<%BANNER%>

Floral Composition of a Lower Cretaceous Paleotropical Ecosystem Inferred from Quantitative Palynology

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101207_AAAABB INGEST_TIME 2010-12-07T08:20:08Z PACKAGE UFE0020720_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 5828 DFID F20101207_AAAPOD ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_37thm.jpg GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
acca540751fd5a89a78464bd6e9cf713
SHA-1
5d0fa925938c82c4c80ef804dd7b37bb33635a9c
2222 F20101207_AAAOXL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_47.txt
e1a6a2bcc96fe93aab146b30193ee0d8
36fa333c0db4fcf1c02a60bdb4c0b76f0e18bca0
114070 F20101207_AAAPEI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_46.jpg
1ba4c829b64280da33ccfd0ccf9c303e
505ee82513aa490e26c840a951175a4ccef90c5a
9380 F20101207_AAAPOE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_28thm.jpg
266d4b8a1e4f22e2e9c42bfc839d23af
a5dab50ed33608e1e46c2b1a6364e4fd70fff46a
1053954 F20101207_AAAOXM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_17.tif
464d25b91ca1ae9d881a873a0ab85c0d
67e9b668957a700ab418d7296a5838dc3fe9f4d4
F20101207_AAAPJG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_69.tif
b93e293ae1aa72e0631bb708a2e61583
61c5fcf9c0e2f7b2eace3f238631282b421bed8e
107683 F20101207_AAAPEJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_48.jpg
68778e9db53f148b7d102ee125ebcdd3
1f70765ff4af759de7e79b65e31d4115bbf28571
8758 F20101207_AAAPOF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_54thm.jpg
f73b3ce18526a945d5c1a0e626325c59
ef8069262ce54c192a18445ad32f75d6bbed66d9
34907 F20101207_AAAOXN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_30.QC.jpg
e94afdf635fc44164d800aa97e036bdc
b9123be5beacb069b7737e61662d6de750bee489
25271604 F20101207_AAAPJH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_70.tif
5bd0bcc5fded0ecbd16c62483c97e6eb
7466ebd178358d5c20b99f30c1b886bf270bcd6c
104078 F20101207_AAAPEK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_49.jpg
ef14de318a8f76b9e6dae64ec465053a
eaf058d3af1d086ecb042c0edccf4e0b1a4f1604
35101 F20101207_AAAPOG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_59.QC.jpg
9a465d6bf1cfdf235418ab18083c462e
1fa40a5bd9976bd07d9625a9e8d03f0f8fc6de4a
34254 F20101207_AAAOXO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_79.QC.jpg
f9b25ec5669e48d53776ef66015ec86e
32fa53316104f0d596f166ab3a2d9ae4d24f33f8
F20101207_AAAPJI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_71.tif
91932ad207a543e5271c5cbd0890413b
64ac8c6c259ae76c805f6dd879eec379979405d5
81023 F20101207_AAAPEL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_51.jpg
14ebff6bf8dbdfead3539389563db99d
e803bf5eca4e091ca737e5557f4351525c56b705
2169 F20101207_AAAPOH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_65thm.jpg
67cd4a5ebf6a70f2c2506b7fba80f83c
71f376eefd05c641f93133303b639b9c9f506e70
1812 F20101207_AAAOXP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_20.txt
a63c6848d6ec8a397301b2f238924e80
53b9a45ce481fd30107d75c3ebb0edbd2555316b
F20101207_AAAPJJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_72.tif
7c2fb5b17a6cb0fb8e530d516fb0b8d6
0e69ee824849eec00acee9edbbef369e2cb76d06
116829 F20101207_AAAPEM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_53.jpg
f02e437c6f6b63c65c61437ef061bc58
fe897327e9553be5f5bf28ea81d17cc57ef84310
35293 F20101207_AAAPOI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_44.QC.jpg
1508f1677fdd9fd66c5ac6fff469411a
5d2108c67ce96260341534f7f9c0203887e6331d
35829 F20101207_AAAOXQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_58.QC.jpg
c4908a8906f783a96b84c4b367cb63c3
e97016a7a5e234662bb78348899fbd9a0cc74288
F20101207_AAAPJK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_73.tif
c5a142d6801c5c10f23d39a79f8901f2
adeb83c94ebaddb9ad98acfcbbad9c250ef56ee4
118604 F20101207_AAAPEN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_56.jpg
e4018527088aa244fa8cfadcb81ff0ff
64c2e23187c8d8fa5663e953c861f2809010cf36
30050 F20101207_AAAPOJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_20.QC.jpg
30c6d56a168b902fdf2f9a31d92714ef
c3b09916080e783ef7395fd5d9674fd6201e747a
36561 F20101207_AAAOXR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_56.QC.jpg
e0f10e041f4ba248a827fb71f3a26ff2
9790574a8631126ad812fcc83077edb2be10755a
F20101207_AAAPJL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_76.tif
d612120b2da6007bb87f65a37622df7b
92b8ee6af6aa431ec2f8822a0bf33d72e7a36c49
123851 F20101207_AAAPEO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_57.jpg
e7074d5b4da41e83a0c98ef55ca9d762
3b69f0ce2bbdf41f8dc31447663671d666d7ae6f
36003 F20101207_AAAPOK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_48.QC.jpg
1ef25974913f78cdea08e3992433ae5b
c3e57872d382be2576ed0d8935aa39b634e61482
26385 F20101207_AAAOXS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_66.QC.jpg
572d474f3a1973b1d703c97f648da691
c867bf5e097e8764ddadd31e6b54314afa98d885
F20101207_AAAPJM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_77.tif
6208662b614a0dfef58a35115a1ca579
96bb1cd0bb7f71cec4c93f339bbddb22eb265479
114222 F20101207_AAAPEP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_58.jpg
0b46ed7ae86bc555dc21f82359306161
fbca1c98a0c893f6d4694d13eb93b2e27fde68a6
7835 F20101207_AAAOXT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_21thm.jpg
485eec3a8b76cca532dbaa8162bf1ccb
814ee4d3e6654c82174eccf11b645658d130ea60
F20101207_AAAPJN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_78.tif
bcd35178dcdb11b86eca14159b508a09
61fb3cef174f6e14efe0292d8669d32787e1d7af
115170 F20101207_AAAPEQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_59.jpg
f9817ab35e6f1ba589339e91d9a496e6
a81dfb5ffbb74d219c8c7e0e3b87238a1d908118
6972 F20101207_AAAPOL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_05thm.jpg
fc9c9971deb66300985592031cc6593f
6e4bc00955d0020efd0d233e796cf6bf203e4fd3
8006 F20101207_AAAOXU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_78thm.jpg
97cf3a3aa970175f0e368c29d30f4f2b
63ec627337cc51a14b015724877ce1c4258f4f56
F20101207_AAAPJO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_79.tif
c960f4e958077b5a08d49bcef01d93f0
4d5e6bd5e50e1e388e65b5d955ed754cebbb1a85
114104 F20101207_AAAPER mejiavelasquez_p_Page_60.jpg
3f355e65ae4d09e9f7704f3bd20692dd
6ac2b39d0d3543265595e76683a504b4855c2c08
25102 F20101207_AAAPOM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_15.QC.jpg
abc62cb6bf1da180cfc9fcd1759debfb
45d336f34b0df65c773d3771182141592f829247
F20101207_AAAPJP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_80.tif
b3d4cd5ae8f929203df7fc3245db42b2
2c3c9b7a189f01048ccbdba70179619ea2b06800
89202 F20101207_AAAPES mejiavelasquez_p_Page_62.jpg
6c9c2c0d203605b8535d2379bc3d7b52
fc590331a994bd218ca107b81016faacbb484eb1
30850 F20101207_AAAPON mejiavelasquez_p_Page_42.QC.jpg
7beebfebf0b638319fa7722d09edf2e3
7144a4ead4e10b4cc299a9bb1370920910c83fad
1051984 F20101207_AAAOXV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_76.jp2
d941c90d5763b4e81ae535b1bd55c48c
331e6f2232f9e57936f2371851f95fc144f121b1
F20101207_AAAPJQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_81.tif
cfc7d72c8522d74fc51e5970d2fa6ea9
ae1330c7a9eb3e0dbb417ca96a19dc7240512277
27657 F20101207_AAAPET mejiavelasquez_p_Page_63.jpg
a122c45541c80a4330d03a5477198267
857091b8930bf479f63373607dbfa63480f2d9fb
27786 F20101207_AAAPOO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_05.QC.jpg
562f3291ebff326753063150ee3a88f8
6a89e66e95847ae9d57f4a4c738850f6ac805b7d
36632 F20101207_AAAOXW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_53.QC.jpg
f72152fbffc87f5e9cf5212125b892bc
2d3d8cd7bbde093b283e5b503c9d3c15fa4d9302
F20101207_AAAPJR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_82.tif
a8ab9c30241d91f84168c3b365020bf7
3640524c4ec09e4aa6a0089f3172f3f3dff618e5
87185 F20101207_AAAPEU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_64.jpg
7a890af2a5f0c963f61026f7da5422c6
26eae10b4f973b2e2870206077bf81b8ed726d59
35317 F20101207_AAAPOP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_74.QC.jpg
59f1b94d5fcac8b384fae7fe1c2a0f46
a51dccf02c263c55c78c3e97b9657e786dfa384b
44979 F20101207_AAAOXX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_61.jpg
7d50d00df08838ba177d596f35a900ba
b1192612e7b4010ca66900da01249f3630c12293
F20101207_AAAPJS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_83.tif
cdc5751a102152b46cf82afd39cafb65
abf4f1d589d0593181969d116db9d4f833e59ce4
31742 F20101207_AAAPEV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_65.jpg
ea1b06c52d83b45d74ef843bfe15c3b0
e978de99af45f8608bf0eddeec1a74e68325e881
8615 F20101207_AAAPOQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_44thm.jpg
c7f860e0b73be70a355ddb33a5c79576
a84a093d0250e2231a51e8e6bdbc147edfaef5df
F20101207_AAAPJT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_84.tif
1fa8f887edd8173698e11717dc286d09
fa899b40ebd618f74f4e48beed6e592f17aed62e
46003 F20101207_AAAPEW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_67.jpg
73cb6f278cc5e6a16dd0e67c1858eda0
4d1e3dab0ca2bbbed82a14c5989d61c69d0c708c
44751 F20101207_AAAOVA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_20.pro
399802324b101c52be4df221e320c7ac
764b0d5a970fa847866c4449c2373542ccba6cf2
98171 F20101207_AAAOXY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_42.jpg
c9c09b97438f2093263877ba1a3647ae
e270d0548bfdc4c0fa4b84aeafdaafcf3ab3a7f3
5123 F20101207_AAAPOR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_40thm.jpg
b7662f0e7b1fecf6caf054ac6d3dee0b
e72e07986b09e58ed16e1db3a9e5137597f5d3f0
F20101207_AAAPJU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_85.tif
fbf6f41a04e065265c1dd9db6a607514
698aa261799587ba5bdc25a51c8e9548cbdf3129
93546 F20101207_AAAPEX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_68.jpg
121781f3649e2c2b309eefbe1b15077b
7ea8ea418e16a8e0b7a8271f9603e2aa0b8c0551
114376 F20101207_AAAOVB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_47.jpg
ecda51d5ffd0f1500ac16f3ca4c2e192
80fa71b955b6d3b93cbeb0ca3fdc59755f4fcd10
37727 F20101207_AAAOXZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_28.QC.jpg
4b97dad9b1e28ac235c833d7d31f355d
8b9e7299a856cfe02b122f3500d78cae459f7180
37928 F20101207_AAAPOS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_07.QC.jpg
8fe696bdb8e7573913f125504be15427
0e178d6ed3b43afb5a4dea510919fc097456e0b9
8686 F20101207_AAAPJV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_01.pro
03c74fad980feb2701dc93bec39750d1
e5b345140a7fc20d0d0d8c3302b21f7230bb4cad
34290 F20101207_AAAPEY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_69.jpg
c35670fed8d907a25a3e2abf96be9dbe
34bb01cc5c6f254cd373b68aece7b500c27b9d71
114370 F20101207_AAAOVC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_19.jp2
01b4d3aea7d6390bb0f14e672d116942
92fdbb2074123ee0a1c6df497b185eca648092e6
11142 F20101207_AAAPOT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_68thm.jpg
9ac3b92f8c6d7e054d9992206c51d731
93578d89d48b08176611bf11a3bd790dd16c9175
1232 F20101207_AAAPJW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_02.pro
d2c95a1661c24ea8ea3446641d8760dc
c45bdc2b599b701ade7381a7b8b5b53c2c453851
33692 F20101207_AAAPCA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_09.pro
ef1ccd187e9f2b61abd107a391b4b3ff
848ffc881b317f704b8cfa673ec119f42dcfef47
44810 F20101207_AAAPEZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_71.jpg
44c476c174be2386cf3d27725f3e015c
35ecb9913c9f9644095220bbddef77a2c6e5e5ea
808867 F20101207_AAAOVD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_16.jp2
9f7c1a7b6643b66ac63d1f0e6cfcf462
36192076cdcd8cac133cf054b0a5941e53a96d16
5359 F20101207_AAAPOU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_04thm.jpg
e5a7331cf56a30a530d84c4a373fb058
9e269322fa9cdeec77c93d159c1bd54c33668f14
1464 F20101207_AAAPJX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_03.pro
cfa8d0700a4a31a17d0d43ae51e83e5c
247906c330e2dd13f66c5e4b4bc82411848d4c32
73185 F20101207_AAAPCB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_37.jpg
c03bd90ba9823d5bb6431982e9f25325
2d7ae42d77dcc04463685536b9a82861728d4b5a
34334 F20101207_AAAOVE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_27.QC.jpg
291c2bb342a53bc70aa1d28ea62e79a7
0a44ae34fd73b39e19c746f0f41d91c3091138e2
32561 F20101207_AAAPOV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_13.QC.jpg
6dc4f3db4165877dda1dcd68a1412a20
63dd2cbb09d9750800b2c19310e9753fba153f9a
7529 F20101207_AAAPJY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_06.pro
00a366ee7ab516ec962248d7e2db4c90
049fe76f6afb4652ab1c96d7cb049994e922c8bd
1360 F20101207_AAAPCC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_36.txt
6cc3c8bbdda00ee4b5b8d0bbece9f6a9
92a4a3a85a7f85d9df46614cd3d9a1b805754e07
18575 F20101207_AAAOVF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_41.QC.jpg
9dd98b7b594b0428768c38979088efaa
aea76558828850e493ad9c25d2d2abb1a3f01374
30546 F20101207_AAAPHA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_63.jp2
98f6deef9825fb5422b882b97203c822
190da0fff4359e0fc942b3cd958de8dc8faebbe4
8528 F20101207_AAAPOW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_25thm.jpg
f22a1efa6f5cd71d5853f5e3079dd7eb
913e179c9eb5d249c674b7620efd567e0f2f5d69
76560 F20101207_AAAPJZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_07.pro
71f0bb223db74fe881d3991af764f624
4e62c0fee0d26f7d01f58658655112cdd4e321ea
35466 F20101207_AAAPCD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_14.QC.jpg
01cbe2f0e7810b93c21014b6748ec9fc
a787a1757c62cbee360264cf2283a4d8974b2641
51632 F20101207_AAAOVG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_59.pro
62754ca0bdb532f4b50ad29b6da29c71
c1cecfe08cf33a88e7e5ffeec47f8508a22fb8bf
1051978 F20101207_AAAPHB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_64.jp2
62bd5b5f387c4484ccf297e199ea3e47
e62821ae8a2616cf7e21873d1158780e6045b951
7130 F20101207_AAAPOX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_34thm.jpg
8390edd9fb14d0acf346f33d19f2b6f2
3bf7f56dd668924bb90163ccc98b2eb992f05562
12556 F20101207_AAAPCE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_63.pro
2e588a07852654f2020069eb6ba1773b
a644c7844cec71bafa192672f49db792bd694bb7
F20101207_AAAOVH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_75.tif
04ab771280c3f5f1fe13e855f6368091
10a67728795e039fa1d608cf251955fcd85e7dde
34556 F20101207_AAAPHC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_65.jp2
9bbbc5b58426c3a0a1aba1f38956cc83
93def907a3fabc5479a316cb457bc6d0a1d8a4da
9840 F20101207_AAAPOY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_62thm.jpg
92dbd0409a3a8ed797cea4769522d2b3
6ed617ef674e00452866e8bc66a8a4590c685801
298 F20101207_AAAPMA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_06.txt
3c50fc516c0a934500db6d1bf7cd4047
bb735f462b29f3c49f1000110d663b234f9d6508
8430 F20101207_AAAPCF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_58thm.jpg
80cafc72274e99ec7ee16e7349eaa657
2177d55392500755392a3a9ef806f6ad4837bb36
41950 F20101207_AAAOVI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_84.pro
68d2fc3b367783b615374c35901df686
4e9821ad0c60bcfc008c36c1567ab7a80329fe64
1051932 F20101207_AAAPHD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_66.jp2
bd3e7026e8e3e74f986da2452e19094c
6685728e13a047bb657aeed8199be12d9b28a07c
34849 F20101207_AAAPOZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_43.QC.jpg
8877108ba3dba8670a3a899638a3d1c6
951bf7c279f493f20a383da5961bec6442cebdd4
2091 F20101207_AAAPMB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_08.txt
62cb0a62b61fff597298df6dc1780586
0290ec55516e7f4b2e8c4874f07d6a8a3699463c
2021 F20101207_AAAPCG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_10.txt
69dec98b69475cb244316688b1707523
6000537e12921efec3842cb150ebf93f4c3e5e44
34659 F20101207_AAAOVJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_45.QC.jpg
b2ae55daf5cfa39095eb43826f3d3140
d6ee6fefd7c2eb57913ffa74e8ca22b9c6921ed0
2084 F20101207_AAAPMC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_12.txt
028ba9d39c469eae51d90def3dfff244
cec9e7580ae6f2748769dd16f2e1b16c94414466
120246 F20101207_AAAPCH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_52.jpg
dc70a1b7d9edf4a186b3b4d02b305d9d
83978daa4d7d1e3e0ad2e3c5cd03c866fa31a8de
9046 F20101207_AAAOVK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_82thm.jpg
a8abf9787f331e37878303d945268938
7cb6b47ae9fcb96313e009be7f47bd1ed75f81f7
50225 F20101207_AAAPHE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_67.jp2
4bdf7620ce0a0871506575975be9f3b8
ab58a63c3736dd79703985644a8c5f03b71eff89
5465 F20101207_AAAPRA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_33thm.jpg
75e22b2a2431bb748049ef6e8b4f9d06
d54ff81ad44e04666e1f5936ca4dd8b008a6a716
2095 F20101207_AAAPMD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_14.txt
84e7d3948416c85b7ec61bbbe26b8dbb
4d4071c36ec23977e7d193885012037024857baa
59042 F20101207_AAAPCI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_04.jpg
91332c854176e0d609ea48defb45d3bc
fb1da3a51a8ac4c5e59fe39ea8bfef5e3f0e3f9c
1140 F20101207_AAAOVL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_76.pro
4e213c465286a51b0dc5adce978e8c04
4a5bc3689aa05953dd6d0236d936667ca585bc1e
1051983 F20101207_AAAPHF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_68.jp2
5622fc25afe11ca538aa9e270e3b66bf
b0adaa8d00f517edde062dde2472481403a97fde
22485 F20101207_AAAPRB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_33.QC.jpg
25a5d54b6f57b24da1dc2e51d3fef828
cf7f5c553a662a43abe152bc4b36e1f05278b819
454 F20101207_AAAPME mejiavelasquez_p_Page_16.txt
3d733e4bbf5eab2845840f71ac6375d4
38679424446f45b26933d39d6c942f8b8825bf6d
16726 F20101207_AAAPCJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_40.QC.jpg
a327d07e0ef5ee4d6f0372fb1b14f1eb
e12d1ef9a824ba3905a9749dc9335aa97f368f5d
119810 F20101207_AAAOVM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_83.jpg
67aa94d2972c15906e673bbab5f63938
a1af5e9ea1d4ce21c2b202d7337cff8f1bdc3c27
1051944 F20101207_AAAPHG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_70.jp2
891064e8dba7f00ca5385c6ee6c16ac4
32027c4409535fff3ace9616e7c83caed002f918
24337 F20101207_AAAPRC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_35.QC.jpg
b6019fcba0162d1f479531dd6f994aa0
41cf4957d7bf5524f41027cab6877f602d5332f0
2079 F20101207_AAAPMF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_18.txt
abf37857555c3b0e678845bde333193b
468832af1b3c63c336ea37d83efd22b64073fa57
47714 F20101207_AAAPCK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_61.jp2
3521af33e8f9b2db5689d7fe9cdee0b1
a46f7974f1d3e7d05b3466a4bd97e89aae0641a5
112676 F20101207_AAAOVN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_54.jpg
b783313475b6918b4bdf3bfe413195be
a2c04b514db3e9f6d2d19315ca8aae6f25c93520
48120 F20101207_AAAPHH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_71.jp2
5585b682b7ff525d045f5a1a914fac2e
db40d6cbbd39d95b9ebc2f3f77bf4f2c7f5309d5
5425 F20101207_AAAPRD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_36thm.jpg
3a72d4dde56f6921b427eac7a41dfc26
62af9518175c867595655bcf49435bbf2b53fa66
2069 F20101207_AAAPMG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_19.txt
137b440f06f2471e079f8cc8834c945c
4b94581d8789cb293d33a946d0407532ed3e5bd0
2690 F20101207_AAAPCL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_80.txt
48477abd0f671d2ed03e925952287229
9a01c27f8eb7a596c6752e8d9fa3ec988d91b775
2449 F20101207_AAAOVO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_75thm.jpg
ce71b99e3405d8e168558340dc32f676
cc3358b791a620bbdbc8304d9dee727dfa2d100c
F20101207_AAAPHI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_72.jp2
50c5d34ad2bd4df275ddbb8672f0e85e
964d2e3998b9cc0f93f77c1bd10d371114a63151
19045 F20101207_AAAPRE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_36.QC.jpg
62a606f0a2398af3b024f8ce90cd0ae5
78f6aaeef8e732e4922ad88e9f7bfca106f11280
2039 F20101207_AAAPMH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_22.txt
94df6d9e9b8d4178b1b912aa1c012002
90a54725a556c0edd1f14e3f3760b665aadfa4d0
2006 F20101207_AAAPCM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_31.txt
e4eb20e569b5455acf1b7c8b7d01fa35
5fa209c52bc72b6c667842b694eb494a212b2bf2
8895 F20101207_AAAOVP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_64thm.jpg
58a554195c460fe740608132ec3759ca
45f97918beb9f1c8dc946b9eb71dd6c71bd0064b
40724 F20101207_AAAPHJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_75.jp2
ee0c6e99eddb14920ac561d85f87f28d
a18ba8429237da8156a36c4f89f7bc5c2d894842
7090 F20101207_AAAPRF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_38thm.jpg
bc8e9631cb5e69d26ba3219f29cd5ab0
da14fd2ba13eef50f0fe37c72cf026a8dadaab24
927 F20101207_AAAPMI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_25.txt
699aa7097f04d1296a8c72a1135c38f8
31a7ad9de937720a0b6a0011516067a56f305f4f
113593 F20101207_AAAPCN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_50.jpg
234546b025878dc642542b0c6c682409
d0c34f561b5c1c76449ae3e2a42b4a4bb7f18357
79002 F20101207_AAAOVQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_66.jpg
9b8622746b257608b9d4bdd6e4cc8807
2495037ef3bfe0355849c77cff31963d4403467d
19866 F20101207_AAAPHK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_77.jp2
d312e36afe2eb078e86e82f58e54618f
289c51bc06370d5f476cab4aaefb531a396eaf6d
17515 F20101207_AAAPRG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_39.QC.jpg
d5a7d2590cec346941c93ec1aefefb4a
03b5a4ebc72567496118dd6e7af28d94a261a1f2
35331 F20101207_AAAPCO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_54.QC.jpg
6be29d7d12ba7af85587ad852424d119
5fa07c02d44ed49cf1a973260f31c66f3cbfd69e
146373 F20101207_AAAOVR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_07.jpg
23ee86b5dd5fa744e117a887dc55cf9d
07bab0719ef657645304f5eb95fac5c3ddb7f97b
1051964 F20101207_AAAPHL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_78.jp2
3cae0e42210b05fc697541b62c92ab83
4670ffa495646fb170e1bdf768847dccd53c65f0
8114 F20101207_AAAPRH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_42thm.jpg
e0f1cb05d499d042c76f48a7008f61e1
ca1778a0fddda630283c7e4e936536d2ddef3baf
1994 F20101207_AAAPMJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_26.txt
5d678b423e9dce587f2a9312c963f2bb
712f8ad9e7401eb27fce330515540678a4f82157
31054 F20101207_AAAPCP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_21.QC.jpg
b5916df62254d3562dbd03f60aeff305
52108e21f1b752da1b06855711e1e7a65fe09e10
8627 F20101207_AAAOVS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_57thm.jpg
3594ee3e36440c81d49403eb425af6a5
8025d09c3f1c04c7a00e4ea40c73f647da901495
124707 F20101207_AAAPHM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_79.jp2
fec95912bd220b96dd5e6d7872394179
a9c8ca88cab66b5a38bea55c3270857c1870ef3d
9078 F20101207_AAAPRI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_46thm.jpg
bfe7783765bc824525484fa8b9c70461
ff9f56e93eaaf3f4b52ef3985ac0ccce465b0b2d
2109 F20101207_AAAPMK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_27.txt
d4ded5312a48fba69df29ae0784d8df7
8644c40e2d46cdf55894c69005286621751a22c9
47240 F20101207_AAAPCQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_26.pro
312317ae641e09e850c3eb82f9c75f5e
ef80099a0c7a08b14c295836857838ac769fe998
140067 F20101207_AAAPHN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_80.jp2
927c99f63c7679359d2b1f031b2874b2
e8711984224a2d48e8358962db0679afa8f53d24
8875 F20101207_AAAPRJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_49thm.jpg
6eb0bce04b22699dade95dd946a10b6d
437ab263fec49b5e1bad0fc403652d25860d7ffe
2048 F20101207_AAAPML mejiavelasquez_p_Page_30.txt
29cbfea5b37794f08229ac833fd519e8
822e02f8be865fd808a7e3ce5608dc1a3fd635ed
12011 F20101207_AAAPCR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_73.QC.jpg
d811f974982f119eb4dad77ef4f030d7
860cb97d13acc784014201dc3119f723361cf0a0
107567 F20101207_AAAOVT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_19.jpg
707367a6ed5d062d534e02dc270ee184
04848eb89901b3667b0a01b3f1446b368570affb
129835 F20101207_AAAPHO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_81.jp2
7c99beeeaabd160a663cc05bd755b0dc
aa290f921d7c77fb394873c69a6cb7e7d5b38be4
34792 F20101207_AAAPRK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_49.QC.jpg
416d3e1572dc97a868e249e96472e509
2950eba9902696a503530c227e349368ee22cd3d
2035 F20101207_AAAPMM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_32.txt
8abef2ea6b434fe6bea938132ad1db3d
7dfe10cb80ff8559d7e0cfb566bcc7bf3bc7c73f
161399 F20101207_AAAPCS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_06.jp2
f2980dcfb53d21420514a386cb74aab8
f66dc174b67791e76cd34f441909dfb46ce2342d
F20101207_AAAOVU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_16.tif
96068a3ec718ea962532a02d5a23cc85
a50564fae4ae23317a823d62ce9501f867ea0189
124736 F20101207_AAAPHP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_82.jp2
32e89038b4a5585d3655ef5a0282796c
ef85be57146c65b13cc4dbe6a03bdfde08af130d
36383 F20101207_AAAPRL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_50.QC.jpg
a49bebbc27c6fd41f29a388c8c2b70d2
9c70923ef1eb5dfdba5242c2be1e6408d40ff970
1320 F20101207_AAAPMN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_33.txt
d2668726c4f86ccacb8dd34fd563b5e0
13f4960c190eaaefaa0c2ddf6bea25d7b661984a
30617 F20101207_AAAPCT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_70.QC.jpg
1aa0ffde5b81b1ae660c409869fcd9e6
cc53cb9f4b232267774a3eee64c2cc4f553eee17
45920 F20101207_AAAOVV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_21.pro
cd6a680d1422dcc5cb410889a05584a3
98981db8d9ffa610e771fd7cf439d8a1547c4cb0
126546 F20101207_AAAPHQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_83.jp2
08cb7f681d62bdac4eb4b14b45af3917
27cc8dd90b9bb8876bb24209bf65a55f4da21425
6799 F20101207_AAAPRM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_51thm.jpg
a7cdb9606aeb1d41fac047f79d93d969
61881272dac906b9a3cf08c620f7ef575d9e6db8
1041 F20101207_AAAPMO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_34.txt
0478bfd67e7b3d137ceb72e4974bc3c5
8b00da5349b9deae5742016a68136e1f291a10b3
52035 F20101207_AAAPCU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_18.pro
03c0ad5878ce6699e8e2993ec77c9ef7
6c35a91734b3254bb87f523efa650e6491d45d4d
965763 F20101207_AAAOVW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_36.jp2
71cbd11c028e2f32c76127b7c3849b71
1fdde8212686aa55f0dccbec8b5ae6ed26013f5a
93085 F20101207_AAAPHR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_84.jp2
aa04b08bb38cdd75d10c6b2a7bfde4fb
f6c5bac9abb719b7e64dbbba0ecd60a7c5047c75
26577 F20101207_AAAPRN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_51.QC.jpg
c82972c5458a80575bbdfc1432f137d6
bc826880f221d3ec7a0f7dbec631c38756acdf31
920 F20101207_AAAPMP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_35.txt
3b50186aa4e11684f6146aa12327012f
49d8b8f7a9fc65d674970201d5ca22504d70b2be
63248 F20101207_AAAPCV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_04.jp2
86397ad912c98baf927edb55e4ec2caf
dce0ade4fe7298f58a1cbbd7c8ec5eaa3b3aac67
1051968 F20101207_AAAOVX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_31.jp2
a7ad98c3142b1ecaff85b7000fed2e87
62d3078d415e635fe904f3acf3af0017c27a5d02
63565 F20101207_AAAPHS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_85.jp2
16b346a2eb58d326d467fae5602e86af
7e482fbdeaca2fffa64d84e292f6364833332b05
1735 F20101207_AAAPMQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_37.txt
48e337277a3e8b2b180fe4d7911bc4b9
7d67e9fe769b828c8febaa52e4399260feac17a4
7749 F20101207_AAAPCW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_17thm.jpg
3dbf219be494331dfceb747b20247b6c
5452233e62529c396b2c36170e79776b5e80548c
123497 F20101207_AAAOVY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_28.jp2
42ad1c2e3ed3ae31f2329b4ed1aebbe8
b2676d9309ec2e04bafb323bd2827616ee724add
F20101207_AAAPHT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_01.tif
5d486fad5d5ee39abe93fb7b4636ff32
dd2f8bf1ceb90df23d7779c7b7f62262a56e8949
37853 F20101207_AAAPRO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_52.QC.jpg
2842579febf6680789d3200f1fdcc9c4
e2b1f17a999d9f2894d3f638fdac5621851d2e68
1617 F20101207_AAAPMR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_38.txt
74e627ae0dab4dc103f816848674cddd
c517eef0f5dde8750918a972d1b1bbaa1b21c371
8760 F20101207_AAAPCX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_52thm.jpg
14f77461a1a9dd9b9735939c9b9ed509
f59f1a20fb6045378d0ee4e71402d5555c36eb83
20870 F20101207_AAAOVZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_71.pro
0d909b3253dc2cb94d68430eef7f3ddc
f4aefab488090538b186b769b59ea96079e736dd
F20101207_AAAPHU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_04.tif
e726d742ceb8a5e3f403a73750ef2a86
c73e242e3db9a18f7182e55c7f326ac2869abdc4
8348 F20101207_AAAPRP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_55thm.jpg
d71faf9bad41beb086b6bf3ea883c9cc
6626d309bc164d1efbee3af41451b904667adc04
625 F20101207_AAAPMS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_39.txt
3a2d107da7fab2ffbf20579cee9daed1
7888f9ba8b289d2d0ec8f58b745cc9812644443c
3292 F20101207_AAAPCY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_61thm.jpg
6e1f2484f35dc4472fec46cdf1df5b81
89e6d919983822e718a3a73e166673b9ec7edc06
F20101207_AAAPHV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_07.tif
6b61a4c1592d5ff745434bfdb7be50b2
38f8b38c0a4cd0be65d0e721a1670ef03e704e85
8968 F20101207_AAAPRQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_56thm.jpg
23632bf1c5712a81c7b188860463ff2a
9ef0707afc4292fa8b5283ef602ed99de8a6137b
788 F20101207_AAAPMT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_40.txt
bbc0e0bb868535e1000707a8cb87ecd0
0d6eeff018a7ff913189d85e935281ece0cd4b80
1640 F20101207_AAAPCZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_24.txt
dfad89e0acb5de2a6c456bf7ee3e2144
f32c3256415e1f0319739b32873b6a4aef4f3de4
F20101207_AAAPHW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_09.tif
1c3e73d14f10c405db11219b65934e35
5cd7eb4a7b4fb286a3749c99c4ba594a1737257a
9082 F20101207_AAAOYA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_47thm.jpg
d934e87a5a316305b9646c5d71063b3e
58eeec6db03b170a1fb3be1bd259c8480b2a5e07
112271 F20101207_AAAPAA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_32.jp2
e268dde9997aa461cfabf69e9a4ff89b
40cfb662547aeb9202e90ca1011e68efe79c7b3b
38476 F20101207_AAAPRR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_57.QC.jpg
848acf4ac36ed542937f997dd8206c6b
ecf46e4430afa702ee6cbc7d81b81f4be3029e3c
882 F20101207_AAAPMU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_41.txt
b077eb3bf2a0e541211b99a23edb572d
acf523829d7019c96ad4d8c3f7931a0b5cd33743
F20101207_AAAPHX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_10.tif
00535f7c71946457c3b43dbf7b7b9f38
ca370acbd414c7629281bfa683a33ffe3c74a147
29571 F20101207_AAAOYB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_64.QC.jpg
d7e9f046e1c6c883b981750301667df7
92199c0c6875bfe1230d29791a9fc6469e0505c7
39327 F20101207_AAAPAB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_51.pro
c5e58312fc572508c90ff837b7e6bb5d
a3b15f7a7acdd05a7a1a34f8719cc11d9638d07f
8020 F20101207_AAAPRS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_59thm.jpg
21e3efbc1b34a1eff271736c7c75fb6b
0073021e4206ec3405252ed5093851f3109fffaf
1983 F20101207_AAAPMV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_42.txt
597caef4fd5ee9afb7a3944e619cef76
4d903fee7e16d3737c614269f8f4442e07a92469
103281 F20101207_AAAPFA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_72.jpg
7b4cdb4b5437ebce931efc97d77b6fe2
472198b4cf966ec693bd0f408196084219d4c677
F20101207_AAAPHY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_11.tif
4120c4d6fdd9451af3004bab86381c74
a62acd0a225299bc8015fa474504299515876b1a
28451 F20101207_AAAOYC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_24.QC.jpg
c0ee3a75243f508d196113cadf528542
241052d7acd7611d51b44bedd9be563e52434e9c
F20101207_AAAPAC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_24.tif
ffb15fb340c1a7d5e7e667d705bbf29d
e22caa9b84e54b446a4948518eab03e1461563d8
12717 F20101207_AAAPRT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_61.QC.jpg
973ee041528f607ec524552f08d74f7e
a54b73b09a3101573181756c76882f4b52d16c9e
2105 F20101207_AAAPMW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_43.txt
00ee187aa7f70df984a368bb753dbdeb
5feac44c88771b9697bb16b5a70f1a871b17ba54
44122 F20101207_AAAPFB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_73.jpg
60891192aec0da1ebfa89f0f6e37e0e6
da0372dfb8f91c8ad8a7328b0cfff817999dc96c
F20101207_AAAPHZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_13.tif
c5624f06aa53ebc932363b7f3fcb525a
22326d0f7c11e822a9745c3fb6786f86a97fc354
7909 F20101207_AAAOYD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_77.pro
1ec8f949755c6a7dd22a1d33940daf09
0ce35865b1dab7c0a8db542efe91fe12faaa3a71
1814 F20101207_AAAPAD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_21.txt
7f44a062f205e5946e3227d17cbbccf2
b4873eba6a30e2c5006e5f691fbdb2a970a34b83
8030 F20101207_AAAPRU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_66thm.jpg
eb14b6e7f3ae6a76832dcf34a634c056
32dda05c9b5c9bc8bfad60d55ec9d8b30338f2f7
2112 F20101207_AAAPMX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_44.txt
85fbe874fea800811246e8ced0a85c43
54b53edd0c5fb0d28d2254dbaf857e29ddc762db
109 F20101207_AAAOYE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_76.txt
647a8092dba754ab446aa5bc62709d5f
d22ec5cf87dfb637437aa63e4d3fcd4aff69a095
F20101207_AAAPAE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_31.tif
8a08c2f196b97f407a26d75152543a3c
ad012598e9b2fb4888216b41ac0cd7c03d885f27
2301 F20101207_AAAPRV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_69thm.jpg
9e3697a0d21cb1f2c98d22322c21331c
71975b633798aabf16d7967c44e9fac3bd675134
2101 F20101207_AAAPMY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_45.txt
b59b8c6a99088a2d65695f650d372aa0
28236b34762204a11a10a209017248968f59ff74
99817 F20101207_AAAPFC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_74.jpg
781e52257fb4ef0383ae6115bcd1176b
25bb32eab80c5887668f7dc5745f7cb6eb179151
104620 F20101207_AAAOYF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_31.jpg
94c283c1b90bf1eb1b0e44b6f6144988
5051f3d4a106d8b474f257929892a4bc9469ed4a
41483 F20101207_AAAPAF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_24.pro
dc20965bb82a71dab7063e9050463660
2d9599af32e5f06759cf1337e79b94d5c34a1556
49380 F20101207_AAAPKA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_10.pro
963bf3d78dfeb6a39139df177ba922a7
08ab96e06e168fd748490f9672868ba9dd7f46be
9115 F20101207_AAAPRW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_69.QC.jpg
d27699d036217089a4003c69c951f76d
de44ee77a6ccc43dd8616e3249deb6c4976f89e6
2234 F20101207_AAAPMZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_46.txt
e9985f5bc939e31e6253c3fb109a1bcd
282c36b65e7958988e2e72b1396d2c25cff6f8c0
37834 F20101207_AAAPFD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_75.jpg
ea3e95aa57828d99ab9c3bc354705ce2
64c5c1865a2bbead1ce0f98e7746f4898f5686c4
8976 F20101207_AAAOYG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_48thm.jpg
fa1b514642018d271119f1e984354366
71060f6e79cc344e1cab9f966af642ef94687acf
660 F20101207_AAAPAG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_03thm.jpg
456dfb446f84b9528bf323bc16cb6211
9b36a22b80ea94652113706342d6329352c6b731
55258 F20101207_AAAPKB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_11.pro
92e56e409b9010cd3d369a62b2939ca0
b52f1495272bd0d193eaf5a3d70e44b3b1d70bd8
11739 F20101207_AAAPRX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_71.QC.jpg
ef8cb118456cef390c0f05dff74c8cef
7fcee5b0a1d778ba42a7d3bb263371024b2f2dba
104664 F20101207_AAAPFE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_76.jpg
aea9ed257e91318ddf22e30a3e0d9599
1af11594712b5fddb282728b0ec728c39f8268e4
1881 F20101207_AAAOYH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_29.txt
7fb17db0518bf9cfe7d606c7a1a66699
ee67f7fb4ad7c683a00a461e2cb895c763f3688c
F20101207_AAAPAH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_23.tif
c482ec9ced0762cd0af81ebdeeb204b0
5f20dc2755ecb94aad1160a11549beded23cab68
53008 F20101207_AAAPKC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_12.pro
99f45858a0fbd738509d826787991e47
d03d8cd6f4b9c395b9c82b1a1af55a840f3a5b71
36976 F20101207_AAAPRY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_76.QC.jpg
ef21ae5e1977c5b826073822e152dcf7
b06e01f57fdd65692f532ddcb094041af17a99cc
8589 F20101207_AAAPPA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_45thm.jpg
51389e5a1953be8609658985dab57386
7108ded4946593fa57380bfe735a4cc853fd5c3b
18953 F20101207_AAAPFF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_77.jpg
8ae910be5a16eee25ebbdc3d09041fe1
54c46a2942c556b4152c3f7b5b3e1f98ae976630
37015 F20101207_AAAOYI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_46.QC.jpg
93024012ccf39ad4c111c8171be24a08
64617e761eb15ae87010a7442723f9f430eb6cda
21338 F20101207_AAAPAI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_67.pro
297b973a5aa7a2bb0a82be967ab93303
36cf5faefec5177c75c9c4e937b596591397552c
48480 F20101207_AAAPKD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_13.pro
9e16ca9a3566b3773b1e02975892dd45
ffa13a5cce3148108ad66f8d56723bbc6bb00c84
9087 F20101207_AAAPRZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_83thm.jpg
d898300edd5dcb732338f9a398acc510
fcd10572f8b35f2d25c93702e41935e78a342b65
33869 F20101207_AAAPPB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_68.QC.jpg
aaa7e171dd029fd8c9f9dcc53486033f
6fac51cb165d07274c89d1241d12b1e61924c8c8
119574 F20101207_AAAPFG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_79.jpg
f47709d07d260588ba884e5c04e59cfe
f1faebb0a4f8b715df1cf8b30364f265fc1a9989
3600 F20101207_AAAOYJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_06.QC.jpg
ce73dcbd4c2ee8fd3eb2dd9eee5ac891
7eb4e6afe11d0c7ff11ee17615225dd252ab00d6
115810 F20101207_AAAPAJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_28.jpg
e827a821aa7f59fce5e32e0ed27f65f7
529166612c10b8af22ee44ca9bb5739f7104cd99
52952 F20101207_AAAPKE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_14.pro
0536daa0b03a34f15014d7a43e96166a
6fcdc2a06e0c5b7546c7875baa1fce02bf4b44da
9119 F20101207_AAAPPC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_80thm.jpg
1bc62527aa183842d9ebd12a233c8fce
f48d0bd943d358a7cb261d627682c4e59c65c233
114570 F20101207_AAAPFH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_82.jpg
1818c31e8c0f97426c9a670ee37945a6
4725a638f3624055ec996fa569e875fc1adfdaf0
1333 F20101207_AAAOYK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_09.txt
898fd9bb9ca102a096959222debee987
f3b2eb69b552d513065b3356994f4f11d4e30f14
12646 F20101207_AAAPAK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_06.jpg
6c6db535e1d32c8806820e889798866b
af60e00ec267ce296032e6a08b096f6fdbc3f756
36047 F20101207_AAAPKF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_15.pro
68e84ac0aa444a130ca7a632192b2156
d70fa2bb7388843afec9e8efc3fa70fd4c2a1c0f
31650 F20101207_AAAPPD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_08.QC.jpg
0d14da605083409f4a64197360af3f67
d95c77451d6aa2aeba2d029e592f436a93040eac
87114 F20101207_AAAPFI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_84.jpg
24db246382e583c7e74b39c3770cc473
70b2712e3eceac5a894e41ff0f8bf0ba3bd1eb50
22728 F20101207_AAAOYL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_09.QC.jpg
298fa89a67ed8fc6479156161377cfde
a3b7619da298baa556a45d0c29fc2d560efcb328
46092 F20101207_AAAPAL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_17.pro
ea5926fd9bf4701ccb095e7f2f9c7ed1
e44bdc0138552850f8b40542b558fef277f00b28
51708 F20101207_AAAPKG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_19.pro
7a4824084ebabb3250e77fa22988d787
b5c124d9b5cd246f3f96bb7e43d85752c5a66237
8196 F20101207_AAAPPE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_13thm.jpg
112e56ca268e8e301d20bf885e80693b
ccfe8c279799a281e4eb033f3787e52811ff000c
61621 F20101207_AAAPFJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_85.jpg
5fd7dc57b402e6fdd8142b5fe61e8d00
afbe7f9956adc6459848a3a8108dbeb8053443ef
F20101207_AAAOYM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_19.tif
c22f9f5c5be62483f5bc7da5babc324d
6c333d429aa1209e4a0f4f2fd76059b87d9cf315
4988 F20101207_AAAPAM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_85thm.jpg
c11d2f1a9b65272659789985ff1b31d5
d0f297d67bdfdd3423de8457f9b7c62665af1861
33691 F20101207_AAAPPF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_82.QC.jpg
db88039979d7a8f70dc972cf9c7e98cf
ff5203ce02c5955e9827b2848878f3402ec83229
6201 F20101207_AAAPFK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_02.jp2
092e68568f73cec311aad15bc54d2432
405c04e716d4e0063b7a78b8ba38eeb2a6f01980
F20101207_AAAOYN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_18.tif
751a4117d74425bf48aac1c2ead4fd1c
62ea69324a447cb2e17cb06a21b150ce2cfc3904
48637 F20101207_AAAPAN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_73.jp2
31a87c52189adf3c22565a6aeb462855
435fd7116860da9d784ee50e19cb9925f938c130
51772 F20101207_AAAPKH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_22.pro
3588f7152a623ac4a6eb7af115a684f4
94d245af636b5488ace7c8e85d84a9afe70c2d1e
5587 F20101207_AAAPPG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_39thm.jpg
0a9f3b76fe4f6d1da6f82a4720cb3339
975167d376223e43a0757162d24ec3da6dbb3dbe
6513 F20101207_AAAPFL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_03.jp2
3497a1371b0d841d4cacddc20adc88ab
86acaf0bf42c43e7811aba9326ceecfd1e6ba56c
36187 F20101207_AAAOYO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_72.QC.jpg
c92f9a05c800d5ea385c1f58d47a934e
dd35c73d93cbd2705621741b56bcc120246df2f3
8135 F20101207_AAAPAO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_10thm.jpg
fd9fe99e6444658b3603057c158c0076
9ba4ad53bf92c740b99f0dcaf9741d13ca00bbb9
54688 F20101207_AAAPKI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_23.pro
30bc63d6e0408868fbff91790bd1c0a5
d2cd4467e75dd50330c90b6e5a995a337a71a3ff
8876 F20101207_AAAPPH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_43thm.jpg
e11b68fb489d89ed4844b52ea861ea2e
c5a3f2e545e3119daddf6aa4f675648876d40d80
F20101207_AAAPFM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_05.jp2
ab2fd864ffaea6248ea170556456db9e
cac0252f0add01efd90985d803657ad2d76e00c9
F20101207_AAAOYP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_14thm.jpg
87cba26b7f4cb234aa6a704dd8443964
4f4648e308d632596826e17698809e6199769a78
20154 F20101207_AAAPAP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_85.QC.jpg
f98cdce3b6360981c9a61a5ba1556b58
72467805c54b7df59a84dd387bdfde73fd5d79e4
52696 F20101207_AAAPKJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_27.pro
99beb0d1349f6fb85175bebff9aa229d
dd6c6fe2539c9ad8fe92519b03864a46cb8a7689
9134 F20101207_AAAPPI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_81thm.jpg
72ad8a28403ccea7ed09cdc550bcf2ad
08babe6a0ae4eb4d912751b3f7f843691e0dd1bc
1051985 F20101207_AAAPFN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_07.jp2
5077464070fbe67844323436af6a488f
1f5371fcef1142068d321744364e933577ad11f9
28206 F20101207_AAAOYQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_04.pro
431e5506dc7350fdc202eded1762444f
51fb4d4e1efc9aa2da6f32ae32edd98c93234c47
968526 F20101207_AAAPAQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_59.jp2
03b8868ce7d41c58d6fafeb59fac066b
933a102d16aadb9f7daaeb184630682f0cb07722
56476 F20101207_AAAPKK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_28.pro
9425e2d6e5e7b9d9ab9177ce7d6c1482
764d9b4293e1e631a7229b7dfe3bb15b2cdd05e0
31352 F20101207_AAAPPJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_62.QC.jpg
2ba9919686f3b6bf09a529db436c961c
1df76578ff2462195573d64c4f228813e93e2f26
108596 F20101207_AAAPFO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_08.jp2
dce19ce52b4b91851dfa2829b69c352d
e1ea08d05953d757b324c5e347dddf3ea3428997
56489 F20101207_AAAOYR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_50.pro
965e49f6670e986bd5652a6c8a764c03
186ec3a96a29609672f8c1ef9018fe3b35bd6ed1
46423 F20101207_AAAPAR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_55.pro
ce42f4d740756433bea2c04731b83538
773d92748d49590459de9c937404f2ead8711e5f
47465 F20101207_AAAPKL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_29.pro
3da49ffdfb2014afa0399989f09ec689
a76345534cc3180a42d839e08cd923c69d36093a
34658 F20101207_AAAPPK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_81.QC.jpg
751236a532e79ab61897fc1d87b5041d
40e32c6529abc54af21a6350ea19bf260277b059
51964 F20101207_AAAPKM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_30.pro
46353cb9ac002117e4cce229f2953c79
bc5cabf1b7b41cc27e7808817f811f3dd7c94b96
74705 F20101207_AAAPFP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_09.jp2
391cfd369c0c9a37d14ce79c2f933fe1
e4a0b46db6836892de8f93a2b5cb77543dff8e50
F20101207_AAAOYS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_49.tif
83ab3afd14b9ff957d9f303941f2a752
d35b261f89ca5819d803559d5b1c1031666867bb
35336 F20101207_AAAPAS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_22.QC.jpg
93db604f8635b756a14066f5866532f9
542e6dfe5c08529c1f971a7b5a81b72979b02346
30899 F20101207_AAAPPL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_26.QC.jpg
2a2501e911f4fc3116f5d3ff7194d905
db2bb97b2efe98948096a0bffcf6a3a824359bc1
50283 F20101207_AAAPKN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_31.pro
9c778d994d37188228f9046bf1289882
0c18215dd332621b9d073cb67724092f3aa8a9fb
1051982 F20101207_AAAPFQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_10.jp2
0d68e942a552b7d5576b3c6d9b76a515
a9eaee5d6c7f44635a28bd11980bc6548dc90677
F20101207_AAAOYT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_65.tif
73824fb525f333c6ef64cdd7620a1f03
bff8a41a36c799806679faa93a54ba0c859ff184
56774 F20101207_AAAPAT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_47.pro
4ff53936c4fd3d3ce56feff0b7dd6c77
a712c5c8e583dabb1d03186f60419d17c0e97599
33291 F20101207_AAAPKO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_33.pro
cd1246c268af00ed479b5698c61ef33e
921694096bb2eb4e8c53a1c5b2c626cea7d3bb0d
1051960 F20101207_AAAPFR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_11.jp2
67d06e28a30cad8a546ce4548d850a52
d475f96c9e63c86b1aeafd6b1e0d47b1d50551db
824620 F20101207_AAAOYU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_15.jp2
d97ae616ad26fe6fa4cb2e002c633ae9
99451ee26a38accdb54919c335e9692a4df07eff
F20101207_AAAPAU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_03.tif
9c86c8fafcbafd42871755d1b21d14ac
92bc1e6fae5a26d8f54eb6335a03ff50afbbb76a
24494 F20101207_AAAPPM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_78.QC.jpg
986bbb205ae7dcdaaa731148fcccd9a3
1c95dd1acfef3890ce417a7118664d1e948fe851
20262 F20101207_AAAPKP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_34.pro
2e3f0bc525078f46868714400fa91246
24a25c2c5599bf157e32caa86df802ed7f54f40a
1051980 F20101207_AAAPFS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_12.jp2
076f7bf17229cc4ba945745f0261a86a
2a38cb6edf1a1bb72fe521e3ed91adb771517c43
35792 F20101207_AAAOYV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_83.QC.jpg
3b3944c7689940f0d1522975889a7775
f38f39d6377627c38fbb52f3fedea1cfce4d555f
106772 F20101207_AAAPAV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_45.jpg
056eb4e7492f95e7b768c99f0f64264c
a4e6355f5db6e3f51e3f0579cab94799ddbd1149
2821 F20101207_AAAPPN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_71thm.jpg
db9115788c436d50d9fcf46b2a0f7769
25816d454af5df509eaaf68f8fc171e4cc21b243
18254 F20101207_AAAPKQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_35.pro
31dac99509c108d0a6f9c193e455a08e
6b6ee9d591e9b9c0488313598b74b4f95998986e
106329 F20101207_AAAPFT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_13.jp2
2a7024cfdeb3b26fd7b235d21902e8e7
2342278abc938f7aa5ceda95542e19ca01a6115c
40713 F20101207_AAAPAW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_54.pro
98800c401c77b1dcbea8eba313a59223
2f0d79e8f543d17333aeb0990c9e9d0c38fefaf0
2820 F20101207_AAAPPO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_67thm.jpg
fb07d85736052380fc5f4d5149ebf165
3f6b361cd1b1782c98749148f8ce97e6d64c2ec8
18712 F20101207_AAAPKR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_36.pro
8bf638edc8110a2cc2c3b58aa0313b1d
5a5baa3415ef7649660476e0e1e6f922fae6a5ea
F20101207_AAAPFU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_14.jp2
b1a77d17f3ba03e36f976c2dab153187
c96eb0f3f828f3a24cd75d91ecbfa9e557d46399
821 F20101207_AAAOYW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_66.pro
f61cd356cbb5beecc4d77bee6053a7d9
f00a6e7cdec2d890501575f10fd20e9cf8353e35
F20101207_AAAPAX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_08.tif
75a85c78e683470790be1bfbb040e667
47cb50657bad88e60244ebf58c7bfcfbaba09a1f
6208 F20101207_AAAPPP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_16thm.jpg
d78a552381bfa3c613851295489031fe
02e6b7e61aecada38337f90a96b1dd0fbdb61c13
31741 F20101207_AAAPKS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_37.pro
5099d6b4f2af4dd9e3059c12fead28e4
5a24e7463e1c38fde417fe85ad15e0e69c6b499f
101301 F20101207_AAAPFV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_17.jp2
479f6c880a332eba6863ff33d714b2db
d48acc4e8d15d1119ecffb4177fbf1943187ae13
36043 F20101207_AAAOYX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_69.jp2
b477a40f7a83c775bb28d91ec3c6dbcf
df00d24b826d77806e66f9389258373f5b2d3d94
34388 F20101207_AAAPAY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_18.QC.jpg
700fa72a9fd9a4127777328f47c39462
7c74d0d751516c3b4b3f45bb453e5a1296deb14a
5342 F20101207_AAAPPQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_77.QC.jpg
449b6fd5346934dd8692125723576a84
dfe19d093d188ff3c432783379349a6d721e19fc
21583 F20101207_AAAPKT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_38.pro
e2a5743377bbd02b73f20c9dec685231
43f7776d35fda6032edbdf3ee8d31daaa4743475
114476 F20101207_AAAPFW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_18.jp2
753cbb0677565525e96cbc366d327c99
f5c202735784dbe33a0127b471bc37f4baa628e4
1491 F20101207_AAAOWA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_03.QC.jpg
e1bec22319efb34282ba78fe7515e2e1
f70aefc3d3b16665d2b619d356f244608143a4b6
314 F20101207_AAAOYY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_77.txt
02d4c66c13994262a837be207a65508c
309673d81bed39d97f1e81c9c633f11f48c288af
51426 F20101207_AAAPAZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_32.pro
c0239b919cfb0f56b98e1cd03daed082
1b7203eba7a93394d7e7fdb2391144701c2d305c
10868 F20101207_AAAPPR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_74thm.jpg
62610ac497cb5c3f9b525f40b5d01ea3
965f1a0b4190219fa28174d2df87fffa8e73fa7a
9459 F20101207_AAAPKU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_39.pro
1aa79805e91f27da86646cc3b0c6e1ee
a51361e68fc2c5a879dff125b546133f69eeae8c
99516 F20101207_AAAPFX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_20.jp2
3de0e18871df7db29d608fd37b9fdc69
e2c085ce32dc67a61622b64412f66508e1647165
102142 F20101207_AAAOWB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_21.jp2
f8d91f306bbde789343318f348c39244
a440825fac71b73a8b0bb9373bab7c317ca9db1a
960582 F20101207_AAAOYZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_58.jp2
c5969f3e861764e6112ab0ed40f9f8b2
0ad4f0b53a02536878f06c3fa2d19398e8e7c2b2
35882 F20101207_AAAPPS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_80.QC.jpg
7d65a1c7b66933fc0889899b7c688a7b
4f373f148b90c18e2dabb771579c1ecbc52b9284
11612 F20101207_AAAPKV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_41.pro
6a25c58294b07d4ace375f3ec1ddd427
33ced1a474af6433d14eab9c2a93ad39771857d7
10051 F20101207_AAAOWC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_70thm.jpg
daf2349af4f24b09a5f79bef53982404
9e26d88b92bd494d7bee70b888bcd75f5040ac74
119812 F20101207_AAAPFY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_23.jp2
fcbb396303934f18cd697ea4c9e8a1e7
170b2ed69a85b0f33c0ad441da02e8bb0e22d5bf
7764 F20101207_AAAPPT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_63.QC.jpg
bf52eb0dca330f00b75256052ca8bd64
b544a5e479ce40ee96f9bb9c1b2d2874b169d9e5
53574 F20101207_AAAPKW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_43.pro
26e8ff2011410fc97ccfc5904fe06cca
d08ce0d57f99db3de06d6369b5608041e770fd39
1782 F20101207_AAAOWD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_63thm.jpg
c18caf2e8b50b13a917ed3e105727382
9c6dc1cbd81db1a85317b745be462cd6a19eaae7
102816 F20101207_AAAPDA UFE0020720_00001.mets FULL
e63f58dc85de4fa0335c363e3ff32186
b3f7c3b3bb10cc6a71c837354a580b54346565a1
93289 F20101207_AAAPFZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_24.jp2
e4ed32e8f78d6407124d0feb2d253c78
41c53af913820b49c3ecda3f7c4217b3db229ad3
19020 F20101207_AAAPPU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_38.QC.jpg
871df29e53735e4b2af516d01c34cfde
ffb42ec1b165bc16178ed5d9af9dc4649903939c
53767 F20101207_AAAPKX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_44.pro
ffe0fd8f8cffde38d8a0a5bcb641f2c9
39462d0cef4e1ec1349c660c4a759c621777d9e5
53316 F20101207_AAAOWE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_38.jpg
6d3059f68d6883be44f1be43ea15edcb
be6f58c16d90492a762165de53db51419ddea6d4
8734 F20101207_AAAPPV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_31thm.jpg
e05857a37e46fff226b0c3941ba0442b
469ffed04c13c4d2d1345b0b44e23b43b50d7d4a
53275 F20101207_AAAPKY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_45.pro
453a468e44ea8cfe23dd1e530cfc2fa6
d25c903a8c1fa205bd921280dc608129a250ae23
F20101207_AAAPIA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_14.tif
9272d8fa2e010512a30e4314fd338e8b
d6dd6f9759734c8751f8ca2b84c299dbc2a38936
1571 F20101207_AAAOWF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_51.txt
5c662ffd2e6a0183c8e3ff1de6da8987
5e91296c16053bb8453f1a6a6ac7fec30e71073d
6970 F20101207_AAAPPW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_24thm.jpg
3d72f9687a5add354d135b5555ba5b73
a8e7d9a79f38fcb53389c7973db71ff7e2aebe24
57093 F20101207_AAAPKZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_46.pro
3d24373955dda669843fddfe9f22fd35
e1789032705aea6efb00fb014233b5d422e53bbb
F20101207_AAAPIB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_20.tif
4c4cac613656bd7621174d031f62f221
6bb0b5ce3400f489fbd221247e1da8032ffbcd7c
29596 F20101207_AAAPDD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_01.jpg
94cbd1c48010afcf78380983a1b599b8
b3593103464a218b889acaa6a5b58ba023c7db4a
F20101207_AAAOWG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_25.tif
6159d73f42796b82f43018acc3277a28
113b54f921708495e1e10ac21ad224a2eb234c15
8985 F20101207_AAAPPX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_65.QC.jpg
b14f76dafe83d0b0f732b91845fcf97a
99129a508040292bb9aeba8f1b6c8c7bdab627fe
F20101207_AAAPIC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_22.tif
16fc677939f2686083f9046ed851600f
1a8e8f9ae28de3a8fb8162434ac16604db1f59c2
4851 F20101207_AAAPDE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_02.jpg
03aa6d90e73820a22d04ff0861b1acda
7dc7354344e33233de50a1c68449b78c662debfb
2170 F20101207_AAAOWH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_11.txt
3bfd76aa0aa366315275364683d48e3c
9e5f5471698433367bbe74d2de5582488c75e967
8893 F20101207_AAAPPY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_53thm.jpg
37dd171094c9e789e3e9c453b845d23d
c8f437b8b97e5eb04391163c0ffc79e1304cdd58
2134 F20101207_AAAPNA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_48.txt
e8919d2818af16ce90e11ce1fc1c42ed
c962b044c83849dedf71d41f01049b6384d8d743
F20101207_AAAPID mejiavelasquez_p_Page_26.tif
decbc3907a25c6f95274adf23e2510d6
5a5fbba27438125f8dfc7ba15ffc5cadbcbe1498
5509 F20101207_AAAPDF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_03.jpg
81cea68fa52df237bdc88849dc15eb1b
c2f1b1df805b7f1bf242161a5fb599d83cb4a80d
26897 F20101207_AAAOWI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_01.jp2
b42b8f66dc8e3a96e00fce27c4f78b8e
0f43d28e96185341f61f4861683f539757ef7e94
36362 F20101207_AAAPPZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_55.QC.jpg
7643941814f4a03570a2cc211b9ba8fc
0b588ef7110c832386454ae58082ffd583aca87d
2217 F20101207_AAAPNB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_50.txt
d7338190a4181de0fba460cd738fa633
28843a9807dc84ed604eb6d2e92f8dd394d5a26b
F20101207_AAAPIE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_27.tif
7e2a51a722b5fe5f6346f102a83ad64f
93edaaea9b30da63664c9b53370a57bf368748d6
122555 F20101207_AAAPDG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_05.jpg
63b2a0e3d66069ded68853ec072feb16
d6f479b0512626bb330e645e0a17d18a4dd04342
8423998 F20101207_AAAOWJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_59.tif
73cd118b53bb110e9f78f2c02f142418
db4a4aa7519f0fb0b03f11975d4c95137528b3e6
2663 F20101207_AAAPNC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_53.txt
fa75f41e31d65815570eae2661fd6702
7f69aaa05fcb22d64b7e606c6d48e764b65439bb
101821 F20101207_AAAPDH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_08.jpg
79a5e67efb2dc76488aff648086f9698
4712b910c9c1e3e2d470550c193a8aae4eec037a
F20101207_AAAOWK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_05.tif
35b12ec9119325dab974105064bd30a9
f9dbdc6946fce45ff7ca8e4ccf4ab72e9d3f6bbf
6376 F20101207_AAAPSA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_84thm.jpg
2b043999a251a6bab9d85b51c08b9c9c
63770e0d78273d0f804fae1b7986abec1b14c327
2377 F20101207_AAAPND mejiavelasquez_p_Page_54.txt
57969df8b6f618085e580392e4c79330
5038d959144f1032168e6f1c3a7e47c022ef5c89
F20101207_AAAPIF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_29.tif
1cc3c528927c1fff20d9f923d6ec9145
64593233d523debb690c5dec4fdb31fade99e0bf
69630 F20101207_AAAPDI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_09.jpg
b1dbe4699f2db5a4e6fc1fca0947bac2
afecf60ae191cd07cfd59d56de8888d77f6aaad7
F20101207_AAAOWL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_12.tif
f885a33fcc6460ab6339b16f3e8c8c78
638a5d821d60c8141d1988d555a3fed9d3869e8a
25134 F20101207_AAAPSB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_84.QC.jpg
fe8dc4ae446e6feda96661f4aa74029c
a25cf5b0f3a983473e079862b5e4f454780cded2
2646 F20101207_AAAPNE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_55.txt
e05dfe5711fce34b0d5b0547fdfd145a
19428cf592b1b07fede1cd7c5611deac1d6fe89e
F20101207_AAAPIG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_32.tif
805026491e8167711b16dceedcf8d903
644c530a62971afa39ce337730840b2fbdf32be8
102800 F20101207_AAAPDJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_10.jpg
2311c6c16896d6dbe3e6999b96effc35
68d52cd2c594e12894a44799646efe01406be218
1450 F20101207_AAAOWM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_70.pro
e422ddda6265788621f2c68e4a16eb18
96f0259899d5e3ac482324d18fb095886b0266cf
1984 F20101207_AAAPNF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_57.txt
9ceef8771f0fc22ecadad2f32c7b4092
7da648613eca2d4a9e320921d474a1f40bf1c548
F20101207_AAAPIH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_33.tif
9d065d409a2dbc2b5fa420f875277ace
269adee6df20d7e23886946262f172c00d2c47d1
111170 F20101207_AAAPDK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_11.jpg
f94b87c873eaf498f7e3a0e05ff22c80
e269e0ad0a65688e92fd264f6ea5b52ed9e2e89d
19844 F20101207_AAAOWN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_16.QC.jpg
a6c7db3026134bfc79d78ed3b72a2901
4b23950aac185bbb4fd0e41b719f305ef90758b0
2379 F20101207_AAAPNG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_58.txt
d57a5b100b9c7c9527753befbad6200b
359cc30c91b51e27b0b1153e78d9a8c2b11db098
F20101207_AAAPII mejiavelasquez_p_Page_34.tif
b2c7f315881fc64db3ae1ca7b31ede29
cd86c5aa0fc5805a10151744049620f28d06a5be
106580 F20101207_AAAPDL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_12.jpg
c73640ae8145558660ba3c464e23d033
4c9bc368456d6f98b60a7e072020995b456e54b4
960619 F20101207_AAAOWO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_60.jp2
cb28ade4125d5d1c532306de82a760b5
2bc18ba63a3efd346be5915334dc3330e96b248e
2895 F20101207_AAAPNH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_59.txt
7e011c5e66041f8f114a11e433c636e4
9c2c4151fb41b4ea5f56523a6c6177e8b01e039f
F20101207_AAAPIJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_36.tif
89570c36910cf7e35ee1399ca00d75f2
0031a104f4f7c68f78db340249220ad949e751f1
100052 F20101207_AAAPDM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_13.jpg
792a4b9973aa10d495d9714d4d4752d7
cdcdbf9a7cfb5c8d557b09d47b27bf1bf970ec50
8214 F20101207_AAAOWP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_08thm.jpg
c09eee8f5750e4c915610e3edb2a06bc
e1d799fbede79b9fe627a36cf22a445d1f9d8021
F20101207_AAAPNI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_60.txt
0196246728ded7f5197d415b302f5099
e47a201caf461784be0ed34cfc1b2d8cc3940cc0
F20101207_AAAPIK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_37.tif
b9a30eb8e5eee6f1e4cba8fadee95f76
d7c36353af503baea8bc0ffdaf32af5c5d33c188
110502 F20101207_AAAPDN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_14.jpg
f0808b4259754c077d077ca92d54b398
5b0118e6fc76b4c2c8ca96eea05c0bd09d1a38d3
129572 F20101207_AAAOWQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_80.jpg
00b7f1aee8cc22a1a1663eb359ae0533
5b19dc2f268e56bf4b86864c416e9e500a382e5d
893 F20101207_AAAPNJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_61.txt
dbaff9604aa24d7a6a5746ca01c6a574
1404ee6bbd2693e0061247530b5c20dd7259df2c
F20101207_AAAPIL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_39.tif
94b85085c1f1a10d004bf0627bb933df
b671c71c150a44a84809ab4cebacb0b1a9e50f16
55264 F20101207_AAAPDO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_16.jpg
547a48e5fcd8c443ebf0d368f1d10d16
025f6bd2f62146a2b98a6d4b6e268b1563c4f410
37056 F20101207_AAAOWR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_47.QC.jpg
438151770e82c57a088a022b4c767ceb
5d0c71acb0df84bc039d3bfcfd8a0335e2ee2fee
F20101207_AAAPIM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_40.tif
6258d8d2246fcafae2784c2708e874f8
0accdda82f8b3640a5faaf6d5d5f3a4592ebb3d3
96245 F20101207_AAAPDP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_17.jpg
c2fe97a637639d1a65f3d15bce8c0d0c
59465829e2318f8ad3de67dd4ebbce214cd98b7b
610 F20101207_AAAOWS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_69.txt
7263374d45f187ac8eaeb05ced7d3974
2c435c0bb2d4847864487f93fd46486469073517
46 F20101207_AAAPNK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_62.txt
424ab592b733a2f66abc7e8d59d34cc4
bc171625ba0d258847c0debcd9dc0f97a819bf23
F20101207_AAAPIN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_41.tif
7a05814e5c0ee5e2f8aa7cc2100858c7
de47f58981aad0baddbf5e97144f5a992a8d896b
107849 F20101207_AAAPDQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_18.jpg
8aa8ab2f4134824092a90bf6244a73d3
fa224fa53d67c2001cd83a030228633e2f312b39
F20101207_AAAOWT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_74.jp2
682a1a03f2cfa53d73d5e44675cda015
dc67d0590d33b01e53e036e7baaf56c69a36de88
494 F20101207_AAAPNL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_63.txt
c935004a1138290efc6ecfffa1f15f35
7d6469d9d36c6bfb83ce00b4bc7e48ef6a3337fd
F20101207_AAAPIO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_44.tif
a94ae9f8b52ce985ee13b5b8cf9656b3
d2fcc8f0c905041ce848ceb15e1187ab18a4bde0
92302 F20101207_AAAPDR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_20.jpg
ef014a4c1a5e84a72ae5667f7888f090
208b9ca120c9ba7529aadfe35c3a4354ea9efa7c
53 F20101207_AAAPNM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_64.txt
64e191c4ded4801e4eec8a896306d770
5362ca79a3f601a17d89e823d930c01c170ab6c9
F20101207_AAAPIP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_45.tif
4950ab3ab07234d1c838981a0ef2994b
8dc73f6bbb2dcc6c0c1a65c078bbdcb1afb999e5
94552 F20101207_AAAPDS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_21.jpg
4b6073439e2e310b4470964e4cc77043
cf2b43829dfe865269dca3fbd1b2c4b816bae2a3
7597 F20101207_AAAOWU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_35thm.jpg
56137866c33398ffb5553b0a652669f8
7dd0e5db4c8d2935d0f775fb9e83d1db7cdd38c1
567 F20101207_AAAPNN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_65.txt
e75cf1b5af0388019e559637fa1240be
a69dd0a5a0bdbd1a3adf6bb78c1b4884ff9eedf6
F20101207_AAAPIQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_46.tif
11f02b28b3c05f0f139ae40e0bca919a
8eeb5fa810fb132bb2cdbfa59cbad51de647d604
108545 F20101207_AAAPDT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_22.jpg
ec48b1ee44493a1f0c1d9f9d7d16a38a
4a681fdf545afa5b340dfa5ba6d07b5de3c067b8
F20101207_AAAOWV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_21.tif
676dbbb48953c6b8962018b4729d9b68
9f3bf0045316f84f11efaaaff5ee466e7a460d83
102 F20101207_AAAPNO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_66.txt
0d28ca0dcf4b3f2d2ca4c53540afff83
f2fd967b091d60479b8c1e3e3d54410c7787a709
F20101207_AAAPIR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_47.tif
061b72e3d2e2af76b1780ca93406d9c4
60a02019f8f3b5ab2cdb6ee121f35a6cb8e1ec53
93294 F20101207_AAAPDU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_25.jpg
b708c1563ae18c6080785b3a994fa659
03f3dff83a0c507f6893fcbc997596862f85b940
5567 F20101207_AAAOWW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_41thm.jpg
c3249016bb7d2601dcab505d67da0c28
2f7504e873df8d87c7f5bb0d6e4ee503d92aec7c
833 F20101207_AAAPNP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_67.txt
6731443aedf99297c526aba97316cce6
c4db924434265e0035ead5df84a138d206b4e859
F20101207_AAAPIS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_48.tif
7811174fbc6bf22c206a9670eeb0cd6c
4eb6625792dca83c462fe9dc6a23cc5c357bce54
97264 F20101207_AAAPDV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_26.jpg
521922317768b350067f942382e5fc33
a7552ab3cc06a8398a877ff31a705886eb2f5db3
94 F20101207_AAAOWX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_78.txt
27bfe201f152f40ea017c33046114273
c589810b0032ee743edd1ff0b468305e382e5850
93 F20101207_AAAPNQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_70.txt
5d6e42b5fe96834862f0e69319e809e2
d850c59b47ddaa86722e94e9b58a290f8c1910e9
F20101207_AAAPIT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_50.tif
fa79b7660002ee7079e51e725ffaf832
05b6e06f16358c4f58c474b2d5d2a11064b1e781
106246 F20101207_AAAPDW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_27.jpg
137c3f1fb603c857bb4416a97332c356
265dd533f435c619f15ecf66659cdc8a7be0d3fd
67421 F20101207_AAAOWY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_78.jpg
fde5922acd84b829001a4a6f44536617
3c61c0839275f44ba2aefa8b2c9a2f0e24b9dc90
815 F20101207_AAAPNR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_71.txt
85c887f189eccd53b66bf1c6a240321f
95aeb6cc220d64bb5403437a09aceb8a7f218458
98200 F20101207_AAAPDX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_29.jpg
00340ccea034f7881db290076d65fe84
264767abaadd2f78f9d45dbf6ac652c3c8d1c518
6254 F20101207_AAAOWZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_16.pro
11db767dc5e10ea9cc652bd5103759c9
d546ba768e1ddbb4cdb5c7702837073d626ee78c
F20101207_AAAPIU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_51.tif
80876d75b8ef04b1c85b050e92143bb2
dfc4882cb0f896cc9445b373151cb274b304c7c5
59 F20101207_AAAPNS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_72.txt
1bec52e6d97c278644210d3c4fa08987
9ea95ce00f58c57ff8bfd7bc0f8d37597344a686
106528 F20101207_AAAPDY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_30.jpg
567177f8f8e19fbb751150b943a3d39d
dc80b4ec9dfa40397123f22b1fd3482efd23e945
F20101207_AAAPIV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_53.tif
b5a3f1ac9e6fd1dad55690bf1baba856
22917be6478ca0f32829a43d12a631513bc93d94
805 F20101207_AAAPNT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_73.txt
81ac94700354070783ecccbaba0d506c
a6e355646aae212cb35e16002257d86574497baf
115459 F20101207_AAAPBA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_55.jpg
003db00c0d00cd1b671ffcbf5c5ab0e2
17e138648bfba53a63825afce7f70a53fabb5e03
104400 F20101207_AAAPDZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_32.jpg
7348d00062cd916815c472ed6a6ae22e
6169db9eca0799ea09a024de95c395e8f0171d83
F20101207_AAAPIW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_54.tif
bd8e915b324b21f3536ab55e120328a6
20bddde98133a19049a0a1e399007844d32fd2bc
F20101207_AAAOZA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_28.tif
13c08c775cfb6e91972bb6d3187e08ed
0dda81d9e2574713e7b23f42572f8691a66f2a09
118 F20101207_AAAPNU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_74.txt
a4eebfb13990b7222dd3c1f07ac3b576
962a400887080fdc4ae1f22ca5b3000da437be14
2867 F20101207_AAAPBB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_73thm.jpg
1ea6dc58afa1c5daf55b57b6fa43b947
4551061355f7f86be91842ea5ae087cd55d0c2de
F20101207_AAAPIX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_55.tif
74064d259016ec93a655ed2e4de06b3d
2c5f65ea577add6f1f5c661a3dec186fa83f6dd8
86759 F20101207_AAAOZB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_24.jpg
e908191fed9a568515bfd7f5d2131563
b9d330526e472299ccf8aa3f080581fa579dac85
686 F20101207_AAAPNV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_75.txt
93fc8cab4bf0ebe5c9575ab2bad88b00
0990d358b4badcec8e98cfd855c05a84acb12816
34856 F20101207_AAAPBC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_60.QC.jpg
d082ea7acfe3d905f7074a8684c1146e
b137b28468169454e842ace10922785d0d1bc69f
1051976 F20101207_AAAPGA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_25.jp2
77e7ecd84f0f7b5c755cccbe09dc433d
21814cf5888b90cec350f3e0624e036c59cf0efd
F20101207_AAAPIY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_56.tif
02d89508ff7057eb7b6eceb9ac468161
d4bb99499697680967153a2f7a3ceae3b450713a
32522 F20101207_AAAOZC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_29.QC.jpg
610ddbb200bc3921904d8bbd831753b6
2e8bc180ee74601ad92f40bc431d0d3e914baf4b
2388 F20101207_AAAPNW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_79.txt
86ecaaeb9322d673317d4ada95d7c687
bb75049bf710ded53a770903c5c5b9ddbc273197
14465 F20101207_AAAPBD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_65.pro
ba7735bcc71a74b09b2a935841b02245
85fbccc5d6df5ed375871b3ceaba23f240f4cf89
103838 F20101207_AAAPGB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_26.jp2
3fd9da3645c05e5bf13f40d1bff9783b
5f8ecd04a108185b3d5975a94bab580b3b399d65
F20101207_AAAPIZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_57.tif
497c8aa8de4fdd2b7df3c22345ba0375
6c207b87b8f3455e7b27b1d1d9eb66e1bc7f8475
10150 F20101207_AAAOZD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_75.QC.jpg
fabe75b6629f50cf0e815f7855e6c2d0
24af6b23d6dac797e0761fb079d07ed12fe17a4a
2496 F20101207_AAAPNX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_81.txt
55cc886d9062c223ef4686761367d01e
bd99167e3740a328afbcb10e5382e81e8ca26ed5
F20101207_AAAPBE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_35.tif
ccecb6eed1784b785c7fc598bb51d8a0
dde655df31bc533e7dcd3b1775f0c31121a9ff27
114310 F20101207_AAAPGC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_27.jp2
1a7218c6099d5041aee72ce231b277c5
356b5648b51426d3bdecbdab50249e20c6e5180b
F20101207_AAAOZE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_02.tif
66d9fe1268cd2b1c45cd84f774fa4b1f
b9e676ee7de1c722551277ec16ca9f1125bbb888
1725 F20101207_AAAPNY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_84.txt
89363276154c2fdb2a8dc7f99715569c
b0fd9e247a5678d603dbe41cc7806d0ff0e0be8a
53140 F20101207_AAAPLA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_48.pro
9d01b5d1798fa6403b7441ab77da7c5a
9c4b52df05f6dceb06bdbb3d200294285a9d8dc4
115132 F20101207_AAAPBF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_22.jp2
175954f72ee006064338ca1e18570a56
b74a5ed51464692a68210cdb36767c4c0b628500
1051915 F20101207_AAAOZF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_57.jp2
1c1f758313a93f27a3c27afecab84da1
bec40f9ff863c5cf7e4de5a85a57e26fcd8e05f2
1158 F20101207_AAAPNZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_85.txt
59e67a723c0622f6aa3fe9416b3d50b2
ade1287e39f004fa4c9c721e5e09b365668d1551
51872 F20101207_AAAPLB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_49.pro
0aaa3d2786c381e7f4fceca5f7727c78
3448c9aa567da8f3131427e10762b92f3d82e93f
29988 F20101207_AAAPBG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_25.QC.jpg
6c9446639745e283a2364b7ecdc37963
16efe109b5217729ba4a37739e84a87b32694d9e
1051961 F20101207_AAAPGD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_29.jp2
a68eafbceb360f84393a771f4369a59d
aa102482a22beed37d9a977dc351993097595114
2145 F20101207_AAAOZG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_23.txt
bb5cb0756d5156a67106db284a34e5e5
b0f02880fcb838b046a5469c7eb8f9a02b1aa8b8
47187 F20101207_AAAPLC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_53.pro
8ba1541d77344e9d06577391aad0e96f
86b911ad49b0f1fa227a0af8affed5a45759a718
74443 F20101207_AAAPGE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_33.jp2
3055702082c2edfe3f4728b01caa6a0c
342852e16816491d254c0e19b03a82dfcb6a1a7f
8908 F20101207_AAAOZH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_79thm.jpg
2dfdf7516bba1725e34ae36e0a7b8026
0dbac7811710a5b4cada3d04e69943682d074bae
11046 F20101207_AAAPBH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_76thm.jpg
51550b3c25b5b3b713df879f971c83f0
be27cdb2bc63de49c5db5c9ddf113770df23c568
20506 F20101207_AAAPQA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_37.QC.jpg
e8f8836603e7a05ed9765a32d88d923f
13e78162c6fb1e75dc2f271b190d82244acdefa4
38303 F20101207_AAAPLD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_56.pro
5acdb97b92333e49f1d9a816914e3bb6
6c39d7fa0ab91cbcfe360d6f4ba43508c4926836
1001895 F20101207_AAAPGF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_34.jp2
c5bb7205624011c3d7deee3312f71ff4
d52733e76c864da8d28772efaa534c654d533bff
F20101207_AAAOZI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_06.tif
d0caa48eefc1e53a120d7ff19f46c0bf
e466b652fcedd00e85a18267c4a8674b3b4d1a02
1051910 F20101207_AAAPBI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_62.jp2
5415228a2ad515c0df12a45d13226ddf
1e4bf5608c45267169ca30dae63db790f1fd2fd6
8556 F20101207_AAAPQB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_18thm.jpg
d4f799da9e054a9592ed75f3a94b07d0
aacd007982fa2fe0dd9ac64a7ebf079dbcb826a0
37357 F20101207_AAAPLE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_57.pro
6466940b94231b01afcdadb90d1b56d2
9935943840b4df50a5ab1d29899d82ebd49221c2
963548 F20101207_AAAPGG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_35.jp2
feb809c0d678294f945ed5520a4c97bc
d450a4b45a5b108c9295d6fa2b19c212b9e5a0df
33453 F20101207_AAAOZJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_31.QC.jpg
41001dc1217a034d8b8d8755cd11bfc6
260a73d841146b17af9f4b13cd9a831c6a350166
F20101207_AAAPBJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_38.tif
f797f017b78214c7e1b06fcd7872da5e
db196d3dc49610f6d7fed6759dcc3d69fffb87c6
35018 F20101207_AAAPQC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_19.QC.jpg
63943c2398637f7e7bc2eefbc2181fe1
2dc29477e9cadc8ca59d54edecb97c429c112039
41168 F20101207_AAAPLF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_58.pro
5737188308f8f4c8b43bdaf208ce7d47
c1a7af8cbfe247f732f150db13269b805e7dfd36
1051865 F20101207_AAAPGH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_37.jp2
5a3b61f681bd6341f260809d5f4605ca
ba9a4d59246a32169749abbe83bb4dde31dd5029
111578 F20101207_AAAOZK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_30.jp2
a3f900c063670d2a630c72dfd7e05960
9a0635189f13a59cfc6771bbff54a52558e2148e
104 F20101207_AAAPBK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_68.txt
ffb6d196fc5958b415c4b36f6849b825
33eb9703a921c686e6d081086752b4de259f6d08
1335 F20101207_AAAPQD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_02.QC.jpg
5823e61a45c5991eb6974b25ac89cf18
5f1ba20808ca8102f46953d1e82a926f86833543
49177 F20101207_AAAPLG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_60.pro
e1d58e6789f793c802dcb0bc277f9a9f
a42069fc8fe55684bd702859910faf695ecf8c8a
486199 F20101207_AAAPGI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_38.jp2
5913f26efc06d4e9d7e79bdface52ea1
c899864ffd8a60928f12e36fa1ae1bdf4efb52c2
F20101207_AAAOZL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_42.tif
8eb670ee35e3531ebd43c04765d38d28
8b65fb3b0180e387461f70b09de70b543c145384
1940 F20101207_AAAPBL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_17.txt
1372995704ff61a3783a3dbccca05adc
18669bca34f9e6315a97108c9626f94830d58be5
133172 F20101207_AAAPQE UFE0020720_00001.xml
f07e142bc995a1be0d0b96acd2ced197
f9915aa99acbe618d16e97e3799aab06b6de71dc
20419 F20101207_AAAPLH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_61.pro
066250c7d9e3c59e5e3a955d6462a0f9
a6fab5f1bb6bba186d9342105d97df8fc0a0f22f
528139 F20101207_AAAPGJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_39.jp2
4dfa262d9d4eaf2bf2793158104ebf60
9d6d8ef543ede1bc4d334302ecb9cafe1bbd0d11
120870 F20101207_AAAOZM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_81.jpg
8c707cbf866e3180bc38df071675133a
abb0c01742df3a0df5aee5b0e7152b2d80d3204f
9217 F20101207_AAAPBM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_50thm.jpg
4f3a7834542224b3c12f76a03bf96785
2f5a7a666af2f86d2ec99bfbbebee130ac750492
9147 F20101207_AAAPQF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_01.QC.jpg
63f6e9a4b41466b6675acfb5686a933c
ce758920b80f2ad22f0dec02485cedfcb09f5381
480105 F20101207_AAAPGK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_40.jp2
cd7298ec3245039deff2f17962e562ea
900b212ba3424d6c812bb12bf2100b2dd3f3b34a
48551 F20101207_AAAOZN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_08.pro
54af481e3ef347396c59ebf0517f83a7
377cb7868d0ecd548939776fe487441145f00ebb
88002 F20101207_AAAPBN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_05.pro
c2c7bdffc713e0db99a9a370fcdcb26f
38aea2fb916127de62a59609bf2d8a97c5234349
F20101207_AAAPQG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_02thm.jpg
22f719baae860dda53496240c0dc26d6
8a465b7c9ff85d561aceffc84593ea5b35a7e97c
969 F20101207_AAAPLI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_62.pro
15deb1392f9751b86cbbb999135d6a75
20844ea8f57ecab6132920d4386355f69aba72da
564090 F20101207_AAAPGL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_41.jp2
8a50cac0bd2195189eba5a5f0743468c
d388768fc2c28742e0db98fff7345d47bd92d2cf
F20101207_AAAOZO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_15.tif
061b326a3f97d57ca042caa924a8396c
0c82c03e746e9956a484fce1f6d339f1a1049af0
19930 F20101207_AAAPBO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_25.pro
4eb0755e3b003cbfac4551a0f21eb62d
ed654c3653bd8751c75f16e120bff140533e03a5
20289 F20101207_AAAPQH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_04.QC.jpg
ed97bb802c56fe8d72184ed931c85f41
a8b345929a31fcbd46bb1972469e3812555a882f
1079 F20101207_AAAPLJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_64.pro
b588c1350aa3ef02c6ff76f3f59fd6f3
bd9ebd6c77a892f09270699abbd11163c2a74e72
1051959 F20101207_AAAPGM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_42.jp2
8d3c20affbb450f7aab3a0273b892876
9c9952037a6fbc78af0cc0e5cdc6741dbc431365
84760 F20101207_AAAOZP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_70.jpg
165faadb00fd3e131a4a3a54ab47e4a5
e0738dff89b5d82545f30733408615bddacc4a4a
F20101207_AAAPBP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_52.tif
760966243e8885eb9c09b0878f1a5405
7090c5d74f4cccff21b1a8a5f4b5d3441187ceb2
1143 F20101207_AAAPQI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_06thm.jpg
611b7ce272268bcb042a0a41eb8bcf7d
66ed3c7179879c67802d4394cbe873b54cb30bdb
1173 F20101207_AAAPLK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_68.pro
860146f48dab818265c51d57f816f651
f51efce384babac811f4a481e8b4c502de7478c8
115828 F20101207_AAAPGN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_43.jp2
207204f54a5fa70360e3792ceb9629f2
3fc8e6a43af59cfd2b1adc36b51d0bb58f3ab854
F20101207_AAAOZQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_74.tif
1ef77bec617f38d2a70722fc2647faf4
72e5105e6b6bc64a56af24f4ad0fcfd1c164c744
2267 F20101207_AAAPBQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_56.txt
00f4d6569175e9c1936ad539d096eea7
d08263f5fccacc4b4cc0150a91d5897b55ad8de4
9289 F20101207_AAAPQJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_07thm.jpg
ea119834394d26755e49f3e533e76fb4
42ad0cce04defa170f3bf9fdf3c68277ef0a42f1
15562 F20101207_AAAPLL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_69.pro
57a799936349df9771935f5bc28ae07c
273b3ab9051269c2ac2cc42041656e4279153fbd
116159 F20101207_AAAPGO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_44.jp2
0b09c71aa1c735e04f8618076915304c
b0addd324b26304448aac4d6eb6ed4afeeb973ad
3071 F20101207_AAAOZR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_07.txt
a61f9948db2e4f8f1cfe827b7e85db9e
a00567cb2ee9e96a2e74f42e59e7ca5ef4d8151d
F20101207_AAAPBR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_64.tif
ab2f48ccdbeeec5b12ea0fe76c3fe2aa
faeed1470225af859d4fbdd86d9718f465a35161
5583 F20101207_AAAPQK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_09thm.jpg
8018c694b67e7dcb90e6e6c6430178dc
f5fece70879b1b20fb8946e8fe7ac660e6ae0ba4
1131 F20101207_AAAPLM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_72.pro
72db2fac048cf10560d142801e2ad276
72fd77a4d03ac9c86193d5119d2f0c936233e1f8
116324 F20101207_AAAPGP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_45.jp2
5b2477aeb9c5a772d6bec40ee27c6e7a
0c0433a32d361e847e6bebc38f6edc64a346a0f6
2373 F20101207_AAAOZS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_82.txt
13dc049300e959e0b34fc95e37041f13
76476330e486b7820dab79eb5a7a937a0b69231b
10714 F20101207_AAAPBS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_40.pro
944aa1957d103074ffd7ee6b23d49894
36363bc2af111f6a25d0c91ee45801f0deb3d09a
32502 F20101207_AAAPQL mejiavelasquez_p_Page_10.QC.jpg
7dc1f73a7a5770cf7d877af6545bfc4a
4f37e06d4c434d0f250b9d39865010e45dc1994a
17516 F20101207_AAAPLN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_75.pro
45af4747cec1fea7b0192352a3ebe438
ba277b24072fa704fabc541aab0ec875d45ff1b7
122190 F20101207_AAAPGQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_46.jp2
6ffe2c9d30aa2761b98474df2e9bf525
11dbd481879506fd4119b52ab856d498e380a82b
1968 F20101207_AAAOZT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_13.txt
88a9355b0d549f5fcac460332384e45f
529d248e9b42c2978fd22c6dc48a40887963c40b
111748 F20101207_AAAPBT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_23.jpg
5b6e478665bbb2bb85cdb112b73700b2
e1972e96f8c2cae125bca8cd312ceee174bb9470
F20101207_AAAPQM mejiavelasquez_p_Page_11thm.jpg
40848e047cef8c74dca911017d762baa
94019017e61155b3ce0e53b88debe8700e429934
682 F20101207_AAAPLO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_78.pro
cb2052b9959ead1b64eca4dedbc573fb
f6d15c7fb1bf7a8d643bd1c497ce8ff05eb6c0a2
115599 F20101207_AAAPGR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_48.jp2
e6256afa84567e5eead88c9568cb2c3d
1cb55bf76e21c13f5f6a5f61a3cb9c9544702625
11472 F20101207_AAAOZU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_72thm.jpg
d0af2788ca9f1ed42f2dd9ebcb36aff1
fab3dfaf99adcb432af5f5cbcbc784c610c03e5c
122385 F20101207_AAAPBU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_47.jp2
b94143fe2742d82cd63d88084ccf5ee5
5f0d273269c8b4a018adb17eba4f6eda798c7199
58330 F20101207_AAAPLP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_79.pro
2b1133353faa3655a3e4bf0706a7c218
7a39c40e343520a7987c52beb1c6e377bb269f5b
112776 F20101207_AAAPGS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_49.jp2
d3bfe2c523776ca80fb0e936e6e622d8
f15726f018e5fb898726efbe0a247b21e09cbf84
F20101207_AAAOZV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_49.txt
e016abf1823a4f50e321f37b1dc3871b
d6cccde06eee968a012230dd0af1d5857379b416
9002 F20101207_AAAPBV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_23thm.jpg
c168ca790b8d6ce540270abd62efba43
89e34c46580efe55ff35caae3c62c5c22038cb11
35875 F20101207_AAAPQN mejiavelasquez_p_Page_11.QC.jpg
6bb95730b69f80c0674e529f6f3be38a
ccf59872f707df999cbc9539259036b96a150a08
65675 F20101207_AAAPLQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_80.pro
76a165d69fd9af8fa7ad17a880556e31
6a1f383b0df3238676af4993c22a3296b7e5ccec
120357 F20101207_AAAPGT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_50.jp2
19728acbf47730992dbe943fcd30e40d
5abc0713e7ccbb72c3e6eccd50a14e4dc75ba352
25034 F20101207_AAAOZW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_34.QC.jpg
7168c0de92a39d2a50bb0eabde50ac4d
c36de7e3e8c04c5f94db5c06050cb18b7c7c2e47
F20101207_AAAPBW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_66.tif
44bedf1eec278f689a39df8ff9d6fae7
2e374e6f8d7b8d6734f5851d6262dd36fe457fdf
8572 F20101207_AAAPQO mejiavelasquez_p_Page_12thm.jpg
e5abc66ef2ed7791ae412f91b0de7a1f
dd20725e8c51bf8facbe4f78cb1af8519f94471d
60803 F20101207_AAAPLR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_81.pro
e06d899c09c56c9d5a82e45bea84b2d8
84643318fd3919598d71b210cf720e9f1fc6d3d1
87221 F20101207_AAAPGU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_51.jp2
6c227cbdf3d39ae74067af352382d7ae
d1e881e017f99179c1053f8a69090aedf52d4ef8
2692 F20101207_AAAPBX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_52.txt
3a81ad559143593344170ff67ecb171f
0788727a6ea58796538cb9836a87e59664e371c0
34347 F20101207_AAAPQP mejiavelasquez_p_Page_12.QC.jpg
f07fc431ff38d8e543cd0accde7ea3f6
6052b3b47b1e70eebed0a37a96dc308d6709f04b
57750 F20101207_AAAPLS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_82.pro
0a9a1937aee4b62fef679a074e4dfc7a
47190decb2c0594163a4091f129b5c47b6a0ae76
994314 F20101207_AAAPGV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_52.jp2
e24d0639e687217c890a5dca2f192c71
ffaa8372c070105a2573b47f535ae99074d76bae
F20101207_AAAOZX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_30.tif
cb27fcd70a13c80238677dfb298d7984
211b15eff8f69c44264c3beb909e4d0b9c2e850b
2211 F20101207_AAAPBY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_28.txt
2f3c8282d53a57f4466dcb288541ba4d
52dab96df5454ed83ae525c7c2db9a866298643b
6018 F20101207_AAAPQQ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_15thm.jpg
6139c0141d2f1d23f39bfc9755ff3f84
971c9d0cd1c06ecf5c9327f5f5e12752650cb9e6
58687 F20101207_AAAPLT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_83.pro
681da98a4fc7ae8273ea11253b4ffd79
d3c6d3e4543cf2cefadd730019613c1faac34b4c
1012555 F20101207_AAAPGW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_53.jp2
231d127a1000653d8dd5adab78f217fe
fca93378d7d23b0f55673671d62830f6b3fbcaaa
20532 F20101207_AAAOXA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_73.pro
c9e0bb6f794d995f0a1fee07a0c46ff7
ab6366d64cec5def297c86b9a53fad4984e06014
8179 F20101207_AAAOZY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_60thm.jpg
fbf2483fd101bc422ccea61d7e849ecf
ec334f963507f9a35078b7c8000b66699f09c9ed
1016 F20101207_AAAPBZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_74.pro
ce14fb09066493203496b7048fb1a9ec
1afcb34e7115e5aa2fbd35283a0ad801e077da77
8523 F20101207_AAAPQR mejiavelasquez_p_Page_19thm.jpg
08b4eb7cf1e24978759f669de09fe8d0
124259ac501bcad7f3360824da80e1d1276833f5
27957 F20101207_AAAPLU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_85.pro
2b8c62b724f213d7543fcf09bdd29c90
99d7bbb9a2030a6e7f812f2b06507eafa594cc0a
966715 F20101207_AAAPGX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_54.jp2
4d27b10dc99e65441ffe93a77e502649
d5b4edee8290a83d100add3c10f1fb781a405854
31746 F20101207_AAAOXB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_17.QC.jpg
43906d26f5a6c9f2610b4906a06a26eb
1403b4672fba8c6ffe66e4d7fc1bb7691a3ad70e
2386 F20101207_AAAOZZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_83.txt
7782a1d50e01ab14ca01ceb399932187
84dceaed3ece0492e9bcef7eb5358266048684b5
7988 F20101207_AAAPQS mejiavelasquez_p_Page_20thm.jpg
8c0889215edf6857c0be6d8b56bc8a58
13aca38dbf38746a76f1b83c4ad08322285bd66d
507 F20101207_AAAPLV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_01.txt
f765a0429d8bdd9d39c6a99c4b36abbb
32690170b8498d07792a5d605b09ef1ecda2e3c6
69538 F20101207_AAAPEA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_33.jpg
41b0928b613a82a80a43f8b70d237abc
6379598d76bcab4756745839ca03be677faa638f
980469 F20101207_AAAPGY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_55.jp2
0781615137c2d8e38f85d9ad43c2ca42
fd50a2fb755d8ed85f992ded3f01eebd75cddf05
F20101207_AAAOXC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_43.tif
9e698e39771641442e9416f3e353dc4b
d46e30e38a36ae65eea462a3bed3aa09082b4b18
36584 F20101207_AAAPQT mejiavelasquez_p_Page_23.QC.jpg
2c83ea386a3ed1647be96d15fee5aa0b
dcc1e882db9ae031c7c965c07334ed8b47b6ce78
103 F20101207_AAAPLW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_02.txt
ecc48dab13a6356426b143251add2648
3d81002dde618a556c7421f0aada89b3e4389510
1009909 F20101207_AAAPGZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_56.jp2
591388e1c9785b8c038b3dbbcdc1731d
1920cf0f6490a93b212aed4c71e86b58d68d7013
49000 F20101207_AAAOXD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_52.pro
2aea852d9c98661b08dd65274cf4936c
ed522992ad50a60c6f95ad8a92a03ec6581b0cfc
8005 F20101207_AAAPQU mejiavelasquez_p_Page_26thm.jpg
7f02321e16ad555112b311419308abab
37616838487b979352a26f9d926d6d20a0fb1412
110 F20101207_AAAPLX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_03.txt
f18dc7c283f297f1c99e8e5b0638e2ac
36d7e28ef6951a48e9e9aae8ff0d06b12ee4972d
72846 F20101207_AAAPEB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_34.jpg
c41755adf6a5887785787bde930f4dbc
056fb01addfc9a5973688d152edbc45646ffb211
75924 F20101207_AAAOXE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_15.jpg
ad7f51b648a8be7d59ceff9a0f6ea642
6721f7e73042e14b84a6a0269eaca45b2594fa49
8695 F20101207_AAAPQV mejiavelasquez_p_Page_27thm.jpg
4b36f5bc97e7c85515f2bb76c13c748d
5338ea243bcb827f1a195652663c5fa0c2c0cdf8
1174 F20101207_AAAPLY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_04.txt
df1e6580f8a561ccacc245bf8c273a63
3fbac89e104f6aa49792b16843de03aac4544af2
69932 F20101207_AAAPEC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_35.jpg
b7268def4e610d625f2c34f1b35691ad
cb53213df9256235e7ff01efce5f0d9fed0f5d65
11984 F20101207_AAAOXF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_67.QC.jpg
525235f03311794b77c3aa3d00fce897
03948296555f852c877fbd234c8c3d9e5b472974
F20101207_AAAPJA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_58.tif
7369b5fd85e2282397874fcf6bc2f3ef
55870775623c47b565e9200210b37fb5d63b6f44
8066 F20101207_AAAPQW mejiavelasquez_p_Page_29thm.jpg
8fff7936e1bd0f8362c7b1e87407984e
96274a5c26b4909f53ab8e73ee0ce4bbb0b741f0
3636 F20101207_AAAPLZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_05.txt
4578092fa8484ba00529558efabfe528
93b441d4ecb525e079f93b247a3c59d94ce8d7a7
8928 F20101207_AAAOXG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_22thm.jpg
399cf20a40db6dbaf242371c897a757e
b73434c35757c350a3b515fa99f24d19d290e3db
F20101207_AAAPJB mejiavelasquez_p_Page_60.tif
053e4311c75dcb9fee39ff97222ad515
10aadcf6f1e7679ec35a38c556710f87d1f58fad
62360 F20101207_AAAPED mejiavelasquez_p_Page_36.jpg
747edaccefdc7e6393700405afdd70db
a41413da543452980dd8e9b87842f56914090d88
8830 F20101207_AAAPQX mejiavelasquez_p_Page_30thm.jpg
7f19b87a6d673a85652603270a1a0d04
08155c0440c9c407603ebe3a84734cc4a99795c6
F20101207_AAAOXH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_68.tif
0b653464a0bc83e2d03e79d60fe9275b
ef89195942c1bcb50aa32f7dce92e724d8f9a6fa
F20101207_AAAPJC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_61.tif
8c16f1019e13ec61c1d5590d9c019729
133f7f0ab5013cdfff812855e00aed6bc8e7d338
49646 F20101207_AAAPEE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_39.jpg
630be475516811d513029b759161d200
4c1789e4b3a2790ddec63fad8fdd5289134ddcad
8495 F20101207_AAAPQY mejiavelasquez_p_Page_32thm.jpg
8c3385a7475af8d8992b41123b3d96fc
b3144b9f7ff5ebad8113215326acaf6768784d2c
2098 F20101207_AAAPOA mejiavelasquez_p_Page_01thm.jpg
ffbadd17fa6e96de4d7ae005c708aa27
2494279a508d5228ec008f081849632545effbf9
47572 F20101207_AAAOXI mejiavelasquez_p_Page_42.pro
be128876efa2e87f4850446186feb375
2e972f9af7f6d0e426ced0921028f8f0fc64d7fc
F20101207_AAAPJD mejiavelasquez_p_Page_62.tif
0589d478578f2442f4401bfe0b05146b
0b7b02bc83f1631e2223b915f36b570d29987158
47061 F20101207_AAAPEF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_40.jpg
46d82a6a7e9998885aa280187f69eb70
c23d78036425f454bbaa4cddebe6ffdf1622cc4a
34555 F20101207_AAAPQZ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_32.QC.jpg
2dd444ebe77ee630fed9e15f7c36c694
81ca10c6fecd703ffe66a58685a1a0b0e0f70e1b
2126108 F20101207_AAAPOB mejiavelasquez_p.pdf
86f76bb5814d0cb925536736910e54cc
3d88cb4df1ba1d5043953a2e997f402b05390bf9
1426 F20101207_AAAOXJ mejiavelasquez_p_Page_15.txt
18636b0d318faff19986db5223c6781b
07e68708e35e6eeba05ec6f22eceb3d6a473f897
F20101207_AAAPJE mejiavelasquez_p_Page_63.tif
facba3d59a658b799309e04810fe8e25
35a3bc6c8e5571ec4d633dac52205c782c24bd17
52771 F20101207_AAAPEG mejiavelasquez_p_Page_41.jpg
da1df89d339d0362a6a65ca8a8adc61b
b637d975af75aa3509de00dd1ac8ea586e169230
1395 F20101207_AAAPOC mejiavelasquez_p_Page_77thm.jpg
ddc0ba5c74be54d407f26d809c5408e2
588f68b6d6d33479408b63bdd2300397c68a2e66
108321 F20101207_AAAOXK mejiavelasquez_p_Page_43.jpg
c63264e5f043b9c8cddb4425330bfec4
368c74b2e2dbfcdfaf6070cd4bd69949119759f3
F20101207_AAAPJF mejiavelasquez_p_Page_67.tif
6f47630f746c4e130f8f6620861b1cb3
c85dba44d23845a708d97b70ab2f14d6db9bff09
108983 F20101207_AAAPEH mejiavelasquez_p_Page_44.jpg
5b5edf932fea293c7b4af9925000f5b0
ccd665787c48a2bd2dfb6a38b24a37d5b7e038f7



PAGE 1

FLORAL COMPOSITION OF A LOWER CRETACEOUS PALEOTROPICAL ECOSYSTEM INFERRED FROM QUANTITATIVE PALYNOLOGY By PAULA JENIFER MEJIA VELASQUEZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007 1

PAGE 2

2007 Paula Jenifer Mejia Velasquez 2

PAGE 3

To my Mom, my Daddy, Kata, Jeisson and Lucas. 3

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisor and committee chair Dr. David Dilcher for general advice in my research, review of my chapters, patience with all my que stions, support of all my ideas, and in general, everything. I would like to thank my committee members for their useful feedback and comments, the Smithsonian Institute for supporti ng my internship in Panama, which was an important step in the analyses of my samples, to the Colombian Institute of Petroleum and Petrobras for allowing the sampling of the cores for this study and the Evolving Earth Foundation for the funding they gave for this study. I also would like to thank my fiance, Lucas, who helped review the text, but most important, who gave me very good ideas through disc ussion, helped me with the statistics, gave me anti-stress treatment with his enthusiasm, and gave all the love and support I needed. Finally I want to thank my family in Colombia my mother for all her love and support, to my daddy for all his love, to my sister Kata and my brother Jeisson for their support. 4

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .10 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS...........................................................................................17 Sampling.................................................................................................................................17 Laboratory Procedures.......................................................................................................... ..18 Analyses..................................................................................................................................19 Statistical Methods............................................................................................................ ......20 Rarefaction......................................................................................................................20 Distribution and Variance Test........................................................................................20 Abundance.......................................................................................................................21 Species Richness.............................................................................................................21 Cluster Analysis: Grouping Samples with Similar Composition....................................22 Relationship between Species Distribution and Lithology.............................................22 Comparison between Paleotropical and North American Samples.................................23 3 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........26 Abundance..............................................................................................................................26 Species Richness.....................................................................................................................27 Hierarchical Cluster Analyses: Sample Associations......................................................29 Multi-response Permutation Procedur e (MRPP): Species Distribution and Lithology Relationship.................................................................................................30 Comparison of Abundance and Number of Species between the Paleotropical Site Studied with Middle and High Paleol atitude Sites of North America................................31 Relative Abundance.........................................................................................................31 Species Richness.............................................................................................................32 4 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................... ......42 Floral Composition of the Tropical Site Analyzed.................................................................42 Differences in Floristic Composition between the Paleotropical Site Analyzed and Paleotemperate Latitudes....................................................................................................48 APPENDIX A SPECIES COUNTS PER SAMPLE......................................................................................52 B PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES.................................................................................................61 5

PAGE 6

LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................79 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................85 6

PAGE 7

LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. Upper Magdalena Valley (UVM) in Colo mbia showing the geographical location of Los Mangos field..................................................................................................................16 2-1. Lithological column of Los Mangos 31 core and sample locations.....................................25 3-1. Absolute abundance of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores represented as the total number of i ndividuals found in each one of the samples (all samples rarefied to 200 counts)........................................................................................................ ..34 3-2. Absolute richness of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores represented as the total number of species found in each one of the samples (all samples rarefied to 200 counts)............................................................................................................................35 3-3. Dendrogram showing the different litholog ical associations ba sed upon their species composition for the analyzed core........................................................................................36 3-4. Dendrogram showing the different associations of depositional environments based upon their species associations for the analyzed core...........................................................37 3-5. Relative abundances of palynomorphs f ound in each kind of lithology. The number in parenthesis indicates th e number of samples........................................................................38 3-6. Relative species richness of palynomorphs found in each lithology. The number in parenthesis indicates th e number of samples........................................................................38 3-7. Comparison of the relative abundances of angiosperm pollen for the Aptian-Albian interval between low (site studie d), mid and high paleolatitudes.........................................39 3-8. Comparison of the relative abundances of gymnosperm pollen for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes...............................................................39 3-9. Comparison of the relative abundance of s pores for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes..........................................................................................40 3-10. Comparison of the relative species richne ss of angiosperms for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes...............................................................40 3-11. Comparison of the relative species richne ss of gymnosperms for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes...............................................................41 3-12. Comparison of the relative species richness of spores for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes............................................................................41 7

PAGE 8

Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science FLORAL COMPOSITION OF A LOWER CRETACEOUS PALEOTROPICAL ECOSYSTEM INFERRED FROM QUANTITATIVE PALYNOLOGY By Paula Jenifer Mejia Velasquez May 2007 Chair: David Dilcher Major: Botany Angiosperms are the most important floral com ponents of modern ecosystems. It has been hypothesized that angiosperms orig inated in low paleolatitudes during the Lower Cretaceous, but the fossil record of low latitude areas is mainly composed of qualitative data, making it difficult to make an accurate floral reconstruction of tropical ecosystems of that age. The main objective of this study was to reconstruc t the floral composition of a lo w paleolatitude ecosystem (Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia) in the Lower Cret aceous through quantitative analyses of palynological samples. The results show that angiosperms were a minor component of the ecosystem, with medians of 5 individuals and 4 species in the core, followed by gymnosperms with an average per sample of 65 individuals and 7 species, and finally by spores, which were the dominant component of the low latitude ecosy stem analyzed, with averages per sample of 122 individuals and 21 species. These results differ from the composition of an eastern paleotropical site, where gym nosperms were the dominant co mponent followed by angiosperms and spores. These floristic di fferences may reflect different environmental conditions between east and west South America during the Aptian-Al bian interval. Differences in abundance and species richness were found betw een the lower and upper portion of the core analyzed. Higher angiosperm richness and abundance found in the upper portion of the core are evidence that 8

PAGE 9

angiosperm diversification took place during th e Albian. Concurrent with the angiosperm increase, there was an increase the number of spore species indicating that they were also diversifying during this age. Fu rthermore, a comparison between the paleotropical site studied and published literature from middle and high paleolatitudes shows that paleo tropical angiosperm abundance and species richness were sim ilar to that of mid pa leolatitudes, but higher in comparison to high latitudes for this age. Th ese results partially support the hypothesis that angiosperms originated in low latitude areas and later radiated to middle and higher latitudes, in the sense that they were more abundant and dive rse in low latitudes than in high latitudes. However, although a gradient in angiosperm richness and abundance was observed from the tropics to high latitudes, diffe rences between low and mid pa leo latitudes failed to meet statistical significance. With th ese results it is not possible to determine whether angiosperms originated in low latitudes and radiated to mid latitudes or vice versa. Future analyses of multiple paleotropical sites will help determine if the patterns observed in this study are consistent throughout paleotropical ecosystems of Lower Cretaceous age. 9

PAGE 10

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Angiosperms are the dominant floristic component of most modern terrestrial ecosystems (Burnham and Johnson 2004, Friis et al. 1987, Friis et al. 2006, Lupia et al. 1999, Wing and Boucher 1998). Because of their crucial role in present ecosystems, angiosperm radiation is considered one of the most signif icant evolutionary events in the history of the planet (Lidgard and Crane 1990). Angiosperms originated during the Lower Cretaceous (approx. 135My; Sun and Dilcher 2002) and subsequent ly radiated and expanded to become the dominant group of plants in almost every terrest rial ecosystem by the Upper Cretaceous (Crane and Lidgard 1990). The earliest palynological records that contains definitive angiosperm pollen come from different geographic sites, which range from tropical pa leolatitudes in Israel (Brenner 1996) to high paleolatitudes in China (Sun and Dilcher 2002). It is widely believed that angiosperms appeared first in tropical areas (Brenner 1976, Crane 1987, Crane and Lidgard 1989, Friis et al. 1987, Lupia 1999, Lupia et al. 2000, Retallack and Dilcher 1981, Taylor and Hickey 1996, Wing and Boucher 1998) and then radiated to higher paleolatitudes (Axelrod 1959, Cran e and Lidgard 1989). If this hypothesis is true, then it is expected that during the initial stage of angiosperm radiation the abundance and species richness of angiosperms would be higher in tropical areas than in higher paleolatitudes. Unfortunately, there is a lack of quantitative data needed to reconstruct accurately the composition of the flora from tropical Lower Cretaceous ecosystems. Quantit ative data are crucial to determine potential differences between the floral composition of tropical areas and high an d middle paleolatitudes at that time. Also, the use of quantitative data analyses, such as multivariate techniques, allows 10

PAGE 11

summarization of large datasets and determination of the patterns present in them in a simple graphical manner (Kovach 1993). Species richness and abundance are the two main quantitative measures that characterize the floral composition of an ecosyst em. Species richness is simply the number of species present and abundance is the number of individuals per species (Magurran 2003). It is often difficult to estimate these variables accurately from the fossil record (palynomorphs) due to the limitations arising from preservation and re presentation of individuals in th e ecosystems (Lidgard and Crane 1990). Fossil palynomorphs have been used exte nsively as a data sour ce for population studies because they are produced in abundance by plants, are extremely durable, and easily dispersed, deposited, and preserved in sediments (Traverse 1988). Another very important characteristic of palynomorphs is that a small sediment sample can contain thousands or even millions of individuals (Traverse 1988). These high numbers increase th e probability of finding a good representation of the population by analyzing the palynological cont ents of the sediments. Palynological studies are more numerous in medium and high paleolatitudes than in paleotropical areas (Crane and Lidgard 1990). High and mid latitudes have numerous quantitative studies of Cretaceous floras (Lupi a et al. 1999). On the other hand, most of the palynological publications on Lower Cretaceous sites consist of mainly qualitative or descriptive data and/or taxonomic work (e.g. de Lima 1978, 1979, 1980, 1987, 1989, Dino et al. 1999, Muller 1966, Regali and Viana 1989). Most of those publications c ontain biostratigraphic work made for oil companies. In those studies th e objective was to find ke y species that can be correlated to age or to specific stratigraphic un its. Consequently, most of the past tropical biostratigraphic publications are focused on marker species, paying little or no attention to other species in the samples. Of the remaining studi es that do not focus on specific species, many 11

PAGE 12

present only the data for selected palynomorphs (such as angiosperms), which creates inaccurate reconstructions of community composition (e.g. Schrank 1994). Additionally, these studies have limited use in reconstruction of Lower Cretaceous ecosystems because most do not present abundance and species richness data. In fact most publications do not present counts (e.g. Brenner 1968) and the few that do lack standa rdized palynomorph counts for each sample (e.g. Herngreen 1975), which makes comparisons betw een samples problematic. As an example, a study by Herngreen (1975) include s palynomorph counts per sample that range from 25 to 326 palynomorphs. Samples with low counts probabl y do not reflect the real composition of the ecosystem. Only samples with higher counts would be useful for inferr ing statistically the floristic composition of the site. One of the greatest limitations of the few studi es that have publis hed quantitative data (e.g. Brenner 1974, Ibrahim 1996) is that they present the abundance and diversity of palynomorphs in grouped intervals (e.g. single, rare, occasional, common and abundant). These intervals are defined arbitrarily and are consequently different in each study. As an example, Ibrahim (1996) and Schrank (2002) assign the category abundant to values of 11 30% and > 50% of grains in the sample, respectively. Alth ough the total number of individuals in a sample is known in these studies, this categorization is not accurate enough to infer sample or ecosystem richness and abundance because with the percenta ges given it is not possible to make precise calculations. Due to this lack of quantitative data in tropical areas, many questions related to the appearance and early radiation of angiosperms are still unanswered. Given the limitations of the data currently available, the main objectives of this study were (1) to provide quantitative palynological data of a paleotropical ecosystem through the quantitative analysis of a Lower 12

PAGE 13

Cretaceous section from northern South America (Colombia) to infer its floral composition (abundance and species richness of angiosperm a nd gymnosperm pollen, and spores of ferns and allies) and (2) to compare these results with data from higher paleolatitud es, specifically from North America, to determine whether angiospe rms were more abundant and diverse in the tropical site studied compared to higher paleolatitudes. The specific questions to be addressed in th is paper are: (1) What is the abundance and species richness of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores for the low latitude paleotropical site studie d? (2) Were angiosperms more abundant and diverse in the low latitude site studied compared to higher paleolatitudes during the Aptian-Albian interval? Additionally, taking advantage of the quantitative datase t obtained, two questions involving specific characteristics of the analyzed core are also addressed here. Multivariate statistical analyses provide a valuable tool to determine patterns pr esent in the data that otherwise would remain hidden or would be less clear. With the use of multivariate techniques I want to answer: (3) Are there any relationships among the species pres ent in the analyzed samples based on their distribution though the core? and (4) Does lithology determine the composition of palynomorphs present in the samples? I hypothesize that the paleotropical site studi ed will show a similar floristic composition to other low paleolatitude flora of similar age (Herngreen 1975) (Hypothesis 1). Additionally, based on the hypothesis of early an giosperm radiation from the tropics, I hypothesize that angiosperm pollen was more abunda nt and more diverse in the tropical site studied than in North America during the Aptian-Albian interval (Hypothesis 2). Geological Background 13

PAGE 14

Samples for this study were taken from the Caballos Formation in the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV) in SW central Colombia. (Fig.1-1 ). All samples come from Los Mangos field, one of the numerous oil fields located in the UM V. This field is composed of numerous wells for oil exploration purposes. Some of the wells have been cored for different kinds of studies (stratigraphy, lithology, etc.). A Los Mangos 31 core was selected for this study because it has a very complete rock core that cont ains most of the Caballos Formation. The name Caballos Formation was first used by Olsson (1956) in the region of Prado Dolores, Tolima (cited in (Ba rrio and Coffield 1992, Blau et al. 1992). The Caballos Formation is 100 to 400m thick (Vergara et al. 1995) and is defined as the top of the first sands under the marls, mudstones, and calcareous rocks of the Villeta Formation (Ramon and Fajardo 2004) and is either lying conformably on top of the Yav Formation, where this formation is present (Vergara 1992) or unconformably overlapping pre-Cretaceous rocks (Corrigan 1967). The Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV), an intra-m ontane basin located between the Central and Eastern Cordilleras of Colombia (Barrio a nd Coffield 1992, Prssl and Vergara 1993). The basins sediments are Mesozoic and Cenozoi c in age (Blau et al. 1992). The Caballos Formations age of deposition is estimated to lie within the middle Ap tian middle Albian (Beltran and Gallo 1968, Corrigan 1967, Florez a nd Carrillo 1994). Suppor t for the assignment of this age comes from dinoflagellates found at th e base of the Villeta Formation (on top of the Caballos Formation) that suggest an age of mi ddle Albian (Prssl 1992) and ammonites studied by Etayo (1993). The Caballos Formation is composed mainly of sandstones (80 90 %) and shales (10 20%) (Florez and Carrillo 1994). Th e sandstones of the formation are the reservoir for most of the petroleum produced in the Upper Magdalena Valley (Blau et al. 1992). Informally the 14

PAGE 15

Formation has been divided into three lithol ogic sequences (Beltran and Gallo 1968, Corrigan 1967, Florez and Carrillo 1994). The three sequences are Lower, Middle and Upper Caballos, which are not always present in the different localities of the basin, generating stratigraphic confusion among authors (Vergara et al. 1995). The Lower Caballos sequence is mainly sandy, being interpreted as floodplains (Ramon and Fajardo 2004) and littoral environments (Vergara et al. 1995) The Midlle Caballos se quence is composed of intercal ations of shale and sand, being predominantly muddy. The different sediments and structures found in this sequence are interpreted as fluvial channels floodplains, coastal floodplain, low energy bay, and distal bay deposits (Ramon and Fajardo 2004). The Upper Ca ballos sequence is predominantly sandy with thin muddy intercalations being interpreted as estuarine deposits. The Mangos field marine deposits are found just before the inundation that gave rise to th e calcareous and mudstone rocks of the Villeta Formation (Ramon and Fajardo 2004). Some authors have named each of these three sequences as individual Formations: Alpuja rra, El Ocal and Caballos, respectively (Florez and Carrillo 1994, Vergara et al. 1995). However, because this nomenclature has been highly contested (Vergara et al. 1995), I do not use it in this paper. 15

PAGE 16

Fig. 1-1. Upper Magdalena Valley (UVM) in Colo mbia showing the geographic location of Los Fig. 1-1. Upper Magdalena Valley (UVM) in Colo mbia showing the geographic location of Los Mangos field. 16 16

PAGE 17

CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Sampling The total extension of the rock core that contains the Caballos Formation in the Los Mangos 31 well (-75 32; 27.89 W and 2 37 14.56N) is approximately 145.7 meters, but it presents some missing intervals. A total of 33 samp les were taken from this core using a 3 to 4.5 meter interval when possible. The stratigraphic column of the core analyzed with the sample locations is shown in Fig. 2-1. Some samples did not fit exactly in this interval because of missing rock intervals. In those cases, a samp le was taken from the clos est depth available and from this point the interval was recalculated. Additionally, some samples were taken between intervals when layers with potentially rich orga nic content were located. Each sample contained approximately 30 to 50 grams of rock. The samples were taken with a geological hammer and stored in a plastic bag that was labeled with the name of the core and the respective depth. Five additional samples from Los Mangos 7 (75 32 47.93 W and 2 37 11. 39N) and one from Los Mangos 4 (75 32 33 W and 2 37 29N) were used to complete the column were the gaps were very long or samples were barren (l ocation and lithology of those samples are shown in Fig. 2-1). Since these two cores were very close to Los Mangos 31 core (< 2 km, see Fig. 11.) I simply calculated their equivalent depth in Los Mangos 31core when extracting their samples. The Los Mangos 31 core is stored in the Yaguar Field (N eiva, Colombia) and is property of Petrobras. The Los Mangos 4 and 7 cores are stored at the Colombian Institute of Petroleum (Bucaramanga, Colombia), and are property of Ecopetrol. The total number of samples taken from the three cores was 39. 17

PAGE 18

Laboratory Procedures The samples were prepared in the Geologi cal Samples Preparation Laboratory at the Colombian Institute of Petroleum (Bucaramanga, Colombia). The preparation of the samples followed standard palynological preparation tec hniques described in (Traverse 1988). First, 10 grams of each sample were macerated with a mort ar and pestle with the resulting powder put in 250ml beakers and the remaining portion of rock stored. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 10% was mixed with each sample for a period of 90 minutes to eliminate carbonates. Samples were then washed and left in water for 10 minutes to remove the acid. After discarding the water, samples were transferred to hydrofluoric ac id (HF) at 52% for 12 hours to elim inate silicates. Samples were then concentrated using a centrifuge for 10 minutes and washed with distilled water. The centrifugation and washing of the samples was re peated 3 times. Next, the samples were thoroughly mixed with a saturated so lution of Zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) and centrifuged for 60 minutes to separate the organic matter through density gradient. After a new centrifugation, the organic suspended portion (upper da rk layer) was transferred to a test tube and washed with water four times. The samples were then cen trifuged again at 3500rpm, washed several times through a 10um sieve to eliminate debris and cent rifuged for another 10 minutes. After sieving the resulting material, a first mount for each sa mple was made on glass slides. The remaining material was centrifuged ag ain and Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) added to oxidize the material. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) at 5% was added to remove the humic acids and samples were centrifuged again at 3500rpm for 6 minutes. After a final wash with distilled water, the samples were sieved and an oxidized mount placed on the same slide of the previous mount for a given sample. The permanent mounts of the samples were made using PVC and Canadian balsam. All resulting 18

PAGE 19

slides were labeled with well name, depth at wh ich the sample was taken and a unique sequential identification number. Analyses Three hundred palynomorphs were counted per slide when possible. This number of palynomorphs was selected because it allows for a good statistical approximation of the real proportion of species in a population (Hayek and Buzas 1997). The oxidized mount of each sample was always the first to be scanne d, and in the case that it did not contain 300 palynomorphs, the non-oxidized mount was s canned. After reach ing a count of 300 palynomorphs, counting stopped and the remaining of both mounts were fully scanned to register all species present in the sample but not reco vered in the 300 count. The location of morphotypes and other palynomorphs (e.g. well-preserved, rare, or first encounters of a form in each sample) were registered using an England Finder for 2/3 of the slides and with X/Y coordinates for the remaining 1/3. The analysis of the samples was made with a Nikon E200 and a Nikon Eclipse 600 light microscopes. All the counts were includ ed in an excel datasheet that is presented in Appendix A. Each morphotype was photographe d, described and drafte d. Photographs were taken using an oil 63X magnification objective for most morphotypes and dry 40X magnification objective for a few large palynomorphs with a di gital Axiocam Zeiss camera integrated to an Axiophot Zeiss microscope. The identification of palynomorphs was made by comparison with descriptions and photographs from publishe d studies of similar ages (Brenner 1963, 1974, Brenner and Bickoff 1992, de Lima 1979, 1980, Doyle et al. 1982, Herngreen 1973, 1974, 1975, Jansonius et al. 2002, Jardine and Magloi re 1965, Kemp 1970, Pocock 1962, Schrank 1987, 2002, Schrank and Ibrahim 1995, Srivastava 197 5). When possible palynomorphs were identified to species level. Species not identifi ed in the literature we re named using the genus 19

PAGE 20

followed by consecutive species numbers (e.g. Verru triletes sp1, Verrutriletes sp2, etc). For palynomorphs whose identification was not possi ble beyond the genus level, the particle ssp. (unknown species) was added following the genus name (e.g., Verrutrilet es spp.). All slides were deposited in the Paleobotany Collection of the Florida Museum of Natural History, in Gainesville Florida, USA. Statistical Methods Rarefaction All samples with counts of 200 individuals or more were used for the analyses made in this study. Samples were rarefied to 200 individuals to make them comparable. The rarefaction was performed using the software Past (Hammer et al. 2001). The result of the rarefaction is the total number of species that would be present in a 200-count sample. Rarefaction per group was made possible by assuming that the re lative abundance of the three palynomorph groups observed in a sample (angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores) is kept cons tant as counts per sample change. This is a reasonable assumption gi ven that the chance of a grain belonging to any of the three palynomorph groups studied is independent of the pa lynomorph found before or after any given grain. More specifica lly, observations show that gr ains belonging to the same palynomorph group are not spatiall y clustered or autocorrelated. Given the assumption above, I rarefied the richness of each group based in th e expected abundance of that palynomorph group at 200 individuals. Distribution and Variance Test A Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to dete rmine whether or not the distribution of the data deviated significantly form normality. Additionally the variances were checked to 20

PAGE 21

determine their homogeneity. Both tests were ma de using JMP software (SAS Institute 1998). When distribution of data was non-normal, median was used instead of media, because using averages may not give an accurate idea of the cen tral tendency of the data. There are several comparisons made and described in the following steps. For those comparisons using normally distributed data and homogeneous variances, a standard student-t test was used and for nonnormal data and/or with not-homogeneous variances a Kruskal-Wallis test was used. This test is a non-parametric equivalent to the student-t test. All comparis ons were made using an alpha value of 0.05 to determine statistic al significance, and performed in JMP software (SAS Institute 1998). Abundance The absolute abundance of palynomorphs wa s calculated as the total number of palynomorphs in each group (angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores) present in a sample. After determining if data was or not nor mally distributed and if their variances were homogeneous, comparisons of the abundance of pa lynomorphs between both portions of the core were made for each group studied (angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores) using the proper statistical test as mentioned above. Species Richness Absolute species richness was calculated for these samples. The absolute species richness is simply the total number of species of each palynomorph group found in the samples. After determining if the distribution of data was normal or not, and if their variances were homogeneous, comparisons of the numbers of sp ecies between both portions of the core were made for each group of palynomorphs using the proper statistical test as mentioned above. 21

PAGE 22

Cluster Analysis: Grouping Samples with Similar Composition A cluster analysis was made for grouping the samples depending on similarities in species abundance and distributi on. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering with Wards linkage method and Euclidean distance measure was used, as recommended by McCune and Grace (2002). Wardss clustering is recognized as a very effective method that gi ves distinct clusters and has been used and recommended to interpret biostratigraphical data (Kovach and Batten 1994). The results are presented as dendrograms scaled by the distance between merged groups, in this case, the distance between sample comp ositions. Before making this analysis samples (depths) with less than 5 individu als were excluded. Then an outli er analyses based on the depth was performed to remove data more than 2 standa rd deviations from the mean of the distribution. Finally, to improve distance calculations, a Beal smoothing transformation of the data was made to reduce the skewness in the distribution of the data that is common in count data (McCune and Grace 2002). The interpretation of the obtained dendrogram showing the relationship of the samples was made by the incorporation of labels in front of each sample. First, it was evaluated comparing the lithology of each cluster, and then the depositional environm ents of each sample. The cluster analysis was made using the software PCORD (MCCune and Mefford 1999). Relationship between Species Distribution and Lithology Multi-response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) analyses were made to determine the effect of lithology on species distribution. MR PR is a nonparametric method to distinguish differences among two or more groups (Mielke a nd Berry 2001). This method was used instead of others similar multivariate methods like MANOVA, because the later is not appropriate to use with data exhibiting nonlinear relationships and extremely skewed frequencies, both 22

PAGE 23

characteristics of community data (McCune and Gr ace 2002). For this analysis the samples were grouped based in 6 lithological groups: Sandstone (14 samples), Siltstone (8 samples), Sandy siltstone (3 samples), shale (6 samples), Wackstone (5 samples) and Packstone (3 samples). Prior data screening included removal of samples with less than 5 individuals and species with distribution more than 2 standa rd deviations from the mean. The procedure involved the calculation of a distance matrix among all sample s (using Euclidean distance) for the calculation of average within-lithology distance. The averag e distance indicates the degree of compositional similarity of the samples within a lithology. The greater the average distance values the greater the differences in composition of the samples within a lithology and vice versa (McCune and Grace 2002). Lastly, the probability of a smalle r weighted mean within-group distance was calculated using a statistical approach equivalent to multiple random reassignments of samples to groups respecting sample size differences. MR PP output includes a p-value and a changecorrelated within-group agreement (A). The pvalue is the probability of observing equal or greater similarities within lithological groups merely due to chance. The A value is a measure of within-group homogeneity compared with random e xpectation. In this case, for identical species distribution for samples within a lithology A = 1. When heterogeneity within lithologies equals the expectation by chance, then A = 0. Lastly, if there is less agreement w ithin lithologies than expected by chance, then A < 0. This analys is was performed using the software PCORD (MCCune and Mefford 1999). Comparison between Paleotropical and North American Samples After determining the normal or nonnormal distri bution of all the data sets used in this comparison (description above), a comparative test was made to evaluate differences between the floral composition of the paleotropical site analyzed with middle and high paleolatitudes. For 23

PAGE 24

those comparisons using normally distributed data and with homogeneous variances, a standard ANOVA test was used. For ANOVA comparisons th at resulted in signif icant differences among groups a Tukey test was performed to determine which groups were statistically different from each other. For non-normal data and/or populations with non-homogeneous variances, a KruskalWallis non-parametric test was performed. For the Kruskal-Wallis comparisons that resulted in significant differences among groups, a Tukey test was performed on the ranks of the data to determine which groups were statistically differe nt from each other (Zar 1999). The quantitative palynological data for middle and higher paleol atitudes was derived from a North American dataset compiled by (Lupia et al 1999). To make comparisons valid, only samples which age ranges from middle Albian to middle Aptian were selected from this data set. This selection resulted in a total of 67 samples for the a bundance comparisons (all with a minimum of 100 individuals counted) and 297 sample s for the species richness comp arisons (all with a minimum of 10 species recorded). The a bundance and species richness data sets were divided into middle (below 42 N) and high (above 42 N) paleolatitudes. Due to di fferences in sampling effort between the datasets, comparison tests were performed for rela tive abundances and relative richness only, using an alpha value of 0.05 to dete rmine statistical signific ance. I performed all the tests mentioned in this section using JMP statistical software (SAS Institute 1998). 24

PAGE 25

Fig. 2-1. Lithological column of Los Mangos 31 core and sample locations. Red lines indicate samples taken from the wells Los Mangos 4 and Los Mangos 7 used to complete the section. Their respective lithology is shown in front of each red line. Ammonite zonation and age were taken from (Etayo 1993) and lithology from (Ecopetrol ICP 2000). 25

PAGE 26

CHAPTER 3 RESULTS Of the thirty-nine samples analyzed eighteen were barren or presented counts lower than 200 individuals those were excluded from the follo wing analyses. All samples were rarefied to 200 individuals. A table with al l species and counts per sample is annexed on Appendix A. All parameters presented in this chapter were defined in the materials and methods section. Abundance Spores were the dominant palynomorph in nearly all samples analyzed with 122 of the palynomorphs in average per sample, followed by gymnosperm pollen with an average of 65 pollen grains per sample and angiosperm pollen w ith a median of 5 pollen grains (Fig. 3-1). When pollen and spore abundance are examined, th ere are two distinguis hable portions of the core. The lower portion goes from the base to the sample LM 2625 and the upper portion goes from the sample LM 2885 to the top. Since the distribution of angiosperm pollen abundance was non-normal, a nonparametrical statistical analysis was used for th is variable. The amount of angiosperm pollen was relatively constant with a median of 4 angiosperm pollen grains for the entire lower part of the sequence. An increase in the num ber of angiosperm pollen grains is clearly observable in the upper portion of the core, presenting a median of 19 angiosperm pollen grains for these samples (Fig. 3-1). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences in the number of angiosperm pollen between both porti ons of the core (p < 0.05). Since the distributions of abundance data for gymnosperm pollen and spores were normal, I used parametric statistical analyses fo r them. In the case of the gymnosperm pollen, I observed an average of 65 pollen grains per sa mple for the complete core. There was not a 26

PAGE 27

significant difference between the average number of gymnosperm pollen grains between the lower and the upper portion of the co re (68 vs 53 grains in average per slide, respec tively; t-test: p < 0.37). Spores presented an average of 122 grains per sample through the core. Spores did not show a significant difference in abundance betwee n upper and lower portions of the core (120 vs. 129 grains in average per slide, resp ectively; t-test: p > 0.66) (Fig. 3-1). Species Richness In total 113 species of palynomorphs were found, with an average of 23 species per sample (Fig. 3-2). The number of species per systematic group was: 36 angiosperm species, 26 gymnosperm species and 51 spore species. From this total, 20 species where singletons and their distribution into the three pal ynomorphs groups was 7 singletons fo r angiosperm, 5 singletons for gymnosperms and 8 singletons for spore specie s. Considering all three palynomorph groups, there was an average of 21 species found per sample. However, there is a significant increase in the number of species in the upper portion of th e core, having a median of 18 species in the lower portion and 28 sp in the upper portion of th e core (Krukal-Wallis test: p > 0.011) (Fig. 32). Non-parametric statistical analyses were used for the species ri chness of angiosperm pollen since data exhibited a non-normal distribut ion. The median number of angiosperm species found for the whole core was 3. However, there is a significant increase in the number of species by the upper portion of the sequence (Fig. 3-2). The median number of angiosperm species for the initial portion of the sequence is 2 while th e median number of angiosperm species for the upper section of the sequence is 9 (Kruskal-Wallis test: p < 0.0021). This comparison was made including two samples that presented an abnor mally high number of angiosperms in the lower portion of the core. These samples were LM 2887 and LM 2749. Both samples are different 27

PAGE 28

from all the other samples in the core, because they have an elevated number of angiosperm pollen. The first sample (LM 2887) had a total of 74 angiosperm pollen grains out of a total of 300 pollen and spores counted (this value is extracted from the original data, before the rarefaction to 200). Two species cont ributed to most of that abundance: Retipollenites sp.2 with 54 grains and Retimonocolpites cf. mawhoubensis Schrank with 17 individuals. In the case of the second sample (LM 2749), the abundance of a ngiosperms is even higher, with a total of 133 angiosperm pollen grains out of 300 (before rarefa ction). In this slide most of those grains belonged to the same species: Pennipollis cf. reticulatus (Brenner) Friis, Pedersen & Crane with 108 individuals. The other angiosperm species present in that sample were: Scabramonocolpites sp2 with 16 individuals and Asteropollis sp1 and Retimonocolpites sp.4 with 4 and 1 individuals, respectively (the remaining amount are non identi fied angiosperm pollen grains). The most abundant angiosperm pollen species in the core was Pennipollis peroreticulatus with a total of 124 individuals, but most of them (108) are present in a single sample (LM 2749). The data of number of species of gymnosperm pollen showed a normal distribution, and then parametric statistical analyses were used. The percentage of gymnosperm species was 7 in average per slide through the total length of th e core. The number of gymnosperm species remained constant in the lower and upper portions of the core (7 and 7, re spectively; t-test: p < 0.67). (Fig.3-2). Some samples presented peaks in the number of gymnosperm pollen. For example, the depth LM 2932 has a majority of gymnosperm pollen, with 215 pollen grains out of 290 individuals present in the sample. On the other hand, some samples had an abnormal low number of gymnosperm pollen, such as samp le LM 2868 with just 4 gymnosperm pollen grains out of 272 individuals and sample LM 3496 5 with 4 gymnosperm pollen grains out of 119 individuals present in the sample. The only sample with a single species of gymnosperm 28

PAGE 29

pollen was LM 2868 7, containing only Inaperturopollenites sp.2 The most abundant gymnospermous species was Callialasporites dampieri (Balme) Dev, being present in almost every sample along the core (Appendix A). Spores presented a non-normal distribution in the lower portion of the core, then a nonparametrical test was performed for the comparison. There core had a median of 20 spore species in average per sample. There is a sign ificant increase in the number of species when comparing the lower and upper portions of the core. The lower portion has a median of 18 species and the upper a median of 28 species (KruskalWallis test: p < 0.042) (Fig. 3-2). Quantitatively, the most important spore species were Cyathidites minor Couper and Cyathidites australis Couper. It was found in most of the sample s and was the most abundant species in the study (in average 14% and 31% resp ectively of the total number of palynomorphs found in the samples). Hierarchical Cluster Analyses: Sample Associations The resulting dendrogram shows groups of sa mples that have similarities on species distribution and abundance (Fig 33). The dendrogram shows 6 clus ters: A, B, C, D and E. However, not all clusters are meaningful when interpreting them in lithological terms, because most of the clusters grouped different lithologies in the same cluster. Cluster A presents only samples with sandstone and siltstone lithology, bei ng the best-defined cluster with medium grain composition. Cluster B and cluster D show do minance of sandy lithology, but there are also shales and lime rocks in both. Cluster C is dom inated by lime rocks (Wackstone and Packstone). The remaining cluster (E) is composed mainly by fine particle sediment (shales), but there are also sandy and lime components. 29

PAGE 30

Analyzing the dendrogram in terms of depositional environments seems to be more convenient because the association patterns are clea rer (Fig.3-4). There are two main groups of the dendrogram showing continental and marine composition. The clusters A and B compose the continental group and the clusters C, D, E an d F are all coming from marine environments. The cluster A is dominated by samples coming from floodplains. Cluster B is dominated by samples coming from channels. Middle shore-face environments, with one continental sample present, dominate the cluster C. Cluster D is clearly dominated by samples coming from offshore environments. Cluster F has samples from offshore and shore-face environments. Multi-response Permutation Procedure (MR PP): Species Distribution and Lithology Relationship This analysis shows that species composition in the samples is not strongly dependent on lithology. The analysis result of p = 0.15 indicate th at there is a 15% chance I could find a better grouping of the samples (greater within group si milarity) by chance compared to the one made based on lithology. The A value resulted equal to 0.0339, which means that the samples do not have an identical species distribution within a lithology (that would be A = 1). This also means that the heterogeneity within lith ologies does not equals the expectation by chance (that would be A = 0). Additional graphs were made as an attempt to illustrate the results of this analysis (Figs. 3-5 and 3-6), given that the MRPP does not give a graphic result. What is shown on the graphs is that the relative amounts and number of speci es of each palynomorph have a similar pattern independent of the lithology analyzed. In terms of the relative number of individuals and relative number of species there was a constant trend in all the different li thologies: spores are dominant with the highest values, followed by gymnosperm s and finally by angiosperms with the lowest 30

PAGE 31

values. The only exception to this trend was that relative number of species of angiosperm pollen was higher than the gymnosperms species in shales. Comparison of Abundance and Number of Species between the Paleotropical Site Studied with Middle and High Paleolatit ude Sites of North America Relative Abundance After checking if data were or not distribu ted normally, and if their variances were homogenous, the comparisons of relative abund ance and species richness between the three different paleolatitudes (low, middle and high) were made using an ANOVA for the spore richness, which showed normal distribution and homogeneous va riances. For the abundance and species richness in angiosperms and gymnospe rms, and for the abundance of spores, which showed a non-normal distribution, a Kr uskal-Wallis test was performed. The comparison of the relative abundances of angiosperms pollen between low, mid and high paleolatitudes revealed that there are significant differences within the three paleolatitudes (Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0004). The median relative abundances of angiosperm pollen for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 4, 2 and 0, respectively. The Tukey test performed on the ranks of the data showed that there are not significant differences betw een the relative abundance of angiosperm pollen between low and mid paleolatit udes (overlapping circles) but that there are significant differences between these two latitude s (low and mid) and high paleolatitudes (no overlapping circles). There is a latitudinal gradient of decrea se in the relative abundance of angiosperms as latitude increases (Fig. 3-7) For the relative abundance of gymnosperm pollen, the comparison made showed that there are significant differences between the three paleolatitudes (Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0001). The median relative abundances of gymnosperm pollen for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 26, 31

PAGE 32

55, and 97, respectively. The Tukey test showed th at there are significan t differences between the relative abundance of angiosperm pollen between the three paleolatitudes compared (no overlapping circles). In this case, there is a clea r latitudinal gradient of increase in the relative abundance of gymnosperms as latitude increase (Fig. 3-8). The comparison performed for the relative abundance of spores showed significant differences between the three different paleol atitudes compared (Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0001). The median relative abundances of spores for low, mid high pa leolatitudes were 62, 34 and 3, respectively. The Tukey test performed on the ranks revealed significan t differences in the relative abundance of spores between the three paleolatitudes. For spores the latitudinal gradient is opposite to the one found for gymnosperms, in this case the relative abundance of spores decreases as the latitude increases (Fig. 3-9). Species Richness The comparison of the relative richness of angiosperm pollen showed that there are significant differences between low, mid and high paleolatitudes (Kruskal-Wallis: p < 0.0001). The median relative rich ness of angiosperm pollen for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 14, 10 and 0, respectively. The Tukey test performed reveal ed that there are not significant differences in the relative richness of angiosperm pollen between low and mid paleolatitudes (overlapping circles), but that there are significant differences between these two (low and mid, with high paleolatitudes (no overlapping circle s). The latitudinal gradient is similar to the one exhibited by the relative abundance, there is a decrease in th e relative richness of a ngiosperm pollen as the latitude increases (Fig. 3-10). The comparison of the relative richness of gymnosperm pollen between low, mid and high paleolatitudes showed that there are signific ant differences between the three paleolatitudes 32

PAGE 33

(Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0019). The median relativ e richness of gymnosperm pollen for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 31, 33, and 39, respectively. The Tukey test showed that there are not significant differences between the relative a bundance of gymnosperm pollen between low and mid paleolatitudes (overlapping circ les), but that there are signif icant differences between these two paleolatitudes (low and mid) and high paleolatitudes (no overl apping circles). There is a latitudinal gradient of increase in the relativ e richness of gymnosperm s as latitude increase (Fig.3-11). The comparison performed for the relative richne ss of spores showed significant differences between the three paleolatitudes (Kruskal-Wa llis: p< 0.0001). The median relative richness of spores for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 51, 53, and 60, respectively. The Tukey test showed that there are not signif icant differences between the relati ve abundance of spores between low and mid paleolatitudes (overlappi ng circles), but that there are significant differences between these two paleolatitudes (low and mid) and high paleolatitudes (no overlapping circles). There is a latitudinal gradient of increase in the rela tive richness of gymnosperms as latitude increase (Fig. 3-12). 33

PAGE 34

Depth Angiosperms Gymnosperms Spores Fig. 3-1. Absolute abundance of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores represented as the total number of indivi duals found in each one of the sa mples (all samples rarefied to 200 counts). 34

PAGE 35

Depth Angiosperms Gymnosperms Spores Fig. 3-2. Absolute richness of angiosperm polle n, gymnosperm pollen and spores represented as the total number of species found in each one of the samples (all samples rarefied to 200 counts). 35

PAGE 36

Fig. 3-3. Dendrogram showing the different lithol ogical associations based upon their species composition for the analyzed core. There ar e 5 clusters of samples that showed a similar species composition. The lithological convention is the same used for the methods figure (Fig.2-1). 36

PAGE 37

Fig. 3-4. Dendrogram showing the different associations of depositional environments based upon their species associations for the analyzed core. Ther e are 6 clusters of samples that showed a similar species composition. The particle preceding the sample ID represents the depositional envi ronment. The first letter of that particle represents whether is Ccontinental or M-marine, th e second part the specific environment: Chchannels, Fp-floodplains, Sf-Shore face, lSf-lower shoreface, mSfmiddle shoreface, In-inter-tidal and Of-offshore. 37

PAGE 38

0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 Packstone (3)Sandstone (14)Sandy siltstone (3) Shale (6)Siltstone (8)Wackstone (5)Lithology Angiosperms Gymnosperms Spores Fig.3-5. Relative abundances of palynomorphs found in each kind of lithology. The number in parenthesis indicates the number of samples. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Packstone (3)Sandstone (14)Sandy siltstone (3) Shale (6)Siltstone (8)Wackstone (5)Lithology Angiosperms Gymnosperms Spores Fig.3-6. Relative species richness of palynom orphs found in each lithology. The number in parenthesis indicates the number of samples. 38

PAGE 39

Angiosperm relative abundance (ranks) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NAHigh latitudes All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05 NA-Mid latitudes Tropical-Low latitudes Latitude Fig. 3-7. Comparison of the relative abundances of angiosperm pollen for the Aptian-Albian interval between low (site studie d), mid and high paleolatitudes. Gymnosperm relative abundance (ranks) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NAHigh latitudes NA-Mid latitudes All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05 Tropical-Low latitudes L a t i t u d e Fig. 3-8. Comparison of the relative abundances of gymnosperm pollen for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes. Latitude 39

PAGE 40

Spore relative abundance (ranks) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 NAHigh latitudes NA-Mid latitudes All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05 Tropical-Low latitudes Latitude Fig. 3-9. Comparison of the relative abundance of spores for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes. 100 200 Fig. 3-10. Comparison of the relative species ri chness of angiosperms for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes. Angiosperm relative richness (ranks) All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05 NA-Mid latitude Tropical-low latitude NA-High latitude Latitude 40

PAGE 41

Fig. 3-11. Comparison of the relative species ri chness of gymnosperms for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes. Fig. 3-12. Comparison of the relative species richne ss of spores for the Aptian-Albian interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes Gymnosperm relative richness (rank) 0 50 100 150 200 250 All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05 NA-Mid latitude al-Low latitudeLatitude NA-High latitude Tropic Spore relative richness 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05 NA-High latitude NA-Mid latitude Tropical-Low latitude Latitude Latitude 41

PAGE 42

CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSI ON Floral Composition of the Tropical Site Analyzed The main purpose of this study was to determine the floral composition of a paleotropical ecosystem through the analyses of quantitative palynological data. I ha d hypothesized that the paleotropical site studied contained a similar floristic composition to other low paleolatitude flora of similar age (Hypothesis 1). Because floral composition is derived from species abundance and richness, the hypothesis above was analyzed in both terms. The results of th is study demonstrate that the floristic abundance and richness of the Colomb ian low paleolatitude ecosystem analyzed are different from the abundance and richness observed at a low latitude Brazilian site of similar age. In general, the abundance pattern from the Brazilian site during the Albian was: gymnosperms dominant with more than half of the individuals in average per sample, followed by angiosperms and finally spores had the lowest abundance (H erngreen 1975). In cont rast with the abundance pattern above, the results of this study show s pores as the most abundant palynomorph in nearly all the samples, with an abundance of 61% in average per slide, while gymnosperms were a secondary component of the flora with an average of 32% of the individuals per sample (Fig. 31). Angiosperms were the minor component in the si te studied with abundan ces less than 7% in average per slide. The relative richness patterns were also distinct between both low paleolatitude ecosystems. The Brazilian site presented a higher relative number of gy mnosperm species (more than 50% in average per slide) and a similar relative number of species of angiosperms and spores. In this study I found a hi gher number of species of spores (11% in average per sample), 42

PAGE 43

followed by gymnosperms (7 species in average) and angiosperms had the lowest number of species (4 in average). In conclusion, these comparisons do not support the hypothesis that the floristic composition of both low paleolatitude floras (C olombian and Brazilian) was similar. The differences in the composition could be derived from essential differences in the flora of east and west South America. It has been hypothesized that the African South American province in the Lower Cretaceous had very dry conditions (Herngreen et al. 1996); which may have favored gymnosperm dominance exhibited at the Braz ilian site. Supporting this reasoning, the high amounts of Classopollis classoides and gnetalean grains -pollen gr ains previously related to dry environmentsare present in high abundances at the Brazilian site. The hypothetical dry conditions of east South America may also explai n the low amount of spores in the samples, because ferns are more abundant in humid environments. On the other hand, the high amounts of spores found in the western South American site studied suggests that during the Lower Cretaceous this area presented a humid environmen t. However, the lack of quantitative studies in west South America limit the support this hypothesis. Interesting patterns were found when analyzi ng the distribution of palynomorphs in Los Mangos core. There were significant compos itional differences between lower and the upper portions of the core. Firstly, angiosperm pollen was significantly more abundant and with higher number of species in the upper portion of the core than in the lower portion. The abundance comparisons between the upper and lower portions of the core were made including two unique samples that presented an abnormally high numbers of angiosperms in the lower portion of the core. Yet, despite the inclusion of these outliers, comparisons showed statistically significant higher abundance of angiosperm pollen in the up per portion of the core (Fig.3-1). Additionally, 43

PAGE 44

the comparison of relative angiosperm richness between lower and upper portions of the core showed the same pattern present for the abunda nce data with significantly more angiosperm species (mid g he at ipollenites hughesii Some inapert in the upper portion of the core than in the lower portion (Fig.3-2). An increasing diversity of forms and ornamentation can be obser ved in the upper portion of the sequence Albian), which could be the result of the increasing speciation of angios perms during the Albian. These results agree with the initi al increase in angiosperm dive rsity that was taking place durin the Barremian to Albian interval (Heimhofer et al. 2005). This first increment was followed by an even more dramatic increase of angiospe rm species that took place during the Albian Cenomanian interval (Crane and Lidgar d 1989, 1990, Lidgard and Crane 1990, Lidgard and Crane 1988) or Albian Turonian interval in middle paleolatit udes (Lupia et al. 1999). T samples analyzed in this study ranges from the mid Aptian to the mid Albian, which means th the increase in angiosperm species demonstrates th at the pattern of diversification found in other quantitative studies worldwide also took place in the neopaleot ropical flora analyzed here. The first pollen grains that appear in the core are monosulcate gr ains identified as: Pennipollis perireticulatus, Brenneripollis sp4 and Clavat urate grains were also found at the bottom of the seque nce, identified as Afropollis jardinus and Retipollenites sp3 The first tricolpate species wa s found pretty early in the core (approximately mid Aptian), which is congruent w ith the age of the occurrence of tricolpate grains at low paleolatitudes in Israel (Brenner 1996). This tric olpate grain was psilate with simple colpi and was identified as Psilatricolpites sp1 The lower part of the core is approximately middle to upper Aptian in age. More ornamented forms of tricolpate grains appeared in the upper portion of the core, appr oximately in the lower to middle Albian. Two 44

PAGE 45

tricolpate species, Rousea cf. micupullis and R. cf. georgensis, are relegated to the upper part o the core (Appendix A) Gymnosperms did not show differences in their abundance or species richness whe comparing the lower and upper portions of the core (Figs. 3-1 and 3-2). Spores did not show any difference when comparing their abundance. Howe ver, when comparing species richness spores showed a similar pattern to angiosperms, with significantly higher number of species in the upper portion of the core than in the lower one (Fig. 3-2). Summarizing all these comparisons, angi osperm pollen increased in number of individuals and number of species through time, while spores increa sed in number of species gymnosperms did not show any significant change. There are at least three possible explanat for these observed differences between the upper and lower portions of the core: lithological differences between both portions of the core, di fferences in the depositional environments or changes in the floristic com position of the ecosystem. f n and ions ower er portion from e gy core two on species composition are not rela ted to lithology. Furthermore, the MRPP analysis showed a Lithology could potentially explain differen ces in composition between upper and l portions of the core given that, at first glance, th e core presents more shales in the upp than in the lower portion. Because sedimentary rocks derive their composition and texture source rock material and environment under whic h where it is deposited (Boggs 2006) and thes characteristics also define the kind of fossil pres erved in these rocks, it was expected to find significant differences in the composition of the different lithologies. To determine if litholo was a factor related to observed differences between upper and lower portions of the analyses were made: hierarchical cluster anal ysis (Fig. 3-3) and Multi Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP). However, cluster analysis results show that resulting sample clusters based 45

PAGE 46

weak relation between lithology and the composition of samples for this study (p = 0.14). The related graphs (Figs. 3-5 and 36) exhibit the general relations hips between floral composition and lith r all 6) tween lithologies, the relative number ces of bot h portions was different. The kind of paly al ologies and show that there was a constant trend in species richness and abundance fo the different lithologies: spores were first with the highest values, followed by gymnosperms and with angiosperms last (with the exception of the relative number of species of angiosperm pollen being higher than that of gymnosperms in shales). However, these graphs (Figs.3-5 and 3show that although the trends in composition ar e similar be s of individuals and sp ecies are variable for each lith ology. These small differen could explain the poor relationship between sample composition and lithology captured by the MRPP analysis. In conclusion, both analyses (MRPP and hierarchical cluster analysis) demonstrated that the lithology was not str ongly influencing the samples composition. The second possible reason for the observed di fferences between the upper and the lower portions of the core is that th e depositional environment nomorphs found in a sample depends on the fl ora of the place that is finally represented in the sediments by pollen grains and spores. In th e case of this study samples were either from marine or continental environments. Marine samp les represent the flora of a wider area because the sediments and palynomorphs ar e carried out by channels through a wide variety of floras to be finally deposited in the sea (Srivastava 1994). Continental sediments represent a more loc flora, because the sediments are not transported from other environments. To determine if facies determined the differences observed between lo wer and upper portions of the core a samples were clustered based on species composition similarities and results interpreted using the depositional environments of the samples. The results show the samples were clearly divided into two clear groups: samples from marine environments and samples from continental 46

PAGE 47

environments. At first look this seems to explai n the observed differences but is important to note that all continental samples are located at the bottom of the core and marine samples are distributed between the lower a nd upper portions of the core. The change in facies occurred in the lower portion of the core while the increase in the a bundance and species richness of palynomorphs occurred only in th e upper portion of the core. This means that the increase on angiosperm abundance and richness, and spore richness occurred in a similar depositional environment (marine). Even removing the continental samples from the core the differenc between the upper and lower portions of the core are significant. Thus, based on this cluster analysis it is concluded that the depositional environment did not determine the increase of angiosperm richness and abundance and spore richne ss observed in the upper portion of The third possible explanation is that the in crease in angiosperm abundance and r es the core. ichness, and sp f d and ore richness is reflecting th e diversification that these groups experienced starting in the Lower Cretaceous. Reported results suggest that in the paleotropical latitudes, angiosperms were becoming a more prominent taxonomic and ecologi cal component of the ecosystems by the mid Albian with the increase in the number of species and abundance. Before the diversification o angiosperms during the Cretaceous (Coiffard et al. 2006, Crane et al. 1995, Crane and Lidgard 1989, Lupia et al. 1999), gymnospe rms, ferns and Bennettitales dom inated terrestrial ecosystems worldwide (Lupia et al. 1999). Angiosperms started their diversification during the Barremian Albian interval and by the Upper Cretaceous were the dominant component of paleotropical vegetation and an important component of the mi ddle and upper paleolatitude floras (Crane an Lidgard 1989, Lidgard and Crane 1990, Lidgard and Crane 1988, Lupia et al. 1999). Quantitative palynological studies in middle a nd high paleolatitudes have shown the same pattern of continued increase in angiosperm diversity and abundance between the Aptian 47

PAGE 48

beginning of the Campanian (Lidgard and Cran e 1990, Lupia et al. 1999). However, those studies show a decline of spore species for that period of time. Spore ric hness in the low latitu ecosystem studied increased concurrently with angiosperm richness a nd abundance, suggesting that ferns were diversifying with angiosperms as found in other studies (Schneider et al. 20 In conclusion, the results show initial pattern s of angiosperm and ferns diversification in the low latitude site analyzed during the Albian, with the significant incr ease on their numb species, which means they were becoming a more prominent taxonomic component of tropica ecosystems in the Lower Cretaceous. Paleotemperate Latitudes de 04). er of l Differences in Floristic Composition betw een the Paleotropical Site Analyzed and al site as Based on the widespread hypothesis of angios perm origin and radiation from lower paleolatitudes during the Lower Cretaceous, I hypothesized that the abundance and number of angiosperm species should be higher in the low latitude paleotropical site compared to medium and high paleolatitudes during the Aptian-Albian interval (Hypothe sis 2). The results partially support the formulated hypothesis by showing that angiosperms had significantly higher relative abundance and species richness in the paleotropical site analyzed compared to data from high latitudes of North America. However, the re sults show that there is no significant difference between the angiosperm abundance and richness between low and mid paleolatitudes (Figs. 3-7 and 3-10). The results show a la titudinal gradient in both abun dance and richness data, with higher values in low and mid latitudes and with significantly lower values in high latitudes. Gymnosperm abundance was significantly lower in the low latitude paleotropic analyzed than in high and mid latitudes (Fig. 3-8). The species richness of gymnosperms w significantly higher in high paleolatitudes compared with low and mid latitudes, which did not 48

PAGE 49

present significant differences. These results we re expected because gymnosperms were a v important component of high latitude floras dur ing the Lower Cretaceous (Crane and Lidgard 1989, 1990, Lupia et al. 1999) as they are in modern floras, and only a minor component in paleotropical floras. ery nt component in low latitudes floras as shown in this study. The tropical origin of angio tion to highe r latitudes was first propose e ey nt differen on Abundance of spores showed a similar pa ttern to angiosperm abundance with an increasing latitudinal gradient from high to low latitudes. This pattern was expected because spores were a minor component of high lat itude ecosystems (Lupia et al. 1999, Crane and Lidgard 1989) while being the domina sperms with subseq uent radia d by (Axelrod 1959) and since then numerous studies have attempted to determine th patterns followed by angiosperms in their ra diation during the Cretaceous (e.g. Crane and Lidgard 1989, 1990, Hickey and Doyle 1977, Retallack and Dilcher 1981). However, quantitative studies are more numerous in middle and high latitudes than they are in the lower paleolatitudes. Based on the results of this study angiosperms were a more conspicuous component of low and mid paleolatitude ecosystems during the AptianAlbian interval than th were in high latitudes. These findings pa rtially support the widesp read hypothesis that angiosperms appeared in low paleolatitudes and later on time radiated to higher latitudes (Crane and Lidgard 1989, 1990, Hickey and Doyle 1977, Re tallack and Dilcher 1981). However, although there is a clear gradient in the data from high to low la titudes, there was no significa ce in angiosperm abundance and richness between mid and low paleolatitudes. Based the results of this study is not possible to determ ine if angiosperms were present in low latitude prior to mid latitudes, or vice versa. These sm all and nonstatistically significant differences 49

PAGE 50

may be related to the hypothesized expansion of the tropics during global warming periods (Jaramillo et al. 2006) and the need for greater am ount of data from tropical paleolatitudes. Th worlds temperature was higher during the Lowe r Cretaceous (Bice et al. 2006), making mid paleolatitudes warmer e and maki ng possible that tropical plants could live in those warmer paleola nd mid did igh er de temperatures, then tropical taxa canno t live there and vice versa, making the floral compos n hese essary the y uld have set titudes. As consequence of those more uniform temperatures between them, low a paleolatitudes presented very si milar floristic composition. This s cenario could explain why I not find significant differences in the floristic composition of lo w and mid palelatitudes. H latitudes in other hand, do not pres ent temperatures as warm as tropical areas even with high worldwi ition very different, as it is in modern floras and as it was expected. A possible source of error in the analyses ma de is that the comparison made was betwee one low latitude paleotropical si te versus numerous sites in mid and high paleolatitudes. T differences in sampling effort could be introduc ing bias in the comparison, making nec use of more low latitude paleotropical sites to obtain a more reliable comparison of the paleofloras in different latitudes and thus a be tter determination of the patterns followed b angiosperms and other taxa during th e radiation of flowering plants. Difference in the preservation of palynomorphs is another possible fact or that co affected the comparisons made between the floras of low, mid and high paleolatitudes. For this study we used samples from a single site, which after deposition were ex posed through time to similar environmental conditions. Those conditions could have b een responsible in many cases for the damage or alteration of the characteri stics of sensitive species which will imply their elimination from the record or their damage to the point of not being identified as different species (e.g. loss of perine in spores). On th e other hand, the study from North America has a 50

PAGE 51

of samples from a wide range of geographical sites, each one with different preservation conditions. Due to this, there is a higher probabi lity that the sensitive species that could have been damaged or altered from some of the sites, ar e still present in the reco rd of other sites. Finally, underestimation of the number of sp ecies has been always a concern when working with light microscopy (Lidgard and Crane 1990). The use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) leads to the identification of a greater number of characte rs that often lead to the assignment of more species. All the samples in this study and most of the samples in the dataset from higher paleolatitudes were analyzed only with light microscopy, which decrease th bias of having different methods determining the morphological characters of the palynomorph and therefore the species richness. e s her ore ore paleotropical samples to enlar To summarize, I found that the floristic com position of the AptianAlbian flora of a paleoequatorial site is signifi cantly different from high paleolatitudes, but similar to mid paleolatitudes composition. I found that angios perms were more abundant and diverse in the paleotropical ecosystem analyzed, gymnosperm s were more abundant and diverse in hig paleolatitudes and spores were more abundant in the paleotropical ecosystem analyzed but m diverse in the paleotemperate region. It is recommended to include m ge the dataset an d support or reject the pa tterns found in this study. 51

PAGE 52

APPENDIX A SPECIES COUNTS PER SAMPLE Sample depth / Species name Afropollis sp1 cf.j(Brenner) Doyle and Doerenkamp 1982 Afropollis spp. Angiosperm pollen spp. Araucariacidites Cookson 1947 Baculotriletes sp1 Gabonisporites sp2 Gabonisporites sp3 Baculotriletes sp2 Baculotriletes sp3 Baculotriletes spp. Liliacidites sp1 Brenneripollis sp4 Callialasporites 1957) Dev 1961 Callialasporites ( 1957) Dev 1961 ChomotriletescalmegrensisP 1962 Chomotriletes spp.LM 2496' 5'' 232 LM 2510' 10'' 741 Afropollisardinus austalis dampieri(Balme trilobatusBalme f. ocockLM 2487' 21 2723 4 75 1 2114 LM 2529' LM 2541 2 LM 2562' 31844591 82 LM 2599' 4'' 41 5 LM 2625' 21 8 1 LM 2674' 1" LM 2686' 15 4 636 LM 2696' 1.5'' 0 LM 2720' 21 3 3 LM 2735' 1 2 301 LM 2748' 14 3 LM 2749'7'' 41 LM 2769' LM 2789' 21 LM 2806' LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 2 LM 2868'7'' 11 LM 2887' 16 LM 2915'8'' 11 71 LM 2932'8'' 14 1 4 1 LM 2951'9'' LM 2956'2'' 215 181 LM 2965'Barren interval 1413 34 9'' 234023 145 LM 2571' 10'' 118 2 141 LM 2585' 231511 8 LM 2607' 61 7 LM 2642' 11" 22 7 1 01 LM 2658' 10" 2 11730 41 1 3 51 1 LM 2677' 11 3 9 1 LM 2690' 11'' 4 1 804 LM 2695' 11'' 2 1 4510 11 1 LM 2703' LM 2841' 52

PAGE 53

. Sample depth / Species name cf.Cicatricosisporitessubrotundus Brenner 1963 cf.Appendicisporitesdentimarginatus Brenner 1963 Appendicisporitescf.erdtmanii Pocock in press 64 CicatricosisporitesdorogensisPotoni nii and Gelletich 1933 Cicatricosisporitescf.hughesii Dettmann 1963 Appendicidisporitescf. Pocock 1962 Cicatricosisporites spp. cf.ExesipollenitestumulusBalme 1957 Classopolliscf.classoides(Pflug) Pocock y Jansonius 1961 Classopolliscf.classoides(Pflug) Pocock y Jansonius 1961 (tetrad) Classopolliscf.intrareticulatus Volkheimer 1972 Classopollis ssp. Clavatriletes ssp.LM 2487' LM 2496' 5'' 12 LM 2510' 10'' 13 LM 2529' LM 2541' 9'' 21 1 LM 2562' 2 LM 2571' 10'' 1 LM 2585' 111 11 LM 2599' 4'' LM 2607' 2 LM 2625' 581 LM 2642' 11" 15 2 1 LM 2658' 10" 2 LM 2674' 1" 27 2 LM 2677' 12 1 LM 2686' 21 0 LM 2690' 11'' 15 10 LM 2695' 11'' 70 23 LM 2696' 1.5'' 11 2 1 2 LM 2703' LM 2720' 20 LM 2735' 11 211 LM 2748' 18 LM 2749'7'' 3 LM 2769' 2 LM 2789' 1 LM 2806' LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2841' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 13 LM 2868'7'' 11 LM 2887' 18 12 1 LM 2915'8'' 55 1 1 7 1 1 LM 2932'8'' 1 31511136 LM 2951'9'' LM 2956'2'' 212 29 LM 2965'Barren interval jan so 53

PAGE 54

. Sample depth / Species name Concavissimisporitesvariverrucatus (Couper 1958) Brenner 1963 Cycadopites sp1 Echimonoletes"sphericus"Informal ICP Echimonoletes spp. Baculatisporitescomaumensis (Cookson) Potoni 1956 Echitriletes sp1 cf.Muerrigerisporitescoronispinalis Srivastava 1975 Echinatisporisvarispinosus(Pocock) S.K. Srivastava 1975 Echitriletes sp2 Echitriletes sp3 Echitriletes spp. Equisetoporitescf.dudarensis(Deak) de Lima 1980 Equisetosporitescf.ambiguus Hedlund 1966 Ephedripitescf.multicostatus Brenner 1963LM 2487' LM 2496' 5'' 1 LM 2510' 10'' 11 LM 2529' 24 LM 2541' 9'' 11 LM 2562' 114 LM 2571' 10'' 11 LM 2585' 321 2 LM 2599' 4'' 1 LM 2607' 1 LM 2625' 1 LM 2642' 11" 11 LM 2658' 10" 1 LM 2674' 1" 141 LM 2677' 41 31 LM 2686' 11 11 LM 2690' 11'' 11 LM 2695' 11'' 13 LM 2696' 1.5'' 1 LM 2703' LM 2720' 15113 LM 2735' 1 LM 2748' LM 2749'7'' 1531 LM 2769' LM 2789' 31 LM 2806' LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2841' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 12 1 3 LM 2868'7'' LM 2887' 1 LM 2915'8'' 12124 2 LM 2932'8'' 11 1253 LM 2951'9'' LM 2956'2'' 11 54 LM 2965'Barren interval 54

PAGE 55

55 Sample depth / Species name Equisetosporitescf.fragilisdeLima 1980 Equisetosporitescf.leptomatusde Lima 1980 Equisetosporites sp1 Equisetosporites sp2 Ephedripites cf. barghoornii Pocock EphedripitesirregularisHerngreen 1973 Equisetosporites spp. Equisetosporitescf.albertensis(Singh 1964) de Lima 1980 Eucommiidites sp1 Eucommiidites sp2 Foveotriletes spp. Gabonisporites sp1 Retipollenites sp1 Inaperturopollenites sp1 Inaperturopollenites sp2 Inaperturopollenites sp3LM 2487' 1 LM 2496' 5'' 11 LM 2510' 10'' 11 LM 2529' 11 LM 2541' 9'' 21 134 LM 2562' 41 LM 2571' 10'' 11 LM 2585' 11 1 LM 2599' 4'' 1 LM 2607' 4 LM 2625' 43 LM 2642' 11" 21 LM 2658' 10" 13 LM 2674' 1" 111 LM 2677' 25 1 LM 2686' 728 LM 2690' 11'' 14 LM 2695' 11'' 21 LM 2696' 1.5'' 12 LM 2703' LM 2720' 19 LM 2735' 1154 LM 2748' 21 LM 2749'7'' 12 57 44 LM 2769' LM 2789' LM 2806' LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2841' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 342 4 LM 2868'7'' 4 LM 2887' 411 LM 2915'8'' 1115 316 LM 2932'8'' 334 6 1 43 LM 2951'9'' LM 2956'2'' 11 LM 2965' 1Barren interval 2 1 4 7 3 1 4 7 2 8 1 9 5 4 2 4 4 1 7 2 1 2 0 1 6 4 2 4 5

PAGE 56

. Sample depth / Species name Araucariaciditescf.guianensisVan der Hammen and Burger 1966 Microfoveolatosporisskottsbergii (Selling, 1946) Srivastava 1971 Pennipolliscf.reticulatus(Brenner 1963) Friss, Pedersen & Crane 2000 Pennipolliscf.reticulatus(Brenner 1963) Friis, Pedersen & Crane 2000 cf.Pinuspollenitesminimus(Couper) Kemp 1970 Psilamonocolpites sp1 Laevigatosporitescf.haardtii(Potoni & Venitz) Thomson & Pflug 1953 Psilatricolpites sp1 Psilatricolporites sp1 Impardecisporatrioreticulosa (CooksonandDettmann1958) Venkatachala, Kar & Raza 1969 Gleicheniidites cf. senonicus Ross 1949 Matonisporites sp1LM 2487' LM 2496' 5'' LM 2510' 10'' 21 1 LM 2529' 3 LM 2541' 9'' 52 1 LM 2562' 11 1 LM 2571' 10'' 711 LM 2585' 11 1 1 3 LM 2599' 4'' 6 LM 2607' 11 LM 2625' 2 4 LM 2642' 11" 15 LM 2658' 10" 28 LM 2674' 1" LM 2677' 6 LM 2686' 91 3 LM 2690' 11'' 29 LM 2695' 11'' 20 1 1 LM 2696' 1.5'' 31 LM 2703' LM 2720' 12 1 2 LM 2735' 5 412 LM 2748' 85 LM 2749'7'' 109 11 LM 2769' LM 2789' LM 2806' LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2841' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 21 6 1 2 LM 2868'7'' 145 LM 2887' 5 1 123 LM 2915'8'' 83 3 22 LM 2932'8'' 346 LM 2951'9'' LM 2956'2'' 11 5 1 LM 2965'Barren interval 56

PAGE 57

57 Sample depth / Species name Zlivisporis sp1 Dictiophyllidites sp1 Cyathidites minor Couper 1953 Cyathidites australis Couper 1953 Crybelosporites sp1 Retimonocolpites sp1 Retimonocolpites sp2 Asteropollis sp1 Clavatipollenitescf.hughesiiCouper 1958 Retimonocolpites sp3 Retimonocolpites sp4 Retimonocolpitescf.mawhoubensis Schrank 1983 Retimonocolpites spp. Retimonoletes sp1 Retipollenites sp2 Brenneripollis sp1 Brenneripollis sp1 Brenneripollis sp2LM 2487' 83 LM 2496' 5'' 3717 LM 2510' 10'' 4448 11 11 8 LM 2529' 3330 1 6 LM 2541' 9'' 8696 1 2111 LM 2562' 54842151 18 LM 2571' 10'' 15149 1 6 LM 2585' 16220 12 6 LM 2599' 4'' 32 LM 2607' 931 LM 2625' 3129 LM 2642' 11" 145 LM 2658' 10" 6115 LM 2674' 1" 11570 LM 2677' 27190 LM 2686' 43113 1 LM 2690' 11'' 2020 LM 2695' 11'' 7862 LM 2696' 1.5'' 3910 LM 2703' 1 LM 2720' 78115 LM 2735' 2680107 1 LM 2748' 352163 1 LM 2749'7'' 2811 3 1 LM 2769' 10 LM 2789' 2 LM 2806' 1 LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2841' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 19840 LM 2868'7'' 52145 LM 2887' 30107 23174 LM 2915'8'' 55361 1 3 LM 2932'8'' 86 1 LM 2951'9'' 11 LM 2956'2'' 452 1 LM 2965'Barren interval Brenneripollis sp354

PAGE 58

. Sample depth / Species name Retipollenites sp3 Retipollenites sp5 Retipollenites sp4 Retimonocolpites sp4 Retimonoporites sp1 Retipollenites spp. Tricolpites sp1 Phimopollenitescf.pannosus (Dettmann&Palyford)Dettmann 1973 Rouseacf.georgensis(Brenner) Dettmann 1973 Phimopollenitescf.pseudocheros Srivastava 1975 Rouseacf.miculipollisS.K.Srivastava 1975 Tricolpites spp. Retitricolporites sp1 Klukisporites foveolatus Pocock 1965 Microreticulatisporites sp1 Foveotriletes sp1LM 2487' LM 2496' 5'' 12 3 LM 2510' 10'' 321111 LM 2529' 221 LM 2541' 9'' 11168 1 LM 2562' 12 11 LM 2571' 10'' 11 LM 2585' 112221 1 LM 2599' 4'' 2 LM 2607' 1 LM 2625' 15 LM 2642' 11" 214 LM 2658' 10" 12 LM 2674' 1" 11 LM 2677' 11 2 LM 2686' 3 LM 2690' 11'' 21 LM 2695' 11'' 1 LM 2696' 1.5'' LM 2703' LM 2720' 2 LM 2735' 18 LM 2748' 1 LM 2749'7'' LM 2769' LM 2789' LM 2806' LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2841' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 1 LM 2868'7'' LM 2887' 11 8 LM 2915'8'' 11 5 LM 2932'8'' 11 2 1 LM 2951'9'' LM 2956'2'' 11 LM 2965'Barren interval 58

PAGE 59

59 Sample depth / Species name Retitriletes spp. Schrankipollismicroreticulatus (Brenner) Doyle et al. 1990 Camarazonosporitescf.insignis Norris 1967 Rugutriletes sp2 Rugutriletes sp1 Rugutriletes spp. Scabramonocolpites sp1 Scabramonocolpites sp2 Concavissimisporitespunctatus (Delcourt & Sprumont) Singh 1964 Scabratriletes spp. Spore spp. Gnetaceapollenites sp1 Steevesipollenites sp1 cf. Stellatopollis sp1 Stellatopollis doylei Ibrahim 2002 Cicatricosisporites hallei/venustusLM 2487' 1 LM 2496' 5'' 21 1 LM 2510' 10'' 68 LM 2529' 723 1 6 LM 2541' 9'' 14 18 LM 2562' 82 1 3 LM 2571' 10'' 142 13 LM 2585' 111 11 LM 2599' 4'' 11 LM 2607' 11 3 LM 2625' 7 LM 2642' 11" 11 LM 2658' 10" 11 1 2 LM 2674' 1" 28 LM 2677' 21 LM 2686' 27 LM 2690' 11'' 21 LM 2695' 11'' 32 LM 2696' 1.5'' 11 LM 2703' LM 2720' 12 LM 2735' 18 LM 2748' 1 LM 2749'7'' 16 1 LM 2769' LM 2789' 5 LM 2806' LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2841' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 52 LM 2868'7'' 111 0 LM 2887' 110 LM 2915'8'' 25 LM 2932'8'' 11 LM 2951'9'' 3 LM 2956'2'' 213 9 LM 2965' 1Barren interval 8 1 2 6 1 4

PAGE 60

. Sample depth / Species name CicatricosisporitessinuosusHunt 1985 Striatriletes spp. Verrumonoletes sp1 cf.VerrucosisporitesrotundusSingh 1964 Coverrucosisporites sp2 Converrucosisporites sp1 Verrutriletes sp1 Verrutriletes sp2 Verrutriletes sp3 Leptolepidites sp1 Verrutriletes sp4 Verrutriletes spp. Perotriletes sp1 Acritarchs Dinoflagellates Foram lining FungiLM 2487' 13 6 1 LM 2496' 5'' 42 381 LM 2510' 10'' 33 1 LM 2529' 46 1 154 LM 2541' 9'' 511 5 3741 LM 2562' 713 5 124813 LM 2571' 10'' 724 29 LM 2585' 15181 1206 LM 2599' 4'' 12 175 LM 2607' 11 0 1 LM 2625' 42 1 182 LM 2642' 11" 53 74 LM 2658' 10" 1015 3 11528 LM 2674' 1" 75 291 LM 2677' 211 232 LM 2686' 913 111617 LM 2690' 11'' 35 2454 LM 2695' 11'' 39 14210 LM 2696' 1.5'' 13 1 6 3 9 1 LM 2703' 3 LM 2720' 351 1 LM 2735' 910 311 LM 2748' 14 11 LM 2749'7'' 3311 LM 2769' 1 LM 2789' 312 LM 2806' LM 2824' LM 2836'3'' LM 2841' LM 2856' LM 2867'5'' 14 2 LM 2868'7'' 12 LM 2887' 13 LM 2915'8'' 374671317612 LM 2932'8'' 2115 21228 LM 2951'9'' LM 2956'2'' 51111219 LM 2965' 2Barren interval 60

PAGE 61

61 APPENDIX B PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES Plate I 1. Afropollis cf. jardinus (Brenner) Doyle and Doerenkamp; LM31-2562; England Finder (E.F): X50/1 2. Afropollis sp. 1; LM31 2562; E.F: X54 3. Pennipollis cf. reticulatus (Brenner 1963) Friss, Pedersen & Crane; LM31-2956; E.F: W22/2 (Label on left) 4. Liliacidites sp.1; LM7-2766; E.F: Y21/3 5. Psilatricolpites sp.1; LM31-2585; E.F: P60 6. Psilatricolporites sp.1; LM31-2585; E.F: N52/4 7. Retimonocolpites sp.2; LM31-2585; E.F: P60 8. Retimonocolpites sp.3; LM31-2562; E.F: N69/2 9. Clavatipollenites cf. hughesii Couper; LM31-2585; E.F: L59 England finder coordinates (E.F) were found ha ving the label of the sl ide on the right side, otherwise it is indicated as: label on left. Scale = 10m.

PAGE 62

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 62

PAGE 63

63Plate II 10. Retimonocolpites spp; LM7 2766; E.F: L62/3 11. Retimonocolpites cf. mawhoubensis Schrank; LM31 2887; E.F: U70/4 12. Brenneripollis sp.1; LM7 2750; E.F: W28 13. Brenneripollis sp.2; LM 2585 E.F: V61/4 14. Brenneripollis sp.3; LM31 2562; E.F: G64/2 15. Retipollenites sp.3; LM7 2750; E.F: D23/2 16. Retipollenites sp.4; LM 31 2541; E.F: M33 17. Retimonocolpites sp.4; LM31 2585; E.F: H39/1 18. Retimonoporites sp.1; LM31 2585; E.F: E58

PAGE 64

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 64

PAGE 65

65Plate III 49/2 19. Tricolpites sp.1; LM31 2677; E.F: D57 20. Phimopollenites cf. pannosus (Dettmann & Palyford) Dettmann; LM31 2585; E.F: F 21. Rousea cf. georgensis (Brenner) Dettmann; LM31 2510; E.F: S56/1 22. Phimopollenites cf. pseudocheros Srivastava; LM31 2642; E.F: T66/3 23. Rousea cf. miculipollis Srivastava; 3LM31 2529; E.F: L38 24. Retitricolporites sp.1; LM31 2571; E.F: J50/3 25. Schrankipollis microreticulatus (Brenner) Doyle et al.; LM4 3160; E.F: Y57/2 26. Stellatopollis doylei Ibrahim; LM7 2766; E.F: H56

PAGE 66

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 66

PAGE 67

67Plate IV 27. Araucariacidites australis Cookson; LM7 2766; E.F: X58 28. Callialasporites dampieri (Balme) Dev; LM31 2496; E.F: J54/4 29. Callialasporites trilobatus (Balme) Dev; LM31 2658; E.F: K58/1 30. Classopollis cf. classoides (Pflug) Pocock y Jansonius; LM31 2696.5; E.F: R21/2 31. Classopollis cf. intrareticulatus Volkheimer; LM31 2696.5; E.F: L58/1 32. Cycadopites sp.1; LM31 2562; M62/1 33. Ephedripites cf. barghoornii Pocock; LM 31 2487; E.F: M54/4 34. Ephedripites irregularis Herngreen; LM31 2496; E.F: M57/1 35. Equisetosporites cf. leptomatus de Lima; LM7 2766; E.F: R65 36. Equisetoporites cf. dudarensis (Deak) de Lima; LM7 2766; E.F: V57/4 37. Ephedripites cf. multicostatus Brenner; LM31 2956 (L abel on left); Q18/3 38. Eucommiidites sp2; LM7 2766 E.F: G57/3

PAGE 68

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 37 68

PAGE 69

Plate V 39. Equisetosporites cf. ambiguus Hedlund; LM7 2750; E.F: O56/2 40. Equisetosporites sp.2; LM31 2956(Label on left); E.F: L12/1 41. Equisetosporites cf. fragilis de Lima; LM31 2529; E.F: E60/2 42. Equisetosporites sp.1; LM31 2965; E.F: V24/3 43. Equisetosporites cf. albertensis (Singh 1964) de Lima, LM31 2887; E.F: R21 44. Eucommiidites sp1; LM31 2585; E.F: L55/2 45. Inaperturopollenites sp2; LM7 2766; E.F: Y65 46. Inaperturopollenites sp1; LM31 2686; E.F: V60 47. Gnetaceapollenites sp1; LM31 2677; E.F: O64 48. Steevesipollenites sp1; LM31 2887; E.F: U64/3 69

PAGE 70

39 40 41 43 44 45 46 42 48 47 70

PAGE 71

Plate VI 49. Baculotriletes sp.1; LM31 2562; E.F: S62/1 50. Gabonisporites sp.2; LM7 2750; E.F: W61/4 51. Baculotriletes sp.2; LM7 2766; E.F: P52/2 52. Gabonisporites sp.3; LM31 2571; E.F: L54/4 53. Chomotriletes cf. almegrensis Pocock; LM31 2541; E.F: W50/4 54. Echimonoletes "sphericus" Informal ICP; LM7 2766; E.F: W54 55. cf. Cicatricosisporites subrotundus Brenner; LM31 2956 (Lab el on left); E.F: U14/4 56. cf. Appendicisporites dentimarginatus Brenner; LM31 2956 (Lab el on left); E.F: U25 57. Cicatricosisporites dorogensis Potoni and Gelletich; LM31 2585; E.F: F51 58. Appendicisporites cf. erdtmanii Pocock; LM31 2585; L40/4 59. Appendicidisporites cf. jansonii Pocock; LM7 2750; E.F: N51 60. Cicatricosisporites cf. hughesii Dettmann; LM7 2750; E.F: R30/4 71

PAGE 72

72 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 58 59 60 57

PAGE 73

Plate VII 61. cf. Exesipollenites tumulus Balme; LM7 2766; E.F: Y69/4 62. Concavissimisporites variverrucatus (Couper) Brenner; LM31 2887; W60 63. Baculatisporites comaumensis (Cookson) Potoni; LM7 2766; E.F: K30/2 64. Echitriletes sp.1; LM 2750; E.F: D23 65. cf. Muerrigerisporites coronispinalis Srivastava; LM7 2750; E.F: U66 66. Echinatisporis varispinosus (Pocock) S.K. Srivastava; LM7 2750; E.F: U29/1 67. Echitriletes sp.3; LM31 2690; E.F: H60 68. Microfoveolatosporis skottsbergii (Selling) Srivastava; LM31 2642; E.F: J4069. Cyathidites minor Couper; LM31 2496; E.F: T63/1 70. Gleicheniidites cf. s Ross; LM31 2562; E.F: M70/3 71. Impardecispora trioreticulosa (Cookson and De atachala, Kar & Raza; LM7 2750; E.F: U57/4 enonicus ttmann) Venk 73

PAGE 74

63 61 62 64 65 68 66 67 69 70 71 74

PAGE 75

Plate VIII Zlivisporis sp.1; LM7 2766; E.F: S66 73. Matonisporites sp.1; LM31 2956; E.F: N23 74. Psilamonoletes sp.1; LM31 2541; E.F: P63/3 75. Klukisporites foveolatus Pocock; LM7 2766; E.F: L62/4 76. Microreticulatisporites sp1; LM31 2562; E.F: O52/3 77. Foveotriletes sp.1; LM7 2766; E.F: J64/3 78. Camarazonosporites cf. insignis Norris; LM31 2529; E.F: Y63/3 79. Rugutriletes sp.2; LM31 2585; E.F: X20/2 80. Cicatricosisporites hallei/venustus; LM4 3160; E.F4 81. Cicatricosisporites sinuosus Hunt; LM7 2766; E.F: O26 82. Verrumonoletes sp.1; LM7 2766; E.F: F52/1 83. cf. Verrucosisporites rotundus Singh; LM7 2766; E.F: U69/1 72. : W6 75

PAGE 76

76 72 73 76 78 79 80 81 74 75 77 82 83

PAGE 77

Plate IX 84. Converrucosisporites sp1; LM31 2585; E.F: U57/2 85. Converrucosisporites sp2; LM31 2956; E.F: T17 86. Leptolepidites sp.1; LM 31 C21/4 87. Verrutriletes sp.1; LM7 2750; E.F: S67/1 88. Verrutriletes sp.4; LM7 2766; E.F: W21/2 89. Perotriletes sp1; LM7 2766; E.F: X64/4 77

PAGE 78

84 85 86 87 89 88 78

PAGE 79

LIST OF REFERENCES Axelrod, D. I. 1959. Poleward Migration of Early Angiosperm Flora. Science 130(3369):203207. Barrio, C., and D. Coffield. 1992. Late Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Uppe r Magdalena Basin in Payand-Chaparral t Sub-Basin), Colombia Journal of South American Earth Sciences 5(2):123-139. Beltran, N., and J. Gallo. 1968. The geology of the Neiva Sub-Basin Upper Magdalena Basin, southern portion. Pp. 253-275. Ninth Ann. Fi eld Conf. Col. Soc. Petrol Geol. & Geoph. Bogota, Colombia Bice, K. L., D. Birgel, P. A. Meyers, K. A. Dahl, K. U. Hinrichs, and R. D. Norris. 2006. A multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Paleoceanography 21(2). Blau, J., L. Vergara, and H. Stock. 1992. First pla nktonic foraminifera from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Co lombia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 6(3):191-206. Boggs, S. 2006. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy. Pearson, Prentice Hall. Brenner, G. 1963. The spores and pollen of th e Potomac Group of Maryland. Department of Geology, ed., Baltimore, Maryland. Brenner, G. 1968. Middle Cretaceous spores and polle n from Northeastern Peru. Pollen et Spores X(2):341-383. Brenner, G. 1974. Palynostratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Gevar'am and Talme Yafe Formations in the Gever'am 2 well (Souther co astal plain Israel). Geological Survey of Israel Bull. 59:1-27. Brenner, G. 1976. Middle Cretaceous floral prov inces and early migrations of angiosperms. In C. Beck, ed. Origin and early evolution of angiospColumbia University Press, New York. Brenner, G. 1996. Evidence for the earliest stage of angiosperm pollen evolution: A paleoequatorial section from Israel. Chapman & Hall. Brenner, G., and I. Bickoff. 1992. Palynology and age of the Lower Cretaceous basal Kurnub Group from the coastal plain to the Nort hern Negev of Isra el. Palynology 16:137-185. Burnham, R., and K. Johnson. 2004. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series BBiological Sciences 359(1450):1595-1610. segment (western Girardo erms. 79

PAGE 80

Coiffard, C., B. Gomez, J. Kvacek, and F. T 2006. Early angiosperm ecology: evidence from the Albian Cenomanian of Europe. Annals of Botany 98:495-502. C 1. ph., Bogota, Colombia. Cra Pp. 107-144. In E. Cra Crane, P., and S. Lidgard. 1990. Angiosperm etaceous palynological diversity. Pp. 377-407. Inradiations. Oxford University. de Lima, R. 1978. Palinologia da Fo do Nordeste do Brasil). Introducao geologica e descricao sistem a azonotriletes. Ameghiniana Revista de la Asociaci on Paleontologica Argentina XV(3-4):333-365. Descricao sistematica dos esporos da subtur ma polen das turmas saccites e aletes. Ameghinian ca Argentina XVI:27-63. de Lima, R. 1980. Palinologia da Formacao Santan a (Cretaceo Descripcao sistematica dos polens da turma plicates (subturm Revista de la Asociacion Pale ontologica Argent de Lima, R. 1987. Estudo palinologico da sondage m Rio Peixe, Cretaceo do Nordeste do Br de Lima, R. 1989. Palinologia da Formacao Santan a (Cretaceo do Nordeste do Brasil). IV. s polens das turmas plicates e poro microplancton marinho. Ameghiniana Revista de 26(1-2):63-81. Dino, R., d. S. O., and D. Abrahao. 1999. Palynological Cretaceous strata from azonas Basin. Boletim do 5 simposio sobre o Cretaceo do Brasil:557-585. h evenard. rigan, H. 1967. The geology of the Upper Ma gdale eo or na Basin (N orthern portion). Pp. 221-25 Eigth Field Conf. Col. Soc. Petrol Geol. & G ne, P. 1987. Vegetational consequences of the angiosperm divers ification rms and their biological M. Friis, W. G. Chaloner, P. R. Crane., ed. The origin of angiospe consequences. Cambridge University. iosperms. ne, P., E. Friis, and K. Pedersen. 1995. The or igin and early diversification of ang Nature 374(6517):27-33. Cra ne, P., and S. Lidgard. 1989. Angiosperm dive rsification and paleolatitu Cretaceous floristic dive rsity. Science 246(4930):675-678. dinal gradients in radiation and patterns of Cr P. D. Taylor, and G. P. Larwood, eds. Major evolutionary rmacao Santana (Cretaceo ati ca dos esporos da subturm de Lima, R. 1979. Palinologia da Fo rmacao Santana (Cretaceo do Nordeste do Brasil). II. zonotriletes e turma monoletes, e dos a Revista de la Asoc iacion Paleontologi do Nordeste do Brasil). III. a costates). Ameghiniana ina XVII(1):15-47. estratigrafica da Lagoa do Forno, Baic do asil. Bol. IG-USP, Ser. Cient. 18:67-83. Descricao sistematica do ses, esporos, incertae sedis e la Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina and stratigraphic characterization of the the Alter do Chao Formation, Am 80

PAGE 81

Doyle, J., S. Jardine, and A. Doerenkamp. 1982. Afropollis, a new genus of early angiosper pollen, with notes on thaceous pal ynostratigraphy and paleoenvironments of Northern Gondwana. BCREDP 6:39-117. Ecopetrol ICP. 2000. Registro de descripcion sedimentologica y estratigrafica: Los Mangos 4, Los Mangos 7 y Los Mangos 31. Stratigra phic and lithologic column. Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga. Etayo, F. 1993. A modo de historia geologica del Cretacico en el Valle Superior del Magdalena. In F. Etayo, ed. Estudios ge ologicos del Valle Superior del Magdalena. Universidad Nacional, Bogota. Florez, J. M., and G. A. Carrill o. 1994. Estratigrafia de la sucesin litolgica basal del Cretcico del Valle Superior del Magdalena. Pp. 1-25. In F. Etayo, ed. Estudios geolgicos del Valle Superior del Magdalena. Universidad Nacional, Bogota. Friis, E., W. Chaloner, and C. P. 1987. Introduction to angiosperms. Pp. 1-15. In E. M. Friis, W. G. Chaloner, P. R. Crane., ed. The or igin of angiosperms and their biological consequences. Cambridge University. Friis, E., K. Pedersen, and P. Crane. 2006. Cr etaceous anglosperin flowers: Innovation and evolution in plant reprod uction. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 232(2-4):251-293. Hammer, O., D. Harper, and P. Ryan. 2001. PAST : Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analyses. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1):9pp. Hayek, L., and M. Buzas. 1997. Surveying Natural P opulations. Columbia Univeristy Press, New York. Heimhofer, U., P. Hochuli, S. Burla, J. Dini s, and H. Weissert. 2005. Timing of Early Cretaceous angiosperm diversification and possible li nks to major paleoenvironmental chang Geology 33(2):141Herngreen, G. 1973. Palynology of the Albian-Cenom anian strata of Borehole 1-QS-1-MA, State of Maranhao, Brasil. Pollen et Spores XV(3-4):515-555. Herngreen, G. 1974. Middle Cretaceous palynomorphs from the Nort heastern Brazil. Sci. Geol. Bull. 27(1-2):101-116. Herngreen, G. 1975. Palynology of the Middle a nd Upper Cretaceous strata in Brazil. Medelingen Rijks Geologische Dien st, Nieuwe Serie 26(3):39-91. Herngreen, G., M. Kedves, L. Rovnina, a nd S. Smirnova. 1996. Cretaceous palynofloral provinces: a review. Pp. 1157-1188. In J. Jansonius, and D. McGregor, eds. Palynology: e Cret e. 144. 81

PAGE 82

Principl es and applications. Am ion of St Foundation. Hic rm Ibra Qattara Jan eric an A ssociat ratigraphic Palynologists key, L. J., and J. A. Doyle. 1977. Early Cretaceous Fossil Evidence for Angiospe Evolution. Botanical Review 43(1):3-104. him, M. 1996. Aptian-Turonian palynology of the Ghazalat-1 Well (GTX-1) Depression, Egypt. Review of Pa laeobotany and Palynology 94:137-168. sonius, J., L. Hills, and Hartkopf-Fr oder 2002. Genera file of fossil spores. Dept. of Ge ology Jardine, S., and H. Magloire. 1965. P Sngal et Cote d'Ivoire. Mmoires du Bur res 32:187-245. Kemp, E. 1970. Aptian and Albian miospores 4):73-143. Kovach, W. 1993. Multivariate t echniques for biostratrigraphical Geological Society 150:397-705. and D. Batten. 1994. Association depositional environm ntation of organic matter. Camb Lidgard, S., and P. Crane. 1990. Angiosperm Comparison of Palynofloras and Leaf Lidgard, S., and P. R. Crane. 1988. Quantitative Nature 331(6154):344-346. Lupia, R. 1999. Discordant morphological disp arity and taxonom erican pollen record. Paleobiology 25(1):128. Lupia, R., P. Crane, and S. Lidgard. 2000. diversification and Cretaceous environmental change. change The last 145 million year bridge. Lupia, R., S. Lidgard, and P. Crane. 1999. Com undance and diversity: implications for biotic replacem s angiosperm radiation. Paleobiology 25(3):305-340. and Geophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary. Jara millo, C., M. Rueda, and G. Mora. 2006. Cenozoi c plant diversity in the neotropics. Science 311:1893-1896. alynologuie et stratigraphie du Crtac des Bassind du eau de Recherches Gologiques et Mini from Souther England. Palaeontographica 131(1correlation. Journal of the Kovach, W. of palynomorphs and palynodebris with ents: quantitative approaches. In A. Traverse, ed. Sedime ridge University Press. Divers ification and Cretaceous Floristic Trends a Macrofloras. Paleobiology 16(1):77-93. -Analyses of the Early Angiosperm Radiation. ic diversity during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation: Notrh Am Angiosperm In S. Culver, and P. Rawson, eds. Biotic response to global s. University Press, Cam p aring palynologycal ab ent duri ng the Cretaceou 82

PAGE 83

Magurran, A. 2003. Measuring biological diversity. Blacwell Publising. McCune, B., and J. Grace. 2002. Analysis of ecological communities. MjM Sofware Design, Oregon. MCCune, B., and M. Mefford. 1999. Multivariate Analisys of Ecological Data, Version 4.01. MjM Software. Mielke, P. W., and K.rry. 2001. Permut ation methods: a distance approach. Springer. Muller, H. 1966. Palynological investigations of the Cretaceous sediments in Northeastern Brazil. Pp. 123-136. 2nd W. Afri can Micropal. Coll., Ibadan. Pocock, S. 1962. Microfloral analysis and age determ ination of strata at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Western Canada plains Palaeontographica 111(1-3):1-95. Prssl, K. 1992. Preliminary results of palynol ogical investigations on the Cretaceous of Colombia, South America. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 71:275-268. Prssl, K., and L. Vergara. 1993. The Yav Form ation (Lower Cretaceous), Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia: an integrated sedimentologi cal and palynological study. N. Jb. Geol. Palont. Abh. 188(2):213-240. Ramon, J., and A. Fajardo. 2004. Sedimentologia y estratigrafia secuencial de la Form Caballos, Subcuenca de Neiva, Valle Supe rior del Magdalena. III Convencion Tecnica ACGGP. Bogota, Colombia. Regali, M., and C. Viana. 1989. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in Brazilian sedimentary Basins: Correlation with the Internationa l Standard Scale. Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. Servico de desenvolvimiento de recursos humanos, Rio de Janeiro. Retallack, G., and D. Dilcher. 1981. Arguments fo r a Glossopterid Ancestry of Angiosperms. Paleobiology 7(1):54-67. SAS Institute. 1998. JMP Statistics and graphic guide, Version 5.1. SAS Institute. Schneider, H., E. Schuettpeltz, K. Pryer, R. Cr anfill, S. Magallon, and R. Lupia. 2004. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428:553-557. Schrank, E. 1987. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic paly nomorphs from Northeast Africa (Egypt and Sudan) with special reference to Lat Cret aceous pollen and dinoflagellates. Berliner geowiss. Abh. 75(1):249-310. Schrank, E. 1994. Nonmarine Cretaceous palynol ogy of northern Kordofan, Sudan, with notes on fossil Salviniales (water ferns). Geol Rundsch 83:773-786. J. Be acion 83

PAGE 84

Schrank, E. 2002. Barremi an angiosperm pollen and associated palynomorphs from the Dakhla 3-56. Sch -Maastric western Egypt. Sriv up (Albian) of the Southern I(2):1-119. Sriv rovinces, continents and climates. Review of Sun the Lower Cretaceous of Jixi, eastern and implications of an herbaceous origin for ., ed. Flowering plant origin, evolution and phylogeny. Chapm Traverse, A. 1988. Paleop Vergara, L. 1992. Lower Cretaceou sequences in the Quebrada Bambuc (Aipe), Upper Magdalena Valley, Colom ologische Schriften 48:183-200. Vergara, L., J. Guerrero, P. Patarroyo, a nd G. Sarmiento. 1995. Comentarios acerca de la Geologia Colombiana 19:21-31. Wing, S., and L. Boucher. 1998. Ecological aspects of the Cretaceou Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 26:379-421. Zar, J. H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall. Oasis area, Egypt. Pa leontology 45(1):3 rank, E., and M. Ibrahim. 1995. Cretacceous (Aptian htian) palynology of foraminifera-dated wells (KRM1, AG-18) in north astava, S. 1975. Microspores from the Fred eriscksburg Gro United States. Paleobiologie Continentale V astava, S. 1994. Evolution of Cretaceous phyt op Palaeobotany and Palynology 82:197-224. G., and D. Dilcher. 2002. Early angiosperms from Heilongjiang, China. Review of Pa laeobotany and Palynology 1 21(2):91-112. Taylor, W. D., and L. J. Hickey. 1996. Evidence for angiosperms. Pp. 232-266. In W. D. a. H. Taylor, L. J an & Hall. alynology. Unwin Hyman, London. s stratigraphic bia. Gie ssener Ge nomenclatura estratigrf ica del Cretcico In ferior del Valle Superior del Magdalena. s flowering plant radiation. 84

PAGE 85

BIOGRAPHICAL SKET Paula Mejia was born on Dec 23, 1979 in Mede lln, Colombia. The oldest of three children, she grew up mostly in her city of or igin, graduating from the INEM Jos Flix de Restrepo High School in 1996. She earned her B. S. in Biology with emphasis in botany and palynology from the Universidad de Antioquia in 2004. While in coll ege she worked as research assistant in the Chagas disease Lab resear ch in 2000, in the HUA herbarium 2000 2003, and then in 2003 she moved to Bucaramanga, Colo mbia to work in her undergrad thesis in palynology. Upon graduating in May 2004 with her B.S. in biology, Paula worked as research assistant in the Colombian Institute of Petroleum. In Aug 2004 sh e moved to Gainesville, Fl in order to attend to the University of Florid a to get her master's degree in science. Upon completion of her masters program, Paul a will continue in graduate school in the University of Florida as a PhD student in the Botany Department. She recently got marri Lucas Fortini, a PhD student in the Forestry Department. CH ed to 85


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020720/00001

Material Information

Title: Floral Composition of a Lower Cretaceous Paleotropical Ecosystem Inferred from Quantitative Palynology
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020720:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020720/00001

Material Information

Title: Floral Composition of a Lower Cretaceous Paleotropical Ecosystem Inferred from Quantitative Palynology
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020720:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text





FLORAL COMPOSITION OF A LOWER CRETACEOUS PALEOTROPICAL ECOSYSTEM
INFERRED FROM QUANTITATIVE PALYNOLOGY




















By

PAULA JENIFER MEJIA VELASQUEZ


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































2007 Paula Jenifer Mejia Velasquez

































To my Mom, my Daddy, Kata, Jeisson and Lucas.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my advisor and committee chair Dr. David Dilcher for general advice

in my research, review of my chapters, patience with all my questions, support of all my ideas,

and in general, everything.

I would like to thank my committee members for their useful feedback and comments, the

Smithsonian Institute for supporting my internship in Panama, which was an important step in

the analyses of my samples, to the Colombian Institute of Petroleum and Petrobras for allowing

the sampling of the cores for this study and the Evolving Earth Foundation for the funding they

gave for this study.

I also would like to thank my fiancee, Lucas, who helped review the text, but most

important, who gave me very good ideas through discussion, helped me with the statistics, gave

me anti-stress treatment with his enthusiasm, and gave all the love and support I needed.

Finally I want to thank my family in Colombia, my mother for all her love and support, to

my daddy for all his love, to my sister Kata and my brother Jeisson for their support.









TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

LIST OF FIGURES ................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .7

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... .............................. 10

2 M A TER IA L S A N D M ETH O D S ........................................ .............................................17

S a m p lin g ................... ...................1...................7..........
Laboratory Procedures ........................................................ .......... .......... .... 18
A nalyses...................................................................... 19
Statistical M methods ................................................. 20
R arefaction .............................................................................20
D distribution and V ariance T est.................................................................................. 20
A b u n d a n c e ................................................................................................................. 2 1
Species R richness ................................................. ... ... .. .. ... ............ 21
Cluster Analysis: Grouping Samples with Similar Composition.............. .....................22
Relationship between Species Distribution and Lithology ..........................................22
Comparison between Paleotropical and North American Samples..............................23

3 R E SU L T S ...........................................................................................2 6

A b u n d an ce ................... ...................2...................6..........
S p e cie s R ich n e ss ......................................................................................................2 7
Hierarchical Cluster Analyses: Sample Associations........................... ...........29
Multi-response Permutation Procedure (MRPP): Species Distribution and
L ithology R relationship ....................................................... ... .. ........ ........... 30
Comparison of Abundance and Number of Species between the Paleotropical Site
Studied with Middle and High Paleolatitude Sites of North America.............. .............. 31
R elativ e A b u n d an ce ................................................................................................ 3 1
Species R richness ....................................................... 32

4 D IS C U S S IO N ........................................................................................................4 2

Floral Composition of the Tropical Site Analyzed...................... .... ... .................. 42
Differences in Floristic Composition between the Paleotropical Site Analyzed and
P aleotem operate L attitudes .......................................................................... ....................48

APPENDIX

A SPECIES COUNTS PER SAMPLE.......... ........ ................. ... ............... 52

B PH O TO G R A PH IC PL A TE S ........................................................................ ...................61









L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ............................................................................... ...........................79

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ............................................................................... .....................85









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page


1-1. Upper Magdalena Valley (UVM) in Colombia showing the geographical location of
L os M angos field. ......................................................... ................. 16

2-1. Lithological column of Los Mangos 31 core and sample locations. ...................................25

3-1. Absolute abundance of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores represented
as the total number of individuals found in each one of the samples (all samples
rarefied to 200 counts). .......................... ...... ....................... .... .. ..... ........ 34

3-2. Absolute richness of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores represented as
the total number of species found in each one of the samples (all samples rarefied to
200 counts) ......... .................. ....................................... ............................35

3-3. Dendrogram showing the different lithological associations based upon their species
composition for the analyzed core. ..... ........................... .......................................36

3-4. Dendrogram showing the different associations of depositional environments based
upon their species associations for the analyzed core................................ ............... 37

3-5. Relative abundances of palynomorphs found in each kind of lithology. The number in
parenthesis indicates the number of samples......................................................................38

3-6. Relative species richness of palynomorphs found in each lithology. The number in
parenthesis indicates the number of samples......................................................................38

3-7. Comparison of the relative abundances of angiosperm pollen for the Aptian-Albian
interval between low (site studied), mid and high paleolatitudes ......................................39

3-8. Comparison of the relative abundances of gymnosperm pollen for the Aptian-Albian
interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes..................... ...................... 39

3-9. Comparison of the relative abundance of spores for the Aptian-Albian interval between
low m id and high paleolatitudes. ............................................... .............................. 40

3-10. Comparison of the relative species richness of angiosperms for the Aptian-Albian
interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes..................... ...................... 40

3-11. Comparison of the relative species richness of gymnosperms for the Aptian-Albian
interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes..................... ...................... 41

3-12. Comparison of the relative species richness of spores for the Aptian-Albian interval
between low, mid and high paleolatitudes ...................................... ............... 41









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

FLORAL COMPOSITION OF A LOWER CRETACEOUS PALEOTROPICAL ECOSYSTEM
INFERRED FROM QUANTITATIVE PALYNOLOGY

By

Paula Jenifer Mejia Velasquez

May 2007

Chair: David Dilcher
Major: Botany

Angiosperms are the most important floral components of modern ecosystems. It has been

hypothesized that angiosperms originated in low paleolatitudes during the Lower Cretaceous, but

the fossil record of low latitude areas is mainly composed of qualitative data, making it difficult

to make an accurate floral reconstruction of tropical ecosystems of that age. The main objective

of this study was to reconstruct the floral composition of a low paleolatitude ecosystem (Upper

Magdalena Valley, Colombia) in the Lower Cretaceous through quantitative analyses of

palynological samples. The results show that angiosperms were a minor component of the

ecosystem, with medians of 5 individuals and 4 species in the core, followed by gymnosperms

with an average per sample of 65 individuals and 7 species, and finally by spores, which were

the dominant component of the low latitude ecosystem analyzed, with averages per sample of

122 individuals and 21 species. These results differ from the composition of an eastern

paleotropical site, where gymnosperms were the dominant component followed by angiosperms

and spores. These floristic differences may reflect different environmental conditions between

east and west South America during the Aptian-Albian interval. Differences in abundance and

species richness were found between the lower and upper portion of the core analyzed. Higher

angiosperm richness and abundance found in the upper portion of the core are evidence that









angiosperm diversification took place during the Albian. Concurrent with the angiosperm

increase, there was an increase the number of spore species indicating that they were also

diversifying during this age. Furthermore, a comparison between the paleotropical site studied

and published literature from middle and high paleolatitudes shows that paleo tropical

angiosperm abundance and species richness were similar to that of mid paleolatitudes, but higher

in comparison to high latitudes for this age. These results partially support the hypothesis that

angiosperms originated in low latitude areas and later radiated to middle and higher latitudes, in

the sense that they were more abundant and diverse in low latitudes than in high latitudes.

However, although a gradient in angiosperm richness and abundance was observed from the

tropics to high latitudes, differences between low and mid paleo latitudes failed to meet

statistical significance. With these results it is not possible to determine whether angiosperms

originated in low latitudes and radiated to mid latitudes or vice versa. Future analyses of

multiple paleotropical sites will help determine if the patterns observed in this study are

consistent throughout paleotropical ecosystems of Lower Cretaceous age.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Angiosperms are the dominant floristic component of most modern terrestrial ecosystems

(Burnham and Johnson 2004, Friis et al. 1987, Friis et al. 2006, Lupia et al. 1999, Wing and

Boucher 1998). Because of their crucial role in present ecosystems, angiosperm radiation is

considered one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of the planet (Lidgard

and Crane 1990). Angiosperms originated during the Lower Cretaceous (approx. 135My; Sun

and Dilcher 2002) and subsequently radiated and expanded to become the dominant group of

plants in almost every terrestrial ecosystem by the Upper Cretaceous (Crane and Lidgard 1990).

The earliest palynological records that contains definitive angiosperm pollen come from different

geographic sites, which range from tropical paleolatitudes in Israel (Brenner 1996) to high

paleolatitudes in China (Sun and Dilcher 2002).

It is widely believed that angiosperms appeared first in tropical areas (Brenner 1976,

Crane 1987, Crane and Lidgard 1989, Friis et al. 1987, Lupia 1999, Lupia et al. 2000, Retallack

and Dilcher 1981, Taylor and Hickey 1996, Wing and Boucher 1998) and then radiated to higher

paleolatitudes (Axelrod 1959, Crane and Lidgard 1989). If this hypothesis is true, then it is

expected that during the initial stage of angiosperm radiation the abundance and species richness

of angiosperms would be higher in tropical areas than in higher paleolatitudes. Unfortunately,

there is a lack of quantitative data needed to reconstruct accurately the composition of the flora

from tropical Lower Cretaceous ecosystems. Quantitative data are crucial to determine potential

differences between the floral composition of tropical areas and high and middle paleolatitudes

at that time. Also, the use of quantitative data analyses, such as multivariate techniques, allows









summarization of large datasets and determination of the patterns present in them in a simple

graphical manner (Kovach 1993).

Species richness and abundance are the two main quantitative measures that characterize

the floral composition of an ecosystem. Species richness is simply the number of species present

and abundance is the number of individuals per species (Magurran 2003). It is often difficult to

estimate these variables accurately from the fossil record (palynomorphs) due to the limitations

arising from preservation and representation of individuals in the ecosystems (Lidgard and Crane

1990). Fossil palynomorphs have been used extensively as a data source for population studies

because they are produced in abundance by plants, are extremely durable, and easily dispersed,

deposited, and preserved in sediments (Traverse 1988). Another very important characteristic of

palynomorphs is that a small sediment sample can contain thousands or even millions of

individuals (Traverse 1988). These high numbers increase the probability of finding a good

representation of the population by analyzing the palynological contents of the sediments.

Palynological studies are more numerous in medium and high paleolatitudes than in

paleotropical areas (Crane and Lidgard 1990). High and mid latitudes have numerous

quantitative studies of Cretaceous floras (Lupia et al. 1999). On the other hand, most of the

palynological publications on Lower Cretaceous sites consist of mainly qualitative or descriptive

data and/or taxonomic work (e.g. de Lima 1978, 1979, 1980, 1987, 1989, Dino et al. 1999,

Muller 1966, Regali and Viana 1989). Most of those publications contain biostratigraphic work

made for oil companies. In those studies the objective was to find key species that can be

correlated to age or to specific stratigraphic units. Consequently, most of the past tropical

biostratigraphic publications are focused on marker species, paying little or no attention to other

species in the samples. Of the remaining studies that do not focus on specific species, many









present only the data for selected palynomorphs (such as angiosperms), which creates inaccurate

reconstructions of community composition (e.g. Schrank 1994). Additionally, these studies have

limited use in reconstruction of Lower Cretaceous ecosystems because most do not present

abundance and species richness data. In fact, most publications do not present counts (e.g.

Brenner 1968) and the few that do lack standardized palynomorph counts for each sample (e.g.

Herngreen 1975), which makes comparisons between samples problematic. As an example, a

study by Herngreen (1975) includes palynomorph counts per sample that range from 25 to 326

palynomorphs. Samples with low counts probably do not reflect the real composition of the

ecosystem. Only samples with higher counts would be useful for inferring statistically the

floristic composition of the site.

One of the greatest limitations of the few studies that have published quantitative data

(e.g. Brenner 1974, Ibrahim 1996) is that they present the abundance and diversity of

palynomorphs in grouped intervals (e.g. single, rare, occasional, common and abundant). These

intervals are defined arbitrarily and are consequently different in each study. As an example,

Ibrahim (1996) and Schrank (2002) assign the category "abundant" to values of 11 30% and >

50% of grains in the sample, respectively. Although the total number of individuals in a sample

is known in these studies, this categorization is not accurate enough to infer sample or ecosystem

richness and abundance because with the percentages given it is not possible to make precise

calculations.

Due to this lack of quantitative data in tropical areas, many questions related to the

appearance and early radiation of angiosperms are still unanswered. Given the limitations of the

data currently available, the main objectives of this study were (1) to provide quantitative

palynological data of a paleotropical ecosystem through the quantitative analysis of a Lower









Cretaceous section from northern South America (Colombia) to infer its floral composition

(abundance and species richness of angiosperm and gymnosperm pollen, and spores of ferns and

allies) and (2) to compare these results with data from higher paleolatitudes, specifically from

North America, to determine whether angiosperms were more abundant and diverse in the

tropical site studied compared to higher paleolatitudes.

The specific questions to be addressed in this paper are: (1) What is the abundance and

species richness of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores for the low latitude

paleotropical site studied? (2) Were angiosperms more abundant and diverse in the low latitude

site studied compared to higher paleolatitudes during the Aptian-Albian interval? Additionally,

taking advantage of the quantitative dataset obtained, two questions involving specific

characteristics of the analyzed core are also addressed here. Multivariate statistical analyses

provide a valuable tool to determine patterns present in the data that otherwise would remain

hidden or would be less clear. With the use of multivariate techniques I want to answer: (3) Are

there any relationships among the species present in the analyzed samples based on their

distribution though the core? and (4) Does lithology determine the composition of

palynomorphs present in the samples?

I hypothesize that the paleotropical site studied will show a similar floristic composition

to other low paleolatitude flora of similar age (Herngreen 1975) (Hypothesis 1).

Additionally, based on the hypothesis of early angiosperm radiation from the tropics, I

hypothesize that angiosperm pollen was more abundant and more diverse in the tropical site

studied than in North America during the Aptian-Albian interval (Hypothesis 2).


Geological Background









Samples for this study were taken from the Caballos Formation in the Upper Magdalena

Valley (UMV) in SW central Colombia. (Fig. 1-1). All samples come from Los Mangos field,

one of the numerous oil fields located in the UMV. This field is composed of numerous wells

for oil exploration purposes. Some of the wells have been cored for different kinds of studies

(stratigraphy, lithology, etc.). A Los Mangos 31 core was selected for this study because it has a

very complete rock core that contains most of the Caballos Formation.

The name Caballos Formation was first used by Olsson (1956) in the region of Prado

Dolores, Tolima (cited in (Barrio and Coffield 1992, Blau et al. 1992). The Caballos Formation

is 100 to 400m thick (Vergara et al. 1995) and is defined as the top of the first sands under the

marls, mudstones, and calcareous rocks of the Villeta Formation (Ramon and Fajardo 2004) and

is either lying conformably on top of the Yavi Formation, where this formation is present

(Vergara 1992) or unconformably overlapping pre-Cretaceous rocks (Corrigan 1967). The

Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV), an intra-montane basin located between the Central and

Eastern Cordilleras of Colombia (Barrio and Coffield 1992, Prossl and Vergara 1993). The

basin's sediments are Mesozoic and Cenozoic in age (Blau et al. 1992). The Caballos

Formation's age of deposition is estimated to lie within the middle Aptian middle Albian

(Beltran and Gallo 1968, Corrigan 1967, Florez and Carrillo 1994). Support for the assignment

of this age comes from dinoflagellates found at the base of the Villeta Formation (on top of the

Caballos Formation) that suggest an age of middle Albian (Prossl 1992) and ammonites studied

by Etayo (1993).

The Caballos Formation is composed mainly of sandstones (80 90%) and shales (10 -

20%) (Florez and Carrillo 1994). The sandstones of the formation are the reservoir for most of

the petroleum produced in the Upper Magdalena Valley (Blau et al. 1992). Informally the









Formation has been divided into three lithologic sequences (Beltran and Gallo 1968, Corrigan

1967, Florez and Carrillo 1994). The three sequences are Lower, Middle and Upper Caballos,

which are not always present in the different localities of the basin, generating stratigraphic

confusion among authors (Vergara et al. 1995). The Lower Caballos sequence is mainly sandy,

being interpreted as floodplains (Ramon and Fajardo 2004) and littoral environments (Vergara et

al. 1995). The Midlle Caballos sequence is composed of intercalations of shale and sand, being

predominantly muddy. The different sediments and structures found in this sequence are

interpreted as fluvial channels, floodplains, coastal floodplain, low energy bay, and distal bay

deposits (Ramon and Fajardo 2004). The Upper Caballos sequence is predominantly sandy with

thin muddy intercalations being interpreted as estuarine deposits. The Mangos field marine

deposits are found just before the inundation that gave rise to the calcareous and mudstone rocks

of the Villeta Formation (Ramon and Fajardo 2004). Some authors have named each of these

three sequences as individual Formations: Alpujarra, El Ocal and Caballos, respectively (Florez

and Carrillo 1994, Vergara et al. 1995). However, because this nomenclature has been highly

contested (Vergara et al. 1995), I do not use it in this paper.




















F_____ BOGOTA OuK-2 0e



NE._

S0 i

UPPER
--^ SMAGOALEA
ECUAODOS e VALLEY

0 S Km
74'4'51"W
Fig. 1-1. Upper Magdalena Valley (UVM) in Colombia showing the geographic location of Los
Mangos field.









CHAPTER 2
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Sampling

The total extension of the rock core that contains the Caballos Formation in the Los

Mangos 31 well (-75 32; 27.89" W and 2 37' 14.56"N) is approximately 145.7 meters, but it

presents some missing intervals. A total of 33 samples were taken from this core using a 3 to 4.5

meter interval when possible. The stratigraphic column of the core analyzed with the sample

locations is shown in Fig. 2-1. Some samples did not fit exactly in this interval because of

missing rock intervals. In those cases, a sample was taken from the closest depth available and

from this point the interval was recalculated. Additionally, some samples were taken between

intervals when layers with potentially rich organic content were located. Each sample contained

approximately 30 to 50 grams of rock. The samples were taken with a geological hammer and

stored in a plastic bag that was labeled with the name of the core and the respective depth. Five

additional samples from Los Mangos 7 (75 32' 47.93" W and 2 37' 11. 39"N) and one from

Los Mangos 4 (750 32' 33" W and 2 37' 29"N) were used to complete the column were the

gaps were very long or samples were barren (location and lithology of those samples are shown

in Fig. 2-1). Since these two cores were very close to Los Mangos 31 core (< 2 km, see Fig. 1-

1.) I simply calculated their equivalent depth in Los Mangos 31 core when extracting their

samples. The Los Mangos 31 core is stored in the Yaguara Field (Neiva, Colombia) and is

property of Petrobras. The Los Mangos 4 and 7 cores are stored at the Colombian Institute of

Petroleum (Bucaramanga, Colombia), and are property of Ecopetrol. The total number of

samples taken from the three cores was 39.










Laboratory Procedures

The samples were prepared in the Geological Samples Preparation Laboratory at the

Colombian Institute of Petroleum (Bucaramanga, Colombia). The preparation of the samples

followed standard palynological preparation techniques described in (Traverse 1988). First, 10

grams of each sample were macerated with a mortar and pestle with the resulting powder put in

250ml beakers and the remaining portion of rock stored. Hydrochloric acid (HC1) at 10% was

mixed with each sample for a period of 90 minutes to eliminate carbonates. Samples were then

washed and left in water for 10 minutes to remove the acid. After discarding the water, samples

were transferred to hydrofluoric acid (HF) at 52% for 12 hours to eliminate silicates. Samples

were then concentrated using a centrifuge for 10 minutes and washed with distilled water. The

centrifugation and washing of the samples was repeated 3 times. Next, the samples were

thoroughly mixed with a saturated solution of Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and centrifuged for 60

minutes to separate the organic matter through density gradient. After a new centrifugation, the

organic suspended portion (upper dark layer) was transferred to a test tube and washed with

water four times. The samples were then centrifuged again at 3500rpm, washed several times

through a 10um sieve to eliminate debris and centrifuged for another 10 minutes. After sieving

the resulting material, a first mount for each sample was made on glass slides. The remaining

material was centrifuged again and Nitric acid (HNO3) added to oxidize the material. Potassium

hydroxide (KOH) at 5% was added to remove the humic acids and samples were centrifuged

again at 3500rpm for 6 minutes. After a final wash with distilled water, the samples were sieved

and an oxidized mount placed on the same slide of the previous mount for a given sample. The

permanent mounts of the samples were made using PVC and Canadian balsam. All resulting









slides were labeled with well name, depth at which the sample was taken and a unique sequential

identification number.


Analyses

Three hundred palynomorphs were counted per slide when possible. This number of

palynomorphs was selected because it allows for a good statistical approximation of the real

proportion of species in a population (Hayek and Buzas 1997). The oxidized mount of each

sample was always the first to be scanned, and in the case that it did not contain 300

palynomorphs, the non-oxidized mount was scanned. After reaching a count of 300

palynomorphs, counting stopped and the remaining of both mounts were fully scanned to register

all species present in the sample but not recovered in the 300 count. The location of morphotypes

and other palynomorphs (e.g. well-preserved, rare, or first encounters of a form in each sample)

were registered using an England Finder for 2/3 of the slides and with X/Y coordinates for the

remaining 1/3. The analysis of the samples was made with a Nikon E200 and a Nikon Eclipse

600 light microscopes. All the counts were included in an excel datasheet that is presented in

Appendix A. Each morphotype was photographed, described and drafted. Photographs were

taken using an oil 63X magnification objective for most morphotypes and dry 40X magnification

objective for a few large palynomorphs with a digital Axiocam Zeiss camera integrated to an

Axiophot Zeiss microscope. The identification of palynomorphs was made by comparison with

descriptions and photographs from published studies of similar ages (Brenner 1963, 1974,

Brenner and Bickoff 1992, de Lima 1979, 1980, Doyle et al. 1982, Herngreen 1973, 1974, 1975,

Jansonius et al. 2002, Jardine and Magloire 1965, Kemp 1970, Pocock 1962, Schrank 1987,

2002, Schrank and Ibrahim 1995, Srivastava 1975). When possible palynomorphs were

identified to species level. Species not identified in the literature were named using the genus









followed by consecutive species numbers (e.g. Verrutriletes spl, Verrutriletes sp2, etc). For

palynomorphs whose identification was not possible beyond the genus level, the particle ssp.

(unknown species) was added following the genus name (e.g., Verrutriletes spp.). All slides were

deposited in the Paleobotany Collection of the Florida Museum of Natural History, in

Gainesville Florida, USA.


Statistical Methods

Rarefaction

All samples with counts of 200 individuals or more were used for the analyses made in this

study. Samples were rarefied to 200 individuals to make them comparable. The rarefaction was

performed using the software Past (Hammer et al. 2001). The result of the rarefaction is the total

number of species that would be present in a 200-count sample. Rarefaction per group was made

possible by assuming that the relative abundance of the three palynomorph groups observed in a

sample (angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores) is kept constant as counts per

sample change. This is a reasonable assumption given that the chance of a grain belonging to any

of the three palynomorph groups studied is independent of the palynomorph found before or after

any given grain. More specifically, observations show that grains belonging to the same

palynomorph group are not spatially clustered or autocorrelated. Given the assumption above, I

rarefied the richness of each group based in the expected abundance of that palynomorph group

at 200 individuals.


Distribution and Variance Test

A Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to determine whether or not the distribution of the

data deviated significantly form normality. Additionally the variances were checked to









determine their homogeneity. Both tests were made using JMP software (SAS Institute 1998).

When distribution of data was non-normal, median was used instead of media, because using

averages may not give an accurate idea of the central tendency of the data. There are several

comparisons made and described in the following steps. For those comparisons using normally

distributed data and homogeneous variances, a standard student-t test was used and for non-

normal data and/or with not-homogeneous variances a Kruskal-Wallis test was used. This test is

a non-parametric equivalent to the student-t test. All comparisons were made using an alpha

value of 0.05 to determine statistical significance, and performed in JMP software (SAS Institute

1998).


Abundance

The absolute abundance of palynomorphs was calculated as the total number of

palynomorphs in each group (angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores) present in a

sample. After determining if data was or not normally distributed and if their variances were

homogeneous, comparisons of the abundance of palynomorphs between both portions of the core

were made for each group studied (angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores) using the

proper statistical test as mentioned above.


Species Richness

Absolute species richness was calculated for these samples. The absolute species richness

is simply the total number of species of each palynomorph group found in the samples. After

determining if the distribution of data was normal or not, and if their variances were

homogeneous, comparisons of the numbers of species between both portions of the core were

made for each group of palynomorphs using the proper statistical test as mentioned above.










Cluster Analysis: Grouping Samples with Similar Composition

A cluster analysis was made for grouping the samples depending on similarities in

species abundance and distribution. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering with Wards linkage

method and Euclidean distance measure was used, as recommended by McCune and Grace

(2002). Wards's clustering is recognized as a very effective method that gives distinct clusters

and has been used and recommended to interpret biostratigraphical data (Kovach and Batten

1994). The results are presented as dendrograms scaled by the distance between merged groups,

in this case, the distance between sample compositions. Before making this analysis samples

(depths) with less than 5 individuals were excluded. Then an outlier analyses based on the depth

was performed to remove data more than 2 standard deviations from the mean of the distribution.

Finally, to improve distance calculations, a Beal smoothing transformation of the data was made

to reduce the skewness in the distribution of the data that is common in count data (McCune and

Grace 2002). The interpretation of the obtained dendrogram showing the relationship of the

samples was made by the incorporation of labels in front of each sample. First, it was evaluated

comparing the lithology of each cluster, and then the depositional environments of each sample.

The cluster analysis was made using the software PCORD (MCCune and Mefford 1999).


Relationship between Species Distribution and Lithology

Multi-response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) analyses were made to determine the

effect of lithology on species distribution. MRPR is a nonparametric method to distinguish

differences among two or more groups (Mielke and Berry 2001). This method was used instead

of others similar multivariate methods like MANOVA, because the later is not appropriate to use

with data exhibiting nonlinear relationships and extremely skewed frequencies, both









characteristics of community data (McCune and Grace 2002). For this analysis the samples were

grouped based in 6 lithological groups: Sandstone (14 samples), Siltstone (8 samples), Sandy

siltstone (3 samples), shale (6 samples), Wackstone (5 samples) and Packstone (3 samples). Prior

data screening included removal of samples with less than 5 individuals and species with

distribution more than 2 standard deviations from the mean. The procedure involved the

calculation of a distance matrix among all samples (using Euclidean distance) for the calculation

of average within-lithology distance. The average distance indicates the degree of compositional

similarity of the samples within a lithology. The greater the average distance values the greater

the differences in composition of the samples within a lithology and vice versa (McCune and

Grace 2002). Lastly, the probability of a smaller weighted mean within-group distance was

calculated using a statistical approach equivalent to multiple random reassignments of samples to

groups respecting sample size differences. MRPP output includes a p-value and a change-

correlated within-group agreement (A). The p-value is the probability of observing equal or

greater similarities within lithological groups merely due to chance. The A value is a measure of

within-group homogeneity compared with random expectation. In this case, for identical species

distribution for samples within a lithology A = 1. When heterogeneity within lithologies equals

the expectation by chance, then A = 0. Lastly, if there is less agreement within lithologies than

expected by chance, then A < 0. This analysis was performed using the software PCORD

(MCCune and Mefford 1999).


Comparison between Paleotropical and North American Samples

After determining the normal or non- normal distribution of all the data sets used in this

comparison (description above), a comparative test was made to evaluate differences between

the floral composition of the paleotropical site analyzed with middle and high paleolatitudes. For









those comparisons using normally distributed data and with homogeneous variances, a standard

ANOVA test was used. For ANOVA comparisons that resulted in significant differences among

groups a Tukey test was performed to determine which groups were statistically different from

each other. For non-normal data and/or populations with non-homogeneous variances, a Kruskal-

Wallis non-parametric test was performed. For the Kruskal-Wallis comparisons that resulted in

significant differences among groups, a Tukey test was performed on the ranks of the data to

determine which groups were statistically different from each other (Zar 1999). The quantitative

palynological data for middle and higher paleolatitudes was derived from a North American

dataset compiled by (Lupia et al. 1999). To make comparisons valid, only samples which age

ranges from middle Albian to middle Aptian were selected from this data set. This selection

resulted in a total of 67 samples for the abundance comparisons (all with a minimum of 100

individuals counted) and 297 samples for the species richness comparisons (all with a minimum

of 10 species recorded). The abundance and species richness data sets were divided into middle

(below 420N) and high (above 420N) paleolatitudes. Due to differences in sampling effort

between the datasets, comparison tests were performed for relative abundances and relative

richness only, using an alpha value of 0.05 to determine statistical significance. I performed all

the tests mentioned in this section using JMP statistical software (SAS Institute 1998).














PlatIknerrlcras











Knemkoms

Neodeshrayesites

DauvflWOeMMs


Stoymaerams


2450
12450'


U


iiB


LUthdocal key


Sandy ai
- Siitstone
- Shale
LUnme-pa
Urn-w Lnw
-- VocailoC


2500'


2560'


2000'


2650'


2700'


2750'


2800'


2650'


2900'


2950'


LM-7




LM-7


c f LM4


LM-7
LM-7


Fig. 2-1. Lithological column of Los Mangos 31 core and sample locations. Red lines indicate
samples taken from the wells Los Mangos 4 and Los Mangos 7 used to complete the
section. Their respective lithology is shown in front of each red line. Ammonite
zonation and age were taken from (Etayo 1993) and lithology from (Ecopetrol ICP
2000).


Ie
stane


cksatone
akstane
ash


-==:31M


=~ LM-7









CHAPTER 3
RESULTS

Of the thirty-nine samples analyzed eighteen were barren or presented counts lower than

200 individuals those were excluded from the following analyses. All samples were rarefied to

200 individuals. A table with all species and counts per sample is annexed on Appendix A. All

parameters presented in this chapter were defined in the materials and methods section.


Abundance

Spores were the dominant palynomorph in nearly all samples analyzed with 122 of the

palynomorphs in average per sample, followed by gymnosperm pollen with an average of 65

pollen grains per sample and angiosperm pollen with a median of 5 pollen grains (Fig. 3-1).

When pollen and spore abundance are examined, there are two distinguishable portions of the

core. The lower portion goes from the base to the sample LM 2625' and the upper portion goes

from the sample LM 2885' to the top.

Since the distribution of angiosperm pollen abundance was non-normal, a non-

parametrical statistical analysis was used for this variable. The amount of angiosperm pollen was

relatively constant with a median of 4 angiosperm pollen grains for the entire lower part of the

sequence. An increase in the number of angiosperm pollen grains is clearly observable in the

upper portion of the core, presenting a median of 19 angiosperm pollen grains for these samples

(Fig. 3-1). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences in the number of

angiosperm pollen between both portions of the core (p < 0.05).

Since the distributions of abundance data for gymnosperm pollen and spores were

normal, I used parametric statistical analyses for them. In the case of the gymnosperm pollen, I

observed an average of 65 pollen grains per sample for the complete core. There was not a









significant difference between the average number of gymnosperm pollen grains between the

lower and the upper portion of the core (68 vs 53 grains in average per slide, respectively; t-test:

p < 0.37). Spores presented an average of 122 grains per sample through the core. Spores did not

show a significant difference in abundance between upper and lower portions of the core (120 vs.

129 grains in average per slide, respectively; t-test: p > 0.66) (Fig. 3-1).


Species Richness

In total 113 species of palynomorphs were found, with an average of 23 species per

sample (Fig. 3-2). The number of species per systematic group was: 36 angiosperm species, 26

gymnosperm species and 51 spore species. From this total, 20 species where singletons and their

distribution into the three palynomorphs groups was 7 singletons for angiosperm, 5 singletons for

gymnosperms and 8 singletons for spore species. Considering all three palynomorph groups,

there was an average of 21 species found per sample. However, there is a significant increase in

the number of species in the upper portion of the core, having a median of 18 species in the

lower portion and 28 sp in the upper portion of the core (Krukal-Wallis test: p > 0.011) (Fig. 3-

2).

Non-parametric statistical analyses were used for the species richness of angiosperm

pollen since data exhibited a non-normal distribution. The median number of angiosperm species

found for the whole core was 3. However, there is a significant increase in the number of species

by the upper portion of the sequence (Fig. 3-2). The median number of angiosperm species for

the initial portion of the sequence is 2 while the median number of angiosperm species for the

upper section of the sequence is 9 (Kruskal-Wallis test: p < 0.0021). This comparison was made

including two samples that presented an abnormally high number of angiosperms in the lower

portion of the core. These samples were LM 2887' and LM 2749'7". Both samples are different









from all the other samples in the core, because they have an elevated number of angiosperm

pollen. The first sample (LM 2887') had a total of 74 angiosperm pollen grains out of a total of

300 pollen and spores counted (this value is extracted from the original data, before the

rarefaction to 200). Two species contributed to most of that abundance: Retipollenites sp.2 with

54 grains and Retimonocolpites cf. mawhoubensis Schrank with 17 individuals. In the case of

the second sample (LM 2749'7"), the abundance of angiosperms is even higher, with a total of

133 angiosperm pollen grains out of 300 (before rarefaction). In this slide most of those grains

belonged to the same species: Pennipollis cf reticulatus (Brenner) Friis, Pedersen & Crane with

108 individuals. The other angiosperm species present in that sample were: Scabramonocolpites

sp2 with 16 individuals and Asteropollis spl and Retimonocolpites sp. 4 with 4 and 1 individuals,

respectively (the remaining amount are non identified angiosperm pollen grains). The most

abundant angiosperm pollen species in the core was Pennipollisperoreticulatus with a total of

124 individuals, but most of them (108) are present in a single sample (LM 2749'7").

The data of number of species of gymnosperm pollen showed a normal distribution, and

then parametric statistical analyses were used. The percentage of gymnosperm species was 7 in

average per slide through the total length of the core. The number of gymnosperm species

remained constant in the lower and upper portions of the core (7 and 7, respectively; t-test: p <

0.67). (Fig.3-2). Some samples presented peaks in the number of gymnosperm pollen. For

example, the depth LM 2932'8" has a majority of gymnosperm pollen, with 215 pollen grains

out of 290 individuals present in the sample. On the other hand, some samples had an abnormal

low number of gymnosperm pollen, such as sample LM 2868'7" with just 4 gymnosperm pollen

grains out of 272 individuals and sample LM 3496'5" with 4 gymnosperm pollen grains out of

119 individuals present in the sample. The only sample with a single species of gymnosperm









pollen was LM 2868' 7", containing only Inaperturopollenites sp.2. The most abundant

gymnospermous species was Callialasporites dampieri (Balme) Dev, being present in almost

every sample along the core (Appendix A).

Spores presented a non-normal distribution in the lower portion of the core, then a non-

parametrical test was performed for the comparison. There core had a median of 20 spore

species in average per sample. There is a significant increase in the number of species when

comparing the lower and upper portions of the core. The lower portion has a median of 18

species and the upper a median of 28 species (Kruskal- Wallis test: p < 0.042) (Fig. 3-2).

Quantitatively, the most important spore species were C),Qthi/,ire, minor Couper and C),Qthi/,ire,

australis Couper. It was found in most of the samples and was the most abundant species in the

study (in average 14% and 31% respectively of the total number of palynomorphs found in the

samples).


Hierarchical Cluster Analyses: Sample Associations

The resulting dendrogram shows groups of samples that have similarities on species

distribution and abundance (Fig 3-3). The dendrogram shows 6 clusters: A, B, C, D and E.

However, not all clusters are meaningful when interpreting them in lithological terms, because

most of the clusters grouped different lithologies in the same cluster. Cluster A presents only

samples with sandstone and siltstone lithology, being the best-defined cluster with medium grain

composition. Cluster B and cluster D show dominance of sandy lithology, but there are also

shales and lime rocks in both. Cluster C is dominated by lime rocks (Wackstone and Packstone).

The remaining cluster (E) is composed mainly by fine particle sediment shaless), but there are

also sandy and lime components.









Analyzing the dendrogram in terms of depositional environments seems to be more

convenient because the association patterns are clearer (Fig.3-4). There are two main groups of

the dendrogram showing continental and marine composition. The clusters A and B compose

the continental group and the clusters C, D, E and F are all coming from marine environments.

The cluster A is dominated by samples coming from floodplains. Cluster B is dominated by

samples coming from channels. Middle shore-face environments, with one continental sample

present, dominate the cluster C. Cluster D is clearly dominated by samples coming from

offshore environments. Cluster F has samples from offshore and shore-face environments.


Multi-response Permutation Procedure (MRPP): Species Distribution and Lithology
Relationship

This analysis shows that species composition in the samples is not strongly dependent on

lithology. The analysis result ofp = 0.15 indicate that there is a 15% chance I could find a better

grouping of the samples (greater within group similarity) by chance compared to the one made

based on lithology. The A value resulted equal to 0.0339, which means that the samples do not

have an identical species distribution within a lithology (that would be A = 1). This also means

that the heterogeneity within lithologies does not equals the expectation by chance (that would be

A = 0). Additional graphs were made as an attempt to illustrate the results of this analysis (Figs.

3-5 and 3-6), given that the MRPP does not give a graphic result. What is shown on the graphs

is that the relative amounts and number of species of each palynomorph have a similar pattern

independent of the lithology analyzed. In terms of the relative number of individuals and relative

number of species there was a constant trend in all the different lithologies: spores are dominant

with the highest values, followed by gymnosperms and finally by angiosperms with the lowest









values. The only exception to this trend was that relative number of species of angiosperm pollen

was higher than the gymnosperms species in shales.


Comparison of Abundance and Number of Species between the Paleotropical Site Studied
with Middle and High Paleolatitude Sites of North America

Relative Abundance

After checking if data were or not distributed normally, and if their variances were

homogenous, the comparisons of relative abundance and species richness between the three

different paleolatitudes (low, middle and high) were made using an ANOVA for the spore

richness, which showed normal distribution and homogeneous variances. For the abundance and

species richness in angiosperms and gymnosperms, and for the abundance of spores, which

showed a non-normal distribution, a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed.

The comparison of the relative abundances of angiosperms pollen between low, mid and

high paleolatitudes revealed that there are significant differences within the three paleolatitudes

(Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0004). The median relative abundances of angiosperm pollen for low, mid

high paleolatitudes were 4, 2 and 0, respectively. The Tukey test performed on the ranks of the

data showed that there are not significant differences between the relative abundance of

angiosperm pollen between low and mid paleolatitudes (overlapping circles), but that there are

significant differences between these two latitudes (low and mid) and high paleolatitudes (no

overlapping circles). There is a latitudinal gradient of decrease in the relative abundance of

angiosperms as latitude increases (Fig. 3-7)

For the relative abundance of gymnosperm pollen, the comparison made showed that

there are significant differences between the three paleolatitudes (Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0001).

The median relative abundances of gymnosperm pollen for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 26,









55, and 97, respectively. The Tukey test showed that there are significant differences between

the relative abundance of angiosperm pollen between the three paleolatitudes compared (no

overlapping circles). In this case, there is a clear latitudinal gradient of increase in the relative

abundance of gymnosperms as latitude increase (Fig. 3-8).

The comparison performed for the relative abundance of spores showed significant

differences between the three different paleolatitudes compared (Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0001).

The median relative abundances of spores for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 62, 34 and 3,

respectively. The Tukey test performed on the ranks revealed significant differences in the

relative abundance of spores between the three paleolatitudes. For spores the latitudinal gradient

is opposite to the one found for gymnosperms, in this case the relative abundance of spores

decreases as the latitude increases (Fig. 3-9).


Species Richness

The comparison of the relative richness of angiosperm pollen showed that there are

significant differences between low, mid and high paleolatitudes (Kruskal-Wallis: p < 0.0001).

The median relative richness of angiosperm pollen for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 14, 10

and 0, respectively. The Tukey test performed revealed that there are not significant differences

in the relative richness of angiosperm pollen between low and mid paleolatitudes (overlapping

circles), but that there are significant differences between these two (low and mid, with high

paleolatitudes (no overlapping circles). The latitudinal gradient is similar to the one exhibited by

the relative abundance, there is a decrease in the relative richness of angiosperm pollen as the

latitude increases (Fig. 3-10).

The comparison of the relative richness of gymnosperm pollen between low, mid and

high paleolatitudes showed that there are significant differences between the three paleolatitudes









(Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0019). The median relative richness of gymnosperm pollen for low, mid

high paleolatitudes were 31, 33, and 39, respectively. The Tukey test showed that there are not

significant differences between the relative abundance of gymnosperm pollen between low and

mid paleolatitudes (overlapping circles), but that there are significant differences between these

two paleolatitudes (low and mid) and high paleolatitudes (no overlapping circles). There is a

latitudinal gradient of increase in the relative richness of gymnosperms as latitude increase

(Fig.3-11).

The comparison performed for the relative richness of spores showed significant differences

between the three paleolatitudes (Kruskal-Wallis: p< 0.0001). The median relative richness of

spores for low, mid high paleolatitudes were 51, 53, and 60, respectively. The Tukey test showed

that there are not significant differences between the relative abundance of spores between low

and mid paleolatitudes (overlapping circles), but that there are significant differences between

these two paleolatitudes (low and mid) and high paleolatitudes (no overlapping circles). There is

a latitudinal gradient of increase in the relative richness of gymnosperms as latitude increase

(Fig. 3-12).











Angiosperms Gymnosperms


LM 25ii0'10"
LM 2541'9" --
LM 2562' _
M 25710'i -- -
LM2585' --
LM 2625 I .-
LM2642'11"'


LM2674'1 I
LM 2677T'
LM 26 6' ........... .
M 2 6 1 .......... ........... .... ........ .....
LM 295' 11 -
LM 2720 I



LM 2749'7'"
LM 2867' 5" I
LM 2M8'7"'


LM2815'"I -
LM 2932'8'" I ____._
0 60 120 2 60 1a 0 200


I
60 1_2
I
B~



I



i


i

IN) 12 2


Number of Individuals

Fig. 3-1. Absolute abundance of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores represented
as the total number of individuals found in each one of the samples (all samples rarefied
to 200 counts).


Depth


Spores









Depth Angiosperms


LM 2510'1O'
1M 2541'9"
LM 2562'
LM 2,571' 10i
LM 2 85'
M 2625' |
LM 2642'11'
1M2658'10"|
2674'1"
LM2677"
LM 2696' *


M 2695'11'
LM2720' g


Gymnosperms


1M27354 ___

L 2749'7" -

LM 28679'5 -
LM2g6g'7 5 -
LM2SS7' -7
LM 2915'9"
LM 291321"
0 10 20 0 10 20 0 10 20
Number of species


Fig. 3-2. Absolute richness of angiosperm pollen, gymnosperm pollen and spores represented as
the total number of species found in each one of the samples (all samples rarefied to
200 counts).


Spores


~
~ ~
~ ~






~


II
Illli











Distance '.-]bjectlve-Function)
IE-02 I.7E+00 3.4E+00 5. 1 E+00 6.9E+00




Information Remaining (%)
100 75 50 25 0



: LM 2956 2 _


LM 293261 __



LM 29748


A LM 27420
L.d 2691



B~L 26 2868.
LM 267'5





LC LM 2686

LM 27490'"
LM 2677 -
DLM 26746 1 "-
E LM 2695 I I

LM 2735



D LM 269585 1
Ld 2686'








LM 2571 10
LM 2625
LM 254S I"





LM 259109
LM 2677 '













Fig. 3-3. Dendrogram showing the different lithological associations based upon their species
composition for the analyzed core. There are 5 clusters of samples that showed a
similar species composition. The lithological convention is the same used for the
methods figure (Fig.2-1).
methods figure (Fig.2-1).










Distance (Objective-Funcion)
I E-2 1.7E+00 3.4E+00 5. I E -' 6.9E+00




Information Remaining (%)
100 75 50 25 0


CCb LM 2956 '2-

CFp LM 29 15"8
CFp LM 2SS7'
CCb LM 2868'7" _
B CCh LM 2867'5
CCh LM27S9'
CCh
nCCb LM 27498'7"
CCb LM 2769'
C msf LM 2696'1..5-"--....
MIlf LM 2695"1. 1 -
MTn LM 274S'
D Mn LM 2720"
LM 2735'
Ms"f LM 26907' 11
MOf LM2686'
MmSf LM 2625
MOf LM 265 1.0"
MOf LM 2599"
MOf LM 2677 -
MOf LM 2674 "1 "
MOf LM 2642'1.
Mm.Sf LM 2607 -
MOf LM 255'
MItS LM 2571"'0 -
MI]f LM 2487"
MmF M LM 2541'9"-
MOf LM 2529
MISf LM 24965"' 5
MOf LM 2562' 2
MOf LM 25010'10G


Fig. 3-4. Dendrogram showing the different associations of depositional environments based
upon their species associations for the analyzed core. There are 6 clusters of samples
that showed a similar species composition. The particle preceding the sample ID
represents the depositional environment. The first letter of that particle represents
whether is C- continental or M-marine, the second part the specific environment: Ch-
channels, Fp-floodplains, Sf-Shore face, 1Sf-lower shoreface, mSf- middle shoreface,
In-inter-tidal and Of-offshore.













1000


Angiosperms
50 0 Gymnosperms
Spores
40 0
200 T
300 T I




100 -


Packstone (3) Sandstone (14) Sandy siltstone Shale (6) Siltstone (8) Wackstone (5)
(3)
Lithology



Fig.3-5. Relative abundances of palynomorphs found in each kind of lithology. The number in
parenthesis indicates the number of samples.


18 -


10 I Angiosperms
Gymnosperms
8 E T M Spores

6

4


2

0
Packstone (3) Sandstone (14) Sandy siltstone Shale (6) Siltstone (8) Wackstone (5)
(3)
Lithology



Fig.3-6. Relative species richness of palynomorphs found in each lithology. The number in
parenthesis indicates the number of samples.






































Latitude
Fig. 3-7. Comparison of the relative abundances of angiosperm pollen for the Aptian-Albian
interval between low (site studied), mid and high paleolatitudes.


Tukey-Kramer
0 05




Latitude

Fig. 3-8. Comparison of the relative abundances of gymnosperm pollen for the Aptian-Albian
interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes.





































Tukey-Kramer
005


Latitude

Fig. 3-9. Comparison of the relative abundance of spores for the
low, mid and high paleolatitudes.


Aptian-Albian interval between


200










100





All Pairs
-J Tukey-Kramer
S 005


Latitude




Fig. 3-10. Comparison of the relative species richness of angiosperms for the Aptian-Albian
interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes.
















250



200



150



100




50



0


-^








S. .








All Pairs
S Tukey-Kramer
005


Latitude
Fig. 3-11. Comparison of the relative species richness of gymnosperms for the Aptian-Albian

interval between low, mid and high paleolatitudes.


Fig. 3-12. Comparison of the relative species richness of spores for the Aptian-Albian interval

90 I


All Pairs
.g Tukey-Kramer
005



.2

c


Latitude

between low, mid and high paleolatitudes









CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

Floral Composition of the Tropical Site Analyzed

The main purpose of this study was to determine the floral composition of a paleotropical

ecosystem through the analyses of quantitative palynological data. I had hypothesized that the

paleotropical site studied contained a similar floristic composition to other low paleolatitude

flora of similar age (Hypothesis 1).

Because floral composition is derived from species abundance and richness, the

hypothesis above was analyzed in both terms. The results of this study demonstrate that the

floristic abundance and richness of the Colombian low paleolatitude ecosystem analyzed are

different from the abundance and richness observed at a low latitude Brazilian site of similar age.

In general, the abundance pattern from the Brazilian site during the Albian was: gymnosperms

dominant with more than half of the individuals in average per sample, followed by angiosperms

and finally spores had the lowest abundance (Herngreen 1975). In contrast with the abundance

pattern above, the results of this study show spores as the most abundant palynomorph in nearly

all the samples, with an abundance of 61% in average per slide, while gymnosperms were a

secondary component of the flora with an average of 32% of the individuals per sample (Fig. 3-

1). Angiosperms were the minor component in the site studied with abundances less than 7% in

average per slide.

The relative richness patterns were also distinct between both low paleolatitude

ecosystems. The Brazilian site presented a higher relative number of gymnosperm species (more

than 50% in average per slide) and a similar relative number of species of angiosperms and

spores. In this study I found a higher number of species of spores (11% in average per sample),









followed by gymnosperms (7 species in average) and angiosperms had the lowest number of

species (4 in average).

In conclusion, these comparisons do not support the hypothesis that the floristic

composition of both low paleolatitude floras (Colombian and Brazilian) was similar. The

differences in the composition could be derived from essential differences in the flora of east and

west South America. It has been hypothesized that the African South American province in

the Lower Cretaceous had very dry conditions (Herngreen et al. 1996); which may have favored

gymnosperm dominance exhibited at the Brazilian site. Supporting this reasoning, the high

amounts of Classopollis classoides and gnetalean grains -pollen grains previously related to dry

environments- are present in high abundances at the Brazilian site. The hypothetical dry

conditions of east South America may also explain the low amount of spores in the samples,

because ferns are more abundant in humid environments. On the other hand, the high amounts

of spores found in the western South American site studied suggests that during the Lower

Cretaceous this area presented a humid environment. However, the lack of quantitative studies

in west South America limit the support this hypothesis.

Interesting patterns were found when analyzing the distribution of palynomorphs in Los

Mangos core. There were significant compositional differences between lower and the upper

portions of the core. Firstly, angiosperm pollen was significantly more abundant and with higher

number of species in the upper portion of the core than in the lower portion. The abundance

comparisons between the upper and lower portions of the core were made including two unique

samples that presented an abnormally high numbers of angiosperms in the lower portion of the

core. Yet, despite the inclusion of these outliers, comparisons showed statistically significant

higher abundance of angiosperm pollen in the upper portion of the core (Fig.3-1). Additionally,









the comparison of relative angiosperm richness between lower and upper portions of the core

showed the same pattern present for the abundance data with significantly more angiosperm

species in the upper portion of the core than in the lower portion (Fig.3-2). An increasing

diversity of forms and ornamentation can be observed in the upper portion of the sequence (mid

Albian), which could be the result of the increasing speciation of angiosperms during the Albian.

These results agree with the initial increase in angiosperm diversity that was taking place during

the Barremian to Albian interval (Heimhofer et al. 2005). This first increment was followed by

an even more dramatic increase of angiosperm species that took place during the Albian -

Cenomanian interval (Crane and Lidgard 1989, 1990, Lidgard and Crane 1990, Lidgard and

Crane 1988) or Albian Turonian interval in middle paleolatitudes (Lupia et al. 1999). The

samples analyzed in this study ranges from the mid Aptian to the mid Albian, which means that

the increase in angiosperm species demonstrates that the pattern of diversification found in other

quantitative studies worldwide also took place in the neopaleotropical flora analyzed here.

The first pollen grains that appear in the core are monosulcate grains identified as:

Pennipollis perireticulatus, Brenneripollis sp4 and Clavatipollenites hughesii. Some

inaperturate grains were also found at the bottom of the sequence, identified as Afropollis

jardinus andRetipollenites sp3. The first tricolpate species was found pretty early in the core

(approximately mid Aptian), which is congruent with the age of the occurrence of tricolpate

grains at low paleolatitudes in Israel (Brenner 1996). This tricolpate grain was psilate with

simple colpi and was identified as Psilatricolpites spl. The lower part of the core is

approximately middle to upper Aptian in age. More ornamented forms of tricolpate grains

appeared in the upper portion of the core, approximately in the lower to middle Albian. Two









tricolpate species, Rousea cf micupullis andR. cf georgensis, are relegated to the upper part of

the core (Appendix A).

Gymnosperms did not show differences in their abundance or species richness when

comparing the lower and upper portions of the core (Figs. 3-1 and 3-2). Spores did not show any

difference when comparing their abundance. However, when comparing species richness spores

showed a similar pattern to angiosperms, with significantly higher number of species in the

upper portion of the core than in the lower one (Fig. 3-2).

Summarizing all these comparisons, angiosperm pollen increased in number of

individuals and number of species through time, while spores increased in number of species and

gymnosperms did not show any significant change. There are at least three possible explanations

for these observed differences between the upper and lower portions of the core: lithological

differences between both portions of the core, differences in the depositional environments or

changes in the floristic composition of the ecosystem.

Lithology could potentially explain differences in composition between upper and lower

portions of the core given that, at first glance, the core presents more shales in the upper portion

than in the lower portion. Because sedimentary rocks derive their composition and texture from

source rock material and environment under which where it is deposited (Boggs 2006) and these

characteristics also define the kind of fossil preserved in these rocks, it was expected to find

significant differences in the composition of the different lithologies. To determine if lithology

was a factor related to observed differences between upper and lower portions of the core two

analyses were made: hierarchical cluster analysis (Fig. 3-3) and Multi Response Permutation

Procedure (MRPP). However, cluster analysis results show that resulting sample clusters based

on species composition are not related to lithology. Furthermore, the MRPP analysis showed a









weak relation between lithology and the composition of samples for this study (p = 0.14). The

related graphs (Figs. 3-5 and 3-6) exhibit the general relationships between floral composition

and lithologies and show that there was a constant trend in species richness and abundance for all

the different lithologies: spores were first with the highest values, followed by gymnosperms and

with angiosperms last (with the exception of the relative number of species of angiosperm pollen

being higher than that of gymnosperms in shales). However, these graphs (Figs.- 3-5 and 3-6)

show that although the trends in composition are similar between lithologies, the relative

numbers of individuals and species are variable for each lithology. These small differences

could explain the poor relationship between sample composition and lithology captured by the

MRPP analysis. In conclusion, both analyses (MRPP and hierarchical cluster analysis)

demonstrated that the lithology was not strongly influencing the samples composition.

The second possible reason for the observed differences between the upper and the lower

portions of the core is that the depositional environment of both portions was different. The kind

of palynomorphs found in a sample depends on the flora of the place that is finally represented in

the sediments by pollen grains and spores. In the case of this study samples were either from

marine or continental environments. Marine samples represent the flora of a wider area because

the sediments and palynomorphs are carried out by channels through a wide variety of floras to

be finally deposited in the sea (Srivastava 1994). Continental sediments represent a more local

flora, because the sediments are not transported from other environments. To determine if facies

determined the differences observed between lower and upper portions of the core a samples

were clustered based on species composition similarities and results interpreted using the

depositional environments of the samples. The results show the samples were clearly divided

into two clear groups: samples from marine environments and samples from continental









environments. At first look this seems to explain the observed differences, but is important to

note that all continental samples are located at the bottom of the core and marine samples are

distributed between the lower and upper portions of the core. The change in facies occurred in

the lower portion of the core, while the increase in the abundance and species richness of

palynomorphs occurred only in the upper portion of the core. This means that the increase on

angiosperm abundance and richness, and spore richness occurred in a similar depositional

environment (marine). Even removing the continental samples from the core the differences

between the upper and lower portions of the core are significant. Thus, based on this cluster

analysis it is concluded that the depositional environment did not determine the increase of

angiosperm richness and abundance and spore richness observed in the upper portion of the core.

The third possible explanation is that the increase in angiosperm abundance and richness,

and spore richness is reflecting the diversification that these groups experienced starting in the

Lower Cretaceous. Reported results suggest that in the paleotropical latitudes, angiosperms were

becoming a more prominent taxonomic and ecological component of the ecosystems by the mid

Albian with the increase in the number of species and abundance. Before the diversification of

angiosperms during the Cretaceous (Coiffard et al. 2006, Crane et al. 1995, Crane and Lidgard

1989, Lupia et al. 1999), gymnosperms, ferns and Bennettitales dominated terrestrial ecosystems

worldwide (Lupia et al. 1999). Angiosperms started their diversification during the Barremian -

Albian interval and by the Upper Cretaceous were the dominant component of paleotropical

vegetation and an important component of the middle and upper paleolatitude floras (Crane and

Lidgard 1989, Lidgard and Crane 1990, Lidgard and Crane 1988, Lupia et al. 1999).

Quantitative palynological studies in middle and high paleolatitudes have shown the same

pattern of continued increase in angiosperm diversity and abundance between the Aptian and









beginning of the Campanian (Lidgard and Crane 1990, Lupia et al. 1999). However, those

studies show a decline of spore species for that period of time. Spore richness in the low latitude

ecosystem studied increased concurrently with angiosperm richness and abundance, suggesting

that ferns were diversifying with angiosperms as found in other studies (Schneider et al. 2004).

In conclusion, the results show initial patterns of angiosperm and ferns diversification in

the low latitude site analyzed during the Albian, with the significant increase on their number of

species, which means they were becoming a more prominent taxonomic component of tropical

ecosystems in the Lower Cretaceous.


Differences in Floristic Composition between the Paleotropical Site Analyzed and
Paleotemperate Latitudes

Based on the widespread hypothesis of angiosperm origin and radiation from lower

paleolatitudes during the Lower Cretaceous, I hypothesized that the abundance and number of

angiosperm species should be higher in the low latitude paleotropical site compared to medium

and high paleolatitudes during the Aptian-Albian interval (Hypothesis 2). The results partially

support the formulated hypothesis by showing that angiosperms had significantly higher relative

abundance and species richness in the paleotropical site analyzed compared to data from high

latitudes of North America. However, the results show that there is no significant difference

between the angiosperm abundance and richness between low and mid paleolatitudes (Figs. 3-7

and 3-10). The results show a latitudinal gradient in both abundance and richness data, with

higher values in low and mid latitudes and with significantly lower values in high latitudes.

Gymnosperm abundance was significantly lower in the low latitude paleotropical site

analyzed than in high and mid latitudes (Fig. 3-8). The species richness of gymnosperms was

significantly higher in high paleolatitudes compared with low and mid latitudes, which did not









present significant differences. These results were expected because gymnosperms were a very

important component of high latitude floras during the Lower Cretaceous (Crane and Lidgard

1989, 1990, Lupia et al. 1999) as they are in modem floras, and only a minor component in

paleotropical floras.

Abundance of spores showed a similar pattern to angiosperm abundance with an

increasing latitudinal gradient from high to low latitudes. This pattern was expected because

spores were a minor component of high latitude ecosystems (Lupia et al. 1999, Crane and

Lidgard 1989) while being the dominant component in low latitudes floras as shown in this

study.

The tropical origin of angiosperms with subsequent radiation to higher latitudes was first

proposed by (Axelrod 1959) and since then numerous studies have attempted to determine the

patterns followed by angiosperms in their radiation during the Cretaceous (e.g. Crane and

Lidgard 1989, 1990, Hickey and Doyle 1977, Retallack and Dilcher 1981). However,

quantitative studies are more numerous in middle and high latitudes than they are in the lower

paleolatitudes. Based on the results of this study, angiosperms were a more conspicuous

component of low and mid paleolatitude ecosystems during the Aptian- Albian interval than they

were in high latitudes. These findings partially support the widespread hypothesis that

angiosperms appeared in low paleolatitudes and later on time radiated to higher latitudes (Crane

and Lidgard 1989, 1990, Hickey and Doyle 1977, Retallack and Dilcher 1981). However,

although there is a clear gradient in the data from high to low latitudes, there was no significant

difference in angiosperm abundance and richness between mid and low paleolatitudes. Based on

the results of this study is not possible to determine if angiosperms were present in low latitude

prior to mid latitudes, or vice versa. These small and non- statistically significant differences









may be related to the hypothesized expansion of the tropics during global warming periods

(Jaramillo et al. 2006) and the need for greater amount of data from tropical paleolatitudes. The

world's temperature was higher during the Lower Cretaceous (Bice et al. 2006), making mid

paleolatitudes warmer and making possible that tropical plants could live in those warmer

paleolatitudes. As consequence of those more uniform temperatures between them, low and mid

paleolatitudes presented very similar floristic composition. This scenario could explain why I did

not find significant differences in the floristic composition of low and mid palelatitudes. High

latitudes in other hand, do not present temperatures as warm as tropical areas even with higher

worldwide temperatures, then tropical taxa cannot live there and vice versa, making the floral

composition very different, as it is in modern floras and as it was expected.

A possible source of error in the analyses made is that the comparison made was between

one low latitude paleotropical site versus numerous sites in mid and high paleolatitudes. These

differences in sampling effort could be introducing bias in the comparison, making necessary the

use of more low latitude paleotropical sites to obtain a more reliable comparison of the

paleofloras in different latitudes and thus a better determination of the patterns followed by

angiosperms and other taxa during the radiation of flowering plants.

Difference in the preservation of palynomorphs is another possible factor that could have

affected the comparisons made between the floras of low, mid and high paleolatitudes. For this

study we used samples from a single site, which after deposition were exposed through time to

similar environmental conditions. Those conditions could have been responsible in many cases

for the damage or alteration of the characteristics of sensitive species, which will imply their

elimination from the record or their damage to the point of not being identified as different

species (e.g. loss of perine in spores). On the other hand, the study from North America has a set









of samples from a wide range of geographical sites, each one with different preservation

conditions. Due to this, there is a higher probability that the sensitive species that could have

been damaged or altered from some of the sites, are still present in the record of other sites.

Finally, underestimation of the number of species has been always a concern when

working with light microscopy (Lidgard and Crane 1990). The use of a scanning electron

microscope (SEM) leads to the identification of a greater number of characters that often lead to

the assignment of more species. All the samples in this study and most of the samples in the

dataset from higher paleolatitudes were analyzed only with light microscopy, which decrease the

bias of having different methods determining the morphological characters of the palynomorphs

and therefore the species richness.

To summarize, I found that the floristic composition of the Aptian- Albian flora of a

paleoequatorial site is significantly different from high paleolatitudes, but similar to mid

paleolatitudes' composition. I found that angiosperms were more abundant and diverse in the

paleotropical ecosystem analyzed, gymnosperms were more abundant and diverse in higher

paleolatitudes and spores were more abundant in the paleotropical ecosystem analyzed but more

diverse in the paleotemperate region. It is recommended to include more paleotropical samples

to enlarge the dataset and support or reject the patterns found in this study.












APPENDIX A
SPECIES COUNTS PER SAMPLE


00
N




UCd
SoC
i i~

.~ !

sc e


UC



U
N~g
,1


- '
oi




UF-


- '
ol


U
C
U
C


2
U

C3

2a
U-


LM 2487' 2 1___
LM2496'5" 2 3 2 27 2 3 4
LM2510'10" 7 4 1 75 1 2 11 4
LM 2529' 1 4 13 3 4
LM2541'9" 2 3 40 2 3 14 5 2
LM 2562' 3 18 4 4 59 1 8 2
LM2571'10" 1 1 8 2 14 1
LM 2585' 2 3 15 1 1 8
LM2599'4" 4 1 5
LM 2607' 6 1 7
LM 2625' 2 1 8 1
LM 2642' 11" 2 27 10 1
LM 2658'10" 2 117 30
LM2674' 1" 4 11 35 11
LM 2677' 11 3 9 1
LM 2686' 15 4 63 6
LM 2690'11" 4 1 80 4
LM 2695' 11" 2 1 45 10
LM 2696' 1.5" 1 1 10
LM 2703'
LM 2720' 2 13 3
LM 2735' 1 2 30 1
LM 2748' 1 4 33
LM 2749'7" 4 1
LM 2769'
LM 2789' 2 1
LM 2806'
LM 2824'
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 2
LM 2868'7" 1 1
LM 2887' 16
LM 2915'8" 1 1 7 1
LM 2932'8" 1 4 1 4 1
LM 2951'9"__
LM 2956'2" 2 1 5 ____18 1___
LM 2965' _____________















rI
1
.3
Pa
'3



'CS




o
a



a '-

a a


u 09


v,
o
c,

ou,


rn E
o
u E
I c~

,c,
.I Q)


rn
B
'c:
o
a

~cs~o
i
-cs
E~C
u
o
o
a,
ao


mu,
c~Q\
"ui
~
1
43 E
U o
rn
E
rn c~
'Ic,
oh
a
u
rn
rn o
3u
o
Ua


Vh
'CS
3

-csB

S~i
m~D
c~Q\
"ui
~
1
43 E
U o
rn
E
rn c~
'Ic,
oh
a
u
rn
rn o
3u
o
Ua


LM 2487'
LM 2496' 5" 1 2
LM 2510' 10" 1 3
LM 2529'
LM 2541'9" 2 1 1
LM 2562' 2
LM 2571' 10" 1
LM 2585' 1 1 1 1 1
LM 2599' 4"
LM 2607' 2
LM 2625' 58 1
LM 2642' 11" 1 52 1
LM 2658' 10" 2
LM 2674' 1" 27 2
LM 2677' 12 1
LM 2686' 2 10
LM 2690' 11" 15 10
LM 2695' 11" 70 23
LM 2696' 1.5" 1 12 12
LM 2703'
LM 2720' 20
LM 2735' 1 12 1 1
LM 2748' 1 8
LM 2749'7" 3
LM 2769' 2
LM 2789' 1
LM 2806'
LM 2824'
LM 2836'3"
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 1 3
LM 2868'7" 11
LM 2887' 1 81 21
LM 2915'8" 5 5 1 17 11
LM 2932'8" 1 3 1 5 11 136
LM 2951'9"___
LM 2956'2" 2 1 2___ 2_ 9
LM 2965'_________


I I I I I I II I I I II


mb
8~0
'C: 3
&e
~a
'" .9
-cs
u
o
a,
ao














VI
S






-00
U,
u
S


' u,
$i

>n E

i E

*^ h
."


U1
E o
SS Q



S


U,
U

U,
U,

0t


IC

SON








CU0


U,

Ut
0





U,
.-t
N
~ O



U I


U
0
U



U,
0

.3 I

$ N






U,C

WCi)


U,
U,
U






U,

o O
Q^



-sa


*oe

*o


ii-c


U,




o cs


ren
'' N


LM 2487'
LM 2496' 5" 1
LM 2510' 10" 1 1
LM 2529' 2 4
LM 2541' 9" 1 1
LM 2562' 1 1 4
LM 2571' 10" 1 1
LM 2585' 3_ 2 1 2
LM 2599' 4" 1
LM 2607' 1
LM 2625' 1
LM 2642' 11" 1 1
LM 2658' 10" 1
LM 2674' 1" 1 4 1
LM 2677' 4 1 3 1
LM 2686' 1 1 1 1
LM 2690' 11" 1 1
LM 2695' 11" 1 3
LM 2696' 1.5" 1
LM 2703'
LM 2720' 1 5 1 1 3
LM 2735' 1
LM 2748'
LM 2749'7" 1 5 3 1
LM 2769'
LM 2789' 3 1
LM 2806'
LM 2824'
LM 2836'3"
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 1 2 1 3
LM 2868'7"
LM 2887' 1
LM 2915'8" 1 2 1 2 4 2
LM 2932'8" 1 1 1 2 5 3
LM 2951'9"
LM 2956'2" 1 1 5 4
LM 2965'


I II II II I IIII I I















sS
2

'1

0I
Ua







0
Ut
On
Wl
0,
-s



'' O


*o

UI
-4^

S3

0




u
0.

U
Ut

0
0.0



o O
Ut~


Ut
-s







en
0.O
I


Pa
E
Ut
Ut



-C
'*0
i o

U 00
.' 3

0cJ'


uoN
Qs



O q)


LM 2487' 1
LM 2496' 5" 1 1 2
LM 2510'10" 1 1 1 47
LM 2529' 1 1 3 14
LM2541'9" 2 1 1 34
LM 2562' 4 17
LM 2571' 10" 1 1 28
LM 2585' 1 1 1 1 9
LM 2599' 4" 1
LM 2607' 4
LM 2625' 43
LM 2642' 11" 2 15
LM 2658' 10" 1 34
LM 2674' 1" 1 11
LM 2677' 2 5 1 24
LM 2686' 7 28
LM 2690' 11" 14
LM 2695' 11" 2 1 4 17 21
LM 2696' 1.5" 1 2 20
LM 2703'
LM 2720' 1 9 16
LM 2735' 1 1 5 4
LM 2748' 2 14 2
LM 2749'7" 1 2 57 44
LM 2769'
LM 2789'
LM 2806'
LM 2824'
LM 2836'3"
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 3 4 2 4
LM 2868'7" 4
LM 2887' 4 1 1 4
LM 2915'8" 1 1 1 5 3 16
LM 2932'8" 3 3 4 6 1 43
LM 2951'9"___
LM 2956'2" 1 1 5
LM 2965' 1


I I III I II IIIIIIII
















o
rn


oi
rnQ
0


ure,


o 1
o,
c*'


% G?
0 1/1




a! '

Sao~
a


Q og

o
.!* i
'3 e "
aol


LM 2487'
LM 2496' 5"
LM 2510'10" 2 1 1
LM 2529' 3
LM2541'9" 5 2 1
LM 2562' 1 1 1
LM 2571' 10" 7 1 1
LM 2585' 1 1 1 1 3
LM 2599'4" 6
LM 2607' 1 1
LM 2625' 2 4
LM 2642' 11" 1 5
LM 2658' 10" 28
LM 2674' 1"
LM 2677' 6
LM 2686' 9 1 3
LM 2690' 11" 29
LM 2695' 11" 20 1 1
LM 2696' 1.5" 3 1
LM 2703'
LM 2720' 1 2 12
LM 2735' 5 4 12
LM 2748' 8 5
LM 2749'7" 109 1 1
LM 2769'
LM 2789'
LM 2806'
LM 2824'
LM 2836'3"
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 2 1 6 12
LM 2868'7" 1 45
LM 2887' 5 1 12 3
LM 2915'8" 8 3 3 2 2
LM 2932'8" 3 4 6
LM 2951'9"_
LM 2956'2" 1 1 _5 1
LM 2965'___


I I I I I I I I I I I I














a
Q
U



U,
Sn






0N
u


Bf
S




Ui


0


S3
U
U,
u
1
'ow





.s0
0
a -
2are
. 2
-^ -
u -S

a ^


LM 2487' 8 3
LM 2496'5" 37 17
LM2510'10" 44 48 1 1 1 1 8
LM 2529' 33 30 1 6
LM2541'9" 86 96 1 2 11 1
LM2562' 54 84 2 1 5 1 1 8 5 4
LM 2571' 10" 15 149 1 6
LM 2585' 16 220 1 2 6
LM 2599'4" 32
LM 2607' 9 31
LM 2625' 3 129
LM 2642' 11" 145
LM2658' 10" 6 115
LM2674' 1" 1 15 70
LM 2677' 27 190
LM 2686' 43 113 1
LM2690' 11" 20 20___
LM2695' 11" 78 62
LM 2696' 1.5" 39 10
LM 2703' 1
LM 2720' 78 115
LM2735' 2 6 80 107 1
LM 2748' 3 52 163 1
LM 2749'7" 28 11 3 1
LM 2769' 10
LM 2789' 2
LM 2806' 1
LM 2824'
LM 2836'3"
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 198 40
LM 2868'7" 52 145
LM 2887' 30 107 23 1 74
LM2915'8" 55 36 1 1 3
LM 2932'8" 8 6 1
LM 2951'9" 1 1
LM 2956'2" 45 2 1____
LM 2965'


I I I. I I























oE
E N


U,




ren

Ui


0G


V,
0

u
0
U,
o
0u





O
'**











a-S


U,



ci
U,


-s
U
S1
U
U,
ON


LM 2487'
LM 2496'5" 1 2 3
LM 2510'10" 3 2 1 1 1 1
LM 2529' 2 2 1
LM2541'9" 1 1 1 6 8 1
LM 2562' 1 2 1 1
LM 2571' 10" 1 1
LM 2585' 1 1 2 2 2 1 1
LM 2599' 4" 2
LM 2607' 1
LM 2625' 1 5
LM 2642' 11" 2 1 4
LM 2658' 10" 12
LM 2674' 1" 1 1
LM 2677' 1 1 2
LM 2686' 3
LM 2690' 11" 2 1
LM 2695' 11" 1
LM 2696' 1.5"
LM 2703'
LM 2720' 2
LM 2735' 18
LM 2748' 1
LM 2749'7"
LM 2769'
LM 2789'
LM 2806'
LM 2824'
LM 2836'3"
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 1
LM 2868'7"
LM 2887' 1 1 8
LM 2915'8" 1 1 5
LM 2932'8" 1 1 2 1
LM 2951'9"
LM 2956'2" 1 1
LM 2965'


IIIIIIII I I I III II













U,,

-s
U
0




'1 C
*loN


0h


U,



o

ou,


c~ 0


U,


U V





co








U U


LM 2487' 1
LM 2496'5" 2 1 1
LM 2510'10" 6 8
LM 2529' 7 2 3 1 6
LM2541'9" 14 18
LM 2562' 8 2 1 3
LM 2571' 10" 14 2 13
LM 2585' 1 1 1 11
LM 2599' 4" 1 1
LM 2607' 1 1 3
LM 2625' 7
LM 2642' 11" 1 18
LM 2658' 10" 1 1 12
LM 2674' 1" 2 8
LM 2677' 2 1 12
LM 2686' 27
LM 2690' 11" 2 16
LM 2695' 11" 32
LM 2696' 1.5" 1 1 1
LM 2703'
LM 2720' 1 2 4
LM 2735' 1 8
LM 2748' 1
LM 2749'7" 16 1
LM 2769'
LM 2789' 5
LM 2806'
LM 2824'
LM 2836'3"
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 5 2
LM 2868'7" 1 1 10
LM 2887' 1 10
LM 2915'8" 2 5
LM 2932'8" 1 1
LM 2951'9" 3
LM 2956'2" 2 1 3 9_
LM 2965' 1______


. .
























U,
0
u
U,
U,
o
a.

0
u


uOS


U,,

0





U,
0
U


Uc


LM 2487' 1 3 6 1
LM 2496'5" 4 2 3 8 1
LM 2510'10" 3 3 1
LM 2529' 4 6 1 1 5 4
LM2541'9" 5 11 5 37 4 1
LM2562' 7 13_ 5 1 2 48 13
LM 2571'10" 7 24 2 9
LM2585' 1 5 18 1 1 20 6
LM 2599'4" 1 2 17 5
LM 2607' 1 10 1
LM 2625' 4 2 1 18 2
LM 2642' 11" 5 3 7 4
LM2658'10" 10 15 3 115 28
LM 2674' 1" 7 5 29 1
LM2677' 2 11 23 2
LM2686' 9 13 1 1 161 7
LM 2690' 11" 3 5 245 4
LM 2695' 11" 3 9 _142 10
LM 2696' 1.5" 1 3 1 63 9 1
LM 2703' 3
LM 2720' 3 5 1 1
LM 2735' 9 10 3 11
LM 2748' 1 4 1 1
LM 2749'7" 3 3 1 1
LM 2769' 1
LM 2789' 3 1- 2
LM 2806' _
LM 2824'
LM 2836'3"
LM2836'3" Barren interval
LM 2841'
LM 2856'
LM 2867'5" 1 4 2
LM 2868'7" 1 2
LM 2887' 13
LM 2915'8" 37 4 6 7 1 3 1 7 6 12
LM 2932'8" 2 1 1 5 2 1 2 2 8
LM 2951'9"
LM 2956'2" 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 9
LM 2965' 2___ 2


. .









APPENDIX B
PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES


Plate I

1. Afropollis cf jardinus (Brenner) Doyle and Doerenkamp; LM31-2562'; England Finder
(E.F): X50/1*
2. Afropollis sp. 1; LM31 2562'; E.F: X54
3. Pennipollis cf. reticulatus (Brenner 1963) Friss, Pedersen & Crane; LM31-2956'2"; E.F:
W22/2 (Label on left)
4. Liliacidites sp. 1; LM7-2 766'; E.F: Y21/3
5. Psilatricolpites sp. 1; A131-2585 '; E.F: P60
6. Psilatricolporites sp. ; LM31-2585'; E.F: N52/4
7. Retimonocolpites sp.2; LM31-2585 '; E.F: P60
8. Retimonocolpites sp. 3; LM31-2562'; E.F: N69/2
9. Clavatipollenites cf hughesii Couper; LM31-2585'; E.F: L59


* England finder coordinates (E.F) were found having the label of the slide on the right side,
otherwise it is indicated as: label on left. Scale = 10tm.








V


1


i


7~`iL~1~=:









Plate II


10. Retimonocolpites spp; LM7 2766'; E.F: L62/3
11. Retimonocolpites cf. mawhoubensis Schrank; LM31 2887'; E.F: U70/4
12. Brenneripollis sp. 1; LM7 2750'; E.F: W28
13. Brenneripollis sp. 2; LM 2585' E.F: V61/4
14. Brenneripollis sp.3; LM31 2562'; E.F: G64/2
15. Retipollenites sp. 3; LM7 2750'; E.F: D23/2
16. Retipollenites sp. 4; LM31 2541 '9"; E.F: M33
17. Retimonocolpites sp. 4; LM31 2585'; E.F: H39/1
18. Retimonoporites sp. 1; LM31 2585 '; E.F: E58









-wq15


a*rr 13
II,


Aw Tr









Plate III


19. Tricolpites sp. 1; LM31 2677'4"; E.F: D57
20. Phimopollenites cf pannosus (Dettmann & Palyford) Dettmann; LM31 2585'; E.F: F49/2
21. Rousea cf georgensis (Brenner) Dettmann; LM31 2510'10"; E.F: S56/1
22. Phimopollenites cf pseudocheros Srivastava; LM31 2642'1"; E.F: T66/3
23. Rousea cf miculipollis Srivastava; 3LM31 2529'; E.F: L38
24. Retitricolporites sp.1; LM31 2571'10"; E.F: J50/3
25. Schrankipollis microreticulatus (Brenner) Doyle et al.; LM4 3160'; E.F: Y57/2
26. Stellatopollis doylei Ibrahim; LM7 2766'; E.F: H56






































I


26


I i


II-









Plate IV


27. Araucariacidites australis Cookson; LM7 2766'; E.F: X58
28. Callialasporites dampieri (Balme) Dev; LM31 2496'5"; E.F: J54/4
29. Callialasporites trilobatus (Balme) Dev; LM31 2658'10"; E.F: K58/1
30. Classopollis cf classoides (Pflug) Pocock y Jansonius; LM31 2696' 1.5"; E.F: R21/2
31. Classopollis cf intrareticulatus Volkheimer; LM31 2696' 1.5"; E.F: L58/1
32. Cycadopites sp. ; LM31 2562'; M62/1
33. Ephedripites cf barghoornii Pocock; LM 31 2487'5"; E.F: M54/4
34. Ephedripites irregularis Hemgreen; LM31 2496'5"; E.F: M57/1
35. Equisetosporites cf leptomatus de Lima; LM7 2766'; E.F: R65
36. Equisetoporites cf dudarensis (Deak) de Lima; LM7 2766'; E.F: V57/4
37. Ephedripites cf multicostatus Brenner; LM31 2956'2" (Label on left); Q18/3
38. Eucommiidites sp2; LM7 2766' E.F: G57/3






























30


" I

34


I.


I I


iI









Plate V


39. Equisetosporites cf ambiguus Hedlund; LM7 2750'; E.F: 056/2
40. Equisetosporites sp.2; LM31 2956'2"(Label on left); E.F: L12/1
41. Equisetosporites cf fragilis de Lima; LM31 2529"'; E.F: E60/2
42. Equisetosporites sp.1; LM31 2965'; E.F: V24/3
43. Equisetosporites cf albertensis (Singh 1964) de Lima, LM31 2887'; E.F: R21
44. Eucommiidites spl; LM31 2585'; E.F: L55/2
45. Inaperturopollenites sp2; LM7 2766'; E.F: Y65
46. Inaperturopollenites spl; LM31 2686; E.F: V60
47. Gnetaceapollenites spl; LM31 2677'; E.F: 064
48. Steevesipollenites spl; LM31 2887'; E.F: U64/3



















39, -


IIl


II


44


II--


48


II









Plate VI


49. Baculotriletes sp.1; LM31 2562'; E.F: S62/1
50. Gabonisporites sp.2; LM7 2750'; E.F: W61/4
51. Baculotriletes sp.2; LM7 2766'; E.F: P52/2
52. Gabonisporites sp.3; LM31 2571'10"; E.F: L54/4
53. Chomotriletes cf almegrensis Pocock; LM31 2541'9"; E.F: W50/4
54. Echimonoletes "sphericus" Informal ICP; LM7 2766'; E.F: W54
55. cf. Cicatricosisporites subrotundus Brenner; LM31 2956'2" (Label on left); E.F: U14/4
56. cf. Appendicisporites dentimarginatus Brenner; LM31 2956'2" (Label on left); E.F: U25
57. Cicatricosisporites dorogensis Potonie and Gelletich; LM31 2585'; E.F: F51
58. Appendicisporites cf erdtmanii Pocock; LM31 2585'; L40/4
59. Appendicidisporites cf jansonii Pocock; LM7 2750'; E.F: N51
60. Cicatricosisporites cf hughesii Dettmann; LM7 2750; E.F: R30/4







49



rII


II


iI


I


55 I









Plate VII


61. cf. Exesipollenites tumulus Balme; LM7 2766'; E.F: Y69/4
62. Concavissimisporites variverrucatus (Couper) Brenner; LM31 2887'; W60
63. Baculatisporites comaumensis (Cookson) Potonie; LM7 2766'; E.F: K30/2
64. Echitriletes sp.1; LM 2750'; E.F: D23
65. cf. Muerrigerisporites coronispinalis Srivastava; LM7 2750'; E.F: U66
66. Echinatisporis varispinosus (Pocock) S.K. Srivastava; LM7 2750'; E.F: U29/1
67. Echitriletes sp.3; LM31 2690'11"; E.F: H60
68. Microfoveolatosporis skottsbergii (Selling) Srivastava; LM31 2642' 11"; E.F: J40
69. C)yuthidliit minor Couper; LM31 2496'5"; E.F: T63/1
70. Gleicheniidites cf senonicus Ross; LM31 2562'; E.F: M70/3
71. Impardecispora trioreticulosa (Cookson and Dettmann) Venkatachala, Kar & Raza; LM7
2750'; E.F: U57/4




































iI


i I


iqI


m





in









Plate VIII


72. Zlivisporis sp.1; LM7 2766'; E.F: S66
73. Matonisporites sp. 1; LM31 2956'2"; E.F: N23
74. Psilamonoletes sp.1; LM31 2541'9"; E.F: P63/3
75. Klukisporitesfoveolatus Pocock; LM7 2766'; E.F: L62/4
76. Microreticulatisporites spl; LM31 2562'; E.F: 052/3
77. Foveotriletes sp.1; LM7 2766'; E.F: J64/3
78. Camarazonosporites cf insignis Norris; LM31 2529'; E.F: Y63/3
79. Rugutriletes sp.2; LM31 2585'; E.F: X20/2
80. Cicatricosisporites hallei/venustus; LM4 3160'; E.F: W64
81. Cicatricosisporites sinuosus Hunt; LM7 2766'; E.F: 026
82. Verrumonoletes sp.1; LM7 2766'; E.F: F52/1
83. cf Verrucosisporites rotundus Singh; LM7 2766'; E.F: U69/1






































79 80


[,=================-4









Plate IX


84. Converrucosisporites spl; LM31 2585'; E.F: U57/2
85. Converrucosisporites sp2; LM31 2956'2"; E.F: T17
86. Leptolepidites sp.1; LM 31 C21/4
87. Verrutriletes sp.1; LM7 2750'; E.F: S67/1
88. Verrutriletes sp.4; LM7 2766'; E.F: W21/2
89. Perotriletes spl; LM7 2766'; E.F: X64/4



























I8 866



897





88C









LIST OF REFERENCES


Axelrod, D. I. 1959. Poleward Migration of Early Angiosperm Flora. Science 130(3369):203-
207.

Barrio, C., and D. Coffield. 1992. Late Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Upper Magdalena Basin in
Payande-Chaparral segment (western Girardot Sub-Basin), Colombia. Journal of South
American Earth Sciences 5(2):123-139.

Beltran, N., and J. Gallo. 1968. The geology of the Neiva Sub-Basin Upper Magdalena Basin,
southern portion. Pp. 253-275. Ninth Ann. Field Conf. Col. Soc. Petrol Geol. & Geoph.
Bogota, Colombia.

Bice, K. L., D. Birgel, P. A. Meyers, K. A. Dahl, K. U. Hinrichs, and R. D. Norris. 2006. A
multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric
CO2 concentrations. Paleoceanography 21(2).

Blau, J., L. Vergara, and H. Stock. 1992. First planktonic foraminifera from the Early Cretaceous
(Albian) of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Journal of South American Earth
Sciences 6(3):191-206.

Boggs, S. 2006. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy. Pearson, Prentice Hall.

Brenner, G. 1963. The spores and pollen of the Potomac Group of Maryland. Department of
Geology, ed., Baltimore, Maryland.

Brenner, G. 1968. Middle Cretaceous spores and pollen from Northeastern Peru. Pollen et Spores
X(2):341-383.

Brenner, G. 1974. Palynostratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Gevar'am and Talme Yafe
Formations in the Gever'am 2 well (Souther coastal plain Israel). Geological Survey of
Israel Bull. 59:1-27.

Brenner, G. 1976. Middle Cretaceous floral provinces and early migrations of angiosperms. In C.
Beck, ed. Origin and early evolution of angiosperms. Columbia University Press, New
York.

Brenner, G. 1996. Evidence for the earliest stage of angiosperm pollen evolution: A
paleoequatorial section from Israel. Chapman & Hall.

Brenner, G., and I. Bickoff. 1992. Palynology and age of the Lower Cretaceous basal Kumub
Group from the coastal plain to the Northern Negev of Israel. Palynology 16:137-185.

Burnham, R., and K. Johnson. 2004. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical
rainforests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-
Biological Sciences 359(1450):1595-1610.









Coiffard, C., B. Gomez, J. Kvacek, and F. Thevenard. 2006. Early angiosperm ecology: evidence
from the Albian Cenomanian of Europe. Annals of Botany 98:495-502.

Corrigan, H. 1967. The geology of the Upper Magdalena Basin (Northern portion). Pp. 221-251.
Eigth Field Conf. Col. Soc. Petrol. Geol. & Geoph., Bogota, Colombia.

Crane, P. 1987. Vegetational consequences of the angiosperm diversification. Pp. 107-144. In E.
M. Friis, W. G. Chaloner, P. R. Crane., ed. The origin of angiosperms and their biological
consequences. Cambridge University.

Crane, P., E. Friis, and K. Pedersen. 1995. The origin and early diversification of angiosperms.
Nature 374(6517):27-33.

Crane, P., and S. Lidgard. 1989. Angiosperm diversification and paleolatitudinal gradients in
Cretaceous floristic diversity. Science 246(4930):675-678.

Crane, P., and S. Lidgard. 1990. Angiosperm radiation and patterns of Cretaceous palynological
diversity. Pp. 377-407. In P. D. Taylor, and G. P. Larwood, eds. Major evolutionary
radiations. Oxford University.

de Lima, R. 1978. Palinologia da Formacao Santana (Cretaceo do Nordeste do Brasil).
Introducao geologica e descricao sistematica dos esporos da subturma azonotriletes.
Ameghiniana Revista de la Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina XV(3-4):333-365.

de Lima, R. 1979. Palinologia da Formacao Santana (Cretaceo do Nordeste do Brasil). II.
Descricao sistematica dos esporos da subturma zonotriletes e turma monoletes, e dos
polen das turmas saccites e aletes. Ameghiniana Revista de la Asociacion Paleontologica
Argentina XVI:27-63.

de Lima, R. 1980. Palinologia da Formacao Santana (Cretaceo do Nordeste do Brasil). III.
Descripcao sistematica dos polens da turma plicates (subturma costates). Ameghiniana
Revista de la Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina XVII(1): 15-47.

de Lima, R. 1987. Estudo palinologico da sondagem estratigrafica da Lagoa do Forno, Baic do
Rio Peixe, Cretaceo do Nordeste do Brasil. Bol. IG-USP, Ser. Cient. 18:67-83.

de Lima, R. 1989. Palinologia da Formacao Santana (Cretaceo do Nordeste do Brasil). IV.
Descricao sistematica dos polens das turmas plicates e poroses, esporos, incertae sedis e
microplancton marinho. Ameghiniana Revista de la Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina
26(1-2):63-81.

Dino, R., d. S. O., and D. Abrahao. 1999. Palynological and stratigraphic characterization of the
Cretaceous strata from the Alter do Chao Formation, Amazonas Basin. Boletim do 5
simposio sobre o Cretaceo do Brasil:557-585.









Doyle, J., S. Jardine, and A. Doerenkamp. 1982. Afropollis, a new genus of early angiosper
pollen, with notes on the Cretaceous palynostratigraphy and paleoenvironments of
Northern Gondwana. BCREDP 6:39-117.

Ecopetrol ICP. 2000. Registro de description sedimentologica y estratigrafica: Los Mangos 4,
Los Mangos 7 y Los Mangos 31. Stratigraphic and lithologic column. Ecopetrol,
Bucaramanga.

Etayo, F. 1993. A modo de historic geologica del Cretacico en el Valle Superior del Magdalena.
In F. Etayo, ed. Estudios geologicos del Valle Superior del Magdalena. Universidad
Nacional, Bogota.

Florez, J. M., and G. A. Carrillo. 1994. Estratigrafia de la sucesi6n litol6gica basal del Cretacico
del Valle Superior del Magdalena. Pp. 1-25. In F. Etayo, ed. Estudios geol6gicos del
Valle Superior del Magdalena. Universidad Nacional, Bogota.

Friis, E., W. Chaloner, and C. P. 1987. Introduction to angiosperms. Pp. 1-15. In E. M. Friis,
W. G. Chaloner, P. R. Crane., ed. The origin of angiosperms and their biological
consequences. Cambridge University.

Friis, E., K. Pedersen, and P. Crane. 2006. Cretaceous anglosperin flowers: Innovation and
evolution in plant reproduction. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology
232(2-4):251-293.

Hammer, O., D. Harper, and P. Ryan. 2001. PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package
for Education and Data Analyses. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1):9pp.

Hayek, L., and M. Buzas. 1997. Surveying Natural Populations. Columbia Univeristy Press, New
York.

Heimhofer, U., P. Hochuli, S. Burla, J. Dinis, and H. Weissert. 2005. Timing of Early Cretaceous
angiosperm diversification and possible links to major paleoenvironmental change.
Geology 33(2):141-144.

Herngreen, G. 1973. Palynology of the Albian-Cenomanian strata of Borehole 1-QS-1-MA, State
of Maranhao, Brasil. Pollen et Spores XV(3-4):515-555.

Herngreen, G. 1974. Middle Cretaceous palynomorphs from the Northeastern Brazil. Sci. Geol.
Bull. 27(1-2):101-116.

Herngreen, G. 1975. Palynology of the Middle and Upper Cretaceous strata in Brazil.
Medelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst, Nieuwe Serie 26(3):39-91.

Herngreen, G., M. Kedves, L. Rovnina, and S. Smirnova. 1996. Cretaceous palynofloral
provinces: a review. Pp. 1157-1188. In J. Jansonius, and D. McGregor, eds. Palynology:









Principles and applications. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists
Foundation.

Hickey, L. J., and J. A. Doyle. 1977. Early Cretaceous Fossil Evidence for Angiosperm
Evolution. Botanical Review 43(1):3-104.

Ibrahim, M. 1996. Aptian-Turonian palynology of the Ghazalat-1 Well (GTX-1), Qattara
Depression, Egypt. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 94:137-168.

Jansonius, J., L. Hills, and Hartkopf-Froder. 2002. Genera file of fossil spores. Dept. of Geology
and Geophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary.

Jaramillo, C., M. Rueda, and G. Mora. 2006. Cenozoic plant diversity in the neotropics. Science
311:1893-1896.

Jardine, S., and H. Magloire. 1965. Palynologuie et stratigraphie du Cretace des Bassind du
Senegal et Cote d'Ivoire. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres
32:187-245.

Kemp, E. 1970. Aptian and Albian miospores from Souther England. Palaeontographica 131(1-
4):73-143.

Kovach, W. 1993. Multivariate techniques for biostratrigraphical correlation. Journal of the
Geological Society 150:397-705.

Kovach, W., and D. Batten. 1994. Association of palynomorphs and palynodebris with
depositional environments: quantitative approaches. In A. Traverse, ed. Sedimentation of
organic matter. Cambridge University Press.

Lidgard, S., and P. Crane. 1990. Angiosperm Diversification and Cretaceous Floristic Trends a
Comparison of Palynofloras and Leaf Macrofloras. Paleobiology 16(1):77-93.

Lidgard, S., and P. R. Crane. 1988. Quantitative-Analyses of the Early Angiosperm Radiation.
Nature 331(6154):344-346.

Lupia, R. 1999. Discordant morphological disparity and taxonomic diversity during the
Cretaceous angiosperm radiation: Notrh American pollen record. Paleobiology 25(1):1-
28.

Lupia, R., P. Crane, and S. Lidgard. 2000. Angiosperm diversification and Cretaceous
environmental change. In S. Culver, and P. Rawson, eds. Biotic response to global
change The last 145 million years. University Press, Cambridge.

Lupia, R., S. Lidgard, and P. Crane. 1999. Comparing palynologycal abundance and diversity:
implications for biotic replacement during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation.
Paleobiology 25(3):305-340.










Magurran, A. 2003. Measuring biological diversity. Blacwell Publising.


McCune, B., and J. Grace. 2002. Analysis of ecological communities. MjM Sofware Design,
Oregon.

MCCune, B., and M. Mefford. 1999. Multivariate Analisys of Ecological Data, Version 4.01.
MjM Software.

Mielke, P. W., and K. J. Berry. 2001. Permutation methods: a distance approach. Springer.

Muller, H. 1966. Palynological investigations of the Cretaceous sediments in Northeastern
Brazil. Pp. 123-136. 2nd W. African Micropal. Coll., Ibadan.

Pocock, S. 1962. Microfloral analysis and age determination of strata at the Jurassic-Cretaceous
boundary in the Western Canada plains. Palaeontographica 111(1-3):1-95.

Prossl, K. 1992. Preliminary results of palynological investigations on the Cretaceous of
Colombia, South America. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 71:275-268.

Prossl, K., and L. Vergara. 1993. The Yavi Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Upper Magdalena
Valley, Colombia: an integrated sedimentological and palynological study. N. Jb. Geol.
Palaont. Abh. 188(2):213-240.

Ramon, J., and A. Fajardo. 2004. Sedimentologia y estratigrafia secuencial de la Formacion
Caballos, Subcuenca de Neiva, Valle Superior del Magdalena. III Convencion Tecnica
ACGGP. Bogota, Colombia.

Regali, M., and C. Viana. 1989. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in Brazilian sedimentary Basins:
Correlation with the International Standard Scale. Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. Service de
desenvolvimiento de recursos humans, Rio de Janeiro.

Retallack, G., and D. Dilcher. 1981. Arguments for a Glossopterid Ancestry of Angiosperms.
Paleobiology 7(1):54-67.

SAS Institute. 1998. JMP Statistics and graphic guide, Version 5.1. SAS Institute.

Schneider, H., E. Schuettpeltz, K. Pryer, R. Cranfill, S. Magallon, and R. Lupia. 2004. Ferns
diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428:553-557.

Schrank, E. 1987. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs from Northeast Africa (Egypt and
Sudan) with special reference to Lat Cretaceous pollen and dinoflagellates. Berliner
geowiss. Abh. 75(1):249-310.

Schrank, E. 1994. Nonmarine Cretaceous palynology of northern Kordofan, Sudan, with notes
on fossil Salviniales (water ferns). Geol Rundsch 83:773-786.










Schrank, E. 2002. Barremian angiosperm pollen and associated palynomorphs from the Dakhla
Oasis area, Egypt. Paleontology 45(1):33-56.
Schrank, E., and M. Ibrahim. 1995. Cretacceous (Aptian-Maastrichtian) palynology of
foraminifera-dated wells (KRM-1, AG-18) in northwestern Egypt.

Srivastava, S. 1975. Microspores from the Frederiscksburg Group (Albian) of the Southern
United States. Paleobiologie Continentale VI(2):1-119.

Srivastava, S. 1994. Evolution of Cretaceous phytoprovinces, continents and climates. Review of
Palaeobotany and Palynology 82:197-224.

Sun, G., and D. Dilcher. 2002. Early angiosperms from the Lower Cretaceous of Jixi, eastern
Heilongjiang, China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 121(2):91-112.

Taylor, W. D., and L. J. Hickey. 1996. Evidence for and implications of an herbaceous origin for
angiosperms. Pp. 232-266. In W. D. a. H. Taylor, L. J., ed. Flowering plant origin,
evolution and phylogeny. Chapman & Hall.

Traverse, A. 1988. Paleopalynology. Unwin Hyman, London.

Vergara, L. 1992. Lower Cretaceous stratigraphic sequences in the Quebrada Bambuca (Aipe),
Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Giessener Geologische Schriften 48:183-200.

Vergara, L., J. Guerrero, P. Patarroyo, and G. Sarmiento. 1995. Comentarios acerca de la
nomenclatura estratigrafica del Cretacico Inferior del Valle Superior del Magdalena.
Geologia Colombiana 19:21-31.

Wing, S., and L. Boucher. 1998. Ecological aspects of the Cretaceous flowering plant radiation.
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 26:379-421.

Zar, J. H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Paula Mejia was born on Dec 23, 1979 in Medellin, Colombia. The oldest of three

children, she grew up mostly in her city of origin, graduating from the INEM "Jose Felix de

Restrepo" High School in 1996. She earned her B.S. in Biology with emphasis in botany and

palynology from the Universidad de Antioquia in 2004. While in college she worked as research

assistant in the Chagas disease Lab research in 2000, in the HUA herbarium 2000 2003, and

then in 2003 she moved to Bucaramanga, Colombia to work in her undergrad thesis in

palynology. Upon graduating in May 2004 with her B.S. in biology, Paula worked as research

assistant in the Colombian Institute of Petroleum. In Aug 2004 she moved to Gainesville, Fl in

order to attend to the University of Florida to get her master's degree in science.

Upon completion of her master's program, Paula will continue in graduate school in the

University of Florida as a PhD student in the Botany Department. She recently got married to

Lucas Fortini, a PhD student in the Forestry Department.