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Green Building Techniques for Affordable Housing in the State of Florida: A Focus on Single Family Residences


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1 GREEN BUILDING TECHNIQUES FOR AFFO RDABLE HOUSING IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA: A FOCUS ON SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCES By BRIAN CRUM A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Brian Crum

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3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my wife for always be ing by my side and be lieving in everything I do. I would also like to thank my parents and in-laws for their support and belief in me.

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................3 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........6 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........7 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................10 The Importance of Green Building for Affordable Homes....................................................10 Objective...................................................................................................................... ...........11 Contribution................................................................................................................... .........11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................13 Green Building and Affordable Housing................................................................................13 Green Building Costs........................................................................................................... ...14 Health Issues and Green Building..........................................................................................14 Green Building Products........................................................................................................ .16 Enterprise Community Partners and Florida Green Communities.........................................16 Florida Green Home Standard Checklist................................................................................18 Mandatory Criteria from the Gr een Home Standard Checklist..............................................19 Energy......................................................................................................................... .....19 Water.......................................................................................................................... .....25 Site........................................................................................................................... ........27 Health......................................................................................................................... .....28 Materials...................................................................................................................... ....31 Disaster Mitigation..........................................................................................................32 General........................................................................................................................ ....32 Conclusion..................................................................................................................... .........32 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................35 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS.................................................................................................37 Part 1: Model Home............................................................................................................. ...37 Part 2: Additional Criteria from the Green Home Standard Checklist...................................38 Energy......................................................................................................................... .....38 Water.......................................................................................................................... .....40 Site........................................................................................................................... ........43 Health......................................................................................................................... .....43

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5 Materials...................................................................................................................... ....44 Disaster Mitigation..........................................................................................................44 General........................................................................................................................ ....44 Part 3: No Cost Green Criteria................................................................................................45 Green Criteria with Additional Costs.....................................................................................47 Part 4: Energy Savings......................................................................................................... ...50 Part 5: Cost vs. Savings Analysis...........................................................................................53 Part 6: Additional Green Criteria............................................................................................54 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........59 5 CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................................63 Green Criteria................................................................................................................. ........63 Cost vs. Savings............................................................................................................... .......64 6 RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................................65 Current Research............................................................................................................... .....65 Future Research................................................................................................................ ......65 APPENDIX A LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FO R RESIDENTIAL CLOTHES WASHERS...............66 B LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FO R RESIDENTIAL REFIGERATORS.......................69 C LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FO R RESIDENTIAL DISHWASHERS........................71 D LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FO R FLOURESCENT LIGHT BULBS.........................74 E LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FOR DUAL FUSH TOILETS........................................77 F LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FO R AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP..........................78 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..80 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................82

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Lumen comparison to watts...............................................................................................33 2-2 Lighting comparison........................................................................................................ ..34 4-1 Additional cost items...................................................................................................... ...61 A-1 Life Cycle Cost Estimate fo r Residential Clothes Washers...............................................66 B-1 Life Cycle Cost Estimate fo r Residential Refrigerators....................................................69 C-1 Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Residential Dishwashers.....................................................71 D-1 Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Fluorescent Light Bulbs......................................................74 E-1 Life Cycle Cost Estimat e for Dual Flush Toilets...............................................................77 F-1 Life Cycle Cost Estimate for an Air Source Heat Pump...................................................78

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Eighty gallon rain barrel....................................................................................................62

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8 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Bu ilding Construction GREEN BUILDING TECHNIQUES FOR AFFO RDABLE HOUSING IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA: A FOCUS ON SING LE FAMILY RESIDENCES By Brian Crum May 2007 Chair: Charles Kibert Cochair: Robert Stroh, Sr. Major: Building Construction Green building for affordable housing is often a concept that is overlooked by many affordable home builders due to the common misc onception that it is too costly to apply green building principles to affordable homes. Howe ver, the goals of green building and affordable housing overlap to a large degree, making affordab le homes well suited for green strategies. The intention of this research was to prove th at green building techni ques could be applied to a typical affordable home for reasonable addi tional costs, without ma king substantial changes to the design of the existing home. This was accomplished by developing a green building formula, using the Florida Green Building Coalit ions Green Home Standard checklist that could be applied to all affordable homes in the state of Florida. The formula aids in qualifying homes less than 1,699s.f. for grants and low interest rate loans through Florida Green Communities and also enables the home to receive the Green Home Designation from the Florida Green Building Coalition. The research also includes an estimate of the energy savings and reduced carbon emissions that could be realized from implementing specific green criteria. The monthly energy savings from the green criteria were compared to th e increased home mortgage payment due to the

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9 additional green costs to determine the monthly/y early energy savings th at could be realized from implementing the green criteria.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION It is a common misconception by many developers/c onstructors that it is costly to build green. Many affordable housing developers/constr uctors believe that green building principles cannot be applied to their product. However, th e goals of green building and affordable housing overlap to a large degree, making affordable housing well suited to green strategies. Affordable homes are small and easy on the planet. Also, oper ation and maintenance costs need to be kept low due to the low-income of the end user, which can be accomplished by providing green building techniques during the design and c onstruction process. There are many green techniques that can be impleme nted that will cost the contra ctor little or no money. These techniques can help to reduce the energy costs of the home, improve the indoor air quality for the occupants, as well as reduce air pollution in terms of decreased carbon dioxide emissions. The Importance of Green Building for Affordable Homes As noted above, operation and main tenance costs for affordable homes need to be kept low due to the income of the end us ers. Many of the developers/cons tructors of affordable homes require the occupants to be at or below 80% of the areas median income. This is typically the point where the occupants can qualify for lo cal government subsidies; however subsidy requirements are different for some local government s. Therefore, occupants of an affordable home, in any county, will need a home with low operation and maintenance costs due to the low income of the end users. There are many green materials on the market t oday that are comparable in price to their traditional counterparts but aid in reducing a homeowners operational costs. For example, the use of Energy Star appliances, compact fluoresce nt lighting, low-flow fi xtures, efficient HVAC

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11 filters, the appropriate location of windows, and adequate shadi ng do not necessarily cost more to implement. Furthermore, they aid in decr easing the occupants cost to operate the home. The implementation of green stra tegies will also allow the deve loper/constructor to receive grants and low interest rate loans that can be used to offset the cost of greening up the home. One of the major contributors to the green affordab le housing movement in th e State of Florida is Florida Green Communities, an organization that offers grants and low interest loans to qualifying non-profits who meet certain criteria. Included in these criteria are a minimum number of points (200) that must be obtai ned from the Florida Green Building Coalition checklist, the Green Home Standard, which will be used throughout the paper for determining the green strategies that are to be implemen ted. It should be noted that Florida Green Communities already has certain mandatory gree n criteria checked, which totals 169 points. Therefore, the developer/constructor must implement additional criteria from the checklist that totals 31 points. Objective The objective of this research is to addre ss the common misconcepti on that green building is too expensive to be applied to affordable homes. This will be done by using the FGBCs Green Home Standard checklist to develop a green building formul a that meets the criteria of Florida Green Communities and is re asonable in its additional costs. Life cycle cost estimates for specific green criteria will also be performed in order to calculate the energy savings from the recommended criteria. The energy savings must outweigh the costs of the additional green materials for the formula to be considered useful. Contribution The contribution of this research is the de velopment of a green building formula, using the Green Home Standard checklist that will meet the Florida Green Communities criteria and

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12 can be applied to all affordable homes in the st ate of Florida. The green building formula must be reasonable in its additional costs and the ener gy savings from the green criteria must outweigh the costs of the additional green materials. The formula can then be used by all affordable housing developers/constructors in the state of Florida to lower th e operating costs of the homes for the end users. At the same time, the formula will aid in qualifying the developers/constructors for Florida Green Commun ities grants and low interest rate loans, thereby creating even more of an incentive to build green.

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13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Green Building and Affordable Housing Green building is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. The movements popularity is especially taking hold in the a ffordable housing industry according to Bendix Anderson of Affordable Housing Finance (Ande rson, 2006). The movements growth in the affordable housing industry is largely due to a change in the perception of builders and developers of what green building means. Des pite the popular perception that green buildings need lots of expensive technology like geothermal heating, green roofs or solar panels, creating a green (or high-performance) bui lding really means building a development that uses less resources and is healthier to li ve inand that typically starts with energy efficiency (Anderson, 2006). This is a realization that has begun to si nk in with many affordable housing developers across the nation. In many aspects, green building and affo rdable housing go hand in hand, which makes affordable housing well suited for green building strategies. Affordable homes, almost by definition, are small and easy on the planet, acc ording to Randy Udall, head of the Community Office for Resource Efficiency in Aspen Colora do (Boehland, 2005). Also, according to Udall with affordable housing, you know youre going to have to make difficult decisions. Corian countertops arent in the pict ure. Everybody knows that from the get-go, he explains. Meeting an environmental budgeta green goalis congru ent with the process yo ure already involved in (Boehland, 2005). There are many green building strategies that should naturally be applied to affordable housing. Some of these strategies include e nsuring that affordable housing is located appropriately, keeping the first cost low, keepin g the operations and maintenance costs low, and

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14 protecting the health of the occupants. Incorporating other green strategies, ensuring the safety of the occupants, and fostering comfort and prid e are also important and can often be included without raising the budget (Boehland, 2005). Also, according to Peter Pfeiffer, of Barley and Pfeiffer Architects, in terms of design, going green can involve scaling dow n square footage and building two-level, rath er than onelevel homes, for instance; lowering ceilings a bi t; placing skylights more strategically; and minimizing recessed lighting. This can all be done without sacrificing st yle, livable space, or beauty (NAHB, 2006). These are a ll characteristics th at can be or are already applied to affordable housing design and construction with the effect of little or no additional costs. Green Building Costs As noted above, greening up a residence is not as expensive as many individuals might think. In fact, the average green premium ad ded just 2.42% to the tota l development costs of constructing a green project, according to a study conducted by New Ecology, Inc. The study examined 16 green affordable housing projects, including both newly built developments and rehabilitations of older buildings. The total deve lopment costs for these projects ranged from 18% below to 9% above the costs for comparab le conventional affordable housing (Anderson, 2006). Also, Research by the Home Depot F oundation indicates that green building pushes costs up 3 to 5%, but it also shows these cost s are recouped through reduced expenses in less than 5 years (Farr, 2006). Health Issues and Green Building Designing for an occupants health is an important but often overlooked factor when designing and constructing a home due to the fact that some individuals can become sick when introduced to tiny quantities of contaminants su ch as volatile organic compounds or VOCs. By some estimates, direct medical costs associated with indoor air quality problems in the United

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15 States are as high as $15 billion per year, with indirect costs of $60 billion. These estimates do not include problems like asthma, which may be triggered by IAQ pr oblemsand which has increased 42% between 1982 and 1992 in the U.S., acco rding to the Centers for Disease Control (Wilson, et al., 1996). The elimination of indoor ai r containments, such as VOCs, from the home can be accomplished by using low or zero VOC paint, stains, adhesives, and varnishes, as well as the elimination of manufact ured wood products made from urea-formaldehyde, such as particleboard used for shelving, cabinetry, and countertops. Formaldehyde emissions from manufactured wood products drop off gradually over time but may continue for many years. Exposure to high humidity increases emissions b ecause a hydrolysis reaction occurs in which formaldehyde is broken off from the polymeric resin. We can minimize formaldehyde emissions in new buildings by carefully choosing material s and furnishings or by sealing those products containing formaldehyde (Wilson, et al., 1996). The use of wall-to-wall carpeting in a home can also be a significant source of indoor air containments. Over time, VOCs can be absorbed into carpentry and released at a future time. Carpeting can also serve as a medium fo r molds and other biological contaminants. Unfortunately, there is no effective way to clean such contaminants off of wall-to-wall carpets, so they remain as an ongoing sink and sour ce of VOCs and molds un til they are replaced (Wilson, et al., 1996). It should also be noted th at the installation of carpet can be among the most significant sources of VOCs in new or remo deled buildings (Wilson, et al., 1996). This is due to the type of adhesives and seam sealants that are used when laying the carpet. Therefore, for a healthy home, practices such as tacking the carpet down shoul d be used or carpet and pads should be purchased that have been marked w ith the Carpet and Rug Institutes green label.

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16 Green Building Products The availability of more green products has also led to the increase in green building for the affordable housing sector. Green products and ma terials are now being offered at prices that compete with traditional building materials. The re are more green building products than ever. Easier to use insulation, chemically neutral pa ints and flooring and na tural landscaping products are no longer difficult to find. Most home-improvement stores carry a full line of compact fluorescent bulbs, which use 70% less energy, and a dvances in solar roof panels and shingles, wind turbines, and efficient appliances make gr een technology less expensive than even a few years ago (NAHB, 2006). Enterprise Community Partners and Florida Green Communities Another contributing factor to the growing green building m ovement in affordable housing is local officials and funding programs have begun to champion sustainable development (Anderson, 2006). One of the current sources of fi nancing for affordable housing developers and builders in the State of Florida is Enterpri se Community Partners and the Florida Green Communities. Enterprise and Florida Green Communities offer grants and low interest loans to developers and builders who meet certain criteria, thereby giving a greater incentive to build green. Green Communities was created by Enterprise Community Partners in association with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Gr een Communities is a five-year, $555 million initiative to build more than 8,500 environmentally healthy homes for low-income families. The initiative provides grants, financi ng, tax-credit equity, and techni cal assistance to developers who meet Green Communities Criteria for affordable hous ing. It is the first national green building program focused entirely on affordable housing. It incorporates many innovations from the mainstream green building movement, including the use of environmentally sustainable materials, reduction of environmental imp act, and increased energy efficiency. Green

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17 Communities takes the idea of green several steps further, emphasizing design and materials that safeguard the health of residents, and siti ng that provides close, easy access to public transportation, schools, and services (Green Communities, 2005). Enterprise and Green Communities influence can be felt around the na tion. From November 2004 to November 2005 the Enterprise Foundation helpe d start 77 green developments in 21 states, which will create more than 4300 environmentally efficient hom es for low-income families (Marks, 2005). Green Communities partner program includes Fl orida Green Communities. Florida Green Communities was developed to encourage developers and builders to build green affordable housing across the state. It is th e only program of its kind curren tly in the State of Florida. Florida Green Communities offers grants of up to $1,500 per home/unit to developers and builders who earn a minimum of 200 points on the Green Home Standard checklist. A mandatory 169 points are already checked by Fl orida Green Communities. Therefore, a developer must be able to incorporate an addi tional 31 points into the home design to become eligible for the grants. It should be noted that Enterprise is responsib le for $1,000 of the grant and Florida Green Communities is responsible for the remaining $500. However, it should be noted that meeting the criteria on the Green Home Standard checkli st is just one step in many that must be met by the builder in order to qualif y for the grants. Additional criteria required by Green Communities must also be met. However, the FGBCs Green Home Standard checklist is a good green building guide that can be used by any affordable homebuilder. By meeting the criteria set forth by the checkli st developers/constructors will be well on their way to qualifying for the green grants. Additional information about the grant funds can be found at www.greencommunitiesonline.org

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18 Florida Green Communities also manages the Florida Community Loan Fund. The fund is the only statewide not-for-profit federally certified community development financial institution in Florida. The Loan Fund provides low-cost capital and free technical assistance to support affordable housing projects, economic development efforts, nonprofit community facilities and essential social services. Established in 1995, the Loan Fund has extended more than $18 million in low-cost credit to proj ects sponsored by community-based nonprofit organizations throughout Florida and has levera ged an additional $100 million in loans and grants from various public and private sources (Florida Green Communities, 2005). The low interest loans are more readily availa ble than grants to ho mebuilders who meet the criteria of the Green Home Standard checklist. The interest rates on loans/lines of credit are significantly lower than the rate on a typical bank loan, for qualif ied borrowers. For example, a bank will typically give a developer/builder a li ne of credit at 1 to 2% over the current Wall Street Journal Prime rate, which is currently 8.25%. Therefore, the line of credit would have a rate of approximately 9.25 to 10.25%. If a develo per qualifies for a green loan/line-of-credit through Florida Green Communities then the interest rate is based on Wall Street Journal Prime minus a percentage. For example, the typical rate at this time (2007) is 6.75%. Therefore, there is approximately a 3% reduction in the rate, which could offer considerable savings in interest costs paid during the construction phase of a home. For example if a home that had a construction cost of $115,000 was built over three mont hs, this reduction in rate would equate to approximately $600 in interest savings per home. Over a four-month period it would equate to approximately $720 in interest savings per home. Florida Green Home Standard Checklist In order to qualify for these grants and low interest rate loans, developers must meet certain criteria. Included in the criteria is the use of the Florida Green Home Standard checklist

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19 that was developed by the Florida Green Build ing Coalition. The Florida Green Building Coalition is a statewide non-profit membership organization dedicated to improving the built environment and to implementing a statewide Gr een Building program with environmental and economic benefits. The Coalition has estab lished detailed standards on which "green" qualification and marketing are based in Florid a, including the Florida Green Home Standard (Florida Green Communities, 2005) Florida Green Communities requires that a minimum of 200 points be earned on the checklist of whic h a required 169 points have already been designated by the Florida Green Communities. Th e checklist has eight categories for obtaining points. These categories include energy, water, s ite, health, materials, disaster mitigation, and general. It should be noted that there are there are several green chec klists that are available to developers and contractors. These checklist s include LEED-H, the NAHB checklist, as well as the FGBC Green Home Standard checklist. Howeve r, the LEED-H checklist in still in its pilot test program and will not be publicly launched until the summer of 2007. An in-depth discussion of each checklist is beyond the sc ope of this paper. However, the FGBCs Green Home Standard Checklist will be used as a guide for the green cr iteria that will be implemented due its use by Florida Green Communities. Mandatory Criteria from the Gr een Home Standard Checklist Florida Green Communities has checked mandatory criteria from the Green Home Standards checklist. These are criteria that the developer must comply with when designing and building a home. The manda tory criteria add up to 169 points and are as follows: Energy The Florida Green Communities mandatory crit eria for Category 1: Energy (Building Envelope/Systems) and Category 2: Energy (App liances, Lights, Amenities) are as follows:

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20 Meet the Florida En ergy Code 120 points Documents Proper Sizing of the HVAC system 1 point Energy Star refrig erator 2 points Energy Star clothes washer 3 points Energy Star Dishwa sher 1 point Indoor lights are fluorescent or fiber optic 10 points Outdoor lights are fluorescent/ elec. ballast, pv, low voltage, or have motion detector 2 points In 1979, the State of Florida decided to encour age builders to build more energy efficient houses. In response to this decision, the State developed the Florida Energy Efficiency Code for Building Construction. This Code requires all houses to demonstr ate a minimum level of energy efficiency before a building permit is issued. This Code is updated pe riodically to further improve the minimum level of energy efficiency of new houses. The energy efficiency of a home can be determined with the federal Home Energy Rating System (HERS) guidelines, which is a statewide uniform system for rating th e energy efficiency of all buildings. The HERS rating system is a performance-based system that compares the energy efficiency of a new or existing home to a hypothetical or baseline versi on of the home. This baseline home is created to be identical to the home being rated; howev er, it is configured to meet minimum accepted levels of energy efficiency. The rated home is given credit for decreasing the amount of energy required for heating, cooling, and hot water generation compared to the baseline home (Florida Green Home Standard Re ference Guide, 2005). In Florida, a home that meets the minimum standards of the Florida Energy Efficiency Code receives a HERS score between 79 and 82. A rated home can achieve an additional HERS point for every 5% increase in efficiency over th e baseline home. It should be noted that the

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21 HERS rating system rewards homes based on performance, not for incorporating certain prescribed measures (Florida Green Home Standard Referen ce Guide, 2005). It should also be noted that Florida Green Commu nities requires all new constr uction to achieve a HERS score of at least 86, which would enable the builder to receive 120 points of the 200 points needed. Residential building compliance methods can be found in Section 13-600 of the 2004 Florida Building Code. A copy of the signed HERS ra ting guide must be submitted for approval. Often times, when a home is built, the HVAC is either oversized or undersized. An improperly sized system can result in comfort a nd humidity problems. To receive a green home standard point, a report from a software pr ogram or hand-calculati on of the Air Conditioning Contractors Association (ACCA ) Manual J method of determining system sizing must be included, and the components used as inputs must be shown. Interior set points must not be greater than 70 F for heating or lower than 75 fo r cooling. The installed cooling system size must be within -ton of the size clos est to the Manual J value to cl aim this credit of one point (Florida Green Home Standard Reference Guide, 2005). The manual J calculations and system cut sheet are required for approval. The use of Energy Star appliances in the home is also mandatory criterion. Energy Star is a voluntary partnership betw een the government and more than 8,000 organizations, including more than 2,500 of the nations home builders. Together with home buyers and their families, Energy Star works to achieve a common goal, prot ecting the environment for future generations by changing to more energy-efficient practices and products today. Energy Star is the government-backed symbol for energy efficiency. It identifies more than 40 types of products that are energy efficient. Produc ts that can earn the Energy St ar include windows, heating and cooling equipment, lighting, and appliances. It should be noted that clothes dryers and

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22 ovens/ranges are not rated by Ener gy Star, which is due to the fact that most dryers and ovens/ranges use similar amounts of energy. Theref ore, they are not Energy Star backed and are not considered mandatory criteria by Florida Green Communities. According to the Energy Star website, applia nces account for nearly 20% of the average households energy use (Energy St ar, 2006). Every appliance come s with two price tags: what it costs to take it home and what it costs to ope rate and maintain it each month. Energy Star qualified appliances incorporate advanced tech nologies and use 10 to 50% less energy than standard appliances. From refriger ators to clothes washers, Energy Star qualified appliances save energy, save money, and help reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants at the source (Energy Star, 2006). It should be noted that there are energy effi cient appliances on the market that do not have the Energy Star label. However, applianc es that do have the Energy Star label have been tested and have proven to be tr uly energy efficient. It should be noted that a photograph or cut sheet for each Energy Star app liance should be submitted at the completion of the project. When purchasing a washer, individuals should lo ok at several factors. The first is the modified energy factor (MEF). The MEF is a n ew equation that replac ed Energy Factor as a way to compare the relative efficiency of different units of clothes washers. The higher the MEF, the more efficient the clothes washer is. The MEF takes into account th e amount of dryer energy used to remove the remaining moisture content in washed items (Energy Star, 2006). The MEF for Energy Star washers ranges from 1.42 to 2.79. The second factor is the water factor, which is the number of gallons per cycle per cubic foot th at the clothes washer uses. The lower the water factor, the more efficient the washer is (Ener gy Star, 2006). For example, if a clothes washer uses 30 gallons per cycle and has a tub volume of 3.0 cubic feet, then th e water factor is 10.0.

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23 The water factor for Energy Star washers ranges from 3.6 to 12.9. The third factor is kWh per year. This figure is the estimated annual energy use of a washing machine under typical conditions. It is based on an average usage of 392 loads of laundry per year, or just under 8 loads per week (Energy Star, 2006). An indivi duals actual energy consumption will vary depending on the amount of laundry they do, the size of the loads, and the temperature settings they use. This figure is calculated according to Department of Ener gy test procedures and incorporates the estimated energy consumed by the washer, and the energy needed to heat water with an electric water heater (E nergy Star, 2006). For energy star washers the kWh/year ranges from 125 to 487. According to the Gainesville Regional Uti lities website, refrigerators are often the second largest users of electricity next to air c onditioning (Gainesville Regional Utilities, 2006). That is why an Energy Star refr igerator should be used. Ener gy Star refrigerators use high efficiency compressors, improved insulation, and more precise temperature and defrost mechanisms to improve energy efficiency (Ener gy Star, 2006). The majority of energy star refrigerators use between 268 to 678 kWh/year, whic h is at least 15% less energy than required by current federal standards. According to the Energy Star website, Ene rgy Star qualified dishwashers use 41% less energy than the federal minimum standard for en ergy consumption and they use much less water than conventional models (Energy Star, 2006). The majority of Energy Star dishwashers use between 267 to 387 kWh/year. The dishwashers al so have an energy fact or, which is a number computed for each dishwasher that enables an i ndividual to compare the relative efficiency of different units. The equation for Energy Factor is estimated loads per ye ar (215) divided by the annual energy usage (kWh/year). Therefore, dish washers with a higher Energy Factor use less

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24 energy than dishwashers with a lower Energy Factor The various Energy Star dishwashers have Energy Factors that range from .56 to .81. Individuals could save a si gnificant amount of energy by ju st replacing their typical incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent or fibe r optic bulbs. These bulbs should be replaced indoors as well as outdoors. Energy Star qualifie d lighting provides bright, warm light but use at least 2/3 less energy than st andard lighting, generates 70% le ss heat, and lasts up to 10 times longer (Energy Star, 2006). To save the most energy and money, an individual must replace the highest used fixtures or the lig ht bulbs in them with energy-efficient models. According to Energy Star, the five highest us e fixtures in a home are typica lly the kitchen ceiling light, the living room table and floor lamps, bathroom va nity, and outdoor porch or post lamp (Energy Star, 2006). However, all indoor and outdoor lights must be fluorescent in order to meet the mandatory criteria from the Green Home Standards checklist If every American home changed out just five high-use light fixtur es or the bulbs in them with ones that have earned the Energy Star each family would save about $60 every year in energy costs, and together wed save about $6.5 billion each year in energy costs and prevent greenhouse gases equivalent to the emissions fr om more than 8 million cars (Energy Star, 2006). Energy Star qualified compact fl uorescent light bulbs (CFLs) must: Use at least 2/3 less energy th an standard incandescent bulbs to provide the same amount of light, and last up to 10 times longer. Save $30 or more in energy costs over each bulb's lifetime Generate 70% less heat, so th ey're safer to operate and can cut energy costs associated with home cooling. In addition to other quality requirements, must turn on instantly, produce no sound, and fall within a warm color range or be otherwis e labeled as providing cooler color tones.

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25 Also, an individual must read the packaging to be sure that the type of bulb chosen works for the selected fixture because the right fixture helps ensure that the bulb will perform properly. Individuals must also make sure that they are getting a CFL w ith the amount of light that is needed. With CFLs, the higher the lumen rating th e greater the light output. Table 2-1, which was taken from the Energy Star website, shows how lumens can generally be compared to watts and Table 2-2, which was taken from bchydro.com, is a lighting comparison between the common bulbs in the marketplace today. It should be noted that there is not a required submittal for the approval of the fluorescent lighting. Th e lighting will be checked when inspected by a certifying agent. Water The Florida Green Communities mandatory crit eria for Category 3: Water (Installed Landscape) is as follows: 50%, 80%, 100% of plants/trees from local drought tolerant list 1 to 3 points All plants/trees selected to be compatible with local environment/microclimate 2 points Water is one of Floridas most precious re sources and one that is constantly being guarded. The increase in Florida s population has spurred water supply questions. Simple tasks, both in the design and operation of the house, can help conserve the water supply. Many of the tasks deal with outside of the house, where landscap e irrigation uses the bulk of the water. Still, other technologies exist that will help conserve water within the house. Other than benefiting the environment, homeowners can see a benefit in terms of cost savings on their utility bills as well. As noted above, Florida Green Communities only has two mandatory criteria from the water category, which are discusse d in more detail below. Florida Green Communities awards 1-3 point s depending upon the use of local drought tolerant landscaping. Plant select ion is an integral part of land scaping and determines the level

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26 of yard maintenance that will be required, the amount of electricity and water that will be used to maintain the yard, as well as how often the plants will need to be replaced. The type of plants selected also determines how much fertilizer or pesticide may be used. Storm water runoff, or rain that falls on yards, roads, and parking lo ts and then washes in to water bodies, carries pollutants such as fertilizers, pe sticides, soil, and petroleum produc ts. Fertilizers and pesticides from residential areas can be se rious threats to the health of Floridas waters (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Drought -tolerant plants and tree s are able to survive on rainfall with little or no supplemental irriga tion. FGBC awards 1 point if at least 50% of the plants and trees incorporated in to the landscape are from a local drought tolerant list; 2 points are available if 80% are from such a list; and 3 points are available if 100% of the plants and trees are from such a list (Florida Green Home Standa rds Reference Guide, 2005). It should be noted that Florida Green Communities requ ires a minimum of 12 total plants to qualify for the credit. A developers local water management district and the Waterwise Flor ida Landscape publication will give a developer a list of acceptable drought tolerant plants that can be used in their area. It should also be noted that Florida Green Communities requires a Florida Yards and Neighborhoods (FY&N) inspection of the existing pl ants and trees on site. It especially applies to existing landscapes, where plant identificat ion can be difficult (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). This can be done by an FY&N Professional free of charge. A landscaping plan and drought tolerant plant lis t should also be submitted at the end of the project. Florida Green Communities also requires that all plants and trees should be compatible with the local environment and includes shrubs, groundcovers, vine s, and trees. This can be accomplished by installing plants in an area where they likely to remain healthy. This is

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27 determined by the amount of sunlight they wi ll receive, soil requirement s, and the microclimate of the area. As with the above credit, an FY&N inspection is required for existing plants and trees and a landscaping plan should be s ubmitted at the end of the project. Site The Florida Green Communities mandatory cr iteria for Category 4: Site (Erosion control/topsoil preservation) is as follows: Stabilize disturbed soil 2 points Control sediment runoff duri ng construction 2 points Save and reuse any removed topsoil 2 points Often, when homes are built nearly the entire site is cleared, which allows the topsoil to be washed away by rain or blown away by wind. T opsoil is a valuable resource and can be used later on the site, which is why all of Florida Green Communities mandatory site criteria deal with erosion control/topsoil preservation. The first mandatory criterion is to stabilize th e disturbed soil on site, which can be easily done with the use of silt fenci ng surrounding the site. Temporary seeding is another method that can effectively be used to reduce soil disturba nce as well as bringing in mulch to cover the disturbed ground. The mulch can be wood chippi ngs from another job or purchased mulch. Stabilizing the disturbed soil on site is an important step in that it preserves the sites original composition and reduces the impact on local drainage utilities. It should be noted that Florida Green Communities recommends the photographi c documentation of the methods used. Another mandatory criterion is the control of sediment runoff during construction, which is essentially covered in the previous step by us ing silt fencing, which help s to control the runoff of sediment, nutrients, trash, metals, bacteria, o il and grease, and organics As with the above credit, the method used must be documente d by photograph or othe r documentation.

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28 The final mandatory criterion is to save and re use any removed topsoil. As the topsoil is cleared from the site to begin construction it can be easily moved to an area of the site that will not be used. The topsoil must be covered or protected from th e elements or it will lose its nutrients. As construction ends, the topsoil can be placed back onto the site reducing the need to purchase new topsoil and reducing costs. A photogr aph of the covered tops oil should be taken and submitted at the end of the project. Health The Florida Green Communities mandatory crit eria for Category 5: Health (Combustion, Moisture Control, Ventilation, and Source Control) are as follows: Detached garage, carport, or no garage 3 points Seal slab penetration 1 point Whole house positive ventil ation strategy 4 points Floor drains sealed 1 point Kitchen range hood vented to exterior 1 point No exposed urea-formaldehyde particleboard 1 point Low VOC paints, stains, and finishes 1 point Low VOC sealants and adhesives 1 point Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria concerning combustion are for the home to have a detached garage, carport, or no garage, or to have an attached garage with an air barrier between the garage and the living sp ace (including the attic). This is due to fumes and chemicals that can be transferred into the living sp ace of the home from the attached garage. Another mandatory criterion from the health cat egory is to seal slab penetrations from piping or conduit that is protruding through the slab. After th e slab has substantially cured, any penetration through the slab such as piping or conduit shall be s ealed around its perimeter with an elastomeric sealer. This will reduce the mois ture and pests from entering the home (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). The sealant will also help prevent gases, such as radon, from leaking into the home. It should be noted that this techni que is required by the

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29 2004 Florida Building Code. This technique shou ld be documented with a photograph or plan detail. The house must also incorporate a whole-hous e positive ventilation strategy. Ventilation can be beneficial in terms of energy effici ency, for less exchange occurs between the conditioned air inside the home and unconditioned air outside of the home (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Posi tive ventilation is pref erable over whole house exhaust in a humid climate, for it causes the house to be under posit ive pressure with respect to the outdoors, minimizing the uncontrolled intrusi on of outside air (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). The system mu st contain a fresh air duct to the outside of the home with a back draft damper. Delivery of the outside air can be controlled by the homes HVAC system, or by another device such as an energy recovery vent ilator, or a central dehumidification system. The outside air duct must also have a damper that allows a desired flow to be set, and that also allows for full shut off in the event of unfa vorable outside conditions (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). However, the use of a manual damper is recommended since it can be set and then left in place. The purpose is to provide the occupant the ability to close the outside damper under unusual conditions, such as a forest fire creating a lot of smoke. In many cases, a back draft damper, such as a butterfly or a barometric damper is not recommended, since a butterfly damper can ev entually get stuck and a barometric damper can create noise issues. The design must bring the conditioned area of the home to at least +0.5 Pascals with respect to the out doors while the homes air handle r is running and any continuous forced exhaust systems are runni ng (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). It should be noted that the system design, inst allation, and commissioning must be completed by

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30 an HVAC or other skilled prof essional (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). A schematic or plan detail of the system is required for approval. It is also mandatory that a ll floor drains in the home are sealed. By sealing around the drain the builder prevents the in trusion of any gases and vapors from beneath the slab. The drains must be sealed with any non-asphalt base d or equally flexible mo isture resistant sealer (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). It should be noted that this practice is required by the 2004 Florida Building Code. The bu ilder should have a cut sheet and photograph of the material used. Another item required by Florida Green Co mmunities is that the kitchen range hood should be vented to the exterior of the home. Hood ducting must be of building-code approved materials and completely sealed to prevent leakage. The exterior of the vent must also contain a building-code approved termination cover (Flo rida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). It should be noted that builders are no t permitted to use non-vented or ductless range hoods. The builder should have a cut sheet of the hood that was used. Due to the tightness of a green home, Fl orida Green Communities requires the use of low VOC paints, stains, and fini shes, and low VOC sealants and adhesives. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and other chemi cal substances contained with in building materials can be injurious to lung health and can be odorous. To achieve the points % of all paints, stains, and finishes used must contai n less than 150 grams/liter of VOCs per gallon. All sealants and adhesive used must be water based rather than solvent based (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Cut sheets of all coatings, seal ants, and adhesives should be kept. It should be noted that an additional point can be ach ieved if zero VOC paints, stains, and finishes are used.

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31 Florida Green Communities also requires that all particleboard used that contains ureaformaldehyde is sealed on all sides (top, bottom, and edges) with a laminate or other suitable sealer (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). The point is also awarded if no particle board is used at all. Particleboard made with phenol-formaldehyde resin can also be used. Solid wood cabinets can be used in place of particleboard and lami nate countertops could still be used as well. Stone, Corian, or tile countertops are recommended. Wood or wire shelving should also be used in place of shelving made from particleboard. A visual inspection by a certifying agent should be perfor med as part of the requirement. Materials The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 6: Materials (Durability) only includes one it em: windows and door flashing fo r all exterior windows and doors. The proper installation of flashing is im portant, as it provides added protection against water intrusion around doors and wi ndows. One point is awarded for this mandatory criterion, which requires that for wood-framed homes the flashing detail developed by the NAHB Research Center should be adhe red to. This invol ves creating a head and pan flashing with building paper, house wrap, or self adhering membrane (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). The 2004 Florida Build ing Code, Chapter 14, Section 1405.3 requires that flashing shall be installed at the perime ter of exterior doors and window assemblies (Florida Building Code, 2004). The NAHB method is just a sp ecific technique of how the flashing should be installed. Photographs or de tailed plans of the flashi ng should be made. As noted above, the NAHB flashing process, for ex terior windows and doors, can be found at www.nahbrc.org/docs/mainnav/mois tureandleaks/792_moisture.pdf.

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32 Disaster Mitigation The Florida Green Communities mandatory criter ia for Category 7: Disaster Mitigation (Hurricane wind, rain, storm surge) include s one mandatory item: flood prevention. Three points are awarded for this mandatory criteri on, which involves four subsections. The first subsection states that the finished floor elevati on must be at least twel ve inches above the 100year flood plain. The next requirements are that the bottom of the slab must be at least eight inches above the adjacent dirt level, and that the finished grade must slope away from the building on all sides. Finally, the garage and dr iveway must be sloped to properly drain water, which is a minimum 1 inch slope per 20 feet and th e living area must be at least 4 inches higher than the finished garage level. All criteria s hould be documented with photographs and detailed plans. General The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 8: General includes a homeowners manual given to the homeowner. Two points are awarded fo r this criterion, which designates that the manual must help the homeo wner understand how to operate the home and take care of the landscape so that the intende d benefits of a green hom e are realized for the customer and the earth (Flori da Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). A copy of the homeowners manual should be submitted at the end of the project. Conclusion Today, green building is a rea listic choice for affordable hou sing due to the increase in knowledge about green building, the availability of cheaper green materials and building products, as well as the availability of grants and low interest loan s. According to Bart Harvey, chairman and CEO of Enterprise Community Partners Inc. In five years it will just seem stupid to build affordable housing that is not green anywhere (Anderson, 2006).

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33 Table 2-1. Lumen co mparison to watts A-shaped incandescent bulb (watts) Typical lumens (measure of light output) 40 > 450 60 > 800 75 > 1,100 100 > 1,600 150 > 2,600

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34 Table 2-2. Lighting comparison Incandescent Halogen Linear tube CFL Efficiency Poor Poor Good Good Light output per watt 8 to 20 lumens 15 to 25 lumens 20 to 90 lumens 36 to 70 lumens Purchase cost Inexpensive M oderate Moderate Moderate Lamp life Poor (750 to 1,500 hours) Moderate (2,000 up to 4,000 hours) Good/Excellent (10,000-20,000 hours) Good (6,00015,000 hours)

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35 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The ultimate goal of this thesis is to cr eate a green building formula that could be implemented into an existing affordable home pl an without appreciably changing the design of the home and still be considered attainable by affordab le housing developers/c onstructors. The green criteria that were used were based on the requirements of the FGBCs Green Home Standard checklist. The research methodology fo r this study consisted of six basic parts: 1) An analysis of an affordable home plan will be performed. The home plan will be obtained from an affordable housing develope r and will be used as a benchmark for a typical affordable home. The home plan will be used to determine the additional costs of the mandatory and recommended criteria from th e checklist that are discussed in more detail below. 2) Additional green criteria, from the Green Home Standard checklist, will be selected. The criteria will be chosen base d on the additional costs they would add to the construction budget. For example, some of the criteria will be selected beca use they are already included in the affordable home plan and would not add any additional cost to the construction budget. Other crite ria will be selected based on their low additional costs and benefits to the end user. 3) The mandatory and additional criteria will be analyzed to determine if they would add any additional costs to the construction budget or if they could be implemented at no additional costs. 4) Life cycle cost estimates will be performed for selected criteria that were determined would aid in reducing the home s operating costs, such as appliances and lighting. The estimates will be used to determine the amount of energy savings that could be expected from the recommended criteria. 5) An analysis will be performed using the a dditional costs and savings of the mandatory and recommended items to determine the valu e the criteria added to the home. The analysis will look at the increased mortgage payment due the additional green criteria versus the energy savings from these criteria to determine if the green criteria were worth the additional costs. 6) An analysis of additional green items that we re felt should be added to the home will also be performed. The additional items were not included with the original recommended items for three reasons. First, the items we re not considered mandatory by Florida Green Communities. Second, some of the items had higher implementation costs than the items that were recommended. Therefore, they were not included in the original analysis due to these higher implementation costs. Finally, some of the recommended items were not

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36 included in the Green Home Standard checklist, so they were not included in the original analysis. However, it was felt that these items would aid in the greening of the home even though they were not mentioned in the checklist. Therefore, they were included with the additional items.

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37 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS The results of the research that was performe d are listed below in six parts. First, a description of the affordable home plans that we re used is given. Second, the additional green criteria that were chosen are li sted. Third, the criteria that were considered to have little or no impact on the construction budget were listed, al ong with an explanation of why the materials were considered no cost items. Following the no cost items, is a list of the green criteria that were considered to have an impact on the c onstruction budget. Following the list is an explanation and estimate of the materials cost for each criteria. Next specific energy saving criteria that were suggested was analyzed with life cycle cost estimates to determine the amount of energy savings that could be expected. The energy savings were then analyzed against the additional costs of the green items to determine if the green criteria were worth the additional construction costs. Finally, addi tional green items that were fe lt should be added to the home were also listed along with an explanation of each item. Part 1: Model Home The affordable home plans that were used fo r this thesis were obtained from Community Enterprise Investments, Inc (CEII), which is a non-profit developer in Pe nsacola, Florida. The plans were based on an affordable home that they currently build for qualifying customers. The home was a 3BR/2BA and had a heated/conditione d area of 1,055 square feet. It also had a 120 square feet covered front porch as well as a 16-square -foot concrete stoop at the back of the home. The home was wood framed with oriented strand board sheathing used for the exterior walls and roofing. The home also ha d vinyl siding and asphalt shingles. Other features included solid wood cabinets and bath vanities, vinyl flooring in the kitchen, bath, and dining area and carpet in the living ar ea and bedrooms. The home had all electric

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38 appliances and cooling and hea ting was provided by an air source heat pump. The dryer and range hood were both vented to the outside of the home. Part 2: Additional Criteria from the Green Home Standard Checklist The criteria listed below were selected from the checklist due to the low additional costs, or in some cases no additional costs that th ey would add to the c onstruction budget of the affordable home. The purpose of the chosen criter ia were to get the build er to the 200 points, required by Florida Green Communities, as cheaply as possible but still contribute to the greening and energy efficiency of the home. Energy The low cost/no cost criteria for Category 1: Energy (Building Envelope/Systems) and Category 2: Energy (Energy-effici ent lighting) is as follows: Minimum 100ft roofed porch with a minimum of 3 sides open 1 point Ductwork joints sealed with mastic 1 point Light colored exterior walls 1 point Light colored interior walls, ceilings, and floors 2 points Efficient envelope volume 1 point Single bulb fixtures in bathrooms 1 point Many affordable homes typically include a small porch attached to the front or back of the home. Therefore, for many of the builders, meeting this criteri on would not cost any additional money. Porches provide a comfor table outdoor living, cooki ng, and eating space during cooler months and reduce reliance on the homes air conditioning system (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Covere d porches also provide shading that aids in reducing the heat load on a homes windows. The Florida Green Buildin g checklist requires a porch with a minimum of 100 square feet. A mini mum of 3 sides of the porch must be open or screened. The floor plan showing the location of the porch should be submitted for approval.

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39 Sealing ductwork joints with mastic instead of tape is another low-cost item that can be easily met, especially when it is done during th e homes construction. I n a typical house about 20% of the air that moves through the duct syst em is lost due to leaks, holes, and poorly connected ducts. The result is higher utility bill s and difficulty keeping the house comfortable, no matter how the thermostat is set (Energy St ar, 2006). Using mastic compound to seal all ductwork connections provides a seal that is much less prone to fa ilure than tape. A photo of at least one properly sealed joint should be submitted for approval. Another example of a no cost cr iterion would be the use of light colored exterior walls and light colored interior walls, ceilings, and fl oors. Dark colors on th e exterior of a home absorb more heat from sunlight; in contrast, light-colored surfaces have been shown to reduce cooling costs (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Gu ide, 2005). According to the reference guide, the exterior wall color should have a reflectance of at 50%. Also, light-colored interior surfaces increase lighting efficiency by reflecting and dispersing light rather than absorbing it and are beneficial wh ether using natural or artificial lighting. The FGBC awards 1 points if bedrooms and all major living spaces in the home have light-colored wall and ceiling surfaces with a reflectance of at least 50%. Tw o points are available if bedrooms and all major living spaces have light-colored flooring (Flo rida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). A cut sheet showing the paints used a nd their reflectance specifications should be submitted. The design of an affordable home typically le nds itself to having an efficient envelope volume, a no cost item that can be easily me t by most affordable home designs. The use of projections on a home increases the outside surf ace area, whereas a minimal outside surface area is beneficial when heating and cooling the hom e. FGBCs formula for determining if the home

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40 meets the standard of an efficient envelope vol ume can be found on page 7 of the Florida Green Home Reference Guide. The formula takes into account the total gross wall area, the conditioned square footage, as well as the number of stories. A floor plan of the home should be submitted in order to receive credit for meeting this criterion. The use of single bulb fixtures in the bathr oom is another item that would not cost the builder any additional money. Typically bathroom s have lighting fixtures that contain 4 or 5 incandescent bulbs. Such fixtures can add excessive heat to the conditioned space and the extent of light output is generally unnecessary (Flori da Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Therefore, it is beneficial if all bathroom light fixtures ar e designed to use only a single bulb and no more than one light fixture shall be connected to the same switch. This is a method that would work well for affordab le homes since they typically do not have large bathrooms that need to be lit. Also, all bulbs should be CFLs. The only associat ed cost would be the additional cost of the CFLs, which are not much more expe nsive than several incandescent lights in each bathroom. A photograph of the light fixtures should be submitted. Water The low cost/no cost criteria for Cate gory 3: Water (Fixtures) and (Installed Landscaping) is as follows: Low-flow fixtures 1 point Faucet aerators 1 point Faucets do not drip upon occupancy 1 point All showers equipped with 1 showerhead 2 points Shut-off valves to each toilet and sink 1 point No garbage disposal 2 points Ultra-low-flow toilets 2 points Mulch applied 3-4 inches deep around plants 2 points Low-flow fixtures are considered another no cost item that can be implemented by the builder. This is due to the fact that all show erheads and faucets installed in a home must meet

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41 the Florida Building Code and National En ergy Policy Act of 1992, which mandates a maximum flow rate of 2.5 gallons/minute at 80 psi water pressure (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Therefore, by meeting the code the builder will earn an additional point from the FGBC. According to the Florida Green Homes Sta ndard Reference Guide leaky faucets can waste up to 20 gallons of water per day. Theref ore, faucets that do not drip upon occupancy are another no cost point that can be obtained by the builder. Faucets that do not drip are required by the 2004 Plumbing Code; however it is often some thing that tends to get overlooked in the construction of a house. A visual inspection should be performed by the certifying agent. The installation of faucet aerator s on all fixtures is another no cost item that can be easily met since this is a practice that is required by the 2004 Plumbing Code. However, Florida Green Communities still awards a point if aerators are instal led in each fixture. Faucet aerators work in parallel with low-flow fixtures by injecting air into the water str eam, which in turn increases the velocity of the stream. They al so increase the efficiency of each fixture by allowing the user to complete the desired task in less time, thereby re ducing water use. As noted above, aerators are required on all fixtures in the hom e. A visual inspection should be performed by the certifying agent. Another no cost criterion that ca n easily be met is that all showers must be equipped with only one showerhead. This is typically done in an affordable home, therefore no additional money or effort will need to be spent on this criterion. A photograph of each shower showing the showerhead should be submitted. Shut off valves at each toilet and sink is a nother no cost criterion th at can easily be met since this is a standard feature in most homes. Shut-off valves allow the homeowner to turn off

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42 the water supply to each fixture during a time of repairs. As not ed above, it is categorized as a no cost item since they are standard features in most homes. A visual inspection by the certifying agent is required. Foregoing the installation of a garbage disposal is another easy way to meet one of the criterion on the checklist. Garbage disposals ar e notorious for wasting water and adding to the load placed on waste water trea tment plants (Florida Green Ho mes Standard Reference Guide, 2005). This is another no cost criterion that co uld be met by the builder. A visual inspection by the certifying agent is required. Installing ultra-low-flow toilets is a low co st criterion that woul d aid in lowering the homeowners monthly utility bill due to the fact that toilet flushing can account for up to 40% of residential water use. That is why the Florida Building Code requires that all installed residential toilets be rated at a maximum fl ow rate of 1.6 gallons per flus h. To meet the criterion the installed toilet must flush at volumes lower then required by the 2004 Florida Building Code. The use of dual flush toilets in the home would meet the above requirement. Dual flush toilets offer the user two flush settings, typically a 1.6 ga llons per flush setting for materials that need additional clearing and a 0.8 or 0.9 gallons per flush setting for materials that do not require much water per flush. Another low cost item that can easily be ach ieved is the application of 3-4 inches of mulch around plants. A thick layer of mulch help s to prevent weed grow th which will remove moisture from the soil and helps to retain soil moisture as well as retard erosion. The mulch must extend out to the drip lines of plants and trees and also must be placed in landscaped beds. A landscaping plan should be submitted.

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43 Site The low cost/no cost criteria for Category 4: Site (Lot choice) and (Native tree and plant preservation) is as follows: Conscious choice to build on a lot with no trees 4 points No invasive exotic species 2 points Selection of a site that has little or no trees on it is anot her no cost criterion that can possibly be met by the builder. This may not alwa ys be possible since land for affordable homes does not always allow for choice picks. Howe ver, if the builder can document by photo that similar lots were available with trees then the criterion can met. By building on a lot with little or no trees the builder would be decreasing the cost of site work requiring little or no clearing. Choosing a non wooded lot also protects areas that provide native vegetation and also protects wildlife in the area that may use the undeveloped land. Another no cost criterion that could easily be met is that no invasive exotic species should be added to the site. Invasi ve species are those th at are not native to the local area. These plants often require much more care and wateri ng than those that are native. An FY&N inspection is required for existing plants and trees and a landscaping plan should be submitted. Health There is only one low cost/ no cost criteri on for Category 5: Health (Source Control), which is to protect duct penetrations during construction. Two points are awarded for this criterion, which requires that all duct penetrations must be sealed off with tape or other suitable methods directly following mechanical rough-in. They must remain sealed until system start-up and must be re-sealed until interior finish work is complete. The openings should be sealed off with tape or another suitable method. For exam ple, a piece of cardboard can be taped across the entire opening to ensure that th e interior of the ducts remain clean during construction, thereby

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44 ensuring the indoor air quality of the home. A photograph of the penetration coverings should be submitted for approval. Materials There is only one low cost/no cost criterion for Category 6: Materials (Durability), which is plants/turf, must be a minimum of 2 feet from the foundation. Pl acing plants and turf a minimum of 2 feet from the foundation is anothe r no cost criterion that can be easily met. Keeping plants and turf away from the foundatio n helps to prevent the accumulation of water around the foundation. Placing rocks or stones ar ound the foundation is recommended but is not required. A visual inspection by the certifying agent or photograph should be submitted for approval. Disaster Mitigation There is no low cost/no cost criterion for Ca tegory 7: Disaster Mitigation (Hurricane). All homes, including affordable housing, in the state of Florida must be bu ilt to the standards of the 2004 Florida Building Code. General There is only one low cost/no cost criterion for Ca tegory 8: General. The cr iterion is to keep the conditioned house size as small as possible. This is due to the fact that larger homes use more energy. These are points that can be easily earne d by most affordable homes due to the typical size of the homes. A minimum of 5 points and a maximum of 50 points can be awarded based on the homes conditioned square footage. The larg est a home could be and still receive credit for conditioned house size from the FGBC is 1,899 square feet. A home of this size would receive the minimum 5 points. A home of 1,000 square feet or less could receive the maximum 50 points. A point range for the conditioned hous e size can be found in th e Florida Green Home

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45 Standard Reference Guide. A floor plan in dicating the homes square footage should be submitted for approval Part 3: No Cost Green Criteria Careful analysis of the Green Home Sta ndard checklist and affordable home plans produced 32 items that are considered to have little or no impact on th e construction budget. These are items that have already been implem ented in the home design, are required by the Florida Building Code, or items that will cost little or no money to implement or change. These items are listed below along with a brief explana tion of why they are considered no cost items. Meet the Florida Energy Code: Required by the st ate of Florida for all homes. Residential building compliance methods can be found in Section 13-600 of the 2004 Florida Building Code. Document the proper sizing of the HVAC equipm ent: This can be performed with a simple calculation from the Air Conditioning C ontractors Association (ACCA) Manual J Minimum 100 ft roofed porch with a minimu m of 3 sides open: Many of the affordable housing floor plans already have front or b ack porches incorporat ed into the design, including the floor plan that was used. Ductwork joints sealed with mastic com pound: Sealing ductwork joints with mastic compound instead of tape will not impact the co st of a newly constructed home due to the fact that it can be done during the installation of the ductwork. Light colored exterior wall: There would be no additional cost for the light color. Light colored interior walls, ce ilings, and floor: There would be no additional cost for the light color. Efficient envelope volume: Many affordable ho me designs do not include outside surfaces that have many projections. Affordable home de signs are typically simplistic in nature and can easily meet the criterion. The model homes total gross wall area and conditioned square footage were plugged into the FGBC fo rmula, which yielded a 33. The figure must be less than 43 to meet the criterion. Single bulb fixtures in the bathroom: A builder could save costs if the design called for multiple bulb fixtures and single bulb fixtures were used. Low-flow fixtures: All showerheads and faucets installed in a home must meet the Florida Building Code and National Energy Policy Ac t of 1992, which mandates a maximum flow

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46 rate of 2.5 gallons/minute at 80 psi water pre ssure. The flow rate can be found in Table 604.4 of the plumbing code. Therefore, by following code the builder will have met this criterion. Faucet aerators: They are required items unde r the 2004 Florida Building Code. Therefore, by following code the builder will have met this criterion. Faucets do not drip upon occupancy: Properl y installed faucets that do not drip are required by the 2004 Plumbing Code. Therefore, by following code the builder will have met this criterion. All showers are equipped w ith one showerhead: This is a typical practice. Shut off valves to each toilet and sink: Shut -off valves to every toilet and sink are not required by the Florida Building Code. However, it is a typical practice. No garbage disposal: A builder could save co sts by eliminating a garbage disposal if one was included in the original design. 100% of plants/trees from the local drought tole rant list: All lots incl ude landscaping. The builder just needs to make sure that 100% of the plants are from the local drought tolerant list. All plants/trees selected to be compatible w ith the local environment/microclimate: Plants and trees need to be placed where they will remain healthy. This requires no additional cost, just some planning. Conscious choice to build on a lot with no trees: A builder could save money due to reduced site clearing costs. No invasive exotic species: A builder could save money by a voiding the additional costs of exotic plants. Save and reuse any removed topsoil: The topsoi l could be placed to the side of the lot and covered for little additional cost. Seal slab penetrations: Sealed slab penetr ations, from protruding piping or conduit, is required by the Florida Building Code a nd be found Appendix C, Section C402.4 and Section C405.1. Floor drains sealed: Sealed floor drains are required by the 2004 Florida Building Code and can be found in Appendix C, Section C403.2. Kitchen range hood vented to the exterior: Un less a range hood is non-vented, it must be vented to the exterior of the home as re quired by the 2004 Mechanical Code and can be found in chapter 5, section 505. The models ra nge hood is vented to the exterior of the home.

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47 No exposed urea-formaldehyde particleboard: This can easily be accomplished with the use of solid wood cabinets as well as plasti c laminate countertops. Solid wood or wire shelving should also be used in areas where shelving is required. The model home that is being used has all wood birch cabinets in the ki tchen as well as solid wood bath vanities. Wood shelving is also used. Therefore, mee ting this criterion would not cost the builder any additional money. Low VOC paints, stains, and fini shes: There are more than 25 brands of low-VOC paints now available. The majority of which are in the same price range as their traditional counterparts. Low VOC sealants and adhesives: No additional cost, just some additional planning to be sure that the sealants are water based rather than solvent based. Protect ducts during construction: All duct openings should be covered following mechanical rough-in. This can be done by simply taking the time to tape a piece of cardboard across the entire duct opening. Detached garage, carport, or no garage: No addi tional cost if already incorporated into the home design. The plans that were us ed do not have an attached garage. Window and door flashing: The installati on of window and door flashing around the perimeters of exterior door and window assemblies is required by the 2004 Florida Building Code. The NAHB approach is just a method for meeting the requirement and should not add an additional e xpense to cons truction budget. Plants/turf a minimum of 2 ft. from the f oundation: No additional cost, just some additional planning Flood check: No additional cost, just some additional planning Conditioned house size: Affordable homes ar e small by nature, therefore many of the homes will be able to meet this requirem ent; including the model home that was used. Homeowner's manual given to homeowner: No additional cost, just some additional planning. Green Criteria with Additional Costs The following is a list of ten items that are estimated to cost the builder additional money to implement. Following the list is a brief desc ription and cost estimate for each item. It should be noted that sales tax of 6.25% has been added to each item. Energy Star clothes washer Energy Star refrigerator

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48 Energy Star dishwasher Indoor lights are fluorescent Outdoor lights are fluorescent Dual Flush Toilets Mulch applied 3-4 inches deep around plants Stabilize disturbed soil Control sediment runof f during construction Whole house positive ve ntilation strategy There are numerous brands of Energy Star ap pliances that are available on the market today. Many of these appliances are comparable in price with the sta ndard appliances. The prices used for the following washers were obtained from www.lowes.com The cost for the standard washer, the Whirlpool 3.2 cu. ft. super capacity washer, was $317 (before delivery). The cost for a comparable Energy Star washer the Frigidaire 3.1 cu. ft. washer, was $418 (before delivery). Therefore the wa shers have a cost difference of $101. A search for refrigerators on lowes.com reveal ed that there was no cost difference in the standard Frigidaire 26 cu. ft. side by side refri gerator and the Energy Star Frigidaire 26 cu. ft. side by side refrigerator Both units were $848 (before deliv ery). However, the refrigerators were still included in the low cost items due to varying price diffe rences of some of the units. The prices used for the following dishwashers were obtained from www.lowes.com The cost for a standard Frigidaire 24 built-in dishwasher was $242. The cost of the Energy Star Frigidaire 24 built-in dishwasher was $253 (befor e delivery). Therefore, the price difference was $11. Fluorescent light bulbs can be purchased almost anywhere, including stores such as Home Depot, Lowes, and Wal-Mart. The prices of th e bulbs vary depending upon the size and brand. However, for estimating purposes a price of $5 per bulb has been used, which would typically cover the price of a CFL or a fl uorescent tube. For incandescent bulbs a price of $0.50 has been used. The model homes floor plan calls for a tota l of 15 light fixtures a nd includes 48 and 24

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49 bulbs in the kitchen as well as 11 other co mpact light fixtures throughout the home and 2 compact light fixtures outside of the home. Ther efore, the cost of using fluorescent bulbs in every light fixture would be approximately $95 wh ile the cost of using incandescent bulbs would be approximately $10, which results in an $85 cost difference. Dual flush toilets are another low cost item th at can be installed and will aid in decreasing the occupants utility bills. The model home that was used required the in stallation of a Briggs toilet that used 1.6 gallons pe r flush. The Briggs Abingdon to ilet could be purchased from www.nexttag.com for $113 (before delivery). Likewise the Toto Aquia two piece dual flush toilet could be purchased from www.nexttag.com for $248, before delivery, and uses 1.6 or 0.9 gallons per flush. The price difference per to ilet is approximately $135. The model home has two bathrooms; therefore the tota l material difference would be $270. The application of mulch around plants, trees, and shrubs is another low cost item that could be easily met. The mulch must be 3-4 inches deep and must extend beyond the drip lines of the trees/shrubs. Bags of mulch can be purchased at many stores including, Home Depot, Lowes, and Wal-Mart. According to www.gardners.com 1 cubic yard of 3 inch mulch will cover 100 square feet. Therefore, if 2 cubic feet bags were us ed then approximately 14 bags would be needed to cover a 100 square feet area. On www.lowes.com 2 cubic foot bags of mulch could be purchased for around $4.00 a bag. Therefore, 14 bags of mulch would cost approximately $56 and should be adequate to cover all trees, shrubs, and plants. Another low cost item that is considered mandatory by Florida Green Communities is the use of sediment control material during constr uction. The installation of silt fencing around the perimeter of the site would aid in stabilizing dist urbed soil as well as controlling sediment runoff during construction. Silt fencing is typically sold in 100 feet lengt hs and includes the fabric as

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50 well as hardwood posts. The cost of the fenci ng material may vary somewhat depending on the supplier. An online search for silt fencing from www.mysimon.com showed an average price of approximately $35 for a roll of 2x100 of fenci ng (does not include shipping). Therefore, the material cost of placing silt fencing around the perimeter of a 0.25 acre square site would be approximately $150. It should be noted that the fe ncing can be used multiple times. It should also be noted that the slope, sh ape and size of the lot was not know n. However, it was felt that a 0.25 acre site would be representative of a typica l lot that was used. Runoff control is also mandated by environmental law so this is a cost th at should apply to ever y home that is built. Another item that is mandatory by Florida Gr een Communities is th e incorporation of a whole house positive ventilation strategy. Acco rding to Ken Fonorow, one of the founding members of the FGBC, the typical cost for a passive system is $150 to $250, which includes parts and labor to install. It should also be noted that there have been selected criteria that will require verification by a Certifying Agent who has been accredited by FG BC, Inc. The cost for a Certifying Agent is approximately $300. Part 4: Energy Savings Life cycle cost estimates were performed for all Energy Star a ppliances, fluorescent lighting, and dual flush toilets to determine if th e implementation of these additional items were worth the additional costs. It should be noted that the life cycle cost estimates that were used for the appliances and lighting were developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy while the life cycl e cost estimate that was used for the dual flush toilet was developed by the author. Energy savi ngs for each item were calculated based on an annual and lifetime approach and the payback pe riod for each of the items was also analyzed.

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51 A life cycle cost estimate for the Energy Star wa sher vs. the standard washer is shown in Appendix A. The estimate is based on an Energy Star washer cost of $418 and a typical washer cost of $317. The lifetime of the units were es timated at 10 years based on estimates obtained from Appliance Magazine 2005. The life cycle co st estimate shows an annual savings of $59 when using the Energy Star washer. The estim ated life cycle savings over the 10 years was $481 and the net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) was $3 80. Therefore, the unit would have a payback period of 1.7 years. It sh ould also be noted that the estimated carbon dioxide reduction over the lifetime of the uni t is 4,614 lbs. of CO2. This is assuming an electricity carbon emission factor of 1.58 lbs CO2/kWh. By comparison, an average car emits 11,470 lbs CO2/year. A life cycle cost estimate for the Energy Star refrigerator vs. a typi cal refrigerator is shown in Appendix B. The estimate is based on an Energy Star refrigerator cost of $848 and a typical refrigerator cost of $848. The lifetime of the units were es timated at 13 years, which was obtained from 2004 Department of Energy statisti cs. The life cycle cost estimate shows an annual savings of $11 when using the Energy Star re frigerator. The estima ted life cycle savings over the 13 years was $109. The un it did not have a payback period due to the fact that there was no cost difference between the units. It s hould also be noted th at the estimated carbon dioxide reduction over the lifetime of the uni ts was 1,700 lbs. of CO2. This is assuming an electricity carbon emission factor of 1.2 lbs CO2/kWh. A life cycle cost estimate for the Energy Star dishwasher vs. the typical dishwasher is shown in Appendix C. The estimate is based on an Energy Star dishwasher cost of $253 and a typical dishwasher cost of $242. The lifetime of the units were es timated at 10 years, which was taken from 2005 Department of Energy statistics. The analysis shows an annual operating cost

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52 savings of $10 for the Energy Star dishwasher. The estimated life cycle savings over the 13 years was $84 and the net life cycle savings ( life cycle savings additional cost) was $73. Therefore, the unit would have a payback period of 1.1 years. It should also be noted that the estimated carbon dioxide reduction over the lifetime of the units is 696 lbs. of CO2. This is assuming an electricity carbon emission factor of 1.2 lbs CO2/kWh. A life cycle cost estimate for an Energy Star CFL vs. an incandescent light is shown in Appendix D. The estimate is based on an Ener gy Star CFL cost of $5.00 and an incandescent light cost of $.50. The lifetime of the CFL wa s estimated at 5 years or 8,000 hours and the lifetime of the incandescent bulb was estimated at .5 years or 750 hours. The lifetime estimates were taken from the 2003 Department of Energy st atistics. The cost estimate shows an annual operating cost of $3 for the fluorescent bulb a nd $13 for the incandescent bulb. The estimated life cycle savings for one bulb, over the lifetime of the CFL, was $46. The net life cycle savings was $41. Therefore, the bulb would have a payback period of less than one year. It should also be noted that carbon dioxide reducti on is estimated at 791 lbs. of CO2 over the lifetime of the bulb. This is assuming an electric ity carbon emission factor of 1.43 lbs CO2/kWh. As noted above, this estimate is only for one bulb. If six bulbs in a home were used an average of 6 hours per day, then the occupant would save approxima tely $62 per year or $275 over the lifetime of the bulbs. A life cycle cost estimate for the Briggs standa rd toilet versus the Toto Aquia dual flush toilet is shown in Appendix E. The estimate is based the standard toilet cost of $113 and the dual flush toilet cost of $248. The lifetime of the units were estimated at 20 years based on data from the Rhode Island Water Works Association. Th e life cycle cost estimate shows an annual savings of approximately $21 when using a dual fl ush toilet. The estimated life cycle savings

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53 over the 20 years was approximately $411. The pa yback period for the unit was estimated at 6.6 years. It should be noted that the affordable home plans that were used included 2 bathrooms. Therefore, the annual savings from using two dua l flush toilets would be approximately $42 per year and $822 over the estimated lifetime of the toilets. By using Energy Star approved appliances and lighting as well dual flush toilets a homeowner could save approximately $184 per y ear in utility costs or approximately $1,840 over a 10-year period. Carbon emissions will also be reduced by a combined 11,755 pounds of CO2 over the lifetime of the appl iances, which is the equivale nt of removing an average passenger car from the road for a year. Part 5: Cost vs. Savings Analysis The cost to construct the affordable ho me that was used was approximately $90,500. However, with other additional costs including land, interest, site work, etc. the total sales price was $122,000. However, a $50,000 subsidy from the county government lowered the first mortgage amount to $72,000. Therefore, th e monthly mortgage payment would be approximately $432 per month based on an interest rate of 6% over a 30 year period. It should be noted that these figures were provided by CEII. With the addition of the green buildings co sts, which totaled $1,264 the first mortgage amount would increase to $73,764 per month. Theref ore, based on the same rate and duration the monthly payment would be approximately $442 or $10 more per month. As noted above, the monthly energy savings fr om the Energy Star appliances, lighting, and dual flush toilets were $184 per ye ar or $15 per month. Therefore, the calculated savings from implementing the additional green criteria are approximately $5 per month or $60 per year. However, as noted above, the estimated cost sa vings only included the an alysis of the Energy Star appliances, lighting, and dual flush toilets. If other green criteria that were recommended

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54 were taken into account, it is certain that the mo nthly energy savings would be even greater than what was calculated. Also, if the developer/constructor qualified for Florida Green Communities grants and low interest loans the cost for the end user could be lowered even more. For example, if the developer/constructor used the grants and interest savings, $1,500 and $600 respectively, to reduce the loan amount the first mortgage amount would total $71,164. This amount includes the additional costs of the green building criteria. Th erefore, the mortgage payment would be approximately $427 per month vs. $432 per month. The homeowner would then have the benefit of a lower mortgage payment as well as lower energy costs, which would result in an annual combined savings of approximately $244. Part 6: Additional Green Criteria Below are additional items that were not included with the mandatory and recommended criteria. This was due to their higher additi onal implementation costs, the items were not included in the Green Home Standard checklist, or the items would call for a redesign of certain aspects of the home. Some of the items listed below will not cost the builder any additional money to implement. However, as noted a bove, they were not included in the checklist; therefore they were included in the recommendations. The additional recommended items are as follows: A heat pump that meets or ex ceeds Energy Star specifications Light colored shingles Building orientation Large overhangs Energy Star approved windows where needed Roof slope of 3:12 to 6:12 Rainwater harvesting system

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55 The affordable home plans that were being us ed as a model included the use of an airsource heat pump, which offers an energy efficient alternative to air conditioners. Heat pumps use a refrigeration cycle to both heat and cool the home. In th e summer, a heat pump functions exactly like an air conditioner, he at is extracted from inside the home and transferred to the outside. The resulting cooled a nd dehumidified air is distributed throughout the home in a duct system. In the winter, heat pumps operate in reverse by extracting heat from the air, the ground, or a source of water outdoors and transferring it to the indoor air, which is distributed throughout the home in a duct system. The efficiency of an air sour ce heat pump is measured by its Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER), its Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER), and its Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF). In order for an air source heat pump to qualify as Energy Star, it must be rated below 65,000 Btuh and must be powered by single phase curren t. It could either be a single package system or a split system. The system should have a SEER 14.5, an EER 12, and an HSPF 8.2. It should be noted that high efficiency heat pumps dehumidify better than standard central air conditioners, resulting in less energy use and more cooling comfort in the summer months. Bertie Heating and Air, a Gainesville Flor ida HVAC subcontractor, was contacted about the cost of air source heat pumps. The heat pum p that was used for the model home had a SEER of 13 and an HSPF of 8. The manufacturer was not known. Pricing was obtained on two Goodman air source heat pumps. The heat pum p similar to what the model was using was $4,038. A heat pump that met the Energy Star sta ndards, a Goodman heat pump with a SEER of 16 and HSPF of 8.2 was $5,206. Therefore, the price difference was $1,168. A life cycle cost estimate for the Energy Star heat pump vs. the typical heat pump is shown in Appendix F. The estimate is based on an En ergy Star heat pump co st of $5,206 and a typical

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56 heat pump cost of $4,038. The lifetime of the units were estimated at 12 years. The analysis shows an annual operating cost savings of $180 fo r the Energy Star heat pump. The estimated life cycle savings over the 12 year s was $1,686 and the net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) was $518. Therefore, the unit w ould have a payback period of 6.5 years. It should also be noted that the estimated carbon dioxi de reduction over the lif etime of the units is 34,498 lbs. of CO2. This is assuming an electr icity carbon emission factor of 1.6 lbs CO2/kWh. Using light colored shingles versus dark colored shingles for roofing can provide additional savings through lower energy bills. Li ght-colored shingles can save up to 10 percent more on your annual cooling costs than a roof wi th dark shingles, and up to 20 percent in hot climates like Arizona and Florida (National Geographic, 2004). Choosing an appropriate shingle color is an item that w ould not cost the builder any additional money and could be easily implemented. The orientation of the home is another item that was not addressed in the checklist but is an important item when considering energy efficienc y. Building orientation can have an impact on heating, lighting and cooling costs. By maximizi ng southern exposure, for example, the builder can take optimal advantage of the sun for day light and passive solar heating. Also western exposures, where it is most di fficult to provide shade from the sun, should be minimized. For example, based on the model home plans th at were used, the front of the home should be oriented due south because of its large exposure. Therefore, the sides of the building facing east and west have a smaller exposure and the bu ilding is elongated alon g the east/west axis. This will provide the minimum exposure to the east and west sides, the more difficult sides to shade due to the lower angle of the sun in the morning and afte rnoon. It should be noted that

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57 there are three small windows on the east and west sides of the building. These windows can be protected from heat transfer by placing vegetation or trees in front of them for shading. Large overhangs are another way to help in crease the energy efficiency of a home by adding shading for windows. Large overhangs also help shed rainwater away from the walls and foundation of the home. It should be noted that large overhangs are an optional criterion from the Green Home Standards checklist, which require s overhangs of at leas t one foot on the gable end of the home and at least tw o feet everywhere else. The cr iterion was not included in the above analysis due to changes that would have to be made to the trusses for the model home. The overhang for the gable end of the home was 16 inches, which met the checklists standards. However, the horizontal distances of the additional overhangs were not known. If the overhangs were less than the required 2 feet, then changes would need to be made before truss fabrication. Therefore, the increase in the truss overhang sh ould have very little impact on the builders budget if the changes were made before the fabrication of the trusses. Energy Star approved windows should also be installed where needed. For example, windows installed on the east and west sides of the home should all be Energy Star approved since overhangs are much less effective against the lower angles of the east and west sun. Therefore, reducing the size and number or eas t and west facing windows or installing Energy Star approved windows can help reduce energy use. Energy Star approved windows contain improved frame materials, such as wood, vinyl, a nd fiberglass; they also contain low-e glass, multiple panes, and warm edge spacers. Three key measures are used to report window energy performance. U-value (or "Ufactor") is the measure of the amount of heat (in Btus) that moves through a square foot of window in an hour for every degree Fahrenheit difference in temperature across the window.

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58 The lower the U-value ra ting, the better the overall insulati ng value of the window. Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) is the measure of the amount of solar energy th at passes through the window; typical values range fr om 0.4 to 0.9 and the higher th e SHGC the greater the solar energy that passes through th e window system. Windows wi th high SHGC (above 0.7) are designed for colder climates, while windows w ith low coefficients are designed for hotter climates. Air infiltration or air leakage is given in terms of cubic feet of ai r per minute per foot of window edge. The best windows have air leakage rating between 0.01 and 0.06 cfm/ft. The cost of Energy Star approved windows differ depending upon manuf acturer, size, and type. Therefore, the cost differences for an En ergy Star window versus a standard window were not included in the analysis. However, as noted above, if the home is oriented correctly only certain windows will need to be replaced with Energy Star approved units. Reducing the roof slope of a home is another criterion that can be easily met during the design phase. By reducing the slope the builder ca n actually save money due to less material that is used for sheathing. To meet the criterion of the checklist the home must have slope that is equal or greater than 3 in 12 but no greater than 6 in 12. It should be noted that a roof slope of 5 in 12 may be best suited for uplift resistance during strong force winds. The model home that was used had a roof slope of 7 in 12 and did not qualify for the additiona l point. The criterion was not included in the above analysis due to cha nges that would have to be made to the trusses for the model home. The installation of a rainwater harvesting system was included in the Green Home Standards checklist. However, it was not included in the original analysis because 100% of the plants/trees selected for landscap ing are to be selected from th e builders local drought tolerant list and are to be compatible with the local clim ate. Therefore, no additional watering, besides

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59 normal rainfall, should be needed to keep up the landscaping. However, there are many homeowners that like to add addi tional landscaping af ter they have moved into the home, some of which may not be from the drought tolerant list and may require additional watering for survival. In such cases, a rainwater harvesting sy stem would aid in helpi ng to keep utility bills low while watering plants throughout the yard. With an average rainfall of 54 inches/year in the state of Florida (compared to the national average of 27 inches/year), harvested ra inwater is an excellent source of water for landscape irrigation (Florida Gr een Homes Standard Reference Gu ide, 2005). One of the most economical methods for rainwater harvesting is the use of a rainwater barrel. These barrels can range in size from just a few gallons to thousands of gallons and are used as an alternative water source for a homeowners plants a nd landscaping. It should be not ed that the system must be designed to collect water from th e roof via gutters. A schematic of the system design should be submitted. There are many rainwater harvesting systems on the market today. The system that will be installed must meet the requirements of the FGBC. It must be designed to collect water from the roof via gutters, with prope r overflow control (Florida Gr een Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Therefore, with the proper design ing, the system can be placed beneath the down spout tube of the home. These systems come in many different shapes, sizes, and colors. The system pictured in Figure 4-1 is an 80 gallon capacity tank that can be placed up against the home and directly under the down spout. The rain water harvesting system can be ordered from www.rainsaverusa.com and costs approximately $319 (before shipping). Summary There are 32 criteria that have been selected that should add little if any additional cost to the construction budget. These items are either required by th e 2004 Florida Building Code or

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60 are items that may take some additional planning to implement but should not increase the cost of construction. There are also te n criteria that have been select ed that will add an additional cost to the construction budget. The criteria and additional cost is summarized in Table 4-1 along with the cost for a certified FGBC Verifyi ng Agent. The items have a total cost of $1,264 or 1.4% of the estimated construction cost. As noted, the estimated costs do not include additional labor costs that might be required. However, the criter ia that have been recommended should require little if any addi tional labor hours to implement. The green criteria also helped to redu ce the homeowners energy consumption by approximately $60 per year, which includes the a ddition of the increased mortgage payment due to the cost of the green materials. However, as noted above this only incl udes the analysis of the Energy Star appliances, lighting, and dual flush toilets. Some of the other additional green criteria that were recommended may also aid in reducing the homes energy costs. By including all listed criteria into the de sign and construction of the home, the builder will have earned a total of 240 points. The points by category are Energy (146 points), Water (16 points), Site (12 points), H ealth (14 points), Materials (2 points), Disaster Mitigation (3 points), and General (47 points). It should be noted that the mi nimum requirements were not met in the Materials and Disaster cat egories due to cost restrictions Therefore a total of 210 points had to be earned for qualifica tion (200 + [10-2] + [5-3]). Th is means that if a builder implemented all of the criteria discussed above they could build a home up to 1699 square feet and still qualify with 210 points. If a larger home were being built, the developer/constructor would have to implement additional cr iteria from the checklist to qualify.

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61 Table 4-1. Additional cost items Criteria Additional Cost (Material & Tax) Energy Star refrigerator $0 Energy Star clothes washer $160 Energy Star dishwasher $9 Indoor lights are fluorescent/outdoor lights are fluorescent $85 Dual flush toilets (2 toilets) $254 Mulch applied 3-4 inches deep around plants $56 Stabilize disturbed soil/control sed iment runoff during construction $150 Whole house positive ventilation strategy $250 Verifying agent $300 Total $1,264

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62 Figure 4-1. 80 gallon rain barrel

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63 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS This thesis has laid out a green building fo rmula that has proved that green building techniques can be applied to affordable homes for a reasonable additional cost. There are some elements of environmentally responsible buildi ng that are out of reach for affordable home builders. However, as can be seen, there ar e many elements of green building that can be incorporated into affordable homes for little or no additional cost but may include some additional time and planning. Green Criteria When choosing which additional criteria to im plement, an emphasis was placed on criteria that would aid in lowering the occupants utility bills. Energy Star appliances and fluorescent lighting was mandatory. However additional criteria that were added, such as low-flow fixtures and dual flush toilets, will aid in reducing the occ upants utility bill even more. This should be the aim of an affordable home, making it a ffordable to operate for the end user. The material cost for the additional crite ria totaled $1,264. However, the costs could change slightly depending on where the builder purchased materials from. For example, the costs for the Energy Star app liances were obtained from www.lowes.com The appliances that were selected had low additional costs when co mpared with their trad itional counterparts. However, if the builder looked for a particular br and, then the additional cost of the Energy Star appliance might be greater then that shown in Table 4-1. The same applies to all criteria that were noted in the table. The additional cost s may increase or decrease depending on where the materials are purchased. The builder will also have a slight increase in costs above what is noted in this paper due to shipping costs that may be added to certain materials. However, any additional costs should not increas e the total cost to over $1,500.

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64 Cost vs. Savings The additional green costs can be offset by energy savings that can be realized by implementing the recommended green criteria and also by qualifying for Florida Green Communities grants and low interest rate loans. The energy savings from the additional green criteria totaled $184 per year. With the higher mortgage payment, from increased construction costs due to green materials, ta ken into account the savings totale d $60 per year. However, with the addition of Florida Green Communities grants and low interest rate loans the yearly savings were approximately $244. At first glance, the savings figures may not be as high as expected. However, these figures only included the analysis of the Energy Star appl iances, lighting, and dual flush toilets. Some of the other additional green crite ria that were recommended may also aid in reducing the homes energy costs even further. Also, it should alwa ys be remembered that the recommended green criteria also reduced the home s carbon emissions by 11,755 pounds of CO2 over the lifetime of the appliances and aided in making the home a much healthier living environment for the occupants.

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65 CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATIONS Current Research The point of this thesis research was to lay out a low cost green building formula from the Green Home Standard checklist th at could be implemented into existing affordable home plans without changing the design of the home. Some of the criteria that were chosen to be implemented were picked due to their ability to reduce the homes annual operating costs, which should be a priority with all affordable homes. However, some of the criteria were not implemented due to the design changes that would ha ve to be made to the existing plans. Some of these criteria would have aided in reduc ing the homes operating co st but could not be implemented for the reasons noted. Future Research The research for this thesis has produ ced one recommendation for the construction community and future researchers. The purpose of this thesis was to develop a low cost but effective green building formula that could be implemented into existing affordable home designs. However, after perfor ming the research it was found th at perhaps a more appropriate topic would have been the design of a green a ffordable home, since the green process should begin in the design phase of a home. There are many green buildi ng criteria, such as the design of roof trusses for adequate overhang length and the proper location of windows, that can aid in the energy reduction of home if a ddressed in the design phase. Ther efore, future research into this topic should include a study of green affordable homes from the design phase through the construction phase.

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66 APPENDIX A Table A-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimat e for Residential Clothes Washers Number of units 1 Electric Rate ($/kWh) $0.100 Water Rate ($/1000 gallons) $5.360 Gas Rate ($/therms) $1.240 Number of Loads per Week 8 Type of Water Heating ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Conventional Unit Initial Cost per Unit (estimated retail price) $418 $317 Electricity Consumption (kWh/year) 126 418 Water Consumption (gal/year) 7,886 13,494 Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 Clothes Washer(s) 1 ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit(s) 1 Conventional Unit(s) Savings with ENERGY STAR Annual Operating Costs Electricity costs $13 $42 $29 Electricity consumption (kWh) 126 418 292 Water costs $42 $72 $30 Water consumption (gal) 7,886 13,494 5,608 Gas costs $0 $0 $0 Gas consumption (therm) 0 0 0 Total $55 $114 $59 Life Cycle Costs Operating costs (electricity, water, and gas) $445 $926 $481 Electricity costs $102 $339 $237 Electricity consumption (kWh) 1,260 4,180 2,920 Water costs $343 $587 $244 Water consumption (gal) 78,860 134,940 56,080 Gas costs $0 $0 $0 Gas consumption (therm) 0 0 0 Purchase price for 1 unit(s) $418 $317 -$101 Total $863 $1,243 $380

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67 Table A-1. Continued. Summary of Benefits for 1 Clothes Washer(s) Initial cost difference $101 Life cycle savings $481 Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) $380 Simple payback of additional cost (years) 1.7 Life cycle electricity saved (kWh) 2,920 Life cycle air polluti on reduction (lbs of CO2) 4,614 Savings as a percent of retail price 91% Note: The electric and water rates used in the calculat ions were obtained from Gainesville Regional Utilities. Assumptions for Clothes Washers Category Value Data Source Power & Water ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Initial Cost Per Unit $529 www.lowes.com Lifetime 10 years Appliance Magazine 2005 Water Consumption per Load 20.1 gallons/load Calculated Unit Water Consumption 7,886 gallons DOE 2005 Electric Water Heating Electricity Consumption per Load 0.321428571 kWh/load Calculated Unit Electricity Consumption 126 kWh www.lowes.com Gas Water Heating Electricity Consumption per Load 0.032142857 kWh/load Calculated Unit Electricity Consumption 13 kWh DOE 2005 Gas Consumption per Load 0.038 Therm/load Calculated Unit Gas Consumption 15 Therms DOE 2005 Conventional Unit (New Unit) Initial Cost Per Unit $317 www.lowes.com Lifetime 10 years Appliance Magazine 2005 Water Consumption per load 34.4 gallons/load DOE 2005 Annual Unit Water Consumption 13,494 gallons/year DOE 2005 Electric Water Heating Electricity Consumption per Load 1.066326531 kWh/load Calculated Unit Electricity Consumption 418 kWh DOE 2005 Gas Water Heating Electricity Consumption per Load 0.106632653 kWh/load Calculated Unit Electricity Consumption 42 kWh DOE 2005 Gas Consumption per Load 0.074 Therm/load Calculated Unit Gas Consumption 29 Therms DOE 2005 Usage Residential Clothes Washers Average number of loads per year 392 loads/year DOE 2004 Number of operating weeks per year 52 week/year

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68 Table A-1. Continued. Assumptions for Clothes Washers Usage Value Data Source Number of loads per week (Resi dential) 7.5 loads/week Calculated Discount Rate Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real) 4% Energy and Water Prices 2005 Residential Electricity Price $0. 100 $/kWh GRU, Gainesville, Fl. 2005 Water Rate per 1000 Gallons $5.360 $/1000 gal GRU, Gainesville, Fl. 2005 Residential Gas Price $1.24 $/therm EIA 2005 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors Electricity Carbon Emission Factors 1.58 lbs CO2/kWh EPA 2004 CO2 Equivalents Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre 8,066 lbs CO2/year EPA 2004 Annual CO2 emissions for "average" passenger car 11,470 lbs CO2/year EPA 2004 Note: The electric and water rates used in the calcul ations were obtained from GRU in Gainesville, Fl. Note: The unit electricity consumpt ion was obtained from www.lowes.com Note: This energy savings calculator was developed by the U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE.

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69 APPENDIX B Table B-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimat e for Residential Refrigerators Number of units 1 Electricity Rate ($/kWh) $.10 .0.100 ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Conventional Unit Initial cost per unit (estimated retail price) $848 $848 Refrigerator Fresh Volume (ft3) 18 18 Refrigerator Freezer Volume (ft3) 8 8 Refrigerator Total Volume (ft3) 26 26 Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 Residential Refrigerator(s) 1 ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit(s) 1 Conventional Unit(s) Savings with ENERGY STAR Annual Operating Costs Energy costs $62 $73 $11 Energy consumption (kWh) 618 727 109 Total $62 $73 $11 Life Cycle Costs* Energy costs $617 $726 $109 Energy consumption (kWh) 8,034 9,451 1,417 Purchase Price for 1 unit(s) $848 $848 $0 Total $1,465 $1,574 $109 Simple payback of initial additional cost (years) 0.0 Summary of Benefits for 1 Residential Refrigerator(s) Initial cost difference $0 Life cycle savings $109 Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) $109 Simple payback of additional cost (years) 0.0 Life cycle energy saved (kWh) 1,417 Life cycle air polluti on reduction (lbs of CO2) 1,700 Savings as a percent of retail price 13% Choose the type of refrigerator

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70 Table B-1. Continued Assumptions for Residential Refrigerators Category Value Data Source Power ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Initial cost per unit $798 Lowes Refrigerator Fresh Volume 18 ft3 DOE 2004 Refrigerator Freezer Volume 8 ft3 DOE 2004 Adjusted Volume 31.04 ft3 DOE 2004 Lifetime 13 years DOE 2004 Annual Unit Energy Consumption For Selected Refrigerator Type 618 kWh Calculated. 1-Manual Defrost Refrigerators 444 kWh DOE 2004 2-Partial Automatic Defrost Refrigerators 444 kWh DOE 2004 3-Top Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice 493 kWh DOE 2004 4-Side Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice 561 kWh DOE 2004 5-Bottom Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice 512 kWh DOE 2004 6-Top Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice 572 kWh DOE 2004 7-Side Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice 618 kWh www.lowes.com Conventional Unit (New Unit) Initial cost per unit $798 Lowes Refrigerator Fresh Volume 18 ft3 DOE 2004 Refrigerator Freezer Volume 8 ft3 DOE 2004 Adjusted Volume 31.04 ft3 DOE 2004 Lifetime 13 years DOE 2004 Annual Unit Energy Consumption For Selected Refrigerator Type 727 kWh Calculated. 1-Manual Defrost Refrigerators 522 kWh DOE 2004 2-Partial Automatic Defrost Refrigerators 522 kWh DOE 2004 3-Top Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice 580 kWh DOE 2004 4-Side Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice 660 kWh DOE 2004 5-Bottom Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice 602 kWh DOE 2004 6-Top Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice 673 kWh DOE 2004 7-Side Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice 727 kWh www.lowes.com Usage Number of operating hours per day 24 hours/day DOE 2004 Number of operating days per year 365 days/year DOE 2004 Number of operating hours per year 8,760 hours/year Calculated. Discount Rate Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real) 4% Energy Prices 2004 Commercial Electricity Price $ 0.100 $/kWh GRU, Gainesville, Fl. 2004 Residential Electricity Price $ 0.100 $/kWh GRU, Gainesville, Fl. Carbon Emissions Factors Electricity Carbon Emission Factors 1.2 lbs CO2/kWh DOE 2004 CO2 Equivalents Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre 7,333 lbs CO2/yr EPA 2003 Annual CO2 emissions for "average" passenger car 11,560 lbs CO2/yr EPA 2003 Note: The electric rates used in the ca lculations were obtained from Gainesville Regional Utilities in Gainesville, Fl. Note: The annual energy consumption was for eac h unit was obtained at www.lowes.com.

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71 APPENDIX C Table C-1. Life Cycle Cost Estim ate for Residential Dishwashers Number of units 1 Electric Rate ($/kWh) $0.100 Water Rate ($/1000 gallons) $5.360 Gas Rate ($/therm) $0.910 Number of Cycles (Loads) per Week 4 Type of Water Heating % ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Conventional Unit Initial Cost per Unit (estimated retail price) $253 $242 Energy Factor (EF) 0.63 0.52 Electricity Consumption (kWh/year) 374 432 Water Consumption (gal/year) 1,075 1,935 Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 Dishwasher(s) 1 ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit(s) 1 Conventional Unit(s) Savings with ENERGY STAR Annual Operating Costs Electricity costs ($/kWh) $37 $43 $6 Electricity consumption (kWh) 374 432 58 Water costs ($/gal) $6 $10 $5 Water consumption (gal) 1,075 1,935 860 Gas costs ($/therm) $0 $0 $0 Gas consumption (therm) 0 0 0 Total $43 $54 $10 Life Cycle Costs Operating costs (electricity, water, and gas) $350 $435 $84 Electricity costs ($/kWh) $303 $350 $47 Electricity consumption (kWh) 3,740 4,320 580 Water costs ($/gal) $47 $84 $37 Water consumption (gal) 10,750 19,350 8,600 Gas costs ($/therm) $0 $0 $0 Gas consumption (therm) 0 0 0 Purchase price for 1 unit(s) $253 $242 -$11 Total $603 $677 $73

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72 Table C-1. Continued Summary of Benefits for 1 Dishwasher(s) Initial cost difference $11 Life cycle savings $84 Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) $73 Simple payback of additional cost (years) 1.1 Life cycle electricity saved (kWh) 580 Life cycle air polluti on reduction (lbs of CO2) 696 Savings as a percent of retail price 29% Assumptions for Dishwashers Category Value Data Source Power & Water ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Initial Cost Per Unit $253 www.lowes.com Energy Factor 0.63 DOE 2005 Lifetime 10 years DOE 2005 Water Consumption per Cycle 5 gallons/Cycle DOE 2004 Annual Unit Water Consumpti on 1,075 gallons Calculated Electric Water Heating Electricity Consumption per Cy cle 1.74 kWh/Cycle Calculated Unit Electricity Consumption 374 kWh www.lowes.com Gas Water Heating Electricity Consumption per Cycle 0.77 kWh/Cycle DOE 2005 Unit Electricity Consumption 150 kWh Calculated Gas Consumption per Cycle 0.037 Therms/Cycle DOE 2004 Unit Gas Consumption 8 Therms Calculated Conventional Unit Initial Cost Per Unit $242 www.lowes.com Energy Factor 0.52 DOE 2005 Lifetime 10 years DOE 2005 Water Consumption per Cycle 9 gallons/Cycle DOE 2004 Annual Unit Water Consumpti on 1,935 gallons Calculated Electric Water Heating Electric Consumption per Cy cle 2.01 kWh/Cycle Calculated Unit Electricity Consumption 432 kWh www.lowes.com Gas Water Heating Electric Consumption per Cy cle 0.88 kWh/Cycle DOE 2005 Unit Electricity Consumption 182 kWh Calculated Gas Consumption per Cycle 0.051 Therms/Cycle DOE 2005 Unit Gas Consumption 11 Therms Calculated Usage Average number of cycles per ye ar 215 Cycles/year Calculated Number of operating weeks per year 52 week/year DOE 2004 Number of Cycles per week 4.13 Cycles/week DOE 2004

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73 Table C-1. Continued Assumptions for Dishwashers Category Value Data Source Discount Rate Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real) 4% Energy and Water Prices 2004 Commercial Electricity Price $0.100 $/kWh GRU, Gainesville, Fl. 2004 Residential Electricity Price $0. 100 $/kWh GRU, Gainesville, Fl. 2004 Water Rate per 1000 Gallons $5.360 $/1000 gal GRU, Gainesville, Fl. 2004 Commercial Gas Price $0.83 $/therm DOE 2004 2004 Residential Gas Price $0.91 $/therm DOE 2004 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors Electricity Carbon Emission Factors 1.2 lbs CO2/kWh DOE 2004 CO2 Equivalents Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre 7,333 lbs CO2/year EPA 2003 Annual CO2 emissions for "average" passenger car 11,560 lbs CO2/year EPA 2003 Note: The electric and water rates used in the calcul ations were obtained from GRU in Gainesville, Fl. Note: The unit electricity consumpt ion was obtained for www.lowes.com Note: This energy savings calculator was developed by the U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE

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74 APPENDIX D Table D-1. Life Cycle Cost Estim ate for Fluorescent Light Bulbs Table D-1. Number of units 1 Electricity Rate ($/kWh) $ 0.100 Hours used per day 6 ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Conventional Unit Initial cost per unit (estimated retail price) $5.00 $0.50 Watts Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 CFLs 1 ENERGY STAR Qualified Units 1 Conventional Units Savings with ENERGY STAR Annual Operating Costs Energy cost $3 $13 $10 Energy consumption (kWh) 28 131 103 Maintenance cost $0 $0 $0 Total $3 $13 $10 Life Cycle Costs Operating cost (energy and maintenance) $13 $58 $46 Energy costs (lifetime) $13 $58 $46 Energy consumption (kWh) 104 657 553 Maintenance costs (lifetime) $0 $0 $0 Purchase price for 1 unit(s) $5.00 $0.50 $4.50 Total $18 $59 $41 Simple payback of initial additional cost (years) 0.4 Summary of Benefits for 1 CFLs Initial cost difference $5 Life cycle savings $46 Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) $41 Simple payback of additional cost (years) 0.4 Life cycle energy saved (kWh) 553 Life cycle air polluti on reduction (lbs of CO2) 791 Savings as a percent of retail price 826%

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75 Table D-1. Continued Assumptions for CFLs Category Value Data Source Power ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Initial Cost per Unit $5.00 www.lowes.com Wattage 13 watts DOE 2003 20 watts DOE 2003 25 watts DOE 2003 32 watts DOE 2003 50 watts DOE 2003 Bulb Life 6,000 hours DOE 2003 8,000 hours DOE 2003 10,000 hours DOE 2003 12,000 hours DOE 2003 Lifetime DOE 2003 For 6,000 hour CFL 4 years DOE 2003 For 8,000 hour CFL 5 years DOE 2003 For 10,000 hour CFL 6 years DOE 2003 For 12,000 hour CFL 8 years DOE 2003 Conventional Unit Initial Cost per Unit $0.50 www.lowes.com Wattage 40 watts DOE 2003 60 watts DOE 2003 75 watts DOE 2003 100 watts DOE 2003 150 watts DOE 2003 Bulb Life 750 hours DOE 2003 1,000 hours DOE 2003 Lifetime For 750 hour incadescent bulb 0.5 years DOE 2003 For 1,000 hour incadescent bulb 0.7 years DOE 2003 Maintenance Labor cost (per hour) $0 EPA 2004 Installation labor hours 0 hours Assumption Usage Hours used per day 6 hours/day Assumption Number of days per year 365 days/year Assumption CFL annual bulb replacements 6,000 hours 0.37 bulbs/year Calculated 8,000 hours 0.27 bulbs/year Calculated 10,000 hours 0.22 bulbs/year Calculated 12,000 hours 0.18 bulbs/year Calculated Incandescent annual bulb replacements 750 hours 2.92 bulbs/year Calculated

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76 1,000 hours 2.19 bulbs/year Calculated Table D-1. Continued Assumptions for CFLs Category Value Data Source Discount Rate Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real) 4% Energy Prices 2004 Commercial Electricity Price 0.1 $/kWh GRU, Gainesville, Fl. 2004 Residential Electricity Price 0.1 $/kWh GRU, Gainesville, Fl. Carbon Emissions Factors Electricity Carbon Emission Factors 1.43 lbs CO2/kWh EPA 2003 CO2 Equivalents Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre 7,333 lbs CO2/kWh EPA 2003 Annual CO2 emissions for "average" passenger car 11,560 lbs CO2/kWh EPA 2003 Note: The electric rates used in the calculati ons were obtained from GRU in Gainesville, Fl. Note: This energy savings calculator was developed by the U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE

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77 APPENDIX E. Table E-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Dual Flush Toilets Unit Briggs Standard Toilet Toto Aquia Dual Flush Cost $113 $248 Gallons Per Flush 1.6 1.25 Annual Water Use (gallons) 17520 13688 Water Cost per 1,000 gallons $5.36 $5.36 Annual Water Cost $93.91 $73.37 20-Year Water Cost $1,878.14 $1,467.35 Summary of Benefits for 1 Dual Flush Toilet Initial Cost Difference $135 Annual Savings $20.54 Lifecycle Savings $410.79 Payback of Additional Cost (Years) 6.6 Assumptions: 30 flushes per day The water rates used in the calculation were obtained from Gainesville Regional Utilities in Gainesville, Fl. The water rates used included water services of $1.42/1,000 gallons and wastewater services of $3.94/1,000 gallons.

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78 APPENDIX F Table F-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for an Air Source Heat Pump Number of units 1 Electric Rate ($/kWh) $0.100 City ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Conventional Unit Initial Cost per Unit (estimated retail price) $5,206 $4,038 Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) rating 8.2 6.8 Seasonal Energy Effici ency Ratio (SEER) rating 16 13 Heat Pump Capacity (Btu/hr) 36,000 36,000 Use with programmable thermostat (Yes/No) Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 Air Source Heat Pump(s) 1 ENERGY STAR Qualified Units 1 Conventional Units Savings with ENERGY STAR Annual Operating Costs Energy cost $820 $1,000 $180 Maintenance cost $0 $0 $0 Total $820 $1,000 $180 Life Cycle Costs Operating costs (energy and maintenance) $7,698 $9,384 $1,686 Energy costs $7,698 $9,384 $1,686 Maintenance costs $0 $0 $0 Purchase price for 1 unit(s) $5,206 $4,038 $1,168 Total $12,904 $13,422 $518 Simple payback of initial additional cost (years) 6.5 Summary of Benefits for 1 Air Source Heat Pump(s) Initial cost difference $1,168 Life cycle savings $1,686 Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) $518 Simple payback of additional cost (years) 6.5 Life cycle energy saved (kWh) 21,561 Life cycle air polluti on reduction (lbs of CO2) 34,498 Savings as a percent of retail price 10% C h oose you r c i ty fr o m t h e d r op do wn

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79 Table F-1. Continued Assumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps Category Value Data Source Power ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit Initial Cost Per Unit $5,206 Bertie Heating & Air (Gainesville, Fl.) Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) rating 8.2 T he HSPF criteria for ENERGY STAR qualified residential airsource heat pumps are 8.2 for split systems and 8.0 for single package equipment. Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER ) rating 16 The SEER criteria for ENERGY STAR qualified residential airsource heat pumps are 14.5 for split systems and 14 for single package equipment. Heating Capacity of Air Source Heat Pump (Btu/hr) 36,000 Btu/hr EPA 2004 Use with programmable thermostat (Yes/No) Yes EPA 2004 Lifetime 12 years LBNL 2004 Conventional Unit Initial Cost Per Unit $4,038 Bertie Heating & Air (Gainesville, Fl.) Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) rating 6.8 EPA 2004 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ra tio (SEER) rating 13 EPA 2004 Heating Capacity of Air Source Heat Pump (Btu/hr) 36,000 Btu/hr EPA 2004 Use with programmable thermostat (Yes/No) Yes EPA 2004 Lifetime 12 years LBNL 2004 Maintenance Labor cost (per hour) $20 EPA 2004 Labor time (hours) 0 EPA 2004 Usage Cooling Heating Full-Load Cooling/Heating Hours for Selected Location 2,297 1,047 EPA 2002 FL-Daytona Beach 2,763 720 EPA 2002 FL-Fort Myers 3,288 504 EPA 2002 FL-Gainesville 2,228 889 EPA 2002 FL-Jacksonville 2,086 1,020 EPA 2002 FL-Key West 4,566 342 EPA 2002 FL-Miami 3,931 265 EPA 2002 FL-Orlando 2,915 583 EPA 2002 FL-Pensacola 2,297 1,047 EPA 2002 FL-Tallahassee 2,215 1,133 EPA 2002 FL-Tampa 3,068 709 EPA 2002 FL-W. Palm Beach 3,479 314 EPA 2002 Discount Rate Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real) 4% Programmable Thermostat Discount Rate 16% LBNL 2005 (Based on minimum estimated savings) Energy and Water Prices Commercial Electricity Price $0.089 $/kWh EIA 2006 Residential Electricity Price $0.100 $/kWh Gaine sville Regional Utilities, Gainesville, Fl. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors Electricity CO2 Emission Factor 1.6 lbs CO2/kWh EPA 2006 CO2 Equivalents Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre 8,066 lbs CO2/year EIA 2006 Annual CO2 emissions for "average" passenger car 11,470 lbs CO2/year EIA 2006 Note: The electric rates used in the calculation were obtained from the GRU in Gainesville, Fl.

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80 LIST OF REFERENCES Anderson, B. (March 2006). Green Building Comes of Age. Affordable Housing Finance Retrieved January 12, 2007, from http://www.housingfinance.com/aft/a rticles/2006/mar/002_greenmar06.htm Boehland, J. (2005). Greening Affordab le Housing [Electronic Version]. Environmental Building News 14, 3. Farr, J. (2006). Can Housing be Green and Affordable? Partners in Community and Economic Development Retrieved January 12, 2007, from http://www.frbatlanta.org/invoke.cfm?objectid=7E448AB7-5056-9F121273CD2B2C3B6231&method=display_body Marks, A. (November 22, 2005). Affordable Housing Goes Green. The Christian Science Monitor Retrieved January 12, 2007, from http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/1122/p03s03ussc.html .Wilson, A., Malin, N. (1996). The IAQ Cha llenge: Protecting the Indoor Environment [Electronic Version]. Environmental Building News 5, 3. BChydro. (2006). Compact Fluores cent Light Bulbs. Mud history, (January 3, 2007). Energy Star. (2006). Energy Star Qu alified Appliances. Mud history, (January 3, 2007). Energy Star. (2006). Clothes Washers. Mud history, (January 3, 2007). Energy Star. (2006). Definitions for Clothes Washers product listing column headers. Mud history, (January 3, 2007). Energy Star. (2006). Refrigerators and Freezers. Mud history, (January 3, 2007). Energy Star. (2006). Dishw ashers. Mud history, (January 3, 2007). Energy Star. (2006). Light Bulb s & Fixtures. Mud history, (January 3, 2007). Energy Star. (2006). Compact Fluor escent Light Bulbs. Mud history, (January 3, 2007).

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81 Energy Star. (2006). Duct Sealing. Mud history, (January 3, 2007) Florida Building Code. (2004) Falls Church, Virginia Florida Green Communities. (2005). Welcome to Florida Green Communities. Mud history, (January 2, 2007). Florida Green Communities. (2005). Green Home Standard Checklist. Mud history, (December 10, 2006). Florida Green Communities. (2005). Florida Green Home Standard Reference Guide. Mud history, (December 10, 2006). Gainesville Regional Utilities. (2006). Reference Guide Exis ting Multifamily Program. Mud History, (January 3, 2007). Green Communities. (2005). The Green Communities Vision. Mud history, (January 2, 2007). National Association of Homebu ilders. (2006). Green Building: Not as complicated as You Think, Says NAHB. Mud history, (January 13, 2007). National Association of Homebu ilders. (2006). Green Basics: You Dont Have to Go Weird to Build Green. Mud history, (January 13, 2007). National Geographic. (2004). Is Your Home a Green House? Mud history, (January 10, 2007).

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82 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brian P. Crum was born December 25, 1978 in Tallahassee, Florida. He is the only son of Pren and Sharon Crum. He received his high sc hool diploma from Taylor County High School in 1997. He earned his Bachelor of Science in finance from Florida State University at Tallahassee, Florida in 2002. Bria n moved to Gainesville, Florid a in 2002 to pursue a career in commercial lending with M&S Bank. In 2005 Brian d ecided to pursue his Master of Science in Building Construction at the University of Fl orida where he graduated in the spring of 2007.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020668/00001

Material Information

Title: Green Building Techniques for Affordable Housing in the State of Florida: A Focus on Single Family Residences
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020668:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020668/00001

Material Information

Title: Green Building Techniques for Affordable Housing in the State of Florida: A Focus on Single Family Residences
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020668:00001


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Full Text





GREEN BUILDING TECHNIQUES FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN THE STATE OF
FLORIDA: A FOCUS ON SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCES



















By

BRIAN CRUM


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007





























2007 Brian Crum









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my wife for always being by my side and believing in everything I

do. I would also like to thank my parents and in-laws for their support and belief in me.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S .................................................................. ........... .............. .....

LIST O F TA B LE S ........... ... ................ ................................................................ 6

LIST O F FIG U RE S ................................................................. 7

ABSTRAC T ......................................................................... 8

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C TIO N .................. .......................................................... ......... .. 10

The Importance of Green Building for Affordable Homes ........................................ 10
O b j e ctiv e ................... ...................1...................1..........
C o n trib u tio n ................... ...................1...................1.........

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ...................... ...................................... ......... 13

Green Building and Affordable Housing ....................................................... ............... 13
G reen B u ildin g C o sts.................................................................................................... 14
Health Issues and Green Building .................................. .........................................14
G reen B building Products............... ......... ................. ...................................16
Enterprise Community Partners and Florida Green Communities.......................................16
Florida Green Home Standard Checklist............................. ............................ 18
Mandatory Criteria from the Green Home Standard Checklist ...........................................19
E n e rg y ................... ...................1...................9..........
W a te r .............. .... ...............................................................2 5
S ite ................... ...................2...................7..........
H e a lth ..........................................................................2 8
M a te ria ls .......................................................................................................... 3 1
D isa ster M itig atio n ..................................................................................................... 3 2
G e n e ra l .........................................................................3 2
C o n clu sio n ................... ...................3...................2..........

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................................................ 3 5

4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS.. ......................................................................................37

P art 1 : M o d el H o m e ................................................................................................................3 7
Part 2: Additional Criteria from the Green Home Standard Checklist..............................38
E n e rg y ................... ................... ...................8..........
W ate r .............. .... ...............................................................4 0
S ite ..........................................................................4 3
H e a lth ..........................................................................4 3


4









M a te ria ls ..........................................................................................................4 4
D disaster M litigation ......................................................................... .. 44
G e n e ra l .................................................................................4 4
Part 3: N o C ost G reen C riteria............................................. ................... ............... 45
Green Criteria with Additional Costs ............................................................................. 47
P art 4: E energy Savings ............... ............................................ ........... .... ..... 50
Part 5: C ost vs. Savings A analysis ........................................................................... ............53
P art 6 : A additional G reen C riteria......................................... .............................................54
S u m m ary ................... ...................5...................9..........

5 C O N C L U SIO N S ................. ......... ................................ .......... ........ .. ......... ...... .. 63

G re e n C rite ria .........................................................................................................................6 3
C ost vs. Savings .................................................64

6 R E C O M M EN D A TIO N S............................................................................... ... ............65

Current Research .................................. ....... ..... ................... 65
F utu re R research ................................................................6 5

APPENDIX

A LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FOR RESIDENTIAL CLOTHES WASHERS ............66

B LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FOR RESIDENTIAL REFRIGERATORS .......................69

C LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FOR RESIDENTIAL DISHWASHERS ........................71

D LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FOR FLOURESCENT LIGHT BULBS .........................74

E LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FOR DUAL FUSH TOILETS. .......................................77

F LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE FOR AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP ..........................78

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .................................................................................... .....................80

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .............................................................................. .....................82









LIST OF TABLES

Table page

2-1 L um en com prison to w atts .................................................................... .... .................33

2-2 L fighting com prison .............................................................................. ......................34

4-1 Additional cost item s ................................. ..... .. .. .................. 61

A-i Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Residential Clothes Washers............... ...............66

B-1 Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Residential Refrigerators ......................................... 69

C-1 Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Residential Dishwashers ............................................. 71

D-l Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Fluorescent Light Bulbs .............. ...................................74

E-l Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Dual Flush Toilets.........................................................77

F-l Life Cycle Cost Estimate for an Air Source Heat Pump ............................................. 78










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


4-1 Eighty gallon rain barrel .......................................................................... ....................62


page









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

GREEN BUILDING TECHNIQUES FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN THE STATE OF
FLORIDA: A FOCUS ON SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCES

By

Brian Crum

May 2007

Chair: Charles Kibert
Cochair: Robert Stroh, Sr.
Major: Building Construction

Green building for affordable housing is often a concept that is overlooked by many

affordable home builders due to the common misconception that it is too costly to apply green

building principles to affordable homes. However, the goals of green building and affordable

housing overlap to a large degree, making affordable homes well suited for green strategies.

The intention of this research was to prove that green building techniques could be applied

to a typical affordable home for reasonable additional costs, without making substantial changes

to the design of the existing home. This was accomplished by developing a green building

formula, using the Florida Green Building Coalition's Green Home Standard checklist that could

be applied to all affordable homes in the state of Florida. The formula aids in qualifying homes

less than 1,699s.f. for grants and low interest rate loans through Florida Green Communities and

also enables the home to receive the Green Home Designation from the Florida Green Building

Coalition.

The research also includes an estimate of the energy savings and reduced carbon emissions

that could be realized from implementing specific green criteria. The monthly energy savings

from the green criteria were compared to the increased home mortgage payment due to the









additional green costs to determine the monthly/yearly energy savings that could be realized

from implementing the green criteria.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

It is a common misconception by many developers/constructors that it is costly to build

green. Many affordable housing developers/constructors believe that green building principles

cannot be applied to their product. However, the goals of green building and affordable housing

overlap to a large degree, making affordable housing well suited to green strategies. Affordable

homes are small and easy on the planet. Also, operation and maintenance costs need to be kept

low due to the "low-income" of the end user, which can be accomplished by providing green

building techniques during the design and construction process. There are many green

techniques that can be implemented that will cost the contractor little or no money. These

techniques can help to reduce the energy costs of the home, improve the indoor air quality for the

occupants, as well as reduce air pollution in terms of decreased carbon dioxide emissions.

The Importance of Green Building for Affordable Homes

As noted above, operation and maintenance costs for affordable homes need to be kept low

due to the income of the end users. Many of the developers/constructors of affordable homes

require the occupants to be at or below 80% of the areas median income. This is typically the

point where the occupants can qualify for local government subsidies; however subsidy

requirements are different for some local governments. Therefore, occupants of an affordable

home, in any county, will need a home with low operation and maintenance costs due to the low

income of the end users.

There are many green materials on the market today that are comparable in price to their

traditional counterparts but aid in reducing a homeowner's operational costs. For example, the

use of Energy Star appliances, compact fluorescent lighting, low-flow fixtures, efficient HVAC









filters, the appropriate location of windows, and adequate shading do not necessarily cost more

to implement. Furthermore, they aid in decreasing the occupant's cost to operate the home.

The implementation of green strategies will also allow the developer/constructor to receive

grants and low interest rate loans that can be used to offset the cost of "greening up" the home.

One of the major contributors to the green affordable housing movement in the State of Florida is

Florida Green Communities, an organization that offers grants and low interest loans to

qualifying non-profits who meet certain criteria. Included in these criteria are a minimum

number of points (200) that must be obtained from the Florida Green Building Coalition

checklist, the Green Home Standard, which will be used throughout the paper for determining

the green strategies that are to be implemented. It should be noted that Florida Green

Communities already has certain mandatory green criteria checked, which totals 169 points.

Therefore, the developer/constructor must implement additional criteria from the checklist that

totals 31 points.

Objective

The objective of this research is to address the common misconception that green building

is too expensive to be applied to affordable homes. This will be done by using the FGBC's

Green Home Standard checklist to develop a green building formula that meets the criteria of

Florida Green Communities and is reasonable in its additional costs. Life cycle cost estimates

for specific green criteria will also be performed in order to calculate the energy savings from the

recommended criteria. The energy savings must outweigh the costs of the additional green

materials for the formula to be considered useful.

Contribution

The contribution of this research is the development of a green building formula, using

the Green Home Standard checklist that will meet the Florida Green Communities criteria and









can be applied to all affordable homes in the state of Florida. The green building formula must

be reasonable in its additional costs and the energy savings from the green criteria must outweigh

the costs of the additional green materials. The formula can then be used by all affordable

housing developers/constructors in the state of Florida to lower the operating costs of the homes

for the end users. At the same time, the formula will aid in qualifying the

developers/constructors for Florida Green Communities grants and low interest rate loans,

thereby creating even more of an incentive to build green.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Green Building and Affordable Housing

Green building is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. The movement's

popularity is "especially taking hold in the affordable housing industry" according to Bendix

Anderson of Affordable Housing Finance (Anderson, 2006). The movement's growth in the

affordable housing industry is largely due to a change in the perception of builders and

developers of what green building means. "Despite the popular perception that green buildings

need lots of expensive technology like geothermal heating, green roofs or solar panels, creating a

green (or high-performance) building really means building a development that uses less

resources and is healthier to live in-and that typically starts with energy efficiency" (Anderson,

2006). This is a realization that has begun to sink in with many affordable housing developers

across the nation.

In many aspects, green building and affordable housing go hand in hand, which makes

affordable housing well suited for green building strategies. "Affordable homes, almost by

definition, are small and easy on the planet," according to Randy Udall, head of the Community

Office for Resource Efficiency in Aspen Colorado (Boehland, 2005). Also, according to Udall

"with affordable housing, you know you're going to have to make difficult decisions. Corian

countertops aren't in the picture. Everybody knows that from the get-go," he explains. "Meeting

an environmental budget-a green goal-is congruent with the process you're already involved

in" (Boehland, 2005).

There are many green building strategies that should naturally be applied to affordable

housing. Some of these strategies include "ensuring that affordable housing is located

appropriately, keeping the first cost low, keeping the operations and maintenance costs low, and









protecting the health of the occupants. Incorporating other green strategies, ensuring the safety

of the occupants, and fostering comfort and pride are also important and can often be included

without raising the budget" (Boehland, 2005).

Also, according to Peter Pfeiffer, of Barley and Pfeiffer Architects, "in terms of design,

going green can involve scaling down square footage and building two-level, rather than one-

level homes, for instance; lowering ceilings a bit; placing skylights more strategically; and

minimizing recessed lighting. This can all be done without sacrificing style, livable space, or

beauty" (NAHB, 2006). These are all characteristics that can be or are already applied to

affordable housing design and construction with the effect of little or no additional costs.

Green Building Costs

As noted above, "greening up" a residence is not as expensive as many individuals might

think. "In fact, the average 'green premium' added just 2.42% to the total development costs of

constructing a green project, according to a study conducted by New Ecology, Inc. The study

examined 16 green affordable housing projects, including both newly built developments and

rehabilitations of older buildings. The total development costs for these projects ranged from

18% below to 9% above the costs for comparable conventional affordable housing" (Anderson,

2006). Also, "Research by the Home Depot Foundation indicates that green building pushes

costs up 3 to 5%, but it also shows these costs are recouped through reduced expenses in less

than 5 years" (Farr, 2006).

Health Issues and Green Building

Designing for an occupant's health is an important but often overlooked factor when

designing and constructing a home due to the fact that some individuals can become sick when

introduced to tiny quantities of contaminants such as volatile organic compounds or VOCs. "By

some estimates, direct medical costs associated with indoor air quality problems in the United









States are as high as $15 billion per year, with indirect costs of $60 billion. These estimates do

not include problems like asthma, which may be triggered by IAQ problems-and which has

increased 42% between 1982 and 1992 in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control"

(Wilson, et al., 1996). The elimination of indoor air containments, such as VOCs, from the home

can be accomplished by using low or zero VOC paint, stains, adhesives, and varnishes, as well as

the elimination of manufactured wood products made from urea-formaldehyde, such as

particleboard used for shelving, cabinetry, and countertops. "Formaldehyde emissions from

manufactured wood products drop off gradually over time but may continue for many years.

Exposure to high humidity increases emissions because a hydrolysis reaction occurs in which

formaldehyde is broken off from the polymeric resin. We can minimize formaldehyde emissions

in new buildings by carefully choosing materials and furnishings or by sealing those products

containing formaldehyde" (Wilson, et al., 1996).

The use of wall-to-wall carpeting in a home can also be a significant source of indoor air

containments. Over time, VOCs can be absorbed into carpentry and released at a future time.

"Carpeting can also serve as a medium for molds and other biological contaminants.

Unfortunately, there is no effective way to clean such contaminants off of wall-to-wall carpets,

so they remain as an ongoing sink and source of VOCs and molds until they are replaced"

(Wilson, et al., 1996). It should also be noted that the installation of carpet "can be among the

most significant sources of VOCs in new or remodeled buildings" (Wilson, et al., 1996). This is

due to the type of adhesives and seam sealants that are used when laying the carpet. Therefore,

for a healthy home, practices such as tacking the carpet down should be used or carpet and pads

should be purchased that have been marked with the Carpet and Rug Institutes green label.









Green Building Products

The availability of more green products has also led to the increase in green building for the

affordable housing sector. Green products and materials are now being offered at prices that

compete with traditional building materials. "There are more green building products than ever.

Easier to use insulation, chemically neutral paints and flooring and natural landscaping products

are no longer difficult to find. Most home-improvement stores carry a full line of compact

fluorescent bulbs, which use 70% less energy, and advances in solar roof panels and shingles,

wind turbines, and efficient appliances make green technology less expensive than even a few

years ago" (NAHB, 2006).

Enterprise Community Partners and Florida Green Communities

Another contributing factor to the growing green building movement in affordable housing

is "local officials and funding programs have begun to champion sustainable development"

(Anderson, 2006). One of the current sources of financing for affordable housing developers and

builders in the State of Florida is Enterprise Community Partners and the Florida Green

Communities. Enterprise and Florida Green Communities offer grants and low interest loans to

developers and builders who meet certain criteria, thereby giving a greater incentive to build

green. Green Communities was created by Enterprise Community Partners in association with

the Natural Resources Defense Council. Green Communities is a five-year, $555 million

initiative to build more than 8,500 environmentally healthy homes for low-income families. The

initiative provides grants, financing, tax-credit equity, and technical assistance to developers who

meet Green Communities Criteria for affordable housing. It is the "first national green building

program focused entirely on affordable housing. It incorporates many innovations from the

'mainstream' green building movement, including the use of environmentally sustainable

materials, reduction of environmental impact, and increased energy efficiency. Green









Communities takes the idea of green several steps further, emphasizing design and materials that

safeguard the health of residents, and siting that provides close, easy access to public

transportation, schools, and services" (Green Communities, 2005). Enterprise and Green

Communities influence can be felt around the nation. From November 2004 to November 2005

the Enterprise Foundation "helped start 77 green developments in 21 states, which will create

more than 4300 environmentally efficient homes for low-income families" (Marks, 2005).

Green Communities partner program includes Florida Green Communities. Florida Green

Communities was developed to encourage developers and builders to build green affordable

housing across the state. It is the only program of its kind currently in the State of Florida.

Florida Green Communities offers grants of up to $1,500 per home/unit to developers and

builders who earn a minimum of 200 points on the Green Home Standard checklist. A

mandatory 169 points are already checked by Florida Green Communities. Therefore, a

developer must be able to incorporate an additional 31 points into the home design to become

eligible for the grants. It should be noted that Enterprise is responsible for $1,000 of the grant

and Florida Green Communities is responsible for the remaining $500. However, it should be

noted that meeting the criteria on the Green Home Standard checklist is just one step in many

that must be met by the builder in order to qualify for the grants. Additional criteria required by

Green Communities must also be met. However, the FGBC's Green Home Standard checklist is

a good green building guide that can be used by any affordable homebuilder. By meeting the

criteria set forth by the checklist developers/constructors will be well on their way to qualifying

for the green grants. Additional information about the grant funds can be found at

www.greencommunitiesonline.org.









Florida Green Communities also manages the Florida Community Loan Fund. The fund

"is the only statewide not-for-profit federally certified community development financial

institution in Florida. The Loan Fund provides low-cost capital and free technical assistance to

support affordable housing projects, economic development efforts, nonprofit community

facilities and essential social services. Established in 1995, the Loan Fund has extended more

than $18 million in low-cost credit to projects sponsored by community-based nonprofit

organizations throughout Florida and has leveraged an additional $100 million in loans and

grants from various public and private sources" (Florida Green Communities, 2005).

The low interest loans are more readily available than grants to homebuilders who meet the

criteria of the Green Home Standard checklist. The interest rates on loans/lines of credit are

significantly lower than the rate on a typical bank loan, for qualified borrowers. For example, a

bank will typically give a developer/builder a line of credit at 1 to 2% over the current Wall

Street Journal Prime rate, which is currently 8.25%. Therefore, the line of credit would have a

rate of approximately 9.25 to 10.25%. If a developer qualifies for a "green" loan/line-of-credit

through Florida Green Communities then the interest rate is based on Wall Street Journal Prime

minus a percentage. For example, the typical rate at this time (2007) is 6.75%. Therefore, there

is approximately a 3% reduction in the rate, which could offer considerable savings in interest

costs paid during the construction phase of a home. For example, if a home that had a

construction cost of $115,000 was built over three months, this reduction in rate would equate to

approximately $600 in interest savings per home. Over a four-month period it would equate to

approximately $720 in interest savings per home.

Florida Green Home Standard Checklist

In order to qualify for these grants and low interest rate loans, developers must meet

certain criteria. Included in the criteria is the use of the Florida Green Home Standard checklist









that was developed by the Florida Green Building Coalition. "The Florida Green Building

Coalition is a statewide non-profit membership organization dedicated to improving the built

environment and to implementing a statewide Green Building program with environmental and

economic benefits. The Coalition has established detailed standards on which "green"

qualification and marketing are based in Florida, including the Florida Green Home Standard"

(Florida Green Communities, 2005). Florida Green Communities requires that a minimum of

200 points be earned on the checklist of which a required 169 points have already been

designated by the Florida Green Communities. The checklist has eight categories for obtaining

points. These categories include energy, water, site, health, materials, disaster mitigation, and

general.

It should be noted that there are there are several green checklists that are available to

developers and contractors. These checklists include LEED-H, the NAHB checklist, as well as

the FGBC Green Home Standard checklist. However, the LEED-H checklist in still in its pilot

test program and will not be publicly launched until the summer of 2007. An in-depth discussion

of each checklist is beyond the scope of this paper. However, the FGBC's Green Home Standard

Checklist will be used as a guide for the green criteria that will be implemented due its use by

Florida Green Communities.

Mandatory Criteria from the Green Home Standard Checklist

Florida Green Communities has checked mandatory criteria from the Green Home

Standards checklist. These are criteria that the developer must comply with when designing and

building a home. The mandatory criteria add up to 169 points and are as follows:

Energy

The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 1: Energy (Building

Envelope/Systems) and Category 2: Energy (Appliances, Lights, Amenities) are as follows:









Meet the Florida Energy Code 120 points

Documents Proper Sizing of the HVAC system 1 point

Energy Star refrigerator 2 points

Energy Star clothes washer 3 points

Energy Star Dishwasher 1 point

Indoor lights are fluorescent or fiber optic 10 points

Outdoor lights are fluorescent/elec. ballast, pv, low voltage, or have motion detector 2
points

In 1979, the State of Florida decided to encourage builders to build more energy efficient

houses. In response to this decision, the State developed the Florida Energy Efficiency Code for

Building Construction. This Code requires all houses to demonstrate a minimum level of energy

efficiency before a building permit is issued. This Code is updated periodically to further

improve the minimum level of energy efficiency of new houses. The energy efficiency of a

home can be determined with the federal Home Energy Rating System (HERS) guidelines,

which is a statewide uniform system for rating the energy efficiency of all buildings. "The HERS

rating system is a performance-based system that compares the energy efficiency of a new or

existing home to a hypothetical or "baseline" version of the home. This baseline home is created

to be identical to the home being rated; however, it is configured to meet minimum accepted

levels of energy efficiency. The rated home is given credit for decreasing the amount of energy

required for heating, cooling, and hot water generation compared to the baseline home" (Florida

Green Home Standard Reference Guide, 2005).

In Florida, a home that meets the minimum standards of the Florida Energy Efficiency

Code receives a HERS score between 79 and 82. A rated home can achieve an additional HERS

point for every 5% increase in efficiency over the baseline home. It should be noted that "the









HERS rating system rewards homes based on performance, not for incorporating certain

"prescribed" measures" (Florida Green Home Standard Reference Guide, 2005). It should also

be noted that Florida Green Communities requires all new construction to achieve a HERS score

of at least 86, which would enable the builder to receive 120 points of the 200 points needed.

Residential building compliance methods can be found in Section 13-600 of the 2004 Florida

Building Code. A copy of the signed HERS rating guide must be submitted for approval.

Often times, when a home is built, the HVAC is either oversized or undersized. "An

improperly sized system can result in comfort and humidity problems. To receive a green home

standard point, a report from a software program or hand-calculation of the Air Conditioning

Contractor's Association (ACCA) Manual J method of determining system sizing must be

included, and the components used as inputs must be shown. Interior set points must not be

greater than 70 F for heating or lower than 75 for cooling. The installed cooling system size must

be within /2-ton of the size closest to the Manual J value to claim this credit of one point"

(Florida Green Home Standard Reference Guide, 2005). The manual J calculations and system

cut sheet are required for approval.

The use of Energy Star appliances in the home is also mandatory criterion. Energy Star

is a voluntary partnership between the government and more than 8,000 organizations, including

more than 2,500 of the nation's home builders. Together with home buyers and their families,

Energy Star works to achieve a common goal, protecting the environment for future generations

by changing to more energy-efficient practices and products today. Energy Star is the

government-backed symbol for energy efficiency. It identifies more than 40 types of products

that are energy efficient. Products that can earn the Energy Star include windows, heating and

cooling equipment, lighting, and appliances. It should be noted that clothes dryers and









ovens/ranges are not rated by Energy Star, which is due to the fact that most dryers and

ovens/ranges use similar amounts of energy. Therefore, they are not Energy Star backed and are

not considered mandatory criteria by Florida Green Communities.

According to the Energy Star website, "appliances account for nearly 20% of the average

household's energy use" (Energy Star, 2006). Every appliance comes with two price tags: what

it costs to take it home and what it costs to operate and maintain it each month. "Energy Star

qualified appliances incorporate advanced technologies and use 10 to 50% less energy than

standard appliances. From refrigerators to clothes washers, Energy Star qualified appliances save

energy, save money, and help reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants at the

source" (Energy Star, 2006). It should be noted that there are energy efficient appliances on the

market that do not have the Energy Star label. However, appliances that do have the Energy Star

label have been tested and have proven to be truly energy efficient. It should be noted that a

photograph or cut sheet for each Energy Star appliance should be submitted at the completion of

the project.

When purchasing a washer, individuals should look at several factors. The first is the

modified energy factor (MEF). The MEF is a "new equation that replaced Energy Factor as a

way to compare the relative efficiency of different units of clothes washers. The higher the MEF,

the more efficient the clothes washer is. The MEF takes into account the amount of dryer energy

used to remove the remaining moisture content in washed items" (Energy Star, 2006). The MEF

for Energy Star washers ranges from 1.42 to 2.79. The second factor is the water factor, which is

"the number of gallons per cycle per cubic foot that the clothes washer uses. The lower the water

factor, the more efficient the washer is" (Energy Star, 2006). For example, if a clothes washer

uses 30 gallons per cycle and has a tub volume of 3.0 cubic feet, then the water factor is 10.0.









The water factor for Energy Star washers ranges from 3.6 to 12.9. The third factor is kWh per

year. This figure is the estimated annual energy use of a washing machine under typical

conditions. "It is based on an average usage of 392 loads of laundry per year, or just under 8

loads per week" (Energy Star, 2006). An individual's actual energy consumption will vary

depending on the amount of laundry they do, the size of the loads, and the temperature settings

they use. "This figure is calculated according to Department of Energy test procedures and

incorporates the estimated energy consumed by the washer, and the energy needed to heat water

with an electric water heater" (Energy Star, 2006). For energy star washers the kWh/year ranges

from 125 to 487.

According to the Gainesville Regional Utilities website, "refrigerators are often the

second largest users of electricity next to air conditioning" (Gainesville Regional Utilities, 2006).

That is why an Energy Star refrigerator should be used. Energy Star refrigerators "use high

efficiency compressors, improved insulation, and more precise temperature and defrost

mechanisms to improve energy efficiency" (Energy Star, 2006). The majority of energy star

refrigerators use between 268 to 678 kWh/year, which is at least 15% less energy than required

by current federal standards.

According to the Energy Star website, "Energy Star qualified dishwashers use 41% less

energy than the federal minimum standard for energy consumption and they use much less water

than conventional models" (Energy Star, 2006). The majority of Energy Star dishwashers use

between 267 to 387 kWh/year. The dishwashers also have an energy factor, which is a number

computed for each dishwasher that enables an individual to compare the relative efficiency of

different units. The equation for Energy Factor is estimated loads per year (215) divided by the

annual energy usage (kWh/year). Therefore, dishwashers with a higher Energy Factor use less









energy than dishwashers with a lower Energy Factor. The various Energy Star dishwashers have

Energy Factors that range from .56 to .81.

Individuals could save a significant amount of energy by just replacing their typical

incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent or fiber optic bulbs. These bulbs should be replaced

indoors as well as outdoors. "Energy Star qualified lighting provides bright, warm light but use

at least 2/3 less energy than standard lighting, generates 70% less heat, and lasts up to 10 times

longer" (Energy Star, 2006). To save the most energy and money, an individual must replace the

highest used fixtures or the light bulbs in them with energy-efficient models. According to

Energy Star, "the five highest use fixtures in a home are typically the kitchen ceiling light, the

living room table and floor lamps, bathroom vanity, and outdoor porch or post lamp" (Energy

Star, 2006). However, all indoor and outdoor lights must be fluorescent in order to meet the

mandatory criteria from the Green Home Standards checklist

"If every American home changed out just five high-use light fixtures or the bulbs in

them with ones that have earned the Energy Star, each family would save about $60 every year

in energy costs, and together we'd save about $6.5 billion each year in energy costs and prevent

greenhouse gases equivalent to the emissions from more than 8 million cars" (Energy Star,

2006). Energy Star qualified compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) must:

Use at least 2/3 less energy than standard incandescent bulbs to provide the same amount
of light, and last up to 10 times longer.

Save $30 or more in energy costs over each bulb's lifetime

Generate 70% less heat, so they're safer to operate and can cut energy costs associated
with home cooling.

In addition to other quality requirements, must turn on instantly, produce no sound, and
fall within a warm color range or be otherwise labeled as providing cooler color tones.









Also, an individual must read the packaging to be sure that the type of bulb chosen works

for the selected fixture because the right fixture helps ensure that the bulb will perform properly.

Individuals must also make sure that they are getting a CFL with the amount of light that is

needed. With CFLs, the higher the lumen rating the greater the light output. Table 2-1, which

was taken from the Energy Star website, shows how lumens can generally be compared to watts

and Table 2-2, which was taken from bchydro.com, is a lighting comparison between the

common bulbs in the marketplace today. It should be noted that there is not a required submittal

for the approval of the fluorescent lighting. The lighting will be checked when inspected by a

certifying agent.

Water

The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 3: Water (Installed

Landscape) is as follows:

* 50%, 80%, 100% of plants/trees from local drought tolerant list 1 to 3 points
* All plants/trees selected to be compatible with local environment/microclimate 2 points

Water is one of Florida's most precious resources and one that is constantly being

guarded. The increase in Florida's population has spurred water supply questions. Simple tasks,

both in the design and operation of the house, can help conserve the water supply. Many of the

tasks deal with outside of the house, where landscape irrigation uses the bulk of the water. Still,

other technologies exist that will help conserve water within the house. Other than benefiting the

environment, homeowners can see a benefit in terms of cost savings on their utility bills as well.

As noted above, Florida Green Communities only has two mandatory criteria from the water

category, which are discussed in more detail below.

Florida Green Communities awards 1-3 points depending upon the use of local drought

tolerant landscaping. Plant selection is an integral part of landscaping and determines the level









of yard maintenance that will be required, the amount of electricity and water that will be used to

maintain the yard, as well as how often the plants will need to be replaced. The type of plants

selected also determines how much fertilizer or pesticide may be used. "Storm water runoff, or

rain that falls on yards, roads, and parking lots and then washes into water bodies, carries

pollutants such as fertilizers, pesticides, soil, and petroleum products. Fertilizers and pesticides

from residential areas can be serious threats to the health of Florida's waters" (Florida Green

Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). "Drought-tolerant plants and trees are able to survive

on rainfall with little or no supplemental irrigation. FGBC awards 1 point if at least 50% of the

plants and trees incorporated into the landscape are from a local drought tolerant list; 2 points are

available if 80% are from such a list; and 3 points are available if 100% of the plants and trees

are from such a list" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). It should be noted

that Florida Green Communities requires a minimum of 12 total plants to qualify for the credit.

A developer's local water management district and the Waterwise Florida Landscape publication

will give a developer a list of acceptable drought tolerant plants that can be used in their area. It

should also be noted that Florida Green Communities requires a Florida Yards and

Neighborhoods (FY&N) inspection of the existing plants and trees on site. It "especially applies

to existing landscapes, where plant identification can be difficult" (Florida Green Home

Standards Reference Guide, 2005). This can be done by an FY&N Professional free of charge.

A landscaping plan and drought tolerant plant list should also be submitted at the end of the

project.

Florida Green Communities also requires that all plants and trees should be compatible

with the local environment and includes shrubs, groundcovers, vines, and trees. This can be

accomplished by installing plants in an area where they likely to remain healthy. This is









determined by the amount of sunlight they will receive, soil requirements, and the microclimate

of the area. As with the above credit, an FY&N inspection is required for existing plants and

trees and a landscaping plan should be submitted at the end of the project.

Site

The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 4: Site (Erosion

control/topsoil preservation) is as follows:

* Stabilize disturbed soil 2 points
* Control sediment runoff during construction 2 points
* Save and reuse any removed topsoil 2 points

Often, when homes are built nearly the entire site is cleared, which allows the topsoil to be

washed away by rain or blown away by wind. Topsoil is a valuable resource and can be used

later on the site, which is why all of Florida Green Communities' mandatory site criteria deal

with erosion control/topsoil preservation.

The first mandatory criterion is to stabilize the disturbed soil on site, which can be easily

done with the use of silt fencing surrounding the site. Temporary seeding is another method that

can effectively be used to reduce soil disturbance as well as bringing in mulch to cover the

disturbed ground. The mulch can be wood chippings from anotherjob or purchased mulch.

Stabilizing the disturbed soil on site is an important step in that it preserves the site's original

composition and reduces the impact on local drainage utilities. It should be noted that Florida

Green Communities recommends the photographic documentation of the methods used.

Another mandatory criterion is the control of sediment runoff during construction, which

is essentially covered in the previous step by using silt fencing, which helps to control the runoff

of sediment, nutrients, trash, metals, bacteria, oil and grease, and organic. As with the above

credit, the method used must be documented by photograph or other documentation.









The final mandatory criterion is to save and reuse any removed topsoil. As the topsoil is

cleared from the site to begin construction it can be easily moved to an area of the site that will

not be used. The topsoil must be covered or protected from the elements or it will lose its

nutrients. As construction ends, the topsoil can be placed back onto the site reducing the need to

purchase new topsoil and reducing costs. A photograph of the covered topsoil should be taken

and submitted at the end of the project.

Health

The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 5: Health (Combustion,

Moisture Control, Ventilation, and Source Control) are as follows:

* Detached garage, carport, or no garage 3 points
* Seal slab penetration 1 point
* Whole house positive ventilation strategy 4 points
* Floor drains sealed 1 point
* Kitchen range hood vented to exterior 1 point
* No exposed urea-formaldehyde particleboard 1 point
* Low VOC paints, stains, and finishes 1 point
* Low VOC sealants and adhesives 1 point

Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria concerning combustion are for the home

to have a detached garage, carport, or no garage, or to have an attached garage with an air barrier

between the garage and the living space (including the attic). This is due to fumes and chemicals

that can be transferred into the living space of the home from the attached garage.

Another mandatory criterion from the health category is to seal slab penetrations from

piping or conduit that is protruding through the slab. "After the slab has substantially cured, any

penetration through the slab such as piping or conduit shall be sealed around its perimeter with

an elastomeric sealer. This will reduce the moisture and pests from entering the home" (Florida

Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). The sealant will also help prevent gases, such

as radon, from leaking into the home. It should be noted that this technique is required by the









2004 Florida Building Code. This technique should be documented with a photograph or plan

detail.

The house must also incorporate a whole-house positive ventilation strategy. Ventilation

"can be beneficial in terms of energy efficiency, for less exchange occurs between the

conditioned air inside the home and unconditioned air outside of the home" (Florida Green

Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). "Positive ventilation is preferable over whole house

exhaust in a humid climate, for it causes the house to be under positive pressure with respect to

the outdoors, minimizing the uncontrolled intrusion of outside air" (Florida Green Home

Standards Reference Guide, 2005). The "system must contain a fresh air duct to the outside of

the home with a back draft damper. Delivery of the outside air can be controlled by the home's

HVAC system, or by another device such as an energy recovery ventilator, or a central

dehumidification system. The outside air duct must also have a damper that allows a desired flow

to be set, and that also allows for full shut off in the event of unfavorable outside conditions"

(Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). However, the use of a manual damper

is recommended since it can be set and then left in place. The purpose is to provide the occupant

the ability to close the outside damper under unusual conditions, such as a forest fire creating a

lot of smoke. In many cases, a back draft damper, such as a butterfly or a barometric damper is

not recommended, since a butterfly damper can eventually get stuck and a barometric damper

can create noise issues. The design "must bring the conditioned area of the home to at least +0.5

Pascals with respect to the outdoors while the home's air handler is running and any continuous

forced exhaust systems are running" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). It

should be noted that "the system design, installation, and commissioning must be completed by









an HVAC or other skilled professional" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide,

2005). A schematic or plan detail of the system is required for approval.

It is also mandatory that all floor drains in the home are sealed. By sealing around the

drain the builder prevents the intrusion of any gases and vapors from beneath the slab. The

drains must be sealed with any "non-asphalt based or equally flexible moisture resistant sealer"

(Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). It should be noted that this practice is

required by the 2004 Florida Building Code. The builder should have a cut sheet and photograph

of the material used.

Another item required by Florida Green Communities is that the kitchen range hood

should be vented to the exterior of the home. "Hood ducting must be of building-code approved

materials and completely sealed to prevent leakage. The exterior of the vent must also contain a

building-code approved termination cover" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide,

2005). It should be noted that builders are not permitted to use non-vented or ductless range

hoods. The builder should have a cut sheet of the hood that was used.

Due to the "tightness" of a green home, Florida Green Communities requires the use of

low VOC paints, stains, and finishes, and low VOC sealants and adhesives. Volatile organic

compounds (VOCs), and other chemical substances contained within building materials can be

injurious to lung health and can be odorous. To achieve the points "100% of all paints, stains,

and finishes used must contain less than 150 grams/liter of VOCs per gallon. All sealants and

adhesive used must be water based rather than solvent based" (Florida Green Home Standards

Reference Guide, 2005). Cut sheets of all coatings, sealants, and adhesives should be kept. It

should be noted that an additional point can be achieved if zero VOC paints, stains, and finishes

are used.









Florida Green Communities also requires that "all particleboard used that contains urea-

formaldehyde is sealed on all sides (top, bottom, and edges) with a laminate or other suitable

sealer" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). The point is also awarded if no

particle board is used at all. Particleboard made with phenol-formaldehyde resin can also be

used. Solid wood cabinets can be used in place of particleboard and laminate countertops could

still be used as well. Stone, Corian, or tile countertops are recommended. Wood or wire

shelving should also be used in place of shelving made from particleboard. A visual inspection

by a certifying agent should be performed as part of the requirement.

Materials

The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 6: Materials

(Durability) only includes one item: windows and door flashing for all exterior windows and

doors. The proper installation of flashing is important, as it provides added protection against

water intrusion around doors and windows. One point is awarded for this mandatory criterion,

which requires that for wood-framed homes the flashing detail developed by the NAHB

Research Center should be adhered to. This "involves creating a head and pan flashing with

building paper, house wrap, or self adhering membrane" (Florida Green Home Standards

Reference Guide, 2005). The 2004 Florida Building Code, Chapter 14, Section 1405.3 requires

that "flashing shall be installed at the perimeter of exterior doors and window assemblies"

(Florida Building Code, 2004). The NAHB method is just a specific technique of how the

flashing should be installed. Photographs or detailed plans of the flashing should be made. As

noted above, the NAHB flashing process, for exterior windows and doors, can be found at

www.nahbrc.org/docs/mainnav/moistureandleaks/792_moisture.pdf









Disaster Mitigation

The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 7: Disaster Mitigation

(Hurricane wind, rain, storm surge) includes one mandatory item: flood prevention. Three

points are awarded for this mandatory criterion, which involves four subsections. The first

subsection states that the finished floor elevation must be at least twelve inches above the 100-

year flood plain. The next requirements are that the bottom of the slab must be at least eight

inches above the adjacent dirt level, and that the finished grade must slope away from the

building on all sides. Finally, the garage and driveway must be sloped to properly drain water,

which is a minimum 1 inch slope per 20 feet and the living area must be at least 4 inches higher

than the finished garage level. All criteria should be documented with photographs and detailed

plans.

General

The Florida Green Communities mandatory criteria for Category 8: General includes a

homeowner's manual given to the homeowner. Two points are awarded for this criterion, which

designates that the manual must help the homeowner "understand how to operate the home and

take care of the landscape so that the intended benefits of a green home are realized for the

customer and the earth" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). A copy of the

homeowner's manual should be submitted at the end of the project.

Conclusion

Today, green building is a realistic choice for affordable housing due to the increase in

knowledge about green building, the availability of cheaper green materials and building

products, as well as the availability of grants and low interest loans. According to Bart Harvey,

chairman and CEO of Enterprise Community Partners, Inc. "In five years it will just seem stupid

to build affordable housing that is not green anywhere" (Anderson, 2006).










Table 2-1. Lumen comparison to watt
A-shaped incandescent bulb (watts)
40
60
75
100
150


Typical lumens (measure of light output)
> 450
> 800
> 1,100
> 1,600
> 2,600









Table 2-2. Lighting comparison
Incandescent Halogen Linear tube CFL
Efficiency Poor Poor Good Good
Light output per watt 8 to 20 lumens 15 to 25 lumens 20 to 90 lumens 36 to 70 lumens
Purchase cost Inexpensive Moderate Moderate Moderate
Lamp life Poor (750 to Moderate (2,000 Good/Excellent Good (6,000-
1,500 hours) up to 4,000 (10,000-20,000 15,000 hours)
hours) hours)









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The ultimate goal of this thesis is to create a green building formula that could be

implemented into an existing affordable home plan without appreciably changing the design of

the home and still be considered attainable by affordable housing developers/constructors. The

green criteria that were used were based on the requirements of the FGBC's Green Home

Standard checklist. The research methodology for this study consisted of six basic parts:

1) An analysis of an affordable home plan will be performed. The home plan will be
obtained from an affordable housing developer and will be used as a benchmark for a
typical affordable home. The home plan will be used to determine the additional costs of
the mandatory and recommended criteria from the checklist that are discussed in more
detail below.

2) Additional green criteria, from the Green Home Standard checklist, will be selected. The
criteria will be chosen based on the additional costs they would add to the construction
budget. For example, some of the criteria will be selected because they are already
included in the affordable home plan and would not add any additional cost to the
construction budget. Other criteria will be selected based on their low additional costs
and benefits to the end user.

3) The mandatory and additional criteria will be analyzed to determine if they would add
any additional costs to the construction budget or if they could be implemented at no
additional costs.

4) Life cycle cost estimates will be performed for selected criteria that were determined
would aid in reducing the home's operating costs, such as appliances and lighting. The
estimates will be used to determine the amount of energy savings that could be expected
from the recommended criteria.

5) An analysis will be performed using the additional costs and savings of the mandatory
and recommended items to determine the value the criteria added to the home. The
analysis will look at the increased mortgage payment due the additional green criteria
versus the energy savings from these criteria to determine if the green criteria were worth
the additional costs.

6) An analysis of additional green items that were felt should be added to the home will also
be performed. The additional items were not included with the original recommended
items for three reasons. First, the items were not considered mandatory by Florida Green
Communities. Second, some of the items had higher implementation costs than the items
that were recommended. Therefore, they were not included in the original analysis due to
these higher implementation costs. Finally, some of the recommended items were not









included in the Green Home Standard checklist, so they were not included in the original
analysis. However, it was felt that these items would aid in the "greening "of the home
even though they were not mentioned in the checklist. Therefore, they were included
with the additional items.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

The results of the research that was performed are listed below in six parts. First, a

description of the affordable home plans that were used is given. Second, the additional green

criteria that were chosen are listed. Third, the criteria that were considered to have little or no

impact on the construction budget were listed, along with an explanation of why the materials

were considered no cost items. Following the no cost items, is a list of the green criteria that

were considered to have an impact on the construction budget. Following the list is an

explanation and estimate of the materials cost for each criteria. Next, specific energy saving

criteria that were suggested was analyzed with life cycle cost estimates to determine the amount

of energy savings that could be expected. The energy savings were then analyzed against the

additional costs of the green items to determine if the green criteria were worth the additional

construction costs. Finally, additional green items that were felt should be added to the home

were also listed along with an explanation of each item.

Part 1: Model Home

The affordable home plans that were used for this thesis were obtained from Community

Enterprise Investments, Inc (CEII), which is a non-profit developer in Pensacola, Florida. The

plans were based on an affordable home that they currently build for qualifying customers. The

home was a 3BR/2BA and had a heated/conditioned area of 1,055 square feet. It also had a 120

square feet covered front porch as well as a 16-square-foot concrete stoop at the back of the

home. The home was wood framed with oriented strand board sheathing used for the exterior

walls and roofing. The home also had vinyl siding and asphalt shingles.

Other features included solid wood cabinets and bath vanities, vinyl flooring in the kitchen,

bath, and dining area and carpet in the living area and bedrooms. The home had all electric









appliances and cooling and heating was provided by an air source heat pump. The dryer and

range hood were both vented to the outside of the home.

Part 2: Additional Criteria from the Green Home Standard Checklist

The criteria listed below were selected from the checklist due to the low additional costs,

or in some cases no additional costs that they would add to the construction budget of the

affordable home. The purpose of the chosen criteria were to get the builder to the 200 points,

required by Florida Green Communities, as cheaply as possible but still contribute to the

"greening" and energy efficiency of the home.

Energy

The low cost/no cost criteria for Category 1: Energy (Building Envelope/Systems) and

Category 2: Energy (Energy-efficient lighting) is as follows:

* Minimum 100ft2 roofed porch with a minimum of 3 sides open 1 point
* Ductwork joints sealed with mastic 1 point
* Light colored exterior walls 1 point
* Light colored interior walls, ceilings, and floors 2 points
* Efficient envelope volume 1 point
* Single bulb fixtures in bathrooms 1 point

Many affordable homes typically include a small porch attached to the front or back of

the home. Therefore, for many of the builders, meeting this criterion would not cost any

additional money. "Porches provide a comfortable outdoor living, cooking, and eating space

during cooler months and reduce reliance on the home's air conditioning system" (Florida Green

Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Covered porches also provide shading that aids in

reducing the heat load on a home's windows. The Florida Green Building checklist requires a

porch with a minimum of 100 square feet. A minimum of 3 sides of the porch must be open or

screened. The floor plan showing the location of the porch should be submitted for approval.









Sealing ductwork joints with mastic instead of tape is another low-cost item that can be

easily met, especially when it is done during the homes construction. "In a typical house about

20% of the air that moves through the duct system is lost due to leaks, holes, and poorly

connected ducts. The result is higher utility bills and difficulty keeping the house comfortable, no

matter how the thermostat is set" (Energy Star, 2006). Using mastic compound to seal all

ductwork connections provides a seal that is much less prone to failure than tape. A photo of at

least one properly sealed joint should be submitted for approval.

Another example of a no cost criterion would be the use of light colored exterior walls

and light colored interior walls, ceilings, and floors. Dark colors on the exterior of a home

"absorb more heat from sunlight; in contrast, light-colored surfaces have been shown to reduce

cooling costs" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide, 2005). According to the

reference guide, the exterior wall color should have a reflectance of at 50%. Also, "light-colored

interior surfaces increase lighting efficiency by reflecting and dispersing light rather than

absorbing it and are beneficial whether using natural or artificial lighting. The "FGBC awards 1

points if bedrooms and all major living spaces in the home have light-colored wall and ceiling

surfaces with a reflectance of at least 50%. Two points are available if bedrooms and all major

living spaces have light-colored flooring" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide,

2005). A cut sheet showing the paints used and their reflectance specifications should be

submitted.

The design of an affordable home typically lends itself to having an efficient envelope

volume, a no cost item that can be easily met by most affordable home designs. The use of

projections on a home increases the outside surface area, whereas a minimal outside surface area

is beneficial when heating and cooling the home. FGBC's formula for determining if the home









meets the standard of an efficient envelope volume can be found on page 7 of the Florida Green

Home Reference Guide. The formula takes into account the total gross wall area, the

conditioned square footage, as well as the number of stories. A floor plan of the home should be

submitted in order to receive credit for meeting this criterion.

The use of single bulb fixtures in the bathroom is another item that would not cost the

builder any additional money. "Typically bathrooms have lighting fixtures that contain 4 or 5

incandescent bulbs. Such fixtures can add excessive heat to the conditioned space and the extent

of light output is generally unnecessary" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference Guide,

2005). Therefore, it is beneficial if all bathroom light fixtures are designed to use only a single

bulb and no more than one light fixture shall be connected to the same switch. This is a method

that would work well for affordable homes since they typically do not have large bathrooms that

need to be lit. Also, all bulbs should be CFLs. The only associated cost would be the additional

cost of the CFLs, which are not much more expensive than several incandescent lights in each

bathroom. A photograph of the light fixtures should be submitted.

Water

The low cost/no cost criteria for Category 3: Water (Fixtures) and (Installed

Landscaping) is as follows:

* Low-flow fixtures 1 point
* Faucet aerators 1 point
* Faucets do not drip upon occupancy 1 point
* All showers equipped with 1 showerhead 2 points
* Shut-off valves to each toilet and sink 1 point
* No garbage disposal 2 points
* Ultra-low-flow toilets 2 points
* Mulch applied 3-4 inches deep around plants 2 points

Low-flow fixtures are considered another no cost item that can be implemented by the

builder. This is due to the fact that all showerheads and faucets installed in a home must meet









the Florida Building Code and National Energy Policy Act of 1992, which mandates "a

maximum flow rate of 2.5 gallons/minute at 80 psi water pressure" (Florida Green Home

Standards Reference Guide, 2005). Therefore, by meeting the code the builder will earn an

additional point from the FGBC.

According to the Florida Green Homes Standard Reference Guide leaky faucets can

waste up to 20 gallons of water per day. Therefore, faucets that do not drip upon occupancy are

another no cost point that can be obtained by the builder. Faucets that do not drip are required by

the 2004 Plumbing Code; however it is often something that tends to get overlooked in the

construction of a house. A visual inspection should be performed by the certifying agent.

The installation of faucet aerators on all fixtures is another no cost item that can be easily

met since this is a practice that is required by the 2004 Plumbing Code. However, Florida Green

Communities still awards a point if aerators are installed in each fixture. Faucet aerators work in

parallel with low-flow fixtures by injecting air into the water stream, which in turn increases the

velocity of the stream. They also increase the efficiency of each fixture by allowing the user to

complete the desired task in less time, thereby reducing water use. As noted above, aerators are

required on all fixtures in the home. A visual inspection should be performed by the certifying

agent.

Another no cost criterion that can easily be met is that all showers must be equipped with

only one showerhead. This is typically done in an affordable home, therefore no additional

money or effort will need to be spent on this criterion. A photograph of each shower showing

the showerhead should be submitted.

Shut off valves at each toilet and sink is another no cost criterion that can easily be met

since this is a standard feature in most homes. Shut-off valves allow the homeowner to turn off









the water supply to each fixture during a time of repairs. As noted above, it is categorized as a

no cost item since they are standard features in most homes. A visual inspection by the

certifying agent is required.

Foregoing the installation of a garbage disposal is another easy way to meet one of the

criterion on the checklist. "Garbage disposals are notorious for wasting water and adding to the

load placed on waste water treatment plants" (Florida Green Homes Standard Reference Guide,

2005). This is another no cost criterion that could be met by the builder. A visual inspection by

the certifying agent is required.

Installing ultra-low-flow toilets is a low cost criterion that would aid in lowering the

homeowners monthly utility bill due to the fact that toilet flushing can account for up to 40% of

residential water use. That is why the Florida Building Code requires that all installed residential

toilets be rated at a maximum flow rate of 1.6 gallons per flush. To meet the criterion the

installed toilet must flush at volumes lower then required by the 2004 Florida Building Code.

The use of dual flush toilets in the home would meet the above requirement. Dual flush toilets

offer the user two flush settings, typically a 1.6 gallons per flush setting for materials that need

additional clearing and a 0.8 or 0.9 gallons per flush setting for materials that do not require

much water per flush.

Another low cost item that can easily be achieved is the application of 3-4 inches of

mulch around plants. A thick layer of mulch helps to prevent weed growth which will remove

moisture from the soil and helps to retain soil moisture as well as retard erosion. The mulch

must extend out to the drip lines of plants and trees and also must be placed in landscaped beds.

A landscaping plan should be submitted.









Site


The low cost/no cost criteria for Category 4: Site (Lot choice) and (Native tree and plant

preservation) is as follows:

* Conscious choice to build on a lot with no trees 4 points
* No invasive exotic species 2 points

Selection of a site that has little or no trees on it is another no cost criterion that can

possibly be met by the builder. This may not always be possible since land for affordable homes

does not always allow for choice picks. However, if the builder can document by photo that

similar lots were available with trees then the criterion can met. By building on a lot with little

or no trees the builder would be decreasing the cost of site work requiring little or no clearing.

Choosing a non wooded lot also protects areas that provide native vegetation and also protects

wildlife in the area that may use the undeveloped land.

Another no cost criterion that could easily be met is that no invasive exotic species

should be added to the site. Invasive species are those that are not native to the local area. These

plants often require much more care and watering than those that are native. An FY&N

inspection is required for existing plants and trees and a landscaping plan should be submitted.

Health

There is only one low cost/ no cost criterion for Category 5: Health (Source Control),

which is to protect duct penetrations during construction. Two points are awarded for this

criterion, which requires that all duct penetrations must be sealed off with tape or other suitable

methods directly following mechanical rough-in. They must remain sealed until system start-up

and must be re-sealed until interior finish work is complete. The openings should be sealed off

with tape or another suitable method. For example, a piece of cardboard can be taped across the

entire opening to ensure that the interior of the ducts remain clean during construction, thereby









ensuring the indoor air quality of the home. A photograph of the penetration coverings should be

submitted for approval.

Materials

There is only one low cost/no cost criterion for Category 6: Materials (Durability), which

is plants/turf, must be a minimum of 2 feet from the foundation. Placing plants and turf a

minimum of 2 feet from the foundation is another no cost criterion that can be easily met.

Keeping plants and turf away from the foundation helps to prevent the accumulation of water

around the foundation. Placing rocks or stones around the foundation is recommended but is not

required. A visual inspection by the certifying agent or photograph should be submitted for

approval.

Disaster Mitigation

There is no low cost/no cost criterion for Category 7: Disaster Mitigation (Hurricane).

All homes, including affordable housing, in the state of Florida must be built to the standards of

the 2004 Florida Building Code.

General

There is only one low cost/no cost criterion for Category 8: General. The criterion is to keep the

conditioned house size as small as possible. This is due to the fact that larger homes use more

energy. These are points that can be easily earned by most affordable homes due to the typical

size of the homes. A minimum of 5 points and a maximum of 50 points can be awarded based

on the homes conditioned square footage. The largest a home could be and still receive credit for

conditioned house size from the FGBC is 1,899 square feet. A home of this size would receive

the minimum 5 points. A home of 1,000 square feet or less could receive the maximum 50

points. A point range for the conditioned house size can be found in the Florida Green Home









Standard Reference Guide. A floor plan indicating the homes square footage should be

submitted for approval

Part 3: No Cost Green Criteria

Careful analysis of the Green Home Standard checklist and affordable home plans

produced 32 items that are considered to have little or no impact on the construction budget.

These are items that have already been implemented in the home design, are required by the

Florida Building Code, or items that will cost little or no money to implement or change. These

items are listed below along with a brief explanation of why they are considered no cost items.

* Meet the Florida Energy Code: Required by the state of Florida for all homes. Residential
building compliance methods can be found in Section 13-600 of the 2004 Florida Building
Code.

* Document the proper sizing of the HVAC equipment: This can be performed with a simple
calculation from the Air Conditioning Contractor's Association (ACCA) Manual J

* Minimum 100 ft2 roofed porch with a minimum of 3 sides open: Many of the affordable
housing floor plans already have front or back porches incorporated into the design,
including the floor plan that was used.

* Ductwork joints sealed with mastic compound: Sealing ductwork joints with mastic
compound instead of tape will not impact the cost of a newly constructed home due to the
fact that it can be done during the installation of the ductwork.

* Light colored exterior wall: There would be no additional cost for the light color.

* Light colored interior walls, ceilings, and floor: There would be no additional cost for the
light color.

* Efficient envelope volume: Many affordable home designs do not include outside surfaces
that have many projections. Affordable home designs are typically simplistic in nature and
can easily meet the criterion. The model home's total gross wall area and conditioned
square footage were plugged into the FGBC formula, which yielded a 33. The figure must
be less than 43 to meet the criterion.

* Single bulb fixtures in the bathroom: A builder could save costs if the design called for
multiple bulb fixtures and single bulb fixtures were used.

* Low-flow fixtures: All showerheads and faucets installed in a home must meet the Florida
Building Code and National Energy Policy Act of 1992, which mandates a maximum flow









rate of 2.5 gallons/minute at 80 psi water pressure. The flow rate can be found in Table
604.4 of the plumbing code. Therefore, by following code the builder will have met this
criterion.

* Faucet aerators: They are required items under the 2004 Florida Building Code. Therefore,
by following code the builder will have met this criterion.

* Faucets do not drip upon occupancy: Properly installed faucets that do not drip are
required by the 2004 Plumbing Code. Therefore, by following code the builder will have
met this criterion.

* All showers are equipped with one showerhead: This is a typical practice.

* Shut off valves to each toilet and sink: Shut-off valves to every toilet and sink are not
required by the Florida Building Code. However, it is a typical practice.

* No garbage disposal: A builder could save costs by eliminating a garbage disposal if one
was included in the original design.

* 100% of plants/trees from the local drought tolerant list: All lots include landscaping. The
builder just needs to make sure that 100% of the plants are from the local drought tolerant
list.

* All plants/trees selected to be compatible with the local environment/microclimate: Plants
and trees need to be placed where they will remain healthy. This requires no additional
cost, just some planning.

* Conscious choice to build on a lot with no trees: A builder could save money due to
reduced site clearing costs.

* No invasive exotic species: A builder could save money by avoiding the additional costs of
exotic plants.

* Save and reuse any removed topsoil: The topsoil could be placed to the side of the lot and
covered for little additional cost.

* Seal slab penetrations: Sealed slab penetrations, from protruding piping or conduit, is
required by the Florida Building Code and be found Appendix C, Section C402.4 and
Section C405.1.

* Floor drains sealed: Sealed floor drains are required by the 2004 Florida Building Code
and can be found in Appendix C, Section C403.2.

* Kitchen range hood vented to the exterior: Unless a range hood is non-vented, it must be
vented to the exterior of the home as required by the 2004 Mechanical Code and can be
found in chapter 5, section 505. The model's range hood is vented to the exterior of the
home.









* No exposed urea-formaldehyde particleboard: This can easily be accomplished with the
use of solid wood cabinets as well as plastic laminate countertops. Solid wood or wire
shelving should also be used in areas where shelving is required. The model home that is
being used has all wood birch cabinets in the kitchen as well as solid wood bath vanities.
Wood shelving is also used. Therefore, meeting this criterion would not cost the builder
any additional money.

* Low VOC paints, stains, and finishes: There are more than 25 brands oflow-VOC paints
now available. The majority of which are in the same price range as their traditional
counterparts.

* Low VOC sealants and adhesives: No additional cost, just some additional planning to be
sure that the sealants are water based rather than solvent based.

* Protect ducts during construction: All duct openings should be covered following
mechanical rough-in. This can be done by simply taking the time to tape a piece of
cardboard across the entire duct opening.

* Detached garage, carport, or no garage: No additional cost if already incorporated into the
home design. The plans that were used do not have an attached garage.

* Window and door flashing: The installation of window and door flashing around the
perimeters of exterior door and window assemblies is required by the 2004 Florida
Building Code. The NAHB approach is just a method for meeting the requirement and
should not add an additional expense to construction budget.

* Plants/turf a minimum of 2 ft. from the foundation: No additional cost, just some
additional planning

* Flood check: No additional cost, just some additional planning

* Conditioned house size: Affordable homes are small by nature, therefore many of the
homes will be able to meet this requirement; including the model home that was used.

* Homeowner's manual given to homeowner: No additional cost, just some additional
planning.

Green Criteria with Additional Costs

The following is a list often items that are estimated to cost the builder additional money

to implement. Following the list is a brief description and cost estimate for each item. It should

be noted that sales tax of 6.25% has been added to each item.

* Energy Star clothes washer
* Energy Star refrigerator









* Energy Star dishwasher
* Indoor lights are fluorescent
* Outdoor lights are fluorescent
* Dual Flush Toilets
* Mulch applied 3-4 inches deep around plants
* Stabilize disturbed soil
* Control sediment runoff during construction
* Whole house positive ventilation strategy

There are numerous brands of Energy Star appliances that are available on the market

today. Many of these appliances are comparable in price with the standard appliances. The

prices used for the following washers were obtained from www.lowes.com. The cost for the

standard washer, the Whirlpool 3.2 cu. ft. super capacity washer, was $317 (before delivery).

The cost for a comparable Energy Star washer, the Frigidaire 3.1 cu. ft. washer, was $418

(before delivery). Therefore the washers have a cost difference of $101.

A search for refrigerators on lowes.com revealed that there was no cost difference in the

standard Frigidaire 26 cu. ft. side by side refrigerator and the Energy Star Frigidaire 26 cu. ft.

side by side refrigerator. Both units were $848 (before delivery). However, the refrigerators

were still included in the low cost items due to varying price differences of some of the units.

The prices used for the following dishwashers were obtained from www.lowes.com. The

cost for a standard Frigidaire 24" built-in dishwasher was $242. The cost of the Energy Star

Frigidaire 24" built-in dishwasher was $253 (before delivery). Therefore, the price difference

was $11.

Fluorescent light bulbs can be purchased almost anywhere, including stores such as Home

Depot, Lowes, and Wal-Mart. The prices of the bulbs vary depending upon the size and brand.

However, for estimating purposes a price of $5 per bulb has been used, which would typically

cover the price of a CFL or a fluorescent tube. For incandescent bulbs a price of $0.50 has been

used. The model home's floor plan calls for a total of 15 light fixtures and includes 48" and 24"









bulbs in the kitchen as well as 11 other compact light fixtures throughout the home and 2

compact light fixtures outside of the home. Therefore, the cost of using fluorescent bulbs in

every light fixture would be approximately $95 while the cost of using incandescent bulbs would

be approximately $10, which results in an $85 cost difference.

Dual flush toilets are another low cost item that can be installed and will aid in decreasing

the occupant's utility bills. The model home that was used required the installation of a Briggs

toilet that used 1.6 gallons per flush. The Briggs Abingdon toilet could be purchased from

www.nexttag.com for $113 (before delivery). Likewise, the Toto Aquia two piece dual flush

toilet could be purchased from www.nexttag.com for $248, before delivery, and uses 1.6 or 0.9

gallons per flush. The price difference per toilet is approximately $135. The model home has

two bathrooms; therefore the total material difference would be $270.

The application of mulch around plants, trees, and shrubs is another low cost item that

could be easily met. The mulch must be 3-4 inches deep and must extend beyond the drip lines

of the trees/shrubs. Bags of mulch can be purchased at many stores, including, Home Depot,

Lowes, and Wal-Mart. According to www.gardners.com, 1 cubic yard of 3 inch mulch will

cover 100 square feet. Therefore, if 2 cubic feet bags were used then approximately 14 bags

would be needed to cover a 100 square feet area. On www.lowes.com 2 cubic foot bags of

mulch could be purchased for around $4.00 a bag. Therefore, 14 bags of mulch would cost

approximately $56 and should be adequate to cover all trees, shrubs, and plants.

Another low cost item that is considered mandatory by Florida Green Communities is the

use of sediment control material during construction. The installation of silt fencing around the

perimeter of the site would aid in stabilizing disturbed soil as well as controlling sediment runoff

during construction. Silt fencing is typically sold in 100 feet lengths and includes the fabric as









well as hardwood posts. The cost of the fencing material may vary somewhat depending on the

supplier. An online search for silt fencing from www.mysimon.com showed an average price of

approximately $35 for a roll of 2'x100' of fencing (does not include shipping). Therefore, the

material cost of placing silt fencing around the perimeter of a 0.25 acre square site would be

approximately $150. It should be noted that the fencing can be used multiple times. It should

also be noted that the slope, shape and size of the lot was not known. However, it was felt that a

0.25 acre site would be representative of a typical lot that was used. Runoff control is also

mandated by environmental law so this is a cost that should apply to every home that is built.

Another item that is mandatory by Florida Green Communities is the incorporation of a

whole house positive ventilation strategy. According to Ken Fonorow, one of the founding

members of the FGBC, the typical cost for a passive system is $150 to $250, which includes

parts and labor to install.

It should also be noted that there have been selected criteria that will require verification

by a Certifying Agent who has been accredited by FGBC, Inc. The cost for a Certifying Agent is

approximately $300.

Part 4: Energy Savings

Life cycle cost estimates were performed for all Energy Star appliances, fluorescent

lighting, and dual flush toilets to determine if the implementation of these additional items were

worth the additional costs. It should be noted that the life cycle cost estimates that were used for

the appliances and lighting were developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and

the U.S. Department of Energy while the life cycle cost estimate that was used for the dual flush

toilet was developed by the author. Energy savings for each item were calculated based on an

annual and lifetime approach and the payback period for each of the items was also analyzed.









A life cycle cost estimate for the Energy Star washer vs. the standard washer is shown in

Appendix A. The estimate is based on an Energy Star washer cost of $418 and a typical washer

cost of $317. The lifetime of the units were estimated at 10 years based on estimates obtained

from Appliance Magazine 2005. The life cycle cost estimate shows an annual savings of $59

when using the Energy Star washer. The estimated life cycle savings over the 10 years was $481

and the net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) was $380. Therefore, the unit

would have a payback period of 1.7 years. It should also be noted that the estimated carbon

dioxide reduction over the lifetime of the unit is 4,614 lbs. of CO2. This is assuming an

electricity carbon emission factor of 1.58 lbs C02/kWh. By comparison, an average car emits

11,470 lbs C02/year.

A life cycle cost estimate for the Energy Star refrigerator vs. a typical refrigerator is

shown in Appendix B. The estimate is based on an Energy Star refrigerator cost of $848 and a

typical refrigerator cost of $848. The lifetime of the units were estimated at 13 years, which was

obtained from 2004 Department of Energy statistics. The life cycle cost estimate shows an

annual savings of $11 when using the Energy Star refrigerator. The estimated life cycle savings

over the 13 years was $109. The unit did not have a payback period due to the fact that there

was no cost difference between the units. It should also be noted that the estimated carbon

dioxide reduction over the lifetime of the units was 1,700 lbs. of CO2. This is assuming an

electricity carbon emission factor of 1.2 lbs C02/kWh.

A life cycle cost estimate for the Energy Star dishwasher vs. the typical dishwasher is

shown in Appendix C. The estimate is based on an Energy Star dishwasher cost of $253 and a

typical dishwasher cost of $242. The lifetime of the units were estimated at 10 years, which was

taken from 2005 Department of Energy statistics. The analysis shows an annual operating cost









savings of $10 for the Energy Star dishwasher. The estimated life cycle savings over the 13

years was $84 and the net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) was $73.

Therefore, the unit would have a payback period of 1.1 years. It should also be noted that the

estimated carbon dioxide reduction over the lifetime of the units is 696 lbs. of CO2. This is

assuming an electricity carbon emission factor of 1.2 lbs C02/kWh.

A life cycle cost estimate for an Energy Star CFL vs. an incandescent light is shown in

Appendix D. The estimate is based on an Energy Star CFL cost of $5.00 and an incandescent

light cost of $.50. The lifetime of the CFL was estimated at 5 years or 8,000 hours and the

lifetime of the incandescent bulb was estimated at .5 years or 750 hours. The lifetime estimates

were taken from the 2003 Department of Energy statistics. The cost estimate shows an annual

operating cost of $3 for the fluorescent bulb and $13 for the incandescent bulb. The estimated

life cycle savings for one bulb, over the lifetime of the CFL, was $46. The net life cycle savings

was $41. Therefore, the bulb would have a payback period of less than one year. It should also

be noted that carbon dioxide reduction is estimated at 791 lbs. of CO2 over the lifetime of the

bulb. This is assuming an electricity carbon emission factor of 1.43 lbs C02/kWh. As noted

above, this estimate is only for one bulb. If six bulbs in a home were used an average of 6 hours

per day, then the occupant would save approximately $62 per year or $275 over the lifetime of

the bulbs.

A life cycle cost estimate for the Briggs standard toilet versus the Toto Aquia dual flush

toilet is shown in Appendix E. The estimate is based the standard toilet cost of $113 and the dual

flush toilet cost of $248. The lifetime of the units were estimated at 20 years based on data from

the Rhode Island Water Works Association. The life cycle cost estimate shows an annual

savings of approximately $21 when using a dual flush toilet. The estimated life cycle savings









over the 20 years was approximately $411. The payback period for the unit was estimated at 6.6

years. It should be noted that the affordable home plans that were used included 2 bathrooms.

Therefore, the annual savings from using two dual flush toilets would be approximately $42 per

year and $822 over the estimated lifetime of the toilets.

By using Energy Star approved appliances and lighting as well dual flush toilets a

homeowner could save approximately $184 per year in utility costs or approximately $1,840

over a 10-year period. Carbon emissions will also be reduced by a combined 11,755 pounds of

CO2 over the lifetime of the appliances, which is the equivalent of removing an average

passenger car from the road for a year.

Part 5: Cost vs. Savings Analysis

The cost to construct the affordable home that was used was approximately $90,500.

However, with other additional costs including land, interest, site work, etc. the total sales price

was $122,000. However, a $50,000 subsidy from the county government lowered the first

mortgage amount to $72,000. Therefore, the monthly mortgage payment would be

approximately $432 per month based on an interest rate of 6% over a 30 year period. It should

be noted that these figures were provided by CEII.

With the addition of the green buildings costs, which totaled $1,264 the first mortgage

amount would increase to $73,764 per month. Therefore, based on the same rate and duration

the monthly payment would be approximately $442 or $10 more per month.

As noted above, the monthly energy savings from the Energy Star appliances, lighting, and

dual flush toilets were $184 per year or $15 per month. Therefore, the calculated savings from

implementing the additional green criteria are approximately $5 per month or $60 per year.

However, as noted above, the estimated cost savings only included the analysis of the Energy

Star appliances, lighting, and dual flush toilets. If other green criteria that were recommended









were taken into account, it is certain that the monthly energy savings would be even greater than

what was calculated.

Also, if the developer/constructor qualified for Florida Green Communities grants and low

interest loans the cost for the end user could be lowered even more. For example, if the

developer/constructor used the grants and interest savings, $1,500 and $600 respectively, to

reduce the loan amount the first mortgage amount would total $71,164. This amount includes

the additional costs of the green building criteria. Therefore, the mortgage payment would be

approximately $427 per month vs. $432 per month. The homeowner would then have the benefit

of a lower mortgage payment as well as lower energy costs, which would result in an annual

combined savings of approximately $244.

Part 6: Additional Green Criteria

Below are additional items that were not included with the mandatory and recommended

criteria. This was due to their higher additional implementation costs, the items were not

included in the Green Home Standard checklist, or the items would call for a redesign of certain

aspects of the home. Some of the items listed below will not cost the builder any additional

money to implement. However, as noted above, they were not included in the checklist;

therefore they were included in the recommendations. The additional recommended items are as

follows:

* A heat pump that meets or exceeds Energy Star specifications
* Light colored shingles
* Building orientation
* Large overhangs
* Energy Star approved windows where needed
* Roof slope of 3:12 to 6:12
* Rainwater harvesting system









The affordable home plans that were being used as a model included the use of an air-

source heat pump, which offers an energy efficient alternative to air conditioners. Heat pumps

use a refrigeration cycle to both heat and cool the home. In the summer, a heat pump functions

exactly like an air conditioner, heat is extracted from inside the home and transferred to the

outside. The resulting cooled and dehumidified air is distributed throughout the home in a duct

system. In the winter, heat pumps operate in reverse by extracting heat from the air, the ground,

or a source of water outdoors and transferring it to the indoor air, which is distributed throughout

the home in a duct system.

The efficiency of an air source heat pump is measured by its Seasonal Energy Efficiency

Ratio (SEER), its Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER), and its Heating Seasonal Performance Factor

(HSPF). In order for an air source heat pump to qualify as Energy Star, it must be rated below

65,000 Btuh and must be powered by single phase current. It could either be a single package

system or a split system. The system should have a SEER > 14.5, an EER > 12, and an HSPF >

8.2. It should be noted that high efficiency heat pumps dehumidify better than standard central

air conditioners, resulting in less energy use and more cooling comfort in the summer months.

Bertie Heating and Air, a Gainesville Florida HVAC subcontractor, was contacted about

the cost of air source heat pumps. The heat pump that was used for the model home had a SEER

of 13 and an HSPF of 8. The manufacturer was not known. Pricing was obtained on two

Goodman air source heat pumps. The heat pump similar to what the model was using was

$4,038. A heat pump that met the Energy Star standards, a Goodman heat pump with a SEER of

16 and HSPF of 8.2 was $5,206. Therefore, the price difference was $1,168.

A life cycle cost estimate for the Energy Star heat pump vs. the typical heat pump is shown

in Appendix F. The estimate is based on an Energy Star heat pump cost of $5,206 and a typical









heat pump cost of $4,038. The lifetime of the units were estimated at 12 years. The analysis

shows an annual operating cost savings of $180 for the Energy Star heat pump. The estimated

life cycle savings over the 12 years was $1,686 and the net life cycle savings (life cycle savings -

additional cost) was $518. Therefore, the unit would have a payback period of 6.5 years. It

should also be noted that the estimated carbon dioxide reduction over the lifetime of the units is

34,498 lbs. of C02. This is assuming an electricity carbon emission factor of 1.6 lbs C02/kWh.

Using light colored shingles versus dark colored shingles for roofing can provide

additional savings through lower energy bills. "Light-colored shingles can save up to 10 percent

more on your annual cooling costs than a roof with dark shingles, and up to 20 percent in hot

climates like Arizona and Florida" (National Geographic, 2004). Choosing an appropriate

shingle color is an item that would not cost the builder any additional money and could be easily

implemented.

The orientation of the home is another item that was not addressed in the checklist but is an

important item when considering energy efficiency. Building orientation can have an impact on

heating, lighting and cooling costs. By maximizing southern exposure, for example, the builder

can take optimal advantage of the sun for daylight and passive solar heating. Also western

exposures, where it is most difficult to provide shade from the sun, should be minimized.

For example, based on the model home plans that were used, the front of the home should

be oriented due south because of its large exposure. Therefore, the sides of the building facing

east and west have a smaller exposure and the building is elongated along the east/west axis.

This will provide the minimum exposure to the east and west sides, the more difficult sides to

shade due to the lower angle of the sun in the morning and afternoon. It should be noted that









there are three small windows on the east and west sides of the building. These windows can be

protected from heat transfer by placing vegetation or trees in front of them for shading.

Large overhangs are another way to help increase the energy efficiency of a home by

adding shading for windows. Large overhangs also help shed rainwater away from the walls and

foundation of the home. It should be noted that large overhangs are an optional criterion from

the Green Home Standards checklist, which requires overhangs of at least one foot on the gable

end of the home and at least two feet everywhere else. The criterion was not included in the

above analysis due to changes that would have to be made to the trusses for the model home.

The overhang for the gable end of the home was 16 inches, which met the checklist's standards.

However, the horizontal distances of the additional overhangs were not known. If the overhangs

were less than the required 2 feet, then changes would need to be made before truss fabrication.

Therefore, the increase in the truss overhang should have very little impact on the builder's

budget if the changes were made before the fabrication of the trusses.

Energy Star approved windows should also be installed where needed. For example,

windows installed on the east and west sides of the home should all be Energy Star approved

since overhangs are much less effective against the lower angles of the east and west sun.

Therefore, reducing the size and number or east and west facing windows or installing Energy

Star approved windows can help reduce energy use. Energy Star approved windows contain

improved frame materials, such as wood, vinyl, and fiberglass; they also contain low-e glass,

multiple panes, and warm edge spacers.

Three key measures are used to report window energy performance. U-value (or "U-

factor") is the measure of the amount of heat (in Btu's) that moves through a square foot of

window in an hour for every degree Fahrenheit difference in temperature across the window.









The lower the U-value rating, the better the overall insulating value of the window. Solar heat

gain coefficient (SHGC) is the measure of the amount of solar energy that passes through the

window; typical values range from 0.4 to 0.9 and the higher the SHGC the greater the solar

energy that passes through the window system. Windows with high SHGC (above 0.7) are

designed for colder climates, while windows with low coefficients are designed for hotter

climates. Air infiltration or air leakage is given in terms of cubic feet of air per minute per foot of

window edge. The best windows have air leakage rating between 0.01 and 0.06 cfm/ft.

The cost of Energy Star approved windows differ depending upon manufacturer, size, and

type. Therefore, the cost differences for an Energy Star window versus a standard window were

not included in the analysis. However, as noted above, if the home is oriented correctly only

certain windows will need to be replaced with Energy Star approved units.

Reducing the roof slope of a home is another criterion that can be easily met during the

design phase. By reducing the slope the builder can actually save money due to less material that

is used for sheathing. To meet the criterion of the checklist the home must have slope that is

equal or greater than 3 in 12 but no greater than 6 in 12. It should be noted that a roof slope of 5

in 12 may be best suited for uplift resistance during strong force winds. The model home that

was used had a roof slope of 7 in 12 and did not qualify for the additional point. The criterion

was not included in the above analysis due to changes that would have to be made to the trusses

for the model home.

The installation of a rainwater harvesting system was included in the Green Home

Standards checklist. However, it was not included in the original analysis because 100% of the

plants/trees selected for landscaping are to be selected from the builder's local drought tolerant

list and are to be compatible with the local climate. Therefore, no additional watering, besides









normal rainfall, should be needed to keep up the landscaping. However, there are many

homeowners that like to add additional landscaping after they have moved into the home, some

of which may not be from the drought tolerant list and may require additional watering for

survival. In such cases, a rainwater harvesting system would aid in helping to keep utility bills

low while watering plants throughout the yard.

"With an average rainfall of 54 inches/year in the state of Florida (compared to the

national average of 27 inches/year), harvested rainwater is an excellent source of water for

landscape irrigation" (Florida Green Homes Standard Reference Guide, 2005). One of the most

economical methods for rainwater harvesting is the use of a rainwater barrel. These barrels can

range in size from just a few gallons to thousands of gallons and are used as an alternative water

source for a homeowner's plants and landscaping. It should be noted that the system must be

designed to collect water from the roof via gutters. A schematic of the system design should be

submitted.

There are many rainwater harvesting systems on the market today. The system that will be

installed must meet the requirements of the FGBC. It must be "designed to collect water from

the roof via gutters, with proper overflow control" (Florida Green Home Standards Reference

Guide, 2005). Therefore, with the proper designing, the system can be placed beneath the down

spout tube of the home. These systems come in many different shapes, sizes, and colors. The

system pictured in Figure 4-1 is an 80 gallon capacity tank that can be placed up against the

home and directly under the down spout. The rain water harvesting system can be ordered from

www.rainsaverusa.com and costs approximately $319 (before shipping).

Summary

There are 32 criteria that have been selected that should add little if any additional cost to

the construction budget. These items are either required by the 2004 Florida Building Code or









are items that may take some additional planning to implement but should not increase the cost

of construction. There are also ten criteria that have been selected that will add an additional

cost to the construction budget. The criteria and additional cost is summarized in Table 4-1

along with the cost for a certified FGBC Verifying Agent. The items have a total cost of $1,264

or 1.4% of the estimated construction cost. As noted, the estimated costs do not include

additional labor costs that might be required. However, the criteria that have been recommended

should require little if any additional labor hours to implement.

The green criteria also helped to reduce the homeowner's energy consumption by

approximately $60 per year, which includes the addition of the increased mortgage payment due

to the cost of the green materials. However, as noted above this only includes the analysis of the

Energy Star appliances, lighting, and dual flush toilets. Some of the other additional green

criteria that were recommended may also aid in reducing the homes energy costs.

By including all listed criteria into the design and construction of the home, the builder

will have earned a total of 240 points. The points by category are Energy (146 points), Water

(16 points), Site (12 points), Health (14 points), Materials (2 points), Disaster Mitigation (3

points), and General (47 points). It should be noted that the minimum requirements were not met

in the Materials and Disaster categories due to cost restrictions. Therefore a total of 210 points

had to be earned for qualification (200 + [10-2] + [5-3]). This means that if a builder

implemented all of the criteria discussed above, they could build a home up to 1699 square feet

and still qualify with 210 points. If a larger home were being built, the developer/constructor

would have to implement additional criteria from the checklist to qualify.










Table 4-1. Additional cost items


Criteria
Energy Star refrigerator
Energy Star clothes washer
Energy Star dishwasher
Indoor lights are fluorescent/outdoor lights are fluorescent
Dual flush toilets (2 toilets)
Mulch applied 3-4 inches deep around plants
Stabilize disturbed soil/control sediment runoff during construction
Whole house positive ventilation strategy
Verifying agent
Total


Additional Cost (Material & Tax)
$0
$160
$9
$85
$254
$56
$150
$250
$300
$1,264

































Figure 4-1. 80 gallon rain barrel









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

This thesis has laid out a green building formula that has proved that green building

techniques can be applied to affordable homes for a reasonable additional cost. There are some

elements of environmentally responsible building that are out of reach for affordable home

builders. However, as can be seen, there are many elements of green building that can be

incorporated into affordable homes for little or no additional cost, but may include some

additional time and planning.

Green Criteria

When choosing which additional criteria to implement, an emphasis was placed on criteria

that would aid in lowering the occupant's utility bills. Energy Star appliances and fluorescent

lighting was mandatory. However additional criteria that were added, such as low-flow fixtures

and dual flush toilets, will aid in reducing the occupant's utility bill even more. This should be

the aim of an affordable home, making it affordable to operate for the end user.

The material cost for the additional criteria totaled $1,264. However, the costs could

change slightly depending on where the builder purchased materials from. For example, the

costs for the Energy Star appliances were obtained from www.lowes.com. The appliances that

were selected had low additional costs when compared with their traditional counterparts.

However, if the builder looked for a particular brand, then the additional cost of the Energy Star

appliance might be greater then that shown in Table 4-1. The same applies to all criteria that

were noted in the table. The additional costs may increase or decrease depending on where the

materials are purchased. The builder will also have a slight increase in costs above what is noted

in this paper due to shipping costs that may be added to certain materials. However, any

additional costs should not increase the total cost to over $1,500.









Cost vs. Savings

The additional "green" costs can be offset by energy savings that can be realized by

implementing the recommended green criteria and also by qualifying for Florida Green

Communities grants and low interest rate loans. The energy savings from the additional green

criteria totaled $184 per year. With the higher mortgage payment, from increased construction

costs due to green materials, taken into account the savings totaled $60 per year. However, with

the addition of Florida Green Communities grants and low interest rate loans the yearly savings

were approximately $244.

At first glance, the savings figures may not be as high as expected. However, these figures

only included the analysis of the Energy Star appliances, lighting, and dual flush toilets. Some

of the other additional green criteria that were recommended may also aid in reducing the homes

energy costs even further. Also, it should always be remembered that the recommended green

criteria also reduced the homes carbon emissions by 11,755 pounds of CO2 over the lifetime of

the appliances and aided in making the home a much healthier living environment for the

occupants.









CHAPTER 6
RECOMMENDATIONS

Current Research

The point of this thesis research was to lay out a low cost green building formula from the

Green Home Standard checklist that could be implemented into existing affordable home plans

without changing the design of the home. Some of the criteria that were chosen to be

implemented were picked due to their ability to reduce the home's annual operating costs, which

should be a priority with all affordable homes. However, some of the criteria were not

implemented due to the design changes that would have to be made to the existing plans. Some

of these criteria would have aided in reducing the homes operating cost but could not be

implemented for the reasons noted.

Future Research

The research for this thesis has produced one recommendation for the construction

community and future researchers. The purpose of this thesis was to develop a low cost but

effective green building formula that could be implemented into existing affordable home

designs. However, after performing the research it was found that perhaps a more appropriate

topic would have been the design of a green affordable home, since the green process should

begin in the design phase of a home. There are many green building criteria, such as the design

of roof trusses for adequate overhang length and the proper location of windows, that can aid in

the energy reduction of home if addressed in the design phase. Therefore, future research into

this topic should include a study of green affordable homes from the design phase through the

construction phase.











APPENDIX A


Table A-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Residential Clothes Washers


Number of units 1

Electric Rate ($/kWh) $0 100

Water Rate ($/1000 gallons) $5 360

Gas Rate ($/therms) $1 240


Number of Loads per Week Electric Water Heating [r

Type of Water Heating

ENERGY STAR Conventional
Qualified Unit Unit



Initial Cost per Unit (estimated retail price) 418 $?317

Electricity Consumption (kWh/year) 126 41S

Water Consumption (gal/year) F. 86 13 419

Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 Clothes Washer(s)
Savings with
1 ENERGY STAR 1 Conventional ENERGY
Qualified Unit(s) Unit(s) STAR

Annual Operating Costs
Electricity costs $13 $42 $29
Electricity consumption (kWh) 126 418 292
Water costs $42 $72 $30
Water consumption (gal) 7,886 13,494 5,608
Gas costs $0 $0 $0
Gas consumption (therm) 0 0 0

Total $55 $114 $59


Life Cycle Costs
Operating costs (electricity, water, and gas) $445 $926 $481
Electricity costs $102 $339 $237
Electricity consumption (kWh) 1,260 4,180 2,920
Water costs $343 $587 $244
Water consumption (gal) 78,860 134,940 56,080
Gas costs $0 $0 $0
Gas consumption (therm) 0 0 0
Purchase price for 1 unit(s) $418 $317 -$101




Total $863 $1,243 $380












Table A-1. Continued.
Summary of Benefits for 1 Clothes Washer(s)

Initial cost difference
Life cycle savings

Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost)

Simple payback of additional cost (years)

Life cycle electricity saved (kWh)

Life cycle air pollution reduction (Ibs of CO2)
Savings as a percent of retail price


Note: The electric and water rates used in the calculations were obtained from Gainesville Regional Utilities.




Assumptions for Clothes Washers
Category Value Data Source


Power & Water
ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit
Initial Cost Per Unit
Lifetime
Water Consumption per Load
Unit Water Consumption
Electric Water Heating
Electricity Consumption per Load
Unit Electricity Consumption
Gas Water Heating
Electricity Consumption per Load
Unit Electricity Consumption
Gas Consumption per Load
Unit Gas Consumption


Conventional Unit (New Unit)
Initial Cost Per Unit
Lifetime
Water Consumption per load
Annual Unit Water Consumption
Electric Water Heating
Electricity Consumption per Load
Unit Electricity Consumption
Gas Water Heating
Electricity Consumption per Load
Unit Electricity Consumption
Gas Consumption per Load
Unit Gas Consumption


Usage
Residential Clothes Washers
Average number of loads per year
Number of operating weeks per year


$529
10
20.1
7,886


years
gallons/load
gallons


0.321428571 kWh/load
126 kWh


0.032142857
13
0.038
15



$317
10
34.4
13,494


kWh/load
kWh
Therm/load
Therms





years
gallons/load
gallons/year


1.066326531 kWh/load
418 kWh


0.106632653
42
0.074
29


kWh/load
kWh
Therm/load
Therms


392 loads/year
52 week/year


www.lowes.com
Appliance Magazine 2005
Calculated
DOE 2005


Calculated
www.lowes.com


Calculated
DOE 2005
Calculated
DOE 2005



www.lowes.com
Appliance Magazine 2005
DOE 2005
DOE 2005


Calculated
DOE 2005


Calculated
DOE 2005
Calculated
DOE 2005





DOE 2004


$101
$481

$380

1.7

2,920

4,614












Table A-i. Continued.
Assum
Usage

Number of loads per week (Residential)


Discount Rate
Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real)


Energy and Water Prices
2005 Residential Electricity Price
2005 Water Rate per 1000 Gallons
2005 Residential Gas Price


Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors

Electricity Carbon Emission Factors


CO2 Equivalents

Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre

Annual CO2 emissions for "average" passenger car


options for Clothes Washers
Value

7.5 loads/week



4%


$0.100
$5.360
$1.24


$/kWh
$/1000 gal
$/therm


Ibs
1.58 CO2/kWh


8,066

11,470


Ibs
CO2/year
Ibs
CO2/year


Data Source

Calculated







GRU, Gainesville, Fl.
GRU, Gainesville, Fl.
EIA 2005




EPA 2004




EPA 2004


EPA 2004


Note: The electric and water rates used in the calculations were obtained from GRU in Gainesville, Fl.
Note: The unit electricity consumption was obtained from www.lowes.com
Note: This energy savings calculator was developed by the U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE.












APPENDIX B


Table B-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Residential Refrigerators


Number of units


Electricity Rate $/kWh

WWW&N&^^^^^^^^^^^^pf*


'-Side Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice


Initial cost per unit (estimated retail price)

Refrigerator Fresh Volume (ft3)

Refrigerator Freezer Volume (ft3)

Refrigerator Total Volume (ft3)


ENERGY STAR
Qualified Unit




18


___ 8


Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 Residential Refrigerator(s)


1 ENERGY
STAR Qualified
Unit(s)


Conventional
Unit(s)


Savings with ENERGY STAR


Annual Operating Costs
Energy costs
Energy consumption (kWh)

Total


Life Cycle Costs*
Energy costs
Energy consumption (kWh)

Purchase Price for 1 unit(s)

Total


$62
618

$62




$617
8,034

$848

$1,465


$726
9,451

$848

$1,574


1,417


Simple payback of initial additional cost
(years)t


Summary of Benefits for 1 Residential Refrigerator(s)
Initial cost difference

Life cycle savings
Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost)
Simple payback of additional cost (years)
Life cycle energy saved (kWh)
Life cycle air pollution reduction (Ibs of CO2)
Savings as a percent of retail price


Conventional
Unit




184



26


$109


$0

$109


$0
$109
$109
0.0

1,417
1,700
13%












Table B-1. Continued
Assumptions for Residential Refrigerators
Category Value Data Source


Power
ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit
Initial cost per unit
Refrigerator Fresh Volume
Refrigerator Freezer Volume
Adjusted Volume
Lifetime
Annual Unit Energy Consumption
For Selected Refrigerator Type
1-Manual Defrost Refrigerators
2-Partial Automatic Defrost Refrigerators
3-Top Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice
4-Side Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice
5-Bottom Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice
6-Top Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice
7-Side Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice
Conventional Unit (New Unit)
Initial cost per unit
Refrigerator Fresh Volume
Refrigerator Freezer Volume
Adjusted Volume
Lifetime
Annual Unit Energy Consumption

For Selected Refrigerator Type
1-Manual Defrost Refrigerators
2-Partial Automatic Defrost Refrigerators
3-Top Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice
4-Side Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice
5-Bottom Mount Freezer without through-the-door ice
6-Top Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice
7-Side Mount Freezer with through-the-door ice
Usage
Number of operating hours per day
Number of operating days per year
Number of operating hours per year
Discount Rate
Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real)

Energy Prices
2004 Commercial Electricity Price
2004 Residential Electricity Price
Carbon Emissions Factors

Electricity Carbon Emission Factors
CO2 Equivalents
Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre
Annual CO, emissions for averagee" Dassenaer car


$798
18
8
31.04
13


618
444
444
493
561
512
572
618


$798
18
8
31.04
13

727

522
522
580
660
602
673
727


24
365
8,760


ft3
ft3
ft3
years


kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh



ft3
ft3
ft3
years

kWh

kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh


hours/day
days/year
hours/year


4%


$ 0.100 $/kWh
$ 0.100 $/kWh

Ibs
1.2 CO2/kWh


7,333 Ibs CO2/yr
11.560 Ibs CO,/vr


Lowes
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004


Calculated.
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
www.lowes.com


Lowes
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004

Calculated.

DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
DOE 2004
www.lowes.com


DOE 2004
DOE 2004
Calculated.





GRU, Gainesville, Fl.
GRU, Gainesville, Fl.


DOE 2004


EPA 2003
EPA 2003


Note: The electric rates used in the calculations were obtained from Gainesville Regional Utilities in Gainesville, Fl.
Note: The annual energy consumption was for each unit was obtained at www.lowes.com.












APPENDIX C


Table C-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Residential Dishwashers


Number of units

Electric Rate ($/kWh)

Water Rate ($/1000 gallons)

Gas Rate ($/therm)
Number of Cycles (Loads) per Week


Type of Water Heating


1

50 100

$5 360

50 910

Electric WaterHeaing-1
SElectric Water HeatingO


ENERGY STAR
Qualified Unit


Conventional
Unit


Initial Cost per Unit (estimated retail price)

Energy Factor (EF)
Electricity Consumption
(kWh/year)

Water Consumption (gal/year)


Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savinqs for 1 Dishwasher(s)


1 ENERGY STAR
Qualified Unit(s)


1 Conventional
Unit(s)


Savings with ENERGY STAR


Annual Operating Costs

Electricity costs ($/kWh)

Electricity consumption (kWh)

Water costs ($/gal)

Water consumption (gal)

Gas costs ($/therm)

Gas consumption (therm)

Total


Life Cycle Costs

Operating costs (electricity, water, and gas)

Electricity costs ($/kWh)

Electricity consumption (kWh)

Water costs ($/gal)

Water consumption (gal)

Gas costs ($/therm)

Gas consumption (therm)

Purchase price for 1 unit(s)

Total


$37
374

$6

1,075

$0

0

$43


$43
432

$10

1,935

$0

0

$54


$6
58

$5
860

$0

0

$10




$84

$47

580

$37

8,600

$0

0

-$11

$73


$350

$303

3,740

$47

10,750

$0

0

$253

$603


$435

$350

4,320

$84

19,350

$0

0

$242

$677












Table C-1. Continued
Summary of Benefits for 1 Dishwasher(s)

Initial cost difference $11
Life cycle savings $84

Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) $73

Simple payback of additional cost (years) 1.1

Life cycle electricity saved (kWh) 580

Life cycle air pollution reduction (Ibs of CO2) 696
Savings as a percent of retail
price 29%



Assumptions for Dishwashers
Category Value Data Source


Power & Water
ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit
Initial Cost Per Unit
Energy Factor
Lifetime
Water Consumption per Cycle
Annual Unit Water Consumption
Electric Water Heating
Electricity Consumption per Cycle
Unit Electricity Consumption
Gas Water Heating
Electricity Consumption per Cycle
Unit Electricity Consumption
Gas Consumption per Cycle
Unit Gas Consumption


Conventional Unit
Initial Cost Per Unit
Energy Factor
Lifetime
Water Consumption per Cycle
Annual Unit Water Consumption
Electric Water Heating
Electric Consumption per Cycle
Unit Electricity Consumption
Gas Water Heating
Electric Consumption per Cycle
Unit Electricity Consumption
Gas Consumption per Cycle
Unit Gas Consumption


Usage
Average number of cycles per year

Number of operating weeks per year
Number of Cycles per week


$253
0.63
10
5
1,075


years
gallons/Cycle
gallons


1.74 kWh/Cycle
374 kWh


0.77 kWh/Cycle
150 kWh
0.037 Therms/Cycle
8 Therms



$242
0.52
10 years
9 gallons/Cycle
1,935 gallons


2.01 kWh/Cycle
432 kWh


0.88
182
0.051
11


kWh/Cycle
kWh
Therms/Cycle
Therms


215 Cycles/year

52 week/year
4.13 Cycles/week


www.lowes.com
DOE 2005
DOE 2005
DOE 2004
Calculated


Calculated
www.lowes.com


DOE 2005
Calculated
DOE 2004
Calculated



www.lowes.com
DOE 2005
DOE 2005
DOE 2004
Calculated


Calculated
www.lowes.com


DOE 2005
Calculated
DOE 2005
Calculated



Calculated

DOE 2004
DOE 2004












Table C-1. Continued
Assumpti
Category
Discount Rate
Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real)


Energy and Water Prices
2004 Commercial Electricity Price
2004 Residential Electricity Price
2004 Water Rate per 1000 Gallons
2004 Commercial Gas Price
2004 Residential Gas Price


Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors
Electricity Carbon Emission Factors


CO2 Equivalents
Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre
Annual CO, emissions for averagee" passenger car


ons for Dishwashers
Value

4%


$0.100
$0.100
$5.360
$0.83
$0.91


$/kWh
$/kWh
$/1000 gal
$/therm
$/therm


1.2 Ibs C02/kWh



7,333 Ibs CO2/year
11.560 Ibs CO,/vear


Data Source






GRU, Gainesville, Fl.
GRU, Gainesville, Fl.
GRU, Gainesville, Fl.
DOE 2004
DOE 2004



DOE 2004


EPA 2003
EPA 2003


Note: The electric and water rates used in the calculations were obtained from GRU in Gainesville, Fl.
Note: The unit electricity consumption was obtained for www.lowes.com
Note: This energy savings calculator was developed by the U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE











APPENDIX D


Table D-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Fluorescent Light Bulbs
Table D-1.


Number of units

Electricity Rate ($/kWh) 0 100

Hours used per day


ENERGY STAR Conventional
Qualified Unit Unit


Initial cost per unit (estimated retail price) I 00 o
13 I*' 60 0
Watts


Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 CFLs
1
1 ENERGY STAR Conventional
Qualified Units Units Savings with ENERGY STAR

Annual Operating Costs
Energy cost $3 $13 $10
Energy consumption
(kWh) 28 131 103
Maintenance cost $0 $0 $0

Total $3 $13 $10


Life Cycle Costs
Operating cost (energy and maintenance) $13 $58 $46
Energy costs (lifetime) $13 $58 $46
Energy consumption
(kWh) 104 657 553
Maintenance costs (lifetime) $0 $0 $0

Purchase price for 1 unit(s) $5.00 $0.50 $4.50

Total $18 $59 $41

Simple payback of initial additional cost
(years)t 0.4
Summary of Benefits for 1 CFLs
Initial cost difference $5
Life cycle savings $46
Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) $41
Simple payback of additional cost (years) 0.4
Life cycle energy saved (kWh) 553
Life cycle air pollution reduction (Ibs of CO2) 791
Savings as a percent of retail price 826%















Table D-1. Continued

Category
Power
ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit
Initial Cost per Unit
Wattage






Bulb Life





Lifetime
For 6,000 hour CFL
For 8,000 hour CFL
For 10,000 hour CFL
For 12,000 hour CFL


Conventional Unit
Initial Cost per Unit
Wattage






Bulb Life


Lifetime
For 750 hour incadescent bulb
For 1,000 hour incadescent bulb


Maintenance
Labor cost (per hour)
Installation labor hours


Usage
Hours used per day

Number of days per year
CFL annual bulb replacements
6,000 hours
8,000 hours
10,000 hours
12,000 hours
Incandescent annual bulb replacements
750 hours


Assumptions for CFLs
Value



$5.00
13 watts
20 watts
25 watts
32 watts
50 watts
6,000 hours
8,000 hours
10,000 hours
12,000 hours


4 years
5 years
6 years
8 years



$0.50
40 watts
60 watts
75 watts
100 watts
150 watts
750 hours
1,000 hours


0.5 years
0.7 years



$0
0 hours



6 hours/day

365 days/year


bulbs/year
bulbs/year
bulbs/year
bulbs/year


2.92 bulbs/year


Data Source



www.lowes.com
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003



www.lowes.com
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003
DOE 2003


DOE 2003
DOE 2003



EPA 2004
Assumption



Assumption

Assumption


Calculated
Calculated
Calculated
Calculated


Calculated











1,000 hours


Table D-1. Continued


Category
Discount Rate
Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real)


Energy Prices


2004 Commercial Electricity Price
2004 Residential Electricity Price


Carbon Emissions Factors

Electricity Carbon Emission Factors


CO2 Equivalents


2.19 bulbs/year


Assumptions for CFLs
Value

4%


$/kWh
$/kWh


Ibs
1.43 C02/kWh


Ibs
Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre 7,333 CO2/kWh EP
Ibs
Annual CO2 emissions for "average" passenger car 11,560 C02/kWh EP
Note: The electric rates used in the calculations were obtained from GRU in Gainesville, Fl.
Note: This energy savings calculator was developed by the U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE


I Calculated


Data Source








GRU, Gainesville, Fl.
GRU, Gainesville, Fl.




EPA 2003


A 2003

A 2003












APPENDIX E.


Table E-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for Dual Flush Toilets
Briggs Standard Toto Aquia Dual
Unit Toilet Flush
Cost $113 $248
Gallons Per Flush 1.6 1.25
Annual Water Use (gallons) 17520 13688
Water Cost per 1,000 gallons $5.36 $5.36
Annual Water Cost $93.91 $73.37
20-Year Water Cost $1,878.14 $1,467.35
Summary of Benefits for 1 Dual Flush Toilet
Initial Cost Difference $135
Annual Savings $20.54
Lifecycle Savings $410.79
Payback of Additional Cost (Years) 6.6
Assumptions:
30 flushes per day
The water rates used in the calculation were obtained from Gainesville Regional Utilities in Gainesville, Fl.
The water rates used included water services of $1.42/1,000 gallons and wastewater services of $3.94/1,000 gallons.











APPENDIX F

Table F-1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for an Air Source Heat Pump

Number of units $ i
Electric Rate ($/kWh) 1


FL-Pensacola


ENERGY STAR Conventional
Qualified Unit Unit


Initial Cost per Unit (estimated retail price) $5 2'06 5- 03.-:
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) rating 2 6
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) rating 16 13
Heat Pump Capacity (Btu/hr) 36 000 36 000
[Yes IYes
Use with programmable thermostat (Yes/No)

Annual and Life Cycle Costs and Savings for 1 Air Source Heat Pump(s)
1
1 ENERGY STAR Conventional
Qualified Units Units Savings with ENERGY STAR
Annual Operating Costs
Energy cost $820 $1,000 $180
Maintenance cost $0 $0 $0
Total $820 $1,000 $180
Life Cycle Costs
Operating costs (energy and maintenance) $7,698 $9,384 $1,686
Energy costs $7,698 $9,384 $1,686
Maintenance costs $0 $0 $0

Purchase price for 1 unit(s) $5,206 $4,038 $1,168
Total $12,904 $13,422 $518

Simple payback of initial additional
cost (years)t 6.5
Summary of Benefits for 1 Air Source Heat Pump(s)

Initial cost difference $1,168
Life cycle savings $1,686
Net life cycle savings (life cycle savings additional cost) $518
Simple payback of additional cost (years) 6.5
Life cycle energy saved (kWh) 21,561
Life cycle air pollution reduction (Ibs of C02) 34,498
Savings as a percent of retail price 10%














Table F-1. Continued


Assumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps


Category
Power
ENERGY STAR Qualified Unit
Initial Cost Per Unit
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) rating


Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) rating


Heating Capacity of Air Source Heat Pump (Btu/hr)
Use with programmable thermostat (Yes/No)
Lifetime
Conventional Unit
Initial Cost Per Unit
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) rating
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) rating
Heating Capacity of Air Source Heat Pump (Btu/hr)
Use with programmable thermostat (Yes/No)
Lifetime
Maintenance
Labor cost (per hour)
Labor time (hours)
Usage
Full-Load Cooling/Heating Hours for Selected Location
FL-Daytona Beach
FL-Fort Myers
FL-Gainesville
FL-Jacksonville
FL-Key West
FL-Miami
FL-Orlando
FL-Pensacola
FL-Tallahassee
FL-Tampa
FL-W. Palm Beach
Discount Rate
Commercial and Residential Discount Rate (real)
Programmable Thermostat Discount Rate

Energy and Water Prices
Commercial Electricity Price
Residential Electricity Price
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors

Electricity CO2 Emission Factor
CO2 Equivalents

Annual CO2 sequestration per forested acre

Annual CO, emissions for averagee" passenger car


Value


$5,206
8.2


16


36,000
Yes
12


$4,038
6.8
13
36,000
Yes
12


$20
0
Cooling
2,297
2,763
3,288
2,228
2,086
4,566
3,931
2,915
2,297
2,215
3,068
3,479


Btu/hr


years






Btu/hr


years





Heating
1,047
720
504
889
1,020
342
265
583
1,047
1,133
709
314


4%

16%


$0.089 $/kWh
$0.100 $/kWh

Ibs
1.6 C02/kWh


8,066

11.470


Ibs
C02/year
Ibs
CO,/vear


Note: The electric rates used in the calculation were obtained from the GRU in Gainesville, Fl.


Data Source


Bertie Heating & Air (Gainesville, Fl.)
The HSPF criteria for ENERGY STAR qualified residential air-
source heat pumps are > 8.2 for split systems and > 8.0 for single
package equipment.
The SEER criteria for ENERGY STAR qualified residential air-
source heat pumps are > 14.5 for split systems and > 14 for single
package equipment.
EPA 2004
EPA 2004
LBNL 2004


Bertie Heating & Air (Gainesville, Fl.)
EPA 2004
EPA 2004
EPA 2004
EPA 2004
LBNL 2004


EPA 2004
EPA 2004


EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002
EPA 2002



LBNL 2005 (Based on minimum estimated savings)


EIA 2006
Gainesville Regional Utilities, Gainesville, Fl.


EPA 2006


EIA 2006

EIA 2006









LIST OF REFERENCES


Anderson, B. (March 2006). Green Building Comes of Age. Affordable Housing Finance.
Retrieved January 12, 2007, from
http://www.housingfinance.com/aft/articles/2006/mar/002_greenmar06.htm

Boehland, J. (2005). Greening Affordable Housing [Electronic Version]. Environmental
Building News, 14, 3.

Farr, J. (2006). Can Housing be Green and Affordable? Partners in Community and Economic
Development. Retrieved January 12, 2007, from
http://www.frbatlanta.org/invoke.cfm?objectid=7E448AB7-5056-9F12-
1273CD2B2C3B6231&method=display body

Marks, A. (November 22, 2005). Affordable Housing Goes Green. The Christian Science
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ussc.html

.Wilson, A., Malin, N. (1996). The IAQ Challenge: Protecting the Indoor Environment
[Electronic Version]. Environmental Building News, 5, 3.

BChydro. (2006). "Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs." Mud history,
(January 3, 2007).

Energy Star. (2006). "Energy Star Qualified Appliances." Mud history,
(January 3, 2007).

Energy Star. (2006). "Clothes Washers." Mud history,
(January 3,
2007).

Energy Star. (2006). "Definitions for Clothes Washers product listing column headers." Mud
history,
ns> (January 3, 2007).

Energy Star. (2006). "Refrigerators and Freezers." Mud history,
(January 3, 2007).

Energy Star. (2006). "Dishwashers." Mud history,
(January 3, 2007).

Energy Star. (2006). "Light Bulbs & Fixtures." Mud history,
(January 3, 2007).

Energy Star. (2006). "Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs." Mud history,
(January 3, 2007).









Energy Star. (2006). "Duct Sealing." Mud history,

(January 3, 2007)

Florida Building Code. (2004). Falls Church, Virginia

Florida Green Communities. (2005). "Welcome to Florida Green Communities." Mud history,
(January 2, 2007).

Florida Green Communities. (2005). "Green Home Standard Checklist." Mud history,
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Florida Green Communities. (2005). "Florida Green Home Standard Reference Guide." Mud
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(December 10, 2006).

Gainesville Regional Utilities. (2006). "Reference Guide Existing Multifamily Program." Mud
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2007).

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National Association of Homebuilders. (2006). "Green Building: Not as complicated as You
Think, Says NAHB." Mud history,
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2007).

National Association of Homebuilders. (2006). "Green Basics: You Don't Have to Go Weird to
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National Geographic. (2004). "Is Your Home a Green House?" Mud history,
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Brian P. Crum was born December 25, 1978 in Tallahassee, Florida. He is the only son of

Pren and Sharon Crum. He received his high school diploma from Taylor County High School

in 1997. He earned his Bachelor of Science in finance from Florida State University at

Tallahassee, Florida in 2002. Brian moved to Gainesville, Florida in 2002 to pursue a career in

commercial lending with M&S Bank. In 2005 Brian decided to pursue his Master of Science in

Building Construction at the University of Florida where he graduated in the spring of 2007.