage(p. 171). This situation will require young second language learners to atta in these preliteracy skills in a new language they may not yet have under sufficient control to use in the servi ce of literacy acquisition. By continuing to use the first language at home, parents are prepari ng their children for both school and for acquiring English. Importance of Early Literacy Activities/Shared Book Reading Early literacy activities play an important role in the development of literacy-related knowledge that will set the foundation for future reading success (Hammer, Wagstaff, & Miccio, 2003). Children who have many high-quality liter acy experiences at home and in preschool are more likely to become proficient readers and writers (Hammer et al., 2003; McGee & Richgels, 2003; Neuman & Dickinson, 2002; Snow et al., 1998) Experiences that influence the future literacy success of children includ e: watching the parents or car egivers engage in reading and writing independently, parents enga ging in activities with their ch ildren such as writing notes, and shared book reading (parents listening to children read an d parents reading to children) (Auerbach, 1989). Shared book reading has proven to have a significant effect on childrens reading outcomes (Wells, 1987). A study conducted by Wells (1987) sugge sted that child rens reading

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30 achievement at the end of elementary school coul d have been predicted by differences in the early literacy experiences they possessed upon kindergarten entrance. After analyzing the different kinds of literacy activities the child ren had experienced during the preschool period, Wells (1987) concluded that the primary influenc e on the differences in later achievement could be the frequency of exposure to shared book reading. Engaging young children in shared book reading promotes their language and literacy sk ills (Dickinson & Tabors, 2002; Dickinson & Sprague, 2001). Shared book reading has numerous benefits some of which include learning about the concepts of print, knowledge of the alphabet, familiarity with the language of books, and the acquisition of new vocabulary (Hargrave & Snchal, 2000). For example, Snchal and Cornell (1993), and Robbins and Ehri (1994) found that young children acquire receptive and expressive vocabulary after a single reading of a book. There is no doubt that children who participate in book reading with their parents or ca regivers are better prepared for formal reading instruction than those without such experi ences (Sawyer, 2000;Vernon-Feagans, Hammer, Miccio, & Manlove, 2001). Inquiry in the area of shared book reading has le d to an increased intere st in the nature of interactions between children and th eir caretakers during this activit y. As a result, there is more information on different techniques that may be utilized to enhance the benefits of shared-book reading (Dale & Cole, 1996; Hock enberger, Goldstein, & Haas, 1999). Parents and/or caregivers read to their childre n in different ways. So me see the child as a passive participant in the activity while others encourage interaction (Anglum, Bell, & Roubinek, 1990; Moustafa, 1997). Although, shared book reading in general has been found to promote the language and literacy skills of young children (Hargrave & Snchal, 2000; Vernon-Feagans et al., 2002), its effects are more powerful when it involves the activ e participation of the child

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31 (Whitehurst et al., 1988; Lonigan & Whitehurst 1998; Arnold, Lonigan, Whitehurst & Epstein, 1994). Findings of a study conducted by Hammer, Miccio and Wagstaff ( 2003) suggest that the traditional way in which most parents read to chil dren (with the child as a passive participant) might not be enough to support the literacy de velopment of young Spanish/English bilinguals. Yaden, Tam, Madrigal, Brassell, Massa, A ltamirano, and Armendariz (2000) found similar results when they implemented a shared book reading program for Spanish/English bilingual four year olds in a poor neighbor hood of Los Angeles, California Both Hammer et al. (2003) and Yaden et al. (2000) suggest that a more interactive way of reading between child and caregiver might be needed to foster the early litera cy skills of these children. One shared reading approach that involves intera ction between adults and young children and holds considerable potential for promoting early language a nd literacy skills is dialogic reading. Dialogic Reading Dialogic reading is a shared book reading intervention that incorporates discussion between the caregiver and the child. Designed by Whitehurst and colleag ues, dialogic reading involves active participation from the child a nd provides numerous opportunities for language development (Arnold et al., 1994; Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998; White hurst et al., 1988; Whitehurst et al. 1994). The three guiding pr inciples of dialogic reading include: (a) encouraging the child to participate by using pr ompts, (b) providing feedback to the child, and (c) adapting the reading style of the adult to th e childs linguistic abilities (Whitehurst et al., 1988; Whitehurst et al., 1994). Based on Vygots kys zone of proximal develoment, dialogic reading provides a natural context for scaffolded adult-child interactions that facilitate the language development of the young child (Zevenbe rgen & Whitehurst, 2004). Contrary to typical shared book interactions, in dialogic reading, the child is taught gradually to become the storyteller (Whitehurst et al., 1988; Zevenbergen & Whitehurst, 2004).

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32 The acronym PEER is utilized to help pare nts remember the steps they will follow when engaging their children in dialogic reading: Prompt and wa it, Evaluate the childs response, Expand the childs answer, and Repe at what the child says and encourage him/her to repeat it. The acronym CROWD is used to describe the differe nt kinds of prompts that may be utilized by the adult: Completion prompts, Recall prom pts, Open-ended prompts, Whprompts and Distancing prompts (see training section for more details). Whitehurst and colleagues (1988) discourage the use of yes/no questions during dialogic reading, as th ey do not stimulate the childrens use of language. Once th e child provides an answer to the prompt, the adult provides feedback by recasting what the child has said and by expanding with more information, praising, or correcting errors. During a dial ogic reading interacti on, it is important for the adult to adjust his reading style to the language level of the child. As the child becomes more adept at talking about the story, the adult provides less support (Whitehurst et al., 1988 ; Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992). Review of the Empirical Literature on the Efficacy of Dialogic Reading Research conducted over the last 15 years pr ovides convincing evidence of a positive correlation between dialogic reading and the developmen t of oral language skills of children atrisk for future reading problems (Dale, Crai n-Thoreson, Notari-Syverson, & Cole, 1996; ValdezMenchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Whitehurst et al., 1988; Whitehurst et al., 1994). In establishing this relationship, researchers have examined the effects of dialogic reading on preschool children with developmental delays, children from lo w socioeconomic backgrounds and children with limited English proficiency. The articles chosen for review in this s ection were identified through a comprehensive search in the Psych Info, ERIC, Wilson, Prodigita l Dissertation and EBSCO databases. The key words dialogic reading, oral language, vocabulary, early liter acy, emergent literacy, storybook

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33 reading, shared book reading, and pa rent involvement were combin ed for the searches. Other articles were obtained through a hand search of relevant studies by Whitehurst, Senechal and Lonigan. Finally, a review of the references within selected studies provided additional articles. The search concentrated on empiri cal studies that met the following criteria: (a) articles were published in English from 1985 to the present (b) dissertations were written in English from 1985 to the present (c) part icipants included children between the ages of 2.5 and 6 years old. (d) study focused specifically on dialog ic reading (e) study participants included children considered to be at-risk for future reading difficulties (children from low socioeconomic backgrounds, children with disabilities, child ren learning English as a second language). An initial search yielded a total of 17 articles and 6 unpublished disse rtations. Once the exclusionary criteria were applied, 11 articles and 1 unpublished dissertation were chosen for in clusion in this review. The studies were divided for disc ussion based on the characteri stics of the participants: developmental delays, low socioeconomic status, and English language learners. Dialogic Reading and Children with Developmental Delays The use of dialogic reading techniques as a treatment for improving the language and emergent literacy skills of pr eschool children with developmen tal delays was first posited by Whitehurst, Fischel, Lonigan, Valdez-Menchaca, Arnold, and Smith (1991). These researchers proposed that a shared book reading program that incorporated prompts and open-ended questions would have a powerful impact on the language skills of preschool children with expressive language delays (ELD). The result s of the study confirmed the previous hypothesis and demonstrated that a dialog ic reading program implemented at home by the caregivers could accelerate the vocabulary skills a nd increase the oral language pr oduction of children with ELD. Similarly, Dale, Crain-Thoreson, Notari-Syvers on, and Cole (1996) compared the effects of a dialogic reading program to those of a conversational language training program on the

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34 expressive language development of young children with language delays. Study participants included thirty-three (33) mother-child dyads th at were randomly assigned to the book-reading program or to the conversational program for ei ght weeks of interventi on. The children ranged in ages from 3 to 6 years old and were primarily male (24 males and 9 females). All of them had mild-to-moderate language delays, functioning at the 2 to 4 year old level. The researchers utilized the McCarthy Scales of Childrens Abilities General Cognitive Index (GCI) and the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) as preand post-intervention measures. In addition, every dyad was videotaped reading a book and playing before and after the implementation of the treatments. The videotapes were transcribed and a computerized language analysis program was used to calculate the mean length of utterance (MLU) and the total number of different words used by the child. The resu lts of this study reve aled that the language production of both groups increased as measured by MLU and the number of words produced by the children. However, children in the dialogic reading group experienced greater gains in both measures than those assigned to the c onversational language training program. Another important finding of this study, suggests that the effects of di alogic reading on the childrens literacy skills are re lated to their level of language functioning. Upon comparison of preand post-test measures it was found that chil dren functioning at the lo wer level made greater gains in verbal engagement and vocabulary skil ls, whereas children at the higher levels of functioning showed greater gains in their knowledge of grammar. Dale et al. (1996) concluded that dialogic reading has cons iderable potential for facilita ting the language production and literacy skills of children with language delays but add that the intervention needs to be monitored for a longer period of time in order to determine its full effects on this population.

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35 Continuing to investigate the effects of dialogi c reading on the emergent literacy skills of children with language delays, Crain-Thoreson an d Dale (1999) conducted a study that included thirty-two children, their parents and preschool teachers. The children ranged in age from 39 to 66 months and were enrolled in special needs preschool programs in the Pacific Northwest region of the country. All children had been diag nosed with mild to moderate language delays. Upon completion of the Peabody Picture Vocab ulary Test Revised (PPVT-R) and the Expressive Once-Word Vocabulary Test-Revis ed (EOWPVT-R), the children were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: Oneon-one dialogic book read ing with the parent, One-on-one dialogic book reading with the teach er, and Conversational interaction with the teacher without book reading (control). Children a ssigned to dialogic read ing groups participated in the activity at least four times a week for 10-minute sessions. All children were videotaped during a shared book interaction at the beginni ng and at the end of the eight-week study Results showed that children in all three groups displayed an incr ease in language production and lexical complexity during the interactions. However, child ren in the dialogic reading interventions used a greater variety of words than children in the conversational interactions group. In addition, the degree of treatment fidelity of the adult reader was related to changes in childrens linguistic performance during the sessions. Children in dyads that followed the dialogic reading techniques as outlined showed greater improveme nt in the post-intervention measures. CrainThoreson and Dale (1999) conclude that dialogic readi ng can help improve th e language skills of young children with language delays and suggest th e need for more rigorou s longitudinal studies testing the effect of the technique on the literacy skills of these children. More recently, Hargrave and Snchal (2000) examined whether implementing a dialogic reading program in a preschool setting would improve the vo cabulary of children with poor

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36 expressive language skills. These researchers in cluded two reading conditi ons in their study: a typical reading condition in wh ich teachers read in their cu stomary manner, and a dialogic reading condition in which teachers were taught to read in a dialogic manner. Regardless of condition, all of the participants were expos ed to the same books over the four-week intervention. One important feature of this study is that the reading did not take place in a oneon-one situation but in a small gr oup setting. Hargrave and Snch al (2000) added that using a ratio of 8 students per every te acher facilitated the implementati on of the intervention within the existing structures of the preschool programs. The participants were 36 children (21 girls and 15 boys) between the ages of 3 and 5. The expressive vocabulary skills of the children averaged 13 months behind their chronological ages. In addition, one of th e children had been diagnosed with a learning disabili ty. Preand post-test measures in cluded the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), the Expressive On e Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (EOWPVT-R) and a test of new words labeled B ook Vocabulary test. The results revealed that children participating in the di alogic reading condition made gr eater gains in language than children in the typical reading condition. The gain s were notable in expressive language skills, but not in receptive language. Hargrave and Sn chal (2000) explained th at, over the course of the four-week study, children in the dialogic reading condition experienced an increase in expressive vocabulary that would normally occur in four months. Furthermore, the results showed that these preschoolers were able to acqui re expressive vocabulary after listening to two readings of books in which the words were intr oduced in print and illustrations. A novel contribution of this study is that it demonstr ates that conducting a di alogic reading session is both feasible and effective within the teacher/chi ldren ratio found in most preschools. Hargrave and Snchal (2000) concluded that although, childr en in both reading conditions benefited from

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37 storybook reading, the benefits were more extens ive for the children in the dialogic reading condition. The important effect of dialogic reading on the language knowledge of children with language delays has been well established in the literature (Crain-Thores on & Dale, 1999; Dale et al., 1996; Hargrave & Snchal 2000; Whitehurst et al., 1991). Fielding-Barnsley and Purdie (2003) expanded this body of research by examin ing the effects of dialogic reading on the phonological awareness and pr int awareness of children with de velopmental delays and a family history of reading disabilities. The experiment al group included 26 childre n raging in age from 4 to 5 years old. Twenty-three children in the same age range were part of the control group. All the children were enrolled in preschool pr ograms and had been identified as having developmental delays by their teachers. In addition, the childrens families indicated that one or more members of the household had been diagnose d with a reading disability. Fielding-Barnsley and Purdie (2003) conducted home visits to tr ain the experimental gr oup parents on dialogic reading techniques and provided th em with pictures books, and lit erature on how to foster the literacy development of the children. Families were asked to engage in dialogic book reading with their children at least five times during th e eight-week intervention. Families of children in the control group did not receive a ny support. Post-test results revealed that children in the experimental group scored signi ficantly higher than the cont rol group in phonological awareness skills such as rhyme awareness, and recognition of initial and final consonant sounds. The print awareness of children in the e xperimental group was also signif icantly higher than that of children in the control group as measured by the Concepts about Print Test (CAP). FieldingBarnsley and Purdie (2003) emphasize the importa nce of involving parent s in early intervention

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38 efforts and add that a dialogic reading progr am implemented by parents can improve the emergent literacy skills of child ren with developmental delays. These studies reveal that dial ogic reading can improve the oral language skills, grammar knowledge, print awareness and phonological awareness of young ch ildren with developmental delays (particularly language delays). This tech nique appears to be particularly beneficial for increasing oral language production. An overview of studies examining the effects of dialogic reading on the language skills of ch ildren with developmental dela ys is presented in Table 2-1. Dialogic Reading and Children From Low SES Backgrounds The efficacy of dialogic read ing on improving emergent literacy skills was initially examined on European-American children from upper and middle class backgrounds (Whitehurst et al., 1988; Arnold et al., 1994). These studies demons trated that dialogic reading increased the language production (as measured by MLU), vocabulary skills, and print awareness of typically developing preschool ers (Whitehurst et al., 1988; Arnol d et al., 1994). In order to determine whether dialogic reading could also benefit young children from low-income families and different cultural bac kgrounds, Valdez-Menchaca and Whitehurst (1992) implemented the technique in a preschool for working class fam ilies in Monterey, Mexic o. Twenty monolingual speakers of Spanish ranging in age from 27 to 35 months participated in the study. A graduate assistant implemented dialogic reading techniques while re ading to the children in the experimental group on an individual basis. The children in the c ontrol group receiv ed instruction on arts and crafts. Children receiving the dial ogic reading intervention experienced significant gains in both their receptive and expressive lang uage skills, as measured by Spanish translations of the EOWPVT, PPVT-R and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Furthermore, children in the treatment group prod uced longer utterances, had a higher level of sentence complexity, and used a greater variety of nouns and verbs than children in the control

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39 group. Valdez-Menchaca and Whitehurst (1992) c oncluded that dialogic reading had a positive effect on the language knowledge of young child ren from low SES and different language backgrounds. They added that dialogic readi ng training programs hold promise in developing countries that lack the resources to conduct more intensive interventions programs such as Head Start. Whereas the previous study investigated the e ffects of dialogic read ing on the skills of Spanish speaking children in Mexico, White hurst, Arnold, et al. (1994) analyzed the effectiveness of the technique with low-inco me families in the United States. Their study included 73 preschool children (3 years old) from families that qualified for publicly subsidized daycare in Long Island, New York. The childre n were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: daily dialogic reading in groups of five or less by th e daycare teacher, daily dialogic reading at home and in a small group at school, and group play activities on a daily basis. Children in the first condition engaged in sma ll group dialogic reading sessions with their teachers (or the teachers aides). These intera ctions lasted ten minutes per day and were conducted five times a week. The group in th e second condition experienced the classroom dialogic reading sessions describe d previously. In addition, this group participated in individual dialogic reading interactions with their parents at home. The thir d group (control) participated in small group play activities under the supervision of a teacher or ai de. Results of the six-week intervention revealed that di alogic reading had a positive imp act on the language knowledge of the participants. Children in the intervention co nditions obtained higher scores on the measures of expressive language (EOWPVT) and vocabular y (Our Word) than children in the control group. Furthermore, children who engaged in di alogic reading at home and at school scored significantly higher on the language knowledge measure than child ren who were only exposed to

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40 the intervention at school. The gains made by th e students in the dialogic reading conditions were maintained six months after the treatment had ended. Continuing their research with families fr om low socioeconomic backgrounds, Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) assessed the effectiveness of dialogic reading with families participating in a Head Start program in Suffolk County, New Yor k. These researchers investigated the efficacy of a yearlong dialogic reading program to enha nce the emergent literacy skills of 153 preschool students in several Head Start centers. Parents and Head Start teachers received training on dialogic reading techniques. In additi on, teachers also received training on Sound Foundations (Byrne & Fielding-Barnsley, 1991), a phonemic awar eness curriculum. Students were randomly assigned to a treatment or a control group. Stud ents in the treatment group received small group dialogic reading two to five times a week for one year, Sound Foundations curriculum instruction in the classroom for five months and storybooks which were sent home following parent training on dialogic read ing. Students in the control gr oup received general education curriculum instruction. All children were admi nistered the PPVT-R, the EOWPVT-R, the ITPA, and 18 subscales from the Developing Skills Check list (DSC; CTB, 1990) at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Re sults of this study demonstrated that children in the treatment condition performed better at the end of the year on print awareness, and la nguage skills. It is important to note that the children who experi enced an improvement in language skills were those whose parents had actually implemente d the dialogic reading program at home. Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) hypothesized that the group di alogic reading interactions offered in the classroom were not sufficient to foster the language skills of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. They added that the language skills of this group of children would be enhanced by one-on-one interacti ons with an adult. Although, ch ildren in the dialogic reading

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41 condition showed robust gains in th e ability to identify the first sounds in words, there were no significant differences between grou ps on phonological awareness skills. The question of whether or not the effects of a dialogic reading program implemented during preschool can endure into the elementa ry school years was investigated by Whitehurst, Zevenbergen, Crone, Schultz, Velting, & Fish el (1999). These researchers conducted a longitudinal inquiry focusing on th e participants of the study le d by Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) and a replication cohort fr om different Head Start centers in the New York area. Whitehurst et al. (1999) found th at the effects of dialogic reading reported by Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) were replic ated with the new cohort of Head Start students. The gains in print awareness, and language skills attained by the children in the dialogic reading conditions were maintained through the end of the kindergarten year. In addi tion, children with the dialogic reading advantage performed better in phonological awareness tasks than children who had not experienced the intervention. Unfo rtunately, the effects did not gene ralize to reading scores at the end of first or second grade. Whitehur st et al. (1999) conc luded the following: It may be that dialogic read ing and other similar shared reading interventions conducted in the preschool years will yield more advant ages for children during the later elementary school years, when they are reading to learn, than in the early elementary school years, when they are learning to read. (p.269) Expanding the research on the effects of dialogi c reading on the literacy skills of children from poor backgrounds, Lonigan, Anthony, Bloomfie ld, Dyer, & Samwel (1999) analyzed how typical shared book reading compared to dialogi c reading. They used three conditions that included (a) typical shared reading condition (t eacher read while the children listened), (b) dialogic reading condition, and (c) no treatment control. The assessment measures included the PPVT-R, EOWPVT-R, ITPA Verbal Expression Woodcock-Johnson Listening Comprehension subtest (WJ-LC), and four phonol ogical sensitivity measures (rhyme, blending, elision, and

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42 alliteration). Upon completion of these pretest measures, 95 children between the ages of 2 and 5 years old were randomly assigned to one of the studys conditions. The two reading conditions, dialogic and typica l, were conducted by undergraduate college students and were scheduled daily for 10 to 15 minutes. Lonigan et al. (1999) found that both treatment conditions had positive effects on the emergent literacy skills of the children. However, the nature of the improvements was related to th e type of shared book reading condition, dialogic or typical. Children in the typical reading group had higher scores on listening comprehension skills and phonological awareness skills whereas children in the dialogic reading condition had an improvement in the use of descriptive language. Based on the results, Lonigan et al. (1999) hypothesized that the effects of shared book r eading on childrens phonologi cal awareness skills might have been underestimated. However, they warned that the effect was found on only one of the four measures (alliteration), so it must be interpreted with caution. The research has shown that dialogic r eading has a positive effect on the language knowledge, print awareness and phonological awareness skills of children from low socioeconomic backgrounds (Whitehurst, Arnold, et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et,al. 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1999; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurs t, 1992). Like with the previous group of children (children with developmental delays) the st rongest effect of dialog ic reading appears to be on language particularly oral languag e production. The techniques influence on phonological awareness remains uncl ear. An overview of studies examining the effects of dialogic reading on the language and emerge nt literacy skills of children from low socioeconomic backgrounds is presented in Table 2-2. Dialogic Reading and Children Learning English as a Second Language Although several dialogic reading studies have been conducted with children and caregivers from diverse linguistic backgr ounds (Chow & McBride-Chang, 2003; Valdez-

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43 Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992), there is a scarcity of research that examines the effects of the intervention on the literacy skills of children learning Englis h as a second language and living in the United States. The limited amount of dial ogic reading research co ncentrating on bilingual children suggests that dialogi c reading can have a positive effect on the vocabulary of young children growing up in bilingual environments (Lim & Cole, 2002; Brickman, 2002). Lim and Cole (2002) examined the impact of dialogic reading on the first language knowledge of Korean children liv ing in Seattle, Washington. Th e researchers worked with twenty-one mother-child dyads. The children ra nged in age from 2 to 4 years old and were reported to be developing in a typical manner. All of them were grow ing up bilingual, learning Korean at home and English in their preschools. Dyads were randomly assigned to a treatment condition or to a control conditi on. The treatment condition consis ted of training the mothers on dialogic reading techniques a nd discussing information on the importance of first language and literacy development. Parents in the control gr oup received information about the importance of the first language and literacy development. The mothers in th e experimental group were asked to engage their children in dial ogic reading every day. After four weeks of intervention, the children in the experimental group produced more language, longer utterances and used a greater variety of words than the child ren in the control group. Lim a nd Cole (2002) note that although the dialogic reading interaction was carried out in Korean, the children used both Korean and English words during the events. They conclude d that the dialogic read ing intervention had a positive effect on the childrens expressive vocabulary in both Korean and English. In contrast, Brickman (2002) analyzed whet her a dialogic reading program conducted in the second language could benefit the developm ent of bilingual childrens receptive and expressive language skills in English. This study focused on thirty-four mother-child dyads that

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44 spoke Spanish as a first language. The children were between the ages of three and five and were eligible for participation in the Even St art program of Norman, Oklahoma. Like in the previous study, dyads were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. Mothers of children in the experimental group participated in a workshop that taught them how to implement dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading and received free storybooks. The mothers in the control group receiv ed free storybooks but were not allowed to participate in the workshop until the data collection process was finalized. Particip ating mothers were asked to implement dialogic reading techni ques during daily reading sessions with their children. After six weeks of intervention, the children in the experimental group showed noticeable improvement in print awareness skills. Children in this group also showed larger gains in receptive language skills than the children in the control group. There were no significant differences between the experiment al and control groups in expre ssive language skills. As found in the Lim and Cole (2002) study, the children in Brickmans experimental group used both their first and second language during dialogic reading in teractions with their mothers. Brickman (2002) added that a longer interv ention period might be necessary to assess the full effects of dialogic reading on the second la nguage skills of young children. The scarce literature available in this area suggests that dial ogic reading can result in the growth of first and second language knowledge as well as print concep ts of young children from non-English backgrounds. There is a definite need for more attention and research on how dialogic reading can foster the language sk ills of young children gr owing up in bilingual environments. An overview of studies examining the effects of dialogic reading on the emergent literacy skills of children with Limited Eng lish Proficiency is presented in Table 2-3.

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45 Summary of Findings The research demonstrates that dialogic reading can have a positive effect on the language and early literacy skills of young children at-risk for developing reading difficulties. The most important effect of dialogic reading appears to be on language knowledge (Brickman, 2000; Hargrave & Snchal, 2000; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1999; Whitehurst et al., 1991). Dialogi c reading stimulates the oral language production of children with developmental delays (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Dale et al., 1996; Hargrave & Snchal, 2000; Whitehurst et al., 1991), childr en from low-income families (Lonigan et al., 1999; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Wh itehurst, Arnold, et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1999) and children learning English as a second language (Lim & Cole, 2002). Results showed that presch ool children at educational risk who received dialogic reading intervention experienced an in crease in the mean length of spoken phrases and exhibited greater gains in expres sive vocabulary scores than th e children in the control groups. Only one study, Brickman (2002), found that chil dren in the control gr oup experienced higher gains in expressive language ski lls. Brickman attributed this result to pre-existing differences between the experimental and control groups such as the childrens lengt h of time in the Even Start program. The influence of dialogic reading on receptive la nguage skills was not clearly established. Only one of the studies (Brickman) asserted th at dialogic reading had a positive effect on young childrens receptive langua ge skills. However, the differen ce between the cont rol and dialogic reading group in the PPVT-R scores di d not reach statistical significance. It is important to point out that the context of the intervention can magnify the influence that dialogic reading has on language knowledge. Children in home-plus-preschool conditions demonstrated greater gains in language measures than children in classroom conditions

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46 (Whitehurst, Arnold, et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epst ein, et al., 1994). Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. emphasized that the dialogic reading effects on language were impressive but only for children whose parents had implemented the at-home co mponent of the program. Moreover, these findings point to the importance of one-to-one di alogic reading interactions that are more likely to happen at home than in the classroom. It is possible that individual interactions may not be sufficient to produce significant improvements in the oral language skills of children from lowincome backgrounds. This is also important for children with developmental delays as research demonstrates that they need more individual at tention in order to de velop language and early literacy skills (Hammer et al, 2003). Most of the research on dialog ic reading has focused on the effects of the intervention on language knowledge. However, a small number of studies suggest that dialogic reading might also foster the development of other emergent literacy skills such as print and phonological awareness. Children across the three categorie s of risk for reading failure showed an improvement in print awareness skills such as kn owledge of standard print format (left-to-right, front-to-back orientation), a nd understanding the form and func tion of print (Brickman, 2002; Fielding-Barnsley & Purdie, 2003; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994). The findings regarding the e ffects of dialogic reading on phonological awareness also suggest that the intervention can help children with developm ental delays and low-income backgrounds improve their alliteration awarene ss, rhyme awareness, and recognition of initial and final consonants (Fielding-Barnsley & Pu rdie, 2003; Lonigan et al., 1999; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994; Whitehurst et al., 1999). An interesting trend is that although Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) did not fi nd significant differences between the treatment and control groups in this measure, the follow-up study cond ucted by Whitehurst et al. (1999) showed that

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47 by the end of kindergarten, children who had rece ived dialogical readi ng performed better in phonological awareness tasks than ch ildren who had not been exposed to the technique. Another surprising result was obtained by Lonigan et al. ( 1999), who pointed out that the type of shared book reading interaction made a difference in preschool childrens phonological awareness skills. The results of their st udy suggested that typical shared book reading might have a small effect on the phonological awareness skills of chil dren. Children in the typical shared book reading group had higher scores th an children in the dialogic r eading group in the alliteration measure. No between group differences we re found in the rema ining three phonological awareness measures. The results of Whitehurst, Ep stein, et al., Whitehurst et al., and Lonigan et al., raise significant questions about the long-term ef fects of dialogic r eading on the phonological awareness skills of preschool children. The effects of dialogic reading on the first and second language skills of bilingual children are also promising. The studies surveyed (Brickman, 2002; Lim & Co le, 2002) showed that bilingual children used both their first and sec ond language during the inte rvention regardless of the language in which it was implemented and that the technique had sign ificant results in the English print awareness of Spanish/English bilinguals. Th ese results suggest that dialogic reading can promote the second language acqui sition of young English language learners. The research on dialogic reading pr oposes that relatively simple ch anges in the way adults conduct shared reading interactions can make an impor tant contribution to th e expressive language development of young children at-risk for reading failure. Limitations Any interpretation of the outcomes obtained by th ese studies must be viewed with caution due to several limitations. The magnitude of the effects of dialogic reading depends on the degree of fidelity with which the intervention is ca rried out. The fact that one third of the studies

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48 did not include fidelity measures or relied on logs completed by the parents and teachers to determine fidelity level represents a problem (Brickman, 2002; Dale et al., 1996; Lim & Cole, 2002; Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994). Research s hows that parents and teachers who engage in frequent reading interactions with children have preferred reading styles that become ingrained part of their routines and are not easy to change (Teale, 1986). Th erefore, any subtle adjustments to the standard dialogic reading routine by pare nts and teachers might have gone unnoticed and not recorded on the logs. Other treatment fidelity issues relate to the duration and reported frequency of the book reading episodes. U pon revision of dialogic reading videotaped interactions, it was found that teachers in the treatment conditions were reading for longer periods of time than accorded. The previous made it difficult to determine if any effects were due to the implementation of dialogic reading or to an increase in th e duration of book reading interactions. An example of this problem is offered by Hargrave and S nchal (2000), who point out that there was substantial variability in teacher compliance with the dialogic reading intervention schedule. In additi on, parent and caregivers repo rted frequency of shared book reading interactions might have been influenced by a social desi rability effect. Shared book reading is promoted as a practice that sets children in the path to academic success, therefore, parents who want successful children need to enga ge in shared book reading as often as possible (Brickman, 2002; Teale, 1986). Additional limitations pertain to the facts that one third of the studies (Dale et al., 1996; Harg rave & Snchal, 2000; Whitehurst et al., 1991) did not include a no-treatment control group, and 66% utilized small samples that might have led to low power in the statistical significance of analyses (Brick man, 2002; Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Dale et al., 1996; Fielding-Barnsley & Purdie, 2003; Ha rgrave & Snchal, 2000; Lim & Cole, 2002; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Whitehurst et al., 1991).

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49 With regard to external validity, it must be not ed that in two of the studies (Lonigan et al., 1999; Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992) co llege students implemented the reading treatments. In the case of Valdez-Menchaca and Whitehurst, the implementer was a doctoral student who interacted w ith participants on an individual basi s, whereas in the Lonigan et al. study, undergraduate students implement the two r eading conditions to groups of five or less children. This raises concerns about the degree to which typical preschool teachers and parents from low income backgrounds can be trained and motivated to engage in dialogic reading Rationale of the Study There is a critical dearth of research in the area of langua ge development of students from migrant populations. Migrant stude nts are at risk fo r beginning formal schooling without the skills needed for future reading achievement. The area of oral languag e development is of particular interest as it is a strong predictor of future reading skills. Dialogic reading is a shared reading tec hnique that has proven to promote the oral language development of young learners from all socioeconomic backgrounds. However, most of the dialogic reading studies have been conducted with monolingual speakers of English. Although many of the studies incl uded children from diverse backgrounds (European-American, African-American, and Hispanic), none of them concentrated on the lang uage development of children from migrant populations and only two (Chow & McBride-Chang, 2003; ValdezMenchaca & Whitehurst, 1992) examined the skills of monolingual speakers of other languages (Chinese and Spanish). The Valdez-Menchaca a nd Whitehurst (1992) study is of particular interest as it is the only study that focused on the language development of native speakers of Spanish. However, this particular study was conducted with children who lived outside the United States and who had not been exposed to a second language.

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50 The current study aimed to determine whet her Spanish speaking migrant mothers with minimal formal education could be trained to facilitate their childrens oral language development through the implementation of di alogic reading techniques during shared book reading. The findings of the study will offer info rmation that will help parents from language minority and low SES backgrounds prepare their children for future reading achievement. Research Questions 1. Can migrant mothers with a low educational le vel be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques? 2. What is the effect of the mothers im plementation of dialogic reading techniques on the oral language produc tion of migrant pr eschool children? 3. Will the effects of dialogic readi ng on the oral language development of preschool children be maintained following the conclusion of the intervention?

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51 Figure 2-1. Conceptual framework Child Strong Oral Language Skills R e a d in g Success Impact on the Parent Low educational level High mobility rate Dangerous working conditions Poor access to health care Limited English Proficiency MIGRANT PROFILE Poverty Limited Educational Opportunities Non-English Background Hi g h Mobilit y Rate Impact on the Child Limited opportunity for participation in preschool programs Lack of access to learning materials at home Low L1 oral language skills Disability Limited English Proficiency Parents/ Caregivers Interventions that Promote Language Development Dialogic Reading

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52 Table 2-1. Dialogic read ing and children with developmental delays Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) and Type of Delay Training Components Whitehurst,Fischel, Lonigan, ValdezMenchaca, Arnold, & Smith (1991) 25 24 to 36 Video, group discussion Details/Findings: Storybook interactions th at included open-ended questions and prompts increased the oral languag e production and vocabulary skills of the children Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) and Type of Delay Training Components Dale,CrainThoreson, NotariSyverson, & Cole (1996) 32 36 to 72 Video, group discussion Details/Findings: Increased oral language production and gr eater vocabulary variety. Lower functioning children res ponded to dialogic reading with in creased verbal engagement and vocabulary skills. Higher functioning children used input as a source for gaining in MLU and to learn about grammar Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) and Type of Delay Training Components Crain-Thoreson & Dale (1999) 32 39 to 66 Video, modeling, role-play Details/Findings: Children in treatment group used a greater variety of words than children in a conversation program group

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53 Table 2-1. continued Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) and Type of Delay Training Components Hargrave & Snchal (2000) 36 36 to 60 Video, group discussion, role-play Details/Findings: Children experienced ga ins in oral language production and vocabulary Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) and Type of Delay Training Components Fielding-Barnsley & Purdie (2003) 26 48 to 60 Group training Details/Findings: Gains in pr int awareness and phonol ogical awareness skills-rhyme awareness, and recognition of initial and final consonant sounds

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54 Table 2-2. Dialogic reading and ch ildren from low SES backgrounds Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) Training Components Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst* (1992) 20 27 to 35 Intervention delivered by the researcher Details/Findings : Children in treatment showed great er expressive and receptive vocabulary, longer utterances, and greater vocabulary comple xity than children in the control group Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) Training Components Whitehurst, Arnold, et al. (1994)* 73 36 to 41 Video, practice session with direct feedback Details/Findings : Children in treatment conditions show ed greater expressive vocabulary scores than children in the play group. Children w ho received dialogic reading at home and school made greater gains than children in other gr oups. Six-month follow-up indicated expressive vocabulary growth was maintained Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) Training Components Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) 153 36 to 41 Video, practice session with direct feedback Details/Findings : Children receiving dialogic readi ng showed gains in print awareness and language skills. Gains in language skills were exhi bited by children receiving dialogic reading at home and school.

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55 Table 2-2. continued Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) Training Components Whitehurst, Zevenbergen, Crone, Schultz, Velting & Fischel (1999) 153 36 to 41 Video, group discussion Details/Findings: Replication of Whitehurst, Epstein, et al. (1994) st udy. Children receiving dialogic reading performed better at the end of the preschool year in language and print awareness. No difference in phonological awareness. Gains in print awareness and language were maintained through the end of kindergarten. Gains did not generalized to first and second reading scores Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) Training Components Lonigan, Anthony, et al. (1999) 95 25 to 64 Video, direct instruction, roleplay, group discussion Details/Findings: Children in dialogic r eading condition made ga ins on the measure of descriptive language, whereas results favoring typical shar ed book reading were found on a phonological awareness measure a nd on listening comprehension Study included children with language delays

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56 Table 2-3. Dialogic reading and children learning E nglish as a second language Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) Training Components Lim & Cole (2002) 21 24 to 48 Direct teaching, video Details/Findings : Participants were native speakers of Korean from working class backgrounds. Effects in the first la nguage -children particip ating in the dialogic r eading condition produced more language, longer utterances and displayed gr eater vocabulary complexity than children in the control group. Effects on production of Engl ish words increased during interactions Study Sample Size Childrens Age (in months) Training Components Brickman (2002) 34 36 to 60 Video, direct instruction Details/Findings : Participants were native speakers of Spanish from low-income backgrounds. Children in the treatment group made greater ga ins in Spanish language receptive skills. No significant differences between groups in expressi ve language skills (Spanish). Children in treatment group produced showed an incr ease in English language words.

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57 CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES The purpose of this chapter is to describe the procedures that were utilized during the implementation of the current study. The criteria for selecting the participants, the setting of the study, and the materials needed to conduct the study will be discussed in th e first section of the chapter. A description of the dependent measur es, data analysis, experimental procedures and study design will follow. Details about interobser ver agreement, treatment integrity and social validity will be presented in the last part of the chapter. Participants The purpose of this study was to determin e whether mothers from the migrant population could be trained to implement dialogic reading te chniques while reading to their children and to further investigate the effects of such implementation on the oral language skills of the children. The participants of the study were four parent/child dyads who speak Spanish as a first language and are members of the migrant workers population. Mother Participants Four migrant mothers of children between the ag es of 48 and 67 months participated in the investigation. Mothers identif ied as migrant under federal guidelines were nominated and contacted by Alachua Countys Office of Migrant E ducation regarding their initial elig ibility to participate in the study. Once the mothers agreed, they were visi ted by the primary investigator who determined whether the mothers met all the cr iteria to be included in the study. Further eligibility criteria included the following: 1. The mother signed an informed pa rent consent form (Appendix A). 2. The mother used predominately Spanish to communicate with the child at home as indicated by a parents qu estionnaire (Appendix B).

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58 3. The mother was able to read in Spanish at a second grade level as observed by the researcher during the initial meeting. 4. The mother gave permission to eval uate the childs language skills. Two of the participating mothers lived in the ci ty of Gainesville while the others lived in the cities of Newberry and High Springs. De mographic information about each parent and family was obtained from the mother (Table 3-1). Child Participants Four children between the ages of 48 and 67 months participat ed in the investigation. In addition, every child participating in the study met the following selection criteria: 1. The child spoke Spanish as a first language. 2. The childs formal exposure to the sec ond language (English) as determined by participation in a day-care, preschool, or community enrichment program happened after the age of two (if at all). 3. The child displayed a language delay in the fi rst language as demons trated by scores at least 1 standard deviation below the m ean on two standardized instruments. 4. The child did not exhibit signi ficant behavior problems as indicated by the parents. 5. The childs parent signed an informed consent form (Appendix A). 6. The child gave assent. Demographic information about each child was obtained from the parent (Table 3-2). Settings The pre-baseline, baseline, intervention and maintenance phases of the study were conducted in the homes (living room or childs bedroom) of the participants. The living rooms and bedrooms had either a sofa or a bed and ade quate lighting so that th e parent/child dyad could sit next to each other and be able to see the books during the reading sessions. The preand post-study administrations of the PLS-4 Span ish (Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002.), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised ( PPVT-R; Dunn & Dunn, 1981), and the Test de

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59 Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (TVIP; D unn, Padilla, Lugo & Dunn, 1986) also took place at the dyads homes. Preand post-study language samples were collected in the homes of the participants while the children played. Materials During the initial meeting with prospective participants (mothers) flyers (Appendix C) describing the study were distributed. Parent questionnaires in Spanish regarding the familiesuse of the first language, exposure to th e second language and home literacy practices were also utilized during this meeting. Other materials needed for the baseline, intervention and maintenance phases of the study included an audiotape recorder and 90-minute audiotapes Assessment Instruments During the prebaseline phase of the study, the researcher evaluated the first and second language oral skills of the children. To accompli sh this, the researcher utilized the Spanish version of the Preschool Language Scale (PLS4, Zimmerman et al., 2004), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R, Dunn & D unn, 1981), and the Spanish version of the PPVTR named the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (Dunn et al., 1986). The researcher and the children sat on a sofa or on the floor of th e homes living room during the administration of these assessments. The Preschool Language Scale-4 Spanish (Zimmerman et al.) is an individually administered standardized test for use with in fants and children from 2 days to 6 years, 11 months. It assesses young childrens receptive and expressive language abilities using two subscales: Auditory Comprehension and Expr essive Communication. The standardization sample of the PLS-4 Spanish was composed of 1 ,188 children (2 days to 6 years, 11 months). Approximately 50% of the sample within each age level was male and 50% was female. The test-retest reliability co efficients ranged from .73 to .86 for the subscale scores and .80 to .89 for

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60 the total language sc ore. The assessment yields a raw scor e, standard score, percentile rank, and age equivalent for auditory comprehension (A C), expressive communi cation (EC) and total language. In this investigation, language skills were considered delaye d when children obtained a total language standard score below 85 ( one standard deviation below the mean). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revis ed (Dunn & Dunn, 1981) is an individually administered norm referenced test of single-wo rd receptive vocabulary. The childs performance on the assessment yields a raw score, standard sc ore, percentile rank, stanine, and age equivalent score. Children with scores below 85 (one st andard deviation below the mean for the normative sample) were considered to have low language skills. The Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (Dunn, Padilla, Lugo & Dunn, 1986) is an individually administered norm referenced te st of single-word receptive vocabulary for use with children ranging from 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months. The norming samples for the TVIP included 1,219 Mexican children ranging from 2 years, 6months to 15 years, 11 months and 1, 488 Puerto Rican children ranging from 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months. Childrens performance on the TVIP yields a raw sc ore, standard score, percentile rank, and an age equivalent score. Children with scores be low 85, one standard deviation below the mean for the normative sample, were consid ered to have language delays. Language Sample Materials Language samples were collected at the be ginning and end of the study as alternate measures. Materials needed for the collection of the childrens language samples included an audiotape recorder, 90-minute tape s, and the childs favorite toys. Parent Training Materials During the parent training component of the intervention phase, the researcher employed a videotape/DVD of a parent demonstrating the di alogic reading techniques in Spanish (Lectura

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61 Interactiva by Circle Videos), a researchers training guide (A ppendix D), copies of a parent handbook explaining the basics of dialogic readi ng in Spanish (Appendix E), and flyers with Spanish versions of the PEER sequence and the types of prompts, FRAS E (Whitehurst et al., 1994, Landry, 2002;Appendices F and G). Papers and pencils were also be utilized for the parent training comprehension checks. To analy ze the data, the research er utilized a computer software program (Excel), graphing materials (g rid, paper, pencils, rule rs), and a calculator. Books During the baseline, intervention and maintena nce phases of the study the dyads received childrens books in Spanish. The dyads received two books for every week of participation in the study for a total of approximately 17 books. The books selected for the study included books translated from English to Spanish (e.g. The Ve ry Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle) and books that were originally written in Spanish (e.g. Tortillas de Barro by Barbara Flores). The selection criteria for the books were as follows : (a) books had colorful illustrations, (b) texts were at a second grade reading level or below and were not ex cessively long, (c) books were appropriate the age range of children participa ting in the study. For a complete list of books utilized during the investig ation and the books chosen by every dyad see Appendix H. Dependent Measures During the baseline, intervention, and ma intenance phases of the study, data were collected on three dependent measures: 1. The PEER steps implemented by the moth ers during the shared book interactions. 2. The different kinds of prompts (F RASE) utilized by the mothers. 3. The nouns, verbs, and others uttered by the child during the shared book interactions. The researcher utilized rate of response to reco rd the occurrence of the dependent variables.

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62 Definitions The following definitions were utilized by the re searcher to identify the occurrence of the target behaviors: PEER. Acronym for the steps of dialogic r eading: prompt, evaluate, expand, repeat. The Spanish equivalents of the PEER steps are: preguntar, evaluar, expandir and repetir. FRASE. The Spanish version of the acr onym CROWD which summarizes the different kinds of prompts that can be utilized during di alogic reading sessions: finalizar (completion prompts), recordar (recall prom pts), abrir (open-ended prompt s), seleccionar (Wh-prompts), experiencia (distancing prompts). Nouns. A word used to name a thing, animal or person. Unintelligible utterances are not counted as nouns. Verbs. A word used to express existence, action, or occurrence. Non-intelligible utterances are not counted as verbs. Others. Any intelligible word that cannot be classified as a noun or a verb. Includes articles, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, etc. Un intelligible sounds such as ah, oh, hah, mmm, etcwere not counted. Experimental Procedures Prebaseline Phase Prior to beginning the investiga tion, the researcher conducted an initial visit to the homes of the potential participants to talk to the parents about the st udy and to ask for permission to assess the childrens first language skills. After securing parental consent, the child rens language skills were evaluated. The language skills were assessed using the Spanish version of the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2 002), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-R

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63 (PPVT-R; Dunn & Dunn, 1981), and the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (TVIP; Dunn et al., 1986). In addition, a language sample was collected while the child was engaged in a play session with th e investigator. Before the beginning of the intervention and after its conclusion, language samples were collected in order to detect a ny changes that might have taken place during the duration of the investigation. In order to elicit verbalizations from the child, the researcher asked the child to bring his/her favorite toys and en couraged him/her to play. The researcher played with the children and asked questions accordingly. The language samples were audio taped. The researcher listened to the audiotapes, transcri bed the dialogue and then calculated the Mean Length of Utterance using to the guidelines designed by Linares (1979). The guidelines used to analyze the language samples are included in Appendix I. Baseline During the baseline home visits, the res earcher provided Spanis h language childrens books to the parents (2 per week) and instructed them to read to their children. Books chosen by the dyads during the baseline of the investigation can be found in Appendix H. The researcher observed and audiotaped the read ing sessions. Baseline data were gathered for a minimum of four sessions per dyad or until it reached stabilit y. The tapes were analyzed by the researcher to determine the rate of PEER steps, the differe nt types of prompts (FRASE) utilized by the mothers, the rate of words uttered by the childr en during the shared read ing sessions, and the rate of nouns, verbs, and others the children produced during the sessions. The baseline phase of the investigation began on the same day for Dyads 1 and 2 and continued until the intervention phase began for Dyad 1. Baseline data collection continue d with Dyad 2 until the rate of words uttered by the child was stabilized and until Dyad 1 dem onstrated a consistent trend in the intervention

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64 data. At that time, Dyad 2 began the interven tion phase of the experiment. The same general pattern was replicated for Dyads 3 and 4. Intervention Phase The intervention phase of the study consis ted of two components. The components included parent training and impl ementation of the intervention. Parent training Once a stable baseline trend was established, ev ery mother participated in two individual training sessions that lasted approximately one hour each. Once training was completed implementation of dialogic reading technique s during shared book interactions began a day following the training. The mother in Dyad 2 re ceived the training once th e baseline data for the rate of words uttered by the ch ild were stable and once the intervention data for Dyad 1 demonstrated an upward trend. Similarly, the moth er in Dyad 4 received the training once its baseline data were stable and after the interv ention data for Dyad 3 displayed an upward trend. A number of guidelines were established in order to ensure consistent training across parents. A detailed descripti on of the training sessions is pr ovided in Appendix D. Parent training consisted of the following elements: 1. A brief overview of the benefits of shared book reading: Why should we read to young children? was offered. 2. The researcher introduced the dialogic re ading method and discussed its benefits. 3. The mothers watched a video and/or DVD demo nstration of dialogic reading (Lectura Interactiva by Circle Videos), which was fo llowed by a discussion about the content of the video. 4. The researcher described the steps in the dialogic reading technique. a. The researcher and the mother discussed the PEER sequence ( P rompt, E valuate, E xpand, R epeat). A handout with the acronym was provided to the parents (See Appendix F).

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65 b. The researcher explained the five different kinds of prompt s that can be utilized during dialogic reading (FRASE) and the parents were asked to verbally provide an example of each one before they practiced the technique. A handout was also provided to the mothers (Appendix G). 5. The mothers were asked to implement th e dialogic reading techniques during two practice sessions. During those se ssions the researcher played the childs role if the child was not present in the room. At this time mo thers received feedback from the researcher and were allowed to ask questions. The pare nts received a dialogi c reading guide they could utilize to review the procedure (Appendix E). 6. A written or verbal (depending on the mother s preference) assessment of understanding was conducted wherein mothers identified the f our components of the dialogic reading sequence and provided an example for every one of the five kinds of prompts (FRASE). Mothers were required to get 8 out of the 9 it ems correct before proceeding with the next phase of the investigation. Moth ers that did not obtain a scor e of 88% (8/9) participated in a coaching session. Two mother s indicated that they prefe rred the verbal assessment of understanding while the other two comple ted the written assessment. Coaching session If the mother did not obtain a score of 88% (8/9 correct answers) in the written/verbal comprehension check, she participated in a coaching session. During the coaching session, the researcher reviewed the PEER and FRASE se quences. The mother was asked to offer information as to what sections of the dialog ic reading program were most difficult and why. The researcher and the mother di scussed strategies to make following the sequence easier, (such as posting the handout with the acron yms in a visible place) and th e researcher offered examples for every one of the five prompts (FRASE). Af ter the coaching session the mother was asked to take another written/verbal comprehension check. Two of the four mothers (Mothers 2 and 3) participating in the current study required a coaching session before proceeding with the implementation component of the intervention phase. Implementation After participating in the training, mothers we re asked to engage in dialogic reading sessions with the preschoolers a minimum of four times a week. Every session took place at the

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66 dyads homes. Every week, the dyads received tw o new childrens books in Spanish. The child was allowed to choose which book(s) he/she wa nted to read during every session. Mothers chose the best time for implementation, which re mained the same during the remainder of the investigation. During thos e sessions they were asked to re ad to their children utilizing the dialogic reading techniques th ey had learned during training. The researcher observed and audiotaped every reading session. The post administration of the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-R (PPVT-R; Dunn & Dunn, 1981), and the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (TVIP; Dunn et al., 1986) was conducted immediately after the interven tion phase to compare the preand postintervention language scores. A language samp le was also obtained at this time. Once the intervention data for Dyad 1 were stable and once the rate of words produced by the child in Dyad 2 was stabilized, intervention began with Dyad 2. Once the intervention phase was completed for Dyads 1 and 2, the procedures were replicated with Dyads 3 and 4. Maintenance The purpose of the maintenance phase was to determine if the mothers would continue implementing dialogic reading te chniques during reading sessions after the conclu sion of the intervention phase and to determ ine if there had been any post-intervention changes in the childrens language skills. Follow-up observa tions were conducted two weeks after the termination of the intervention pha se. For this phase of the study, the dyads were provided with an additional two new childrens books in Spanis h. The children were still allowed to choose which book they wanted to read out of all the boo ks they had received. Three to four reading maintenance sessions were audiotaped for each dyad.

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67 Study Design A multiple baseline design across participants was utilized in this study in order to establish the effects of the treatment on the mo thers shared book read ing styles and on the childrens oral language skills. Data collection began with the baseline phase for two of the dyads. Once the baseline data were stable for Dyad 1, intervention began for Dyad 1. Dyad 2 remained in baseline until it displayed a stable tr end in (a) the number of PEER steps utilized by the mother, (b) the rate of words produced by the child and (c) until Dyad 1s intervention data showed an upward trend. Once this was eviden ced, Dyad 2 began the intervention phase of the study. Data on maintenance was co llected two weeks afte r the conclusion of the intervention. A replication began with Dyads 3 and 4 after the co mpletion of the investigation with the first two dyads. Staggering the experiment al procedures in such manner provided with a replication within a single experiment, which strengthened the internal validity of the study. Kucera and Axelrod (1995) confirm the prev ious when they state repeati ng like phases within experiments not only confirms that response changes can be ma de to occur more than once and are therefore reliable, but also adds more assu rances that the interv ention, rather than extraneous variables, was decisive in these changes (p. 27). In order to examine the effectiveness of the intervention on th e mothers shared book reading styles and on the child rens oral language skills, th e baseline, intervention and maintenance data were graphically displayed fo r visual inspection of the results. Visual inspection of the data was used to determine th e effectiveness of the intervention. Each graph was inspected for the magnitude of change in means across experimental phases, the level of stability within the data point s across phases and the trend of the data (Kazdin, 1982).

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68 Data Recording The researcher utilized rate of response pe r minute for this investigation (Kazdin, 1982). The type of data recorded included: (1) the ra te of PEER steps implemented by the mothers, (2) the rate of different prompts (F RASE) utilized by the mothers, a nd (3) the rate of nouns, verbs and others uttered by the ch ildren during the sessions. Data Analysis The audiotapes were transcri bed and coded by the researcher after every reading session. The data obtained during this study were graphe d using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Baseline and intervention phases were graphed using the Excel computer program and visually inspected every day to analyze the moth ers and childrens progre ss. Visual inspection comparing the baseline and intervention phases were completed to determine whether mothers were implementing the PEER and FRASE se quences and to investigate whether the implementation of dialogic reading techniques wa s increasing the rate of nouns, verbs and others uttered by the child. The baseline and interventi on phases were evaluated graphically via visual analysis in terms of (a) the magnitude of change in means from baseline to intervention (b) the level of stability w ithin the data points acro ss phases and (c) the trend of the data (Kazdin, 1982). The data obtained during the maintenance phase were utilized to determine if the mothers had continued to implement dialogic reading te chniques during shared book reading after the intervention had ended. These data were also used to determine if there had been any changes in the participating childrens utteran ces since the conclusion of the study. Interobserver Agreement Kazdin (1982) defines inter observer agreement (IOA) as th e extent to which observers agree on the occurrence of a particular behavi or. To assess interobserver agreement the researcher and a trained assist ant, who is also an English/ Spanish bilingual early childhood

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69 professional with over 31 years of experience, sc ored the transcripts for approximately 30% of the sessions. The researcher and the assistan t scored randomly selected transcripts of the sessions independently and completed the following steps: 1. Counted the number of PEER steps util ized by the mother and obtained a rate, 2. Counted the number of different types of prompts (FRASE) implemented by the mothers and computed a rate for every type of prompt, 3. Counted the number of nouns verbs and others produced by the child and computed a rate for each one of them. Reliability estimates were conducted usi ng the point-by-point agreement method in which the number of agreements is divided by the number of agreements plus disagreements, multiplied by 100 (Point-by Point Agreement=A/A+D x100) (Kazdin, 1982). An agreement of at least 80% was required. For more information on interater reliability see Chapter 4. Treatment Integrity Parent training was conducted using guidelines developed by th e researcher in order to ensure the consistency of trai ning among participating mothers. The researcher observed the mothers conducting all the dialog ic reading sessions and utili zed the audiotapes to conduct treatment integrity checks at leas t twice a week. A task analysis checklist was utilized for the treatment integrity checks (Appendix J). Social Validity In an effort to establish the social validity of the intervention, ever y mother was asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of the ma intenance phase. The purpose of the questionnaire was to obtain the mothers opinions on five ques tions regarding the usef ulness of the dialogic reading techniques and its effect on the childrens vocabulary development. Each question was completed using a 5-point Likert scale. The social validity questionnaire can be found in Appendix K.

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70 Pilot Study Prior to beginning the experimental phases of the investigatio n, a pilot study was conducted to determine whether the parent tr aining, data collection procedures, and data recording system chosen for implementation dur ing the experiment needed any modifications. The pilot study included one migrant mother/c hild dyad nominated by the Migrant Education Office of the School Board of Alachua County. Th e materials, design, and procedures used in the pilot study were similar to those described in this chapter. However, there were differences in the eligibility criteria for the child participant. Although, the mo ther reported that her child displayed language delays in the first language the language skills of the child were not formally evaluated and language samples were not collected. Modifications made as a result of the pilo t study were minimal. No changes were made to the parent training protocol a nd the data collection system was varied only slightly. While the actual data collection procedures did not change, it was determined that the time assigned for the mother/child reading interactions (10 minutes per session) was not reasonable. The duration of the pilot baseline sessions ranged from 1.5 to 3.2 minutes per session. During the intervention phase of the pilot study the duration of the se ssions ranged from 11.6 to 16.7 minutes per session. Therefore, there was no pre-established duration for the reading interact ions of the current investigation. All sessi ons were timed as they occurred naturally for the mother/child dyads. Finally, the data recording system was changed from frequency c ounts to rate of response per minute. This change was made because of the difference in duration between sessions during the baseline and intervention phases of the pilot study.

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71 Table 3-1. Demographic data on mother participants Parent Participant Age Ethnic Background* GenderHighest Level of Education Income Level Size of Family Years with Migrant Status Type of work 1 25 M F Grade 5 $13,000/year4 2 Agricultural/ Construction 2 22 M F Grade 10 $9,000/year 4 3 Agricultural 3 37 M F Grade 3 $14,000/year5 4 Agricultural/ Construction 4 24 M F Grade 12 $12,000/year5 2 Agricultural Note : *Ethnic Background: M=Mexican Gender: F=Female

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72Table 3-2. Demographic da ta on child participants Child Age Gender Ethnicity Health Issues PLS-4 (Spanish) Pre-intervention PLS-4 (Spanish) Postintervention TVIP (Spanish) Preintervention TVIP (Spanish) Post-intervention PPVT-R (English) Preintervention PPVT-R (English) Postintervention Language Samples: Preand Postintervention 1 5-2 F M Seizure Disorder AC: 76 EC: 93 Total: 83 AC: 86 EC: 101 Total: 93 84 88 Failed to establish a basal. Did not answer any item correctly (0/11) Failed to establish a basal Preintervention MLU: 2.8 Postintervention MLU: 3.1 2 4-2 M M Severe Asthma AC: 52 EC: 69 Total: 52 AC: 52 EC: 72 Total: 55 77 82 Failed to establish a basal. Answered 13 items. All of them incorrectly Failed to establish a basal Preintervention MLU: Approximately 0.7 Postintervention MLU: 1.68 3 5-7 M M Asthma AC: 61 EC: 75 Total: 64 AC: 67 EC: 79 Total: 68 77 79 Failed to establish a basal. Answered one item (out of eight) correctly Failed to establish a basal Preintervention MLU: 2.5 Postintervention MLU: 3.1 4 4-3 F M Severe Asthma AC: 62 EC: 75 Total: 64 AC: 61 EC: 77 Total: 65 72 73 Failed to establish a basal. Answered a total of 6 items. None of them correctly Failed to establish a basal Preintervention MLU: Approximately 0.5 Postintervention MLU: 0.6 Note : *Gender: F=Female; M=Male Ethnicity: M=Mexican

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73 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this investigation was to dete rmine the effectiveness of an intervention provided to mothers from migran t populations to use with their preschool children who are atrisk for reading difficulties. The research questions were (a) Will mothers from migrant populations with a minimal amount of educatio n implement dialogic reading techniques following a brief training? (b) What is the eff ect of the mothers implementation of dialogic reading techniques on the oral production of childre n at risk for reading difficulties? (c) Will the effects of dialogic reading on th e oral language development of the children be maintained following the conclusion of the intervention? To investigate these questions, 4 mother/child dyads participated in the research. The participants were selected with the help of the Migrant Education Office of the School Board of Alachua County. Participating dyads we re members of the migrant worker population, and spoke Spanish as their first language. Th e children were evaluated using standardized measures to determine the presence of delays in th e first language. Baseline data were collected regarding the mothers use of dialogic reading techniques and the childrens oral language production during shared book reading sessions. Dialogic reading techniques for children 4 to 5 years of age include four steps that mothers implement during the reading sessions. The acr onym PEER was developed to help mothers remember the following steps: Prompt, Evaluate Expand and Repeat (Whitehurst, Epstein, et al., 1994). The participants of this study were mi grant mothers who spoke Spanish, therefore, the PEER sequence was taught in Spanish (Pregunt ar, Evaluar, Expandir, and Repetir). The acronym FRASE (Landry, 2002) was u tilized to help mothers remember the different types of prompts they can use. These prompts are as follows:

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74 1. Finalizar : Completion prompts. Fill-in-b lank questions (e.g., Good night_______) 2. Recordar : Recall prompts. Prompts that require the child to remember details of the story (e.g., Who said Good night moon?) 3. Abrir : Open-ended prompts. Prompts that re quire the child to talk about the story using his/her own words (e.g., Tell me what happen in this page) 4. Seleccionar : Wh-prompts. Prompts that begin w ith whand require the child to talk about a picture in the story (e.g., What color is the car in the picture?) 5. Experiencia : Distancing prompts. Pr ompts that require the child to relate the content of the story to an aspect of his/her lif e (e.g., Do you have a dog like the one in the story?) During the intervention phase, the mothers were trained to use dialog ic reading techniques during book reading sessions with their children. The effectiveness of the intervention was measured by comparing mothers use of di alogic reading technique s (PEER/FRASE) and childrens oral language production (nouns, verbs and others) during read ing sessions prior to training with mothers use of the techniques and childrens oral langu age production during the intervention phase. Data were also collect ed two weeks following the conclusion of the intervention to examine maintenance. A single-subject multiple baseline across participants was utilized. The dependent variables across all phases of the study were the mothers use of prompts, evaluations, expansions and repetitions (PEER ), the kinds of prompts they were implementing (FRASE), and the childrens language production. The effectiv eness of the intervention was determined by measuring the shift in the average rate of perf ormance across experimental phases also referred to as the change of magnitude in means. Ba seline, intervention, and maintenance data were completed with two dyads first. Data collec tion with the remaining two dyads was initiated approximately 8 weeks later.

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75 This chapter is organized by dyads and expe rimental phases (baseline, intervention and maintenance). Interobserver agreement informa tion has been provided, tr eatment integrity and the results of the procedures ha ve been addressed. In additio n, data have been graphically displayed in Figures 4-1 through Figure 4-6. Dyad 1 Baseline During baseline sessions, Dyad 1 was audiot aped during shared book reading sessions conducted in the dyads home. Data were collected from the audiotapes on the mothers use of PEER and FRASE, and on the oral language pr oduction of the childre n during the reading session. Baseline data were collect ed for 6 sessions until a stable trend occurred in the mother 1s rate of prompts, evaluations, expansions, repetitions (PEER) and th e childs oral language production (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). The duration of baseline r eading sessions ranged from 3.18 minutes to 7.2 minutes with a mean r eading session duration of 5.59 minutes. PEER During Baseline, Mother 1s use of the P EER sequence occurred at a low rate with prompts ranging from 0.0/minute to 1.80/minute, w ith a mean occurrence of 0.30/minute (Figure 4-1). The rate of evaluations ranged from 0.0/mi nute to 0.69/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.12/minute. Expansions ranged from 0.16/minute to 1.25/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.29/minute. While the rate of repetitions range d from 0.0/minutes to 0.13/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.022/minute. FRASE Mother 1s implementation of FRASE during baseline was very low (Figure 4-2). The rate of Finalizar prompts utilized by this mother remained at 0.0/minute during baseline while the rate of Recordar prompts ranged from 0.0/minut e to 0.69/minute, with a mean occurrence of

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76 0.115/minute. The rate of Abrir prompts implemented by Mother 1 during baseline ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.28/minute with a mean rate of 0.047/minute. Mother 1s use of Seleccionar prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.14/minute. The mean rate for Seleccionar prompts during baseline was 0.023/minute. The rate of Experiencia prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.69/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.115/minute. Childs oral language The oral language production of Child 1 was low during baseline and will be described in terms of nouns, verbs and others (Figure 4-3). The rate of production of nouns ranged from 0.0/minute to 2.22/minute, with a mean occurr ence of 0.99/minute. Verb production ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.81/minute, with a mean o ccurrence of 0.59/minute. Finally, the rate of others during baseline was variable and ranged 0.16/minute to 6.25/minute, with a mean occurrence of 1.71/minute. Intervention Once baseline data on Mother 1s use of PEER and on the childs oral language production were stable, the mother participated in two individual traini ng sessions conducted by the researcher. Each session lasted for approxi mately one hour (for a total of two hours) and took place in the dyads home. The researcher used trainer and parent manuals (Appendices D and E) to train the mother to use Dialogic Read ing techniques (PEER a nd FRASE). The mother was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps and examples of the different kinds of prompts that can be implemented (FRASE). Upon completion of the training the mother completed a written evaluation with 100% (9/9) accuracy. Intervention commenced a day after the last training session.

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77 PEER Intervention data for Dyad 1 was collected ove r six sessions (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). During intervention, Mother 1s use of Dialogic Reading techniques (PEER and FRASE) increased dramatically (Figures 4-1, 4-2). The rate of prompts during in tervention ranged from 3.13/minute to 6.6/minute, with a mean occurren ce of 5.27/minute (Figure 4-1). The magnitude of change in means for Mother 1s use of prompts was 4.97/minute. Mother 1s use of evaluations ranged from 1.38/minute to 2.78/minute, with a mean occurrence of 2.51/minute. From baseline to intervention, there was a ma gnitude of change of 2.39/minute. During intervention, the rate of e xpansions ranged from 0.31/minute to 4/minute, with a mean occurrence of 2.60/minute. The magnitude of cha nge in expansions was 2.31/minute. There was little difference between Mother 1s use of repetitions duri ng the baseline and intervention phases of the investigation. Duri ng intervention, the rate of repetitions ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.32/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.10/mi nute. From baseline to intervention, the magnitude of change in means wa s 0.3/minute for repetitions. FRASE The kinds of prompts utilized by Mother 1 changed as well (Figure 4-2). There was a modest increase in the rate of F inalizar prompts utilized by Moth er 1. That rate ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.66/minute with a mean occurren ce of 0.265/minute. Mother 1s use of Finalizar prompts displayed a slight magnitude of change of 0.265/minute. The rate of Recordar prompts increased durin g intervention. The interventi on rate of Recordar prompts ranged from 0.20/minute to 3.2/minute. The mean level for Recordar prompts during intervention was 1.39/minute. Mother 1s use of Recordar prompts had a magnitude of change of 1.27/minute from baseline to intervention. Th is mothers use of Abrir prompts also increased during the intervention phase of the study. The interv ention rate of Abrir prompts

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78 ranged from 0.22/minute to 1.78/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.00/minute. The magnitude of change for Mother 1s use of Abrir was 0.95/minute from the baseline mean rate to the intervention mean rate. The mothers implemen tation of Seleccionar pr ompts showed a more notable increase during the interv ention phase. Mother 1s use of Seleccionar prompts ranged from 0.93/minute to 3.19/minute with a mean o ccurrence of 1.78/minute. From baseline to intervention, Mother 1s implementation of S eleccionar displayed a notable magnitude of change of 1.76/minute. Mother 1s use of Experi encia prompts also evid enced a rate increase during intervention ranging from 0.18/minute to 1.58/minute with a mean level of 0.61/minute. There was a magnitude of change of 0.49/ minute from baseline to intervention. Childs oral language The childs oral language produc tion increased during interven tion (Figure 4-3). Child 1s use of nouns during intervention ranged from 1.81/minute to 6.16/minute, with a mean occurrence 4.22/minute. The magnitude of change for Child 1s use of nouns, as measured by the shift in means from baseline in tervention, was 3.23/minute. Du ring intervention, the rate of verbs ranged from 2.82/minute to 4.5/minute, with a mean of 3.49/minute. The rate of verbs from baseline to intervention di splayed a change of magnitude of 2.9/minute between the two phases of the investigation. The childs us e of others during in tervention ranged from 9.05/minute to 18.35/minute. The mean rate of others during intervention was 14.06/minute. This represents a positive magnitude of change of 12.35/minute. Maintenance Maintenance data collection with Dyad 1 commenced two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention study (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). Maintenance data fo r Dyad 1 were collected over 4 sessions. Maintenance sessions ranged in duration from 10.2 mi nutes to 12.26 minutes with an average duration of 11.34 minutes.

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79 PEER During the maintenance phase Mother 1s us e of the PEER Dialogic Reading techniques was variable, decreasing s lightly for two of the steps and remaining constant for the remaining two (Figure 4-1). Mother 1s us e of prompts decreased slightly after the two-week hiatus and recovered quickly after the first maintenance se ssion. The rate of prompts during maintenance sessions for this mother ranged from 5.14/minute to 6.1/minute with a mean occurrence of 5.74/minute. Similarly, the rate of evaluations de creased slightly after two weeks but recovered after the first maintenance sess ion. Mother 1s use of eval uation during maintenance ranged from 2.13/minute to 3.09/minute with a mean leve l of 2.73/minute. The maintenance rate of expansions appeared to remain constant after th e conclusion of the interv ention. Mother 1s use of expansions during maintenance ranged fr om 2.15/minute to 3.43/minute with a mean of 2.76/minute. Finally, Mother 1s use of repeti tions remained constant during maintenance ranging from 0.0/minute to 0.2/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.05/minute. FRASE During maintenance, Mother 1s use of different type of prompts was very variable (Figure 4-2). Mother 1s use of Final izar prompts appeared to increas e after the two weeks hiatus and then remained constant during the remainde r of the maintenance phase. The mothers implementation of Finalizar prompts ranged from 0.2/minute to 0.65/minute with a mean of 0.345/minute. Similarly, the maintenance rate of Recordar prompts increased during the first maintenance session and decreased during the second before reaching a constant level. The rate of Recordar prompts during maintenance rang ed from 0.78/minute to 1.77/minute with a mean of 1.43/minute. Mother 1s use of Abrir pr ompts increased during the first session of maintenance and then remained constant during the remainder of the maintenance phase ranging from 0.78/minute to 1.77/minute. The mean for Abrir prompts during maintenance was

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80 1.37/minute. Mother 1s use of Seleccionar pr ompts decreased after th e two week hiatus and then proceeded to recover remaining stable durin g the rest of the maintenance sessions. The maintenance rate of Seleccionar prompts for Mother 1 ranged from 0.65/minute to 2.67/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.99/minute. The im plementation of Experiencia prompts by this mother was variable during main tenance; decreasing after the tw o week break, increasing after the first maintenance session and then decreasi ng again. Mother 1s rate of Experiencia prompts ranged from 0.16/minute to 0.88/minute with a mean of 0.585/minute. Childs oral language Child 1s oral language production as eviden ced by the use of nouns, verbs, and others decreased slightly after the conclusion of intervention remaining constant during the maintenance session (Figure 4-3). Child 1s production of nouns ranged from 5.95/minute to 9.05/minute with a mean level of 7.3/minute. The rate of verbs ranged from 3.91/minute to 6.73/minute with a mean occurrence of 5.59/minut e during maintenance. Finally, Child 1s production of others during maintenance range d from 15.41/minute to 18.8/minute. The mean rate level of others was 1 7.6/minute during maintenance. Language Samples and Supplemental Measures In addition to the rate of nouns, verbs and ot hers, language samples were obtained before and after the intervention in order to determine any differences in the me an length of utterance (MLU) produced by the children. There was a difference of .3 between the pre and postintervention MLUs for child 1. The results of the PLS-4, and TVIP did show a difference between their preand post-inter vention administrations (Table 32). The measure utilized to measure any changes in English, the PPVT-R Form M (Dunn & Dunn, 1981), failed to show any differences between its pre and post-administrations.

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81 Dyad 2 Baseline During baseline sessions, Dyad 2 was audiot aped during shared book reading sessions conducted in the dyads home. Data were collected from the audiotapes on the mothers use of PEER and FRASE, and on the oral language pro duction (Nouns, verbs, others) of Child 2 during the reading sessions. Baseline data were collect ed for 10 sessions until a downward and stable trend in the childs oral language production was evidenced (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). During baseline, the duration of the reading sessions ranged from 3.5 minutes to 11.73 minutes with a mean duration of 7.627 minutes for all baseline sessions. PEER Mother 2s use of the PEER sequence during ba seline occurred at a stable rate (Figure 41). The rate of prompts used by Mother 2 was variable ranging from 0.0/minute during baseline to 3.34/minute, with a mean of 1.421/minute. Moth er 2s use of evaluatio ns during baseline was low, ranging from 0.18/minute to 1.024/minute, w ith a mean of 0.566/minute. The rate of expansions was very low. The use of expans ions by this mother ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.36/minute and the mean of occurrence from expa nsions was 0.583/minute. Mother 2s use of repetitions during the book readi ng sessions remained constant at a rate of 0.0/minute. FRASE Mother 2s implementation of FRASE during baseline was very low (Figure 4-2). The rate of Finalizar prompts utilized by Mother 2 re mained at 0.0/minute during baseline while the rate of Recordar prompts ranged from 0.0/minut e to 0.62/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.125/minute. The rate of Abrir prompts impl emented by this mother during baseline ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.39/minute with a mean rate of 0.44/minute. Mother 2s use of Seleccionar prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.82/minute. The mean rate for Seleccionar

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82 prompts during baseline was 0.647/minute. The rate of Experiencia prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.89/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.21/minute. Childs oral language Child 2s use of nouns, verbs and others was va riable during baseline (Figure 4-3). The rate of nouns ranged from 0.093/minute to 4.86/mi nute with a mean occurrence of 2.56/minute. Child 2s use of verbs ranged from a rate of 0.85/minute to 5.14/minute. The mean occurrence rate of verbs during baseline for Child 2 was 2.45/ minute. Finally, Child 2 s oral production of others ranged from a rate of 1.45/minute to 7.45/minute with a mean of 4.68/minute. Intervention Once there was a downward trend in the Child 2s oral language production, the mothers use of the PEER was stable and th e intervention data for Dyad 1 de monstrated an upward trend, Mother 2 participated in two individual training sessions cond ucted by the researcher. Each session lasted for approximately one hour (for a total of two hours) and took place in the dyads home The researcher used trainer and parent manua ls (Appendices D and E) to train the mother to use the PEER sequence and FRASE. The mother was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps that may be utilized during the reading sessions and the different kinds of prompts that can be implemented (FRASE). At the end of the training the mother completed a written evaluation with a 77% accuracy ra te (7/9), failing to meet the 88% accuracy criteria (8/9). Immediately after the evaluation, the mother part icipated in a coaching session conducted by the researcher. During the coaching session, the mo ther reviewed dialogic reading techniques (PEER) and the kinds of prompts that may be implemented during the reading sessions. In addition, Mother 2 was asked to pr ovide verbal examples of the P EER steps and of the different kinds of prompts (FRASE). Once the researcher answered the mothers questions about the intervention, she proceeded to complete a new evaluation with an 88% accuracy (8/9). The

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83 coaching session lasted for approximately 35 mi nutes. The overall training time for Mother 2 was approximately 2 hours and 35 minutes. The in tervention phase of the study was initiated a day after the last training se ssion. Intervention data for Dyad 2 were collected over 5 reading sessions (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). The duration of Dyad 2s sessions during the intervention phase of the study ranged from 5.17 minutes to 10.3 minu tes with a mean length of 8.168 minutes. PEER During intervention Mother 2s use of prom pts increased, ranging from 6.12/minute to 8.49/minute with a mean level of 7.9/minute (Figur e 4-1). The magnitude of change in means for Mother 2s use of prompts from baseline to intervention increased was positive, 6.48/minute. The mothers use of evaluations also increase d during the intervention phase. The change in level for the rate of evaluati ons shifted from 0.18/minute to 3.29/ minute with a mean occurrence of 2.22/minute. The magnitude of change in Mo ther 2s use of evalua tions from baseline to intervention was 3.1/minute. Mother 2s impl ementation of expansions during intervention ranged from 0.81/minute to 1.81/minute. The mean level of expansions during intervention was 1.31/minute. Mother 2s use of expansions from baseline to interventi on had a positive change of magnitude of 1.26/minute. Finally, there wa s no magnitude of change in the rate of repetitions (0.0/minute) utilized by Mother 2 during intervention. FRASE The variety of prompts implemented by Mother 2 increased variably during intervention (Figure 4-2). There was an incr ease in the rate of Finalizar prompts u tilized by Mother 2. That rate ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.58/mi nute with a mean occurrence of 0.116/minute. Mother 2s use of Finalizar prompts from ba seline to intervention had a positive magnitude of change of 0.116/minute. The rate of Recordar prompts also underwent an increase during intervention. The intervention rate of R ecordar prompts ranged from 0.21/minute to

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84 1.16/minute. The mean level for Recordar prompts during interven tion was 0.594/minute. Mother 2s use of Recordar prompts evidence d a magnitude of change of 0.5/minute from baseline to intervention. Mother 2s use of Abrir prompts also increased during the intervention phase of the study. The interven tion rate of Abrir prompts ranged from 0.58/minute to 1.53/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.02/minute. The magnitude of change in Mother 2s use of Abrir presen ted an increase of 0.58/minute from the baseline mean rate to the intervention mean rate. The mothers impl ementation of Seleccionar prompts showed an increase during the intervention phase. Mother 2s use of Seleccionar prompts ranged from 1.93/minute to 3.89/minute with a mean occurr ence of 2.788/minute. From baseline to intervention, Mother 2s implementation of S eleccionar prompts displayed a magnitude of change of 2.14/minute. Mother 2s use of Experi encia prompts also evid enced a rate increase during intervention ranging from 2.07/minute to 2.64/minute with a mean level of 2.30/minute. There was a positive magnitude of change of 2.09/minute from baseline to intervention. Childs oral language The oral language production of Child 2 during intervention increased as evidenced by Child 2s production of nouns, verbs, and others (F igure 4-3). Child 2s use of nouns during this phase, ranged from 6.41/minute to 8.47/minute with mean occurrence of 7.19/minute. The change of magnitude from baseline to interven tion in the rate of nouns used by Child 2 was 4.63/minute. Child 2s oral production of verbs during intervention ranged from 2.32/minute to 3.6/minute with a mean occurrence of 2.76/minute. The magnitude of change in Child 2s production of verbs presented a change of 0.31/minut e. Finally, Child 2s rate of others during intervention ranged from 7.74/minute to 11.94/minut e with a mean occurrence of 10.56/minute. The magnitude of change in Child 2s production of others showed a difference of 5.88/minute between both phases (base line and intervention).

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85 Maintenance Maintenance data collection with Dyad 2 began two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention phase (Figures 4-1 to 4-3). Mainte nance data for Dyad 2 were collected over 3 sessions. Maintenance sessions ranged in duration from 6.18 mi nutes to 7.6 minutes with an average duration of 7.06 minutes. PEER Mother 2s use of the PEER Dialogic Readi ng techniques remained very stable during maintenance (Figure 4-1). The mothers use of prompts decreased after th e two-week hiatus and then remained constant during maintenance. The maintenance rate of prompts for Mother 2 ranged from 9.05/minute to 9.34/minute with a mean occurrence of 9.24/minute. The rate of evaluations did not decrease after the conclusion of the interventi on phase and remained constant during maintenance. Mother 2s use of evalua tion during maintenance ranged from 1.84/minute to 2.16/minute with a mean level of 1.95/minute. The mothers implementation of expansions showed an increase during the first maintenance session and re mained constant during the remainder of the sessions. Mother 2s rate of expansions during ma intenance ranged from 1.05/minute to 1.22/minute with a mean of 1.11/minute. Finally, Mother 2s use of repetitions remained constant during maintenance (0.0/minute). FRASE Mother 2s implementation of different ki nds of prompts as evidence by her use of Finalizar, Recordar, Abrir Seleccionar and Experienci a prompts was variable (Figure 4-2). This mothers use of Finalizar prom pts increased during maintenance ranging from 0.0/minute to 0.41/minute with a mean level of 0.22/ minute. The rate of Recordar prompts for Mother 2 appeared to increase during maintenance ra nging from 3.39/minute to 3.68/minute with a mean occurrence of 3.53/minute. Mother 2 s implementation of Abrir prompts during

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86 maintenance shows a different story. The rate of Abrir prompts showed no difference after the two-week hiatus and then decrea sed after the second maintenance se ssison. The mothers use of Abrir prompts ranged from 1.18/minute to 1.62/ minute. The mean occurrence for Abrir prompts was 1.47/minute. Similarly, Mother 2 s implementation of Seleccionar prompts showed no change after the two-week break a nd then decreased during the second maintenance session. The maintenance rate of Seleccionar prompts for Mother 2 ranged from 2.16/minute to 3.88/minute with a mean of 2.76/minute. Finall y, the mothers use of Seleccionar prompts was also variable during maintenance ranging fr om 1.35/minute to 2.58/minute with a mean of 1.97/minute. Childs oral language Child 2s oral language production during main tenance, as eviden ce by the use of nouns, verbs, and others was variable (Figure 4-3). Child 2s use of nouns decreased during the first maintenance session and then recovered. The main tenance rate of nouns for Child 2 ranged from 2.43/minute to 10.8/minute with a mean occurrence of 7.71/minute. Unlike the production of nouns, Child 2s rate of verbs did not show any difference af ter the two-week hiatus and increased steadily during main tenance ranging from 3.88/minute to 5.53/minute with a mean level of 4.62/minute. Child 2s implementation of others showed a decrease two weeks after the conclusion of intervention and remained consta nt during the remainder of the maintenance sessions. Child 2s rate of other ranged from 7.8/minute to 8.68/minute during maintenance. The mean occurrence of others du ring this phase was 8.29/minute. Language Samples and Supplemental Measures The pre and post-intervention language sample s for Child 2 yielded scores of .7 and 1.68 respectively, displaying a difference of .97 from pre to post-intervetion MLU Child 2s results in the PLS-4 (Zimmerman et al., 2004) showed a difference of 2 points between its pre and post-

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87 administrations (pre-administration score = 52; post-adminstration score = 55). However, the pre and post-scores of the TVIP (Dunn et al., 1986) di splay a greater change (pre-score = 77; postscore = 82). Child 2 failed to establish a basal score in both the pre and post-administrations of the PPVT-R (Dunn & Dunn, 1981). Dyad 3 Baseline Baseline data collection for Dyad 3 co mmenced a week after Dyads 1 and 2 had concluded the maintenance phase of the study. This represents a replicati on of the investigation. During baseline sessions, Dyad 3 was audiot aped during shared book reading sessions conducted in the dyads home. Data were collected from the audiotapes on the Mothers use of PEER and FRASE, and on the oral language pro duction (Nouns, verbs, others) of Child 3 during the reading session (Figures 4-4 to 4-6). Baseline data were collected for 6 sessions until a stable trend occurred in the childs oral language production and on the mothers use of dialogic reading techniques. The durati on of baseline reading sessions ranged from 3.33 minutes to 8.35 minutes with a mean session length of 4.89 minutes. PEER During baseline, Mother 3s us e of dialogic reading techni ques (prompts, evaluations, expansions, repetitions) occurred at a low rate (Figure 4-4). Th e rate of prompts for Mother 3 ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.88/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.52/minut e. Mother 3s use of evaluations during baselin e ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.72/minute, with a mean of 0.25/minute. The rate of expansions ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.48/minute and the mean of occurrence from expansions is 0.21/minute. Mother 3s use of re petitions during the book reading sessions remained consta nt at a rate of 0.0/minute.

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88 FRASE Mother 3s use of different kinds of prompts, FRASE, wa s very low during baseline (Figure 4-5). The rate of Finalizar prompts re mained constant at 0.0/m inute. The rate of Recordar prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.71/minute, with a mean of 0.29/minute. The mothers use of Abrir prompts ranged from 0. 0/minute to 0.26/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.06/minute. Seleccionar prompts range d from 0.0/minute to 0.24/minute. The mean occurrence for Seleccionar prompts during base line was 0.09/minute. Finally, the rate of Experiencia prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.24/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.08/minute. Childs oral language Child 3s rate of oral language production du ring baseline was variable (Figure 4-6). The rate of nouns ranged from 0.73/minute to 4.2/min ute, with a mean overall occurrence of 2.08/minute. Child 3s use of verbs ranged from 0.73/minute to 5.41/minute. The mean occurrence of verbs during baseline was 2.59/mi nute. The rate of others ranged from 2.87/minute to 15.62/minute, with a mean of 7.18/minute. Intervention Once there was a stable trend in the childs baseline oral language production and the mothers use of dialogic reading techniques, Mother 3 participat ed in two individual training sessions conducted by the researcher Each session lasted for approximately one hour (for a total of two hours) and took place in the dyads home. The researcher used trainer and parent manuals (Appendices D and E) to train the mother to us e PEER and FRASE. The mother was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps a nd the different kinds of prompts that can be implemented (FRASE). At the end of the trai ning, the mother completed a written evaluation with a 66% (6/9) accuracy rate, failing to meet the 88% accuracy criteria (8/9). Immediately

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89 after, the mother participated in a coaching session conducted by th e researcher, which lasted for approximately 45 minutes. During the coaching session, the mother revi ewed dialogic reading techniques (PEER) and the kinds of prompts that may be implemen ted during the reading sessions. In addition, the mother was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps and of the different kinds of prompts (FRASE). Once the researcher answered Mother 3s questions about the intervention, the mother proceeded to complete a verbal evaluation with a 88% accuracy (8/9). The overall training time fo r Mother 3 was approximately 2 hours and 45 minutes. The intervention phase of the study was initiated a day after th e last training session. Intervention data for Mother-Child Dyad 3 were collected over 7 sessi ons. The length of the reading sessions ranged from 5 minutes to 22.65 minutes with a mean duration of 13.86 minutes (Figures 4-4 to 4-6). PEER During intervention Mother 3s use of PEER in creased (Figure 4-4). The rate of prompts utilized by Mother 3 during in tervention ranged from 4.97/minute to 6.97/minute with a mean occurrence of 5.71/minute. The magnitude of cha nge in Mother 3s presented a difference of 2.79/minute. The rate of evaluations ranged from 1.57/minute to 3.19/minute with a mean of 2.57/minute. There was a magnitude of ch ange of 2.32/minute between baseline and intervention. The use of expansions during in tervention ranged from 0.55/minute to 2.39/minute with a mean occurrence of 2/minute. This re presents an increase of 1.79/minute in means between the baseline and intervention phases. Finally, there was no difference between Mother 3s rate of repetitions duri ng baseline (0.0 minute) and intervention (mean = 0.0/minute). FRASE During intervention, the rate of Finalizar prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.1/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.32/mi nute (Figure 4-5). The differen ce in means or magnitude of

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90 change between baseline and intervention equals 0.32/minute. Mother 3s use of Recordar prompts ranged from 0.28/minute to 3.43/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.62/minute. This represents a magnitude of change of 1.33/ minute between the phases of baseline and intervention. The rate of Abrir prompts ra nged from 0.0/minute to 1.38/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.53/minute. The magnitude of ch ange between baseline and intervention for Abrir prompts was 0.24/minute. Mother 3s us e of Seleccionar prompts displayed great variability ranging from 2.53/minute to 8/minute. The mean occurrence for Seleccionar prompts during intervention was 3.89/minute. Th is represents a magnitude of change of 3.8/minute between baseline and intervention means. The rate of Experiencia prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.59/minute with a mean of 0.17/minute. There was little difference (magnitude of change =.09/minute) between the base line and intervention in the rate of Mother 3s use of Experiencia prompts. Childs oral language Child 3s oral language producti on showed an increase in no uns, verbs and others during the intervention phase (Figure 4-6). The rate of nouns utilized by Child 3 during this phase ranged from 3.59/minute to 13.38/minute with a mean occurrence of 9.31/minute. The magnitude of change in Child 3s use of nouns from baseline to intervention was 3.9/minute. During intervention, the rate of verbs ranged from 5.2/minute to 12.63/minute. The mean rate of occurrence for verbs at this phase was 9.52/minute. This represents a magnitude of change of 6.93/minute in Child 3s rate of use of verbs from baseline to interven tion. Finally, Child 3s rate of others ranged from 12.43/minute to 31.1 /minute with a mean occurrence level of 22/minute. There was a mean difference of 14.82/minute between baseline and intervention.

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91 Maintenance Like the other dyads, maintenance data collection with Mother -Child Dyad 3 commenced two weeks after the conclusion of th e intervention study. Maintenance data for Dyad 3 were collected over 4 se ssions (Figures 4-5 to 4-6). Maintenance sessions ranged in duration from 2.23 minutes to 6.38 minutes w ith an average duration of 4.22 minutes. PEER Mother 3s implementation of PEER was very stable during mainte nance (Figure 4-5). The mothers use of prompts remained stable tw o weeks after the conclusi on of the intervention. Mother 3s rate of prompts during maintenan ce ranged from 5.0/minute to 5.83/minute with a mean occurrence of 5.44/minute. The rate of evaluations implemented by Mother 3 showed a decreased after the two week break and then recovered to reveal a very stable trend during maintenance. Mother 3s use of evaluations ra nged from 2.19/minute to 3.59/minute. The mean level for evaluations was 3.14/minute. Mother 3s use of expansions two weeks after intervention showed an increas e during the first maintenance session. The mothers use of expansions decreased during the second maintenance session and then shows a steady increase for the remaining sessions. Mother 3s maintenan ce rate of expansions ha d a mean occurrence of 2.29/minute. The rate of expans ions ranged from 1.13/minute to 2.98/minute. Finally, Mother 3s use of repetitions did not ch ange during maintenance, remaini ng at the same level during all three phases of the inve stigation (0.0/minute). FRASE Mother 3s use of different kinds of prompts was variable during maintenance (Figure 45). The rate of Finalizar prompts showed no difference two weeks afte r the conclusion of the intervention. Mother 3s use of Finalizar prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.45/minute with a mean of 0.23/minute. Mother 3s implementa tion of Recordar prompt s decreased after the

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92 two week hiatus and then recovers to remain st able during maintenance. The maintenance rate of Recordar prompts for Mother 3 ranged from 1.25/minute to 2.25/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.85/minute. The mothers use of Abrir prompts showed an increase after the two week break followed by a steady decrease during the remaining maintenance sessions. Mother 3s use of Abrir prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.94 minute. The mean level for Abrir prompts during interv ention was 0.41/minute. Mother 3s implementation of Seleccionar prompts evidenced a decrease dur ing the first two sessions after the two-week hiatus and then recovered to end in an upward trend. The rate of Seleccionar prompts ranged from 1.58/minute to 3.59/minute with a mean of 2.7/minute. Finally, Mother 3s use of Experiencia prompts showed an increase two weeks after the conc lusion of the intervention. After the initial increase, Mother 3s use of E xperiencia prompts went back to its intervention levels. The rate of Experiencia prompts ra nged from 0.0/minute to 0.78/minute with a mean of 0.26/minute. Childs oral language During maintenance, Child 3s oral producti on of nouns, verbs and ot hers was variable (Figure 4-6). The childs use of nouns ranged from 6.26/minute to 10.31/minute with a mean of 7.51/minute. Child 3s use of verbs remained st able and showed no decr ease after the two-week hiatus. The maintenance rate of Child 3s us e of verbs ranged from 9.61/minute to 12.64/minute with a mean level of 11.03/minute. Finally, Ch ild 3s production of others increased after the two-week break and then returned to its interv ention levels. Child 3s rate of others during maintenance ranged from 17.04/minute to 26.08/minut e. The mean occurrence of others for Child 3 was 21.39/minute.

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93 Language Samples and Supplemental Measures In addition to the rate of nouns, verbs and ot hers, language samples were obtained before and after the intervention in order to determine any differences in the me an length of utterance (MLU) produced by Child 3. The difference between the pre and post-intervention MLUs for Child 3 was .6. The results of both the PLS-4 (Zimmerman et al., 2004), and TVIP (Dunn et al., 1986) displayed an increase between their preand post-intervention administrations (PLS-4 prescore = 64, PLS-4 post-score = 68 ; TVIP pre-scor = 77, TVIP pos t-score = 79). The measure utilized to measure any changes in Englis h, the PPVT-R Form M (Dunn & Dunn, 1981), failed to show a difference between its pre and post-administrations (Table 3-2). Dyad 4 Baseline The original Dyad 4 recruited for the study was not able to continue participating due to their sudden relocation to another st ate in search of work. The ba seline data collection with the new Mother-Child Dyad 4 commenced at the tim e that Dyad 3 had completed baseline session 3. During baseline sessions, Dyad 4 was audiot aped during shared book reading sessions conducted in the dyads home. Data were collected from the audiotapes on the mothers use of PEER and FRASE, and on the first language oral production of the child ren during the reading session. Baseline data were collected for 9 sessions until a stable trend occurred in the mothers use of PEER, and the oral language production of the child. Baseline reading sessions ranged from 2 to 4.48 minutes. The mean duration of reading sessions during baseline was 3.43 minutes (Figures 4-4 to 4-6). PEER During Baseline, Mother 4s use of prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.33/minute, with a mean occurrence of 0.036/minute (Figure 4-4). Th e rate of evaluations did not change during

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94 baseline (0.0/minute) while the rate of expa nsions ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.33/minute with a mean of 3.068/minute. Mother 4 did not use re petitions (0.0/minute) during the baseline phase of the experiment. FRASE Mother 4s use of different ki nds of prompts during baseline was very low (Figure 4-5). The mother did not use Finalizar, Recordar, Abrir or Selecciona r prompts (0.0/minute) during this phase of the experiment. The rate of Experiencia prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.33/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.037/minute. Childs oral language Child 4s production of nouns ranged from 0.0/minute to 2.22/minute with a mean occurrence of 1.20/minute during base line (Figure 4-6). Child 4s use of verbs ranged from a rate of 0.0/minute to 0.98/minute. The mean occurr ence rate of verbs during baseline for Child 4 was 0.39/minute. Finally, Child 4 s oral production of others ra nged from a rate of 0.33/minute to 2.71/minute with a mean of 2.31/minute. Intervention When the PEER baseline data were stable and the intervention data for Dyad 3 demonstrated an upward trend, Mother 4 partic ipated in two indivi dual training sessions conducted by the researcher. Each session lasted for approximately one hour (for a total of two hours) and took place in the dyad s home. The researcher used trainer and parent manuals (Appendices D and E) to train the mother to use the PEER sequence and FRASE during reading sessions with the child. The mother was asked to provide verbal examples of the PEER steps and the different kinds of prompts that can be implemented (FRASE). Upon completion of the training the mother completed a written evaluati on with 100% accuracy (9/9). Mother 4 began implementing the intervention a day after the last training session. Intervention data for Dyad 4

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95 were collected over 5 reading sessions. Th e duration of Dyad 4s sessions during the intervention phase of the study ranged from 4.3 minutes to 7.6 minutes with a mean length of 5.57 minutes (Figures 4-4 to 4-6). PEER During intervention, Mother 4s use of pr ompts increased, ranging from 5.78/minute to 10.26/minute with a mean level of 8.09/minute (F igure 4-4). The magnitude of change in Mother 4s use of prompts had a difference of 8.053/minute from baseline to intervention. The mothers use of evaluations also increased during the intervention phase. The intervention rate of evaluations ranged from 2.1/minute to 4.65/mi nute with a mean occurrence of 3.058/minute. The magnitude of change in means for Mother 4 s use of evaluations was 3.058/minute. Mother 4s implementation of expansions during interven tion increased and it ranged from 2.1/minute to 5.43/minute. The mean level of expansions dur ing intervention was 3.068/minute. Mother 4s use of expansions from baseline to intervention displayed a magnitude of change of 3.01/minute. Finally, there was no difference in the rate of repetitions (0.0/minute) utilized by Mother 4 during intervention. FRASE The variety of prompts implemented by Mother 4 increased during intervention (Figure 45). Mother 4s rate of Finalizar prompts ra nged from 0.0/minute to 0.79/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.158/minute. Mother 4s use of Finalizar prompts evidenced a magnitude of change of 0.158/minute from baseline to interv ention. The rate of Recordar prompts underwent an increase during intervention. The in tervention rate of Rec ordar prompts ranged from 3.93/minute to 4.28/minute. The mean le vel for Recordar prompts during intervention was 4.072/minute. The magnitude of change fo r Mother 4s use of Recordar prompts was 4.072/minute from baseline to inte rvention. Mother 4s use of Abrir prompts also increased

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96 during the intervention phase of the study. The in tervention rate of Abr ir prompts ranged from 0.23/minute to 1.16/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.844/minute. The magnitude of change in Mother 4s use of Abrir prompts displayed a difference of 0.844/minute from the baseline to the intervention mean rate. The mothers im plementation of Seleccionar prompts also increased during the intervention phase. Mother 4s use of Seleccionar prompts ranged from 1.4/minute to 3.68/minute with a mean occurrence of 2.438/minute. From baseline to intervention, Mother 4s implementation of S eleccionar prompts showed a magnitude of change of 2.438/minute. Mother 4s use of E xperiencia prompts during intervention ranged from 0.0/minute to 1.27/minute with a mean leve l of 0.572/minute. There was a mean difference of 0.535/minute from baseline to intervention. Childs oral language The oral language production of Child 4 during intervention increased as evidenced by Child 4s production of nouns, verbs, and others (F igure 4-6). Child 4s use of nouns during this phase, ranged from 3.23/minute to 11.86/minute with mean occurrence of 8.89/minute. There was a magnitude of change of 7.69/minute betwee n baseline and intervention for the childs production of nouns. Child 4s oral production of verbs durin g intervention ranged from 2.5/minute to 9.05/minute with a mean occurrence of 5.43/minute. The magnitude of change in Child 4s production of verbs was 5.04/minute. Finally, Child 4s rate of others during intervention ranged from 7.14/minute to 19.86/minut e with a mean occurrence of 11.25/minute. The magnitude of change in Child 4s production of others presented a difference of 8.94/minute between both phases (base line and intervention). Maintenance Maintenance data collection with Mothe r-Child Dyad 4 began two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention phase. Maintena nce data for Dyad 4 were collected over 4

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97 sessions. Maintenance sessions ranged in duration from 3.09mi nutes to 5.33 minutes with an average duration of 4.23 minut es (Figures 4-4 to 4-6). PEER Mother 4s implementation of PEER revealed an initial decrease followed by a rising trend during maintenance (Figure 4-4). As mentioned before, the mothers use of prompts decreased two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention to recover to intervention levels during the remainder of the maintenance phase. Mother 4s rate of prompts during maintenance ranged from 4.78/minute to 8.09/minute with a mean occurre nce of 6.16/minute. The rate of evaluations implemented by this mother showed a decrease af ter the two week break and then recovered to reach intervention rate levels. Mother 4s use of evaluations ranged from 0.48/minute to 3.55/minute. The mean level for evaluations wa s 2.17/minute. Mother 4s use of expansions two weeks after intervention revealed a slight decrease during the first maintenance session. Such decrease in expansions was followed by a stable trend line which never reached the levels evidenced during the intervention phase of the study. Mother 4s maintenance rate of expansions had a mean occurrence of 3.7/minute with ra tes ranging from 3.24/minute to 4.07/minute. Finally, the mothers use of re petitions during maintenance re vealed a rising trend reaching higher levels than those shown during intervention. Repetition rates ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.46/minute with a mean occurrence of 0.2/minute. FRASE The rate of Finalizar prompts showed no difference two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention (Figure 4-5). Mo ther 4s use of Finalizar pr ompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.97/minute with a mean of 0.24/minute. The mo thers implementation of Recordar prompts decreased after the two-w eek hiatus and remained stable during maintenance. The maintenance rate of Recordar prompts for Mother 4 rang ed from 1.7/minute to 2.31/minute with a mean

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98 occurrence of 2.06/minute. The mothers use of Abrir prompts showed an increase after the two week break followed by a decrease. Such decr ease brought the rate of Abrir prompts back to intervention levels during th e remaining maintenance sessions. Mother 4s use of Abrir prompts ranged from 1.3/minute to 2.62 minute. The mean level for Abrir prompts during intervention was 1.41/minute. Her implementation of Seleccionar prompts evidenced a sharp decrease during the first maintenance sessions after the two-week hi atus. The rate of Seleccionar prompts then recovered to reach rate levels similar to those revealed during intervention. The rate of Seleccionar pr ompts ranged from 0.48/minute to 2.62/minute with a mean of 2.06/minute. Finally, Mother 4s use of Experiencia prompts showed a rising trend two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention Mother 4s rate of Experiencia prompts ranged from 0.0/minute to 0.97/minute with a mean of 0.40/minute. Childs oral language Child 4s oral language production as evidence by the use of nouns, verbs, and others rose steadily during maintenan ce (Figure 4-6). Child 4s use of nouns decreased during the first maintenance session and ended in an upward tren d. The maintenance rate of nouns for Child 4 ranged from 7.39/minute to 11.33/minute with a mean occurrence of 9.21/minute. Similarly, the production of nouns revealed a decrease after the tw o-week break and then recovers. Child 4s rate of verbs during maintenance ranged from 3.83/minute to 8.54/minute with a mean level of 4.92/minute. Finally, Child 4s implementation of others showed a decrease two weeks after the conclusion of intervention and remained consta nt during the remainder of the maintenance sessions. Child 4s rate of other ranged from 3.09/minute to 5.33/minute during maintenance. The mean occurrence of others du ring this phase was 5.06/minute.

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99 Language Samples and Supplemental Measures The pre and post-intervention language sample s for Child 4 yielded scores of .5 and .6 respectively. Displaying a difference of .1 from pre to post-intervetion MLU. Child 4s results in the PLS-4 (Zimmerman et al., 2004) showed a gain of one point be tween its pre and postadministrations (PLS-4 pre-administration scor e = 64; PLS-4 post-adminstration score = 65). Likewise, the pre and post-score s of the TVIP (Dunn et al., 1986) showed a difference of one point (pre-score = 72; po st-score = 73) between the pre and post-administration. Child 4 failed to establish a basal score in both the pre and post-administrati ons of the PPVT-R (Dunn & Dunn, 1981). Interobserver Agreement Interobserver agreement was calculated on each dyads sessions across baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. The prim ary researcher and a secondary researcher, who is a Spanish/English bilingual early childhood pr ofessional with over 31 years of experience, analyzed the dyads transcripts i ndependently to determine agreement. For Mother-Child Dyad 1, interobserver agreement was cal culated on 31% of the sessions. Interobserver agreement for Mother 1s use of PEER steps ranged from 85% to 100%. Mean agreement for PEER steps was 94%. Interobserver agreement for Mother 1s use of different kinds of prompts (FRASE) ranged from 93.6% to 100% with a mean agreement of 97.4%. Interobserver ag reement for Child 1s oral language production ranged from 93% to 99% and had a mean agreement of 96.8 %. For Mother-Child Dyad 2, interobserver agreement was calculated on 33 % of the sessions. Interobserver agreement for Mother 2 s use of PEER steps ranged from 88.5% to 100%. Mean agreement for PEER steps was 95.4%. Interobserver agreement for Mother 2s use of different kinds of prompts (FRASE) ranged from 87.8% to 100% with a mean agreement of

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100 94.02%. Interobserver agreement for Child 2s oral language production ranged from 92 % to 99% and had a mean agreement of 97.2%. For Mother-Child Dyad 3, interobserver agr eement was calculated on 35% of the sessions. Interobserver agreement for Mother 3s use of PEER steps ranged from 88% to 100%. Mean agreement for PEER steps was 92.8%. Interobserve r agreement for Mother 3s use of different kinds of prompts (FRASE) ranged from 83% to 100% with a mean agreement of 93.6%. Interobserver agreement for Child 3s oral la nguage production ranged from 97% to 98.8% and had a mean agreement of 97.9%. For Mother-Child Dyad 4, interobserver agr eement was calculated on 33% of the sessions. Interobserver agreement for Mother 4s use of PEER steps ranged from 92% to 100%. Mean agreement for PEER steps was 96.3%. Interobserve r agreement for Mother 4s use of different kinds of prompts (FRASE) ranged from 95% to 100% with a mean agreement of 99.2%. Interobserver agreement for Mother 4s oral language production ranged from 97% to 100% and had a mean agreement of 98.2%. Treatment Integrity The investigator used the treatment fidelity checklist previously discussed in Chapter 3 to ensure that the mothers were implementing the treatment as outlined (Appendix J). The researcher completed a treatment fidelity checkli st twice a week during th e mother-child reading sessions. The outlined treatment steps were completed 90% of the time by all 4 mothers. Social Validation Following the completion of maintenance data participating mothers were asked to complete a social validity questionnaire to obtai n information regarding their satisfaction with the intervention (Appendix K). Sp ecifically, the mothers completed 5 questions that targeted the

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101 importance, effectiveness, and practicality of the intervention. The mothers completed each question using a 5-poi nt Likert scale. All mothers agreed strongly that the Dialogi c Reading training was very useful. All of them either agreed or strongly agreed that they would continue using Dialogic Reading techniques in the future. The mothers also str ongly agreed that other migrant parents would be interested in learning about di alogic reading. When asked whet her the training took too much time, all four mothers strongly disagreed. Fina lly, all the mothers strongly agreed that the childrens first language or al skills had improved. Summary The purpose of this investigation was to de termine whether migrant mothers with low educational levels would implement dialogic r eading techniques following training, to examine the effects of the implementation of dialogic re ading techniques on the oral language skills of migrant preschool children and to investigate wh ether any changes on the or al language skills of the children would be maintained following the conclusion of the interven tion. The data indicate that migrant mothers implemented the dial ogic reading technique s (PEER and FRASE) following training. The data also indicate that fo llowing the implementati on of dialogic reading techniques increased the rate of words per minute pr oduced by the children during the shared book reading sessions. Furthermore, two weeks afte r the completion of the intervention phase of the study, all four mothers continued implementi ng dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading sessions and the childrens producti on of oral language during those sessions continued at levels that were similar to those displayed during intervention. The results of the social validation measure we re positive. The mothers agreed that the dialogic reading training was very useful and th at they were likely to continue utilizing the techniques in the future. Mother s also strongly agreed that: (a ) other migrant parents might be

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102 interested in learning about dial ogic reading (b) the training was time efficient and (c) the oral language skills of the children improved following the intervention.

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103 Figure 4-1. Mother 1Child 1/Mother 2-Ch ild 2: Mother impl ementation of PEER

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104 Figure 4-2. Mother 1Child 1/Mother 2-Chil d 2: Mother implem entation of FRASE

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105 Figure 4-3. Mother 1Child 1/Mother 2-Chil d 2: Childrens oral language production

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106 Figure 4-4. Mother 3Child 3/Mother 4-Ch ild 4: Mother impl ementation of PEER

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107 Figure 4-5. Mother 3Child 3/Mother 4-Ch ild 4: Mother impl ementation of FRASE

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108 Figure 4-6. Mother 3-Child 3/ Mother 4-Child 4: Children s oral language production

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109 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The theoretical framework underlying the cu rrent investigation is influenced by the works of Vygotsky (1978) and Bronfenbrenner (1979). Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory of Learning emphasizes the importance of social inte ractions in stimulating childrens development (Vygotsky, 1978). This theory proposes that chil dren develop new language skills by engaging in social interactions with more competent langu age users such as the parents or caregivers. Parents who provide a linguistic scaffold by modeling, questioning, and explaining during conversations facilitate the development of child rens receptive and expressive language skills. Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) emphasizes child development within the context of the environment. Bronfe nbrenner (1979) proposes that interactions between children and their parents are influenced by their individual characteristics and by the characteristics of their environment. The interactions between migran t children and their parents, are impacted by the numerous characteristics often associated with a migrant li festyle. The poverty and low levels of education prevalent among migrant families influences the pa rents ability to engage their children in interactions that will help them develop new language skills. In order to ameliorate the effects that migran cy could have on the language development of young children, it is crucial to help migrant parents acquire strategies they can implement to help their children develop the language skills they need to become successful readers. The current study aimed to address this need by training migr ant mothers to implement a strategy that has proven to promote the language skills of children from different backgrounds.

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110 Overview of the Study This study was designed to investigate migran t mothers ability to implement a shared book reading strategy known as dialogic reading and its e ffects on the oral language development of young children with language delays The following questions were addressed: 1. Can migrant mothers with a low educational level be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques? 2. What is the effect of the mothers implem entation of dialogic reading techniques on the oral language production of migrant preschool children? 3. Will the effects of dialogic reading on th e oral language development of preschool children be maintained following the conclusion of the intervention? The participants included four mother/child dyads. The mothers were members of the migrant population, used Spanish to communicate with their children, and were able to read at least a second grade level. Children participan ts included two males and two females who spoke Spanish as a first language and ranged in age from 4 years 2 months to 5 years 7 months. The children displayed language delays as dete rmined through evaluation using the Preschool Language Scale-4 Spanish (PLS-4 ; Zimmerman et al., 2004), and the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (TVIP; Dunn et al., 1986). In addition, the children had never attended any preschool, childcare or comm unity enrichment programs. A single subject, multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate mothers implementation of dialogic reading techniques, the effects of such implementation on the oral language production of the children. The maintena nce phase of the study examined whether the mothers implementation of dial ogic reading techniques and its e ffect on the childrens oral language were maintained following the conclusi on of the intervention. The researcher began data collection with Dyads 1 and 2. The study wa s replicated with Dyads 3 and 4 after data collection concluded for Dyads 1 and 2.

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111 The study consisted of four phases: prebaselin e, baseline, intervention and maintenance. During the prebaseline phase the researcher cont acted potential participants and determined whether they were eligible to participate in the study. Baseline data were collected on the mothers implementation of dial ogic reading techniques and on the childrens production of oral language. During the intervention phase mothers pa rticipated in a brief training, ranging from two to three hours, on dialogic r eading techniques. Following the training, data were collected on the mothers implementation of dialogic re ading techniques and on the childrens production of oral language. Two weeks after the conclusion of the in tervention phase, the maintenance phase was conducted. During this pha se data were collected to de termine whether the effects of dialogic reading on the oral la nguage production of the children were still visible after the conclusion of the treatment. In addition, data were collected to determine mothers continued implementation of dialogic reading techniques. Finally, social validity information was gathered through the completion of a questionna ire by the particip ating mothers. Summary of Findings Parent Training and Implementation of Dialogic Reading Following a brief training conducted in Spanish, all mothers displayed a dramatic increase in their use of 3 out of the 4 components of the PEER sequence: prompts, evaluations, and expansions. Conversely, the mothers rate of re petitions failed to show considerable gains for any of the participants. These findings mirrored the results of the few studies that examined parent implementation in a direct manner (Cra in-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Dale et al.,1996; and Lim & Cole, 2002). The previous studies reported that the parents implementation of prompts and expansions increased substantially following training. Crain-Thoreson and Dale (1999) also reported an increase in the parents use of prai seful evaluations following a childs response. The parents implementation of repetitions was not examined in these studies.

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112 On average, the mothers implementation of the FRASE prompts il lustrated a preference for S eleccionar prompts (Wh-prompts) followed by R ecordar prompts (Recall prompts), A brir prompts (Open-ended prompts), and E xperiencia prompts (Distanci ng prompts). The rate of F inalizar prompts (Completion pr ompts) did not show a substant ial increase following training. Once again, the current results are consistent with the findings reporte d by Crain-Thoreson and Dale (1999), Dale et al. (1996), and Lim and Cole (2002). The implementation of F inalizar prompts (completion prompts) and E xperiencia prompts (Distancing prompts) was not analyzed by these researchers. Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Production of the Children As the mothers increased their implementa tion of the techniques, the oral language production of the children, as measured by th e production of nouns, verbs, and others (adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, arti cles) increased as well. The production of others increased substantially for all the child ren, followed by the production of nouns and verbs. The oral language increase experienced by the children in this study is supported by the literature on dialogic reading, which demonstr ates that implementation of a dialogic reading program can increase the oral language skills of young ch ildren at risk (Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Whitehurst, Epstein et al., 1994). Maintenance The overall effect of dialogic reading on the ch ildrens oral language and the mothers use of dialogic reading techniques were maintain ed two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention. The mothers implementation of PEER and FR ASE continued at levels very similar to those displayed during the inte rvention phase. In a similar manner, the childrens overall

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113 production of nouns, verbs, and others during this phase was comparable to that witnessed during intervention. Social Validity Social validity data revealed that migran t mothers found the intervention to be both effective and practical. Furthermore, mothers agr eed that the intervention had a positive effect on the oral language skills of their children and w ould continue using dialogic reading techniques in the future. Discussion of Findings Dialogic Reading Training and Migrant Mothers The literature describing dialog ic reading training supports the use of role-play, modeling, practice sessions with direct feedback, and didactic instruct ion (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Whitehurst, Arnold et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Zevenbergen, et al., 1999). In a ddition, the research suggests that adding a videotape component to dialogic reading training will further improve its degree of effectiveness (Arnold et al., 1994). In order to design a dialogic reading training program for mi grant mothers it was important to consider the factors mentioned above along with the unique issues often faced by migrant populations. This section of the chapter will offer a discussion of these issues as they relate to the training implemented in the current study. The lives of migrant families ar e often characterized by several risk factors that impede the educational success of migran t students. Chief among those factors are limited English proficiency, limited financial resources, and low leve ls of educational attainment. Consideration of these issues during the devel opment of the parent training c onducted in this research likely contributed to its success. Like most me mbers of the migrant population, the mothers

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114 participating in this study had limited English pr oficiency and low levels of education, which hindered their participation in th e literacy programs available in the community. In order to ensure the full participation of the mothers, the training was c onducted in Spanish. In addition, all training materials were either translated to Spanish or cr eated for Spanish speakers. An important part of the training was the videotap e utilized to show mo thers how to implement dialogic reading. Lectura Interactiva (Landry, 2002) allowed mothers to watch and hear other Spanish speaking mothers modeling the use of di alogic reading techniques. By engaging in observational learning the mothers were not only able to see how other Hispanic mothers implemented the techniques, but also witnessed the potential outcomes that such implementation could exert in the language production of their ch ildren. Watching the potential outcomes of the techniques in a population similar to their own mi ght have allowed the pa rents to perceive the intervention as valuable and to start viewing themselves as their childrens first teachers (Rodriguez-Brown, 2003). Thus, motivating them to learn and implement the dialogic reading techniques. In addition, it is lik ely that the inclusion of Lectur a Interactiva (Landry, 2002) in the training validated the mothers first langua ge and background knowledge, allowing them to counteract the notion that they n eeded to speak English and have a high level of education to help prepare their children for school (Rodr iguez-Brown, 2003; Rodriguez-Brown & Shanahan, 1989). Rodriguez-Brown and Shanahan (1989) en countered these beliefs when working with Hispanic families at a community literacy program. These researchers queried Hispanic parents about their roles as teachers of their own childre n and found that most parents felt they were not serving or could not serve in that role due to their lack of English proficiency and limited schooling (Rodriguez-Brown & Shanahan, 1989). Th erefore, it is critic al for any literacy program targeting Spanish speakers to empowe r parents by counteracting these beliefs and by

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115 helping parents utilize the bac kground knowledge they posses to he lp prepare their children for academic success (Rodriguez-Brown & Shanahan, 1989). Another important issue that was taken into consideration when developing the training for the current study was the lack of financial re sources experienced by most migrant families (Garza et al, 2004). The mothers participating in this investigation did not have the financial resources to secure a stable mean s of transportation. Th erefore, conducting the training in their homes was crucial to ensure the full particip ation of the mothers. Although, conducting the training in the homes contributed to the social validity of the inve stigation, it also meant that the mothers were exposed to numerous distractions that would not be encountered in a more controlled setting such as a classroom (Kazdi n, 1982). The research sessions were often interrupted by unexpected phone calls, visitors, a nd sudden changes in the families routines. For example, the first training session for Moth er 3 had to be suspended for approximately twenty minutes when the father arrived with a la rge group of friends. Interruptions such as this might have accounted for the initial difficultie s experienced by Mothers 2 and 3 during the evaluation phase of the training. These mothers fa iled to obtain the score they needed to begin implementing the dialogic reading te chniques; therefore, they had to participate in a remedial coaching session immediat ely after the training. Despite the difficulties mentioned above, the pa rent training program implemented during the current study was demonstrated to be effective. Incorporating aspects of the familys culture into the training program appeared to improve the motherssense of self-efficacy and allowed them to visualize themselves as their childrens first teacher. Mothers Implementation of Dialogic Reading There are four findings related to the implem entation of PEER and FRASE that necessitate further explanation: (a) mothers successful impl ementation of three out of four dialogic reading

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116 steps, (b) mothers rate of su ccess with four out of five dial ogic reading prompts, (c) the influence of the mothers level of education on the rate of implementation of PEER and FRASE, (d) the mothers constant efforts to medi ate the shared book inte ractions through the implementation of different prompts. PEER and FRASE Following training, the migrant mothers particip ating in the current study were able to implement three out of the four steps outlined by the PEER sequence at a high rate of frequency. Those steps were: Prompt, Evaluate, and Expand. Conversely, the mothers rate of implementation for Repetitions was negligible. On ly Mother 1 implemented this step during one of the reading sessions in the intervention phase of the study. Along the same lines, the mothers were able to implement 4 out of 5 different kinds of prompts (FRASE) at a high rate of frequency. Th e rate of implementation for Recordar (Recall) prompts, Abrir (Open-ended) prom pts, Seleccionar (Wh-) prompts, and Experiencia (Distancing) prompts displayed a notable increase following tr aining. However, the rate of implementation for Finalizar (Completion) prompts did not ev idence a notable post-training increase. The idiosyncrasies in the mothers implement ation of dialogic reading techniques might be explained by the verbal pattern s of interaction followed by Hisp anic families when socializing their children (Rogers, 2001). This notion is co ngruent with the answer provided by the migrant mothers when questioned about their implementati on patterns. The mothers reported that they did not implement repetitions and/or Finalizar (c ompletion) prompts because they were difficult to remember and not consistent with the way they spoke to their children. The literature addressing the interaction of Hispanic pare nts and their children supports these findings and points out that mothers of Me xican descent socialize their children by being direct, by asking numerous questions, and providing di rect evaluations. In addition, the research

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117 suggests that Hispanic mothers do not engage their children in verbal inte ractions that involve repetitions or the completion of phrases (Valdes, 1996). During her work with Hispanic families, Valdes (1996) studied and compared the parent/ch ild interactions in thre e different regions of Mexico. She describes how only in fants learning their first words were encouraged to repeat or complete phrases uttered by the parents. Th ese requests appeared to cease once a child had acquired a basic language repertor y around the age two. Therefore, asking children older than two years of age to engage in in teractions that involve repetition and the completion of phrases is seldom encountered within the Hispanic population (Madding 1999; Valdes, 1996; WongFillmore, 1982). These findings might lead to the conclusion that extensive training and consistent coaching might be necessary to make repetitions and F inalizar prompts an ingrained part of the shared book reading routine of migran t Spanish speaking mothers. In more general terms, the findings underscore the importance of considering participants cultural background when determining the level of eff ectiveness of any intervention. Influence of educational level on th e implementation of dialogic reading The strong influence that the mothers level of education exerted on their implementation of dialogic reading techniques wa s another of the major findings of the current study. Although there were similarities in the way migrant mothers implemented the techniques, close examination of the data demonstrates that every mother had an individual pattern of implementation. This was particularly true when the mothers selected different kinds of prompts (FRASE). Careful examination of the mothers background information shows that mothers with different levels of education chose to implement the prompts at slightly different rates. For example, during the intervention phase of the study, Mother 4 implemented R ecordar (Recall) prompts at a higher rate than any of the othe r participants. Upon analysis of the mothers background information it was noted that Mother 4 had the highest level of education. The

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118 educational level of this mother might have facilitated the impl ementation of Recordar (Recall), a prompt that did not require he r to rely on the book pictures. This finding is consistent with the Ecol ogical Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), which is part of the theoretical framework unde rlying this investigati on. Bronfenbrenner (1979) proposes that the interactions between children and the members of their microsystem at home, particularly the parents, are impacted by their in dividual characteristics. The mothers level of education appeared to influence the rate at whic h they implemented different kinds of prompts, thus impacting the way in which they conducte d reading interactions with their children. Mothers use of prompts to mediate the reading interaction of children Upon close examination of the data and after direct observation of the dyads, it was noted that the migrant mothers participating in the cu rrent study appeared to be mediating the reading interactions by utilizing differe nt kinds of prompts and by varying their use contingent on the level of participation of the child ren. The mothers constant attempts to mediate the interactions are consistent with the Socioc ultural Theory of Learning (Vygot sky, 1978). The Sociocultural Theory of Learning posits that children de velop language skills by engaging in social interactions with more competen t language users such as the parents or caregivers. The parents will adjust the level of the langua ge they utilize to the linguistic capacities of the child. Such scaffolding will lead children to more opportu nities for language development. Dyad 2 illustrates this finding clearly. Mother 2s implementation of E xperiencia (Distancing) prompts during intervention appeared to elicit mo re participation from the child than R ecordar (Recall) or A brir (Open-ended) prompts. Therefore, it is likely that Mother 2 sustained the implementation of this particular kind of prompt to promote the participation of the child. During different phases of the investigation, Child 2 began displaying behavior di fficulties and changing his rate of oral language production. Moth er 2 appeared to be respond ing to the child s level of

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119 performance by scaffolding her language, by implementing a higher number of prompts and by changing the kinds of prompts she implemented. On ce again this finding is consistent with the theoretical framework of the current invest igation and with the available literature on parent/child reading interactions which suggests that parents me diate the reading interaction by implementing different kinds of guidance and by adjusting that guidance when necessary (Mason, 1990). Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Production of the Children Analysis of the rate of nouns, verbs and others indicate that the production of the migrant childrens oral language increas ed during the intervention. These results are supported by previous research on the effect s of dialogic reading on the la nguage development of children with language delays who come from low so cioeconomic backgrounds (Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1999; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Whitehurst, Arnold et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Fishel et al., 1991; Whitehurst, Zevenbergen, et al.,1999) and by the findings of previous dialogic reading i nvestigations involving children w ho had first languages other than English (Brickman, 2002; Canning, 2002; Lim & Cole, 2002; Valdez-M enchaca & Whitehurst, 1992). This section of the chapte r will expand on three findings re garding the effects of dialogic reading on the oral language skills of children from migrant backgrounds that must be explored further: (a) irregularities in the initial baseline data, (b) the childrens use of code mixing during the interactions and (c) the in consistencies in the results of the supplemental measures. Irregularities in baseline data Upon analysis of the changes in the language production of the childre n, it is important to note that the baseline data for children 1, 2 and 3 displayed an initial spike in oral language production followed by a dramatic decr ease within the first sessions of the baseline phase of the study. In the case of children 1 and 3, this tr end might be explained by the effects of novelty.

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120 Novelty is defined as an unfamiliar stimulus that generates arousal and attention in human and nonhuman organisms (Comerford & Witryol, 1991). Many studies in the field of psychology have demonstrated that children are attracted to novel stimuli and will change their behaviors when presented with novel stimuli (Bradbury & Plichon, 2001; Comerford & Witryol, 1991; Wentworth & Witryol, 1984). The mothers of childre n 1 and 3 reported that they did not usually engage their children in traditi onal shared book reading interactions. Theref ore, it is possible that the initial reading interactions required for the study during baseline were perceived as novel stimuli by these children, commanding their full attention and causing th em to produce more language during the first baseline sessions of th e study. Once the children became familiar with the interactions (baseline session 2 for Child 1 a nd baseline session 3 for Child 3) their rate of language production decreased and remained constant during the remainder of the baseline phase of the study. In the case of Child 2, the vari ability in the language production during baseline might be due to both the effects of novelty and beha vioral difficulties that would arise every time the mother attempted to engage the child in a re ading interaction during this phase. Some of the behavior difficulties displayed by Child 2 included refusing to turn off the television before the reading interactions and refusing to sit down next to his mother. Child 4 did not appear to experience the effects of novelty. This finding mi ght be explained by Mother 4s report that she engaged her children in reading interactions on occasion. Therefore, this child might have already been familiar with reading interactions. Code mixing An interesting finding refers to the fact th at most of the children used code mixing (Spanish to English or vice vers a) during the interactions with their mothers. The code mixing happened even though the mothers spoke primaril y Spanish to the children at home. For example, one child named the colors rojo, verd e, green, blue, morado as she described the

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121 objects in a picture. Another ch ild would count one, two, three, cinco, four, dos while pointing to objects shown in the book. Lim and Cole (200 2) reported similar findings in their study with Korean mothers and their children. These research ers worked with children ages 2-4 and their mothers and reported that the children engaged in code mixing quite often by either counting or by implementing English grammar rules to Korean words (Lim & Cole, 2002). It is important to note that th e children included in the current study had never participated in a child care or preschool program and most of them lived in very isolated areas which provided limited opportunities to in teract with English speakers. Two of the children (1 and 4) lived in rural areas with no ne ighbors within a 2 mile radius. The other two lived in more populated areas but were only allowed to intera ct with family member s living in the same household. In the case of Child 3, the c ode mixing phenomenon might be explained by the presence of two older siblings who had probabl y exposed the child to the language. However, the mothers of the other childre n in the study reported that th eir childrens only exposure to English happened during the occasional trip to the grocery store and th rough television viewing of 3 or more hours a day. When asked about th eir childrens television viewing habits, mothers reported that the children watched movies and ca rtoons in English such as Dora the Explorer and Spongebob. The constant exposure to tele vision programs in English might account for these childrens incipi ent knowledge of English. This hypothesis is supported by studies on television exposure and development of la nguage in young children (Anderson & Pempeck, 2005; Linebarger & Walker, 2005; Wr ight et al., 2001). These st udies suggest that television viewing might promote the language developmen t of young monolingual children. Furthermore, the content of the program watche d by the children made a difference in the development of oral

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122 language with programs such as the bilingual D ora the Explorer resulting in higher expressive language scores (Linebarger & Walker, 2005). Understanding this code mixing phenomenon is not a simple task as no single explanation accounts for all bilingual code mixing (Goldstein 2004). It is possible that the code mixing reflected the childrens flexibility in using all the linguistic resour ces they had acquired up to that point. The dialogic reading book interactions mi ght have been offering the ideal opportunity for the children to use all the linguistic resources they had acquired through sibling interaction and television viewing in order to meet their communication needs (Genesse, Paradis & Crago, 2004). While working with English language learne rs and their families in Canada, Genesse et al. (2004) found that the children would code mix using both thei r native French and English during interactions with monolingual adults. Gene sse et al. (2004) add that the children appeared to be making use of all the language they possesse d to meet their need for social interaction. Inconsistencies with the supplemental measures The childrens language skills were assessed befo re the initiation of th e study to determine eligibility and afte r the intervention to determine whether any changes in language would be reflected in the results of standardized measures The instruments utilized included the Spanish version of the Preschool Language Scale (PLS -4, Zimmerman et al., 2004), and the Spanish version of the PPVT or TVIP (D unn et al., 1986). In addition, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, Form M (PPVT-R, Dunn & Dunn, 1981) was administered to assess the English language abilities of the children. Findings resulting from th e administration of these measures were ambiguous in regards to the effectiveness of the intervention. Comparison of the pre and post-administrations of the previous measures revealed that only Child 1 had an important improvement in bot h the PLS-4 and the TVIP. This child had the highest level of language functi oning at the beginning of the st udy; therefore, she might have

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123 been better equipped to develop more languag e with the help of the intervention (Stanovich, 1986). Stanovich (1986) proposes that children at a higher level of language performance usually elicit more advanced patterns of stimulation than children at a lower level and are better prepared to take advantage of interactions that promote language development. The results for Child 2 appeared to be contra dictory. Child 2s PLS-4 pre and post-scores did not show gains. However, the childs sc ores for the TVIP showed a more significant increase. This lack of consistency between as sessments might be attri buted to the behavior difficulties experienced by Child 2 during the admi nistration of the PLS-4 (Zimmerman et al., 2004). The pre and post-administrations of the as sessments for Children 3 and 4 failed to show important results for either child. This finding mi ght suggest that children with language delays, particularly English language learners with la nguage delays, may need more intense and longer periods of interventions in or der to show any improvements in standardized assessments. The pre and post-intervention results for the PPVT-R (Dunn & Dunn, 1981) confirmed that Spanish was the childrens dominant language. All of the children were unable to establish a basal score in both the pre and postadministrations of this measure. Prior to the beginning of the intervention and following its co nclusion, the researcher also collected language samples during two individual play sessions with each of the children. The samples were analyzed to determine the mean length of utterance in morphemes. Although the post language samples showed increases in the ML U of all the children, these differences are not considered important. This finding might also be attributed to the short duration of the intervention. Children from low-income backgr ounds and with language delays might need shared reading interventions that last longer and are more intens ive in order to generalize the

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124 effects to contexts that do not involve reading interactions (Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992). Finally, it is important to poi nt out that measuring MLU in languages other than English has proven to be problematic for research purpos es because languages vary significantly in their syntactic structure (Guitierrez-Cl ellen et al., 2000; Lim & Cole, 2002) In addition, the lack of a gold standard to which ELL childrens language samples can be compared presents another challenge when using MLU to determine the effect s of an intervention (Guitierrez-Clellen et al., 2000; Restrepo, 1996). Guitierrez-Cle llen et al. (2000) add that the developmental milestones for English monolinguals are not compar able to bilingual (Spanish/Englis h) learners, therefore, there are no clear uniform criteria available which can be utilized when determining the MLU of Spanish speaking children learni ng English as a second language. Maintenance The present study was also designed to evaluate the maintenance of the intervention on the mothers implementation of dial ogic reading techniques and on th e childrens language. Two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention, th e mothers were asked to engage in shared book reading sessions with their children. Maintenance effects on mothers The slight initial decrease and s ubsequent recovery in the moth ers use of dialogic reading techniques during this phase might be explaine d by previous research, which emphasizes that once a particular reading behavior is incorporated into a parents reading routine it might be very difficult to change (Neuman & McCormick, 1995). On the other hand, that initial decrease also suggests that migrant parents might need a longe r, more continuous intervention in order to implement dialogic reading techniques in a regular basis (Reese & Gallimore, 2000).

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125 Another finding that deserves further expl anation is the increases in mothers implementation of different kinds of prompts (FRA SE) during maintenance. Mother 3 serves as the best example to illustrate this point. Moth er 3s rate of implement ation for Seleccionar (Whprompts) prompts increased dramatically duri ng the maintenance phase of the current study. This increase might be attributed to this mothe rs attempt to mediate the reading interaction by adjusting the implementation of different prompt s to the changes in the childs performance (Vygotsky, 1978). Maintenance effects on the or al language of the children The maintenance of the effects of dialogic re ading on the oral language production of the children might serve as strong ev idence that the intervention provi ded in the study promoted the oral language development of migrant children over time. It is impor tant to note that the childrens production of oral langua ge did not display an initial decrease following intervention. On the contrary, Child 3 for example displayed a higher rate in the production of other words after the conclusion of the intervention. Social Validity According to Foster and Mash (1999) and Kazdin (1982), social validity refers to the social importance and acceptability of treatment goals procedure, and outcomes. In order for participants to implement and ma intain the use of an interventi on, they must believe that the intervention produces an important outcome and be able to implement the intervention without undue difficulty (Neuman & McCormick, 1995). Results of the social validity measure utili zed in the current study reflect the conditions outlined above. The mothers attitude toward the importance of this study and its ease of implementation might have contributed to th e implementation and ma intenance of dialogic reading techniques during shared book reading interactions.

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126 It can be reported anecdotally that the moth ers seemed to enjoy the reading interactions with their children and appeared to feel empowered by their new role as the teachers of the family. One of the mothers mentioned that she felt proud she could he lp prepare her son for Kindergarten and added that fo llowing the intervention she felt more appreciated by the whole family. That growing sense of pride and acco mplishment was prevalent among all the mother participants following the intervention. Mother 3 reported that her daily interactions with her young son changed dramatically following the interv ention. She added that she felt respected and valued by her son and the other male members of the family. The fact that the intervention was conducted in Spanish was pointed as another advantage by the mothers. In addition, the daily visits of th e researcher were perceive d as social visits and not as research sessions. Most of the mothers mentioned that they seldom had opportunities to interact with members of the university community and had nume rous questions about what it was like to go to college and how they could help prepare their young ch ildren for college. When asked informally about the social validity of the intervention a ll mothers reported that participating in the current study had a ma jor positive influence in their lives. Limitations Although the results of this study extend the l iterature regarding th e effectiveness of dialogic reading with families from diverse b ackgrounds there are notable limitations that may have impacted the findings. As with most si ngle subject studies, the small size limits the external validity of the study (Kazdin, 1982). Becau se the participants of the current study were all migrant mothers it is unknown whether the studys findings could be replicated with fathers from the same population. Another replication of the study should include migrant mothers with higher levels of education than those held by the present group in order to determine whether the

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127 effects of the intervention would be as dramatic as they were on the rate of implementation of the mothers in the current study. Second, the difference in duration among read ing sessions might have influenced the results. On average, once mothers began im plementing the dialogic r eading techniques they were reading for longer periods of time. As the dyads engaged in longer reading interactions the mothers had more opportunity to practice the tec hniques and the children had more opportunities to produce oral language. Therefore, any effect s of the intervention might have been impacted by the change of duration in the sessions. The third limitation refers to the increased access to books given to the participants during the current study. The available research on the l iteracy environments of children suggests that many children from low socieocomic backgrounds begin school without ever having heard a book read aloud (Moustafa, 1997). Adams (1990) poi nts out that the average child from a middle-class background will begin school with over 1,000 hours of shared book experiences, while the typical child from a low-in come home will have only 25 hours of experience (Adams, 1990). The striking differences among children fr om low and middle-income families in shared book experiences can be attributed to differences in the access to books (Neuman & Celano, 2001; Neuman, 1999). Limited acce ss to childrens books and other print materials in the home may have adverse consequences on the developmen t of childrens early literacy skills (Madden, Slavin, Karweit, Dolan, & Wasik, 1993). Furthermore, providing books to children and families from low socioeconomic backgrounds may have a positive effect on the childrens language development and might encourage parents to enga ge their children in early literacy activities (McCormick & Mason, 1986; Neuman, 1996). The dya ds participating in the current study, all of whom had very limited access to printed material s prior to the current i nvestigation, received

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128 new books every week and were allowed to keep th em after the reading interactions were audio taped. Therefore, it is not known whether increasi ng the families access to children books could have influenced the results. A fifth limitation involves the way in which the books were distribut ed during the study. As mentioned previously, the num ber of books in the dyads homes increased every week during the development of the research. It is not know n whether increasing the number of books in a gradual manner (two books per week) had any impact on the results of the inve stigation. However, it is also not certain that providing the dyads with all the books on the first day of baseline would have been benefi cial. It might have overwhelm ed the mothers and the children. It is important to note that the distribution syst em utilized for the curr ent study was consistent with they way in which previous dialogic readin g studies provided books to their participants (Whitehurst, Arnold et al., 1994; Wh itehurst, Epstein et al., 1994). Sixth, the presence of the princi pal investigator and the audi otape recorder in the home during the investigation may have introduced a high level of reac tivity as the mothers and, to a lesser extent, the children knew that their intera ctions were being mon itored during the reading sessions (Kazdin, 1982). Potentially, the mother s may not have implemented any dialogic reading steps if the principal inve stigator had not been present. Implications for Research The results of this study provide evidence th at mothers from migrant populations can be trained to implement dialogic reading techniques and that the implementation of the techniques has a positive effect on the oral language production of migrant pr eschool children with language delays. This research adds to the scarce lite rature available on migr ant populations and how migrant mothers can help prepare their children for formal reading instruction ameliorating the effects of the risk factors ofte n associated with migrant life.

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129 Furthermore, the study extends the literature on dialogic reading as it examined the effects of the intervention on a population that differs fro m those included in previous dialogic reading studies. Few dialogic reading st udies have concentrated on the changes that the intervention produces on the parents readi ng behaviors (Crain-Thoreson & Da le, 1999; Dale et al., 1996; Lim & Cole, 2002). This investig ation makes an additional contri bution to the dialogic reading literature by accomplishing this and by evaluating mothers use of different kinds of prompts. Finally, most of the findings on the efficacy of dialogic reading on the linguistic skills of young children have been obtained through the in terpretation of group data (1998; ValdezMenchaca & Whitehurst, 1992; Whitehurst, Arnold et al., 1994; Whitehurst, Epstein et al.,1994). This study contributes to the literature by ut ilizing single subject multiple baseline across participants allowing for the evaluation of the in tervention in individual children and mothers. To analyze the effects of the intervention on the oral language of the children, the researcher measured the rate per minute of nouns verbs and others produ ced during the reading interactions. This analysis demonstrated that the implementation of di alogic reading techniques had a positive effect on the oral la nguage skills of the children. Ho wever, future replications of the study should include more se nsitive linguistic measures a nd analyses that will allow researchers to examine changes in the lexical an d synctatical aspects of the childrens language. Although the mothers implementation of dialogi c reading techniques were maintained two weeks after the conclusion of the study, the in itial decrease displaye d during the maintenance phase might be an indication that migrant populations need longer, and more intensive intervention in order to implement shared book reading interventions. It is important to remember that the mothers in the current study did not learn all the parts of the dialogic sequence (PEER and FRASE) and used a handout in order to help remember the t echniques when reading

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130 to their children. Therefore, it is imperative to find better ways of trai ning parents to remember the intervention for a longer period of time. Futu re replications of the study might include extra coaching sessions as part of the parent-train ing component. After comp leting the instructional portion of the training, parents would engage in several dialogic reading coaching sessions with their children. During these sessions the resear cher would provide feedback on the utilization of the technique and determine which parts of the intervention are more difficult to implement. In addition, the coaching sessions could be videotaped to allow parents to evaluate their use of the dialogic reading techniques. The present study checked for maintenance two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention. Extensions of th e study need to examine whether the effects of dialogic reading can be maintained for a longer period of time. Al ong those lines, another important replication of the study should follow the children during presc hool and kindergarten in order to determine whether the effects of the inte rvention on the oral language ha ve facilitated the students acquisition of English and the acqui sition of preliteracy skills that will set the students on a path to reading success. The current study did not examine the generaliz ation of the effects of dialogic reading on the language production of migrant children in settings other than the home or in situations that did not involve reading interactio ns. A replication of the study must analyze the generalization of the effects of the intervention to different settings and to situ ations that do not involve the use of books. Finally, another implication for future rese arch involves the anecdotal observations regarding the family dynamics in the homes of the participants. The researcher noted that once the intervention phase of the st udy began there were changes in the non-reading interactions

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131 between the migrant mothers and their children. Bo th mothers and children appeared to be using more language and the children seemed to be more compliant with their mo thers instructions. Another important change involved the way in whic h different members of the family interacted with the mothers once they bega n participating in the study. Mo thers reported that they felt empowered and more valued by all the members of the family. One mother added that the male members of the family treated her in a more respectful manner once she began reading to her child. Future replications of the study should include methodology that will allow researchers to measure changes in the daily interactions and dynamics of the families participating in the investigation. Implications for Practice The results of the current study have pow erful implications for early childhood practitioners working with Spanish speaking child ren and their families. Professionals must adapt interventions and programs to the families they aim to serve. Taking into account the social, cultural and linguistic strengths of familie s will increase the effectiveness of interventions by allowing teachers and practitioners to use th e familys background knowledge to foster the development of new skills. In addition, learning about the culture of th e populations they serve will send parents the message that they are importa nt and appreciated, thus increasing their level of participation, trust and satis faction (Reese & Gallimore, 2000). In the case of migrant populations it is also cr itical to implement interventions that involve childrens parents and that allow the parents to use th eir first language. This is supported by recent research on family literacy and the literacy developmen t of young migrants, which posits that the influence of the home environment and th e involvement of the family are crucial for the development of literacy skills (B ryant & Wasik, 2004; Ezell, 2000). Research on family literacy demonstrates that including parents in liter acy programs has numerous advantages (Wasik,

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132 2004). Children who participate in literacy pr ograms that involve their families develop better oral language skills (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pellegrini, 1995; Jordan, Snow & Porche, 2000), display higher achievement in reading (Shanahan, Mulher n, & Rodriguez-Brown, 1995), are better prepared to take advantage of lear ning opportunities both at home and at school (Rodriguez-Brown, 2003), are healthier (Romanowsk i, 2004) and have a more favorable concept of self (Askov, 2004). In addition, encouranging parents to use the language they know best when engaging their children in literacy-related experiences is a compone nt of any effective family literacy program (Auerbach, 1989). Rodr iguez-Brown (2003) adds that encouraging parents to use their first language allows them to counteract the notion that they need to know English to help their young children acquire the language and literacy skills they need to be successful in school. Along the same line, it is important to implem ent family literacy programs that will meet the needs of migrant families by having bilingual staff, reading ma terials for all reading levels, and printed materials that reflect th e needs of the migrant population. Summary The literature on migrant families points out that the factors which characterize this population make migrant parents and their chil dren the most academically vulnerable subgroup in the United States today (Gouwens, 20001; Ro manowski, 2004). Migrant parents want their children to be successful and view education as their childrens wa y out of the cycle of migrancy (Ezell et al., 2000; Henderson, 1992; Whitaker et al., 1997). However, the low educational levels, lack of financial resources, high mobility rates, and limited English proficiency prevalent among migrant families make it very difficult for migr ant parents to participate in family literacy programs that would prepare them to engage th eir children in literacy -activities (Henderson, 1992; Romanowski, 2004).

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133 This study addressed this situation by tr aining mothers from migrant populations to implement dialogic reading, a shar ed book reading interaction that ha s proven to be effective in promoting the language development of young child ren from diverse backgrounds (Arnold et al., 1994; Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998; Whitehurst et al., 1988; White hurst et al. 1994; ValdezMenchaca & Whitehurst, 1992). The results of this i nvestigation demonstrated that mothers from migrant populations can be successfully trained to implement dialogic techniques and that the mothers implementation of di alogic reading techniques increas ed the oral language production of migrant preschool children with delays. Furthermore, the results of the current study revealed that the mothers implementation of dialogic reading techniques and the effects of the implementation on the oral language production of the children were maintained following the conclusion of the intervention.

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134 APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL AND CONSENT FORMS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INST ITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD 1. TITLE OF PROTOCOL: Assessing the Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Oral Language Skills of Migrant Preschool Children At-Risk of Reading Difficulties 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(S): Joyce Tardaguila-Harth, Do ctoral Student, Department of Special Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 No rman Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050, 392-0701. 3.SUPERVISOR: Vivian I. Correa, Ph.D., Departme nt of Special Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman Hall, Gainesv ille, Florida 32611-7050, 392-0701. 4. DATES OF PROPOS ED PROTOCOL: From October 15, 2006 to October 14, 2007 5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROTOCOL: Unfunded 6. SCIENTIFIC PUROPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION : The purpose of this study is to determine if a shared book reading intervention (dialogic reading) implemented by the parents will promote the first language development of preschool children with language delays. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE Preschool teachers will nominate four children who speak Spanish as a first language, and who are members of the migrant population. The children will be included in the study if they meet the following criteria: 1. The child has been diagnosed with a language delay 2. The child does not exhibit significant behavi or problems as indicated by the teacher 3. The childs parent or guardian provides informed consent Parent participants must meet the followi ng criteria to be included in the study: 1. The parent uses predominately Spanis h to communicate with the child at home 2. The parent is able to read in Sp anish at a second grade level. 3. The parent gives informed consent. The language skills of the children will be eval uated prior to the onset of the study (prebaseline) and upon completion of the study. The investigator will utilize the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III), and the Spanish version of the PPVT-III (Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody, TVIP). A language sample will also be collected at the beginning and at the end of the study. The study will occur in phases. During the first ph ase of the study, parents will be asked to read a storybook to their children at least four times a week. Every reading session should last between 10 and 15 minutes. No further instructions will be offered during this phase of the investigation. The reading interactions will be observed and au dio taped by the researcher. Data will be collected on the number of words uttered by the child during the reading sessions and will be used to establish a baseline.

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135 The second phase of the investigat ion will be comprised of indivi dual parent training sessions. This phase will include a discussion about the importance of developing a strong foundation in the first language and how a strong base in the first language assists the acquisition of a second language. The importance of early literacy act ivities such as shar ed book reading will be discussed and parents will be tr ained to implement dialogic read ing techniques in the shared book interactions with their children. Th e researcher will model the dialogic reading techniques and parents will get to practice th e intervention with the researcher before they implement it with their children. Two verbal checks of the pare nts understanding of di alogic reading will be conducted. The third phase of the experiment will include implementation of the intervention by the parents in their homes. Parents will read to their children using dialogic reading techniques for at leas four times a week. Every reading session will last between 10 and 15 minutes. The reading sessions will be audio taped. Data will be collected on the number of words uttered by the children during the reading interactions. The rese archer will utilize event recording or frequency measures to collect the data. In this phase, parents and children will be observed and data recorded on the measure mentioned above at l east four times a week for a period of 10-15 minutes. The last phase of the study is the maintenance phase. Two weeks following the conclusion of the study, the researcher will return to observe and collect data to determine if the parents are continuing to implement the reading technique and to examine whether there have been any changes in the number of words uttered by the children during shared book reading sessions. A single subject multiple baseline across participants will be used to conduct the investigation. The first phase of the study will take approximately 4-8 weeks. The final phase will take approximately two weeks. Once all the phases ha ve been completed, findings will be used for the principal investigator s doctoral dissertation. The audio tapes of the participants wi ll be destroyed upon completion of the study. 8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AN D ANTICIPATED RISK. This study proposes no risks to the participants. The potential benefits include trai ning parents of children wi th language delays to implement an intervention that will foster the language and emergent literacy development of children at-risk for future reading difficulties. Participating parents and children will receive children books during the study. 9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANTS WI LL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any): The principal investigator will provide a verbal expl anation of the study to Head Start teachers in a rural county in Florida. The teachers will be asked to nominate 4 children ages 36 months who have language delays. The pr incipal investigator will approach the parents or guardians of the children and provide a written an d verbal explanation of the study. Each parent will receive a $50.00 gift certificate upon completion of the study. 10.DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT (if applicable). See attached.

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136 Parents will receive an informed consent form in their first language (Spa nish). The investigator will explain the consent form and the details of the study in the parents first language (See attached) Principal Investigators Signature _________________________________ Supervisors Signature ______________________________ I approve this protocol fo r submission to the UFIRB:

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137 University of Florida Department of Sp ecial Education P.O. Box 117050/G-315 Normal Hall Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050 Parent Consent Protocol Title: Assessing the Effects of Dialogic Readi ng on the Oral Language Skills of Migrant Preschool Children At-Risk of Reading Difficulties. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of the study is to determine if a shared book reading intervention (dialogic reading) impl emented by the parents will promote the first language development of preschool children with language delays. Time Required : Two to Four hours of tr aining, and 15 minute observations at least four times per week for up to one year. Risk and Benefits : This study poses no risk. The potenti al benefits include (1) learning an intervention that will foster the language and ea rly literacy skills of children and (2) getting childrens books for your child. Parents role : You will attend two trai ning sessions lasting between one and two hours each and an additional one hour training if needed. Upon completion of the training you will be asked to implement the intervention during shared book r eading sessions with your child. You will be ask to read to your children at least four times a week for 10-15 minutes. The principal investigator will observe and audiotape the reading sessions for up to three months. Childs role : Before the start of the study, your childs language skills will be evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), the Peab ody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) and the Spanish version of the PPVT-III known as the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody (TVIP). The PLS-4, PPVT-III and TVIP are langua ge assessment instruments that measure the childs receptive a nd expressive language. As you begin to implement the intervention with your child, I will observe to see if your childs produc tion of oral language increases. The principal investigator will audiotape the sessions. Compensation : You will receive a $50.00 gift certif icate upon completion of the study. Confidentiality: Results of the study may be shared with colleagues in the field of education, for purposes of confidentiality, your name and iden tity will be kept conf idential to the extent provided by law. Audiotapes wi ll be coded during the study a nd may be heard by the primary investigator (Joyce Tardaguila-H arth), and members of the primary investigators doctoral committee (Dr. Vivian Correa, Dr. Hazel Jone s, Dr. Holly Lane, and Dr. Candace Harper). Voluntary Participation: You and your childs participation are completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating.

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138 Right to withdraw from the study : You and your child have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Contact Persons : Joyce Tardaguila-Harth, Doctoral Stud ent, Department of Special Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050, 392-0701. Vivian I. Correa, Ph.D., Department of Sp ecial Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050 Contact regarding your rights as a research participant: UFIRB office, Box 112250 University of Fl orida, Gainesville, Fl. 32611-2250; 392-0433 Agreement: I have read the above procedures. I give my cons ent to participate in the study. I have received a copy of this description. ______________________ Parent Date _______________________ Witness Date

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139 University of Florida Department of Sp ecial Education P.O. Box 117050/G-315 Normal Hall Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050 Formulario de Permiso Para Padres Nombre de la Investigacin : Evaluando los Efectos de la Le ctura Interactiva en el Lenguaje Oral de Nios Migrantes con Riesgo de Desarrollar Problemas de Lectura Propsito de la Investigacin : El propsito de esta investigacin es determinar si la intervencin de lectura interactiva, implemen tada por los padres, promover el desarrollo del primer idioma de nios en edad pre-escolar con problemas de lenguaje. Tiempo Requerido : Dos a cuatro horas de entrenamiento y observaciones de 15 minutos por lo menos cuatro veces por semana por un ao Riesgos y Beneficios : Esta investigacin no presenta ri esgo alguno. Los beneficios pueden incluir (1) aprender a utilizar una tcnica de lectura que puede ayudar a su nio(a) a mejorar sus destrezas orales y a fomentar destrezas que le ayudaran a aprender a leer y (2) recibir libros de cuentos para su nio (a). Participacin del Padre : Usted participar en dos sesiones de adiestramiento que durarn entre una y dos horas (con una hora extra cuando sea necesario). Una vez que el adriestramiento termine se le pedir a usted que utilize la tcnica aprendida cua ndo le lea libros de cuento a su nio (a). Se le pedir que le lea a su nio (a) por lo menos cuat ro veces a la semana por 10 o 15 minutos. La investigadora o su asistente observar y grabar (audio) las se siones de lectura. La investigacin podra dur ar hasta tres meses Participacin del Nio (a): Las destrezas orales del nio se rn evaluadas antes de que la investigacin comience. La i nvestigadora tomar una muestr a de lenguaje y utilizar el Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), el Peabody Pi cture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) y su version en Espaol conocida como el Test de Vocabular io en Imagenes Peabody (TVIP). El PLS-4, PPVT-III, y el TVIP son utilizados para ev aluar las destrezas de lenguaje receptivas y expresivas. Una vez que usted co mience a utilizar las tcnicas de lectura interactiva con su nio (a), yo observar para determinar si la produccin de lenguaje oral de su nio (a) aumenta. La investigadora utilizar una audiograbadora pa ra grabar las sesione s de lectura. Compensacin : Usted recibir un certific ado de regalo de $50 dlares una vez que la investigacin termine Confidencialidad Los resultados de la investigacin seran compartidos con miembros del recinto de educacin. Para propositos de confidenci alidad, su nombre e identidad seran obviados mientras sea posible antes los ojos de la ley. La s cintas de audio seran codificadas durante el estudio y seran evaluadas por la investigadora principal (Joyce Tardaguila-Harth), y miembros

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140 del comite doctoral de la investig adora principal (La Dra. Vivian Co rrea, la Dra. Hazel Jones, la Dra. Holly Lane, y la Dra. Candace Harper). Las cintas de grabacin sern destruidas una vez la investig acin termine. Participacin Voluntaria : Su participacin y la particip acin de su nio (a) en esta investigacin es completamente voluntaria. Ni uste d ni su hijo (a) sern penalizados si deciden no participar. Derecho a retirarse de la Investigacin: Usted y su nio(a) tienen el derecho de abandonar o darse de baja de la investigac in en cualquier momento sin repe rcusin o consecuencia alguna. Personas a contactar : Joyce Tardguila-Harth, Doctoral Student, Department of Special Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman Ha ll, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050, 392-0701. Vivian I. Correa, Ph.D., Department of Sp ecial Education, P.O. Box 117050, G-315 Norman Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7050. Contacto con relacin a sus derechos como participante de esta investigacin : UFIRB office, Box 112250 University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. 32611-2250; 392-0433 Acuerdo: He ledo y entiendo los procedimientos incluido s en este formulario. Doy mi consentimiento de participacin. He recibido una copia de este formulario ____________________________ Padre o Madre Fecha: ____________________________ Testigo Fecha:

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141 APPENDIX B PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE A Spanish version of this survey will be utili zed during the initial contact with the parents to determine whether they are able to read at the second gr ade level and to gather other information about home-language use, exposure to English, and home literacy practices. 1. Do you speak Spanish or English in your home? 2. Does your child speak to you in English or Spanish? Can you give me example 3. How long have you lived in the United States? 4. How old was your child when he was first exposed to English? 5. How many years did you go to school? 6. Do you have any kind of reading materials at home (newspaper, magazines, books, etc)? 7. Do you read during your spare time? Can you give me examples 8. Do you read to your child? Can you give me an example

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142 Formulario de Preguntas para los Padres 1. Qu idioma habla usted en cas a, Ingles o Espaol? Si utiliza los dos idiomas, en que idioma prefiere hablarle a su hijo(a)? 2. Cuando su hijo(a) habla con usted, le hace en Ingles o en Espaol? Espaol Me puede dar un ejemplo? 3. Cuanto tiempo ha vivido en los Estados Unidos? 4. Cuantos aos tena su hijo(a) cuando comenzo a aprender Ingles (o cuando escucho el Ingles por primera vez)? 5. Obtuvo usted su diploma de escuela superi or (bachillerato)? Si no, cal fue el grado mas alto que termin en la escuela? 6. Le gusta leer en su tiempo libre? Lee usted frecuentemente? Me puede dar un ejemplo? 7. Tiene sted libros, revist as, y peridicos en casa? 8. Le lee usted a su hijo(a)? Me puede dar un ejemplo?

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143 APPENDIX C FLYER FOR THE STUDY Aprendiendo a Traves de los Libros de Cuento! Quiero invitarlo a participar en una investigacin sobre como los padres de familia pueden ayudar a sus hijos a desa rrollar el lenguaje que necesitan (en Espaol) para aprender a leer. Si esta interesado puede comunicarse con Joyce Tard guila al (352) 392-07 01 ext. 301 al (352) 384-9929.

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144 APPENDIX D RESEARCHERS TRAINING GUIDE Session 1 1. The investigator will thank the pa rents for participating in the study 2. The investigator will review the informa tion regarding the importance of first language development (information that had been previously shared with the parents during the first home visit, Appendix D). 3. The investigator will offer a brief overview of the benefits of sh ared book reading and will discuss why parents should introduce the dialogi c reading method and discuss its benefits (. 4. The parents will watch a video demonstration of dialogic reading (Lectura Interactiva by Dr. Susan H. Landry from the Center for Improv ing the Readiness of Children for Learning and Education, CIRCLE). A. The video will be watched in parts. After watching the introduction and the segment that discusses the PEER sequence, the video will be stopped. At this point, the investigator will review the meaning of every letter in the acronym PEER and answer any questions. B. The investigator will proceed to read a story to the parents in order to model the PEER sequence. An example of every step will be provided. Afterwards, the parents will read a story to the investigator utilizing the peer sequence. The investigator will once again review the PEER sequence. C. After engaging in a dialogic reading role-play with the investigator, parents will proceed to watch the different vignettes shown in th e video demonstrating the implementation of the PEER sequence. After watching the vignettes, the investigator will answer any ques tions about the PEER sequence. The first day of parent training will conclude at this point. Session 2 1. At the beginning of the second day of training, the investigator will answ er any questions that the parents might have about dialog ic reading and the PEER sequence. 2. After all questions have been answered, the pa rents will proceed to watch the video of the dialogic reading demonstration (Lectura In teractiva by Dr. Susan H. Landry from the Center for Improving the Readiness of Child ren for Learning and Education, CIRCLE). A. In order to review the information discu ssed during the previous session parents will watch the segments of the video that in troduce dialogic readi ng, the PEER sequence again.

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145 B. Parents will continue watching the final segmen t of the video, whic h discusses the types of questions they can utilize duri ng dialogic reading sessions (FRASE). C. After watching the segment that discusse s the acronym FRASE, the video will be stopped. At this point, the investigator will review the meaning of every letter in the acronym FRASE and answer any questions. D. The investigator will then proceed to read a story to the parents utilizing the PEER sequence and demonstrating the different type s of questions (FRASE) they can ask their children during the reading sessions. An exam ple of every type of question will be provided. Afterwards, the parents will read a story to the investigator utilizing the PEER sequence and asking at least one question from each kind. E. The investigator will read another story to the parents utilizing the PEER sequence and asking them for different examples of the types of questions (FRASE) they could ask their children. F. The parents will then proceed to watch th e different vignettes shown in the video demonstrating the implementation of th e five different t ypes of questions. G. After watching the vignettes, the investigator will answer any ques tions about the FRASE acronym and the five different types of ques tions parents can ask their children when conducting a dialogic reading session. 3 The investigator will then conduct a comp rehension check utilizing the evaluation included in Appendix H. A. When a parent is not able to meet the 88% criterion (8/9), the researcher will review the steps of the intervention with the parent and the parent wi ll engage in another practice session with the researcher. 4. At the end of the training session, parents w ill receive a parent manual they can use to review ( Appendix E).

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146 APPENDIX E PARENT HANDBOOK ON DIALOGIC READING La Lectura Interactiva Gua para los Padres Parent Handbook on Dialogic Reading Familia: Hernandez

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147 Gua para los Padres Queridos padres, Gracias por participar en esta investigacin sobre la lecture inte ractiva. Los expertos en el campo de la lectura recomiendan a los padres que le lean a sus hijos con frecuencia y que lo hagan de una manera que fomente el desarrollo del lenguaje. Cuando us ted le lee libros de cuentos a sus hijos de una manera interactiva .l os esta ayudando a adqui rir las destrezas y el vocabulario que necesitan para c onvertirse en lectores exitosos Este manual le ayudar a repasar los pasos que debe seguir para leerle a sus hijos de una mane ra interactiva. Recuerde que usted es el maestro mas impor tante que su nio(a) puede tener y va a desempear un papel muy importante en su educacin. Instrucciones 1. Leale a su hijo(a) por los menos cuatro (4) veces a la semana. 2. La lectura interactiva utiliza una secuen cia que es representada por las siglas PEER Ademas, puede utilizar cinco ti pos diferentes de preguntas o comentarios. La palabra FRASE le ayudar a recordar las preguntas o co mentarios que puede utilizar cuando le lea un cuento a su nio (a). Coloque los letrer os con las siglas y la informacin sobre los comentarios donde los pueda ver con facilidad mientras le lee a su hijo(a). A continuacin describiremos la secuencia PEER a. P regunte y espere-Mientras le lee un cuento a su hijo(a) preguntele sobre lo que esta leyendo y dele tiempo al nio para que piense y conteste (Hay cinco tipos de preguntas que usted le puede hacer a su nio. En la prxima seccin hablaremos sobre esto). Es muy importante que uste d le de al nio la oportunidad de hablar mientras comparte los libros de cuentos con el o ella. b. E vale la respuesta del nio. Cuando el nio conteste la pregunta correctamente, anmelo. Por ejemplo, le podra decir M uy bien o Buen trab ajo. Si el nio contesta de una manera incorrecta, di rijalo hacia la re spuesta correcta sin regaarlo o hacerlo sentir mal. Muestr ele la pgina donde aparece la contestacin correcta. Por ejemplo si es tan leyendo el libro Donde est mi Perrito? y su hijo le dice que el perrito estaba en la calle (incorrecto), podra decirle lo siguiente: T crees que estaba en la calle? Vamos a ver. !Mira aqu est! Qu lugar es ese? Recuerde que es muy importante que el nio sienta comodo y que sienta que puede cometer er rores y nadie lo va a regaar.

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148 c. E xpanda la respuesta del nio. Cuando el nio conteste la pregunta de una manera correcta, repita usted la respuest a y aada mas informacin. Por ejemplo: Padre: Me puedes decir que est pasando en esta pgina? Nio: El nio busca al perro en el coche Padre: Si! Muy bien! El nio busca a su perrito en el coche rojo d. R epita la respuesta y anime al nio a que repita la repuesta. Por ejemplo, continuando con el ejemplo de arriba: Padre: Puedes decir coche rojo? Nio: Coche rojo Padre: Que bien! S! El nio buscaba al perro en el coche rojo 3. Cuando usted le lee un cuento a su hijo de una manera interactiva hay cinco tipos de preguntas o comentarios que usted puede usar para animarlo(a) a que participe de una manera activa. La palabra FRASE le ayudar a recordar estas preguntas y comentarios. En sta seccin hablaremos sobre este tema y ofreceremos ejemplos. a. F inalizar-Haga comentarios o preguntas que requieren que el nio complete la oracin. Por ejemplo: El nio buscaba a su____________ La familia encontr al perro en la_________ El ttu lo del cuento es ______. Donde est mi _________? b. R ecordar-Utilze preguntas que requieren que el nio recuerde detalles del cuento y repita detalles: Qu le pas al pe rrito? Quin lo encontr primero? Donde encontraron al perro? c. A brir el dilogoAbra el dilogo con su nio (a) hacienda comentarios o preguntas que requieren que el nio habl e sobre el cuento usando sus proprias palabras. Por ejemplo: Ahora te toca a t decirme lo que pasa en esta pgina Qu pas en esta pgina? Qu va a pasar ahora? d. S eleccionar-Seleccione un di bujo en el cuento y haga preguntas que comienzan con Qu?, Donde?, Cuando? y Por qu?. Estas preguntas son similares a los anteriores pero requieren que el nio se concentre en los dibujos del cuento. Por ejemplo: Qu est haci enda el nio en sta lamina? Mira! Donde se esconde el perro en esta lamina? e. E xperiencias-Haga comentarios o preguntas que requieren que el nio relacione detalles del cuento con aspectos de su vida diaria. Por ejemplo: Al igual que la familia del cuento, nosotros hemos tenido mascotas. Qu clase de mascotas hemos tenido? Recuerdas cuando tuvi mos un perro igual al del cuento? Se nos perdi alguna vez? Qu pas entonces?

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149 Mas Instrucciones 1. Deje que su hijo(a) escoja el libro que quier e leer con usted. Escojer el libro que le interesa motivar al (a la) nio( a) a participar en la sesin. 2. Si el nio no quiere pa rticipar, no lo obligue. 3. De la misma manera, si el nio quiere terminar la lectura del cuento antes de tiempo (en menos de diez minutos) trate de relacionar el tema del libro con algo que este pasando en la vida de su hijo(a) (como en los comentarios de la E en FRASE ). Relacionar detalles de la historia a algn evento en la vida del (de la) nio(a) usualmente mantiene al nio interesado en la historia. 4. Recuerde que lo mas importante es diver tirse y compartir un buen momento con su nio(a) mientras los prep ara para aprender a leer. 5. Cuando le lea un libro por prim era vez a su nio(a) sigua las siguientes intrucciones. a. Lea el ttulo del libro en la cubierta y apuntando cada pala bra con el dedo segn va leyendo. b. Pdale al nio que repita el ttulo mientras usted seala cada palabra. c. Apunte al dibujo en la cubi erta del libro y preguntele al nio sobre el dibujo. d. Comience a leer la historia y apunte con su dedo las palabras segn las va leyendo. e. Pdale al nio que le indique cuando es cuche palabras que riman (que terminan con los mismos sonidos) en la historia Proveale ejemplos cuando los vea. f. Cuando termine de leer la historia, hagale al nio preguntas que requieran que el recuerde y repita detalles de la historia (vea el letrero). Por ejemplo: Qu dibujaba el nio del cuento? Qu in vi a las vacas volar primero? g. Espere hasta que el nio le de una contestacin. h. Lea el libro mas de una vez.

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150 APPENDIX F PEER HANDOUT Dialogic Reading-PEER (Whitehurst et al., 1994) There are four steps to rememb er when reading to your child Prompt and wait Evaluate-provide feedback to the child Expand the childs answer Repeat the expanded answer and encourage the child to repeat

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151 Lectura InteractivaPEER (Landry, 2002; Whitehurst et al., 1994) P regunte y espere Ejemplos Qu es esto? Esto es un_________. E valeEjemplos Bien hecho Si, es una casa Es una casa Esa no es una casa E xpandaEjemplos Es una casa roja Es un gato grande R epitaEjemplos Si, es una casa roja Puedes decir casa roja?

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152 APPENDIX G CROWD/FRASE HANDOUT CROWD Parent Handout (Whitehurst et al., 1994) There are five kinds of prompts or que stions you can use when reading a book to your child. C ompletion prompts which require the child to complete the sentence or question. Example: The boy in the st ory was looking for his_________ R ecall prompts that require the child to r ecall and retell what happened in the story he/she has just heard. Example: Do you remember what the dog was doing when the boy found him? O pen-ended prompts which require the child to talk about the story using his/her own words. Example: Now its your turn to tell what happens in this page W h prompts such as what, when where, when and why. This prompts are similar to the previous ones (Open-ended) but require the child to concentrate on the pictures in the book. Example: Whats the name of this? D istancing prompts that require the child to relate events in the story to real life experiences. Example: Do you remember when we lo st our dog? What did we do to find him?

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153 Lectura Interactiva-FRASE (Landry, 2002) F inalizar-Ejemplos Aqui esta la _________ La oruga comio__________ R ecordar detalles de l cuento-Ejemplos Cuentame lo que le pas a la oruga A brir el dilogo-Ejemplos Dime lo que esta pas ando en esta pgina S eleccione un dibujo y pregunte-Ejemplos Quien es esta? Donde est la oruga? E xperiencias-Relacione al go del cuento con la vi da del nio-Ejemplos Recuerdas cuando a ti te dola el estomago como a la oruga?

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154 APPENDIX H BOOKS Books read by Dyad 1 dur ing the Investigation Session Number Book Title Baseline 1 Hermana, Hermana; En las Montanas 2 La Oruga muy Hambrienta 3 Hermana, Hermana 4 Hermana, Hermana; La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 5 A Sembrar Sopa deVerduras 6 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta, A Sembrar Sopa de Verdura Intervention 7 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta, Oso Pola r, Oso Polar que Ruido es Ese? 8 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 9 En las Montaas 10 La Noche, 11 En el Lavado de Autos 12 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa Maintenance 13 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa 14 La Pinata Vacia 15 Tortillas de Barro 16 Siete Galletas, Tortillas de Barro

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155 Books read by Dyad 2 dur ing the Investigation Session Number Book Title Baseline 1 Hermana, Hermana, En las Montaas 2 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 3 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 4 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 5 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras 6 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 7 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras, En el Lavado de Autos, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 8 Oso Polar, Oso Polar, Que Ruido es Ese?, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 9 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 10 En la Estacion de Bomberos c on Papa, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta Intervention 11 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 12 La Piata Vacia 13 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa, Sam El Silencioso 14 En el Lavado de Autos, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 15 En La Estacion de Bomberos con Papa Maintenance 16 La Caperucita Roja (Tal Co mo se la Contaron a Jorge) 17 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 18 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta, A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras

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156 Books read by Dyad 3 dur ing the Investigation Session Number Book Title Baseline 1 En Las Montaas 2 En Las Montaas 3 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras 4 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 5 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta, A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras 6 Oso Polar, Oso Polar Que Ruido es Ese? Intervention 7 En El Lavado de Autos 8 En El Lavado de Autos 9 Buenas Noches Luna 10 Sam El Silencioso 11 En la Estacion de Bomberos con Papa 12 Sam El Silencioso 13 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta Maintenance 14 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras 15 En el Lavado de Autos 16 En El Lavado de Autos 17 La Oruga Muy Hambrienta

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157 Books read by Dyad 4 dur ing the Investigation Session Number Book Title Baseline 1 En Las Montaas, Hermana, Hermana 2 Hermana, Hermana, En Las Montaas 3 Hermana, Hermana, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 4 A Sembrar Sopa de Verduras, La Oruga Muy Hambrienta 5 En el Lavado de Autos, La Noche 6 En el Lavado de Autos, La Noche 7 En el Lavado de Autos, Hermana, Hermana 8 Sam el Silencioso 9 Sam el Silencioso, En la Es tacion de Bomberos con Papa Intervention 10 Siete Galletas 11 Tortillas de Barro 12 Sam el Silencioso, Hermana, Hermana 13 En las Montaas, Siete Galletas 14 Siete Galletas, Tortillas de Barro Maintenance 15 Los Trucos de Twister 16 Los Trucos de Twister, Siete Galletas 17 Siete Galletas 18 Los Trucos de Twister, Tortillas de Barro *Dyad 4 commenced the baseline phase of the investigation after Dyad 3s third baseline session

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158 APPENDIX I GUIDELINES FOR MLU Guidelines for counting the wo rds uttered by the child du ring the reading sessions: Count only intelligible words. Do not count fillers such as ah aj or mm as words. Count only words that are related to the reading interaction. For example, if the child says I want to go now during the middle of the reading session do not add those words to the count. Count mispronounced words only if they are intelligible. For example, saying apa for pap. Do not count memorized dialogues and/or songs. The guidelines for calculating the mean length of utterance will be adapted from Linares (1983) rules for calculating the mean length of utterance in morphemes for Spanish: 1. Transcribe the recording of the reading sessi on. Mark each utteran ce for later ease in separating them. a. Count the free morphemes that are included in the utterances whether they are inflected correctly or not. b. Count interrogative words as one morpheme. c. Consider the contractions del (de el) della (de ella) as having two roots and thus count as two morphemes. d. Do not count fillers like ah, eh, porque si, porque no, aj e. Count compound words, proper names and ritualized reduplications as single words (for example Juan Perez, cumpleaos (birthday), subibaja (sesaw) f. Do not count memorized dialogues, songs, or stereotypic responses. g. Determine how many bound morphemes (inflecti ons) appear in the utterance (see the rules below).

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159 h. Add the free morphemes and the bound mo rphemes in each of the utterances. i. Add the morphemes in all the utterances. j. Divide the total number of morphe mes by the number of utterances k. The quotient is the MLU value for the child. Rules for Counting Bound Morphemes 1. Nouns a. Gender: Count as one morpheme the generi c ending a (feminine) or o (masculine) only when the root can have different generic endings. For example, the noun gat-o (cat + masculine + singular) counts as tw o morphemes (one for the root gat and one for the masculine inflection o ); however, the noun luz (light + no gender+ singular) counts as one morpheme because it has no gender and thus nouns like luz-a do not appear in Spanish. b. Number: Count as one morpheme the plural ending s (for singular ending in vowel) or -es (for singular ending consona nt). Singular are not given points because the child is not adding morphemes to them. For example, the noun gat-a-s (cat + feminine + plural) counts as three morphemes (one for the root gat one for the feminine inflection a and one for the plural inflection s ); and the noun flor-es (flower + no gender + plural) counts as two morphemes (one for the root flor and one for the plural inflection es ). c. Diminutives: Count as one morpheme the diminutive endings itand citas in cas-it-a or pece-ci-to d. Augmentatives: Count as one morpheme the agumentative ending otas in cas-ot-a. 2. Adjectives a. Gender: Count as one morpheme the generic ending a (feminine) or o (masculine) only when the root can have different generic endings. For example, the adjectives baj-o (short + masculine + singular) counts as two morphemes (one for the root baj and one for the masculine inflection o ); however, the adjective grand-e (big + no gender + singular) counts as one morpheme because it has no gender, and thus adjectives like grand-a do not appear in Spanish. b. Number: Count as one mo rpheme the plural ending s or es Singulars do not count because the child is not adding morphemes to them. For example, the adjective alt-o-s

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160 (tall + masculine + plural) counts as three morphemes (one for the root alt one for the masculine inflection o and one for the plural inflection s ); The adjective gris-es (gray + no gender + plural) counts as tw o morphemes (one for the root gris and one for the plural inflection es ). c. Superlatives: Count as one morpheme th e superlative ending isimor imFor example, the adjective car-sim-o (very expensive + superlat ive + masculine + singular) counts as three morphemes (one for the root car one for the supe rlative inflection isim, and one for the masculine inflection o ); and the adjective pauper-im-o (very poor + superlative + masculine + si ngular) counts as three morphemes (one for the root pauperr one for the superlative inflection im, and one for the masculine inflection o ). d. Diminutives: Count as one morpheme the diminutive endings itand citas in chiquit-o or precio-cit-o e. Augmentatives: Count as one morpheme the augmentative ending otas in grand-ot-a. 3. Adverbs Count as one morpheme the adverbial ending mente For example, the adverb fcilmente (easi-ly) counts as two mo rphemes (one for the root fcil and one for the adverbial inflection mente ). 4. Pronouns a. Gender: Count as one morpheme the generic ending a (feminine), -o (masculine), or o (neuter) only when the root can have diffe rent generic endings. For example, the pronoun m-a (mine + feminine possessed object + singular) counts as two morphemes (one for the root mi and one for the masculine inflection o ); however, the pronoun se (a form of the copula + no gender + no number) co unts as one morpheme (for the copula se ). b. Number: Count as one mo rpheme the plural ending s or es only when the root can have singular number. Singulars do not count because the child is not adding morphemes to them. For example, the pronoun nosotr-o-s (we + masculine + plural + no singular number) counts as two morphemes (one for the root nostr and one for the masculine inflection o ); and the pronoun usted-es (you + no gender + plural) counts as two morphemes (one for the root usted and one for the plural inflection es ). c. Prepositional case: Count as one morpheme the prepositional ending sigo -migo or tigo when added to the root con. For example, the pronoun con-tigo counts as two morphemes (one for the root con and one for the preopositional case inflection tigo ).

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161 5. Articles a. Gender: Count as one morpheme the generic ending a (feminin e (masculine), and o (neuter) only when the root can have different generic endings. Fo r example, the article l-a (the + feminine + singular) counts as two morphemes (one for the l and one for the feminine inflection a ); however, the article el (the + masculine + singular) counts as one morpheme (for the root el ) cannot be inflected to any other gender. b. Number: Count as one mo rpheme the plural ending s Singulars do not count because the child is not adding morphemes in them. For example, the article l-o-s (the + masculine + plural) counts as three morphemes (one for the root l, one for the masculine inflection o and one for the plural inflection s ). 6. Verbs Verbs in Spanish can take combined inflecti ons related to the mood, tense, number, and person. When scoring a Spanish verb, decide whet her or not it is conjuga ted in the particular utterance; then examine whether the verb is co rrectly conjugated in all inflectional aspects in the particular utterance. Determine if the verb is or is not an infi nitive (inflected with ar or er ), a participial (inflected with do ), or a gerund (inflected with ndo ). In addition, consider whether the verb (root) can take various different inflec tions (suffixes). Then apply the following scoring system: a. When the verb is used correctly in all inflecti onal aspects, is not an infinitive, participial, or gerund, and the root can take various infl ections, count it as having five morphemes (one for the root, one for the number inflect ion, one for the person inflection, one for the tense inflection, and one for the mood inflection). b. When the verb is not conjugated, count it as having one morpheme (for the root). c. If the root cannot take various inflections, count it as having one morpheme. d. When the verb is correctly used in only so me of the inflectional aspects, count it as having 2.5 morphemes (one for th e root and 1.5 for whatever other inflections might be correct). e. If the verb has an ending like ar, -er (infinitive), -do (participial), or ndo (gerund), count it as having two morphemes (one for the root and one for any of these inflections).

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162 APPENDIX J INTEGRITY CHECK D yad: Date: Session #: Parent uses the complete PEER sequence during 90% of the time (9 minutes in a 10 minute session; 13.5 minutes in a 15 minute session) YES NO Parent uses a variety of prompts (FRASE) YES NO Parents waits for a reasonab le amount of time after asking a question YES NO Parent redirects child (as discussed during training) when he/she provides an incorrect answer YES NO

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163 APPENDIX K SOCIAL VALIDITY Social Validity Checklist (English Version) Read each statement carefully. Five possibl e choices as to your level of agreement and disagreement have been placed after each stat ement. For each of the statements, please circle the phrase that best describes your f eelings about the statement. Circle only one phrase for each statement. Please be sure to answer every item. Dyad: Date: 1. The dialogic reading training was very helpful. Disagree Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 2. The training was too time consuming. Disagree Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 3. My childs Spanish oral la nguage skills have improved. Disagree Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 4. I will continue using dialogic reading techniques in the future. Disagree Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 5. Other Spanish-speaking parents might be inte rested in learning dial ogic reading techniques. Disagree Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5

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164 Formulario sobre la Utilidad de sta Investigacin Lea cada pregunta cuidadosamente Haga un crculo alrededor de la respuesta que mejor indique su opinin sobre cada una de los siguientes comentarios. Cada nmero indica can de acuerdo o can en desacu erdo esta sted con los comentarios (Por ejemplo: 1= No estoy de acuerdo; 5=Es toy totalmente de acuerdo). Marque una contestacin para cada pregunta. Dyad: Fecha: 1. El adiestramiento sobre la lectura interactiva fue muy til No estoy de acuerdo Estoy totalmente de acuerdo 1 2 3 4 5 2. El adiestramiento tom demasiado tiempo. No estoy de acuerdo Estoy totalmente de acuerdo 1 2 3 4 5 3. Las destrezas orales en Espa ol de mi nio(a) han mejorado No estoy de acuerdo Estoy totalmente de acuerdo 1 2 3 4 5 4. Continuar utilizando las tcnicas de lectura interactiva en el futuro. No estoy de acuerdo Estoy totalmente de acuerdo 1 2 3 4 5 5. A otros padres les interesara apre nder sobre la lectura interactiva. No estoy de acuerdo Estoy totalmente de acuerdo 1 2 3 4 5

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165 APPENDIX L PARENT EVALUATION Evaluation (English Version) Answer the following Questions The acronym P.E.E.R. reminds us the steps we must follow when we read a story to our children in a dialogical manner. Identify those steps. P E E R There are five kinds of prompts we can utilize wh en we read to our children, FRASE. Identify the prompts and give an example of each. 1. F Example: 2. R Example: 3. A Example:

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166 4. S Example: 5. E Example: Score /9

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167 Evaluacin (Spanish Version) Conteste las siguientes preguntas Las siglas P.E.E.R. nos recuerdan los pasos que debemos seguir cuando le leemos un cuento a nuestros hijos de una manera interac tiva. Identifique los pasos. P E E R La palabra FRASE nos ayuda a recorder las preguntas o comentarios que podemos utilizar cuando le leemos de una manera interactive a nuestros hijos. Identifique cules son y provea un ejemplo. 1. F Ejemplo: 2. R Ejemplo: 3. A Ejemplo:

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168 4. S Ejemplo: 5. E Ejemplo: Nota: /9

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169 LIST OF REFERENCES Anderson, D.R., & Pempek, T.A. (2005) Television and very young children. American Behavioral Scientist, 48 505-522. Anglum, B.S., Bell, M.L., & Roubinek, D.L. ( 1990). Prediction of elementary student reading achievement from sp ecific home variables. Reading Improvement, 27 173-184. Arnold, D.H., Lonigan, C.J., Whitehurst, G.J ., & Epstein, J.N. (1994). Accelerating language development through picture book read ing: Replication and extension of a videotape training format. Journal of Educational Psychology 86, 235-243. Askov, E. N. (2004). Workforce literacy and t echnology in family literacy programs. In B. Wasik (Ed), Handbook of family literacy (pp. 271-284). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Auerbach, E.R. (1989). Toward a social-contextual approach to family literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 59 165-181. August, D., & Hakuta, K. (Eds.). (1997). Improving schooling for language-minority children: A research agenda National Research Council and Institute of Medicicine: Washington, DC : National Academy Press. Baca, L., & Cervantes, H. (1998). The bilingual special education interface Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Baca, L., & Harris, K.C. (1988). Teaching migrant exceptional students. Teaching Exceptional Children, 20 (4), 32-35. Bradbury, H., & Plichon, C. (2001). The relative weakness of novelty in childrens choices. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 139 233-244. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human behavior Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Brickman, S.O. (2002). Effects of a joint book re ading strategy on Even Start. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman. Bryant, D. B., & Wasik, B. H. (2004). Home vi siting and family literacy programs. In B.H. Wasik (Ed.), Handbook of family literacy (pp. 329-348). Mahway, NJ: Erlbaum. Bus, A., van Ijzendoorn, M., & Pellegrini, A. (1995). Joint reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on interg enerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research, 65 1-21. Byrne, B., & Fielding-Barnsley, R.F. (1991). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 805-812.

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179 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Joyce Marie Tardguila-Harth grew up in Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico. She is the daughter of Julio and Sonia Tardguila and the oldest of four siblings. Joyce received a bachelors degree in ps ychology and masters degrees in special education and ESOL/bilingual education from the University of Florida. Joyce Marie began her doctoral program at the University of Florida as a full-time student in 2002. Her major areas of study included earl y childhood special education, bilingual special education, ESOL, and mild disabilities.