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Record for a UF thesis. Title & abstract won't display until thesis is accessible after 2008-02-29.

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021096/00001

Material Information

Title: Record for a UF thesis. Title & abstract won't display until thesis is accessible after 2008-02-29.
Physical Description: Book
Language: english
Creator: Chen, Tzu-Yin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Statement of Responsibility: by Tzu-Yin Chen.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Morton, Cynthia R.
Electronic Access: INACCESSIBLE UNTIL 2008-02-29

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021096:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021096/00001

Material Information

Title: Record for a UF thesis. Title & abstract won't display until thesis is accessible after 2008-02-29.
Physical Description: Book
Language: english
Creator: Chen, Tzu-Yin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Statement of Responsibility: by Tzu-Yin Chen.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Morton, Cynthia R.
Electronic Access: INACCESSIBLE UNTIL 2008-02-29

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021096:00001


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1 PORTRAYAL OF MATURE MARKET ADV ERTISING: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TAIWAN TIMES TELEVISION ADVERTISING AWARD WINNERS FROM 1999 TO 2004 By TZU-YIN CHEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Tzu-Yin Chen

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3 To my family, my love and all the people who helped me come this far

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My life is s a fantastic journey because I fo rtunately have some people who always stood by me. I could not have went this far and expe rienced this many without their great support and encouragement. First of all, I would like to show my greatest appreciation to my parents for their endless love and unconditional support; and to my sister, who take care of whole family and therefore I can accomplish my degree without worry; and to my aunt, who gave me many advices and timely encouragement. I would also like to thank my love, Tung-Yuan, who is always there for me to share my joy, comfort my sorrow, and give me strength to move on. My two lovely roommates, ShaoChun and Hsing-Jung, who make our daily life full of laughing and delights. My dear classmates, especially Jimi Park and Bimei Ni, who enrich my graduate student life. All of my dear friends, both in Taiwan and in the United States, who kindly accompany me, greatly support me, and make my life in the U.S. colorful and enjoyable. Moreover, I would thank my previous boss, Austin Chen, colleagues and an old friend since high school, Wei-Chen, who greatly encourag e my pursuit of degree. Their complete trust and support gave me the freedom to pursue my dream. Last but not least, I am so lucky to have three admirable professors as my chair and committee members. My chair, Dr. Cynthia Mo rton, is the cheerful lady with abundant energy who gave me countless valuable advices and always led me back on track when I was fallen far behind schedule. My committee members: Dr. Dr Jorge Villegas, the nice gentleman with humor, and Dr. Marilyn Roberts, the elegant lady with wisdom, who generously provided their valuable insights and helped me to improve my thesis.

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5 Again, I thank to all those people who help and support me from the bottom of my heart, although no sentence can express how much I appreciate them. If one day I have any achievement in my life, I would lik e to dedicate it to all of them.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .11 Purpose of the Study...............................................................................................................11 Background............................................................................................................................. 13 Taiwan at a Glance..........................................................................................................13 Aging in Taiwan..............................................................................................................13 Media in Taiwan..............................................................................................................15 Advertising in Taiwan.....................................................................................................16 2 LITERATURE REVIEW........................................................................................................ 18 Appearance of Older People in Media....................................................................................18 Portrayal of Older People in Advertising................................................................................19 How Mature Audiences Perceive Mature Models in Media...................................................22 Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture..........................................................................................24 Hypotheses..............................................................................................................................26 3 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................... 28 Content Analysis............................................................................................................... ......28 Unit of Analysis ............................................................................................................... .......28 Research Sample.....................................................................................................................28 Coding Categories and Variables............................................................................................30 Definition of Coding Categories.............................................................................................30 Year..................................................................................................................................30 Appearance of People......................................................................................................30 Language.........................................................................................................................30 Product Type................................................................................................................... .31 Format.............................................................................................................................. 32 Appearance of 50+ People...............................................................................................32 Setting........................................................................................................................ ......33 Ethnicity...................................................................................................................... ....34 Role..................................................................................................................................34 Activity ............................................................................................................................34 Competency..................................................................................................................... 34

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7 Product-Related Role.......................................................................................................35 Information Role.............................................................................................................35 Coder Training and Coding Procedure...................................................................................36 Inter-Coder Reliability........................................................................................................ ....36 Validity....................................................................................................................................37 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........38 4 FINDINGS.................................................................................................................... .......... 39 Description of the Sample...................................................................................................... 39 Language......................................................................................................................... 40 Product Types .................................................................................................................. 41 Format..............................................................................................................................43 Appearance of 50+ People...............................................................................................44 Setting........................................................................................................................ ......44 Character Types...............................................................................................................4 5 Ethnicity...................................................................................................................... ....46 Role.................................................................................................................................. 46 Competency..................................................................................................................... 47 Product-Related Role....................................................................................................... 47 Information Role.............................................................................................................48 Activity ............................................................................................................................49 Others: Ads with 50+ by Award Years.............................................................................49 Test of Hypotheses..................................................................................................................50 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION.....................................................................................54 Implications for Adve rtising Practitioners..............................................................................57 Limitations of the Study and Sugge stions for Future Research..............................................58 APPENDIX CODE BOOK FOR THE PORTRA YAL OF OLDER PEOPLE IN TAIWANS AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS 1999-2004.........................................60 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..69 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................73

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1 Percent of resident arrangement of older people age over 65 in 2002...............................15 4-1 Frequency and percent of Taiwan awar d-winning TV commercial by award year...........39 4-2 Frequency and percent of Taiwan aw ard-winning TV commercial by number of people seen in the ads........................................................................................................3 9 4-3 Frequency and percent of Taiwan awar d-winning TV commercial by number of 50+ people seen in the ads and gender......................................................................................40 4-4 Cross-tab of language used in the ads with and without 50+ people.................................41 4-5 Cross-tab of product categories promoted in the ads with and without 50+ people..........42 4-6 Cross-tab of format used in the ads with and without 50+ people.....................................43 4-7 Percent of the positioning of 50+ pe ople with others in ads with 50+ people...................44 4-8 Percent of setting present in ads with 50+ people..............................................................44 4-9 Percent of private setting present in ads with 50+ people ................................................45 4-10 Percent of public setting present in ads with 50+ people...................................................45 4-11 Frequency and percent of character types portrayed by 50+ people.................................45 4-12 Frequency and percent of et hnicity portrayed by 50+ people............................................46 4-13 Frequency and percent of role portrayed by 50+ people...................................................47 4-14 Cross-tab of competency by character types.....................................................................47 4-15 Cross-tab of product-relate d role by character types.........................................................48 4-16 Cross-tab of information role by character types...............................................................48 4-17 Percent of activities 50+ characters involved with............................................................49 4-18 Frequency and percent of commer cial with 50+ people by award year............................49 4-19 Numbers and percent of 50+ people in ad s with people and in Taiwans population.......51 4-20 Numbers and percent of ads with 50+ people....................................................................52

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Taiwans Hofstedes cu ltural dimensions scores...............................................................27

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising PORTRAYAL OF MATURE MARKET ADVER TISINGL: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TAIWAN TIMES TELEVISION ADVERTISING AWARD WINNERS FROM 1999 TO 2004 By Tzu-Yin Chen August 2007 Chair: Cynthia R. Morton Major: Advertising This study was designed to obtain a bette r understanding of how older people were portrayed in Taiwan’s award-winning televisi on commercials. A quantitative content analysis based on 607 Taiwan Times Advertising Awa rd winners from 1999 to 2004 was conducted. Variables used included award year, appear ance of people, language, product type, setting, appearance of 50+ people, ethn icity, role, activity, competen cy, product-related role, and information role. Findings showed that older pe ople, especially women, were underrepresented in Taiwan’s award-winning television commercials, which is cons istent with similar studies conducted in U.S. and U.K. The findings also sugge st that older people were gene rally portrayed in the positive way. This study also provided an overall imag e of older people in these award-winning television commercials. In addition, since rarely studies related to this topic could be found in Taiwan’s advertising literature, this study can serve as cornerstone to spur future studies of older people’ s portrayals in Taiwan’s advertising.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study As an old Chinese proverb says, “When you are reaching fifty, you will realize the mission which God has assigned you and understand the rule of universe. ” Fifty years old is an age marker for people to realize their own destiny. In other words, when people are 50, they are mentally and physically capable of achieving thei r career and family objectives. However, when their children have grown up and left the family for career purposes, 50-year old people start to think about retirement. It is generally considered the first time they truly face reaching the elder stage in their life. Therefore, in this study “older” people are c onsidered as people who age over 50. For the purpose of this exploration, this gene ration of people will be referred to as the “mature market”. Today, the world population, especially in devel oped countries, is aging faster than ever. The declining childbirth and increased longevity means consumers are getting older than ever. In 2006, the life expectancy of world population wa s 67 years old and the percentage of people aged 65 or older in the world was 7% (PRB, 2006). The speed of global population aging is fast. In 2004, the global population aged over 65 was es timated at 461 million in 2004, an increase of 10.3 million just since 2003. The global population ove r the age of 65 is projected to increase 24% between 2000 and 2010 and to reach 15 b illion by 2050 (Kinsella & Phillips, 2005). According to the United Nations, in 1985, people over age 60 accounted for about 9% of the world’s population. By the year 2020, the elderl y population will account for 13% of the world’s total population. In addition, the mature people have a great purchasing power, compared to other age groups (Melillo, 2002). For example, in the U.S. the median net worth of households headed by

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12 adults ages 65 and older incr eased 69 % from 1984 to 1999. The mature market controls $7 trillion, more than 70 % of all U.S. wealth (H ealth Association of th e United States, 2001). People ages 45 and over in the UK hold nearly 80 % of all financial wealth, and are accountable about 30% of consumer spending (Long, 1998; Kavanagh, 1995). Given the current and potential importance of mature markets, one would expect that many advertisers would make substantia l use of this age segment as models in advertising. However, the marketing and advertising industries have been criticized for ignoring mature consumers, not only in the markets that they targ et, but also the characters they depict in advertising. Most of current advertising or media strategies are more focused on young people (Peterson, 1992; Long, 1998; Benady, 2004). It is wise fo r marketers to follow where the money goes. In consideration of the size of mature market, a lienating, neglecting or offending mature consumers can be very costly. Taiwan is becoming a graying society as well, and there is evidence that Taiwanese elderly have a great buying power. Despite this importance, the mature market consumer is the least researched and understood market segment in Taiwan. Very ra re research related to the Taiwanese mature market advertising has been done. With Taiwan’s mature market’s high potential, marketers wanting to compete in this market must have a keen understanding of how older people are portrayed in Taiwanese advertising. According to the definition from United Natio ns, a country will be marked as an aging country when the population over age 65 accounts fo r more than 7% to 10% of total population or the population. Under this definition, most of developed countries are aging countries, including Taiwan. The main purpos e of this study is to increa se understanding of how mature people are portrayed in Taiwan’s advertising.

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13 Background Taiwan at a Glance Located in Eastern Asia off the southeastern co ast of China, Taiwan is a small and densely populated island country, a population of 23 million lived in geographical area of 35,980 square kilometers (about the size of West Virginia). Despite its geographical limit and diplomatic isolation from China, Taiwan has successfu lly transformed itself from an undeveloped, agricultural society to on e of Asia's big traders, and one of the world's leading producers of computer technology, known as an ec onomic miracle (CIA, 2007; BBC, 2007). Currently, Taiwan has a highly developed economy. In 2005, Taiwan has a remarkable gross domestic product (GDP) of $630 billion (ranked 19th in the world), GDP per capita of $27,500 (ranked 34th in the world) (CIA, 2007; EIU, 2006). In 2004, national income per capita was $12,851 and private consumption per capita was $8,772 (Taiwan Executive Department, 2006). Aging in Taiwan The slowing growth rate, together with longe r life expectancies, has started to change Taiwan to a graying society. The annual rate of population growth has slowed steadily over the past few decades, dropping from 3.5% in 1960 to 2.4% in 1970 and 1.9% in 1980. Since 1991, the annual rate of population growth has been under 1% (EIU, 2006). The 2006 estimated annual rate of population growth is only 0.61% (CIA, 2007). In September 2006, the average age of tota l population was 36.11 years and there were 2.26 million people age over 65 in Taiwan, curr ently represent 9.91% of population (Taiwan National Statistics, 2006), with compared with only 6.2% in 1990 and 2.5% in 1960 (EIU, 2006). In addition, the estimated lif e expectancy of total population was 77.43 years (ranked 54th in the world), with males expected to live 74.67 years on average and females to live 80.47 years (CIA,

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14 2007). There are 5.86 million people age over 50 in Taiwan who currently represent 25.64% of population (Taiwan National Statistics, 2006). The Council for Economic Planning and Develo pment of Taiwan Executive Department estimates that the proportion of the population over age 65 wi ll rise to 13% by 2016, over 20 % by 2026, and reach 37 % by 2051 (Council for Economic Planning and Development, 2006; EIU, 2006). It will take estimated 20 ye ars for the percentage of Taiwan’s population aged over 65 to rise from 10% to 20%. Compared to Sweden’s 85 years, Germany’s 56 years, and Japan’s 24 years, the rate of aging in Taiw an is extremely rapid (EIU, 2006). Considering the proportions between genders, th e ratio of male and female in Taiwan population will be 50.70 to 49.30 by Sep, 2006. If one only looks at the number of people ages 65 and over, there are 1,121,013 males and 1,142,409 females (the ratio is 49.53:50.47), meaning that females outnumber males as they get older (Taiwan National Statisti cs, 2006). According to data from Directorate General of Budget, Account ing, and Statistics (2006), 56% of females over 60 and 79% of males over 60 have a spouse. In ot her words, females are the predominate gender in Taiwanese mature market. The Council for Economic Planning and De velopment (2006) of Taiwan Executive Department also estimates that the mature ma rket is increasing to worth estimated NTD 3,5937 billion (about US$1,089 billion) by 2025 comp ared to NTD 8,118 billion (about US$ 246 billion) in 2001. According to recent news from Chinatimes an estimated 5.3 % average growth rate of Taiwanese mature spending will catch marketers’ eyes. People in Taiwan are generally retired between 60 and 65 year s of age. According to the data from Taiwan National Statistics (2006), olde r people over 65 usually live with their family

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15 (83.8%), including their spouse ( 19.5%), their children (61.7%), and other family members (2.6%). There were 8.5% of people over 65 who live alone, as shown in Table 1-1. Table 1-1 Percent of resi dent arrangement of olde r people age over 65 in 2002 Resident Arrangement % Live alone 8.5 Live with spouse 19.5 Live with children 61.7 Live with other family members 2.6 Live in nursing home 7.5 Others 0.2 Media in Taiwan The media environment in Taiwan is extremely competitive and is known as one of the freest in East Asia (Freedom House, 2006; BBC, 2007). In 2004, Taiwan had about 1,200 registered news agencies, more than 3,000 regist ered newspapers, 160 radio stations, and five terrestrial television stations. Furthermore, 60 domestic and 19 foreign companies offered 93 and 42 satellite channels, respectively, providing a wi de range of views (Government Information Office, 2006). The Taiwanese media industry grew by 5.8 % in 2005 to have a value of $7.2 billion and it was forecasted to increase at a stable rate to re ach a value of $9.5 billion by the end of 2010. The publishing sector, accounting for 45.5% of the overall value, is the largest in the Taiwanese media industry, and followed by the broadcast a nd cable TV sector, movies and entertainment sector, and advertising sector, accoun ting for 36.50%, 12.80% and 5.20%, respectively (Datamonitor, 2005). The rate of newspaper reading in Taiwan is declining (Datamonitor, 2005) mainly due to a high cable TV penetration and th e rapid proliferation of the In ternet over the past decade (Government Information Office, 2006). Taiwan’s cable and satellite TV penetration rate is

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16 about 85%, the highest in any Asian country (TAIWAN, 2005; BBC, 2007) and the Taiwan’s Internet penetration rate is 60.3% which rank 28th in the worl d in 2005 (Internet World Stats, 2006). Since 1990, the movie market in Taiwan has been greatly dominated by foreign movies due to lack of investment on domestic film i ndustry, aggressive marketing by distributors of international films and changing tastes among audiences (Government Information Office, 2006). Taiwanese government has taken actions to e nd any political ownership of the broadcast media (TAIWAN, 2005; BBC, 2007). The transition fr om an analogue to a digital platform with the free media environment and audience base in Taiwan make it attractive for transnational corporations to penetrat e and operate profitably. Advertising in Taiwan In 2005, Taiwan’s total advertising spendi ng was $2.12 billion, 7.10% increased compared that in 2004. The five-year growth rate of total advertising spe nding from 2000 to 2005 is 18.65%, and it is expected to reach a value of $2.22 billion in 2006. Ta iwan’s per capita expenditure of US$93.17 on advertising in 2005 wa s higher than both in Asia-Pacific overall (US$21.12) and in the world (US$62.90) (GMID, 2006). Since 1996, TV has replaced print to claim the most part of advertising spending. In 2005, TV claims 53.27% of advertising spendi ng, print 40.85%, radio 4.62% and online 1.26% respectively (GMID, 2006). In order to help the economy develop, Taiwan opened its market for foreign investment about 30 years ago. Foreign advertising agencies we re also permitted to enter Taiwan’s adverting industry, therefore intensifying the competition. Taiwan’s advertising industry has been dominated by foreign-capital agencies for severa l years. According to Brain Magazine’s (2006)

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17 report, J. Walter Thompson, Leo Burnett, and Ta iwan Dentsu were the top three advertising agencies in terms of income and billings in 2005. The best performance in 2005 was J. Walter Thompson, which had three successive years of good performance. Most of the top advertising agencies were owned totally or partially by fo reign companies. United Advertising was the only local agency out of the top ten a dvertising agencies in Taiwan. Taiwan’s advertising industry continues to develop, and adver tising research does as well. Some advertising research rela ted to ad appeals in Taiwanes e advertising could be found. For example, Shao, Raymond, and Tayl or (1999) discussed that advert ising appeals in Taiwan tend to be dominated more by westernized cultural values than by Chinese traditional values, based on interviews with managing directors of advertising agencies in Taiwan. Tse, Belk, and Zhou (1989) indicated that “advertising appeals in Taiwan showed substantial transition from utilitarian valu es to more hedonistic desires” (p. 470). Zandpour, Chang, and Catalano (1992) found that Taiwan advertisements were more subtle in approach and more likely to use sym bolism than the French or U.S. advertisements. Thus, the authors concluded th at Taiwanese TV commercials generally link the product to traditional Chinese value, such as respect for the elderly and an emphasis on family value. Wang, Jaw, Pinkleton, and Morton (1997) found th at Western appeals were used more than Eastern appeals in Taiwan ese advertisements and more Westernized than some other Eastern countries, such as Japan. However, very few of studies mention about the portrayals of older people in Taiwanese advertising and none directly focuses on this topic.

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18 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW There has been extensive academic interest in the older consumers in U.S. and U.K. since 1980s. These studies have covered a range of issues about the use of mature models over the age of 50 and the implication that th eir appearance in advertising ma y have. These findings can serve as a compass for understanding the use of matu re people in Taiwanese advertising better. First of all, there is no consistent defin ition of “older people” or “the elderly” among researches when reviewing the literature relate d to older mature models used in advertising (Neilsen & Curry, 1997) Some studies referred si mply to “older people” or “the elderly” and gave no chronological age, while others used 45+, 50+, 55+, 60+ and 65+ as their lowest age for older models. The most common lower-range used to define this age group in U.S. studies was 60+, while the age threshold dropped to 50+ in the U.K. Many research studies provide subjective criter ia to define an “elderly” portrayal in advertisements, including direct mention of ag e, extensive gray or white hair, extensive wrinkling of the skin around the face and/or ha nds, use of ambulatory ai ds (e.g. cane, crutches, wheelchairs, etc.), being retired or being a grandparent, or by por traying them as a parent of a son or daughter who was middle-aged or older (Gantz, Gartenberg, & Rainbow, 1980; Kvaniscka, Beymer, & Perloff, 1982; Greco, 1993; Robins on & Skill, 1995; Harwood & Roy,1999; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006). Appearance of Older People in Media Content analysis is the most common me thod used for reporting and understanding the portrayals of people in advertisi ng. The series of content analysis -based studies conducted since 1980s constantly indicate that th e portrayals of mature people, especially older females, were underrepresented relative to their actual proportions in the population across a variety of different

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19 media forms, such as prime-time television pr ograms (Lauzen & Dozier, 2005; Robinson & Skill, 1995), films (Markson, 2000), television commer cials (Greco, 1993; Peterson & Ross, 1997; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) and magazine advertisemen ts (Gantz et al., 1980; Kvaniscka, Beymer, & Perloff, 1982; Baker & Goggin, 1994; Harwood & Roy, 1999; Carrigan & Szmigin, 1999). In other words, the percentage of elderly in media does not reflect their numbe rs in the population. These studies also determined that the ster eotyping based on age and gender exists in media. For example, Peterson and Ross (1997) indi cated that older people were not utilized as frequently in TV commercials, even for brands which appear to be targeted to them. In primetime television programs, female characters in thei r 30s and male characters in their 30s and 40s were more likely to be used. Leadership and occupational power increased wi th age. However, middle-aged males were more likely to play leadership roles and wi eld occupational power th an females (Lauzen & Dozier, 2005). The results from Markson’s (2000) study on film also showed that men were more likely to be depicted as “vi gorous, employed, and adventurous”, while women were depicted as “rich dowagers, wives/mothers, or lonely spinsters” (p. 137). An interesting result of a cross-national study indicated that a lthough older women were under-represented in both countries, more older models appeared in Indian womens’ magazines than in U.S. womens’ magazines. This distinc tion could be explained by cultural differences, which seem to suggest that Indian society still pr escribes a more traditional role for women than the USA (Harwood & Roy, 1999). Portrayal of Older People in Advertising Some researchers mentioned that advertisi ng frequently depicted mature people as individuals with decreased se xual attractiveness and sexual intimacy (Baker & Goggin, 1994). Ads also emphasized the incapacity in old age (C arrigan & Szmigin, 1999). In contrast to the

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20 research findings showing that mature people ar e portrayed in a less desirable way compared to their younger counterparts in advertising, other re searchers have found that they are generally portrayed in the positive way in magazine adve rtisements (Harwood & Roy, 1999) or television commercials (Greco, 1993; Peterson & Ross, 1997; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) Kvaniscka, Beymer, and Perloff (1982) indicated that the magazines designed specifically for mature audiences contain a higher percentage of mature models in ad vertisements, and they are depicted in a more favorable way. Howeve r, Carrigan and Szmigin (1999) suggested that there might be a perceptive gap between what adve rtisers see as a positive portrayal and what the actual target audience perceives one to be. There is a distinction between advertisements with and without the elder representations in terms of the numerical composition of the group in ads. In magazine advertisements, Gantz, et al. (1980) found that ads with elderly models cont ained more people than ads without elderly models. However, Kvaniscka, et al, (1982) f ound just the opposite; ads with elderly models contained less people than ads without them. This is consistent with Greco’s (1993) finding that suggested more ads featuring a single older person were observed in the research of comparing the results of a 1985 study and a 1990 study in tele vision commercials. However, according to the data in Greco (1993) study, older people usually appeared with multiple age groups. Older people portrayed in U.S. magazine a dvertisements were often shown with their spouse, their coworkers, or in a situation where they were serving or be ing served, while older people in Indian magazine advertisements we re more often shown with unknown individuals (Harwood & Roy, 1999). The elderly in magazine a dvertising were often depicted as information advisor and often shown at home, busi ness situation and outdoor (Greco, 1993).

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21 With regard to role prominence, some rese archers found that mature people were mostly featured in minor or background roles in TV commercials (Greco, 1993; Roy & Harwood, 1997). Other researchers found that older people were mo stly depicted as major roles in magazine advertisements (Harwood & Roy, 1999). The author s inferred that the difference might be the case with portrayals of all age groups because minor or background roles may be rare in magazine advertisements. In Simcock and Sudbury (2006) study, older m odels are significantl y underrepresented in all role categories (major, minor and backgr ound) in UK television co mmercials, except the utilities and government advertising Gantz et al.’s (1980) study found that the elde rly most frequently appeared in ads for corporate image, liquor, and travel, Kvaniscka et al. (1982) noted the elde rly’s presence in ads for an easy chair lift product, food products, and beauty aids. Similarly, Baker and Goggin (1994) found this group present in ads for products designed to minimize the effects of aging, such as hair dyes, denture adhesives, bran cereal, laxa tives, and vitamins in study. On the other hand, Simcock and Sudbury (2006) found that older pe ople are significantly underrepresented in advertisements for products such as cosmetic s and other beauty aids, fashion and clothing, mobile telephones, charit ies and fast food (p. 100). Additionally, older models appeared more in commercials for health-related products (Greco, 1993). Zhang et al. (2006) also indicated the association of aging with ill-health in advertising, which implied the portrayals of older a dults were often presented for ill-health or for health-related products. Generally, older people appear in advertisements for a wi de variety of products and services such as retailing, liquor, food, holidays and leisure, travel, insuran ce, and other financial

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22 services and utilities (Gantz et al., 1980; Simcock & Sudbur y, 2006). Greco (1993) suggested that ads with elderly persons feat ured a slightly wider range of products and settings in 1990 than in 1985, perhaps in response to the call by academic ians for advertisers to include more elderly in ads. The incidence and portrayal of the elde rly in television commercials has apparently improved sine the late 1970. There are more elderly characters appearing in television advertising than ever. How Mature Audiences Perceive Mature Models in Media Older people think they are more likely to be portrayed in an unfavorable way than younger consumers. Therefore, they tend to have a strong negative reaction to their portrayals in advertising and are less likely to appear in ads (Festervand & Lumpkin, 1985). Furthermore, the elderly generally do have a more negative at titude toward advert isements than younger consumers and do not consider advertising to be a good source of purchase-related information (Hoyer & Maclnnis, 2001; Festervand & Lum pkin, 1985) due to lack of credibility and inaccurate portrayals of the elderly in a dvertisements (Festervand & Lumpkin, 1985). For example, a survey consists of 30,000 people aged 50 and older, 74 percent sa id they cannot relate to television advertising (Benady, 2005). Older consumers would like to see more matu re people featured in advertisements and they perceive those advertisements with posi tive older role models as more credible and believable than those with younger models (N elson & Smith, 1988; Hoyer & Maclnnis, 2001; Benady, 2005), especially ads for elderly-relate d products (Nelson & Smith, 1988) Furthermore, the natural depiction of older people in advert isements may be more desirable to the mature consumers (Nelson & Smith, 1988). However, many mature consumers view themselves as being 10 to 15 years younger than their actual ch ronological age and react more positively to ads whose models are somewhat younger than they are (Hoyer & Maclnnis, 2001; Benady, 2005).

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23 With regard to media use, visual media are preferable to radio as a tool of promoting products or providing informati on to the elderly (Festervand & Lumpkin, 1985). People age 65 and older are known as heavy viewers of tele vision. The heavy television viewers tend to perceive the aged in television commercials as “realistic” and “just like people I meet every day” (Schreiber & Boyd, 1980) and be more negative toward the portrayal of the elderly in TV commercials (Greco, 1993). Moreover, elderly pe rsons with high self-esteem tend to perceive television programs as less real-to-life, while thei r low self-image counterparts are more trusting and believing of television fare. The portrayals of the elderly may reinforce a low inactive selfimage in the eyes of the elderly with lower se lf-image (Kvaniscka, Beymer & Perloff, 1982). Some researchers suggested that the negative portrayal of older people in advertising may penetrate their value system, hinder the developmen t of healthy self image and negatively affects their self-perception (Carri gan & Szmigin, 1999; Hoyer & Maclnnis, 2001; Robinson & Umphrey, 2006). There is also an influen ce on the younger people. Robinson and Umphrey (2006) indicated that portraying older people in a ster eotypical way support th e stereotype that younger people have of older people and then they tend to view aging is a bad thing. Therefore, advertisers and mark eters need to be aware of th ese influences and improve the way they portray older people in their adve rtisements (Robinson & Umphrey, 2006). Positive portrayals of the elderly in media can be help ful in promoting positive self-image and a more productive integration into society (Korze nny & Neuendorf 1980). Carrigan and Szmigin (1999). This also suggests that the public can perceive old age in a positive way and that marketers do not necessarily use negative c onnotations to associate products with older consumers.

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24 Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Geert Hofstede's dimensions of culture has be en one of most important model to assist advertisers in better understand th e intercultural differ ences within regions and between counties. Hofstede identified four primary dimensions to classify countries and differentiate cultures. These include: Power distance (PDI), Individu alism versus Collectivism (IDV), Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS), and Uncertainty Avoida nce (UAI) in his original research model. The fifth dimension, long-term versus short-term or ientation (LTO), was added after conducting an additional study (Mueller, 2004; Geert Hofstede, 2007). Marketing and adve rtising researchers have recognized that Hofstede ’s dimensions can be applied to explain the differences in marketing communications and to predict the ef fect of commercials messages (Mueller, 2004). The first dimension, power distance index (PDI), refers to a society’s level of equality or inequality among people. In cultures ranking hi gher on the power distance index, people tend to more accepting social hierarchies and authorities. In contrast, cultures with lower power distance index, people tend to accept equa lity and believe opportunity for everyone (Mueller, 2004; Geert Hofstede, 2007). As shown in Figure 2-1, Taiwan’s power distance index is 58 (Geert Hofstede, 2007), which means the level of eq uality among people in Taiwan society is medium. There are opportunities for everyone although soci al hierarchies and authorities ex isted in Taiwan’s society. The second dimension, individualism versus co llectivism (IDV), is the extent to which individuals are integrated in to groups. A high individualism ranking indicates that the ties between individuals are loose. A low indivi dualism ranking suggests a society is more collectivistic, in other words, the ties between individuals are close. Taiwan’s individualism index is 17, which means Taiwan is a collectivistic society where so cial ties are much higher. The collectivistic societies tend to reinforce extended families where people respect elder and take responsibility for taking care of other members in their soci eties. The advertisings in

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25 collectivistic cultures tend to portray people in groups rather than as individuals (Mueller, 2004; Schimmack, Oishi, & Diener, 2005; Geert Hofstede, 2007) The third dimension, masculinity versus feminini ty (MAS), pertains to the distri bution of roles between the genders. A high masculinity ranking indicates a high degree of gender differentiation and the culture tends to stress on stereotypical masculine traits, such as achievement, dominance and heroism. In contra st, a low masculinity ranking indicates a low degree of gender differentiation the culture tends to emphasize femini ne traits, such as modesty, taking care of weak and quality of life (Mueller, 2004; Geert Hofstede, 2007). Taiwan’s masculinity index is 45, which means the degree of gender differentiation is medium in Taiwan’s society. The fourth dimension, uncertainty avoidance inde x (UAI), deals with th e level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society. A high uncertainty avoi dance ranking indicates people in these cultures need ru les, regulations and controls to reduce the uncertainty. A low uncertainty avoidance ranking indi cates people in these cultures are relatively comfortable with ambiguity and are tolerant of others’ behavior s and opinions (Mueller, 2004; Geert Hofstede, 2007). Taiwan’s uncertainty avoidance index is 6 9, which means people in Taiwan tend to prefer certainty and direct informa tion rather than uncertainty and confused information. The fifth dimension, long-term versus short-term orientation (LTO), d eals with the degree the society embrace the long-term traditional va lues. A high long-term orientation ranking indicates that the society advocat e the values of long-term commitm ents and respect for tradition. For example, there is usually including a senior executive in meetings and elders tend to be decisions maker. East Asian countr ies tend to be classified to l ong-term orientation cultures. In contrast, a culture with short-term orientati on does not reinforce th e concept of long-term

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26 traditional orientation. Taiwan’s long-term or ientation index is 87, which means people in Taiwan are patient, perseverant, and respect fo r one's elders and ancestors (Newman & Nollen, 1996; Mueller, 2004; Geert Hofstede, 2007). Table 2-1 presents an exhibit of Taiwan’s scores on the Hofstede cultural dimensions. Hypotheses There are very few of studies related to th e portrayals of mature people in Taiwanese advertising and none directly focuses on this topi c have been done. Furthermore, the majority of Taiwan’s advertising agencies were owne d by transnational companies, so Taiwan advertisements have been influenced by the We stern values. The purpose of this study is to examine the portrayal of the mature market in advertising to explor e the similarities and differences in past research findings. As has been stated before, the term “mature” will be used in lieu of “older” or “elderly” to refer to those in dividuals ages 50 and over. Therefore, this study develops the following hypotheses de rived from the relevant liter ature — most of which come from research conducted in the U.S and U.K. — and from Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. H1 : The percentage of mature people in Taiw an’s award-wining television advertising will be less than the percentage of mature people in population. H2 : The percentage of mature females will be less than the percentage of mature males in Taiwan’s award-wining television advertising. H3 : Mature people in Taiwan’s award-wining tele vision advertising are more likely to be portrayed in a positive way. H4 : Mature people in Taiwan’s award-wining tele vision advertising are more likely to be shown with others. H5 : Mature people in Taiwan’s award-wining tele vision advertising are more likely to be portrayed as major roles.

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27 58 17 45 69 87 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 PDIIDVMASUAILTO Figure 2-1: Taiwan’s Hofstede’s cultural dimensions scores ( Geert Hofstede, 2007)

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28 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Content Analysis According to Davis’ (1997) book, Advertising Research, content anal ysis is systematic, objective and quantitative, and gene rally be used to identify trends in advertising practices. Some researchers mention that content analysis allo ws researchers to treat qualitative data in quantitative ways (Leiss, Kline & Jhally, 1990). Also, content anal ysis is known as one of the most efficient research methods to probe the meanings within or behind specific contexts. The study was designed to investigate the pres ence of the mature pe ople age over 50 in Taiwanese advertising. Hence, content analysis was chosen as the research method to examine the proposed research hypotheses. Unit of Analysis The unit of analysis, the smallest element of a content analysis, was defined as the individual units that the rese archers make descriptive and explanatory statements about (Wimmer & Dominick, 1991; Babie, 2001). The unit of analysis in this study was the single award-winning television commercial among the w hole collection of Taiwan Times Advertising Awards from 1999 to 2004, which total a sample size of 641 televi sion commercials. Research Sample The researcher elected to draw the resear ch sample from Taiwan Times Advertising Award-winners for several reasons. First, Time s Advertising Award is also the most highly respected and well known advertisin g award in Taiwan. The latest annual award event held in November 2006 was the 29th Taiwan Times Advertising Awards. The award-winning advertisements are professionally judged by el ites of Taiwan’s advertising industry and sufficiently representative of soci al trends of the time. Second, no previous studies have explored

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29 how mature people are portrayed in Taiwan’s advertisements, no matter television commercials or magazine advertisements. Third, the coll ections of Times Adve rtising Award-winning advertisements are more available and acquirable than other ways of co llecting advertising in Taiwan for several consecutive years. This study focused on television commercials mainly because there tend to be more characters portrayed in televi sion commercials than in magazi ne advertisement across product categories. The main purpose of this study was to determine the representation and role portrayal of mature people. Therefore, collecting sample s from television commercials are more likely to reach sufficient sample size for analyzing. Note that ads without people portrayed were excluded from the data analysis. All ads in the sample were drawn from a nnual Taiwan Times Advertising Award-Winning Television Commercial Collect ion 1999-2004. Choosing years from 1999 to 2004 were for the following reasons. First, 2004 annual Times Ad vertising Award-winning advertisements collection book is the late st and available one. Second, exclud ed those advertisings prior to 1999 were because those ads were too long ago to represent current social trends or reflect current situation. The focus of the study was to explore the portr ayals of mature people in Taiwanese awardwinning television commercials. As duplicated advert isements were not expected to increase the understanding of the portrayals, the decision was also made to omit them from the study. After omitting duplicate ads, there were a total 607 qua lified television commercials content analyzed, including 103 commercials in 1999, 108 commerc ials in 2000, 114 commercials in 2001, 101 commercials in 2002, 88 commercials in 2003 and 93 commercials in 2004.

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30 Coding Categories and Variables There were total of 13 categories and 29 variab les were coded in this study. The categories included: award year, appearance of people, la nguage, product type, se tting, appearance of 50+ people, ethnicity, role, activity, competency, pro duct-related role, and information role. Coding categories are discussed in greater detail in th e following sections. The final codebook used to analyze the ad content is presented in appendix. All commercials were coded by year and the ap pearance of people. All commercials with people were coded by language, pr oduct type and format. All comme rcials with 50+ characters were coded by appearance of 50+ people, ethnic ity, role, activity, competency, product-related role and information role. Definition of Coding Categories Year Six years, from 1999 (22nd) to 2004 (27th), were used to code all Times Advertising Award-winning television advertisings. Appearance of People This category counted the number of people in the ads. “Ads w ith only body parts, such as hands, or bodies without faces are not cla ssified as ads with people” (Greco, 1993, p.146). Coders were instructed to c ount only human beings in the ad s, not drawings, cartoons, puppet characters and any computer-generated graphics. Considering scene of crowd, coders will simply indicate “more than 10” if more than 10 characters are in one commercial. Language In accordance with the Cho (2005) study, the language used in Taiwan’s television commercials was coded into seven categories: Ch inese (Taiwan’s official language), dialects

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31 (such as Taiwanese, Hakka and other languages used in Taiwan), English, mixed (using more than two different languages), others (such as Japanese, Korean and other foreign languages), none (no language was spoken in the commercial) or cannot be coded (unclear language was used in the commercial). The background music is not coded as the la nguage used in the commercials. The voice over slogan, often in the end of commercials, is also not considered as the language used in the commercials if it was spoken by an off camera individual. However, it will be coded as the language used in commercial if the slogan is stated or the music was sung by one of the characters in the commercial. Product Type Based on the common categories listed in Time s Advertising Award collection from 1999 to 2004, there are 23 product categor ies developed and used in this study, including (1) fast food, (2) non-fast food / seasoning, (3) restaurants / cafes, (4) tobacco, (5) alcohol, (6) non-alcohol beverages, (7) apparel and accessories, (8) beauty ai ds / cosmetics, (9) health products (including health food, medicine and health equipment), (10) household appliances (such as washing machine, refrigerator and air conditioner), (11) domestic products (such as toothpaste, soap and cleaners), (12) technological products / electric products, (13) automobiles/ transportation equipment, (14) electric, water, gas, and waste management servi ces, (15) communication services, (16) banking / financial services, (17) grocery retail, drug store and pharmacy, (18) public services / public administration, (19) indust ry / corporate image, ( 20) culture / education, (21) travel / leisure / entertai nment, (22) publication / mass medi a (including website), and (23) others. The brand name of product or service promoted in the co mmercial was also specified for reference.

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32 Format The commercial formats were sorted by eight categories according to Arens (1999) book, including straight announcement, presenter, testimonial, demons tration, musical, slice of life (problem solution), lifestyle and others (or cannot be determined). The brief definition of each format was provided in code book help c oders to judge easily and accurately. Appearance of 50+ People In this study, mature people were defined as people 50-years old or ol der. According to the definition in the Greco (1993) and Simcock & Su dbury (2006) studies, the elderly were defined by three kinds of subjective criteria: direction mention of age, physic al features and references of age. Therefore, characters were classified as people age over 50 determined by the following subjective criteria includi ng direct mention of age over 50, gray hair or white hair, wrinkling of the skin around the face, neck, and/or hands, us e of ambulatory aids, canes or wheelchairs, reference to being retired, reference to as “gra ndmother” or “grandfather”, and a portrayal as a parent of a son or daughter who was middle-ag ed or older (Gantz, Gartenberg, & Rainbow, 1980; Greco, 1993; Harwood & Roy, 1999; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006). The numbers of 50+ people, as well as 50+ males and females respectively, were counted in order to provide a measure of the occurren ce of the use of 50+ people in commercials by reporting the proportion of 50+ people to the to tal number of people in the advertisement. The features of 50+ people with other age gr oups were coded to understand their portrayals with individuals from other age groups. In other words, when 50+ character appeared in a scene, did they appear alone, with one other younger pe rson only, with one other 50+ person only, with other 50+ people only, or with various age groups?

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33 The prominence of 50+ characters was also ex amined according to their role as a major, minor, or background character. Major character s were defined as people who appeared the central to the ad and who had a prominent role in product promotion. If the character was a spokesperson, was on camera for more than one-half of the ad, or spoke throughout the ad as a main character or reference, they were consider ed a major character. There could be more than one major character in a commercial (Grec o, 1993; Robinson & Skil l, 1995; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006). Minor characters were defined as people who played a supporting role in product promotion on ads. The characters 1) may not have a major speaking part, 2) were not scene as the prominent reference for other characters in the commercial, or 3) were on camera for less than one-half of the ad. There could be more th an one minor character in a commercial (Greco, 1993; Robinson & Skill, 1995; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006). Background characters were people who were not actively involved in ad’s message, but whose presence may give the ad greater context. The characters did not speak and were seen only for a few seconds or camera did not zoom in on them. These people were more a face in the crowd or passer-by (Greco, 1993; Robins on & Skill, 1995; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006). Setting The settings where the 50+ characters app eared were classified by private, public, combination and cannot be coded. The private settings were further sorted by 6 categories including kitchen/ dining room, living room, bedroom, other places inside the house, indoors away from home, and other private setting. The p ublic settings were further sorted into six categories, including public place (such as street s, stores, restaurants… etc.), riding inside transportation, business office / working place, school, outdoors away from home and other public setting.

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34 All settings were coded when 50+ characters appeared in more than two settings, whether public or private. If 50+ characte rs appeared in private and public setting in one commercial, in would be coded as combination settings and furthe r coded all the settings used in the advertising. If the setting was unclear to be determined, it was coded as cannot be coded. Ethnicity Fifty-plus characters were determined as Ea stern or Western based on visual appearance. According to the definition in Cho (2005) study, the characters were assigned as Eastern if they looked Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, or other Asian groups. On the other hand, the characters were coded as Western if they looked Caucasian, or other non-Asian groups. Role The 50+ character’s interpersonal relationshi p with other characters in Taiwanese awardwinning television advertising was coded into seven categories: spouse/couple, parents/grandparents, other family members, friends, occupational partners, others, and not applicable/cannot be coded. If there was a specific role portray ed by a 50+ characters in the commercial but cannot be coded into the first five categories, it was coded as others and specified. If there was no obvious role portray ed by 50+ character in the commercial, it was coded as not applicable/cannot be coded Activity Activities which 50+ characters were involve d in the commercial were coded into nine categories: family events, working, recreation, di ning, sleeping, chatting with others/speaking to others, walking/on transportation, si tting/taking rest, and others. Competency Competency of the 50+ character was code d into three categories including strong competency, weak competency and neither strong or weak competency. Similar to Peterson and

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35 Ross (1997), and Simcock and Sudbury (2006) studies strong competency was defined when the character displayed mental and physical compet ence in carrying out th e role portrayed. The character was featured as author itative, skillful or controlling, and enjoyed a particular activity. In contrast, weak competency was coded wh en character displayed mental or physical incompetence in carrying out the role portray ed, exemplified by the appearance of being impaired, helpless, uninformed, weak, lazy, a victim, or displaying st ereotypically negative behavior associated with age, such as bad temp er, and forgetfulness. It was coded as neither strong nor weak competency if the character’ s display or presentation of skill is neither authoritative nor unauthoritativ e, but can be considered relatively non-descript. Product-Related Role Four categories, authorities/s pokespersons for the product, pr oduct user, decorative role and not applicable/cannot be coded, were used to examine the credibility of the primary 50+ major and minor characters in this st udy. Mature characters were coded as “authorities/spokespersons for th e product” when they were appoi nted to endorse a product in advertising, and they are usually celebrities, experts or satisfied customers. Mature characters were coded as product users when they were showing using the product in advertising. Otherwise, mature characters were coded as “decorative role” when they appear with product but did not directly involved with product use in advertising. If th ere were no obvious interaction between mature characters and product, it was coded as not applicab le/cannot be coded. Information Role Information role was determined by how th e primary 50+ major and minor characters interacted with other characters in delivering information in the commercial. According to Greco (1993) study, information giver role was the char acter portrayed as givi ng advice, or providing information to others present in the ad or in the audience. The information receiver role was the

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36 character portrayed as receiving advice, or the recipi ent of information about a product or service. In this study, the information gave or received by the 50+ characte rs was not necessarily limited to the product information. If there were no obvious intera ction between 50+ characters and other characters, it was coded as not applicable/cannot be coded. Coder Training and Coding Procedure Before starting actual coding work, a codebook itemizing variables with definition was developed for ease of data collection. Then, a co ding sheet was formulated for coders to record their observations. In order to reduce bias, two independent c oders were employed in this study. One was researcher herself, as the primary coder, a nd the other one was a male Taiwanese staff of University of Florida, as the secondary coder. The second coder was chosen for three reasons: 1) to reduce gender bias, 2) based on his similar background with the researcher, and 3) based on his familiarity with Taiwan’s language and culture. Once two coders were selected, they were trained in a coding process, including familiarization of the codebook and practice of c oding work. After finishing the preparation, two coders viewed and discussed separa te sample of 60 advertisements th at were not included as part of the current study to improve the coding work. Finally, the two coders worked independently to analyze each television advertisement in the research sample. Inter-Coder Reliability There are 30 variables were coded for each sample of unit. The sample size is 607. Therefore, there were totally 18210 (30*607) coding decisions made by each coder According to Davis (1997) and Wimmer & Domi nick (1991), inter-coder reliability refers to the levels of agreement when coders independ ently assign the same code to the same stimulus under the same instrument. There are many met hods for calculating inter-coder reliability.

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37 Holsti’s formula, as listed below, was adopted in this study because it is simple, straightforward, and easy to apply. Reliability = 2M / N1+N2 (3-1) where: M is the total number of coding decisions on which the two coders agree N1 and N2 are the total number of coding decisions made by coders one and two In terms of coding decisions made by each c oder, two coders disagreed in only 232 of 18210 coding decision. The inter-coder reliability was found to be 98.73 %. It is statistically valid because 90% was considered a minimum reliabi lity coefficient when using Holsti’s formula (Wimmer & Dominick, 1991). Slightly changed the original Holsti’s formula as following: Reliability = 2M / N1+N2 (3-2) where: M is the total number of commercials on which the two coders agree N1 and N2 are the total number of commercials coded by coders one and two When two coders have agreement on all 30 vari ables of one commercial, it was considered as commercial on which two coders agree. In terms of commercials coded by each coder, two coders agreed in 495 of 607 commercials. The inte r-coder reliability was found to be 81.55%. It is generally considered as an acceptable le vel because it was over 80% (Davis, 1997). Validity Validity refers to the accuracy of the procedure. According to Davis (1997), validity is usually defined as “high degree of corresponde nce between a concept’s operational definition and the specific observable event used to record the concept” (p. 270). In other words, does the procedure actually measure what it intends to measure? The most common method used to assess validity in content analysis is the face validity, which is determined subjectively by the expert (Wimmer & Dominick, 1991).

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38 In this study, the total 30 va riables were operationally desi gned base on previous content analysis studies related to the elderly portrayal s in television commercials such as Greco (1993), Peterson and Ross (1997), Simcock and Sudbury ( 2006), and so on, or related to the Taiwan Times award-winning advertising, such as Cho ( 2005). Additionally, each code was designed to examine the hypotheses of this study and explor e the main purpose of this study: how mature people are portrayed in Taiwan’s advertising. Therefore, this study represents acceptable validity because the procedure of this study actually de scribe measure what it intends to describe. Data Analysis In this study, the Sta tistical Package for the Social Sc ience (SPSS release 13.0) was used for data analysis. Cross-tabulation was used to examine the relationships between variables. Chisquare was used to identify the difference in the frequency distribu tion among categories and examine if the pattern is signifi cant. Critical p-value (.05) was us ed to identify the statistical significance.

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39 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Description of the Sample There were a total 607 qualified television comme rcials selected from the whole collection of Taiwan Times Advertising Award winners from 1999 to 2004, including 103 commercials in 1999, 108 in 2000, 114 in 2001, 101 in 2002, 88 in 2003 and 93 in 2004, as shown in Table 4-1. The variable “Award Year” indicate the year th ese television commercials were awarded, not the time periods in which these television commercials were aired. Table 4-1: Frequency and percent of Taiwan award-winning TV comm ercial by award year Award Year N % 1999 103 17.0 2000 108 17.8 2001 114 18.8 2002 101 16.6 2003 88 14.5 2004 93 15.3 Total 607 100.0 Out of a total of 607 commercials, there we re 68 (11.2%) commercials coded as lack of people shown and there were 539 (88.8%) comm ercials that showed people. In those commercials portrayed people, ads with one and two characters (33.6 %) were mostly shown in Taiwan award-winning television commercials, follo wed by ads with more than ten characters (24.7%), as shown in Table 4-2. Table 4-2: Frequency and percent of Taiwan award-winning TV commercial by number of people seen in the ads Number of people N_________ %____________ Ads without people 0 68 68 11.2 11.2 1-2 204 33.6 3-5 115 18.9 6-10 70 11.5 Ads with people >10 150 539 24.7 88.8 Total 607 100.0

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40 As shown in the Table 4-3, among 539 commerc ials containing people, there were 129 (23.9%) commercials reflecting people over 50. Of 129 commercials containing 50+ people, there were 99 (76.7%) commerci als contained at least one 50 + male, 63 (48.8%) commercials contained at least one 50+ female, and 33 (= 99-66) commercials namely 25.6% contained at least one 50+ male and one 50+ female. Table 4-3: Frequency and percent of Taiwan award-winning TV commer cial by number of 50+ people seen in the ads and gender Ads with 50+ people_____ Ads with 50+ male_____ Ads with 50+ female__ N___________ %___ N_________ %___ N_________ %___ 0 410 410 76.1 30 30 23.3 66 66 51.2 1 77 14.3 71 55.0 48 37.2 2 27 5.0 17 13.2 7 5.4 3 12 2.2 4 3.1 3 2.3 4 4 .7 3 2.3 2 1.6 5 and more 9 129 1.7 4 99 3.1 3 63 2.4 Total 539 100.0 129 100.0 129 100.0 Language Table 4-4 showed that Chinese (63.6%) was the most used language in Taiwan awardwinning television commercials with people, followed by none (14. 6%) and mixed (11.9%). Mixed language means that two or more different language used in one commercial, for example, Chinese and Taiwanese or Chinese and English were often used at the same television commercial in these Taiwan award-winning commercials. More specifically speaking, for those ads w ith 50+ people, Chinese (48%) was found the most often used one, and then followed by mixed (22.8%), dialect (9.4%), and none (9.4%). For those ads without 50+ people, Chinese (68.4%) wa s used most often, and then none (16.1%), and mixed (8.5%). A statistically significant ( X2 = 88.350, p<.05) difference was found between ads with and without 50+ people regarding the language used in commercials. In general, Chinese was less

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41 likely to be used in ads with 50+ people (48.0%) than in ads without 50+ people (68.4%). Also, commercials in which there was no speaking role for the character portrayed were less likely to be found in ads with 50+ people (9.4%) compared to ads without 50+ people (16.1%). Dialect (such as Taiwanese) and mixed language (most of them were mix of Chinese and Taiwanese) were found more likely to be used in ads with 50+ people than in ads without 50+ people. Table 4-4: Cross-tab of language used in the ads with and without 50+ people Ads with 50+ people (N=129) Ads without 50+ people (N=410) Ads with people (N=539) % % % Chinese 48.0 68.4 63.6 Dialect 9.4 2.7 4.3 English 6.3 1.8 2.9 Mixed 22.8 8.5 11.9 None 9.4 16.1 14.6 Others 3.9 2.4 2.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 X2 =88.350, df =5, p (= .000) <.05 Product Types Table 4-5 showed the product cate gories of the advertised pr oducts or services in these commercials. The 539 commercials containing pe ople were grouped into 20 product categories listed in Table 4.4. Financial service (10.2%) was the most frequently occurring one, followed by automobile (8.3%), communication services (8.2 %), and nonalcohol beve rage (7.6%) in those ads with people. Similar results were found in those ads with people younger than 50. However, the 50+ people were most often seen in the advertising promoting non-fast food (10.6%), public service (10.2%), non-alcohol beverage (8.7%), and automobiles (8.7%). With regard to product types, there were di fferences between ads with and without 50+ people. Commercials containi ng 50+ people were more lik ely to promote “non-fast food/seasoning” (10.6%) and “public services/public administration” (10.2%) than commercials containing no 50+ people. On the other hand, co mmercials with 50+ people were less likely to

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42 advertise “apparel and accessories ” (1.6% versus 4.2% in ads with 50+ people versus in ads without 50+ people), “beauty ai ds/cosmetics” (2.4% vs.6.1%), “domestic products” (0.8% vs. 4.6%), and “banking/financial services” (7.1% vs 11.2%) than commercials without 50+ people. A statistically significant ( X2 = 48.245, p<.05) difference existed between ads with and without 50+ people regarding the product type s promoted in commercials. Among 539 Taiwan award-winning television comme rcials containing people, there were 11 brand names shown over 10 times in total duri ng six years, listed as the following by order: Uni-President, Government, Mitsubishi, Tran sAsia, McDonald, Ericsson, 7-11, Lottery, TECO, KG Telecom. Table 4-5: Cross-tab of product categories prom oted in the ads with and without 50+ people Ads with 50+ people (N=129) Ads without 50+ people (N=410) Ads with people (N=539) % % % Fast food 3.9 3.9 3.9 Non-fast food / seasoning 10.6 5.5 6.7 Restaurant / caf .8 1.7 1.5 Alcohol .8 1.2 1.1 Nonalcohol beverage 8.7 7.3 7.6 Apparel and accessories 1.6 4.2 3.6 Beauty aids / cosmetics 2.4 6.1 5.2 Health product 1.6 1.2 1.3 Household appliances 6.3 6.6 6.5 Domestic products .8 4.6 3.7 Technological products / electric products 3.5 5.2 4.8 Automobiles / transportation equipment 8.7 8.3 8.3 Communication services 7.9 8.3 8.2 Banking / financial services 7.1 11.2 10.2 Grocery retail / drug store / pharmacy 6.3 4.4 4.8 Public service / public administration 10.2 4.1 5.6 Industry/corporate image 3.1 1.6 1.9 Travel / leisure / en tertainment 1.6 1.9 1.9 Publications / mass media 6.7 6.7 6.3 Others 7.5 6.2 6.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 X2 =48.245, df =19, p (=.001) <.05

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43 Format According to data, the most often used form at in commercials featuring 50+ people was lifestyle (30.7%) which refers to commercials pr esent the user rather than the product, followed by demonstration (18.9%) which refers to products in the commercials may be demonstrated in use, and slice of life (16.5%) which refers to co mmercials dramatize real-life situations dealing with a problem. These three formats accounted fo r over 50% of those commercials with people. In commercials featuring no 50+ people, the fi rst three most used formats were lifestyle, demonstration and slice of life as well, but the order was slig htly different. Demonstration (28.5%) was the most often used format in commercials without 50+ people, followed by lifestyle (19.7%) and Slice of life (13.6%). However, it was more likely to use lifestyle format in ads with 50+ people than in ads without 50+ people and it was less likely to use demonstration format in ads with 50+ people than in ads without 50+ people. Th ere was a significant difference ( X2 = 32.321, p<.05) between ads with and without 50+ people regardi ng the format of television commercials. Table 4-6: Cross-tab of format used in the ads with and without 50+ people Ads with 50+ people (N=129) Ads without 50+ people (N=410) Ads with people (N=539) % % % Straight announcement 3.9 11.0 9.4 Presenter 13.8 11.0 11.7 Testimonial 9.4 10.0 9.8 Demonstration 18.9 28.5 26.3 Musical 2.4 1.2 1.5 Slice of life 16.5 13.6 14.3 Lifestyle 30.7 19.7 22.3 Others 4.3 5.0 4.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 X2 =32.321, df =7, p (=.000) <.05

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44 Appearance of 50+ People In those ads featuring 50+ people, when a 50+ character appeared in a scene, he or she usually appeared with others ( 92.9%) rather than app eared alone (7.1%). They were more likely to appear “with various age groups” (79.9%), and then “with one other younger person only” (9.8%). In less than two percent of the ads were 50+ people featured with one other 50+ person only (1.6%) or with several othe r 50+ people (1.6%). They were portrayed alone in 7.1% (n=9) of the ads featuring 50+ characte rs, as data shown in table 4-7. Table 4-7: Percent of the positioning of 50+ people with others in ads with 50+ people % Alone 7.1 With one other younger person only 9.8 With one other 50+ person only 1.6 With other 50+ people only 1.6 With various age groups 79.9 Total 100.0 N=129 Setting As shown in Table 4-8, 50+ people were more often present in public setting (71.7%) than in private setting (19.7%) in Taiw an award-winning television co mmercials with 50+ people. Table 4-8: Percent of setting pr esent in ads with 50+ people % Public 71.7 Private 19.7 Combination 6.7 Not applicable / cannot be coded 2.0 Total 100.0 N=129 According to Table 4-9, in priv ate settings, they were more of ten seen in the living room (12.2%), followed by in the kitchen/dining room (6.7%), indoors away fr om home (4.7%), other place inside the house (3.5%), and other private settings (1.2%).

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45 Table 4-9: Percent of private setti ng present in ads with 50+ people % Living room 12.2 Kitchen / dining room 6.7 Indoors away from home 4.7 Other place inside the house 3.5 Other private settings 1.2 N=129 On the other hand, public places (44.5%), such as streets, stores, restaurants, bus stations, and so on, were where the 50+ people were most often seen in public settings, followed by business office/working place (15.7%), riding inside transportation (9.4%), other public settings (6.7%), school (3.15%), and outdoor s away from home (3.15%), as can be seen in Table 4-10. Table 4-10: Percent of p ublic setting present in ads with 50+ people % Public place 44.50 Business office / working place 15.70 Riding inside transportation 9.40 Other public settings 6.70 School 3.15 Outdoors away from home 3.15 N=129 Character Types Table 4-11 indicated that there were 52 ( 40.2%) commercials featuring 50+ people as major characters, 42 (32.3%) commercials featur ing them as minor characters, and 59 (45.7%) commercials featuring them as background characters among those ads with 50+ people (N=129). However, it should be noted that major charact er, minor characters a nd background characters could be all featured by diffe rent 50+ people in one comm ercial at the same time. Table 4-11: Frequency and percent of character types portrayed by 50+ people n % Major characters 52 40.2 Minor characters 42 32.3 Background characters 59 45.7 N=129

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46 Ethnicity In commercials featuring 50+ people as major characters, Eastern models, appearing in 43 (82.4%) commercials, were present overwhelmingly compared to Western models in only nine (17.6%) commercials. Similar statistical results was found for those commercials featuring 50+ people as minor characters, as Table 4-12 shown. The 50+ characters were more likely to be presented by Eastern models, such as Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other Asians, than Western models in these Taiwan advertis ing award-winning television commercials with 50+ people. However, there was no significant difference. Table 4-12: Frequency and percent of ethnicity portrayed by 50+ people Major_________ Minor_________ Total__________ N % N % N % Eastern 43 82.4 37 87.8 80 85.1 Western 9 17.6 5 12.2 14 14.9 Total 52 100.0 42 100.0 94 100.0 X2 = 0.535, df=1, n.s. Role The analysis for to role portrayed by 50+ pe ople excluded the category for “Others” which included peripheral roles such as teacher, mast er, neighbor, or passer-by, etcetera, (33.0%) and “cannot be coded” (2.1%) in orde r to generate more valid re sults about intimate, proximal relationships between characters. As expected the findings showed that 50+ people were most often portrayed as parents/gra ndparents (28.7%) because of their age, followed by occupational partners (21.3%), spouse/couple (7.4%), friends (6.4%) and other family members (1.1%), as shown in Table 4-13. When featured as occupational partners, 50+ people were often been portrayed as boss, superior, or janitorial cleane r. Comparing major and minor ch aracters featured by 50+ people

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47 with regard to role, the results were similar and it was no significant difference was found in this concern. Table 4-13: Frequency and percent of role portrayed by 50+ people Major__________ Minor__________ Total__________ N % N % N % Spouse/couple 5 8.8 2 4.9 7 7.4 Parents/grandparents 17 33.3 10 24.4 27 28.7 Other family members 0 0 1 1.2 1 1.1 Friends 3 5.9 3 6.1 6 6.4 Occupational partners 11 21.6 9 22.0 20 21.3 Others 14 27.5 17 41.5 31 33.0 Cannot be coded 2 2.9 0 0 2 2.1 Total 52 100.0 42 100.0 94 100.0 X2 = 5.59, df=6, n.s. Competency According to Table 4-14, 78.7% of 50+ ma jor and minor characters displayed strong competency in the commercials. Only 12.8% of them showed weak competency, for example, uninformed, weak, lazy…etc, and 8.5% of them displayed neither strong nor weak competency in carry out the roles portrayed. There was no significant difference between major and minor characters featured by 50+ peopl e with regard to competency. Table 4-14: Cross-tab of co mpetency by character types Major________ Minor_________ Total_________ N % N % N % Strong competency 41 79.5 33 78.0 74 78.7 Neither strong nor weak competency 4 7.8 4 9.8 8 8.5 Weak competency 7 12.7 5 12.2 12 12.8 Total 52 100.0 42 100.0 94 100.0 X2 = 0.136, df=2, n.s. Product-Related Role As can be seen in Table 4-15, 50+ characters we re often featured as product users (43.6%), followed by decorative roles (37.2 %), not applicable (10.7%) and authorities/spokesperson for the products (8.5%). When compared 50+ major with minor characters regarding to their

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48 product-related role, 50+ major characters were more like ly than 50+ minor characters to be featured as product users for their advertised products or services. In contrast, 50+ minor characters appeared more often than 50+ major ch aracters as decorative roles in commercials. A statistically significant difference ( X2 = 17.512, p<.05) was found between 50+ major and 50+ minor characters associated w ith their product-related role. Table 4-15: Cross-tab of productrelated role by character types Major_________ Minor_________ Total_________ N % N % N % Authorities/spokespersons 7 12.7 1 1.2 8 8.5 Product users 29 56.9 12 29.3 41 43.6 Decorative roles 10 18.6 25 59.8 35 37.2 Not applicable 6 11.8 4 9.7 10 10.7 Total 52 100.0 42 100.0 94 100.0 X2 = 17.512, df=3, p (=.001) <.05 Information Role Table 4-16 showed that 50+ characters were mo re frequently shown as neither information giver nor information receiver ( not applicable, 46.8%) w ith regard to their information role in commercials. But, they were more likely to be featured as information giver (37.2%) than information receiver (16.0%). Same results f ound no matter when they were portrayed as major characters or minor characters. No signi ficant difference was found between 50+ major characters and 50+ minor characters in this regard. Table 4-16: Cross-tab of inform ation role by character types Major___________ Minor___________ Total____________ N % N % N % Information giver 24 46.1 11 25.6 35 37.2 Information receiver 8 15.7 7 17.1 15 16.0 Not applicable 20 38.2 24 57.3 44 46.8 Total 52 100.0 42 100.0 94 100.0 X2 = 4.243, df=2, n.s.

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49 Activity As to activities that 50+ characters invol ved with, working (33.3%) was the most often seen activity in these commercials, followed by others (20.7%), for exam ple, talking, shopping, smiling, ...etc, chatting with others (17.3%), wa lking/on transportation (13.3%), family event (11.7%), such as wedding ceremony and family reunion, recreation (7.0%), and sitting/taking rest (6.7%). Table 4-17: Percent of activities 50+ characters involved with Major (N=52) Minor (N=42) Background (N=59) Total (N=153) % % % % Family events 12.7 17.1 6.9 11.7 Working 36.3 39.0 26.7 33.3 Recreation 5.9 6.1 8.6 7.0 Dining 8.8 11.0 6.0 8.3 Chatting with others 20.6 11.0 19.0 17.3 Walking / on transportation 8.8 12.2 18.1 13.3 Sitting / taking rest 2.0 2.4 13.8 6.7 Others 23.5 20.7 18.1 20.7 Table 4-18: Frequency and pe rcent of commercial with 50+ people by award year N % Total Ads 1999 31 30.1 103 2000 22 20.4 108 2001 23 20.2 114 2002 26 25.7 101 2003 19 21.6 88 2004 8 8.6 93 Total 129 21.3 607 X2 = 15.059, df=5, p (=.01) <.05 Others: Ads with 50+ by Award Years Table 4-18 shows the frequency and percentage of commercials containing 50+ people by award year. The frequencies were range from 8 to 31 and the percentages were range from 8.6% (2004) to 30.1% (1999) per awar d year. The percent of ads f eaturing 50+ people were much lower in 2004, only 8.6% commercials containing 50+ people, compared to the percent of ads

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50 featuring 50+ during total six award years. The result shows a statistically significant ( X2 = 15.059, p<.05) difference existed when compared the presence of mature pe ople by award year. Test of Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 predicted that the percentage of ma ture people in Taiwan’s award-wining television advertising will be less than th e percentage of matu re people in population. Hypothesis 2 predicted that the percentage of ma ture females will be less than the percentage of mature males in Taiwan ’s award-wining television advertising. To examine these two hypotheses, two approaches were used to calculate the percentages of mature people in these commercials, 1) the sum of 50+ people, 50+ male and female were seen in these commercials, 2) the numbers of ads with 50+ people, 50+ male and female. The first approach, the sums of people, 50+ people, 50+ male and 50+ female showed in Taiwanese advertising award-winning television commercials with people, only limited to those ads with less than 10 people, were counted. Th e reasons were those ads with more than 10 people were coded as 11 instead of coding the ex act number of people seen in the commercials. Therefore, the number 11 did not represent the exact number of people showed in the ads. As shown in Table 4-19, there were totally 1269 people, 84 50+ people, 53 50+ male and 31 50+ female seen in those commercials with pe ople less than 10. In terms of percentage, there were 6.64 % out of all 1269 people shown in th ese commercials were 50+ people, 4.17% were 50+ male, and 2.48% were 50+ female. Compared to the percentage in Taiwan population, 25.64% were 50+ people, 12.70% were 50+ male, and 12.94% were 50+ female, the percentage for those three groups in these commercials were significantly lower than the percent of these segments in the overall population. Hence, th e Hypothesis 1 was supported by the result: the percentage of mature people in Taiwanese advertising awar d-winning television commercials

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51 (6.64%) were less than the percentage of mature people age over 50 in population (25.64%) and the result showed st atistically significan t (p=.000 < .05). Moreover, the percentage of mature male in Taiwanese advertising award-winning television commercials (4.17%) did not reflect their propo rtion of total populat ion (12.7%) either and the result was statistically significant (p=.000 < .05). Simila rly, the percentage of mature female in these commercials ( 2.48%) was less than the percentage of mature female in total population (12.94%) and it was a statisti cal significant result (p=.000 < .05). This results supported Hypothesis 2, as well. According to Table 419, the percentage of 50+ female (2.48%) were less than the percentage of 50+ male (4.17%) in Taiwanese advertising award-winning television commer cials. There was a significan t difference (Z=2.38, p=.087 <.05). Table 4-19: Numbers and percent of 50+ people in ads with peopl e and in Taiwan’s population 50+ people_______ 50+ male_________ 50+ female_______ n % n % n % in ads with people 10* 84 6.64 53 4.17 31 2.48 in Taiwan’s population (by Sep, 2006)** 5,855,443 25.64 2,899,876 12.70 2,955,567 12.94 Sum of people shown in these commercials with less than ten people were 1269 ** Total population in Taiwan by Sep, 2006 were 22,839,043 The second approach, in terms of ads, the num bers of ads with 50+ people, 50+ male and female were counted. Table 4-20 i ndicated the percentage of ads with 50+ people, 50+ male and 50+ female among those ads with people less than ten, ads with people more than ten, and ads with people. The 50+ people were more likely to be seen in ads with more than 10 people than in ads with people less than 10. Although the percentages of ads w ith 50+ people in ads with people (23.9%) and in ads with people less than ten (16.1 %) were lower compared to that in Taiwan’s overall population (25.64%), the perc entage of ads with 50+ people in those ads containing more

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52 than ten people (43.1%) was much higher compar ed to the percentage of people in Taiwan population (25.64%). Therefore, the results did not fully support hypothesis one. Table 4-20: Numbers and percen t of ads with 50+ people ads with 50+ people ads with 50+ male ads with 50+ male % % % in ads with people 10 (N=389) 16.1 11.5 7.3 in ads with people >10 (N=150) 43.1 35.4 22.6 in ads with people (N=539) 23.9 18.4 11.7 No matter in those ads with pe ople less than 10, ads with peop le more than 10, or ads with people, the percentage of ads w ith 50+ male were higher than th e percentage of ads with 50+ female. The results supported hypothesis two. Hypothesis 3 predicted that mature people in Taiwan’s award-wining television advertising are more likely to be portrayed in a positive way. Table 4-15 showed that no matter when 50+ characters featured as major characters or minor characters, they were more likely to disp lay strong competency in carrying out the role portrayed. In other words, the 50+ people were mo re likely to be portrayed in a positive way in Taiwanese advertising award-winning televisi on commercials. This hypothesis was supported by the results of data analysis. Hypothesis 4 predicted that mature people in Taiwan’s award-wining television advertising are more likely to be shown with others. As shown in Table 4-7, only 7.1% out of 129 commercials containing 50+ people featured the 50+ character alone. In other words, ther e were 92.9% commercials containing 50+ people portrayed 50+ characters with ot hers. Therefore, the results of finding supported this hypothesis.

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53 Hypothesis 5 predicted that mature people in Taiwan’s award-wining television advertising are more likely to be portrayed as major roles. As can be seen in Table 4-11, there were 52 (40.2%) commercials featuring 50+ people as major characters, 42 (32.3%) as minor character s, and 59 (45.7%) as ba ckground characters out of 129 commercials containing 50+ people. Thus, there is no pref erence or intendance to portray 50+ people as major characters. Therefore, the results did not s upport this hypothesis.

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54 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The purpose of this study was to gain a bett er understanding of how mature people were portrayed in Taiwan award-wi nning television commercials. A content analysis based on 607 Taiwan Times Advertising Award-winning te levision commercials from 1999 to 2004 was conducted. A total 129 commercials containing ma ture people were further analyzed. Built on similar studies undertaken in US and UK, this cu rrent study reinforced the findings that mature people are proportionately underr epresented in advertising in comparison to the overall population. When the total numbers of people in the commercials were used as a measure of representation of mature peopl e, the mature people age over 50 represent only 6.64 percent and were hugely underrepresented when compared to that 25.64 percent of the same segments in total Taiwan’s populatio n. Mature female were especially less likely to appear in these television commercials than male. In conclusion, the per centage of mature people over 50, particularly female, in these Taiwan award-winning commerc ials did not reflect their number in the population. The results of this study also support thos e of Greco (1993), Peterson and Ross (1997) and Simcock and Sudbury (2006) that mature people were generally portrayed in the positive way. They were more likely to show competency, such as active, au thoritative, or controlling, in carrying out the roles portr ayed. It also reinforces Taiwan’s Hofstede’s cultural dimensions scores that Taiwan is a collec tivistic and long-term orientation society wh ich tends to respect elder and tradition. Mature people rarely appeared alone in Ta iwan award-winning commercials containing 50+ people. They usually showed with other age groups. These finding were consistent with Greco (1993) study. It was probably because that most of products did not target on mature

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55 people only, therefore, mature pe ople showed with others can enri ch the content of commercials. The result also reinforces Taiwan’s Hofstede’s cultural dimensions scores that Taiwan is a collectivistic society which tends to portray people in groups than as individuals in advertising. Of five hypotheses in this study, only hypothesis 5 was not supported by the finding. With regard to role prominence, the tendency of featur ing mature people as major role characters were not more than as minor roles and background role characters. Chinese was less likely to be used but dial ects and mixed language, often a mixed use of Chinese and Taiwanese, were more likely to be used while 50+ characters were involved in theses commercials. These findings imply that dialects were used more often in those commercials featuring 50+ characters, probabl y reflecting the language use among different generations in Taiwan. Older gene ration often speak dialect, such as Taiwanese, in their daily life. Therefore, in commercials with 50+ people, using dialect are more realistic and familiar to the audiences. Consistent with previous st udies, this study also found that mature people appeared in advertising for a wide range of products and services. In Taiwan award-winning commercials, they were often seen in commercials promo ting on non-fast food, public service, non-alcohol beverage and automobiles. On the other hand, similar with Simcock and Sudbury (2006) finding, they were underrepresented in advertisements for products such as apparel and accessories, beauty aids/cosmetics and domestic products. From a strategic standpoint it may be inappropriate to use mature people for products, such as cosm etics, that are targeting at younger age group. However, the finding did not s upport Greco (1993) and Zhang et al. (2006) studies which found mature people often appear in ads for health-rel ated products. It was probably because in this study, the commercials promoting on health-related products were not much seen in these award-

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56 winning commercials, although the per centage of health products in ads with 50+ people (1.6%) was slightly higher than the percentage of h ealth products in ads with people (1.3%). With regard to format, lifestyle was the most often used format in commercials featuring 50+ people. The lifestyle format was defined as th e commercial present the user rather than the product. For example, the commercial presents an active grandfather participate his grandson’s basketball game to show the grandfather havi ng strong competency in his daily life, but no related product information were spoken or provided in this commercial for promoting a financial service. When lifestyle was the form at used in commercials featuring 50+ people, commercials were more often showing family scene or placing an emphasis on family value. Additionally, demonstration and sl ice of life formats were often used in commercials with 50+ people as well. The findings showed similar conclusions with Greco (1993) study regarding commercial settings where mature characters are presented. They tend to appear in public settings, especially in public place (streets, stores …etc) and working place. Therefor e, it was not surprising to find that working was the most often activity which 50+ people were involved with in these commercials and they were often por trayed as occupational partners. When 50+ people were featured as major or mi nor characters, they were more likely to be portrayed as Eastern than We stern. This finding did not re flect Wang et al. (1997) study regarding using more Western a ppeals in Taiwanese magazine advertisements. The differences may be due to the different advertising types. Same with language use, using Eastern rather than Western seems to be more familiar and intimate to Taiwanese audiences. It was expected to find that mature people we re usually portrayed as parents/grandparents and occupational partners. It was probably because their age and experience, mature people often

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57 featured as authoritative senior s. However, as an occupation pa rtner, an mature character was featured either as the boss, the higher among th e high class, or the ja nitorial cleaner, which means the lower among the low class. It seems that mature people were stereotypically portrayed regarding to their roles. Regarding to product roles, 50+ people tended to present as product users and decorative roles when they were featured as major and minor characters. More specifically, 50+ major characters were more likely to appear as pr oduct users and 50+ minor characters more often appear as decorative roles. In Taiwan award-winning television commercials mature people were usually featured as information give rather than information receive r. It was common to see an old character giving advice, although not necessarily re lated to product information to other characters. For example, a mother taught her son how to choose a wife. On the other hand, when mature people were portrayed as information receivers, they often showed weak competency, such as uninformed or old-fashioned. Implications for Advertising Practitioners These findings can provide advertising practitione rs as an overall image of current portrays of mature people in Taiwan a dvertising award-winning commercials It is noteworthy that the buying power of mature people is increasing which means a highly profitable market for advertisers to enter in. On the other hand, it is impor tant to note that seve ral stereotypical images, such authoritative seniors and uninformed elderl y, might limit the creat ivity of advertising content and influence the feeli ng of audiences and then alie nate the potential customers. Advertising practitioners shoul d use stereotype more careful ly and create more effective communication to catc h their attention.

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58 Limitations of the Study and Sug gestions for Future Research There are some limitations of this study that should be taken into considerations when looking at this study and conducting in the future research. The first a nd the most important limitation is the sample in this study because it only included commercials from the Taiwan Times Advertising Awards. It is re asonable to expect that they ma y reflect different presentations of mature people for different t ypes of commercials, such as th ose broadcasts during prime time or only on local network, or differe nt types of media, such as magazine advertisements. In other words, although some evidences of mature pe ople portrayals in awardwinners are found, this doesn’t assert that such portr ayals also exist in other non-award-winning commercials or in advertising in other media. Based on this limitation, the researcher suggests th at future studies can 1) apply this coding system on different award in Taiwan or different types of award-winning advertisement samples, such as print advertisement, 2) conduct content an alysis of different type s of commercials, such as prime-time television commercials, 3) examine the portrayals of mature people in different media, such as print advertisement, outdoor adve rtisement, internet advertisement or prime-time television program. Second, coders’ subjective perception about matu re people, especially as to identify the mature people and determine their competency, is another limitation for this study. In addition, the coding system of this study was mainly base d on studies from UK and US because of the scarcity of relevant studies in Taiwan. Ther efore, the findings coul d only provide a general image of how mature people were portrayed in Taiwan award-winning commercials, rather than reveal the insight of these portrayals. With the limitations discussed above, the resear cher suggests to1) increase more research efforts related to mature people based on Taiwan’s data in order to expand the scope of literature

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59 2) trace the changes of por trayals of mature people s hown in Taiwan award-winning commercials for the next following years, 3) c onduct a cross-culture analysis of portrays of mature people in Taiwan and other country’s aw ard-winning commercials to explore the culture differences. Third, this study did not compare the portrayal s of mature consumers to that of younger consumers. Therefore, the researcher suggests that future studies can examine if there are differences among the portrayals of different age groups by applying this coding system on younger people in Taiwan’s awar d-winning television advertising. Finally, this study did not expl ore how mature consumers feel about their representation and portrayal in award-winning commercials. The rese archer also suggests th at future studies can dabble in this part. It will provi de different meaningful and helpfu l information for advertiser to create more effective communicatio ns toward to mature audience.

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60 APPENDIX CODE BOOK FOR THE PORTRAYAL OF OLDER PEOPLE IN TAIWAN’S AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS 1999-2004 Coder ID: _______ ADID # _______ (Categorized by the showing order, start w ith YEAR01, YEAR02, and YEAR03 etc. For example: the first ad of 1999 will be categorized as 199901.) Variable 1: Award Year ____ (1) 1999 (22nd Times Advertising Awards) ____ (2) 2000 (23rd Times Advertising Awards) ____ (3) 2001 (24th Times Advertising Awards) ____ (4) 2002 (25th Times Advertising Awards) ____ (5) 2003 (26th Times Advertising Awards) ____ (6) 2004 (27th Times Advertising Awards) Variables 2-6: Ads with People 2. Number of people in the ad: _______ (Count only human beings in the ads. Ads w ith only body parts (such as hands) or bodies without faces are not classified as ads with people (Greco, 1993, p.146); not drawings, cartoons, puppet characters, and any computer-generated graphi cs.) If more than 10 characters are in a scene, indicate “more than 10.”If none, SKIP ALL the following items. 3. Primary language used in the ad: ____ (1) Chinese ____ (2) dialects (Taiwanese, Hakka etc.) ____ (3) English ____ (4) mixed ____ (5) others: please specify _________________________________________ ____ (6) none ____ (7) cannot be coded

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61 4. What product category is promoted in the ad? ____ (1) fast food ____ (2) non-fast food / seasoning ____ (3) restaurants / cafes ____ (4) tobacco ____ (5) alcohol ____ (6) non-alcohol beverages ____ (7) apparel and accessories ____ (8) beauty aids / cosmetics ____ (9) health products (such as health food, medicine, health equipment .) ____ (10) household appliances (such as washing machine, air conditioner .) ____ (11) domestic products (such as toothpaste, soap, cleaners .) ____ (12) technological pr oducts / electric products ____ (13) automobiles / transportation equipment ____ (14) electric, water, gas, and waste management services ____ (15) communication services ____ (16) banking / financial services ____ (17) grocery retail, drug store & pharmacy ____ (18) public services / public administration ____ (19) industry/corporate image ____ (20) culture and education ____ (21) travel / le isure /entertainment ____ (22) publications / ma ss media (including website) ____ (23) others: please specify ________________________________________ 5. Please specify the brand name of product or servic e promoted in the ad: __________________________________________________________________

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62 6. Based on the description below, indicate the ad format demonstrated by the commercial: (Arens, 1999, p.395~397) ____ (1) straight announcement (An announcer delivers the sales message on camera or off screen, as a voiceover, while a demonstration, slide, or film shows on screen.) ____ (2) presenter (A person or character presents the product and carry the sales message.) ____ (3) testimonial (A satisfied user tells ho w effective the product is.) ____ (4) demonstration (Products may be demonstrated in use, in competition, or before and after.) ____ (5) musical (The entire message may be sung or or chestras may play symphonic or popular arrangements.) ____ (6) slice of life problem solution (Commercials dramatize real -life situations. Often the situation deals with a problem.) ____ (7) lifestyle (Commercials present the user rather than the product.) ____ (8) others / cannot be determined Variables 7-13: Ads with 50+ People 7. Number of people perceived to be over 50 in the ad: _______ (Over 50 is determined by direct mention of age ove r 50, gray hair or white hair, wrinkling of the skin around the face, neck, and/or hands, use of ambulatory aids, canes or wheelchairs, reference to being retired, reference to as “grandmother” or “grandfather”, a nd a portrayal as a parent of a son or daughter who was middle-aged or ol der) (Greco, 1993, Simcoc k & Sudbury, 2006) If none, SKIP ALL the following items. 8. Number of male 50+ people in the ad: _______ 9. Number of female 50+ people in the ad: _______

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63 10. How are people 50+ featured in the ad? ____ (1) alone ____ (2) with one other younger person only ____ (3) with one other 50+ person only ____ (4) with other 50+ people only ____ (5) with various age groups 11. In which kind of setting do the characters operate? ____ (1) private (Go To Item 12) ____ (2) public (SKIP TO Item 13) ____ (3) combination (Go To Item 12) ____ (4) not applicable / cannot be coded (SKIP TO Item 14) 12. Specify all the private set ting(s) seen in the ad. ____ (1) kitchen/ dining room ____ (2) living room ____ (3) bedroom ____ (4) other places inside the house ____ (5) indoors away from home ____ (6) other private setting: please specify _______________________________ 13. Specify all the public set ting(s) seen in the ad. ____ (1) public place ____ (2) riding inside transportation ____ (3) business office / working place ____ (4) school ____ (5) outdoors away from home ____ (6) other public setting: please specify _______________________________

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64 Variables 14-20: Portrayals of the 50+ Major Character(s) in the Ad 14. Are 50+ people one of majo r character(s) in the ad? (Major characters are defined as people who a ppear the central to the ad and who have a prominent role in product promotion. If the char acter is a spokesperson, is on camera for more than one-half of the ad, or speak s throughout the ad as a main char acter or reference, they are considered a major character. There could be mo re than one major character in a commercial.) (Greco, 1993, Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) ____ (1) Yes ____ (2) No (SKIP TO Item 21) 15. Primary ethnicity presented by 50 + major characte r(s) in the ad: ____ (1) Eastern (Eastern models include ch aracters who are Taiwanese, Cantonese, Singaporean, Korean, or other Asian groups) (Cho, 2005, p.34) ____ (2) Western (Westerns are people originally from North America, Latin America, Europe, or other non-Asian groups) (Cho, 2005, p.34) 16. The role portrayed by the major 50+ character(s) in the ad (select one): ____ (1) spouse / couple ____ (2) parents / grandparents ____ (3) other family members ____ (4) friends ____ (5) occupational partners ____ (6) others: please specify __________________________________________ ____ (7) not applicable / cannot be coded 17. In what activity are the ma jor 50+ characters engaged? ____ (1) family events ____ (2) working ____ (3) recreation ____ (4) dining ____ (5) sleeping ____ (6) chatting with others

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65 ____ (7) walking / on transportation ____ (8) sitting / taking rest ____ (9) others: please specify __________________________________________ 18. Competency of the primary 50+ major character ____ (1) strong competency (The character displays mental and physic al competence in ca rrying out the role portrayed. The character is shown as au thoritative, skillful or controlling, and enjoys a particular activity.) (Pet erson & Ross, 1997; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) ____ (2) neither strong nor weak competency (The character’s display or presentation of skill is neither authoritative nor unauthoritative, but can be consid ered relatively non-descript.) ____ (3) weak competency (The character displays mental or physic al incompetence in carry out the role portrayed, exemplified by the appearance of being impaired, helpless, uninformed, weak, lazy, a victim, or displaying stereo typically negative be havior associated with age, such as bad temper, forgetfulness) (Peterson & Ross, 1997; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) 19. Product-related role of the primary 50+ major character ____ (1) authorities / spokesp ersons for the product ____ (2) product user ____ (3) decorative role ____ (4) not applicable / cannot be coded 20. Information role of the primary 50+ major character ____ (1) information giver (The character provides information to others present in the ad or in the audience) (Greco, 1993, p.146) ____ (2) information receiver (The character is categorized as the recipient of info rmation about a product or service) (Greco, 1993, p.146) ____ (3) not applicable / cannot be coded

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66 Variables 21-27: Portrayals of the 50+ Minor Character(s) in the Ad 21. Are 50+ people featured as minor character(s) in the ad? (Minor/supporting character(s) are defined as people who play a supporting role in product promotion on ads. The character(s) 1) may not have a major speaking part, 2) are not scene as the prominent reference for other characters in the co mmercial, or 3) is on camera for less than onehalf of the ad. There could be more than one minor character in a commercial) (Greco, 1993, Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) ____ (1) Yes ____ (2) No (SKIP TO Item 28) 22. Primary ethnicity presented by 50+ minor character(s) in the ad: ____ (1) Eastern (Eastern models include ch aracters who are Taiwanese, Cantonese, Singaporean, Korean, or other Asian groups) (Cho, 2005, p.34) ____ (2) Western (Westerns are people originally from North America, Latin America, Europe, or other non-Asian groups) (Cho, 2005, p.34) 23. The role portrayed by the minor 50+ character(s) in the ad (select one): ____ (1) spouse / couple ____ (2) parents / grandparents ____ (3) other family members ____ (4) friends ____ (5) occupational partners ____ (6) others: please specify __________________________________________ ____ (7) not applicable / cannot be coded 24. In what activity are the mi nor 50+ characters engaged? ____ (1) family events ____ (2) working ____ (3) recreation ____ (4) dining ____ (5) sleeping

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67 ____ (6) chatting with others/ speaking to others ____ (7) walking / on transportation ____ (8) sitting / taking rest ____ (9) others: please specify __________________________________________ 25. Competency of the primary 50+ minor character ____ (1) strong competency (The character displays mental and physic al competence in ca rrying out the role portrayed. The character is shown as au thoritative, skillful or controlling, and enjoys a particular activity.) (Pet erson & Ross, 1997; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) ____ (2) neither strong nor weak competency (The character’s display or presentation of skill is neither authoritative nor unauthoritative, but can be consid ered relatively non-descript.) ____ (3) weak competency (The character displays mental or physic al incompetence in carry out the role portrayed, exemplified by the appearance of being impaired, helpless, uninformed, weak, lazy, a victim, or displaying stereo typically negative be havior associated with age, such as bad temper, forgetfulness) (Peterson & Ross, 1997; Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) 26. Product-related role of the primary 50+ minor character ____ (1) authorities / spokesp ersons for the product ____ (2) product user ____ (3) decorative role ____ (4) not applicable / cannot be coded 27. Information role of the primary 50+ minor character ____ (1) information giver (The character provides information to others present in the ad or in the audience) (Greco, 1993, p.146) ____ (2) information receiver (The character is categorized as the recipient of info rmation about a product or service) (Greco, 1993, p.146) ____ (3) not applicable / cannot be coded

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68 Variables 28-29: Portrayals of the 50+ Background Charact er(s) in the Ad 28. Are there people 50+ featured as background character(s) in the ad? (Background character(s) are people who are not ac tively involved in ad’s message, but whose presence may give the ad greater context. The ch aracter(s) do not speak and are seen only for a few seconds; camera does not zoom in on them. Th ese people are more a face in the crowd or passer-by.) (Greco, 1993, Simcock & Sudbury, 2006) ____ (1) Yes ____ (2) No (SKIP Item 29) 29. In what activity are the 50+ background characters engaged? ____ (1) family events ____ (2) working ____ (3) recreation ____ (4) dining ____ (5) sleeping ____ (6) chatting with others ____ (7) walking / on transportation ____ (8) sitting / taking rest ____ (9) others: please specify __________________________________________ Other Observations: Please specify any other observations which c ould be valuable to understanding this ad: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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69 LIST OF REFERENCES Arens, W. F. (1991). Contemporary Advertising (7th ed.). US: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Babie, E. (2001). The Practice of Social Research (9th ed.). California: Wadsworth, Inc. Baker, J., & Goggin, N. (1994). Portrayals of olde r adults in Modern Maturity advertisements. Educational Gerontology 20 (2), 139-145. Benady, D. (2004). Marketing's age concern. Marketing Week 27 (44), 22-25. Bradley, D. E., & Longino, C. F. (2001). How ol der people think about images of aging in advertising and the media. Generations 25 (3), 17-21. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) (2007). BBC News Country profile: Taiwan London: Broadcasting House Retrieved May 1, 2007 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asiapacific/country_profiles/1285915.stm Carrigan, M., & Szmigin, I. (1999). The represen tation of older people in advertisements. Journal of the Market Research Society, 41 (3), 311-326. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2007). The World Factbook–Taiwan Washington, DC: Directorate of Intelligen ce. Retrieved May 1, 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/cia/public ations/factbook/geos/tw.html Cho, W. (2005). Gender-Role Portrayals in Taiwan’s Television Commercials: A Content Analysis of Times Adver tising Award Winners 1997-2002. Unpublished thesis, University of Florida. Council for Economic Planni ng and Development (2006). Press Release: Policy for Population Aging.Taipei: Taiwan Executive Department Retrieved October 30, 2006 from http://www.cepd.gov.tw/upload/News/951114NEWS@49463.10056431557@.pdf Datamonitor (2005). Media Industry Profile: Taiwan. Retrieved December 03, 2006 from the Business Source Premier database. Davis, J. J. (1997). Advertising research: Theory and practice Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Directorate General of Budget, Accounting, and Statistics (2006). Overview of Older People’s Resident Arrangement. Taipei: Taiwan Executive Department Retrieved May 2, 2007 from http://www.stat.gov.tw/public/Data/6741881271.pdf Economist Intelligence Unit, EIU (2006). Main report 2006 Country Profile Taiwan. London: Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved October 30, 2006 from http://portal.eiu.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/inde x.asp?layout=displayIssueTOC&issue_id=165026 0350&publication_id=1970000797

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70 Editorial department (2006). A dvertising annual report 2005. Brain Magazine, 359 42-45. Taipei, Taiwan: Brain Magazine, Inc. Festervand, T., & Lumpkin, J. (1985). Response of Elderly Consumers to Their Portrayal by Advertisers. Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 8 (2), 203-226. Freedom House (2006). Map of Press Freedom. New York Freedom House, Inc Retrieved December 03, 2006 from http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=251&year=2006 Gantz, W., Gartenberg, H. M., & Rainbow, C. K. (1980). Approaching Invi sibility: The Portrayal of the Elderly in Magazine Advertisements. Journal of Communication 30(1), 56-60. Geert Hofstede (2007 ). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions: Taiwan Retrieved April 27, 2007, from http://www.geert-hofstede.co m/hofstede_taiwan.shtml Global Market Information Database for University of Florida (GMID) (2006). Chicago Euromonitor International Inc Retrieved December 03, 2006 from http://www.gmid.euromonitor.com. lp.hscl.ufl.edu/StatsPage.aspx Government Information Office (2006). Taiwan Yearbook 2006 Taipei: Government Information Office. Retrieved October 30, 2006 from http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwanwebsite/5-gp/yearbook/contents.htm Greco, A. (1993). The incidence and portrayal of the elderl y in television advertising. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 2 (1), 140-154. Harwood, J., & Roy, A. (1999). The portrayal of ol der adults in Indian and U.S. magazine advertisements. Howard Journal of Communications 10 (4), 269-280. Health Association of the Un ited States (2001). Don't disc ount buying power of seniors. Health Progress, Mar/Apr. Retrieved December 04, 2006 from http://www.findarticles.com/p/ articles/mi_qa3859/is_200103/ai_n8944192 Hoyer, W. D., & Maclnnis, D. J. (2001). Consumer Behavior (2nd). MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Internet World Stats (2006). Taiwan Internet Usage Stats and Marketing Report. Bogota Miniwatts Marketing Group Retrieved December 03, 2006 from http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia/tw.htm Kavanagh, M. (1995). Bright fu ture for a grey sector. Marketing. London Jan, 29-31. Kinsella, K., & Phillips D. R. (2005). Gl obal Aging: The Challenge of Success. Population Reference Bureau 40 (1), 1-42. Retrieved December 04, 2006 from http://www.prb.org/pdf05/60.1GlobalAging.pdf

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71 Korzenny, F., & Neuendorf, K. (1980). Growing older: perceptions and representations television viewing and self -concept of the elderly. Journal of Communication, 30 (1), 7180. Kvaniscka, B., Beymer, B., & Perloff, R. M. (1982). Portrayals of th e elderly in magazine advertisements. Journalism Quarterly, 59 (4), 656-658. Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M. (2005). Recogniti on and respect revisited: portrayals of age and gender in prime-time television. Mass Communication & Society, 8 (3), 241-256. Leiss, W., Kline, S., & Jhally, S. (1990). Social communication in advertising (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall. Long, N. (1998). Broken down by age and sex--expl oring the ways we approach the elderly consumer. Journal of the Market Research Society, 40 (2), 73-91. Markson, E. W., & Taylor, C. A. (2000). The mirror has two faces. Aging & Society, 20 137160. Melillo, W. (2002). JWT set to criticize ageism in ads. Adweek Midwest Edition 43 (35), 21. Nelson, S., & Smith, R. (1988). The influence of model age or older consumers' reactions to print advertising. Current Issues & Research in Advertising 11 (1), 189-212. Newman, K., & Nollen, S. (1996). Culture and Congruence: The Fit between Management Practices and National Culture. Journal of International Business Studies 27 (4), 753-779. Nielson, J., & Curry, K. (1997). Creative strategi es for connecting with mature individuals. Journal of Consumer Marketing 14 (4/5), 310-322. Peterson, R. T., & Ross, D. T. (1997). A content an alysis of the portrayal of mature individuals in television commercials. Journal of Business Ethics 16(4), 425-433. Population Reference Bureau (PRB) (2006). 2006 World Population Data Sheet. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved December 04, 2006 from http://www.prb.org/pdf06/06WorldDataSheet.pdf Robinson, J., & Skill, T. (1995). The Invisible Ge neration: Portrayals of the Elderly on Primetime Television. Communication Reports 8 (2), 111-119. Robinson, T., & Umphrey, D. (2006). Firstand th ird-person perceptions of images of older people in advertising: an inter-generational evaluation. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 62 (2), 159-173. Roy, A., & Harwood, J. (1997). Underrepresente d, positively portrayed: Older adults in television commercials. Journal of Applied Communication Research 25, 35-56.

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72 Schimmack, U., Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2005). Individualism: A Valid and Important Dimension of Cultural Differences Between Nations. Personality & Social Psychology Review 9 (1), 17-31. Shao, A., Raymond, M., & Taylor, C. (1999). Shifting Advertising Appeals in Taiwan. Journal of Advertising Research 39 (6), 61-69. Simcock P., & Sudbury L. (2006). The invisibl e majority Older models in UK television advertising. International Journal of Advertising 25(1), 87-106. TAIWAN (2005). Campaign (UK) 11-11. Retrieved December 03, 2006 from the Business Source Premier database. Taiwan National Statistics (2006). Population by 5-Year Age Group Taipei: Taiwan Executive Department. Retrieved October 30, 2006 from http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/stat/month/m106.xls Tse, D., Belk, R., & Zhou, N. (1989). Becoming a Consumer Society: A Longitudinal and CrossCultural Content Analysis of Print Ads from Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Research 15 (4), 457-472. Wang, Y., Jaw, J. J., Pinkleton, B. E., & Mort on, C. (1997). Toward th e understanding of advertising appeals in Taiwanese ma gazine ads and its implications. Competitiveness Review 7(1), 46-61. Wimmer, R.D., & Dominick, J.R. (1991). Mass Media Research (3rd ed.). California: Wadsworth, Inc. Zandpour, F., Chang, C., & Catalano, J. (1992). Stories, symbols, and straight talk: a comparative analysis of French, Taiwanese, and U.S. TV commercials. Journal of Advertising Research 32 (1), 25-38. Zhang, Y., Harwood, J., Williams, A., Ylnne-MceW en, V., Wadleigh, P., & Thimm, C. (2006). The Portrayal of Older Adults in Advertising. Journal of Language & Social Psychology 25 (3), 264-282.

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73 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tzu-Yin Chen was born and raised in Kaohs iung, Taiwan. She was awarded a bachelor degree from National Taipei University in 2002, with a major in cooperative economics. Following graduation, she worked as marketing assi stant at Euzion Industri es Inc., a distributor of GE TOSHIBA Silicones Co., Ltd. In fall 2005, she came to the University of Florida to pursue her master’s degree in advertisi ng. After finishing the study at th e University of Florida, she plans to go back to Taiwan and con tinue working in marketing area.