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Model Program for Construction Crisis and Disaster Management


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1 MODEL PROGRAM FOR CONSTRUCTION CRI SIS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT By DEEPAK SHARMA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Deepak Sharma

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3 To my parents For their constant encouragemen t and support throughout my life.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank those who have helped me in the completion of the thesis. I would like to thank Dr. Hinze for his constant support and direction in the pr ocess of completing the project. Dr. Grosskopf and Dr. We therington need special mention for their care and vision with the project. My inspiration to study comes from my parents, S.L.Sharma and Urmil Sharma who encouraged me to study Building Construction. I am thankful to them. I am also thankful to my brother Dr. S.K.Sharma and bhabhi Dr. Suman Sharma for believing in me and constantly encouraging me in my pursuits. All my friends and teachers need special thanks as they encouraged me to set high goals and strive to ach ieve them. I am also th ankful to all in the faculty including Dr. Issa and Dr. Chini for their guidance and care.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................14 Overview....................................................................................................................... ..........14 Terms.......................................................................................................................... ............23 Construction Companies and Community Re lationship during Crisis/Disaster Events.........24 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................27 4 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......33 Description of Construction Crisis/D isaster Management (CCDM) Model..........................35 Step 1: Potential Crisis /Disaster Identification................................................................35 Step 2: Risk Assessment..................................................................................................35 Step 3: Develop and Implement Plan..............................................................................38 Step 4: Drills & Evaluation of Drills:..............................................................................40 Advanced Notice of th e Crisis/Disaster..........................................................................41 Step 5: Recognizing Signs of Possi ble Crisis/Disaster (Monitoring)..............................43 Step 6: Activate the Prepar ation and Mitigation Plan.....................................................43 Step 6a: Preparation.................................................................................................43 Step 6b: Risk communication..................................................................................45 Step 6c: Mitigation...................................................................................................46 Step 7: Response..............................................................................................................47 Step 8: Recovery..............................................................................................................47 Step 9: Post Response Assessment..................................................................................49 Step 10: Share Lessons Learned......................................................................................49 Step 11: Credit the Efforts...............................................................................................49 Step 12: Evaluate Need for Change.................................................................................50 Step 13: Modify the Plan.................................................................................................50 Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........51 Case of Hurricane............................................................................................................51 Case of Earthquake..........................................................................................................59

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6 Case of On-site Fall.........................................................................................................62 5 CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................................67 6 RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................................68 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..69 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................71

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Top 10 Natural disaster by number of deaths: 2005..........................................................16 2-2 Number of people killed by type of cr isis/disaster and leve l of development 19912005........................................................................................................................... .........17 4-1 Category of Hurricanes..................................................................................................... .52

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Number of natural disasters by country: 1976-2005..........................................................15 2-2 Time trend of natural disasters, 1975-2005.......................................................................17 2-3 Number of people reported killed by type of crisis/dis aster and level of country development 1991-2005.....................................................................................................18 2-4 Oblique aerial view northeast and upstr eam of Teton Dam site as it looks today.............26 4-1 Model for construction crisis /disaster management (CCDM)...........................................34 4-2 Risk Analysis of the constructi on crisis/disaster at various levels....................................37

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Build ing Construction MODEL PROGRAM FOR CONSTRUC TION CRISIS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT By Deepak Sharma May 2007 Chair: Jimmie Hinze Cochair: Kevin Grosskopf Major: Building Construction Today, the United States and many parts of the world are at significant risk of natural and man-made disasters. Hazards are naturally o ccurring or man-made phenomenon that may result in disaster when occurring in a populated, comm ercial or industrial area. Although there is no system in either the private or public sector for consistently compiling comprehensive disaster costs, conservative estimates indi cate a cost of at least $20 bil lion annually in loss of life and property, disruption of commerce a nd recovery. The rationale of th is study is to provide an overview of the hazard risks facing or potentially facing construction projec ts and to review the current efforts to improve the disaster resilienc y, as well as present a model that can serve as a guide for addressing disast er that might impact a construction project. Extreme weather events, hurricanes, flooding, to rnadoes, drought, wild fires, earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and disease epidemics are so me natural challenges at the macro level that can adversely impact a construction project. Disasters including critic al infrastructure threats, oil and chemical spills, building fire s, falls, and cave-ins are examples of man-made disasters that may need to be addressed. The work of OSHA is inadequate to address many of the problems that might occur. Although, the Federal Emerge ncy Management Agency (FEMA) is working

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10 for the cause in reducing the adve rse impact of disasters at the na tional level, much needs to be done for the emergency control and disaster mitigation on construction projects. Emergency management is the process by which all individu als, groups, and communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the damage re sulting from crisis/disaster events. Actions taken depend in part on the perceptions of risk of those exposed. The research carefully analyzed the crisis/d isaster identification, ri sk assessment, risk communication, mitigation, prediction and prepar edness for the construction industry in the times of natural and man-made crises/disasters The model generated could be helpful in the preventative and reactive measures exercised when disasters are a possibility or after they have occurred. Thus, the research would enhance th e decision making capabilities of construction managers during the sensitive crisis/disaster phases.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The US economy is adversely affected each year by weather and climate events. Between 1980 and 2002, the U.S. endured 54 weather-related crises/disasters in which overall damages and costs reached or exceeded $1 billion per event. Of these cr ises/disasters, 45 occurred during the 1988-2002 period with total damages and related costs of nearly $200 billion. Hazards are naturally occurring or huma n-made phenomenon that may result in crisis/disaster, especial ly when occurring in populated, comm ercial or indust rial areas. Although there is no established system or mechanism fo r compiling comprehensive crisis/disaster costs, conservative estimates indicate that $20 billion is lost annually in terms of loss of life and damaged property, disruption of comm erce, and costs of recovery. Extreme weather events, hurricanes, flooding, to rnadoes, drought, wild fires, earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and disease epidemics are ex amples of some large-scale challenges that may be envisioned. Man-made crises/disasters incl uding critical infrastruc ture threats, oil and chemical spills, building fires, falls, and cave-ins are examples of a few activities that may also result in costly losses. The work of the Occ upational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is inadequate to properly address many of th e problems that may occur. Although the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was esta blished to address crises/disasters at the national level, more needs to be done for em ergency control and crisis/disaster mitigation. Emergency management is the process by wh ich all individuals, groups, companies and communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ame liorate the impact of crises/disasters. Actions taken depend in pa rt on perceptions of the risks of those exposed. Managers of construction recognize that many types of natural and man-made crises/disasters can be experienced on construction projects. The ultimate impact of

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12 crisis/disaster on a constructi on project can be severe. Thes e impacts may be reduced or minimized if an effective program is implemented. Such a program will include steps taken to prepare for crises/disasters, as well as efforts to efficiently and systematically recover from them. Aim and objectives. One of the characteristics of cris es/disasters is that their occurrence is uncertain or irregular and this requires special atten tion from the impacted individuals, companies and communities due to their potential vastness of the resultant damage. Crises/disasters that may need to be addressed include the following: Extreme weather events, including hurri canes, flooding, tornadoes, and drought Wildfires Earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides Disease epidemics Man-made crises/disasters, including critical infrastructure threats, oil and chemical spills, and building fires Falls Heavy machinery accidents Small tools emergencies Cave-in events Plant or animal related incidents Terrorists attacks on construction sites Jobsite violence Crisis/disaster planning, emergency preparedness or business continuity (different terms for the related theme) have goals that are ultimat ely the same: to get an organization back up and running in the event of an interru ption resulting from a crisis/dis aster. The problem causing the interruption could be one machine that was misha ndled or an entire netw ork crashing. It could also be an electrical outage or damage resulting from terrorist activity. Th e goal is to have some type of plan in the event of a problem. A cris is/disaster management plan will outline the basic procedures to be followed to minimize the adverse impact of the crisis/disaster.

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13 The study will provide an overview of several risks facing constructi on projects, review the efforts that may be taken to address these ri sks, as well as generate a new model to address crises/disasters of vari ous types that might imp act a construction project.

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14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Overview Merriam Webster defines disast er as a sudden calamitous ev ent bringing great damage, loss, or destruction. The definition for the closely related word crisis refe rs to the unstable or crucial time or state of affairs in which a decisi ve change is impending; especially one with the distinct possibility of a highly undesirable outc ome (Merriam-Webster). It is for these two events; crisis and disaster that the research scie nces are trying to create models of defense and recovery which can lead to a better outcome. Cris is could be the origin of disaster, and disaster could be the beginning of another crisis. Disaster is perceived as a state of extreme ru in and misfortune, and it is worthy of being addressed critically. Disaster ca n also be viewed as any inci dent that can focus negative attention in a company and have an advers e effect on its overall financial condition, its relationships with its clients, or its reputation in the marketplace (Reid 2000). It was not until the 1930s that the U.S. government became actively involved in crisis/disaster re sponse and then did some informal work by providing funding to repair highways and bridges damaged by na tural crises/disasters or building flood-control projects. Nuclear war and nuclear fallout were the grea test risks in the 1950s and most emergency management efforts were focused on civil defens e programs at all federal levels. During the 1960s and 70s, a number of large natural crises/d isasters beset the country, conspicuously the Ash Wednesday storm along the mid-Atlantic coas t of the United States (1962), the Alaskan earthquake (1964), Hurricane Camille (1969), the San Fernando Valley earthquake (1971) and Christmas tsunami (2004). The Centre for Resear ch on the Epidemiology of Disasters analyzed graphically the geographical dist ribution of natural crises/disas ters at the world level from 1976

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15 to 2005 (Figure 2-1). More than 120 natural crises/disasters were noted in such countries as Russia, China, India, Iran, Australia and the Unites States. Figure 2-1 Number of natural disasters by c ountry: 1976-2005 (Source: Na tural Disasters Maps. EM-DAT Emergency Disasters Data Base) Even after a series of critical events, federa l assistance was continued to be extended only on an ad hoc basis where special needs arose. Many of the government agencies and departments had partial responsibility or limited governing aut hority over crisis/disaster response. In 1979 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) wa s created in order to centralize emergency management functions at the federal level. Preparedness is the foundation of emer gency management and helps to reduce vulnerability to threats. The establishment of warning systems, evacuation plans, pre-impact preparedness, special-needs and similar responses should not be a mere elegant traffic analysis but carefully worked out practical plans. The most vulnerable population should be taken into consideration when making plans. Although it is difficult to predict the number of

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16 crises/disasters in the coming years, the time trend of natural crises/disasters from 1975-2005 shows an increase in the number of crises/d isasters for the past years. Many of these crises/disasters occurred in high population countries such as th e Peoples Republic of China and India. A significant number of crises/disasters also hit the United States (Table 2-1). As shown in Figure 2-2, the number of crises/dis asters appears to be increasing. Table 2-1 Top 10 Natural disaster by nu mber of deaths: 2005 (Source: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED)

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17 Figure 2-2: Time trend of na tural disasters, 1975-2005 (Sour ce: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED) The number of people killed from 1991-2005 was examined by different categories of development level of the countries which is shown in Table 2.2 and Figure 2.3. Figure 2.3 projects the percentage of loss caused by major natural crises/dis asters in different areas of world categorized under different levels of development. Table 2-2: Number of people killed by type of crisis/disaster and le vel of development 19912005 (Source: ISDR. Disaster Statistics)

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18 Figure 2-3: Number of people reported killed by type of cr isis/disaster and level of country development 1991-2005 (Source: ISDR. Di saster Statistics) To plan for crisis/disas ter, it is important to identify the various risks and to understand their inter-relationships. Losses from crises/d isasters can take many forms on a construction project, including financial losse s, physical destruction, and de lays in the schedule (Cooper and

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19 Chapman 1987). When addressing cris es/disasters, it is important to anticipate failure modes and to then take steps to prevent those failure m odes from developing catastrophic events (Petroski 1994). Catastrophic events are associated with hi gh risk occurrences, but low risk occurrences with lesser impacts are also a concern. Low risk events tend to be handled by redundancy and duplication (Sagan 1993). The US aircraft carrier operations are high risk in nature, especially during war time. These high risk operations involve computers, antenna s and personnel. Because of the complexity, redundancy with additional assigne d personnel and an overlap of responsibilities is standard procedure. In 2006, Michael Tarrant stated the following about risk: A key theme which is often raised is that there should be increased community participation and responsibility in managing ris k. If there is an exp ectation of significant changes in behavior by individuals then risk assessment and/or risk management will have to move beyond the idea that ri sk is something that is inde pendent of minds and cultures, waiting to be measured. Unless an approach is developed that moves beyond technical assessments, people are doomed to be met with either apathy or occasional aggression by the public when attempting to engage them in managing risk. The idea that risk can be objectively quantified is often expressed in equations such as risk = consequence x probability. Risk management consists of assessing, mi nimizing, and preventing accidental loss to a business, as through the use of in surance, safety measures, etc. Risk assessment on every project is a valuable exercise for any project manageme nt team to address. This may eventually be addressed in the general comp any policies on site management Companies should focus on the kinds of plans required to address the needs cr eated by crisis/disaster. Some have tried to increase the probability of successfully mana ging risk by teaming up with others. OSHA has worked with the National Res ponse Team of the Environmenta l Protection Agency. Also, the Department of Transportation has made efforts to develop plans for addressing crises/disasters, but there is a lack of critical reviews being conducted. Salmon ( 2005) descried risk analysis at

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20 the world level, where terrorists attacks were identified as the result of gap in the global architecture of governmental, non-governmen tal and quasi-governmental organizations Hazard analysis involves identifying and a ssessing the characteristics of hazards in communities and the environment. If the trend to manage risk through greater participation and the acceptance of individual responsibilities is to be successful, then many issues will have to be addressed. Public education and awareness is of limited value until there is a greater appreciation of the way people think about ri sk and their decision-making processes. A key theme, which is often raised, is that there should be increased community participati on and responsibility in managing risk (Tarrant 2006). Alex ander (2006) described the globa lization of crises/disasters with the vulnerability as th e conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors. The National Response Plan establishes a comp rehensive all-hazards approach to enhance the ability of the United States to manage dom estic incidents. The plan incorporates best practices and procedures from incident ma nagement disciplines (Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA, Na tional Disaster Medical System or NDMS, Urban Search and Rescue or USAR, Disaster Mort uary Operations Response Team or DMORT, Disaster Medical Assistance Team or DMAT etc.), and integrates them with the entities: Homeland security Emergency management Law enforcement Firefighting Public works Public health Responder and recovery work er health and safety Emergency medical services Private sector

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21 Smith (2006) refers to the use of special code systems in th e alert mechanisms for hospital emergencies. The examples of the codes include the following: Code blue: Medical emergency Code red: Fire Code white: Pediatric medical emergency Code amber: Infant or child abduction Code yellow: Bomb threat Code gray: Security emergency/ patient elopement Code silver: Hostage situation Code orange: Hazardous material Code triage: External disasters situation Code clear or green: Situation is resolved It has been suggested that a similar code designation needs to be developed for the construction industry. Much effort is needed to integrate practices and procedures into a unified structure. Big companies have more resources than the small firms. Big companies can have multiple construction sites that can be utilized to provide resources to a construction site that was struck by crisis/disaster. Small businesses have a few options so they need to be more creative when drafting their emergency pl ans (Barrel 2007). Because of th e limited resources of the small firms, federal departments and agencies will work together with them to coordinate with state, local, and tribal governments and th e private sector during crisis/d isaster incidents. Established protocols are necessary to help protect the natio n from terrorist attacks and other natural and man-made hazards; save lives; protect public h ealth, safety, property, and the environment; and reduce adverse psychological c onsequences and disruptions to the American way of life. Roger Kemp (2007) presents a nine point formul a to assess the vulnerabi lity of buildings to crisis/disaster: 1. Visibility 2. Criticality to Jurisdiction 3. Site Impact outside the Jurisdiction 4. Public Accessibility 5. Possible on-site hazards

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22 6. Building Height 7. Building Construction sturdiness 8. Site population capacity 9. Potential for Collateral mass casualties Kemp states that the office, stor age and manufacturing plants are not the targets of the terrorists attacks, but the governmental build ings, transportation centers, nucle ar plants, and factories that produce war materials. It is almost unpredictabl e to know the minds of terrorists but Kemp encourages more preparation in the above men tioned facilities. The sc ale of the construction project is the most important f actor which Kemp forgets to me ntion. All the weaknesses in the security systems are the causal factors in the crises/disasters by terrorism. In 2000, Gunes and Kovel, described the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in dealing with the hazards for Douglas County in the state of Kansas The GIS-based decision support system was developed to safeguard ag ainst the flood zones in Douglas County. The flood zones were made to be identified and analyzed accurately using GIS technology. Orthophoto, hydrography, and digital elevation models were used to obtain a total understanding of the area under study. The study encouraged the us e of graphical image systems as even a nontechnical observer could analy ze the area under consideration. In addition, other supportive methods of understanding the geol ogy and soil zones using graphical systems can be helpful for addressing crises/disasters in the constr uction industry. Employing special emergency consultants is described by Brow n (2002), as one of the solutions where consultants can provide the construction companies with written emergency plans and can visit the facility maintaining its safe completion. Leonard and Howitt (2006) wrote about Hurricane Katrina as the most devastating storm. They made comparisons with Hurricane Andr ew in 1992 and the Missouri River floods of 1993. The damage caused by Katrina occurred over near ly 100,000 square miles of area, roughly the

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23 land mass of the United Kingdom. The aftermath had the people stunned, as instantaneous response was difficult to analyze and put into action. The lesson learned was that the United States was not prepared for such a big crisis/dis aster. Many construction s ites were ill-prepared to address such a massive attack by nature. In 2006, the Oklahoma Sciences Research Center prepared a six-step model to improve the capacity of public health agencies to respond to any hazardous event. The proposed model integrated aspects of two existing approaches with concepts from the field of emergency management, and emphasized the importance of timely evaluation. The evaluation of this paradigm included both individual workers and larger work groups It addressed both general goals and the agencys local plan. This model also stressed the need to work with all levels of the agency to develop the local plan. The eval uation was accomplished us ing self-assessment, measures of objective knowledge ratings of individual perfor mance, and ratings of team performance. Though based on a pilo t study, that model may have appl ications for other agencies working to increase their capacity to respond to hazardous events. Terms The research by International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2005) focused on different environments of construction, so the understanding of a few term s could be helpful in creating solutions for the emergency events. The terms are as follows: All-hazards approach: an integrated hazard mana gement strategy that in corporates planning for and consideration of all potential natural a nd man-made hazard threats, including terrorism. Disaster risk: the chance of a hazard event occurring and resulting in disaster Hazard event: the specific occurrence of a hazard Hazard risk: the chance of a hazard event occurring Natural disaster: a disaster that results from a natural hazard event

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24 Natural hazard: a hazard that originates in natural phenomena (hurricane, earthquake, tornado, etc.) Man-made hazard: a hazard that originates in accidental or intentional human activity (oil spill, chemical spill, building fires, terrorism, etc.) Emergency planning: procedures and steps taken immediately after an interruption to construction activity Disaster recovery: steps taken to restore some functions so that some level of services can be offered Business continuity : restoration planning, completing the full circle to get the organization back to where it was before an interruption There are no generalized templates, as one framework for crisis/disaster planning and recovery cannot fit all. Ther e are some common elements among plans, but every charted plan will be unique because every organizations stru cture and circumstances are unique. It is the objective of this research to de velop a generalized crisis/disaste r management plan that could address a wide range of crises/disasters. Construction Companies and Community Relationship during Crisis/Disaster Events Americans in todays world are more vulnera ble to hurricanes than in the past. The hurricane-prone coastline of the United States now houses nearly 50 million people. Hurricane Katrina devastated a major city in 2005. The commitment to reach the community in crisis/disaster even t could have been best served if had a plan of action for them too. Unfortunately, there was no orchestrated plan; ce rtainly none that could that could address a crisis/disaster of the scale of Hurricane Katrina. Natural crises/disasters of the scale of Hurricane Katrina need crisis/disaster planning at the community level. Local construction firms can also play a significant role in the recovery phase. The community services that can be provided to the neighborhood after natural crises/disaster includes such activities as cut ting down fallen trees; hau ling off the debris; and

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25 providing transportation; supplying water and providing other need ed services. The construction company could make a decision to defer actions on its own project site while the community needs are addressed. A company could take comple te control of the situ ation or work closely with the governmental agencies in addressing th e issue. The National Guard could be served by contacting them directly. Assisting the commun ity can help the companys own workers feel pride in the values of the organiza tions policies and humanitarian work. Community services and the companys own c onstruction project requi re attention and a decision is needed on how to best allocate the resources. This decision will be based on the nature of the damage inflicted by the crisis/disas ter. Three different scenarios are possible at the time of crises/disasters, which are as follows: Crisis/disaster at construction site and community unaffected Crisis/disaster at construction site and community also affected Construction site unaffected, but co mmunity suffers from crisis/disaster The organization could think of supporting the community with tran sportation vehicles or some other equipment to help the neighbo rhood address its immediate needs. There are often special needs of the community or neighborhood in times of crisis/disaster. If only the construction site has sustained damage all efforts will be focused on the construction site. If, both the construction si te and the community are affected, allocating resources between the construction site and the community will be th e key decisions to be made in the early stages. Providing assistance to the commun ity in the hours of crisis ma y be a moral obligation assumed by the company. In the case where only the community is impacted, the immediate need will be to implement actions for the benefit of the community. History is replete with examples where part ies in neighboring area came out and helped those in the community in a time of need. For in stance, after the Teton Dam collapse on June 5,

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26 1976 (Figure 2-4) the constructi on companies in the region provi ded help to the community. Bulldozers and crews were immediately deploy ed to plug the leak. Some workers put themselves at risk to help the communit y. The construction comp anies extended their commitment beyond financial support. Donations of diverse supplies, equipment, services and expertise to enhance the on-ground relief activities saved lives and resources. Figure 2-4: Oblique aerial view northeast and upstream of Teton Dam site as it looks today (Source: U. S. Bureau of Reclamation)

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27 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The overall objective of this research was to de velop a model that could be used to address the effective management of any crisis or disast er that might impact a co nstruction project. With the model, a construction manager could devise an appropriate management plan to address an impending or potential crisis/dis aster. As such, the model could provide the underlying foundation to develop a management plan to addre ss any crisis or disaster. The challenges for developing the model on crisis and disaster management were associated primarily with the varying types of calamities and their consequences. For example, the model was to address minor crisis situations (power failu re) and major disasters (hurricanes). The methodology followed in this research was guided by the objec tives of the study, which were to develop a standardized approach fo r disaster mitigation and crisis management in construction. The steps taken to obtain sufficient informa tion on crisis/disaster management were as follows: A literature search was conducted on relevant material describing emergency management, disaster mitigation and any crisis event that might impact a construction project The impacts of crises/disasters and events were studied on a global basis The private and public institutional efforts of crisis/disaster management were collected Media coverage on crisis/disaster cases was studied Construction industry approaches to address crisis/disaster si tuations were examined in journals, magazines, the Internet and newspapers The data on relevant case studies were collected and evaluated

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28 The research was aimed at creating a model or a collection of models for crisis/disaster management on construction projects. The use of generally accepted terms rather than technological terminology was considered essential for ease of use. In th e process of developing a solution for this complex issue, the initial deve lopment steps were divided into three different categories Higher magnitude disasters Lower category disasters Localized disasters The management of a crisis/disaster is hi ghly dependent on the nature of the event. Varying levels of preparation will be required for different events. The impact of a crisis/disaster on the community and a construction site can be enormous. The model to be generated was to sequentially address all the parameters associated with the preparation for a crisis/disaster and the recovery period. The higher magnitude disast ers were the most important of the listed crises/disasters as they could result in gr eater consequences. Higher magnitude man-made disasters are not common and are generally asso ciated, in recent times, with acts of terrorism. The man-made crisis/disaster events were consider ed to be rare so that this research did not consider them. The higher magnitude types of crisis/ disasters include the following: Earthquake Extreme snow/ ice conditions Extended freeze Flood Drought Hurricane/tropical storm Lightning, especially associat ed with subsequent fire Tornado Tsunami Avalanche Landslide/mudslide Surface faulting Ground failure Disease epidemic

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29 Lower order disasters can also adversely impact construction projects. Even though the elements of disaster may be small, their conseque nces could be disastrous especially if a chain reaction is initiated. For example, a small fire ca used by a lightening strike could result in an explosion and widespread damage. Also, in the structure of a building, the whole system could fail due to progressive collapse. Thus, one sma ll event could result in a major disaster. The research identified several lower category crises/disasters including the following: Environmental accidents Groundwater contamination Long term exposure of a community to toxic chemicals Release of toxic chemicals into the air or water channels Disease epidemic (Terrorist Act as anthrax threat) Localized crises/disasters are seen as a pot ential threat to the safe completion of construction projects. Even if the area of influence is not a whole city or town, it can still impact greatly on the company performing the operations. Hu man error is recognized as one of the most crucial causes behind localized di sasters. For instance, major sources of hazardous material accidents are spills along roadways, railways, pipelines, rivers, and port areas. Hazardous materials are substances, which are harmful to th e health and safety of people and to property. Subcategories of localized crises /disasters include the following: Injury/ fatality of an employee Exposure to hazardous/radioactive material/oil Chronic safety problems Homicide Suicide Accident on the jobsite Violent acts Terrorism Damage to utility lines Equipment failure Theft/ embezzlement Damage to utility lines Fire

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30 Violent strikes Sabotage Power failure Suspicious material There are also a number of cases, which are out of the scope of this study. The following categories were not considered in the model development. Operational misconduct/ management/ administration Discontented employees Fraud Bankruptcy Contractual disputes with a client Mergers/acquisitions Negative publicity relating to politics Grievances Labor issues and appeals Sudden market uplift Blackmail Harassment Human rights violations Reorganization/ downsizing Sudden governmental changes in policies Scandals Serious cash flow problems Rapid growth Lack of bonding capability Computer viruses Institutions in different industries have th eir own working models of preparedness and response for crisis/disaster. For example, the health-care industry has response models to address multiple emergency room admissions resulti ng from a single catastrophic event. Response models were also noted in the area of sports where sports teams employ physicians to attend to unexpected serious injuries of pl ayers. Similarly, response models of police departments, fire departments, and national emergency services w ith other parallel organi zations (Red Cross, International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Group) were examined in preparation for

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31 developing a crisis/disaster manage ment model. These have served as inspirational models in the development of the construction cr isis/disaster management model. The research had a prime focus on developing a model that would help in preventing as much damage from crisis/disaster events as possible by generating a working model on which effective crisis/disaster mana gement plans could be developed and implemented. Although the model is not designed to prevent th e occurrence of a crisis/disaster, it is designed to dramatically reduce the adverse impacts of such events. The ac tion plans for different types of crisis/disaster events were evaluated. For example, considerat ion was given to the appropriate responses to address major events as hurricanes and less seri ous events as power failures. By examining various major and minor events, a wide range of mitigation response actions were identified. After that, the responses to seve ral different types of crisis/dis aster events were analyzed and common elements were identified between the di fferent approaches. Th rough this exercise, it was decided that a single model w ould be developed, i.e. most of the response elements were similar for very different crisis/disaster events. As the model was developed, it was tested to determine if it adequately addressed the needs of crisis/disaster manageme nt for different types of events. Through this process, iterative impr ovements were made to the model until it was deemed to be finalized. The final version was felt to adequately address the many types of crisis/disaster events that were examined. Further validation of the model was conducted through a third party review. J. D. Lewis, Regional Safety Director of Bovis Lend Lease, revi ewed the model for appli cability to real world crisis/disaster ev ents. Mr. Lewis suggested the formulation of a Plan B as an alternative in case the basic plan could not be used. It was d ecided that once a management plan has been developed for a crisis/disaster, an alternative plan would be appropriate in many instances. If

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32 such an alternative plan were to be develope d for a particular crisis/disaster, the same crisis/disaster management model could still apply.

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33 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The research developed a standardized model fo r crises/disasters that impact construction projects. The model was prepared to address virt ually any kind of crisis/disaster situation that could arise on construction projects. The mode l known as the Construction Crisis/Disaster Management (CCDM) model, has primarily three subparts: Plan in place to address crises/disasters Actions to be taken to prepare for a forecasted event Response to and recovery after an event The three subparts are associated with a series of different steps as shown in Figure 4-1. The plan in place consists of ch arting out procedures with consta nt refinement and revision. In the case of an advanced warning of a crisis/d isaster, certain actions are activated for the response. Not every event will have an advanced warning, so plan in place can assist in reducing the impact of a crisis /disaster even when there is no adverse wa rning. Response and recovery constitutes all the actions taken during and after the crisis/disaster event. Every step in the CCDM model contains three parts which are: assigning responsibilitie s, documenting contact information and identifying respective action steps. All levels of crisis/disaster management n eed the commitment of top management. Also, crisis/disaster management is a function handled by a team of indi viduals and is not the work of a single person in top management. Although, manage ment involvement at various levels of the crisis/disaster model is crucial, individual par ticipation with allotted responsibilities can successfully implement the model.

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34 Warning No warning Yes No Figure 4-1. Model for construction cr isis/disaster management (CCDM) 1. Potential CrisisDisaster Identification 2. Risk Assessment 6. Activate the Plan a. Preparation b. Risk Communication c. Mitigation 7. Res p onse 8. Recover y 9. Post Res p onse Assessment 10. Share Lessons Learned 11. Credit the Efforts 12. Evaluate Need for Chan g e 13. Modify the Plan 4. Drills, Evaluate Drill Success 3. Develop & Implement Plan (Preparedness, Risk Communication, Mitigation) 4-a.Modify the Plan For Every Step: 1. Assign Responsibility 2. Contact Information 3. Action Steps Event Occurs Advanced Notice Event does not occur 5. Recognizing Signs of Possible Crisis/Disaster (Monitoring)

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35 Description of Construction Crisis /Disaster Management (CCDM) Model Crises/disasters which can be anticipated can be managed and they are the ones that can be attenuated or even avoided. The following is a step-by-step description of the CCDM model: Step 1: Potential Crisis/Disaster Identification Crisis/disaster identification is the first crucial step in the CCDM model. The key points in the identification process are: Identifying potential crisis/disaster that may impact a construction site Examine historical evidence on past na tural crises/disasters in the area Step 2: Risk Assessment The risk assessment is conducted on a poten tial crisis/disaster to determine if a management plan is to be developed for it. If not, the management plan is not needed and it is not developed. Certain crises/disasters could develop in progressive stages of growth, whereas others might not show any warning signs. The initial identification of the probability of occurrence could result in efforts to stop the crisis/disaster and its aftermath. The risk for the identified crisis/disaster event could be st udied with the help of the following steps: Studying the site topography, site plan s and prevailing weather conditions Understanding the geological, meteorological, an d in some cases epidemiological factors associated with specific crisis/disaster events Understanding the use of remote sensing technol ogies like geographical information systems (GIS) Studying the surface elevation models with or thophotos, hydrographic surveys in case of flood zones Understanding all existing infrastructure f acilities in the construction site region Understanding and training of medical procedures such as first aid Analyzing the budget for emergency services

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36 Hypothesizing the probable agen ts of crisis/disaster base d on regional geography, history, and past construction accidents The formula for risk is, risk = probability of occurrence X severity of consequences. The risk calculations take into account a number of factors and inferences on the site-specific conditions. The managers intuitive capacity and fore sight about crisis/disas ter events could help in these risk calculations. For example, the probabili ty of a nuclear strike on a construction site at Gainesville, Fl is nearly zero percent, hence the risk associated with such an event is nil. It can be assumed that the tornado that hi t central Florida in February 2007 was an indicator of a weather crisis/disaster that could occur again. There, the risk associated with a similar hit by such an event has an increased probability. In risk cal culations, factors of probability, consequences, phases of construction pr oject, and kinds of th e construction activities occurring at the time could be helpful in conducting an overall risk analysis. Consider an example of a construction scene in New York City. The city is located in the Northeast region of United States where the clim ate is primarily humid and all storm frontal systems move eastward across the continent. Th e probability of being hit by a well-developed storm system is high during winter. These storms generally continue to move eastward or along the Atlantic coast accompanie d by very strong winds, causing considerable property damage over wide areas of the state. Other severe weather conditions could include high rainfall, thundershowers, windstorms, snowstorms, blizza rds, extreme heat, and drought, all of which might inflict damage on a construction site. Th e season of the year associated with hazardous weather conditions, along with the phase of construction of a give n project, should be analyzed to objectively measure risk for the construction projects in New York. The consequences of a storm could be predicted from the analysis of phot ographs of past disaster s, buildings devastated

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37 by similar weather patterns and rehabilitati on provided by the governmental and non-profit organizations. Figure 4-2: Risk Analysis of the constr uction crisis/disaster at various levels The risk analysis of the probability of occurrenc e is the likelihood that an event will take place and the consequences of th e occurrence can be referred as th e impact that the event will have. If the project is under a lower probability of occurrence of the crisis/disaster event and its consequences are also low, then it will lie under the lower left corner of the graph (Figure 4-2). For example, a project in the stat e of Florida is nearly under a ze ro probability of occurrence of hurricanes from January through March. If the cons equences or impacts are also low, then the project is said to be in the lower threat zone of the matrix shown in Figure 4-2. In another case, a project under construction in the state of Fl orida during the month of August is under high probability of occurrence of hurricanes and the c onsequences of hurricanes on the projects is high, Under these conditions, the proj ect is in the high threat zone of the threat matrix. Similarly,

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38 the risk analysis can be conducted for projec ts under different conditions with the threat matrix. Three-dimensional models, similar to architec tural-presentation models could be used to introduce on-table discussions and conduct further analysis. In troduction of various kinds of constraints, even during the c onstruction phase, that can result in temporary or permanent damage to the facility could help in the risk assessment. In case of hurricanes, the structural design engineers must work closely with the cons truction managers to anal yze structures and the potential impact of a crisis/disas ter. It is required that the risk management must acknowledge the sequence of construction activities and their risks. The multiple crisis/disaster prone construction environments need careful risk evaluations. Step 3: Develop and Implement Plan. Directions and guidelines are created in the plan for all the ongoing construction activities on the site. It is important to develop a plan a nd then, train all the fiel d workers and supervisory personnel to effectively act against the impending cr isis/disaster. The plan can be divided into three different categories: Step 3a: Plan for the pre-event phase: The following steps need to be taken. Prepare contact information Assign responsibilities to different site personnel Set up command centers (offices) with effective communication networks. Develop set rules and standard operating procedures so as to counter the agent of hazard in construction projects. Establish a central meeting place (or places) for all the employees. Assemble beforehand the emergency supplies th at might be needed including, first aid kits, flashlights, radios, batteries, communica tion devices, food a nd protective clothing should be ready.

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39 Devise area sketches, map layouts, or any other kind of planning documentation associated with any probable crisis/disaster in advance. Set up communication networks, emergency team identification, command offices, and signal mediums in advance. Prepare all mitigation and risk communication services Step 3b: Plan during the event phase. The plan during the event will vary considerably depending on the type of crisis/disaster. The action could consist of all personnel finding a safe place until the event passes. In other events, key activities can be initiated for a post-event response. In some cas es the event itself is so short that virtually no activities can actually be plan ned, e.g., lightning strike. Responses to the event should be well coordinated betw een all the site personnel. Step 3c: Plan for the post-event phase. Plan for the post-event phase comprises of a ll the activities which help in restoring the project to regular construction operations. Management may cons ider utilizing the help of experts for the analysis of damage and recove ry procedures. All the site personnel should not start any activities until asked to do so. The aftermath of the even t can be devastating in certain cases (hurricanes, tornadoes, fires, etc.), where complete rebuilding of the site from the initial stages is required. Also, in ot her cases (low intensity earthqua ke), the effects might not be harmful, like certain small crack s in the structure might reveal only superficial damage. The collection of saved materials and resources is also one of important steps in the post-event phase. Certain crisis/disaster events might be a voided if proper preventative measures are implemented on time, e.g., the use of alternative uninterrupted power supply in case there is a power failure. Also, proper lighti ng could save the construction si te from an act of arson. The planning stage establishes all the activities to be followed during the developing stage of a

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40 crisis/disaster. All designers, engineers, planne rs and managers should work together to mitigate the attack of probable crisis/disaste r events on the construction projects. Step 4: Drills & Evaluation of Drills: Drills consist of exercises conducted which can test the full strengths and weaknesses of the management plan. In the process of conducti ng a drill, regular construction activities stop and a simultaneous response to a crisis/disaster is conducted. Human shelter and all other arrangements (depending on the crisis/disaster) for the crucial hours need to be well coordinated with all site personnel. Restarti ng the interrupted activ ities and returning to regular work tasks are the aims of a drill. The specific tasks perf ormed during the drill will depend on the specific crisis/disaster that is being simulated. It is a test of actions which can combat the simulated crisis/disaster using equipmen t, materials and procedures. In case of suspicious substances on the site the following steps constitute the drills: On-site management to be notified immediately Communication to warn all site personnel Promptly shut down all operations in defined piece of time Evacuation of all site personnel All the evacuation routes serve all the traffic flow, so all ro utes and fire doors should be working All the emergency alarms and lighting s hould be installed and should be working properly All the site personnel should asse mble at a common meeting place Alternative shelter should be available in good condition Remove the suspicious substance from the working zone to avoid exposure Avoid contact with any exposed personnel

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41 Sheriffs and emergency responders to be ca lled and only they are allowed to handle the substance If the substance lies inside the covered site, then ventilation systems must be assessed to determine if they are to be shut down If the substance lies outdoors, all flammable substances and ign ition sources are to be removed Evaluation of drills for the adequacy of planni ng for the crisis/disaste r event is done after every exercise. The success of the drill prepares the site personnel mentally for an actual event to be addressed more efficiently. Any mistake in the drill teaches lessons that should not be repeated. If there is a need of the plan to be modified due to its weaknesses, then new elements should be introduced in the revised plan. Con tinuous modifications, drills, and continuous planning create a stronger solution for the crisis/disaster management plan. All the steps of the CCDM model establish the ne ed of constant feedback of ideas in the development of plans. An alternate plan could be activated if management r ealizes that the initial plan is unsuitable. The alternative plan needs to be evaluated in a similar manner to the initial plan with rigorous drills. Advanced Notice of the Crisis/Disaster Crises/disasters can vary considerably in term s of the extent of advanced notice or warning signs that are given about the eventual occurren ce. When an advanced warning exists, it is important to watch for the signs and to recogni ze them. Additional steps can be taken in the crisis/disaster plan to reduce the impact of the crisis/disaster as preparations can be made. The advanced warning is the forecast or likelihood of the occurrence of a particular event. The monitoring or observation of the event a nd immediate preparation can save the company from the crisis/disasters after-effects. The adva nced awareness of the coming event could help in identifying and understanding the following: Potential consequences

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42 Level of risk and probability of occurrence Observation may be the most important fact or in saving a constr uction project from a crisis/disaster. The failure to recognize the signs of a crisis/dis aster in the early stages could result in conditions whereby all construction activ ities would stop once the crisis/disaster became a reality. The crisis/disaster conditions could be studied with the following characteristics: Strength: the magnitude of the crisis/disas ter will dictate the ease of recognition Occurrence: the likelihood of occurren ce will define the level of risks Action period: the striking phase or duration of the impact of a crisis/disaster event must be carefully studied Coverage: the area under influen ce or the extent of impact Velocity: the speed and direction of the crisis/disaster Pattern recognition: the trends and all composite elements of the crisis/disaster For natural crises/disasters, the weather agenci es can predict such ev ents as thunderstorms, rain, hurricanes, and snow-storms. Some crises /disasters, such as fires from lightening; tornadoes, and earthquakes cannot be predicted w ith accuracy. Different methods are utilized to help forecast different events. In case of an accident on the jobsite, nothing could be predicted as accidents just happen without notice, although there ar e indicators of poorer safety behavior that might suggest a higher probability of occurrence. For example, the behavior of a worker might be a precursor to an accident as in case of a worker unde r the influence of a controlled substance. A winter storm watch by the weather agency means that conditions are developing in the area under study for a winter storm and usually th ese can be predicted 12 to 36 hours prior to occurrence. A blizzard warning means that strong winds, blinding wi nd-driven snow and

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43 dangerous wind chill are expected and preparedness for proper shelter is indeed required within hours. Step 5: Recognizing Signs of Possi ble Crisis/Disaster (Monitoring) Weather services inform the public through me dia of approaching cr isis/disaster events. Weather warning can be valuable for manageme nt personnel on construction site. Once it is apparent that a predicted event will impact a constr uction site the crisis/disaster plan is activated. Step 6: Activate the Preparation and Mitigation Plan The activation of the plan needs the site personn el to act efficiently on the charted out plan. Care should be taken on the timely activa tion of the plan. Actions are taken to Prevent or reduce damage Provide protection during the event Be ready for the post event response The activation step is further divided in to three categories: preparation, risk communication and mitigation. The subcategories are explained as follows: Step 6a: Preparation The advanced notice to an upcoming crisis /disaster event gives time to prepare and respond effectively. The developed and tested plans are activated at this stage. The preparation may include the following steps: The plan of action is finalized, in case a dditional modifications were deemed necessary The life safety plans and all emergency routes should be re ady to be used Documenting, analyzing, and protecting the util ity shutoffs, electrical cutoffs, electrical substations, storm drains, sewer lines, MEP lines, gas lines, fire suppression systems, restricted areas and valued-items Identifying the resources needed to address the consequences of the crisis/disaster event Ensure that assigned responsibilities ar e assumed by the designated individuals. Understanding the timing and sequence of different activities

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44 Identifying all the personnel resources that will be utilized: location, phone numbers, hotlines, operations manual Consideration of viability of the alternative plan for the assumed crisis/disaster Saving all the potential intellect ual properties, computer file s, data servers placed under different divisions and multiple regions, use of Application Service Providers (ASP) as databases over the Internet. Th e use of easily portable ipod option could be used to save records for the company Setting up of alternative power resources such as uninterrupted power supply (UPS) systems Collecting all necessary inventor y items: first aid supplies, material supplies, equipment, vehicles Networking: both private and public connections intact Understanding escape routes w ith GIS enhanced planning: spatial analysis, routes, transportation networks, connect ing arteries, utility grids, vehicular haulage, evacuation networks, crowd control tactic s and traffic control points Assigning shelters according to preference, capacity, needs, access, time-suitability and safety Assigning the alternative offices and worksites: The assigning of alternative locations for the continuation of business in the event a ll current working zones gets collapsed Constituting all the emergency shelters, evacua tion plans, stockpiling measures, inventory control, maintenance of supplies and equipmen t, back-up life-saving services (e.g. power, water, sewage) Preparing the inventory of transportation services The training of the construction manageme nt team working for the crisis/disaster management is crucial in the pr eparation phase. The training of the site personnel can consider the following: Mode of training could be classroom tr aining and self study or independent study Special classrooms or worksite should be used to train Hardcopy, pamphlets, internet publications of training manuals should be used to provide the medium of training

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45 Bi/multi lingual use in the training documents and procedures should be beneficial in case the site personnel are from multilingual background s and are less adaptive to single language Interactive software/DVD, Safety posters, po cket stuff should be used for reference Step 6b: Risk communication The communication is divide d into two categories: Internal Communication External Communication Internal communication is referred to the information flow inside the company and external communication is referred to the informa tion flow to the external agencies for help and coordination. The communication of construction crisis/disaster plan c onsists of collecting, processing, and disseminating of all releva nt information by all probable means. The information dissemination is to occur in a stipulated time frame. As soon as management becomes aware of the potential crisis /disaster, immediate ac tions should be taken, as a single second saved might be a value added to the plan. The internal communications should occur directly between the main office and to the designated responsible site individuals. It is important that the external communication to the life safety agencies (fire department, first aid services, police department, sheriffs office, a ny other governmental or private agencies and 911 centers) be made in a timely fashion. Choosing contacts that are at different locati ons could be useful in letting management know the status. The company or on site authorit y may call or e-mail to check on each other in case of need during crisis. It is important that every managerial staff member on site has all the important contacts, and each others e-mail addr esses and telephone numbers (home, work, pager and cell). If phone calls become jammed due to heavy volume, then email should be used instead.

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46 Satellite phones, which could be expensive, are one of the best options for the needed communication in a crisis/disaster. One coul d expect the most consistent mediums and communication networks to convey the signals in an instant. The in teroperability of the communication systems can save considerable time in the circulation of news among the company members, so everyone should be us ing the same communication network provider. Public warning systems provide assistance in the case of natural crises/disasters and even an alarm or radio in the crucial hours could be useful to communicat e the crisis/disas ter. The get alert signal from the radio or television may constitute communicating a natural crisis/disaster such as a hurricane or snowst orm. If time permits, the use of brochures, papers, phones and posters could also be viable means of communication. Step 6c: Mitigation Mitigation constitutes the exercises which can minimize the adverse effects of the crisis/disaster event. The company can save the construction site from a number of losses with the mitigation process. Here the risks related to construction projects could be projected to undergo attenuation, which could be termed as r isk-reduction. Some of the mitigation tasks that could be performed by th e construction company are: Reinforcement of structural elem ents that might be in jeopardy Shielding the surfaces of walls Demolition of a structure, in case bracing or shield could be not be provided Mobilization of components to a safer environment Evacuation of facilities and components Changing of the sequence of activities in the schedule of construction process if required In certain cases, mitigation might not be possi ble, so evacuation might be the only viable option. Supply Chain Management (SCM) in cons truction requires being a master in knowing what they have and where it is. A model of SCM could be utilized to help the company

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47 better mitigate the effects of crisis/disaster by re locating materials and equipment to safer places of confinement. Step 7: Response The human reply to natural crises/disasters during the event constitutes the response phase of the CCDM model. Careful actions should be taken which can save lives and project resources from the crisis/disaster events. Direction, coordination and not loosing the focus are the most important elements in this step of CCDM model. The evacuatio n activity composed of evacuating people immediately from the danger zone is the most appropri ate response activity in some cases. Controlling the intrus ion of untrained and unsolicited visitors is important for their own safety. In case of fire on a construction s ite the immediate response would be extinguishing the fire. Of course, an assessment must still be made before acting. The fate of the recovery phase depends upon the effectiven ess of the response action. Step 8: Recovery The restoration activity is aime d at restoring the working stat e of the constr uction site to operational status. The recovery state emphasi zes the careful handling of all the damaged materials and protecting the reusable elements fo r construction. Recovery could be divided into two categories: On-Site Community On-site recovery deals with si te specific redressing activitie s, whereas the community level recovery activities are aimed at helping the co mmunity regain its normal status. Before any recovery efforts take place, an assessment must be made of the damage on the site. Serious hazards must be identified, e.g. powerlines knocke d down, unstable structures, etc. Recovery at the construction site may be addressed by re storing powerlines, removing debris, recreating

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48 facilities, draining floodwater, cleaning up activities, restoring destroyed pr operty, etc. Further recovery activities may include the following: Search and rescue operations Restoration and repair of roads Movement to high ground in case of flooding Distribution of food, clothing, sh elter, health and medicina l articles (first aid kits) Salvage of materials Neutralization of the situation The media can play a significant role in influe ncing the reputation of a contractor with the clients and the community. For example, a comm unity might be impacted by a storm. If a contractor in the neighborhood quickly mobilizes to assist in the recovery and rebuilding phase after a storm, the goodwill of the contractor might be considerably enhanced. The media can help to highlight the beneficial actions of the contractor. Several articl es in journals and newspapers were examined to understand how contractors had responded to past crisis/disaster events. The recovery phase is often seen with the intrusion of media pe rsonnel on the site. Media personnel and journalists aim at achieving th e inside story of the crisis/disas ter on the site. To safeguard the public image of the construction company, the following points could be used: Choose one spokesperson to handl e the media and journalists Remain calm about the situation Ask the media to permit time to talk later Provide only pleasant responses, as the spoke sperson can help preserve the company reputation by avoiding negative messages In any case, the spokesperson s hould not generate public outcry and should not be the source of any negative media coverage Demonstrate total control over the situation The shocked and distressed people should be helped in the comforting process in this recovery phase. The family memb ers of the ones involved in th e rescue operations or the ones

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49 offering assistance should be informed with comp assion to create a less stressful environment. All arrangements should be made to restore the c onstruction site to operati onal status as soon as possible. Step 9: Post Response Assessment The aftermath of the crisis/disaster and in some cases, their probable causes of occurrence are studied in this step. The post respons e assessment consists of the following: Documentation of damage on the effected site Expert analysis concerning the state of affairs Damage assessment Injury assessment Evaluation of monetary losses and saved articles Evaluation of the response and recovery efforts Step 10: Share Lessons Learned Learning is often the result of unf ortunate experiences. This is also true of crisis/disaster events. After a company has responded to the occu rrence of a crisis /disaster, it is advisable to examine the events that led up to the crisis/disas ter and identify changes that might be taken to reduce any future losses. The lessons learned in the post response a ssessment phase are sh ared among the team members to see what was missing in the preparati on phase. The evaluations in terms of lost work hours, and even monetary-units and performanceunits could be shared with the management team, so as to start a new plan of action. When causal factors can be controlled, additional efforts can be taken to prevent future crisis/disaster events. Step 11: Credit the Efforts The acknowledgement of the efforts of all the team members should be done shortly after the event has subsided. The continuation of ope rations involves strengthening the morale of

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50 those involved in the response and rescue operations. Credit th e efforts could be summed up with the following points: Recognize the valor and success of saviors Console those adversely affected Step 12: Evaluate Need for Change The analysis of the mistakes and shortcomings of the preparations for the crisis/disaster should be made by the team committee. The objectiv e of this assessment is to identify the need for specific changes. Reassessment of the plan from all perspectives is required to be made at various levels, from field supervisors to top management. The requirements for the response and rescue operations should be r eevaluated at this time. The management team needs to address factors that could possibly contri bute to the causation of crisis /disaster events. For example, structural failure could be studied as a consequence of improper de sign or contractors mistake of using incorrect construction techni ques. If all went we ll in the planning and response phase, then there is little need to develop any changes in the plan. A decision needs to be made concerning the need for any plan modification. Step 13: Modify the Plan If the plan needs to be modified, then all ap propriate arrangements fo r the strengthening of the model are to be made. Making modifications is a serious planning issu e, where the help of certified engineers, designers, safety manage rs and others could make the next probable crisis/disaster less destructive. Since natural cr isis/disaster may be unavoidable, the only remedy for them is to prepare a stronger defense sy stem, thus planning more effective response measures. After the modifications are made, the re vised plan can then be implemented, including the training, drills, and subsequent evaluations.

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51 Discussion Different events, constraints a nd conditions can be introduced to the applicability of the model. Ideally, the model should address any type of crisis/disaster event. Realistic construction scenarios will be used to test or examine the applicability of the mode l. Construction projects have numerous potential crises/disasters that could have a negative impact. Each of these potential crises/disasters requires a unique plan to mitigate the potential damage or harm that might result. While many different events might impact a construction pr oject, three cases are presented to illustrate the application of the CCDM model. Case of Hurricane Step 1: Potential crisis/disaster identification: Hurricanes are most common in the coastal regions of the USA. In Florida, hurricanes might be potential crisis/disaster events from June to November. Further, certain regions of Florida which are near the coast are more susceptible to more damaging wi nds of hurricanes than the inla nd regions. Regional history of any area could be studied to identify hurrica nes as potential crisis/disaster events. Step 2: Risk assessment: In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, it became known that the risks associated with hurricanes could be extremely high. For a cons truction project in the path of a hurricane, assessments must be made about the potential for loss. This will depend to a considerable extend on the type of project a nd the phase of construction. As the hurricane advances towards a construction project, more de tails will become known about the potential risks. It is common to describe the hurricane by strength, designa ted as categories, which are 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. These categories convey informati on about the wind speed and the expected storm surge (Table 4-1)

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52 Table 4-1. Category of Hurricanes Category Wind Storm Surge 1 74-95 mph 4-5 ft. 2 96-110 mph 6-8 ft. 3 111-130 mph 9-12 ft. 4 131-155 mph 12-18 ft. 5 156 + 18 + ft. Since the strength of a hurricane ca nnot be predicted months in adva nce, (when a project is in the planning stages) the management plan must be developed for the worst case scenario. The onsite actions in response to an approaching hurrica ne will be tempered by the anticipated strength of the hurricane. Step 3: Develop and implement plan: The preparations for the hurricane should start with top management. The plan could be divided into three different categories, Step 3a: Plans for the pre-event phase : In the pre-event phase, the plan will be focused largely on reducing or minimizing the impact of the hurricane. The plan will address the following requirements: Inform all site personnel about the hurricane Form a response team with designated responsibilities Prepare for immediate closing down of operations and secure material and equipment on the project The emergency supplies including flashlights, first-aid kit, emerge ncy food, water, dust masks, and battery operated radios should be available and in working condition. The development of mobile communica tion centers might be beneficial. The lines of communication must be outlined fo r the external and internal organizational charts. The external organization chart corresp onds to all the external agencies to be contacted and the internal organi zation chart refers to all the contact information of all key company contacts. The location, telephone numbers email-addresses, and fax numbers must be distributed among the designate d team members. It is impor tant that the transition of responsibility along the chain of command is without breaks. All the materials and valuable resources should be stored in secured areas.

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53 Information about local facilities such as me dical centers, hospitals, nursing homes, schools, governmental offices should be distributed to all personnel. All site personnel are responsible for the security on site. Cont rol over entry-exit gates and internal movement routes s hould be clearly established. The procedures to turn off the utilities should be taught to the key site personnel Emergency shut-off valves and emergency equipment should be ready for use. Insurance and contractual documents for post event response should be prepared. Ensure that there are adequate supplies of water and food on site in the event that the infrastructure fails completely. Wallet size laminated emergency cards with emergency action plan could be made and distributed to all construction team members. Step 3b: Plans during the event : Hurricanes can produce violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains and floods. The evacuation activit ies should have been done in the preevent phase. This phase needs all the site personnel to stay indoors in safe shelter. While inside, all site personnel should remain away from out er doors and windows. The electricity should be turned off. All the construction activities s hould be stopped, until all cl ear is announced. Flying debris could hit any site personnel, so all should remain inside. Step 3c: Plans for the post-event phase: The site personnel should watch for weakened structures and bridges, br oken tree limbs or structures on the c onstruction site that could collapse unexpectedly. Expert analysis of existing structures and the over all construction site should be made before starting further cons truction activities. In certain cas es, the structure might need to be built again from start, whereas in other ca ses, small repair work can quickly restore the structure. Site personnel should not touch fallen or low hanging wires, or objects in contact with power lines. All efforts should be made to return the project to its nor mal construction status.

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54 Step 4: Drills & evaluation of drills: Drills can be conducted to determine how well the plan has been organized and how well everyone u nderstands it. A drill is essentially a simulated event. The construction site team is expected to demonstrate the ev acuation and closing down activities in a minimal amount of time. The fire extinguishers should be working and everyone should know how to effectively operate them. Establishing an effective communication network will be of particular importance in the drill. Smoke detectors and signaling devices should be working properly. The evaluation of the drill is essential. A cri tical review may identify shortcomings to the procedures. Then, modifications can be made to the plan. If substant ial changes are made, a subsequent drill might be conducted. Advanced notice: The National Weather Serv ice or similar organizations can make meteorological predictions which can identi fy coverage areas, wind speeds and other characteristics of hurricanes. The coastal areas ex pected to be impacted with high water levels and high waves can be identif ied easily with accuracy. Step 5: Recognizing signs of possible crisis/disaster: Hurricanes rotate in a counterclockwise direction around an "eye." A tr opical storm becomes a hurricane when winds reach 74 mph. It is often feasible to know about the possibility of a hurricane 7 days to 24 hours before they strike an area, wh ich can provide sufficient time fo r at least some preparations. A hurricane forecast involves the prediction of several interrelated char acteristics, but the fundamental element of the forecast is the future motion of the storm. Track prediction serves as the basis for forecasting other storm features, such as winds, rainfall, storm surge and the areas in the path. It is important to make j udicious use of the advanced warning.

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55 Step 6: Activate the plan : The hours just before a hurrican e hits an area must be used wisely. The documentation of the facility under construction should be done routinely with digital pictures and video recordings. This will be useful to demonstrate the before/after impacts. All communication networks should be in work ing order. Protective materials (masking tape, plywood, lumber, etc.) should be readily available to start the mitigation actions. All trash and loose materials should be collect ed and contained to prevent th em from becoming flying debris. Because of high winds, windows of trailers and all other openings should be covered. Trailers should be placed in safe secured areas. It is important to secure the materials and to document of all the materials, equipment, and construction statistics. Back-up all the data on computers and even the paper documents should be kept at different locati ons to help preserve information. Secure materials in safe areas and in stall necessary bracing of masonry or exterior walls. Cover glass doors, windows with shutters, plywood, or other covering materials. Masking tape, waterproofing materials, or canvas can be used to help safeguard the windows or doors. Sheet metal and ductwork that has not been installed should be secu red with wire rope to prevent it from being blown away. Remove all dumpsters or secure their contents. Scaffolding should be secured. Remove loose branches from the trees (i f they exist) on the site. All the electrical equipment and electric cords should be unplugged. The company vehicles should be filled with gas and parked within a secure zone with parking brakes on. Remove vulnerable wood or metal signage to prevent them from being lost in th e storm. The cranes, hoists and booms should be lowered and secured. Lockout/tagout all necessary equipment. The first-aid kit should be assembled and well stocked. The mitigation stage needs everything to be ready for the approaching hurricane. Supplies for the preparation are as follows, but are not limited to:

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56 First aid supplies Plywood to cover openings and windows Battery powered AM/FM radio/weather radio Flashlights, and various kinds of spare batteries Miscellaneous tools: shovels, hammers, br ooms, wet/dry vacuums, rope, drinking water Extra fuel for equipment Extensions cords, portable genera tors, sump pumps for dewatering Nails assorted types, powder actuated fasteners Duct/masking tape, miscellaneous lumber 2 x 4s, 4x4s Extra film for cameras and/or one use cameras Cleaning supplies List of emergency phone numbers Cell phones that are fully charged Continually inform the facility owner and a contact person at the home office of the preparation status for the hurricane. The mobiliza tion and demobilization plan needs to be ready at this stage. A carefully designed logistics pl an will take care of the communication centers, transportation, facilities coordi nation, and resource tracking. Step 7: Response: The foremost point in the response phases is for the team members to stay calm. However, the team should be alert and guard against panic and anxiety. All team members should stay inside during the hurrican e until all is clear. Sometimes, there is a likelihood of a second hit by the hurr icane after the eye passes, so care should be taken for such a situation. Battery radios could be turned on to monitor the outside situatio n. In case of evacuation, all employees should know the procedure and the exit routes.

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57 Step 8: Recovery: The status of critical faciliti es, services, communication networks, public works and utilities, and tran sportation facilities shou ld be quickly assessed as they need to be operational. The damage sustained by the project should be assessed promptly. This will be important as resources must then be allocated appropriately. Structures which have sustained serious structural damage must remain vacant until the structure has been restored under engineering supervision. The following poi nts relate to the recovery phase: Recovery starts with a survey of entire site. Reconnaissance and observation of the damage to the site is a vital f actor in the recovery stage. Timely removal of damaged and scattered mate rials should be performed with caution and care, where the search for missing persons or elem ents that can be saved or elements that can be salvaged should be carried out. Site cleaning activities should follow after expert analysis The environmentally acceptable disposal of debris and waste is required. The personnel, materials and equipment should be mobilized to restart the work. Continue to monitor radio broad casts for news and instructions. Evaluate the integrity of gas lines and electri cal circuits. Turning off the main gas valves, opening the windows, and sending the people ou tside are cautious steps to be followed. Cleaning off any kind of spilled liquids, agents of fire, bleaches, and gasoline must be done immediately and with caution. Step 9: Post response assessment: Management should assess th e construction site with the help of expert engineers. The planned proc urement of supplies and inventory control should be addressed in this stage of the management plan. The following items should be performed with accuracy: Cost accounting and monetary estimates need to be developed for the recovery stage by the estimators and the management team in order to understand the projects financial health.

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58 Identification of injured indivi duals and timely notific ation of family members to minimize the trauma to the victims families should be done in a sincere manner. Filing applicable workers compensation clai ms is the responsibi lity of the company. Thorough evaluation of the destruction should be done. Also, the damage on the construction site should be documented with photographs or video records for comparison with the previous records. Step 10: Share lessons learned: The lessons learned in the post response assessment phase should be shared among the team member s to determine what modifications would strengthen the plan. The evaluation of losses in monetary and productivity units could be shared with the management team, so as to create a new plan for full recovery Step 11: Credit the efforts: The acknowledgement of the effo rts of all the team members should be done shortly after th e hurricane has subsided. The c ontinuation of business involves strengthening the morale of those involved in the response and rescue operations. Credit the efforts could be summed up with the following points: Recognize the efforts and successes of site personnel Console the adversely affected individuals Step 12: Evaluate need for change: By using the information gained in the post response recovery and the lessons learne d, an evaluation can be made re garding the need for further modifications of the plan. Step 13: Modify the plan: The reinforcement of the plan with positive changes makes the hurricane management plan well suited for futu re hurricanes. The only remedy for the natural crisis/disaster is to pr epare a stronger defense system, t hus planning more effective response measures. The anticipation of hurricanes w ith well prepared drills and simultaneous modifications can save lives, material, money and resources.

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59 Case of Earthquake Step 1: Potential crisis/disaster identification: It is almost impo ssible to predict an earthquake, but certain geographical locations are at greater risk th an others. In earthquake prone areas, an earthquake can happen any time of th e year without warning. The earthquake can be felt by a series of wave-like vibrations, which travel through the earths crust. The classification of earthquakes is characteristic of their depth: Shallowless than 70 km deep Intermediate70-30 km deep Deepmore than 300 km deep There are no earthquakes known to take place below a depth of 720 km. While little can be done to an ticipate an earthquake, the eart hquake management plan can effectively address the po st-event response phase. Step 2: Risk assessment: After it is recognized that the region is in a high probability earthquake zone, the next step is to make ri sk calculations. The risk could be calculated by determining the phase of the c onstruction project (most vulnerabl e to damage), probability of occurrence of an earthquake and the related c onsequences. Planning for the earthquake requires management to understand earthquake characteri stics. Certain earthqu akes have hardly noticeable vibrations, whereas others can have ca tastrophic affects. Based on risk assessment, it might be determined that the risk is sufficiently se rious and that an earthqua ke is likely to occur. Under these conditions, a management plan for an earthquake should be developed.

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60 Step 3: Develop and implement plan: The plan should be divi ded into three different categories, Step 3a: Plan for the pre-event phase. Before an earthquake occurs, the pre-event planning for the response systems is as follows: All upright furniture and othe r heavy objects on the shelves sh ould be secured or placed on the floor All heavy substances should be fastened at the lower levels in c upboards or closed boxes Tightly secure the water h eaters, gas and oil heaters Gas pipes, MEP systems, el ectrical wiring should be in good condition to reduce potential risk of fire Step 3b: Plan during the event When an earthquake strikes, with workers inside buildings, they should position themselves under st urdy furniture, such as heavy desks or against an inside wall. The workers should not leave the structure during an earthquake, when the danger of heavy objects or masonry falling is high. If workers are outdoors, they should move away from structures, canopies, overhead constructio n, cables and projections. They should then gather in a predetermined location. Step 3c: Plan for the post-event phase Earthquakes might impact a construction site for only a short time. Ground shaking and rupture are the main effects created by an earthquake, where it principally results in more or less severe damage to buildings or other rigid structures. So, all the site personnel shoul d not touch any power lines or damaged structures. After a complete site examination by the expert engineer s, management can determine when to restart the construction activities. Step 4: Drills, evaluation of drills: Drills conducted on the construction site should be instantaneous responses by all site personnel. While the responses are simple and only take a few

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61 seconds or minutes, judici ous attention to protocol is importa nt. Evaluations of the drill require the site personnel to strengthen the plan, if needed, by modifying it with further changes. Warning/no warning Accurate warnings are not possible for earthquakes. Sometimes the earthquake will be followed by aftershocks in the following hours or days. Otherwise there is no warning. The initial earthquake could be an i ndication of aftershocks in the following hours or days. Otherwise, there is no warning. Step 7: Response: The only major response possible in the case of an earthquake is to calmly move towards the safe zone as descri bed above. The steps to be taken will depend upon the intensity of the earthquake and also the struct ures resistance to vibration which can save the constructed facility from collapse. Step 8: Recovery: It is important to unde rstand that an earthquake can have secondary effects and a second round of shaking after ju st a few seconds, minutes or hours. Smaller earthquakes may also foretell large earthquakes in the future. Therefore, team members should stay away from the proximity of structures when outdoors. Calling the emergency services and communicating with all the internal team members is the next step. Step 9: Post response assessment: Management should evaluate the management plan after an earthquake has occurred. It is important to understand the mistakes in the earthquake management plan so that similar destructiv e results might be a voided in the future. Step 10: Share Lessons learned: If the earthquake is mild and with no serious damage, it could be assumed that the performance of the co nstruction process will su cceed in its pursuit of successful completion. It should be kept in mind that errors in planning should not occur. Actions during the response phase should be ev aluated. Forensic engineers can observe and analyze the scope and causes of the damage done to the construction site. The geologists

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62 studying the epicenter and the influencing radii of the earthquake can make predictions of the probable reoccurrence in that geog raphical location. The company res ponsibility is for the safety of the facility, material, e quipment, workers and money. Step 11: Credit the efforts: The rescue operations within the site and in the community should be credited with top management involve ment. One of the key issues to examine will relate to the avoidance of unseen injuries and the minimization of property damage. Step 12: Evaluate the need for change: The feedback provided by the earthquake management plan, especially in the post res ponse assessment and lessons learned phases will provide valuable information about the need for plan modifications. Step 13: Modify the plan: Modifications to the plan s hould be made if changes and suggestions by the post response asse ssment and lessons learned phase. Case of On-site Fall The identification of an injury hazard on the jo bsite is a safety issue to be addressed by management. The top four causes of constructio n fatalities are: falls, struck-by, caught inbetween, and electrocution. Each of thes e causal factors should be considered. Step 1: Identifying potential crisis/disaster: The company history of working on a high rise construction project and its c onsequent incidents of injuries c ould be the first step to watch for similar events ahead. Then the potential of injuries during the cons truction of the project could be estimated. Despite predictio ns of low injury occurrence, there is always a chance of an injury. Whenever work is performed at elevation, the chance of a fall is always present. To address this, a company might implement a 100% ti e off policy for all work performed above the elevation of six feet. Workers being tied off does not ensure that workers will not fall, but that they will be restrained from falling by the us e of a harness. Even though a worker might be

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63 saved by wearing a harness in a fall, a quick rescue is still required. A worker suspended by a lanyard for an extended period of time could stil l result in a serious injury or even death. Step 2: Risk assessment : The risk assessment for the in juries related to falls, when workers are tied off, consists of the probabi lity of occurrence and the severity of the consequences. While no level of accuracy can be claimed in the computation, the key issue is that there is a possibility of in jury and it can be addressed with the allocation of few resources. Enumeration of different factors co ntributing to the probability of occurrence is a crucial task at this stage. The correct method of wearing the harn ess corresponds to the low or high risk of an injury during a fall. The attachment of the la nyard near the center of gravity makes the fall position safer for the worker. Step 3: Develop and implement plan: Since the probability of the occurrence of a fall is high and since the consequences of a fall can be serious, a management plan for the rescue of a worker who has fallen with the use of a harness and lanyard needs to be prepared. The avoidance for all kinds of injury incident s should be the goal of every construction company as safety should be a core value. This effort can also save money on a construction project. While many safety parameters should be employed, this plan will focus specifically on the rescue of a worker who has fallen and who is suspended by a lanya rd. The plan could be divided into three categories: Step 3a: Plan for the pre-event phase. In the pre-event plan the following preparations should be made: Workers should always wear person al protective fall arrest equipment A crane or JLG should be located in the genera l vicinity when elevation work is performed Install and maintain perimeter fall protection Floor openings should be covered and labeled Ladders and scaffolds should be used safely

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64 The safety management team needs to be orga nized to make arrangements for the hour of need. A key factor in a fall rescue is timelin ess. If the method of wearing the harness is inappropriate; all the efforts to save the worker c ould be in vain. It is important that the harness is comfortable but not interfere with the task completion. The length of the lanyard is also an important consideration. A shorte r lanyard would put less stress on the body at the time of the initial fall. A moveable safe an chor could be used, but it is no t available for all construction processes. Cranes could be helpful in rescui ng a worker after a fall. All the communication networks, internal and external, need to be documented in the company diaries. Emergency response systems should also be tested. Step 3b: Plan during the event. The site personnel should inform the supervisor or site management about the occurrence of a fall. The worker under suspension should try to maintain a position with the legs slightly raised. Cranes or other equipment should be employed for the workers rescue. Step 3c: Plan for the post-event phase. The worker tied to the lanyard and harness should be carefully transported to a safe area. The work er being suspended should be asked not to stand up, but should be asked to sit for some time a nd then gradually be taken to a normal position. The internal body mechanism of the worker need s to be slowly revived to normal status. Step 4: Drills & evaluation of drills: When a worker falls while wearing a harness and while being tied off to an anchor, the worker wi ll generally be uninjured but suspended. At the moment a worker has fallen, the incident shoul d be called to the imme diate attention of a supervisor or the safety manager. The posture of the person who has fallen is unpredictable but this plays a crucial role in the workers proba bility of suffering from suspension trauma. Fall victims can slow the onset of the suspension tr auma by pushing down forcefully with the legs, by

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65 positioning their bodies in a horizontal position, by slightly elevating the legs or by standing up in the harness. The response of the rescue te am needs to occur immediately as every single second is important in the battle for life. Th e worker should be taken out of the suspended position and should be gradually taken to a norma l standing position. Caution should be taken to keep the worker from standing up as high blood pr essure release could co nsequently result in death. Any mistakes or shortcomings of the rescue drill should be recogn ized and corrected in the modified plan. Advanced notice: The advanced notice on a construction site about falls is not apparent as incidents occur mostly without any previous signs. However, the contributing behavior of the worker (substance abuse, medication, risky behavior etc.) may be seen as a predictive incident. In most cases the prediction of such an event is difficult. Step 7: Response: Once a fall has occurred, the projec t should immediately actuate its rescue plan. The attention by the co-workers during the constructi on activities can save a life. The rescue consists basically of getting the assistance of a cr ane or other similar piece of equipment. The crane can then be instrumental in getting the worker down in matter of minutes. Step 8: Recovery: The rescue must take place swiftly to minimize the danger of suspension trauma. The lanyard attachment poi nt and the manner of handling the harness determine the effects of the fall. If timely help is not provided, a worker can lose consciousness. The important helping aid could be to move the person from the kneeling to a sitting position to a supine position for half an hour to forty minutes. Step 9: Post response assessment: If the worker has been taken out of the life-threatening phase and circulation of blood has come to a norma l level, the plan could be deemed successful. The efficiency of the system should be assessed for this step. It is important to understand the

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66 time taken to rescue a person. Safe handling of the fall victim and an immediate normalcy response must be studied to draw conclusions ab out the need of additional modifications to the plan. Step 10: Share lessons learned: The drawbacks or advantages of the fall rescue plan must be shared with the management team. The need to provide further training to maintain an effective response should be shared with all appropriate personnel. Even with an effective fall rescue plan, efforts should be sustai ned to avoid such fall incidents. Step 11: Credit the efforts: All the site personnel associat ed with the response phase need to be credited for their efforts and should remain prepared for such a crisis event in the future. Efforts should be made to elevate th e morale of all site personnel. Step 12: Evaluate the need for change: The drawbacks, tec hnical limitations or performance weaknesses must be evaluated for the safety of the construction team. It is important to understand that modifications can improve the fall management plan. If the preparations had shown success, then th ere is no need to change the plan. Step 13: Develop modifications: If there are evaluations stating that the emergency planning is lacking in the proper functions of the rescue opera tions, modifications should be made in the preparatory plans. Saving a life is important to boost the morale of the team and maintain the reputation of the construction company.

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67 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Various kinds of calamities can affect a constr uction project. Some calamities might take a while to impact a construction project, while othe rs might take a very short time to strike. Also, sometimes it is not possible to estimate the consequences prior to the crisis/disaster event. For example, a minor crisis/disaster event might have tremendous consequences, while a major crisis/disaster event might not ha ve any impact on the construction project at all. Regardless of the kind of crisis/disaster or its consequences, a common way of addressing the various kinds of crisis/disaster events was developed. Crisis/disaster events at construction projects can be effectively addressed with management plans bein g prepared with the us e of the CCDM model. In order to determine whether the model is appl icable to different kinds of crisis/disaster events, different tests were conducted to examine its validity. The CCDM model showed applicability to all the crisis/disaster cases. The networking within di fferent levels of the Construction Crisis/Disaster Ma nagement (CCDM) model establ ishes the fundamental solution for all kinds of crisis/d isaster events on construction projec ts. Although specific actions at every level of the model might vary, the fundamental organization of the CCDM model will remain the same.

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68 CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATIONS All units of a company or even different c onstruction companies should work together to create common solutions for common problems. If incorporated into the management processes, the widespread use of this model could save c onsiderable resources, incl uding money, materials, labor and reputation. Without advan ced planning or just ignoring standard practices, such as the Construction Crisis/Disaster Management ( CCDM) model, the actions in response to a crisis/disaster woul d be little more than a random selection of actions. The computer simulation of realistic 3D space models could be created to demonstrate the magnitude of major consequences of construction crisis/disaster events. Computer simulated models can analyze the merits of preparatory methods in various terms such as structural, material, labor, financial, productivity and othe r elements in the context of the construction projects. If possible, then the crisis/disaster manage ment plan should be coordinated with the emergency plans of the local, state and federa l governmental agencies. The CCDM model could also be used in making preparations for nati onal and international crises/disasters, thus improving a nations capacity to address all crises/disaster events. It would benefit all the managers in the c onstruction industry to pr epare against various crisis/disaster events. The result of this research provides a platform for the future establishment of coordinated, direction-oriented and integrat ed response systems for future crisis/disaster events that might impact constr uction projects. Also, the mana gers of construction companies could review the CCDM model with their respec tive projects and made decisions about the development of specific crisis /disaster management plans.

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69 LIST OF REFERENCES Alexander, D. (2006). Globali zation of Disaster: Trends Problems and Dilemmas. Journal of International Affairs Spring 2006. Barrel, M.D. (2007). Your Disaster Recovery Plan. PC Magazine, 1/1/2007, Vol. 26 Issue 1/2, p152-152, 1p, 1 chart. Billion-Dollar U.S. Weather Disasters 1980-2002. (2003). National Climatic Data Center, U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, January 1, 2003, p.1, Brown, L.J. (2002). What to Do Before Emer gencies Happen. Occupational Safety and Health Feb 2002. 71, 2. Bureau of Reclamation. (2007) U. S. Department of Interior. < http://www.usbr.gov/pn/about/Teton.html> (Feb. 20, 2007) Christian, M.S. (2005). World of Risk: A New Approach to Global Strategy and Leadership. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergenc y Management: Vol. 2: No. 1, Article 10. Cooper, D.F., and Chapman, C.B. (1987). Risk An alysis for large proj ectsModels, methods, and cases. NY: John Wiley and Sons. Disaster. Merriam-Websters. (2006). Dictionary of English (Sept. 15, 2006) Gunes, A.E, and Kovel, J.P. (2000). Using GIS in Emergency Ma nagement Operations. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol. 126, No. 3. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. (2007). Di saster Statistics (Feb. 25, 2007). International Strategy for Disaster Re duction. (2007). Disa ster Statistics, (Feb. 25, 2007). International Strategy for Disa ster Reduction, July 2003 (2006). Reducing Disaster Vulnerability through Science and Technology (June 26, 2006). Dutton, J. (2007). Weather Impact on USA Economy. NOAA magazine November 2001, (Jan. 23, 2007). Kemp, L. Roger. (2007). Assessing the Vulnerabili ty of Buildings. Fire Engineering, Jan 2007, Vol. 160, Issue 1, p. 103-106.

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70 Leonard, B.H. and Howitt, M.A. (2006). Katrin a as a Prelude: Preparing For and Responding to Katrina-Class Disturbances in the United St ates Testimony to U.S. Senate Committee, March 8, 2006 Journal of Homeland Securi ty and Emergency Management Volume 3, Issue 2, Article 5. McDonnald, R. (2003). Introduction to Natural a nd Man-Made Disasters and their Effects on Buildings UK. Architectural Press. Natural Disasters Maps. (2007). EM-DAT Emergency Disaster s Data Base, (Feb. 25, 2007). Reid, L.J. (2000). Crisis Management NY: John Wiley & Sons. Smith, P.J. (2006). Hospital Fires: Special Challenges for Emergency Responders-Part1. Firehouse. 31, 6. Tarrant, M. (2006). Risk and Em ergency Management. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 21 No. 1. Weems, B. and Bishop, P. (2003). Will Your Safe ty Harness Kill You? O ccupational Health and Safety Magazine, Vol. 27, No. 3, p. 86-90. Sagan, S.D. (1993). The Limits of Safety: Organizations, Accident s and Nuclear Weapons Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. Petroski, H. (1994). Design Paradi gms, Case Histories of Erro r and Judgment in Engineering, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. US Department of Homeland Secu rity. (2006). National Response Plan (Sept. 23, 2006).

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71 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Deepak Sharma received his Bachelor of Ar chitecture from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India. After working for 4 years, he was selected for educ ation in the M. E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction, University of Fl orida in 2005. His intere st in the construction and development fields with architecture as the fo cus, enthused him to research various subjects related to engineering, science, and arts. He will continue to study and apply the scientific approach to the construction field. Deepak Sharma was born in Jalandhar, India. Upon graduation he plans to continue working in the construction industry. He will focus on economic solutions for the construction industry, most affordable housing, and safer c onstruction practices for the international community.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020985/00001

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Title: Model Program for Construction Crisis and Disaster Management
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020985/00001

Material Information

Title: Model Program for Construction Crisis and Disaster Management
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020985:00001


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MODEL PROGRAM FOR CONSTRUCTION CRISIS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT


By

DEEPAK SHARMA
















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE INT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007
































O 2007 Deepak Sharma




































To my parents
For their constant encouragement and support throughout my life.










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank those who have helped me in the completion of the thesis. I would

like to thank Dr. Hinze for his constant support and direction in the process of completing the

proj ect. Dr. Grosskopf and Dr. Wetherington need special mention for their care and vision with

the project. My inspiration to study comes from my parents, S.L. Sharma and Urmil Sharma who

encouraged me to study "Building Construction". I am thankful to them. I am also thankful to

my brother Dr. S.K. Sharma and bhabhi Dr. Suman Sharma for believing in me and constantly

encouraging me in my pursuits. All my friends and teachers need special thanks as they

encouraged me to set high goals and strive to achieve them. I am also thankful to all in the

faculty including Dr. Issa and Dr. Chini for their guidance and care.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ............ ...... .__. ...............7....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............8.....


AB S TRAC T ......_ ................. ............_........9


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............11.......... ......


2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................. ...............14................


Overview ................. ...............14.................
T erm s ................. ..... .. .. ....... ... .. ... ..........2
Construction Companies and Community Relationship during Crisis/Disaster Events........24

3 METHODOLOGY .............. ...............27....


4 RE SULT S .............. ...............33....


Description of Construction Crisis/Disaster Management (CCDM) Model ..........................35
Step 1: Potential Crisis/Disaster Identification............... .............3
Step 2: Risk Assessment................ ..............3
Step 3: Develop and Implement Plan. ............. ...............38.....
Step 4: Drills & Evaluation of Drills: .......... ...40...... .......... ..
Advanced Notice of the Crisis/Disaster ................. ........ .... .......... ...........4

Step 5: Recognizing Signs of Possible Crisis/Disaster (Monitoring) ................... ...........43
Step 6: Activate the Preparation and Mitigation Plan .............. ...............43....
Step 6a: Preparation .............. ...............43....
Step 6b: Risk communication .............. ...............45....
Step 6c: M litigation ............ ..... .._ ...............46..
Step 7: Response............... ...............47
Step 8: Recovery............... ... .. ...........4
Step 9: Post Response Assessment ............ .....___ ...............49.
Step 10: Share Lessons Learned ............_ ..... ..__ ...............49.
Step 11: Credit the Efforts ............ ..... .._ ...............49.
Step 12: Evaluate Need for Change............... ...............50.
Step 13: Modify the Plan............... ...............50..
Discussion ............ ..... .._ ...............51...
Case of Hurricane ............ ..... .._ ...............51...
Case of Earthquake ............ ..... .._ ...............59...













Case of On-site Fall .............. ...............62....


5 CONCLUSIONS .............. ...............67....


6 RECOMMENDATIONS ................. ...............68.................


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............69................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............71....












LIST OF TABLES


Table


page


2-1 Top 10 Natural disaster by number of deaths: 2005 ............ ...... .__. ......._._. ....1

2-2 Number of people killed by type of crisis/disaster and level of development 1991-
2005............... ...............17..

4-1 Category of Hurricanes ........._.___..... .___ ...............52....











LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 Number of natural disasters by country: 1976-2005 ......____ ........._ ................15

2-2 Time trend of natural disasters, 1975-2005 .........___....... .... _. .............17

2-3 Number of people reported killed by type of crisis/disaster and level of country
development 1991-2005 ........ ................. ...............18 ....

2-4 Oblique aerial view northeast and upstream of Teton Dam site as it looks today .............26

4-1 Model for construction crisis/disaster management (CCDM) ................ ............... .....34

4-2 Risk Analysis of the construction crisis/disaster at various levels ................. ...............37










Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

MODEL PROGRAM FOR CONSTRUCTION CRISIS AND DISASTER
MANAGEMENT

By

Deepak Sharma

May 2007

Chair: Jimmie Hinze
Cochair: Kevin Grosskopf
Major: Building Construction

Today, the United States and many parts of the world are at significant risk of natural and

man-made disasters. Hazards are naturally occurring or man-made phenomenon that may result

in disaster when occurring in a populated, commercial or industrial area. Although there is no

system in either the private or public sector for consistently compiling comprehensive disaster

costs, conservative estimates indicate a cost of at least $20 billion annually in loss of life and

property, disruption of commerce and recovery. The rationale of this study is to provide an

overview of the hazard risks facing or potentially facing construction projects and to review the

current efforts to improve the disaster resiliency, as well as present a model that can serve as a

guide for addressing disaster that might impact a construction proj ect.

Extreme weather events, hurricanes, flooding, tornadoes, drought, wildfires, earthquakes,

volcanoes, landslides and disease epidemics are some natural challenges at the macro level that

can adversely impact a construction proj ect. Disasters including critical infrastructure threats, oil

and chemical spills, building fires, falls, and cave-ins are examples of man-made disasters that

may need to be addressed. The work of OSHA is inadequate to address many of the problems

that might occur. Although, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is working









for the cause in reducing the adverse impact of disasters at the national level, much needs to be

done for the emergency control and disaster mitigation on construction proj ects. Emergency

management is the process by which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards in

an effort to avoid or ameliorate the damage resulting from crisis/disaster events. Actions taken

depend in part on the perceptions of risk of those exposed.

The research carefully analyzed the crisis/disaster identification, risk assessment, risk

communication, mitigation, prediction and preparedness for the construction industry in the

times of natural and man-made crises/disasters. The model generated could be helpful in the

preventative and reactive measures exercised when disasters are a possibility or after they have

occurred. Thus, the research would enhance the decision making capabilities of construction

managers during the sensitive crisis/disaster phases.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

The US economy is adversely affected each year by weather and climate events. Between

1980 and 2002, the U.S. endured 54 weather-related crises/disasters in which overall damages

and costs reached or exceeded $1 billion per event. Of these crises/disasters, 45 occurred during

the 1988-2002 period with total damages and related costs of nearly $200 billion.

Hazards are naturally occurring or human-made phenomenon that may result in

crisis/disaster, especially when occurring in populated, commercial or industrial areas. Although

there is no established system or mechanism for compiling comprehensive crisis/disaster costs,

conservative estimates indicate that $20 billion is lost annually in terms of loss of life and

damaged property, disruption of commerce, and costs of recovery.

Extreme weather events, hurricanes, flooding, tornadoes, drought, wildfires, earthquakes,

volcanoes, landslides and disease epidemics are examples of some large-scale challenges that

may be envisioned. Man-made crises/disasters including critical infrastructure threats, oil and

chemical spills, building fires, falls, and cave-ins are examples of a few activities that may also

result in costly losses. The work of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

is inadequate to properly address many of the problems that may occur. Although the Federal

Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was established to address crises/disasters at the

national level, more needs to be done for emergency control and crisis/disaster mitigation.

Emergency management is the process by which all individuals, groups, companies and

communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of crises/disasters.

Actions taken depend in part on perceptions of the risks of those exposed.

Managers of construction recognize that many types of natural and man-made

crises/disasters can be experienced on construction proj ects. The ultimate impact of










crisis/disaster on a construction proj ect can be severe. These impacts may be reduced or

minimized if an effective program is implemented. Such a program will include steps taken to

prepare for crises/disasters, as well as efforts to efficiently and systematically recover from them.

Aim and objectives. One of the characteristics of crises/disasters is that their occurrence

is uncertain or irregular, and this requires special attention from the impacted individuals,

companies and communities due to their potential vastness of the resultant damage.

Crises/disasters that may need to be addressed include the following:

* Extreme weather events, including hurricanes, flooding, tornadoes, and drought
* Wildfires
* Earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides
* Disease epidemics
* Man-made crises/disasters, including critical infrastructure threats, oil and chemical spills,
and building fires
* Falls
* Heavy machinery accidents
* Small tools emergencies
* Cave-in events
* Plant or animal related incidents
* Terrorists' attacks on construction sites
* Job site violence

Crisis/disaster planning, emergency preparedness, or business continuity (different terms

for the related theme) have goals that are ultimately the same: to get an organization back up and

running in the event of an interruption resulting from a crisis/disaster. The problem causing the

interruption could be one machine that was mishandled or an entire network crashing. It could

also be an electrical outage or damage resulting from terrorist activity. The goal is to have some

type of plan in the event of a problem. A crisis/disaster management plan will outline the basic

procedures to be followed to minimize the adverse impact of the crisis/disaster.









The study will provide an overview of several risks facing construction proj ects, review

the efforts that may be taken to address these risks, as well as generate a new model to address

crises/disasters of various types that might impact a construction proj ect.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Overview

Merriam Webster defines disaster as "a sudden calamitous event bringing great damage,

loss, or destruction." The definition for the closely related word "crisis" refers to "the unstable or

crucial time or state of affairs in which a decisive change is impending; especially one with the

di stinct possibility of a highly undesirable outcome" (Merriam-Web ster). It is for these two

events; "crisis and disaster" that the research sciences are trying to create models of defense and

recovery which can lead to a better outcome. Crisis could be the origin of disaster, and disaster

could be the beginning of another crisis.

Disaster is perceived as "a state of extreme ruin and misfortune," and it is worthy of being

addressed critically. Disaster can also be viewed as "any incident that can focus negative

attention" in a company and have an adverse effect on its overall financial condition, its

relationships with its clients, or its reputation in the marketplace (Reid 2000).

It was not until the 1930s that the U.S. government became actively involved in

crisis/disaster response and then did some informal work by providing funding to repair

highways and bridges damaged by natural crises/disasters or building flood-control proj ects.

Nuclear war and nuclear fallout were the greatest risks in the 1950s and most emergency

management efforts were focused on civil defense programs at all federal levels. During the

1960s and 70s, a number of large natural crises/disasters beset the country, conspicuously the

Ash Wednesday storm along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (1962), the Alaskan

earthquake (1964), Hurricane Camille (1969), the San Fernando Valley earthquake (1971) and

Christmas tsunami (2004). The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters analyzed

graphically the geographical distribution of natural crises/disasters at the world level from 1976










to 2005 (Figure 2-1). More than 120 natural crises/disasters were noted in such countries as

Russia, China, India, Iran, Australia and the Unites States.



Number of natural disasters by country: 1976-2005












Figue 21 Nmbe of atual isatersby ounry:197-200 (Surc: Ntura Diastrs aps
EM-DAT~~~~~~~ Emrec iatesDt ae













manaemen fucton ateac the fedra level.og f isst


Pigrepaens is thmer ofonaunaldiastion b of em rgny: management and hcelp Ntoa rducser


vulerabilty to threas. The establishments of warning systanemws evcuationue plns pre-impactdo

prepnardneo bsiswe special-needs andsmlrresonses n soul nt be a ermere"lgnt trncsaffi eanalynsis

but carefully wrkedpnib out practice pla rnns.Th mtosty vuleral popul/iastion rshoulde takn in79to




cosiepratin wens mais ong patins Atouegh t sdifcul t praedict tndhelt numer of









crises/disasters in the coming years, the time trend of natural crises/disasters from 1975-2005

shows an increase in the number of crises/disasters for the past years. Many of these

crises/disasters occurred in high population countries such as the People's Republic of China and

India. A significant number of crises/disasters also hit the United States (Table 2-1). As shown in

Figure 2-2, the number of crises/disasters appears to be increasing.

Table 2-1 Top 10 Natural disaster by number of deaths: 2005 (Source: EM-DAT: The
OFDA/CRED)


Nalitura disa sters by~ nrumber of dleaths 200~5
Eathqludae, October Palastan
Humricane Stan, Olctober Guatem~ala
Huilrcane Kidnra, PAugust United States
Earthquake, October ndia


73 338
1 613
'1322
'1 309
'1200
915
771
612
561
520


inda
indonesia
Cran, PRep
Iran, Islamn Rep
Nlgeria
Palestan


Flood, Jully
Earthq~udae, March
Flood, Julne
Earthqcuake,. February
Meadles Elpiemic
Flod, February


Victims (killed ani~d affected) of
naturlalds~asterQs per 100,1000
inhabz~ivtan- 200S5


Countries mo~st hit biy
reaitual~ disasters 2005
China P ep
inda
UnCited States
Afghani~stan
Banladesh
Palastan
Viietnam, ~ndonsia, Raanila
Iran (lelam Relp).. Rusma
Haiti
Mexric, Turkey


Gluyana
Niger

Albania
Zlamb~ia
Djbouti
Kenya
Mozambiqlue


42512
37 3763
35 000
30 863
22~ 91(4
11 240
10 600
9 859
7 4977
7 461










Time ~trend of natural
disasters, 1975-2~005*
6000


5001


400


300


200


100O


1975 1980 19;85 1~990 1~995 2000 2005

Figure 2-2: Time trend of natural disasters, 1975-2005 (Source: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED)

The number of people killed from 1991-2005 was examined by different categories of

development level of the countries which is shown in Table 2.2 and Figure 2.3. Figure 2.3

proj ects the percentage of loss caused by maj or natural crises/disasters in different areas of world

categorized under different levels of development.


Table 2-2: Number of people killed by type of crisis/disaster and level of development 1991-
2005 (Source: ISDR. Disaster Statistics)
Robad W1ind strmOn Daghr Slide EMIg8tae & sunaini Vonlcae e~rupio Epidemic~ Tob|l
OECD 2150 5430 47516 424 5910 44 42 61981
CEE+C;B 2835 512 31006 1176B 2412 8 588 10412
Devalownrr corltnes 97051 3525 "12599~ 938 397303 ~ 9 i 4716 830106
Leasi developeBd counTries 20127 149517 3320 1739 927 01 70585B 25473~9
Contie not cl e 9?) 787 57 I'3 2217 11 104 3327
Total 122072 221484 85601 12733 417149 1145 119318 950502
; Drgughi l whivj I;a~r~ iitersalog inllvl.4 guiremn rsmpderssrg











OECD


CE E+C~IS


Drought & related
disastears9;6


Drought & related
disasters
76%










De





Epidemic' 1


lide r
1%8
Earthquake & tsunami
10%
Epidern c
16
Flood
3%
Wind strmn
9%


Flood


Win %tory
5% C


-artl-.ualse &
Ep~drmlL
launami 5
23%i


Least developed countries

Slide
1%$ Drought; & related disasters

Ehau~qake & tsunami


eloping countries
FIoad Wind sto~rm
15% 10% ~
Dro~ught &: elated dlisasters

L Side


Epide~mic


Wind storm
58%


Flood
8%a


Eairthqua~kei &
Lsunami



ICocuntrie~s not classified

Epidemic Flood
3% 3%
WNind stosrm
23%6


D~ogr2 h & rlated disasters
Slide
1%b


Earthqurake &
taunami
68%9
Figure 2-3: Number of people reported killed by type of crisis/disaster and level of country
development 1991-2005 (Source: ISDR. Disaster Statistics)


To plan for crisis/disaster, it is important to identify the various risks and to understand

their inter-relationships. Losses from crises/disasters can take many forms on a construction


proj ect, including financial losses, physical destruction, and delays in the schedule (Cooper and










Chapman 1987). When addressing crises/disasters, it is important to anticipate failure modes and

to then take steps to prevent those failure modes from developing catastrophic events (Petroski

1994). Catastrophic events are associated with high risk occurrences, but low risk occurrences

with lesser impacts are also a concern. Low risk events tend to be handled by "redundancy" and

"duplication" (Sagan 1993).

The US aircraft carrier operations are high risk in nature, especially during war time. These

high risk operations involve computers, antennas and personnel. Because of the complexity,

redundancy with additional assigned personnel and an overlap of responsibilities is standard

procedure. In 2006, Michael Tarrant stated the following about risk:

A key theme which is often raised is that there should be increased community
participation and responsibility in managing risk. If there is an expectation of significant
changes in behavior by individuals then risk assessment and/or risk management will have
to move beyond the idea that risk is something that is independent of minds and cultures,
waiting to be measured. Unless an approach is developed that moves beyond technical
assessments, people are doomed to be met with either apathy or occasional aggression by
the public when attempting to engage them in managing risk. The idea that risk can be
obj ectively quantified is often expressed in equations such as risk = consequence x
probability.

Risk management consists of assessing, minimizing, and preventing accidental loss to a

business, as through the use of insurance, safety measures, etc. Risk assessment on every proj ect

is a valuable exercise for any proj ect management team to address. This may eventually be

addressed in the general company policies on site management. Companies should focus on the

kinds of plans required to address the needs created by crisis/disaster. Some have tried to

increase the probability of successfully managing risk by teaming up with others. OSHA has

worked with the National Response Team of the Environmental Protection Agency. Also, the

Department of Transportation has made efforts to develop plans for addressing crises/disasters,

but there is a lack of critical reviews being conducted. Salmon (2005) described risk analysis at










the world level, where terrorists' attacks were identified as the result of gap in the global

architecture of governmental, non-governmental and quasi-governmental organizations

Hazard analysis involves identifying and assessing the characteristics of hazards in

communities and the environment. If the trend to manage risk through greater participation and

the acceptance of individual responsibilities is to be successful, then many issues will have to be

addressed. Public education and awareness is of limited value until there is a greater appreciation

of the way people think about risk and their decision-making processes. A key theme, which is

often raised, is that there should be increased community participation and responsibility in

managing risk (Tarrant 2006). Alexander (2006) described the globalization of crises/disasters

with the vulnerability as the conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and

environmental factors.

The National Response Plan establishes a comprehensive all-hazards approach to enhance

the ability of the United States to manage domestic incidents. The plan incorporates best

practices and procedures from incident management disciplines (Federal Emergency

Management Agency or FEMA, National Disaster Medical System or NDMS, Urban Search and

Rescue or USAR, Disaster Mortuary Operations Response Team or DMORT, Disaster Medical

Assistance Team or DMAT etc.), and integrates them with the entities:

* Homeland security
* Emergency management
* Law enforcement
* Firefighting
* Public works
* Public health
* Responder and recovery worker health and safety
* Emergency medical services
* Private sector










Smith (2006) refers to the use of special code systems in the alert mechanisms for hospital

emergencies. The examples of the codes include the following:

* Code blue: Medical emergency
* Code red: Fire
* Code white: Pediatric medical emergency
* Code amber: Infant or child abduction
* Code yellow: Bomb threat
* Code gray: Security emergency/ patient elopement
* Code silver: Hostage situation
* Code orange: Hazardous material
* Code triage: External disasters situation
* Code clear or green: Situation is resolved

It has been suggested that a similar code designation needs to be developed for the

construction industry. Much effort is needed to integrate practices and procedures into a unified

structure. Big companies have more resources than the small firms. Big companies can have

multiple construction sites that can be utilized to provide resources to a construction site that was

struck by crisis/disaster. Small businesses have a few options so they need to be more creative

when drafting their emergency plans (Barrel 2007). Because of the limited resources of the small

firms, federal departments and agencies will work together with them to coordinate with state,

local, and tribal governments and the private sector during crisis/disaster incidents. Established

protocols are necessary to help protect the nation from terrorist attacks and other natural and

man-made hazards; save lives; protect public health, safety, property, and the environment; and

reduce adverse psychological consequences and disruptions to the American way of life.

Roger Kemp (2007) presents a nine point formula to assess the vulnerability of buildings to

crisis/disaster:

1. Visibility
2. Criticality to Jurisdiction
3. Site Impact outside the Jurisdiction
4. Public Accessibility
5. Possible on-site hazards









6. Building Height
7. Building Construction sturdiness
8. Site population capacity
9. Potential for Collateral mass casualties

Kemp states that the office, storage and manufacturing plants are not the targets of the terrorist' s

attacks, but the governmental buildings, transportation centers, nuclear plants, and factories that

produce war materials. It is almost unpredictable to know the minds of terrorists but Kemp

encourages more preparation in the above mentioned facilities. The scale of the construction

proj ect is the most important factor which Kemp forgets to mention. All the weaknesses in the

security systems are the causal factors in the crises/disasters by terrorism.

In 2000, Gunes and Kovel, described the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

in dealing with the hazards for Douglas County in the state of Kansas. The GIS-based decision

support system was developed to safeguard against the flood zones in Douglas County. The

flood zones were made to be identified and analyzed accurately using GIS technology.

Orthophoto, hydrography, and digital elevation models were used to obtain a total understanding

of the area under study. The study encouraged the use of graphical image systems as even a non-

technical observer could analyze the area under consideration. In addition, other supportive

methods of understanding the geology and soil zones using graphical systems can be helpful for

addressing crises/disasters in the construction industry. Employing special emergency

consultants is described by Brown (2002), as one of the solutions where consultants can provide

the construction companies with written emergency plans and can visit the facility maintaining

its safe completion.

Leonard and Howitt (2006) wrote about Hurricane Katrina as the most devastating storm.

They made comparisons with Hurricane Andrew in 1992 and the Missouri River floods of 1993.

The damage caused by Katrina occurred over nearly 100,000 square miles of area, roughly the










land mass of the United Kingdom. The aftermath had the people stunned, as instantaneous

response was difficult to analyze and put into action. The lesson learned was that the United

States was not prepared for such a big crisis/disaster. Many construction sites were ill-prepared

to address such a massive attack by nature.

In 2006, the Oklahoma Sciences Research Center prepared a six-step model to improve the

capacity of public health agencies to respond to any hazardous event. The proposed model

integrated aspects of two existing approaches with concepts from the field of emergency

management, and emphasized the importance of timely evaluation. The evaluation of this

paradigm included both individual workers and larger work groups. It addressed both general

goals and the agency's local plan. This model also stressed the need to work with all levels of the

agency to develop the local plan. The evaluation was accomplished using self-assessment,

measures of obj ective knowledge, ratings of individual performance, and ratings of team

performance. Though based on a pilot study, that model may have applications for other agencies

working to increase their capacity to respond to hazardous events.

Terms

The research by International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2005), focused on different

environments of construction, so the understanding of a few terms could be helpful in creating

solutions for the emergency events. The terms are as follows:

All-hazards approach: an integrated hazard management strategy that incorporates planning for
and consideration of all potential natural and man-made hazard threats, including terrorism.

Disaster risk: the chance of a hazard event occurring and resulting in disaster

Hazard event: the specific occurrence of a hazard

Hazard risk: the chance of a hazard event occurring

Natural disaster: a disaster that results from a natural hazard event










Natural hazard: a hazard that originates in natural phenomena (hurricane, earthquake, tornado,
etc.)

Man-made hazard: a hazard that originates in accidental or intentional human activity (oil spill,
chemical spill, building fires, terrorism, etc.)

Emergency planning: procedures and steps taken immediately after an interruption
to construction activity

Disaster recovery: steps taken to restore some functions so that some level of
services can be offered

Business continuity: restoration planning, completing the full circle to get the organization
back to where it was before an interruption

There are no generalized templates, as one framework for crisis/disaster planning and

recovery cannot fit all. There are some common elements among plans, but every charted plan

will be unique because every organization's structure and circumstances are unique. It is the

obj ective of this research to develop a generalized crisis/disaster management plan that could

address a wide range of crises/disasters.

Construction Companies and Community Relationship during Crisis/Disaster Events

Americans in today's world are more vulnerable to hurricanes than in the past. The

hurricane-prone coastline of the United States now houses nearly 50 million people. Hurricane

Katrina devastated a major city in 2005. The commitment to reach the community in

crisis/disaster event could have been best served if had a plan of action for them too.

Unfortunately, there was no orchestrated plan; certainly none that could that could address a

crisis/disaster of the scale of Hurricane Katrina.

Natural crises/disasters of the scale of Hurricane Katrina need crisis/disaster planning at

the community level. Local construction firms can also play a significant role in the recovery

phase. The community services that can be provided to the neighborhood after natural

crises/disaster includes such activities as cutting down fallen trees; hauling off the debris; and










providing transportation; supplying water and providing other needed services. The construction

company could make a decision to defer actions on its own proj ect site, while the community

needs are addressed. A company could take complete control of the situation or work closely

with the governmental agencies in addressing the issue. The National Guard could be served by

contacting them directly. Assisting the community can help the company's own workers feel

pride in the values of the organization' s policies and humanitarian work.

Community services and the company's own construction proj ect require attention and a

decision is needed on how to best allocate the resources. This decision will be based on the

nature of the damage inflicted by the crisis/disaster. Three different scenarios are possible at the

time of crises/disasters, which are as follows:

* Crisis/disaster at construction site and community unaffected
* Crisis/disaster at construction site and community also affected
* Construction site unaffected, but community suffers from crisis/disaster

The organization could think of supporting the community with transportation vehicles or some

other equipment to help the neighborhood address its immediate needs.

There are often special needs of the community or neighborhood in times of crisis/disaster.

If only the construction site has sustained damage, all efforts will be focused on the construction

site. If, both the construction site and the community are affected, allocating resources between

the construction site and the community will be the key decisions to be made in the early stages.

Providing assistance to the community in the hours of crisis may be a moral obligation assumed

by the company. In the case where only the community is impacted, the immediate need will be

to implement actions for the benefit of the community.

History is replete with examples where parties in neighboring area came out and helped

those in the community in a time of need. For instance, after the Teton Dam collapse on June 5,









1976 (Figure 2-4) the construction companies in the region provided help to the community.

Bulldozers and crews were immediately deployed to "plug the leak." Some workers put

themselves at risk to help the community. The construction companies extended their

commitment beyond financial support. Donations of diverse supplies, equipment, services and

expertise to enhance the on-ground relief activities saved lives and resources.























Figure 2-4: Oblique aerial view northeast and upstream of Teton Dam site as it looks today
(Source: U. S. Bureau of Reclamation)









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The overall obj ective of this research was to develop a model that could be used to address

the effective management of any crisis or disaster that might impact a construction project. With

the model, a construction manager could devise an appropriate management plan to address an

impending or potential crisis/disaster. As such, the model could provide the underlying

foundation to develop a management plan to address any crisis or disaster. The challenges for

developing the model on crisis and disaster management were associated primarily with the

varying types of calamities and their consequences. For example, the model was to address

minor crisis situations (power failure) and maj or disasters (hurricanes).

The methodology followed in this research was guided by the obj ectives of the study,

which were to develop a standardized approach for disaster mitigation and crisis management in

construction.

The steps taken to obtain sufficient information on crisis/disaster management were as

follows:

* A literature search was conducted on relevant material describing emergency management,
disaster mitigation and any crisis event that might impact a construction proj ect

* The impacts of crises/disasters and events were studied on a global basis

* The private and public institutional efforts of crisis/disaster management were collected

* Media coverage on crisis/disaster cases was studied

* Construction industry approaches to address crisis/disaster situations were examined in
journals, magazines, the Internet and newspapers

* The data on relevant case studies were collected and evaluated










The research was aimed at creating a model or a collection of models for crisis/disaster

management on construction proj ects. The use of generally accepted terms rather than

technological terminology was considered essential for ease of use. In the process of developing

a solution for this complex issue, the initial development steps were divided into three different

categories

* Higher magnitude disasters
* Lower category disasters
* Localized disasters

The management of a crisis/disaster is highly dependent on the nature of the event.

Varying levels of preparation will be required for different events. The impact of a crisis/disaster

on the community and a construction site can be enormous. The model to be generated was to

sequentially address all the parameters associated with the preparation for a crisis/disaster and

the recovery period. The higher magnitude disasters were the most important of the listed

crises/disasters as they could result in greater consequences. Higher magnitude "man-made

disasters" are not common and are generally associated, in recent times, with acts of terrorism.

The man-made crisis/disaster events were considered to be rare so that this research did not

consider them. The higher magnitude types of crisis/ disasters include the following:

* Earthquake
* Extreme snow/ ice conditions
* Extended freeze
* Flood
* Drought
* Hurricane/tropical storm
* Lightning, especially associated with subsequent fire
* Tornado
* Tsunami
* Avalanche
* Landslide/mudslide
* Surface faulting
* Ground failure
* Disease epidemic










Lower order disasters can also adversely impact construction proj ects. Even though the

elements of disaster may be small, their consequences could be disastrous, especially if a chain

reaction is initiated. For example, a small fire caused by a lightening strike could result in an

explosion and widespread damage. Also, in the structure of a building, the whole system could

fail due to progressive collapse. Thus, one small event could result in a maj or disaster. The

research identified several lower category crises/disasters including the following:

* Environmental accidents
* Groundwater contamination
* Long term exposure of a community to toxic chemicals
* Release of toxic chemicals into the air or water channels
* Disease epidemic (Terrorist Act as anthrax threat)

Localized crises/disasters are seen as a potential threat to the safe completion of

construction proj ects. Even if the area of influence is not a whole city or town, it can still impact

greatly on the company performing the operations. Human error is recognized as one of the most

crucial causes behind localized disasters. For instance, maj or sources of hazardous material

accidents are spills along roadways, railways, pipelines, rivers, and port areas. Hazardous

materials are substances, which are harmful to the health and safety of people and to property.

Subcategories of localized crises/disasters include the following:

* Injury/ fatality of an employee
* Exposure to hazardous/radioactive material/oil
* Chronic safety problems
* Homicide
* Suicide
* Accident on the j ob site
* Violent acts
* Terrorism
* Damage to utility lines
* Equipment failure
* Theft/ embezzlement
* Damage to utility lines
* Fire










* Violent strikes
* Sabotage
* Power failure
* Suspicious material

There are also a number of cases, which are out of the scope of this study. The following

categories were not considered in the model development.

* Operational misconduct/ management/ administration
* Discontented employees
* Fraud
* Bankruptcy
* Contractual disputes with a client
* Mergers/acqui siti ons
* Negative publicity relating to politics
* Grievances
* Labor issues and appeals
* Sudden market uplift
* Blackmail
* Harassment
* Human rights violations
* Reorganization/ downsizing
* Sudden governmental changes in policies
* Scandals
* Serious cash flow problems
* Rapid growth
* Lack of bonding capability
* Computer viruses

Institutions in different industries have their own working models of preparedness and

response for crisis/disaster. For example, the health-care industry has response models to address

multiple emergency room admissions resulting from a single catastrophic event. Response

models were also noted in the area of sports where sports teams employ physicians to attend to

unexpected serious injuries of players. Similarly, response models of police departments, fire

departments, and national emergency services with other parallel organizations (Red Cross,

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Group) were examined in preparation for










developing a crisis/disaster management model. These have served as inspirational models in the

development of the construction crisis/disaster management model.

The research had a prime focus on developing a model that would help in "preventing" as

much damage from crisis/disaster events as possible by generating a working model on which

effective crisis/disaster management plans could be developed and implemented. Although the

model is not designed to prevent the occurrence of a crisis/disaster, it is designed to dramatically

reduce the adverse impacts of such events. The action plans for different types of crisis/disaster

events were evaluated. For example, consideration was given to the appropriate responses to

address maj or events as hurricanes and less serious events as power failures. By examining

various maj or and minor events, a wide range of mitigation response actions were identified.

After that, the responses to several different types of crisis/disaster events were analyzed and

common elements were identified between the different approaches. Through this exercise, it

was decided that a single model would be developed, i.e. most of the response elements were

similar for very different crisis/disaster events. As the model was developed, it was tested to

determine if it adequately addressed the needs of crisis/disaster management for different types

of events. Through this process, iterative improvements were made to the model until it was

deemed to be finalized. The final version was felt to adequately address the many types of

crisis/disaster events that were examined.

Further validation of the model was conducted through a third party review. J. D. Lewis,

Regional Safety Director of Bovis Lend Lease, reviewed the model for applicability to real world

crisis/disaster events. Mr. Lewis suggested the formulation of a "Plan B" as an alternative in case

the basic plan could not be used. It was decided that once a management plan has been

developed for a crisis/disaster, an alternative plan would be appropriate in many instances. If









such an alternative plan were to be developed for a particular crisis/disaster, the same

crisis/disaster management model could still apply.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The research developed a standardized model for crises/disasters that impact construction

proj ects. The model was prepared to address virtually any kind of crisis/disaster situation that

could arise on construction proj ects. The model known as the Construction Crisis/Disaster

Management (CCDM) model, has primarily three subparts:

* Plan in place to address crises/disasters
* Actions to be taken to prepare for a forecasted event
* Response to and recovery after an event

The three subparts are associated with a series of different steps as shown in Figure 4-1.

The "plan in place" consists of charting out procedures with constant refinement and revision. In

the case of an advanced warning of a crisis/disaster, certain actions are activated for the

response. Not every event will have an advanced warning, so "plan in place" can assist in

reducing the impact of a crisis/disaster even when there is no adverse warning. "Response and

recovery" constitutes all the actions taken during and after the crisis/disaster event. Every step in

the CCDM model contains three parts which are: assigning responsibilities, documenting contact

information and identifying respective action steps.

All levels of crisis/disaster management need the commitment of top management. Also,

crisis/disaster management is a function handled by a team of individuals and is not the work of

a single person in top management. Although, management involvement at various levels of the

crisis/disaster model is crucial, individual participation with allotted responsibilities can

successfully implement the model.























3. Develop & Implement
Plan (Preparedness,
)Risk Communication, I I - -r
Mitigation)



4. Drills, Evaluate
Drill Success 4-a.Modify the
Plan


Advanced Notice

Warning

No warning
5. Recognizing Signs of Possible
Crisis/Disaster (Monitoring)


For Every Step:
6. Activate the Plan 1. Assign Responsibility
a. Preparation 2. Contact Information
b. Risk Communication 3. Action Steps
c. Mitigation




Event does not occur Event Occurs




7. Response


8. Recovery


9. Post Response Assessment


10. Share Lessons Learned



S11. Credit the Efforts
13. Modify the Plan


Yes 12. Evaluate Need for Change No




Figure 4-1. Model for construction crisis/disaster management (CCDM)









Description of Construction Crisis/Disaster Management (CCDM) Model

Crises/disasters which can be anticipated can be managed and they are the ones that can be

attenuated or even avoided. The following is a step-by-step description of the CCDM model:

Step 1: Potential Crisis/Disaster Identification

Crisis/disaster identification is the first crucial step in the CCDM model. The key points in

the identification process are:

* Identifying potential crisis/disaster that may impact a construction site
* Examine historical evidence on past natural crises/disasters in the area

Step 2: Risk Assessment

The risk assessment is conducted on a potential crisis/disaster to determine if a

management plan is to be developed for it. If not, the management plan is not needed and it is

not developed. Certain crises/disasters could develop in progressive stages of growth, whereas

others might not show any warning signs. The initial identification of the probability of

occurrence could result in efforts to stop the crisis/disaster and its aftermath. The risk for the

identified crisis/disaster event could be studied with the help of the following steps:

* Studying the site topography, site plans and prevailing weather conditions

* Understanding the geological, meteorological, and in some cases epidemiological factors
associated with specific crisis/disaster events

* Understanding the use of remote sensing technologies like geographical information systems
(GIS)

* Studying the surface elevation models with orthophotos, hydrographic surveys in case of
flood zones

* Understanding all existing infrastructure facilities in the construction site region

* Understanding and training of medical procedures such as first aid

* Analyzing the budget for emergency services










*Hypothesizing the probable agents of crisis/disaster based on regional geography, history,
and past construction accidents

The formula for risk is, risk = probability of occurrence X severity of consequences. The

risk calculations take into account a number of factors and inferences on the site-specific

conditions. The manager's intuitive capacity and foresight about crisis/disaster events could help

in these risk calculations. For example, the probability of a nuclear strike on a construction site at

Gainesville, FI is nearly zero percent, hence the risk associated with such an event is nil.

It can be assumed that the tornado that hit central Florida in February 2007 was an

indicator of a weather crisis/disaster that could occur again. There, the risk associated with a

similar hit by such an event has an increased probability. In risk calculations, factors of

probability, consequences, phases of construction proj ect, and kinds of the construction activities

occurring at the time could be helpful in conducting an overall risk analysis.

Consider an example of a construction scene in New York City. The city is located in the

Northeast region of United States where the climate is primarily humid and all storm frontal

systems move eastward across the continent. The probability of being hit by a well-developed

storm system is high during winter. These storms generally continue to move eastward or along

the Atlantic coast accompanied by very strong winds, causing considerable property damage

over wide areas of the state. Other severe weather conditions could include high rainfall,

thundershowers, windstorms, snowstorms, blizzards, extreme heat, and drought, all of which

might inflict damage on a construction site. The season of the year associated with hazardous

weather conditions, along with the phase of construction of a given proj ect, should be analyzed

to objectively measure "risk" for the construction proj ects in New York. The consequences of a

storm could be predicted from the analysis of photographs of past disasters, buildings devastated









by similar weather patterns and rehabilitation provided by the governmental and non-profit

organizations.

THREAT MATRIX









LIKELIHOOD










LOW HIGH
IMPACT
Figure 4-2: Risk Analysis of the construction crisis/disaster at various levels

The risk analysis of the probability of occurrence is the "likelihood" that an event will take

place and the consequences of the occurrence can be referred as the "impact" that the event will

have. If the project is under a lower probability of occurrence of the crisis/disaster event and its

consequences are also low, then it will lie under the lower left corner of the graph (Figure 4-2).

For example, a project in the state of Florida is nearly under a zero probability of occurrence of

hurricanes from January through March. If the consequences or impacts are also low, then the

proj ect is said to be in the lower threat zone of the matrix shown in Figure 4-2. In another case, a

project under construction in the state of Florida during the month of August is under high

probability of occurrence of hurricanes and the consequences of hurricanes on the projects is

high, Under these conditions, the proj ect is in the high threat zone of the threat matrix. Similarly,










the risk analysis can be conducted for projects under different conditions with the "threat

matrix."

Three-dimensi onal models, similar to architectural -pre sentati on models, could b e used to

introduce on-table discussions and conduct further analysis. Introduction of various kinds of

constraints, even during the construction phase, that can result in temporary or permanent

damage to the facility could help in the risk assessment. In case of hurricanes, the structural

design engineers must work closely with the construction managers to analyze structures and the

potential impact of a crisis/disaster. It is required that the risk management must acknowledge

the sequence of construction activities and their risks. The multiple crisis/disaster prone

construction environments need careful risk evaluations.

Step 3: Develop and Implement Plan.

Directions and guidelines are created in the plan for all the ongoing construction activities

on the site. It is important to develop a plan and then, train all the Hield workers and supervisory

personnel to effectively act against the impending crisis/disaster. The plan can be divided into

three different categories:

Step 3a: Plan for the pre-event phase: The following steps need to be taken.

Prepare contact information

Assign responsibilities to different site personnel

Set up command centers (offices) with effective communication networks.

Develop set rules and standard operating procedures so as to counter the agent of hazard
in construction projects.

Establish a central meeting place (or places) for all the employees.

Assemble beforehand the emergency supplies that might be needed including, first aid
kits, flashlights, radios, batteries, communication devices, food and protective clothing
should be ready.










Devise area sketches, map layouts, or any other kind of planning documentation
associated with any probable crisis/disaster in advance.

Set up communication networks, emergency team identification, command ounces, and
signal mediums in advance.

Prepare all mitigation and risk communication services

Step 3b: Plan during the event phase.

The plan during the event will vary considerably, depending on the type of crisis/disaster. The

action could consist of all personnel finding a safe place until the event passes. In other events,

key activities can be initiated for a post-event response. In some cases the event itself is so short

that virtually no activities can actually be planned, e.g., lightning strike. Responses to the event

should be well coordinated between all the site personnel.

Step 3c: Plan for the post-event phase.

Plan for the post-event phase comprises of all the activities which help in restoring the

proj ect to regular construction operations. Management may consider utilizing the help of

experts for the analysis of damage and recovery procedures. All the site personnel should not

start any activities until asked to do so. The aftermath of the event can be devastating in certain

cases (hurricanes, tornadoes, fires, etc.), where complete rebuilding of the site from the initial

stages is required. Also, in other cases (low intensity earthquake), the effects might not be

harmful, like certain small cracks in the structure might reveal only superficial damage. The

collection of saved materials and resources is also one of important steps in the post-event phase.

Certain crisis/disaster events might be avoided if proper preventative measures are

implemented on time, e.g., the use of alternative uninterrupted power supply in case there is a

power failure. Also, proper lighting could save the construction site from an act of arson. The

planning stage establishes all the activities to be followed during the developing stage of a









crisis/disaster. All designers, engineers, planners and managers should work together to mitigate

the attack of probable crisis/disaster events on the construction proj ects.

Step 4: Drills & Evaluation of Drills:

Drills consist of exercises conducted which can test the full strengths and weaknesses of

the management plan. In the process of conducting a drill, regular construction activities stop and

a simultaneous response to a crisis/disaster is conducted. Human shelter and all other

arrangements (depending on the crisis/disaster) for the crucial hours need to be well coordinated

with all site personnel. Restarting the interrupted activities and returning to regular work tasks

are the aims of a drill. The specific tasks performed during the drill will depend on the specific

crisis/disaster that is being simulated. It is a test of actions which can combat the simulated

crisis/disaster using equipment, materials and procedures.

In case of suspicious substances on the site, the following steps constitute the drills:

On-site management to be notified immediately

Communication to warn all site personnel

Promptly shut down all operations in defined piece of time

Evacuation of all site personnel

All the evacuation routes serve all the traffic flow, so all routes and fire doors should be
working

All the emergency alarms and lighting should be installed and should be working
properly

All the site personnel should assemble at a common meeting place

Alternative shelter should be available in good condition

Remove the suspicious substance from the working zone to avoid exposure

Avoid contact with any exposed personnel










Sheriff~ s and emergency responders to be called and only they are allowed to handle the
sub stance

If the substance lies inside the covered site, then ventilation systems must be assessed to
determine if they are to be shut down

If the substance lies outdoors, all flammable substances and ignition sources are to be removed

Evaluation of drills for the adequacy of planning for the crisis/disaster event is done after

every exercise. The success of the drill prepares the site personnel mentally for an actual event to

be addressed more efficiently. Any mistake in the drill teaches lessons that should not be

repeated. If there is a need of the plan to be modified due to its weaknesses, then new elements

should be introduced in the revised plan. Continuous modifications, drills, and continuous

planning create a stronger solution for the crisis/disaster management plan.

All the steps of the CCDM model establish the need of constant feedback of ideas in the

development of plans. An alternate plan could be activated if management realizes that the initial

plan is unsuitable. The alternative plan needs to be evaluated in a similar manner to the initial

plan with rigorous drills.

Advanced Notice of the Crisis/Disaster

Crises/disasters can vary considerably in terms of the extent of advanced notice or warning

signs that are given about the eventual occurrence. When an advanced warning exists, it is

important to watch for the signs and to recognize them. Additional steps can be taken in the

crisis/disaster plan to reduce the impact of the crisis/disaster as preparations can be made.

The advanced warning is the forecast or likelihood of the occurrence of a particular event.

The monitoring or observation of the event and immediate preparation can save the company

from the crisis/disaster' s after-effects. The advanced awareness of the coming event could help

in identifying and understanding the following:

*Potential consequences










* Level of risk and probability of occurrence

Observation may be the most important factor in saving a construction proj ect from a

crisis/disaster. The failure to recognize the signs of a crisis/disaster in the early stages could

result in conditions whereby all construction activities would stop once the crisis/disaster became

a reality. The crisis/disaster conditions could be studied with the following characteristics:

* Strength: the magnitude of the crisis/disaster will dictate the ease of recognition

* Occurrence: the likelihood of occurrence will define the level of risks

* Action period: the striking phase or duration of the impact of a crisis/disaster event must be
carefully studied

* Coverage: the area under influence or the extent of impact

* Velocity: the speed and direction of the crisis/disaster

* Pattern recognition: the trends and all composite elements of the crisis/disaster

For natural crises/disasters, the weather agencies can predict such events as thunderstorms,

rain, hurricanes, and snow-storms. Some crises/disasters, such as fires from lightening;

tornadoes, and earthquakes cannot be predicted with accuracy. Different methods are utilized to

help forecast different events. In case of an accident on the jobsite, nothing could be predicted as

accidents just happen without notice, although there are indicators of poorer safety behavior that

might suggest a higher probability of occurrence. For example, the behavior of a worker might

be a precursor to an accident, as in case of a worker under the influence of a controlled

sub stance.

A winter storm watch by the weather agency means that conditions are developing in the

area under study for a winter storm and usually these can be predicted 12 to 36 hours prior to

occurrence. A blizzard warning means that strong winds, blinding wind-driven snow and










dangerous wind chill are expected and preparedness for proper shelter is indeed required within

hours.

Step 5: Recognizing Signs of Possible Crisis/Disaster (Monitoring)

Weather services inform the public through media of approaching crisis/disaster events.

Weather warning can be valuable for management personnel on construction site. Once it is

apparent that a predicted event will impact a construction site the crisis/disaster plan is activated.

Step 6: Activate the Preparation and Mitigation Plan

The activation of the plan needs the site personnel to act efficiently on the charted out plan.

Care should be taken on the timely activation of the plan. Actions are taken to

* Prevent or reduce damage
* Provide protection during the event
* Be ready for the post event response

The activation step is further divided into three categories: preparation, risk

communication and mitigation. The subcategories are explained as follows:

Step 6a: Preparation

The advanced notice to an upcoming crisis/disaster event gives time to prepare and

respond effectively. The developed and tested plans are activated at this stage. The preparation

may include the following steps:

* The plan of action is finalized, in case additional modifications were deemed necessary

* The life safety plans and all emergency routes should be ready to be used

* Documenting, analyzing, and protecting the utility shutoffs, electrical cutoffs, electrical
substations, storm drains, sewer lines, MEP lines, gas lines, fire suppression systems,
restricted areas and valued-items

* Identifying the resources needed to address the consequences of the crisis/disaster event

* Ensure that assigned responsibilities are assumed by the designated individuals.

* Understanding the timing and sequence of different activities










* Identifying all the personnel resources that will be utilized: location, phone numbers,
hotlines, operations manual

* Consideration of viability of the alternative plan for the assumed crisis/disaster

* Saving all the potential intellectual properties, computer files, data servers placed under
different divisions and multiple regions, use of Application Service Providers (ASP) as
databases over the Intemet. The use of easily portable ipod option could be used to save
records for the company

* Setting up of alternative power resources such as uninterrupted power supply (UPS) systems

* Collecting all necessary inventory items: first aid supplies, material supplies, equipment,
vehicles

* Networking: both private and public connections intact

* Understanding escape routes with GIS enhanced planning: spatial analysis, routes,
transportation networks, connecting arteries, utility grids, vehicular haulage, evacuation
networks, crowd control tactics and traffic control points

* Assigning shelters according to preference, capacity, needs, access, time-suitability and
safety

* Assigning the alternative offices and worksites: The assigning of alternative locations for the
continuation of business in the event all current working zones gets collapsed

* Constituting all the emergency shelters, evacuation plans, stockpiling measures, inventory
control, maintenance of supplies and equipment, back-up life-saving services (e.g. power,
water, sewage)

* Preparing the inventory of transportation services

The training of the construction management team working for the crisis/disaster

management is crucial in the preparation phase. The training of the site personnel can consider

the following:

* Mode of training could be classroom training and self study or independent study

* Special classrooms or worksite should be used to train

* Hardcopy, pamphlets, intemet publications of training manuals should be used to provide
the medium of training










* Bi/multi lingual use in the training documents and procedures should be beneficial in case the
site personnel are from multilingual backgrounds and are less adaptive to single language

* Interactive software/DVD, Safety posters, pocket stuff should be used for reference

Step 6b: Risk communication

The communication is divided into two categories:

* Internal Communication
* External Communication

Internal communication is referred to the information flow inside the company and

external communication is referred to the information flow to the external agencies for help and

coordination. The communication of construction crisis/disaster plan consists of collecting,

processing, and disseminating of all relevant information by all probable means.

The information dissemination is to occur in a stipulated time frame. As soon as

management becomes aware of the potential crisis/disaster, immediate actions should be taken,

as a single second saved might be a value added to the plan. The internal communications should

occur directly between the main office and to the designated responsible site individuals. It is

important that the external communication to the life safety agencies (fire department, first aid

services, police department, sheriff s office, any other governmental or private agencies and 91 1

centers) be made in a timely fashion.

Choosing contacts that are at different locations could be useful in letting management

know the status. The company or on site authority may call or e-mail to check on each other in

case of need during crisis. It is important that every managerial staff member on site has all the

important contacts, and each other's e-mail addresses and telephone numbers (home, work, pager

and cell). If phone calls become j ammed due to heavy volume, then email should be used

instead.









Satellite phones, which could be expensive, are one of the best options for the needed

communication in a crisis/disaster. One could expect the most consistent mediums and

communication networks to convey the signals in an instant. The interoperability of the

communication systems can save considerable time in the circulation of news among the

company members, so everyone should be using the same communication network provider.

Public warning systems provide assistance in the case of natural crises/disasters and even

an alarm or radio in the crucial hours could be useful to communicate the crisis/disaster. The "get

alert" signal from the radio or television may constitute communicating a natural crisis/disaster

such as a hurricane or snowstorm. If time permits, the use of brochures, papers, phones and

posters could also be viable means of communication.

Step 6c: Mitigation

Mitigation constitutes the exercises which can minimize the adverse effects of the

crisis/disaster event. The company can save the construction site from a number of losses with

the mitigation process. Here the risks related to construction proj ects could be proj ected to

undergo attenuation, which could be termed as "risk-reduction." Some of the mitigation tasks

that could be performed by the construction company are:

* Reinforcement of structural elements that might be in j eopardy
* Shielding the surfaces of walls
* Demolition of a structure, in case bracing or shield could be not be provided
* Mobilization of components, to a safer environment
* Evacuation of facilities and components
* Changing of the sequence of activities in the schedule of construction process if required

In certain cases, mitigation might not be possible, so evacuation might be the only viable

option. Supply Chain Management (SCM) in construction requires being a master in knowing

"what" they have and "where" it is. A model of SCM could be utilized to help the company










better mitigate the effects of crisis/disaster by relocating materials and equipment to safer places

of confinement.

Step 7: Response

The human reply to natural crises/disasters during the event constitutes the "response"

phase of the CCDM model. Careful actions should be taken which can save lives and proj ect

resources from the crisis/disaster events." Direction, coordination and not loosing the focus" are

the most important elements in this step of CCDM model. The evacuation activity composed of

evacuating people immediately from the danger zone is the most appropriate response activity in

some cases. Controlling the intrusion of untrained and unsolicited visitors is important for their

own safety. In case of fire on a construction site the immediate response would be extinguishing

the fire. Of course, an assessment must still be made before acting. The fate of the recovery

phase depends upon the effectiveness of the response action.

Step 8: Recovery

The restoration activity is aimed at restoring the working state of the construction site to

operational status. The "recovery" state emphasizes the careful handling of all the damaged

materials and protecting the reusable elements for construction. Recovery could be divided into

two categories:

* On-Site
* Community

On-site recovery deals with site specific redressing activities, whereas the community level

recovery activities are aimed at helping the community regain its normal status. Before any

recovery efforts take place, an assessment must be made of the damage on the site. Serious

hazards must be identified, e.g. powerlines knocked down, unstable structures, etc. Recovery at

the construction site may be addressed by restoring powerlines, removing debris, recreating










facilities, draining floodwater, cleaning up activities, restoring destroyed property, etc. Further

recovery activities may include the following:

* Search and rescue operations
* Restoration and repair of roads
* Movement to high ground in case of flooding
* Distribution of food, clothing, shelter, health and medicinal articles (first aid kits)
* Salvage of materials
* Neutralization of the situation

The media can play a significant role in influencing the reputation of a contractor with the

clients and the community. For example, a community might be impacted by a storm. If a

contractor in the neighborhood quickly mobilizes to assist in the recovery and rebuilding phase

after a storm, the goodwill of the contractor might be considerably enhanced. The media can help

to highlight the beneficial actions of the contractor. Several articles in j ournals and newspapers

were examined to understand how contractors had responded to past crisis/disaster events. The

recovery phase is often seen with the intrusion of media personnel on the site. Media personnel

and j ournalists aim at achieving the inside story of the crisis/disaster on the site. To safeguard the

public image of the construction company, the following points could be used:

* Choose one spokesperson to handle the media and j journalists

* Remain calm about the situation

* Ask the media to permit time to talk later

* Provide only pleasant responses, as the spokesperson can help preserve the company
reputation by avoiding negative messages

* In any case, the spokesperson should not generate public outcry and should not be the source
of any negative media coverage

* Demonstrate total control over the situation

The shocked and distressed people should be helped in the comforting process in this

recovery phase. The family members of the one' s involved in the rescue operations or the ones










offering assistance should be informed with compassion to create a less stressful environment.

All arrangements should be made to restore the construction site to operational status as soon as

possible.

Step 9: Post Response Assessment

The aftermath of the crisis/disaster and in some cases, their probable causes of occurrence

are studied in this step. The post response assessment consists of the following:

* Documentation of damage on the effected site
* Expert analysis concerning the state of affairs
* Damage assessment
* Injury assessment
* Evaluation of monetary losses and saved articles
* Evaluation of the response and recovery efforts

Step 10: Share Lessons Learned

Learning is often the result of unfortunate experiences. This is also true of crisis/disaster

events. After a company has responded to the occurrence of a crisis/disaster, it is advisable to

examine the events that led up to the crisis/disaster and identify changes that might be taken to

reduce any future losses.

The lessons learned in the post response assessment phase are shared among the team

members to see what was missing in the preparation phase. The evaluations in terms of lost work

hours, and even monetary-units and performance-units could be shared with the management

team, so as to start a new plan of action. When causal factors can be controlled, additional efforts

can be taken to prevent future crisis/disaster events.

Step 11: Credit the Efforts

The acknowledgement of the efforts of all the team members should be done shortly after

the event has subsided. The continuation of operations involves strengthening the morale of









those involved in the response and rescue operations. "Credit the efforts" could be summed up

with the following points:

* Recognize the valor and success of saviors
* Console those adversely affected

Step 12: Evaluate Need for Change

The analysis of the mistakes and shortcomings of the preparations for the crisis/disaster

should be made by the team committee. The obj ective of this assessment is to identify the need

for specific changes. Reassessment of the plan from all perspectives is required to be made at

various levels, from field supervisors to top management. The requirements for the response and

rescue operations should be reevaluated at this time. The management team needs to address

factors that could possibly contribute to the causation of crisis/disaster events. For example,

structural failure could be studied as a consequence of improper design or contractor' s mistake of

using incorrect construction techniques. If all went well in the planning and response phase, then

there is little need to develop any changes in the plan. A decision needs to be made concerning

the need for any plan modification.

Step 13: Modify the Plan

If the plan needs to be modified, then all appropriate arrangements for the strengthening of

the model are to be made. Making modifications is a serious planning issue, where the help of

certified engineers, designers, safety managers and others could make the next probable

crisis/disaster less destructive. Since natural crisis/disaster may be unavoidable, the only remedy

for them is to prepare a stronger defense system, thus planning more effective response

measures. After the modifications are made, the revised plan can then be implemented, including

the training, drills, and subsequent evaluations.









Discussion

Different events, constraints and conditions can be introduced to the applicability of the

model. Ideally, the model should address any type of crisis/disaster event. Realistic construction

scenarios will be used to test or examine the applicability of the model. Construction proj ects

have numerous potential crises/disasters that could have a negative impact. Each of these

potential crises/disasters requires a unique plan to mitigate the potential damage or harm that

might result. While many different events might impact a construction proj ect, three cases are

presented to illustrate the application of the CCDM model.

Case of Hurricane

Step 1: Potential crisis/disaster identification: Hurricanes are most common in the

coastal regions of the USA. In Florida, hurricanes might be potential crisis/disaster events from

June to November. Further, certain regions of Florida which are near the coast are more

susceptible to more damaging winds of hurricanes than the inland regions. Regional history of

any area could be studied to identify hurricanes as potential crisis/disaster events.

Step 2: Risk assessment: In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, it became known that the

risks associated with hurricanes could be extremely high. For a construction proj ect in the path of

a hurricane, assessments must be made about the potential for loss. This will depend to a

considerable extend on the type of proj ect and the phase of construction. As the hurricane

advances towards a construction proj ect, more details will become known about the potential

risks. It is common to describe the hurricane by strength, designated as categories, which are 1,

2, 3, 4, and 5. These categories convey information about the wind speed and the expected storm

surge (Table 4-1)










Table 4-1. Category of Hurricanes
Category Wind Storm Surge
1 74-95 mph 4-5 ft.
2 96-110 mph 6-8 ft.
3 111-130 mph 9-12 ft.
4 131-155 mph 12-18 ft.
5 156 + 18 +ft.

Since the strength of a hurricane cannot be predicted months in advance, (when a project is in the

planning stages) the management plan must be developed for the worst case scenario. The on-

site actions in response to an approaching hurricane will be tempered by the anticipated strength

of the hurricane.

Step 3: Develop and implement plan: The preparations for the hurricane should start

with top management. The plan could be divided into three different categories,

Step 3a: Plans for the pre-event phase: In the pre-event phase, the plan will be focused

largely on reducing or minimizing the impact of the hurricane. The plan will address the

following requirements:

* Inform all site personnel about the hurricane

* Form a response team with designated responsibilities

* Prepare for immediate closing down of operations and secure material and equipment on the
proj ect

* The emergency supplies including flashlights, first-aid kit, emergency food, water, dust
masks, and battery operated radios should be available and in working condition.

* The development of mobile communication centers might be beneficial.

* The lines of communication must be outlined for the external and internal organizational
charts. The external organization chart corresponds to all the external agencies to be
contacted and the internal organization chart refers to all the contact information of all key
company contacts. The location, telephone numbers, email-addresses, and fax numbers must
be distributed among the designated team members. It is important that the transition of
responsibility along the chain of command is without breaks.

* All the materials and valuable resources should be stored in secured areas.










* Information about local facilities such as medical centers, hospitals, nursing homes, schools,
governmental offices should be distributed to all personnel.

* All site personnel are responsible for the security on site. Control over entry-exit gates and
internal movement routes should be clearly established.

* The procedures to turn off the utilities should be taught to the key site personnel

* Emergency shut-off valves and emergency equipment should be ready for use.

* Insurance and contractual documents for post event response should be prepared.

* Ensure that there are adequate supplies of water and food on site in the event that the
infrastructure fails completely.

* Wallet size laminated emergency cards with emergency action plan could be made and
distributed to all construction team members.

Step 3b: Plans during the event: Hurricanes can produce violent winds, incredible

waves, torrential rains and floods. The evacuation activities should have been done in the pre-

event phase. This phase needs all the site personnel to stay indoors in safe shelter. While inside,

all site personnel should remain away from outer doors and windows. The electricity should be

turned off. All the construction activities should be stopped, until all clear is announced. Flying

debris could hit any site personnel, so all should remain inside.

Step 3c: Plans for the post-event phase: The site personnel should watch for weakened

structures and bridges, broken tree limbs or structures on the construction site that could collapse

unexpectedly. Expert analysis of existing structures and the overall construction site should be

made before starting further construction activities. In certain cases, the structure might need to

be built again from start, whereas in other cases, small repair work can quickly restore the

structure. Site personnel should not touch fallen or low hanging wires, or obj ects in contact with

power lines. All efforts should be made to return the proj ect to its normal construction status.










Step 4: Drills & evaluation of drills: Drills can be conducted to determine how well the

plan has been organized and how well everyone understands it. A drill is essentially a simulated

event. The construction site team is expected to demonstrate the evacuation and closing down

activities in a minimal amount of time. The fire extinguishers should be working and everyone

should know how to effectively operate them. Establishing an effective communication network

will be of particular importance in the drill. Smoke detectors and signaling devices should be

working properly.

The evaluation of the drill is essential. A critical review may identify shortcomings to the

procedures. Then, modifications can be made to the plan. If substantial changes are made, a

subsequent drill might be conducted.

Advanced notice: The National Weather Service or similar organizations can make

meteorological predictions which can identify coverage areas, wind speeds and other

characteristics of hurricanes. The coastal areas expected to be impacted with high water levels

and high waves can be identified easily with accuracy.

Step 5: Recognizing signs of possible crisis/disaster: Hurricanes rotate in a

counterclockwise direction around an "eye." A tropical storm becomes a hurricane when winds

reach 74 mph. It is often feasible to know about the possibility of a hurricane 7 days to 24 hours

before they strike an area, which can provide sufficient time for at least some preparations. A

hurricane forecast involves the prediction of several interrelated characteristics, but the

fundamental element of the forecast is the future motion of the storm. Track prediction serves as

the basis for forecasting other storm features, such as winds, rainfall, storm surge and the areas in

the path. It is important to make judicious use of the advanced warning.










Step 6: Activate the plan: The hours just before a hurricane hits an area must be used

wisely. The documentation of the facility under construction should be done routinely with

digital pictures and video recordings. This will be useful to demonstrate the before/after impacts.

All communication networks should be in working order. Protective materials (masking tape,

plywood, lumber, etc.) should be readily available to start the mitigation actions. All trash and

loose materials should be collected and contained to prevent them from becoming flying debris.

Because of high winds, windows of trailers and all other openings should be covered.

Trailers should be placed in safe secured areas. It is important to secure the materials and to

document of all the materials, equipment, and construction statistics. Back-up all the data on

computers and even the paper documents should be kept at different locations to help preserve

information. Secure materials in safe areas and install necessary bracing of masonry or exterior

walls. Cover glass doors, windows with shutters, plywood, or other covering materials. Masking

tape, waterproofing materials, or canvas can be used to help safeguard the windows or doors.

Sheet metal and ductwork that has not been installed should be secured with wire rope to prevent

it from being blown away. Remove all dumpsters or secure their contents. Scaffolding should be

secured. Remove loose branches from the trees (if they exist) on the site. All the electrical

equipment and electric cords should be unplugged. The company vehicles should be filled with

gas and parked within a secure zone with parking brakes on. Remove vulnerable wood or metal

signage to prevent them from being lost in the storm. The cranes, hoists and booms should be

lowered and secured. Lockout/tagout all necessary equipment. The first-aid kit should be

assembled and well stocked. The mitigation stage needs everything to be ready for the

approaching hurricane.

Supplies for the preparation are as follows, but are not limited to:










First aid supplies
Plywood to cover openings and windows
Battery powered AM/FM radio/weather radio
Flashlights, and various kinds of spare batteries
Miscellaneous tools: shovels, hammers, brooms, wet/dry vacuums, rope, drinking water
Extra fuel for equipment
Extensions cords, portable generators, sump pumps for dewatering
Nails assorted types, powder actuated fasteners
Duct/masking tape, miscellaneous lumber 2 x 4's, 4x4's
Extra film for cameras and/or one use cameras
Cleaning supplies
List of emergency phone numbers
Cell phones that are fully charged

Continually inform the facility owner and a contact person at the home office of the

preparation status for the hurricane. The mobilization and demobilization plan needs to be ready

at this stage. A carefully designed logistics plan will take care of the communication centers,

transportation, facilities coordination, and resource tracking.

Step 7: Response: The foremost point in the response phases is for the team members to

stay calm. However, the team should be alert and guard against panic and anxiety. All team

members should stay inside during the hurricane until all is clear. Sometimes, there is a

likelihood of a second hit by the hurricane after the eye passes, so care should be taken for such a

situation. Battery radios could be turned on to monitor the outside situation. In case of

evacuation, all employees should know the procedure and the exit routes.










Step 8: Recovery: The status of critical facilities, services, communication networks,

public works and utilities, and transportation facilities should be quickly assessed as they need to

be operational. The damage sustained by the proj ect should be assessed promptly. This will be

important as resources must then be allocated appropriately. Structures which have sustained

serious structural damage must remain vacant until the structure has been restored under

engineering supervision. The following points relate to the recovery phase:

* Recovery starts with a survey of entire site.

* Reconnaissance and observation of the damage to the site is a vital factor in the recovery
stage.

* Timely removal of damaged and scattered materials should be performed with caution and
care, where the search for missing persons or elements that can be saved or elements that can
be salvaged should be carried out.

* Site cleaning activities should follow after expert analysis

* The environmentally acceptable disposal of debris and waste is required.

* The personnel, materials and equipment should be mobilized to restart the work.

* Continue to monitor radio broadcasts for news and instructions.

* Evaluate the integrity of gas lines and electrical circuits. Turning off the main gas valves,
opening the windows, and sending the people outside are cautious steps to be followed.

* Cleaning off any kind of spilled liquids, agents of fire, bleaches, and gasoline must be done
immediately and with caution.

Step 9: Post response assessment: Management should assess the construction site with

the help of expert engineers. The planned procurement of supplies and inventory control should

be addressed in this stage of the management plan. The following items should be performed

with accuracy:

* Cost accounting and monetary estimates need to be developed for the recovery stage by the
estimators and the management team in order to understand the proj ect' s financial health.










* Identification of injured individuals and timely notification of family members to minimize
the trauma to the victim's families should be done in a sincere manner.

* Filing applicable workers' compensation claims is the responsibility of the company.

* Thorough evaluation of the destruction should be done. Also, the damage on the construction
site should be documented with photographs or video records for comparison with the
previous records.

Step 10: Share lessons learned: The lessons learned in the post response assessment

phase should be shared among the team members to determine what modifications would

strengthen the plan. The evaluation of losses in monetary and productivity units could be shared

with the management team, so as to create a new plan for full recovery

Step 11: Credit the efforts: The acknowledgement of the efforts of all the team members

should be done shortly after the hurricane has subsided. The continuation of business involves

strengthening the morale of those involved in the response and rescue operations. "Credit the

efforts" could be summed up with the following points:

* Recognize the efforts and successes of site personnel
* Console the adversely affected individuals

Step 12: Evaluate need for change: By using the information gained in the post response

recovery and the lessons learned, an evaluation can be made regarding the need for further

modifications of the plan.

Step 13: Modify the plan: The reinforcement of the plan with positive changes makes the

hurricane management plan well suited for future hurricanes. The only remedy for the natural

crisis/disaster is to prepare a stronger defense system, thus planning more effective response

measures. The anticipation of hurricanes with well prepared drills and simultaneous

modifications can save lives, material, money and resources.









Case of Earthquake

Step 1: Potential crisis/disaster identification: It is almost impossible to predict an

earthquake, but certain geographical locations are at greater risk than others. In earthquake prone

areas, an earthquake can happen any time of the year without warning. The earthquake can be

felt by a series of wave-like vibrations, which travel through the earth' s crust.

The classification of earthquakes is characteristic of their depth:

* Shallow- less than 70 km deep
* Intermediate- 70-30 km deep
* Deep- more than 300 km deep

There are no earthquakes known to take place below a depth of 720 km.

While little can be done to anticipate an earthquake, the earthquake management plan can

effectively address the post-event response phase.

Step 2: Risk assessment: After it is recognized that the region is in a high probability

earthquake zone, the next step is to make risk calculations. The risk could be calculated by

determining the phase of the construction proj ect (most vulnerable to damage), probability of

occurrence of an earthquake and the related consequences. Planning for the earthquake requires

management to understand earthquake characteristics. Certain earthquakes have hardly

noticeable vibrations, whereas others can have catastrophic affects. Based on risk assessment, it

might be determined that the risk is sufficiently serious and that an earthquake is likely to occur.

Under these conditions, a management plan for an earthquake should be developed.










Step 3: Develop and implement plan: The plan should be divided into three different

categories,

Step 3a: Plan for the pre-event phase. Before an earthquake occurs, the pre-event

planning for the response systems is as follows:

All upright furniture and other heavy obj ects on the shelves should be secured or placed
on the floor

All heavy substances should be fastened at the lower levels in cupboards or closed boxes

Tightly secure the water heaters, gas and oil heaters

Gas pipes, MEP systems, electrical wiring should be in good condition to reduce
potential risk of fire

Step 3b: Plan during the event. When an earthquake strikes, with workers inside

buildings, they should position themselves under sturdy furniture, such as heavy desks or against

an inside wall. The workers should not leave the structure during an earthquake, when the danger

of heavy obj ects or masonry falling is high. If workers are outdoors, they should move away

from structures, canopies, overhead construction, cables and projections. They should then

gather in a predetermined location.

Step 3c: Plan for the post-event phase. Earthquakes might impact a construction site for

only a short time. Ground shaking and rupture are the main effects created by an earthquake,

where it principally results in more or less severe damage to buildings or other rigid structures.

So, all the site personnel should not touch any power lines or damaged structures. After a

complete site examination by the expert engineers, management can determine when to restart

the construction activities.

Step 4: Drills, evaluation of drills: Drills conducted on the construction site should be

instantaneous responses by all site personnel. While the responses are simple and only take a few









seconds or minutes, judicious attention to protocol is important. Evaluations of the drill require

the site personnel to strengthen the plan, if needed, by modifying it with further changes.

Warning/no warning. Accurate warnings are not possible for earthquakes. Sometimes

the earthquake will be followed by aftershocks in the following hours or days. Otherwise there is

no warning. The initial earthquake could be an indication of aftershocks in the following hours or

days. Otherwise, there is no warning.

Step 7: Response: The only maj or response possible in the case of an earthquake is to

calmly move towards the safe zone as described above. The steps to be taken will depend upon

the intensity of the earthquake and also the structure' s resistance to vibration which can save the

constructed facility from collapse.

Step 8: Recovery: It is important to understand that an earthquake can have secondary

effects and a second round of shaking after just a few seconds, minutes or hours. Smaller

earthquakes may also foretell large earthquakes in the future. Therefore, team members should

stay away from the proximity of structures when outdoors. Calling the emergency services and

communicating with all the internal team members is the next step.

Step 9: Post response assessment: Management should evaluate the management plan

after an earthquake has occurred. It is important to understand the mistakes in the earthquake

management plan so that similar destructive results might be avoided in the future.

Step 10: Share Lessons learned: If the earthquake is mild and with no serious damage, it

could be assumed that the performance of the construction process will succeed in its pursuit of

successful completion. It should be kept in mind that errors in planning should not occur.

Actions during the response phase should be evaluated. Forensic engineers can observe and

analyze the scope and causes of the damage done to the construction site. The geologists










studying the epicenter and the influencing radii of the earthquake can make predictions of the

probable reoccurrence in that geographical location. The company responsibility is for the safety

of the facility, material, equipment, workers and money.

Step 11: Credit the efforts: The rescue operations within the site and in the community

should be credited with top management involvement. One of the key issues to examine will

relate to the avoidance of unseen injuries and the minimization of property damage.

Step 12: Evaluate the need for change: The feedback provided by the earthquake

management plan, especially in the post response assessment and lessons learned phases will

provide valuable information about the need for plan modifications.

Step 13: Modify the plan: Modifications to the plan should be made if changes and

suggestions by the post response assessment and lessons learned phase.

Case of On-site Fall

The identification of an injury hazard on the j ob site is a safety issue to be addressed by

management. The top four causes of construction fatalities are: falls, struck-by, caught in-

between, and electrocution. Each of these causal factors should be considered.

Step 1: Identifying potential crisis/disaster: The company history of working on a high

rise construction proj ect and its consequent incidents of injuries could be the first step to watch

for similar events ahead. Then the potential of injuries during the construction of the proj ect

could be estimated. Despite predictions of low injury occurrence, there is always a chance of an

injury. Whenever work is performed at elevation, the chance of a fall is always present. To

address this, a company might implement a 100% tie off policy for all work performed above the

elevation of six feet. Workers being tied off does not ensure that workers will not fall, but that

they will be restrained from falling by the use of a harness. Even though a worker might be









"saved" by wearing a harness in a fall, a quick rescue is still required. A worker suspended by a

lanyard for an extended period of time could still result in a serious injury or even death.

Step 2: Risk assessment: The risk assessment for the injuries related to falls, when

workers are tied off, consists of the probability of occurrence and the severity of the

consequences. While no level of accuracy can be claimed in the computation, the key issue is

that there is a possibility of injury and it can be addressed with the allocation of few resources.

Enumeration of different factors contributing to the probability of occurrence is a crucial task at

this stage. The correct method of wearing the harness corresponds to the low or high risk of an

injury during a fall. The attachment of the lanyard near the center of gravity makes the fall

position safer for the worker.

Step 3: Develop and implement plan: Since the probability of the occurrence of a fall is

high and since the consequences of a fall can be serious, a management plan for the rescue of a

worker who has fallen with the use of a harness and lanyard needs to be prepared. The avoidance

for all kinds of injury incidents should be the goal of every construction company as safety

should be a core value. This effort can also save money on a construction proj ect. While many

safety parameters should be employed, this plan will focus specifically on the rescue of a worker

who has fallen and who is suspended by a lanyard. The plan could be divided into three

categories:

Step 3a: Plan for the pre-event phase. In the pre-event plan the following preparations

should be made:

* Workers should always wear personal protective fall arrest equipment
* A crane or JLG should be located in the general vicinity when elevation work is performed
* Install and maintain perimeter fall protection
* Floor openings should be covered and labeled
* Ladders and scaffolds should be used safely










The safety management team needs to be organized to make arrangements for the hour of

need. A key factor in a fall rescue is timeliness. If the method of wearing the harness is

inappropriate; all the efforts to save the worker could be in vain. It is important that the harness

is comfortable but not interfere with the task completion. The length of the lanyard is also an

important consideration. A shorter lanyard would put less stress on the body at the time of the

initial fall. A moveable safe anchor could be used, but it is not available for all construction

processes. Cranes could be helpful in rescuing a worker after a fall. All the communication

networks, internal and external, need to be documented in the company diaries. Emergency

response systems should also be tested.

Step 3b: Plan during the event. The site personnel should inform the supervisor or site

management about the occurrence of a fall. The worker under suspension should try to maintain

a position with the legs slightly raised. Cranes or other equipment should be employed for the

worker' s rescue.

Step 3c: Plan for the post-event phase. The worker tied to the lanyard and harness should

be carefully transported to a safe area. The worker being suspended should be asked not to stand

up, but should be asked to sit for some time and then gradually be taken to a normal position.

The internal body mechanism of the worker needs to be slowly revived to normal status.

Step 4: Drills & evaluation of drills: When a worker falls while wearing a harness and

while being tied off to an anchor, the worker will generally be uninjured but suspended. At the

moment a worker has fallen, the incident should be called to the immediate attention of a

supervisor or the safety manager. The posture of the person who has fallen is unpredictable but

this plays a crucial role in the worker' s probability of suffering from suspension trauma. Fall

victims can slow the onset of the suspension trauma by pushing down forcefully with the legs, by










positioning their bodies in a horizontal position, by slightly elevating the legs or by "standing

up" in the harness. The response of the rescue team needs to occur immediately as every single

second is important in the battle for life. The worker should be taken out of the suspended

position and should be gradually taken to a normal standing position. Caution should be taken to

keep the worker from standing up as high blood pressure release could consequently result in

death. Any mistakes or shortcomings of the rescue drill should be recognized and corrected in

the modified plan.

Advanced notice: The advanced notice on a construction site about falls is not apparent

as incidents occur mostly without any previous signs. However, the contributing behavior of the

worker (substance abuse, medication, risky behavior, etc.) may be seen as a predictive incident.

In most cases the prediction of such an event is difficult.

Step 7: Response: Once a fall has occurred, the proj ect should immediately actuate its

rescue plan. The attention by the co-workers during the construction activities can save a life.

The rescue consists basically of getting the assistance of a crane or other similar piece of

equipment. The crane can then be instrumental in getting the worker down in matter of minutes.

Step 8: Recovery: The rescue must take place swiftly to minimize the danger of

suspension trauma. The lanyard attachment point and the manner of handling the harness

determine the effects of the fall. If timely help is not provided, a worker can lose consciousness.

The important helping aid could be to move the person from the kneeling to a sitting position to a

supine position for half an hour to forty minutes.

Step 9: Post response assessment: If the worker has been taken out of the life-threatening

phase and circulation of blood has come to a normal level, the plan could be deemed successful.

The efficiency of the system should be assessed for this step. It is important to understand the










time taken to rescue a person. Safe handling of the fall victim and an immediate normalcy

response must be studied to draw conclusions about the need of additional modifications to the

plan.

Step 10: Share lessons learned: The drawbacks or advantages of the fall rescue plan must

be shared with the management team. The need to provide further training to maintain an

effective response should be shared with all appropriate personnel. Even with an effective fall

rescue plan, efforts should be sustained to avoid such fall incidents.

Step 11: Credit the efforts: All the site personnel associated with the response phase need

to be credited for their efforts and should remain prepared for such a crisis event in the future.

Efforts should be made to elevate the morale of all site personnel.

Step 12: Evaluate the need for change: The drawbacks, technical limitations or

performance weaknesses must be evaluated for the safety of the construction team. It is

important to understand that modifications can improve the fall management plan. If the

preparations had shown success, then there is no need to change the plan.

Step 13: Develop modifications: If there are evaluations stating that the emergency

planning is lacking in the proper functions of the rescue operations, modifications should be

made in the preparatory plans. Saving a life is important to boost the morale of the team and

maintain the reputation of the construction company.









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

Various kinds of calamities can affect a construction proj ect. Some calamities might take a

while to impact a construction project, while others might take a very short time to strike. Also,

sometimes it is not possible to estimate the consequences prior to the crisis/disaster event. For

example, a minor crisis/disaster event might have tremendous consequences, while a maj or

crisis/disaster event might not have any impact on the construction proj ect at all. Regardless of

the kind of crisis/disaster or its consequences, a common way of addressing the various kinds of

crisis/disaster events was developed. Crisis/disaster events at construction proj ects can be

effectively addressed with management plans being prepared with the use of the CCDM model.

In order to determine whether the model is applicable to different kinds of crisis/disaster

events, different tests were conducted to examine its validity. The CCDM model showed

applicability to all the crisis/disaster cases. The networking within different levels of the

Construction Crisis/Disaster Management (CCDM) model establishes the fundamental solution

for all kinds of crisis/disaster events on construction proj ects. Although specific actions at every

level of the model might vary, the fundamental organization of the CCDM model will remain the

same .









CHAPTER 6
RECOMMENDATIONS

All units of a company or even different construction companies should work together to

create common solutions for common problems. If incorporated into the management processes,

the widespread use of this model could save considerable resources, including money, materials,

labor and reputation. Without advanced planning or just ignoring standard practices, such as the

Construction Crisis/Disaster Management (CCDM) model, the actions in response to a

crisis/disaster would be little more than a random selection of actions.

The computer simulation of realistic 3D space models could be created to demonstrate the

magnitude of major consequences of construction crisis/disaster events. Computer simulated

models can analyze the merits of preparatory methods in various terms such as structural,

material, labor, financial, productivity and other elements in the context of the construction

proj ects.

If possible, then the crisis/disaster management plan should be coordinated with the

emergency plans of the local, state and federal governmental agencies. The CCDM model could

also be used in making preparations for national and international crises/disasters, thus

improving a nation's capacity to address all crises/disaster events.

It would benefit all the managers in the construction industry to prepare against various

crisis/disaster events. The result of this research provides a platform for the future establishment

of coordinated, direction-oriented and integrated response systems for future crisis/disaster

events that might impact construction proj ects. Also, the managers of construction companies

could review the CCDM model with their respective proj ects and made decisions about the

development of specific crisis/disaster management plans.









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Deepak Sharma received his Bachelor of Architecture from Guru Nanak Dev University,

Amritsar, India. After working for 4 years, he was selected for education in the M. E. Rinker, Sr.

School of Building Construction, University of Florida in 2005. His interest in the construction

and development Hields with architecture as the focus, enthused him to research various subj ects

related to engineering, science, and arts. He will continue to study and apply the scientific

approach to the construction Hield.

Deepak Sharma was born in Jalandhar, India. Upon graduation he plans to continue

working in the construction industry. He will focus on economic solutions for the construction

industry, most affordable housing, and safer construction practices for the international

community .