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Design Elements that Create Consistent Visual Identities in Advertising

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020800/00001

Material Information

Title: Design Elements that Create Consistent Visual Identities in Advertising A Qualitative Content Analysis of Beauty Product Campaigns Comparing Magazine Advertisements with Their Web Sites
Physical Description: 1 online resource (145 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Rhoads, Jaclyn Sherman
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertisements, advertising, analysis, beauty, brand, campaign, cohesive, cohesiveness, color, consistency, consistent, content, design, elements, graphic, identities, identity, image, layout, logo, magazine, online, print, qualitative, sites, typography, visual, web, websites
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In the growing retail market, companies are looking to differentiate themselves from increasing competition online and in stores. Advertisers have to differentiate themselves in the minds of consumers in order to create an effective brand image and identity. Design that is specific to a brand can help with this. Certain design elements are able to make the transition from print to the fastest growing medium ever: the Internet. My study first explores the concept of brand identity, brand image, and design and how those concepts lead to creating and maintaining a cohesive brand identity through print and Web. The current study describes themes used to design elements to determine the similarities and differences in campaign design within the beauty product category using qualitative content analysis. The research found that most of the brands examined effectively used design elements to their advantage to create a consistent brand identity between print and their online counterpart: their product Web site.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jaclyn Sherman Rhoads.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Treise, Deborah M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0020800:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020800/00001

Material Information

Title: Design Elements that Create Consistent Visual Identities in Advertising A Qualitative Content Analysis of Beauty Product Campaigns Comparing Magazine Advertisements with Their Web Sites
Physical Description: 1 online resource (145 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Rhoads, Jaclyn Sherman
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertisements, advertising, analysis, beauty, brand, campaign, cohesive, cohesiveness, color, consistency, consistent, content, design, elements, graphic, identities, identity, image, layout, logo, magazine, online, print, qualitative, sites, typography, visual, web, websites
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In the growing retail market, companies are looking to differentiate themselves from increasing competition online and in stores. Advertisers have to differentiate themselves in the minds of consumers in order to create an effective brand image and identity. Design that is specific to a brand can help with this. Certain design elements are able to make the transition from print to the fastest growing medium ever: the Internet. My study first explores the concept of brand identity, brand image, and design and how those concepts lead to creating and maintaining a cohesive brand identity through print and Web. The current study describes themes used to design elements to determine the similarities and differences in campaign design within the beauty product category using qualitative content analysis. The research found that most of the brands examined effectively used design elements to their advantage to create a consistent brand identity between print and their online counterpart: their product Web site.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jaclyn Sherman Rhoads.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Treise, Deborah M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0020800:00001


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f2fee12bc59f107070eeba435ad4ac1eacf04f09







DESIGN ELEMENTS THAT CREATE CONSISTENT VISUAL IDENTITIES IN
ADVERTISING: A QUALITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS OF BEAUTY PRODUCT
CAMPAIGNS COMPARING MAGAZINE ADVERTISEMENTS WITH THEIR WEB SITES





















By

JACLYN SHERMAN RHOADS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































2007 Jaclyn Sherman Rhoads

































To my husband Jesse, my soul-mate, my friend, my guiding star
And, to my parents, for all of their support and guidance throughout my life









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The completion of this thesis could not have been realized without the help of many

people. First of all, I thank my chair, Dr. Debbie Treise for her support, professionalism, and

leadership. I thank her from the bottom of my heart for being there for me and for helping me

achieve my goals. I also thank committee member Professor Elaine Wagner for helping me

formulate my ideas and providing me with guidance about design theories. Her suggestions and

attention to detail helped me create a study I am proud of. I also thank committee member Dr.

Julie Dodd, who through my undergraduate and graduate studies has always been there to listen

and offer suggestions. Once again, she was there for me when I needed her most. I truly

appreciate having a mentor like her through my college career. Also, I thank Jody Hedge who

was always available to answer my questions and to offer a much-needed smile.

I thank my loving husband Jesse for supporting me and being my stress reliever. It's been

a long two years working full-time and going to school, and I appreciate all his shoulder rubs,

pep talks, and for just being there for me. I love him very much.

I also thank my parents, Richard and Marcia Sherman; my grandmother, Cecile Sherman;

my brother, Lee Sherman; and Jesse's mom, Gail Rhoads, for their unconditional love and

support through my life and especially graduate school.

And finally, I thank Karen Fenton, my fellow classmate. Together, we made it through

and I appreciate her always being there as we made the stressful journey that is graduate school,

together.










TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKN OW LED GM EN TS ....................................................................................... 4

L IST O F F IG U R E S .................................................................. .................................... . 8

A B S T R A C T ..................................................................................................... . 9

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................................... .................................... ......... 10

O v erv iew ....................................................................... 10
P u rp o se ................... ................... ...................1.........2
R rationale ..........................................................................2
Significance of Study ......................................................................................... ........ 13

2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 14

O v erv iew o f IM C .................................................................. ..................................... 14
B rand Identity and B rand Im age ........................................................................................14
C creating B rand Identity ......................................................................................... ........ 15
M managing a B rand's Identity ............................................................................................. 16
W h at is D e sig n ? .................................................................................................... 17
Design: An Important Element to Brand Image .........................................19
E lem ents of D design ...................................................... 2 1
T y p o g ra p h y ............................................................................................................ 2 1
C o lo r ...................................................................................................................... 2 2
L o g o ........................................................................................................ 2 3
Layout and Illustration Style.............................................. ........ 24
Types of layout form ats ............................................................................25
Other layout elem ents ................................................................ .. ........ 26
Incorporating D esign into Brand Identity ................................................................... 27
Consistency through D design .................................................................................. 28
D esig n an d th e Intern et.................................. .... ..... ..... .. .... ................................... 3 1
Consistency Across Traditional Communication Activities and the Internet ....................32
Incorporating Print and W eb ............................................................33
G ap of K now ledge ...................................................... 34

3 M ETH O D O LO G Y .....................................................................................................36

F o cu s an d M eth o d .................................................................. ....................................3 6
Qualitative Content Analysis ................................. ........................... ..........36
Sample .............................................. ..............................38
M materials (A p p aratu s).................................................................................................... 4 0
Item s C o ded W within Stu dy ............................................................................................ 4 1









P rin t A d .................................................................................4 1
E lem ents of Print A d ............................. ............... ............................41
L ayout in P rint A d ...........................................................42
D design E lem ents in Print A d ......................... ..... ................................. .............. 42
Product Web site ................. ........ ................. 42
Elements of product Web site ......................................................... 42
Layout of Web site ................. ........ ............... 43
D design Elem ents of W eb site ............................................................. .............. 43
P ro c e d u re ............................................................................................................4 3

4 FINDINGS ........... ... ........................................ ........ 45

ALM A Y H ydracolor Lipstick ................................................... ............................... 45
ALM A Y 's Print A dvertisem ent........................................................... .............. 45
The ALMAY Web Site .............. ... .................. ...........................46
ALMAY Overview .......................................................... ..... ........47
Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Moisturizing Body Wash..............................................48
A veeno's Print A dvertisem ent........................................................................ .... 48
T h e A v een o W eb S ite............................................................................................. 4 9
Aveeno Overview........................................... ........ 49
A von Skin So Soft Fusions B ody W ash........................................................................ ... 50
A von 's P rint A dvertisem ent ................................................................ ................... 50
The Avon W eb Site ................................. ............................... ....... 51
Avon Overview ................ ..... ............................. ........... 52
CoverGirl Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation ........................................52
CoverG irl' s Print A dvertisem ent ......................................................... ......... ..... 52
T he C overG irl W eb Site ............................................................................. ......... 53
C overG irl O overview ............................................................................................... 54
D o v e P ro A g e ...............................................................................5 5
D ove's Print A dvertisem ent ................................................ .............................. 55
The D ove ProA ge W eb Site ................................................ .............................. 56
D o v e O v erv iew .................................................................. ................................. 5 7
Garnier Nutritioniste U ltra-Lift cream ........................................................... ............ 57
Garnier's Print Advertisement ......... ......... ................ .............. 57
The G am ier N utritioniste W eb Site ........................................ ......................... 58
Garnier Overview ......... ..... .....................................................................59
Infusium 23 .......................... ..................................... 60
Infusium 23's Print Advertisement ............................. ....... .......... 60
The Infusium 23 W eb Site......... .................................... .................. .............. 61
Infusium 23 Overview ................. ....... ......... ...........62
L'Oreal Paris Age Perfect Pro-Calcium .............. .................... ...... .............. 62
L'Oreal's Print advertisem ent... ........................................................................... 62
The L'Oreal W eb Site .............. ... ...... .......................... .......................64
L'Oreal Overview .............. ............................ 65
NIVEA body Age Defying Moisturizer .............................. ... .............. 65
NIVEA' s Print Advertisement................................................ .............. 65
T he N IV E A W eb Site........................................ ............ .............. ...........................66


6









N IV E A O verview .................. ........... ... ................. ................ 67
RoC Protient Fortify Life and Define Night Cream .......................................... ......... 67
R oC 's Print A dvertisem ent................................................................. .............. 67
The R oC W eb site ............ ..................................... .......... ...... .......... 68
R oC O overview .............. ........... ................................ .. .. ........... 69

5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION................... .... .......................... 70

Overall Design Trends of the Sampled Products................................................ ..........70
Visuals in Print Advertisements versus Visuals Online..................... .............70
Typography in Print Advertisements versus Typography Online .................................71
Color in Print Advertisements versus Color Online ............................................... 71
Logos in Print Advertisements versus Logos Online......... ..............................72
Layout Style in Print Advertisements versus Layout Style Online ............................73
W eb URL's ......... ...... .. ................ ..... ...... .. ............... .............. 73
Using Flash on the Brand Home Page ...................................................74
Using Design to M maintain Consistent Brand Identity ....... .... ...................................75
Limitations and Future Research ............................. ....... .............. 77

APPENDIX

A C O D E B O O K ......... ........................................................... .................. .............. 80

B C O D E SH EE T .................. .......... .......... ....... ... .................. .............. 83

C L A Y O U T E X A M PL E S ......... ................. ....................................... .............................86

D C O L LE C TE D SA M PLE S ......... ..... ............ ................. ...................... ........................88

E CODESHEETS FOR PRODUCTS ............. ............. ................... 100

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ......... ................. ......................................... ..............................139

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................. ....... ........... ........145









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

C E xam ples of layout form ats ............................................................................. ......... 86

C -2 E xam ples of layout form ats ............................................................................. ......... 87

D -1 A lm ay sam ples collected ........................................................................ ..................... 88

D -2 A veeno sam ples collected ............................................................... .. ........................89

D-3 Avon samples collected ................................................................................ 90

D -4 C overG irl sam ples collected .................................................................... ....................9 1

D -5 D ove sam ples collected .................................................................... ........................... 92

D -6 G arnier sam ples collected ...................................................................... ......................93

D-7 Infusium 23 samples collected ........................................................... .............. 95

D -8 L 'O real sam ples collected ................................................................ ... ........................96

D -9 N IV E A sam ples collected ............................................................... .. ........................97

D -10 R oC sam ples collected ................................................................. ...........................99


























8









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

DESIGN ELEMENTS THAT CREATE CONSISTENT VISUAL IDENTITIES IN
ADVERTISING: A QUALITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS OF BEAUTY PRODUCT
CAMPAIGNS COMPARING MAGAZINE ADVERTISEMENTS WITH THEIR WEB SITES

By

Jaclyn Sherman Rhoads

August 2007

Chair: Debbie Treise
Major: Advertising

In the growing retail market, companies are looking to differentiate themselves from

increasing competition online and in stores. Advertisers have to differentiate themselves in the

minds of consumers in order to create an effective brand image and identity. Design that is

specific to a brand can help with this. Certain design elements are able to make the transition

from print to the fastest growing medium ever: the Internet. My study first explores the concept

of brand identity, brand image, and design and how those concepts lead to creating and

maintaining a cohesive brand identity through print and Web. The current study describes themes

used to design elements to determine the similarities and differences in campaign design within

the beauty product category using qualitative content analysis. The research found that most of

the brands examined effectively used design elements to their advantage to create a consistent

brand identity between print and their online counterpart: their product Web site.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Overview

Competition is evolving and changing in the retail world with companies looking for ways

to stand out from an increasing influx of competitors both online and in physical stores. For a

brand to reach its target audience in this ever-growing market, companies are examining how to

reach consumers more effectively and with more impact through newer media. With $102.1

billion in sales at e-commerce sites in 2006 (Burns, 2007), the Internet is increasingly becoming

the medium of choice for consumers to shop, find information, and to engage with a product or

brand. In order to stand above the competition and obtain optimum impact in a consumer's mind,

Integrated Marketing Communications, or IMC, emphasizes the need to integrate consistent

messages across multi-channel environments (Rowley, 2004).

For IMC and its impact to turn into something tangible for consumers, brand identity must

be created and consistently used to help reinforce the brand's message to those consumers. Brand

identity is how the company sees itself or how it wants its brand to be perceived, while brand

image is how consumers perceive the brand (Vaid, 2003). Brand image is defined as "the

associations and perceptions that consumers have about a particular brand. The brand image

reflects the current relationship between the product and the consumer" (Vaid, 2003, p. 186). A

brand's identity uses the physical qualities of the product, and the company's corporate identity

(including Web sites) to represent what the brand stands for (Cagan & Vogel, 2002). Brand

identity and image have received considerable attention from companies because having them

provides the power to help a product obtain an advantage over its competitors (Alessandri &

Alessandri, 2004). Because of this advantage, companies have built distinctive brand identities,

which is evident in their print advertisements and Web sites (Keller, 2002; Lindstrom &









Anderson, 2000). Brand Web sites have become powerful tools for promoting brand identities

and building relationships with audiences. A brand's Web site is an extension of the brand itself,

whether it functions as a virtual store or just a place to retrieve important information about the

product.

The Internet has become a vital tool for a company's success by abolishing the constraints

of time and space, enabling brands to be open locally and internationally 24 hours a day, 365

days a year (Kapferer, 2001). As the Internet evolves with technological advances, and as it

becomes more accessible to households, consumers are finding products and product information

in new ways. It is not as simple as going to brick-and-mortar stores, reading traditional print

media, or listening and seeing broadcast media. They are visiting retail stores' Web sites,

investigating online stores, and going directly to corporate Web sites.

In order to survive in such a competitive environment, companies attempt to differentiate

themselves and their products in the mind of consumers through brand identity efforts (Schultz &

Schultz, 2004). One of the ways to achieve this differentiation and to create a consistent

representation of a brand's identity across different channels is through design. For the purpose

of my study, the term design is more limited to the planning and laying out of visual elements to

create a consistent brand image in advertising and marketing efforts. Design is implemented in

many of a product's communication materials such as packaging, point-of-sale displays,

advertising, and Web sites. "Brand design is no longer a monologue, but a dialog between

companies and customers... It's essential that designers remain at the center of this dialogue as

they are responsible for designing the message and making it attractive to emerging audiences"

(Vaid, 2003, p. 17). Design provides form to the advertising message, or what the company

wants to convey about its brand. Used alone, design may be individual elements such as









photographs, words, and colors, but integrated together as a whole layout, design can help tie a

campaign together. "It takes discipline to maintain graphic continuity in a long-running

campaign, especially when new ads are developed halfway through the campaign's run. This is

when you really have to understand how the various elements interact to form the whole.

Without that understanding, your campaign can visually fall apart" (Altstiel & Grow, 2005, pp.

126-127).

This paper first explores the concept of brand identity, brand image, and design and how

those concepts lead to creating and maintaining a cohesive brand identity through print and Web.

It then presents a qualitative content analysis on how companies in the beauty industry create

consistent advertising campaigns by having the design of their product's print advertisements

parallel the corresponding brand Web sites.

Purpose

The purpose of my study is to analyze how print advertisements and Web site design can

support a consistent brand identity. This is done by comparing design variables in magazine

advertisements for beauty products to the same design variables on the products' Web sites.

Specifically, my study identifies the design elements important to maintaining consistency within

a campaign, and whether there is consistency of the Web site in relation to the original print

advertisement. The terms brand and product will be interchangeable since the term product

management is interchangeable with brand management as stated by the American Marketing

Association's Dictionary of Marketing Terms.

Rationale

The rationale behind my study is that cross-media campaigns and integrated marketing

communications are gaining in popularity with the rise of integrating Web sites into traditional

print advertising campaigns. According to Graphic Arts Monthly (2004), TrendWatch conducted









a survey in the summer of 2004 and voted cross-media campaigns as the number two sales

opportunity overall, cited by 73% of respondents. That was up from 61% from the prior survey,

and lower levels were present even before that. By understanding characteristics of campaign

continuity through print and the Web, brand managers and companies will be able to see the

importance of having a cohesive visual brand identity. This will offer insight in creating more

effective advertising to reach the 1.3 billion people using the Internet in 2007 (Morgan Stanley

Co., 2006).

Significance of Study

My study is important because it supports the concept that consistent use of design both in

print and online helps maintain brand identities for a company's products. As shown in Chapter

4, it will reinforce the importance of using design consistently to maintain brand identity, and the

importance of carrying a cohesive look to its online presence which is maintained by the "look

and feel" of their brand's Web site. Collecting a sample of beauty industry companies that

purchase print advertising in magazines and comparing those ads with their online counterpart

will reveal whether there is cohesiveness between the print and Web campaigns.

In the following sections, relevant literature is first reviewed. Then, the theoretical

framework of the study is established. The research methodology is then explained in detail, and

is followed by the description of the results, and a discussion of the research findings. In the

conclusion, the implications of the findings are summarized. Finally, the limitations of my study

are discussed and suggestions for further research are made.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Overview of IMC

The goal of IMC is for a company to reach its target audience through various media, but

with the same message that is closely tied to a brand's identity and is consistently conveyed

(Morrison, 2002). One of the major components of IMC theory and practice is that consistency

in the brand image and message, at all levels of communication, has become of utmost

importance (Johnson & Lee, 2005). There often is a gap between what a company believes about

its brand and what the consumers think about that brand (Schultz & Schultz, 2003). However, to

close this gap, a company can strive to meet its consumers' needs and wants by creating brand

recognition, or having its brand identity match the brand image consumers have in their minds.

Brand Identity and Brand Image

In order to help facilitate the brand recognition process, a company must create and

maintain a brand identity or brand image. According to Schultz and Schultz (2003), brand

identity and brand image are the views or impressions held about a brand by the brand owners as

well as customers and prospects. "Both identity and image are based on the values, attributes,

traits, and personalities associated with the brand by the various stakeholder groups" (Schultz &

Schultz, 2003, p. 307).

With the potential that a specific brand identity can give a company a boost over the

competition and provide entry into new markets, it is obvious that companies must devote time

and money to building a brand and its identity (Flynn, 2005). Since differentiation through brand

identity is so important to a company and the brand itself, it is necessary to discuss how a brand

identity is created and maintained.









Creating Brand Identity

Perry (2003) believes a brand's identity is its fundamental state of just being itself while

brand image is all about perception. Perry (2003) highlights four purposes for brand identity:

* To bring the brand to life through adding personality through design
* To enhance brand recognition among consumers
* To differentiate the brand from the competition
* To tie all brand elements together with the same look and feel


When creating a brand identity, Perry (2003) recommends starting with elements that can

help stimulate brand recognition. These elements include items such as logos, typography, and

catchphrases, which first help create a brand identity for a product; and then second, create a

brand image for consumers to grasp onto. For example, a swoosh logo creates instant recognition

of the Nike brand identity. Visual cues such as logos, color, or typography can help a consumer

identify a brand instantly by recognition. Once a brand identity is created, it must be

maintainable and sustainable so that it can continue to grow in the present and in the future.

An important step to creating brand identity is to utilize design. By aligning a brand's

goals with design, an environment can be created for a brand identity to flourish for a long time.

One of the main goals of using design as a part of branding efforts is to seek continually to meet

the needs of the end user. "Good design in branding can and should thrive, as long as it combines

serious business practices with innovation and vision" (Naddaff, 2004).

Upshaw (1995) states that minding a brand's identity is very crucial with the influx of new

brands, products, and marketing techniques. The best approach to sustain a brand and the loyalty

that comes along with it is to ensure that the product/service represented by that brand lives up to

or exceeds the customer's expectations. "The brand must be managed so that it is continuously

reinforced with new identity replenishments that maintain and build on its strengths as a brand"

(Upshaw, 1995, p. 31). For example, Nintendo's Wii video-gaming system has capitalized on the









wireless age with hand-held, interactive controllers rather than ones that attach to the gaming

console.

The success of a design goes beyond use of colors and logos; true brand consistency

through design also has to address a brand's values (Baxley, 2002; Moser, 2003). Maintaining a

consistent visual identity that accurately portrays a brand's value system is a long-term

commitment, so it is important to look at how to manage a brand and its identity over time.

Managing a Brand's Identity

Managing a brand and its identity became very important in the 1940s and 1950s as

corporations began to venture into global markets, "...corporate design began to be recognized

for the first time as an important tool that could help address the need of presenting an

unequivocal corporate voice through a cohesive visual identity to the world markets" (Gobe &

Zyman, 2001, p. 124). Identity refers to the degree in which a firm has achieved a distinct and

coherent image in its aesthetic output (Marcus, Schmitt, & Simonson, 1995). The term 'corporate

aesthetics' is used to refer to a company's visual output in the form of packaging, logos, Web

sites, advertisements, and other corporate elements that have the potential of providing aesthetic

gratification (Marcus et al., 1995). Of course, one of the most visible, recognizable parts of a

brand is its logo-the symbol or words that denote what a company is about. Consistent use of a

logo in its exact colors, typography, and overall design style provide the all-important, subtle

consistent reinforcement of a brand (Smith & Taylor, 2004).

To maintain consistency, when a brand is created, a graphic design firm may develop the

basic design system rules for a company and/or a product (colors, signage, logotypes, placement

of statements, etc.) (Marcus et al., 1995). These rules are then disseminated to all staff handling

design and publication of materials to ensure a unified, consistent look for a brand and its

product. Many companies have stylebooks and guidelines on how to design for their products.









According to Van Wagener (2003), most corporations have strict rules that govern the use of

type, color, and logos for anything that is published. Van Wagener also says, "It's part of brand

recognition and sending a consistent message about who they are" (Van Wagener, 2003, para. 7).

Before continuing on to an explanation of consistency in brand identity, it is necessary to explain

what design is and the major elements that comprise it.

What is Design?

"Design is a visual language that is built on fundamental principles and elements. The

principles are the organizational rules used in conjunction with the elements to create order and

visual interest" (Evans & Thomas, 2003, p. 3). Evans and Thomas (2003) show that individual

elements such as color, logos, typography, etc. work together by using the principles (or rules) of

layout to create design. These individual design elements will be discussed further in this

chapter. Resnick (2003) defines design in a modern manner as the "art" of communication. "...to

inform, educate, influence, persuade, and provide a visual experience one that combines art and

technology to communicate messages vital to our daily lives. It is simply a cultural force"

(Resnick, 2003, p. 15).

Gestalt Theory is an important aspect of design in this context (Choi, Kim, & Park, 2005;

Arnheim, 1983; Lupton, 1999). Gestalt is a German word for "shape" or "form," and is based on

two concepts. The first concept states that parts of a visual image have their own values and

meanings and, therefore, can be considered, analyzed, and evaluated as distinct components

(Wagner, 2006). The second concept of the theory states: "the whole is greater than the sum of

its parts" (Arnheim, 1983; Koffka, 1955). When individual elements are interpreted together,

there is a more important meaning. When designing advertisements and Web sites, art directors

and graphic designers plan and select individual elements to communicate a specific message or









image. Those elements (shapes) and specific visual presentation (forms) include logos, images,

typefaces, and colors. They are considered individually, but together create a layout.

Bennett (2006) suggests that art-based elements such as contrast, hierarchy, repetition, and

alignment are their own theories proven through experimentation. These art-based elements have

been tested and retested through professional practice so many times that these theories should

be considered principles of design (Bennett, 2006).

Throughout literature on design, terminology related to art and design is not consistent.

Many design terms overlap and visual concepts are called different things by different authors

and experts. Graphic design was once thought of as commercial art rather than its own distinct

field. Newark (2002) believes art and design are now seen as two distinct fields, although they

may share the same language. "Art is connotative, associative, implicative... [while] design is

precise, denotative, explicit" (Newark, 2002, p. 28). The design terms in my study are not

universal terms; however, they do represent universal principles and meanings.

Specific attention must be given to graphic design, which is "closely related to and

dependent on culture, background, and yes, even the taste of those developing the 'creative

product.' ... [graphic design is] Subjectivity, pure and simple" (Schultz & Schultz, 2004, p. 80).

Design experts each have their own views as to what comprises design, and whether theory- or

art-based principles play a role. Experts such as White (2002) think of design as an abstract form

by considering seven design components to be important: unity, gestalt, space, dominance,

hierarchy, balance, and color.

Design also can be seen in more tangible terms. Moser (2003) writes about three important

factors to design: logos, color, and typography. A company's logo is the very emblem of its

business that is easily recalled, while color instantly communicates messages about a company's









brand (Moser, 2003). For example, an eggshell blue box in an advertisement instantly tells the

viewer it is a Tiffany & Co. advertisement. It was not the box that told the viewer it was from

Tiffany & Co., it was the use of their signature color.

Design can not stand alone; it has to be understood in a communication context rather than

by itself. According to Bennett (2006), graphic design exists because someone has something to

communicate to someone else. "Graphic design is the activity that organizes visual

communication in society" (Bennett, 2006, p. 28). Design, in relation to advertising, is expected

to make people buy products or services, with the purchase itself being the real measure of the

graphic design's performance. The main purpose of design in advertising is to communicate the

brand's message quickly and effectively to the right target audience at the right time (Drewniany

& Jewler, 2005).

While design plays an important role in differentiation, it must also work together with

branding efforts in order to create the ultimate goal: the consumer's purchase. Since design and

branding go hand-in-hand, it is necessary to discuss how design can help build a better brand

image.

Design: An Important Element to Brand Image

Most brands have a strategy or plan in place to secure a competitive advantage in

consumers' minds with some form of brand image. Buss (2006) believes the integration of

design with advertising can make a brand even stronger in consumers' minds. According to John

Grace, a global branding consultant; "Industry is recognizing that design is strategy, and strategy

is design they're not separated" (Buss, 2006, p. 11). Design and aesthetics can add value and

equity to a brand. The forms and shapes, the colors and materials, and the visual and auditory

communications of an organization express its culture and values (Marcus, Schmitt, &

Simonson, 1995).









Wheeler (2003) believes that design is essential to brand personality. She believes design

in advertising should convey the brand's personality, align with the brand's positioning strategy,

create a unique look and feel, be viable across all media, demonstrate an understanding of the

target customer, and help differentiate a brand from the competition. In addition to

differentiation, design can also be used to highlight a brand's unique attributes.

Moser (2003) maintains that a company's advertisements should have a distinct visual

technique; a quick way to stand out in a cluttered environment. For example, J. Peterman

Company uses loose illustrations instead of photographs in its catalog. According to Moser

(2003), this technique is unique and distinctive within the fashion industry and helped the

company stand out. J. Peterman Company's Web site mimics the look and feel of its catalogs by

using the same unique illustrations.

Previous studies such as Y.K. Kim's (2001) have shown how individual design elements

such as shape, layout, and logos operate in advertising and other media while J. S. Kim's (2002)

study of the role of color in branding suggested using a specific color for the target brand

personality. Gestalt Theory emphasizes, instead, that visual elements should be examined as a

whole. To expand on these studies, it will be helpful to investigate what design elements should

be present to establish advertising campaign continuity, and what should be integrated into a

product's Web site design to establish a cohesive branding effort. Before analyzing design and

its role in creating a consistent visual identity, it is important to briefly investigate design

elements such as typography, color, logo, and layout format.









Elements of Design

Art, typography, design, color, and overall style should all work together as a "unified

whole" to reinforce a brand's message (Conover & Ryan, 2003). Before layout can be further

discussed, individual design elements must be examined.

Typography

Typography is a part of graphic design used to convey a message through the structuring

and arranging of visual language (Baines & Haslam, 2002). Typography is comprised of

typefaces and fonts. The terms typeface and font often are used interchangeably, but Baines and

Haslam (2002) define typeface as a set of fonts of related design and font as another name for a

weight or style of a typeface. In basic terms, typefaces can fall into two categories: serif or sans

serif. A serif is the "cross stroke at the end of main strokes of a specific classification of type

design called 'serif types'" (Wagner, 2006, p. 97) such as Times New Roman or Bookman.

However, sans serif typefaces do not have these additional strokes; examples of sans serif

typefaces include Helvetica and Verdana.

Using typography in print design is different from using typography on a Web site. In print

advertisements, serif typefaces are useful for large bodies of text for easier readability; however,

on screen, the detail of the serif stroke often looks rough on some computer monitors because of

low resolution (Bickner, 2003). Sans serif typefaces in print ads are usually reserved for

headlines and other bold elements, while online their clean lines offer high readability and,

therefore, are perfect for body copy on Web sites (Bickner, 2003).

As part of graphic design, typography is more than words on a page or typeface-it is part

of the overall layout. "Typography is the art of printing with type and involves the style and

layout of printed material" (Sprankle, 2001, p. 42).









Typography is a major executional element crucial to communication design. Selecting

appropriate typefaces can help create a consistent look among all aspects of a brand's

communication. Besides consistency, typography should also create and establish recognition

(Conover & Ryan, 2003). Moser (2003) agrees by saying that typography is a critical element in

developing a brand. Typefaces can portray what a brand is about and reinforce a brand's

message. They also can play a major role in recognition and processing advertising messages.

McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (2002) assert that typography has the potential to significantly

influence motivation, opportunity, and ability to process advertising messages. In their study of

typographic effects in advertising-based persuasion, they found that not only is typography

capable of affecting consumer ability to process ad-based brand information, but that the effects

of various typographic characteristics are highly interactive (McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002).

Typography alone can not define a brand, but used with color, a brand identity can start to form.

Color

A brand's image can be defined through the use of color (Blakeman, 2004). A design may

use many colors or a combination of colors-either way, color consistency over time can place a

brand image at the forefront of the consumer's mind (Ries & Ries, 2002). To preserve color

identity and maintain consistent use of color, many brands use the Pantone Matching System

(PMS), an "international reference for selecting, specifying, matching and controlling ink colors"

(Pantone, 2007). Color also is a major factor in influencing the mood or style of an

advertisement. According to Moser (2003), colors can be simple or sophisticated. Simple colors

are the primary (red, yellow, and blue) and secondary colors (green, orange, and purple). Moser

(2003) considers all other designer colors such as taupe, sage, lavender, pumpkin, sky blue, etc.

as sophisticated colors. Brands such as Tiffany & Co., Louis Vuitton, and Clinique use

sophisticated colors that quickly communicate their brand messages and identity. In fact, Tiffany









& Co.'s "little blue box" is so important to its brand identity that the shade of robin's egg blue

(which bears the PMS number 1837, the year Tiffany & Co. was founded) is trademarked.

Brands such as Target, Southwest Airlines, and Microsoft use more basic colors to communicate

that their products and services are targeted to everyday consumers. Moser (2003) uses the

example that Starbucks' use of rich colors creates a much different coffee experience than the

simple colors of McDonald's. This use of color in differentiating a coffee experience contributes

to how a consumer views a brand. Color can also be used to reflect a brand's personality. Simple

colors such as red and orange can help reinforce an aggressive, loud, fun-loving brand while

sophisticated colors work well with reserved and thoughtful brands (Moser, 2003).

Color on the Web is different from color in print because they are created differently.

According to Cohen (2003), colors in print are created by adding varying quantities of the four

process colors cyann, magenta, yellow, and black) to white paper. However, a light-based

medium like a computer screen creates different colors by using red, green, and blue. Some

colors, like metallic colors, appear dull on screen and do not translate well from print to the Web.

Online, vibrant colors such as fluorescent pink or electric blue work well; however, they cannot

be produced on paper using the standard process colors. They can only be replicated by using the

Pantone system. "Design for your primary medium, but be aware that some things won't

translate" (Jim Frew in Cohen, 2003, p. 149).

Color instantly communicates a brand's message to consumers (Moser, 2003), so it is

important to always utilize consistent color in the "face" of a product: the logo.

Logo

According to the American Marketing Association, a logo is "a name, term, sign, symbol,

or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or

group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors" (Walser, 2004, p. 25).









Corporations realize their identity is the very soul of their business. The use of a simple,

powerful, easily recalled symbolic form of a logo or logotype is very important (Gobe & Zyman,

2001). Vaid (2003) agrees logos are the most powerful and familiar visual expressions of a

brand. "Logos denote the business visually, and link brands with their historical predecessors.

Ultimately, logos should capture and translate the company's values and mission" (Vaid, 2003,

p. 58). Color, typography, and style also are not only elements that comprise a layout, but also

can be part of a logo as well.

Consistent use of a logo also helps customers recognize a brand more easily. Rowley

(2004) asserts that on a Web site, the logo should be displayed on the home page, and anywhere

else on the site where it adds value. "The logo is the shorthand for everything that the brand

stands for....its recurrence in several locations on the site will help to fix the logo in the

customer's mind" (Rowley, 2004). Cohen (2003) agrees that every page on a brand's Web site

should include the brand's logo. "People habitually scan Web pages the way designers have

traditionally arranged them: with site identity top-left (the logo)...Users typically glance at the

top of the page to orient themselves..." (Cohen, 2003, p. 86). However, in print ads, there is not

a standard when it comes to logo placement-balance is the key element to consider when

placing a logo in a particular area of a print ad (Conover & Ryan, 2003). "It isn't an accident that

print ads 'sign off or finish the ad by placing the client's logo lower right. It provides (the

brand) one last shot to remind the reader whose ad it is-and to increase their brand awareness"

(Conover & Ryan, 2003, p. 147).

Layout and Illustration Style

A brand's visual identity is also created through the use of layout and/or illustrative style.

"An ad's personality can be expressed through the layout style, or how its components are









featured within the design" (Blakeman, 2004, p. 60). Style can be subjective and is comprised of

many elements and expressions.

Style can refer to the use of an organizational layout system or pattern. Altstiel and Grow

(2005) describe three systems: grids, columns, and chaotic. Grid layouts (also known as

Mondrian layouts) are a systematic way of dividing space using geometric patterns that allow the

designer to see how elements of a layout might be organized (Altstiel & Grow, 2005). Columns

are similar to grids, but are used in a vertical fashion. Chaotic layouts use alignment and

proximity to bring organization to an overwhelming layout.

Transferring a print layout format to work on a Web site is an exercise in approximation

(Baxley, 2002). This constraint simply means that designers must be aware of the medium with

which they are communicating. "HTML does not, will not, and cannot provide a level of control

on par with print design. In the same way that print designers have to accommodate a printing

press' constraints and abilities, Web designers have to accommodate HTML" (Baxley, 2002, p.

351).

Types of layout formats

See Appendix C for examples of layout formats.

* The Mondrian Layout format does not focus on eye flow, but looks at visual size and color
to lead the consumer's eye to the largest photo or brightest color (Blakeman, 2004). When
an advertiser wants to display several different products, emphasize different selling
points, or explain different uses of the same product, a Mondrian layout is typically used.
Mondrian Layout is recognizable by having at least one illustration emphasized as a large
dominating rectangle, however "variations can use frames, have partial bleeds, overlap
elements, or add shapes other than rectangles" (Wagner, 2006, p. 46).

* Distinctive and identifiable photography or illustrations can also dictate format. Also, the
use of text atop a photograph in the picture window layout method invites the viewer to
become part of the photograph and see themselves with the product (Blakeman, 2004). The
picture window format usually features a large illustration depicting a portion of life or
showing the product in a setting. Variations of the picture window format may show it
combined with other formats.









* The frame layout has some kind of border whether it is a simple rule border, white space
margins, or a framing illustration that creates a border (Wagner, 2006). The frame is used
to attract attention or isolate an ad from other elements such as editorial content. The frame
is often combined with one or more other formats, especially a picture window layout.

* The silhouette layout works by grouping visual elements within the ad (Blakeman, 2004).
This grouping is the major element of the ad and the background usually is white. The
purpose of this format is to emphasize the product or multiple products. "By grouping
elements in pleasing and even irregular shapes, you can give weight to the visuals and
create eye flow" (Blakeman, 2004, p. 68).

* The Multipanel layout format usually displays several different products or different
features or uses of the same product in equal-sized boxes. These boxes are placed side by
side or in close proximity, and each box is in equal proportion because no image is over-
emphasized (Wagner, 2006).

* The Push-Pin layout is characterized by slanted elements, a stuck-on look where elements
appear to be randomly pasted in place, and/or computer effects that display nontraditional
design that has been manipulated by a computer (Wagner, 2006).

* A combination format features two or more layout formats that are combined. This can be
considered a catchall classification. "Most of the time if a layout doesn't fit any one of the
other layout format categories, it is a weak version of several. Usually one format is
dominant, but in some cases, several formats are obviously vying for dominance"
(Wagner, 2006, p. 48).

Other layout elements

The flow of a layout refers to the "visual and verbal paths of movement in which the

reader's eye tracks through a page or pages. A page with good flow will visually lead the reader

from one element to another element in the layout, carefully presenting the information to the

reader" (Graham, 2001, p. 131). Use of space in a layout also can determine style. A well-

designed ad should have white space which refers to the white of the paper used to set off and

organize elements contained in the ad (Blakeman, 2004). Balance should also be achieved in

layout. "The principle of balance is concerned with the distribution of visual elements on a page

in order to achieve a pleasing and clear layout. ...An important component of balance is learning

how to group important information together in a logical way" (Graham, 2005, pp. 11-12).









Stemming from the use of photography and illustrations, layouts also can make use of a

certain theme such as modern, fantasy, fun, etc. throughout the ad and campaign. For example, in

January 2007, Disney launched its "Where Dreams Come True" campaign featuring celebrities

as fairy tale characters. One of the print advertisements portrays Scarlett Johansson as Cinderella

running down a flight of stairs as the clock strikes midnight and she leaves her glass slipper

behind. The tagline reads, "Where every Cinderella story comes true" (PRNewswire, 2007). The

use of simple typography and a large, captivating photo (also a picture window layout) lets the

viewer fall into the fairy tale theme and see that it is possible for real people, and not fictitious

characters, to take part in Disney's "The Year of a Million Dreams" celebration.

Newark (2002) believes that style limits choices by creating a related set of design

decisions. For example, GAP advertisements usually feature models) in GAP clothing and the

corporate logo. Its ads completely revolve around a simplistic style based solely on the use of

photography and logo recognition. Design also can make a brand's personality come to life

which is important because no purchase is devoid of emotion (Cooper & Press, 2003).

Incorporating Design into Brand Identity

There is compelling evidence that businesses using brand identity and design together

perform better. According to Bailey (2006), The Design Council found that a group of

companies recognized as effective users of design (based on their being nominated for and

winning design-related awards) outperformed key FTSE indices by 200%. The study also shows

that while 90%t of rapidly growing businesses say design is integral or significant to them, only

26% of slow-growth companies use design to their advantage. These findings provide evidence

that design impacts sales and purchases of brands (Bailey, 2006).

Troubled companies usually think a new advertising campaign will solve their problems.

Instead, it often makes things worse. McKee (2005) found that inconsistency in marketing is a









mistake that too many make. Struggling companies often try to find an advertising silver bullet to

a product, pricing, or competitive issue, and when a new campaign doesn't immediately turn

things around, they toss it aside and look for the next big idea (McKee, 2005).

The most violated law to building a brand image is the law of consistency (Ries & Ries,

2002). Market conditions may change, but a brand's image and message should not.

Consistency through Design

In order to build a brand image in the minds of consumers, a brand must create a specific

identity and build a relationship with customers by using the same "look and feel" in every

instance. According to Lindstrom (2001), the more elements (i.e. logos, icons, etc.) a consumer

can recognize and relate to a brand, the more effective a brand will be. Lindstrom (2001) says

consistency is the vital ingredient to building a brand and a necessity in all of a brand's

communications. "Consistency builds familiarity, reliability, and, in the end, renders your brand,

ultimately, trustworthy" (Lindstrom, 2001, p. 153).

Attractive design across all parts of a brand enhances the impact of marketing

communications because it creates a tightly woven cohesion in consumers' minds. Since design

and layout are an integral part of building a powerful brand, Moser (2003) feels a company's

advertising should have cohesiveness to it, even if the advertising is spread across different

media. He asserts that certain colors should be apparent, design elements should repeat

themselves, the designs should either be rigid or fluid, layouts should either be visually oriented

or text-oriented, and there should be consistency in photography. Other experts such as Marcus

et al. (1995) believe a brand's marketing efforts should feature key characteristics such as brand

name, the prime colors and shapes of the packaging, and the central image positioning of the

brand. These features might remain identical in various markets, thus reducing communication

costs while creating a cohesive campaign.









Many companies realize the importance of consistency in their advertisements and strive to

maintain a consistent look through different means. Some companies restrict their

dealers/resellers to certain advertising agencies in order to preserve a consistent look to their ads.

For example, Suzuki strived for a consistent look and feel in its national and regional advertising

(Jackson, 2003). Jackson interviewed Tom Carnet, Suzuki's American marketing director: "We

want to have a common theme with (our ads) now" says Carney. Suzuki is only one of many

companies in the auto industry that wants its dealers to adhere to advertising guidelines to

maintain brand identity. According to Jackson (2003), Chrysler group dealers must use the

company's national ad agency BBDO Detroit to qualify for co-op funds.

Another benefit to using design to create consistency is that a unified campaign can

actually soothe a consumer (Smith & Taylor, 2004). On a subconscious level, the same logo,

typography, and colors on all visuals help reassure the consumer while reinforcing a company's

identity. Smith and Taylor (2004) looked at design in the airline industry and how these design

elements used in a consistent manner actually soothe the traveler. "Without this coordinated

corporate identity, cognitive dissonance can set in. There is a subconscious unease or discomfort

created by the inconsistent messages. A coordinated identity reduces this often unconscious

tension, which in turn creates a more satisfied passenger" (Smith & Taylor, 2004, p. 663). Smith

and Taylor say that the cohesive identity helps at a subconscious level next time the consumer

has to choose between two similar companies.

Other aspects to consistency are the concepts of unity and similarity. Using the same

colors, typefaces, and photo styles is not enough to be consistent; instead, all elements should be

unified and flow together. Unity refers to the overall cohesion and collection of a layout's parts,

especially as each separate element relates to the rest of the design's parts (Conover & Ryan,









2003). "Headlines, text, artwork, and the other graphic nuances of the page should fuse, be in

harmony or at the very least, be compatible with one another" (Conover & Ryan, 2003, p. 152).

Similarity means that elements that resemble each other in terms of color, size, or texture are

perceived to associate together (Koffka, 1955). In order for consistency in marketing to take

place, similar elements should carry over in all marketing materials, including Web sites.

Unity, consistency, cohesiveness, continuity whichever term chosen, they all represent

that a campaign should flow together seamlessly. "The concept of continuity is, in large part,

why we seek visual order. It allows us to make sense of our environment, or understand that

things go together" (Conover & Ryan, 2003, p. 152). According to Conover and Ryan (2003), an

advertising campaign must be cohesive in order for the ads to reinforce one another and function

not just by themselves, but together over the period of the campaign. Besides concept, Conover

and Ryan (2003) believe that continuity is the single most important quality of an advertising

campaign. "... there must be strident similarities in each of the ads to hold them all together...

There are a lot of visual tools in the arsenal, including size, format, shape, color, typography,

spatial arrangements, photographic style, the voice and tone of the headlines, and copy"

(Conover & Ryan, 2003, p.180).

Although most companies use a variety of media to promote their brand message, many

companies such as The Absolut Spirits company rely mostly on magazine ads (Conover & Ryan,

2003). However, the increase of the Internet as the all-inclusive medium is changing this. A

corporate Web site devoted to a company's product is the one medium that companies can no

longer be without. The Web is now the place consumers turn to for instant information about

products. With 203.82 million people in the United States using the Internet in 2005 (ClickZ,

2007), it is vital for companies to have a presence online. More importantly, as the number of









consumer product's Web sites increase, it benefits a brand to create a consistent visual identity to

differentiate itself from the competition.

Companies are realizing the importance of the Web and many have begun to research as to

how to ensure that their brand is represented consistently in a visual manner, especially on the

Internet.

Design and the Internet

Choi et al. (2005) states "visual representation is particularly important for Web sites

because most of the content and interactivities are eventually conveyed to the users through

visual stimuli." In a study by Schenkamn and Jonsson (2000), they found that Internet users

formulated their first impressions of a brand based on the overall design of the brand's Web

page. Lavie and Tractinsky (2004) developed a scale to measure the overall aesthetic quality of

Web pages based on visual factors (Choi et al., 2005).

However, because design can be a subjective topic, it is difficult to measure accurately the

effects of Web site design on consumers. According to Pearson and van Schaik (2003),

guidelines and standard design procedures for designing Web pages are not conclusively backed

by empirical evidence. One reason for this is due to the conflicting results obtained from

experimental studies thus calling for the need to further investigate so that accurate design

guidelines can be produced (Pearson & van Schaik, 2003). In addition, few studies have

suggested how to establish brand personality through the visual design of Web sites (Choi et al.,

2005). Therefore, it is difficult to find empirical research that suggests the importance of Web

design elements and their attributes for building a consistent, cohesive campaign for a brand.









Consistency Across Traditional Communication Activities and the Internet

In commercial environments, it can be difficult to communicate an online brand in the

absence of preconceptions already established through other channels (Rowley, 2004), thus

creating the need for a campaign to reinforce the same brand message by featuring a consistent

visual identity. Web sites are especially important to creating and maintaining consistent brand

identities of online-based products and services, such as eBay and iTunes. Consumers conduct

their entire business transaction on these Web sites, usually without any aid from a company

representative. Lindstrom (2006) found that up to 25% of Web users who fail to use an online

site successfully never return.

Design continuity and shared visual elements between a print advertisement and a brand's

Web site can provide reassuring cues to the consumer when making a purchase online. The Web

site should leverage the traditional offline brand by including the same logo, color palette, and

typefaces, thus providing consumers with the same continuity and brand recognition online as

they see in the print advertisements. Consumers should easily recognize that the Web site is

legitimate, professional, and representative of the brand they trust, thus hopefully increasing

brand equity to consumers and/or increasing potential purchases. According to Whittle (2006),

Financial Times' Web Site, FT.com, has simple and consistent presentation, and maintains its

brand elements by dominant usage of brand colors and related banners in every linked Web page

which makes the design very pleasant for the user. Nokia is another brand that recently made

changes to its brand identity in the 15 years since it entered the mobile phone market. Nokia

began its global brand revitalization with subtle changes of typefaces and typography to provide

more consistency across the brand's territories while more emphasis was also given to its

"Connecting people" slogan (Carter, 2005).









According to Pearse (2006), Bacardi-Martini is overhauling the digital strategy for its

Martini brand in order to make the drink's global profile more cohesive. A redesigned Martini

Web site is integrated with its new 'Mondo Martini' ad campaign, and acts as a portal, giving

individuals from Martini's different markets a single product view that fits into the campaign.

McKee (2005) believes the king of consistency is Absolut Spirits. Absolut's bottle campaign

began in 1980, and the series now has over 1,400 ads. There is even a Web site devoted to the

campaign (http://www.absolutads.com/). The consistency of this campaign is one reason Absolut

grew by nearly 15,000% in 15 years (McKee, 2005).

To create a full, comprehensive brand, a company must have a solid brand philosophy.

This philosophy or base should allow the brand to grow in all directions, covering all disciplines,

and all media channels (Lindstrom, 2006).

The importance of consistency needs to apply across a company's entire communications

spectrum. Advertising that is not integrated into a company's brand identity "is like a rogue

elephant" according to Campaign magazine in 1988 (Smith & Taylor, 2004). Adding a

company's Web site to print marketing is yet another way to achieve an integrated campaign.

Companies need to think of their Web sites as an extension of their advertising campaign; in fact,

most print advertisements nowadays feature a Web address for consumers to visit for more

information. For this reason, it is necessary to examine how and why the brand's Web site should

be an extension of the print advertising campaign.

Incorporating Print and Web

Advertisers also can use traditional media such as print advertising to connect a Web site

to a campaign by including the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in a print ad. Evidence

suggests that the use of mixed-media strategy such as promoting a Web site in magazine ads has

increased at a nearly exponential rate (Kanfer, Schlosser, & Ryan, 1996, as found in Schumann









and Thorson, 1999). The first URL for a commercial Web site appeared in PC Computing in

November 1994, and about a year later, 50% of all advertisements in PC Computing contained a

URL, with similar growth rates in other publications (Schumann & Thorson, 1999). In addition,

preliminary research suggests that using magazines to locate sites on the Internet is far from

uncommon; 65% of respondents reported finding out about Web sites through magazines

(Schumann & Thorson, 1999 as found in Gupta, 1995).

The way advertisers incorporate their Web sites into print advertising varies. For example,

many advertised URLs take the consumer to the company's homepage, which may or may not

directly link to the product advertised in the print ad. The prominence and context of the URL in

the print ad, the degree to which the print ad attempts to persuade consumers to visit the Web

site, and the amount of information describing the Web site also varies considerably (Schumann

& Thorson, 1999). Companies should also utilize the "three click" rule in the navigation of their

Web sites in order to be user-friendly. This rule states that "no page of your site should be more

than two clicks away from any other page" (Haig, 2001, p. 34).

Gap of Knowledge

The most prominent gap in previous research is how design as a whole effects brand

identity. Researchers in the design field typically only focus on the use of individual design

elements when it comes to building brand identity and consistency. For example, it is generally

suggested that color, symbol or logo, shape, and layout are important visual elements in printed

materials [Choi et al., 2005 (Bedford, 2003; Bevlin, 1997; Marcus et al., 1995; No & Lim,

1999)]. Breakenridge (2001), J.S. Kim (2002), and Lindstrom and Andersen (2000) suggested

that design elements such as color and logos are the primary elements for embodying brand

personality on Web sites (Choi et al., 2005). However, these studies rely on subjective data and

anecdotal experience, rather than on empirical results. For example, J.S. Kim's (2002) study of









the role of color in branding suggested using a specific color for the target brand personality.

However, the article mainly described the researcher's subjective impressions, without the

support of a theoretical framework or empirical data (Choi et al., 2005). These types of

omissions make it difficult to explain why a particular design element is crucial to campaign

cohesiveness. To provide practical guidelines on how a brand can be cohesive in print, online,

and in other media, more research is required. This need is the focus behind the current research,

which concentrates on the relationship between design elements crucial to a successful print

campaign, and how that carries over to the Web.

As shown in previous literature, there are many aspects to a successful, well-designed

advertising campaign. Because the Internet plays a major role on influencing consumers'

purchase intentions (Donnelly & Peter, 2004), a brand's Web site is now an important tool to

communicate brand image; therefore, it is important to achieve a consistent visual identity in a

campaign. My study attempts to further understand how advertisers are using design elements to

create consistent visual identities between traditional advertising and the Internet.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Focus and Method

As discussed in previous chapters, my study utilizes a descriptive qualitative content

analysis while incorporating a designer's perspective in order to investigate the following

research question: How are design and certain design elements in magazine print advertisements

reflected in the Web sites of the products advertised in order to create a consistent brand

identity? My study will examine common themes and divergences conveyed in both print and

online visual aspects of beauty product advertisements and Web sites.

Qualitative Content Analysis

My study employs a descriptive qualitative content analysis. Quantitative content analysis

"is the systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been

assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationships

involving those values using statistical methods..." (Riffe et al., 1998, p. 20). Qualitative content

analysis differs from quantitative because it employs inductive, subjective, theory-generating

processes while quantitative research deals with processes that are deductive, objective, and

theory-testing (McNabb, 2002). According to Babbie & Rubin (2005), qualitative analysis

predates quantitative analysis and employs "methods for examining social research data without

converting them to numerical format" (p. 527). The aim of qualitative content analysis is to be

structured and systematic, but still be analytic by looking at the depth and breadth of the data

being analyzed. Maxwell (2005) suggested that the main strategy behind qualitative research is

coding, and the goal of coding is to take the data and "rearrange them into categories that

facilitate comparison between things in the same category and that aid in the development of

theoretical concepts" (p. 96).









Krippendorff (2004) provides a basic definition of quantitative content analysis in defining

it as "a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from texts (or other

meaningful matter) to the contexts of their use" (p. 18). However, Wimmer and Dominick (2005)

state that content analysis is "a method of studying and analyzing communication in a

systematic, objective, and quantitative manner for the purposes of measuring variables" (p. 150).

In addition, Krippendorff (2004) also identifies four primary advantages of content analysis: it is

unobtrusive; it is context sensitive and therefore allows the researcher to process data that is

significant, meaningful, informative, and representational of others; it can cope with large

volumes of data; and most importantly, it is unstructured which preserves the conceptions of the

data's sources. According to McMillan (2000), "... advantages seem to apply equally to the Web

as to media such as newspapers and television. The capability of coping with large volumes of

data is a distinct advantage in terms of Web analysis."

Content analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, has been criticized for its limitations.

The findings for a particular content are limited to the framework of the categories and the

definitions employed in that analysis (Wimmer & Dominick, 2005). In order to minimize this

limitation, quantitative content analysis requires that categories should be defined precisely so

that other researchers can apply the same tools to the same data and achieve the same results

(Wimmer & Dominick, 2005, p. 151). Content analysis is also limited, in that there is a lack of

messages relevant to the research; it can be time consuming and expensive, because analyzing

and classifying large volumes of content is both labor-intensive and tedious (p. 154).

When applying content analysis techniques to the Web, researchers need to carefully

consider each of the primary research steps: formulating research questions and/or hypotheses,









sampling, data collection and coding, training coders and checking the reliability of their work,

and analyzing and interpreting data (McMillan, 2000).

Sample

For the purposes of my study, a purposive sampling technique was used. Barber and Burt

(1996) define a purposive sample as one in which the researcher uses personal judgment to

determine if certain items of a population best serve the purpose of the study. Dominick and

Wimmer (2005) confirm the importance of purposive sampling in content analysis as they found

that from 1971 to 1995, 68% of Journalism Quarterly content analyses used a purposive sample.

Purposive sampling is especially useful when "you want to construct a historical reality, describe

a phenomenon, or develop something about which only a little is known" (Kumar, 2005, p. 179).

The researcher makes deliberate choices in purposive sampling, although this does not suggest

any bias in the nature of the choices made (Ritchie & Lewis, 2003). "The process of purposive

samplings requires clear objectivity so that the sample stands up to independent scrutiny"

(Ritchie & Lewis, 2003, p. 80).

For my study, the sample consisted of beauty-related ads from the top three women's

magazines in the U.S. market ranked by average circulation for the first six months of 2006 (as

reported by the Audit Bureau of Circulation for the Magazine Publishers of America) because

the list reflects a variety of publications with varying types of advertisements. In rank order, the

list provided, Better Homes and Gardens, Good Housekeeping, and Ladies' Home Journal.

According to Better Homes and Gardens' Web site (2007), the magazine's readership is

80.2% women with most of its readership falling into the 25 to 54 age range (60.8%). Good

Housekeeping's audience is 89.1% women with 57.4% of its readers in the 25 to 54 age

category, and 51.7% in the 50-plus category (GoodHousekeeping.com, 2007). According to









Ladies' Home Journal's Web site (2007), its readership is 100% women and 92% of its readers

are over 30.

Beauty-related advertisements were chosen because the cosmetics and toiletries industry is

experiencing high levels of growth. According to Euromonitor International reports, the cosmetic

industry is expected to reach global sales of more than $300 billion by 2010. In addition, the

personal care product category spent $2.9 billion in 2006 on advertising, a 3.1% growth from

2005 (TNS, 2006). Women's magazines were used to obtain the sample advertisements as they

usually feature many beauty and cosmetic-related advertisements.

The first four full-page advertisements for beauty, skincare, hair care, or makeup products

from the March 2007 issue of Better Homes and Gardens and the first three full-page

advertisements related to beauty products from Good Housekeeping and Ladies' Home Journal

were chosen for coding (refer to Appendix D for samples collected). In addition, if a duplicate ad

or brand was present, the ad featured in the higher-ranking magazine was used. A total of 10 ads

and their corresponding 10 Web sites were chosen based if the advertised product featured a

beauty, skincare, makeup, or hair care element. The brands examined included Dove, Avon,

Infusium, Gamier, Cover Girl, Aveeno, Almay, L'Oreal, RoC, and NIVEA.

Once the print advertisements were selected, their corresponding Web sites automatically

were chosen because URLs appeared in all 10 print ads. The Web sites were collected during the

calendar dates of February 21 and March 24, 2007.

It was decided to choose these magazines during one month rather than a few magazines

over a particular time period for two reasons. First, there is no baseline measurement of Web

presence and print advertising strategy. Second, the Web is constantly changing, making any

time-sensitive study difficult. The Web is evolving so quickly that to investigate Web presence









in print advertisements, even a one-year time period is questionable. That is, what Web

advertising looks like in December of one year may be very different from what it looked like 11

months earlier. Therefore, it was decided to focus on a specific month to gain an understanding

of the exact state of advertising during that particular timeframe. This can provide a point to

compare against for future studies.

Materials (Apparatus)

Materials required to conduct my study included a recording instrument or code sheet (see

Appendix A), and a codebook (see Appendix B). In addition, issues of the magazines from which

the ads appeared were needed to obtain the sample. Once the advertisements were obtained from

the physical issues of the magazines, an Internet-enabled computer was then used as a resource

for reaching the advertised products' Web sites.

After the ads were obtained, the ads were analyzed using codes established solely by the

researcher due to the lack of research done in the area of design consistency. Since no existing

instrument was found, the researcher focused on design principles to establish the codes. The

researcher conducted a preliminary examination of the samples to help determine what common

elements to analyze. The following study examines typography, color, layout style, photographic

illustration, and corresponding Web site characteristics.

The coding sheet for the print ads focused on design elements: presence of logo (both in

advertisement alone and/or on the product itself); color schemes; typography style; photographic

style; and presence of the Web address. For the Web sites, the coding sheet also examined design

elements such as logo, color, typography, and photographic style. Also, whether the URL listed

in the print advertisement took the user directly to the product's home page, or a general

corporate page was noted. In addition, my study investigated whether the Web site not only









featured a consistent visual identity, but also whether it was running the same ad campaign that

appeared in the print advertisement.

This coding instrument allowed the observer to analyze each advertisement in order to

study and compare similarities and differences between integrated advertising campaigns.

Analyzing the results of the coding will produce a list of design elements that are most

commonly found in magazine advertisements. It will also accentuate differences between the

visual identity found in print ads and the respective brand's Web site.

Items Coded Within Study

Below are definitions of each item the researcher examined and the directions to be

followed during the coding process. The following categories will be coded for within each ad in

order to uncover commonalities and differences:

Print Ad

* Source of Ad: List magazine title, year, month.

* Brand/product: Describe what it is, how it is used, and any other pertinent information

* Industry: Please circle whether the ad is for skincare, haircare, makeup, or other

* Show Product: Does the ad physically display the product being advertised?

* Packaging: Describe how the brand is defined by the look of the package/product

* Product positioning: state if known; if not, can you assume from what you see?

* Target Audience: Who is the main target consumer? How do you know? (Assumption?
Stated in a corporate document? Explain if from the ad itself; by looking at model used,
typeface, colors, etc.)

Elements of Print Ad

* Headline: Is there a headline present to draw the viewer in? Or is it just the product name?

* Visual (photograph/art/other): Is a visual used? Illustration or actual photo? If so. describe
photograph/visual. Is the visual in color or another form such as sepia or black and white?










* Copy: Is there copy present? Promotional text? Disclosures? Tagline? Is there a URL
present in the copy?

* Logo: Record whether a logo is used within the ad. Does the logo stand alone in the ad? Is
the logo visible on the product or anywhere else in the ad? Is the logo an image only, or
does it include text?

* Other: Is there another element present in the ad? A sample to try the product? A coupon?

Layout in Print Ad

* What type of format is used in the ad?

Design Elements in Print Ad

* Rules/Borders/Panels: Are any of these elements present?

* Color: Is there a color scheme present in the advertisement? Does the ad feature color in
the text? Does color used in the ad appear to be a main focus? Does the ad use one color,
spot color, or full color? Please describe and explain. Also record the colors emphasized, if
any. This code does not refer to color photos.

* Typography: Is there a specific/unique typestyle used in the advertisement? This code does
not refer to typography used in the logo

* Overall Design principles: Brief discussion of what the art director wanted the reader to
look at based on: Unity, balance (symmetrical vs. asymmetrical placement; right/left
weight), proportion (size comparison), contrast (value and color comparison) and
movement.

* Definition of the brand: based on the ad, what is the definition of the brand?


Product Web site

* Web URL: List URL and date accessed. Does the URL take the user directly to the product
Web page?

* Show Product: Does the Web site physically display the product being advertised?

* Campaign: Is the same campaign used online as in the print advertisement?

Elements of product Web site

* Headline: Is there a headline present to draw the viewer in? Or is it just the product name?










* Visual (photograph/art/other): Is a visual used? Illustration or actual photo? If so. describe
photograph/visual. Is the visual in color or another form such as sepia or black and white?
* Copy: Is there copy present? Promotional text? Disclosures? Tagline? Other copy such as
product reviews/testimonials etc?

* Logo: Record whether a logo is used on the Web site. Does the logo stand alone on the
site? Is the logo visible on the product if the product is shown online? Is the logo different
or the same from that in the print ad?

* Other: Is there another element present on the Web site? A coupon?

Layout of Web site

* Does the Web site fit into a particular layout format?

Design Elements of Web site

* Rules/Borders/Panels: Are any of these elements present?

* Color: Is there a color scheme present on the Web site? Does the Web site the same colors
as the print ad? Does the Web site feature color in the text? Does color used in the Web
site appear to be a main focus? Does the Web site use one color, spot color, or full color?
Please describe and explain. Also record the colors emphasized, if any. This code does not
refer to color photos.

* Typography: Is there a specific/unique typestyle used on the Web site? This code does not
refer to typography used in the logo

* Overall impression: Is there consistency between the print ad and the Web site? Does the
advertising promote a consistent brand identity? Please describe overall impressions of
how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of design do or do not
perpetuate a cohesive brand identity.

Procedure

After the code sheet and code book were constructed, all 10 advertisements and their

respective Web sites' content were qualitatively analyzed. Common themes, similarities, and

differences were recorded and described in detail in order to compare and contrast ways that

brands maintained brand identity by use of design. After the analysis was completed, results









were reported in general terms, but then print ads and Web sites best exemplifying each finding

were chosen for detailed explanation and description.









CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS

This section presents the results of a descriptive content analysis of 10 advertisements for

beauty products and their Web sites based on the items discussed in the methods chapter. Within

each section, a discussion of the similarities and differences between an ad and its Web

counterpart is used to show the general patterns presented that help achieve consistency in brand

identity.

ALMAY Hydracolor Lipstick

ALMAY's Print Advertisement

The target consumers for ALMAY's hydracolor lipstick are women 25 to 54 (based on

GoodHousekeeping's main readership) who want moist lips with a choice of colors. In the full-

page print advertisement (see Appendix D, Figure D-l), the art director displays a close-up

photographic illustration of what may be assumed to be all lipsticks in the product line. The

packaging is sprinkled with droplets of water to visualize the moistness of hydracolor lipstick.

As the illustration ends at the page margins, some of the lipsticks are cropped, giving the

impression there are more colors than can be shown in this one ad. In fact, there are 32 colors in

the product line, and only 28 are pictured. Since print ads may be more targeted to someone who

plans to go to a brick-and-mortar store, the consumer may be curious to know if she might find

other shades of lipstick she would be interested in purchasing. The entire lipstick package is

included as a second illustration inset into the main background illustration.

The art director chose to use a picture window layout format to display the large

illustration of a variety of product colors; a silhouetted image of the packaging was included to

give cues as to what the consumer should look for on the shelves while shopping; and the white-

space margin frame format may be because bleeds are not in the advertiser's budget.









To emphasize an upbeat and fun message, the copywriter chose exciting words such as

revitalizes, nourishes, refreshing, rich and sensation. While most type elements in the print ad are

set in a simple sans serif typeface, the headline is much larger and in a Modern Roman Serif

typeface, the same found on the product package.

All type except the word "new" is dark blue. "New" is highlighted as a reversal in a bright

pink panel; the blue body copy is on a transparent-white panel.

The ALMAY logo is the same dark blue printed within the main illustration. It almost acts

as a caption to identify the lipstick as an ALMAY product. The lowercase "a" is used on the

packaging as a secondary logo.

The art director rounded the top right and bottom left corners of the illustration, as well as

the left side of the transparent-white type panel. These act as a unifying device to repeat the

shape of the lipstick in the main illustration.

The URL in the print ad (almay.com) takes you to the home page where this campaign

does appear. The URL to the product page is too long and it makes sense to bring the reader to

the home page.

The ALMAY Web Site

The use of a rotating Flash feature on the home page allows multiple campaigns to be

featured, so no matter which ad the readers saw in print, they get the same campaign on the Web.

Flash is a multimedia authoring and playback system from Adobe and is responsible for most

advertisements, animations, and video components found on today's Web sites.

The same illustration of the lipsticks is on the home page of ALMAY's Web site as in the

print ad (see Appendix D, Figure D-l); however, the image is not as tightly cropped. On the

product page link for the hydracolor line, the art director uses the image of the sealed packaging,

as well as swatches of all 32 shades. Showing all colors on the Web site will help the consumer









make purchase decisions before going to a brick-and-mortar store, or when going to an online

retailer.

Layout formats are not as structured on Web sites (Baxley, 2002), but there is a suggestion

of picture window display on the ALMAY homepage with a white panel for the copy. The

lipstick product page displays a silhouette in an upright position similar to the inset image in the

print ad. The hydracolor product Web page uses the same rounded corner that was in the print ad

and is used on the top right of the product page and home page, adding unity between the print

ad and the Web site design.

The ALMAY home page and product page includes the same sans serif typeface as the

print ad, even though the only place a Modern Roman Serif type is seen is the lowercase "a"

secondary logo in a panel highlighting the ALMAY product guide and on a side panel

emphasizing "hypoallergenic." Some of the copywriting is the same or similar to the print

version; however, the product Web page does not have the "Hydration sensation" headline.

The main color system is carried from the print ad to the Web site, although the blue is

only in the navigation elements, and the basic text is black. The sans serif blue ALMAY

logotype is not tied to the illustration on the Web site; but is used as a heading on the home page

and product page. The lowercase "a" is also used as a secondary logo on those pages.

ALMAY Overview

ALMAY's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using the same illustration,

typefaces, logo and secondary logo, similar layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic

copywriting words and phrases to emphasize the revitalizing, refreshing, and beautiful image.

ALMAY's Hydrating Lipstick positioning and message: "so your lips feel as beautiful as they

look" achieves its goal for the consumer to realize that their product will provide smooth, moist

lips.









Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Moisturizing Body Wash

Aveeno's Print Advertisement

The target consumers for Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Moisturizing Body Wash are

women 25 to 54 (based on GoodHousekeeping's main readership) who are interested in having

clean, healthy skin by using a product with natural ingredients. In the full-page print

advertisement (see Appendix D, Figure D-2), the art director displays a half-page, close-up,

color photograph of a brunette woman in her late twenties in the shower. The packaging is on the

bottom right of the ad and features soap suds running down the left side of the bottle. As the

model in the photograph is looking down to the right, it is as if she's angling her eyes to the

bottle at the bottom of the page. Sprigs of oats and an illustration showing water droplets to

depict the moisture your skin will obtain when you use the product are included as additional

illustrations inset into the main background.

The art director chose to use a picture window layout format to display the large

photograph of the woman enjoying her shower with Aveeno; a silhouetted image of the

packaging was included to give cues as to what the consumer should look for on the shelves

while shopping.

To emphasize a soothing and smooth-skin message, the copywriter chose natural-related

words: natural, replenishes, oatmeal, sunflower oils, and dermatologists. All of the type elements

in the print ad are set in a simple sans serif typeface, including those on the product package.

All type except the type in the illustration is black. "Natural oatmeal formula" and

"replenishes moisture" are highlighted as a reversal in a green panel. The black body copy is on a

cream panel. The Aveeno logo, a serif typeface, is black and is printed within the cream

background panel as well as on the packaging.









The URL in the print ad (www.aveeno.com) takes you to the home page where this

campaign does not appear; however, links to the product lines and similar visual cues that were

featured in the print ad are present.

The Aveeno Web Site

A photographic image of the same brunette model and images of oats are on the home page

of Aveeno's Web site as in the print ad (see Appendix D, Figure D-2); however, the shower

image does not appear on the site. On the product page link for the daily moisturizing line, the art

director uses a similar image of the sealed packaging, a sprig of oats, and an African-American

female model caressing her shoulder. Showing a different model helps Aveeno display diversity,

while carrying the images of oats reinforces its natural ingredients while creating visual

continuity.

There is a suggestion of a picture window display on the Aveeno homepage along with a

frame element. The body wash product page displays a Mondrian format and also incorporates a

frame around the entire page.

The Aveeno home page and product link includes the same sans serif typeface as the print

ad in varying sizes and weights. Some of the copywriting is the same or similar to the print

version; however, the product Web page does not have the "Healthy skin starts in the shower"

headline.

The main color system is carried from the print ads to the Web site, with cream also being

the background color of the Web site and green as navigational and design elements. The serif

Aveeno logotype appears on the home page and the product page, but is in a very dark brown.

Aveeno Overview

Aveeno's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using the same illustration,

typefaces, logo, similar layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic copywriting words and









phrases to emphasize the natural, healthier, smoother image. By using colors found in nature,

highlighting the use of natural ingredients, and by showing images of oats both on the Web and

in the print ad, Aveeno brings its products back to the original source of beauty: nature.

Aveeno's Active Naturals Daily Moisturizing Body Wash positioning and message: "discover

nature's secret for healthy, beautiful skin" achieves its goal for the consumer to realize that their

product will provide smooth, moisture-laden skin.

Avon Skin So Soft Fusions Body Wash

Avon's Print Advertisement

The target consumers for Avon's Skin So Soft Fusions Body Wash are women 25 to 54

(based on Better Homes and Garden's main audience profile) who are Avon users and who want

soft skin from a unique product a dual-action body wash. In the full-page print advertisement

(see Appendix D, Figure D-3), the art director displays a close-up, half-page illustration of the

body wash being squeezed from the bottle onto a white body puff

Water is splashed around the packaging to visualize it in the shower and represents the

product in action. As the photograph bleeds at the top of the page, some of the bottle is cropped,

giving the impression that there is a hand squeezing the product out. Since Avon is not available

in stores, this print ad shows the product in action for the consumer to see what she can purchase.

The art director chose to use a silhouette layout format to display the large illustration of

the body wash in action. This silhouetted image of the packaging was included to give cues as to

what the consumer can expect to receive after she calls her Avon Representative.

To emphasize a feminine and smooth message, the copywriter chose descriptive words

such as silky, polishing, soften, and hydrate. All of the type elements in the print ad are set in a

simple sans serif typeface, including those on the product package.









All the type is black and is highlighted against the white background and a pale pink panel.

The Avon logo, a sans serif typeface, is black and is printed within the pink background panel;

however, the Avon logo is cropped off the illustration of the bottle.

The URL in the print ad (avon.com) takes you to the home page where this campaign does

not appear. The URL to the product page is too long and it makes sense to bring the reader to the

home page; however, it takes more than three clicks to reach the product page.

The Avon Web Site

Different images appear on the home page of Avon's Web site (see Appendix D, Figure D-

3); however once the user navigates to the product page, the packaging is shown, but it is not in

action and doesn't show the body wash coming out. The Avon homepage utilizes a Mondrian

display while the body wash product page uses a Mondrian format with a silhouetted image of

the product bottle in an upright position.

The Avon home page and product link includes sans serif typefaces as does the print ad.

None of the copywriting is the same or similar to the print version, and the product Web page

does not have the "Introducing two ways to get 24 hours of silky smooth skin. In one" headline.

The main color system is not carried from the print ad to the Web site, as pink and black

do not appear on the Web site, but instead it features navy and grey text on a white background.

The sans serif black Avon logotype appears in the upper left corner of the Web site, but is

a peach/tan color. Although the Avon logo was cropped off the bottle in the print ad, it does

appear on the image of the Fusions bottle online. The same typeface is used for both the logo in

print and online; however, the use of a different color for the logo online further distances the

two forms of media from each other.









Avon Overview

Avon's advertising does not promote a consistent brand identity as it does not use similar

images, colors, and is buried within the Web site. The Avon Web site does not have an

"Introducing Fusions" angle like the print ad does so the Web site seems to exist to not be a

campaign extension, but to be a resource to purchase the product. Avon's Skin So Soft Fusions

Dual Softening Body Wash's positioning and message: "introducing the first dual softening body

wash" does not achieve its goal as the product is hard to find on the Web site, and once the user

finds it, the message is not reinforced with the same overall look.

CoverGirl Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation

CoverGirl's Print Advertisement

CoverGirl's Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation's target consumers are

women closer to the high range (age 54) of GoodHousekeeping's main audience profile. These

are women who want to reduce the look of wrinkles and look bright-eyed.

In the double-page print advertisement (see Appendix D, Figure D-4), the art director

displays a close-up, color photograph of Christie Brinkley as a spokesperson for the product. Her

white shirt, simple makeup, and relaxed smile lend a breezy, refreshing angle to the photograph.

A picture of the product is across the page, open in its packaging on its side facing toward

Brinkley as if she just used it. The packaging is sprinkled with droplets of water to visualize the

moistness of the cream foundation. Since print ads may be more targeted to someone who plans

to go to a brick-and-mortar store, the consumer is shown the actual product inside its packaging

and also is told the color Brinkley is wearing.

The art director chose to use a picture window layout format to display the large photo of

Brinkley representing the CoverGirl brand; a silhouetted image of the packaging was included to

give cues as to what the consumer should look for on the shelves while shopping.









To emphasize a quality product and "obtain youthful skin now" message, the copywriter

chose restorative words: wake up tired eyes, reduce the look of wrinkles, age-defier, rested,

young, and glows. This is further perpetuated by the use of Christie Brinkley's quote which runs

across the ad, "Think of it as instant beauty sleep in a jar." While most type elements in the print

ad are set in a simple serif typeface, Brinkley's quote attribution and the product name are a sans

serif typeface, the same found on the product package.

The photograph of Brinkley and the product provides most of the color in the print ad;

however, grey is used for all text and the product name and Brinkley's quote attribution are in

shades of blue. The CoverGirl logotype is a sans serif typeface, and appears in white while

running across the top ofBrinkley's head, which is difficult to read against her blond hair and

white background. An abbreviated version of the logo, CG, appears on the lid of the packaging

as a secondary logo.

The URL in the print ad (covergirl.com) takes you to the home page where this campaign

does appear on a rotating Flash feature. The URL to the product page is too long, and it makes

sense to bring the reader to the home page.

The CoverGirl Web Site

The use of a rotating Flash feature on the home page allows multiple campaigns to be

featured, so no matter which ad the readers saw in print, they get the same campaign on the Web.

The same photographic image of Christie Brinkley and the packaging appear on the home page

of CoverGirl's Web site as in the print ad (see Appendix D, Figure D-4). On the product page

link for the Restorative Cream Foundation, the art director uses the same image of the sealed

packaging. The product line page also shows the other Advanced Radiance products in similar

packaging. Showing the other products in the line on the Web site will help make the consumer









become more familiar with the brand and can also encourage purchase decisions for the rest of

the product line.

Online, the product page for Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation uses a

Mondrian format. Compared with its print ad, the product Web site has some Flash "picture

window elements" inside the Mondrian layout, but itself is not a picture window format.

The CoverGirl home page and product link includes the same sans serif typeface as the

print ad; however, the serif typeface in the print ad does not appear on the Web site. Some of the

copywriting is the same or similar to the print version. However, on the CoverGirl Web site,

several headlines are used: the home page and the product page treat "Advanced Radiance" as

the headline while the product line page uses "Defy the signs of aging." The product line page

does use "Think of it as instant beauty sleep in a jar."

The main color system is carried from the print ad to the Web site, with black text and

navigational elements in shades of blue and grey highlighted against a white background. The

sans serif CoverGirl logotype is present on the top left of all Web pages, but is in navy blue.

CoverGirl Overview

CoverGirl's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using the same images,

typefaces, logo, similar layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic copywriting words and

phrases to emphasize the restorative, refreshing, and beautiful image. CoverGirl treats its Web

site as an extension of the print ad, but with multiple opportunities to find out more about the

entire Advanced Radiance line. CoverGirl's Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation

positioning and message: "easy, breezy, beautiful CoverGirl" achieves its goal for the consumer

to realize that the product will reduce wrinkles while giving the user that young, rested look.









Dove ProAge


Dove's Print Advertisement

Dove ProAge's target consumers are the older women (age 54) of Better Homes and

Garden's main audience profile; these women are interested in using a product made just for

them. In the multi-page, foldout print advertisement (see Appendix D, Figure D-5), the art

director displays full-page color photos of middle-aged, naked, grey-haired women of different

races in non-suggestive poses. The images of these middle-aged women represent the "true"

consumer those who have imperfections, but are comfortable in their skin. Due to the foldout

feature of the ad, the photograph of the African-American woman is the only visible one until the

user flips open the other pages. A silhouette photo of the ProAge collection of products stands

out against the all-white background of the right-hand page.

The art director chose to use a picture window layout format to display the large images of

the naked, middle-aged women a rarity in advertising where skinny models are the norm; a

silhouetted image of the packaging was included to give cues as to what the consumer should

look for on the shelves while shopping.

To emphasize its different approach to hair and skincare products, the copywriter chose to

say what Dove ProAge is, is not, and to introduce it: anti-age, too old, new and that Dove is pro-

age. All of the type elements in the print ad are set in a simple sans serif typeface, except for a

serif typeface found on the product package.

The print ad features gray and maroon text on a white panel while reverse text appears over

the photographs. The Dove ad does not use its logo in a large format. The Dove logo is visible

only on the product packaging. To tie the page together, the designer pulled out the small gray

dove in the logo and placed it next to the URL.









The art director uses the headline "too old to be in an anti-aging ad," which works as a

caption in this ad as it runs across the three panels of the advertisement. This acts as a unifying

device to bring the three images together.

The URL in the print ad (doveproage.com) takes you to the home page where this

campaign does appear. Since Dove created a dedicated Web site for this product line, its

branding effort begins the moment the user reaches the Web site.

The Dove ProAge Web Site

The same photographic image of the African-American woman is on the home page of

Dove's Web site as in the print ad (see Appendix D, Figure D-5); however, the image is cropped

tighter. In addition, similar images of the product line are used on the product page. On the

product line page for ProAge, the art director uses similar images of the packaging that appeared

in the print ad. Showing the packaging of the entire line on the Web site further reinforces brand

identity which can help encourage purchase decisions in the store.

On the Web, the Flash element on the home page uses the same image of the African-

American woman in the print ad. This creates a picture window element, but the actual layout of

the product page on the Web site uses a Mondrian format. The products alternate from being on

the left and right side of the pages with the text directly next to it.

The Dove home page and product link includes the same sans serif typeface as the print ad;

however, product names are in a lowercase serif typeface which helps to add differentiation on

the page. Because the copy in the print ad is minimal, the same angle appears online, but is not

word-for-word. However, neither the home page nor the product line page has the "too old to be

in an anti-aging ad" headline.

The main color system is carried from the print ad to the Web site, with the Web site

featuring gray body copy, product names and links in maroon all against a white background.









The serif grey Dove logo is present on the top left of the home page and product page. The image

of the dove is also used as a secondary logo on those pages beside the "click here to learn more"

links.

Dove Overview

Dove's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using similar images,

typefaces, logo and secondary logo, similar layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic

copywriting words and phrases to emphasize the daring, positive, and diverse angle to its brand.

Dove treats its Web site as a very important part of the campaign as it is a detailed source that

not only expands upon the campaign, but also brings in new elements like casting calls for

ProAge women and links to try the new line of products. Dove's ProAge positioning and

message: "beauty has no age limit" achieves its goal for the consumer to realize that all women

can feel beautiful no matter their age, color, or size and that Dove's ProAge will help them do

that.

Gamier Nutritioniste Ultra-Lift cream

Garnier's Print Advertisement

The target consumers for Gamier Nutritioniste's Ultra-Lift cream are women 25 to 54

(based on Better Homes and Garden's main audience profile) who are interested in firming their

skin and using nutrients found in nature to help their skin. In the double-page print advertisement

(see Appendix D, Figure D-6), the art director displays an isolated, close-up photograph of a

vibrant salmon-colored piece of sushi with a pair of dark grey chopsticks lying in front. On the

opposite page is the bottle of "Ultra-Lift" with a silver spoon laying in front of it with a small

dollop of the cream in it. A small pie-chart illustration of vitamin capsules, a slice of kiwi, and

part of a molecular chain is included as a second illustration inset into the copy block area. Since

print ads are usually targeted to the consumer who plans to go to a brick-and-mortar store, the









image of the cream on the spoon against the bottle helps the consumer know what the package

and contents look like. The art director chose to use a silhouette layout format to display the

large illustrations away from the copy for a bigger impact.

To parallel the nutrients of fish to those of Ultra-Lift, the copywriter chose words that

emphasized nourishment: refuels, nutrients, inside, and fortifies. Typography in this campaign is

comprised entirely of sans serif typeface in the print ad as well as the product package. A large,

reverse headline runs across the top of both pages in sentence format while a smaller subhead in

a heavier weight, appears in the copy block.

All type except key ingredients is white. "Omega 3," "Vitamin A," "Rice Protein," and

"Dermatological-nutrients" are in green. The subhead is highlighted as a reversal in a bright

green panel. The white body copy is on a black full-page panel.

The Gamier logo is a white, sans serif typeface and appears in the lower right hand corner

of the right page. Beside the word Gamier are three small circles green, orange, and pink. In

each circle, a small illustration of a leaf is present. The logo also appears on the bottle in silver

with a green circle and arching swash above it. The art director included green rules lines around

the copy to further isolate it from the silhouette images.

The URL in the print ad (www.garniernutritioniste.com) takes you to the home page where

this campaign does appear. The URL to the product page is too long and it makes sense to bring

the reader to the home page.

The Garnier Nutritioniste Web Site

The use of a rotating Flash feature on the home page allows multiple campaigns to be

featured, so no matter which ad the readers saw in print, they get the same campaign on the Web.

The home page of Garnier Nutritioniste's Web site (see Appendix D, Figure D-6) features a

Flash element that uses the same images as in the print ad, but concludes with Sarah Jessica









Parker as the spokesperson. The addition of this popular actress on the Web site is not expected

when seeing the print ad first, but she represents what the Gamier brand character stands for -

modern, fun, and innovative. On the product page link for the Ultra-Lift product, the art director

uses a similar image of the Ultra-Lift bottle, as well as the same pie chart icon from the print ad.

Although layout formats are not as strict on Web sites (Baxley, 2002), both the home page

and the product page of the Gamier Nutritioniste Web site use a Mondrian format. Although

there are some silhouette, frame, and even picture window elements, they are treated as elements

within the overall Mondrian layout.

The home page as well as the product Web page use the same green rule lines that were in

the print ad, further adding unity between the print ad and the Web site design. The Gamier

Nutritioniste home page and product page link includes the same white, sans serif typeface as the

print ad. Some of the copywriting is the same or similar to the print version; however, the

product Web page does not feature a headline, but just the product name.

The main color system is carried from the print ad to the Web site, with black again as the

background and green and white text. Color plays a large role in this campaign. The background

of the ad is black, which makes the bright sushi and bottle pop off the page. The black offers a

stark contrast to the white headline and green rule lines are used to create the box that the copy

and the pie chart illustration are in. Green is also used in the copy block to emphasize the

nutrients found in the product.

The sans serif white Nutritioniste logotype that is on the bottle in the print ad is utilized as

the main logo on the Web site. The Gamier logo is also used as a secondary logo on those pages.

Garnier Overview

Garnier's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using the same photographic

illustration, typefaces, logo, similar layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic copywriting









words and phrases to emphasize the nourishing, modern, and fun image. The Web site is an

additional, interactive source for information about how to use the product, benefits of the

product, and extends the campaign. Gamier Nutritioniste's Ultra-Lift cream positioning and

message: "Great skin from the inside out" achieves its goal for the consumer to realize that their

product is trendy, fun, makes skin look younger, and makes the user feel healthy and vibrant.

Infusium 23

Infusium 23's Print Advertisement

The target consumers for Infusium 23 are women 25 to 54 (based on Better Homes and

Garden's main audience profile) who want their hair worries to be fixed. In the full-page print

advertisement (see Appendix D, Figure D-7), the art director displays an illustration of the

product packaging with a "play-on-words" element to it. Since print ads may be more targeted to

someone who plans to go to a brick-and-mortar store, incorporating the bottles into the main

illustration of the ad could help the consumer more easily remember what the package looks like.

The art director chose to use a silhouette layout format to display the large illustration of

the variety of products in the line.

To emphasize a scientific and helpful message, the copywriter chose "repairing" words

such as problem, solution, control, and science. In addition, each product in the line is named

XXX -ologie which also plays upon the science aspect.

All type elements in the print ad are set in a simple sans serif typeface, the same found on

the product package. All type except the product line names are in black. The colors purple

(volum), green (repair), aqua (moisture), red (frizz), and orange (colour) are used to highlight the

product on the bottle and below the bottle. All elements sit on a white background.









The Infusium 23 logo is also in black, and is the same as that which appears on the product

packaging. The use of parentheses around the (fus) part of the logo illustrates that its products

are infused with science.

The URL in the print ad (infusium23.com) takes you to the home page where this

campaign does appear. Since Infusium 23 created a dedicated Web site for this product line, its

branding effort begins the moment the user reaches the Web site.

The Infusium 23 Web Site

The use of a Flash feature on the home page allows each product line to be featured, so no

matter which product interested the readers in print, they can access the product line they want

easily on the Web. Similar photographic images of the bottles are on the home page of Infusium

23's Web site as in the print ad (see Appendix D, Figure D-7); however, the images do not

feature the additional "play-on-words" illustrations and are not in the same order as they appear

in the print ad.

On each product page link for each of the XXX-ologie collections, the art director uses the

same image of the bottle, but the bottle is lying horizontal while the other bottles fade to the

background. Portraying the bottles as interactive images on the Web site not only will help the

consumer make purchase decisions before going to a brick-and-mortar store, but also adds

interest to the site.

A four-column grid format is used throughout the Infusium 23 Web site with white panels

for the copy. Both the homepage and the product line pages display a silhouette in an upright

position similar to the inset image in the print ad. The Infusium 23 Web site uses white space in

the same manner as the print ad, adding unity between the print ad and the Web site design.

The Infusium 23 home page and product pages include the same sans serif typeface as the

print ad. Some of the copywriting is the same or similar to the print version; however, the









product Web pages do not have a headline feature and are more comprehensive than the print ad

in terms of the amount of copy that states how it works, what it is, and what results to expect. On

the home page, the user isn't greeted with body copy, but rather the links renew, replenish, and

restore.

The main color system is carried from the print ad to the Web site, although black only

appears in the logo and on the illustrations, and the basic text is grey. The sans serif black

Infusium 23 logotype is tied to the illustration on the Web site, but also appears as a heading on

the home page and product pages.

Infusium 23 Overview

Infusium 23's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using similar illustration,

typefaces, logo, similar layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic copywriting words and

phrases to emphasize its scientific, industrial-feeling, and fix-it image. Infusium 23 designed its

Web site as a source for more specific information about each product line and the products

within each line. Consumers looking for hair help will have no trouble identifying Infusium 23

bottles in the store once they see the print ad and visit the Web site. Infusium 23's positioning

and message: "beauty down to a science" achieves its goal for the consumer to realize that

science is behind the product and it can fix the toughest hair problems.

L'Oreal Paris Age Perfect Pro-Calcium

L'Oreal's Print advertisement

L'Oreal Paris' Age Perfect Pro-Calcium is for women in or near their sixties because it is

the "targeted solution for 60ish skin." The product is targeted to 60ish women who are interested

in using a skincare product made just for them that will hydrate and restore their skin. In the

double-page print advertisement (see Appendix D, Figure D-8), the art director displays a color

photograph of Diane Keaton, in a white suit from the chest up against a gold backdrop, smiling,









and pulling down her sunglasses. The packaging is open with a makeup applicator dipping gold

and crystal beads into the glowing container to visualize the product's richness and quality. Since

print ads may be more targeted to someone who plans to go to a brick-and-mortar store, the

consumer is shown the product to let her know what it looks like.

The art director chose to use a picture window layout format to display the large

illustration ofKeaton; a silhouetted image of the packaging was included to give cues as to what

the consumer should look for on the shelves while shopping; and while sometimes a white-space

margin frame format may be used when bleeds are not in the advertiser's budget, L'Oreal does

carry this frame format to the Web.

To emphasize a quality and ageless message, the copywriter chose words such as mature,

innovation, hydrates, and anti-sagging. While all type elements in the print ad are set in a simple

sans serif typeface, the headline is much larger and is the same typeface found on the product

package.

All type except the phrase "targeted solution for 60ish skin" is dark blue and black.

"Targeted solution for 60ish skin" is highlighted as a reversal in a gold bar; the black body copy

is on a gold panel. The product packaging also features reverse text and a gold metallic logo.

The L'Oreal logo is the same gold printed within the main illustration. In addition, a wide-

spread version of the logo runs across the top of the two-page spread.

The art director added gold circles behind the product packaging to both set it apart from

the background and to mirror the gold beads falling into the cream. These circles act as a

unifying device to symbolize the smoothness and quality of the product.

The URL in the print ad (lorealparis.com) takes you to the home page where this campaign

does appear. The URL to the product page is actually ageperfectprocalcium.com and would work









well in the ad to send the user directly to the product page. However sending the user to the

home page allows her to view the other campaigns and products L'Oreal is featuring.

The L'Oreal Web Site

The use of a rotating Flash feature on the home page allows multiple campaigns to be

featured, so no matter which ad the readers saw in print, they get the same campaign on the Web.

The same photographic image of Diane Keaton is on the home page of L'Oreal's Web site as in

the print ad (see Appendix D, Figure D-8); however, the image is cropped slightly tighter. On the

product page link for Age Perfect Pro-Calcium, the art director uses the same illustration of the

open packaging with gold and crystal beads dropping into it.

Although layout formats do not transfer well from print to the Web (Baxley, 2002) ,

L'Oreal's Web site layout parallels the print ad layout with a picture window format surrounded

by a frame format. The Age Perfect Pro-Calcium product Web page uses the same gold circles

that were in the print ad behind the packaging, adding unity between the print ad and the Web

site design.

The L'Oreal home page and product page include the same sans serif typeface as the print

ad. Some of the copywriting is the same or similar to the print version including the use of the

same quote from Keaton which appeared in the print ad.

The main color system is carried from the print ad to the Web site, although the blue is also

used in navigation elements, and some body copy is gold. The sans serif gold L'Oreal logotype is

not tied to the illustration on the Web site; but is used as a heading across the top on the home

page in a reversal against a black panel. On the product page, the same gold logo from the print

ad appears on the top right of the page.









L'Oreal Overview

L'Oreal's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using the same photographic

illustrations, typefaces, logo and secondary logo, layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic

copywriting words and phrases to emphasize the quality, stylish, and age-defying image.

L'Oreal's positioning for this particular product is the "targeted solution for 60ish skin" which

shows that it is a quality product that will help repair 60ish skin such as Diane Keaton's. L'Oreal

Paris' overall positioning and message: "Because you're worth it" achieves its goal for the

consumer to see L'Oreal as a high-quality cosmetic company that can help the consumer achieve

ageless skin.

NIVEA body Age Defying Moisturizer

NIVEA's Print Advertisement

The target consumers for NIVEA's body age Defying Moisturizer are women over 35 to

53 (based on Ladies' Home Journal's readership profile) who are interested in correcting the

appearance of aging skin while remaining sultry. In the double-page print advertisement (see

Appendix D, Figure D-9), the art director displays a close-up photograph of a forty-something,

blonde, Caucasian woman being nuzzled by a Caucasian, brown-haired man, also in his forties.

In addition, the art director wants the reader to make sure the product packaging is noticed

because it sits below the location where the models' two faces meet.

The art director chose to use a picture window layout format to display the large

illustration of the couple; a silhouetted image of the packaging was included to give cues as to

what the consumer should look for on the shelves while shopping.

To emphasize a sensual and soft message, the copywriter chose words such as replenishes,

younger-looking, irresistibility, and confidence. While all type elements in the print ad are set in









a simple sans serif typeface, the typeface used for the NIVEA logo is present wherever the word

NIVEA is in the print ad and for the second part of the headline.

All type except the tagline "Touch and be touched" is white. "Touch and be touched" is

highlighted in a pale tan; the white body copy is layered on top of the illustration.

The NIVEA logo is a white, sans serif logo with bold lines printed within the main

illustration. In the print ad, the logo is also used as part of the tagline. The logo on the product is

emphasized by a navy blue box with a gold border.

The URL in the print ad (www.niveausa.com/agedefy) takes you to the home page where

this campaign does appear after the user launches a Flash animation. After the Flash animation

runs, a photo of the product appears with its name as well as an explanation of creatine

technology in red with an "enter" button.

The NIVEA Web Site

The use of a Flash feature on the home page allows the user to navigate to the aspect of the

Age Defy product about which she wants to learn more. The same photographic image of the

couple is on the home page of NIVEA's Web site as in the print ad (see Appendix D, Figure D-

9); however, the image is flipped and placed against an interactive image of a romantic bedroom

with the bottle of moisturizer on the nightstand. Around the Flash-animated bedroom, various

circles represent links to product information, mini-quizzes, and more. On the product page link

for the Age Defying Moisturizer line, the art director uses the same image of the sealed

packaging, but the whole bottle is shown.

There is a suggestion of a picture window display on the NIVEA homepage and the

interactive bedroom feature. The Age Defying Moisturizer product page uses a grid format and

displays a silhouette in an upright position similar to the inset image in the print ad.









The NIVEA home page and product page includes the same sans serif typeface as the print

ad. Some of the copywriting is the same or similar to the print version; however, the product

Web page goes one step further and states what the consumer can expect in two weeks with

continued use of the product. The tagline "Touch and Be Touched" is not present on the product

page and only appears during the introductory Flash animation.

The main color system is carried from the print ad, although blue panels are used to

highlight white text. The sans serif white NIVEA logotype is not tied to the illustration on the

Web site; but is used as a subheading on the home page and product page. The version of the

NIVEA logo used online has a silver border rather than the gold-bordered logo that appears on

the packaging.

NIVEA Overview

NIVEA's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using the same images,

typefaces, logo, similar layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic copywriting words and

phrases to emphasize the sultry, smooth, and sensual image. NIVEA's body Age Defying

Moisturizer positioning and message: "Nivea. Touch and Be Touched" achieves its goal for the

consumers to realize that their product will provide smooth, sultry, younger-looking skin.

RoC Protient Fortify Life and Define Night Cream

RoC's Print Advertisement

The target consumers for RoC's Protient Fortify Life and Define Night Cream are women

35 to 54 (based on Ladies' Home Journal's readership profile) who are interested in reducing

aging in their face. In the full-page print advertisement (see Appendix D, Figure D-10), the art

director displays a close-up, black and white photograph of a forty-something, dark-haired,

Caucasian woman who is smiling slightly and staring directly at the reader.









The entire night cream package is included as a second illustration inset into the main

background illustration. Since print ads may be more targeted to someone who plans to go to a

physical store, it is helpful to show the product packaging in the ad.

The art director chose to use a Mondrian layout format for the ad, with the illustrations

overlaying the columns; a silhouetted image of the packaging was included to give cues as to

what the consumer should look for on the shelves while shopping.

To emphasize an age-defying and quality message, the copywriter chose clinical words

such as performance, firming, lifts and defines, and technology. While all type elements in the

print ad are set in a simple sans serif typeface, they are in all caps the same as on the product

package. A small disclosure at the bottom is present in white text, but is not easily readable

against the navy background.

Most of the type is white except the small subheadings such as "clinically shown" and

"immediately," which are in yellow. The white body copy is on a navy blue panel; "New" is

highlighted in the same navy as the body copy panel and lies on top of a yellow panel.

The RoC logo is an illustration of the mortar and pestle used in drugstores long ago. The

logo sits in the bottom right hand corner of the ad. On the side of the mortar and pestle, RoC is in

a navy blue font and beneath it, in a small point size, is "France, 1957." The URL in the print ad

(rocskincare.com) takes you to the home page where a link to the Lift and Define product line

does appear.

The RoC Web site

A similar black and white photographic image of a dark-haired woman is on the home

page of RoC's Web site as in the print ad (see Appendix D, Figure D-10). On the product page

for the Night Cream, the art director uses the same image of the sealed packaging except this

version features a mirrored reflection against a white background. In addition, the rest of the









product line is present on this page. Showing all products in the line on the Web site could help

the consumer make additional purchase decisions.

The Mondrian layout format is used on the RoC homepage with a white transparent panel

for copy and navigation. The Night Cream product page displays a silhouette of the product

similar to the inset image in the print ad.

The RoC home page and product page includes the same sans serif typeface as the print ad.

Some of the copywriting is the same or similar to the print version; however, the product Web

page does not have basic introductory copy about the product line. The main color system is

carried from the print ad to the Web site, although the blue is only in the navigation and accent

elements, and the basic text is black.

The RoC logotype is not tied to the illustration on the Web site; but is used as a heading on

the home page and product page. The Protient Fortify Lift and Define Night Cream packaging

does not have the RoC logo on it; however, all the other products in this line have the RoC logo

visible on them.

RoC Overview

RoC's advertising promotes a consistent brand identity by using the same illustration,

typefaces, logo and secondary logo, similar layout formats, repetition of colors, and basic

copywriting words and phrases to emphasize its old-fashioned, clinical, and beautiful image. The

product page is more of an informational page rather than a branding effort.

RoC's Protient Fortify Lift and Define Night Cream positioning and message: "We Keep

our Promises" achieves its goal for consumers to realize that their product is well-established and

offers timeless beauty.









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION

My study was designed to assess the use of critical design elements in print advertisements

and product Web sites with regard to consistency of the visual identity. Ten advertisements and

10 Web sites were examined.

Overall Design Trends of the Sampled Products

Visuals in Print Advertisements versus Visuals Online

Almost all of the print advertisements (90%) used full-color photographic illustrations with

the exception of RoC. Most of the brands (70%) used the same image whether in its entirety or

cropped on the brand home page. The brand best exemplifying this finding was CoverGirl.

CoverGirl's print ad, home page, product page, and even the Advanced Radiance product line

page were structured similarly, with the same image of Christie Brinkley appearing on the home

and product line pages. The full-page photo of Brinkley demands the viewers' attention, and they

see the "face" of the product. The viewer's eye then moves to the open jar of cream that is

horizontally aligned with Brinkley's smile on the facing page. Besides just showing the product,

the positioning of the product helps the reader see both the packaging and the cream itself. In

addition to the consistent use of images, CoverGirl's consistent use of typography, layout, copy,

and colors across both media also contributes to its consistent brand identity.

According to Newark (2002), visual style limits a brand's design choices by creating a

related set of design decisions. Most of the brands examined implemented similar design

decisions for their Web sites' images compared with those in their print ads thus helping to

reinforce a consistent message or identity for each brand. Therefore, visuals proved to be a major

design element that helped create a consistent brand identity for almost all of the researched

brands.









Typography in Print Advertisements versus Typography Online

In a general examination of the overall typefaces utilized within the print ads, results

showed that 90% of the ads utilized a sans serif typeface for the main body copy except the

CoverGirl ad. However, Dove was the only brand to utilize a serif type online on its product

page where it used a serif typeface for its brand name.

The advertisement for CoverGirl best shows the contrast between using a serif and sans

serif type within a print ad. In the print ad, a serif typeface is used for the headline and the body

copy, while sans serif is used for Christie's quote attribution and the product name New

Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation. The copy appears on the right page,

centered, and immediately tells the reader the name of the product and what it does and by how

much. There is also a caption to Brinkley's photo that is in a serif font: Christie glows in

Advanced Radiance Creamy Natural. However, on the product Web page for this CoverGirl

product, only sans serif fonts are used. Although serif typefaces work well with readability in

print, it was surprising to see that only CoverGirl utilized a serif type in its ad copy. Overall, sans

serif typefaces were the most popular in my study both online and in print.

According to Moser (2003), typography is a critical element in developing a brand because

typefaces portray what a brand is about and reinforces the brand's message. All the brands

examined used similar typefaces on their Web sites compared with those in their print ads thus

helping to reinforce a consistent message or identity for each brand. Therefore, typography

proved to be a major design element that helped create a consistent brand identity for all the

researched brands.

Color in Print Advertisements versus Color Online

Color must be one of the first details of the ad that is noticeable (Moser, 2003). Emphasis

on color was defined as an ad that used color as a main tool or primary focus rather than colors in









a photograph or illustration. Overall, most brands consistently used color in both their print

advertisement and Web site. Surprisingly, "feminine" colors such as pink and purple were not

frequently present in the ads or online, but rather shades of blue were popular. Ninety percent of

the ads used similar colors on their product Web sites, while the only product that did not was

Avon Skin So Soft Fusions. While pink and black are the main colors of the print ad, the product

Web page for the body wash featured navy and grey text. Overall, Avon's Skin So Soft Fusions

Web page did not have a cohesive look when paired with its print ad.

According to Ries and Ries (2002), consistent use of color can place a brand image at the

forefront of consumers' minds. Most of the brands examined used the same colors on their Web

sites as those in their print ads thus reinforcing a consistent brand identity. Therefore, color also

proved to be a major design element that helped create a consistent brand identity for most of the

researched brands.

Logos in Print Advertisements versus Logos Online

All of the ads featured the brand's logo whether it was on the packaging, in the ad, or both.

The brand best exemplifying this finding was that of L'Oreal Age Perfect Pro-Calcium. The logo

appears on the product, in the lower right corner of the ad, and fills the frame space across the

top of this double-page ad. The placement of the logo on the L'Oreal Web site was structured

similarly, with the logo appearing across the top of the home page, in the upper right of the

product page, and again on the product packaging. It is interesting that logos changed color for

some brands when reaching their Web sites. Avon featured a black logo in its print ad, while on

the product page for the body wash advertised, a peach logo was used. CoverGirl also utilized

different colors in its logo usage; white in print and blue online. Although experts such as Moser

(2003) insist that a logo should never use varying color schemes, these major brands did.









Overall, all the researched brands created familiar visual expressions (Vaid, 2003) by

featuring their logos both online and in print; they also "fixed" their logos in consumers' minds

with multiple recurrences on their respective Web sites (Rowley, 2004). Therefore, logo usage

has proved to be a major design element that helped create a consistent brand identity for all the

researched brands.

Layout Style in Print Advertisements versus Layout Style Online

Baxley (2002) said that transferring a print layout format to a Web site is an exercise in

approximation. My study also shows that layout formats are not as structured on Web sites;

however there were several suggestions of print layout styles on some of the homepages and

product pages. The ads from this sample used all but two layout styles researched: push-pin and

multi-panel. Sixty percent of ads used the picture window format in print and 20% of those ads

combined the picture window style with frame. The L'Oreal ad exemplifies the picture window

and frame layout styles. Nivea and L'Oreal are the only two brands that use the same layout style

both in print and online: picture window. Seventy percent of the other brands use a Mondrian

format for their online counterpart.

According to Newark (2002), layout style helps to limit design options by allowing only a

related set of design decisions. While only two brands used similar layout design decisions both

in print and online, the other brands' Web layouts varied from their print counterparts. Because

layout formats are not as structured on Web sites, layout style did not prove to be a major design

element in creating a consistent brand identity for most of the researched brands.

Web URL's

All the print advertisements featured URLs. However, Dove Pro-Age and Infusium 23

were the only brands that created an entire Web site devoted to its product line rather than taking

the user to the brand or corporate Web site. The other ads featured URLs that took the user to the









brand home page, and from there, users had to navigate to the product Web page. Dove's Pro-

Age campaign did the best job of bringing the print ad to life online in the form of a Web site. It

had a dedicated product URL to a site that was devoted entirely to the ProAge line. On the home

page, the user is greeted with the same image of the African-American model used in the print ad

as well as a similar image of the Dove ProAge bottles. The colors and use of same typefaces also

helped bring the print and Web campaigns together.

Haig (2001) says that designers should follow the "three click" rule when designing Web

site navigation in order to optimize the users' experience. Most brands followed this rule;

however, it took more than three clicks to get to the product pages for both Avon's Skin So Soft

Fusions Body Wash and Aveeno's Active Naturals Daily Moisturizing Wash.

Brands are promoting their Web sites in their magazine ads more, and research suggests

that consumers do use magazines to locate sites on the Internet (Schumann & Thorson, 1999).

All of the print ads examined featured a web address for the brand's Web site. Some URLs

brought users to a Web site devoted to a product line (such as Dove's ProAge), or featured the

product on its overall brand Web site (such as Almay).

Using Flash on the Brand Home Page

Four of 10 brands used a rotating Flash element on their home page in order to feature

multiple campaigns. Two of these were makeup products: CoverGirl and Almay; the other two

were skincare: Nivea and Gamier. The use of the rotating Flash feature on the home page allows

multiple campaigns to be featured, so if a consumer saw an ad for Advanced Radiance or an ad

for CoverGirl's Limited Edition Spring Forecast line, no matter which ad she saw in print, on the

Web she had a chance of seeing the same campaign in the rotation.

Brands implement mixed media strategies to reach the most consumers among varying

markets. Therefore, the brands that hosted a rotating Flash feature on their home page provided









the opportunity for more potential consumers to relate to the particular print campaign they saw

with similar visuals online thus helping to reassure the consumer while reinforcing the brand's

identity (Smith & Taylor, 2004)

Using Design to Maintain Consistent Brand Identity

After analyzing the sample ads and their Web sites, the majority of brands recognize the

importance of maintaining a consistent brand identity across communication channels. The use

of similar or the exact same images and colors are the most commonly used design elements to

tie a campaign together. Although typography can help make a brand recognizable and tie it

together, the use of serif or san serif typefaces in the brands analyzed shows that designers do not

use decorative type to create recognition. Converting a layout style used in print to the Web is

not always feasible, so designers use as many elements as possible to help create that cohesive

look: color, visuals, logo, and similar body copy. Most of the Web sites have a similar look and

feel as their print ad counterparts, so the users know they are still enveloped in the campaign.

Again, Dove ProAge and Infusium 23's devoted entire Web sites to their product line with no

major attempts to have the consumer find out about the other brands under their corporate

umbrellas which helps create a recognizable look from the minute the user loads the page.

Avon was the only brand that did not translate its Fusions campaign to the Web. This may

be due to the fact that Avon is marketed differently because it is not available in stores. Avon's

Web site's main purpose is to actually sell the product, not to be an information source or an

extension of a campaign.

Magazines usually want their advertisers to submit ads a few months in advance to prepare

an issue; however, the Web offers a chance for brands to quickly update their campaigns online.

This can be useful for different times of the year when a brand would not want total consistency.

My study examined ads and their Web sites in March; if the study was conducted using









magazines from December, consistency results may have varied due to the nature of the holiday

season. The Web allows brands to quickly add or remove elements from their Web sites. For

example, a brand could feature a limited-edition product for Christmas both in a December issue

of a women's magazine and on its Web site. On December 26, the brand could remove that

campaign from the Web; however, the print ad would already be printed and would now be

outdated.

The Web is a great tool to promote a brand because of items such as interactivity and a

seemingly infinite amount of space. Web sites allow brands to do more than a print ad can do by

providing links to additional products, coupons, contact information, and other features. This

further expands a brand's depth and breadth and provides the consumer with more information

than a print ad can provide. However, the print ad is an important piece to the puzzle because the

Web address printed in the ad directs the user to the correct site. Using a promotion code in the

print ad or something similar could drive even more consumers to a product's site. In addition,

traffic to a Web site is trackable and a great measurement tool for companies to see what

consumers are looking at on their product Web sites.

Overall, the findings reveal that most of the brands' designers realize that design continuity

and shared visual elements between a print advertisement and a brand's Web site can create a

solid brand identity. Most of the Web sites did leverage the traditional offline brand by including

the same logo, color palette, photographs, and typefaces, thus providing consumers with the

same continuity and brand recognition online as they see in the print advertisements.

From the findings, if a new beauty product wanted to enter the market, the researcher's

recommendations on how to consistently utilize design when creating a brand identity are:









* Use a recognizable spokesperson consistently throughout all media channels to create a
face for the brand such as L'Oreal and CoverGirl.

* Sophisticated colors can be used to communicate a product's quality as well as its brand
identity. Again, L'Oreal's use of gold and white in its advertising portrays it as rich, high-
quality brand. In a growing beauty product industry, brands need to prove they are better
than the competition and using rich colors can help set them apart.

* Use the picture window format both online and in print to draw readers in. This allows
them to connect to a product and see themselves using it.

* In addition, featuring a silhouetted image of the product helps the consumer become
familiar with the product's packaging. Since many beauty products are not available to test
before purchasing, it is helpful for the image of the product to be open to show consumers
what it looks like.


From my study, brand managers and designers can see that consistent use of design

elements such as color, logo, typography, and photographic style can create an overall

cohesiveness between print advertising and the brand Web site; therefore, creating a solid brand

identity. Once that brand identity is created, it is important to maintain it so the identity and the

brand itself can continue to grow and evolve into a top-of-mind-awareness brand.

Limitations and Future Research

As with any study, some limitations should be noted. First, according to Wimmer &

Dominick's (2005), the findings for this particular content analysis are limited to the framework

of the categories and the definitions employed in the analysis. In order to minimize this

limitation, categories were defined precisely so that other researchers could apply the same tools

to the same data.

Second, because graphic design interpretation is subjective, this adds to the limitations of

the study. According to Schultz and Schultz (2004), graphic design is subjective because it is

dependent on culture, background, and creative taste. Experts each have their own views as to

what comprises design, and design itself can be a difficult concept to measure accurately.









In addition, my study did not explore how consistent visual identities are represented

among different industries. De Jong et al. (2006) found that profit-making organizations were

more successful at maintaining a consistent visual identity, while non-profit-making

organizations needed to put more effort into managing their visual identities. Therefore, future

research could examine how different industries can strive to maintain a consistent corporate

visual identity.

For future research, consistent visual identities in other media should be explored because

a campaign is not just made up of print advertisements and an online presence. Television, radio,

mobile advertising, outdoor advertising, promotional items, and storefronts are some possible

media to explore for use of consistent design elements.

Future studies could also look at how a brand's physical store could mirror its Web site's

layout and flow thus creating one more element to tie the brand together in look and feel.

According to Harvard Business Review (2006), customers now expect the same ease when they

shop in a physical store as they experience when shopping that same store's Web site. Besides

creating loyalty and familiarity, this concept would create a real-world version of the Web site

that customers could taste, smell, and touch. According to Harvard Business Review, Staples'

test store in Framingham, Massachusetts is already implementing this new branding idea by

focusing on the theme of "pure information." Like its Web site, the store features clear, visible,

and well thought-out signage, with logical and consistent naming and arrangement of product

categories.

Measuring purchase intentions could provide better insights about how consumers make

purchase decisions after they have viewed the same campaign in different media. Thus, future









studies could measure purchase intentions to ascertain what design elements used in a consistent

manner perpetuate a purchase.

Future researchers could also look at the effect of campaign consistency on other

dependent variables such as recall or recognition. Examining recall or recognition in future

studies could provide data on how the consistent use of design elements affect consumers'

tendency to recall or recognize a brand in advertisements, online, or in purchasing situations.

Additionally, researchers could examine consumers' preferences on how they like to see

beauty products advertised. Researchers could observe if consumers prefer beauty product

advertisements that use models who look like them (example: Dove ProAge); if they like seeing

spokespeople or celebrity endorsers in ads (example: L'Oreal's Age Perfect line); or if they

prefer to just see the product highlighted (example: Avon).

Future research could also examine the emotional effects of a consistent visual identity.

Different design strategies could have different emotional effects for similar companies. For

example, Smith and Taylor (2004) examined the use of design in the airline industry and how the

consistent use of design elements soothed travelers. Therefore, it would be useful if future

research on consistent visual identity focused on emotions since many purchase intentions are

emotionally based.

Finally, design concepts may be subjective and thus may not be a proper indicator of

consistency within a visual identity. Examining how design is used in additional media,

emotional response, purchase intention, or even using visual tests such as Eyetrack may be better

indicators of consistent visual identities.









APPENDIX A
CODEBOOK

Print ad

Source of Ad: List magazine title, year, month.

Brand/product: Describe what it is, how it is used, and any other pertinent information

Industry: Please circle whether the ad is for skincare, hair care, makeup, or other

Show Product: Does the ad physically display the product being advertised?

Packaging: Describe how the brand is defined by the look of the package/product

Product positioning: state if known; if not, can you assume from what you see?

Target Audience: Who is the main target consumer? How do you know? (Assumption? Stated in
a corporate document? Explain if from the ad itself; by looking at model used, typeface, colors,
etc.)



Elements of Print Ad

Headline: Is there a headline present to draw the viewer in? Or is it just the product name?

Visual (photograph/art/other): Is a visual used? Illustration or actual photo? If so. describe
photograph/visual. Is the visual in color or another form such as sepia or black and white?

Copy: Is there copy present? Promotional text? Disclosures? Tagline? Is there a URL present in
the copy?

Logo: Record whether a logo is used within the ad. Does the logo stand alone in the ad? Is the
logo visible on the product or anywhere else in the ad? Is the logo an image only, or does it
include text?

Other: Is there another element present in the ad? A sample to try the product? A coupon?

Layout in Print Ad
What type of format is used in the ad?

Design Elements in Print Ad
Rules/Borders/Panels: Are any of these elements present?

Color: Is there a color scheme present in the advertisement? Does the ad feature color in the text?
Does color used in the ad appear to be a main focus? Does the ad use one color, spot color, or









full color? Please describe and explain. Also record the colors emphasized, if any. This code
does not refer to color photos.

Typography: Is there a specific/unique typestyle used in the advertisement? This code does not
refer to typography used in the logo

Overall Design principles: Brief discussion of what the art director wanted the reader to look at
based on: Unity, balance (symmetrical vs. asymmetrical placement; right/left weight), proportion
(size comparison), contrast (value and color comparison) and movement.

Definition of the brand: based on the ad, what is the definition of the brand?


Product Web site
Web URL: List URL and date accessed. Does the URL take the user directly to the product Web
page?

Show Product: Does the Web site physically display the product being advertised?

Campaign: Is the same campaign used online as in the print advertisement?

Elements of product Web site

Headline: Is there a headline present to draw the viewer in? Or is it just the product name?

Visual (photograph/art/other): Is a visual used? Illustration or actual photo? If so. describe
photograph/visual. Is the visual in color or another form such as sepia or black and white?

Copy: Is there copy present? Promotional text? Disclosures? Tagline? Other copy such as
product reviews/testimonials etc?

Logo: Record whether a logo is used on the Web site. Does the logo stand alone on the site? Is
the logo visible on the product if the product is shown online? Is the logo different or the same
from that in the print ad?

Other: Is there another element present on the Web site? A coupon?

Layout of Web site
Does the Web site fit into a particular layout format?

Design Elements of Web site
Rules/Borders/Panels: Are any of these elements present?

Color: Is there a color scheme present on the Web site? Does the Web site the same colors as the
print ad? Does the Web site feature color in the text? Does color used in the Web site appear to









be a main focus? Does the Web site use one color, spot color, or full color? Please describe and
explain. Also record the colors emphasized, if any. This code does not refer to color photos.

Typography: Is there a specific/unique typestyle used on the Web site? This code does not refer
to typography used in the logo


Overall impression: Is there consistency between the print ad and the Web site? Does the
advertising promote a consistent brand identity? Please describe overall impressions of how the
print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of design do or do not perpetuate a
cohesive brand identity.









APPENDIX B
CODESHEET


Source of Ad

Brand/product:


Industry:

Show Product:

Packaging:

Product positioning:

Target Audience:


Skincare

Yes


Hair care

No


Elements of Print Ad



Headline (Please describe):



Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe):



Copy (Please describe):



Logo (Please describe):



Other (Please describe):



Layout in Print Ad (Please describe):


Makeup


Other











Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe):


Color (Please describe):



Typography (Please describe):



Overall Design principles (Please describe):



Definition of the brand (Please describe):



Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe):



Show Product (Please describe):



Campaign (Please describe):



Headline (Please describe):



Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe):



Copy (Please describe):











Logo (Please describe):


Other (Please describe):



Layout of Web site (Please describe):



Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe):



Color (Please describe):



Typography (Please describe):



Overall impression (Please describe):















APPENDIX C

LAYOUT EXAMPLES


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Figure C-1. Examples of layout formats. A) Mondrian layout, B) Picture Window layout, C)

Frame layout, D) Silhouette layout, E) Multi-panel layout and F) Combination layout

(Frame and Picture Window). [Reprinted with permission from Allman, R. 2007.

Basic ad layouts. Faculty Web page. Indiana University Southeast, New Albany,

Indiana.]


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The Sun
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Figure C-1. Continued
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k qejlup, Rep upl.eff- Rep fupll-.e el e



























Figure C-2. Examples of layout formats. Push-Pin layout [Reprinted with permission from
I 1ph Ettd p1 dpp -,- p p plb



Everything U E under The SuAdvn ..Graphics and Production booklet





















University of Florida Gainesville, Florida.]
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Figure C-1. Continued




































Figure C-2. Examples of layout formats. Push-Pin layout [Reprinted with permission from
Wagner, E. 2006. ADV4200 Advertising Graphics and Production booklet.
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.]
















APPENDIX D
COLLECTED SAMPLES


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Figure D-2. Samples collected. A) Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Moisturizing Body Wash print
ad, B) Aveeno Active Naturals Home page and C) Aveeno Active Naturals Product
page.






















89


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SKIN SO SOFT Fusions Soft & Sensual
Dual Softening Body Wash
Take your skin to a whole new level of
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Figure D-3. Samples collected. A) Avon Skin So Soft Fusions print ad, B) Avon Home page and

C) Avon Skin So Soft Fusions Product page.


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Figure D-4. Samples collected. A) Cover Girl Advance Radiance Restorative Cream
Foundation print ad, B) Cover Girl Home page, C) Cover Girl Advance Radiance
product line home page and D) Cover Girl Advance Radiance Restorative Cream
Foundation Product page.


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beautiful potential that lies within.
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meet the original proage women
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Figure D-5. Samples collected. A) Dove ProAge print ad, B) Dove ProAge Home page and C)
Dove ProAge Product page.


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helps revive and renew skin and hair


dove* pro-age"
hand & bodv lotion
Dove pro age, offers a full line of pn
needs rght now improved surface
and moisturizing protection
click here to learn more


dove* pro-age"
beauty bar & body wash
Dove pro age, formulated with morstuzing cream and functional ingredients,
optimizes surface cel, turnover and gently cleanses to r-eal wtal, uminous skin
click here to learn more




Figure D-5. Continued


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Figure D-6. Samples collected. A) Garnier Nutritioniste Ultra-Lift print ad, B) Garnier
Nutritioniste Home page, C) Garnier Nutritioniste Home page Flash and D) Garnier
Nutritioniste Ultra-Lift Product page.


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Figure D-9. Samples collected. A) NIVEA age defying moisturizer print ad, B) NIVEA age
defying moisturizer Home page, C) NIVEA age defying moisturizer Product page
overlaying page and D) NIVEA age defying moisturizer product page on main
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APPENDIX E
CODESHEETS FOR PRODUCTS

Source of Ad: Good Housekeeping, March 2007, single-page ad

Brand/product: Almay hydracolor lipstick. This product is for cosmetic use.

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No

Packaging: The product is shown in the ad both open and sealed. The sealed product is in a silver
tube with a clear cap that allows the consumer to see the shade of lipstick. A lower-case "a" for
Almay is on the cap where the bottom of the cap touches the tube. The main image for the ad is
25 open tubes of the lipstick in varying colors.

Product positioning: The tagline "so your lips feel as beautiful as they look" portrays that
smooth, moist lips can be achieved by using the product.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women 21-55 who want moist lips with a choice of fun
colors. This is evident by the use of showing young shades (no bright red or "old lady colors") in
the ad and by the words chosen in the ad: revitalizes, nourishes, refreshing, rich, sensation.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): There is a headline present to draw the viewer in: "hydration
sensation." However, "ALMAY" is centered at the top of the ad and is where your eye goes
first. It pulls you into the page and then the reader notices the hydration sensation headline.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): A full-page color photo (no bleed) of open
lipsticks is used. The photo features a tight shot of a group of the shades in the product line from
browns and taupe to pinks and corals. The tubes of lipstick are open, and the lipstick is twisted
up, ready to use. Water droplets sprinkle all the tubes and the image portrays moisture and
wetness.

There is also a photo of a lipstick tube sealed, so the consumer can see the entire packaging. This
image is set off by a white glow to help it stand out against the background image. It also has
water droplets on it.

An illustrated water droplet also is used as a callout that features text that says "100x more water
than regular lipsticks."

Copy (Please describe): There is a small amount of copy that tells the reader the name of the
product: ALMAY hydracolor lipstick. Below this are three bullet points with what the product
provides. A URL is present (almay.com) on the bottom right of the ad in a small point size.









Logo (Please describe): The ALMAY logo is used alone in the ad. It is a text-based, sans-serif,
navy logo and runs across the photo of the lipsticks. A different logo appears on the cap of the
lipstick tube. A rounded-edge silver square is centered on the cap. In the middle, a lowercase "a"
in a serif font in white is shown.

Other (Please describe): No additional elements used.

Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes a picture-window format and a frame
layout. The white border around the ad provides a frame to the layout. The top right and bottom
left corners of the ad are rounded, as is the left side of the white transparent box that copy sits on.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): A white panel with transparency is used to house the
copy in the ad.

Color (Please describe): The photograph of lipsticks provides most of the color. However, navy
is used for all text. A shocking pink is used to highlight the word "new" which is in white. The
URL is also in white. The navy text is emphasized by the use of a white panel with a slight
transparent feature.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans serif font similar to Helvetica is used throughout
the ad. However, the same serif font that is used on the product package is used for the headline.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the photo of the lipstick to
show the variety of colors and the moistness of the product. The use of a full-page image
emphasizes this. In addition, the art director wants the reader to see what the product package
looks like since it's also featured. Overall, there is a sense that these lipsticks are water-based
and will provide a moist, color-filled experience to the lips.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): The ALMAY hydracolor
lipstick brand is for women over 21 who want color, moisture, and smoothness on their lips.
ALMAY'S hydracolor lipstick helps them revitalize their lips with 100 times more water than
regular lipsticks. The reason is because Almay uses plant extracts and Vitamin E along with a
hypoallergenic formula with SPF 15. The brand character is youth, moisturizing, colorful, and
smooth.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: almay.com
Date accessed: February 21, 2007
The URL takes you to the Almay homepage, where a rotating Flash feature on the page does
showcase the hydracolor lipstick product. Click on Discover Almay hydracolor lipstick, and it
takes you directly to the product page
(http://almay.com/Pg/Main/CatProdDet.aspx?catid=33&catnm=Lips&subid=236&subnm=Lipco
lor&prd=29326&osubnm=Lipcolor)

Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show the product both on the home page and
on the product page. On the home page, the same image of the lipsticks grouped together is used









while on the product page, the same image of the sealed lipstick is used that was in the print ad.
In addition, on the product page, swatches of all 32 shades are shown.

Campaign (Please describe): It is the same campaign. The copy on the product page is the same
as the print ad, but in paragraph form. The same images are used, including the addition of water
droplets on the images. The blue illustrated water droplet in the print ad is also present on the
product page, as is the same pink highlighting the word "new." The photos of the product have
the same feel, and typography, copy, colors, and layout of the site all help create a consistent
identity. In addition, the product page features the tagline "so your lips feel as beautiful as they
look" right in the copy.

Headline (Please describe): "Quench your lips with color" appears on the home page. The
interior product page does not have a headline, but rather the name of the product.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): The same image of the lipsticks grouped
together with the water droplets on them used, but isn't as cropped as tight. In addition, the same
image of the lipstick with the cap on is used on the product page.

Copy (Please describe): The copy on the product page is the same as the print ad, but in
paragraph form:

Thirsty lips? Get hydration drenched in color!

Almay hydracolorTM lipstick refreshes and hydrates lips like never before. The moisture packed
formula instantly revitalizes with 100 times more water than regular lipsticks and nourishes with
plant extracts and Vitamin E Protects with SPF 15. In 32 rich, refreshing shades.

So your lips feel as beautiful as they look.
hypoallergenic non-irritating clinically, dermatologist and allergy tested

Some additional information such as non-irritating and clinically, dermatologist and allergy
tested are added.

On the home page, similar copy is used too from the print ad: nourishes, Vitamin E, 32
refreshing shades, etc.


Logo (Please describe): The same navy ALMAY logo is present on the top left of the home page
and product page. In addition, the lowercase, serif "a" is used on the left navigation bar on the
product page as graphic.

Other (Please describe): Flash elements are used on the image of the woman on the home page.
The product Web page does feature a link for coupons for ALMAY products.

Layout of Web site (Please describe): The product page uses a column format, with a left hand
navigation taking up the left column and the product information spreading across the center









columns. The right-hand column features links to other products. A navigation bar sits on top
and additional informational links are on the bottom. In addition, a rounded corner is used on the
top right of the product page and home page.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The navigation bar creates its own natural border.
Internally on the page, a thin grey rule line is used beneath the name of the product and the
product information. The left navigation column uses panels of blue, while the product
information sits on a panel of white.

Color (Please describe): Text is in black, while navigation elements are in navy and white. The
background of the page is white. Overall, a very cohesive look is achieved by using the same
colors as in the print ad.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the page in
varying sizes. The copy on the home page Flash feature for the product is also in sans serif.

Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there is consistency in typography, layout, images,
copy, and use of colors. The advertising does promote a consistent brand identity. The product
page doesn't use the image of the lipsticks open and in rows; the home page for Almay does
feature this image. The URL takes you to the home page where this campaign is carried through.
The URL to the product page is too long and it makes sense to bring the reader to the home page.
The use of the rotating Flash feature on the home page allows for multiple campaigns to be
featured, so no matter which ad you saw in print, on the Web, you get the same campaign.

My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as an extension of
the print ad. The Web site doesn't offer that much additional information, but does show all the
shades and their names. The overall brand is defined by the use of water droplets throughout,
whether on the product itself in the images, or as a graphic element, and by showing all the
colors available right on the page both the Web and the print ad achieve this.









Source of Ad: Good Housekeeping, March 2007, single-page ad


Brand/product: Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Moisturizing Body Wash. This product is a
moisturizing body cleanser.

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No

Packaging: The package is shown in the ad. It is a cream colored curved, plastic bottle with a
moss green pop cap. The logo is present on the bottle, as well as a faint image of oats. "Daily
Moisturizing Body Wash" is in white on top of a green rectangle.

Product positioning: The tagline "discover nature's secret for healthy, beautiful skin" illustrates
that this product uses natural ingredients and that Aveeno can show the user that secret.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women 25-55 who are interested in having clean,
healthy skin by using a product with natural ingredients. This is evident by the use of a young
woman in her late twenties, the colors, and the words chosen in the ad: natural, replenishes,
oatmeal, sunflower oils, dermatologists, etc.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): There is a headline present under the photo: "Healthy skin starts in
the shower." It is centered and in a black, sans serif font. Beneath that, in the same font, but
smaller, is a subhead that reads "Discover a body wash that gives you visibly healthier skin every
time you shower."

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): A half-page color photo features a young
brunette woman in the shower. Her eyes are closed as she uses a bath puff to lather the Aveeno
wash on her shoulders. The photo is cropped from her chest up. The shower spray and green tile
can be seen in the background. She has a relaxed smiled on her face and neutral makeup on.

There is also a photo of the product's bottle on the bottom right of the ad. Soap suds run down
the left side of the bottle. In front of the bottle are a sprig oats, which also appears on the left side
of the ad.
In addition, an illustration showing water droplets to depict replenish moisture is used. These two
small rectangles are green and beige and highlight two main features of the product: "natural
oatmeal formula" and "replenishes moisture."

Copy (Please describe): There is a fair amount of copy present that introduces this product from
Aveeno. It compares it to other body washes that leave skin dry and flaky. It lists some of the
ingredients that help replenish skin's natural moisture such as colloidal oatmeal and sunflower
oils. It also says it's the brand dermatologists have recommended for 60 years. A URL is present
beneath the tagline (www.aveeno.com) "Discover nature's secret for healthy, beautiful skin.










Logo (Please describe): The logo is used alone in the ad. The logo is also visible on the product
packaging. The Aveeno logo is a serif font with very slight serif extensions. It is in black and is
lowercase except for the first "A." The product line "Active Naturals" is in the same font, but is
smaller and is in all caps.

Other (Please describe): N/A

Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes a picture-window format by inviting the
viewer to experience the moisture-laden shower.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): A panel of cream is used on the bottom half of the ad as
a background to the copy. In addition, a strip of cream runs along the right-side of the photo.
Green panels of color are used in the illustration that depicts the two main features of the
product. This mirrors the green panel on the bottle that highlights the product name.

Color (Please describe): There is a color scheme present in the advertisement cream, green, and
black. The ad features black text, and picks up the green from the bottle in the illustration. The
entire background of the ad is cream.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans serif font similar to Helvetica is used throughout
the entire ad in varying sizes, bold, and italic.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the photo of the woman in
the shower to show what you can experience when you use Active Naturals. In addition, the art
director wants the reader to see what the product looks like since it's featured in its package as
well as in use. The use of sprigs of oats also represents the natural ingredients. Overall, there is a
sense that this is a reputable product because the copy gives ingredients, says it's been
recommended by dermatologists for 60 years, and because it is all natural.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): Aveeno's Active Naturals
Daily Moisturizing Body Wash is for women over 25 who want healthy, moist skin. Aveeno's
Active Naturals Daily Moisturizing Body Wash is a product that helps women achieve visibly
healthier skin in as little as 2 weeks. The reason is because Aveeno uses natural ingredients such
as oatmeal and sunflower oils and is a brand recommended by dermatologist for the past 60
years. The brand character is natural, moisturizing, reputable, and healthy. The model represents
naturalness, youth, relaxation, and cleanliness.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: www.aveeno.com
Date accessed: February 21, 2007
The URL takes you to the Aveeno home page. Click on products, then body care, then daily
moisturizing. This takes you to the entire product line. From there, click on the body wash and it
takes you to this product's Web page.









Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show a similar image of the daily body
wash, but without the suds on the bottle. The home page for Aveeno does not show this product.

Campaign (Please describe): It is the same campaign. Although the image of the woman in the
shower is missing from the Web site, the typography, colors, image of the product and oats, all
tie the look together. The copy at the top of the page fits right into the print ad campaign's feel.
The woman on the home page looks like the same model that was used in the print ad, so
although it's a different image, there is some continuity.

Headline (Please describe): "Discover the science of active naturals" appears on the home page.
The interior product page does not have a headline, but rather just the name of the product.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): A similar image of the package is used on the
product page. In addition, the top of the product page features a photo of a sprig of oats and
another of an African-American female model caressing her shoulder. The home page features a
brunette model smiling and below her are images of some of Aveeno's natural ingredients,
including an image of oats.

Copy (Please describe): The same angle the copy took in the print ad is also on the Web page.
However, some additional information is present such as: And, it's even gentle enough for
sensitive skin.
Additional Product Benefits Include: lightly fragranced, soap free, dye free, hypoallergenic.

The tagline isn't present on the page, but the dermatologists have recommended it for 60 years is
present.

Logo (Please describe): The same Aveeno Active Naturals logo is present on the top left of the
home page and product page.


Other (Please describe): Some Flash elements are used on the ingredients on the home page. The
product Web page does feature a link "to see how it works" in regards to the oatmeal in the
product.

Layout of Web site (Please describe): The product page uses a column format, with a left hand
navigation taking up the left column and the product information spreading across the center
columns. A navigation bar sits on top and additional informational links are on the bottom. In
addition, a frame is used around the entire page. The home page uses a picture window format,
along with a frame.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): Rules are used to separate navigation items as well as
the center box where most of the product information is held. There is a cream border on this
page that acts like a frame. There are several panels of color (shades of beige, brown, cream, and
green) that serve to separate navigation elements, as well as serving as design.









Color (Please describe): Varying shades of cream are used throughout the page. Text is in black.
The background of the page is cream. Panels of green are used in the navigation bar and as
divisional elements. Overall, a very cohesive look is achieved by using the same colors as in the
print ad.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the page in
varying sizes and weights. Subheads are in all caps and bold.

Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there is consistency in typography, layout, copy,
and use of colors. The advertising does promote a consistent brand identity. Although the
product page doesn't use the image of the model but a similar image of the packaging, the home
page for Aveeno does feature a brunette.

My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as a resource to find
out more about Aveeno's natural ingredients. Rather than seeing examples of what happens
when you use the body wash or highly promoting other items in the line, the product page as
well as the home page emphasizes that the reader find out more about the ingredients Aveeno
uses. The overall brand is defined by the colors cream, green, and black and the use of female
models who are fresh looking as well as highlighting the use of natural ingredients by showing
images of oats both the Web and the print ad achieve this.









Source of Ad: Better Homes and Gardens, March 2007, single-page ad


Brand/product: Avon Skin So Soft Fusions Body Wash. This product line is used for skincare in
the shower and is marketed to women.

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No

Packaging: The Fusions Body Wash is defined by being in a tube that feature varying shades of
pink. The Avon logo is on the bottle, but is cropped off in the print ad. The product name Skin
So Soft Fusions is present. The words soft and sensual are also on the bottle.

Product positioning: The copy states it's a unique product that combines two skincare aspects in
one bottle. It's the first dual softening bodywash.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women 30-65 who are loyal to the Avon brand.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): There is a headline present to draw the viewer in: "Introducing two
ways to get 24 hours of silky smooth skin. In one." This headline appears on the left-side of the
advertisement.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): Half-page color photo of the body wash being
squeezed onto a white body puff. Water is splashed around the bottle to show it's a shower
product.

Copy (Please describe): There is a small amount of copy present that introduces this new body
wash from Avon. It states it's the first dual softening body wash. A URL is present (avon.com)
and text at the bottom of the ad says "call you Avon Representative at 800-FOR-AVON or visit
avon.com.

Logo (Please describe): The Avon logo is used alone in the ad at the bottom. The Skin So Soft
logo and the fusions logos are visible on the product packaging. AVON does appear on the bottle
itself when you see the bottle online, but is cropped out of this ad.

Other (Please describe): No additional element.

Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes the silhouetted format to highlight the
product in use.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): A light pink panel of color at the bottom is used to
highlight the copy about the product.









Color (Please describe): Pink and black are the main colors of the ad. In addition, the image sits
against a white background. The ad features all black text.

Typography (Please describe): Simple sans serif fonts are used throughout the ad in varying
sizes.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the photo of the body wash
in action. Squeezing the product out onto a waiting body puff while water is splashed around it,
draws the eye to the creamy product. Overall, there is a sense that this product is refreshing and
feminine.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): Avon's Skin So Soft
Fusions Body Wash is for women over 30 who are Avon users that want soft skin from a unique
product. Avon's Skin So Soft Fusions Body Wash helps women achieve silky skin in a dual
action body wash. The reason is because Avon uses jojoba oil to soften and hydrate and a
polishing cleanser to exfoliate. The brand character is creamy, feminine, and driven by quality.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: avon.com
Date accessed: February 21, 2007
The URL does not take you directly to the Sin So Soft Fusions page. This site was very difficult
to find information. It took 3-4 clicks depending on how you navigated to get more information
on this product. By typing in Fusions in the search feature off the home page, it came up quicker,
but there were other options in this line called renew and fresh and light and lush. The soft and
sensual text on the packaging is the name of this particular product, not just a statement.

This Soft and Sensual Fusions' Web page is offers a bit more information such as statistics of
women who have used the product, but mostly this site is just a means to actually order the
product.

Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show the product packaging, but it is not in
action and doesn't show the body wash coming out.

Campaign (Please describe): It is not the same campaign. The Avon home page does not have an
"Introducing Fusions" feature like the ad does. The Avon Web site doesn't exist to be a
campaign extension, but to be a resource to purchase the product.

Headline (Please describe): Skin So Soft/Fusions is not featured on the home page except for a
link. The interior product page does not have a headline, but rather just the name of the product.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): The Web site does show the product, but it is not
in action and doesn't show the body wash coming out.
Copy (Please describe): There is a small amount of copy present that states what it is and what
other women have seen as a result of using the product.

None of the text from the print ad appears online.










Logo (Please describe): The Avon logo is in the upper left corner and is in a peach/tan color. The
Skin So Soft and Fusions logo is not present except on the packaging.

Other (Please describe): No other elements.

Layout of Web site (Please describe): The product page uses a four-column format, with
elements overlapping each column. A navigation bar sits on top and additional informational
links are on the bottom. The right-hand column features small ads to other products on the site
while the left column is additional navigation. The two middle columns feature the photo of the
product and some text and shopping cart information.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The navigation panels are in shades of blue and peach.
Rules are used within these panels to separate navigational elements.

Color (Please describe): Text is in navy and grey and the background of the page is white.
Overall, this Web page does not have a cohesive look when paired with its print ad. Besides the
bottle, pink and black isn't used on the page.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the page in
varying sizes.

Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there isn't consistency in layout, copy, photos, and
use of colors.
The advertising does not promote a consistent brand identity.
My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they don't work together at all. The Web site
is used just as a shopping tool, and not as a campaign or brand extension. The overall brand from
the print ad is defined by the color pink and the use of the body wash in action. The Web site
uses neither.









Source of Ad: Good Housekeeping, March 2007, double-page ad


Brand/product: CoverGirl Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation. This product is
for cosmetic use.

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No

Packaging: The product is shown in the ad opened and on its side. The product is a light peach
color and is swirled inside its circular jar. The cover is navy with a pastel rainbow circle in the
middle. The CG logo is in white above Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation
which is in navy. Below that says glucosamine complex and has some hexagons coming off the
work glucosamine to represent its chemical nature.

Product positioning: This is a product for the middle-aged, woman who wants to be bright eyed
and refreshed like Christine Brinkley. The tagline "easy, breezy, beautiful CoverGirl" is used for
all CoverGirl branding, but this product also plays into this as the product is shown, looks easy to
use, and the image of Brinkley has a breezy, refreshing angle to it.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women 45-80 who want to reduce the look of wrinkles
and look bright-eyed. This is evident by the Brinkley's quote and by the words chosen in the ad:
wake up tired eyes, reduce the look of wrinkles, age-defier, rested, young, glows, etc.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): The headline present to draw the viewer in is actually a quote from
Christie Brinkley: "Think of it as instant beauty sleep in a jar." However, the "CoverGirl" logo
is centered at the top of the ad on the left page and is where your eye goes first. It pulls you into
the page and then the reader notices her quote.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): The left page of the ad features a full-page,
bleeding, close-up color photo of Christie Brinkley. The photo features a tight shot of her face
and shoulders. She is smiling and wearing neutral makeup colors. She is in a white shirt against a
white background. The right page shows a picture of the product, open in its packaging, and is on
its side facing Brinkley. This image is set off by shadows to help it stand out against the white
background. It also has water droplets on it as if Brinkley just used it after washing her face.

Copy (Please describe): The copy appears on the right page and immediately tells the reader the
name of the product and what it does and by how much (Wake up tired eyes and reduce the look
of wrinkles by 84%). Below this the copy says it's a creamy blend of radiant coverage and
OLAY Regenerist complex that gives you that young, rested look instantly. There is a caption to
Brinkley's photo too: Christie glows in Advanced Radiance Creamy Natural. This caption gives
the reader the shade of foundation she is wearing. A URL is present (covergirl.com) on the
bottom right of the ad in a small point size.










Logo (Please describe): The CoverGirl logo is used alone in the ad. It is a text-based, sans-serif,
white logo and runs across the top of Brinkley's head. A different logo appears on the lid of the
foundation it's an abbreviated version: CG. Of note, the logo across Brinkley's head is difficult
to read as it's white and runs over her blond hair as well as the white background. In addition,
another logo from another brand is used, Olay, within the copy block.

Other (Please describe): No additional elements used.

Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes a picture-window format on the left page
and a silhouette format on the right page.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): There aren't any rules or borders present. The right page
uses a full-page panel of a shade of white.

Color (Please describe): The photograph of Brinkley and the product provides most of the color.
However, grey is used for all text and shades of blue make up the product name. The word
"new" is also in white. The quote is in grey while Brinkley's name is in blue.

Typography (Please describe): A serif font used throughout the ad except for Christie's quote
attribution and the product name.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the photo of Brinkley to
show the "face" of the product. The use of a full-page image emphasizes this. The eye then looks
at the open jar of cream that is aligned on the following page. In addition, the art director wants
the reader to see what the product package looks like since it's also featured. Overall, there is a
sense that this foundation will provide the user with a fresh, beautiful face.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): CoverGirl's Advanced
Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation is for women over 45 who want to reduce the
appearance of wrinkles and look refreshed, CoverGirl's Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream
Foundation helps women defy age and exhibit skin's radiance. The reason is because CoverGirl
uses Olay's Regenerist Complex in a cream form to help skin look young and rested instantly.
Using Christie Brinkley as the spokesmodel portrays the brand character as age-defying, radiant,
refreshed, and smooth.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: covergirl.com
Date accessed: February 21, 2007
The URL takes you to the CoverGirl homepage, where a rotating Flash feature on the page does
showcase the Advanced Radiance foundation. Click on it, and you are taken to the Advanced
Radiance product line page. From there select the Restorative Cream Foundation and the user is
taken to the product page.
http://www.covergirl.com/cgcollection/face/foundation/mini_advancedradiance/index.jhtml
(Product line page)









http://www.covergirl.com/cgcollection/face/foundation/mini_advancedradiance/arcream.jhtml
(actual product page for foundation)

Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show the product on the home page, the
product line page, and on the product page. Throughout, the same image of the open jar on its
side is used that was in the print ad. In addition, on the product page, swatches of all 15 shades
are shown.

Campaign (Please describe): It is the same campaign. The copy throughout the pages is the same
as the print ad. The same image of Christie Brinkley is used, as well as the same image of the
product. The typography, copy, colors, and layout of the site all create a consistent identity.

Headline (Please describe): There are several headlines throughout. The home page and the
product page treat Advanced Radiance as the headline while the product line page uses "Defy the
signs of aging." However the product line page does use "Think of it as instant beauty sleep in a
jar."

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): The same image of Christie Brinkley is used on
the home page and product line page. The same image of the product is used on all three pages.
The product line page also shows the other Advanced Radiance products.

Copy (Please describe): The copy on the product page is the same as the print ad mostly:
NEW Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation
Our most advanced age-defier yet protects with SPF 10 and provides radiant coverage and
reduces the look of wrinkles by 84% on average, for a younger look instantly. With the help of
Olay's exclusive Glucosamine complex, Advanced Radiance Restorative Cream Foundation
rejuvenates and continuously hydrates, for the glow of a good night's sleep.

Some additional information such as SPF 10 is added.

On the home page, similar copy is used too from the print ad: "reduces wrinkles by 84% and
wake up tired eyes..."

Logo (Please describe): The same navy CoverGirl logo is present on the top left of all Web pages
in navy blue.

Other (Please describe): Flash elements are used on the home page and product line page. The
product Web page does feature a link to get color matched for your perfect shade.
Layout of Web site (Please describe): The product page uses a column format, with a left hand
navigation taking up the left column and the product information spreading across the center
columns. The right-hand column features links to other products. A navigation bar sits on top
and additional informational links are on the bottom.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The navigation bar creates its own natural border.
Internally on the page, rules are used to separate shade categories and also are used as design









elements on navigational icons. A blue panel sits on the top of the page and the logo sits on top
of that. Small blue panels are used as section headers for the shade categories.

Color (Please describe): Text is in black, while navigation elements are in shades of blue and
grey. The background of the page is white. Overall, a very cohesive look is achieved by using the
same colors as in the print ad.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the page in
varying sizes. The copy on the home page Flash feature for the product is also in sans serif.

Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there is consistency in typography, layout, images,
copy, and use of colors. The advertising does promote a consistent brand identity. The product
page doesn't use the image of Brinkley, but the home page and the product line page does. The
URL takes you to the home page where this campaign is carried through. The URL to the
product page is too long and it makes sense to bring the reader to the home page. The use of the
rotating Flash feature on the home page allows for multiple campaigns to be featured, so no
matter which ad you saw in print, on the Web, you get the same campaign.

My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as an extension of
the print ad but with multiple opportunities to find out more about the entire Advanced Radiance
line. The Web site doesn't offer that much additional information about the foundation, but does
show all the shades and their names. The overall brand is defined by the use ofBrinkley as a
spokesmodel, and the use of the same copy that reiterates that the product helps you look
younger.









Source of Ad: Better Homes and Gardens, March 2007, double-page ad with foldout feature

Brand/product: Dove ProAge. This product line is used for skin and hair and is marketed for
women of all ages.

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No

Packaging: The ProAge product line is defined by being in maroon, curved plastic bottles. The
logo is present on all of the product line.

Product positioning: This is a product that a grandmother, mother, and young woman would all
be able to use, no matter their size, shape, or color. The tagline "beauty has no age limit" also
portrays that all women can feel beautiful and that Dove will help them do that.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women 35-75 who are interested in using a product
made just for them. This is evident by the use of 50+ women and the words chosen in the ad:
lifts, firms, defines, skin elasticity, etc.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): There is a headline present to draw the viewer in: "Too old to be in
an anti-aging ad." This headline appears on three panels of this fold-out advertisement.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): Full-page color photos are used on this multi-
page ad. The photos feature middle-aged, naked, grey-haired women of different races in non-
suggestive poses. They are smiling and have glowing skin and shiny hair. Their images fill up
three full-page panels.

There is also a photo of the ProAge collection of products that stands out against the all-white
background (use of silhouette) of the final page of the ad.

Copy (Please describe): There is a small amount of copy present that introduces this new line of
products from Dove: "but this isn't anti-age. this is pro-age. a new line of skin and hair care from
dove. beauty has no age limit." A URL is present (doveproage.com) and text under the photo of
the product says "new dove pro-age."

Logo (Please describe): The logo is not used alone in the ad. The logo is visible on the product
packaging and there is a small gray dove by the URL. But the words "Dove" and the image of
the dove are not present in a logo in the ad itself

Other (Please describe): The use of a foldout, multi-page ad format can be considered an
additional element.









Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes a lot of white space and uses the picture-
window format. In addition the way the product is showcased uses a silhouette format.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): No rules, borders, or panels are present.

Color (Please describe): There is a color scheme present in the advertisement white, maroon,
and a silver/gray. The ad features gray and maroon text, and reverse text over the photos. Color
is emphasized against the striking images as well as on the use of white space.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans serif font similar to Helvetica is used. All text is in
lowercase.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the photos of the naked
women to showcase what real women are all about. The use of full-page images emphasizes this.
In addition, the art director wants the reader to see what the product looks like since it's isolated
on a mostly all-white page on the right. Overall, there is a sense that these women and the
women who use Dove are defying age and not settling for the stereotypical views of aging.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): Dove's ProAge is for
women over 35 who are concerned that age defines who they are and what they are able to use.
Dove's ProAge product line of skin and haircare products helps middle-aged women defy the
aging process while giving them quality skin and hair results. The reason is because Dove uses
ingredients that don't focus on anti-aging, but quality and how to bring that quality to life. The
real women with non-perfect bodies used in the ad represent the brand character which is being
positive about getting older, be proud of your body, diversity is beautiful, and quality matters.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: doveproage.com
Date accessed: February 21, 2007
The URL does take you directly to the pro-age home page. One click on Products, takes you
directly to specific information about the product line.

This product line's Web page is a gateway to even more specific information about each part of
the ProAge line.

Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show similar images of groupings of
products like in the print ad, and there's even a similar image in the bottom right of the Web
page like in the print ad.

Campaign (Please describe): It is the same campaign. The copy at the top of the page fits right
into the print ad campaign's feel: Dove created new pro-age products that reflect the unique
needs of women in their best years. Formulated to nourish and condition, pro-age helps revive
and renew skin and hair." The photos of the product have the same feel, while the typography,
copy, colors, and layout of the site all create a consistent identity.









Headline (Please describe): "Dove is ProAge, are you?" appears on the home page. The interior
product page does not have a headline, but rather the introductory text as stated above.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): The same image of the African-American
woman from the print ad is used on the home page, but is closely cropped to her face. In
addition, similar images of the product line are used on the product page.

Copy (Please describe): There is copy present that states how it works, what it is, and what
results to expect. The same format is used for the other products on the page. There is basic
introductory copy that introduces the reader to the page.

The tagline Beauty has no age limit isn't present on the page, but a link at the bottom phrases it
as a question: Does beuaty have an age limit? View the commercial."

Logo (Please describe): The same grey Dove logo is present on the top left of the home page and
product page.

Other (Please describe): Flash elements are used on the image of the woman on the home page.
The product Web page does feature a link "to try pro-age"

Layout of Web site (Please describe): The product page uses a horizontal grid format. The
products alternate from being on the left and right side of the pages with the text directly next to
it. A navigation bar sits on top and additional informational links are on the bottom.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The navigation bar creates its own natural border.
Internally on the page, grey rule lines are used to separate the products' names and their
descriptions.

Color (Please describe): Text is in grey, product names in maroon, and links for additional
information also in maroon. The background of the page is white. Overall, a very cohesive look
is achieved by using the same colors as in the print ad.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the page in
varying sizes. Product names are in a serif font in all lower-case letters.

Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there is consistency in typography, layout, copy,
and use of colors. The advertising does promote a consistent brand identity. Although the
product page doesn't use the image of the models, the home page for Dove features a Flash
element that uses the same image of the African-American woman from the print ad closely
cropped from the shoulders up.

My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as a very important
part of their campaign. The Web site is a detailed source that not only expands upon the
campaign but also brings in new elements like casting calls for pro-age women and links to try
the new line of products. The overall brand is defined by the colors grey, maroon, and white and









the daring, refreshing way of photographing middle-aged women who have imperfections who
are comfortable in their skin both the Web and the print ad achieve this.









Source of Ad: Better Homes and Gardens, March 2007, double-page ad


Brand/product: Gamier Nutritioniste Ultra-Lift cream. This product helps firm wrinkles, add
moisture, and provide soft skin

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No


Packaging: The product is defined by being in a lime green plastic bottle with a white pump top
(about 4 oz). The green circle from the Gamier logo (normal logo has 3 circles: green, orange,
and pink), is present on this bottle at the left end of an arched silver swash. Gamier is in silver
and Nutritioniste is in black. The name of the product "Ultra-Lift" is in white over a black bar
with red rules on the top and bottom of the bar. "Anti-wrinkle firming moisture cream" is in
black, and "SPF 15 Sunscreen" is in black with a faded yellow spot behind it.

Product positioning: The tagline "Great skin from the inside out" refers to the nutrients in the
product that soak into your skin and work their magic. Using an image of sushi (a hip way to
consume fish and its nutrients) and the product in a similar "pose" to infer that the product does
the same thing helps portrays the product as modern and eclectic.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women over 30 who are interested in firming their skin
and using nutrients found in nature to help their skin. This is evident by using the image of a
piece of sushi to parallel its nutrients to those of the Ultra-Lift. In addition, the words chosen in
the ad: refuels, nutrients, inside, fortifies can all refer to nutrition you take in internally.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): Headline is present across the top of the pages. It runs across both
pages with "Omega 3 in fish is proven to fight heart disease" on the left, and "Now it's in
skincare that actually lifts wrinkles from the inside out" on the right. The headline is in white
against the all black background. The headline is in sentence form in a sans-serif type and in
white. A sub-headline appears in the copy block: "Nutrition + Dermatology = A 1st from
Gamier"

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): A vibrant salmon-colored piece of sushi is
isolated on the left page with a slight reflection. Lying in front of it is a pair of dark grey
chopsticks. On the right page, mirroring this style is the bottle of "Ultra-Lift" with a silver spoon
laying in front of it with a small dollop of the cream in it. A green transparent circle touches the
bottle with the word "new" in white. In addition, a small pie-chart illustration of vitamin
capsules, a slice of kiwi, and part of a molecular chain is in the ad near the copy.









Copy (Please describe): There is copy present that highlights the ingredients in the moisturizer.
There also is a proven study fact: "A clinical study proves: in 3 weeks wrinkles are visibly lifted
and skin in noticeably firmer." The URL is listed above the logo in green type.

Logo (Please describe): The Gamier logo is in the lower right hand corner of the right page. It is
a white, sans-serif font. Beside the word Gamier, on the left and aligned with the top of the "g"
in Gamier, are three small circles green, orange, and pink. In each circle, a small illustration of
a leaf is present. The tagline "Take Care" is beneath the logo, and aligned on the right. In
addition, the Gamier logo is in silver on the product and only the green circle is on the bottle.

Other (Please describe): There are no other special elements to the ad.

Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes the Silhouette format. The photos are
isolated and the copy (both headlines and body text) are away from the main images.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): Green rule lines are used to create the box that the copy
and the pie chart illustration are in. A horizontal green panel highlights the sub-head. Black is
used as a full-page, double spread panel.

Color (Please describe): The background of the ad is black, which makes the bright sushi and
bottle pop off the page. The black offers a stark contrast to the white headline and the green rule
lines and panel. The main colors of the ad are black, green, and white. Green is used in the copy
block to emphasize the nutrients found in the product.

Typography (Please describe): The ad is comprised of all sans-serif fonts. All copy and copy on
the bottle is in sans serif fonts.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to compare the photos first, and then
read the headlines. There definitely is an emphasis for the reader to realize that Omega 3 in fish
is healthy = Omega 3 in Nutritioniste is healthy. In addition, the art director wants the reader to
make the connection that this is nutrition and dermatology working together = not just another
skin cream.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): Gamier Nutritioniste's
Ultra Lift anti-wrinkle firming moisture cream is for women over 30 who are concerned with
having firm, wrinkle-free skin. Gamier Nutritioniste's Ultra Lift anti-wrinkle firming moisture
cream is the skincare that helps women have firm skin, banish wrinkles, and lock in moisture.
The reason is because Gamier Nutritioniste uses Omega 3 to lock in moisture to refuel cells at
the deepest surface layers in the skin. The brand character is modern, nutritious, fun, and
innovative.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: www.garniernutrioniste.com
Date accessed: February 21, 2007
The URL does not take you directly to the product page. The home page features a rotating Flash
animation that highlights the products. The Ultra-Lift Flash feature displays the sushi and









chopsticks image and ends with Sarah Jessica Parker smiling next to the same image that was
used of the product in the print ad. The user then has to click "products" on the home page. This
takes you to a selection of three product categories. The icon that takes you to the Ultra-Lift site
is the same pie chart graphic. Once that is clicked, the user chooses the product in the line. The
actual URL for this product is:
http://www.garniernutritioniste.com/en/#products/ultralift/firming_moisture_creamspf

Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show the product and it's in the same
package as featured in the print ad. The online version does not show the cream on a spoon, but
does show the bottle with a clear plastic cap on.

Campaign (Please describe): It is the same campaign. There are many of the same elements such
as the text used to describe the product, the image of the product, the colors, typography, and the
use of layout style. The Web site is an additional interactive source for the consumer to obtain
additional information.

Headline (Please describe): No specific headline except for the product name.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): On the product page, there is an image of the
Ultra-Lift bottle, but it's got the cap on. The same pie chart icon is on the product page too. The
home page features the same exact images as in the print ad plus Sarah Jessica Parker as a
spokesperson.


Copy (Please describe): There is a general description under the name of the product that is
similar to the print ad. There is copy present under sub-heads: "Is it right for me? How is it
different? How do I use it? Results." In addition, the Web site shows how it works, the other
products in the line, and the opportunity to try a sample. The tagline "Great Skin from the Inside
Out" is not present on the product page, but appears on the Nutritioniste home page.

Logo (Please describe): Both the logo that is present on the bottle and the version with the 3
circles are on the Web page. The top left features the logo for Nutritioniste, while the bottom left
has the general Gamier logo.

Other (Please describe): The Flash animation and interactivity adds another dimension to the
Web site.

Layout of Web site (Please describe): The Web site for this product uses a column format. The
navigation bar stretches across all the columns, while the content holder is divided into 2 large
columns. The right column on the Ultra-Lift product page is then divided again, with some
content in each column, and the copy about the product stretching over the 2 columns.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): A green rule line is used to separate the content from the
navigation bar. In addition, the content box is offset by a thin, feathered white border. The
content box with the product information is in a shade of black thus creating a color panel.









Color (Please describe): A black Web page with green and white text and accents are the main
colors of the site. Additional colors are brought in on the images on the site, as is the case in the
print ad.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the page in
varying sizes.

Overall there is consistency in typography, visuals, layout, copy, and use of colors.
The advertising does promote a consistent brand identity. The product page utilizes a similar
image of the product while the pie chart icon is found throughout the site to take the user to the
Ultra-Lift product line. The home page is very consistent with the branding effort of the print ad
and lets the viewer immediately "know" they have reached the right site.

My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as an additional,
interactive source for information and not as just posting their print ads in an electronic format.
The Web site is an additional source for information about how to use the product, benefits of the
product, and extends the campaign. The Web site is fun to use with its Flash elements and
modern design. The overall brand design is defined by using the colors black, green, and white
and continuing to use the same images. The use of the pie chart graphic as an icon to the product
line further ties the print ad and Web site together. Overall, this campaign portrays Gamier
Nutritioniste Ultra-Lift as a trendy, fun brand that makes your skin look younger, and makes you
feel healthy and vibrant.









Source of Ad: Better Homes and Gardens, March 2007, single-page ad


Brand/product: Infusium 23. This product line is used for hair and is marketed for women of all
ages.

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No

Packaging: The Infusium 23 product line is defined by being in grey plastic bottles with black
pop-tops. The logo is present on all of the product line and runs vertically along the bottle. Each
hair treatment has its own color associated with it: i.e. (volum)ologie conditioner is labeled in
purple while (colour)ologie conditioner is in orange.

Product positioning: The product's branding gives off an industrial, scientific, we-can-fix-it
feeling. The way each product in the line is named XXX -ologie also plays upon the science
world. The tagline "beauty down to a science" also portrays that science is behind the product
and it's going to fix women's hair problems.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women 25-55 who want their hair worries to be fixed.
This is evident by the use of illustration throughout the ad and the words chosen in the ad:
problem, solution, control, science, etc.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): There is a headline present to draw the viewer in: "Problem hair.
Meet your solution." Above that a small sub-head states "The redesigned Infusium 23".

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): Photos of each bottle of treatment are used. The
photos feature a slight reflection. These photos are turned into illustrations by adding a type of
"play-on-words" element to them. The (volum)ologie conditioner has a megaphone coming out
of the top of the bottle, while the (repair)ologie leave-in treatment has a wrench twisting the cap.
The (moisture)ologie treatment has a faucet with running water pouring into it and the
(frizz)ologie has an umbrella coming out of the bottle. Finally the (colour)ologie conditioner has
a paint brush with orange paint (same color as the product name) dripping into the bottle. These
images portray that Infusium 23 protects your hair and puts into its products items that will save
your hair.

In addition, a small illustration of damaged hair and hair treated with Infusium 23 is used.

Copy (Please describe): There is a small amount of copy present that introduces this new
specialized line of products from Infusium 23. A URL is present on the bottom left of the page
(infusium23.com).









Logo (Please describe): The logo is used alone in the ad as well as featured on each bottle. The
logo is text-based, in black, and is in a sans serif font: in(fus)ium. The number 23 is below it in
grey. The use of parentheses (which are in grey) highlight the fact that their products are infused
with science. The tagline "beauty down to a science" is in lowercase, sans serif, and sits below it
under the "m" in in(fus)ium.


Other (Please describe): No additional elements

Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes a lot of white space and uses a silhouette
illustration format to feature the products.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): A rule line is present at the bottom of the ad. The rule
line is centered and runs right next to the 23 in the logo which is aligned right on the right side of
the page. The rule line also separates the URL and tagline from the rest if the ad, but with its
proximity to the logo, is used as a feature in the logo.

Color (Please describe): The colors in the ad are white (background), grey, and black. The colors
purple (volum), green (repair), aqua (moisture), red (frizz), and orange (colour) are used to
highlight the product on the bottle and below the bottle and are used as a distinguishing factor
since the bottles are all the same.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans serif font similar to Helvetica is used.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the photos of the bottles to
see what Infusium 23 can do for you by isolating the photos on an all-white background. The use
of illustrating in literal terms of what Infusium 23 does creates a visualization of repair, fixing,
and replenishing for the viewer. In addition, the art director wants the reader to see all the
products in the line and distinguish between them with by pulling their names off the bottle and
highlighting them below in color. Overall, there is a sense that this product will get the job done
and is serious about repairing hair.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): Infusium 23's line of
haircare products is for women over 25 who have serious hair problems. Infusium 23 helps
women repair damaged hair while providing the comfort that science and research is behind it
all. The reason is because Infusium 23 uses ingredients that enhance the texture and condition of
hair and is not a frilly product, but gets the job done right through the use of science. The brand
character is scientific, modern, and industrial.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: infusium23.com
Date accessed: February 21, 2007
The URL does take you directly to the Infusium 23 home page. Each product line is showcased
on the home page and when you roll over the bottle, it becomes a link to each line (frizz, repair,
moisture, volum, colour).









This product line's Web page is a gateway to even more specific information about each part of
the Infusium 23 line.

Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show similar images of the products like in
the print ad, but there's no additional illustration. The bottles are the main feature throughout the
Web site. Also, the same use of a reflection effect from the bottles is used on the Web site.

Campaign (Please describe): For the most part, it is the same campaign. The only difference is
the absence of additional illustrations. The bottles are the main focus of Infusium's branding
efforts. Using the bottles online and in the print ad, reinforces this. Infusium 23 does a really
good job of carrying over the scientific, metallic, look to its Web site and also by highlighting
the different product lines by only the use of their respective colors.

Headline (Please describe): "Beauty down to a science" appears on the home page. The interior
product pages do not have headlines, but rather just the name of the product collection.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): Similar images of bottles are used in different
ways. On the home page, they are lined up (incidentally, not in the same left-to-right order as in
the print ad). When you click on a bottle, it takes you to that collection's page. Once on the
collection page, choose the exact product (conditioner, shampoo, etc) and it takes you to another
page. On that page, the bottle turns horizontal and the other bottles fade to the background. All
throughout, the same reflection effect is used.

Copy (Please describe): There is copy present that states how it works, what it is, and what
results to expect on internal pages. The same format is used for the other products on the pages.
There isn't basic introductory copy that introduces the reader to the home page, but rather the
links renew, replenish, restore.

Logo (Please describe): The same in(fus)ium 23 logo is present on the top left of the home page
and product pages.


Other (Please describe): Flash elements are used on the image of the bottles on the home page
and throughout the site.

Layout of Web site (Please describe): The product page uses a four-column format, with
elements overlapping each column. A navigation bar sits on top and additional informational
links are on the bottom. The right-hand column is additional links to renew, replenish, restore,
while the three other columns feature the bottles that take up almost half of the screen.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The navigation bar creates its own natural rule. On the
home page, the right column has many rule lines and boxers separating each link. Internally on
each product page, light grey panels are used as a backdrop that the bottles are in front of.

Color (Please describe): Except for the product lines in their respective colors, the entire site is
grey, white, and black. Text is in shades of grey; rule lines, bars, and panels are also in grey; and









the background is white. The only black appears in the logo and in the images of the bottles.
Overall, a very cohesive look is achieved by using the same colors as in the print ad.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the pages in
varying sizes.

Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there is consistency in typography, layout, copy,
photos, and use of colors. The advertising does promote a consistent brand identity. Both the
home page and each product page focuses on the bottles and pulls out the color from the bottle
that represents that product.

My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as a source for more
specific information about each product line and the products within each line. The Web site is a
detailed source that expands upon the campaign by using the same science-driven feel. The
overall brand is defined by the colors grey, white, black, and the product individual colors and
the focus on the bottles themselves. Consumers looking for hair help will have no trouble
identifying Infusium 23 bottles in the store once they see the print ad and visit the Web site.
Design plays a role for Infusium 23 by reinforcing what the product does and what it looks like.









Source of Ad: Ladies' Home Journal, March 2007, double-page ad


Brand/product: L'Oreal Paris Age Perfect Pro-Calcium. This product line is for mature women
with fragile skin.

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No

Packaging: Age Perfect Pro-Calcium is defined by being in a gold jar with white lettering. The
product itself is whipped and white. The logo is present on the product in gold foil.

Product positioning: The tagline "targeted solution for 60ish skin" portrays that it's a quality
product that will help repair 60ish skin such as Diane Keaton's.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women in their 60s who are interested in using a
skincare product made just for them that will hydrate and restore their skin to almost near-
perfection. This is evident by the use of Diane Keaton, a woman in her 60s with great skin, hair,
and teeth, smiling at the reader and also by the words chosen in the ad: mature, innovation,
hydrates, anti-sagging etc.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): There is a headline present to draw the viewer in. In this ad, it's a
quote from Diane Keaton that runs across her photo and the middle of the page that draws the
reader's eye across the ad.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): The ad features a large color photo of Diane
Keaton in a white suit from the chest up against a gold backdrop, smiling, and pulling down her
sunglasses.

There is also a photo of the Age Perfect Pro-Calcium cream, opened with a makeup applicator
dipping gold and crystal beads into the glowing container.

Copy (Please describe): There is a fair amount of copy present on the right-page of the ad. A
subhead is present that states "Skincare Discovery: Calcium applied to the skin daily re-densifies
and hydrates thin, fragile skin." Beneath that is the product's name (which is also present on the
packaging), but here is emphasized by a navy color and made larger. Below that are the results of
the product after 51 women used it. L'Oreal's tagline, "Because you're worth it" is also present.
A URL is present (lorealparis.com) and small copyright and disclosure text are under the photo
on the left-side of the ad.

Logo (Please describe): The logo is both used alone in the ad and also is visible on the product
packaging. IN al instances in the ad, the logo is in gold. In addition, a stretched out version of the









logo runs across the top of the two-page spread. The L'Oreal logo is text-based only with no
image.

Other (Please describe): N/A

Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes the picture-window format on the left-side
of the ad. Overall, the ad encompasses a frame-style layout due to the white border around the
entire ad.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): A white border is created around the double-page ad
since the ad does not bleed. Two gold-colored horizontal bars/panels are in the ad to highlight
special areas of text.

Color (Please describe): There is a color scheme present in the advertisement white and gold
tones. The ad features black and navy text to stand out against the gold toned background.
Reverse text is also used on the product packaging and over two gold color bars. The L'Oreal
logo stretched across the top is in gold with a dark drop shadow.

Typography (Please describe): A sans serif font in varying sizes is used throughout the ad.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the photo of Diane Keaton
entering her golden years looking great and with refreshed skin. The use of gold and white
throughout the ad and on the product highlights the ideas of quality, golden, renewed, and fresh.
The use of a full-page image of Diane Keaton emphasizes what you can look like if you use the
product. In addition, the art director wants the reader to see what the product looks like since it's
featured on its own page on the right and is emphasized by gold circles behind it and the image
of crystal beads dropping into it. Overall, there is a sense that the 60ish woman can have great
skin by using this high-quality product made just for mature, golden women.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): L'Oreal's Age Perfect Pro
Calcium cream is for women over 60 who are concerned that their skin look as great as they feel.
L'Oreal's Age Perfect Pro Calcium cream helps 60-ish women defy the aging process while
giving them restored, hydrated, quality skin. The reason is because L'Oreal uses ingredients such
as calcium, SPF 15, and soy proteins to restore skin and protect it. Using Diane Keaton as the
spokesmodel portrays the brand's character as fun-loving, positive about living life and getting
older, quality, and richness.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: lorealparis.com
Date accessed: March 24, 2007
The URL does not take you directly to the L'Oreal home page. Once you select USA, the URL
becomes www.lorealparisusa.com. The home page features rotating campaigns, one of which is
the Age Perfect campaign. Click that and you are taken to http://ageperfectprocalcium.com/

This product line's Web page is a gateway to even more specific information about each part of
the Age Perfect line.










Show Product (Please describe): The Web site shows the exact image shown in the print ad.

Campaign (Please describe): It is the exact same campaign. The Web page looks exactly like the
print ad except the print ad has more copy.

Headline (Please describe): "New skincare discovery" appears on the product page. While the
home page feature says "Make our age a beautiful thing."

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): The Web site features the same large color photo
of Diane Keaton in a white suit against a gold backdrop, smiling, and pulling down her
sunglasses. This image shows from her hips up.

The Web site also features the same photo of the Age Perfect Pro-Calcium cream, opened with a
makeup applicator dipping gold and crystal beads into the glowing container.

The proximity of the images is exactly the same as in the print ad. Now seeing the Web site, we
can see that the image in the print ad is a cropped, close-up of Diane and the product.

Copy (Please describe): The same copy is used: her quote, skincare discovery, and the name of
the product. The only text missing is the copy under the innovation headline in the print ad, and
that text can be found my clicking the "learn more" link.

Logo (Please describe): The same gold L'Oreal logo is present on the top right of the product
page, and on the home page, the logo is stretched across the top of the Web site as it does in the
print ad.

Other (Please describe): Flash elements are used as well as a "Get to Know Diane" link with
information and a video.

Layout of Web site (Please describe): This Web site utilizes the picture-window format. Overall,
the ad encompasses a frame-style layout due to the white border around the entire Web site. This
Web site parallels the print ad's layout exactly.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The navigation bar is on a white horizontal panel across
the top. In the background of the image, gold panels are used to add dimension to the images. In
addition, a very thin gold rule line runs along the top and bottom of the picture on the Web.

Color (Please describe): Text is in black, blue, and gold, and links for additional information are
also in gold. The background of the page is cream and white. Overall, a very cohesive look is
achieved by using the same colors as in the print ad.

Typography (Please describe): A sans serif font in varying sizes is used throughout the page.









Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there is a very high level of consistency in
typography, layout, copy, photo images, and use of colors. The advertising does promote a
consistent brand identity.

My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as a virtual extension
of the print ad. The Web site is an interactive form of the ad. After seeing the ad, you feel you
know your way around the Web site because you've already been exposed to it. The design used
for the Web and in the print ad is very cohesive which helps define the brand. Besides using the
color gold throughout, having Diane Keaton be the spokesperson embodies the definition of the
product a product made for a stylish, good-looking, mature woman who knows who she is and
what she wants and L'Oreal Age Perfect helped her get there.









Source of Ad: Ladies' Home Journal, March 2007, double-page ad


Brand/product: NIVEA body Age Defying Moisturizer. This product helps firm wrinkles, add
moisture, and provide soft skin

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No


Packaging: The product is defined by being in a blue plastic bottle with pop-top. The logo is
present on the product package. A gold swash runs along the front of the bottle. Age Defying
Moisturizer is in white and beneath that it says "with age diminishing creatine technology." The
word creatine is in red.

Product positioning: The tagline "Nivea. Touch and Be Touched" portrays softness, sensuality,
and smoothness.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women over 40 who are interested in reducing aging
skin and remaining sultry. This is evident by the use of a 40-year-old woman being caressed by a
handsome man and the words chosen in the ad: plunging necklines, touch, anti-aging, younger-
looking skin etc.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): Headline is present across the middle of the pages. It runs across
both pages with "the Difference Between High Collars" on the left, and "and Plunging Necklines
on the right. The headline is in white against the color photo and runs across the woman's upper
chest area. The headline is in all-caps in a sans-serif type. The second part of the headline (and
plunging necklines) is in bold.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): A full-color, bleeding photograph of a 40-year-
old, blonde, Caucasian woman being nuzzled by a Caucasian, brown-haired man, also in his 40s,
is used. She is wearing a sleeveless blue dress with a deep neckline. The focus is on her upper
chest and neck. Her hand reaches up to touch the man's neck as he touches hers while leaning in
to feel her skin. The pose represents sultriness and touching.

Copy (Please describe): There is copy present that highlights the benefits of using the
moisturizer. The name of the product is also pulled from the package and highlighted as well as
what the product does. The tagline Touch and Be Touched" is at the end of the copy block, but is
also incorporated into the body copy too in a sentence. The URL is listed at the end of the ad:
www.NIVEAusa. com/agedefy









Logo (Please describe): The NIVEA logo is text-based a white, sans-serif font with bold lines.
The logo is used as part of the tagline and in the URL where it says Nivea. In addition, the logo
is on the product and is emphasized by a navy blue box with a gold border.

Other (Please describe): There are no other special elements to the ad.

Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes the Picture Window format. The photo
takes up the entire spread and the text and image of the product is layered on top of the photo.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): N/A

Color (Please describe): The photograph of the couple and the product are what lends to the color
in this ad, since the most of the copy is all white. The main color of the ad would be blue because
of the woman's dress and the bottle. The tagline is in light beige to mirror the woman's skin
tone. The word creatine on the bottle is in red.

Typography (Please describe): The font used for the NIVEA logo is present wherever the word
NIVEA is present. In addition, the second part of the headline is in the same font. All copy and
copy on the bottle is in sans serif fonts.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the photo of the couple
since they are the dominant element in the ad. In addition, the art director wants the reader to
make sure the bottle is noticed because it sits under where the models' two faces meet.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): NIVEA's body Age
Defying Moisturizer is for women over 40 who are concerned with having lush skin. NIVEA's
body Age Defying Moisturizer is the skincare that helps women defy aging, banish wrinkles, and
eliminate dryness. The reason is because NIVEA uses creatine technology to reduce the aging
process. The models used help portray the brand character which is age-defying, softness,
touchable, and sultry.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: www.niveausa.com/agedefy
Date accessed: February 21, 2007
The URL does not take you directly to the product page. The user has to click to enable a pop-up
window. The pop-up begins with a flash animation using the same image of the models in the ad,
except the image has been flipped so the woman in on the right. The same words are used from
the ad: younger, touchable, moisture. After the flash animation runs, a photo of the product
appears with its name and the creatine aspect in red with an "enter button" The product
information page talks about the creatine technology and includes an animation of how creatine
reactivates cells. The product information page is over an image of a couple's bedroom. When
you close out of the product information page, the bedroom appears with the same image of the
models in front of the bed and the bottle of moisturizer on the nightstand. Around the flash-
animated bedroom, there are various circles that represent links to product information, mini-
quizzes, an e-card to send to your man for an intimate invitation, and more.









Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show the product and it's in the same
package as featured in the print ad.

Campaign (Please describe): It is the same campaign. There are many of the same elements such
as the text used to describe the product, the image of the product, the image of the couple,
typography, and the use of blue. However, different approaches to the campaign were used.
While the print ad is in a close-up format of the couple to introduce you to the product, the Web
site brings you into this couple's bedroom to show you how NIVEA can make you sultry and
soft. The interactive nature of the Web site helps to play up the sultry side of the campaign.

Headline (Please describe): No specific headline except for the product name during the flash
animation.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): Same image of the product's bottle, but on the
Web site, you can see the whole bottle. The same image of the couple is used, but is flipped, and
is also placed against an image of a romantic bedroom

Copy (Please describe): There is copy present that states how it works, what it is, and what
results to expect. In addition, the Web site tells the user what to expect in 2 weeks as well as
continued use of the product. The tagline "Touch and Be Touched" is not present on the product
page, but appears during the intro Flash animation.

Logo (Please describe): The NIVEA logo is present on the bottom right of the product page, but
the online version has a silver border rather than gold like on the bottle.

Other (Please describe): The Flash animation and interactivity adds another dimension to the
Web site.

Layout of Web site (Please describe): The Web site for this product uses a picture window
format through the use of the bedroom image. The product information page that overlays this
bedroom image uses a grid format.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The navigation bar creates its own natural border.
Panels of shades of blue are used to separate navigation and page information.

Color (Please describe): Blue and white are the dominant colors.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the page in
varying sizes.

Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there is consistency in typography, visuals, layout,
copy, and use of colors. The advertising does promote a consistent brand identity. The product
page utilizes the same image of the product while overlaying a photo of the couple in their
bedroom.









My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as an additional,
interactive source for information and not as just posting their print ads in an electronic format.
The Web site is an additional source for information about creatine, benefits of the product, and
extends the campaign. The overall brand design is defined by using the colors blue and white and
continuing with the use of the same couple but bringing the viewer into their bedroom. The use
of the image of the couple and the addition of mini quizzes on romance and e-cards to invite your
man for touching time, makes NIVEA a sultry brand that makes your skin look younger, and
make you feel sultry, and makes your spouse see you that way.









Source of Ad: Ladies' Home Journal, March 2007, 1 page ad


Brand/product: RoC Protient Fortify Life and Define Night Cream. This product is used to firm
facial features while you sleep.

Industry: Skincare Haircare Makeup Other

Show Product: Yes No

Packaging: The product is defined by being in a clean and simple jar package with basic lines.
The logo is not present on the product.

Product positioning: The product's branding gives off a clinical and old-fashioned drugstore feel.
This is a product your mother would have used and gives off the impression that it's been around
for awhile. The tagline "We Keep our Promises" also portrays longevity and an old-fashioned,
quality way of doing business.

Target Audience: The target consumer is women over 40 who are interested in reducing aging in
their face. This is evident by the use of a 40+ woman and the words chosen in the ad: lifts, firms,
defines, skin elasticity, etc.


Elements of Print Ad

Headline (Please describe): Headline is present along right hand side of page in white against the
black and white photo: "VISIBLY LIFTS, FIRMS, & DEFINES. The headline is in all-caps in a
sans-serif type with the words LIFTS largest.

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): A black and white photograph of a 45-year-old,
brunette, Caucasian woman is used. The focus is on her face and clear skin. Her hand gingerly
touches the side of her face to showcase how smooth it is. She is smiling slightly and staring
directly at the reader.

Copy (Please describe): There is copy present that highlights the immediate results of using the
cream and what to expect in the coming weeks of using the cream. The name of the product is
also pulled from the package and highlighted as well as what the product does. A small
disclosure at the bottom is present in white text, but is not easily readable against the navy
background. It states "Available at a drugstore near you" and lists the URL: rocskincare.com.
There is a tagline present under the logo "We Keep our Promises" in white text.

Logo (Please describe): A logo is used within the ad and stands alone in the bottom right hand
corner of the ad. The logo is an illustration of the mortar and pestle used in drugstores long ago.
On the side of the mortar and pestle, RoC is in a navy blue font. Beneath the logo, in a small
point size is "France, 1957"

Other (Please describe): There are no other special elements to the ad.










Layout in Print Ad (Please describe): This ad utilizes the Mondrian format. The text is lined up
on the left while the product, logo, and headline are in a column on the right.

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The full-page ad bleeds completely so no border is
present. A navy panel is used at the bottom and a narrower horizontal, red panel sits above that to
highlight the product. A gold rule line separates the product's statement of what it does and it's
timeline of benefits.

Color (Please describe): Navy, red, gold, and white are the major colors of the ad. Besides the
navy and red panels, gold is used in a rule line and as small headers. In addition, a small gold
gradient box is used to highlight the word "NEW." Color used in this ad is a main focus because
the use of a black and white photo makes the colors stand out even more.

Typography (Please describe): The font present on the packaging (a sans-serif font) is used
throughout the ad in varying point sizes to add contrast and variety. In addition, text used in the
headline, subheads, and headers is in all caps while bullet points and the sentence explaining
what the product accomplishes are in lowercase.

Overall Design principles: The art director wants the reader to look at the product photo and
headline since they are weighted on the right side. Because the photo is in black-white and the
rest of the ad utilizes color, the text as well as the product is intended to stand out.

Definition of the brand/brand personality statement: (Please describe): RoC's Protient Fortify
Lift and Define Night Cream is for women over 40 who are concerned with having firm skin.
RoC's Protient Fortify Lift and Define Night Cream is the skincare that helps women lift, firm,
and define skin while sleeping. The reason is because RoC uses Vitamin E and patented
technology to re-firm and add elasticity back to skin. The use of a model that represents classic
beauty contributes to the brand's character: longevity, reliability, trust, and proven in clinical
studies.

Product Web site
Web URL (Please describe): URL: rocskincare.com
Date accessed: March 24, 2007
The URL does not take you directly to the product page. On the top right of the home page, a
link for "Age and Define" is listed with a drop down of the products in that line. It took one click
from the home page to access the product page.

This product's Web page is more of an informational page rather than a branding effort. It
features all of the products in the Lift and Define line, but clicking on the link from the home
page, jumps the user to the Night Cream product directly on the middle of the page.

Show Product (Please describe): The Web site does show the product and it's in the same
package as featured in the print ad.









Campaign (Please describe): It is the same campaign. There are many of the same elements
present such as the text used to describe the product, the image of the product, the same colors,
and similar typography. However, different approaches to the campaign were used. While the
print ad is in a feature-style format introducing you to the product, the Web site is used as an
informational source to support the print advertisement.

Headline (Please describe): "Clinically proven to lift and define your skin" is at the top of this
page

Visual (photograph/art/other) (Please describe): Same image of the product's jar is used except
this version features its mirror reflection against a white background.

Copy (Please describe): There is copy present that states how it works, what it is, and what
results to expect. The same format is used for the other products on the page. There isn't basic
introductory copy that introduces the reader to the page.

The tagline We Keep our Promises is not present on the product page, but is on the home page at
the bottom. The running sub-head throughout the pages is "The anti-aging skincare experts"
which does not appear anywhere in the print ad.

Logo (Please describe): The RoC logo is present on the top left of the product page. Interesting
to note is that all the other products in this line have the RoC logo visible on them.

Other (Please describe): No special elements on the Web site.

Layout of Web site (Please describe): The product page uses a column format with three
columns present. The products are on the left column, the copy starts in the middle and runs into
the right column, and the yellow box highlighting results is in the third column

Rules/Borders/Panels (Please describe): The navigation bar creates its own natural border.
Internally on the page, red rule lines are used to separate the products and yellow panels are used
to highlight product benefits.

Color (Please describe): Same use of color is present and done very simple and not
overpowering. Red bars separate the products, headlines and navigational elements are in blue
and white, and yellow boxes (difficult to achieve gold text on screen like in print) highlight the
product's benefits.

Typography (Please describe): A simple sans-serif font is again used throughout the page in
varying sizes.

Overall impression (Please describe): Overall there is consistency in typography, layout, copy,
and use of colors. The advertising does promote a consistent brand identity. Although the
product page doesn't use the image of the model, the home page for RoC does feature a brunette
in a black and white photo that is a close up of her face.









My overall impression of how the print ad's use of design along with the Web site's use of
design perpetuates a cohesive brand identity is that they treat their Web site as an additional
source for information and not as just posting their print ads in an electronic format. The Web
site is an additional source for information and extends the campaign. The overall brand design is
defined by using the colors red, gold, navy, and white classic colors that never go out of style;
having a clinical feel, but not be too medicinal; and the element of timeless beauty. The use of
black/white images and simple design makes RoC timeless like its consumers are timeless in
beauty and spanning generations.









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jaclyn Sherman Rhoads was born in Maiden, Massachusetts. The older of two children,

she grew up in Malden, and then moved with her family to Coral Springs, Florida in 1993. She

graduated with honors from J.P. Taravella High School in 1998 where she was editor-in-chief of

the award-winning Odyssey yearbook. After graduating from high school, she was an instructor

for Taylor Publishing's Florida Yearbook Seminar.

Jaclyn earned her B.S. in journalism from the University of Florida in 2002 with minors

in business administration and classical studies. She is the 2002 recipient of UF's John Paul

Jones Excellence in Magazines award, and has been published in Quill and Scroll, Student

Leader, and Taylor Talk magazines.

After graduating from UF, Jaclyn worked as a full-time marketing specialist at Florida

Credit Union until April 2006. She began her master's degree program at the University of

Florida in August 2005. She recently completed her master of advertising degree at the

University of Florida while working full-time as the communications coordinator for UF's Office

of Human Resource Services. Upon completion of her masters program, Jaclyn will continue to

work for UF while growing her own advertising and design firm. Jaclyn has been married to

Jesse Rhoads since March 2004.





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