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Developing LEED Version 3 Based on The Natural Step and Process Changes

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1 DEVELOPING LEED VERSION 3 BASED ON THE NATURAL ST EP AND PROCESS CHANGES By KYLE GALLIGAR A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Kyle Galligar

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3 To everyone who contributed to my continued ed ucation, and helped in shaping my decisions along the way.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank my professors and committee members for making this thesis possible, as well as giving me the opportunity to continue my education. I would then like to give thanks to my parents for continually s upporting my decisions no matter how often they changed. I thank my brother and sisters for en couraging me to succeed throughout my life. I would also like to thank everyone that helped shape my mind and thoughts while growing up. It has finally paid off, and I would not be at this place without you.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .10 Problem Statement.............................................................................................................. ....10 Research Objectives............................................................................................................ ....11 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........12 Contributions.................................................................................................................. ........12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................13 Path Toward Sustainability.....................................................................................................13 Beginnings of Sustainability............................................................................................14 Effects of Sustainability Today.......................................................................................16 The Big Picture................................................................................................................17 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design..................................................................18 The LEED Rating System...............................................................................................19 Problems With LEED......................................................................................................21 Possible Remedies...........................................................................................................22 Flaws and Needs of LEED..............................................................................................23 The Natural Step............................................................................................................... ......25 The Natural Step Framework..........................................................................................27 Backcasting Strategic Planning for the Future.............................................................28 Steps of Using the Framework........................................................................................29 Finding Common Ground................................................................................................29 What Do Your Operatio ns Look Like Today?................................................................30 What Does Your Organization Look Like In A Sustainable Society?............................31 Prioritization and Management.......................................................................................31 Combining The Natural Step with LEED...............................................................................32 Sustainable Paradigm Shift.....................................................................................................36 Creating the Shift.............................................................................................................37 Whole Systems Thinking................................................................................................38 The Whole Systems Process............................................................................................39

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6 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................49 Assess The Current View of The Systems.............................................................................50 Establish a Method for Integration.........................................................................................50 Develop a Process Section......................................................................................................51 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS.................................................................................................53 Process Section................................................................................................................ .......53 How TNS can affect LEED....................................................................................................55 LEED Version 3: Incorporating The Natural Step.................................................................56 Sustainable Sites..............................................................................................................56 Water Efficiency..............................................................................................................60 Energy and Atmosphere..................................................................................................61 Materials and Resources..................................................................................................64 Indoor Environmental Quality.........................................................................................66 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........69 5 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................... ....74 Will an Update Based on TNS Work?....................................................................................74 Recommendations for Future Study.......................................................................................76 APPENDIX A LEED VERSION 2.2 CHECKLIST.......................................................................................78 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..80 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................81

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Definitions of Sustainability..............................................................................................42 2-2 LEED Registration and Certification Fees........................................................................42 4-1 Changes to Sustainable Sites.............................................................................................71 4-2 Changes to Water Efficiency.............................................................................................71 4-3 Changes to Energy and Atmosphere..................................................................................72 4-4 Changes to Materials and Resources.................................................................................72 4-5 Changes to Indoor Environmental Quality........................................................................73

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 U.S. Energy Consumption by Sector.................................................................................43 2-2 Energy Consumption with Build ing Sector as Architecture..............................................43 2-3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector................................................................................44 2-4 Possible Energy Consumption Model................................................................................44 2-5 Integration of a Sustainable Society..................................................................................45 2-6 Funnel Towards a Sustainable Society..............................................................................45 2-7 Energy In to Energy Out....................................................................................................46 2-8 LEED Analyzed with Planning Hierarchy.........................................................................46 2-9 Using Planning Hierarchy to Inform LEED......................................................................47 2-10 Trajectory of Environm entally Responsible Design..........................................................48 A-1 LEED-NC Version 2.2 Checklist: Sustainabl e Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and Atmosphere..................................................................................................................... ...78 A-2 LEED Version 2.2 Checklist: Material s and Resources, Indoor Environmental Quality, Innovation and Design Process............................................................................79

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9 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Bu ilding Construction DEVELOPING LEED VERSION 3 BASED ON THE NATURAL ST EP AND PROCESS CHANGES By Kyle Galligar May 2007 Chair: Charles Kibert Cochair: Kevin Grosskopf Major: Building Construction The LEED rating system is a green checklist th at gives users the abil ity to certify their buildings. This system has faced scrutiny due to problems that are inherent in its format and underlying goals. While the system is currently lacking an introduction to The Natural Step may help LEED straighten out some of its issues. The Natural Step is a social framework that allows individuals, organizations, busin esses, and governments to practice sustainability. While The Natural Step is not a rating system it maintains so me of the principles LEED users feel they do not receive. LEED will be examined in an attemp t to create a new version that is based on The Natural Step. To accomplish this goal a procedure to examine each LEED credit and incorporate the principles of The Natural Step will be cr eated. The results show th at LEED needs extensive changes in the wording of cred its, prerequisites, and the addi tion of a new process section.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION LEED, or Leadership in Ener gy and Environmental Design, is a process that allocates credits toward the certification of a building. Once the building has achieved a number of these credits, the building becomes certified on one of four levels. The LEED rating system is imperfect however, and opponents to th e system feel that owners in an attempt to satisfy credits lose track of the underlying theme of LEED. The theme of LEED is to use the environment only to our needed capacity so that future genera tions have the same benefits that we had. The Natural Step is a process that gui des people, businesses, communities, and governments onto an ecologically, socially and ec onomically sustainable path. It is a program that is not based on credits, but more on the ove rall path of your decision making process. The Natural Step looks at strategic management, corporate social responsibility, sustainability analysis, product and service analysis, integrat ion of management syst ems, networking with other organizations, design for the developmen t of sustainable products, creating order, enhancing communication, s upply/value chain, training, and conti nual learning. It is more of a way of life than a rating system, to enhance a nd encourage the use of sustainable practices. With this in mind, the researcher will atte mpt to look into the underlying themes of The Natural Step, and see if a more comprehensive ve rsion of LEED can be developed. One that does not see owners chasing after single credits, but one that allows th e owner to incorporate sustainable practices into the lives of its workforce. Problem Statement The problem addressed includes the growing is sues related to the LEED rating system, and its inability to promote integrated design for green buildings. The rating system allows developers the advantage of gaining the social attributes of LEED w ithout actually designing

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11 buildings that save that much en ergy. The system currently allows for the collection of credits in a way that no energy saving systems can be i nvolved and a building can still achieve LEED certification. Because of this the system is curre ntly losing credibility. In order to maintain its place in the market the system needs a proven un derpinning, and in order to do this the problems with the system need to be established. The problem was the ability to incorporate Th e Natural Step into the rating system. While it may be possible to do this, it is important to ask if it is even a good idea? The Natural Step is more of a framework, whereas LEED is a certifica tion system. The two differ completely in their design, thus it may not even be possible to inco rporate the two. Ultimately the problem is to incorporate The Natural Step into the LEED rating system to create a better green rating system. Research Objectives The purpose of this study was to see if ther e is a way to improve the LEED rating system with The Natural Step. By researching the topi cs insight into the a dvantages, disadvantages, benefits, and needs of each system were analyzed in order to determine a possible path to take. This path would ultimately lead to a seamless in corporation of the two topics, or show the need for overhauls of one or both of the systems. When addressing the problem it was important to ask: Can these two systems be used concurrently to develop a better system for gr een building rating? It is also important to determine what would make a system better. Th e two systems alone both seem to serve their purpose but with flaws. The research was conducted in order to better un derstand the intricacies of each system, and to determine if there is a better way to reach the goals of each system. The hypothesis for the research is that the LEED system is to o different from TNS. Trying to integrate the systems will not work with the current industry, and formi ng a better green rating system will have to be done with only one of these systems, or a combination of other systems.

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12 Limitations The subject matter is fairly new as a researchable topic; therefore limitations are inherent in the process. There is little information regard ing the incorporat ion of green building systems, and this may prove to be a problem in the resear ch of the topic. Due to the limited amount of information there may also be a lack of truly objective information on the subject matter. This may require a subjective view on the information be ing gathered in order to determine if a new system can be developed. Contributions This thesis contributes a ne w direction of study in the development of green building assessment or rating systems. The body of knowledge regarding the topic was upgraded by attempting to create a LEED system that wa s based on The Natural Step. Adding a process section for the next update of LEED is also someth ing that has not been lo oked at before. Current trends in this area show that adding a process section may be beneficial to LEED as it would allow sustainable goals to be implemented in dail y activities. This thesis enabled a new line of research for future study.

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13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The topic of study required a solid understa nding of both the LEED rating system as well as The Natural Step. The amount of information re garding the two subjects was readily available, however there was very little rega rding the ability to incorporate to systems. Because there was a lack of information regarding this area the re search focused on three main issues. The focus centered on the history of sustaina bility, the current state of th e LEED rating system, and issues dealing with The Natural Step. Path Toward Sustainability The current trend of sustaina bility seems to be a social effect stemming from years of human pollution, and unethical environmental pract ices. While this may be partially true, a correct definition of the term is hard to determ ine. As sustainability has progressed through the years the definition seems to be harder and hard er to come by. The term originally came from environmentalists; it has since co me to encapsulate a much larger group of people and in fact future generations to come. The first true definition of sustainability comes from the Brundtland Report, a landmark document in the sustainable debate that took pl ace in 1987. According to the report Sustainable development is development that meets the ne eds of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED 1987). This definition clearly takes a step away from the green debate and look s at the problem as more generational, and long term. By taking an intergenerational stance this definition says use only what is necessary and avoid wasting resources that will pass along bigger problems to the future. In its simplicity this definition offers few limits and the ability for much interpretation. The message, in turn, may

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14 span from the individual living within its own m eans in its local community to the governmental activities that change the n eed of world resources. The Brundtland Report was followed by many new de finitions from different organizations that simply reworded and offered a more focuse d version of the term. Table 2-1 shows many of the definitions that have formed over the ye ars. The table includes information regarding objectives and problems with each definition. Wh ile there were many followers the definition from the Brundtland Report paved the way for the sustainable debate and opened the roadways for sustainable thought (Mawhinney 2002). Now that a definition has been established the next step can be taken in determining what sustainability truly is. The progres sion of the idea is important as this can be seen in the statement from Mawhinney (2002). It has been noted that the older, greener arguments, which saw sustainable development as concerned solely with environmental issu es, have now been replaced by rounder, fuller versions with consideration of social, economic and environmental aspects of life. From a political point of view this has been useful since it ha s allowed a wider audience to embrace sustainable development, beyond the earlier devotees who may have become viewed as radical and di sruptive (Mawhinney 2002). As the political climate regarding sustainability improved, and people began to accept the idea, a need arose as to what the best direction would be that would truly bring sustainability into our lives. In order for a truly sustainable culture to ev olve there needed to be a balance in the social, economic, and environmental areas of development. Beginnings of Sustainability The idea of sustainability has been around sin ce the 1970s when a group of scientists from MIT got together to model the major trends of global concern. In 1972 they developed the Limits to Growth and submitted the report to the Club of Rome (Turek 2006). The Report essentially stated, If the presen t growth trends in world populat ion, industrialization, pollution,

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15 food production, and resource depleti on continue unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime within the next one hundr ed years. The most probable result will be a rather sudden and uncontrollable decline in bot h population and industrial capacity. While this may seem like an extreme situation the group also offered that it is po ssible to alter these growth trends and to establish a condition of ecological and economic stability that is sustainable far into the future. The state of global equilibriu m could be designed so that the basic material needs of each person on earth are satisfied and each person has an equal opportunity to realize his individual human potential (Meadows, et al. 1972). Looking b ack at the report from present day it seems that the report overstated the pr oblems, and offered a much more pessimistic opinion on the actual problem. The year 1972 also gave way to the UN first international Conference on the Human Environment that brought together leaders from around the world to discuss the right of all humans to a hea lthy and productive environment (Turek 2006). It was not until the Brundtland Report in 1987 th at the term sustainability, or sustainable development, became commonplace. From this point on a seed was planted for anyone who felt the treatment of the environment was becomi ng a problem. It change d the attitude and atmosphere for future talks on sustainability a nd brought with it an increased awareness of the subject. There was still little done at this point to stop th e problem from getting worse (Mawhinney 2002). The report successfully changed the politic al spectrum for the implementation of sustainability; it also provided the basi s for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in 1992. During this meeting 178 countries met to develop a global consensus on measures needed to balance development pressures against an increasingly imperiled global environment. The most important thing to come from this conference was the

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16 creation of Agenda 21. Agenda 21 was, and still is, considered the most important agreement related to UNCED. It covers topics on virtually everything regarded impor tant for a sustainable future, ranging from agriculture to biodiversity to hazardous waste to eco-tourism (Turek 2006). Since the 1992 meeting and the creation of Age nda 21 there have been a number of other meetings leading up to the present day. Most have been to check on the status of Agenda 21, and develop better ways of implementation. Effects of Sustainability Today Kibert (2005) states that su stainable development is the foundational princi pal underlying various efforts to ensure a decent quality of life for future generations. This statement illustrates the responsibility of humans to pr otect the earth for the generations that we bring into the earth. The idea is that our children will have the same opportunities that we have had from the resource we call Earth. In order to fulfill this obligation it is important to understand the problems that humans currently face when addressing sustainability. In the article entitled Its the Architecture, Stupid! Mazria (2003) offers that the main problems are greenhouse gas emissions, a depend ence on fossil fuels, and a lack of energyefficient practices. He states that in order to solve the current problems what we need is a paradigm shift in the way we view our energy co nsumption in this countr y. Mazria feels that small remedies like more efficient cars, a nd more renewable energy sources are not enough. While each is necessary, they are only small parts of the puzzle. The biggest problem with unsustainable practi ces today is that we are focused on areas where nominal reductions in energy consumpti on and emissions can be achieved. If you take SUVs for example, a major area of concern fo r environmentalists, and replaced every SUV on the road with a hybrid car you would only see mini mal results. This is because every SUV, mini-

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17 van, and light-duty truck on the road today only acc ount for six and a half percent of the total U.S. energy consumed (Mazria 2003). Those who develop and promote the framework for environmental ini tiatives have boxed us into a narrow view of the problem, thereby limiting the scope of potential solutions. This is a major problem and it is difficult to become unstuck on a certain issue after resources have been poured into solving the problem. Th erefore it is important to l ook from the outside in when it comes to the large-scale problems that sustainability addresses (Mazria 2003). The Big Picture The best way to look at a larg e-scale problem is to break down the problem into smaller sections to analyze where the real problem exists. In order to do this with sustainability issues we would first need to look at the world as a whol e. Countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia for example are heavily involved sustainable practices As Americans we do not have control of the entire world so it would seem logi cal to look at the nation first. The U.S. is also a good candidate for this type of exercise because according to th e Union of Concerned Scientists (2005) the U.S. is the number one producer of carbon dioxide emission in the world. The next step would be to look at the indus tries that consume the most energy in the nation. According to Mazria (2003) this can be broken down into four areas: industry, transportation, residential, and commercial. This can be seen in Figure 2-1. Mazria breaks this down even further by combining the residential and commercial sectors to show a new picture seen in Figure 2-2. In the new picture, Archi tecture consumes approximately 48 percent of all the U.S. energy produced and is responsible for 46 percent of all U.S. carbon dioxide emissions annually. It is also the fastest growing energy-consuming and emissi ons sector as seen in Figure 2-3.

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18 Based on these figures it seems that a change in the buildings and ar chitecture would have the biggest impact on the U.S. Wh ile building codes are designed to set a minimum standard for the building we live and work in, they have actua lly had a minimal impact. In fact, U.S. energy consumption per square foot of building has be en increasing slightly since 1990, a testament to the fact that building codes have not been effective in stimul ating further reductions in the Architecture sector. So how can the problem of energy consumption be resolved? It would seem that the building design is the answer. Struct ures are designed to be isolated from the environment; they require an uninterrupted power supply in order to operate. Without this power supply they are unusab le (Mazria 2003). The current state of architectural education does not really take these issues into account. It is a profession that is constantly updating but, as Mazria (2003) states the architecture inherited from our predecessors is no longer valid toda y. The global problems we now face provide the basis for a new architecture and a dialogue with na ture that will give th is new architecture its uniqueness. From this point Mazria (2003) goes to lay out three steps that would allow for architecture to update itself with th e current needs of sustainability: Energy consumption reductions for governme nt owned buildings are implemented in 2004. Energy consumption reductions for a ll buildings are implemented by 2007. The 15 percent embodied energy reduction for all buildings is implemented over a fiveyear period, beginning in 2005. Obviously the dates have not been met, but the ideas may still useful. No matter when the program can be put in place the implications could be huge, see Figure 2-4. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design According to the United States Green Bu ilding Council (USGBC) (2003) building has a huge impact on the environment. The U.S. Depa rtment of Energy (DOE) has stated that the United States buildings consume over 30% of our total energy and 60% of our electricity

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19 annually. Five billion gallons of potable wate r are used to flush toilets daily. A typical commercial construction project produces up to 2.5 pounds of solid waste per square foot of floor space. These buildings are a major source of pollutants that cause air quality problems and contribute to climate change. Th e DOE states that buildings acc ount for 49% of sulfur dioxide emissions, and 10% of particulate emissions. Buildings also produce 35% of the countrys carbon dioxide emissions, a gas that directly relates to global warming. The USGBC (2003) states that by the year 2010, another 38 million bu ildings are expected to be built. By building green we can substantially reduc e the impacts of the building s ector on the environment. Green buildings also reduce operating costs, enhan ce building marketability, potentially increase occupant productivity, and crea te a sustainable community. The LEED Rating System The USGBC was a huge proponent of the green building movement. Through their best efforts they realized that in or der to make green building mainstr eam they needed an instrument to make green building more attractive. So they analyzed the current situation and saw where problems towards the movement existed. The problem they realized was that there was no way to determine if a building was in fact green or not The limits on how to determine the greenness of a building did not exist, and there was a definite need for a common standard. What they created was the LEED Rating System. The rating system was designed to help the industry grow and offer a new face to green building. It answered the demand for reliable information on the green building process. Based on a rating system a nd green checklist the LEED system began its development. The hopes of the program were to transform the design and construction of commercial buildings (Schendler 2005). The LEED Green Building Rating System provi des performance standards for certifying the design and construction phases of multiple building types. LEED for new construction is

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20 mainly geared towards commercial, institutional, and high-rise buildings. Credits in the rating system provide guidelines for the design and co nstruction phases of both public and private buildings. The intent of LEED for New Construction is to a ssist in the creation of high performance, healthy, durable, affordable and environmentally sound commercial and institutional buildings (USGBC 2006). LEED is broken into 69 credits that are distributed through si x areas. These six areas have been determined by the USGBC to be the most important areas of green construction. The areas are as follows: Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation in Design Each area contains a portion of the 69 credits including a series of pre-requisites for most categories. By attaining the pre-requisites the building may go on to achieve a level of certification. There are four levels of certifi cation a building may achieve and they are broken down as follows: Certified 26-32 points Silver 33-38 points Gold 39-51 points Platinum 52-69 points If a building achieves these levels of certifi cation the USGBC will r ecognize the building as certified with a formal letter of certifi cation ad a mountable plaque (USGBC 2006). In order to gain LEED certification a building mu st first apply for the process. To do this the team must first register w ith the USGBC. Fees for registra tion and certifica tion can be found in Table 2-2. By registering team members esta blish contact with the USGBC and gain access to

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21 online software, communications, and other info rmation. After registration is completed the design team should begin collecting submittal in formation and other required LEED information. Information can be submitted through the web in a two-phase application process. The first phase includes the information gathered in the design phase. The second phase includes information for all credits that could not be subm itted in the first phase. Once all the necessary information is received by the USGBC a review of the submitted material is performed. The project must satisfy all prerequisites and a mi nimum number of points for project rating. If a project does not meet the minimum number of cr edits needed for certification appeals may be filed with a f ee (USGBC 2006). LEED is a design process that should, reduce operating costs and po llution, help address global warming, improve marketability and durabilit y, preserve the ozone layer, protect occupant health, and improve worker productivity (Schendler 2005). Problems With LEED The intentions of the LEED syst em were to offer a way for developers to easily implement green strategies on new projects The system was to allow the creation of more efficient buildings, and reward the efforts socially as a LEED certified building. Somewhere along the way the process faltered. Sche ndler (2005) states that from 2000 to 2005 LEED certified fewer than 300 buildings, with over 2,000 registered but never reaching certifica tion. During that time another rating system certified over 20,000 ho mes. Under its own power LEED has become costly, slow, confusing, covered by a seemingly bureaucratic rule. These problems add difficulty to the green building process th at is difficult enough already. A number of major problems have surfaced through the LEED process. Testimonials and case studies were collected by Schendler and Udall (2005) stating five of the major issues current users of the system feel need to be taken into account:

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22 Problem 1: LEED Costs Too Much Problem 2: Focus on Points Rather than Sustainable Buildings Problem 3: Energy Modeling is Fiendishly Complicated Problem 4: Crippling Bureaucracy Problem 5: Overblown Claims of Gr een Building Benefits are Misleading These problems lead to a rating system that does not necessarily reflect a buildings greenness, and lead to industry professionals looking down on the LEED process. Possible Remedies Schendler (2005) comments that the most useful tools are the ones that are designed to be easy to use, while improving accuracy and produ ctivity. The LEED system at current is a difficult, timely process relyi ng on confusing modeling equipment. To make matters worse the review and credit interpretati ons are short, and offer little to no advice on correcting the problems. What is happening is that that the difficulty and cost of the process is making it more trouble than it is worth to become LEED certif ied. Even professionals that have already completed LEED projects and are familiar to the process find that the learning curve is nonexistent. It does not become easier from job to job. If this were the case then the initial costs of mastering the process would be worth it. Unfort unately this does not seem to be happening. In order to the make the process better Schendl er (2005) offers ways to improve the current process. One step would be to make more ke y points mandatory. This would reduce the alleged point mongering and allow the focus to be on a more efficient integrated design. The next change would be to simplify the energy modeling protoc ols. The modeling tools are extremely difficult to use and learn. This discourages developers to go after the ten most important credits of the entire rating system. The ten energy credits enco urage drastic reduction in building energy use,

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23 and can save the most money for the building owne r as well. Another change would be to reduce the amount of paper submissions, and encourage the reviewers to make onsite-rating decisions. This would personalize the process by allowing th e reviewers to experience the site and see for themselves what has actually been attempted. This allows the subjective opinion of the LEED expert to be added into the cr edit interpretation. While these are minor changes a major revamp of the whole system may be needed. The essence of the LEED system is being lost in the current process and until the correct changes can be made the LEED system will c ontinue to lose credibility among industry professionals. It was an innovation in the indus try and not all innovations succeed. The idea is great, but the execution has lacked thus far. The system is not a roadmap to the optimal costeffective, energy-efficient build ing, and it doesnt necessarily encourage integrated building design (Schendler 2005). Flaws and Needs of LEED The building sector uses 30% of total energy, and 60% of electricity annually. These facts give a clear understanding as to why it is importa nt to build sustainably, because buildings use the majority of energy in the United States. The LEED rating system was developed by the USGBC to offer a way to inform developers of the ability to build green. The system does this, each area is clearly delineated a nd broken down into a number of credits. What the USGBC did that was even more difficult was to create an aura of social responsibility around the LEED rating system. This enabled the system to b ecome commonplace in the industry. Developers wanted the LEED rating system because it made them appear caring, and responsible. It did not matter if developers actually cared that they we re building green or not, what was important was that they were doing it (USGBC 2006).

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24 The users of LEED are failing to achieve cert ification, and with the failed efforts come problems the users see in the system. These problems relate to the cost of the system, the need for a system that is integrated with the design of the building, the complexity of the calculations, the lack of support from the USGBC, and mislead ing claims of green building. The cost of the system is truly a hindrance to projects wishing to reach LEED on a limited budget. Although it does take time and money to review each project users feel that money spent on LEED can be spent better on additional green elem ents. This is leading to a breakdown in the desire to gain LEED certificati on. Prohibitive costs are somethi ng that cannot really be taken away, while users feel that it is taking away from gaining ce rtification, if the building was designed to be LEED from the very beginning the costs should have been factored in. If the costs are not a surprise then they shoul d not be a problem. Wh ile there are arguments for both sides the high costs can be directly related to the f eelings of lacking support from the USGBC. Applicants for LEED certification are given th e resources of the USGBC to finish their project and gain as many credits as possible. The resources they are offered are mainly webbased and in the form of credit books and past credit interpretations. Users are also offered two free credit interpretation request s. Any more over the allotted two cost the users for an interpretation that may not be applicable. Furthe rmore reviews of credits are often short and offer no way to remedy the failed attempt. Users feel that with the high cost of the program should come increased support and monitoring from the US GBC. The ability to talk to someone could be incredibly helpful in trying to fix inadequacies of failed credits. Each problem that users find can be related b ack to the fact that LEED does not offer an integrated design approach. It is simply a list of credits that the project will either reach or not. There is a desire for LEED to offer the ability for users to begin the de sign with LEED as an

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25 integral part of the process, not simply somethi ng that is in the back of everyones mind. This is the point where LEED needs to be restructured. The initial versions of LEED did there job in gaining market use and support. It is now time fo r LEED to move on to the next phase and allow users to complete truly sustaina ble buildings, not just those able to meet enough of the easiest credits. The Natural Step The Natural Step (TNS) was developed in 1989 by a Swedish oncologist named Karl Henrik Robert. Robert determined after working with cancer patients that it was the destruction of the human environment that was leading to terrible consequences for humankind (Kibert 1999). The extraction of resources such as fossil fuels and metal ores from the planets crust produces carcinogens and results in heavy meta ls entering the Earths surface biosphere. The abundance of chemically produced, synthetic subs tances that have no model in nature have similar deleterious effects of materials practices on our health (Kibert 2005). The beliefs and observations of Robert lead to the design of TNS, once formed TNS began as an organization that helps ot her organizations move toward su stainability. TNS allows people to focus on sustainability in a work setting and it is something that allows people to become easily involved in. It simply takes a commitme nt from the individual, but first from the organization to take on sustainable issues. The Natural Step enables organizations to incorporate sustainable practices into the organizations strategic planning. In order for TNS to work there need to be certain goals and objectives for organizations to reach. TN S does this through four main objectives:

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26 Eliminate our contribution to systematic increases in concentrations of substances from the earths crust. Eliminate our contributions to systematic in creases in concentrations of substances produced by society. Eliminate our contribution to systematic physical degradation of nature through overharvesting, introductions and other forms of modification. Meet human needs in our society and worldw ide, over and above all the substitution and dematerialization measures taken in meeting the first three objectives. By allowing organizations to try and meet these goals TNS gives committed organizations something that is achievable, and real. The four objectives relate to the Earths natural cycles, and the human societies impact on them. They a ttempt to create an integrated system where humans are a part of this na tural system, see Figure 2-5. The integrated system diagram offers a clea r visualization of the paths of nature and humans, and shows how the interac tion affects each part. By doing this individuals may begin to realize that there is a bigger picture involved in their daily ac tivities. The four objectives may allow these individuals to see that simply trying to fix the symptoms is not enough, in fact it may shift their focus to the underlyi ng social and environmental problem s that are really plaguing the Earth. This decreases the complexity of the probl em because attacking th e source is easier than simply cleaning up the damage that has already resulted. TNS is based on the quest for good health, we lfare and economic prosperity. As nature offers humans the ability to reach these goals it is unfortunate that we are destroying the very systems that we depend on. We are degrading na tures short and long-term productive capacity, and at the same time introducing more and more people that are dependent on the system. We use up renewable resources at a rate that nature does not have time to build new ones. It seems that we are moving into a funnel, seen in Figure 2-6. The funnel incl udes everyone, from small

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27 families to large corporations, and it demonstrates that we have less and less room to maneuver. The range that it affects is important because it has a direct bearing not only upon us as a society, but also upon the economy. This is why it is important to change not just the way we live our da ily lives, but also the way the country does business. Business owners need to still focus on their companys profitability, but not at the expense of a long-term potential disaster. While short-term losses may be perceived as a bad decision, or due to a circ umstance that was out of the companies hands. It may actually have been caused by an earlier in vestment that contri buted to ecological nonsustainable needs (TNS 2000). The Natural Step Framework The idea of TNS is something that must be implemented with a solid, proven system that organizations may easily incorporate into thei r daily routines. To do this a framework was established, TNS Framework offers a methodology for the organizational planning needed to fully implement the program. It enables an orga nization to integrate bus iness development with sustainability, a strategic appro ach that will benefit the inev itable reduction in supply from nature. Organizations can improve their future benefits based on changes in: Raw material costs Energy costs Cost of waste Environmental legislation Differentiated taxation Insurance premiums Credit ratings Customer needs Employee needs Brand value drivers TNS Framework has allowed organizations to re duce costs, improve quality and productivity, identified new customers and markets, a nd avoid future liabilities (TNS 2000).

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28 Backcasting Strategic Planning for the Future In order for TNS to function as planned the user must do some care ful planning as well. TNS refers to this method of planning as backca sting. Instead of looking at short-term issues and trying to accommodate the business based on thes e problems, TNS begins by determining what the business should look like in the future. The basis of backcasting is to focus on the causes of environmental and social problems rather than r eacting to the effects of them. The future result should be based on the four objectives of TNS, bu t each business will differ in that the objectives are formed to meet the indivi dual businesses needs. So once this future picture has been determined you must ask the question: What can we do today to reach that result? This allows your short-term strategy to align with your l ong-term vision. This is probably something many businesses feel they already do, but it is impor tant for organizations using TNS to understand that they cannot strategically pursue a future vi sion based on this framework without doing this. There is difficulty however in determining these future goals, or as TNS refers to them as system conditions. The main difficulty being th at even the scientific community cannot agree on the actual degree of the futures problems. Th e system conditions then should not be based on any one specific problem, rather upon basic co nditions that a sustaina ble society needs to operate. These basic needs allow users to backcast with confidence from a future sustainability perspective. This process in theory should take the basic system conditions combined with the backcasting method to create long-term flexibility with short-term profitability. By aligning organizations with these system conditions the complexity of in corporating numerous organizations becomes simplified. It would be near impossible to create a system that attempts give each and every organization a detailed view of what they should be doing. So TNS allows

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29 the organizations involved to make their own bu siness decisions but simply adds some defining principles to their overall vision. Steps of Using the Framework The idea behind TNS seems great but implemen ting it into a workplac e that has already established principles and workflows is anot her story. TNS Framework offers a method to do this and further as to how to incorporate the pr ograms ideals into the organization. This is done through a series of four steps the first being to find common ground. The second step asks the question: What does your organizat ion look like today? The third step builds off the second in that you ask the same question but based on a su stainable society, and th e final step is to prioritize and manage (TNS 2000). Finding Common Ground The U.S. offers a population with varyi ng ideals and opinions. The opinions for environmental controls are no different from a countrys varying opinion s on war, abortion, or the economy. The state of global warming has faced two varying opinions in the U.S. and the world. One group states that if so mething is not done soon the Ea rth could be facing devastating problems in the not to distant futu re. While the other side believes that it is simply the Earths cyclical patterns and that there is no apparent problem. Some have gone so far as to say much of the debate over global warming is predicated on fear, rather than sc ience." A comment from Senator Inhofe stirred much debate from the sc ientific community as he continued by calling the threat of global warming the "greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people (Mann, et al 2005). These differences of opinion on the national le vel are generally no different at the local work level either. So it is important to incor porate TNS with a top down approach. The owners of the company must buy into the principles of TNS first and show their commitment to the

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30 workers of the organization. There are likely to be some that do not buy into the program and that is fine, the key is to have a workforce that is dedi cated to the ideals of TNS. Once the workforce is ready to take on the id eals of the company the next step can be taken. The organization needs to create systems thinking to allow for an understanding of the goals and approach to the problems. The sy stems thinking should be based on the basic principles of the organization followed by the sm aller details. The details include issues like value judgments, priorities, design solutions, and behavioral changes that need to take place. These basic principles create ru les that the organization lives by, and govern how the system operates. These rules allow the individuals to be innovative as they determine the best way to operate under the system (TNS 2000). What Do Your Operations Look Like Today? Every organization today can be viewed as a box with inflows and outflows that are based on the organizations needs and supply. Nothing will disappear inside this box as everything that moves in must come out in one form or anothe r. So to answer this question the organization needs to map the critical flows and practices in regards to th e sustainable objectives of the organization. The box gives a visu al picture of how the raw mate rials and energy flow into the box, and then eventually come out in the form of products, services and waste. Figure 2-7 shows an interpretation of these energy flows. This question is not to be answered by the owners of the company, but rather by all the employees as well. This allows the workers to id entify the problems, and it also allows them to create, develop, and implement specific solutions By giving the employees ownership in the process, it creates a desire for each individual to follow the rules and solutions they create. The solutions should be based on the four sustainabil ity objectives of TNS. By taking the objectives into consideration the organization should be able to reduce the use of resources from the Earths

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31 crust, decrease the use of potentially toxic man-made substances, reduce the dependence on processes that degrade the Earths resources, an d reduce practices that lead to irresponsible treatment of humans impacted by the organization (TNS 2000). What Does Your Organization Look Like In A Sustainable Society? This question needs to be asked in order for th e organization to lift its vision and answer questions about the organization in a way that is free from precon ceptions of current reality. This may lead to a series of new questions based on th e role of the organizati on in a truly sustainable society. It is good for the individu als to determine what it is the company actually does. Not what they do on a daily basis, but what the company offers the outside society. The next step is to list every possible conn ection between the vision of the organization in a sustainable future, and the current state of the organization. The ne wly planned strategies should be based upon the four objectives of TNS. It is important to document each area that is addressed. This step of the process is imperative in that it is dependent on the second step and it directly correlates to th e final step (TNS 2000). Prioritization and Management This step determines how the organization ul timately moves towards sustainability. By using measures answered in the third step the organization can be gin to choose the measures that will help them move toward sustainability qui ckly and profitably. To do this the previous questions need to addressed based on the following three questions: Are we backcasting from our objectives when prioritizing this measure? Are we creating a flexible plat form for further improvements? Will the measure bring quick enough financial returns? By looking at these questions and determining whic h previous measures will provide the best fit the organization can begin developing a concre te strategy. This stra tegy will prioritize the

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32 previous measures to provide the most financia lly viable and sustainabl e goals, without losing flexibility in the market or future profitability. This process offers the possibility of long-term sustainable and financial success (TNS 2000). Combining The Natural Step with LEED The LEED system has been very successful in introducing the need for green building in the United States. Prior to its inception there was no real tool that coul d be used to inform developers of the need for green building. Ther e was scientific fact, but no one was able to develop a system that could be user friendly and informative at the same time. So when the USGBC developed LEED they knew that they need ed a system that would inform users of a wide range sustainable needs. They also did a good job of creating soci al awareness by adding the social benefit of obtaining LEED certification. As the system evolved users became more aware of the need for sustainability and be gan to realize that LEED had some serious shortcomings. These shortcomings included a la ck of quantifiable relationship between points and environmental impact, a one size fits al l design, and a lack of scientific backing (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006). What LEED attempts to do is bring together th e science of sustainabi lity and the needs of the market. The market aspect, however, dominat es and the science get much less emphasis. Zimmerman (2006) states that LEED has provide d three key requirements for organizational change: Provided a shared mental model of green building in the United States. Explicitly targeted a market to use the new techniques. Established a management structure a nd support system to expedite change. While LEED has established some good, concrete n eeds it has failed to inte grate the scientific approach that serves as eviden ce that the system is truly need ed. Opponents of the system have

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33 stated that there is a lack of credits dealing directly with prac tices that impact climate change and failure to address persistent organic pollutants. Others have argued that issues are weighted inequitably. Some believe that by focusing on im pacts, in effect rewards incremental solutions and does not adequately recognize major, step-c hange or paradigm-shifting advances. The system was designed to offer invest ors the ability to pick and choose what best fits their financial needs. The mix of credits gives that option but also leads to probl ems with the system (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006). The LEED system has created awareness of the needs for sustainability but has done so in a way that users tend to focus on the credits in dividually. LEED is structured primarily around environmental impacts, which tends to lead to end-of-pipe mindsets and incremental solutions. These incremental solutions move away from the purpose of sustainability and allow for essentially unsustainable green buildings. This pres ents a need to align LEED with a system that can pick up these shortcomings, without compromi sing its achieved success. The Natural Step is an approach that provides a well-regarded, scie ntific complement to add to LEED (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006). The Natural Step, as discussed earlier, is a sy stem that has been developed and reviewed by multiple scientists from around the world. What is interesting about the approach is that there has been remarkable agreement between these scientists on the tools for understanding and managing sustainability: A common physics-based defi nition of sustainability. Hierarchical principles to understand what is needed to plan and work towards sustainability. How a given framework fits with other frameworks. The common consensus of TNS enables the ability to take a system that multiple members of the scientific community agr ee upon, and confidently use the system to update LEED.

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34 Zimmerman (2006) believes that the work on TNS gives us two ways to inform the next generation of LEED. The first uses TNS as a filter to make sure the requirements of LEED align themselves with the overall needs of sustai nability. The second, as a way re-wording the language of the credits to ensure that users are delineating from the use of specific objectives, and rather viewing them as a whole process. In order to use TNS the creators developed a hierarchy of different system levels to incorporate into a complex system. These levels are based on the four system conditions of TNS previously discussed: 1. Principles for the constitution of the system. 2. Principles for a favorable outcome of planning within the system. 3. Principles for the process to reach this outcome. 4. Actions, or concrete measures th at comply with the principles. 5. Tools to monitor and audit the rele vance, and status of the system. When LEED is analyzed based on the hierarch y Zimmerman (2006) offers that levels two through five can be easily covered, see Figure 2-8. Because LEED can cover so many of the principles it makes it easier to understand how it gained so much success in the marketplace. Within one tool, sufficient definition of the impacts and rationale for appropriate action presented, along with practical actions that can be taken, that users can immediately understand how to move forward on their proj ects. Assessment is related to existing standards and guidelines, which reduces the learning curve, a nd the market recognition of graduated progress provides tangible incenti ves beyond the intrinsic satisfaction of doing the right thing (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006). While Figure 2-8 only analyzed how LEED works based on the hierarchy the next step is to inform LEED even further with the hierar chy. The hierarchy can better align LEED with sustainability by reviewing the existing credits, identifying the proposed system condition the credit should be aligned with, re-wording the in tents of each credit, f iltering the appropriate process for the completion of each credit, and finally ensuring that th e actions reflect the principles they are associated with. This can be seen more clearly in Figure 2-9. This process

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35 allows LEED to incorporate the scientific underpinning of TNS and ultimately achieve more credibility in the green buildi ng community. The shortcomings of LEED may disappear as TNS helps to satisfy the needed links between sustainability and building. Zimmerman (2006) goes on to offer an exampl e of the process by showing how the rewording of a credit incorporates TNS. The cr edit re-wording relates to energy & atmosphere credit 2 for renewable energy, and energy & at mosphere credit 6 for green power. More information on the credits can be seen in appe ndix A. The re-wording combines the two credits in a way that encourages whole systems thinking re lating to the process. The original wording is as follows: Energy &Atmosphere Credit 2 o Intent Encourage and recognize increasi ng levels of on-site renewable energy self-supply in order to redu ce environmental impacts asso ciated with fossil fuel energy use. o Requirements Supply at least 5% of th e buildings total energy use (expressed as a fraction of annual energy cost) thr ough the use of on-site renewable energy systems. Energy & Atmosphere Credit 6 o Intent Encourage the development and use of grid-source, renewable energy technologies on a net zero pollution basis. o Requirements Provide at least 50% of th e buildings electricity from renewable sources by engaging in at least a two-y ear renewable energy contract. Renewable sources are those that meet the Environment Canada Environmental Choice programs EcoLogo requirements for gr een power supplies (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006). This wording is straight forward, right to the poi nt, and states what is needed to achieve the credit without offering the whole system view th at the system should be attaining. The proposed re-wording incorporates this need by combining the two credits: Objective Eliminate humanitys contribution to systematic increases in concentration in the ecosphere of substances from the Earths Crust. Intent Increase the rate of substitution of fossil fuels by renewable energy from the lowest LCA source. Indicator Renewable energy supp ly, characterized by LCA impact

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36 Requirements Supply at least xx% of the bu ilding or projects to tal energy consumption with renewable energy, chosen from the alte rnative with lowest LCA impact of those available (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006). Zimmerman (2006) proposes that there are se veral advantages the new approach offers. The system: provides awareness and education on a deep level to the industry, allows solutions to move faster in the direction of problem solvi ng, takes a physics-based a pproach so that the end objective is more easily understandab le, offers a more integrated se t of credits and issues with a goal of satisfying the system conditions, can withst and criticism because science is more easily defendable. While there are alternative framew orks TNS seems to offer a subjective science based approach to an objective and somewhat qualitative LEED rating system (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006). Sustainable Paradigm Shift The current view of building t oday is a combination of owne r, architect, engineer, and builder. Each group has its own responsibilities a nd follows its respective directives toward a common end goal, which is the completion of the project. This is not uncommon to see in any industry be it auto manufactur ing, or toy making. Most people view the earth as a set of individual systems working inte rdependently, and the result of the systems is the environment that we live in. This view is essentially a fragme nted view of the earth an d its systems. There is a failure to see what is happening as one large single system. Although th is large system has individual parts each is wo rking in conjunction with the next to create the whole. Reed (2006) states the shift from a fragm ented worldview to a whole systems mental model is the significant leap our culture must make framing and understanding living system interrelationships in an integrated way. The livi ng system Reed speaks of is what humans fail to realize we are a part of. If we do realize we ar e a part of a living system then we fail to act

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37 accordingly. Even in the area of green building ar chitects address efficiency, yet they fail to act sustainably in the decisions they make. It is time to change ou r mental model to one that a) better reflects the new sciences understanding of how our universe actually works, and b) enables us to design, build, and heal with the whole system in mind a deeply integrated worldview (Reed 2006). Creating the Shift Reed (2006) explains that there are multiple wa ys to change systems. The ways that are currently being used to change these systems are in fact the mo st ineffective. In order to convince an investor today to us e his or her money for something that is more sustainable all you have to do is show the invest concrete eviden ce that it will make more money. Sustainable development is difficult to show concrete evidence because it is a fairly new process, and there is a level of risk associated that the investor may not want to ta ke on. It is perplexing that the essentially short term risk of investing in a new technology is more important to the investor than the long term risk of potentially dangerous cons equences. This is wher e the problem persists. The problem is that we are offe ring a way to change the system based on numbers that just are not there. There simply has not been enough ti me to see if it works, and according to Reed (2006) the use of numbers is the slowest way to change a system. Typical green building discussion begins and often ends with a discussion of costs and quantitative benefits of a green approach. The discussion is rarely about a new me ntal model, it is simply about addressing the status quo in a more efficient manner. So it seems that the fastest way towards a paradigm shift is by attempting to change the mental model of the society. If an investor truly belie ves that a sustainable development is the way to go then there will not be a discussion as to why it should be sustainable, but rather how to make it more sustainable.

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38 The sustainability movement to this point has been remarkably ineffective at sustaining the small victories it has achieved. It is sl ow, fragmented, and insufficient. Changing our current mental model is the only way we can achieve the permanent and continuously evolving change change to hi gher orders of thinking and unde rstanding, that is required to reverse the damage resulting from our old mental model and sustain sustainability (Reed 2006). The mental model is what binds the society in to a way of thinking. This way of thinking is currently going in the wrong direction. It will not be easy to cha nge either as it dates back to the beginnings of the industrial revo lution, and the dawning of capitalism. However the change is very necessary, and the mental model approach may be the best way to change the current paradigm of building towards sustainable building. Whole Systems Thinking The whole systems thinking approach is a way to teach or influence individuals to consider their actions based on th e greater good. Decisions in the bu ilding arena are often decided on by analyzing the best or cheapest way to complete a project. This is not sustainable thought and whole systems thinking is not bei ng considered. Reed (2006) states that sustainability is not a static condition that can be reached based on simp le guidelines. Rather it is a process that must be undertaken. It is also necessary to learn how to participate in partnershi p with the other systems of life in a mutually beneficial dance of rela tionship building. This means engaging in a continuous, intentional process of understanding how life works for the benefit of all its aspects, creatures, and elements, and how we can engage with this system in an ongoing, healthy, evolving process. Sustainability is a progression toward a functional awareness that all things are connecte d; that the systems commerce, building, society, geology, and nature are really one system of integrated relationships ; that these systems are coparticipants in the evol ution of life (Reed 2006). This statement shows that there is a larger pict ure than that of a simple money saving decision. Our decisions need to be based on a partnershi p of all aspects of lif e and move towards an integrated system of decision-making.

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39 The whole systems thinking realizes that everythi ng is interconnected, this is very different from most current thought processe s. Currently we focus on closed systems, this can be seen in the way projects are completed today. There is a total focus on the site work, then the foundation, then the structure, etc. The whole systems approach would have individuals constantly interacting with one anothe r in an effort to integrate the diffe rent systems in a unified process. Green building has not taken into account th is whole systems approach. There is more focus on the technical and economic systems wh en designing, constructing and managing our human habitats (Reed 2006). This is part of the reason that green building has yet to take off in the United States. Designers, and builders have ye t to come up with a way to truly integrate the design of buildings in a way that is sustainable. This happens because they are too focused on the bottom line or one particular aspect of the build ing and they cannot work together to create a truly sustainable building. When we begin to unde rstand that the purpose of sustainability is sustaining life enhancing conditions, and we can tr uly integrate our buildings to function in this manner then we will have reached a point of neutral sustainability. Figure 2-10 shows how sustainability is only a period of neutrality in the green building movement. Either side of neutral in the figure is still better than current practice but it is not until work on both sides of sustainabil ity is done that society can beco me environmentally neutral. The Whole Systems Process The concept of whole systems thinking is simple enough. Convince enough people that they need to consider more than themselves and their business in the decisions they make. Ultimately we will experience a society that has em braced the approach. This is easier said than done. We must first gather an understanding of the core values of each endeavor we consider. This process should be aligned with whole syst ems thinking. Once the core values have been derived we must carefully consider the envir onment that the project will be placed. Can we

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40 support the system and can the system support us ? This enables us to understand the living system of the area we are about to change, a nd incorporate the project accordingly (Reed 2006). The next major step in the process is to crea te a framework for the project design. This task is done to translate it in to a conceptual design and a set of de sign guidelines. This serves as the framework or container for decisions made in the subsequent stages design, selection of appropriate green materials a nd technologies, construction, oper ations, and long term operation and maintenance (Reed 2006). The conceptual design comes next in that the design team can build upon the values and knowledge of the area they are now working with. The team can now respond to real issues of the environment and aspirations of the people in relation to the opportuni ties and limits of the place. The team must realize that this is a regene rative process in that they must constantly be thinking about the prior steps or the process will be lost. The ir work demands a continuous balance between visionary ideas and day-to-day needs. The most successful projects were projects in which the client ha d already made the worldview leap or were working on their own personal development (Reed 2006). So it is im portant that not only the design and building teams are involved in this process but that the owne r is also vested in the process. The approach will not work without whole systems thinking from each team member. Once this process is near completion the team needs to identify indicators that will keep the process in line. Benchmarks can be used to measure levels of improvement needed for the project and they should follow the desired relationshi ps of the project. Monitoring the work is an essential element needed if the pr ocess is to evolve. This is a s upport structure that will lead to the development of conscious engagement and deeper relationships between people and place. As the project moves into the building phase continuous monitoring and measurement involves

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41 engaging the community as participants as th e place evolves. The team holds the long term aspirations for the project/community, and supports and facilitates the iter ative cycles of action, reflection, dialogue as a means of deepening place connections and growing understanding and mutual caring (Reed 2006).

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42 Table 2-1 Definitions of Sustainability (Mawhinney 2002) Definition Message General Objectives Difficulties Brundtland Intergenerational legacy Constant development Development on needs only with minimal damage basis How do you measure needs of the future? Does not address scale? National Strategies for Sustainable Development Socio-economic development Intergenerational legacy Similar to Brundtland but narrower base How do you measure needs of the future? UK Department of Environment, Transport and Regions Social progress, economic growth, environmental and resource protection Balance of interests Compromise and conflict who decides priorities? Giradet Citizen need and wellbeing Environmental protection Equity and avoid damage to others Who organizes the operating system? Wackernagel and Rees Equitable living Environmental Protection Acknowledge the limits of resources in equitable manner Who decides and who organizes? evidence base? Robert et al. Limits to natural resources Acknowledge the limits of resources What are the socioeconomic effects of this? Pearce et al. Equal access to resources across generations Acknowledge the limits of resources in equitable intergenerational manner Who decides and organizes? evidence base? Table 2-2 LEED Registration a nd Certification Fees (USGBC 2006) LEED Registration & Certification Fee Summary Registration Fees Charges Fixed Rate Members $450.00 Non-Members $600.00 Less than 50,000 sf 50,000-500,000 sf More than 500,000 sf Certification Fees Fixed Rate Based on sf Fixed Rate Design Review Members $1,250.00 $0.025/sf $12,500.00 Non-Members $1,500.00 $0.03/sf $15,000.00 Construction Review Members $500.00 $0.01/sf $5,000.00 Non-Members $750.00 $0.015/sf $7,500.00

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43 Figure 2-1 U.S. Energy Consumption by Sector Reprinted with permission from Edward Mazria. Mazaria, E. (2003) I ts the Architecture, Stupid! Solar Today, May-June, 48-51 http://www.mazria.com/ItsTh eArchitectureStupid.pdf April 2007 Figure 2-2 Energy Consumption with Building Sector as Architecture. Reprinted with permission from Edward Mazria. Mazaria, E. (2003) Its the Ar chitecture, Stupid! Solar Today, May-June, 48-51 http://www.mazria .com/ItsTheArchitectureStupid.pdf April 2007

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44 Figure 2-3 Carbon Dioxide Emi ssions by Sector. Reprinted with permission from Edward Mazria. Mazaria, E. (2003) I ts the Architecture, Stupid! Solar Today, May-June, 48-51 http://www.mazria.com/ItsTh eArchitectureStupid.pdf April 2007 Figure 2-4 Possible Energy Consumption Model. Reprinted with permission from Edward Mazria. Mazaria, E. (2003) I ts the Architecture, Stupid! Solar Today, May-June, 48-51 http://www.mazria.com/ItsTh eArchitectureStupid.pdf April 2007

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45 Figure 2-5 Integration of a Su stainable Society. Reprinted with permission from The Natural Step. TNS. (2002) The Natural Step Framework Guidebook The Natural Step, Ottawa, Ontario Figure 2-6 Funnel Towards a Sustainable Societ y. Reprinted with permission from The Natural Step. TNS. (2002) The Natural Step Framework Guidebook The Natural Step, Ottawa, Ontario

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46 Figure 2-7 Energy In to Energy Out. Reprinted with permission from The Natural Step. TNS. (2002) The Natural Step Framework Guidebook The Natural Step, Ottawa, Ontario Figure 2-8 LEED Analyzed with Planning Hier archy. Reprinted with permission from Alex Zimmerman. Zimmerman, A., Kibert, C. (2006) Informing LEED-NC 3.0 with The Natural Step US Green Building Council, Washington, D.C., 26 Dec. 2006

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47 Figure 2-9 Using Planning Hier archy to Inform LEED. Reprinted with permission from Alex Zimmerman. Zimmerman, A., Kibert, C. (2006) Informing LEED-NC 3.0 with The Natural Step US Green Building Council, Washington, D.C., 26 Dec. 2006

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48 Figure 2-10 Trajectory of Envi ronmentally Responsible Design. Reprinted with permission from Bill Reed. Reed, B. (2006) Shifting our Mental Model Sustainability to Regeneration Building Research & Information, April

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49 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The objective of this thesis is to analyze the ability to create LEED version 3 based on the framework of The Natural Step and its proce sses. The study provided information regarding these topics as related to the cons truction industry. At this point in time there is not a wealth of information regarding the creating of LEED vers ion 3, or regarding implementing The Natural Step into a separate certification system. The methodology developed for this research wi ll be based on the objective and hypothesis of the thesis. The objective of this thesis is to determine the possibility of using The Natural Step as a complement to the LEED rating system. The hypothesis for the project is that LEED rating system is too different from the structure of Th e Natural Step to integrate the systems. More specifically, the two systems will not incorporate into one another to form a better single system. In an attempt to combine the two systems thr ee steps will be used to develop the concept for a revised LEED building assessment system. The first step is to determine current trends in the industry regarding LEED, and The Natural Step. This determined the current state of the system and discovered the strengths and weakne sses of each system. This review enabled a concise analysis of each systems framework. This portion also determined which system to keep as the basis for the new system. The literature re view provided a basis for the foundation of this research. The second step will be to es tablish a framework that allo wed a way to approach each LEED credit similarly and use The Natural Step as the foundation for the credit. Creating a process flow to approach each credit established a path to incorporate important parts of each system. The parts to include were determined th rough the literature review, and the trends of industry professionals.

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50 The third step will be to develop a new sec tion for LEED based on processes. Research on the topics determined that The Natural Step includes processes that at this time do not fit into the LEED system. Because of this the process sec tion needed to be created, allowing important aspects of TNS to be include d into the LEED rating system. Assess The Current View of The Systems The current industry view of the systems is important to understand before moving into the analysis. A review of information on the topic wi ll be performed to establish a basis for the research. As this information is reviewed the focus is to find areas that work well for each system, as well as to find the ar eas that the industry feel are defi cient. This also allows for a thorough understanding of each system, a nece ssity for later phases of the analysis. Current information regarding these topics is readily available. The only area that does not have a large amount of information concerned updating of LEED, and in tegrating The Natural Step into a rating system. Establish a Method for Integration In order to integrate LEED and TNS a pro cedure will be developed to approach the problem. The LEED system was established as th e basis for the integration. Each credit was looked at individually to determin e its validity with TNS. As th is process began the important parts of each system had to be established. These parts can be seen more clearly in the results and analysis section. Research showed that LEED has established itself as a proven sy stem in the building industry. TNS also did this but on a much smaller s cale. Because of this th e larger LEED system will be kept as the basis for the changes. All ch anges made to the systems will be made to the LEED system. This is important because it keep s the market share that had been gained by LEED, and allows the system to change ba sed on perceived needs of the industry.

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51 TNS will be used to update LEED because the i nherent properties of its system push users towards a sustainable pathway. Once the role of TN S is established the parts of the system that would have the most impact on a system like LEED will be determined. This ultimately comes down to two separate areas, those that would inco rporate into the credits, and those that would incorporate into the LEED system. Each credit of LEED will then be approached us ing the four system conditions of TNS. It will be determined which conditions work best fo r the particular credit based on the purpose of the credit, and its ability to improve its sustai nable goals. As the goal of TNS is to achieve sustainability over a period of time certain credits w ill be changed into prerequisites. This will be done to increase the sustainable efforts of each LEED section, and allow the building to begin a sustainable path. New elements will also be added to the LEED credits. These elements, based on TNS, included enhanced monitoring a nd communication. As the credits are analyzed the needs for communication and monitoring will be established and added to th e credit. In order to enhance each LEED credit it will be determined if they will require monitoring. Advanced communication efforts require a qualified USGBC member to revi ew a communication plan for the project, and maintain a relationship with th e building team to offe r guidance throughout the process. As each section of LEED is analyzed a matrix showing the changes of each credit will be created. This matrix gives a clearer view to the trends and changes TNS requires. Develop a Process Section The addition of a process section will be in cluded in the LEED system. This section is important because it adds a new level to the LEED process. This level allows sustainable efforts they may not fit within the credits to be adde d into the system. This section will allow the

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52 processes that the industry feels are important to find a place in LEED. Th e process section also includes the needs of TNS that do not fit into the credits of the existing LEED system. These processes were based on observed needs of th e LEED system, and tes timonials regarding the advantages of using TNS. This section will be added as its own section separate from the credits of the LEED system. This section will be developed as a guide for us ers to establish the foundations of a sustainable organization and furthermor e a sustainable project.

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53 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Process Section There were elements of TNS that went a bove and beyond the ability of the LEED rating system. The format of LEED does not lend itself to easily be upgraded because it is based on credits. Because there was a need to incorporat e processes into the new version of LEED a new section was added. This new process section en ables LEED to be more than a one-dimensional rating system. It allows the system to incorporate process functions that are inherent in TNS, as well as other green systems. The monitoring aspects of TNS were extremely important to add into the new system. The essence of the monitoring system is based on th e fact that everyone in the organization has bought-in to the sustainable efforts and can discuss future processes based on this fact. In order for this to be added to LEED there was an a dded requirement for organizations working in the LEED building to buy-in to TNS system, or a similar updated system from the new LEED version. This may prove to be difficult as the pu rpose of some buildings is to fill occupancy. LEED buildings have statistically shown to have lower vacancy rates, due to increased health effects. This means that most organizations occupying LEED buildings may already have a vested interest in sustainabilit y, but now they will be required to incorporate them into their organization. Another area that was included into the process section deal t with whole systems thinking and integrated design. These two aspects of TN S were difficult to incorporate into the LEED rigid credit structure. These processes needed to be incorporated because they enhance the overall sustainable goals of the project. One of the more importa nt needs of LEED is to have a design team that has a strong understanding of the LEED system and will design the building to

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54 attain the most credits possible. This is ofte n not the case, and a project will find design team members not fully understanding the process and fail in a particular area that ends up affecting a number of the other credits. TNS calls for w hole systems thinking in that the process to sustainability requires an inte grated thought process that c onsiders each aspect of the organization from large to small decisions. Through whole systems thinking came integrated design. Research showed that integrated design was beneficial to the desi gn of green buildings. With integr ated design buildings could be designed with no LEED credits in mind and they at design completion they would already exceed the credit requirements of LEED. Not only does this design approach enable the achievement of LEED credits but it also pushes designers to enhance their design ideas, and moves towards new green technologies. Communication between parties is an essent ial part of integrated design. Separating systems into respective areas is a must for a qui ck design, but the communication efforts needed to be increased from each party. Requiring team members to have constant contact with the owner, architect, engineers and builders unde r the guidance of a USGBC appointed LEED member may allow for this to work. The number of meetings and time between meetings should be decided upon at the project conception a nd approved by the USGBC LEED team member. Forcing users to increase their communication require ments facilitates the flow of information to all parties. This requirement was included to ensure that LEED buildings are receiving the needed efforts of all parties working on the project. The process section was included as a separate prerequisite secti on to the LEED manual. These processes must be attempted and approve d by the USGBC in order for LEED to be an option. The inclusion of whole systems thinki ng, integrated design, increased communication,

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55 and a buy-in to TNS gives weight to the LEED certification. Requiring in terested parties to perform these measures increases the level of su stainable thought, and begins to change the way of thinking for this society. How TNS can affect LEED Because the system needed to retain the ma rket and users of past LEED versions the format stayed closer to the LEED system. To add TNS into this system rewording of objectives, credits, and prerequisites that follow the a pproach of TNS were included. Each area was rethought based on the four system conditions of TNS. This created wording that is less straightforward, but encourages a higher level of thought when trying to accomplish a credit. The thought process is based on envir onmental and social impacts that will occur after completion of the credit. Because of this increased consideratio n it was found useful to add weighting to certain credits, or make more prerequisites, for those cr edits that will have la rger impacts. The energy saving credits were especially important here While they do require difficult and expensive energy modeling sequences they are the mo st important credits that LEED has. This also brings up an important part of the new equation. By assigning a LEED team member from the USGBC the process could be guided by a hand that knows what works and what does not work. After all the USGBC is the one that approves and denies the credits. The addition of this member should provide a valuable asset to projects and add to the monitoring of job. These options are in no way a complete or de finitive way to update the new version of LEED. These recommendations are simply based on the research of the s ubjects. Each idea came directly from the process section, LEED, or TNS system and they are as follows:

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56 1. An end product that will be easy to use, sc ience-based, encourages whole systems thinking and integrative design, results in a subjective pr ocess where team member s are encouraged to think sustainably, and requires monitori ng throughout the lif e of the building. 2. Rewording of objectives, credits, and prereq uisites that follow the approach of TNS. 3. A requirement for organizations working in th e LEED building to buy-in to TNS system, or a similar updated system from the new LEED version. 4. Whole systems thinking in that the process to sustainability requires an integrated thought process that considers each aspect of the building and environment surrounding the building. 5. Require team members to have constant contac t with the owner, arch itect, engineers and builders under the guidance of a USGBC appointed LEED member. 6. Increased guidance from the USGBC with resp ect to the design for a sustainable LEED building. These suggestions are based on perceived pr oblems with the LEED system, and studies regarding TNS process. LEED Version 3: Incorporating The Natural Step In order to update the LEED credits based on TNS a clear understand ing of TNS must be achieved. The earlier suggestions ca nnot all be seen in the update and must be achieved through the leadership of the USGBC. The following at tempt only looked at suggestion one, two, four and six. Suggestions three, and fi ve were not placed into consid eration because they deal more with the processes of TNS, and they were addr esses in the process s ection. Each section was broken down into its credits and prerequisites in order to show a full update of the system. Credit updates include the new intents, and requirement s of the updated system. In addition the credit will include an objective designed to encourage whole systems thi nking about the current credit. Sustainable Sites Sustainable sites contain fourt een points, and one prerequisite The purpose of this section is to minimize the impact of construction on the surrounding environment during and after construction. The Natural Step can affect th is section through the s econd and third system

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57 condition. These conditions attempt to eliminate systematic increases in concentration of substances, and to eliminate physical degradatio n of nature through modification. It would also be of interest to monitor th e success of these cr edits after the comple tion of construction. Changes to requirements exist for credits 1, 4, 5, and 7. For credit 1 the wording of the requirement has changed to include a wider rang e of areas that cannot be developed. Credit 4 changes only for credit 4.4. The change incorporat es the need for less parking, and encourages the use of parking garages to minimize the am ount of newly developed parking. Credit 5 has changed in that a USGBC LEED member must check the site development plan prior to construction. There will also be periodic checks by this member to determine if the credit is being met. Credit 7 changes mainly for credit 7.2. This change increas es the amount of roof space to 100% except for permanent equipment. Credit 7, and credit 8 will also require periodic monitoring to determine if the credit is being followed after construction. The following updated credits can be seen in Table 4-1. SS Prerequisite 1: Construction Activity Pollution Prevention o Objective Eliminate systematic destruc tion of the Earth and local ecosystems by controlling site wo rk activities. o Intent Eliminate soil erosion, waterw ay sedimentation, and airborne dust generation during the co nstruction process. o Requirements The requirements will not substantially change for this credit, as they currently cover the needs of the credit. SS Credit 1: Site Selection o Objective Meet the needs of society by eliminating th e physical degradation of the natural environment. Encourage soci al well being by creating development in previously used areas. o Intent Eliminate development on s ites that contain undeveloped land. Responsibly develop so that environmental impacts are minimal.

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58 o Requirements Do not devel op in areas that will dest roy natural habitats or endanger the natural use of areas that are environmentally sensitive. These areas include: Prime farmland, undeveloped land lower than five feet above the 100year flood zone, land that is a habitat fo r an endangered species, land within 100 feet of wetlands, undeveloped land within 50 feet of any water bodi es, land that is public parkland. SS Credit 2: Development Density and Community Connectivity o Objective Meet the needs of society by eliminating th e physical degradation of the natural environment. Encourage soci al wellbeing by creating development in previously used areas. o Intent Encourage development in urba n areas with existing infrastructure. Eliminate degradation of existing natural areas. o Requirements The requirements for this credit will not change. They establish guidelines for developing in dense areas and encourage sustainable practices. SS Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment o Objective Meet the needs of society by eliminating th e physical degradation of the natural environment. Encourage soci al wellbeing by creating development in previously used areas. o Intent Reduce the physical degradation of nature by remediating previously contaminated site. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. SS Credit 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4: Alternative Transportation o Objective Reduce physical degrada tion of nature through the use of environmentally friendly transportation systems. Meet human needs by encouraging physical activity through alternative transportation methods. o Intent Eliminate physical degradation from pollution and development impacts through reduced automobile use. o Requirements 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3 No change needed. 4.4 Reduce impact of parking structures by providing minimum needed parking. Increase amount of preferred carpool parking, and encourage the use of public parking garages. SS Credit 5.1, 5.2: Site Development o Objective Eliminate increases in physic al degradation by using only parts of the site that are needed for development.

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59 o Intent Increase amount of undeveloped space for a project. Retain large amounts of unaltered open space. o Requirements 5.1 On undeveloped site determine needed space for construction operations and send site us e diagram to USGBC LEED member for approval or suggestion. Site will be monitored randomly throughout the project to determine if plan is being followed. On s ites brownfield site, improve the site to maximum amount of natural habitat. US GBC LEED member should check site remediation plan. 5.2 No change, ex cept USGBC LEED member should check that plan for open space requirement. LEED member may determine that more open space is required or that amount needed is unachievable. If unachievable the credit may be awarded at USGBCs discretion. SS Credit 6.1, 6.2: Stormwater Management o Objective Eliminate increases in concentr ations of water due to altered natural environment. Do not allow water runoff to pollute local ecosystems. o Intent Eliminate disruption of natu ral hydrology by causing minimal site disturbance, and managi ng stormwater runoff. o Requirements Current requirements provi de adequate measures for reducing stormwater runoff. SS Credit 7.1, 7.2: Heat Island Effect o Objective Eliminate the adverse treatment of the surrounding environment by new heat sources. o Intent Create measures that will reduce or eliminate the heat island effect caused by new construction. o Requirements 7.1 No change requir ed. 7.2 Increase percentages to a combination of 100% of the roof area, or 100% by use of a single method. Require monitoring throughout th e life of the building to determine if systems are functioning as designed. SS Credit 8: Light Pollution Reduction o Objective Eliminate increases in concen trations of light produced from the project site. o Intent Eliminate light trespass from th e building site, eliminate sky-glow to increase night sky access, improve nightti me visibility thr ough glare reduction, and eliminate development impact on nocturnal environments.

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60 o Requirements The current requirements are sufficient. They require simple calculations, and work to eliminate light pollution. Monitoring the site periodically would be beneficial. Water Efficiency This section includes five poi nts and no prerequisites. The focus is related to reducing water needed for landscaping, reducing wastewater and reducing overall water use. In order to properly implement TNS to this section a water use reduction cred it will be changed into a prerequisite. This will force design teams to in corporate whole systems thinking into the water systems. The percentage requirements of the othe r credits were increased to establish the need for better design. Changes to this s ection can be seen in Table 4-2. WE Prerequisite 1: Water Use Reduction 20% o Objective Eliminate contri bution to the physical degrad ation of natures fresh water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water. o Intent Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. o Requirements Change only the suppor t of USGBC in preparing a baseline model. Process should be simple, applicable to future projects, and easily learned. WE Credit 1: Water Use Reduction 40% o Objective Eliminate contri bution to the physical degrad ation of natures fresh water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water. o Intent Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. o Requirements Change only the suppor t of USGBC in preparing a baseline model. Process should be simple, applicable to future projects, and easily learned. WE Credit 2: Water Efficient Landscaping Reduce by 70% o Objective Eliminate contri bution to the physical degrad ation of natures fresh water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water. o Intent Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

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61 WE Credit 3: Water Efficient Landscaping No Potable Water or No Irrigation o Objective Eliminate contri bution to the physical degrad ation of natures fresh water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water. o Intent Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. WE Credit 4: Innovative Wa stewater Technologies o Objective Eliminate contri bution to the physical degrad ation of natures fresh water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water. o Intent Eliminate introduction of wastewat er into nature through procedures that may safely recharge natural water systems. o Requirements A combination of water reducing wastewater facilities and wastewater treatment must be used on site. Facilities must reduce needed wastewater by 50%. At least 70% of wastewater must be treated and reused or reintroduced on site. Current calculations are sufficient for determining reductions. Energy and Atmosphere This section contains seventeen points and thre e prerequisites. This section is arguably the most important section of the LEED rating sy stem. The first credit for optimizing energy performance needs be included as a prerequisite to a level. That credit is essentially the essence of LEED, and many users overlook its importance. By changing it to a prerequisite, users will be forced to design their buildings for optimal pe rformance. The new prerequisite for minimum energy performance gains two points. It is difficu lt to perform the ener gy modeling therefore two points will reward the users for meeting the re quirement. Prerequisite 1 also added the nonrequired credit for commissioning after the project has been completed. This prerequisite will require that a USGBC LEED member approve the commissi oning plan. The credits were combined because the need for monitoring is esse ntial to TNS and this credit captures the need for advanced monitoring of the building system s. Credit 1 has changed only in that the number of points has been reduced to nine. This is due to the increased re quirements for the third

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62 prerequisite. A USGBC LEED member will also be required to assist in the energy modeling procedure, and offer assistance when needed. Credit 2 has combined the credits for on-site renewable energy and green power. This was done to establish that alternate sources of energy are important to the building pr ocess. By combining the credits and offering two points for compliance the demand for this type of energy ma y increase. Changes can be seen in Table 4-3. EA Prerequisite 1: Buildi ng Commissioning and Monitoring o Objective Eliminate our contribution to systematic increases in concentrations of substances from the Earths crust. o Intent Provide sufficient documentation for the USGBC LEED member regarding the energy related systems. Do cumentation should include verification of system installation, calib ration, and that systems m eet owner requirements. o In addition require current LEED vers ion 2.2 EA credit 3 for enhanced commissioning be included as part of this prerequisite. o Requirements No change required. Excep t that a USGBC LEED member needs to be in communication regarding the commissioning and future commissioning procedures. EA Prerequisite 2: Fundamen tal Refrigerant Management o Objective Eliminate contributions to syst ematic increases in concentrations of substances produced by society into the atmosphere. o Intent Eliminate the use of ozone-dep leting materials that are potentially harmful to future generations. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. EA Prerequisite 3: Min imum Energy Performance o Objective Meet human needs in our society while reducing increases in concentrations from the Earths crust. o Intent Significantly reduce the amount of energy required for newly constructed buildings. o Requirements Meet current prerequisite. In addition gain one point from LEED version 2.2 EA credit one.

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63 EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance o Objective Meet human needs in our society while reducing increases in concentrations from the Earths crust. o Intent Significantly reduce the amount of energy required for newly constructed buildings. In addition achieve increasi ng levels of energy performance above a baseline building from prerequisite 3. o Requirements No change required. Ex cept for the introduction of a support system from the USGBC, or through US GBC LEED member for the use of the baseline building performance measures. EA Credit 2: On-Site Renewable Energy and Green Power o Objective Eliminate our contributions to increases in concentrations of substances taken from the Earths crust. o Intent Incorporate on-site renewabl e energy and/or green power into the buildings energy supply. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. EA Credit 3: Enhanced Refrigeration Management o Objective Eliminate contributions to syst ematic increases in concentrations of substances produced by society into the atmosphere. o Intent Eliminate the use of ozone-dep leting materials that are potentially harmful to future generations. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. EA Credit 4: Measurement and Verification o Objective Meet needs in our society by continually monitoring the systems that reduce the use of substances from the Earths crust o Intent Continually monitor buildin g systems to insure optimal energy performance. o Requirements No change required. Can gain two points for this credit instead of one.

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64 Materials and Resources This section contains thirteen points with a single prerequi site. The focus is on building reuse, waste management, using recycled conten t, and using locally harvested material. This section relates to eliminating increases in concentra tions from the earths crust. It also relates to the fourth system condition of TNS, meeting the needs of society over and above current measures. To make this section more in line with TNS an extra prerequisite will be added regarding construction waste management. This a ddition will ensure that builders are attempting to divert as much waste as possible. If they ar e required to divert some waste then the likelihood of diverting more is increased. The only othe r changes to this sect ion is requiring a USGBC LEED member to assist with cred its 2, 4, and 7. The assistance shoul d deal with the calculations for these credits and a list of possible resour ces the USGBC has acquired in a database for suppliers of these types of produc ts. This will enable users to identify multiple suppliers and find the best cost for the project. By establishing the database a higher demand may be associated with these types of products Table 4-4 shows the change s made to this section. MR Prerequisite 1: Storage and Collection of Recyclables o Objective Eliminate contribution to incr eases in concentrations of substances that are produced by society. Encourage recy cling techniques that divert flows of waste to landfill. o Intent Reduce amount of waste that is sent to landfill from construction site. o Requirements No change required. MR Prerequisite 2: Construction Waste Ma nagement Divert 35% from Disposal o Objective Eliminate systematic increas es in concentratio ns of substances produced by society by reintroducing us ed materials into processing flow. o Intent Encourage the diversion of construction waste from landfill by sending reusable material back into materials loop. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

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65 MR Credit 1: Construction Waste Manage ment Divert 65% from Disposal o Objective Eliminate systematic increas es in concentratio ns of substances produced by society by reintroducing us ed materials into processing flow. o Intent Encourage the diversion of construction waste from landfill by sending reusable material back into materials loop. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. MR Credit 2.1, 2.2, 2.3: Building Reuse Main tain 75%, 95% of Existing Walls, Floors, and Roof, 2.3 Maintain 50% of In terior Non-Structural Elements o Objective Eliminate contribution to incr eases in concentrations of substances produced by society. Use materials to thei r maximum life, and prevent them from becoming waste. o Intent Encourage the use of existing building materials to their full life expectancy. Conserve resources, retain cultural resources, reduce waste and reduce environmental impacts of new build ings as they relate to materials manufacturing and transport. o Requirements No change required, ex cept for the addition of guidance from USGBC LEED member. LEED member should promote conscious thought processes by offering suggestions towa rds saving building materials. Current calculations are simple a nd do not require change. MR Credit 3.1, 3.2: Material Reuse 5%, 10% o Objective Eliminate systematic increas es in concentratio ns of substances produced by society by reintroducing us ed materials into processing flow. o Intent Encourage the reuse of buildi ng materials to reduce need for virgin materials. This process reduces impacts related to extraction and processing of resources. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. MR Credit 4.1, 4.2: Recycled Content 10%, 20% (post-consumer + 1/2 pre-consumer) o Objective Eliminate systematic increas es in concentratio ns of substances produced by society by reintroducing us ed materials into processing flow. o Intent Encourage the development of recycled materials for building products. This reduces impacts of harvesting raw materials. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. The percentages should move up with future versions, as the demand for

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66 recyclable materials increases. The USGB C should provide a list of recyclable material producers. MR Credit 5.1, 5.2: Regional Materials 10%, 20% Extracted, Processed and Manufactured Regionally o Objective Meet human needs of our so ciety through the use of resources that have minimal impact on the increase of substances from the earths crust. o Intent Encourage the local developm ent of construction products through increased demand. This results in a str onger local economy and promotes social well being. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. MR Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials o Objective Meet human needs of our so ciety through the use of resources that have minimal impact on the increase of substances from the earths crust. o Intent Increase demand for products that are rapidly renewable. This reduces the need for materials that take long periods of time to develop, and increases social awareness. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. MR Credit 7: Certified Wood o Objective Meet human needs of our so ciety through the use of resources that have minimal impact on the increase of substances from the earths crust. o Intent Use only wood that has been re sponsibly harvested. Reduce impacts of strip clearing and other envir onmentally insensitive practices. o Requirements Current LEED requirements ar e sufficient, no change required. A list should be given by the USGBC regarding certified wood producers. Indoor Environmental Quality This section contains thirteen points, and one prerequisite. It is geared toward increased human comfort. It deals direc tly with the fourth system c ondition in going over and above normal needs of society. This secti on requires little change because it already does the best job of going over and above societal need s. There will however be an added prerequisite in the

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67 combination of credit 3.1 and 3.2 for Construction IAQ Management Plan. This will require the builders to act responsible in the installa tion of air delivery systems during and after construction. Other changes to this section involve a USGBC LEED member to be involved with credits 2, 4, 7, and prerequisite 3. This member w ill assist with all necessary calculations, and with suggestions for compliance. Credit 4 has been changed to include no use of hazardous chemicals within the building. Credit 7 has chan ged with the use of options for compliance. A clearer view of changes can be seen in Table 4-5. EQ Prerequisite 1: Mi nimum IAQ Performance o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Exceed societal needs for air quality by establishing minimum IAQ performance measures. These measures shall increase indoo r air quality, and provide better health measures for its occupants. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. Calculations are adequate. EQ Prerequisite 2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Ensure that occupants are no t exposed to dangerous tobacco smoke. Areas containing tobacco smoke should not be accessible to people simply passing by, this should be established by design and ventilation effectiveness. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. EQ Prerequisite 3: Construction IAQ Mana gement Plan During Construction/After Occupancy o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Eliminate indoor air quality probl ems by establishing a plan to minimize pollution of air distribution systems. This plan should exceed the current needs of society in an attempt to ensure the proper comfort and wellbeing of building users.

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68 o Requirements A combination of existing credit requirements for credit 3.1, and 3.2 shall be used for this prerequisi te. A USGBC LEED member should also check the air quality plan and suggest necessary changes. EQ Credit 1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Exceed current building requ irements by implementing a system to monitor the ventilation eff ectiveness of the building. System should monitor each area of the building and adjust to the ventilation needs to ensure building occupant comfort. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. EQ Credit 2: Increased Ventilation o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Exceed current societal n eeds by introducing outdoor air ventilation systems that will enhance comfort of building occupants. o Requirements Current LEED requirements ar e sufficient, no change required. A USGBC LEED member shall assist and ch eck the required calculations for this credit. EQ Credit 3.1, 3.2, 3.3: Low-Emitting Materials, 3.1 Adhesives and Sealants, 3.2 Paints and Coatings, 3.3 Carpet Systems o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Eliminate the use of indoor air contaminates that are harmful to the comfort and wellbeing of building occupants. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. EQ Credit 4: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Eliminate the introduction of hazardous pollutants to the building.

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69 o Requirements No change required. Excep t that hazardous cleaning supplies may no longer be used in the building. Monitoring by the USGBC should be scheduled to determine compliance with the credit. EQ Credit 5.1, 5.2: Controllability of Syst ems, 5.1 Lighting, 5.2 Thermal Comfort o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Meet the need of each building occupant to control lighting and thermal comfort. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. EQ Credit 6.1, 6.2: Thermal Comfort, 6.1 Design, 6.2 Verification o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Meet the needs of societ y by providing a comfortable thermal environment that will enhance the wellbeing of building occupants. o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. EQ Credit 7.1, 7.2: Daylight and Views, 7.1 Daylight 75% of Spaces, 7.2 Daylight 90% of Spaces o Objective Meet human needs of soci ety by going over and above the required contribution to human health needs. o Intent Go over and above the need of bu ilding occupants to ha ve outdoor views. Provide daylighting whenever possible. o Requirements Current option 1 requires no change, the calculat ion is simple and information easily accessible. If option 2 or 3 is used a USGBC LEED member should provide support for computer simula tion, and offer past records regarding indoor light measur ement techniques. Summary The changes made to LEED reflect the perceive d needs of the industry and the scientific underpinning of TNS. The addition of TNS created a new process section that will require users

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70 to take on the whole systems approach to design. TNS was also used to update each credit and prerequisite. Some credits were combined others were changed into prerequisites, while others were simply given more weight based on the difficu lty to achieve the credit or the impact that it has. Each credit and prerequisite was also enha nced with an objective. The objective was based on the four system conditions of TNS, and helped to add the science-based approach that LEED lacked. The changes reflected the framework of TNS and the result is an updated version of LEED that is science-based, more difficult to achieve, requires increased communication and monitoring, encourages integrated design, and u ltimately moves society towards a sustainable paradigm shift.

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71 Table 4-1 Changes to Sustainable Sites Table 4-2 Changes to Water Efficiency

PAGE 72

72 Table 4-3 Changes to Energy and Atmosphere Table 4-4 Changes to Materials and Resources

PAGE 73

73 Table 4-5 Changes to Indoor Environmental Quality

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74 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Updating LEED is something that will happen in the somewhat near future. Past updates have included relatively small changes to credit s. The most recent change coming in LEED version 2.2 was the addition of web-based credit s ubmission. This reduced a large percentage of the paper work required and offered an easy format for submitting documents to LEED. The question of updating LEED version 3 based on TNS is something that will most likely be highly debatable. Each update is supposed to follow th e general changes and ne eds of the market to keep a state of the art system in place for green building cer tification. Updating based on TNS may not hold that much water in the eyes of the USBGC. Although the updated version 3 is going to ha ppen, the question must be asked why should TNS be used? TNS offers an answer to many of the alleged problems with the current LEED system. It is pre-established and effective syst em that keeps organizations on a profitable and organized track towards sustainability. LEED is in need of an update that will shift the perception of LEED to something th at is an ongoing process, not simply for the construction of new buildings. TNS provides an excellent scientif ic justification for mo st LEED credits. It should also help to shift the para digm of sustainability in the U. S. to something that needs to happen in our everyday lives. Will an Update Based on TNS Work? In order for the update to work at least part of the recommended changes will need to be included. Changing the wording of credits, prere quisites, and objectives will be necessary and simple. It will only take an understanding of th e TNS system conditions, and an update based on that system. Whole systems thinki ng are another must if the upda te will really work. Somehow this process must be incorporat ed in the design of LEED buildi ngs. Without this the paradigm

PAGE 75

75 shift will inevitably not happen. This portion of the update establishes the importance of each system that is affected when we change the en vironment, and creates a new approach to thinking that many do not currently follow. Communication requirements are also a necessi ty for the update. While the green building process already requires intense communication between parties the guidance from the USGBC will be extremely helpful. Setting up a tentative plan for communication efforts will only help in the process, and the use of TNSs backcasting ca n also help to achieve this need. Adding a USGBC LEED team member may be prohibitive to the update. This is something that may not be totally feasible, as the costs for certificati on will certainly increase, and costs are already a concern for LEED. Buying into TNS will be another challenge for the update. This is actually quite important if the process is to really work. Requiring th e buy-in will only decrease the time required to cause a paradigm shift. Unfortunately this will be difficult to do, as case studies have shown when organizations buy-in to TNS system there is a number of employees that will quit or simply think the system is silly. Forcing ideals onto people that simply do not believe what your doing is right is no way to encourage change. Ho wever this will certainly be an advantage for sustainability by informing more people of its importance. The update will require lots of manpower and ti me to complete. It may be cost prohibitive and some of the elements may be difficult to in corporate. Ultimately, soci ety may not be ready to accept TNS into our current ideals. This is a direct effect of the United States lagging efforts to deal with environmental degrad ation, and to make the sustai nable ideals important. There are still many areas of our society that believe there is no problem with the environment, and that the cyclical nature of the Earth will eventually heal itself.

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76 Science has proved that this is simply not the case. Past forecasts by scientists have definitely overblown the affect s of poor environmental practic es, and they are very well overblown now. The claims are not misguided however and there is a need for change now before it is too late to change our societal vi ews. The inability of th e government to accept this stance is harmful to the planet and the nature of our society. This may in fact reduce the impact of the update, and further reduce the use of LEED. The update will surely be viewed as positive with in the target market of the USGBC, but is this enough of the market to make LEED a bigge r success? It may be too difficult for a full integration of TNS into LEED to really be eff ective. Perhaps the LEED version 3 simply needs to incorporate part of the system, and more in a future update. It is no t possible to know if the update will be a success, but the need is evident. Recommendations for Future Study The research for this study was based sole ly on printed articles, books, and case studies regarding the topics intended. Fu ture work may include interviews with established industry professionals to gauge the curr ent need for change and possibility of using TNS for a LEED update. This would give a deeper understanding of the needs with in the industry and not simply from published articles. Another possibility would be to compare the use of TNS and other sustainable guidelines. TNS has many resources that would be an advant age to LEED, other guidelines are sure to have positive attributes that may fit into LEED better. A table showing the advantages and disadvantages of each system may be beneficial in looking for a genera l direction that these guidelines follow. It may be easier to incorporat e ideals that many guidelines share than singling out one system.

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77 If research was to be held off for some time another study could be done after LEED version 3 came out. This would allow the researcher to see the direction the USGBC has taken to gain a better understanding of what they feel is important. If any of the changes made were similar to suggested changes in this thesis, then a more in de pth study of TNS could be taken. The success or failure of LEED in the near futu re is also something that should be taken into account. A study into LEED could be taken to see trends in the changes made as compared to the market that is being targeted by the US GBC. The size of the target market will offer the direction the USGBC is taking at each period studied, and will sure ly correlate to the emerging trends in LEED. Another possibility would be to analyze the proposed process section of this research. There are many processes that could be added to the LEED system that would prove beneficial to the overall design and efficiency of a LEED project Identifying possible proc esses that could be added, and more in depth research into a process section could be very be neficial to the industry.

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78 APPENDIX LEED VERSION 2.2 CHECKLIST Figure A-1 LEED-NC Version 2.2 Checklist: Sustai nable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and Atmosphere. Reprinted with permi ssion from USGBC. USGBC. (2006) LEED-NC Version 2.2 Reference Guide, US Green Building Council, Washington, DC.

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79 Figure A-2 LEED Version 2.2 Checklist: Mate rials and Resources, Indoor Environmental Quality, Innovation and Design Process. Re printed with permission from USGBC. USGBC. (2006) LEED-NC Version 2.2 Reference Guide, US Green Building Council, Washington, DC.

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80 LIST OF REFERENCES Kibert, C. (1999) Reshaping the Built Environment Island Press, Washington D.C. Kibert, C. (2005) Sustainable Construction, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ Mann, M., Rahmstorf, S., Schmidt, G., Steig, E., Connolley, W. (2005) Senator Inhofe on Climate Change Real Climate, 10 Jan. 2005. http://www.realclimate.org/index.php?p=97 April 2007 Mawhinney, M. (2002) Sustainable Development Understanding the Green Debates Blackwell Publishing, Oxford Mazaria, E. (2003) Its the Architecture, Stupid! Solar Today, May-June, 48-51 http://www.mazria.com/ItsTheArc hitectureStupid.pdf April 2007 Meadows, D.H., Randers, J., Meadows, D. (1974) The Limits to Growth, Universe Books, New York Reed, B. (2006) Shifting our Mental M odel Sustainability to Regeneration Building Research & Information, April Schendler, A., and Udall, R. LEED is Broken; Lets Fix It Construction Record 126, 910-924 TNS. (2002) The Natural Step Framework Guidebook The Natural Step, Ottawa, Ontario Turek, J. (2005) A History of Sustainability Center for Applied Policy Research April 5 http://www.cap-lmu.de/fgz/portals/s ustainability/history.php April 2007 USGBC. (2006) LEED-NC Version 2.2 Reference Guide, US Green Building Council, Washington, DC. World Council on Economic Development (WCED). (1987) Our Common Future, Oxford, USA Zimmerman, A., Kibert, C. (2006) Informing LEED-NC 3.0 with The Natural Step US Green Building Council, Washington, D.C., 26 Dec. 2006

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81 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kyle Robert Galligar was born in Tampa, Florida on October 11th 1982. He was raised in Jacksonville, Florida where he a ttended Stanton College Prepar atory High School. During this time he played varsity football, soccer, and ra n track. After graduating from high school in 2001 Kyle attended Florida State University, where he earned a Bachelor of Sc ience in real estate. While attending FSU Kyle began taking classes at the Florida A&M University School of Architecture. Soon after Kyle was accepted into the University of Florida Master of Architecture program. During his visit to the school he lear ned of the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction, and was soon accepted to the Master of Science in Building Construction pzrogram. Kyle has since completed the course work for a Master of Science in Building Construction, with a concentra tion in sustainability. Kyle ha s also become a LEED Accredited Professional.


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DEVELOPING LEED VERSION 3 BASED ON THE NATURAL STEP AND PROCESS
CHANGES




















By

KYLE GALLIGAR


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007


































2007 Kyle Galligar


































To everyone who contributed to my continued education, and helped in shaping my decisions
along the way.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would first like to thank my professors and committee members for making this thesis

possible, as well as giving me the opportunity to continue my education. I would then like to

give thanks to my parents for continually supporting my decisions no matter how often they

changed. I thank my brother and sisters for encouraging me to succeed throughout my life. I

would also like to thank everyone that helped shape my mind and thoughts while growing up. It

has finally paid off, and I would not be at this place without you.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IST O F T A B L E S ..................................................................................................... . 7

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .8

A B S T R A C T ............ ................... .................. .......................... ................ .. 9

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... .............................. 10

Problem Statem ent ............................................................... .... ..... ........ 10
Research Objectives .................................................................... ............... 11
L im itatio n s ................... .......................................................... ................ 12
C contribution s ................................................................................12

2 L IT E R A TU R E R E V IE W ......................................................................... ........................ 13

P ath T ow ard Su stainability .......................................................................... ......... ............ 13
B beginnings of Su stainability ............................................................... ... .................. 14
Effects of Sustainability Today ............................................... ............................ 16
T h e B ig P ictu re ........................................................ ............ ................. 17
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design.............................................................. 18
T he L E E D R eating Sy stem ....................................................................... ..................19
Problem s W ith LEED .................. ................................. ....... .. ............ 21
Possible R em edies ................................................... ............ ........... 22
F law s and N eeds of L E E D .................................................................. ... ................... 23
The Natural Step ..................................................................... ........ 25
The Natural Step Framework ...................... ................................ 27
Backcasting Strategic Planning for the Future .................................. ............... 28
Steps of Using the Framework ....................................................29
Finding C om m on G round................................................................ ................... 29
W hat Do Your Operations Look Like Today? .................... .............................. .... 30
What Does Your Organization Look Like In A Sustainable Society?..........................31
Prioritization and M anagem ent ............................................... ............................ 31
Combining The Natural Step with LEED.................................. .......................... 32
Su stainable P aradigm Shift........................................................................... .................... 36
Creating the Shift............. ... .. .................................. 37
W hole Sy stem s T thinking ........................................................................ .................. 38
T he W hole Sy stem s P rocess......................................... .............................................39









3 METHODOLOGY ............................. ...................... ........49

A ssess The Current View of The System s ........................................ ........................ 50
E establish a M ethod for Integration .............................................................. .....................50
D ev elop a P process Section .......................................................................................... 5 1

4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS.. ....................................................................... ...............53

P ro c e ss S e ctio n ................................................................................................................. 5 3
H ow TN S can affect LEED .......................................................... ............... ............... 55
LEED Version 3: Incorporating The Natural Step ...................................... ............... 56
Sustainable Sites ...................................................................... ........ 56
W after Efficiency ............... .............................. ....................... ... 60
E energy and A tm sphere ......................................................................... ................... 6 1
M materials and R esources......................................................... ..... ..........64
Indoor Environm ental Quality ............................................................ ............... 66
S u m m ary ................... ...................6...................9..........

5 CON CLU SION .......... ....................................................... ...... ............ ... 74

W ill an Update Based on TN S W ork?..................................................... ...................74
R ecom m endations for Future Study ............................................... ............................ 76

APPENDIX

A LEED VERSION 2.2 CHECKLIST...................... ....... ............................ 78

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ...................................................................................... ...................80

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .............................................................................. .....................81






















6









LIST OF TABLES

Table page

2-1 D definitions of Sustainability ........................................... .................. ............... 42

2-2 LEED Registration and Certification Fees ............................................. ............... 42

4-1 C changes to Su stainable Sites ..................................................................... ..................7 1

4-2 Changes to W after Efficiency ................................................. ................................ 71

4-3 Changes to Energy and A tm osphere...................................................................... ...... 72

4-4 Changes to M materials and Resources ........................................... .......................... 72

4-5 Changes to Indoor Environmental Quality ............................................. ............... 73









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 U .S. Energy Consum ption by Sector......... ............... .............................. ............... 43

2-2 Energy Consumption with Building Sector as Architecture........... ....... ............ 43

2-3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector ..................... .............................. 44

2-4 Possible Energy Consumption Model................ ....................................... 44

2-5 Integration of a Sustainable Society ............................................................................ 45

2-6 Funnel Tow ards a Sustainable Society ........................................ ......................... 45

2-7 E energy In to E energy O ut ............................ ........................................ ............................46

2-8 LEED Analyzed with Planning Hierarchy................................... .......................... 46

2-9 Using Planning Hierarchy to Inform LEED ........................................... ............... 47

2-10 Trajectory of Environmentally Responsible Design................... ........... ............... 48

A-i LEED-NC Version 2.2 Checklist: Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and
A tm o sph ere ................................ ......... ................................................7 8

A-2 LEED Version 2.2 Checklist: Materials and Resources, Indoor Environmental
Quality, Innovation and D esign Process......... ............ .......................... ............... 79









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

DEVELOPING LEED VERSION 3 BASED ON THE NATURAL STEP AND PROCESS
CHANGES

By

Kyle Galligar

May 2007

Chair: Charles Kibert
Cochair: Kevin Grosskopf
Major: Building Construction

The LEED rating system is a green checklist that gives users the ability to certify their

buildings. This system has faced scrutiny due to problems that are inherent in its format and

underlying goals. While the system is currently lacking an introduction to The Natural Step may

help LEED straighten out some of its issues. The Natural Step is a social framework that allows

individuals, organizations, businesses, and governments to practice sustainability. While The

Natural Step is not a rating system it maintains some of the principles LEED users feel they do

not receive. LEED will be examined in an attempt to create a new version that is based on The

Natural Step. To accomplish this goal a procedure to examine each LEED credit and incorporate

the principles of The Natural Step will be created. The results show that LEED needs extensive

changes in the wording of credits, prerequisites, and the addition of a new process section.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is a process that allocates

credits toward the certification of a building. Once the building has achieved a number of these

credits, the building becomes certified on one of four levels. The LEED rating system is

imperfect however, and opponents to the system feel that owners in an attempt to satisfy credits

lose track of the underlying theme of LEED. The theme of LEED is to use the environment only

to our needed capacity so that future generations have the same benefits that we had.

The Natural Step is a process that guides people, businesses, communities, and

governments onto an ecologically, socially and economically sustainable path. It is a program

that is not based on credits, but more on the overall path of your decision making process. The

Natural Step looks at strategic management, corporate social responsibility, sustainability

analysis, product and service analysis, integration of management systems, networking with

other organizations, design for the development of sustainable products, creating order,

enhancing communication, supply/value chain, training, and continual learning. It is more of a

way of life than a rating system, to enhance and encourage the use of sustainable practices.

With this in mind, the researcher will attempt to look into the underlying themes of The

Natural Step, and see if a more comprehensive version of LEED can be developed. One that does

not see owners chasing after single credits, but one that allows the owner to incorporate

sustainable practices into the lives of its workforce.

Problem Statement

The problem addressed includes the growing issues related to the LEED rating system, and

its inability to promote integrated design for green buildings. The rating system allows

developers the advantage of gaining the social attributes of LEED without actually designing









buildings that save that much energy. The system currently allows for the collection of credits in

a way that no energy saving systems can be involved and a building can still achieve LEED

certification. Because of this the system is currently losing credibility. In order to maintain its

place in the market the system needs a proven underpinning, and in order to do this the problems

with the system need to be established.

The problem was the ability to incorporate The Natural Step into the rating system. While

it may be possible to do this, it is important to ask if it is even a good idea? The Natural Step is

more of a framework, whereas LEED is a certification system. The two differ completely in their

design, thus it may not even be possible to incorporate the two. Ultimately the problem is to

incorporate The Natural Step into the LEED rating system to create a better green rating system.

Research Objectives

The purpose of this study was to see if there is a way to improve the LEED rating system

with The Natural Step. By researching the topics insight into the advantages, disadvantages,

benefits, and needs of each system were analyzed in order to determine a possible path to take.

This path would ultimately lead to a seamless incorporation of the two topics, or show the need

for overhauls of one or both of the systems.

When addressing the problem it was important to ask: Can these two systems be used

concurrently to develop a better system for green building rating? It is also important to

determine what would make a system better. The two systems alone both seem to serve their

purpose but with flaws. The research was conducted in order to better understand the intricacies

of each system, and to determine if there is a better way to reach the goals of each system.

The hypothesis for the research is that the LEED system is too different from TNS. Trying

to integrate the systems will not work with the current industry, and forming a better green rating

system will have to be done with only one of these systems, or a combination of other systems.









Limitations

The subject matter is fairly new as a researchable topic; therefore limitations are inherent

in the process. There is little information regarding the incorporation of green building systems,

and this may prove to be a problem in the research of the topic. Due to the limited amount of

information there may also be a lack of truly objective information on the subject matter. This

may require a subjective view on the information being gathered in order to determine if a new

system can be developed.

Contributions

This thesis contributes a new direction of study in the development of green building

assessment or rating systems. The body of knowledge regarding the topic was upgraded by

attempting to create a LEED system that was based on The Natural Step. Adding a process

section for the next update of LEED is also something that has not been looked at before. Current

trends in this area show that adding a process section may be beneficial to LEED as it would

allow sustainable goals to be implemented in daily activities. This thesis enabled a new line of

research for future study.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The topic of study required a solid understanding of both the LEED rating system as well

as The Natural Step. The amount of information regarding the two subjects was readily available,

however there was very little regarding the ability to incorporate to systems. Because there was a

lack of information regarding this area the research focused on three main issues. The focus

centered on the history of sustainability, the current state of the LEED rating system, and issues

dealing with The Natural Step.

Path Toward Sustainability

The current trend of sustainability seems to be a social effect stemming from years of

human pollution, and unethical environmental practices. While this may be partially true, a

correct definition of the term is hard to determine. As sustainability has progressed through the

years the definition seems to be harder and harder to come by. The term originally came from

environmentalists; it has since come to encapsulate a much larger group of people and in fact

future generations to come.

The first true definition of sustainability comes from the Brundtland Report, a landmark

document in the sustainable debate that took place in 1987. According to the report "Sustainable

development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the

ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (WCED 1987). This definition clearly

takes a step away from the green debate and looks at the problem as more generational, and long

term. By taking an intergenerational stance this definition says use only what is necessary and

avoid wasting resources that will pass along bigger problems to the future. In its simplicity this

definition offers few limits and the ability for much interpretation. The message, in turn, may









span from the individual living within its own means in its local community to the governmental

activities that change the need of world resources.

The Brundtland Report was followed by many new definitions from different organizations

that simply reworded and offered a more focused version of the term. Table 2-1 shows many of

the definitions that have formed over the years. The table includes information regarding

objectives and problems with each definition. While there were many followers the definition

from the Brundtland Report paved the way for the sustainable debate and opened the roadways

for sustainable thought (Mawhinney 2002).

Now that a definition has been established the next step can be taken in determining what

sustainability truly is. The progression of the idea is important as this can be seen in the

statement from Mawhinney (2002).

"It has been noted that the older, greener arguments, which saw sustainable development
as concerned solely with environmental issues, have now been replaced by rounder, fuller
versions with consideration of social, economic, and environmental aspects of life. From a
political point of view this has been useful since it has allowed a wider audience to
embrace sustainable development, beyond the earlier devotees who may have become
viewed as radical and disruptive" (Mawhinney 2002).

As the political climate regarding sustainability improved, and people began to accept the idea, a

need arose as to what the best direction would be that would truly bring sustainability into our

lives. In order for a truly sustainable culture to evolve there needed to be a balance in the social,

economic, and environmental areas of development.

Beginnings of Sustainability

The idea of sustainability has been around since the 1970's when a group of scientists from

MIT got together to model the major trends of global concern. In 1972 they developed the

"Limits to Growth" and submitted the report to the Club of Rome (Turek 2006). The Report

essentially stated, "If the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution,









food production, and resource depletion continue unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet

will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. The most probable result will be a

rather sudden and uncontrollable decline in both population and industrial capacity." While this

may seem like an extreme situation the group also offered that "it is possible to alter these

growth trends and to establish a condition of ecological and economic stability that is sustainable

far into the future. The state of global equilibrium could be designed so that the basic material

needs of each person on earth are satisfied and each person has an equal opportunity to realize

his individual human potential" (Meadows, et al. 1972). Looking back at the report from present

day it seems that the report overstated the problems, and offered a much more pessimistic

opinion on the actual problem. The year 1972 also gave way to the UN first international

Conference on the Human Environment that brought together leaders from around the world to

discuss "the right of all humans to a healthy and productive environment" (Turek 2006).

It was not until the Brundtland Report in 1987 that the term sustainability, or sustainable

development, became commonplace. From this point on a seed was planted for anyone who felt

the treatment of the environment was becoming a problem. It changed the attitude and

atmosphere for future talks on sustainability and brought with it an increased awareness of the

subject. There was still little done at this point to stop the problem from getting worse

(Mawhinney 2002).

The report successfully changed the political spectrum for the implementation of

sustainability; it also provided the basis for the UN Conference on Environment and

Development (UNCED) held in 1992. During this meeting 178 countries met "to develop a

global consensus on measures needed to balance development pressures against an increasingly

imperiled global environment." The most important thing to come from this conference was the









creation of Agenda 21. Agenda 21 was, and still is, considered "the most important agreement

related to UNCED. It covers topics on virtually everything regarded important for a sustainable

future, ranging from agriculture to biodiversity to hazardous waste to eco-tourism (Turek 2006).

Since the 1992 meeting and the creation of Agenda 21 there have been a number of other

meetings leading up to the present day. Most have been to check on the status of Agenda 21, and

develop better ways of implementation.

Effects of Sustainability Today

Kibert (2005) states that sustainable development is the foundational principal underlying

various efforts to ensure a decent quality of life for future generations. This statement illustrates

the responsibility of humans to protect the earth for the generations that we bring into the earth.

The idea is that our children will have the same opportunities that we have had from the resource

we call Earth. In order to fulfill this obligation it is important to understand the problems that

humans currently face when addressing sustainability.

In the article entitled "It's the Architecture, Stupid!" Mazria (2003) offers that the main

problems are greenhouse gas emissions, a dependence on fossil fuels, and a lack of energy-

efficient practices. He states that in order to solve the current problems "what we need is a

paradigm shift in the way we view our energy consumption in this country." Mazria feels that

small remedies like more efficient cars, and more renewable energy sources are not enough.

While each is necessary, they are only small parts of the puzzle.

The biggest problem with unsustainable practices today is that we are focused on areas

where nominal reductions in energy consumption and emissions can be achieved. If you take

SUVs for example, a major area of concern for environmentalists, and replaced every SUV on

the road with a hybrid car you would only see minimal results. This is because every SUV, mini-









van, and light-duty truck on the road today only account for six and a half percent of the total

U.S. energy consumed (Mazria 2003).

"Those who develop and promote the framework for environmental initiatives have boxed

us into a narrow view of the problem, thereby limiting the scope of potential solutions." This is a

major problem and it is difficult to become unstuck on a certain issue after resources have been

poured into solving the problem. Therefore it is important to look from the outside in when it

comes to the large-scale problems that sustainability addresses (Mazria 2003).

The Big Picture

The best way to look at a large-scale problem is to break down the problem into smaller

sections to analyze where the real problem exists. In order to do this with sustainability issues we

would first need to look at the world as a whole. Countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia for

example are heavily involved sustainable practices. As Americans we do not have control of the

entire world so it would seem logical to look at the nation first. The U.S. is also a good candidate

for this type of exercise because according to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2005) the U.S.

is the number one producer of carbon dioxide emission in the world.

The next step would be to look at the industries that consume the most energy in the

nation. According to Mazria (2003) this can be broken down into four areas: industry,

transportation, residential, and commercial. This can be seen in Figure 2-1. Mazria breaks this

down even further by combining the residential and commercial sectors to show a new picture

seen in Figure 2-2. In the new picture, "Architecture consumes approximately 48 percent of all

the U.S. energy produced and is responsible for 46 percent of all U.S. carbon dioxide emissions

annually. It is also the fastest growing energy-consuming and emissions sector" as seen in Figure

2-3.









Based on these figures it seems that a change in the buildings and architecture would have

the biggest impact on the U.S. While building codes are designed to set a minimum standard for

the building we live and work in, they have actually had a minimal impact. "In fact, U.S. energy

consumption per square foot of building has been increasing slightly since 1990, a testament to

the fact that building codes have not been effective in stimulating further reductions in the

Architecture sector." So how can the problem of energy consumption be resolved? It would seem

that the building design is the answer. Structures are designed to be isolated from the

environment; they require an uninterrupted power supply in order to operate. Without this power

supply they are unusable (Mazria 2003).

The current state of architectural education does not really take these issues into account. It

is a profession that is constantly updating but, as Mazria (2003) states the "architecture inherited

from our predecessors is no longer valid today. The global problems we now face provide the

basis for a new architecture and a dialogue with nature that will give this new architecture its

uniqueness." From this point Mazria (2003) goes to lay out three steps that would allow for

architecture to update itself with the current needs of sustainability:

* Energy consumption reductions for government owned buildings are implemented in 2004.
* Energy consumption reductions for all buildings are implemented by 2007.
* The 15 percent embodied energy reduction for all buildings is implemented over a five-
year period, beginning in 2005.

Obviously the dates have not been met, but the ideas may still useful. No matter when the

program can be put in place the implications could be huge, see Figure 2-4.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

According to the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) (2003) building has a

huge impact on the environment. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has stated that the

United States buildings consume over 30% of our total energy and 60% of our electricity









annually. Five billion gallons of potable water are used to flush toilets daily. A typical

commercial construction project produces up to 2.5 pounds of solid waste per square foot of

floor space. These buildings are a major source of pollutants that cause air quality problems and

contribute to climate change. The DOE states that buildings account for 49% of sulfur dioxide

emissions, and 10% of particulate emissions. Buildings also produce 35% of the country's

carbon dioxide emissions, a gas that directly relates to global warming. The USGBC (2003)

states that by the year 2010, another 38 million buildings are expected to be built. By building

green we can substantially reduce the impacts of the building sector on the environment. Green

buildings also reduce operating costs, enhance building marketability, potentially increase

occupant productivity, and create a sustainable community.

The LEED Rating System

The USGBC was a huge proponent of the green building movement. Through their best

efforts they realized that in order to make green building mainstream they needed an instrument

to make green building more attractive. So they analyzed the current situation and saw where

problems towards the movement existed. The problem they realized was that there was no way to

determine if a building was in fact green or not. The limits on how to determine the greenness of

a building did not exist, and there was a definite need for a common standard. What they created

was the LEED Rating System. The rating system was designed to help the industry grow and

offer a new face to green building. It answered the demand for reliable information on the green

building process. Based on a rating system and green checklist the LEED system began its

development. The hopes of the program were to transform the design and construction of

commercial buildings (Schendler 2005).

The LEED Green Building Rating System provides performance standards for certifying

the design and construction phases of multiple building types. LEED for new construction is









mainly geared towards commercial, institutional, and high-rise buildings. Credits in the rating

system provide guidelines for the design and construction phases of both public and private

buildings. "The intent of LEED for New Construction is to assist in the creation of high

performance, healthy, durable, affordable and environmentally sound commercial and

institutional buildings" (USGBC 2006).

LEED is broken into 69 credits that are distributed through six areas. These six areas have

been determined by the USGBC to be the most important areas of green construction. The areas

are as follows:

* Sustainable Sites
* Water Efficiency
* Energy & Atmosphere
* Materials & Resources
* Indoor Environmental Quality
* Innovation in Design

Each area contains a portion of the 69 credits including a series of pre-requisites for most

categories. By attaining the pre-requisites the building may go on to achieve a level of

certification. There are four levels of certification a building may achieve and they are broken

down as follows:

* Certified 26-32 points
* Silver 33-38 points
* Gold 39-51 points
* Platinum 52-69 points

If a building achieves these levels of certification the USGBC will recognize the building as

certified with a formal letter of certification ad a mountable plaque (USGBC 2006).

In order to gain LEED certification a building must first apply for the process. To do this

the team must first register with the USGBC. Fees for registration and certification can be found

in Table 2-2. By registering team members establish contact with the USGBC and gain access to









online software, communications, and other information. After registration is completed the

design team should begin collecting submittal information and other required LEED information.

Information can be submitted through the web in a two-phase application process. The first

phase includes the information gathered in the design phase. The second phase includes

information for all credits that could not be submitted in the first phase. Once all the necessary

information is received by the USGBC a review of the submitted material is performed. The

project must satisfy all prerequisites and a minimum number of points for project rating. If a

project does not meet the minimum number of credits needed for certification appeals may be

filed with a fee (USGBC 2006).

"LEED is a design process that should, reduce operating costs and pollution, help address

global warming, improve marketability and durability, preserve the ozone layer, protect occupant

health, and improve worker productivity" (Schendler 2005).

Problems With LEED

The intentions of the LEED system were to offer a way for developers to easily implement

green strategies on new projects. The system was to allow the creation of more efficient

buildings, and reward the efforts socially as a LEED certified building. Somewhere along the

way the process faltered. Schendler (2005) states that from 2000 to 2005 LEED certified fewer

than 300 buildings, with over 2,000 registered but never reaching certification. During that time

another rating system certified over 20,000 homes. Under its own power LEED has become

costly, slow, confusing, covered by a seemingly bureaucratic rule. These problems add difficulty

to the green building process that is difficult enough already.

A number of major problems have surfaced through the LEED process. Testimonials and

case studies were collected by Schendler and Udall (2005) stating five of the major issues current

users of the system feel need to be taken into account:









* Problem 1: LEED Costs Too Much

* Problem 2: Focus on Points Rather than Sustainable Buildings

* Problem 3: Energy Modeling is Fiendishly Complicated

* Problem 4: Crippling Bureaucracy

* Problem 5: Overblown Claims of Green Building Benefits are Misleading

These problems lead to a rating system that does not necessarily reflect a building's greenness,

and lead to industry professionals looking down on the LEED process.

Possible Remedies

Schendler (2005) comments that the most useful tools are the ones that are designed to be

easy to use, while improving accuracy and productivity. The LEED system at current is a

difficult, timely process relying on confusing modeling equipment. To make matters worse the

review and credit interpretations are short, and offer little to no advice on correcting the

problems.

What is happening is that that the difficulty and cost of the process is making it more

trouble than it is worth to become LEED certified. Even professionals that have already

completed LEED projects and are familiar to the process find that the learning curve is non-

existent. It does not become easier from job to job. If this were the case then the initial costs of

mastering the process would be worth it. Unfortunately this does not seem to be happening.

In order to the make the process better Schendler (2005) offers ways to improve the current

process. One step would be to make more key points mandatory. This would reduce the alleged

point mongering and allow the focus to be on a more efficient integrated design. The next change

would be to simplify the energy modeling protocols. The modeling tools are extremely difficult

to use and learn. This discourages developers to go after the ten most important credits of the

entire rating system. The ten energy credits encourage drastic reduction in building energy use,









and can save the most money for the building owner as well. Another change would be to reduce

the amount of paper submissions, and encourage the reviewers to make onsite-rating decisions.

This would personalize the process by allowing the reviewers to experience the site and see for

themselves what has actually been attempted. This allows the subjective opinion of the LEED

expert to be added into the credit interpretation. While these are minor changes a major revamp

of the whole system may be needed.

The essence of the LEED system is being lost in the current process and until the correct

changes can be made the LEED system will continue to lose credibility among industry

professionals. It was an innovation in the industry and not all innovations succeed. The idea is

great, but the execution has lacked thus far. "The system is not a roadmap to the optimal cost-

effective, energy-efficient building, and it doesn't necessarily encourage integrated building

design" (Schendler 2005).

Flaws and Needs of LEED

The building sector uses 30% of total energy, and 60% of electricity annually. These facts

give a clear understanding as to why it is important to build sustainably, because buildings use

the majority of energy in the United States. The LEED rating system was developed by the

USGBC to offer a way to inform developers of the ability to build green. The system does this,

each area is clearly delineated and broken down into a number of credits. What the USGBC did

that was even more difficult was to create an aura of social responsibility around the LEED

rating system. This enabled the system to become commonplace in the industry. Developers

wanted the LEED rating system because it made them appear caring, and responsible. It did not

matter if developers actually cared that they were building green or not, what was important was

that they were doing it (USGBC 2006).









The users of LEED are failing to achieve certification, and with the failed efforts come

problems the users see in the system. These problems relate to the cost of the system, the need

for a system that is integrated with the design of the building, the complexity of the calculations,

the lack of support from the USGBC, and misleading claims of green building. The cost of the

system is truly a hindrance to projects wishing to reach LEED on a limited budget.

Although it does take time and money to review each project users feel that money spent

on LEED can be spent better on additional green elements. This is leading to a breakdown in the

desire to gain LEED certification. Prohibitive costs are something that cannot really be taken

away, while users feel that it is taking away from gaining certification, if the building was

designed to be LEED from the very beginning the costs should have been factored in. If the costs

are not a surprise then they should not be a problem. While there are arguments for both sides the

high costs can be directly related to the feelings of lacking support from the USGBC.

Applicants for LEED certification are given the resources of the USGBC to finish their

project and gain as many credits as possible. The resources they are offered are mainly web-

based and in the form of credit books and past credit interpretations. Users are also offered two

free credit interpretation requests. Any more over the allotted two cost the users for an

interpretation that may not be applicable. Furthermore reviews of credits are often short and offer

no way to remedy the failed attempt. Users feel that with the high cost of the program should

come increased support and monitoring from the USGBC. The ability to talk to someone could

be incredibly helpful in trying to fix inadequacies of failed credits.

Each problem that users find can be related back to the fact that LEED does not offer an

integrated design approach. It is simply a list of credits that the project will either reach or not.

There is a desire for LEED to offer the ability for users to begin the design with LEED as an









integral part of the process, not simply something that is in the back of everyone's mind. This is

the point where LEED needs to be restructured. The initial versions of LEED did there job in

gaining market use and support. It is now time for LEED to move on to the next phase and allow

users to complete truly sustainable buildings, not just those able to meet enough of the easiest

credits.

The Natural Step

The Natural Step (TNS) was developed in 1989 by a Swedish oncologist named Karl

Henrik Robert. Robert determined after working with cancer patients that it was the destruction

of the human environment that was leading to terrible consequences for humankind (Kibert

1999). "The extraction of resources such as fossil fuels and metal ores from the planet's crust

produces carcinogens and results in heavy metals entering the Earth's surface biosphere. The

abundance of chemically produced, synthetic substances that have no model in nature have

similar deleterious effects of materials practices on our health" (Kibert 2005).

The beliefs and observations of Robert lead to the design of TNS, once formed TNS began

as an organization that helps other organizations move toward sustainability. TNS allows people

to focus on sustainability in a work setting and it is something that allows people to become

easily involved in. It simply takes a commitment from the individual, but first from the

organization to take on sustainable issues.

The Natural Step enables organizations to incorporate sustainable practices into the

organizations strategic planning. In order for TNS to work there need to be certain goals and

objectives for organizations to reach. TNS does this through four main objectives:









* Eliminate our contribution to systematic increases in concentrations of substances from the
earth's crust.

* Eliminate our contributions to systematic increases in concentrations of substances
produced by society.

* Eliminate our contribution to systematic physical degradation of nature through
overharvesting, introductions and other forms of modification.

* Meet human needs in our society and worldwide, over and above all the substitution and
dematerialization measures taken in meeting the first three objectives.



By allowing organizations to try and meet these goals TNS gives committed organizations

something that is achievable, and real. The four objectives relate to the Earth's natural cycles,

and the human societies impact on them. They attempt to create an integrated system where

humans are a part of this natural system, see Figure 2-5.

The integrated system diagram offers a clear visualization of the paths of nature and

humans, and shows how the interaction affects each part. By doing this individuals may begin to

realize that there is a bigger picture involved in their daily activities. The four objectives may

allow these individuals to see that simply trying to fix the symptoms is not enough, in fact it may

shift their focus to the underlying social and environmental problems that are really plaguing the

Earth. This decreases the complexity of the problem because attacking the source is easier than

simply cleaning up the damage that has already resulted.

TNS is based on the quest for good health, welfare and economic prosperity. As nature

offers humans the ability to reach these goals it is unfortunate that we are destroying the very

systems that we depend on. We are degrading nature's short and long-term productive capacity,

and at the same time introducing more and more people that are dependent on the system. We

use up renewable resources at a rate that nature does not have time to build new ones. It seems

that we are moving into a funnel, seen in Figure 2-6. The funnel includes everyone, from small









families to large corporations, and it demonstrates that we have less and less room to maneuver.

The range that it affects is important because it has a direct bearing not only upon us as a society,

but also upon the economy.

This is why it is important to change not just the way we live our daily lives, but also the

way the country does business. Business owners need to still focus on their company's

profitability, but not at the expense of a long-term potential disaster. While short-term losses may

be perceived as a bad decision, or due to a circumstance that was out of the companies hands. It

may actually have been caused by an earlier investment that contributed to ecological non-

sustainable needs (TNS 2000).

The Natural Step Framework

The idea of TNS is something that must be implemented with a solid, proven system that

organizations may easily incorporate into their daily routines. To do this a framework was

established, TNS Framework offers a methodology for the organizational planning needed to

fully implement the program. It enables an organization to integrate business development with

sustainability, a strategic approach that will benefit the inevitable reduction in supply from

nature. Organizations can improve their future benefits based on changes in:

* Raw material costs
* Energy costs
* Cost of waste
* Environmental legislation
* Differentiated taxation
* Insurance premiums
* Credit ratings
* Customer needs
* Employee needs
* Brand value drivers

TNS Framework has allowed organizations to reduce costs, improve quality and productivity,

identified new customers and markets, and avoid future liabilities (TNS 2000).









Backcasting Strategic Planning for the Future

In order for TNS to function as planned the user must do some careful planning as well.

TNS refers to this method of planning as backcasting. Instead of looking at short-term issues and

trying to accommodate the business based on these problems, TNS begins by determining what

the business should look like in the future. The basis of backcasting is to focus on the causes of

environmental and social problems rather than reacting to the effects of them. The future result

should be based on the four objectives of TNS, but each business will differ in that the objectives

are formed to meet the individual businesses needs. So once this future picture has been

determined you must ask the question: What can we do today to reach that result? This allows

your short-term strategy to align with your long-term vision. This is probably something many

businesses feel they already do, but it is important for organizations using TNS to understand

that they cannot strategically pursue a future vision based on this framework without doing this.

There is difficulty however in determining these future goals, or as TNS refers to them as

'system conditions.' The main difficulty being that even the scientific community cannot agree

on the actual degree of the futures problems. The system conditions then should not be based on

any one specific problem, rather upon basic conditions that a sustainable society needs to

operate. These basic needs allow users to backcast with confidence from a future sustainability

perspective.

This process in theory should take the basic system conditions combined with the

backcasting method to create long-term flexibility with short-term profitability. By aligning

organizations with these system conditions the complexity of incorporating numerous

organizations becomes simplified. It would be near impossible to create a system that attempts

give each and every organization a detailed view of what they should be doing. So TNS allows









the organizations involved to make their own business decisions but simply adds some defining

principles to their overall vision.

Steps of Using the Framework

The idea behind TNS seems great but implementing it into a workplace that has already

established principles and workflows is another story. TNS Framework offers a method to do

this and further as to how to incorporate the programs ideals into the organization. This is done

through a series of four steps the first being to find common ground. The second step asks the

question: What does your organization look like today? The third step builds off the second in

that you ask the same question but based on a sustainable society, and the final step is to

prioritize and manage (TNS 2000).

Finding Common Ground

The U.S. offers a population with varying ideals and opinions. The opinions for

environmental controls are no different from a country's varying opinions on war, abortion, or

the economy. The state of global warming has faced two varying opinions in the U.S. and the

world. One group states that if something is not done soon the Earth could be facing devastating

problems in the not to distant future. While the other side believes that it is simply the Earth's

cyclical patterns and that there is no apparent problem. Some have gone so far as to say "much of

the debate over global warming is predicated on fear, rather than science." A comment from

Senator Inhofe stirred much debate from the scientific community as he continued by calling the

threat of global warming the "greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people" (Mann, et

al 2005).

These differences of opinion on the national level are generally no different at the local

work level either. So it is important to incorporate TNS with a top down approach. The owners

of the company must buy into the principles of TNS first and show their commitment to the









workers of the organization. There are likely to be some that do not buy into the program and

that is fine, the key is to have a workforce that is dedicated to the ideals of TNS.

Once the workforce is ready to take on the ideals of the company the next step can be

taken. The organization needs to create systems thinking to allow for an understanding of the

goals and approach to the problems. The systems thinking should be based on the basic

principles of the organization followed by the smaller details. The details include issues like

value judgments, priorities, design solutions, and behavioral changes that need to take place.

These basic principles create rules that the organization lives by, and govern how the system

operates. These rules allow the individuals to be innovative as they determine the best way to

operate under the system (TNS 2000).

What Do Your Operations Look Like Today?

Every organization today can be viewed as a box with inflows and outflows that are based

on the organizations needs and supply. Nothing will disappear inside this box as everything that

moves in must come out in one form or another. So to answer this question the organization

needs to map the critical flows and practices in regards to the sustainable objectives of the

organization. The box gives a visual picture of how the raw materials and energy flow into the

box, and then eventually come out in the form of products, services and waste. Figure 2-7 shows

an interpretation of these energy flows.

This question is not to be answered by the owners of the company, but rather by all the

employees as well. This allows the workers to identify the problems, and it also allows them to

create, develop, and implement specific solutions. By giving the employees ownership in the

process, it creates a desire for each individual to follow the rules and solutions they create. The

solutions should be based on the four sustainability objectives of TNS. By taking the objectives

into consideration the organization should be able to reduce the use of resources from the Earth's









crust, decrease the use of potentially toxic man-made substances, reduce the dependence on

processes that degrade the Earth's resources, and reduce practices that lead to irresponsible

treatment of humans impacted by the organization (TNS 2000).

What Does Your Organization Look Like In A Sustainable Society?

This question needs to be asked in order for the organization to 'lift its vision' and answer

questions about the organization in a way that is free from preconceptions of current reality. This

may lead to a series of new questions based on the role of the organization in a truly sustainable

society. It is good for the individuals to determine what it is the company actually does. Not what

they do on a daily basis, but what the company offers the outside society.

The next step is to list every possible connection between the vision of the organization in

a sustainable future, and the current state of the organization. The newly planned strategies

should be based upon the four objectives of TNS. It is important to document each area that is

addressed. This step of the process is imperative in that it is dependent on the second step and it

directly correlates to the final step (TNS 2000).

Prioritization and Management

This step determines how the organization ultimately moves towards sustainability. By

using measures answered in the third step the organization can begin to choose the measures that

will help them move toward sustainability quickly and profitably. To do this the previous

questions need to addressed based on the following three questions:

* Are we backcasting from our objectives when prioritizing this measure?

* Are we creating a flexible platform for further improvements?

* Will the measure bring quick enough financial returns?

By looking at these questions and determining which previous measures will provide the best fit

the organization can begin developing a concrete strategy. This strategy will prioritize the









previous measures to provide the most financially viable and sustainable goals, without losing

flexibility in the market or future profitability. This process offers the possibility of long-term

sustainable and financial success (TNS 2000).

Combining The Natural Step with LEED

The LEED system has been very successful in introducing the need for green building in

the United States. Prior to its inception there was no real tool that could be used to inform

developers of the need for green building. There was scientific fact, but no one was able to

develop a system that could be user friendly and informative at the same time. So when the

USGBC developed LEED they knew that they needed a system that would inform users of a

wide range sustainable needs. They also did a good job of creating social awareness by adding

the social benefit of obtaining LEED certification. As the system evolved users became more

aware of the need for sustainability and began to realize that LEED had some serious

shortcomings. These shortcomings included a lack of quantifiable relationship between points

and environmental impact, a 'one size fits all' design, and a lack of scientific backing

(Zimmerman, Kibert 2006).

What LEED attempts to do is "bring together the science of sustainability and the needs of

the market. The market aspect, however, dominates and the science get much less emphasis."

Zimmerman (2006) states that LEED has provided three key requirements for organizational

change:

* Provided a shared mental model of green building in the United States.
* Explicitly targeted a market to use the new techniques.
* Established a management structure and support system to expedite change.


While LEED has established some good, concrete needs it has failed to integrate the scientific

approach that serves as evidence that the system is truly needed. Opponents of the system have









stated that there is a "lack of credits dealing directly with practices that impact climate change

and failure to address persistent organic pollutants. Others have argued that issues are weighted

inequitably." Some believe that "by focusing on impacts, in effect rewards incremental solutions

and does not adequately recognize major, step-change or paradigm-shifting advances." The

system was designed to offer investors the ability to pick and choose what best fits their financial

needs. The mix of credits gives that option but also leads to problems with the system

(Zimmerman, Kibert 2006).

The LEED system has created awareness of the needs for sustainability but has done so in

a way that users tend to focus on the credits individually. "LEED is structured primarily around

environmental impacts, which tends to lead to end-of-pipe mindsets and incremental solutions."

These 'incremental solutions' move away from the purpose of sustainability and allow for

essentially unsustainable green buildings. This presents a need to align LEED with a system that

can pick up these shortcomings, without compromising its achieved success. The Natural Step is

an approach that provides a well-regarded, scientific complement to add to LEED (Zimmerman,

Kibert 2006).

The Natural Step, as discussed earlier, is a system that has been developed and reviewed

by multiple scientists from around the world. What is interesting about the approach is that there

has been remarkable agreement between these scientists on the tools for understanding and

managing sustainability:

* A common physics-based definition of sustainability.
* Hierarchical principles to understand what is needed to plan and work towards
sustainability.
* How a given framework fits with other frameworks.

The common consensus of TNS enables the ability to take a system that multiple members of the

scientific community agree upon, and confidently use the system to update LEED.









Zimmerman (2006) believes that the work on TNS gives us two ways to inform the next

generation of LEED. The first uses TNS as a filter to make sure the requirements of LEED align

themselves with the overall needs of sustainability. The second, as a way re-wording the

language of the credits to ensure that users are delineating from the use of specific objectives,

and rather viewing them as a whole process.

In order to use TNS the creators developed a hierarchy of different system levels to

incorporate into a complex system. These levels are based on the four system conditions of TNS

previously discussed:

1. Principles for the constitution of the system.
2. Principles for a favorable outcome of planning within the system.
3. Principles for the process to reach this outcome.
4. Actions, or concrete measures that comply with the principles.
5. Tools to monitor and audit the relevance, and status of the system.


When LEED is analyzed based on the hierarchy Zimmerman (2006) offers that levels two

through five can be easily covered, see Figure 2-8. Because LEED can cover so many of the

principles it makes it easier to understand how it gained so much success in the marketplace.

"Within one tool, sufficient definition of the impacts and rationale for appropriate action
presented, along with practical actions that can be taken, that users can immediately
understand how to move forward on their projects. Assessment is related to existing
standards and guidelines, which reduces the learning curve, and the market recognition of
graduated progress provides tangible incentives beyond the intrinsic satisfaction of doing
the right thing" (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006).

While Figure 2-8 only analyzed how LEED works based on the hierarchy the next step is

to inform LEED even further with the hierarchy. The hierarchy can better align LEED with

sustainability by reviewing the existing credits, identifying the proposed system condition the

credit should be aligned with, re-wording the intents of each credit, filtering the appropriate

process for the completion of each credit, and finally ensuring that the actions reflect the

principles they are associated with. This can be seen more clearly in Figure 2-9. This process









allows LEED to incorporate the scientific underpinning of TNS and ultimately achieve more

credibility in the green building community. The shortcomings of LEED may disappear as TNS

helps to satisfy the needed links between sustainability and building.

Zimmerman (2006) goes on to offer an example of the process by showing how the re-

wording of a credit incorporates TNS. The credit re-wording relates to energy & atmosphere

credit 2 for renewable energy, and energy & atmosphere credit 6 for green power. More

information on the credits can be seen in appendix A. The re-wording combines the two credits

in a way that encourages whole systems thinking relating to the process. The original wording is

as follows:

* Energy &Atmosphere Credit 2
o Intent Encourage and recognize increasing levels of on-site renewable energy
self-supply in order to reduce environmental impacts associated with fossil fuel
energy use.
o Requirements Supply at least 5% of the building's total energy use (expressed
as a fraction of annual energy cost) through the use of on-site renewable energy
systems.
* Energy & Atmosphere Credit 6
o Intent Encourage the development and use of grid-source, renewable energy
technologies on a net zero pollution basis.
o Requirements Provide at least 50% of the buildings' electricity from renewable
sources by engaging in at least a two-year renewable energy contract. Renewable
sources are those that meet the Environment Canada Environmental Choice
programs' EcoLogo requirements for green power supplies (Zimmerman, Kibert
2006).

This wording is straight forward, right to the point, and states what is needed to achieve the

credit without offering the whole system view that the system should be attaining. The proposed

re-wording incorporates this need by combining the two credits:

* Objective Eliminate humanity's contribution to systematic increases in concentration in
the ecosphere of substances from the Earth's Crust.
* Intent Increase the rate of substitution of fossil fuels by renewable energy from the
lowest LCA source.
* Indicator Renewable energy supply, characterized by LCA impact









Requirements Supply at least xx% of the building or project's total energy consumption
with renewable energy, chosen from the alternative with lowest LCA impact of those
available (Zimmerman, Kibert 2006).


Zimmerman (2006) proposes that there are several advantages the new approach offers.

The system: provides awareness and education on a deep level to the industry, allows solutions

to move faster in the direction of problem solving, takes a physics-based approach so that the end

objective is more easily understandable, offers a more integrated set of credits and issues with a

goal of satisfying the system conditions, can withstand criticism because science is more easily

defendable. While there are alternative frameworks TNS seems to offer a subjective science

based approach to an objective and somewhat qualitative LEED rating system (Zimmerman,

Kibert 2006).

Sustainable Paradigm Shift

The current view of building today is a combination of owner, architect, engineer, and

builder. Each group has its own responsibilities and follows its respective directives toward a

common end goal, which is the completion of the project. This is not uncommon to see in any

industry be it auto manufacturing, or toy making. Most people view the earth as a set of

individual systems working interdependently, and the result of the systems is the environment

that we live in. This view is essentially a fragmented view of the earth and its systems. There is a

failure to see what is happening as one large single system. Although this large system has

individual parts each is working in conjunction with the next to create the whole.

Reed (2006) states "the shift from a fragmented worldview to a whole systems mental

model is the significant leap our culture must make framing and understanding living system

interrelationships in an integrated way." The living system Reed speaks of is what humans fail to

realize we are a part of. If we do realize we are a part of a living system then we fail to act









accordingly. Even in the area of green building architects address efficiency, yet they fail to act

sustainably in the decisions they make. "It is time to change our mental model to one that a)

better reflects the new sciences' understanding of how our universe actually works, and b)

enables us to design, build, and heal with the whole system in mind a deeply integrated

worldview" (Reed 2006).

Creating the Shift

Reed (2006) explains that there are multiple ways to change systems. The ways that are

currently being used to change these systems are in fact the most ineffective. In order to

convince an investor today to use his or her money for something that is more sustainable all you

have to do is show the invest concrete evidence that it will make more money. Sustainable

development is difficult to show concrete evidence because it is a fairly new process, and there is

a level of risk associated that the investor may not want to take on. It is perplexing that the

essentially short term risk of investing in a new technology is more important to the investor than

the long term risk of potentially dangerous consequences. This is where the problem persists.

The problem is that we are offering a way to change the system based on numbers that just

are not there. There simply has not been enough time to see if it works, and according to Reed

(2006) the use of numbers is the slowest way to change a system. "Typical green building

discussion begins and often ends with a discussion of costs and quantitative benefits of a green

approach. The discussion is rarely about a new mental model, it is simply about addressing the

status quo in a more efficient manner."

So it seems that the fastest way towards a paradigm shift is by attempting to change the

'mental model' of the society. If an investor truly believes that a sustainable development is the

way to go then there will not be a discussion as to why it should be sustainable, but rather how to

make it more sustainable.









"The sustainability movement to this point has been remarkably ineffective at sustaining
the small victories it has achieved. It is slow, fragmented, and insufficient. Changing our
current mental model is the only way we can achieve the permanent and continuously
evolving change change to higher orders of thinking and understanding, that is required
to reverse the damage resulting from our old mental model and 'sustain sustainability"'
(Reed 2006).

The mental model is what binds the society into a way of thinking. This way of thinking is

currently going in the wrong direction. It will not be easy to change either as it dates back to the

beginnings of the industrial revolution, and the dawning of capitalism. However the change is

very necessary, and the mental model approach may be the best way to change the current

paradigm of building towards sustainable building.

Whole Systems Thinking

The whole systems thinking approach is a way to teach or influence individuals to consider

their actions based on the greater good. Decisions in the building arena are often decided on by

analyzing the best or cheapest way to complete a project. This is not sustainable thought and

whole systems thinking is not being considered. Reed (2006) states that sustainability is not a

static condition that can be reached based on simple guidelines. Rather it is a process that must

be undertaken.

"It is also necessary to learn how to participate in partnership with the other systems of life
in a mutually beneficial dance of relationship building. This means engaging in a
continuous, intentional process of understanding how life works for the benefit of all its
aspects, creatures, and elements, and how we can engage with this system in an ongoing,
healthy, evolving process. Sustainability is a progression toward a functional awareness
that all things are connected; that the systems commerce, building, society, geology, and
nature are really one system of integrated relationships; that these systems are co-
participants in the evolution of life" (Reed 2006).

This statement shows that there is a larger picture than that of a simple money saving decision.

Our decisions need to be based on a partnership of all aspects of life and move towards an

integrated system of decision-making.









The whole systems thinking realizes that everything is interconnected, this is very different

from most current thought processes. Currently we focus on closed systems, this can be seen in

the way projects are completed today. There is a total focus on the site work, then the foundation,

then the structure, etc. The whole systems approach would have individuals constantly

interacting with one another in an effort to integrate the different systems in a unified process.

Green building has not taken into account this whole systems approach. There is more

focus on the "technical and economic systems when designing, constructing and managing our

human habitats" (Reed 2006). This is part of the reason that green building has yet to take off in

the United States. Designers, and builders have yet to come up with a way to truly integrate the

design of buildings in a way that is sustainable. This happens because they are too focused on the

bottom line or one particular aspect of the building and they cannot work together to create a

truly sustainable building. "When we begin to understand that the purpose of sustainability is

sustaining life enhancing conditions," and we can truly integrate our buildings to function in this

manner then we will have reached a point of neutral sustainability.

Figure 2-10 shows how sustainability is only a period of neutrality in the green building

movement. Either side of neutral in the figure is still better than current practice but it is not until

work on both sides of sustainability is done that society can become environmentally neutral.

The Whole Systems Process

The concept of whole systems thinking is simple enough. Convince enough people that

they need to consider more than themselves and their business in the decisions they make.

Ultimately we will experience a society that has embraced the approach. This is easier said than

done. We must first gather an understanding of the core values of each endeavor we consider.

This process should be aligned with whole systems thinking. Once the core values have been

derived we must carefully consider the environment that the project will be placed. Can we









support the system and can the system support us? This enables us to understand the living

system of the area we are about to change, and incorporate the project accordingly (Reed 2006).

The next major step in the process is to create a framework for the project design. This task

is done to "translate it into a conceptual design and a set of design guidelines. This serves as the

framework or container for decisions made in the subsequent stages design, selection of

appropriate green materials and technologies, construction, operations, and long term operation

and maintenance" (Reed 2006).

The conceptual design comes next in that the design team can build upon the values and

knowledge of the area they are now working with. The team can now respond to real issues of

the environment and aspirations of the people in relation to the opportunities and limits of the

place. The team must realize that this is a regenerative process in that they must constantly be

thinking about the prior steps or the process will be lost. "Their work demands a continuous

balance between visionary ideas and day-to-day needs. The most successful projects were

projects in which the client had already made the worldview leap or were working on their own

personal development" (Reed 2006). So it is important that not only the design and building

teams are involved in this process but that the owner is also vested in the process. The approach

will not work without whole systems thinking from each team member.

Once this process is near completion the team needs to identify indicators that will keep

the process in line. Benchmarks can be used to measure levels of improvement needed for the

project and they should follow the desired relationships of the project. Monitoring the work is an

essential element needed if the process is to evolve. This is a support structure that will lead to

the development of conscious engagement and deeper relationships between people and place.

As the project moves into the building phase "continuous monitoring and measurement involves









engaging the 'community' as participants as the place evolves." The team "holds the long term

aspirations for the project/community, and supports and facilitates the iterative cycles of action,

reflection, dialogue as a means of deepening place connections and growing understanding and

mutual caring" (Reed 2006).











Table 2-1 Definitions of Sustainability (Mawhinney 2002)


Definition
Brundtland


National Strategies for
Sustainable Development

UK Department of
Environment, Transport
and Regions


Giradet


Wackemagel and Rees


Robert et al.


Pearce et al.


Message
Intergenerational legacy
Constant development

Socio-economic
development
Intergenerational legacy
Social progress, economic
growth, environmental
and resource protection

Citizen need and well-
being
Environmental protection

Equitable living
Environmental Protection

Limits to natural resources


Equal access to resources
across generations


General Objectives
Development on needs
only with minimal damage
basis
Similar to Brundtland but
narrower base

Balance of interests


Equity and avoid damage
to others


Acknowledge the limits of
resources in equitable
manner
Acknowledge the limits of
resources

Acknowledge the limits of
resources in equitable
intergenerational manner


Difficulties
How do you measure
needs of the future?
Does not address scale?
How do you measure
needs of the future?

Compromise and conflict
- who decides priorities?


Who organizes the
operating system?


Who decides and who
organizes? evidence
base?
What are the socio-
economic effects of this?

Who decides and
organizes? evidence
base?


Table 2-2 LEED Registration and Certification Fees (USGBC 2006)
LEED Registration &
Certification Fee
Summary


Registration Fees
Charges
Members
Non-Members



Certification Fees


Design Review

Members
Non-Members
Construction Review
Members
Non-Members


Fixed Rate
$450.00
$600.00


Less than 50,000 sf
Fixed Rate


$1,250.00
$1,500.00

$500.00
$750.00


50,000-500,000 sf
Based on sf


$0.025/sf
$0.03/sf

$0.01/sf
$0.015/sf


More than 500,000 sf
Fixed Rate


$12,500.00
$15,000.00

$5,000.00
$7,500.00











IMUSTRY







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REHWDENIAL






COMiOUL


U.S. ENERGY CONSUMPTION


Figure 2-1 U.S. Energy Consumption by Sector. Reprinted with permission from Edward
Mazria. Mazaria, E. (2003) "It's the Architecture, Stupid!" Solar Today, May-June,
48-51 http://www.mazria.com/ItsTheArchitectureStupid.pdf April 2007


IFULPTR 1
21U






7M


AICHmTCTIME
4WT


U.S. ENERGY CONSUMPTION


Figure 2-2 Energy Consumption with Building Sector as Architecture. Reprinted with
permission from Edward Mazria. Mazaria, E. (2003) "It's the Architecture, Stupid!"
Solar Today, May-June, 48-51 http://www.mazria.com/ItsTheArchitectureStupid.pdf
April 2007






















COM EMISSIONS by SECTOR


Figure 2-3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector. Reprinted with permission from Edward
Mazria. Mazaria, E. (2003) "It's the Architecture, Stupid!" Solar Today, May-June,
48-51 http://www.mazria.com/ItsTheArchitectureStupid.pdf April 2007







I0






ENERGY CONSUMPTION


Figure 2-4 Possible Energy Consumption Model. Reprinted with permission from Edward
Mazria. Mazaria, E. (2003) "It's the Architecture, Stupid!" Solar Today, May-June,
48-51 http://www.mazria.com/ItsTheArchitectureStupid.pdf April 2007











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define &C limits which we hve io live withbL In a
suestaiirLie society, plan t (on the heft-6Frtd side)
build up enough renewahle reNUres to stisf CoRn-


Figure 2-5 Integration of a Sustainable Society. Reprinted with permission from The Natural
Step. TNS. (2002) The Natural Step Framework Guidebook, The Natural Step,
Ottawa, Ontario


sus tasnab- sciEti
==WWIt


Figure 2-6 Funnel Towards a Sustainable Society. Reprinted with permission from The Natural
Step. TNS. (2002) The Natural Step Framework Guidebook, The Natural Step,
Ottawa, Ontario













El &atnbf Revk


Vi$IMe ihrible Waste


4~kvPct~Ee


Figure 2-7 Energy In to Energy Out. Reprinted with permission from The Natural Step. TNS.
(2002) The Natural Step Framework Guidebook, The Natural Step, Ottawa, Ontario



Strategic sustainable development selection. design and synergies of applied
I tools: How LEErD Fits I


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Figure 2-8 LEED Analyzed with Planning Hierarchy. Reprinted with permission from Alex
Zimmerman. Zimmerman, A., Kibert, C. (2006) Informing LEED-NC 3.0 i ilh The
Natural Step, US Green Building Council, Washington, D.C., 26 Dec. 2006


2



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Using Sustainability Principles & Approaches:

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Figure 2-9 Using Planning Hierarchy to Inform LEED. Reprinted with permission from Alex
Zimmerman. Zimmerman, A., Kibert, C. (2006) Informing LEED-NC 3.0 i iih The
Natural Step, US Green Building Council, Washington, D.C., 26 Dec. 2006












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Hurmans PARTICIPATING AS
rhlLurf Lo-eW o uuon of the
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Figure 2-10 Trajectory of Environmentally Responsible Design. Reprinted with permission from
Bill Reed. Reed, B. (2006) "Shifting our Mental Model 'Sustainability' to
Regeneration" Building Research & Information, April









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The objective of this thesis is to analyze the ability to create LEED version 3 based on the

framework of The Natural Step and its processes. The study provided information regarding

these topics as related to the construction industry. At this point in time there is not a wealth of

information regarding the creating of LEED version 3, or regarding implementing The Natural

Step into a separate certification system.

The methodology developed for this research will be based on the objective and hypothesis

of the thesis. The objective of this thesis is to determine the possibility of using The Natural Step

as a complement to the LEED rating system. The hypothesis for the project is that LEED rating

system is too different from the structure of The Natural Step to integrate the systems. More

specifically, the two systems will not incorporate into one another to form a better single system.

In an attempt to combine the two systems three steps will be used to develop the concept

for a revised LEED building assessment system. The first step is to determine current trends in

the industry regarding LEED, and The Natural Step. This determined the current state of the

system and discovered the strengths and weaknesses of each system. This review enabled a

concise analysis of each systems framework. This portion also determined which system to keep

as the basis for the new system. The literature review provided a basis for the foundation of this

research.

The second step will be to establish a framework that allowed a way to approach each

LEED credit similarly and use The Natural Step as the foundation for the credit. Creating a

process flow to approach each credit established a path to incorporate important parts of each

system. The parts to include were determined through the literature review, and the trends of

industry professionals.









The third step will be to develop a new section for LEED based on processes. Research on

the topics determined that The Natural Step includes processes that at this time do not fit into the

LEED system. Because of this the process section needed to be created, allowing important

aspects of TNS to be included into the LEED rating system.

Assess The Current View of The Systems

The current industry view of the systems is important to understand before moving into the

analysis. A review of information on the topic will be performed to establish a basis for the

research. As this information is reviewed the focus is to find areas that work well for each

system, as well as to find the areas that the industry feel are deficient. This also allows for a

thorough understanding of each system, a necessity for later phases of the analysis.

Current information regarding these topics is readily available. The only area that does not

have a large amount of information concerned updating of LEED, and integrating The Natural

Step into a rating system.

Establish a Method for Integration

In order to integrate LEED and TNS a procedure will be developed to approach the

problem. The LEED system was established as the basis for the integration. Each credit was

looked at individually to determine its validity with TNS. As this process began the important

parts of each system had to be established. These parts can be seen more clearly in the results

and analysis section.

Research showed that LEED has established itself as a proven system in the building

industry. TNS also did this but on a much smaller scale. Because of this the larger LEED system

will be kept as the basis for the changes. All changes made to the systems will be made to the

LEED system. This is important because it keeps the market share that had been gained by

LEED, and allows the system to change based on perceived needs of the industry.









TNS will be used to update LEED because the inherent properties of its system push users

towards a sustainable pathway. Once the role of TNS is established the parts of the system that

would have the most impact on a system like LEED will be determined. This ultimately comes

down to two separate areas, those that would incorporate into the credits, and those that would

incorporate into the LEED system.

Each credit of LEED will then be approached using the four system conditions of TNS. It

will be determined which conditions work best for the particular credit based on the purpose of

the credit, and its ability to improve its sustainable goals. As the goal of TNS is to achieve

sustainability over a period of time certain credits will be changed into prerequisites. This will be

done to increase the sustainable efforts of each LEED section, and allow the building to begin a

sustainable path.

New elements will also be added to the LEED credits. These elements, based on TNS,

included enhanced monitoring and communication. As the credits are analyzed the needs for

communication and monitoring will be established and added to the credit. In order to enhance

each LEED credit it will be determined if they will require monitoring. Advanced

communication efforts require a qualified USGBC member to review a communication plan for

the project, and maintain a relationship with the building team to offer guidance throughout the

process.

As each section of LEED is analyzed a matrix showing the changes of each credit will be

created. This matrix gives a clearer view to the trends and changes TNS requires.

Develop a Process Section

The addition of a process section will be included in the LEED system. This section is

important because it adds a new level to the LEED process. This level allows sustainable efforts

they may not fit within the credits to be added into the system. This section will allow the









processes that the industry feels are important to find a place in LEED. The process section also

includes the needs of TNS that do not fit into the credits of the existing LEED system. These

processes were based on observed needs of the LEED system, and testimonials regarding the

advantages of using TNS.

This section will be added as its own section separate from the credits of the LEED system.

This section will be developed as a guide for users to establish the foundations of a sustainable

organization and furthermore a sustainable project.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Process Section

There were elements of TNS that went above and beyond the ability of the LEED rating

system. The format of LEED does not lend itself to easily be upgraded because it is based on

credits. Because there was a need to incorporate processes into the new version of LEED a new

section was added. This new process section enables LEED to be more than a one-dimensional

rating system. It allows the system to incorporate process functions that are inherent in TNS, as

well as other green systems.

The monitoring aspects of TNS were extremely important to add into the new system. The

essence of the monitoring system is based on the fact that everyone in the organization has

bought-in to the sustainable efforts and can discuss future processes based on this fact. In order

for this to be added to LEED there was an added requirement for organizations working in the

LEED building to buy-in to TNS system, or a similar updated system from the new LEED

version. This may prove to be difficult as the purpose of some buildings is to fill occupancy.

LEED buildings have statistically shown to have lower vacancy rates, due to increased health

effects. This means that most organizations occupying LEED buildings may already have a

vested interest in sustainability, but now they will be required to incorporate them into their

organization.

Another area that was included into the process section dealt with whole systems thinking

and integrated design. These two aspects of TNS were difficult to incorporate into the LEED

rigid credit structure. These processes needed to be incorporated because they enhance the

overall sustainable goals of the project. One of the more important needs of LEED is to have a

design team that has a strong understanding of the LEED system and will design the building to









attain the most credits possible. This is often not the case, and a project will find design team

members not fully understanding the process and fail in a particular area that ends up affecting a

number of the other credits. TNS calls for whole systems thinking in that the process to

sustainability requires an integrated thought process that considers each aspect of the

organization from large to small decisions.

Through whole systems thinking came integrated design. Research showed that integrated

design was beneficial to the design of green buildings. With integrated design buildings could be

designed with no LEED credits in mind and they at design completion they would already

exceed the credit requirements of LEED. Not only does this design approach enable the

achievement of LEED credits but it also pushes designers to enhance their design ideas, and

moves towards new green technologies.

Communication between parties is an essential part of integrated design. Separating

systems into respective areas is a must for a quick design, but the communication efforts needed

to be increased from each party. Requiring team members to have constant contact with the

owner, architect, engineers and builders under the guidance of a USGBC appointed LEED

member may allow for this to work. The number of meetings and time between meetings should

be decided upon at the project conception and approved by the USGBC LEED team member.

Forcing users to increase their communication requirements facilitates the flow of information to

all parties. This requirement was included to ensure that LEED buildings are receiving the

needed efforts of all parties working on the project.

The process section was included as a separate prerequisite section to the LEED manual.

These processes must be attempted and approved by the USGBC in order for LEED to be an

option. The inclusion of whole systems thinking, integrated design, increased communication,









and a buy-in to TNS gives weight to the LEED certification. Requiring interested parties to

perform these measures increases the level of sustainable thought, and begins to change the way

of thinking for this society.

How TNS can affect LEED

Because the system needed to retain the market and users of past LEED versions the

format stayed closer to the LEED system. To add TNS into this system rewording of objectives,

credits, and prerequisites that follow the approach of TNS were included. Each area was

rethought based on the four system conditions of TNS. This created wording that is less

straightforward, but encourages a higher level of thought when trying to accomplish a credit. The

thought process is based on environmental and social impacts that will occur after completion of

the credit. Because of this increased consideration it was found useful to add weighting to certain

credits, or make more prerequisites, for those credits that will have larger impacts. The energy

saving credits were especially important here. While they do require difficult and expensive

energy modeling sequences they are the most important credits that LEED has.

This also brings up an important part of the new equation. By assigning a LEED team

member from the USGBC the process could be guided by a hand that knows what works and

what does not work. After all the USGBC is the one that approves and denies the credits. The

addition of this member should provide a valuable asset to projects and add to the monitoring of

job.

These options are in no way a complete or definitive way to update the new version of

LEED. These recommendations are simply based on the research of the subjects. Each idea came

directly from the process section, LEED, or TNS system and they are as follows:









1. An end product that will be easy to use, science-based, encourages whole systems thinking
and integrative design, results in a subjective process where team members are encouraged to
think sustainably, and requires monitoring throughout the life of the building.

2. Rewording of objectives, credits, and prerequisites that follow the approach of TNS.

3. A requirement for organizations working in the LEED building to buy-in to TNS system, or a
similar updated system from the new LEED version.

4. Whole systems thinking in that the process to sustainability requires an integrated thought
process that considers each aspect of the building and environment surrounding the building.

5. Require team members to have constant contact with the owner, architect, engineers and
builders under the guidance of a USGBC appointed LEED member.

6. Increased guidance from the USGBC with respect to the design for a sustainable LEED
building.

These suggestions are based on perceived problems with the LEED system, and studies

regarding TNS process.

LEED Version 3: Incorporating The Natural Step

In order to update the LEED credits based on TNS a clear understanding of TNS must be

achieved. The earlier suggestions cannot all be seen in the update and must be achieved through

the leadership of the USGBC. The following attempt only looked at suggestion one, two, four

and six. Suggestions three, and five were not placed into consideration because they deal more

with the processes of TNS, and they were addresses in the process section. Each section was

broken down into its credits and prerequisites in order to show a full update of the system. Credit

updates include the new intents, and requirements of the updated system. In addition the credit

will include an objective designed to encourage whole systems thinking about the current credit.

Sustainable Sites

Sustainable sites contain fourteen points, and one prerequisite. The purpose of this section

is to minimize the impact of construction on the surrounding environment during and after

construction. The Natural Step can affect this section through the second and third system









condition. These conditions attempt to eliminate systematic increases in concentration of

substances, and to eliminate physical degradation of nature through modification. It would also

be of interest to monitor the success of these credits after the completion of construction.

Changes to requirements exist for credits 1, 4, 5, and 7. For credit 1 the wording of the

requirement has changed to include a wider range of areas that cannot be developed. Credit 4

changes only for credit 4.4. The change incorporates the need for less parking, and encourages

the use of parking garages to minimize the amount of newly developed parking. Credit 5 has

changed in that a USGBC LEED member must check the site development plan prior to

construction. There will also be periodic checks by this member to determine if the credit is

being met. Credit 7 changes mainly for credit 7.2. This change increases the amount of roof

space to 100% except for permanent equipment. Credit 7, and credit 8 will also require periodic

monitoring to determine if the credit is being followed after construction. The following updated

credits can be seen in Table 4-1.

* SS Prerequisite 1: Construction Activity Pollution Prevention

o Objective Eliminate systematic destruction of the Earth and local ecosystems by
controlling site work activities.

o Intent Eliminate soil erosion, waterway sedimentation, and airborne dust
generation during the construction process.

o Requirements The requirements will not substantially change for this credit, as
they currently cover the needs of the credit.

* SS Credit 1: Site Selection

o Objective Meet the needs of society by eliminating the physical degradation of
the natural environment. Encourage social well being by creating development in
previously used areas.

o Intent Eliminate development on sites that contain undeveloped land.
Responsibly develop so that environmental impacts are minimal.









o Requirements Do not develop in areas that will destroy natural habitats or
endanger the natural use of areas that are environmentally sensitive. These areas
include: Prime farmland, undeveloped land lower than five feet above the 100-
year flood zone, land that is a habitat for an endangered species, land within 100
feet of wetlands, undeveloped land within 50 feet of any water bodies, land that is
public parkland.

* SS Credit 2: Development Density and Community Connectivity

o Objective Meet the needs of society by eliminating the physical degradation of
the natural environment. Encourage social wellbeing by creating development in
previously used areas.

o Intent Encourage development in urban areas with existing infrastructure.
Eliminate degradation of existing natural areas.

o Requirements The requirements for this credit will not change. They establish
guidelines for developing in dense areas and encourage sustainable practices.

* SS Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment

o Objective Meet the needs of society by eliminating the physical degradation of
the natural environment. Encourage social wellbeing by creating development in
previously used areas.

o Intent Reduce the physical degradation of nature by remediating previously
contaminated site.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* SS Credit 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4: Alternative Transportation

o Objective Reduce physical degradation of nature through the use of
environmentally friendly transportation systems. Meet human needs by
encouraging physical activity through alternative transportation methods.

o Intent Eliminate physical degradation from pollution and development impacts
through reduced automobile use.

o Requirements 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3 No change needed. 4.4 Reduce impact of
parking structures by providing minimum needed parking. Increase amount of
preferred carpool parking, and encourage the use of public parking garages.

* SS Credit 5.1, 5.2: Site Development

o Objective Eliminate increases in physical degradation by using only parts of the
site that are needed for development.









o Intent- Increase amount of undeveloped space for a project. Retain large amounts
of unaltered open space.

o Requirements 5.1 On undeveloped site determine needed space for
construction operations and send site use diagram to USGBC LEED member for
approval or suggestion. Site will be monitored randomly throughout the project to
determine if plan is being followed. On sites brownfield site, improve the site to
maximum amount of natural habitat. USGBC LEED member should check site
remediation plan. 5.2 No change, except USGBC LEED member should check
that plan for open space requirement. LEED member may determine that more
open space is required or that amount needed is unachievable. If unachievable the
credit may be awarded at USGBC's discretion.

* SS Credit 6.1, 6.2: Stormwater Management

o Objective Eliminate increases in concentrations of water due to altered natural
environment. Do not allow water runoff to pollute local ecosystems.

o Intent Eliminate disruption of natural hydrology by causing minimal site
disturbance, and managing stormwater runoff.

o Requirements Current requirements provide adequate measures for reducing
stormwater runoff.

* SS Credit 7.1, 7.2: Heat Island Effect

o Objective Eliminate the adverse treatment of the surrounding environment by
new heat sources.

o Intent Create measures that will reduce or eliminate the heat island effect caused
by new construction.

o Requirements 7.1 No change required. 7.2 Increase percentages to a
combination of 100% of the roof area, or 100% by use of a single method.
Require monitoring throughout the life of the building to determine if systems are
functioning as designed.

* SS Credit 8: Light Pollution Reduction

o Objective Eliminate increases in concentrations of light produced from the
project site.

o Intent Eliminate light trespass from the building site, eliminate sky-glow to
increase night sky access, improve nighttime visibility through glare reduction,
and eliminate development impact on nocturnal environments.









o Requirements The current requirements are sufficient. They require simple
calculations, and work to eliminate light pollution. Monitoring the site
periodically would be beneficial.

Water Efficiency

This section includes five points and no prerequisites. The focus is related to reducing

water needed for landscaping, reducing wastewater, and reducing overall water use. In order to

properly implement TNS to this section a water use reduction credit will be changed into a

prerequisite. This will force design teams to incorporate whole systems thinking into the water

systems. The percentage requirements of the other credits were increased to establish the need

for better design. Changes to this section can be seen in Table 4-2.

* WE Prerequisite 1: Water Use Reduction 20%

o Objective Eliminate contribution to the physical degradation of nature's fresh
water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water.

o Intent Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

o Requirements Change only the support of USGBC in preparing a baseline
model. Process should be simple, applicable to future projects, and easily learned.

* WE Credit 1: Water Use Reduction 40%

o Objective Eliminate contribution to the physical degradation of nature's fresh
water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water.

o Intent Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

o Requirements Change only the support of USGBC in preparing a baseline
model. Process should be simple, applicable to future projects, and easily learned.

* WE Credit 2: Water Efficient Landscaping Reduce by 70%

o Obj ective Eliminate contribution to the physical degradation of nature's fresh
water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water.

o Intent Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.









* WE Credit 3: Water Efficient Landscaping No Potable Water or No Irrigation

o Objective Eliminate contribution to the physical degradation of nature's fresh
water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water.

o Intent Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* WE Credit 4: Innovative Wastewater Technologies

o Objective Eliminate contribution to the physical degradation of nature's fresh
water supply. Stop overharvesting unneeded fresh water.

o Intent Eliminate introduction of wastewater into nature through procedures that
may safely recharge natural water systems.

o Requirements A combination of water reducing wastewater facilities and
wastewater treatment must be used on site. Facilities must reduce needed
wastewater by 50%. At least 70% of wastewater must be treated and reused or
reintroduced on site. Current calculations are sufficient for determining
reductions.

Energy and Atmosphere

This section contains seventeen points and three prerequisites. This section is arguably the

most important section of the LEED rating system. The first credit for optimizing energy

performance needs be included as a prerequisite to a level. That credit is essentially the essence

of LEED, and many users overlook its importance. By changing it to a prerequisite, users will be

forced to design their buildings for optimal performance. The new prerequisite for minimum

energy performance gains two points. It is difficult to perform the energy modeling therefore two

points will reward the users for meeting the requirement. Prerequisite 1 also added the non-

required credit for commissioning after the project has been completed. This prerequisite will

require that a USGBC LEED member approve the commissioning plan. The credits were

combined because the need for monitoring is essential to TNS and this credit captures the need

for advanced monitoring of the building systems. Credit 1 has changed only in that the number

of points has been reduced to nine. This is due to the increased requirements for the third









prerequisite. A USGBC LEED member will also be required to assist in the energy modeling

procedure, and offer assistance when needed. Credit 2 has combined the credits for on-site

renewable energy and green power. This was done to establish that alternate sources of energy

are important to the building process. By combining the credits and offering two points for

compliance the demand for this type of energy may increase. Changes can be seen in Table 4-3.

* EA Prerequisite 1: Building Commissioning and Monitoring

o Objective Eliminate our contribution to systematic increases in concentrations
of substances from the Earth's crust.

o Intent Provide sufficient documentation for the USGBC LEED member
regarding the energy related systems. Documentation should include verification
of system installation, calibration, and that systems meet owner requirements.

o In addition require current LEED version 2.2 EA credit 3 for enhanced
commissioning be included as part of this prerequisite.

o Requirements No change required. Except that a USGBC LEED member needs
to be in communication regarding the commissioning and future commissioning
procedures.

* EA Prerequisite 2: Fundamental Refrigerant Management

o Objective Eliminate contributions to systematic increases in concentrations of
substances produced by society into the atmosphere.

o Intent Eliminate the use of ozone-depleting materials that are potentially
harmful to future generations.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* EA Prerequisite 3: Minimum Energy Performance

o Objective -Meet human needs in our society while reducing increases in
concentrations from the Earth's crust.

o Intent Significantly reduce the amount of energy required for newly constructed
buildings.

o Requirements Meet current prerequisite. In addition gain one point from LEED
version 2.2 EA credit one.









* EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance

o Objective -Meet human needs in our society while reducing increases in
concentrations from the Earth's crust.

o Intent Significantly reduce the amount of energy required for newly constructed
buildings. In addition achieve increasing levels of energy performance above a
baseline building from prerequisite 3.

o Requirements No change required. Except for the introduction of a support
system from the USGBC, or through USGBC LEED member for the use of the
baseline building performance measures.

* EA Credit 2: On-Site Renewable Energy and Green Power

o Objective Eliminate our contributions to increases in concentrations of
substances taken from the Earth's crust.

o Intent Incorporate on-site renewable energy and/or green power into the
buildings energy supply.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* EA Credit 3: Enhanced Refrigeration Management

o Objective Eliminate contributions to systematic increases in concentrations of
substances produced by society into the atmosphere.

o Intent Eliminate the use of ozone-depleting materials that are potentially
harmful to future generations.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* EA Credit 4: Measurement and Verification

o Objective Meet needs in our society by continually monitoring the systems that
reduce the use of substances from the Earth's crust

o Intent Continually monitor building systems to insure optimal energy
performance.

o Requirements No change required. Can gain two points for this credit instead of
one.









Materials and Resources

This section contains thirteen points with a single prerequisite. The focus is on building

reuse, waste management, using recycled content, and using locally harvested material. This

section relates to eliminating increases in concentrations from the earth's crust. It also relates to

the fourth system condition of TNS, meeting the needs of society over and above current

measures. To make this section more in line with TNS an extra prerequisite will be added

regarding construction waste management. This addition will ensure that builders are attempting

to divert as much waste as possible. If they are required to divert some waste then the likelihood

of diverting more is increased. The only other changes to this section is requiring a USGBC

LEED member to assist with credits 2, 4, and 7. The assistance should deal with the calculations

for these credits and a list of possible resources the USGBC has acquired in a database for

suppliers of these types of products. This will enable users to identify multiple suppliers and find

the best cost for the project. By establishing the database a higher demand may be associated

with these types of products. Table 4-4 shows the changes made to this section.

* MR Prerequisite 1: Storage and Collection of Recyclables

o Objective Eliminate contribution to increases in concentrations of substances
that are produced by society. Encourage recycling techniques that divert flows of
waste to landfill.

o Intent Reduce amount of waste that is sent to landfill from construction site.

o Requirements No change required.

* MR Prerequisite 2: Construction Waste Management Divert 35% from Disposal

o Objective Eliminate systematic increases in concentrations of substances
produced by society by reintroducing used materials into processing flow.

o Intent Encourage the diversion of construction waste from landfill by sending
reusable material back into materials loop.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.









* MR Credit 1: Construction Waste Management Divert 65% from Disposal

o Objective Eliminate systematic increases in concentrations of substances
produced by society by reintroducing used materials into processing flow.

o Intent Encourage the diversion of construction waste from landfill by sending
reusable material back into materials loop.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* MR Credit 2.1, 2.2, 2.3: Building Reuse Maintain 75%, 95% of Existing Walls, Floors,
and Roof, 2.3 -Maintain 50% of Interior Non-Structural Elements

o Objective Eliminate contribution to increases in concentrations of substances
produced by society. Use materials to their maximum life, and prevent them from
becoming waste.

o Intent Encourage the use of existing building materials to their full life
expectancy. Conserve resources, retain cultural resources, reduce waste and
reduce environmental impacts of new buildings as they relate to materials
manufacturing and transport.

o Requirements No change required, except for the addition of guidance from
USGBC LEED member. LEED member should promote conscious thought
processes by offering suggestions towards saving building materials. Current
calculations are simple and do not require change.

* MR Credit 3.1, 3.2: Material Reuse 5%, 10%

o Objective Eliminate systematic increases in concentrations of substances
produced by society by reintroducing used materials into processing flow.

o Intent Encourage the reuse of building materials to reduce need for virgin
materials. This process reduces impacts related to extraction and processing of
resources.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* MR Credit 4.1, 4.2: Recycled Content 10%, 20% (post-consumer + 1/2 pre-consumer)

o Objective Eliminate systematic increases in concentrations of substances
produced by society by reintroducing used materials into processing flow.

o Intent Encourage the development of recycled materials for building products.
This reduces impacts of harvesting raw materials.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.
The percentages should move up with future versions, as the demand for









recyclable materials increases. The USGBC should provide a list of recyclable
material producers.



* MR Credit 5.1, 5.2: Regional Materials 10%, 20% Extracted, Processed and
Manufactured Regionally

o Obj ective Meet human needs of our society through the use of resources that
have minimal impact on the increase of substances from the earth's crust.

o Intent Encourage the local development of construction products through
increased demand. This results in a stronger local economy and promotes social
well being.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* MR Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials

o Objective Meet human needs of our society through the use of resources that
have minimal impact on the increase of substances from the earth's crust.

o Intent Increase demand for products that are rapidly renewable. This reduces the
need for materials that take long periods of time to develop, and increases social
awareness.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* MR Credit 7: Certified Wood

o Objective Meet human needs of our society through the use of resources that
have minimal impact on the increase of substances from the earth's crust.

o Intent Use only wood that has been responsibly harvested. Reduce impacts of
strip clearing and other environmentally insensitive practices.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. A
list should be given by the USGBC regarding certified wood producers.

Indoor Environmental Quality

This section contains thirteen points, and one prerequisite. It is geared toward increased

human comfort. It deals directly with the fourth system condition in going over and above

normal needs of society. This section requires little change because it already does the best job of

going over and above societal needs. There will however be an added prerequisite in the









combination of credit 3.1 and 3.2 for Construction IAQ Management Plan. This will require the

builders to act responsible in the installation of air delivery systems during and after

construction. Other changes to this section involve a USGBC LEED member to be involved with

credits 2, 4, 7, and prerequisite 3. This member will assist with all necessary calculations, and

with suggestions for compliance. Credit 4 has been changed to include no use of hazardous

chemicals within the building. Credit 7 has changed with the use of options for compliance. A

clearer view of changes can be seen in Table 4-5.

* EQ Prerequisite 1: Minimum IAQ Performance

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Exceed societal needs for air quality by establishing minimum IAQ
performance measures. These measures shall increase indoor air quality, and
provide better health measures for its occupants.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.
Calculations are adequate.

* EQ Prerequisite 2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Ensure that occupants are not exposed to dangerous tobacco smoke.
Areas containing tobacco smoke should not be accessible to people simply
passing by, this should be established by design and ventilation effectiveness.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* EQ Prerequisite 3: Construction IAQ Management Plan During Construction/After
Occupancy

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Eliminate indoor air quality problems by establishing a plan to minimize
pollution of air distribution systems. This plan should exceed the current needs of
society in an attempt to ensure the proper comfort and wellbeing of building
users.









o Requirements A combination of existing credit requirements for credit 3.1, and
3.2 shall be used for this prerequisite. A USGBC LEED member should also
check the air quality plan and suggest necessary changes.

* EQ Credit 1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Exceed current building requirements by implementing a system to
monitor the ventilation effectiveness of the building. System should monitor each
area of the building and adjust to the ventilation needs to ensure building
occupant comfort.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* EQ Credit 2: Increased Ventilation

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Exceed current societal needs by introducing outdoor air ventilation
systems that will enhance comfort of building occupants.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required. A
USGBC LEED member shall assist and check the required calculations for this
credit.

* EQ Credit 3.1, 3.2, 3.3: Low-Emitting Materials, 3.1 Adhesives and Sealants, 3.2 -
Paints and Coatings, 3.3 Carpet Systems

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Eliminate the use of indoor air contaminates that are harmful to the
comfort and wellbeing of building occupants.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* EQ Credit 4: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Eliminate the introduction of hazardous pollutants to the building.









o Requirements No change required. Except that hazardous cleaning supplies may
no longer be used in the building. Monitoring by the USGBC should be scheduled
to determine compliance with the credit.





* EQ Credit 5.1, 5.2: Controllability of Systems, 5.1- Lighting, 5.2 Thermal Comfort

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Meet the need of each building occupant to control lighting and thermal
comfort.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* EQ Credit 6.1, 6.2: Thermal Comfort, 6.1 -Design, 6.2 Verification

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Meet the needs of society by providing a comfortable thermal
environment that will enhance the wellbeing of building occupants.

o Requirements Current LEED requirements are sufficient, no change required.

* EQ Credit 7.1, 7.2: Daylight and Views, 7.1 Daylight 75% of Spaces, 7.2 Daylight 90%
of Spaces

o Objective Meet human needs of society by going over and above the required
contribution to human health needs.

o Intent Go over and above the need of building occupants to have outdoor views.
Provide daylighting whenever possible.

o Requirements Current option 1 requires no change, the calculation is simple and
information easily accessible. If option 2 or 3 is used a USGBC LEED member
should provide support for computer simulation, and offer past records regarding
indoor light measurement techniques.

Summary

The changes made to LEED reflect the perceived needs of the industry and the scientific

underpinning of TNS. The addition of TNS created a new process section that will require users









to take on the whole systems approach to design. TNS was also used to update each credit and

prerequisite. Some credits were combined others were changed into prerequisites, while others

were simply given more weight based on the difficulty to achieve the credit or the impact that it

has. Each credit and prerequisite was also enhanced with an objective. The objective was based

on the four system conditions of TNS, and helped to add the science-based approach that LEED

lacked.

The changes reflected the framework of TNS and the result is an updated version of LEED

that is science-based, more difficult to achieve, requires increased communication and

monitoring, encourages integrated design, and ultimately moves society towards a sustainable

paradigm shift.












Table 4-1 Changes to Sustainable Sites
Sustainabl Sites LECD Versin 3

C- f Charge in P ire quire JU r
.ne-r; ChMrJe In Perihlic :f JSGBC New FrereqLI R~ t&er
Ware 19 Req e'entSi M tri LEED Mrr e- Pln
P'ereqUilSite .1:C!nStr.tiion Activity
Pollt on Prevention X
oQr3it : s5- slectio x x
Credit I: Drevrlapint Density and
Community Camer'vityl

Oedit 3: B'IDnFIelc Redevwlop'nent x
Credi 4. 4. ..2, 4.2., 4.4-: Alternaztv
T-anspartation x x 4

Credit S.1, 5.2: Site DevIlomrnent X X K 2
credit 6.1, 6.2: Stornweer 2
Manacemrni:t

Crdi.t 7.1, .2: Hit isla nd Effle- x x 2

Credit 8: Light Pillutie- Ratdtin x X 1
Total Points 15






Table 4-2 Changes to Water Efficiency
ljt': EffHi.',i':.p LEEL 'cil-o _______

I L r.;r. in of U *i C raumtlr .r
L.h.. P r.F .rcmcntt L.rm--. cu',- p
I Pm' o~-tr i.i
Pr l.qjC 2 /*jtT I Ite -,r .k .

x 1
A.duc'ut.ir.i'u

C-r ie, 1I '.JaT.r IJ.c R.-dj- ,,..r. -I,:
Cr.d.t 2: '.aJt.r Effic.cnt
Lj 3*..J iriy HI.oC1t t, ;L i n
C'-'-di t 2. aJ. Efr i Cri~
Lj' 31 'j:.Jpil,' IrF i','.,tCl_ jtarr'.r or

C-:,d.. 4 ]rn....j.t... *'.Jb-r. titcr

Total Points 5












Table 4-3 Changes to Energy and Atmosphere
Eerg- r. and Atmosphere LEED Version 3
Change of Require Require Use
Intent Changen Periodic of USGBC New Prerequisite Nubero
Wording Requirements Monioring LEED Member Points

Prerequisite 1: Building X X X X 1
Commissioning and Monitoring
Prerequisite 2: Fundamental
Refrigerant Management
Prerequisite 3: Minimum Energy
Performance
Credit 1: Optimize Energy
Performance X X
Credit 2: On-Site Renewable
Energy and Green Power X 2
Credit 3: Enhanced Refrigeration
Management
Credit: Measurement and
Verification X
Total Points 18






Table 4-4 Changes to Materials and Resources
M tt-Er.al anr..l .s-ur-.R LEE[t ;r lrl. 1
Change Require Require Use
ntent Changein Pridic USGBC New Prerequisite Number of
Warding Requirements Mitoring LEED Points
Member
Prerequisite 1: Storage and
Collection of Recydbles 1
Prerequisite 2: Construction
Waste Management Divert 35% x X 1
orrom Dis;5pc5l
Ir-. ji 1 i ,nstruction Waste
fi- 30l-TIEr C .t Divert 65% from x 1


CrmJit 1,2.2,2.3: Building Reuse X X 3
i:r.j .1 L,3.2: Material Reuse 2


CreJit 4.1,4.2: Recycled Content X X 2

Credit E.1,5.2: Regional Materials x 2
CreL:,t Rapidly Renewable
1 t-riaI.3 X 1
ICrE i;1 7 CE-tiFEd W.-, -..d X
Total Points 14












Table 4-5 Changes to Indoor Environmental Quality

ri.J -r Ern .rcrmerin ll. iljalt, LEciL .' rig-'. 3
Change of Reqnguin Requ quire Use Numr
Intent la in Periodic of USGBC New Prerequisite Nubr
Wording uiren onitnring LEED Member Points
rr-?rcq.jsi5l 1: Minimum IAQ

r'.-rerCq.jsiLt 2: Environmental
T.:.tcc.:. :rrToke {ETS) Control 1
rrir.-'quisit- 3: Constuction IAQ
Plan X X X
Cre i,; I Outdoor Air Delivery
H : r- :-,-ri. X 1
S" x 1
Cre j;i 2 Inareased Ventilation
:Cre 3. 3 1,3.2,3.3: Low-Emitting
M.ILt.,,iLI; x 3
Cri 3 -i 4 Indoor Chemical and
F'-iiularl Source Control X X X 1
Crej.t E.1,5.2: Controllability of
S,.tEm. X 2

Credit 6.1,6.2: Thermal Comfort X 2
Credit 7.1,7.2: Daylight and
Views X x 2
Total Points 16









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

Updating LEED is something that will happen in the somewhat near future. Past updates

have included relatively small changes to credits. The most recent change coming in LEED

version 2.2 was the addition of web-based credit submission. This reduced a large percentage of

the paper work required and offered an easy format for submitting documents to LEED. The

question of updating LEED version 3 based on TNS is something that will most likely be highly

debatable. Each update is supposed to follow the general changes and needs of the market to

keep a state of the art system in place for green building certification. Updating based on TNS

may not hold that much water in the eyes of the USBGC.

Although the updated version 3 is going to happen, the question must be asked why should

TNS be used? TNS offers an answer to many of the alleged problems with the current LEED

system. It is pre-established and effective system that keeps organizations on a profitable and

organized track towards sustainability. LEED is in need of an update that will shift the

perception of LEED to something that is an ongoing process, not simply for the construction of

new buildings. TNS provides an excellent scientific justification for most LEED credits. It

should also help to shift the paradigm of sustainability in the U.S. to something that needs to

happen in our everyday lives.

Will an Update Based on TNS Work?

In order for the update to work at least part of the recommended changes will need to be

included. Changing the wording of credits, prerequisites, and objectives will be necessary and

simple. It will only take an understanding of the TNS system conditions, and an update based on

that system. Whole systems thinking are another must if the update will really work. Somehow

this process must be incorporated in the design of LEED buildings. Without this the paradigm









shift will inevitably not happen. This portion of the update establishes the importance of each

system that is affected when we change the environment, and creates a new approach to thinking

that many do not currently follow.

Communication requirements are also a necessity for the update. While the green building

process already requires intense communication between parties the guidance from the USGBC

will be extremely helpful. Setting up a tentative plan for communication efforts will only help in

the process, and the use of TNS's backcasting can also help to achieve this need. Adding a

USGBC LEED team member may be prohibitive to the update. This is something that may not

be totally feasible, as the costs for certification will certainly increase, and costs are already a

concern for LEED.

Buying into TNS will be another challenge for the update. This is actually quite important

if the process is to really work. Requiring the buy-in will only decrease the time required to

cause a paradigm shift. Unfortunately this will be difficult to do, as case studies have shown

when organizations buy-in to TNS system there is a number of employees that will quit or

simply think the system is silly. Forcing ideals onto people that simply do not believe what your

doing is right is no way to encourage change. However this will certainly be an advantage for

sustainability by informing more people of its importance.

The update will require lots of manpower and time to complete. It may be cost prohibitive

and some of the elements may be difficult to incorporate. Ultimately, society may not be ready to

accept TNS into our current ideals. This is a direct effect of the United States lagging efforts to

deal with environmental degradation, and to make the sustainable ideals important. There are

still many areas of our society that believe there is no problem with the environment, and that the

cyclical nature of the Earth will eventually heal itself.









Science has proved that this is simply not the case. Past forecasts by scientists have

definitely overblown the affects of poor environmental practices, and they are very well

overblown now. The claims are not misguided however and there is a need for change now

before it is too late to change our societal views. The inability of the government to accept this

stance is harmful to the planet and the nature of our society. This may in fact reduce the impact

of the update, and further reduce the use of LEED.

The update will surely be viewed as positive within the target market of the USGBC, but is

this enough of the market to make LEED a bigger success? It may be too difficult for a full

integration of TNS into LEED to really be effective. Perhaps the LEED version 3 simply needs

to incorporate part of the system, and more in a future update. It is not possible to know if the

update will be a success, but the need is evident.

Recommendations for Future Study

The research for this study was based solely on printed articles, books, and case studies

regarding the topics intended. Future work may include interviews with established industry

professionals to gauge the current need for change and possibility of using TNS for a LEED

update. This would give a deeper understanding of the needs within the industry and not simply

from published articles.

Another possibility would be to compare the use of TNS and other sustainable guidelines.

TNS has many resources that would be an advantage to LEED, other guidelines are sure to have

positive attributes that may fit into LEED better. A table showing the advantages and

disadvantages of each system may be beneficial in looking for a general direction that these

guidelines follow. It may be easier to incorporate ideals that many guidelines share than singling

out one system.









If research was to be held off for some time another study could be done after LEED

version 3 came out. This would allow the researcher to see the direction the USGBC has taken to

gain a better understanding of what they feel is important. If any of the changes made were

similar to suggested changes in this thesis, then a more in depth study of TNS could be taken.

The success or failure of LEED in the near future is also something that should be taken

into account. A study into LEED could be taken to see trends in the changes made as compared

to the market that is being targeted by the USGBC. The size of the target market will offer the

direction the USGBC is taking at each period studied, and will surely correlate to the emerging

trends in LEED.

Another possibility would be to analyze the proposed process section of this research.

There are many processes that could be added to the LEED system that would prove beneficial to

the overall design and efficiency of a LEED project. Identifying possible processes that could be

added, and more in depth research into a process section could be very beneficial to the industry.










APPENDIX
LEED VERSION 2.2 CHECKLIST


I FF Ir -1C
LEED-NC Version 2.2 Registered Project Checklist
<< entr project name >>
<< entr city, slate, other details >>

.. ........... H.. ..................................................................

Fw W 1 CIainbruclJan Aclvity Pallllan Preanl an : ,''a
C.JIr 1 51se ielectiln
DvwloDp~rnt Dnsily & Community CorunnClity
CIQ- 2 pirownilld R d~9rlOgp ip l
Q-I4A.1 Abarnative Transnartation. PubAk TrIi's L r:aliLi Access
= ~ C ? Altermptll TronwortIrIgn. FBIrCe Srig pq & i;arlnnri Hnb^m
C.W a4.-~ Altrmatlve Transartallan. Luj-ECri-illipi and FuelEl-Eruirnt hic es
I .: l:I' AllarnativeTrannuortailan. PIrkilyj Caculily
Q-i.1 S nf1 Ewve k~wnari, rPrleq 0 HrrlIr Ha1la-
CQ-' S.2 Silo Devoiernerd, Maninize Gpen SpanL
C -0: I 5trWDrmintgr Daglqgn, (.Ilanirv i rrro
Si 6 ,? StDrrnwator Design, CQuli!y CnralI
H | Heal Islaid Effacr. N'in-Rcad
CnJ i.2 HRHn IslIrilO Efec.1d, o0f
C-iali UBgh Pollulfriw RMduCln1di



I -i: i Water EtfICIra Larji&Capini. alucare 1UIUl
C*-ni 1. Watr Efficienri Larndscamng. ND P~.able ls Lc 3 D Irrialicn
I Inn valle Waslwmate r Techrwdogiae
CQ-l 2.1 Wtr LUg RarlCtUwi. 1;:. Hrdll-r.-n
S nlI 2,? Wadr Usn Recdlcticn. 3CE Redunian

o ............ ....... ...ii ... ...... ................................. .

F*'w wI Fundarnental Corrmisslanin crf the building Ermrgy Syistrnms .'i
Frlo4 2 MHmnetmi Enrgy Prfgmirilen A.i-iriJ
Prvw I Fundamental Rafrigerant Managamrnent ReJ d
C-nJ 1 OpkLmitg ErArgy PerfarrnrncA 1 t 10
C-nia OnrSite RlvewaIbl Energy 1 L3
GC'im Enhancef Carnrnissicinng
C- nJ-1 Ernitwlrnc Rsfripgern Mpiggregrrfl
CI-i:I Meanmiremnt & Vti&iRcailan
C-nJti [irplo Ptw



Figure A-i LEED-NC Version 2.2 Checklist: Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and
Atmosphere. Reprinted with permission from USGBC. USGBC. (2006) LEED-NC
Version 2.2 Reference Guide, US Green Building Council, Washington, DC.















RwuU nI 1- 5twrage 8 Collection of HRcycIlah An.-iair
1 C-: i 1 Edalrirgn ReWk. Mentpin 75% Eft I-inhn Wgill. -=lcr RDo
CO-L 1.2 BEWrlHrMn Re$P. M nritrn 'frl'%, 01 Ed EBr5 WalS. I- r~n~r & (of
-C'`:i 1 Buildina RmLEB. MaiUin 50% if Intrior Non-Slructural Elermenl
-;: VI Cwitrctilon Waig.L MleMHairnrstT. 31grlt W3% frtcn UilErsiF l
C-J i.2 Cocist uJltJan Wast. ManaRarnernt. 3ivert 75% fi-s OinLU.l
fC- ~1 I Mft(rlip Reuius. 5%

[ -e l I Racycler C C'M) e Recylcd Coltrnt. 20t i/oit-ConSurner 2gre-wonsumerI
EA 1.1 Renional Malerials. '0%i CEyrL:-i.d. Prztcesi'd i & Variurfcturad iciiwnally
G ed R. li l M lrAiiwnl.. 2qAI E r2-71ed. Hr..c-lfd & Ianidiara.irqil -xrniIIall
CnhJ RapldIly RgrwA.Tuai Ms i g~ral
c- e 7 Crt~iiad Woad



rw'. i Miirinum IAQ Perfairnrrri a Ruired
R.Pti 2 Envfiroimnrili Tobacoo Smnoke ETS Control 1lsurfd
-- ed- i Outddar Air Oelivery Monitarrir 1
C0. Wi 2 Iraropl YAVnilllaurn 1
G'.1 I Co rbuctlion LAQ Manaaemeni Plan. DJmriu ConsLructic. 1
G'0;1 j? oiilrtclon IAQ aMa nanfrm Pin. FIelix OcciDancy 1
C0n- 4.1 LOw-Emnitlinng Maturials. Aihe-jivs & Soalanl 1
GW I Low-ErriWIna Materuals. Pgin1s & Coalnqie 1
G0-W. :i WIFw-EitSlIna Materaalp. arrgt Sst$ rnS 1
G''-: 1 4 Low-Emitllna Matarials. Cai sil i Woad & Agarifibter PrbdJcLs 1
C0'e: i IndAr- Chlnrica & Pollulant Saurce Cniral 1
n I Ai.1 Controllaiblitv of Systri s. Liih!ii'u 1
CN I ] CMr Cqtrolliitlly of Syvstem. Thermal ciOrn1rt 1
CI l7.1 larrmn] i;CFnulrt I:,,qn 1
G' : "Thrermia CornfDrt. Verirriaiar 1
Ceo I I Dayupi4 & Vi 4. V aII.*.viil TrI% of $eS 1
ci ~ Daytipftl & Y aw. Views For 9 4 ar:Six.vs I



G : I I Innorivllo In In KWlgrr Prroier: SMCldC Trc,
Cn-I 1.2 Inrinvalon In Onsign. PrLuide Specitr Ti.e
,Ci' Innovalan In Ousion. PrwL'ide SpeciFL TI:
CLI 1A.4 Inbwpllor In 1Dglqn l rPlii: IC.ifI Tr,1
C-';12 I FFf'I I&rrwrtrl Prnf mwmnnni


'lri- L-ie E Iljlci Savirm .s *. Q-l.d $.-l ..ii Pollrnum. -tD 'e ih
Figure A-2 LEED Version 2.2 Checklist: Materials and Resources, Indoor Environmental
Quality, Innovation and Design Process. Reprinted with permission from USGBC.
USGBC. (2006) LEED-NC Version 2.2 Reference Guide, US Green Building
Council, Washington, DC.









LIST OF REFERENCES

Kibert, C. (1999) Reshaping the Built Environment, Island Press, Washington D.C.

Kibert, C. (2005) Sustainable Construction, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ

Mann, M., Rahmstorf, S., Schmidt, G., Steig, E., Connolley, W. (2005) "Senator Inhofe on
Climate Change" Real Climate, 10 Jan. 2005. http://www.realclimate.org/index.php?p=97
April 2007

Mawhinney, M. (2002) Sustainable Development Understanding the Green Debates, Blackwell
Publishing, Oxford

Mazaria, E. (2003) "It's the Architecture, Stupid!" Solar Today, May-June, 48-51
http://www.mazria.com/ItsTheArchitectureStupid.pdf April 2007

Meadows, D.H., Randers, J., Meadows, D. (1974) The Limits to GI ,In th/, Universe Books, New
York

Reed, B. (2006) "Shifting our Mental Model 'Sustainability' to Regeneration" Building
Research & Information, April

Schendler, A., and Udall, R. "LEED is Broken; Lets Fix It" Construction Record, 126, 910-924

TNS. (2002) The Natural Step Framework Guidebook, The Natural Step, Ottawa, Ontario

Turek, J. (2005) "A History of Sustainability" Centerfor Applied Policy Research April 5
http://www.cap-lmu.de/fgz/portals/sustainability/history.php April 2007

USGBC. (2006) LEED-NC Version 2.2 Reference Guide, US Green Building Council,
Washington, DC.

World Council on Economic Development (WCED). (1987) Our Common Future, Oxford, USA

Zimmerman, A., Kibert, C. (2006) Informing LEED-NC 3. O i/th The Natural Step, US Green
Building Council, Washington, D.C., 26 Dec. 2006









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Kyle Robert Galligar was born in Tampa, Florida on October 11th 1982. He was raised in

Jacksonville, Florida where he attended Stanton College Preparatory High School. During this

time he played varsity football, soccer, and ran track. After graduating from high school in 2001

Kyle attended Florida State University, where he earned a Bachelor of Science in real estate.

While attending FSU Kyle began taking classes at the Florida A&M University School of

Architecture. Soon after Kyle was accepted into the University of Florida Master of Architecture

program. During his visit to the school he learned of the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building

Construction, and was soon accepted to the Master of Science in Building Construction

program. Kyle has since completed the coursework for a Master of Science in Building

Construction, with a concentration in sustainability. Kyle has also become a LEED Accredited

Professional.