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Communicating the Dairy Message: How Locus of Control Relates to Producer Perceptions of Mandatory and Entrepreneurial M...


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1 COMMUNICATING THE DAIRY MESSAGE: HOW LOCUS OF CONTRO L RELATES TO PRODUCER PERCEPTIONS OF MANDATORY AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING By CARRIE SUMRALL PEDREIRO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Carrie Sumrall Pedreiro

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3 To my parents, David and Jamie, for their s upport, and my husband Michael, for his constant love and encouragement.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A project such as this require s the support of many individuals to help make it a success. My experience was no exception to that, and th ere are many people who deserve recognition for their role in helping make my dream a reality. First, I would like to express my sincere gr atitude to Dr. Tracy Irani, my advisor and graduate committee chair. Her intelligence a nd passion for agricultural communications inspires me to be a better student and contributor to my field. Her constant support and encouragement have proved to be invaluable throughout my gradua te program at the University of Florida. Her ability to push me to perform at a higher level and dig deeper are lessons that will remain with me all my life. In addition to her guidance rega rding my research, she has been a joy to work with on other projects, and a pleasure to ta lk to when I just needed an advisor. Dr. Ricky Telg and his green pen have undoubtedly helped me grow as a writer. He has challenged me, yet supported me as I worked th rough those challenges. His guidance has not only made me a better writer, but given me an appreciation for great communication. He is a wonderful educator and I was lucky to have hi s advice and expertise on my graduate committee. I would also like to thank Dr. Nick Place. His experience with, and appreciation for the dairy industry was an asset on my committee. His ideas and feedback during the early stages of deciding on a thesis topic helped mold the fi nal product. His consta nt availability and encouragement were never unnoti ced, and always appreciated. My family has always been a guiding light in my life and their support was crucial to my decision for higher education. I w ould like to thank my father for instilling in me a strong sense of self, passionate work ethic, a nd love of agriculture. His achie vements have inspired me to be the best at whatever I choose to do with my life. My mothers unfailing love and encouragement were pivotal in my decision to attend graduate school. She has always let me know that nothing

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5 I dreamt was impossible. My dedication to succeed is a product of her devotion to her family. I would also like to thank my sist er, Kimberly, and brother, David. My life would be incomplete without the friendship of these two people. Kimb erly has always been my biggest cheerleader and ever present when I needed a break to just sit and talk. Davids ow n decisions have shown me to chase your dreams, no matter how much it pulls you out of your comfort zone. I know my familys love and support will continue, no matter what my next dream is. I am fortunate to have made many friends during my program. I would like to thank Courtney Meyers specifically for her friendship and encouragement. I was blessed to have her chosen to be my mentor and her support from day one of my program is a large part of my success. I admire her drive and passion for ag ricultural communications, and she compels me to be a better person. Katie Chodil and Elio Chiare lli have been my empa thetic support team. Going through this process simultaneously down to defense day helped me always know that someone was there to talk to. I would especia lly like to thank Elio for his patience during my many question and answer sessions. Brian Estev ez and Katy Groseta are two people that helped strengthen my faith throughout this process. I could always count on a word or act of encouragement on a stressful day, and they will ne ver know the extent of their impact on my life. Finally, I would like to thank my husband, Michae l. His contagious spirit has made each day since I met him exciting and happy. His patien ce baffles me and his constant encouragement has pushed me to be a better person. His unconditional love is the best part of every day. I am truly blessed that God put us together, and Im lu cky he chose me to be his wife. As we fulfill the dream of becoming parents this June, I find comfort in this next big step knowing you are by my side, forever.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........9 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .......11 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................14 Introduction to the Study...................................................................................................... ..14 Background and Significance of the Problem........................................................................17 Theoretical Framework...................................................................................................18 Statement of the Problem................................................................................................20 Purpose and Objectives............................................................................................21 Operational Definitions............................................................................................21 Limitations to the Study...........................................................................................22 Summary..................................................................................................................23 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................................................24 Dairy Promotion in the United States.....................................................................................25 History of Dairy Promotion in the United States............................................................25 Florida Dairy Promotion..................................................................................................26 Marketing and Promotion of Generic Dairy...........................................................................27 Overview of Generic Advertising and Promotion...........................................................27 Florida Producer Challenges...........................................................................................29 Mandatory Marketing......................................................................................................30 Entrepreneurial Marketing...............................................................................................32 Theoretical Framework for the Study.....................................................................................34 Locus of Control..............................................................................................................34 Theory of Planned Behavior............................................................................................36 Integrated Marketing Communications...........................................................................38 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........39 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................40 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........40 Research Design................................................................................................................ .....41 Population..................................................................................................................... ..........41 Instrumentation................................................................................................................ .......41 Data Collection................................................................................................................ .......44

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7 Procedure...................................................................................................................... ..........45 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........46 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........48 4 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......49 Results........................................................................................................................ .............50 Demographics of Respondents...............................................................................................51 Objective 1.................................................................................................................... ..........54 Objective 2.................................................................................................................... ..........55 Objective 3.................................................................................................................... ..........60 Objective 4.................................................................................................................... ..........63 Objective 5.................................................................................................................... ..........64 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........66 5 DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................... ....67 Key Findings and Implications...............................................................................................68 Demographics..................................................................................................................68 Objective 1.................................................................................................................... ...68 Objective 2.................................................................................................................... ...70 Objective 3.................................................................................................................... ...73 Objective 4.................................................................................................................... ...75 Objective 5.................................................................................................................... ...76 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........77 Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...78 Recommendations for Theory.........................................................................................78 Directions for Future Research........................................................................................80 Recommendations for Practice........................................................................................81 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... .........83 APPENDIX A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL............................................................85 B INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT...............................................................................86 C DAIRY PRODUCER MARKETING SURVEY...................................................................87 D COVER LETTER (WAVE 1)................................................................................................93 E SURVEY REMINDER/THANK YOU POSTCARD............................................................94 F COVER LETTER (WAVE 2)................................................................................................95 G COVER LETTER (WAVE 3)................................................................................................96

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8 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..97 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................101

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2-1 Expected relationships between CEO personality and organization.................................36 4-1 T-test for significant differences between early and late respondents...............................51 4-2 Number of respondents by age..........................................................................................51 4-3 Herd size by respondents...................................................................................................52 4-4 Number of years respondents pl an to stay in dairy business.............................................52 4-5 Level of education by respondent......................................................................................53 4-6 Type of dairy operation by respondent..............................................................................53 4-7 Membership of respondents on the Dairy Farmers Incorporated board............................54 4-8 Region of the state where respondents farms are located.................................................54 4-9 Respondents classification on the inte rnal-external locus of control scale......................55 4-10 Percentage of respondents who answered y es or no to different ways in which they receive information about DFIs promotional programs...........................................55 4-11 Respondents replies to the level of im portance of the dairy checkoff program to their dairy operation.......................................................................................................... .56 4-12 Respondents perceptions of promotional concepts and their importance to the dairy industry and their operation...............................................................................................57 4-13 Respondents replies to the level of valu e of the dairy checkoff program to the dairy industry....................................................................................................................... .......58 4-14 Respondents perceptions of the value of specific Florida promotional programs managed by Dairy Farmers, Inc (DFI)...............................................................................59 4-15 Respondents perceptions of the value of specific Florida promotional programs managed by DFI (mean)....................................................................................................59 4-16 Respondents level of agreement that da iry producers need promotional efforts to compete with other food and beverage companies............................................................60 4-17 Respondents perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing.............................................61 4-18 Respondents perceptions of the effectiven ess of selected entr epreneurial marketing activities..................................................................................................................... ........61

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10 4-19 Respondents investing in entrepreneurial promotion.......................................................62 4-20 Respondents participation in sp ecific entreprene urial activities......................................62 4-21 Respondents perceptions of resources need ed to participate in more entrepreneurial marketing efforts.............................................................................................................. ..63 4-22 Respondents perceptions about the valu e of the checkoff program to the dairy industry with relation to their locu s of control scale classification...................................64 4-23 Respondents perceptions about the impor tance of the checkoff program to their dairy operation with relati on to their locus of cont rol scale classification........................64 4-24 Respondents perceptions for the need of entrepreneurial marketing efforts to promote dairy in addition to the checkoff program based on their locus of control score.......................................................................................................................... .........65 4-25 Respondents investment in entrepreneur ial activity based on th eir internal-external locus of control score.........................................................................................................65

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2-1 Different regions of Florida milk producers......................................................................30 2-2 Federal milk marketing order Class I prices (annual averages) from 1977-2003..............31 2-3 Competitive set volume for 2004 vs. media spending by category for 2004 (millions of dollars).................................................................................................................... .......32 2-3 Ajzens theory of pl anned behavior model........................................................................37

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science COMMUNICATING THE DAIRY MESSAGE: HOW LOCUS OF CONTRO L RELATES TO PRODUCER PERCEPTIONS OF MANDATORY AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING By Carrie Sumrall Pedreiro May 2007 Chair: Tracy Irani Major: Agricultural Ed ucation and Communication Milk and other dairy products are an essential part of a well-balanced diet. Although the health benefits of dairy products have been demonstrated and recommended by the Department of Health and Human Services, many consumers are choosing other options in the food and beverage categories. The dairy industry uses promotional effort s to educate consumers, thus sustaining the livelihood of its producers. Dairy producers are required to contribute to the marketing of dairy through the checkoff program and may also choose to promote their farm entrepreneurially. Determining producer percep tions regarding their mandatory promotional investment and perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing as well as how innate traits, such as locus of control, relate to thes e perceptions is the first step in understanding if current marketing efforts are accurately presenting their commodity. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of the Florida-based members of Southeast Milk, Incorporated (S MI) dairy cooperative regarding mandatory and entrepreneurial dairy marketing efforts, as well as describe t hose perceptions in terms of producers locus of control score. Using a descri ptive census survey, this study was guided by the following objectives: 1) to describe Florida cooperative m ilk producers in terms of their locus of control

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13 score (internal or external) and exposure to ma ndatory marketing (checkoff) information, 2) describe their perceptions regarding the impor tance and value of the checkoff program, 3) describe their perceptions regarding the need for, effectiveness of, and leve ls of participation in entrepreneurial dairy marketing, 4) describe their locus of c ontrol score in terms of their perceptions of the value of th e checkoff program to the dairy industry and importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation, and 5) describe their locus of control score in terms of their need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. A total of 58 people responded to the surve y, for an overall respons e rate of 49.2%. The majority of respondents (60.3%) agreed the checko ff program had some level of value to their dairy operations. Producers in Florida were mo re interested in programs that promote the industry image and promotion in grocery stores, rather than sports ma rketing activities. Half of the respondents indicated they belie ved entrepreneurial promotion was necessary, in addition to the checkoff program. However, only 33.9% of producers were investing in such efforts. This study found that farm tours were the entrepreneurial marke ting method most valued by producers to promote their farm and their indu stry. Websites were poorly rated with few producers finding them to be an effective form of industry promotion. Producers responses regarding the importan ce and value of the checkoff program were similar when comparing locus of control scores. However, in terms of entrepreneurial marketing, producers with an internal locus of control were more actively participating in entrepreneurial activities and saw a greater need for such efforts. Producers with an external locus of control were not as active or favorab le toward entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction to the Study Milk. It does a body good. That popular slogan from a 1980s milk advertising campaign speaks volumes of the value of milk and other dairy products to a well balanced diet. King (2005) reported that beyond being a great sour ce of calcium, milk a nd milk products are rich in a variety of nutrients including pota ssium, phosphorus, riboflavin, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 among others. Milk has historically been kno wn to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, but new research suggests milk had added effects to combat hypertension, kidne y stones, gout, obesity, and type 2 diabetes (King, 2005). The impor tance of milk has b een recognized by the Department of Health and Human Services and th e Department of Agriculture with an increase in the recommendation of milk intake fr om 2 to 3 cups per day in 2005 (King, 2005). Dairy producers play an important role in the delivery of high quality milk and dairy products to consumers. The milk category al one is dominated by priv ate label, and in 2004, .6 percent of milk volume in the grocery channel was accounted for by branded products (USDA, 2005, p. 52). The low percentage of bra nded products in this category puts milk at a disadvantage because of the challenges inherent to marketing a category as opposed to a brand (USDA, 2005). Many consumer purchase decisi ons are made on the basis of the perceived quality of generics. While the unbranded generic labe l is associated with a perceived lower quality, the health benefits and nutritional components of milk ar e equal to that of a branded product due to the strict governmental standards assigned to this commodity. Although the nutritional benefits seem eviden t, and consumers have many fluid milk options in the dairy cas e, competing fluid markets are presenting consumers with additional choices for refreshment. In an evaluation of consumptive beverages, excluding alcohol, Capps

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15 (2004) reported that from September 2001 to September 2003, milk commanded 26.7% of expenditure share, or portion of the revenue accrued by consum er dollars, while soft drinks controlled 38.7%, juices held 27.1% and bottled water collected th e remaining share with 7.5%. Proactive promotion efforts are essential to the education and recruitment of dairy consumers. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported that fluid milks loss of market share to other beverages may be due to aggres sive marketing by competing beverage producers (USDA, 2005, p. 36). Florida cooperative dairy producers are currentl y investing 15 cents per hundredweight of milk produced to national and local promotion e fforts through a mandatory dairy checkoff. This dairy-producer funded checkoff is cu rrently the largest pr ogram in the United States with regard to revenue (USDA, 2005). From 2000 to 2004, ever y dollar invested in generic milk marketing, communicating the value of the commodity milk rather than a specific brand, returned on average $5.11 in net revenue to the farmer (USDA, 2005). Marketing involves communicative tactics to attract new business (Stokes, 2000). Entrepreneurial marketing is defined by Collins on and Shaw (2001) to encompass two distinct areas of management: marketing and entreprene urship. Both categories are change focused, opportunistic in nature and innovative in thei r approach to management (Collinson & Shaw, 2001, p. 761). Entrepreneurial marketing for this study is defined as practices or innovations individual dairy producers fund, in addition to their mandatory investment in the checkoff program, to promote the dairy industry and dairy products. Examples of entrepreneurial dairy marketing include, but are not limited to, farm to urs, company newsletters, and farm websites. Entrepreneurial behavior represents a more info rmal type of marketing, relying on the intuition and energy of an indi vidual (Stokes, 2000).

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16 The Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983 coupled with the Dairy Promotion and Research Order of 1984 authorized a national dairy product promotion, research, and nutrition education program for all dair y producers (DFI, 2006). Funds for promotional programs are generated from producers via mandatory deductions from milk checks termed checkoff dollars. An understanding of Florida coop erative dairy producers knowle dge of promotional programs funded by their mandatory promotion investment a nd their perceptions of that checkoff program is essential in determining thei r level of satisfaction with the program. Florida dairy producers perceptions regarding the value and importance of dairy marketi ng are fundamental elements in the understanding of current level of satisfaction regarding mandato ry promotion investments. In addition, perceptions of and satisfaction with mandatory marketing investments can provide valuable insight to levels of participat ion in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. Mueller and Thomas (2000) cite Rotters locus of control as the theo ry that an individual perceives the outcome of an event as being either within or beyond his or her personal control (p. 56). Locus of control score is defined on an in ternal-external scale. Internal locus of control and innovativeness are two frequently cited person al traits associated with entrepreneurial potential (Mueller & Thomas, 2000) It is unknown whether dair y producers feel they have control over their mandatory marketing, and a lack of research in the area of entrepreneurial dairy marketing efforts currently exists. One aspe ct of this study, therefore, was to discover how dairy producers locus of contro l score relates to perceptions of the importance and value of current generic milk marketing efforts and the need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing of dairy. This discovery is the primar y step in determining if current generic milk marketing efforts are effective and how dairy prod ucers can contribute to positive promotion of the dairy industry.

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17 The intention of this study was to examine cooperative pr oducers busine ss values and perceptions of current dairy pr omotion efforts funded by producer checkoff dollars based on their locus of control score. In addition, this study sought to define current entrepreneurial marketing efforts conducted by producers in additi on to their mandatory promotion investment. Background and Significance of the Problem Dairy producers in the United States have th e option of being independent or become a member of a dairy cooperative, a voluntary as sociation formed by dairy producers. For the purpose of this study, Florida dairy producers wh o belong to the cooperative Southeast Milk, Incorporated (SMI) were descri bed. Voluntary associations depe nd on the participant to supply the associations resources (Covington, 1993). Flor ida dairy producer numbers are continuing to decline while demand for dairy in the Southeast is rising (Sumrall, 2006). By this estimation, supply is decreasing while demand continues to in crease. Huffman and Evenson (1989) explain that agriculture in the United States is a high ly competitive industry. Environmental challenges such as hot temperatures and high humidity can fo rce Florida producers to m ove to a cooler, arid climate leaving the state in a supply deficit. Th is deficit creates further burden on the remaining Florida producers as the cost of importing milk from great distances is prohibitive. Ultimately, the funding for this import bill must come out of the producers' pockets. The net effect of a shrinking local supply of milk is even furthe r negative pressure on the farm price of milk (Sumrall, 2006). To the degree that Florida milk production continues to decline, the economics for those that remain become more difficult. A viable market for Florida milk is apparent, and promoting dairy production and products in the Southeast is important to farmer survival. With the approval of The Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983 and the Dairy Promotion and Research Order of 1984, a natio nal dairy product promotion, research, and nutrition education program for all dairy produ cers was created (USDA, 2006). Funding for

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18 such programs is provided by dair y producers. In Florida, each producer pays a mandatory 15 cents per hundredweight of milk via a dairy checkoff progr am (DFI, 2006). The National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (NDB) was formed in 1984 and is monitored by the USDA. The overarching purpose of the NDB is to strength en demand for dairy in domestic and foreign markets and is funded via the dairy checkoff (DFI, 2006). The NDB receives five cents per hundredweight of the producer checkoff. Dairy Management Incorporated (DMI) was funded in 1995 and is responsible for the management of dom estic and international promotion programs. The majority of dairy promotion in Florida is co ntrolled by Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI). DFI, established in 1958, is Flor idas milk promotion group created to carry out the promotional programs of DMI. The remaining 10 cents per hu ndredweight of checkoff dollars invested in Florida is collected by DFI and used to fund dairy promotional and educational programs. Theoretical Framework Three theoretical instruments were utilized for this study including locus of control, theory of planned behavior, and inte grated marketing communications These theories will be addressed thoroughly in Chapter 2, however, a short introduction to th ese frameworks is provided below. This study examined Florida cooperative milk producers perceptions of the value and importance of promotion and marketing efforts developed by DFI. Rotters (1966) locus of control is the personality predis position that describes an indivi duals perception of their ability to change a situation. This theory is derived fr om Rotters social learning theory, which explains a persons actions are predicted on the basis of va lues, expectations, and s ituations a person finds themselves in (Lefcourt, 1982). The theory is ba sed on the internal-externa l scale that measures an individuals perception of how much control he is able to exert over the events in his life (Miller & Toulouse, 1986, p. 1392). Locus of contro l score was utilized in two contexts for this

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19 study: locus of control and per ceptions of the value and importa nce of mandatory investments, and locus of control and employment of innova tive practices and entr epreneurial marketing. Locus of control score is defined on an inte rnal-external scale. Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell (2003) reported that indivi duals with a strong inte rnal locus of contro l believe that they can influence many events in their lives while individuals with a stro ng external locus of control believe that there is little they can do to influence events that occu r in their lives (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 2). Mueller and T homas (2000) cited Rotters descri ption of individuals saying an internal individual believes they have infl uence over the outcomes of a situation through ability, effort, or skills, and exte rnals believe forces outside th eir control determine outcomes. This study will categorize producers as internal or external on the locus of control scale to gain better understanding of how locus of control relates to perceptions of mandatory and entrepreneurial marketing. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) states that a persons beha vioral intention is fundamentally determined by three factors: the attitude that the person holds towards the behavior, the degree of social pressure felt by the person to perform or not perform the behavior, and the degree of control that the person feels he or she has over performing the behavior. Although dependent on the application, the more pos itive the attitude and subjective norm with respect to a behavior, and the gr eater the perceived control, th e stronger the intention is to perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991) Determining Florida cooperat ive dairy producers attitudes towards marketing can contribute to the overa ll understanding of thei r behaviors regarding entrepreneurial promotion. The more positive pr oducer attitudes are regarding marketing and promotion, the stronger their inten tion will be to participate volunt arily in such behaviors. In

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20 addition, the greater the control producers perceive they have, the stronge r the intention will be to perform the related behavior. Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is defined by Grayson (2002) as a crossfunctional process for planning, executing, and monitoring brand communications designed to profitably acquire, retain, and grow customers. While Florida cooperative dairy farmers are creating a generic product, the concept of IMC and brand communications can be applied to promote the commodity as a whole. Harris and Strang (1985) suggest that consumers purchasing decisions for generics are influenced by the perceived quality of generics. Generic milk producers produce milk under the same strict standards as branded m ilk. The perception of inferior quality of generic products is not accurate in most nonfood items. Holm (2006) acknowledges the primary goal of IMC is to aff ect the perception of value and behavior through directed communication. Implementing IMC pr actices on generic operations can improve consumer perception of value on the generic milk category. Statement of the Problem The discovery of how the personality theory lo cus of control relates to an individuals perceptions of current generic m ilk marketing efforts and personal entrepreneurial marketing of dairy is the primary step in determining if curre nt generic milk marketing efforts are effective and how the cooperative dairy farmer can contribute to positive promotion of the dairy industry. Dairy producers are in the business of produc ing a food for human consumption and must conform to rigorous environmental procedures, hea lth codes, and standards, and much energy is funneled into the production of fluid milk. Other beverages such as soft drinks and juices are dominating the consumptive beverage market and production challenges create strain on market price. Public perceptions of the dairy indus try and dairy production are unknown; however, the

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21 promotion of dairy products can positively prom ote the industry while educating consumers on the nutritional benefits of dairy. Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe th e relationship between the locus of control score of Floridian members of the SMI dairy coope rative to their business values and perceptions of current dairy promotion efforts funded by prod ucer checkoff dollars (mandatory marketing). In addition, this study described current entr epreneurial marketing efforts conducted by producers and the frequency in which those entr epreneurial efforts occur, as well as the producers opinions to the usef ulness of marketing in addition to their mandatory promotion investment. The studys object ives were as follows: Objective 1: To describe Florida cooperativ e milk producers in term s of their locus of control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information. Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperati ve milk producers perceptions regarding the importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall. Objective 3: To describe Florida cooperativ e milk producers per ceptions regarding the need for, effectiveness of, levels of partic ipation in, and factors that prevent producers from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing. Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score in terms of their perceptions of the value of the checkoff progr am to the dairy industry and importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation. Objective 5: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score in terms of their need for and i nvestment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. Operational Definitions Checkoff. A dairy-producer funded program de signed to promote dairy products domestically and internationally. Consumer. Any individual who purchases milk for consumption.

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22 Cooperative. An entrepreneurial association comprised of dairy farmers who own, operate, and control the business. Members fina nce the business and share in profits earned in proportion to the volume of milk marketed. Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI). Floridas dairy promot ional group designed to enhance the industrys image and increase sales of dairy in the state through advertising, public relations, and education. Dairy Management Incorporated (DMI). The operating company designed to manage domestic and international dairy prom otional programs in the United States. Entrepreneurial Marketing. Any promotional effort paid for by the dairy producer in addition to their mandatory marketing investment (checkoff) that is designed to promote the dairy industry and its products. Fluid Milk. The form of milk that is pur chased by the dairy cooperative. Generic Marketing. The promotion of a non-branded commodity. Generic Milk. Milk produced with no brand affili ation. The term generic milk is applicable to milk collected by a cooperative. Hundredweight. The measurement of milk, appr oximately 100 pounds or 11.6 gallons. National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (NDB). Organization monitored by the United States Department of Agriculture designed to strengthen the demand for dairy products in domestic and foreign markets. Producer. An individual or group of individuals in the professi on of milking dairy cattle. Limitations to the Study This study was descriptive in nature and uni que to the census population it addressed. Results from this study can not be generalized beyond its population. Additional limitations to this study involve the research method. While a mailed survey method was the most appropriate

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23 for the studys population, Dillman (2007) pointed out this method can create a slower response rate. The length of the survey may affect produ cers willingness to part icipate. Additionally, there is a higher cost associated with the administration of a mailed survey as opposed to webbased surveys or interviews. The interpretation of the collected data may allow for researcher bias. Summary This chapter offered an introduction to this research study, while providing relevant background. The information presented in this chap ter rationalized the need for and relevancy of this study. In addition, this chapter described the purpose and objectives for this study. The framework and history of the cooperative dairy ch eckoff was also addressed. The next chapter will review and examine pertinent lit erature conducted in this field.

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24 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Marketing of dairy production and products is essential in the progression of knowledge about dairy production at the consum er level. Florida cooperativ e dairy producers participate in the mandatory marketing program, also known as th e checkoff. The first objective of this study was to describe Florida cooperative milk producer s locus of control sc ore, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff informa tion. In addition to the checkoff, some dairy producers choose to participate in innovative ways of promoting their farm or products via entrepreneurial marketing. Mo rris, Schindehutte, and LaForge (2001) defined entrepreneurial marketing as the term used as an umbrella to capture conceptualizations of marketing as an innovative, risk-taking, proactive ar ea of managerial responsibility (p. 1). Therefore, this study sought to identify Florida coope rative milk producers percepti ons regarding the need for entrepreneurial dairy marketing as well as identify and describe their current levels of participation in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. Another important factor related to producer perceptions and part icipation levels in marketing is personality. This study explored pr oducers locus of contro l score and perceptions about mandatory and entrepreneur ial dairy promotion. This study examined three main variables including 1) locus of control, 2) value and im portance of the checkoff program, and 3) need for and participation in entrep reneurial dairy marketing. This chapter presents a review of the releva nt literature dealing with the dairy checkoff program, as well as mandatory and entrepreneuria l marketing and promotion. This review also focuses on generic advertising a nd promotion, specifically in the dairy industry. Additionally, emphasis is placed on the relevant literature rela ted to the theoretical framework of this study

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25 which includes locus of control, the theory of planned behavior, and integrated marketing communications. This chapter is divided into the following ma in sections: dairy promotion in the United States, marketing and promotion of generic da iry, theoretical framework for the study, and summary. Dairy Promotion in the United States History of Dairy Promotio n in the United States Numerous pieces of legislation and various dairy promotion-related associations have provided the blueprint for the development of dairy promotion in the United States. The National Dairy Council (NDC) was founded in 1915 to provide credible, scie ntific research to the general public regarding dairy products. The American Dairy Association (ADA) was formed in 1940 to focus on domestic dairy sa les (DFI, 2006). The Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 provided regulatory actions that placed restrictions on the quantity of a commodity that can be sold, limited the grade, size, or quality of th e commodity, regulated packaging and container sizes, and provided so me limited generic promotion and advertising allowances (Crespi, 2001). In 1970, NDC and A DA merged, forming a federation known as The United Dairy Industry Association (UDIA). This merger sought to centra lize state and regional generic producer promotion organizations to more efficiently look af ter the common good and allow local units to retain authority over local affairs (DFI, 2006). The Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983, referred to as the Dairy Act, sought to id entify a clear, c oncise plan for dairy advertising and promotion. The Dairy Act authorized a nati onal producer program designed to promote dairy products, carry out research, and develop nutrition educational programs focused on increasing human consumpti on of milk and other dairy products while reducing milk surpluses (USDA, 2006).

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26 The Dairy Act receives funding via a mandato ry 15-cent-per-hundredweight assessment, also referred to as the dairy checkoff program, on milk produced and commercially marketed by dairy farmers in the United States (USDA, 2006) The National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (NDB) was formed in 1984 by Congress in response to the Dairy Act. The NDB, monitored by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), was formed to strengthen the demand for dairy products in domestic and foreign markets and oversees the checkoff program (DFI, 2006). Founded in 1995 by UDIA and NDB, Dairy Management, Incorporated (DMI) was created as the operating company to manage domestic and international dairy promotion programs, leaving them responsible for driving the demand for dairy products produced in the United States (DFI, 2006). T oday, the dairy industry continues to have the largest generic promotion program in terms of revenue of any United States agricultural commodity group (Kaiser, 1997). Florida Dairy Promotion Most dairy farmers in Florida belong to a dairy cooperative. A dairy cooperative is a business that is owned, operated, and controlle d by the dairy producers who benefit from its services (USDA, 2005). The USDA reports me mbers of the cooperatives finance the organization as well as share in the profits it ea rns in proportion to the volume of milk they market through the cooperative (USDA, 2005, p. 1). The last national survey of dairy cooperatives in 2002 reported the nation has 196 da iry cooperatives in 26 states (USDA, 2005). Florida currently has one dairy cooperative based in the state, Southeast Milk, Incorporated (SMI). Members of SMI must contribute 15 ce nts per hundredweight of all milk produced on their farm to the dairy checkoff program. The producer-funded promotional assessment is divided among federal and qualified local, state, or regional dair y product promotion, research, or nutrition education program s (USDA, 2006). SMI members contribute five cents per

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27 hundredweight of milk to nationa l budgets coordinated by DMI, and the remaining 10 cents per hundredweight provides funding for Dairy Farmers, Incorporated (DFI), Floridas qualified dairy promotion, research, and nut ritional program (DFI, 2006). Marketing and Promotion of Generic Dairy Overview of Generic Advertising and Promotion When promoting a homogenous generic product, every producer of a commodity group must be compelled to support a generic advertising program and th at advertising must not benefit some growers over others (Crespi, 2001). Cr espi (2001) explained in the absence of a significant market presence, there is no incentiv e for either an indi vidual producer or a cooperative to engage in advertising because ot her producers of the same commodity may then free ride upon this advertising (p. 11). Generic advertising promotes the consumpti on of the general commodity by a cooperative effort of producers (Blisar d, 1999, p. 181). This advertising may be entrepreneurial or mandatory. In the case of the dairy industry, the commodity checkoff program is mandatory. Research regarding the effectiv eness of the checkoff program is limited, as most studies are conducted in-house by selected promotion boards re sulting in proprietary information. It is difficult to tell if generic advert ising influences consumer choices because little evidence is available since only the two dairy promotion prog rams require an independent evaluation of the programs effectiveness, which must be delivered to Congress each year (Blisard, 1999, p. 183). Blisard (1999) concluded that generic advertis ing did have a positive impact on fluid milk and cheese sales. Chakravarti and Janiszewski (2004) stated the legislative goal of generic advertising is to increase the primary demand of a product withou t influencing the market share of any one producer (p. 489). The authors further explaine d that generic advertis ing is designed to

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28 enhance category beliefs, increase across cate gory differentiation, and reduce the advertised categorys price elasticity (p. 489) In the case of dairy, generic advertising is used by a cooperative to promote an essentially hom ogenous product (Blisard, 1998). Blisard (1998) justifies that because generic a dvertising seeks to promote a ge neral commodity, all producers in the industry benefit from its prom otion, including indivi duals that do not cont ribute monetarily. The introduction of generics into the marketplace has intensified the battle for shelf space (Harris & Strang, 1985). While the majority of generics are in the nonfood items category where emphasis on quality may not be high, milk has a heavy presence in the private label market. Many consumer purchase decisions are made on the basis of the perceived quality of generics and many of the stronger generic categories are characterized by low bran d loyalty (Harris & Strang, 1985, p. 74). Gherty (1995) warned that success depends on producers ability to identify who their customers are and what those people need, want and most importantly, expect. The milk category is dominated by private label, and in 2004, .6 percent of milk volume in the grocery channel was accounted for by branded products (U SDA, 2005, p. 52). The low percentage of branded products in this category puts milk at a disadvantage due to the challenges inherent to marketing a category as opposed to a brand (US DA, 2005). The high share of private label milk reinforces milks commodity image, making competitive premium-image products more attractive to consumer s (USDA, 2005, p. 52). However, research has shown that generic da iry advertising has a positive impact on the demand for fluid milk and other dairy products a nd on farm milk prices (Kaiser & Schmit, 2003). Kaiser and Schmit (2003) reported an increase in the demand for milk at the processor level with an increase in generic milk adve rtising. The distribu tional effects of farmer-funded generic dairy

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29 marketing displayed producer welfare gains of around 3.5% of industry revenues for both cheese and fluid milk (Kaiser & Schmit, 2003, p. 299). Kaiser (1997) concluded, Farmers are receiving a high return on th eir investment in generic dairy advertising (p. 311). Florida Producer Challenges Chung and Kaiser (2000) stated that regional differences such as climate, management practices, and the price of land ex ist in agricultural pr oduction. Environmental challenges, such as hot temperatures and high humidity, can force Florida producers to move to a cooler, arid climate leaving the state in a suppl y deficit. In a deficit situati on, milk must be brought into the state to make up the supply difference, and the funding for this import bill must come out of the Florida producers' pocket. The net effect of a shrinking local supply of milk is even further negative pressure on the farm price of milk (Sumrall, 2006). Different regions of dairy production will respond differently to the change in the market price of dairy products (Chung & Kaiser, 2000). Additionally, the supply and demand of milk is counter-cyclical over the course of the year (Hovhannisyan, Urutyan, & Dunn, 2004). Florida produc ers experience a surplus of milk in the cool, winter months a nd a deficit in the hot, summer mont hs, causing a fluctuation in importing and exporting milk. From August 5, 2005, to December 16, 2005, the state of Florida had to import milk to meet demand (USDA, 2006). Fr om December 30 to July 15 the state had a surplus exporting fluid milk to other re gions of the United States (USDA, 2006). This study defined four regions of Florida in terms of their saturati on of dairy producers. Regions were distinguished using Lafayette c ounty, a popular dairy county, and the separation currently used by marketing professionals (Lus sier, personal communi cation, October 9, 2006). These regions included 1) Panhandle (areas west of Lafayette County); 2) Lafayette County, and

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30 areas north of Interstate 10 (I-10), 3) North Florid a: areas north of Inters tate 4 (I-4) to I-10, and 4) South Florida: areas south of I-4. Figure 2-1 illustrates th ose regions in further detail. Figure 2-1. Different regions of Florida milk producers. Mandatory Marketing Chung and Kaiser (2000) concluded from thei r research that while generic advertising funded by a checkoff program has positive correlati ons to overall producer gains, those producer participants do not benefit equally. Separate from producer promo tion investments, the Federal Milk Order (FMO) program assists dairy farmers in marketing their milk. The FMO, instituted by the dairy producer, provides a means of equally sharing revenues ge nerated by a classified pricing system where processors are assured of payi ng the same minimum price as their competitors for milk used within the same product classi fication (Stukenburg, Blayne y, & Miller, 2006, p. 1195). Florida

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31 milk producers are under Federal Order 6 and within this order, approxim ately 88% of all milk goes to Class I. Class I consists of fluid milk products and is th e highest priced order (Stukenberg et al., 2006). Figure 2-2 displays the fluctuations in Class I milk price from 19772003. Fluctuations in milk price mostly are depende nt on utilization of that price class. In times of milk and dairy surpluses, FMO prices can be closely rela ted to support prices, and when support prices are artificially high, they inflate market prices a nd federal order prices capture these higher prices (Stukenberg, 2006). Figure 2-2 Federal milk marketing order Cl ass I prices (annual averages) from 1977-2003. (Stukenberg et al., 2006) Dairy producers are competing for market share with various other consumptive beverages. Fluid milk is the third-larg est category by volume in its competitive set (USDA, 2005). However, in 2005, every category in this competitiv e set, with the exclusion of milk and fruit beverages, experienced an increase in sale s (USDA, 2006). At $150 million in spending in 2004, milk ranked fourth within the competitive set, accounting for less than 10 percent of spending and while that spending is significant, milk accounts for approximately 18 percent of

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32 the competitive set volume and thus, remains sign ificantly underrepresented in share of voice (USDA, 2005, p. 50). Figure 2-3 illustrates both the competitive set volume for 2004 and the media spending by those same categories for 200 4. Milk is in a unique situation in its competitive category. Its price continues to incr ease faster than any other category and its spending for marketing is declining (USDA, 2005) This decline in spending has a negative impact on milk consumption. Figure 2-3. Competitive set volume for 2004 vs. media spending by category for 2004 (millions of dollars) (Stukenberg et al., 2006) CSDs: Carbonated Soft Drinks RTD: Ready to Drink Entrepreneurial Marketing Entrepreneurial marketing for this study is de fined as practices or innovations individual dairy producers fund, in addition to their manda tory investment in the checkoff program, to promote the dairy industry and dairy products. Entrepreneurial behavior represents a more informal type of marketing rely ing on the intuition and energy of an individual (Stokes, 2000). Stokes (2000) defined entrepreneurs as innova tion-oriented and often driven by new ideas and intuitive market feel (p. 1). Mueller and Thomas (2000) suggested motivations for becoming an entrepreneur can be categorized into either push/pull situati onal factors or personal

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33 characteristics. Push/pull factors can include diss atisfaction with an aspect of ones business, or frustrations with current situations. Personal char acteristics can include personality traits such as ones desire for achievement, or level of innovativeness (Mueller & Thomas, 2000). Many dairy producers may not feel they have th e expertise to formulate an entrepreneurial marketing strategy. Dartt (2001) suggested th at many dairy producers are production-oriented and, rather than spending time in a leadership or management role, they are focused more on the technical side of their operations. Many managers are criticized because th ey lack the ability or are unwilling to consider the variety of strategic options th at are available to their business (Gallen, 2006). Consumer trust is another important factor to consider. Increasingly strong media coverage of food safety can have an effect on the publics per ception of animal agriculture. Animal activists have had little influence on demand for animal products, but have increased public concern about food safety (Zimbelman, Wils on, Bennett, & Curtis, 1995). Another factor influencing public perception of agriculture is po pulation. Because of the decreasing number of people involved in production ag riculture, the general public is becoming increasingly more removed from having direct knowledge of fa rm practices (Zimbelman et al., 1995, p. 153). However, 93% of Americans questioned in a 19 90 American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF) survey believed that farmers are trustworthy, an d 88% agreed that farmers are doing a good job of producing healthy food (Zimbelman, 1995, p. 155). Langinier and Babcock (2005) st ated that consumers are in general less informed than producers about the quality of agricultural goods (p. 1). Building trust with the public can be effective coming straight from the farmer. Cons umers are most likely to seek out information on a topic, in this case dairy production, through communication with a trustworthy source (Yee,

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34 Yeung, & Morris, 2005). Food safety concerns continue to grow and sales are affected if there is a perceived risk to consumer h ealth (Yee et al., 2005). In the case of dairy, consumers purchased less milk with the increased emphasis on bovi ne growth hormone residues, even though consumers could not detect the residues them selves (Yee et al., 2005) Yee et al. (2005) concluded that trust could pos itively influence consumers decision on future purchase (p. 844). They found that providing information was the most important factor in trust building (Yee et al., 2005). One recommendation from the study to build trust with farmers and help foster links with local farmers was the implem entation of farm visits or tours to educate consumers about the origins of their food (Yee et al., 2005). Theoretical Framework for the Study Locus of Control Locus of control is a construct that originat es from Rotters social learning theory, which explains a persons actions are predicted on the ba sis of values, expecta tions, and situations a person finds themselves in (Lefcourt, 1982). The theory is based on the internal-external scale that measures an individuals perception of how mu ch control he is able to exert over the events in his life (Miller & Toulouse, 1986, p. 1392). Ro tter developed the cons truct of generalized expectancies for internal versus external cont rol and explains the int ernal versus external control refers to the degree to which persons exp ect that a reinforcement or an outcome of their behavior is contingent on thei r own behavior or personal char acteristics versus the degree to which persons expect that the reinforcement or out come is a function of chance, luck, or fate, is under the control of powerful others, or is simply unpred ictable (Rotter, 1990, p. 489). Entrepreneurial behavior repr esents a more informal type of marketing relying on the intuition and energy of an individu al (Stokes, 2000). Internal lo cus of control and innovativeness are two frequently cited personal traits associ ated with entrepreneurial potential (Mueller &

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35 Thomas, 2000). Mueller and Thomas (2000) cited Rotte rs locus of control as the theory that an individual perceives the outcome of an event as being either with in or beyond his or her personal control (p. 56). Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell (2003) investigated the relationship between locus of control and agricultural producer propensity to adopt innova tions and participate in extension programs. The authors reported that individuals with a stro ng internal locus of cont rol believe that they can influence many events in their lives while individuals with a stro ng external locus of control believe that there is little they can do to influence events that occu r in their lives (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 2). The authors deduced that producer s with an internal locus of control will be more likely to seek opportuniti es that would improve their skill base, and producers who measured on the external scale would be less lik ely to try any new tec hniques and technologies (p. 2). Results showed that produc ers with a strong intern al locus of control were less likely than other producers to experience low financial perfor mance, more likely to exhibit a high propensity to adopt innovations, and more likely to participate in extens ion or benchmark programs. Conversely, producers with a strong ex ternal locus of control were ev aluated to be more likely to experience low financial performance, less lik ely to exhibit a high propensity to adopt innovations, and less likely to pa rticipate in extension or benchmarking programs than other producers (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 9). Miller and Toulouse (1986) reported locus of control on the basis of strategy, decision making, structure, and performance. Table 2-1 illustrates the expected relationships between Chief Executive Officer (CEO) pers onality and their organization.

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36 Table 2-1 Expected relationships betw een CEO personality and organization* (Miller & Toulouse, 1986, p. 1392) Theory of Planned Behavior The theory of planned behavior (TPB) states that a persons beha vioral intention is fundamentally determined by three factors: the attitude that the person holds towards the behavior; the degree of social pressure felt by the person to perform or not perform the behavior; and the degree of control that the person feels he or she has over performing the behavior. Although dependent on the application, the more pos itive the attitude and subjective norm with respect to a behavior, and the gr eater the perceived control, th e stronger the intention is to perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991) Determining Florida cooperat ive dairy producers attitudes towards marketing can contribute to the overa ll understanding of thei r behaviors regarding entrepreneurial promotion. In addition, the greate r the control producers perceive they have, the

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37 stronger the intention will be to perform the related behavior. Fi gure 2-3 presents Ajzens theory of planned behavior in its most applicable form. Figure 2-3 Ajzens theory of planned behavior model. (Krueger, Reilly, & Carsrud, 2000) Ajzens theory of planned beha vior model suggests a persons in tentions could be a direct result of that individuals at titude toward the act. While it is unknown whether or not dairy producers feel entrepreneurial marketing will benefit their operation, their attitude toward innovation can affect their intent ions regarding marketing. Veci ana, Aponte, and Urbano (2000) explained Ajzens attitude toward the act refers to the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the be havior in question (p. 168). Following this definition, a cooperative dairy pr oducers appraisal of entrepre neurial marketing can affect his/her intentions depending on if that producer is favorable or unfavorable to the activity. A more favorable opinion would sugge st a higher incidence of part icipation in entrepreneurial activity, whereas an unfavorable opini on would lessen that participation. Perceived self-efficacy is another important co mponent of Ajzens model with respect to this study. Bandura (1977) defined self-efficacy as the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required (p. 193). Shepherd and Kreuge r (2002) further explained that high self-efficacy leads to increased initiative and persistence and thus improved performance;

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38 low self-efficacy reduces effort and thus perf ormance (p. 171). Following Ajzens model, perceived self-efficacy leads to a perceived feasibili ty of the behavior, and finally the intention to perform that behavior. Dairy producers w ith high self-efficacy would believe that entrepreneurial marketing is more feasible, therefore participating more regularly. Integrated Marketing Communications Communication is comprised of sound, image, and writing and all thr ee of these factors have been dependent on technolog ical development (Holm, 2006) Holm further notes that communication is the process by which individual s share meaning and each participant must fully understand the meaning of the others communi cation (p. 29). Affecting the perception of behavior and value through dire cted communication is the over arching goal of integrated marketing communications (IMC) (Holm, 2006). Hutton (1996) explained IMC has long-term im plications to help create communications that help create relationships instead of simply persuading pote ntial buyers. Creating a website is a form of entrepreneurial marketing as define d by this study. While co operative dairy farmers without a brand presence are not as concerned with brand loyalty, commodity loyalty is an issue of concern. Public awareness of a commodit y, its production, and benefits is important to increasing sales in that commodity area. An In ternet presence can be a crucial part of the integrated marketing process. The Internet is a totally controllable media where Web presence plays a major role especially when promoting messages a company wants to impart to its customers (Harridge-March, 2004, p. 297). While cooperative dairy farmers are selling a generic, un-brand ed milk product, the public consumer still must be convinced of a produc ts quality before purchase, therefore making marketing a concern. Proctor (1999) explained a total marketing communications strategy is crucial when identifying the target audience an d attracting customers to products or services.

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39 Sharma and Sheth (2004) stated The Web is growing at a dramatic pace and is significantly impacting customer and business mark et behaviors (p. 696). Although cooperative dairy farmers do not have a specific brand, th e Web can have an impact on a consumers decision to buy dairy products. Summary This chapter has reviewed literature relate d to generic dairy promotion, both mandatory and entrepreneurial in nature. The literature presented focuse d on the evolution of the dairy promotion, how it is funded, and how producers pa rticipate. Additionally, an overview of relevant literature related to the general to pic of generic advertising and promotion was presented, and more specifically, how dairy is promoted generica lly. Entrepreneurial marketing issues in literature were addr essed and how managerial attitu des and behaviors can influence these decisions. A focus on releva nt literature related to the th eoretical framework of the study including locus of control, theo ry of planned behavior, and inte grated marketing communications was presented.

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40 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of the Florida-based members of Southeast Milk, Incorporated (S MI) dairy cooperative regarding the promotion efforts used to market their commodity, as well as explore producers locus of c ontrol score and their perceptions of dairy marketing efforts. A produ cers placement on the internal-external locus of control scale was examined to explain the relation ship of that measuremen t of personality to the producers perceptions of current mandatory marketing efforts funded by producer checkoff dollars. In addition, this study described current entr epreneurial marketing efforts conducted by producers, the frequency in which those entreprene urial efforts occur, and producers perceptions as to the usefulness of marketi ng, in addition to their mandatory promotion investment. Those entrepreneurial marketing perceptions and perceptions were ag ain related to producers locus of control scale placement. This chapter describes the methodology used to address the research objectives presented in this study. The research objectives were as follows: Objective 1: To describe Florida cooperativ e milk producers in term s of their locus of control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information. Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperati ve milk producers perceptions regarding the importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall. Objective 3: To describe Florida cooperativ e milk producers per ceptions regarding the need for, effectiveness of, levels of partic ipation in, and factors that prevent producers from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing. Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score in terms of their perceptions of the value of the checkoff progr am to the dairy industry and importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation.

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41 Objective 5: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score in terms of their need for and i nvestment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. This chapter is organized by research desi gn, subject selection, instrumentation, data collection, data analysis, reliab ility and validity, and summary. Research Design The research design for this study was a descri ptive survey using a census population of all Florida dairy producers (N=118) belonging to the da iry cooperative Southeas t Milk, Incorporated (SMI). The survey was distributed via mail using Dillmans Tailored Design Method (Dillman, 2007). The survey instrument was mailed to all members of the population of SMI dairy producers. Population The population for the study was comprised of a census of Florida dairy producers (N=118) who are currently memb ers of the SMI dairy coopera tive. At the time of data collection, SMI had 307 members covering Florida, and parts of Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Louisiana, and South Carolina (Covington, person al communication, August 28, 2006). Because the largest percentage of membership in the SMI cooperativ e was represented by the state of Florida, and every states re gional promotional programs are unique, the Florida membership was selected as the population for the study. The researcher obtain ed a current list of Florida SMI members when preparation of the survey instrument was complete and ready for distribution. Instrumentation Instrumentation consisted of a survey instru ment comprised of 25 questions within four sections including 1) checkoff/mandatory marketi ng, 2) entrepreneurial marketing, 3) locus of

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42 control, and 4) demographic que stions (Appendix C). The purpose of the questionnaire was to identify information relevant to the research obj ectives defined at the beginning of this chapter. Part one, the mandatory marketing/checkoff s ection, included nine questions adapted from a survey written by Dairy Management Incorpor ated that was designed to determine producer perceptions of the checkoff program (Bavido, personal comm unication, October 27, 2006). Question one included 10 items that measured respondents perceptions on the importance of promotional programs funded by the checkoff with re gard to the dairy industry, as well as the respondents individual operations. The response scale for these items was designed using a 1 to 5 Likert-like scale with 1=not important to 5=very important. Question two named specific promotional programs in Florida managed by Dair y Farmers Incorporated (DFI) and sought to identify respondents perceptions on the value of those programs. This question included seven items that utilized a Likert-like response scale using 1=not valuable to 5=very valuable. Question three included 11 items that que stioned respondents on how strongl y they agreed or disagreed that those items contributed to formulating re spondents perceptions on the checkoff programs level of success. This question utilized a Likert-l ike response scale using 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. Questions four through seve n asked more specific que stions regarding dairy farm profitability, how respondents felt regarding competing beverage markets, the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry, and the importance of the overall checkoff program to respondents individual operations. Each of these questions utilized a Likert -like response scale. Question eight identified how respondents receive information about DFIs programs. Question nine identified how many meetings respondent s attended where the checkoff program was discussed.

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43 Part two, entrepreneurial marketing, was crea ted to assess respondents perceptions and participation in entrepreneurial marketing. This section included seven questions, which corresponded to questions 10-16 on the survey. Question 10 included five items. Four known entrepreneurial marketing efforts includi ng farm/company websites, farm tours, farm/employee/company newsletters, and farm br and/logos were listed, and respondents marked yes or no, depending on their participation in each item. The fifth item provided space for respondents to identify othe r entrepreneurial efforts not listed within the question. Questions 11 and 12 were also yes/no responses and measur ed respondents willingness to invest in the promotion of their farm, in addition to mandato ry investments, and respondents opinion on whether it is necessary to promote their farms in addition to mandatory promotional efforts. Questions 13 through 15 utilized a Likert-lik e response scale with 1= strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. These questi ons evaluated respondents percep tions regarding websites as an effective way to generate interest in the dairy indu stry, farm tours as an effective way to generate interest in dairy production, a nd newsletters as a beneficial component to a dairy operation, respectively. The last question in this section utilized a yes/no format to identify what resources respondents felt they need ed in order to participate in more entrepreneurial efforts. This question incorporated five items including time, money, people, training, and an other category for respondents to include res ources not mentione d in the question. Section 3, locus of control, in cluded two questions (17 and 18 ) that were adapted from a previous study which investigat ed the relationship between locu s of control and adoption of innovations and participation in extension programs by agricultura l producers (Kaine, Sandall, & Bewsell, 2003). Rotters internal-external sc ale is a well-established and accepted form of measuring locus of control (Brownell, 1981). Based on participants responses, their placement

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44 on Rotters internal-external locus of control wa s identified. Question 17 included eight items, each consisting of a pair of statements. One statement identified language that corresponded to an external locus of control, whil e the other identified internal lo cus of control. External and internal statements were mixed in each item so that respondents could not identify all first statements as one way of thi nking and to eliminate a pattern. Question 18 followed the same format as question 17 and included five items. Part three, demographics, included surv ey questions 19 through 25 and defined participants age, number of milking cows, number of years the participant plans to stay in the dairy business, educational level, type of dairy operation, board membership status, and region of Florida where their farm is located. Each of th ese questions provided appr opriate answer choices and respondents were asked to check the approp riate response. For example, question 23 asked What type of dairy operation do you operate? This question consisted of the following five items: freestall barns, loafing ba rns/drylots, tunnel ventilated barns, grazing, or other. Respondents chose the item that best identified their operation style. Data Collection The survey instrument was distributed via postal mail. This distribution method was chosen based on the population demographic. Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh, and Sorensen (2006) identified the advantages of a mailed survey, including guaranteeing confidentiality and eliminating interviewer bias that could be present in an interview. Also, it is possible to include a larger number of subjects as well as subjec ts in more diverse loca tions (p. 413). Dillman (2007) suggested that within many populations of interest, coverage problems exist when using Web-based or telephone survey methods. D illman (2007) reported, Too few people have Internet access to justify using the Web as a sole survey mode (p. 493). This study presented a situation where only a few member s of the population have e-mail contact information. In this

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45 type of situation, mail addresse s were available for the enti re population making the mailed questionnaire the most appropriate method to reach the population in its entirety. Procedure Prior to the collection of the primary data for this survey, a panel of experts consisting of academic professionals familiar with the research study, and dairy producers comparable to the studys population was utilized to establish face and content validity of the survey instrument. Revisions to the instrument were made based on the panels feedback. The finalized instrument was then submitted to and approved by the University of Floridas Institutional Review Board (Appendix A). The dairy producers in cluded in the panel were not incl uded in the final data set. Data collection began in January 2007 and procedures were followed using Dillmans tailored design method (Dillman, 2007). The first st ep in the data collection was the first wave of contact, consisting of a contac t packet that included a cover letter (Appendix D) outlining the purpose of the study, need for part icipation, and instructions for completion; the questionnaire; the consent form (Appendix B); and a pre-paid re turn envelope. This fi rst contact packet was mailed to the studys population on January 13, 2007. Respondents were given a case identification number that was separated from their names to track respondents from nonrespondents, preventing additional waves of communication with respondents. The second contact with th e research population was a thank you/reminder postcard (Appendix E) mailed 10 business days later on January 25, 2007, to al l members of the population. This contact thanked those who had already returned the survey, and urged those who had not to do so immediately. The third contact was another questionnaire packet mailed to non-respondents on February 3, 2007. This packet included a new cover letter (Appendix F), and a replacement copy of the consent form and questionnaire.

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46 A final wave was mailed February 20, 2007, cons isting of the same materials sent in the third contact: new cover letter (Appendix G), replacement consent form, and questionnaire. Data collection from mailed surveys commenced on March 1, 2007. Respondents were given a period of six weeks to complete and return the survey. After all waves had been completed, the study obtained an overall response ra te of 49.2% (n=58). Ary et al. (2006) explained that nonresponse can be a serious problem in survey research (p. 438). Nonresponse for this study was addresse d by comparing early to late respondents. Ary et al. (2006) describe the proce dure as identifying early to late respondents, and if no significant differences appear, and late res pondents are believed to be typical of nonrespondents, researchers can assume the late respondents are an unbias ed sample of the reci pients and can thus generalize to the total group ( p. 439). Lindner, Murphy, and Br iers (2001) recommended late respondents be defined operationally and arbitrarily as the later 50% of respondents (p. 242). This study defined early respondents as the firs t 50% who responded to the survey and late respondents as the latter 50% of respondents to the survey. Tw enty-three respondents completed the questionnaire after the ini tial contact, 22 responded after th e second wave of questionnaires, and 13 responded after the final contact. The first 29 respondents were defined as early and the last 29 respondents were defined late. Re sponses were compared on the basis of the key variables of interest and no significant differences we re observed (see chapter 4). Data Analysis The data collected was analyzed using descri ptive statistical analysis. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 14.0 fo r Windows software package was utilized for the analysis. Descriptive statis tics including measures of centr al tendency, frequencies, and cross tabluations were calculated for the appropriate questionnaire items.

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47 Knoke, Bohrnstedt, and Mee (2002) defined reliability as the extent to which different operationalizations of the same concept produce consis tent results (p. 13). In order to determine the reliability and internal cons istency of the response scales, Cronbachs alpha coefficient was calculated for the scale items. The standard alpha for this study was =.89. Ary et al. (2006) defined validity as the extent to which an instrument measured what it claimed to measure (p. 243). The internal validity of the instrument can be separated into four categories: face validity, content validity, construc t validity, and criterionrelated validity (Ary et al., 2006). Face and content validity were addresse d through the use of the panel of experts. Face validity is defined as whether or not the instrument appears valid for the intended purpose, while content validity is defined as the degr ee to which the data from an instrument is representative of some define d domain (Ary et al., 2006). The panel of experts reviewed the instrument and suggested modificati ons to the instrument were made. This study adapted parts of reliable, valid in strumentation used in previous studies. A dairy producer survey constructe d by Dairy Management Incorporated (DMI) was adapted for questions concerning mandatory marketing. This study adapted locus of c ontrol scale questions from a study conducted by Kaine, Sandall, and Bews ell in 2003 that inves tigated the relationship between locus of control and adoption of innovati ons and participation in extension programs by agricultural producers. Construct validity is the extent to which an instrument assesses something that is not directly measurable, but explains observable effects (Ary et al., 2006). The use of a panel of experts and a thorough review of th e literature was the best foreseea ble way to guard against this threat to validity. Finally, criterion-related vali dity is defined as the determination of whether answering the questions on the instrument was the correct way to measure the constructs (Ary et

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48 al., 2006). The use of existing and valid instrumentation was used to guard against these threats to the studys validity. Summary This chapter provided an overview of the methodology associated with this study. The research design was described and selection of the studys populati on was explained. A thorough explanation of each component of the c onstruction of the studys instrumentation was given. An overview of how Dillmans Tailored Design Method was employed for this study was provided. Finally, data analysis was discussed, and the reliability and validity of the study was addressed. The next chapter will provide specific information on data analysis procedures and the results received fr om the questionnaire.

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49 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This study described the perceptions of the Florida-based members of Southeast Milk, Incorporated (SMI) dairy coopera tive regarding the promotion efforts used to market their commodity, as well as explore pr oducers locus of cont rol score and their perceptions of dairy marketing efforts. Producer perceptions of bot h mandatory marketing, marketing paid for by the producers via the dairy checkoff, and entrepre neurial marketing, promotional efforts whose expenses are paid by producers in addition to the checkoff, were studied. This study also described producers perceptions as to the impor tance and value of mandatory marketing and the perceived need for and level of participation in entrepreneurial dairy marketing. In order to obtain a locus of control score, producers were scored on an adaptation of Rotters internalexternal locus of control scale. This scale meas ured the extent to whic h each individual producer felt they have control over a situ ation or event. Producers were sc ored either as internal or external on the scale. The population for the study was comprised of a census of Florida dairy producers (N=118) who are currently member s of the SMI dairy cooperative. This chapter presents the studys findings based on the research objectives de fined in Chapter 1. These objectives were as follows: Objective 1: To describe Florida cooperativ e milk producers in term s of their locus of control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information. Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperati ve milk producers perceptions regarding the importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall. Objective 3: To describe Florida cooperativ e milk producers per ceptions regarding the need for, effectiveness of, levels of partic ipation in, and factors that prevent producers from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing.

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50 Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score in terms of their perceptions of the value of the checkoff progr am to the dairy industry and importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation. Objective 5: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score in terms of their need for and i nvestment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. Results Dillman (2007) reported that the potential fo r nonresponse error exists in all survey research, and nonresponse should, therefore, be considered and addressed in survey-based research studies. In order to maximize the resp onse rate in this study, three waves of surveys were mailed and one reminder postcard. Each survey and postcard was hand-signed by the researcher and cover letters were designed fo r each specific wave se nt to non-respondents encouraging them to return the instrument at their earliest convenience. A total of 58 responses were received from the studys population (N=118) for an overall response rate of 49.2%, which was deemed an acceptable response rate for this population. Based on Dillmans recommendation to always address nonresponse error, a comparison of early to late respondents was util ized. Lindner, Murphy, and Brie rs (2001) recommended late respondents be defined operationally and arbitrarily as the later 50% of respondents (p. 242). This study defined early respondents (n=29) as the first 50% who responde d to the survey and late respondents (n=29) as the latter 50% of respondents to the survey. Early respondents were compared to late respondents on the basis of th e key variables of interest, including locus of control score, value and importa nce of the checkoff program, and need for and participation in entrepreneurial dairy marketing efforts. With respect to the main variables measur ed in this study, there were no significant differences between early and late respondents as demonstrated by an independent samples t-test (Table 4-1).

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51 Table 4-1. T-test for significant differen ces between early and late respondents. Early Respondents Late Respondents Key Variable MeanSDMeanSD t Value Sig. Value of Checkoff to Industry 3.861.133.381.12 1.64 0.106 Importance of Checkoff to Farm 3.901.113.211.20 2.26 0.028 Need for Entrepreneurial Marketing 0.520.510.460.51 0.39 0.696 Participation in Entrepreneurial Marketing 0.390.500.290.46 0.84 0.406 Demographics of Respondents Seven demographic questions were asked to id entify and describe the respondents. The majority of respondents (96.6%, n=56) were ma le and 3.4% (n=2) were female. Table 4-2 identifies respondents according to their age. The largest percentage of respondents (45.62%, n=26), reported their age in the range from 5064 years. Respondents in the age range from 3549 years (40.35%, n=23), made up the second hi ghest category. A small percentage of respondents (12.28%, n=7) fell in the 65 years of age and older category. Only 1.75% (n=1) reported being under 34 years of age. One person did not respond to this question. Table 4-2. Number of respondents by age. Age (yrs) n % 18-34 1 1.75 35-49 23 40.35 50-64 26 45.62 65 and older 7 12.28 Total 57 100.0 Respondents herd size, the number of milking cows per farm, was also described. Table 4-3 categorizes respondents in terms of herd si ze. The majority of respondents (80.8%, n=46) identified the middle three categories as a valid re presentation of their herd size, which covered herds ranging from 100 to 1999 milking cows. Th e largest portion of re spondents (31.5%, n=18) reported they milked 100-499 cows in their opera tion. Only 10.5% (n=6) reported a herd size of

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52 99 milking cow or less, while 8.8% (n=5) reported a herd size of 2000 or more milking cows. One person did not respond to this question. Table 4-3. Herd size by respondents. Number of milking cows n % 1-99 6 10.5 100-499 18 31.5 500-999 16 28.1 1000-1999 12 21.1 2000 or more 5 8.8 Total 57 100.0 Respondents were asked how many years they pl anned to remain in the dairy business in any capacity. This question refe rred to the longevity of the individual and not their current operation. Table 4-4 illustrates t hose responses in three categories. The majority of respondents (42.9%, n=24) reported they plan to stay in the in dustry for 11 or more years. Just over onefourth of respondents (26.8%, n=15) believed they would remain in the dairy business for 6-10 more years. A larger percentage of respondent s (30.3%, n=17) projected they would stay with the dairy business for five years or less. Two people did not res pond to this question. Table 4-4. Number of years respondents plan to stay in dairy business. Projected longevity (yrs) n % 5 or less 17 30.3 6-10 15 26.8 11 or more 24 42.9 Total 56 100.0 Table 4-5 describes respondents on the basis of education level. The majority of respondents (97.1%, n=47) reported an educati on level above high school, with 13.8% (n=8) reporting a graduate or professional degree. Th e majority of the respondents (36.2%, n=21) were college graduates, and an additional 19.0% (n=1 1) reported attending some college, but not officially graduating. Only one respondent (1.7%) did not graduate from high school.

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53 Table 4-5. Level of education by respondent. Level of Education n % Less than high school 1 1.7 High school graduate 10 17.2 Vocational-technical training 4 6.9 Some college 11 19.0 College graduate 21 36.2 Some graduate school 3 5.2 Graduate or professional degree 8 13.8 Total 58 100.0 The type of dairy operation respondents main tained was another demographic examined (see Table 4-6). The majority of respondents (3 6.2%, n=21) defined their operations as drylot facilities with loafing barns for cattle. Many respondents (29.3%, n=17) reported freestall barn construction, and 25.9% (n=15) reported grazi ng as their type of operation. Only two respondents (3.4%) defined tunnel ventilated ba rns as their type of operation. A small percentage of respondents (5.2%, n=3) indicated other for their response as their responses listed outside total mixed ration (TMR) feedi ng, semi-grazing, and feed/graze cows when possible. Table 4-6. Type of dair y operation by respondent. Type of facility n % Loafing barns/Drylots 21 36.2 Freestall barns 17 29.3 Grazing 15 25.9 Other 3 5.2 Tunnel ventilated barns 2 3.4 Total 58 100.0 In response to the question that asked about membership on the board at Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI), the Floridia n promotion board that is funde d by the largest percentage of producers checkoff dollars, 29.3% (n=3) of responde nts reported they were members of DFIs board, while 70.7% (n=41) reported they were no t DFI board members. Table 4-7 represents producers responses.

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54 Table 4-7. Membership of respondents on the Dairy Farmers Incorporated board. Member status n % No 41 70.7 Yes 17 29.3 Total 58 100.0 To better describe the saturation of respondents in the different regions of Florida, the state was divided into four sections fo r this study (see Figure 2-1). In response to region of the state where their operation is located, the majority of respondents (49.1%, n=28) reported their farm was located in north Florida, areas north of Interstate-4 (I-4) a nd south of Interstate-10 (I-10). The second largest percentage of respondents (31.6%, n=18) claim farm residency in south Florida, areas south of I-4. Only six respondent s (10.5%) were representing the Panhandle, areas west of Lafayette County, and the remaining five respondents (8.8%) reported farms located in Lafayette County, and north of I10 (see Table 4-8). One person di d not respond to this question. Table 4-8. Region of the state wher e respondents farms are located. Region n % North Florida: north of I-4 to I-10 28 49.1 South Florida: areas south of I-4 18 31.6 Panhandle: areas west of Lafayette county 6 10.5 North Florida: Lafayette c ounty and north of I-10 5 8.8 Total 57 100.0 Objective 1 To describe Florida cooperative milk producers in terms of their locus of control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information. To address this objective, respondents were described on the internal-external locus of control scale. Locus of control was described using a series of 13 pairs of questions. Each question contained one statement that was associat ed with internal locu s of control, and one statement associated to external locus of c ontrol. Respondents were asked to pick which statement in each pair that they agreed with the most. External locus of control statements were denoted with the number 1 and internal locus of control statements were denoted with the

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55 number 2. Respondents were categor ized on the scale by the mean of their answers to the paired questions. The majority of respondents (67.2%, n=39) had a higher frequency of responses, indicating an internal locus of control. The smaller percentage of respondents (32.8%, n=19) had a higher frequency of responses indicating an extern al locus of control classification (see Table 4-9). Table 4-9. Respondents classification on the in ternal-external locus of control scale. Scale classification n % Internal 39 67.2 External 19 32.8 Total 58 100.0 In addition to locus of control, respondents were questioned on the ways in which they receive information about the checkoff. Possi ble types of communica tion included receiving information from fellow producers, DFI staff, fa rm/co-op meetings, and the DFI newsletter, the Moo Memo Table 4-10 illustrates what percentage of respondents answered yes to a type of communication, and what percentage answered no. The highest rated method (96.4%, n=54) of communication to receive information about DFIs promotional programs was DFIs Moo Memo The only communication category where the majority of respondents (52.6%, n=30) answered no instead of yes was to receive information from fellow producers. Table 4-10. Percentage of responde nts who answered yes or no to different ways in which they receive information about DFIs promotional programs. Information receipt n % Yes n % No DFIs Moo Memo 5496.42 3.6 Farm/Co-op meetings 4581.810 18.2 DFI staff 4174.514 25.5 Fellow producers 2747.430 52.6 Objective 2 Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperati ve milk producers perceptions regarding the importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall.

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56 In order to address perceived perceptions of the importance of the checkoff program, respondents were asked their per ceptions as to how important th e overall checkoff program is to their operations. The majority of respondents (37.9%, n=22) an swered somewhat important, indicating that while they did not believe the checkoff program was very important to their operation, they did believe it was of some importan ce. The lowest percentage (8.6%, n=5) of respondents answered not important, indicatin g that only five respondents felt that the checkoff was not important at all to their opera tion. A large percen tage (60.3%, n=35) of respondents indicated the checkoff had some level of value, 20.7% (n=12) indicated they were neutral to the issue, and 19.0% (n =11) indicated the checkoff was not valuable to their operation on some level. Table 4-11 illustrates respondents ratings of the level of importance of the dairy checkoff program to their operation. Table 4-11. Respondents replies to the level of importance of the dairy checkoff program to their dairy operation. Importance level n % 4 (somewhat important) 22 37.9 5 (very important) 13 22.4 3 (neutral) 12 20.7 2 (somewhat not important) 6 10.4 1 (not important) 5 8.6 Total 58 100.0 To further understand respondents perceptions of the importance of the checkoff program, they were asked to answer 10 items that measured their perceptions of the importance of promotional programs funded by the checkoff with rega rd to the dairy industry, and 10 items that measured importance of those pr ograms with regard to the res pondents operations Table 4-12 reports the mean ( M ) and standard deviation ( SD ) for each promotional c oncept with respect to the respondents perception of im portance to the dairy industry a nd to their own operations. The mean was based on the scale of 1=not importa nt, 2=little importance, 3=neutral, 4=some

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57 importance, 5=very important. In response to the items asking about the importance of promotional concepts to the dairy indust ry, the item with the highest mean ( M =4.60, SD =0.74) was Improve the handling and presentation of m ilk in school cafeterias. The item with the lowest mean ( M =4.28, SD =1.01) was Encourage food manuf acturers to use more dairy ingredients. In response to the items asking about the importance of promotional concepts to the respondents individual operations, the item w ith the highest mean was Defend the image of dairy against claims of anti-da iry activists. Two items shared the lowest mean, including Encourage food manufacturers to use more dairy ingredients ( M =4.05, SD =1.15) and Maintain awareness of milk and cheese through advertising ( M =4.05, SD =1.14). Table 4-12. Respondents perceptions of promotiona l concepts and their importance to the dairy industry and their operation. Industry Operation/ Farm Promotional concept n MSDn M SD Improve the handling and presentation of milk in school cafeterias. 554.60*0.7456 4.38 0.96 Conduct research to show the nutritional value of dairy products. 544.560.7256 4.30 1.03 Teach kids in schools about the healthfulness of dairy products. 554.530.8156 4.32 1.05 Defend the image of dairy against claims of anti-dairy activists. 544.520.8056 4.41* 0.91 Influence how health professionals feel about dairy products. 544.520.8456 4.36 0.98 Promote awareness of dairy products among consumers. 544.440.7756 4.16 1.01 Work with retail and restaurant chains to sell more milk and cheese. 544.430.8856 4.32 0.99 Place positive messages about dairy in consumer media. 554.420.8856 4.14 1.05 Maintain awareness of milk and cheese through advertising. 544.310.9356 4.05** 1.14 Encourage food manufacturers to use more dairy ingredients. 534.28**1.0155 4.05** 1.15 Concept with the highest mean. ** Concept with the lowest mean.

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58 In order to address perceptions as to the overall value of the checkoff program, respondents were asked to rate the value of the dairy checkoff program to the dairy industry (see Table 4-13). The majority of respondents (39.7%, n=23) indica ted the checkoff program has some value, and (22.4%, n=13) indicated the checkoff program is ve ry valuable to the dairy industry. Overall, 62.1% (n=36) of respondents felt the checkoff was valuable on some level to the industry. Only four respondents (6.9%) indica ted the checkoff had no value to the dairy industry, while 8.6% (n=5) of respondents indicated the checkoff ha d little value. Only 13 respondents (22.4%) (n=13) were neutral to the issue. Table 4-13. Respondents replies to the level of value of the dairy checkoff program to the dairy industry. Value level n % 4 (some value) 23 39.7 5 (very valuable) 13 22.4 3 (neutral) 13 22.4 2 (little value) 5 8.6 1 (not valuable) 4 6.9 Total 58 100.0 To further address the value of the checko ff program, respondents were asked to measure the value of seven specific promotional pr ograms in Florida managed by Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI). Table 4-14 illustrates res pondents perceptions rega rding these programs. Response items utilized a Likert-like response scale using 1=not valuable to 5=very valuable. Results showed that the program with the hi ghest percentage of respondents (53.4%, n=31) denoting a rating of 5, or very valuable, was the Media Relations category. Two other program categories were rated very valuable by over half of responde nts including Industry Relations Image with 51.7% (n=30) and Gro cery Store Promotions with 50.0% (n=28). The lowest rated programs according to respondents included the Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of the Game, with 39.7% (n=32) of respondents ra ting the program neutral to not valuable, and

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59 Florida Dairy Farmers High School Awards with 50.0% (n=29) of respondents rating the program neutral to not valuable. Two people di d not respond to the New Look of School Milk and Grocery Store Promotions categories. On e person did not respond to the -A-Day of Dairy Advertising category. Table 4-14. Respondents perceptions of the va lue of specific Florida promotional programs managed by Dairy Farmers, Inc (DFI). % of respondents who answered scaled items from 1 (not valuable) to 5 (very valuable). Promotional Program n 1 n 2 n 3 n 4 n 5 Media Relations 13.400.0915.516 27.6 3153.4 Industry Relations Image 23.400.0915.517 29.3 3051.7 Grocery Store Promotions 00.011.8712.520 35.7 2850.0 New Look of School Milk 11.811.8712.520 35.7 2748.2 3-A-Day of Dairy Advertising 47.035.31424.616 28.1 2035.1 Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of the Game 610.31017.21627.615 25.9 1119.0 Florida Dairy Farmers High School Awards 46.946.92136.220 34.5 915.5 Table 4-15 shows respondents mean scores when rating the promotional programs. Grocery Store Promotions was the item with the highest mean of 4.34 ( SD =0.77) on a 5-point scale. Two people did not rate this program. The lowest-rated program, reporting the lowest mean (3.26, SD =1.25) according to respondents, was the Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of the Game program. Table 4-15. Respondents perceptions of the va lue of specific Florida promotional programs managed by DFI (mean). Promotional Program nM SD Grocery Store Promotions 564.34 0.77 Media Relations 584.28 0.97 New Look of School Milk 564.27 0.88 Industry Relations Image 584.26 0.97 3-A-Day of Dairy Advertising 573.79 1.19 Florida Dairy Farmers High School Awards 583.45 1.06 Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of the Game 583.26 1.25

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60 In order to determine respondents perceptions regarding category competition, they were asked to rate how strongly they disagreed or agre ed that dairy producers need promotional efforts to compete with other food and beverage compan ies. Table 4-16 shows that 80.8% (n=46) of respondents agreed or strongly agreed with th e statement. Results reported a mean of 4.09 (SD=1.04), indicating that most respondents in dicated they agreed on some level that promotional efforts are necessary for the dairy ca tegory to compete with other food and beverage categories. Four respondents ( 6.9%) indicated they were in so me level of disagreement that promotional efforts on this issue were necessary Only 12.3% (n=7) of respondents were neutral on the issue. One person did not respond to this question. Table 4-16. Respondents level of agreement that dairy producers need promotional efforts to compete with other food and beverage companies. Level of agreement n % 4 (agree) 23 40.4 5 (strongly agree) 23 40.4 3 (neutral) 7 12.3 1 (strongly disagree) 3 5.2 2 (disagree) 1 1.7 Total 57 100.0 Objective 3 To describe Florida cooperative milk produ cers perceptions rega rding the need for, effectiveness of, levels of participation in, and factors that prevent producers from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing. To determine respondents perceptions related to the need for entrepreneurial marketing, they were asked if they believed it was necessa ry to promote their farm in addition to the marketing and promotion provided by their mand atory checkoff investment. Respondents were almost equally divided on this issue with 50.9% (n=29) believing entrep reneurial promotion was not necessary, and 49.1% (n=28) believing entrepreneurial promotion was necessary (see Table 4-17). One person did not answer this question.

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61 Table 4-17. Respondents perceived n eed for entrepreneurial marketing. Level of agreement n % No 29 50.9 Yes 28 49.1 In order to determine respondents perceptions on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial marketing, they were asked three individually s caled items (see Table 4-18). First, respondents were asked if they believed a website was an effective way to generate interest in dairy production. The mean score for the respondents was 2.77 (n=56) on a 5-point scale. Because mean values can be deceiving, it is important to note the mode in each category. The majority of respondents (41.1%, n=23) to this item scored a neutral rating of 3. Two people did not respond to this item. Respondents were then as ked if they felt farm tours could effectively generate interest in dairy pr oduction. The mean score for the respondents was 3.49 (n=57) on a 5-point scale. The majority of respondents (29.8 %, n=17) to this item scored an agree rating of 4. One person did not respond to this item. Lastly, respondents were asked if they felt an employee newsletter could effectively benef it their operation. The mean score for the respondents was 2.46 (n=56) on a 5-point scale. The majority of respondents (48.2%, n=27) to this item scored a neutral rating of 3. Two people did not respond to this item. Table 4-18. Respondents perceptions of the effec tiveness of selected en trepreneurial marketing activities. Effectiveness of entr epreneurial program nM SD Mode Farm Tours 573.49 1.17 4 Website 562.77 1.91 3 Newsletter 562.46 0.97 3 In order to address respondent s levels of participation in entrepreneurial marketing, respondents were asked if they were investing money in the promotion of their operation in addition to the checkoff (see Table 4-19). The majority of respondents (66.1% n=37) reported they were not investing any money in farm prom otion in addition to thei r checkoff investment.

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62 The remaining respondents (33.9%, n=19) report ed they were investing money into the promotion of their farm in addition to their check off investment. Two people did not answer this question. Table 4-19. Respondents investing in entrepreneurial promotion. Level of agreement n % No 37 66.1 Yes 19 33.9 To further address levels of participation in entrepreneurial marketing, respondents were asked what types of entrepreneur ial activities th ey support. Table 4-20 shows the majority of respondents (89.3%, n=50) do not maintain a fa rm/company website. Two people did not respond to this item. Respondents were equally divi ded on their participation in farm tours. Half of respondents (50.0%, n=29) responded yes, a nd 50.0% (n=29) responded no. One person did not answer this item. The majority of re spondents (94.5%, n=52) reported no when asked if they maintained a farm/employee/company news letter. Three people did not respond to this item. The majority of res pondents (89.1%, n=49) reported they did not maintain a farm brand/logo. Three people did not re spond to this item. Finally, f our respondents (7.1%) reported entrepreneurial items in the other category. Those items included selling milk and beef directly to the consumer, cla sses on hoof trimming, and educa tion of youth on calf procedures and milking operation. Table 4-20. Respondents participation in specific entreprene urial activities. Entrepreneurial activity n % Yes n % No n Total Farm tours 2950.02950.0 58 Farm brand/logo 610.94989.1 55 Farm/company Website 610.75089.3 56 Other 47.15292.9 56 Farm/employee/company newsletter 35.55294.5 55

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63 Respondents were asked a series of yes /no items to addr ess the issue of nonparticipation. These items related to resources th at respondents felt they would need in order to participate in more entrepreneurial marketing (s ee Table 4-21). The majority of respondents (63.0%, n=34) felt they would part icipate in more entrepreneuria l marketing if they had more time. Four people did not respond to this it em. The majority of respondents (52.7, n=29) responded yes, believing they would participate in more entrepreneurial marketing if they had more money. Three people did not answer this item. The majori ty of respondents (58.5%, n=31) reported no when asked if more people was a resource that would help them participate in more entrepreneurial marketing. Five people did not respond to this item. The majority of respondents (62.3%, n=33) reported no, when asked if more training would help them participate in more entrepreneurial marketing. Fi ve people did not respond to this item. Finally, three respondents (5.6%) repor ted needed resources in the other category. Those items included more energy and higher profits. Table 4-21. Respondents perceptions of resources needed to partic ipate in more entrepreneurial marketing efforts. Yes No Resource n % n % More time 3463.020 37.0 More money 2952.726 47.3 More people 2241.531 58.5 More training 2037.733 62.3 Other 35.651 94.4 Objective 4 Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score with regard to their perceptions of the value of the checkoff progr am to the dairy industry and importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation. A cross tabulation analysis was employed to de scribe respondents perc eptions of the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry based on their locus of control score (see Table 422). The majority of respondents with an intern al locus of control ( 69.4%, n=25) indicated the

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64 checkoff program was of value to the dairy i ndustry, while 5.6% (n=2) indicated the checkoff was of little to no value. The majority of respondents with an external locus of control (47.3%, n=9) denoted the checkoff program was of va lue to the dairy indus try, while 31.6% (n=6) denoted the checkoff program was of little to no value to the dairy industry. Table 4-22. Respondents perceptions about the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry with relation to their locu s of control scale classification. Scale classification n Moderately not valuable to not valuable n Neutral n Moderately valuable to very valuable Internal 2 5.6925.025 69.4 External 6 31.6421.19 47.3 The importance of the checkoff program to respondents individual operation was also addressed based on locus of control score (see Tabl e 4-23). The majority of respondents with an internal locus of control (69.4% n=25) indicated the checkoff program was important to their operation, while 11.1% (n=4) indicated the checkoff was of little to no importance to their dairy operation. The majority of respondents with an external locus of control (42.1%, n=8) denoted the checkoff program was important to their ope ration, while 31.6% (n=6 ) denoted the checkoff program was of little to no importa nce to their individual operation. Table 4-23. Respondents perceptions about the importance of the checkoff program to their dairy operation with relation to their locus of control scale classification. Scale classification n Little to no importance n Neutral n Important to very important Internal 4 11.1719.525 69.4 External 6 31.6526.38 42.1 Objective 5 To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of contro l score with regard to their need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. A cross tabulation analysis was employed to de scribe respondents perc eptions of the need for entrepreneurial marketing effo rts in addition to the checkoff, based on their locus of control

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65 score (see Table 4-24). The majority of responde nts with an internal locus of control (63.9%, n=23) indicated entrepreneurial marketing was ne cessary to promote dair y, while 36.1% (n=13) indicated there was no perceived need for en trepreneurial marketing. The majority of respondents with an external lo cus of control (72.2%, n=13) de noted entrepreneurial marketing was not necessary to promote da iry, while 27.8% (n=5) indicated there was a need for marketing efforts in addition to the checkoff program. Table 4-24. Respondents perceptions for the need of entrepreneurial marketing efforts to promote dairy in addition to the checkoff program based on their locus of control score. Perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing Scale classification n % No n % Yes Internal 1336.123 63.9 External 1372.25 27.8 Respondents investment in entrepreneurial marketing was addressed, based on locus of control score (see Table 4-25). Th e majority of respondents with an internal locus of control (57.1%, n=20) indicated they were not investing money for the prom otion of dairy in addition to their checkoff investment. Many respondents (4 2.9%, n=15) indicated they were investing money in entrepreneurial marketing efforts be yond their mandatory checkoff investment. The majority of respondents with an external locus of c ontrol (83.3%, n=15) responded they were not investing any additional funds into the promo tion of dairy in addition to their mandatory investment. Only three respondents (16.7%) indicat ed they were investing in the promotion of dairy beyond their checkoff investment. Table 4-25. Respondents investment in entrepreneurial activity ba sed on their internal-external locus of control score. Entrepreneurial investment in addition to checkoff program Scale classification n % No n % Yes Internal 2057.115 42.9 External 1583.33 16.7

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66 Summary This chapter presented the results of the study organized by the research objectives presented in Chapter 1. Basic descriptive statistic s were used to describe the population for this study, their locus of control score, their perceptions re garding the importance and value of their mandatory marketing investment, and their per ceptions regarding entrepreneurial marketing. The next chapter will present a summary of find ings, conclusions of t hose findings, discussion, and implications of this research study.

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67 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This study explored the per ceptions of Floridian member s of the dairy cooperative Southeast Milk, Incorporated (SMI) regarding mandatory (checkoff) and entrepreneurial marketing based on their locus of control score. Specifically, the study examined respondents perceptions of the value of the checkoff to the dairy industry, a nd the importance of the checkoff to their individual operation. The perceived need for entrepreneur ial marketing and the level at which producers participate in identified entrepre neurial marketing efforts were also described. The survey instrument consisted of 25 questi ons designed to gain a clear understanding of respondents perceptions regardi ng the marketing of their commodity. The survey was mailed to the census population (N=118) in a series of three waves. This chapter presents key findings of the study, implications, limitations, recommendations, suggestions for future research, and conclusions. This chapter is arranged by the guiding objectives of the study. Those objectives are as follows: Objective 1: To describe Florida cooperativ e milk producers in term s of their locus of control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information. Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperati ve milk producers perceptions regarding the importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall. Objective 3: To describe Florida cooperativ e milk producers per ceptions regarding the need for, effectiveness of, levels of partic ipation in, and factors that prevent producers from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing. Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score in terms of their perceptions of the value of the checkoff progr am to the dairy industry and importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation. Objective 5: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers locus of control score in terms of their need for and i nvestment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

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68 Key Findings and Implications Demographics A total of 58 Florida members of the dairy cooperative SMI responded to the study, for an overall response rate of 49.2%. Key demographics as reported by respon dents included age, herd size, and region of the state their opera tion was located. The majority of respondents (45.6%, n=26) ranged in age from 50-64, and 40.4% (n=23) were ag es 35-49. These results echo Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI) statistics citing the average age of the Florida dairy owner/operator is 56 (http://www.floridamilk.com /didyouknow.html). The largest portion of respondents (31.6%, n=18) reported they milked 100-499 cows in their operation, 28.1% (n=16) had a herd size of 500-999 milking cows, and 21.1% (n=12) reported a herd size of 1000-1999. Only 10.5% (n=6) reported a herd size of 99 milk ing cow or less, while 8.8% (n=5) reported a herd size of 2000 or more milking cows. Gisey, de Vries, Bray, and Webb (2006) reported the average herd size for Florida farms was approximately 730 cows. The majority of respondents (49.1%, n=28) reported their farm was located in nor th Florida, areas north of Interstate-4 (I-4) and south of Interstate-10 (I-10), 31.6% (n=18) claim farm residency in south Florida, areas south of I-4, six respondents (10.5%) were repr esenting the Panhandle, areas west of Lafayette County, and the remaining five respondents (8.8%) reported farms located in Lafayette County, and in areas north of I-10. Objective 1 Locus of control is a construct that originat es from Rotters social learning theory, which explains that a persons actions can be predicted on the basis of values, expectations, and situations a person finds themselv es in (Lefcourt, 1982). The th eory is based on the internalexternal scale that measures an individuals per ception of how much control he is able to exert over the events in his life (Miller & Toulous e, 1986, p. 1392). Based on the data associated

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69 with Objective 1, the majority of respondents (6 7.2%) were categorized as having an internal locus of control, while the remaining 32.8% we re categorized as demonstrating responses associated with an external locus of control. These results indicate that most dairy producers in Florida are more likely to make decisions re garding marketing based on the characteristics associated with internal locus of control. Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell (2003) conducted a study investigating the relationship between locus of control and agricultural producer propensity to adopt innovations and participate in extension programs. They re ported that individuals with a strong internal locus of control believe that they can influe nce many events in their lives (p. 2). Additionally, the authors deduced that producers w ith an internal locus of control were more likely to seek opportunities that would improve their skill base, more likely to exhibit a high propensity to adopt innovations, and more likely to participat e in extension or benchmark programs (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 9). Following th is description, it can be implied that dairy producers with a more internal lo cus of control are more open to entrepreneurial marketing, and more likely to participate in innovative behavior. Conversely, Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell ( 2003) reported individuals with a strong external locus of control believe that there is litt le they can do to influence events that occur in their lives (p. 2). Those producer s with a more external locus of control would be less likely to try any new techniques and tec hnologies, less likely to exhibit a high propensity to adopt innovations, and less likely to pa rticipate in extension or benchmarking programs than other producers (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 9). It can be implied that dairy producers that scored external in this study are less likely to take risk s associated with entrepreneurial marketing. Additionally, Objective 1 described producers exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information. It was important to first determ ine how much access producers had to information

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70 regarding their mandatory promotional investment before exploring their perceptions of the programs value and importance. In order to determine receipt of checkoff information, respondents were asked to explain how they r eceive information about promotional programs that are organized and managed by Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI), which is funded by dairy producer checkoff dollars. Possible types of communication included receiving information from fellow producers, DFI staff, farm/coop meetings, and the DFI newsletter, the Moo Memo The highest-rated method of communication was DFIs Moo Memo while the lowest-rated communication category was to receive informa tion from fellow producers. These findings indicate that DFIs newsletter is the most utilized method for producers to learn how their checkoff investment dollars are being spent in the promotion of the dairy industry and its products. Objective 2 Objective 2 was to describe Florida cooperati ve milk producers perc eptions regarding the value and importance of the checkoff to the dair y industry overall, as well as describe their perceptions of the importance of the checkoff program to their individual operations. The majority of respondents (60.3%) agreed the checko ff program overall had some level of value to their dairy operations. Because this was an ove rarching question, respondent s were also asked to rate the importance of several promotional goals of the checkoff program to understand which promotional concepts were most important to the overall dairy industry, and which were most important to dairy producer s individual operations. When addressing the overall dairy industry, th e promotional concept producers rated of highest importance was to Improve the handling a nd presentation of milk in school cafeterias. The lowest rated category was to Encourage food manufacturers to use more dairy ingredients. Because 88% of the milk produced in Florida is sold as fluid milk, school cafeterias are a large

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71 part of milk sales. In 2005, Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI) impl emented school marketing with the New Look of School Milk program wh ich replaced conventional milk cartons with plastic resalable bottles, and offere d more flavors of milk. This im proved presentation of milk in cafeterias, coupled with keeping m ilk at a cold temperature, can improve consumption of milk in the schools and increase sales of milk in Florid a. Survey responses indicate that Florida producers agree this is an important promotional concept. In response to the items asking about the im portance of promotiona l concepts to the respondents individual operations producers agreed that to Def end the image of dairy against claims of anti-dairy activists was of highest impor tance to their operations. Animal activists have had little influence on demand for animal products, but have increas ed public concern about food safety (Zimbelman, Wilson, Bennett, & Curt is, 1995). Increasingly strong media coverage of food safety can have an effect on the publics perception of animal agriculture. The more educated consumers are to their food supply a nd assurance of its safety, the more positive associations consumers will have regarding their purchases. Two items were seen as the lowest in terms of importance to producers operations. These items included Encourage food ma nufacturers to use more dair y ingredients and Maintain awareness of milk and cheese through advertis ing. As mentioned in Chapter 2, the milk category is dominated by private label, and th e low percentage of br anded products in this category puts milk at a disadvantage due to the ch allenges inherent to marketing a category as opposed to a brand (USDA, 2005). One strong way consumers will make a positive association connected with the purchase of milk is through ad vertising. Milk needs to be competitive, and consumers need to be more educated on dairy products benefits as well as consumer options in the dairy case, such as chocolate, strawberry, and other flavored milk. Mandatory marketing

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72 programs can accomplish this promotion. It can be implied that because respondents of this study rated maintaining the awar eness of milk and cheese through advertis ing as one of the lowest promotional concepts of importance that they may not fully understand the impact advertising has on their category. However, respondents were clear on their pe rceptions regarding category competition. When asked to rate how strongly they disagreed or agreed that dairy producers need promotional efforts to compete with other food and bevera ge companies, 80.8% of respondents agreed. Because Florida milk producers are under federal or der 6, approximately 88% of all milk is sold under the classification of dairy pro ducts Class I. Class I consists of fluid milk products and is the highest-priced order (Stukenberg et al., 2006 ). Some respondents may have rated cheese (Class III) advertisement low, as they did not see the direct connec tion to their operation. However, the highest-priced classification of da iry products between Class III (cheese), or Class IV (powdered milk) sets the price for Class I (f luid milk). Therefore, producers should be concerned with the advertisement of all dairy pro ducts, and not just the cl ass utilization of their farm milk. The higher the cheese price, the higher the fluid milk category will be priced. In response to the value, 62.1% of respondents felt the ch eckoff was valuable on some level to the overall dairy industry. Dairy Fa rmers Incorporated (DFI) has launched several promotional programs, funded by producers chec koff dollars, to promote dairy throughout the state of Florida. Respondents were asked to ra nk the value of DFIs cu rrent program categories in order to understand where produce rs feel their money is best spen t. Results showed that there were three programs or program categories that 50.0% or more of respondents highly valued, including Media Relations, Industry Relations Image, and Grocery Store Promotions. The aforementioned New Look of School Milk program was rated very valuable by 48.2% of

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73 respondents. The lowest-rated programs according to respondents included the Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of the Game, with 39.7% of respondents rating the program neutral to not valuable, and Florida Dairy Farmers High Sc hool Awards, with 50.0% of respondents rating the program neutral to not valuable. These responses indicate that producers may be more concerned with media relations, industry image, and grocery store promotions th an sports marketing programs in Florida. However, sports marketing reaches consumers that may otherwise remained untouched by traditional forms of advertisement. For milk to be competitive, the mass marketing efforts of advertising must reach as many consumers as possible. Educating producers on the value of these sports-marketing related programs could he lp increase their importance to producers. Objective 3 Objective 3 explored producers perceptions of entrepreneurial marketing. The study first identified respondents perceived need for entrep reneurial marketing efforts in addition to the checkoff. Respondents were almost equally di vided on this issue, with 50.9% believing entrepreneurial promotion was not necessary, an d 49.1% denoting they beli eved entrepreneurial promotion was necessary. Next, respondents were asked to describe the effectiveness of entrepreneurial marketing for promotion of the dairy industry. Entrepreneur ial promotion was defined for this study as promotion that is funded by producers in additi on to their mandatory checkoff investment. Entrepreneurial activities included websites and farm tours. In response to entrepreneurial marketing effo rts, 23.2% of respondents indicated that farm websites were effective in promoting the dair y industry, 41.1% of respon dents indicated they were neutral, and 35.7% believed websites were not an effective method to promote the dairy industry. Proctor (1999) explained a total mark eting communications strategy is crucial when

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74 identifying the target audience and attracting cu stomers to products or services. In addition, Sharma and Sheth (2004) stated The web is gr owing at a dramatic pace and is significantly impacting customer and business market behavi ors (p. 696). The low agreement between respondents and the effectivene ss of a website indicates that most respondents may not understand the impact the Internet has on its consumers. This implication could be based on the high age of respondents. Bucy ( 2000) reported that age was negativ ely associated with Internet use, suggesting older respondents us e the Internet less. While Inte rnet usage is growing in all age groups, respondents to this study ma y not be highly represented on the Web. When describing the effectiveness of entr epreneurial marketing, 52.6% of respondents indicated farm tours were effective in prom oting the dairy industry, 26.3% of respondents indicated they were neutral, and 21.1% believed farm tours were not an effective method to promote the dairy industry. Wallace et al. (2005) concluded that t rust could positively influence consumers decision on future purchase (p. 844 ). One recommendation was the implementation of farm visits or tours to edu cate consumers about the origins of their food, help foster links with local farmers, showing they care and building trus t with farmers (Wallace et al., 2005). Results from this study echo that conclusion. The majority of respondents agreed that farm tours are an effective way to promote dairy. Because a farm t our is a direct connection to the producers, it can be assumed that they would feel strongly that educating people on their business can help promote their industry. Given producers perceptions of the need for and effec tiveness of entrepreneurial marketing, respondents were asked to identify th eir level of participa tion in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. When asked about their investment in entrepreneurial marketing, 33.9% (n=19) of respondents reported they were investing money into th e promotion of their farm in

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75 addition to their checkoff investment. To gain a clearer understa nding of where their entrepreneurial dollars were going, respondents were asked what specific entrepreneurial activities they were investing in. The highest -rated forms of entrepreneurial activity were identified with 50.0% of responde nts participating in farm tour s, 10.9% having a farm brand or logo, and 10.7% maintaining a farm/company website. Objective 4 Previous Objectives described re spondents locus of control sc ore, perceptions of value of the checkoff to the dairy industry, and perceptions of importance of the checkoff program to their individual operations. Objectiv e 4 combined these variables to determine how locus of control score corresponded to respondents perceptions of value and importance of the checkoff. In response to value, the 69.4% of respondents with an internal locus of control indicated the checkoff program was of value to the dair y industry, while 47.3% of respondents with an external locus of control denoted the checkoff program was of value to the dairy industry. The majority (69.4%) of respondents with an internal locus of c ontrol indicated the checkoff program was important to their operation, while 42.1% of responde nts with an external locus of control denoted the checkoff pr ogram was important to their operation. Mueller and Thomas (2000) cited Rotters descri ption of individuals saying an internal individual believes they have in fluence over the outcomes of a situ ation through ability, effort, or skills, and externals believe for ces outside their contro l determine outcomes. It can be implied that the respondents with an in ternal locus of control possess ed more of a buy-in to the checkoff program, feeling as if they had influenc e in the programs value and importance, while respondents with an external locu s of control felt that mandatory marketing of dairy is outside their control, therefore harder to place value upon.

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76 Objective 5 This studys final Objective involved desc ribing Florida cooperat ive dairy producers perceptions of the need for and investment in en trepreneurial marketing efforts with regard to their locus of control score. The majority ( 63.9%) of respondents with an internal locus of control indicated entrepreneurial marketing was necessary to promote da iry, while only 27.8% of respondents with an external locu s of control indicated entrepreneurial mark eting was necessary. Entrepreneurial behavior represen ts a more informal type of ma rketing relying on the intuition and energy of an individual (Sto kes, 2000). Internal locus of control and innova tiveness are two frequently cited personal traits associated with entrepreneuria l potential (Mueller & Thomas, 2000). That being said, one would predict that pr oducers with a higher inte rnal locus of control would be more open to entrepreneurial behavi or. This studys finding resonated with this assumption. More than half of in ternal locus of contro l producers felt a need for entrepreneurial marketing. The external locus of control pr oducers were opposite, with only 27.8% feeling entrepreneurial marketing was necessary. Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell (2003) reported that individuals with a st rong internal locus of control believe that they can influence many events in their lives while individuals with a strong external locus of control be lieve that there is li ttle they can do to in fluence events that occur in their lives (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 2). B ecause people with an internal locus of control believe the outcome of events are within their personal control, it can be concluded that the internal locus of control produ cers are more likely to take a risk and invest in dairy entrepreneurially. Regarding pa rticipation, 42.9% of respondents in this study with an internal locus of control responded they were investing money in entr epreneurial marketing efforts beyond their mandatory checkoff investment, wh ile only three respondents (16.7%) with an

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77 external locus of control score indicated they were investing in the promotion of dairy beyond their checkoff investment. This study found 67.2% of respondents had an inte rnal locus of control, and 32.8% had an external locus of control. Overall, only 33.9% of all respondents in the study (internal and external locus of control scored ) indicated they were investin g in entrepreneurial promotion, while almost half (49.0%) of a ll respondents indicated a need for entrepreneurial promotion. Limitations This study was descriptive in nature and uni que to the census population it addressed. Results from this study, therefore, can not be generalized beyond this population. Even so, much can be learned from this study a nd applied to future research. One strength of this study was the use of a census of cooperative dairy producers in the state of Florida, belonging to Southeast Milk, In corporated (SMI). In addition, the response rate for this study was 49.2%, which was deemed sa tisfactory for the population. Nonresponse error was addressed in Chapter 4, by comparing early a nd late respondents, showing each group to be similar with regard to value and importance of the checkoff program, and need for and participation in entrepreneurial marketing efforts. The instrument used in this study (see Appe ndix C) was lengthy. While efforts were made to facilitate item-response in a user-friendly format, a few of the respondents made comments that some questions were confusing. Even in th e presence of question-byquestion directions and opportunity for each question to be answered, some respondents skipped certain questions throughout the survey. While there was no partic ular pattern to missing items overall, these missing values may have had an effect on the results of the study. While the mailed survey method was the be st option when considering the studys population, it may have somewhat hindered resp onse rate. The method took a long period of

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78 time with a slow response rate between waves. Given more time, a fourth wave of surveys would have drawn a larger response rate. In addition, this method was expensive when totaling the printing of survey packet materials, cost of envelopes, and cost of mailing three waves to the population. Recommendations Results of this study provide opportunity for recommendations in theo ry, directions for future research, and practice. Recommendations for Theory The main theoretical framework for this study was Rotters locus of control, which was based on Rotters social learning theory. There is great opportuni ty for an extension of this theory in the realm of agricultural communications Personality has a great effect on the way we communicate, and the personality characteristics associated with locus of control have great implications on the way producers recei ve information, or distribute it. Additionally, the media theory of uses and gratifications can ha ve valuable insight into the uses of media and consumer perceptions of agriculture. Wimmer and Dominick (1994) explained that uses and gratifications theory began in the 1940s when researchers became interested in why audiences enga ged in various forms of media behavior, such as reading the newspaper or listening to the radio. Determining what media consumers use to gain information about dairy production and dairy products co uld better help produ cers and ag ricultural communicators understand what type of media to utilize for promo tion. The Internet and other forms of instant gratification media are continui ng to increase in popularity and agriculturalists should seize the opportunity to c onnect with consumers this way. This study showed that the majority of producers do not feel a website is an effective way to promote the dairy industry. Research in this area could prove otherwise.

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79 Hutton (1996) explained inte grated marketing communicat ions (IMC) has long-term implications to help create communications that help create relationshi ps instead of simply persuading potential buyers. IMC had great poten tial in the industries re lated to agriculture. DFI, and other marketing arms of the dairy industry along with cooperatives and producers can join forces to better communicate dairy togeth er. More localized marketing efforts would promote the dairy farms in various commun ities reaching the local population and letting producers see how their farm is impacting their co mmunity. Marketing associations such as DFI could develop materials to promot e farm tours to producers. This study showed farm tours are a favorable way of promotion by producers. Having materials to ai d producers in achieving successful farm tours would increase their occu rrence. Additionally, DF I could team with a website developer or professional agricultural communicator to create farm website templates allowing dairy farmers to create their own farm website quickly and cost-effectively. These types of tools would give produ cers a tangible reward for their efforts and having a convenient means to perform these types of entrepreneuria l marketing could benefit all involved in the industry. This study proved that producers differed in their perceptions of mandatory and entrepreneurial marketing based on their locus of control score on the internal-external scale. Understanding how this theory applies to the ag ricultural industry can benefit agricultural communicators, as well as consumers of their commodities. This study revealed that producers with an external locus of control tended to be less innovative and less likely to distribute or seek information through more entrepreneurial media, including websites. These producers are not likely to utilize DFIs website to receive inform ation regarding their chec koff. With external producers, DFIs monthly newsletter, The Moo Memo is a great way to communicate with these

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80 producers. Additionally, producers valued the f ace-to-face interaction with consumers. DFI should communicate on a more frequent basis w ith producers in this manner to strengthen communication with the two gr oups. Many producers may miss a meeting with DFI due to unexpected issues related to their operations. More frequently help meetings in all regions of the state would improve relations between the gr oups and better educat e producers on their mandatory investment. Directions for Future Research Although this study focused specifically on the pe rceptions of dairy pr oducers in the state of Florida regarding mandatory and entrepreneuria l dairy marketing, research in other states is essential to further understand the importance of promotion to the dairy industry. While many dairy studies focus on consumer perceptions, more research should be do ne with producers to help promote the industry effectively. It would also be important to survey producer s on not just state promotional programs such as DFI, but national promotional programs as we ll. Because producers have a heavy investment in the checkoff, it is to the benefit of promoti onal groups to understand what is important to the producer. These promotional groups must meet the demands of their consumer audience as well as the producers who fund the promotion. In addition to dairy, other commodity groups involved in a checkoff program should investigate the issues of producer perceptions regarding programs the checkoff implements. Because the producers are the key stakeholders in a checkoff program, it would logically be concluded that promotional groups should pay close attention to the producers perceptions of importance and value of their programs. A follow-up study conducted with a different ty pe of research design could further build on the results presented here. An experimental design that w ould give producers something to

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81 react to could help gain a cl earer understanding of how locus of control effects producer perceptions of marketing. A qualitative design utilizing a focus group or interview process would extend on the census population presented in this study and di g deeper into how producers perceptions affect their decisions regarding entrepreneurial marketing. Employing a mixed-method design would add more insights rega rding producers perceptions of marketing. Barriers and constraints to entrepreneurial mark eting should also be further studied. This research unveiled that many producers feel entr epreneurial marketing is necessary beyond the checkoff, but a small majority were actually pa rticipating in these marketing efforts. A study that explores the perceptions of these barrier s and constraints would shed new light on how agricultural communicators can bridge the gap between the need and execution of entrepreneurial promotion. Recommendations for Practice Langinier and Babcock (2005) st ated that consumers are in general less informed than producers about the quality of agricultural goods ( p. 1). Consumers are most likely to seek out information on a topic, in this case dairy pr oduction, through communica tion with a trustworthy source (Wallace, Yee, Yeung, & Morris, 2005). Successful construction of trust between the dairy producer and the public can be an effective way to not on ly increase public trust of the dairy industry and the foods it provides, but also increase aw areness of dairy production methods. Producers spend countless hours and econom ic resources to ensure their products meet rigorous health standards set by state and nationa l officials. Educating consumers through not only advertisement, but direct connections with producers could have positive rewards for the industry as a whole. Producers should also be further educated on the marketing practices they fund, and their options for entrepreneurial marketing activity. A more solid educational effort to producers

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82 laying out the value of market ing would help producers unders tand the need for marketing efforts. Additionally, the value of seeking out a professional agricultural communicator to better develop entrepreneurial marketi ng strategies could benefit th e producers operations and the consumer awareness of dairy production. In addition, stronger communi cation between commodity groups and producers on the benefits of advertisi ng is necessary. Producers who are far removed from the process of advertising should be educated on its benefits to fully understand th e dispersal of funds to certain promotional programs. DFI should expand on curre nt efforts to better educate producers on where their checkoff investment is being spent. While the majority of respondents to this survey felt the checkoff was of some value, many di d not make the connec tion to the value of advertising. More aggressive efforts from DFI to educate their key st akeholders would help better make the connection between advertis ing and consumer perceptions of dairy. Producers cited more time as the resource they most needed in orde r to participate in entrepreneurial efforts. Outsourcing people to help producers in this area would better equip producers to carry out entrepreneurial activities. These agricultural communications professionals could help producers develop websites, newsletters, or materials for farm tours. For example, DFI could help producers manage their time by providing producers with a talking points sheet in the event that gue sts arrive on their farm. This would help producers have an educational resource to draw upon quickly in order to provide visitors with accurate information. In addition, providing producers wi th bio-security materials such as plastic boots, and promotional materials such as pencils or other related materials with educational information on the dairy industry would add to the touring expe rience for the visitor, be tter educate them on the industry, and help the producer facility public good will with his/her guests. Promotional

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83 materials are currently available to producers, but many do not know of their availability. Increased communication between DFI and producers on marketing materials that could aid producers in their entrepreneurial efforts is necessary to further promote the industry. Conclusions Mandatory marketing of dairy is not going to disappear. The promotion of dairy is necessary to educate consumers on dairy produ cts, and the production process involved in bringing milk, cheese, ice cream, yogurt, and othe r dairy products to store shelves. Dairy producers fund this marketing effort through thei r checkoff program, and while it is mandatory, producers deserve a clear understanding of how th eir funds are spent, and a strong voice in agreement or disagreement therein. However, pr oducers must also seek the knowledge available to understand the importance and value of mandatory marketing. Entrepreneurial marketing is a unique way for the individual dairy producer to highlight their business. It was no surprise that farm t ours were the entrepreneurial activity that most respondents felt valuable to their business. Th e face-to-face connection between producer and consumer builds a relationship with that commod ity group. In addition, pr oducers feel they are able to tell their story, their own way. Webs ite utilization was deemed unbeneficial to the promotion of the dairy industry by the majority of respondents. However, producers should understand the growth of the Internet, and how their commodity is grossly underrepresented on this media. Websites have the ability to cr eate the brand image of a generic commodity, educate consumers to the methods of dairy produc tion and benefits of dairy products, and it is a cost-effective way for a producer to promote his/her industry. While farm tours are ideal, not all consumers have the opportunity to visit a dairy fa rm. The Internet provides a way for consumers to come to the farm and learn from the comfor t of their own home. Producers can even set up a virtual farm tour, allowing website guests to ta ke a peek at their operation. The experience of

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84 touring a farm has more impact than just readi ng about it, and if the consumer cant have that experience in person, the Internet al lows them to take a tour and s ee the process visually. A solid promotion of dairy production on the Internet can prompt users to learn more, becoming better educated, more skeptical of activist rants, and more apt to buy dairy in th eir local grocery store. Public good will is an issue that should not be overlooked. While some producers may feel that entrepreneurial ma rketing efforts are unnecessary, they may be overlooking consumers that will not be reached any other way. In additi on, producers can increase the public understanding of their business by allowing community members to get a first hand expe rience through a farm tour. Dairy producers are an asse t to each community they represent, and increased exposure of the community to producers efforts related to cow comfort and environmental awareness on their operations can foster education and a ppreciation of the indus try within the public. Producers are the key to the indus try. They have the passi on for the business and are the best to tell the story of dair y to potential consumers. Bandura (1977) defined self-efficacy as the conviction that one can successfully execut e the behavior required (p. 193). Producers may not feel they have the resources or ability to adequately represent their operation, or their industry. For that reason, mandatory marketing helps communicate dairy to the masses and can speak for producers who would not otherwise know what to say or how to say it. Conversely, this study found many producers with high entreprene urial potential. For producers that feel entrepreneurial marketing is necessary, profe ssional agricultural communicators can help promote producers operations in the manner produ cers feel will most adequately represent their lifes work. This combination of producer pa ssion and agricultural co mmunicator know how can promote the dairy industry, one glass of milk at a time.

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85 APPENDIX A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL

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86 APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT

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87 APPENDIX C DAIRY PRODUCER MARKETING SURVEY

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88

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89

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90

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91

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92

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93 APPENDIX D COVER LETTER (WAVE 1)

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94 APPENDIX E SURVEY REMINDER/THANK YOU POSTCARD January 23, 2007 Florida Dairy Producer, Last week a questionnaire was mailed to you seeking your opinions about dairy marketing. You were chosen to receive the questionnaire due to your membership with Southeast Milk, Incorporated. If you have already completed the questionnaire and returned it, please accept my sincere thanks. If not, please do so today. It is only by asking people like you to share your opinions that we can understand the dairy producers perspective regarding the marketing of your commodity. Your participation is greatly appreciated. If you did not receive a questionnaire, or have misplaced it, please call me at 352-3920502, extension 244 and I will send another one in the mail to you today. Sincerely, Carrie Pedreiro UF Graduate Student Pedreiro@ufl.edu

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95 APPENDIX F COVER LETTER (WAVE 2)

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96 APPENDIX G COVER LETTER (WAVE 3)

PAGE 97

97 LIST OF REFERENCES Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50 179. Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2006). Introduction to research in education (7th ed.). Belmont: Thomas Wadsworth. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a uni fying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215. Blisard, N. (1998, May-August). Advertising s influence: The case of dairy products. Food Review, 44-46. Blisard, N. (1999). Advertising and what we eat. The case of dairy products. USDA/ERS, AIB750, 181-188. Brownell, P. (1981). Participation in budgeting, locus of control and organizational effectiveness. The Accounting Review, 56 (4), 844-860. Bucy, E.P. (2000). Social access to the Internet. Press/Politics, 5 (1), 50-61. Capps, O. (2004, August). Price effects on milk consumption Presentation presented at the 68th Annual Meeting and Conference of the International Associati on of Milk Control Agencies (IAMCA), Colorado Springs, CO. Chakravarti, A. & Janiszewski, C. (2004). The influence of generi c advertising on brand preferences. Journal of Consumer Research, 30 (3), 487-502. Chung, C., & Kaiser, H.M. (2000). Do farmers ge t an equal band for their buck from generic advertising programs? A theore tical and empirical analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 25 (1), 147-158. Collinson, E., & Shaw, E. (2001). Entrepreneuria l marketing A historical perspective on development and practice. Management Decision, 39 (9), 761-166. Covington, C. (1993). Member de mographics, attitudes, and pa rticipation in a dairy breed voluntary association (Masters thes is, Ohio State University, 1993). Crespi, J.M. (2001). Promotion checkoffs, why so controversial? The evolution of generic advertising battles. Department of A pplied Economics and Management, Cornell University. NICPRE 01-02. Dairy Farmers, Incorporated (DFI). (2006). A l ook at dairy promotion in Florida. PowerPoint presentation presented during a personal communication, August, 2006. Dartt, B. (2001). Integrat ed dairy farm management. Advances in Dairy Technology, 13, 1-15.

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98 Dillman, D. (2007). Mail and Internet surveys: The tailored design (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Gallen, T. (2006). Managers and strategic deci sions: Does the cognitive style matter? Journal of Management Development, 25 (2), 118-133. Gisey, R., de Vries, A., Bray, D., & Webb D. (2006). Florida dairy farm situation and outlook 2006. EDIS Publication AN160. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AN160 Grayson, M. (2002). Integrated marketing communications/SCT group. Retrieved January 10, 2007, from http://www.scsr.nevada.edu/~mgr ayson/marketingtemplate.pdf Gherty, J. (1995). ADSA foundation lecture. Servi ng the customer! Educations challenge for the future. Journal of Dairy Science, 78 1399-1406. Harridge-March, S. (2004). Electronic marketing, the new kid on the block. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 22 (2/3), 297. Harris, B.F., & Strang, R.A. (1985). Marketi ng strategies in the age of generics. Journal of Marketing, 49 70-81. Holm, O. (2006). Integrated marketing co mmunications: From tactics to strategy. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 11 (1), 23-33. Hovhannisyan, V.H., Urutyan, V.E., & Dunn, D.J. (2004). The role of cooperatives in milk marketing. Proceedings from the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association. Montreux, Switzerland. Huffman, W.E., & Evenson, R.E. (1989). Supply and demand functions for multiproduct U.S. cash grain farms: Biases caused by research and other policies. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 71 (3), 761-773. Hutton, J.G. (1996). Integrated relationship-ma rketing communications: A key opportunity for IMC. Journal of Marketing Communications, 2 (3), 191-199. Kaine, G., Sandall, J., & Bewsell, D. (2003) Personality and innova tion in agriculture. Proceedings of the 2003 APEN National Forum, November 26-28, 2003 Hobart. http://regional.org.au/ au/apen/2003/2/024kaineg.htm Kaiser, H.M. (1997). Impact of national generi c dairy advertising on dairy markets, 1984-95. Journal of Agricultural and A pplied Economics, 29(2), 303-313. Kaiser, H.M, & Schmit, T.M. (2003). Distribu tional effects of gene ric dairy advertising throughout the marketing channel. Agribusiness, 19 (3), 289-300. King, J. (2005). The milk debate. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165 (9), 975-976.

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99 Knoke, D., Bohrnstedt, G. W., & Mee, A.P. (2002). Statistics for social data analysis (4th ed.). Itasca: F.E. Peacock Publishers. Krueger, N.F., Reilly, M.D., & Carsrud, A.L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15 411-432. Langinier, C., & Babcock, B. (2005). Producer s decision to belong to a club. Retrieved December 13, 2006, from http://www.econ.iastate.edu.lp.hscl.ufl.e du/faculty/langinie r/papers/Club05.pdf Lefcourt, H.M. (1982). Locus of control: Current trends in theory and research. London. Lindner, J.R., Murphy, T.H., & Briers, G.E. ( 2001). The handling of nonresponse in agricultural education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 42 (4), 43-53 Miller, D., & Toulouse, J. (1986). Chief execu tive personality and corporate strategy and structure in small firms. Management Science, 32 (11), 1389-1409. Morris, M., Schindehutte, M., & LaForge, R. (2002). The emergence of entrepreneurial marketing: Nature and meaning. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10 (4) 1-19. Mueller, S.L., & Thomas, A.S. (2000). Culture and entrepreneurial poten tial: A nine country study of locus of control and innovativeness. Journal of Business Venturing, 16 (1), 51-75. Proctor, T. (1999). The need for res earch into creativity in marketing. Creativity and Innovation Management, 8 (4), 281-285. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (Whole No.609). Rotter, J.B. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case history of a variable. American Psychologist, 45 (4), 489-493. Sharma, A., & Sheth, J. (2004). Web-based mark eting: The coming revolution in marketing thought and strategy. Journal of Business Research, 57 (7), 696-702. Shepherd, D.A., & Kreuger, N.F. (2002). An inte ntions-based model of entrepreneurial teams social cognition. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 27 (2), 167-185. Stokes, D. (2000). Putting entrepreneurship into marketing: The proces ses of entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Research in Mar keting & Entrepreneurship, 2 (1), 1-16. Stukenberg, D., Blayney, D., & Miller, J. ( 2006). Major advances in milk marketing: Government and industry consolidation. Journal of Dairy Science, 89 1195-1206. Sumrall, D.P. (2006). Why am I investing in the future of the dairy industry? In recording proceedings from the ADSA-ASAS 2006 Annual Meeting, July 9-12, 2006. Minneapolis, MN. http://adsa.asas.org/r ecordings/2006/national/

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100 United States Department of Agriculture (U SDA). (2005). USDA report to congress on the national dairy promotion and research program and the national fluid milk processor promotion program. July 1, 2005. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2006). Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983. Veciana, J., Aponte, M., & Urbano, D. (2000) University students attitude towards entrepreneurship: A two countries comparison. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1 165-182. Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (1994). Mass media research: An introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Yee, W., Yeung, R., & Morris, J. (2005). Food sa fety: Building consumer trust in livestock farmers for potential purchase behaviour. British Food Journal, 107 (11), 841-854. Zimbelman, R.G., Wilson, L.L., Bennett, M.B., & Curtis, S.E. (1995). Public image of animal agriculture in the United States. Livestock Production Science, 43, 153-159.

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101 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Carrie Sumrall Pedreiro was born on Octobe r 23, 1979 in McComb, Mississippi. As a child, she developed a deep love for agri culture and communicati on through her active involvement in 4-H and FFA. Discovering a passion for public speaking, Carrie pursued activities that would nurture a nd develop her communication skills. She won numerous speaking awards, including State FFA Creed Speaker for Colorado in 1995. Carrie graduated valedictorian from Valley High School in Gilcrest, Colorado in 1998. Driven by a passion and appreciation for animal agriculture and communi cation, she earned her B.S. in animal science with a double major in speech communications from Colorado State University (CSU) in 2002. While at CSU, Carri e was a member of the dairy judging team, taking sixth overall in th e reasons division at the national contest in 2001. Carries professional experience includes worki ng on all areas of her familys dairy farm, including herd health, calf management, and parlor mana gement. She also has developed newsletters and websites, and currently serves as editor for Dairy Production Systems company newsletter and website. Carrie al so worked for an organic dairy company in Colorado as a sales and marketing assistant until relocating to Florida in 2004. Once in Florida, Carrie decide d to pursue her Master of Sc ience degree in agricultural communications at the University of Florida to fu rther cultivate her talent s, and gain experience in teaching and research. She served as a grad uate teaching assistant and research assistant during her graduate program. Upon completion of her M.S. program, Carri e will pursue opportuni ties in agricultural communications, hoping to focus on the dairy indu stry. Carrie has been married to Michael Pedreiro for 3 years, and they are ex pecting their first child in June 2007.


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Title: Communicating the Dairy Message: How Locus of Control Relates to Producer Perceptions of Mandatory and Entrepreneurial Marketing
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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COMMUNICATING THE DAIRY MESSAGE:
HOW LOCUS OF CONTROL RELATES TO PRODUCER PERCEPTIONS OF
MANDATORY AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING




















By

CARRIE SUMRALL PEDREIRO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007



































O 2007 Carrie Sumrall Pedreiro



































To my parents, David and Jamie, for their support, and my husband Michael, for his constant
love and encouragement.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A proj ect such as this requires the support of many individuals to help make it a success.

My experience was no exception to that, and there are many people who deserve recognition for

their role in helping make my dream a reality.

First, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Tracy Irani, my advisor and

graduate committee chair. Her intelligence and passion for agricultural communications inspires

me to be a better student and contributor to my field. Her constant support and encouragement

have proved to be invaluable throughout my graduate program at the University of Florida. Her

ability to push me to perform at a higher level and dig deeper are lessons that will remain with

me all my life. In addition to her guidance regarding my research, she has been a joy to work

with on other proj ects, and a pleasure to talk to when I just needed an advisor.

Dr. Ricky Telg and his green pen have undoubtedly helped me "grow" as a writer. He has

challenged me, yet supported me as I worked through those challenges. His guidance has not

only made me a better writer, but given me an appreciation for great communication. He is a

wonderful educator and I was lucky to have his advice and expertise on my graduate committee.

I would also like to thank Dr. Nick Place. His experience with, and appreciation for the

dairy industry was an asset on my committee. His ideas and feedback during the early stages of

deciding on a thesis topic helped mold the final product. His constant availability and

encouragement were never unnoticed, and always appreciated.

My family has always been a guiding light in my life and their support was crucial to my

decision for higher education. I would like to thank my father for instilling in me a strong sense

of self, passionate work ethic, and love of agriculture. His achievements have inspired me to be

the best at whatever I choose to do with my life. My mother' s unfailing love and encouragement

were pivotal in my decision to attend graduate school. She has always let me know that nothing









I dreamt was impossible. My dedication to succeed is a product of her devotion to her family. I

would also like to thank my sister, Kimberly, and brother, David. My life would be incomplete

without the friendship of these two people. Kimberly has always been my biggest cheerleader

and ever present when I needed a break to just sit and talk. David's own decisions have shown

me to chase your dreams, no matter how much it pulls you out of your comfort zone. I know my

family's love and support will continue, no matter what my next dream is.

I am fortunate to have made many friends during my program. I would like to thank

Courtney Meyers specifically for her friendship and encouragement. I was blessed to have her

chosen to be my mentor and her support from day one of my program is a large part of my

success. I admire her drive and passion for agricultural communications, and she compels me to

be a better person. Katie Chodil and Elio Chiarelli have been my empathetic support team.

Going through this process simultaneously down to defense day helped me always know that

someone was there to talk to. I would especially like to thank Elio for his patience during my

many question and answer sessions. Brian Estevez and Katy Groseta are two people that helped

strengthen my faith throughout this process. I could always count on a word or act of

encouragement on a stressful day, and they will never know the extent of their impact on my life.

Finally, I would like to thank my husband, Michael. His contagious spirit has made each

day since I met him exciting and happy. His patience baffles me and his constant encouragement

has pushed me to be a better person. His unconditional love is the best part of every day. I am

truly blessed that God put us together, and I'm lucky he chose me to be his wife. As we fulfill

the dream of becoming parents this June, I find comfort in this next big step knowing you are by

my side, forever.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ................. ...............9..___ .....


LIST OF FIGURES ............_...... ._ ...............11...


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 12...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............14.......... ......


Introduction to the Study ................. ........ ...............1
Background and Significance of the Problem ................. ...............17...............
Theoretical Framework .............. ...............18....
Statement of the Problem ................. ...............20....____ ....

Purpose and Obj ectives ........._._. ........... ...............21...
Operational Definitions ....___ ................ .........__..........2
Limitations to the Study .............. ...............22....
Sum m ary .............. ...............23....

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .............. ...............24....


Dairy Promotion in the United States ................... ......__. ...............25....
History of Dairy Promotion in the United States .....__. ................ ................ ...25
Florida Dairy Promotion................ ..............2
Marketing and Promotion of Generic Dairy .................._.__._ ......... ...........2
Overview of Generic Advertising and Promotion............... ...............2
Florida Producer Challenges .............. ...............29....
Mandatory Marketing ......__................. .........__..........3
Entrepreneurial Marketing............... ...............3
Theoretical Framework for the Study ................. ...............34._._._.....
Locus of Control ......__................. .......__. .........3
Theory of Planned Behavior. ........._._. ........... ...............36...
Integrated Marketing Communications ................. .......__. .........38.... ....
Sum m ary ................. ...............39........ ......

3 METHODOLOGY .............. ...............40....


Introducti on ................. ...............40._._._.......
Research Design .............. ...............41....
Population ................. ...............41._._._.......
Instrumentation ............ ..... .._ ...............41...
Data Collection .............. ...............44....












Procedure .............. ...............45....
Data Analy sis............... ...............46
Summary ............. ...... ._ ...............48...


4 RE SULT S .............. ...............49....


Re sults............... ....... .. .... ._ .............5

Demographics of Respondents ............. ...... ............... 1...
Objective 1.............. ...............54....
Obj ective 2 ............. ...... ._ ...............55....
Obj ective 3 ............. ...... __ ...............60...
Obj ective 4 ............. ...... ._ ...............63....
Objective 5 ............... ...............64...
Sum m ary ............. ...... ._ ...............66....


5 DI SCUS SSION ............. ...... ._ ...............67....


Key Findings and Implications ............. ...... ._ ...............68...
Demographics............... ..............6
O objective 1............... ...............68...
Obj ective 2. ............. ...... __ ...............70...
Objective 3............... ...............73...
Obj ective 4. ............. ...... __ ...............75...
Objective 5............... ...............76...
Lim stations ............. ...... ._ ...............77....
Recommendations.................. ...........7

Recommendations for Theory .............. ...............78....
Directions for Future Research ............. ...... ._ ...............80...
Recommendations for Practice............... ...............8
Conclusions............... ..............8


APPENDIX


A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL .............. ...............85....


B INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT .............. ...............86....


C DAIRY PRODUCER MARKETING SURVEY .............. ...............87....


D COVER LETTER (WAVE 1) .............. ...............93....


E SURVEY REMINDER/THANK YOU POSTCARD ......____ ...... .. ............_....94


F COVER LETTER (WAVE 2) .............. ...............95....


G COVER LETTER (WAVE 3) .............. ...............96....











LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............97................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............101......... ......


































































8










LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

2-1 Expected relationships between CEO personality and organization .............. .................36

4-1 T-test for significant differences between early and late respondents. .............. ..... ..........51

4-2 Number of respondents by age ................ ......... ........ ......... ................5 1

4-3 Herd size by respondents. ............. ...............52.....

4-4 Number of years respondents plan to stay in dairy business. ................ .....................52

4-5 Level of education by respondent. .............. ...............53....

4-6 Type of dairy operation by respondent. ............. ...............53.....

4-7 Membership of respondents on the Dairy Farmers Incorporated board. ................... ........54

4-8 Region of the state where respondents' farms are located ................. .. .....__ ..........54

4-9 Respondents' classification on the internal-external locus of control scale. .....................55

4-10 Percentage of respondents who answered "yes" or "no" to different ways in which
they receive information about DFI' s promotional programs. ........__......... ......... ......55

4-11 Respondents' replies to the level of importance of the dairy checkoff program to
their dairy operation. .............. ...............56....

4-12 Respondents' perceptions of promotional concepts and their importance to the dairy
industry and their operation. ............. ...............57.....

4-13 Respondents' replies to the level of value of the dairy checkoff program to the dairy
industry. ............. ...............58.....

4-14 Respondents' perceptions of the value of specific Florida promotional programs
managed by Dairy Farmers, Inc (DFI) ................. ...............59...............

4-15 Respondents' perceptions of the value of specific Florida promotional programs
managed by DFI (mean). ............. ...............59.....

4-16 Respondents' level of agreement that dairy producers need promotional efforts to
compete with other food and beverage companies. ............. ...............60.....

4-17 Respondents' perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing............... ...............6

4-18 Respondents' perceptions of the effectiveness of selected entrepreneurial marketing
activities. ............. ...............61.....










4-19 Respondents' investing in entrepreneurial promotion. ............. ...............62.....

4-20 Respondents' participation in specific entrepreneurial activities. ............. ...................62

4-21 Respondents' perceptions of resources needed to participate in more entrepreneurial
marketing efforts. .............. ...............63....

4-22 Respondents' perceptions about the value of the checkoff program to the dairy
industry with relation to their locus of control scale classification. ............. ..................64

4-23 Respondents' perceptions about the importance of the checkoff program to their
dairy operation with relation to their locus of control scale classification. .......................64

4-24 Respondents' perceptions for the need of entrepreneurial marketing efforts to
promote dairy in addition to the checkoff program based on their locus of control
score. ............. ...............65.....

4-25 Respondents' investment in entrepreneurial activity based on their internal-external
locus of control score. .............. ...............65....










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

2-1 Different regions of Florida milk producers. ................ ....__ ....._ ...............30

2-2 Federal milk marketing order Class I prices (annual averages) from 1977-2003 ..............31

2-3 Competitive set volume for 2004 vs. media spending by category for 2004 (millions
of dollars) ................. ...............32._ _._.......

2-3 Ajzten' s theory of planned behavior model ................ ...............37........... .









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

COMMUNICATING THE DAIRY MESSAGE:
HOW LOCUS OF CONTROL RELATES TO PRODUCER PERCEPTIONS OF
MANDATORY AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING

By

Carrie Sumrall Pedreiro

May 2007

Chair: Tracy Irani
Major: Agricultural Education and Communication

Milk and other dairy products are an essential part of a well-balanced diet. Although the

health benefits of dairy products have been demonstrated and recommended by the Department

of Health and Human Services, many consumers are choosing other options in the food and

beverage categories. The dairy industry uses promotional efforts to educate consumers, thus

sustaining the livelihood of its producers. Dairy producers are required to contribute to the

marketing of dairy through the checkoff program, and may also choose to promote their farm

entrepreneurially. Determining producer perceptions regarding their mandatory promotional

investment and perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing as well as how innate traits, such as

locus of control, relate to these perceptions is the first step in understanding if current marketing

efforts are accurately presenting their commodity.

The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of the Florida-based members of

Southeast Milk, Incorporated (SMI) dairy cooperative regarding mandatory and entrepreneurial

dairy marketing efforts, as well as describe those perceptions in terms of producers' locus of

control score. Using a descriptive census survey, this study was guided by the following

obj ectives: 1) to describe Florida cooperative milk producers in terms of their locus of control









score (intemal or external) and exposure to mandatory marketing (checkoff) information, 2)

describe their perceptions regarding the importance and value of the checkoff program, 3)

describe their perceptions regarding the need for, effectiveness of, and levels of participation in

entrepreneurial dairy marketing, 4) describe their locus of control score in terms of their

perceptions of the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry and importance of the

checkoff to their dairy operation, and 5) describe their locus of control score in terms of their

need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

A total of 58 people responded to the survey, for an overall response rate of 49.2%. The

maj ority of respondents (60.3%) agreed the checkoff program had some level of value to their

dairy operations. Producers in Florida were more interested in programs that promote the

industry image and promotion in grocery stores, rather than sports marketing activities.

Half of the respondents indicated they believed entrepreneurial promotion was necessary,

in addition to the checkoff program. However, only 33.9% of producers were investing in such

efforts. This study found that farm tours were the entrepreneurial marketing method most valued

by producers to promote their farm and their industry. Websites were poorly rated with few

producers finding them to be an effective form of industry promotion.

Producers' responses regarding the importance and value of the checkoff program were

similar when comparing locus of control scores. However, in terms of entrepreneurial

marketing, producers with an internal locus of control were more actively participating in

entrepreneurial activities and saw a greater need for such efforts. Producers with an external

locus of control were not as active or favorable toward entrepreneurial marketing efforts.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Study

"Milk. It does a body good." That popular slogan from a 1980s milk advertising

campaign speaks volumes of the value of milk and other dairy products to a well balanced diet.

King (2005) reported that beyond being a great source of calcium, milk and milk products are

rich in a variety of nutrients including potassium, phosphorus, riboflavin, vitamin D, and vitamin

B12 amOng others. Milk has historically been known to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, but new

research suggests milk had added effects to combat hypertension, kidney stones, gout, obesity,

and type 2 diabetes (King, 2005). The importance of milk has been recognized by the

Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Agriculture with an increase

in the recommendation of milk intake from 2 to 3 cups per day in 2005 (King, 2005).

Dairy producers play an important role in the delivery of high quality milk and dairy

products to consumers. The milk category alone is dominated by private label, and in 2004,

"3 1.6 percent of milk volume in the grocery channel was accounted for by branded products"

(USDA, 2005, p. 52). The low percentage of branded products in this category puts milk at a

disadvantage because of the challenges inherent to marketing a category as opposed to a brand

(USDA, 2005). Many consumer purchase decisions are made on the basis of the perceived

quality of generics. While the unbranded "generic" label is associated with a perceived lower

quality, the health benefits and nutritional components of milk are equal to that of a branded

product due to the strict governmental standards assigned to this commodity.

Although the nutritional benefits seem evident, and consumers have many fluid milk

options in the dairy case, competing fluid markets are presenting consumers with additional

choices for refreshment. In an evaluation of consumptive beverages, excluding alcohol, Capps










(2004) reported that from September 2001 to September 2003, milk commanded 26.7% of

expenditure share, or portion of the revenue accrued by consumer dollars, while soft drinks

controlled 38.7%, juices held 27. 1%, and bottled water collected the remaining share with 7.5%.

Proactive promotion efforts are essential to the education and recruitment of dairy consumers.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported that "fluid milk' s loss of market

share to other beverages may be due to aggressive marketing by competing beverage producers"

(USDA, 2005, p. 36).

Florida cooperative dairy producers are currently investing 15 cents per hundredweight of

milk produced to national and local promotion efforts through a mandatory dairy checkoff. This

dairy-producer funded checkoff is currently the largest program in the United States with regard

to revenue (USDA, 2005). From 2000 to 2004, every dollar invested in generic milk marketing,

communicating the value of the commodity milk rather than a specific brand, returned on

average $5.11 in net revenue to the farmer (USDA, 2005).

Marketing involves communicative tactics to attract new business (Stokes, 2000).

Entrepreneurial marketing is defined by Collinson and Shaw (2001) to encompass two distinct

areas of management: marketing and entrepreneurship. Both categories are "change focused,

opportunistic in nature and innovative in their approach to management" (Collinson & Shaw,

2001, p. 761). Entrepreneurial marketing for this study is defined as practices or innovations

individual dairy producers fund, in addition to their mandatory investment in the checkoff

program, to promote the dairy industry and dairy products. Examples of entrepreneurial dairy

marketing include, but are not limited to, farm tours, company newsletters, and farm websites.

Entrepreneurial behavior represents a more informal type of marketing, relying on the intuition

and energy of an individual (Stokes, 2000).









The Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983 coupled with the Dairy Promotion and

Research Order of 1984 authorized a national dairy product promotion, research, and nutrition

education program for all dairy producers (DFI, 2006). Funds for promotional programs are

generated from producers via mandatory deductions from milk checks termed checkoff dollars.

An understanding of Florida cooperative dairy producers' knowledge of promotional programs

funded by their mandatory promotion investment and their perceptions of that checkoff program

is essential in determining their level of satisfaction with the program. Florida dairy producers'

perceptions regarding the value and importance of dairy marketing are fundamental elements in

the understanding of current level of satisfaction regarding mandatory promotion investments.

In addition, perceptions of and satisfaction with mandatory marketing investments can provide

valuable insight to levels of participation in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

Mueller and Thomas (2000) cite Rotter' s locus of control as the theory that "an individual

perceives the outcome of an event as being either within or beyond his or her personal control"

(p. 56). Locus of control score is defined on an internal-external scale. Internal locus of control

and innovativeness are two frequently cited personal traits associated with entrepreneurial

potential (Mueller & Thomas, 2000). It is unknown whether dairy producers feel they have

control over their mandatory marketing, and a lack of research in the area of entrepreneurial

dairy marketing efforts currently exists. One aspect of this study, therefore, was to discover how

dairy producers' locus of control score relates to perceptions of the importance and value of

current generic milk marketing efforts and the need for and investment in entrepreneurial

marketing of dairy. This discovery is the primary step in determining if current generic milk

marketing efforts are effective and how dairy producers can contribute to positive promotion of

the dairy industry.









The intention of this study was to examine cooperative producers' business values and

perceptions of current dairy promotion efforts funded by producer checkoff dollars based on

their locus of control score. In addition, this study sought to define current entrepreneurial

marketing efforts conducted by producers in addition to their mandatory promotion investment.

Background and Significance of the Problem

Dairy producers in the United States have the option of being independent or become a

member of a dairy cooperative, a voluntary association formed by dairy producers. For the

purpose of this study, Florida dairy producers who belong to the cooperative Southeast Milk,

Incorporated (SMI) were described. Voluntary associations depend on the participant to supply

the association's resources (Covington, 1993). Florida dairy producer numbers are continuing to

decline while demand for dairy in the Southeast is rising (Sumrall, 2006). By this estimation,

supply is decreasing while demand continues to increase. Huffman and Evenson (1989) explain

that agriculture in the United States is a highly competitive industry. Environmental challenges

such as hot temperatures and high humidity can force Florida producers to move to a cooler, arid

climate leaving the state in a supply deficit. This deficit creates further burden on the remaining

Florida producers as the cost of importing milk from great distances is prohibitive. Ultimately,

the funding for this import bill must come out of the producers' pockets. The net effect of a

shrinking local supply of milk is even further negative pressure on the farm price of milk

(Sumrall, 2006). To the degree that Florida milk production continues to decline, the economics

for those that remain become more difficult. A viable market for Florida milk is apparent, and

promoting dairy production and products in the Southeast is important to farmer survival.

With the approval of The Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983 and the Dairy

Promotion and Research Order of 1984, a national dairy product promotion, research, and

nutrition education program for all dairy producers was created (USDA, 2006). Funding for









such programs is provided by dairy producers. In Florida, each producer pays a mandatory 15

cents per hundredweight of milk via a dairy checkoff program (DFI, 2006). The National Dairy

Promotion and Research Board (NDB) was formed in 1984 and is monitored by the USDA. The

overarching purpose of the NDB is to strengthen demand for dairy in domestic and foreign

markets and is funded via the dairy checkoff (DFI, 2006). The NDB receives five cents per

hundredweight of the producer checkoff. Dairy Management Incorporated (DMI) was funded in

1995 and is responsible for the management of domestic and international promotion programs.

The maj ority of dairy promotion in Florida is controlled by Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI).

DFI, established in 1958, is Florida' s milk promotion group created to carry out the promotional

programs of DMI. The remaining 10 cents per hundredweight of checkoff dollars invested in

Florida is collected by DFI and used to fund dairy promotional and educational programs.

Theoretical Framework

Three theoretical instruments were utilized for this study including locus of control, theory

of planned behavior, and integrated marketing communications. These theories will be

addressed thoroughly in Chapter 2, however, a short introduction to these frameworks is

provided below.

This study examined Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions of the value and

importance of promotion and marketing efforts developed by DFI. Rotter' s (1966) locus of

control is the personality predisposition that describes an individual's perception of their ability

to change a situation. This theory is derived from Rotter's social learning theory, which explains

a person' s actions are predicted on the basis of values, expectations, and situations a person finds

themselves in (Lefcourt, 1982). The theory is based on the internal-external scale that "measures

an individual's perception of how much control he is able to exert over the events in his life"

(Miller & Toulouse, 1986, p. 1392). Locus of control score was utilized in two contexts for this










study: locus of control and perceptions of the value and importance of mandatory investments,

and locus of control and employment of innovative practices and entrepreneurial marketing.

Locus of control score is defined on an intemnal-external scale. Kaine, Sandall, and

Bewsell (2003) reported that "individuals with a strong internal locus of control believe that they

can influence many events in their lives" while "individuals with a strong external locus of

control believe that there is little they can do to influence events that occur in their lives" (Kaine

et al., 2003, p. 2). Mueller and Thomas (2000) cited Rotter' s description of individuals saying an

"internal" individual believes they have influence over the outcomes of a situation through

ability, effort, or skills, and "extemals" believe forces outside their control determine outcomes.

This study will categorize producers as "internal" or "extemal" on the locus of control scale to

gain better understanding of how locus of control relates to perceptions of mandatory and

entrepreneurial marketing.

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) states that a person' s behavioral intention is

fundamentally determined by three factors: the attitude that the person holds towards the

behavior, the degree of social pressure felt by the person to perform or not perform the behavior,

and the degree of control that the person feels he or she has over performing the behavior.

Although dependent on the application, the more positive the attitude and subj ective norm with

respect to a behavior, and the greater the perceived control, the stronger the intention is to

perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Determining Florida cooperative dairy producers' attitudes

towards marketing can contribute to the overall understanding of their behaviors regarding

entrepreneurial promotion. The more positive producer attitudes are regarding marketing and

promotion, the stronger their intention will be to participate voluntarily in such behaviors. In









addition, the greater the control producers perceive they have, the stronger the intention will be

to perform the related behavior.

Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is defined by Grayson (2002) as a cross-

functional process for planning, executing, and monitoring brand communications designed to

profitably acquire, retain, and grow customers. While Florida cooperative dairy farmers are

creating a generic product, the concept of IMC and brand communications can be applied to

promote the commodity as a whole. Harris and Strang (1985) suggest that consumers'

purchasing decisions for generics are influenced by the perceived quality of generics. Generic

milk producers produce milk under the same strict standards as branded milk. The perception of

inferior quality of generic products is not accurate in most nonfood items. Holm (2006)

acknowledges the primary goal of IMC is to affect the perception of value and behavior through

directed communication. Implementing IMC practices on generic operations can improve

consumer perception of value on the generic milk category.

Statement of the Problem

The discovery of how the personality theory locus of control relates to an individual's

perceptions of current generic milk marketing efforts and personal entrepreneurial marketing of

dairy is the primary step in determining if current generic milk marketing efforts are effective

and how the cooperative dairy farmer can contribute to positive promotion of the dairy industry.

Dairy producers are in the business of producing a food for human consumption and must

conform to rigorous environmental procedures, health codes, and standards, and much energy is

funneled into the production of fluid milk. Other beverages such as soft drinks and juices are

dominating the consumptive beverage market and production challenges create strain on market

price. Public perceptions of the dairy industry and dairy production are unknown; however, the










promotion of dairy products can positively promote the industry while educating consumers on

the nutritional benefits of dairy.

Purpose and Objectives

The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between the locus of control

score of Floridian members of the SMI dairy cooperative to their business values and perceptions

of current dairy promotion efforts funded by producer checkoff dollars (mandatory marketing).

In addition, this study described current entrepreneurial marketing efforts conducted by

producers and the frequency in which those entrepreneurial efforts occur, as well as the

producers' opinions to the usefulness of marketing in addition to their mandatory promotion

investment. The study's objectives were as follows:

* Obj ective 1: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers in terms of their locus of
control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information.

* Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their
individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall.

* Obj ective 3: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
need for, effectiveness of, levels of participation in, and factors that prevent producers
from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing.

* Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score in
terms of their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry and
importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation.

* Objective 5: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score in
terms of their need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

Operational Definitions

Checkoff. A dairy-producer funded program designed to promote dairy products

domestically and internationally.

Consumer. Any individual who purchases milk for consumption.









Cooperative. An entrepreneurial association comprised of dairy farmers who own,

operate, and control the business. Members finance the business and share in profits earned in

proportion to the volume of milk marketed.

Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI). Florida's dairy promotional group designed to

enhance the industry's image and increase sales of dairy in the state through advertising, public

relations, and education.

Dairy Management Incorporated (DMI). The operating company designed to manage

domestic and international dairy promotional programs in the United States.

Entrepreneurial Marketing. Any promotional effort paid for by the dairy producer in

addition to their mandatory marketing investment (checkoff) that is designed to promote the

dairy industry and its products.

Fluid Milk. The form of milk that is purchased by the dairy cooperative.

Generic Marketing. The promotion of a non-branded commodity.

Generic Milk. Milk produced with no brand affiliation. The term generic milk is

applicable to milk collected by a cooperative.

Hundredweight. The measurement of milk, approximately 100 pounds or 1 1.6 gallons.

National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (NDB). Organization monitored by the

United States Department of Agriculture designed to strengthen the demand for dairy products in

domestic and foreign markets.

Producer. An individual or group of individuals in the profession of milking dairy cattle.

Limitations to the Study

This study was descriptive in nature and unique to the census population it addressed.

Results from this study can not be generalized beyond its population. Additional limitations to

this study involve the research method. While a mailed survey method was the most appropriate










for the study's population, Dillman (2007) pointed out this method can create a slower response

rate. The length of the survey may affect producers' willingness to participate. Additionally,

there is a higher cost associated with the administration of a mailed survey as opposed to web-

based surveys or interviews. The interpretation of the collected data may allow for researcher

bias.

Summary

This chapter offered an introduction to this research study, while providing relevant

background. The information presented in this chapter rationalized the need for and relevancy of

this study. In addition, this chapter described the purpose and objectives for this study. The

framework and history of the cooperative dairy checkoff was also addressed. The next chapter

will review and examine pertinent literature conducted in this field.









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Marketing of dairy production and products is essential in the progression of knowledge

about dairy production at the consumer level. Florida cooperative dairy producers participate in

the mandatory marketing program, also known as the checkoff. The first objective of this study

was to describe Florida cooperative milk producers' locus of control score, as well as their

exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information. In addition to the checkoff, some dairy

producers choose to participate in innovative ways of promoting their farm or products via

entrepreneurial marketing. Morris, Schindehutte, and LaForge (2001) defined entrepreneurial

marketing as the term "used as an umbrella to capture conceptualizations of marketing as an

innovative, risk-taking, proactive area of managerial responsibility" (p. 1). Therefore, this study

sought to identify Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the need for

entrepreneurial dairy marketing as well as identify and describe their current levels of

participation in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

Another important factor related to producer perceptions and participation levels in

marketing is personality. This study explored producers' locus of control score and perceptions

about mandatory and entrepreneurial dairy promotion. This study examined three main variables

including 1) locus of control, 2) value and importance of the checkoff program, and 3) need for

and participation in entrepreneurial dairy marketing.

This chapter presents a review of the relevant literature dealing with the dairy checkoff

program, as well as mandatory and entrepreneurial marketing and promotion. This review also

focuses on generic advertising and promotion, specifically in the dairy industry. Additionally,

emphasis is placed on the relevant literature related to the theoretical framework of this study









which includes locus of control, the theory of planned behavior, and integrated marketing

communications.

This chapter is divided into the following main sections: dairy promotion in the United

States, marketing and promotion of generic dairy, theoretical framework for the study, and

summary.

Dairy Promotion in the United States

History of Dairy Promotion in the United States

Numerous pieces of legislation and various dairy promotion-related associations have

provided the blueprint for the development of dairy promotion in the United States. The

National Dairy Council (NDC) was founded in 1915 to provide credible, scientific research to

the general public regarding dairy products. The American Dairy Association (ADA) was

formed in 1940 to focus on domestic dairy sales (DFI, 2006). The Agricultural Marketing

Agreement Act of 1937 provided regulatory actions that placed restrictions on the quantity of a

commodity that can be sold, limited the grade, size, or quality of the commodity, regulated

packaging and container sizes, and provided some limited generic promotion and advertising

allowances (Crespi, 2001). In 1970, NDC and ADA merged, forming a federation known as The

United Dairy Industry Association (UDIA). This merger sought to centralize state and regional

generic producer promotion organizations to more efficiently look after the common good and

allow local units to retain authority over local affairs (DFI, 2006). The Dairy Production

Stabilization Act of 1983, referred to as the Dairy Act, sought to identify a clear, concise plan for

dairy advertising and promotion. The Dairy Act authorized a national producer program

designed to promote dairy products, carry out research, and develop nutrition educational

programs focused on increasing human consumption of milk and other dairy products while

reducing milk surpluses (USDA, 2006).









The Dairy Act receives funding via a mandatory 15-cent-per-hundredweight assessment,

also referred to as the dairy checkoff program, on milk produced and commercially marketed by

dairy farmers in the United States (USDA, 2006). The National Dairy Promotion and Research

Board (NDB) was formed in 1984 by Congress in response to the Dairy Act. The NDB,

monitored by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), was formed to strengthen

the demand for dairy products in domestic and foreign markets and oversees the checkoff

program (DFI, 2006). Founded in 1995 by UDIA and NDB, Dairy Management, Incorporated

(DMI) was created as the operating company to manage domestic and international dairy

promotion programs, leaving them responsible for driving the demand for dairy products

produced in the United States (DFI, 2006). Today, the dairy industry continues to have the

largest generic promotion program in terms of revenue of any United States agricultural

commodity group (Kaiser, 1997).

Florida Dairy Promotion

Most dairy farmers in Florida belong to a dairy cooperative. A dairy cooperative is a

business that is owned, operated, and controlled by the dairy producers who benefit from its

services (USDA, 2005). The USDA reports members of the cooperatives Einance the

organization as well as share in the profits it earns "in proportion to the volume of milk they

market through the cooperative" (USDA, 2005, p. 1). The last national survey of dairy

cooperatives in 2002 reported the nation has 196 dairy cooperatives in 26 states (USDA, 2005).

Florida currently has one dairy cooperative based in the state, Southeast Milk, Incorporated

(SMI). Members of SMI must contribute 15 cents per hundredweight of all milk produced on

their farm to the dairy checkoff program. The producer-funded promotional assessment is

divided among federal and qualified local, state, or regional dairy product promotion, research,

or nutrition education programs (USDA, 2006). SMI members contribute Hyve cents per









hundredweight of milk to national budgets coordinated by DMI, and the remaining 10 cents per

hundredweight provides funding for Dairy Farmers, Incorporated (DFI), Florida' s qualified dairy

promotion, research, and nutritional program (DFI, 2006).

Marketing and Promotion of Generic Dairy

Overview of Generic Advertising and Promotion

When promoting a homogenous generic product, every producer of a commodity group

must be compelled to support a generic advertising program and that advertising must not benefit

some growers over others (Crespi, 2001). Crespi (2001) explained "in the absence of a

significant market presence, there is no incentive for either an individual producer or a

cooperative to engage in advertising because other producers of the same commodity may then

free ride upon this advertising" (p. 11).

Generic advertising "promotes the consumption of the general commodity by a cooperative

effort of producers" (Blisard, 1999, p. 181). This advertising may be entrepreneurial or

mandatory. In the case of the dairy industry, the commodity checkoff program is mandatory.

Research regarding the effectiveness of the checkoff program is limited, as most studies are

conducted in-house by selected promotion boards resulting in proprietary information. It is

difficult to tell if generic advertising influences consumer choices because "little evidence is

available since only the two dairy promotion programs require an independent evaluation of the

program's effectiveness, which must be delivered to Congress each year" (Blisard, 1999, p. 183).

Blisard (1999) concluded that generic advertising did have a positive impact on fluid milk and

cheese sales.

Chakravarti and Janiszewski (2004) stated "the legislative goal of generic advertising is to

increase the primary demand of a product without influencing the market share of any one

producer" (p. 489). The authors further explained that generic advertising is "designed to









enhance category beliefs, increase across category differentiation, and reduce the advertised

category's price elasticity" (p. 489). In the case of dairy, generic advertising is used by a

cooperative to promote an essentially homogenous product (Blisard, 1998). Blisard (1998)

justifies that because generic advertising seeks to promote a general commodity, all producers in

the industry benefit from its promotion, including individuals that do not contribute monetarily.

The introduction of generics into the marketplace has intensified the battle for shelf space

(Harris & Strang, 1985). While the majority of generics are in the nonfood items category where

emphasis on quality may not be high, milk has a heavy presence in the private label market.

Many consumer purchase decisions are made on the basis of the perceived quality of generics

and "many of the stronger generic categories are characterized by low brand loyalty" (Harris &

Strang, 1985, p. 74).

Gherty (1995) warned that success depends on producers' ability to identify who their

customers are and what those people need, want, and most importantly, expect. The milk

category is dominated by private label, and in 2004, "31.6 percent of milk volume in the grocery

channel was accounted for by branded products" (USDA, 2005, p. 52). The low percentage of

branded products in this category puts milk at a disadvantage due to the challenges inherent to

marketing a category as opposed to a brand (USDA, 2005). "The high share of private label

milk reinforces milk's commodity image, making competitive premium-image products more

attractive to consumers" (USDA, 2005, p. 52).

However, research has shown that generic dairy advertising has a positive impact on the

demand for fluid milk and other dairy products and on farm milk prices (Kaiser & Schmit, 2003).

Kaiser and Schmit (2003) reported an increase in the demand for milk at the processor level with

an increase in generic milk advertising. The distributional effects of farmer-funded generic dairy









marketing displayed producer welfare gains of around 3.5% of industry revenues for both cheese

and fluid milk (Kaiser & Schmit, 2003, p. 299). Kaiser (1997) concluded, "Farmers are

receiving a high return on their investment in generic dairy advertising" (p. 311).

Florida Producer Challenges

Chung and Kaiser (2000) stated that regional differences such as climate, management

practices, and the price of land exist in agricultural production. Environmental challenges, such

as hot temperatures and high humidity, can force Florida producers to move to a cooler, arid

climate leaving the state in a supply deficit. In a deficit situation, milk must be brought into the

state to make up the supply difference, and the funding for this import bill must come out of the

Florida producers' pocket. The net effect of a shrinking local supply of milk is even further

negative pressure on the farm price of milk (Sumrall, 2006). Different regions of dairy

production will respond differently to the change in the market price of dairy products (Chung &

Kaiser, 2000).

Additionally, the supply and demand of milk is counter-cyclical over the course of the year

(Hovhannisyan, Urutyan, & Dunn, 2004). Florida producers experience a surplus of milk in the

cool, winter months and a deficit in the hot, summer months, causing a fluctuation in importing

and exporting milk. From August 5, 2005, to December 16, 2005, the state of Florida had to

import milk to meet demand (USDA, 2006). From December 30 to July 15 the state had a

surplus exporting fluid milk to other regions of the United States (USDA, 2006).

This study defined four regions of Florida in terms of their saturation of dairy producers.

Regions were distinguished using Lafayette county, a popular dairy county, and the separation

currently used by marketing professionals (Lussier, personal communication, October 9, 2006).

These regions included 1) Panhandle (areas west of Lafayette County); 2) Lafayette County, and










areas north of Interstate 10 (I-10), 3) North Florida: areas north of Interstate 4 (I-4) to I-10, and

4) South Florida: areas south of I-4. Figure 2-1 illustrates those regions in further detail.

Regrion 2



County'






















Figure 2-1. Different regions of Florida milk producers.

Mandatory Marketing

Chung and Kaiser (2000) concluded from their research that while generic advertising

funded by a checkoff program has positive correlations to overall producer gains, those producer

participants do not benefit equally.

Separate from producer promotion investments, the Federal Milk Order (FMO) program

assists dairy farmers in marketing their milk. The FMO, instituted by the dairy producer,

provides "a means of equally sharing revenues generated by a classified pricing system" where

"processors are assured of paying the same minimum price as their competitors for milk used

within the same product classification" (Stukenburg, Blayney, & Miller, 2006, p. 1195). Florida










milk producers are under Federal Order 6 and within this order, approximately 88% of all milk

goes to Class I. Class I consists of fluid milk products and is the highest priced order

(Stukenberg et al., 2006). Figure 2-2 displays the fluctuations in Class I milk price from 1977-

2003. Fluctuations in milk price mostly are dependent on utilization of that price class. In times

of milk and dairy surpluses, FMO prices can be closely related to support prices, and when

"support prices are artificially high, they inflate market prices and federal order prices capture

these higher prices" (Stukenberg, 2006).

Inflation-Adjusted Price
16.0 Nominal Price

14.00 $ ----

12.00 -

2 10.00



6.00

4,00

2.00

0.00



Figure 2-2 Federal milk marketing order Class I prices (annual averages) from 1977-2003.

(Stukenberg et al., 2006)

Dairy producers are competing for market share with various other consumptive beverages.

Fluid milk is the third-largest category by volume in its competitive set (USDA, 2005).

However, in 2005, every category in this competitive set, with the exclusion of milk and fruit

beverages, experienced an increase in sales (USDA, 2006). "At $150 million in spending in

2004, milk ranked fourth within the competitive set, accounting for less than 10 percent of

spending" and while that spending is significant, "milk accounts for approximately 18 percent of










the competitive set volume and thus, remains significantly underrepresented in share of voice"

(USDA, 2005, p. 50). Figure 2-3 illustrates both the competitive set volume for 2004 and the

media spending by those same categories for 2004. Milk is in a unique situation in its

competitive category. Its price continues to increase faster than any other category and its

spending for marketing is declining (USDA, 2005). This decline in spending has a negative

impact on milk consumption.

HtleCa HidWate





CS~s ettid Frit RT~ea port Mil


of. dollars)lli




Enrereer ial Marktin
Entepeneril mrktin fr tisstuy s efiedas ratics r inoatinsindviua









andintuitive Cmaretiv feel (p 1. umeller and vs Thmea s (2000) b sugetedor moivtons for mil





beoiga ntrepreneuria cartng ber ctegoizetd int defither push/puliutoaactores or personnsinivdal









characteristics. Push/pull factors can include dissatisfaction with an aspect of one's business, or

frustrations with current situations. Personal characteristics can include personality traits such as

one' s desire for achievement, or level of innovativeness (Mueller & Thomas, 2000).

Many dairy producers may not feel they have the expertise to formulate an entrepreneurial

marketing strategy. Dartt (2001) suggested that many dairy producers are production-oriented

and, rather than spending time in a leadership or management role, they are focused more on the

technical side of their operations. Many managers are criticized because they lack the ability or

are unwilling to consider the variety of strategic options that are available to their business

(Gallen, 2006).

Consumer trust is another important factor to consider. Increasingly strong media

coverage of food safety can have an effect on the public's perception of animal agriculture.

Animal activists have had little influence on demand for animal products, but have increased

public concern about food safety (Zimbelman, Wilson, Bennett, & Curtis, 1995). Another factor

influencing public perception of agriculture is population. "Because of the decreasing number of

people involved in production agriculture, the general public is becoming increasingly more

removed from having direct knowledge of farm practices" (Zimbelman et al., 1995, p. 153).

However, 93% of Americans questioned in a 1990 American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF)

survey believed that farmers are trustworthy, and 88% agreed that "farmers are doing a good job

of producing healthy food" (Zimbelman, 1995, p. 155).

Langinier and Babcock (2005) stated that "consumers are in general less informed than

producers about the quality of agricultural goods" (p. 1). Building trust with the public can be

effective coming straight from the farmer. Consumers are most likely to seek out information on

a topic, in this case dairy production, through communication with a trustworthy source (Yee,










Yeung, & Morris, 2005). Food safety concerns continue to grow and sales are affected if there is

a perceived risk to consumer health (Yee et al., 2005). In the case of dairy, consumers purchased

less milk with the increased emphasis on bovine growth hormone residues, even though

consumers could not detect the residues themselves (Yee et al., 2005). Yee et al. (2005)

concluded that "trust could positively influence consumers' decision on future purchase" (p.

844). They found that providing information was the most important factor in trust building

(Yee et al., 2005). One recommendation from the study to build trust with farmers and help

foster links with local farmers was the implementation of farm visits or tours to educate

consumers about the origins of their food (Yee et al., 2005).

Theoretical Framework for the Study

Locus of Control

Locus of control is a construct that originates from Rotter' s social learning theory, which

explains a person' s actions are predicted on the basis of values, expectations, and situations a

person finds themselves in (Lefcourt, 1982). The theory is based on the internal-external scale

that "measures an individual's perception of how much control he is able to exert over the events

in his life" (Miller & Toulouse, 1986, p. 1392). Rotter developed the construct of generalized

expectancies for internal versus external control and explains the "intemal versus external

control refers to the degree to which persons expect that a reinforcement or an outcome of their

behavior is contingent on their own behavior or personal characteristics versus the degree to

which persons expect that the reinforcement or outcome is a function of chance, luck, or fate, is

under the control of powerful others, or is simply unpredictable" (Rotter, 1990, p. 489).

Entrepreneurial behavior represents a more informal type of marketing relying on the

intuition and energy of an individual (Stokes, 2000). Internal locus of control and innovativeness

are two frequently cited personal traits associated with entrepreneurial potential (Mueller &









Thomas, 2000). Mueller and Thomas (2000) cited Rotter' s locus of control as the theory that "an

individual perceives the outcome of an event as being either within or beyond his or her personal

control" (p. 56).

Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell (2003) investigated the relationship between locus of control

and agricultural producer propensity to adopt innovations and participate in extension programs.

The authors reported that "individuals with a strong internal locus of control believe that they

can influence many events in their lives" while "individuals with a strong external locus of

control believe that there is little they can do to influence events that occur in their lives" (Kaine

et al., 2003, p. 2). The authors deduced that producers with an internal locus of control will be

more likely to seek opportunities that would improve their skill base, and producers who

measured on the external scale would be less likely to try any new techniques and technologies

(p. 2). Results showed that producers with a strong internal locus of control were less likely than

other producers to experience low financial performance, more likely to exhibit a high propensity

to adopt innovations, and more likely to participate in extension or benchmark programs.

Conversely, producers with a strong external locus of control were evaluated to be more likely to

experience low financial performance, less likely to exhibit a high propensity to adopt

innovations, and less likely to participate in extension or benchmarking programs than other

producers (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 9).

Miller and Toulouse (1986) reported locus of control on the basis of strategy, decision

making, structure, and performance. Table 2-1 illustrates the expected relationships between

Chief Executive Officer (CEO) personality and their organization.











Table 2-1 Expected relationships between CEO personality and organization*


High Need for Internal Locus
Flexible Personality Achievement of Control

Strategy Niche-focussed Broad-
Aggressive Marketing Innovative
Decision M~aking Intuitive Analytical Informal
Short-time horizon Long-term planning Long-term
Reactive Proactive Proactive
Risk taking Risk aversion -Risk neutral
Structure Informal Formal Informal
Unspecialized Specialized Mdixed
Much delegation of Little delegation of Much delegation
authority authority
Few controls Many controls Mixed
Few liaison devices Many liaison devices Mixed
Performance Successful in small Successful in large Successful in any size firm,
firms and dynamic firms and stable but especially so in
environments environments dynamic environments
Fac-ilitating Conditions: We expect that the relationships between CEO personality and organizational
variables will be higher in (a) small organizations, and (b) dynai environments.

The attributes listed are for high scores on the variables in question. F;or example, the higher the score on
CEO flexibility, the more will strategies be focused, decision making intuitive, and so on.
(Miller & Toulouse, 1986, p. 1392)

Theory of Planned Behavior

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) states that a person' s behavioral intention is

fundamentally determined by three factors: the attitude that the person holds towards the

behavior; the degree of social pressure felt by the person to perform or not perform the behavior;

and the degree of control that the person feels he or she has over performing the behavior.

Although dependent on the application, the more positive the attitude and subj ective norm with

respect to a behavior, and the greater the perceived control, the stronger the intention is to

perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Determining Florida cooperative dairy producers' attitudes

towards marketing can contribute to the overall understanding of their behaviors regarding

entrepreneurial promotion. In addition, the greater the control producers perceive they have, the










stronger the intention will be to perform the related behavior. Figure 2-3 presents Ajzen's theory

of planned behavior in its most applicable form.



Expected ATTITUDE-
Values towvard-th~e-ACT



N Br lade 9 UBJECMTSE IINTENTIONS


Perceived PERCGEIVED
Self-Efficacy FEASIBILITY


Figure 2-3 Ajzen' s theory of planned behavior model.

(Krueger, Reilly, & Carsrud, 2000)

Ajzen' s theory of planned behavior model suggests a person' s intentions could be a direct

result of that individual's attitude toward the act. While it is unknown whether or not dairy

producers feel entrepreneurial marketing will benefit their operation, their attitude toward

innovation can affect their intentions regarding marketing. Veciana, Aponte, and Urbano (2000)

explained Ajzen's attitude toward the act "refers to the degree to which a person has a favorable

or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the behavior in question" (p. 168). Following this

definition, a cooperative dairy producer' s appraisal of entrepreneurial marketing can affect

his/her intentions depending on if that producer is favorable or unfavorable to the activity. A

more favorable opinion would suggest a higher incidence of participation in entrepreneurial

activity, whereas an unfavorable opinion would lessen that participation.

Perceived self-efficacy is another important component of Ajzen's model with respect to

this study. Bandura (1977) defined self-efficacy as "the conviction that one can successfully

execute the behavior required" (p. 193). Shepherd and Kreuger (2002) further explained that

"high self-efficacy leads to increased initiative and persistence and thus improved performance;









low self-efficacy reduces effort and thus performance" (p. 171). Following Ajzen's model,

perceived self-efficacy leads to a perceived feasibility of the behavior, and finally the intention to

perform that behavior. Dairy producers with high self-efficacy would believe that

entrepreneurial marketing is more feasible, therefore participating more regularly.

Integrated Marketing Communications

Communication is comprised of sound, image, and writing and all three of these factors

have been dependent on technological development (Holm, 2006). Holm further notes that

"communication is the process by which individuals share meaning" and "each participant must

fully understand the meaning of the other' s communication" (p. 29). Affecting the perception of

behavior and value through directed communication is the overarching goal of integrated

marketing communications (IMC) (Holm, 2006).

Hutton (1996) explained IMC has long-term implications to help create communications

that help create relationships instead of simply persuading potential buyers. Creating a website

is a form of entrepreneurial marketing as defined by this study. While cooperative dairy farmers

without a brand presence are not as concerned with brand loyalty, commodity loyalty is an issue

of concern. Public awareness of a commodity, its production, and benefits is important to

increasing sales in that commodity area. An Internet presence can be a crucial part of the

integrated marketing process. The Internet is a "totally controllable media" where Web presence

plays a "maj or role" especially when "promoting messages a company wants to impart to its

customers" (Harridge-March, 2004, p. 297).

While cooperative dairy farmers are selling a generic, un-branded milk product, the public

consumer still must be convinced of a product' s quality before purchase, therefore making

marketing a concern. Proctor (1999) explained a total marketing communications strategy is

crucial when identifying the target audience and attracting customers to products or services.









Sharma and Sheth (2004) stated "The Web is growing at a dramatic pace and is

significantly impacting customer and business market behaviors" (p. 696). Although cooperative

dairy farmers do not have a specific brand, the Web can have an impact on a consumer's

decision to buy dairy products.

Summary

This chapter has reviewed literature related to generic dairy promotion, both mandatory

and entrepreneurial in nature. The literature presented focused on the evolution of the dairy

promotion, how it is funded, and how producers participate. Additionally, an overview of

relevant literature related to the general topic of generic advertising and promotion was

presented, and more specifically, how dairy is promoted generically. Entrepreneurial marketing

issues in literature were addressed and how managerial attitudes and behaviors can influence

these decisions. A focus on relevant literature related to the theoretical framework of the study

including locus of control, theory of planned behavior, and integrated marketing communications

was presented.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of the Florida-based members of

Southeast Milk, Incorporated (SMI) dairy cooperative regarding the promotion efforts used to

market their commodity, as well as explore producers' locus of control score and their

perceptions of dairy marketing efforts. A producer' s placement on the internal-external locus of

control scale was examined to explain the relationship of that measurement of personality to the

producer' s perceptions of current mandatory marketing efforts funded by producer checkoff

dollars. In addition, this study described current entrepreneurial marketing efforts conducted by

producers, the frequency in which those entrepreneurial efforts occur, and producers' perceptions

as to the usefulness of marketing, in addition to their mandatory promotion investment. Those

entrepreneurial marketing perceptions and perceptions were again related to producers' locus of

control scale placement.

This chapter describes the methodology used to address the research obj ectives presented

in this study. The research objectives were as follows:

* Obj ective 1: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers in terms of their locus of
control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information.

* Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their
individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall.

* Obj ective 3: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
need for, effectiveness of, levels of participation in, and factors that prevent producers
from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing.

* Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score in
terms of their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry and
importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation.










*Objective 5: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score in
terms of their need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

This chapter is organized by research design, subj ect selection, instrumentation, data

collection, data analysis, reliability and validity, and summary.


Research Design

The research design for this study was a descriptive survey using a census population of all

Florida dairy producers (N=118) belonging to the dairy cooperative Southeast Milk, Incorporated

(SMI). The survey was distributed via mail using Dillman's Tailored Design Method (Dillman,

2007). The survey instrument was mailed to all members of the population of SMI dairy

producers.

Population

The population for the study was comprised of a census of Florida dairy producers

(N=1 18) who are currently members of the SMI dairy cooperative. At the time of data

collection, SMI had 307 members covering Florida, and parts of Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee,

Louisiana, and South Carolina (Covington, personal communication, August 28, 2006). Because

the largest percentage of membership in the SMI cooperative was represented by the state of

Florida, and every state's regional promotional programs are unique, the Florida membership

was selected as the population for the study. The researcher obtained a current list of Florida

SMI members when preparation of the survey instrument was complete and ready for

di stributi on.

Instrumentation

Instrumentation consisted of a survey instrument comprised of 25 questions within four

sections including 1) checkoff/mandatory marketing, 2) entrepreneurial marketing, 3) locus of









control, and 4) demographic questions (Appendix C). The purpose of the questionnaire was to

identify information relevant to the research obj ectives defined at the beginning of this chapter.

Part one, the mandatory marketing/checkoff section, included nine questions adapted from

a survey written by Dairy Management Incorporated that was designed to determine producer

perceptions of the checkoff program (Bavido, personal communication, October 27, 2006).

Question one included 10 items that measured respondents' perceptions on the importance of

promotional programs funded by the checkoff with regard to the dairy industry, as well as the

respondents' individual operations. The response scale for these items was designed using a 1 to

5 Likert-like scale with 1=not important to 5=very important. Question two named specific

promotional programs in Florida managed by Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI) and sought to

identify respondents' perceptions on the value of those programs. This question included seven

items that utilized a Likert-like response scale using 1=not valuable to 5=very valuable. Question

three included 11 items that questioned respondents on how strongly they agreed or disagreed

that those items contributed to formulating respondents' perceptions on the checkoff program' s

level of success. This question utilized a Likert-like response scale using strongly disagree to

5=strongly agree. Questions four through seven asked more specific questions regarding dairy

farm profitability, how respondents felt regarding competing beverage markets, the value of the

checkoff program to the dairy industry, and the importance of the overall checkoff program to

respondents' individual operations. Each of these questions utilized a Likert-like response scale.

Question eight identified how respondents receive information about DFI' s programs. Question

nine identified how many meetings respondents attended where the checkoff program was

discussed.









Part two, entrepreneurial marketing, was created to assess respondents' perceptions and

participation in entrepreneurial marketing. This section included seven questions, which

corresponded to questions 10-16 on the survey. Question 10 included five items. Four known

entrepreneurial marketing efforts including farm/company websites, farm tours,

farm/employee/company newsletters, and farm brand/logos were listed, and respondents marked

"yes" or "no", depending on their participation in each item. The fifth item provided space for

respondents to identify other entrepreneurial efforts not listed within the question. Questions 11

and 12 were also "yes/no" responses and measured respondents' willingness to invest in the

promotion of their farm, in addition to mandatory investments, and respondents' opinion on

whether it is necessary to promote their farms in addition to mandatory promotional efforts.

Questions 13 through 15 utilized a Likert-like response scale with 1= strongly disagree to

5=strongly agree. These questions evaluated respondents' perceptions regarding websites as an

effective way to generate interest in the dairy industry, farm tours as an effective way to generate

interest in dairy production, and newsletters as a beneficial component to a dairy operation,

respectively. The last question in this section utilized a "yes/no" format to identify what

resources respondents felt they needed in order to participate in more entrepreneurial efforts.

This question incorporated five items including time, money, people, training, and an "other"

category for respondents to include resources not mentioned in the question.

Section 3, locus of control, included two questions (17 and 18) that were adapted from a

previous study which investigated the relationship between locus of control and adoption of

innovations and participation in extension programs by agricultural producers (Kaine, Sandall, &

Bewsell, 2003). Rotter' s internal-external scale is a well-established and accepted form of

measuring locus of control (Brownell, 1981). Based on participants' responses, their placement









on Rotter's internal-external locus of control was identified. Question 17 included eight items,

each consisting of a pair of statements. One statement identified language that corresponded to

an external locus of control, while the other identified internal locus of control. External and

internal statements were mixed in each item so that respondents could not identify all first

statements as one way of thinking and to eliminate a pattern. Question 18 followed the same

format as question 17 and included five items.

Part three, demographics, included survey questions 19 through 25 and defined

participants' age, number of milking cows, number of years the participant plans to stay in the

dairy business, educational level, type of dairy operation, board membership status, and region of

Florida where their farm is located. Each of these questions provided appropriate answer choices

and respondents were asked to check the appropriate response. For example, question 23 asked

"What type of dairy operation do you operate?" This question consisted of the following five

items: freestall barns, loafing barns/drylots, tunnel ventilated barns, grazing, or other.

Respondents chose the item that best identified their operation style.

Data Collection

The survey instrument was distributed via postal mail. This distribution method was

chosen based on the population demographic. Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh, and Sorensen (2006)

identified the advantages of a mailed survey, including guaranteeing confidentiality and

eliminating interviewer bias that could be present in an interview. Also, it is "possible to include

a larger number of subjects as well as subjects in more diverse locations" (p. 413). Dillman

(2007) suggested that within many populations of interest, coverage problems exist when using

Web-based or telephone survey methods. Dillman (2007) reported, "Too few people have

Internet access to justify using the Web as a sole survey mode" (p. 493). This study presented a

situation where only a few members of the population have e-mail contact information. In this










type of situation, mail addresses were available for the entire population making the mailed

questionnaire the most appropriate method to reach the population in its entirety.

Procedure

Prior to the collection of the primary data for this survey, a panel of experts consisting of

academic professionals familiar with the research study, and dairy producers comparable to the

study's population was utilized to establish face and content validity of the survey instrument.

Revisions to the instrument were made based on the panel's feedback. The Einalized instrument

was then submitted to and approved by the University of Florida' s Institutional Review Board

(Appendix A). The dairy producers included in the panel were not included in the Einal data set.

Data collection began in January 2007 and procedures were followed using Dillman's

tailored design method (Dillman, 2007). The first step in the data collection was the first wave

of contact, consisting of a contact packet that included a cover letter (Appendix D) outlining the

purpose of the study, need for participation, and instructions for completion; the questionnaire;

the consent form (Appendix B); and a pre-paid return envelope. This first contact packet was

mailed to the study's population on January 13, 2007. Respondents were given a case

identification number that was separated from their names to track respondents from non-

respondents, preventing additional waves of communication with respondents.

The second contact with the research population was a thank you/reminder postcard

(Appendix E) mailed 10 business days later on January 25, 2007, to all members of the

population. This contact thanked those who had already returned the survey, and urged those

who had not to do so immediately.

The third contact was another questionnaire packet mailed to non-respondents on February

3, 2007. This packet included a new cover letter (Appendix F), and a replacement copy of the

consent form and questionnaire.









A final wave was mailed February 20, 2007, consisting of the same materials sent in the

third contact: new cover letter (Appendix G), replacement consent form, and questionnaire. Data

collection from mailed surveys commenced on March 1, 2007.

Respondents were given a period of six weeks to complete and return the survey. After all

waves had been completed, the study obtained an overall response rate of 49.2% (n=58).

Ary et al. (2006) explained that nonresponsee can be a serious problem in survey research"

(p. 438). Nonresponse for this study was addressed by comparing early to late respondents. Ary

et al. (2006) describe the procedure as identifying early to late respondents, and if no significant

differences appear, and late respondents are believed to be typical of nonrespondents, researchers

can assume the late respondents "are an unbiased sample of the recipients and can thus

generalize to the total group" (p. 439). Lindner, Murphy, and Briers (2001) recommended late

respondents "be defined operationally and arbitrarily as the later 50% of respondents" (p. 242).

This study defined early respondents as the first 50% who responded to the survey and late

respondents as the latter 50% of respondents to the survey. Twenty-three respondents completed

the questionnaire after the initial contact, 22 responded after the second wave of questionnaires,

and 13 responded after the final contact. The first 29 respondents were defined as "early" and

the last 29 respondents were defined "late." Responses were compared on the basis of the key

variables of interest and no significant differences were observed (see chapter 4).

Data Analysis

The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis. The Statistical

Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS@) 14.0 for Windows software package was utilized for

the analysis. Descriptive statistics including measures of central tendency, frequencies, and

cross tabluations were calculated for the appropriate questionnaire items.









Knoke, Bohrnstedt, and Mee (2002) defined reliability as "the extent to which different

operationalizations of the same concept produce consistent results" (p. 13). In order to determine

the reliability and internal consistency of the response scales, Cronbach' s alpha coefficient was

calculated for the scale items. The standard alpha for this study was a=.89.

Ary et al. (2006) defined validity as "the extent to which an instrument measured what it

claimed to measure" (p. 243). The internal validity of the instrument can be separated into four

categories: face validity, content validity, construct validity, and criterion-related validity (Ary et

al., 2006). Face and content validity were addressed through the use of the panel of experts.

Face validity is defined as whether or not the instrument appears valid for the intended purpose,

while content validity is defined as the degree to which the data from an instrument is

representative of some defined domain (Ary et al., 2006). The panel of experts reviewed the

instrument and suggested modifications to the instrument were made.

This study adapted parts of reliable, valid instrumentation used in previous studies. A

dairy producer survey constructed by Dairy Management Incorporated (DMI) was adapted for

questions concerning mandatory marketing. This study adapted locus of control scale questions

from a study conducted by Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell in 2003 that investigated the relationship

between locus of control and adoption of innovations and participation in extension programs by

agricultural producers.

Construct validity is the extent to which an instrument assesses something that is not

directly measurable, but explains observable effects (Ary et al., 2006). The use of a panel of

experts and a thorough review of the literature was the best foreseeable way to guard against this

threat to validity. Finally, criterion-related validity is defined as the determination of whether

answering the questions on the instrument was the correct way to measure the constructs (Ary et









al., 2006). The use of existing and valid instrumentation was used to guard against these threats

to the study's validity.

Summary

This chapter provided an overview of the methodology associated with this study. The

research design was described and selection of the study's population was explained. A

thorough explanation of each component of the construction of the study's instrumentation was

given. An overview of how Dillman's Tailored Design Method was employed for this study was

provided. Finally, data analysis was discussed, and the reliability and validity of the study was

addressed. The next chapter will provide specific information on data analysis procedures and

the results received from the questionnaire.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

This study described the perceptions of the Florida-based members of Southeast Milk,

Incorporated (SMI) dairy cooperative regarding the promotion efforts used to market their

commodity, as well as explore producers' locus of control score and their perceptions of dairy

marketing efforts. Producer perceptions of both mandatory marketing, marketing paid for by the

producers via the dairy checkoff, and entrepreneurial marketing, promotional efforts whose

expenses are paid by producers in addition to the checkoff, were studied. This study also

described producers' perceptions as to the importance and value of mandatory marketing and the

perceived need for and level of participation in entrepreneurial dairy marketing. In order to

obtain a locus of control score, producers were scored on an adaptation of Rotter' s internal-

external locus of control scale. This scale measured the extent to which each individual producer

felt they have control over a situation or event. Producers were scored either as "internal" or

"external" on the scale.

The population for the study was comprised of a census of Florida dairy producers

(N=1 18) who are currently members of the SMI dairy cooperative. This chapter presents the

study's findings based on the research objectives defined in Chapter 1. These objectives were as

follows:

* Obj ective 1: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers in terms of their locus of
control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information.

* Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their
individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall.

* Obj ective 3: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
need for, effectiveness of, levels of participation in, and factors that prevent producers
from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing.










* Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score in
terms of their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry and
importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation.

* Objective 5: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score in
terms of their need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

Results

Dillman (2007) reported that the potential for nonresponse error exists in all survey

research, and nonresponse should, therefore, be considered and addressed in survey-based

research studies. In order to maximize the response rate in this study, three waves of surveys

were mailed and one reminder postcard. Each survey and postcard was hand-signed by the

researcher and cover letters were designed for each specific wave sent to non-respondents

encouraging them to return the instrument at their earliest convenience.

A total of 58 responses were received from the study's population (N=118) for an overall

response rate of 49.2%, which was deemed an acceptable response rate for this population.

Based on Dillman's recommendation to always address nonresponse error, a comparison of early

to late respondents was utilized. Lindner, Murphy, and Briers (2001) recommended late

respondents "be defined operationally and arbitrarily as the later 50% of respondents" (p. 242).

This study defined early respondents (n=29) as the first 50% who responded to the survey and

late respondents (n=29) as the latter 50% of respondents to the survey. Early respondents were

compared to late respondents on the basis of the key variables of interest, including locus of

control score, value and importance of the checkoff program, and need for and participation in

entrepreneurial dairy marketing efforts.

With respect to the main variables measured in this study, there were no significant

differences between early and late respondents as demonstrated by an independent samples t-test

(Table 4-1).









Table 4-1. T-test for significant differences between early and late respondents.
Early Late
Respondents Respondents
Key Variable Mean SD Mean SD t Value Sig.
Value of Checkoff to Industry 3.86 1.13 3.38 1.12 1.64 0.106
Importance of Checkoff to Farm 3.90 1.11 3.21 1.20 2.26 0.028
Need for Entrepreneurial Marketing 0.52 0.51 0.46 0.51 0.39 0.696
Participation in Entrepreneurial 0.39 0.50 0.29 0.46 0.84 0.406
Marketing


Demographics of Respondents

Seven demographic questions were asked to identify and describe the respondents. The

majority of respondents (96.6%, n=56) were male and 3.4% (n=2) were female. Table 4-2

identifies respondents according to their age. The largest percentage of respondents (45.62%,

n=26), reported their age in the range from 50-64 years. Respondents in the age range from 35-

49 years (40.35%, n=23), made up the second highest category. A small percentage of

respondents (12.28%, n=7) fell in the 65 years of age and older category. Only 1.75% (n=1)

reported being under 34 years of age. One person did not respond to this question.

Table 4-2. Number of respondents by age.
Age (yrs) n %
18-34 1 1.75
35-49 23 40.35
50-64 26 45.62
65 and older 7 12.28
Total 57 100.0

Respondents' herd size, the number of milking cows per farm, was also described. Table

4-3 categorizes respondents in terms of herd size. The majority of respondents (80.8%, n=46)

identified the middle three categories as a valid representation of their herd size, which covered

herds ranging from 100 to 1999 milking cows. The largest portion of respondents (3 1.5%, n=1 8)

reported they milked 100-499 cows in their operation. Only 10.5% (n=6) reported a herd size of










99 milking cow or less, while 8.8% (n=5) reported a herd size of 2000 or more milking cows.

One person did not respond to this question.

Table 4-3. Herd size by respondents.
Number of milking cows n %
1-99 6 10.5
100-499 18 31.5
500-999 16 28.1
1000-1999 12 21.1
2000 or more 5 8.8
Total 57 100.0

Respondents were asked how many years they planned to remain in the dairy business in

any capacity. This question referred to the longevity of the individual and not their current

operation. Table 4-4 illustrates those responses in three categories. The majority of respondents

(42.9%, n=24) reported they plan to stay in the industry for 11 or more years. Just over one-

fourth of respondents (26.8%, n=15) believed they would remain in the dairy business for 6-10

more years. A larger percentage of respondents (30.3%, n=17) proj ected they would stay with

the dairy business for five years or less. Two people did not respond to this question.

Table 4-4. Number of years respondents plan to stay in dairy business.
Proj ected longevity (yrs) n %
5 or less 17 30.3
6-10 15 26.8
11 or more 24 42.9
Total 56 100.0

Table 4-5 describes respondents on the basis of education level. The majority of

respondents (97.1%, n=47) reported an education level above high school, with 13.8% (n=8)

reporting a graduate or professional degree. The majority of the respondents (36.2%, n=21) were

college graduates, and an additional 19.0% (n=1 1) reported attending some college, but not

officially graduating. Only one respondent (1.7%) did not graduate from high school.










Table 4-5. Level of education by respondent.
Level of Education n %
Less than high school 1 1.7
High school graduate 10 17.2
Vocational-technical training 4 6.9
Some college 11 19.0
College graduate 21 36.2
Some graduate school 3 5.2
Graduate or professional degree 8 13.8
Total 58 100.0

The type of dairy operation respondents maintained was another demographic examined

(see Table 4-6). The majority of respondents (36.2%, n=21) defined their operations as drylot

facilities with loafing barns for cattle. Many respondents (29.3%, n=17) reported freestall barn

construction, and 25.9% (n=15) reported grazing as their type of operation. Only two

respondents (3.4%) defined tunnel ventilated barns as their type of operation. A small

percentage of respondents (5.2%, n=3) indicated "other" for their response as their responses

listed outside total mixed ration (TMR) feeding, semi-grazing, and feed/graze cows when

possible.

Table 4-6. Type of dairy operation by respondent.
Type of facility n %
Loafing barns/Drylots 21 36.2
Freestall barns 17 29.3
Grazing 15 25.9
Other 3 5.2
Tunnel ventilated barns 2 3.4
Total 58 100.0

In response to the question that asked about membership on the board at Dairy Farmers

Incorporated (DFI), the Floridian promotion board that is funded by the largest percentage of

producers' checkoff dollars, 29.3% (n=3) of respondents reported they were members of DFI' s

board, while 70.7% (n=41) reported they were not DFI board members. Table 4-7 represents

producers' responses.










Table 4-7. Membership of respondents on the Dairy Farmers Incorporated board.
Member status n %
No 41 70.7
Yes 17 29.3
Total 58 100.0

To better describe the saturation of respondents in the different regions of Florida, the state

was divided into four sections for this study (see Figure 2-1). In response to region of the state

where their operation is located, the maj ority of respondents (49. 1%, n=28) reported their farm

was located in north Florida, areas north of Interstate-4 (I-4) and south of Interstate-10 (I-10).

The second largest percentage of respondents (3 1.6%, n=18) claim farm residency in south

Florida, areas south of I-4. Only six respondents (10.5%) were representing the Panhandle, areas

west of Lafayette County, and the remaining five respondents (8.8%) reported farms located in

Lafayette County, and north of I-10 (see Table 4-8). One person did not respond to this question.

Table 4-8. Region of the state where respondents' farms are located.
Region n %
North Florida: north of I-4 to I-10 28 49.1
South Florida: areas south of I-4 18 31.6
Panhandle: areas west of Lafayette county 6 10.5
North Florida: Lafayette county and north of I-10 5 8.8
Total 57 100.0

Objective 1

*To describe Florida cooperative milk producers in terms of their locus of control score, as
well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information.

To address this obj ective, respondents were described on the internal-external locus of

control scale. Locus of control was described using a series of 13 pairs of questions. Each

question contained one statement that was associated with internal locus of control, and one

statement associated to external locus of control. Respondents were asked to pick which

statement in each pair that they agreed with the most. External locus of control statements were

denoted with the number 1 and internal locus of control statements were denoted with the










number 2. Respondents were categorized on the scale by the mean of their answers to the paired

questions. The majority of respondents (67.2%, n=39) had a higher frequency of "2" responses,

indicating an internal locus of control. The smaller percentage of respondents (32.8%, n=19) had

a higher frequency of "1" responses, indicating an external locus of control classification (see

Table 4-9).

Table 4-9. Respondents' classification on the internal-extemnal locus of control scale.
Scale classification n %
Internal 39 67.2
External 19 32.8
Total 58 100.0

In addition to locus of control, respondents were questioned on the ways in which they

receive information about the checkoff. Possible types of communication included receiving

information from fellow producers, DFI staff, farm/co-op meetings, and the DFI newsletter, the

Moo M~emo. Table 4-10 illustrates what percentage of respondents' answered "yes" to a type of

communication, and what percentage answered "no." The highest rated method (96.4%, n=54) of

communication to receive information about DFI' s promotional programs was DFI' s 2oo

Mm.The only communication category where the maj ority of respondents (52.6%, n=30)

answered "no" instead of "yes" was to receive information from fellow producers.

Table 4-10. Percentage of respondents who answered "yes" or "no" to different ways in which
they receive information about DFI' s promotional programs.
Information receipt n % Yes n % No
DFI' s Moo0 Memo 54 96.4 2 3.6
Farm/Co-op meetings 45 81.8 10 18.2
DFI staff 41 74.5 14 25.5
Fellow producers 27 47.4 30 52.6

Objective 2

*Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their
individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall.









In order to address perceived perceptions of the importance of the checkoff program,

respondents were asked their perceptions as to how important the overall checkoff program is to

their operations. The majority of respondents (37.9%, n=22) answered "somewhat important,"

indicating that while they did not believe the checkoff program was very important to their

operation, they did believe it was of some importance. The lowest percentage (8.6%, n=5) of

respondents answered "not important," indicating that only five respondents felt that the

checkoff was not important at all to their operation. A large percentage (60.3%, n=3 5) of

respondents indicated the checkoff had some level of value, 20.7% (n=12) indicated they were

neutral to the issue, and 19.0% (n=1 1) indicated the checkoff was not valuable to their operation

on some level. Table 4-11 illustrates respondents' ratings of the level of importance of the dairy

checkoff program to their operation.

Table 4-11i. Respondents' replies to the level of importance of the dairy checkoff program to
their dairy operation.
Importance level n %
4 (somewhat important) 22 37.9
5 (very important) 13 22.4
3 (neutral) 12 20.7
2 (somewhat not important) 6 10.4
1 (not important) 5 8.6
Total 58 100.0

To further understand respondents' perceptions of the importance of the checkoff program,

they were asked to answer 10 items that measured their perceptions of the importance of

promotional programs funded by the checkoff with regard to the dairy industry, and 10 items that

measured importance of those programs with regard to the respondents' operations. Table 4-12

reports the mean (M)1 and standard deviation (SD) for each promotional concept with respect to

the respondents' perception of importance to the dairy industry and to their own operations. The

mean was based on the scale of 1=not important, 2=1ittle importance, 3=neutral, 4=some










importance, 5=very important. In response to the items asking about the importance of

promotional concepts to the dairy industry, the item with the highest mean (M=-4.60, SD=0.74)

was "Improve the handling and presentation of milk in school cafeterias." The item with the

lowest mean (M=-4.28, SD=1.01) was "Encourage food manufacturers to use more dairy

ingredients." In response to the items asking about the importance of promotional concepts to

the respondents' individual operations, the item with the highest mean was "Defend the image of

dairy against claims of anti-dairy activists." Two items shared the lowest mean, including

"Encourage food manufacturers to use more dairy ingredients" (M=-4.05, SD=1.15) and

"Maintain awareness of milk and cheese through advertising" (M=-4.05, SD=1.14).

Table 4-12.. Respondents' perceptions of promotional concepts and their importance to the dairy
industry and their operation.


Industry


Operation/


4.60*

4.56

4.53

4.52

4.52

4.44

4.43

4.42

4.31

4.28**


Farm

4.38

4.30

4.32

4.41*

4.36

4.16

4.32

4.14

4.05**

4.05**


Promotional concept
Improve the handling and presentation of
milk in school cafeterias.
Conduct research to show the nutritional
value of dairy products.
Teach kids in schools about the healthfulness
of dairy products.
Defend the image of dairy against claims of
anti-dairy activists.
Influence how health professionals feel about
dairy products.
Promote awareness of dairy products among
consumers .
Work with retail and restaurant chains to sell
more milk and cheese.
Place positive messages about dairy in
consumer media.
Maintain awareness of milk and cheese
through advertising.
Encourage food manufacturers to use more
dairy ingredients.
* Concept ~I ithr the highest mean.
** Concept ~I ithr the lowest mean.


SD
0.74

0.72

0.81

0.80

0.84

0.77

0.88

0.88

0.93

1.01


SD
0.96

1.03

1.05

0.91

0.98

1.01

0.99

1.05

1.14

1.15









In order to address perceptions as to the overall value of the checkoff program, respondents

were asked to rate the value of the dairy checkoff program to the dairy industry (see Table 4-13).

The maj ority of respondents (39.7%, n=23) indicated the checkoff program has some value, and

(22.4%, n=13) indicated the checkoff program is very valuable to the dairy industry. Overall,

62. 1% (n=36) of respondents felt the checkoff was valuable on some level to the industry. Only

four respondents (6.9%) indicated the checkoff had no value to the dairy industry, while 8.6%

(n=5) of respondents indicated the checkoff had little value. Only 13 respondents (22.4%)

(n=13) were neutral to the issue.

Table 4-13. Respondents' replies to the level of value of the dairy checkoff program to the dairy
industry.
Value level n %
4 (some value) 23 39.7
5 (very valuable) 13 22.4
3 (neutral) 13 22.4
2 (little value) 5 8.6
1 (not valuable) 4 6.9
Total 58 100.0

To further address the value of the checkoff program, respondents were asked to measure

the value of seven specific promotional programs in Florida managed by Dairy Farmers

Incorporated (DFI). Table 4-14 illustrates respondents' perceptions regarding these programs.

Response items utilized a Likert-like response scale using 1=not valuable to 5=very valuable.

Results showed that the program with the highest percentage of respondents (53.4%, n=3 1)

denoting a rating of 5, or very valuable, was the "Media Relations" category. Two other

program categories were rated "very valuable" by over half of respondents including "Industry

Relations Image" with 51.7% (n=30) and "Grocery Store Promotions" with 50.0% (n=28).

The lowest rated programs according to respondents included the "Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of

the Game," with 39.7% (n=32) of respondents rating the program neutral to not valuable, and










"Florida Dairy Farmers High School Awards" with 50.0% (n=29) of respondents rating the

program neutral to not valuable. Two people did not respond to the "New Look of School Milk"

and "Grocery Store Promotions" categories. One person did not respond to the "3-A-Day of

Dairy Advertising" category.

Table 4-14. Respondents' perceptions of the value of specific Florida promotional programs
managed by Dairy Farmers, Inc (DFI).
% of respondents who answered scaled items from 1 (not
valuable) to 5 (very valuable).
Promotional Program n 1 n 2 n 3 n 4 n 5
Media Relations 1 3.4 0 0.0 9 15.5 16 27.6 31 53.4
Industry Relations Image 2 3.4 0 0.0 9 15.5 17 29.3 30 51.7
Grocery Store Promotions 0 0.0 1 1.8 7 12.5 20 35.7 28 50.0
New Look of School Milk 1 1.8 1 1.8 7 12.5 20 35.7 27 48.2
3-A-Day of Dairy Advertising 4 7.0 3 5.3 14 24.6 16 28.1 20 35.1
Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of 6 10.3 10 17.2 16 27.6 15 25.9 11 19.0
the Game
Florida Dairy Farmers High 4 6.9 4 6.9 21 36.2 20 34.5 9 15.5
School Awards

Table 4-15 shows respondents' mean scores when rating the promotional programs.

"Grocery Store Promotions" was the item with the highest mean of 4.34 (SD=0.77) on a 5-point

scale. Two people did not rate this program. The lowest-rated program, reporting the lowest

mean (3.26, SD=1.25) according to respondents, was the "Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of the

Game" program.

Table 4-15. Respondents' perceptions of the value of specific Florida promotional programs
managed by DFI (mean).
Promotional Program n MSD
Grocery Store Promotions 56 4.34 0.77
Media Relations 58 4.28 0.97
New Look of School Milk 56 4.27 0.88
Industry Relations Image 58 4.26 0.97
3-A-Day of Dairy Advertising 57 3.79 1.19
Florida Dairy Farmers High School Awards 58 3.45 1.06
Got milk? Junior Gator Fan of the Game 58 3.26 1.25









In order to determine respondents' perceptions regarding category competition, they were

asked to rate how strongly they disagreed or agreed that dairy producers need promotional efforts

to compete with other food and beverage companies. Table 4-16 shows that 80.8% (n=46) of

respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the statement. Results reported a mean of 4.09

(SD=1.04), indicating that most respondents indicated they agreed on some level that

promotional efforts are necessary for the dairy category to compete with other food and beverage

categories. Four respondents (6.9%) indicated they were in some level of disagreement that

promotional efforts on this issue were necessary. Only 12.3% (n=7) of respondents were neutral

on the issue. One person did not respond to this question.

Table 4-16. Respondents' level of agreement that dairy producers need promotional efforts to
compete with other food and beverage companies.
Level of agreement n %
4 (agree) 23 40.4
5 (strongly agree) 23 40.4
3 (neutral) 7 12.3
1 (strongly disagree) 3 5.2
2 (disagree) 1 1.7
Total 57 100.0

Objective 3

*To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the need for,
effectiveness of, levels of participation in, and factors that prevent producers from
participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing.

To determine respondents' perceptions related to the need for entrepreneurial marketing,

they were asked if they believed it was necessary to promote their farm in addition to the

marketing and promotion provided by their mandatory checkoff investment. Respondents were

almost equally divided on this issue with 50.9% (n=29) believing entrepreneurial promotion was

not necessary, and 49.1% (n=28) believing entrepreneurial promotion was necessary (see Table

4-17). One person did not answer this question.










Table 4-17. Respondents' perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing.
Level of agreement n %
No 29 50.9
Yes 28 49.1

In order to determine respondents' perceptions on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial

marketing, they were asked three individually scaled items (see Table 4-18). First, respondents

were asked if they believed a website was an effective way to generate interest in dairy

production. The mean score for the respondents was 2.77 (n=56) on a 5-point scale. Because

mean values can be deceiving, it is important to note the mode in each category. The majority of

respondents (41.1%, n=23) to this item scored a "neutral" rating of 3. Two people did not

respond to this item. Respondents were then asked if they felt farm tours could effectively

generate interest in dairy production. The mean score for the respondents was 3.49 (n=57) on a

5-point scale. The majority of respondents (29.8%, n=17) to this item scored an "agree" rating

of 4. One person did not respond to this item. Lastly, respondents were asked if they felt an

employee newsletter could effectively benefit their operation. The mean score for the

respondents was 2.46 (n=56) on a 5-point scale. The majority of respondents (48.2%, n=27) to

this item scored a "neutral" rating of 3. Two people did not respond to this item.

Table 4-18. Respondents' perceptions of the effectiveness of selected entrepreneurial marketing
activities.
Effectiveness of entrepreneurial program n MSD M~ode
Farm Tours 57 3.49 1.17 4
Web site 56 2.77 1.91 3
Newsletter 56 2.46 0.97 3

In order to address respondents' levels of participation in entrepreneurial marketing,

respondents were asked if they were investing money in the promotion of their operation in

addition to the checkoff (see Table 4-19). The maj ority of respondents (66. 1% n=37) reported

they were not investing any money in farm promotion in addition to their checkoff investment.










The remaining respondents (33.9%, n=19) reported they were investing money into the

promotion of their farm in addition to their checkoff investment. Two people did not answer this

question.

Table 4-19. Respondents' investing in entrepreneurial promotion.
Level of agreement n %
No 37 66.1
Yes 19 33.9

To further address levels of participation in entrepreneurial marketing, respondents were

asked what types of entrepreneurial activities they support. Table 4-20 shows the majority of

respondents (89.3%, n=50) do not maintain a farm/company website. Two people did not

respond to this item. Respondents were equally divided on their participation in farm tours. Half

of respondents (50.0%, n=29) responded "yes," and 50.0% (n=29) responded "no." One person

did not answer this item. The maj ority of respondents (94.5%, n=52) reported "no" when asked

if they maintained a farm/employee/company newsletter. Three people did not respond to this

item. The maj ority of respondents (89. 1%, n=49) reported they did not maintain a farm

brand/logo. Three people did not respond to this item. Finally, four respondents (7.1%) reported

entrepreneurial items in the "other" category. Those items included selling milk and beef

directly to the consumer, classes on hoof trimming, and education of youth on calf procedures

and milking operation.

Table 4-20. Respondents' participation in specific entrepreneurial activities.
Entrepreneurial activity n % Yes n % No n Total
Farm tours 29 50.0 29 50.0 58
Farm brand/logo 6 10.9 49 89.1 55
Farm/company Website 6 10.7 50 89.3 56
Other 4 7.1 52 92.9 56
F arm/empl oy ee/comp any 3 5.5 52 94.5 55
newsletter










Respondents were asked a series of "yes/no" items to address the issue of non-

participation. These items related to resources that respondents felt they would need in order to

participate in more entrepreneurial marketing (see Table 4-21). The majority of respondents

(63.0%, n=34) felt they would participate in more entrepreneurial marketing if they had more

time. Four people did not respond to this item. The maj ority of respondents (52.7, n=29)

responded "yes," believing they would participate in more entrepreneurial marketing if they had

more money. Three people did not answer this item. The majority of respondents (58.5%,

n=31) reported "no" when asked if more people was a resource that would help them participate

in more entrepreneurial marketing. Five people did not respond to this item. The majority of

respondents (62.3%, n=33) reported "no," when asked if more training would help them

participate in more entrepreneurial marketing. Five people did not respond to this item. Finally,

three respondents (5.6%) reported needed resources in the "other" category. Those items

included more energy and higher profits.

Table 4-21. Respondents' perceptions of resources needed to participate in more entrepreneurial
marketing efforts.
Yes No
Resource n % n %
More time 34 63.0 20 37.0
More money 29 52.7 26 47.3
More people 22 41.5 31 58.5
More training 20 37.7 33 62.3
Other 3 5.6 51 94.4

Objective 4

*Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score with
regard to their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry and
importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation.

A cross tabulation analysis was employed to describe respondents' perceptions of the value

of the checkoff program to the dairy industry based on their locus of control score (see Table 4-

22). The maj ority of respondents with an internal locus of control (69.4%, n=25) indicated the










checkoff program was of value to the dairy industry, while 5.6% (n=2) indicated the checkoff

was of little to no value. The maj ority of respondents with an external locus of control (47.3%,

n=9) denoted the checkoff program was of value to the dairy industry, while 3 1.6% (n=6)

denoted the checkoff program was of little to no value to the dairy industry.

Table 4-22. Respondents' perceptions about the value of the checkoff program to the dairy
industry with relation to their locus of control scale classification.
Scale classification n Moderately not n Neutral n Moderately
valuable to not valuable to very
valuable valuable
Internal 2 5.6 9 25.0 25 69.4
External 6 31.6 4 21.1 9 47.3

The importance of the checkoff program to respondents' individual operation was also

addressed based on locus of control score (see Table 4-23). The maj ority of respondents with an

internal locus of control (69.4%, n=25) indicated the checkoff program was important to their

operation, while 1 1.1% (n=4) indicated the checkoff was of little to no importance to their dairy

operation. The majority of respondents with an external locus of control (42. 1%, n=8) denoted

the checkoff program was important to their operation, while 3 1.6% (n=6) denoted the checkoff

program was of little to no importance to their individual operation.

Table 4-23. Respondents' perceptions about the importance of the checkoff program to their
dairy operation with relation to their locus of control scale classification.
Scale classification n Little to no n Neutral n Important to
importance very important
Internal 4 11.1 7 19.5 25 69.4
External 6 31.6 5 26.3 8 42.1

Objective 5

*To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score with regard to their
need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

A cross tabulation analysis was employed to describe respondents' perceptions of the need

for entrepreneurial marketing efforts in addition to the checkoff, based on their locus of control










score (see Table 4-24). The maj ority of respondents with an internal locus of control (63.9%,

n=23) indicated entrepreneurial marketing was necessary to promote dairy, while 36.1% (n=13)

indicated there was no perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing. The maj ority of

respondents with an external locus of control (72.2%, n=13) denoted entrepreneurial marketing

was not necessary to promote dairy, while 27.8% (n=5) indicated there was a need for marketing

efforts in addition to the checkoff program.

Table 4-24. Respondents' perceptions for the need of entrepreneurial marketing efforts to
promote dairy in addition to the checkoff program based on their locus of control
score.
Perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing
Scale classification n % No n % Yes
Internal 13 36.1 23 63.9
External 13 72.2 5 27.8

Respondents' investment in entrepreneurial marketing was addressed, based on locus of

control score (see Table 4-25). The maj ority of respondents with an internal locus of control

(57. 1%, n=20) indicated they were not investing money for the promotion of dairy in addition to

their checkoff investment. Many respondents (42.9%, n=15) indicated they were investing

money in entrepreneurial marketing efforts beyond their mandatory checkoff investment. The

maj ority of respondents with an external locus of control (83.3%, n=15) responded they were not

investing any additional funds into the promotion of dairy in addition to their mandatory

investment. Only three respondents (16.7%) indicated they were investing in the promotion of

dairy beyond their checkoff investment.

Table 4-25. Respondents' investment in entrepreneurial activity based on their intemal-extemal
locus of control score.
Entrepreneurial investment in addition to checkoff program
Scale classification n % No n % Yes
Internal 20 57.1 15 42.9
External 15 83.3 3 16.7









Summary

This chapter presented the results of the study organized by the research obj ectives

presented in Chapter 1. Basic descriptive statistics were used to describe the population for this

study, their locus of control score, their perceptions regarding the importance and value of their

mandatory marketing investment, and their perceptions regarding entrepreneurial marketing.

The next chapter will present a summary of findings, conclusions of those findings, discussion,

and implications of this research study.









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

This study explored the perceptions of Floridian members of the dairy cooperative

Southeast Milk, Incorporated (SMI) regarding mandatory (checkoff) and entrepreneurial

marketing based on their locus of control score. Specifically, the study examined respondents'

perceptions of the value of the checkoff to the dairy industry, and the importance of the checkoff

to their individual operation. The perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing and the level at

which producers participate in identified entrepreneurial marketing efforts were also described.

The survey instrument consisted of 25 questions designed to gain a clear understanding of

respondents' perceptions regarding the marketing of their commodity. The survey was mailed to

the census population (N=1 18) in a series of three waves.

This chapter presents key findings of the study, implications, limitations,

recommendations, suggestions for future research, and conclusions. This chapter is arranged by

the guiding objectives of the study. Those obj ectives are as follows:

* Obj ective 1: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers in terms of their locus of
control score, as well as their exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff information.

* Objective 2: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
importance of the mandatory marketing (checkoff) to the dairy industry, as well as their
individual operations, and their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program overall.

* Obj ective 3: To describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the
need for, effectiveness of, levels of participation in, and factors that prevent producers
from participating in entrepreneurial dairy marketing.

* Objective 4: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score in
terms of their perceptions of the value of the checkoff program to the dairy industry and
importance of the checkoff to their dairy operation.

* Objective 5: To describe Florida cooperative dairy producers' locus of control score in
terms of their need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.










Key Findings and Implications


Demographics

A total of 58 Florida members of the dairy cooperative SMI responded to the study, for an

overall response rate of 49.2%. Key demographics as reported by respondents included age,

herd size, and region of the state their operation was located. The majority of respondents

(45.6%, n=26) ranged in age from 50-64, and 40.4% (n=23) were ages 35-49. These results echo

Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI) statistics citing the average age of the Florida dairy

owner/operator is 56 (http://www.floridamilk.com/didyouknow.htm) The largest portion of

respondents (31.6%, n=18) reported they milked 100-499 cows in their operation, 28. 1% (n=16)

had a herd size of 500-999 milking cows, and 21.1% (n=12) reported a herd size of 1000-1999.

Only 10.5% (n=6) reported a herd size of 99 milking cow or less, while 8.8% (n=5) reported a

herd size of 2000 or more milking cows. Gisey, de Vries, Bray, and Webb (2006) reported the

average herd size for Florida farms was approximately 730 cows. The maj ority of respondents

(49. 1%, n=28) reported their farm was located in north Florida, areas north of Interstate-4 (I-4)

and south of Interstate-10 (I-10), 31.6% (n=18) claim farm residency in south Florida, areas

south of I-4, six respondents (10.5%) were representing the Panhandle, areas west of Lafayette

County, and the remaining five respondents (8.8%) reported farms located in Lafayette County,

and in areas north of I-10.

Objective 1

Locus of control is a construct that originates from Rotter' s social learning theory, which

explains that a person' s actions can be predicted on the basis of values, expectations, and

situations a person finds themselves in (Lefcourt, 1982). The theory is based on the internal-

external scale that "measures an individual's perception of how much control he is able to exert

over the events in his life" (Miller & Toulouse, 1986, p. 1392). Based on the data associated









with Obj ective 1, the maj ority of respondents (67.2%) were categorized as having an internal

locus of control, while the remaining 32.8% were categorized as demonstrating responses

associated with an external locus of control. These results indicate that most dairy producers in

Florida are more likely to make decisions regarding marketing based on the characteristics

associated with internal locus of control. Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell (2003) conducted a study

investigating the relationship between locus of control and agricultural producer propensity to

adopt innovations and participate in extension programs. They reported that "individuals with a

strong internal locus of control believe that they can influence many events in their lives" (p. 2).

Additionally, the authors deduced that producers with an internal locus of control were more

likely to seek opportunities that would improve their skill base, more likely to exhibit a high

propensity to adopt innovations, and more likely to participate in extension or benchmark

programs (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 9). Following this description, it can be implied that dairy

producers with a more internal locus of control are more open to entrepreneurial marketing, and

more likely to participate in innovative behavior.

Conversely, Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell (2003) reported "individuals with a strong

external locus of control believe that there is little they can do to influence events that occur in

their lives" (p. 2). Those producers with a more external locus of control would be less likely to

try any new techniques and technologies, less likely to exhibit a high propensity to adopt

innovations, and less likely to participate in extension or benchmarking programs than other

producers (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 9). It can be implied that dairy producers that scored "external"

in this study are less likely to take risks associated with entrepreneurial marketing.

Additionally, Objective 1 described producers' exposure to mandatory marketing checkoff

information. It was important to first determine how much access producers had to information










regarding their mandatory promotional investment before exploring their perceptions of the

programs' value and importance. In order to determine receipt of checkoff information,

respondents were asked to explain how they receive information about promotional programs

that are organized and managed by Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI), which is funded by dairy

producer checkoff dollars. Possible types of communication included receiving information

from fellow producers, DFI staff, farm/co-op meetings, and the DFI newsletter, the Moo0 Memo.

The highest-rated method of communication was DFI' s 2oo 2emo, while the lowest-rated

communication category was to receive information from fellow producers. These findings

indicate that DFI' s newsletter is the most utilized method for producers to learn how their

checkoff investment dollars are being spent in the promotion of the dairy industry and its

products.

Objective 2

Obj ective 2 was to describe Florida cooperative milk producers' perceptions regarding the

value and importance of the checkoff to the dairy industry overall, as well as describe their

perceptions of the importance of the checkoff program to their individual operations. The

maj ority of respondents (60.3%) agreed the checkoff program overall had some level of value to

their dairy operations. Because this was an overarching question, respondents were also asked to

rate the importance of several promotional goals of the checkoff program to understand which

promotional concepts were most important to the overall dairy industry, and which were most

important to dairy producers' individual operations.

When addressing the overall dairy industry, the promotional concept producers rated of

highest importance was to "Improve the handling and presentation of milk in school cafeterias."

The lowest rated category was to "Encourage food manufacturers to use more dairy ingredients."

Because 88% of the milk produced in Florida is sold as fluid milk, school cafeterias are a large










part of milk sales. In 2005, Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI) implemented school marketing

with the "New Look of School Milk" program which replaced conventional milk cartons with

plastic resalable bottles, and offered more flavors of milk. This improved presentation of milk in

cafeterias, coupled with keeping milk at a cold temperature, can improve consumption of milk in

the schools and increase sales of milk in Florida. Survey responses indicate that Florida

producers agree this is an important promotional concept.

In response to the items asking about the importance of promotional concepts to the

respondents' individual operations, producers agreed that to "Defend the image of dairy against

claims of anti-dairy activists" was of highest importance to their operations. Animal activists

have had little influence on demand for animal products, but have increased public concern about

food safety (Zimbelman, Wilson, Bennett, & Curtis, 1995). Increasingly strong media coverage

of food safety can have an effect on the public's perception of animal agriculture. The more

educated consumers are to their food supply and assurance of its safety, the more positive

associations consumers will have regarding their purchases.

Two items were seen as the lowest in terms of importance to producers' operations. These

items included "Encourage food manufacturers to use more dairy ingredients" and "Maintain

awareness of milk and cheese through advertising." As mentioned in Chapter 2, the milk

category is dominated by private label, and the low percentage of branded products in this

category puts milk at a disadvantage due to the challenges inherent to marketing a category as

opposed to a brand (USDA, 2005). One strong way consumers will make a positive association

connected with the purchase of milk is through advertising. Milk needs to be competitive, and

consumers need to be more educated on dairy products benefits as well as consumer options in

the dairy case, such as chocolate, strawberry, and other flavored milk. Mandatory marketing










programs can accomplish this promotion. It can be implied that because respondents of this

study rated maintaining the awareness of milk and cheese through advertising as one of the

lowest promotional concepts of importance that they may not fully understand the impact

advertising has on their category.

However, respondents were clear on their perceptions regarding category competition.

When asked to rate how strongly they disagreed or agreed that dairy producers need promotional

efforts to compete with other food and beverage companies, 80.8% of respondents agreed.

Because Florida milk producers are under federal order 6, approximately 88% of all milk is sold

under the classification of dairy products "Class I." Class I consists of fluid milk products and is

the highest-priced order (Stukenberg et al., 2006). Some respondents may have rated cheese

(Class III) advertisement low, as they did not see the direct connection to their operation.

However, the highest-priced classification of dairy products between Class III (cheese), or Class

IV (powdered milk) sets the price for Class I (fluid milk). Therefore, producers should be

concerned with the advertisement of all dairy products, and not just the class utilization of their

farm milk. The higher the cheese price, the higher the fluid milk category will be priced.

In response to the value, 62. 1% of respondents felt the checkoff was valuable on some

level to the overall dairy industry. Dairy Farmers Incorporated (DFI) has launched several

promotional programs, funded by producers' checkoff dollars, to promote dairy throughout the

state of Florida. Respondents were asked to rank the value of DFI' s current program categories

in order to understand where producers feel their money is best spent. Results showed that there

were three programs or program categories that 50.0% or more of respondents highly valued,

including "Media Relations," "Industry Relations Image," and "Grocery Store Promotions."

The aforementioned "New Look of School Milk" program was rated very valuable by 48.2% of










respondents. The lowest-rated programs according to respondents included the "Got milk?

Junior Gator Fan of the Game," with 39.7% of respondents rating the program neutral to not

valuable, and "Florida Dairy Farmers High School Awards," with 50.0% of respondents rating

the program neutral to not valuable.

These responses indicate that producers may be more concerned with media relations,

industry image, and grocery store promotions than sports marketing programs in Florida.

However, sports marketing reaches consumers that may otherwise remained untouched by

traditional forms of advertisement. For milk to be competitive, the mass marketing efforts of

advertising must reach as many consumers as possible. Educating producers on the value of

these sports-marketing related programs could help increase their importance to producers.

Objective 3

Objective 3 explored producers' perceptions of entrepreneurial marketing. The study first

identified respondents' perceived need for entrepreneurial marketing efforts in addition to the

checkoff. Respondents were almost equally divided on this issue, with 50.9% believing

entrepreneurial promotion was not necessary, and 49. 1% denoting they believed entrepreneurial

promotion was necessary.

Next, respondents were asked to describe the effectiveness of entrepreneurial marketing for

promotion of the dairy industry. Entrepreneurial promotion was defined for this study as

promotion that is funded by producers in addition to their mandatory checkoff investment.

Entrepreneurial activities included websites and farm tours.

In response to entrepreneurial marketing efforts, 23.2% of respondents indicated that farm

websites were effective in promoting the dairy industry, 41.1% of respondents indicated they

were neutral, and 35.7% believed websites were not an effective method to promote the dairy

industry. Proctor (1999) explained a total marketing communications strategy is crucial when









identifying the target audience and attracting customers to products or services. In addition,

Sharma and Sheth (2004) stated "The web is growing at a dramatic pace and is significantly

impacting customer and business market behaviors" (p. 696). The low agreement between

respondents and the effectiveness of a website indicates that most respondents may not

understand the impact the Internet has on its consumers. This implication could be based on the

high age of respondents. Bucy (2000) reported that age was negatively associated with Internet

use, suggesting older respondents use the Internet less. While Internet usage is growing in all

age groups, respondents to this study may not be highly represented on the Web.

When describing the effectiveness of entrepreneurial marketing, 52.6% of respondents

indicated farm tours were effective in promoting the dairy industry, 26.3% of respondents

indicated they were neutral, and 21.1% believed farm tours were not an effective method to

promote the dairy industry. Wallace et al. (2005) concluded that "trust could positively influence

consumers' decision on future purchase" (p. 844). One recommendation was the implementation

of farm visits or tours to educate consumers about the origins of their food, help foster links with

local farmers, showing they care and building trust with farmers (Wallace et al., 2005). Results

from this study echo that conclusion. The maj ority of respondents agreed that farm tours are an

effective way to promote dairy. Because a farm tour is a direct connection to the producers, it

can be assumed that they would feel strongly that educating people on their business can help

promote their industry.

Given producers' perceptions of the need for and effectiveness of entrepreneurial

marketing, respondents were asked to identify their level of participation in entrepreneurial

marketing efforts. When asked about their investment in entrepreneurial marketing, 33.9%

(n=19) of respondents reported they were investing money into the promotion of their farm in









addition to their checkoff investment. To gain a clearer understanding of where their

entrepreneurial dollars were going, respondents were asked what specific entrepreneurial

activities they were investing in. The highest-rated forms of entrepreneurial activity were

identified with 50.0% of respondents participating in farm tours, 10.9% having a farm brand or

logo, and 10.7% maintaining a farm/company website.

Objective 4

Previous Objectives described respondents' locus of control score, perceptions of value of

the checkoff to the dairy industry, and perceptions of importance of the checkoff program to their

individual operations. Obj ective 4 combined these variables to determine how locus of control

score corresponded to respondents' perceptions of value and importance of the checkoff.

In response to value, the 69.4% of respondents with an internal locus of control indicated

the checkoff program was of value to the dairy industry, while 47.3% of respondents with an

external locus of control denoted the checkoff program was of value to the dairy industry.

The maj ority (69.4%) of respondents with an internal locus of control indicated the

checkoff program was important to their operation, while 42. 1% of respondents with an external

locus of control denoted the checkoff program was important to their operation.

Mueller and Thomas (2000) cited Rotter's description of individuals saying an "intemal"

individual believes they have influence over the outcomes of a situation through ability, effort, or

skills, and "externals" believe forces outside their control determine outcomes. It can be implied

that the respondents with an internal locus of control possessed more of a "buy-in" to the

checkoff program, feeling as if they had influence in the programs value and importance, while

respondents with an external locus of control felt that mandatory marketing of dairy is outside

their control, therefore harder to place value upon.









Objective 5

This study's final Obj ective involved describing Florida cooperative dairy producers'

perceptions of the need for and investment in entrepreneurial marketing efforts with regard to

their locus of control score. The maj ority (63.9%) of respondents with an internal locus of

control indicated entrepreneurial marketing was necessary to promote dairy, while only 27.8% of

respondents with an external locus of control indicated entrepreneurial marketing was necessary.

Entrepreneurial behavior represents a more informal type of marketing relying on the intuition

and energy of an individual (Stokes, 2000). Internal locus of control and innovativeness are two

frequently cited personal traits associated with entrepreneurial potential (Mueller & Thomas,

2000). That being said, one would predict that producers with a higher internal locus of control

would be more open to entrepreneurial behavior. This study's finding resonated with this

assumption. More than half of internal locus of control producers felt a need for entrepreneurial

marketing. The external locus of control producers were opposite, with only 27.8% feeling

entrepreneurial marketing was necessary.

Kaine, Sandall, and Bewsell (2003) reported that "individuals with a strong internal locus

of control believe that they can influence many events in their lives" while "individuals with a

strong external locus of control believe that there is little they can do to influence events that

occur in their lives" (Kaine et al., 2003, p. 2). Because people with an internal locus of control

believe the outcome of events are within their personal control, it can be concluded that the

internal locus of control producers are more likely to take a risk and invest in dairy

entrepreneurially. Regarding participation, 42.9% of respondents in this study with an internal

locus of control responded they were investing money in entrepreneurial marketing efforts

beyond their mandatory checkoff investment, while only three respondents (16.7%) with an









external locus of control score indicated they were investing in the promotion of dairy beyond

their checkoff investment.

This study found 67.2% of respondents had an internal locus of control, and 32.8% had an

external locus of control. Overall, only 33.9% of all respondents in the study (internal and

external locus of control scored) indicated they were investing in entrepreneurial promotion,

while almost half (49.0%) of all respondents indicated a need for entrepreneurial promotion.

Limitations

This study was descriptive in nature and unique to the census population it addressed.

Results from this study, therefore, can not be generalized beyond this population. Even so, much

can be learned from this study and applied to future research.

One strength of this study was the use of a census of cooperative dairy producers in the

state of Florida, belonging to Southeast Milk, Incorporated (SMI). In addition, the response rate

for this study was 49.2%, which was deemed satisfactory for the population. Nonresponse error

was addressed in Chapter 4, by comparing early and late respondents, showing each group to be

similar with regard to value and importance of the checkoff program, and need for and

participation in entrepreneurial marketing efforts.

The instrument used in this study (see Appendix C) was lengthy. While efforts were made

to facilitate item-response in a user-friendly format, a few of the respondents made comments

that some questions were confusing. Even in the presence of question-by-question directions and

opportunity for each question to be answered, some respondents skipped certain questions

throughout the survey. While there was no particular pattern to missing items overall, these

missing values may have had an effect on the results of the study.

While the mailed survey method was the best option when considering the study's

population, it may have somewhat hindered response rate. The method took a long period of










time with a slow response rate between waves. Given more time, a fourth wave of surveys

would have drawn a larger response rate. In addition, this method was expensive when totaling

the printing of survey packet materials, cost of envelopes, and cost of mailing three waves to the

population.

Recommendations

Results of this study provide opportunity for recommendations in theory, directions for

future research, and practice.

Recommendations for Theory

The main theoretical framework for this study was Rotter' s locus of control, which was

based on Rotter's social learning theory. There is great opportunity for an extension of this

theory in the realm of agricultural communications. Personality has a great effect on the way we

communicate, and the personality characteristics associated with locus of control have great

implications on the way producers receive information, or distribute it.

Additionally, the media theory of uses and gratifications can have valuable insight into the

uses of media and consumer perceptions of agriculture. Wimmer and Dominick (1994)

explained that uses and gratifications theory began in the 1940s when researchers became

interested in why audiences engaged in various forms of media behavior, such as reading the

newspaper or listening to the radio. Determining what media consumers use to gain information

about dairy production and dairy products could better help producers and agricultural

communicators understand what type of media to utilize for promotion. The Internet and other

forms of instant gratification media are continuing to increase in popularity and agriculturalists

should seize the opportunity to connect with consumers this way. This study showed that the

maj ority of producers do not feel a website is an effective way to promote the dairy industry.

Research in this area could prove otherwise.









Hutton (1996) explained integrated marketing communications (IMC) has long-term

implications to help create communications that help create relationships instead of simply

persuading potential buyers. IMC had great potential in the industries related to agriculture.

DFI, and other marketing arms of the dairy industry along with cooperatives and producers can

join forces to better communicate dairy together. More localized marketing efforts would

promote the dairy farms in various communities reaching the local population and letting

producers see how their farm is impacting their community. Marketing associations such as DFI

could develop materials to promote farm tours to producers. This study showed farm tours are a

favorable way of promotion by producers. Having materials to aid producers in achieving

successful farm tours would increase their occurrence. Additionally, DFI could team with a

website developer or professional agricultural communicator to create farm website templates

allowing dairy farmers to create their own farm website quickly and cost-effectively. These

types of tools would give producers a tangible reward for their efforts and having a convenient

means to perform these types of entrepreneurial marketing could benefit all involved in the

industry.

This study proved that producers differed in their perceptions of mandatory and

entrepreneurial marketing based on their locus of control score on the internal-external scale.

Understanding how this theory applies to the agricultural industry can benefit agricultural

communicators, as well as consumers of their commodities. This study revealed that producers

with an external locus of control tended to be less innovative and less likely to distribute or seek

information through more entrepreneurial media, including websites. These producers are not

likely to utilize DFI' s website to receive information regarding their checkoff. With external

producers, DFI's monthly newsletter, The Moo0 Memo, is a great way to communicate with these










producers. Additionally, producers valued the face-to-face interaction with consumers. DFI

should communicate on a more frequent basis with producers in this manner to strengthen

communication with the two groups. Many producers may miss a meeting with DFI due to

unexpected issues related to their operations. More frequently help meetings in all regions of the

state would improve relations between the groups and better educate producers on their

mandatory investment.

Directions for Future Research

Although this study focused specifically on the perceptions of dairy producers in the state

of Florida regarding mandatory and entrepreneurial dairy marketing, research in other states is

essential to further understand the importance of promotion to the dairy industry. While many

dairy studies focus on consumer perceptions, more research should be done with producers to

help promote the industry effectively.

It would also be important to survey producers on not just state promotional programs such

as DFI, but national promotional programs as well. Because producers have a heavy investment

in the checkoff, it is to the benefit of promotional groups to understand what is important to the

producer. These promotional groups must meet the demands of their consumer audience as well

as the producers who fund the promotion.

In addition to dairy, other commodity groups involved in a checkoff program should

investigate the issues of producer perceptions regarding programs the checkoff implements.

Because the producers are the key stakeholders in a checkoff program, it would logically be

concluded that promotional groups should pay close attention to the producers' perceptions of

importance and value of their programs.

A follow-up study conducted with a different type of research design could further build

on the results presented here. An experimental design that would give producers something to









react to could help gain a clearer understanding of how locus of control effects producer

perceptions of marketing. A qualitative design utilizing a focus group or interview process

would extend on the census population presented in this study and dig deeper into how

producers' perceptions affect their decisions regarding entrepreneurial marketing. Employing a

mixed-method design would add more insights regarding producers' perceptions of marketing.

Barriers and constraints to entrepreneurial marketing should also be further studied. This

research unveiled that many producers feel entrepreneurial marketing is necessary beyond the

checkoff, but a small majority were actually participating in these marketing efforts. A study

that explores the perceptions of these barriers and constraints would shed new light on how

agricultural communicators can bridge the gap between the need and execution of

entrepreneurial promotion.

Recommendations for Practice

Langinier and Babcock (2005) stated that "consumers are in general less informed than

producers about the quality of agricultural goods" (p. 1). Consumers are most likely to seek out

information on a topic, in this case dairy production, through communication with a trustworthy

source (Wallace, Yee, Yeung, & Morris, 2005). Successful construction of trust between the

dairy producer and the public can be an effective way to not only increase public trust of the

dairy industry and the foods it provides, but also increase awareness of dairy production

methods. Producers spend countless hours and economic resources to ensure their products meet

rigorous health standards set by state and national officials. Educating consumers through not

only advertisement, but direct connections with producers could have positive rewards for the

industry as a whole.

Producers should also be further educated on the marketing practices they fund, and their

options for entrepreneurial marketing activity. A more solid educational effort to producers










laying out the value of marketing would help producers understand the need for marketing

efforts. Additionally, the value of seeking out a professional agricultural communicator to better

develop entrepreneurial marketing strategies could benefit the producers' operations and the

consumer awareness of dairy production.

In addition, stronger communication between commodity groups and producers on the

benefits of advertising is necessary. Producers who are far removed from the process of

advertising should be educated on its benefits to fully understand the dispersal of funds to certain

promotional programs. DFI should expand on current efforts to better educate producers on

where their checkoff investment is being spent. While the maj ority of respondents to this survey

felt the checkoff was of some value, many did not make the connection to the value of

advertising. More aggressive efforts from DFI to educate their key stakeholders would help

better make the connection between advertising and consumer perceptions of dairy.

Producers cited "more time" as the resource they most needed in order to participate in

entrepreneurial efforts. Outsourcing people to help producers in this area would better equip

producers to carry out entrepreneurial activities. These agricultural communications

professionals could help producers develop websites, newsletters, or materials for farm tours.

For example, DFI could help producers manage their time by providing producers with a talking

points sheet in the event that guests arrive on their farm. This would help producers have an

educational resource to draw upon quickly in order to provide visitors with accurate information.

In addition, providing producers with bio-security materials such as plastic boots, and

promotional materials such as pencils or other related materials with educational information on

the dairy industry would add to the touring experience for the visitor, better educate them on the

industry, and help the producer facility public good will with his/her guests. Promotional










materials are currently available to producers, but many do not know of their availability.

Increased communication between DFI and producers on marketing materials that could aid

producers in their entrepreneurial efforts is necessary to further promote the industry.

Conclusions

Mandatory marketing of dairy is not going to disappear. The promotion of dairy is

necessary to educate consumers on dairy products, and the production process involved in

bringing milk, cheese, ice cream, yogurt, and other dairy products to store shelves. Dairy

producers fund this marketing effort through their checkoff program, and while it is mandatory,

producers deserve a clear understanding of how their funds are spent, and a strong voice in

agreement or disagreement therein. However, producers must also seek the knowledge available

to understand the importance and value of mandatory marketing.

Entrepreneurial marketing is a unique way for the individual dairy producer to highlight

their business. It was no surprise that farm tours were the entrepreneurial activity that most

respondents felt valuable to their business. The face-to-face connection between producer and

consumer builds a relationship with that commodity group. In addition, producers feel they are

able to tell their story, their own way. Website utilization was deemed unbeneficial to the

promotion of the dairy industry by the majority of respondents. However, producers should

understand the growth of the Internet, and how their commodity is grossly underrepresented on

this media. Websites have the ability to create the "brand" image of a generic commodity,

educate consumers to the methods of dairy production and benefits of dairy products, and it is a

cost-effective way for a producer to promote his/her industry. While farm tours are ideal, not all

consumers have the opportunity to visit a dairy farm. The Internet provides a way for consumers

to come to the farm and learn from the comfort of their own home. Producers can even set up a

virtual farm tour, allowing website guests to take a peek at their operation. The experience of









touring a farm has more impact than just reading about it, and if the consumer can't have that

experience in person, the Internet allows them to take a tour and see the process visually. A solid

promotion of dairy production on the Internet can prompt users to learn more, becoming better

educated, more skeptical of activist rants, and more apt to buy dairy in their local grocery store.

Public good will is an issue that should not be overlooked. While some producers may feel

that entrepreneurial marketing efforts are unnecessary, they may be overlooking consumers that

will not be reached any other way. In addition, producers can increase the public understanding

of their business by allowing community members to get a first hand experience through a farm

tour. Dairy producers are an asset to each community they represent, and increased exposure of

the community to producers' efforts related to cow comfort and environmental awareness on

their operations can foster education and appreciation of the industry within the public.

Producers are the key to the industry. They have the passion for the business and are the

best to tell the story of dairy to potential consumers. Bandura (1977) defined self-efficacy as

"the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required" (p. 193). Producers

may not feel they have the resources or ability to adequately represent their operation, or their

industry. For that reason, mandatory marketing helps communicate dairy to the masses and can

speak for producers who would not otherwise know what to say or how to say it. Conversely,

this study found many producers with high entrepreneurial potential. For producers that feel

entrepreneurial marketing is necessary, professional agricultural communicators can help

promote producers' operations in the manner producers feel will most adequately represent their

life's work. This combination of producer passion and agricultural communicator know how can

promote the dairy industry, one glass of milk at a time.





SPONSOR: None

I am pleased to advise you that the University of Florida Institutional Review Board has
recommended approval of this protocol. Based on its review, the UFIRB determined that this
research presents no more than minimal risk to participants. Given your protocol, it is
essential that you obtain signed documentation of informed consent from each participant,
Enclosed is the dated, IRB-approved informed consent to be used when recruiting participants
for the research.


It is essential that each of your participants sign a copy of your approved informed
consent that bears the IRB approval stamp and expiration date.


If you wish to make any changes to this protocol, including the need to increase the number
of participants authorized, you must disclose your plans before you implement them so that
the Board can assess their impact on your protocoL. In addition, you must report to the Board
any unexpected complications that affect your participants.

If you have not completed this protocol by January 7, 2008, please telephone our office
(392-0433), and we will discuss the renewal process with you. It is important that you keep
your Department Chair informed about the status of this research protocoL.

ISF:dl


APPENDIX A
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL


PO Box112250
Gainesville, FL 32611-2250
352-392-0433 (Phone)
352-392-9234 (Fax)
irb2@ufl.edu


DATE:


January 12, 2006

Carrie Pedreiro
PO Box 1105410
Campus
Ira S. Fischler, Chai~ d
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board


FROM:


SUBJECT: Approval of Protocol #2006-U-1149


TITLE:


Communicating the Dairy Message: How Producer Personality Relates to
Perceptions of Mrandatory and Entrepreneurial Marketing


An Equal1 Opportunity Institution


UFH~"tItuti"nal Review Board










APPENDIX B
INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT


INFORMED CONSE~NT

Protocol Title: Communicating the Dairy Message: How Producer Personality Relates
to Perceptions of Mandatory and Entrepreneurial Marketing

Please read this consenr documennt caref~ully before you decide to participate in this study.

M~y name is Carrie Pedreiro and I am a graduate student in the D~epartment of
Agricultural Education and Communication at the University of Florida. Thank you for
talking the time to participate in this study. Your participation is completely voluntary.
There is no penalty for not participating. The purpose of this study is to assess the level
of knowledge and perceptions of Florida cooperative dairy producers regarding their
mandatory marketing program, perceptions of and levels of ~participation~ in
entrepreneurial marketing efforts, and level of measurement on the internal-external
locus of control personalits scale. If you choose to participate, you will answer items
on a confidential jur~ve that~ will take about 30 minutes to complete. You can stop any
time without penalty and you do not have to answer any question you do not wlish to
answer.

All answers are confidential to the extent provided by law., There are no
known risks associated with this study and there is no compensation or other
direct benefit to you for participation.

If you'd like to learn more about this study, please contact me at 408
]Rolfs Hall, Gainesville campus, 352-392-0502 ext, 244, pedreirol',utl.edu,
or my supervisor, Dr. Tracy Irani, 213 1Rolfs Hall? G~ainesville campus, 352-
392-0502 ext, 225, irani~ufl.edu. If you have questions about your rights
as a research participant, please contact the UFIRB Office, Boxi 1 12250,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-2250, 352-392-0433.

Agreement:

I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate
in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description.

Participant: Date:

Principal Investigator: Date:



Approved by
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02
Protocol # 2006-U-1149
For Use Through 01/07/2008

















Da)8iry Producer 1Maketing kne~y
The Ifailowing sur~rve will be used to evarluate currenr Florida dairy produces' knowl~edge and
perceptionS regarding your mandatory Ipmromti~onal investm~ent and entrepreuneral mrarketing
effo~rts. Please answerr the~ following= que9estin to~ thle" Ibet orf yor ability. Tlhankr you for your
partici pati~on


Rage~ f~~leeipeiace o th for~lln dairy inLdury promolblol progr Anndd by Ith ehethft l
the dlairy indusr~y e the unle to the leftwandl tyaur Jndhidual ~eparlou rn the scal la the rlht A. er.4 th.
;j1Y~r c r hig 7r.i< ,b Cn7 iT.?J *erlres*Nat ~ists .; I s it~r.(~ Fh


1 ~c
IIIYeR


APPENDIX C
DAIRY PRODUCER MARKETING SURVEY


Imporatua in the dairy~ n-

No veary

13 iI' I*1.1 I ffis~r: p~~ lB ~ l (1.1 il.'IIll
3 491 5' icltr EXAMPLE l'tc


Imnportan -o~ mryp frm


Nol very
Inporant Inrtspxat

1l 2 XI 5


I21 3 4 5;


Place aulh message a-6~~bou; bairy l a CD~imrE
mbedik

"Tachi kids; in schools atmul thea halthfu~ln~es of
adary products.

Imrprove t~he hdli~ng n presumentio of milk k
edonl rra~lcbderie.

Work ith retai.1 anda restauranil chainls to sell nmor
niul arid cliess.


1 2 3 5


1 2 3 4 5


I 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 41 S


I 2 3 4 51 dairy wbltpr l~oduche.l


Comital reBSearh to howU Ibe nUtritional va8]lu of
dury products.

Encourage thod manalkrbrors tuse morre dair
Inrgra~lreks

Parnateo awareness ofdairy products among con-
stimers.

Debud~ lie Imarg ef Amiryl agalas caimsefPamti-
Salery adicrvid

M~j~aisn tain waess ofwi mikan cheese through ad-
vertisang


2 3 4


2 3 4


1 2 3 4' 15


11S 2 3 4S














HowT valCuabl do you talak fe Allwvhly~g DalryFrers. Inc (DWI) dair pnaromeoarl proignarmm re: l


Nokl Very
oluabl 'Valuable

E;XAMPLE "" 1 0 & 4 5

Mcw~ Look of~ Shool Milk 1 2 3 4 5

Floride Dairy Farmere High S~chool Awhards 1 2 3 4 3

3-AL-Day of~ Dayr Aidverd~ing~ 1 1 3 4 5

Goc t milk? Juniorr Giato F~an of Ibe Gemei 1 1 3

G~rwcery morse PRomo~ticesP 1 2 3 5

MeI~diai Relationsa 1 2 3 5

Imdnstry Rdelaisns--mage 1 2 3 4- 5



Baslonr youIr expedalbrotion of~ th ary~9 dkf P.Rognm, how knpea~rian ars ~th blkrinwin beans wrhn
evs aitugr~ Ma succs of th chs~rl Ci7;rcl the: rnls I aggT 'prailt '.*rl *rirly her ].ra1.ilnrr I~rae

CR ISirralyR~ Dianree. D Disarkn e. N Ncuirll.1~, A Aree, SA~ filrrn~rag Agree

*****! I*.R1AP LE *** ,D D ti S

D~irectly Inrew~d Iln-rm rnalk inaec, SD Db N A SA

bIncreases in p3r Copen amongium uf4T rm1L SD D NA SAi

Inrcrase in pei~r sia <*sm ption of hese SD Db N A SA

Moirec pensilive Censurmerl percrptions4 ofljp m Tik ard ik pC:.ductCv. SD D N A S~A

More POsitjive; consumer ~pejrcetnx of dairy ~produces. SD D N A SA

Mor posiivie consumers perceptines of dru s.Lsity indstr SD D N A S~A

Successib defense her atak b anmlihs grops. D N A SA

.Sume-:sful JohnEi; fr ana~Ck by enirnena grl nuyps. SD D N A SA

Dolar value of inC~reasej ~in ~dem is grea~terP than shxe dollars that pmducers irnveal in gp D 21 A Q
t~he alwkakfE;

Teach~ing etkilde about tihe nurbitional value Bof ilk. and other diryi products SD D N A SA

Octtis new~ packaging sual-1 as p6luic, ro-scla8ble cultu~mus in scools andi restiam SD ~D N A SA~
rants.





DeI you receive latermarkm about Df1Ps peo-





DF] sltaf O YEs O N~o






I Hw ian do you asked dairy poducer
meedayp whecre the Salry checaffle discussed

More than oace a month
nCe 3La math
Onc Cwg.a mer

OJnceavr


I Z 3 4


~I Feel an .rgsphye neweleasr Me be~net my1
opeiradem


1 2 3 4


OV~IER


CIr0 YEds O


sonary
UbDiagie


slcncer
An~


Farntdonmrparne wehtie t


3 i


'"wnaus
Disagrw
I2


strbonglp
.4grws
M
5


1 4


Valouble


bualuable


I 2


S4


Nul
Impedent


Exrtremel
leapodant


I 2


3 4


Strongly
Dinerwa


Strend
Asrr


strngly
IJer~ar*


Strngly
Agree


Dal~ry. terminA r*nalebe a pmlkablbss.
*i r":.', ', gl.J, y .g 'g eg v g t fur te-


ple HCH i WIR M M"Iif~CB II AFI'I< TI'<~ tir rac altar


D~Ialry prodmier need )Rpmmdealdhase t
comlpetei~ wl~ls~ other foodCA an hvngrmpanica


SHow valuaLE do you akink the ove~rallry
d~cischft pwrogm 3in to te dirsy indusiry?


SHows laporlantdIcyou thbak the thlfesakofr
grml is in rriniron to~ yer opratic~~n?


Fann tougnrs 0Y1ES O ]NO

I*'erm/Emph...,-curcupsm newnr dglletter O YES 0 NO


Oiler: ~~s~ r






SI a ~invsn mancy in he prmethek of my
Rrkrm i addiden to myr~ theninff prsomedn.

O Y~s O <>r


I Iniken It is accssaru ** premedsl myl fa~rrm Ir






~I behav a farm atsake an bdle eiehe Im pa-
ent~mp, inlerwd LIt eladiy predediage.e

Stanll Strend)l
Diwr..m Age.
1 2 3 4 4



~I wieurr. *nn surs ca C rerive gaenese














I 1 wouIJ)ld o L periki ate inruarel enrprc rUII I moduIin /fots flal1 he.AL~ in~ o 11 IInsr cental LIhe~I

More rjime CI urs [7 rwo

un. moneyB Or s O rwo

More Foops O YES O Norr


an treeig ESON



Fohr cad pailbr e~tdaeet bcksw, hek mattothe staknantou aglrrcwith the mt ar5huk ilr.


I .4.1.1I.1:: Sla10mint on.

SI .4.10.111.1:: 141uIcITXni. 1xs

I sancrtllb find that rmost ocwv id~as thatL coane out don't mully appIly tory~ form.

For mos newr ideas I genuarlly find thart wRith a 101 of tlime acnd effort,] Qn pld them to work o my fo-tram.

E Baccomi conditions these~ days mkmg ~is very difficult ~ arme to eFC~ mea s ue abc szedy Arm.

1-wn in toidbrrg"s COonarnes conditicasther is; often oprtunityi or m to i~nnnnnnnnnnnnnncreasee sne of my~ ~fann.

In s ay itatio, I can unall fd~ ways o re~ducmgn sverrhead

For my farm operation evathand costs are a landon that I wally jusra Imei to~ put up w9ith.

~Fo r te sorts of things I tan C frq lilmy f ~ans thr's t n Int I can e $ ateu unxcp~lectd os~t incrswers.,

I snancll ind in m~y situation thatr I: ma rdisoc~ POus try plummyn a~bad.,

Eva, daugh times hbav bcon tough.tL I asill think it is erscusi bic to goInto debtr when you bsys a p iroposition dult
looks ppromising.

In Ibeen laugr t~i~mes, I wol ralbeer IPa mPy wayfg as I goi b~eense~ I tink it is loo riskqy- t borrw moneyr.

STo usre, h~nk~s are jlus llikei oher Inisinestses,% s itt pays ts spend~ somea timer negalindings withI thaer

SI feel you send1 to be at the marc~v a the banks jf yubrroU ~~~U w moey.

Because dairyr Ermin~g is susch ane uncetain busine~ssq I find il's be st IToAllow~ Eirl closjely the planm I Ime~
rued in swomen years.

Boonuarse woch your is different from the ~la I prefra lt act up a ~new pla~n cac~h year.

~For a dairyr likE rume, orkiingB out itS StrEngtlhs and w~eaknesses m great detal weeddn't b~p me nutch be
cause so anIICh of strat happeBS ousside rthe fam gase ip out of myi handdS a~InUay.

SInl my UrperienIcI: working cas thE ritungths of~ Cany fam usiness ri som dail canr ofte give me uslk~l
leads for theF future.
















STo me,~ oIT-brm investmertsl giVe a ood~ ~Bblace la heB invLealmenBC s I make~i in mly farmB.

SIn myq expriience~a there arei no manyf Ih~ingP lbatas~er Iyam your coantrol Pwhens you go into DItl-Ihem inv~est-
moreas timrt rbcy are really not worth abe troubi.

_ For a dary ope~ration like mnunn womrkiing not the rhreats; wa opportunities wouldn't help me muob 1-w~CauseB
yoiu can a do mob~e aboutr what happen outsider the! deirr anlyss~y.

~I In myS expesrien~ce, identifys3in the thr~et ssi and pprtulrcitigFS (scing my rarmn Ibisinss c~anl dian gives tien a goodl
idea of the direction I shouki be going.

Most~~Bly, il: doesnt ~wrry rme tit things calbn t~um out differently ri to rmyfn plans. I still ~fmld (be ffort puit
iPLno dia plams and ialr-dutn ~them is gen~er~ally seai.

FoPr mr ~i~tiatin thing can cinage so muc1Ih that PUltting8 a lot of affbrt into d~rawi~ng up trm plans is not
reall a wOrthwid thing D toa.

SI ge-nerailly fid alwtd tw~idgeting is a hKEFI in rneiong any farm ro rhr~u t h thins many nrot turn oull us I thought.

SIn arol stuolsao, budgeIs arrm'I very useFCful as sronwy sl~ungI Bann ~clua~e dmxmg a year.

SFor a farm lik e man, itBs marke vlalu is somt~chirng (but I slly dual gIny ans~ch influ~ae ovrw

As th-e owucArp6 oa fina] I an usulylaw~i sr~9 ame inthane on its nuke ~valuae.


Into whatr age owne doyU f ll of.hcek :m: *

18-34






M Elow mas~y wsanre l Lyour mlklag benlT



100-4P9
500-999
~i (:- 1899
1sXK r mre~

~How megla~sy mre eas rey plannkagea ta
nI the daiY Imeleast;Lr-hc'd ..ix 1.

S5-10 yea~rrs
More~ hanr 10 years


pinlztstheekttsnrd l. m

_ L~esl han hxigh adv





_ .%me cllege

_ C~dlug~e Lvr-uslue

_ .Enme graduate~ YpchOo

- (itraduiuat or prolk -esinldere











W~m type of dairy eparati do you operate? I lx-.:1 rtune
Frs~est~all lanns

Tunne~lr vIentilated hoe~8


O Cthef~r) (peaeq~uji):

An yoeu carmily a head membr of Daelry Farmrs rlacepaasd ? Icl* lla .1ueI
Yles



in what an of h e stae luyourthr IDcalad? IChckl one I~
Paldedle: areas8 went of Lefavatic CounltY

Norlith Floide: afIr canr cos LafayetteG County~. ateve [- 10 to~ Georgia state line.
North F;oida: arlre~an abovc 14 to 1-10

South F-lorida: an~ase blowv 1-


~n~bl~UThank, you for participating! Pketseb return thle surlvey in the postage
pa~id. self-addressed envclopcr.


Please use thie~ spceblo to prawld any addidenal iaemments: or suggestion.










APPENDIX D
COVER LETTER (WAVE 1)

V UNIVERSITY o
UF I F LORIDA

IFAS 408 ars anneo~S ax 1was4
Agricultutral Education and Camnauication Departrar Gaineille, FL 321-05409W
TFlephone:; I06) 39205021



Jaulrary 12, .2007

Dear Florida Dairy Produer:

Hapy New Year My namerr is Carne Pedrtie anld I amt a Master'S studet at the Unliverity of
Florida in the Department of Agricult~ural Eduicl;n n ad ICommunication. My thesis research is
centered aroud determining: You current level of knowledge and perc~eptions regarding the
promotional programs you fund via the dairy check~ff

You wer choser to partticipate in this survey b~ecau you ar a dairy p~rodu~cr~ in the stters of
Florida who be~longs to Southeasr Mnilk, Incorporated. In order for the results to accurately
represent all Florida producers, it is very important that each questionare be compleed, and
resumned. Respoding~ should tsake no longer than 30 minutes ofyour time, but will be critical to
the success of the study. I wo~ld urge you te ixomplete the qusionni and return it: in the
closed eanveblop by January 21, 2007.

You cran rest assured that your responses will remain completely confidential. You have been
assignd a nCumber only to identify wh~tich quasitioanres~ are returned to~ prevent sending you an
additional copy. Also in fthis mariling ise a consent fonnr expaining your rightts as an elective
participant. Plesase read through the conseat form. signr and daer on the"participant" line, and
retun the form with YOurP qesfoonnaire io the postae-paid envelope.

If youL flat e any ~questions about the! study, feel free lo contact me via phone or e-mril. You can
rpeadh met at 352S-3982-05i0 2, extesion -44. or by e-mlail aE c PrecZIro A odul.

Thank you for your time. Yuarr coopereation is greaty aBpprciatead.

S~incerely,



Carnie Pedrelro
Graduate T~eaching Assistant


E~nilousur









APPENDIX E
SURVEY REMINDER/THANK YOU POSTCARD

January 23, 2007

Florida Dairy Producer,

Last week a questionnaire was mailed to you seeking your opinions about dairy marketing.
You were chosen to receive the questionnaire due to your membership with Southeast
Milk, Incorporated.

If you have already completed the questionnaire and returned it, please accept my sincere
thanks. If not, please do so today. It is only by asking people like you to share your
opinions that we can understand the dairy producers' perspective regarding the marketing
of your commodity. Your participation is greatly appreciated.

If you did not receive a questionnaire, or have misplaced it, please call me at 352-392-
0502, extension 244 and I will send another one in the mail to you today.

Sincerely,


Carrie Pedreiro
UJF Graduate Student
Pedreiro@ufl. edu li ~











APPENDIX F
COVER LETTER (WAVE 2)


U UNIVERSITY of"



IFAS usair Kdaneo1~. I nmEx w ase
Ag3rkclltural Educationr and Commnuniction Depearulned Gisineille, FL, 32El 1-0)540
Telepbaoo: 06S2) 3'924.E.
b~lip ~citiEax uitisul d


Februrary 2, 2007r

Dear Florida Dairy ProdugCr:

Aboaut threes weeks ago I sent you ai quetionnare thti askelb~d abut: yourobpirlionsi as & Flodrid
dairy producer regarding mandatory and entrepreneunalJ maketing. To Ihe best of my
knowledge, your questionnire has nor yet been rebrumedl.

'The comme~nts; of prducerr who hav e al readv respokded~ larrvealing a variety of opinrions on
tthe subject, i think the resul~ts are going$ to be beneficial to all Flonidaproducers the leaders of
the dairy industry in Florida, ad helpful to those av~o~lved a your mrandatoiry marvkeing
programs.

I am wr~iting again due to the importanCe your QueStMIonnaire hass to collecting accrbase results of
my study. It is onrly by haantig fsrom a large portin of m~y populationl that I canr assure all
Florida producers can be aSccuratelyr represented on these issues;.

You have been a~ssised a quetionnarre lrentification number. This number is; only present to
m~ark you offT our ma~iling$ list once your questionnaire hasL ben reshumed. Yo~u r ame~ is in no
othe wy9Y conne~ted to your response, Prrers, hmy theo confideantiaity of your~ alSwers is very
important, to me, as well as the University of Florida.

I ho~e~ chal onu will fill out and return the ~questionnaire ais scaon as porssible. [fyoua have any
questions, please~ ConlB~tact meb vihons or e--mail. You ca reah one at 3;52 -ji'2-'i l2, extension
244.or by e-mail at Padrelrraguti.eds dryou hav~e troule rbeaching e bry phone.

Sincerely,



Carrie Pedireir
Gradu~Lare T'eaching Ausstant










APPENDIX G
COVER LETTER (WAVE 3)

UNIVERSITY of
UK FLORIDAiiiii'

IFASi 4tl8 Rolfs 1-hil/PO Bo 1 1 w4
Ag13rientiural Eductionr and Cosinninitionr D~epawrtul Gailwrle, EL 32Er1-0540O
TelepbaXID: (352) 3924.9502
Irlrhq:Sc.ifull edau


FeBruary 2, ~2007

Dear Florida D~airy Pro~duer:

Abo~ut thre weks ago I senrt: you a questionnaire that ask~ ed ot yiur~ opinioslr as: a Flodrid
dairy produer regasrding ma~ndaLory and entrepreneunal marketing. T0do: thebst of my
la~toledge your questionaastie has nort yet been resumed~.

Theb commen~rtS of produces w haBv; ~alreadyv Qnresone ar revealinlg a variety of opsinions onl
the subljec I think the results are going t- be tbeficial to all ]Frsiondproducer ther leadens of
the ~dairy industry in Florida andl hdlpful to those involved in your mandatbory rnarketeng
programs.

I amr writing againr due to the im~portanc your q luestionnalsir hias to collecting a~ccraed reul~ts of
my~ studyv. It is onrly by he~atiag fromn a large portion of myt population thkat I can assur all
Florldr producer. can be accpuraey represented on these isues.

IYou have been assigned a questionaire identifi~cation number. This number is only presen-t to
rnrark you off our mariljing list: once your questionnil re as beenl reaturnd. Your namez is in no
other waky Connelictd io your response. Proke tnna ther colnfiden~tj ality of your ans~wers i very
important to me, eas well as the University ofFlorija.

I hope that you will fill oult and return the questionnaire aIs soon asB possible. If you have any
questions, please coltarCt meC via phoneB or e-ma~il. You Can reach she~ at 3~2 -362 -L'. 0, extensbion
244.or yv e-mail at Pedrearaguil edu al'you have itroubl 9e mhing mer by phones.

Sincerely,



arS~rie Pedrdra
Graduate Tfeacing Austrnrt


Enclosur









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