<%BANNER%>

Impact of Marketing Strategies on the Success of Small Residential Developers

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101207_AAAADF INGEST_TIME 2010-12-07T20:57:22Z PACKAGE UFE0020621_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 52764 DFID F20101207_AACHJX ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH williams_j_Page_08.pro GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
6be8bc7cb140339f1db72e13e00aad43
SHA-1
afefd62530c3f87b3464015d961753afc394fe05
7898 F20101207_AACHOV williams_j_Page_11thm.jpg
a4e2b0eb7c5fa84a543c2e002936b4ef
254541cef9156189611979d059038d522bd12c72
283365 F20101207_AACHHA williams_j_Page_47.jp2
4487666543e780004e49e140053c75ed
537f468014345e30235ef35bf0779af2504550db
7417 F20101207_AACHJY williams_j_Page_09.pro
12bd3ebb7a6b2e081e6242507c95d5b2
3e4d522eabec5c668c30044197369462f4699599
8124 F20101207_AACHOW williams_j_Page_18thm.jpg
68da92eb2aecfb3ee3dc512d12df3f76
fc63693275c364a12d2f7012d96352b5e9733500
292903 F20101207_AACHHB williams_j_Page_48.jp2
c2b6156d3db1313920f6c5e54e336031
7cc000696fe5c23230f77dbeecc4953791959357
46715 F20101207_AACHJZ williams_j_Page_10.pro
771869b065777d6a63fda2eeaf253b45
f7f3dc6fb80081577d1d010218c703f7db85ac52
26278 F20101207_AACHOX williams_j_Page_37.QC.jpg
61c9ad5b20ac8e43d7c4e442c8352d24
c11fc48acfa00f385576e59bb1552a3cfea0d061
308372 F20101207_AACHHC williams_j_Page_49.jp2
89dd1bf1afe5b258c3e093a180e3aac1
9bc1ccd4fca65bfcaceac8d2fcc8158041f1dbcf
17607 F20101207_AACHOY williams_j_Page_36.QC.jpg
9758b570788e176ab918853831df681f
16d4e465d118bf5110d3294c633570f7f2184053
304273 F20101207_AACHHD williams_j_Page_50.jp2
154839e815914692b3792f2c2b507869
81b434749dcf6a24ce60ebb226fe20be667a8874
3267 F20101207_AACHMA williams_j_Page_05.txt
7847c6e9695a0cbdf546527e7b9a58af
2007725e7c2ac55f12c2f9c77278b5532778195b
8164 F20101207_AACHOZ williams_j_Page_14thm.jpg
e66c2e42bfd51a90e3d3b87f8426d90e
bc6cddbfaf2a105f157adbf5f6a4ab9121da1574
453190 F20101207_AACHHE williams_j_Page_51.jp2
e9f5c1877221d3bdac26b4a0ee1ad19c
8defca31ba2703fcdcdeb3b0b1ec6aecab040b30
1972 F20101207_AACHMB williams_j_Page_06.txt
151fdff5fd29cf4e92a5f56786cc533e
58b05559fe85f2c5943f635f1c75cff7dc8d4dc5
104176 F20101207_AACHHF williams_j_Page_52.jp2
f136f984287be41017247e655755f56c
71a526520db797e91903a2210201fb6b4c08ac12
741 F20101207_AACHMC williams_j_Page_07.txt
4e7b1625a1d7b04748518e1a55cee3a4
157d4fba3753bda288741cd21d315561e802c2b1
58443 F20101207_AACHHG williams_j_Page_53.jp2
16f1bbac67c3b2b83d43ae3225a7189e
8acfa1840fa449207ece04ea335cd01708a3c19b
31296 F20101207_AACHRA williams_j_Page_27.QC.jpg
88766e91d5bc652850be78f8e51d5e43
469b89a2d4dcf2ada99f6e758f4e9c8e9a4d03d6
2246 F20101207_AACHMD williams_j_Page_08.txt
698ad580b2b30987b7c7890d575fe9e2
df59aaa42177c407d1e89f28fb6d44218c797e4f
135849 F20101207_AACHHH williams_j_Page_55.jp2
2bc56496d9596ff32cc63a872714dad7
43ee0c56de9a0791b6598ac98ffd91f12b7cadb2
6937 F20101207_AACHRB williams_j_Page_29thm.jpg
15b6e56be005bd94651c966d9ede7cd1
f758e184931c0ee86789ad646f00b193f51a730a
316 F20101207_AACHME williams_j_Page_09.txt
9a5cb4f3e811692410b42b8496caa60f
28f1329191eae8b6d9eab413d934bba69121f0ed
123753 F20101207_AACHHI williams_j_Page_56.jp2
dce92690072b43f04caf5bda4b4d14bc
0e80b84e69ae7335d33ca0083f8560f3b7371ebf
8502 F20101207_AACHRC williams_j_Page_30thm.jpg
6c9b455f107363a06a1bd09d1ad03e33
ae3c57be4e27b7d0bb732cc9d4961807ab00fb97
2043 F20101207_AACHMF williams_j_Page_10.txt
79c0a8dfc44f3c349fd5605b1840e06c
afbf2b5790177f6b337dde57e50a8fa957b0bf1b
81777 F20101207_AACHHJ williams_j_Page_57.jp2
18f240305576b4e4a6700e9a464a7aa5
3d911d86a1ee0df20525450f969491bd5b3bc996
35253 F20101207_AACHRD williams_j_Page_30.QC.jpg
79f3c451d0e0d50aa9ca4e7b79686229
1ed3593b453ed33b1de4302a8745b21717e93c60
2062 F20101207_AACHMG williams_j_Page_11.txt
e4be13d3a8e75fefaf0d295565ccb38d
fa9ae5bdd25568d5969ac681a031ae239a4066df
45596 F20101207_AACHHK williams_j_Page_58.jp2
326cda62a4b90c59227c127f238e1e28
4ae7a99b63b9622d68f102602c9c8a1dccdf0c24
3610 F20101207_AACHRE williams_j_Page_31.QC.jpg
88e42156fc4638caabd9a06c46b402a9
058c958f69f7cff8975814bdce53adb510182f4f
251 F20101207_AACHMH williams_j_Page_12.txt
de2af9a0b74b9748a6c78767b72f1232
a257614896bcf969c55c221d0c411b5ddcc7c973
1053954 F20101207_AACHHL williams_j_Page_01.tif
7250009073e630991ea38cf83b99f943
eb8bea719e7cb0ecd79ae3ff07ce413e6bc2d1c4
6135 F20101207_AACHRF williams_j_Page_32thm.jpg
8d7a4c6568ce1b08b81ea5e9f27635ce
3cb401c1a13562dc3bf9cfc214a5d09f4b41f881
2026 F20101207_AACHMI williams_j_Page_13.txt
382aa2c907b8ded7e7e9e963677cb66f
05a55fb2ee7119a339a277952e93cf778510a022
F20101207_AACHHM williams_j_Page_02.tif
afc425b107f9e819549b1d7000cc525a
8dbb5f9894bbd484ac1178fcff7c1c42a52e1a93
19847 F20101207_AACHRG williams_j_Page_32.QC.jpg
4229fa5f14da6fd5ef0bf14bc9428709
c582b9122f6486fedc823699004dd13f323484ff
2077 F20101207_AACHMJ williams_j_Page_14.txt
15a98eee782f06d3394d89604594aa81
33da922dd004d9e981ed478759a7331a9e9b80f8
F20101207_AACHHN williams_j_Page_03.tif
0a9192b67a68d8d0dd5f4ded756e516f
1c3e6c4db39e42411497026283b7fb09e9e406d6
6866 F20101207_AACHRH williams_j_Page_33thm.jpg
3361802b6dadfee5a57c7fa0c9ef46e4
3c1afa337d7ee1aa7d48d9f2fc0a5f49f41d43b2
761 F20101207_AACHMK williams_j_Page_15.txt
eb8fd7bf0755f51a72cc04713e650830
aeb65a50b5b35a4c43ce54aafc2377a864361bc9
3683 F20101207_AACHRI williams_j_Page_34thm.jpg
bb5a526b65e6e8a14bc7dacbc8ced759
e5490910cb954fa94346b08ae9b9b0b5d3aff065
2105 F20101207_AACHML williams_j_Page_16.txt
cb43c704a8f72878a1d7a1c931d21ac2
3bf874f7b75b56fd6f4986e9a249d9242e9daa80
F20101207_AACHHO williams_j_Page_04.tif
9bd545f910742cf276723fb7a91a3726
a2cf7f1b0a87918afc6245a0ae97a9272dedce83
11833 F20101207_AACHRJ williams_j_Page_34.QC.jpg
6af186c739a2eb9e55919ad9c3f3e967
c5f7b1892de4c41fafd1056b619b591db6fa4be3
2149 F20101207_AACHMM williams_j_Page_17.txt
cda5ea29cc957e3f93afad79f6819787
94e7f4d4a2353ecc83857a9e15c7820f92eb97c2
7222 F20101207_AACHRK williams_j_Page_35thm.jpg
342df47cca5cc03251884db2d6d18203
3e40f87f2f8fa6b5db99fb3b440614060bf5ca09
2008 F20101207_AACHMN williams_j_Page_18.txt
6fa18e2b8236c0b59f24426fcb495745
15f5eceff83aed3252737ab45ed036531c1539c0
25271604 F20101207_AACHHP williams_j_Page_05.tif
97c855ea21ba4de552a2f083ea37dfbc
ed6aafff29316c2fa2395716dca34035bae6de06
5654 F20101207_AACHRL williams_j_Page_36thm.jpg
f7e650827cd8989dfba82c5deee71a6a
36d7e3cf4c5bac46cd5a8306b00eaa1014b0e6da
2115 F20101207_AACHMO williams_j_Page_19.txt
dad6de2d51ae8c3f1bc409deaf082067
ff66b49293165ec97213b1e590633ae6b683d8ab
F20101207_AACHHQ williams_j_Page_06.tif
963dad76f50d634613d1717489d7fbbd
968c8640094795ccc3f7f38010fb3e8b4557ddb0
4908 F20101207_AACHRM williams_j_Page_38thm.jpg
ac3f6281a815eb7d6c1096ee9eca7fa0
d555c47f6394617913d3bb6808b298476f8d6a46
90780 F20101207_AACHCU williams_j_Page_25.jpg
006963597c133b8eef629f9fa18512a7
301d2a55c9145612274f6a3172d9add0bb372651
1964 F20101207_AACHMP williams_j_Page_20.txt
7b8255b4744ee6bb59a108b755b43f86
e8866ca5a2661888760574c581473956287449fa
F20101207_AACHHR williams_j_Page_07.tif
dfb76761bc2177eb8150b972a715e92d
6b39d7bed77754841f7b7ba2b07bfb45f40579ce
16533 F20101207_AACHRN williams_j_Page_38.QC.jpg
8d9d19f36ee8790542bfe6a3aa3fc430
d05671b7d596779b5a0d818adab50ab39af54146
663451 F20101207_AACHCV williams_j_Page_54.jp2
0e74a572b23fedf37afb9c46ffd58d7d
ad584f2e0b78ed8344039b1586ab99f8e01e7577
1852 F20101207_AACHMQ williams_j_Page_21.txt
f3b1977698f051fd98cc2ad44affbc10
72f4d011899ad67d7b84e41f6e9caff63218eae9
F20101207_AACHHS williams_j_Page_08.tif
91c8e11e9c75e9c91d28e72262c1c84e
0c59a7a4f19e210272ad1bafb2f14030b3d93fe9
32680 F20101207_AACHRO williams_j_Page_39.QC.jpg
7136d4cfdc0e78a666ccae26c494ebb9
ffd1b8c040c92582d7f259d739519960dbb38ef4
F20101207_AACHCW williams_j_Page_32.tif
ab3bddf6f1d547becb888d292944cefe
6e7bbf2c8b82ef7a73a774912a1dcb157f6edace
1828 F20101207_AACHMR williams_j_Page_22.txt
79b05667e0ce2b4ff5e1fbdc2f4b0b35
0a185788b69968b0c2f92d2a7b156124261b6d4f
F20101207_AACHHT williams_j_Page_09.tif
425650f49eaf17b577dfbb89674ce53f
c658e5332e95f0aec70bac7aaca8ec7af6352d3d
8072 F20101207_AACHRP williams_j_Page_40thm.jpg
a27df953547f8daf418b1859a79880f3
9c43cfbe49f4f8952488fc8398b18ef9853aa484
1051978 F20101207_AACHCX williams_j_Page_37.jp2
32577474239edef8f50e76537936c723
8af467cc41563d0423a1d6f773d9a11db8def6df
1759 F20101207_AACHMS williams_j_Page_23.txt
83f11b8ffa1ed0291dc93fb19e796dda
b0d3f5e45a31e5faba0652c558e5193916300120
F20101207_AACHHU williams_j_Page_10.tif
4f41fb31edef6d36490e51b2b0806b8e
134b2e21fd9d18ed50efa173ae56ebb518506b83
32019 F20101207_AACHRQ williams_j_Page_40.QC.jpg
e1e543b14360e3220318ed07891b9ac0
241aad0d5de1c0d6a5f9c517ec3b6224baf9b7cf
6674 F20101207_AACHCY williams_j_Page_54thm.jpg
3fde974358c2246c54f2d5a8e68e0e3b
51b6408e06e32dbb920ae7b15872d42309b548d8
F20101207_AACHHV williams_j_Page_11.tif
e815ca12a53f06bb55e00a91b3c15e83
c598967ba36abf26eec06b0d3d0fea5a5134f6ff
8035 F20101207_AACHRR williams_j_Page_41thm.jpg
8f023a0c666a29ac2b6971176c2407e8
972b7eb7261f1ab0b70d7cd84c51d55245ecbe98
69724 F20101207_AACHCZ UFE0020621_00001.mets FULL
6f33e4ce98f11306e18911595540ccfe
00fdb90f1b3b7e0483e13fb7376d509150e6a971
1958 F20101207_AACHMT williams_j_Page_24.txt
b38e196f87139d8992b62ff1467c5727
911f61c7ed8f270528389c948e3e0d3670103af2
F20101207_AACHHW williams_j_Page_12.tif
efa2de85245f460386cb31468996b02b
beb3677b18ccf0be41117bac0a3f16e624c90747
1202 F20101207_AACHRS williams_j_Page_42thm.jpg
021bf2dfa38caf7b717c5c688b9b1aab
d74c917ee42a0cd71a6a4a6bf0740fbc2504f4c3
1811 F20101207_AACHMU williams_j_Page_25.txt
99c633f7e1b1f44a60bba22522969daf
1fcc80eb75b7d9f45632b19dacac54af09f97a9d
F20101207_AACHHX williams_j_Page_13.tif
82ee888417058dcd6fa719ce2766ccb0
ae43292d68c572f25abdc44da1f6e2ebfdd7e9b2
4678 F20101207_AACHRT williams_j_Page_42.QC.jpg
d15c6b0070278b89f218dfb1af4dc9a0
9210c0f5936dc8d6e8f8a6c07c45d61130183175
2024 F20101207_AACHMV williams_j_Page_26.txt
bcc4443b5dd7d11249cf282d7e5f304e
6faa0fc3fee21ac6770cb8ba354e6f1ab96da5dc
98736 F20101207_AACHFA williams_j_Page_52.jpg
63e2c12599dd3fe12d426b3c269a7656
6b15a4d0ceadec800f0c7df8b2e1c893ae44c93a
F20101207_AACHHY williams_j_Page_14.tif
c8b20188e60ccfb4ba5fd4f80efc75a2
da1d00db9bde607bb70c436b063403a39954161d
8298 F20101207_AACHRU williams_j_Page_43thm.jpg
daaace9ca6ee79ace8c5088ac158bfa9
a697a89483a063e4f6cc55611f3eaf2fdfdcf35b
1944 F20101207_AACHMW williams_j_Page_27.txt
22f40d3cbd6f0804ba492b88bcfbc754
0b86761c1f17564e4ba70a6ee5300cbc5242c993
54047 F20101207_AACHFB williams_j_Page_53.jpg
710e6ea61b645ffa812c1e6b72aab43f
015b9796c1549bffeab8be44fc04ac97fd00f19c
F20101207_AACHHZ williams_j_Page_15.tif
7f3e5db36a07f6a0a059369b0e98c665
85d37763752df681e019848b977ed699adf6b864
31968 F20101207_AACHRV williams_j_Page_43.QC.jpg
f815774c5e26c3a5f1b28c8b8da44238
5683ae9eab13e8a334baf6f1b9abacba7d2f7568
1882 F20101207_AACHMX williams_j_Page_28.txt
facb7a4733cc58757786074a0a63e23d
5f4cc821be6364c5826489fbe022ee1e29b8996c
72694 F20101207_AACHFC williams_j_Page_54.jpg
2f02e7fd1f48f8bd4d9cc430c049fe10
a733be765dc4d13520f431eab6adb9dd912bdc62
5105 F20101207_AACHRW williams_j_Page_45thm.jpg
afc2b57a67cd45edf68f68fc6f1769cd
a351ce289280b2fca7ff6fa0a8943e43647c0255
47458 F20101207_AACHKA williams_j_Page_11.pro
c8f82d48a2e5f7c0d21c320814a6425a
bcce9cabb71c55839bb5d15943963d48c0a8b402
1702 F20101207_AACHMY williams_j_Page_29.txt
d475c51507bea0ba3c70fd340e4962e4
069e926a49bc291e3db27862e658b3565cf0cbf0
13023 F20101207_AACHFD williams_j_Page_55.jpg
4f9fbd4b4057f4b9dbd92ad9c8152b71
b3ecf2b7818ccd961534c9f4f13bc452cfc60dc2
4689 F20101207_AACHRX williams_j_Page_46thm.jpg
6ac27d200ef862773d5a37936a809568
f327fcf22b855d90a887c63f4b735e4472e5372e
6191 F20101207_AACHKB williams_j_Page_12.pro
6944548ea076c6478afb82a7ee196a34
f96570a171a6e9fc8a131dd6483fbbae0f280ff4
2319 F20101207_AACHMZ williams_j_Page_30.txt
6edad4f1702d767daa31e2fe45a9ba7e
5233f44a567ca7f8c7ff29011aaf72d22103056e
110197 F20101207_AACHFE williams_j_Page_56.jpg
4a9094a1339a27817dd38357faa576b2
256350cff27a8a765cce7be3aa7f21c281a55225
46692 F20101207_AACHKC williams_j_Page_13.pro
2f9252f054b60a0a585487fddb5cb5f8
92d7a7fa3a393aa69ec2a90f0be6a05513837474
78097 F20101207_AACHFF williams_j_Page_57.jpg
92a3b4bc9b56bbc70e34f2bcd17bd11a
d35f145f0e2dca38edbf0d866017209ef26c472e
50499 F20101207_AACHKD williams_j_Page_14.pro
5e5a5766bf9b964a511db778834a8a82
71d55a5930ad84c94c0429dc64e8a3e059920cfd
43487 F20101207_AACHFG williams_j_Page_58.jpg
1d5e91ceab312e8922b75dd2356ea690
67e1c881650cad52490ac8f5eb0722772951660f
519 F20101207_AACHPA williams_j_Page_02thm.jpg
61acd8991e28129a529584f5dd392e50
a4b1f5d20ddc7646610853668a3a8e31ff3a7796
13733 F20101207_AACHRY williams_j_Page_46.QC.jpg
bc5e7b0fcbcd8bfdce8b7cd527b7d1c4
dc7de9ceb0114560a6c5afc1401cf6b5747b743b
17873 F20101207_AACHKE williams_j_Page_15.pro
837f71a1c796105fe0261c7c4cad376d
5803a618e314be56ac0fc3ca5c3676827cf17ac8
25439 F20101207_AACHFH williams_j_Page_01.jp2
0851c6f276630d798f346ae38302da19
90d8c8d8522a36929d01ee796ba0f68e832867f8
1536 F20101207_AACHPB williams_j_Page_12thm.jpg
60955510385dbb35ecccf28c203da31d
607575c28cd3f93fe1be689d8eb81e4b98a6b134
4589 F20101207_AACHRZ williams_j_Page_47thm.jpg
cf61fe39901f744f18f06a5d4d463c08
3ba07bc9c7adc974504233089555ad06495eb13b
50514 F20101207_AACHKF williams_j_Page_16.pro
c6a5a3b6e6abbad8e656775f776c0124
171b46f56f5dcabb4507c8f6204fc2c6e4b23e63
5228 F20101207_AACHFI williams_j_Page_02.jp2
10f3b0c351e300edb349ce266879ec6d
12ee5155a9747ccc02e6c0e439cbe71eff772aeb
4901 F20101207_AACHPC williams_j_Page_51thm.jpg
bb2bb5e8214905f8655f39778d72ffe7
0a0ea598de51d8d5764dc8290fa0d2b9c04abeaf
54252 F20101207_AACHKG williams_j_Page_17.pro
48f0181e663ac9472367e2765adb3c52
f76ba3a1ebad041cd4d6c5b5fa90cc217997f106
10201 F20101207_AACHFJ williams_j_Page_03.jp2
1ac004d3707a925dd8fd9bdc5790ef37
2d7c8e201950c4aef22eccdcbd791cdbbf13b6c8
8126 F20101207_AACHPD williams_j_Page_26thm.jpg
3101b711a09f0b6db5c93b2d76a91a5d
fb06b5fce218bce2f1409cc1b5c0faf4ce776c8b
51006 F20101207_AACHKH williams_j_Page_18.pro
5f19af2db7333b7d427b435af2ee484f
4a0931279013be00289d52d19168984891c5062e
92446 F20101207_AACHFK williams_j_Page_04.jp2
2bb57a5a3950082853b4588be15f9687
d1bd022e415e7f7b394cd857045178f9af300859
29557 F20101207_AACHPE williams_j_Page_25.QC.jpg
98ba8c139ed70a3c0ec340fda3271a0a
56356e1e9537cd2206712ac83619881aa81680bd
53148 F20101207_AACHKI williams_j_Page_19.pro
1381c99be4216d9e6044c4d8c4172165
c65e3a52c9bf4e1411e558d2ab27d077bbb4b437
1051980 F20101207_AACHFL williams_j_Page_05.jp2
bd7ab326939d732b6907b2eec680e1b0
ab8dd26d2e6e51f20acac1eb49b3c6fffdf9fe73
7818 F20101207_AACHPF williams_j_Page_25thm.jpg
c0d18917cca350d0f04c8191d5cb9a27
56f79a804257518283aadd4e4240028fd9686bf2
48964 F20101207_AACHKJ williams_j_Page_20.pro
71570b8674106b0404168eb1001ff768
0eb752b8fdc2fedfd7aa2a2857d4269603ec4d2c
8617 F20101207_AACHPG williams_j_Page_19thm.jpg
3f1f84c6f981047fa8820c255a5a1f6e
cde87832aa84523aade9338018156382b0e8ec6d
46184 F20101207_AACHKK williams_j_Page_21.pro
b3c1ff54f03f7bb42da3ee5c8373083c
e292bf6bc3198cf422a8fca794f0a2ca0a2e9149
1051975 F20101207_AACHFM williams_j_Page_06.jp2
b370cef90e927224a671094159dc46ce
ae8ec394619247e8e8a7b28b39aa988fefada04f
7788 F20101207_AACHPH williams_j_Page_27thm.jpg
8624f48244afae3192533a155d4f87c3
88e0d20b03243fae6a53699926a724627efcb7e4
45944 F20101207_AACHKL williams_j_Page_22.pro
e33be338e74d1293ba87d347a19491ee
3b589fb0f74903ae2cb11fce9a4a1193c8cf7092
559642 F20101207_AACHFN williams_j_Page_07.jp2
67f49c3459f5642e72c1e0185724ef9b
a0bfb776186c85e3af902372df890d267bd1b6f2
29471 F20101207_AACHPI williams_j_Page_28.QC.jpg
478ce0dda5461eafab7f4de7ec146ee6
609e1da3ef287e0698f4bd87eb8fc84a3c6b6ff0
1051977 F20101207_AACHFO williams_j_Page_08.jp2
11c6d45e272ca48b8a7a35a69c4580db
c71b0314e6f45f51061f5b30321a1ab361ae59a4
15027 F20101207_AACHPJ williams_j_Page_45.QC.jpg
b3277f02dc72de530e38850d2a426791
da30dbe42d137d5cec722c861821fe9679654377
43442 F20101207_AACHKM williams_j_Page_23.pro
59c7b593b2f33fe5b07f1a7f373945ae
6a6a6b1b0ebfb2708738dc13049d3f503d1e1f74
260474 F20101207_AACHFP williams_j_Page_09.jp2
e9b7e83a615703a4bc02e34b24ee385a
3a081a59e28579a4614bee054b21abd0437f9646
32352 F20101207_AACHPK williams_j_Page_26.QC.jpg
b8e4c1dd4ea84968a413c14c75bb0b2f
df720396ed2177d8be790ac9fbeedf6e6d83c8d9
49487 F20101207_AACHKN williams_j_Page_24.pro
3ed83bb1df2492dab26e38bb70e6e92d
2abecc2efb1cde7b1eb9ba213c5314771b3d5c40
100271 F20101207_AACHFQ williams_j_Page_10.jp2
494577a85c88902b0e612c35ddecad36
d5bfc282f9624656c94fafcc021f68786984a3cf
913 F20101207_AACHPL williams_j_Page_31thm.jpg
26ee71e73344bc5cecc680a89897b0ca
d00331084aeb6010ed95710f704dc1eaadb5b4cb
45482 F20101207_AACHKO williams_j_Page_25.pro
907576c2a3b36e10d4efa8a603f1a3d3
022767d9116c9c0b48ff11270d100c807b6cbef3
100422 F20101207_AACHFR williams_j_Page_11.jp2
d738fd3a6d4d5e8c663726e93b569c03
1822358ed2993649e3acff222436824e08e28570
14608 F20101207_AACHPM williams_j_Page_49.QC.jpg
dad7a6efce12aa1feb0d3eeca0b50206
d2c1c84156cefe5cda23a446ce5c4f97e9add3ec
50975 F20101207_AACHKP williams_j_Page_26.pro
0d63c746261b6aae39c822b984d77c1c
f9cedd422902ad5327bdde4bf47d5822eb45c6be
17095 F20101207_AACHFS williams_j_Page_12.jp2
6092cc280129de8ce414e19d507fdd64
2d38310e6257965770d4643f74e65260c8a7c953
29414 F20101207_AACHPN williams_j_Page_35.QC.jpg
d089827450aafee956608cf9ba65a60f
9b01ca1e7bf96f24f04352c250cfe54d57c74541
49094 F20101207_AACHKQ williams_j_Page_27.pro
492983ab2f18f14614e36344a2fd658e
5c6ee07544791c8ddd54920e5897574cafe417e3
100324 F20101207_AACHFT williams_j_Page_13.jp2
5c1f865113da7b2dfa06f8ee61d3fdc8
33dfe6d6f7a6d1ae18109896502ffb8d17b4fdf5
31569 F20101207_AACHPO williams_j_Page_11.QC.jpg
83160a8466304016c5bdc22f1afa9d26
8dc2641f8dbfe104a3686043a5900fe0f529857c
108184 F20101207_AACHFU williams_j_Page_14.jp2
93737c1deadfe5ce90ddff57ddb3e338
46b73a0e55ae39ad1fffc2463a403626009f8ad4
936 F20101207_AACHPP williams_j_Page_03thm.jpg
a4fe2c7f391065f76a1e31babc7657ba
caaf8284164f07894f929cb81878069843a89fa2
46670 F20101207_AACHKR williams_j_Page_28.pro
0ecc991b5954ce88e025ec59037ce161
bdfd430600617b555d91b2a78e04557b2c69bd81
41427 F20101207_AACHFV williams_j_Page_15.jp2
44adb8e4d01b162b83fbf78cabe58d8f
e415e47eb95adbc847ba8bdc25e89641abd6a7e6
32106 F20101207_AACHPQ williams_j_Page_56.QC.jpg
589ef97c861561a8e5d1d7b40a3e4618
995af8e6008446223d3b431f2d977d389fb98c78
42363 F20101207_AACHKS williams_j_Page_29.pro
7acd72b6d08e6ea985c3a562d921eb3b
2123af3fe89b1c387537c6199b547775eacbbf17
108340 F20101207_AACHFW williams_j_Page_16.jp2
d4f9cc037a4a7e46acf9c7a83d00b7b1
7a537cc04cb8301ba887e99f703f282c1c834146
8721 F20101207_AACHPR williams_j_Page_17thm.jpg
a168301bda1a6bc2cc34f7598c4df60e
a00a4b4ffbc2828b68538acc3ad2a6422a407e4b
56685 F20101207_AACHKT williams_j_Page_30.pro
815cf7404ba9281d5db25a95972fd8dd
32eb313b8e567a775ce8c39adffc78bdcd814b23
115114 F20101207_AACHFX williams_j_Page_17.jp2
29365879cc5432ac8a883ddebeb07261
08849bf972971c601a0acdd717edf4d1844edfad
27545 F20101207_AACHPS williams_j_Page_29.QC.jpg
a2bcba3d96f0c786c9772e0bf419c660
e2e3daac9bc12f7ec6f7624c7f7c5c9903e577db
4277 F20101207_AACHKU williams_j_Page_31.pro
b1356b27edc7becaf73b68e2e2c4bd06
8dfbf48f65b0cfa60df2ee77457868ba663f6677
108773 F20101207_AACHFY williams_j_Page_18.jp2
91441ef66ec6d23b42255f2016ce8bb3
5bc6a4ff3b09dcc07e639b641e987a01b297cb2e
2074 F20101207_AACHPT williams_j_Page_01thm.jpg
c7aaea994453ee6281ccd8c5c2b8972f
5d388584e8d2e47829fea0f593db78b801e921a8
12943 F20101207_AACHKV williams_j_Page_32.pro
f2703f44dc5fbcd6d5c825af578ef30c
854b77bf0d361f99c8079c3d04b84621e6eb0fd3
114560 F20101207_AACHFZ williams_j_Page_19.jp2
9e72a8bd8cac0e1e6750fda6405c0309
5dbcd3b1851cc05509ce01b772f1748dc6cb8a39
32311 F20101207_AACHPU williams_j_Page_24.QC.jpg
faaff2d19223c37e9319061f27d995df
9ed61a851f862fcacc7714eeb52ab953078e6162
7557 F20101207_AACHKW williams_j_Page_33.pro
fd9b37f84dbf179d87ca5e9d1fa63df7
b9b9ce4f4ad3b1a733582706fa959f1c109ba33a
7518 F20101207_AACHPV williams_j_Page_28thm.jpg
51b5ea50a33ed3cc6f9268e382484cc2
63bfcaa64c91378dbf5c407f7ccb929d5caaa042
10980 F20101207_AACHKX williams_j_Page_34.pro
1ebd1779a42b9863429fd2fcb9cc0b9b
463e846493c5727b9d272fbff282a0324b6ab4ff
26347 F20101207_AACHDC williams_j_Page_01.jpg
a9ad3826d16b4af4de7d492f69beed6c
9212b81229897c2c0f01c107b894bc790c95f77b
F20101207_AACHIA williams_j_Page_16.tif
af65c97e2823eac809f923c95dd6c936
094e22ed609652e4f190850bc3971a52a84741d0
23889 F20101207_AACHKY williams_j_Page_35.pro
9ac985c4b7524ae8da856b1d90860906
440b6488095448a1109d7c0e4dc2cd67aa42ee4e
4009 F20101207_AACHDD williams_j_Page_02.jpg
12333a667aaa83ab5750c420bc11d448
666d1b166bfbe599b6d80ae01c9a61712ef14b9d
90075 F20101207_AACHPW UFE0020621_00001.xml
326e3bf82c5411164541b9006efb43fd
26cdd30e46988aa901c61d5b17793abcf1a77e05
F20101207_AACHIB williams_j_Page_17.tif
6135dcc7b7505efeb07aebd09b0446ff
8dc4116969b477544562d6ada30da7cd697ce5c8
7017 F20101207_AACHKZ williams_j_Page_36.pro
f1155d7a52a04b5671cf45c78e50ae29
f9c97621f813b3c32cd898ed04770260d26e41eb
9149 F20101207_AACHDE williams_j_Page_03.jpg
2a3fc56b8e1f40640222328c8fbf10d5
ddedcb6c51624c327448ee48e10b938c19734378
8645 F20101207_AACHPX williams_j_Page_01.QC.jpg
7bc6797b1998d9d59ec4a91a349ab929
77be25e0924c6542cd12bda4018978747639f854
F20101207_AACHIC williams_j_Page_18.tif
834809e3c7a00dd5aee8cfd4b6b84796
1b00d22b1672daf9b853d21dfb9dea3a96fd4c31
88180 F20101207_AACHDF williams_j_Page_04.jpg
9cea34e34db38265c26b89d9ffc0bfa2
a4ef2aab4c65538698eca81ebcdf611e2afb658d
171 F20101207_AACHNA williams_j_Page_31.txt
82e00c126f6570d224a3788d40163492
f2156bd50805022dee59455add2da0d9302f9721
1188 F20101207_AACHPY williams_j_Page_02.QC.jpg
c35b19657ba8018c9742f8178579affc
178d7f9ac745de6d73b2e4fbfb00713cc6fb8d7f
F20101207_AACHID williams_j_Page_19.tif
ce7b0faac55f62ae022d359d2727bc97
384b1f9795bf1597b13d6192fb5e33005be84ccf
116177 F20101207_AACHDG williams_j_Page_05.jpg
e5a34db439e3e5c1e241b3405146c564
5b5d43512a25c3b36638571605ea3d6f82097028
538 F20101207_AACHNB williams_j_Page_32.txt
cbe2d49e11d9d180cafe31b7ed058528
213e43837b1fa03787a69410587cc5d5778a6c61
3157 F20101207_AACHPZ williams_j_Page_03.QC.jpg
7f880498d40022cac0672b26aeae3a90
08402e351e8596407866059301ef1abae5d91437
F20101207_AACHIE williams_j_Page_20.tif
5add9cebc9378855fd7c498144024272
a6c9878486b5d0e5dae0ac516f47c230162a61c2
77101 F20101207_AACHDH williams_j_Page_06.jpg
6c9fc835b73e9e11582a029844273a86
9de316097c5941dcb1553c0dd389d49c2b725bfd
555 F20101207_AACHNC williams_j_Page_33.txt
7615b00bbdf16844f24bf4440206febd
a7021c576f226ee958c879d55e7062944778ad78
F20101207_AACHIF williams_j_Page_21.tif
24d03934013d21b003a2ed138e3bee5a
aa0af8b77aec3260783094fec08e13a47ec95403
33980 F20101207_AACHDI williams_j_Page_07.jpg
b4abbe29eb07ad9c51070cda0779789e
3b7b27e7b10edf9e67760bd1ab433aef8e727315
504 F20101207_AACHND williams_j_Page_34.txt
fe449182e34ce78baad647d8379cad0c
871eeab89db6fb4217e28d08bd17717fa3cb9c9e
F20101207_AACHIG williams_j_Page_22.tif
889344f3ecb41d7dd21794c4dbec1339
aabf108413c0b463d786cb5da730e64a5d9c081b
4702 F20101207_AACHSA williams_j_Page_48thm.jpg
060538f3f6aa2fd753140f5fc3fed2bf
f4a41651b66e22c67142872b8d6c0c651af6a272
96333 F20101207_AACHDJ williams_j_Page_08.jpg
6c1bc972cd2f31f5e3afa6eeb2c959b2
103e9fe474c2f910269ec214675e6a47b330da0f
1438 F20101207_AACHNE williams_j_Page_35.txt
0d90e5bc2cb037e4396a2e4f1bfadc8c
83660dea83eaa7df2c1d4b7cf96e9e2ac6e42aab
F20101207_AACHIH williams_j_Page_23.tif
d013237f7184e6035c58df157a1b44b3
56711affdc6b06e6d0489ec72c3c06fafa734d5a
4919 F20101207_AACHSB williams_j_Page_49thm.jpg
8878182a65d7913e12b8e4cb90a351fe
9c88cdfa067e8523d22892e92b14cf854cf6d5cc
331 F20101207_AACHNF williams_j_Page_36.txt
4d814957497225864274e91a81bfe8e0
9a37fc7d7bafad4f6f861a54fd4ca8bf0e61fd05
F20101207_AACHII williams_j_Page_24.tif
1857e57325aad7205ec368c72cf9bedc
d7b7ca33cf0f8baf77241230a92d302c7d9eb17d
F20101207_AACHSC williams_j_Page_50.QC.jpg
11cdd0d7f00b044ccb8ec172b09f655c
99aa11f70b2d36b873e023c23462876e4828db3c
17649 F20101207_AACHDK williams_j_Page_09.jpg
4c30b38984e3b13fbae376ce3507ab66
277ae678b7c17f18971bd99fa9403f29661e1730
347 F20101207_AACHNG williams_j_Page_37.txt
b297052230f07a1915280038707df751
915b9b2d9e6fa1b8930560ab0555ba20f91d509b
F20101207_AACHIJ williams_j_Page_25.tif
45f1e1cf61aceac5e4301cc9a08525fe
cd5fec2507cef4ee654d75784aa58d8523f93087
15695 F20101207_AACHSD williams_j_Page_51.QC.jpg
63e5142d7d8acc43c01d805af912ffef
94ac1eef5882c2eb87a528c6bf1490d21e2422b6
97624 F20101207_AACHDL williams_j_Page_10.jpg
6c70af49f5993d6d8f60b94f9f41c6a2
f9a74b790e7d2c58a7c233861d752415750cca97
370 F20101207_AACHNH williams_j_Page_38.txt
e3df22da857b99baa8ee569d0fcd4fce
edeae4ad121ee641ad6d7a8e1fbf439871eef9a7
F20101207_AACHIK williams_j_Page_26.tif
9f8b5c493c1c74e6051b3bfda039fafd
a940d723264ef2a2e1b38f7710fdff5a3ba049fe
8083 F20101207_AACHSE williams_j_Page_52thm.jpg
c8dffd33969214f4bdb5b2c42ea165b7
1f677f5c690072dcee10d597d0ea765ab0f9db83
95540 F20101207_AACHDM williams_j_Page_11.jpg
9ff417ecf01a9f556e8f23414db35667
f586e20ff7306063c976d5414da9bb50076c41e7
F20101207_AACHIL williams_j_Page_27.tif
520fb4ee2d6775deff7bb3dc96d5d15d
d6155314b7d9b1878b75df49ff5bbc80b2f1de20
32193 F20101207_AACHSF williams_j_Page_52.QC.jpg
952a9531f285a8793827d57360c70842
9d666c4ad34ede80fd9b6e73072c0f259098ac35
15502 F20101207_AACHDN williams_j_Page_12.jpg
4ade6b60988f3d6a177f8794a1070e3e
7dd89a63fcfd6cd1bacbc72bb0250d8f4c57e8bf
2038 F20101207_AACHNI williams_j_Page_39.txt
24ef53ac569d8419033936fc715f5752
b9526ee1e6f4f9d24b6167aefaa137615599d267
4372 F20101207_AACHSG williams_j_Page_53thm.jpg
cfeba704e3762ff6307a24cc67d1fdb1
b00db728130725041db0d86391f5713adf04ccbe
F20101207_AACHIM williams_j_Page_28.tif
5e38ad2fa593c26dbfe864a14efe4d6f
e0fede7564848b2d0e2afdf2b9b41611514e3dc1
93452 F20101207_AACHDO williams_j_Page_13.jpg
2422ea61c6be672e8a1e6b8ec5bef7c1
e9b4852ac0412fa7ab142a3c61ae2f0b13625e9e
1955 F20101207_AACHNJ williams_j_Page_40.txt
6857013e1090e390d7cec88c58074bed
0aba511088201ba24b00b0301ba710262ada098e
17958 F20101207_AACHSH williams_j_Page_53.QC.jpg
51bb5158ad86bcdc6208f2f3d298637f
9db0d75bc20b945631b3d0bca54a36e491afd7c2
F20101207_AACHIN williams_j_Page_29.tif
45773b1111ba69c2d45aa8ef52c48f33
ee3d4dd0fd352631cb0656b8277f7964e72a14e7
101409 F20101207_AACHDP williams_j_Page_14.jpg
d0658a834cb688361ebeed8238e63134
2b468f6ad199a70121ce997689d49e7dbad4a2f1
1783 F20101207_AACHNK williams_j_Page_41.txt
ee49017dfdd4f7c2111318ca50f8ad9d
67e87dcdfeb83d95fb5be477f94219fae57b411a
24795 F20101207_AACHSI williams_j_Page_54.QC.jpg
2d08e16beaf5e8e8fbbf62aac304d829
8491901fc0250d143f87fc369e5e20f2e37676bc
F20101207_AACHIO williams_j_Page_30.tif
92609066d5a24f63629d4f99f2d5558b
2995d3ed1ecd4c59782a77f9f4b5a5337ff2904a
38382 F20101207_AACHDQ williams_j_Page_15.jpg
ab6ee48399bc9d089a01d7a2072a01b4
e9aede19a0f3d8702dd70dcfdeb973fda2ca2562
179 F20101207_AACHNL williams_j_Page_42.txt
b01cb783cbcd9b89c7ce9f5a64f6ed94
c0ede4ce28b070930b0a173a482f8790d4257660
1820 F20101207_AACHSJ williams_j_Page_55thm.jpg
92dc3b10f0befa2daeb49ba6cde3c063
0cf3b33c8fa7d9c6378b96bf57d320ea3701b470
102263 F20101207_AACHDR williams_j_Page_16.jpg
0d6a97874db6f618e0799d9f39fe0e09
f3dac96795a4340eb7aa2372bcbf7fb1844aa36a
796 F20101207_AACHNM williams_j_Page_43.txt
613e5e7863cb891e9fc499dd712fd81f
aef847a957edb5b9555dd389372ebfb5dda3b49c
4979 F20101207_AACHSK williams_j_Page_55.QC.jpg
b62b5fc6feb629f77f60cb48267544d7
79f3473d2694d35aa8a23178b435758966321971
F20101207_AACHIP williams_j_Page_31.tif
b4fa7c81ae4eb2bd593ec4c2c47bf880
a1623d5fdb319b9a46ff31366380317f41c59df9
108109 F20101207_AACHDS williams_j_Page_17.jpg
a3570fa5ccb50739c263afb739bac71e
1eacd94dea885d03c3fd26e5f1c5a5045276f2f9
1036 F20101207_AACHNN williams_j_Page_44.txt
f46f45b101eea2974ca6802577cec696
f29d02ef69dc3ec9fbaebe657f1282d9f285e778
5550 F20101207_AACHSL williams_j_Page_57thm.jpg
98ec65fe832d2bf0b03dd0868f12c624
558b72b0373281a5b6129fecab077cd4b9e22bf8
F20101207_AACHIQ williams_j_Page_33.tif
c1b10fc206382fdfb5f5757549b90560
8315439bfde7be9a33ebe01d27b2961ad975d230
103036 F20101207_AACHDT williams_j_Page_18.jpg
2d5f23ff463525ee7635bc57d840ab0c
2dbdef3c87c738c4f6b0ee83071271f8b40bd519
416 F20101207_AACHNO williams_j_Page_45.txt
811785dc32c29b59f1fce47fbfb30afc
6ac2e008658dfeee25d2f258f2ce4710e3d1e606
22242 F20101207_AACHSM williams_j_Page_57.QC.jpg
a60ed0a06cad41d05f740994a629ecb4
268abf90c155042650c6f5805fcaec769a5b1585
F20101207_AACHIR williams_j_Page_34.tif
f4c0815f832ddc32d87d35f2f237c22c
9edc582f0bcf798e5eb3edd44de460c376b84f62
108333 F20101207_AACHDU williams_j_Page_19.jpg
592384945136c03301d21d0147f1e5d0
b0c12a36b02655ba7aa73b7e530815380a074465
408 F20101207_AACHNP williams_j_Page_46.txt
86f5c8b04886e31fea8560069a71f651
09bd79b0c97d40bcaaff1e10e96989a17a59ea30
3589 F20101207_AACHSN williams_j_Page_58thm.jpg
85f6905c4f4105feb017a49b1d3a834b
98a8ae598b30206bbc1266a9e74421ab6f154812
F20101207_AACHIS williams_j_Page_35.tif
2efd5fbd625faa89242c6fdb159e1a3f
11f079fe1f4a372d2ef476ece6c179933e405da2
99554 F20101207_AACHDV williams_j_Page_20.jpg
ea7fc6613e5685e2564b4f9da53147cf
07e1da0e34332e670b4a9144b79869e57135f6c2
458 F20101207_AACHNQ williams_j_Page_47.txt
f4e9154d1b46f28ef97d5ac0ac5fb870
d207583bf6d19ab5a03a5f03016d8a91830303e9
13906 F20101207_AACHSO williams_j_Page_58.QC.jpg
939ca886f0de7cc0e8ae8f151861bfbb
99ce2005eb5a414385335745d466fbb6291b8288
F20101207_AACHIT williams_j_Page_36.tif
d18c63d45663834f8ca2df78110c9505
1b9969226bc74b731d42935cbaaad5621bffb0f6
92671 F20101207_AACHDW williams_j_Page_21.jpg
442cb3b8db913f281ce9574d5fff0f22
27960e3f4662b742f8a3538b75e303fee92215d6
422 F20101207_AACHNR williams_j_Page_48.txt
f71b97f191eb0055119f54d36146e5f9
48752f74bc4758867c932a659c68e98918f5bad9
F20101207_AACHIU williams_j_Page_37.tif
315e1b31e658d571e7da28d6764e0ec4
249979ba3691eee092f285e9fa391c9035bdf8d1
92965 F20101207_AACHDX williams_j_Page_22.jpg
2794a81e46d573d52100955deba20be4
e48d3f33e1c54188d9ae58d29e0650b9390a8a22
388 F20101207_AACHNS williams_j_Page_49.txt
b5d516814215df2a88aa4f7eb4ab1966
c9bc07ff7d695e6e42165e62853619510390c7e8
F20101207_AACHIV williams_j_Page_38.tif
b5d04dabdcd3def38c8d55823884ca73
b873abe68ba7ad47931ee4c5df2524f5748c71c6
88403 F20101207_AACHDY williams_j_Page_23.jpg
71ebe866aec86345bf3444d34a62f029
fbdc3efa377869da71e59f083e3935dec0639163
584 F20101207_AACHNT williams_j_Page_50.txt
bd5d56762437f003d46bcb76cc37b6cc
49353f1d863237199ee8b6c5bbe45e50ad7a28ce
F20101207_AACHIW williams_j_Page_39.tif
8e650e373a2d440bbd2e4cf120181cff
09c2be6a961af31a3ae7514814b3c02c273e5fe0
97257 F20101207_AACHDZ williams_j_Page_24.jpg
16d995a46efe8342012f534c045543a7
21f032c56fd05e7e78b92d1496444d2d23b7e6ec
F20101207_AACHIX williams_j_Page_40.tif
dbafa8ecd6952ce8f8cdcab8fc47a4dc
da20d9420d07b39484641fa0566473283ebafa86
510 F20101207_AACHNU williams_j_Page_51.txt
6562d01470c2d9a53221d5b01d5412fa
7f7ce0d06663a4ef923dc0243310b28030db4304
F20101207_AACHIY williams_j_Page_41.tif
5132aa7d94fc4ed16df77cbfdf679d38
665b4301a9fc4e53d0b98d8343138e2650814ed6
2029 F20101207_AACHNV williams_j_Page_52.txt
dd4c0f46772698bc212b102bc7d0e60b
52d51030cfcf5ee8478049c6e37451d86679c1a9
106318 F20101207_AACHGA williams_j_Page_20.jp2
5518efbf901bdb563d0e093d566b8ac9
ff5a30716dfa56facafd198fd6e0eca14b47caa0
F20101207_AACHIZ williams_j_Page_42.tif
0712509b38e917a5a3731833e3ee76c7
1ba4622cae7d1ab24586a928cdd125f809e5f680
1074 F20101207_AACHNW williams_j_Page_53.txt
278ef56e6e9e467992796d43beb1e2b6
9f4a9cb0904df7e4d429f2c0f7dc31a638245fa7
100005 F20101207_AACHGB williams_j_Page_21.jp2
294a256d667aecfaaac275ab0843ed44
e902c1bb96df586c399fb05f020afd7c5f01454e
1090 F20101207_AACHNX williams_j_Page_54.txt
db693a21840d97ab61f53993ceed641d
81f209478fd1ce887651cc7c8867bad7c769e38b
99190 F20101207_AACHGC williams_j_Page_22.jp2
1424870d03f36584f5cb7e9d84ba6355
791cf71035701e2d74a4329fa1b0c9b38a5c57d8
7185 F20101207_AACHLA williams_j_Page_37.pro
cea3d676eec14d15af3724c406df7fa7
b5bf2870b6c54b30e201e6af8195615dd2366bd8
157 F20101207_AACHNY williams_j_Page_55.txt
04d6e0889d54d35b73d502155e291267
ef5df97d598417a89750840156ea29b1840c6a3b
95268 F20101207_AACHGD williams_j_Page_23.jp2
7818f5014b409ad8568bee7dabe0ad58
eab8434e537b96f2a78314940809d201cbd0656a
6708 F20101207_AACHLB williams_j_Page_38.pro
5e24ff0a935ac93d038814b95ee6bc9d
54263e790381dc0453eb8d24b74fc1633b4488d2
2332 F20101207_AACHNZ williams_j_Page_56.txt
1c142fa4802d31f5c7d15eb0089abd78
3b7f43aa72615b251f33a8954c15811027bc8d22
107216 F20101207_AACHGE williams_j_Page_24.jp2
70ea1c07ff14849de48ca43f0a1528e8
3781f389c3212ee9352dccaa00908e79b19188c0
47482 F20101207_AACHLC williams_j_Page_39.pro
cea1493ee174d615408ce89fd22b8245
c2e24050bf8213e4dac23e7885a885ef65ce3056
97473 F20101207_AACHGF williams_j_Page_25.jp2
cd1b26e9ef64ef760068cc75dd89872d
f2e6b3b3e9efdab0242a67053787b7168eebd77b
7142 F20101207_AACHQA williams_j_Page_04thm.jpg
34f25708cebb497c3b833292d8dbf666
4603fc0f8a63b2d162c7f17e1b5768c127b80100
47821 F20101207_AACHLD williams_j_Page_40.pro
a755000c7f9ef2d305b67b4e0ae6deee
7a71a37f751c3e94ba79f242ba8a45a3fbae8617
108968 F20101207_AACHGG williams_j_Page_26.jp2
057f4477931d7f5bc673bd571da868fc
6f3c904a5d61abaa35ddee54bc77be29849a569a
28592 F20101207_AACHQB williams_j_Page_04.QC.jpg
a118e46309619888f9a7a12ab49e5f60
96e1a67b7ef5167ce29af800bf8ae890755727f0
41781 F20101207_AACHLE williams_j_Page_41.pro
9305172a0a57e37b071a2c01d9f6b2a4
68f72c77db9cfa5a57e858393abe1e9fb66c8750
104925 F20101207_AACHGH williams_j_Page_27.jp2
153e6076cab8006089bf0adc6d62829c
c1b4878eef63c43acd717f29a3a824214cf97d7c
6032 F20101207_AACHQC williams_j_Page_05thm.jpg
c91b8be405877fc10ff42704ab02fd2a
d53754453b7d3f374ece0c82921fdb9c8cde024c
4434 F20101207_AACHLF williams_j_Page_42.pro
37ccc553e2ae77e65235a416d8f1ee3c
2cf9c0bbf4b01ceaeac6c2928d12b82a735933db
100538 F20101207_AACHGI williams_j_Page_28.jp2
cb8ca89d9fc2305ffb7e6268f11b4e04
b0b5802d1c3841b2ca0327431d0fdbf113630d79
4228 F20101207_AACHQD williams_j_Page_06thm.jpg
f12ddcc0c86335cfb76cf350d594a5d6
d70591edd5941732c1b0eb13bc697185e9f88fed
17926 F20101207_AACHLG williams_j_Page_43.pro
400ef51f5fa98e7e269d4047656f2684
8c7089125dcad3324b19da6a9ec473d64c2685b2
91622 F20101207_AACHGJ williams_j_Page_29.jp2
8a0aea7d629d0e495aa03919ebf121c9
3a43c4a76d9237883482961bc4d3d6e05e194d5b
25548 F20101207_AACHLH williams_j_Page_44.pro
41ce5923dc59e54eb4f2baca891ea990
1aae23cb9b3aa70f7112046f3f3014ad8a11fd44
120460 F20101207_AACHGK williams_j_Page_30.jp2
847ed10749a07835ad814b6f4b1bef55
e12c4032788e3c9a05e5f3a6e3c435a007034aec
17258 F20101207_AACHQE williams_j_Page_06.QC.jpg
fe5248b2a5b5882584432ca3ee32669b
5cf4889b128d61c36454e6e61f85dc6fd6ec8690
8842 F20101207_AACHLI williams_j_Page_45.pro
da1424c5e5f579d46d068476024d8515
fd233e677ab91916e697cf56df3dcfba1ad781a4
12586 F20101207_AACHGL williams_j_Page_31.jp2
47d73ddfc492ecd4ea303cbb8bfbd5d6
8d2858f97ffce635a389fa3a64710986361bc53a
2821 F20101207_AACHQF williams_j_Page_07thm.jpg
0a3b9e4deb19a68a3930f9c2c47176dc
6082883f0174c27db9b2f229bd7992b9a978d160
6799 F20101207_AACHLJ williams_j_Page_46.pro
9fc4d05b0899981543211b6fe5b1a9d7
91094c5fbaaf46e9a25fe86e86a28e7368e377df
841275 F20101207_AACHGM williams_j_Page_32.jp2
1e39e375f2396385f267703053158140
0aebc0906e9a568c1906e22e9b06217f4d7f0703
25989 F20101207_AACHQG williams_j_Page_08.QC.jpg
243e8b71bb74ad1958773b26f85e910b
556e707b86902562653e7cb8a70c19826c20fcb0
7637 F20101207_AACHLK williams_j_Page_47.pro
4ac57f1d20ec1f2889880a48aeb39e73
edeb951d9b619d37e059157e606876ab9638a0ab
1568 F20101207_AACHQH williams_j_Page_09thm.jpg
5c6a9bac99ff516f4060401baf6b0b1f
6b37f0b0a18cfca5934f42215ffd93a8fb893a5c
7673 F20101207_AACHLL williams_j_Page_48.pro
ba34321b5203c0a4197eba781fa48018
6a6900a702c31389e985380ea6d4e2325d43ffe2
1051985 F20101207_AACHGN williams_j_Page_33.jp2
7bb9f48c9433df3da3ea8599a8296d75
3f9dac0eac14fe6b5bd98b310d6d81d459a3c893
5007 F20101207_AACHQI williams_j_Page_09.QC.jpg
cba7e7a59883a65905e341d90ba17a78
a1f483985d5cb95e2aafebbb7888343a379d5fc7
7705 F20101207_AACHLM williams_j_Page_49.pro
7d62cada0f21d83653bd50d1c3560a2d
130ea39b3abfe5023035c13cd23348827009a6a2
403631 F20101207_AACHGO williams_j_Page_34.jp2
ae601ced55adf6aa63dbe4e1c942f4ed
e740a7b0b31e9138c0fda02cb0daf7823fd6db76
7672 F20101207_AACHQJ williams_j_Page_10thm.jpg
006f161e90022d155e461cd56b58fe61
021af0d438511e2be615a28d003008172028d749
7759 F20101207_AACHLN williams_j_Page_50.pro
99add7c738eed633c6dd941f93ce3185
dce560b6e8923b855818dce604d850100b03be0f
1051845 F20101207_AACHGP williams_j_Page_35.jp2
7f880601277ea8980d8d871a87ee68d0
5e137996ada9eefdfe7edad0e612959fb285e706
30254 F20101207_AACHQK williams_j_Page_10.QC.jpg
3b843673ee6df00e541334756edf8ce1
9729ed184c602aaf7076ae92261c07d1fc3887ec
8792 F20101207_AACHLO williams_j_Page_51.pro
c1933efd096c2c849363c4ff537976e7
8af3f3fbac40c3a08b6ab99d551c765b20be7dbc
912171 F20101207_AACHGQ williams_j_Page_36.jp2
07af2e4f64a83970b60614904af93452
7400abc473d58eea8a8c3f859663de52b4802683
5658 F20101207_AACHQL williams_j_Page_12.QC.jpg
f5abcd8bf076bba5069f56da97468126
7c41ecbbf2cffb3adc94b79ce989b5d6086e6b30
48585 F20101207_AACHLP williams_j_Page_52.pro
576c153e3a741d7f8a1e5bae4c95b9b9
a248fd4b9bc278869267b53964215d91e26c820c
906366 F20101207_AACHGR williams_j_Page_38.jp2
6c6f7652ab7f0b3f621bc9af0a5f719c
8e7bb57926ed9a2285236c7b6400dc55d1e34000
7583 F20101207_AACHQM williams_j_Page_13thm.jpg
9f448b2811d57170979585c5a21d5687
9a5e0ba1bd36d28a209f3007f94e1c367ce7fd60
25826 F20101207_AACHLQ williams_j_Page_53.pro
eca814e5d3cf8666761a542067af50aa
f2a0a9820fabc7133e1f16efa9a1f97beff6c188
101662 F20101207_AACHGS williams_j_Page_39.jp2
ff10e5b892f9cb9e297446e5488b8a98
c0590aea361654b66e2ee272be2dbb45ee924f43
3500 F20101207_AACHQN williams_j_Page_15thm.jpg
3a45dee7554e1a621bf5344fb1f722e1
ed0266d0d4c079c44960df45b701f2ee67ca6e22
21686 F20101207_AACHLR williams_j_Page_54.pro
f909e305bda83036c68e964e35229445
2e2bdad39060194b57ed5f9d1682a3c918fed060
106679 F20101207_AACHGT williams_j_Page_40.jp2
f979364bacaa8912c999517efb5dfb59
8f602f65fa83ab1986387468e2124b3282521a28
8542 F20101207_AACHQO williams_j_Page_16thm.jpg
f4c75d1731b960788f6e8c3d2e9feb57
9bf24d7fb3212155fc4074881580d0306e1d4661
92137 F20101207_AACHGU williams_j_Page_41.jp2
b95c943f09f4bbee7c08da201627b2de
4fffcb964228fd282b5bbfc1d5e39a2815cbc72c
34006 F20101207_AACHQP williams_j_Page_16.QC.jpg
784f35f0a3d799de7761bc8ddef7c8be
b120696df2b3058977b28822a4fc2516d8dfceb0
2724 F20101207_AACHLS williams_j_Page_55.pro
b38a0c108990fae6979a38c0dc14bb27
6030a0498649fe6ecec7b75673ab9c37e285605a
13012 F20101207_AACHGV williams_j_Page_42.jp2
c77026fe324bc8d6bef5fd3381901cf2
398e3c9b40b6c57d2a6b0ab129405ecd72b38f4c
35939 F20101207_AACHQQ williams_j_Page_17.QC.jpg
33b5014aac59f287e705f251fc7a5b70
e1da8f34e29acaba3601e0f3fb3bde3525c5c148
56433 F20101207_AACHLT williams_j_Page_56.pro
a42c9ac9c02651341eb166a3bbaa53cb
9a4d8e034e0e46871e5fff8f3ea34bc9ea53beaa
F20101207_AACHGW williams_j_Page_43.jp2
587a9b7abdf0b1951237298cf07f1081
4d4b217bfbd373d6acdb97b51c223a737ccd2c58
33892 F20101207_AACHQR williams_j_Page_18.QC.jpg
8ff874b7e704d3d0c0c91d171503528c
2bdd41e2b851e970e2ed408b105b20b57da5b701
35332 F20101207_AACHLU williams_j_Page_57.pro
887b88b840b5d26dde4efb9b520636c8
d26adc75fa08f65705de343fc7c5cf5ef878dbb7
1007215 F20101207_AACHGX williams_j_Page_44.jp2
77f1f149f0eb234db77e20e513986523
dc69a57a1032791a4456469ab8049362db06b03c
35408 F20101207_AACHQS williams_j_Page_19.QC.jpg
eef412c5cb1943f362eb166ebcd9fdc9
a4f0b8445660285f5d310e071a1d1f073d640243
19801 F20101207_AACHLV williams_j_Page_58.pro
f7e5542d69a0cb4de3ccfdc9189682a0
f8f4f39dbe81b548dfa5646e21022e8cb7faf0c0
102525 F20101207_AACHEA williams_j_Page_26.jpg
db9e37a7102830526da05a76cec80d6b
187f0813eabdcee6819fb7afa499cc67cd15bb5d
329786 F20101207_AACHGY williams_j_Page_45.jp2
ddbdc579792372cb7d1e59a8c18ded3b
3fdbdc5945407328e94894cb994436acc3b9b492
7904 F20101207_AACHQT williams_j_Page_20thm.jpg
ece9fbef6c665f3af81150471b0d70dc
496c471a9a86a376ef961c101da8e3db1164f5b1
500 F20101207_AACHLW williams_j_Page_01.txt
f9a706a62e4c2160f36b235233e6fdc7
f85b5d7e210ee77dc3d575c9441014be912360d7
99871 F20101207_AACHEB williams_j_Page_27.jpg
a50c943f306632b7369b6d2d4f0d90bf
0b10a7f19ceead7eb47bf35a3fb4c12587d84e93
284774 F20101207_AACHGZ williams_j_Page_46.jp2
5a21ca604a5e6cd1689104df2c5dea43
02591de69859a00fc0a187bc8eb6eb69e5016b1a
33166 F20101207_AACHQU williams_j_Page_20.QC.jpg
c7421f769f509612dc0ffc20377f4558
b95b78b9eaaefac57981acddc0491312d740fcdd
87 F20101207_AACHLX williams_j_Page_02.txt
527ea478154dfef382848513ad154de5
795655ade76860ebd8db0f0404ebe3ebbc091142
93009 F20101207_AACHEC williams_j_Page_28.jpg
42a05edc3f6a5949842e8bb1bf72eb57
383eba4e219fb9b89f1ebc9c2431d533d2928522
7096 F20101207_AACHQV williams_j_Page_22thm.jpg
c7d550910c0582c34593d60915c133d5
3761509046badeb9e725cb66e0fcf0b872644580
190 F20101207_AACHLY williams_j_Page_03.txt
ae2c2874cd9bd54d45276e9494e0cc3a
212c9ec53c217d0ad08dbc0edc231b040fbd4e22
87158 F20101207_AACHED williams_j_Page_29.jpg
b3c23b5dd4e7e7d1f56b9a34d06f0b27
536dbab4b2c77164cb4b1ef8da18566c01fd9e4f
29009 F20101207_AACHQW williams_j_Page_22.QC.jpg
a3810af144afe23a80e11fcd3d930819
dbd4c86f5b579593d8cf8ff6fd17ae900cbf9320
F20101207_AACHJA williams_j_Page_43.tif
adbca566741ef8f27c19fcaa3c67e9d4
af3368248709cff4cb53e47b2c87903a0b3c11c8
1736 F20101207_AACHLZ williams_j_Page_04.txt
493a142039e14ea31167c4f60718314e
b51939920cc8e4bdf363c58bb6530d5ce48b6652
115717 F20101207_AACHEE williams_j_Page_30.jpg
a76ec68571933e78fcc8afc341f3f1ed
5ff5617c28bf61c6297c7f8c7a7d9d62da062318
F20101207_AACHJB williams_j_Page_44.tif
e338780d1b459d00483e7f454031c054
c6f4e9bdf1684fcbf8911dd01d5109a3e2aea84a
11341 F20101207_AACHEF williams_j_Page_31.jpg
dd153c212cd0ec3350d7e143d160b075
aa492e934a31db50d6cb57b05dfe0fb67edb5df8
7288 F20101207_AACHQX williams_j_Page_23thm.jpg
af1bf9201e263f83907149131fb19c81
6d89693bfefeb8b247d4d837e6126d1f825d10fd
F20101207_AACHJC williams_j_Page_45.tif
559af276776a3e9720e038cae5ab2b29
4fdaa39c6ca08c7fb0817cb87b1ad1938ca72202
58454 F20101207_AACHEG williams_j_Page_32.jpg
a1db4b5fa38e5135ed7f55d338295384
20258cc6c005036531d03caf9adb050626ba0bde
1468 F20101207_AACHOA williams_j_Page_57.txt
1e51d96a761f58f53dd03e44af8e6161
292d51220171af753cc179c6a5bcb93baa4e03dc
28842 F20101207_AACHQY williams_j_Page_23.QC.jpg
4a96671cbb1834fa6e1bac317790407a
1f3ffbd5f7ab134f4ea71cbd7c0c20b9937dd84a
F20101207_AACHJD williams_j_Page_46.tif
57d494a2a344e26fea2e6554ef4ba3c8
b79a895655725e42435f0c55a2f009e7b56a2e67
83949 F20101207_AACHEH williams_j_Page_33.jpg
d9aa8d8b921d924899a263df10c372b8
60cbbbf83b834c38e5582d152bc303a9213baa6a
824 F20101207_AACHOB williams_j_Page_58.txt
227dee3cdc261d832582f9b8c617682d
7374984671dfe95d7de4aa2c5049822df66b9f18
8202 F20101207_AACHQZ williams_j_Page_24thm.jpg
52aaa15725bc2b6b71064a1df1d2cdaf
b5ede3cfbed66bfde10f205964027b7b9a09bb2d
F20101207_AACHJE williams_j_Page_47.tif
d8cfc4624153285f4d9a54d89af699be
a43ed32fd06b0919cc375688a93109f6d5f95904
36971 F20101207_AACHEI williams_j_Page_34.jpg
01d99866a6fccfd204969fbc751354c9
70d6c7415601c448677c1a061efb2b292f197747
933042 F20101207_AACHOC williams_j.pdf
736b9123421d6fc1dde8eacd013faee7
b85705e1c6b0fbf4b8c22d3aa03c26c862088f23
F20101207_AACHJF williams_j_Page_48.tif
a345487b92c6e24f11e6ea19e8a3b167
3ae55ea38ed4d2cbb93731a6678f802a60f03928
113014 F20101207_AACHEJ williams_j_Page_35.jpg
a7f6accdd5a610e67e58313c04bb7295
864922b97cfe81a18e123f2a69d808c7cd0266e3
21230 F20101207_AACHOD williams_j_Page_44.QC.jpg
5fe421bd0b1652409e1c188d0bf1e142
1862c12fadc7563990c3690b799ae31bc318a111
F20101207_AACHJG williams_j_Page_49.tif
ddbf39857919b74e4c7ec964a64211d3
a4fd99c04538ce8ecf67aff06bb59b89da9743f5
56059 F20101207_AACHEK williams_j_Page_36.jpg
50db879b63205442605b144957ed26e3
4aba330705ec7690eb5ee846f17121dc75d16719
23449 F20101207_AACHOE williams_j_Page_33.QC.jpg
adee91e1c5c340ae575a4acb634d6599
2a132e3b6073835a8aed5cb213a3b49891612fb6
F20101207_AACHJH williams_j_Page_50.tif
136106c0e275c8aaff74124effb54be7
b1c402e52ff282faaed7ab5c84416c92785f4654
14002 F20101207_AACHOF williams_j_Page_48.QC.jpg
8bd4733ca159a15f812e6f241b9e7abb
ca50fc8efa9f083664271f0addf6d0687040daf6
F20101207_AACHJI williams_j_Page_51.tif
2ada7334a7ecdfb3feb4c2caa9024d37
51e86369229c1128223bd1a89f751c8316af1c7e
76786 F20101207_AACHEL williams_j_Page_37.jpg
2e768ae076cb1b0ed558e9b956957705
30c090bc3503f3b6cfa7414d9586633507064f4a
4805 F20101207_AACHOG williams_j_Page_50thm.jpg
a248ce9d5e417bcd66ea32d12abd2d03
dace8afd7e68ba97f86b33b18d368f70b8528f54
F20101207_AACHJJ williams_j_Page_52.tif
69b29e3de4eeda0f65860839a1a27ef5
85c91692b11a759dd1f93a69736fd939b069f292
55060 F20101207_AACHEM williams_j_Page_38.jpg
edfbb4df4294ecf8f256d26065fa66c2
51d1da09c382d407f44d22f9fa9933990527df87
5494 F20101207_AACHOH williams_j_Page_44thm.jpg
bd5b4fbc56cb7fd01209bee96110c409
45cae14cd0be3d093b8172b342b906b3d553c364
F20101207_AACHJK williams_j_Page_53.tif
a6787695948808826eaf4909fa92792c
5cb5b65d4d3253586e0df1023214653e8c1d33e4
97102 F20101207_AACHEN williams_j_Page_39.jpg
d505e18df7c02d4d07b6a1ee5fd007b8
b5e83bc85b0e568b0573d842d609678a1ca23692
13751 F20101207_AACHOI williams_j_Page_47.QC.jpg
7937569fdd2e6e29aa96c5bb2f15f576
447f0a791e980eb7099309336824d03023181831
F20101207_AACHJL williams_j_Page_54.tif
21d0e1a2df56468f5b8f5563fe31acfb
f4c814054418647e17e7de4fdb295695e5fe2bb1
101187 F20101207_AACHEO williams_j_Page_40.jpg
9c53c051fc71ababf5641a28a3bbf981
cb9c9f7ecc63e68b24ba50b59bbc38523f119976
7994 F20101207_AACHOJ williams_j_Page_39thm.jpg
f6b8a81e94a63265a7076c95db996f39
7a898bac5bd443f57712990b096a8d8671ce857b
25265604 F20101207_AACHJM williams_j_Page_55.tif
7bc2da0ca53b9277a915e890d6891366
9b82a0618695e87eddddd055cea41fd145244bf8
90620 F20101207_AACHEP williams_j_Page_41.jpg
3d7d541090557891aeaa21a9f0eebfc7
982248bcbdc8b465566fa6b3c05c8bd772303e92
10466 F20101207_AACHOK williams_j_Page_07.QC.jpg
4cc2aff9e8cd40b90126d7a195c02a1c
e6567b340809efae148033aeeb7e6dc49ce18489
F20101207_AACHJN williams_j_Page_56.tif
18f3d0bfff15ccc9b37c620f954d6a6c
f4f8d8525187eb2c30cb969744f5d77d6c7180d1
12304 F20101207_AACHEQ williams_j_Page_42.jpg
7e4f2caad0acd5fadc8e29182c2630e4
1fd38b2712743b7b00db1577551d4d5aa8cb3681
7804 F20101207_AACHOL williams_j_Page_37thm.jpg
c1cc7f564ca06c35b636ac80ba9883fd
15eab3b4bf2a85ebf0b07b3034e586d87351c076
F20101207_AACHJO williams_j_Page_57.tif
fd6600786268bd97d3bf35b1a16d26d8
2ea39e5c6ac5f52c30dbf17ca58952203a32a0f0
104487 F20101207_AACHER williams_j_Page_43.jpg
40b940f260e6de3519d55752540deae4
5385bdbf26273a0599d4d93ffc41974f228b75fa
31622 F20101207_AACHOM williams_j_Page_13.QC.jpg
3453b97e0c7849e1807c42f117012d84
59a17435c7ccb204b84a35e43438f9815ba3b95a
F20101207_AACHJP williams_j_Page_58.tif
c7d2d5695cea7dc26b7c10bfc2502032
1020bea2cd1b78ab07fe535e3e09d0925307202c
72679 F20101207_AACHES williams_j_Page_44.jpg
43fb6ffcb779e1f344ad7d5f34aac86b
255b9563bf6e02768f200791af137327e3ffb4ce
32467 F20101207_AACHON williams_j_Page_14.QC.jpg
46e37c5d73ca9c75bc3acb3e35e5ea0d
cdd4999786279326bb7776917371e460efa19c1c
29992 F20101207_AACHOO williams_j_Page_41.QC.jpg
7f771f52246a5aefe4eb5132311f7980
fbeb12c8df08a32d3fed0ecb0032b6bca602c933
8411 F20101207_AACHJQ williams_j_Page_01.pro
e4d88dafdade5a899244038bcbffee45
372cd5869a78a352de2fb8918ec0178fc1b30923
41882 F20101207_AACHET williams_j_Page_45.jpg
a2201027a1c3e94349a91645b69bd931
c483521ac8a63f3eb25ff5aac8c0c8d784890978
29006 F20101207_AACHOP williams_j_Page_21.QC.jpg
cf542a286fbdcb9c355b6480054d2964
8ae54059f0aec54a54181ee217486b7c2e5dcb97
909 F20101207_AACHJR williams_j_Page_02.pro
a419fee9df129dda022a978030d35fbb
62c3f5c448336da550f20bca1ca504f6e724977b
37445 F20101207_AACHEU williams_j_Page_46.jpg
0e1944135699071f32ca8e8785c64092
abb8a0c6405d23d2fa8d7d2a646d0aafedd00500
24928 F20101207_AACHOQ williams_j_Page_05.QC.jpg
ceedce543e846522b9507e1f8e41d23c
5f2748abf02610291e4058d9229a0b23795ea18c
3186 F20101207_AACHJS williams_j_Page_03.pro
9396183e0b12ccc4d323f05893ee54ef
0c1db4e934c39b81692b83c447ceb3ffcb50ad9e
37547 F20101207_AACHEV williams_j_Page_47.jpg
e307a5f9e689db3922e844bc9eafc99c
3c0f1cdf860ee50628c945cfcb38657bb4b81c43
8230 F20101207_AACHOR williams_j_Page_56thm.jpg
56ed04cfa3345d58c39ea0ae7f132e0a
809869e42d3d10fae4012645b4930e30ab64414d
42497 F20101207_AACHJT williams_j_Page_04.pro
4997c258b403c01c518da36830e30917
98eec1931347f7dccbbc9ebe7f4dea8347a2785a
37992 F20101207_AACHEW williams_j_Page_48.jpg
3e37a388e157b3220edf8024649a085c
dd45dc3074c39805078e30bc66a9498e477fe9fa
7496 F20101207_AACHOS williams_j_Page_21thm.jpg
1f2dc9c3c639e69d5da886117ce79bc8
e42528b2e6d11f202fc9e6e71800bec826f19a65
73608 F20101207_AACHJU williams_j_Page_05.pro
d4927a69deb7c03b52411eb27b9582ad
4e5a987021b6b607eeb587a668a0cf354de553df
39702 F20101207_AACHEX williams_j_Page_49.jpg
0837a02848f85507e9eebdac5bbec690
031bed76d033555611f2039f97808ff9eafcf03b
12650 F20101207_AACHOT williams_j_Page_15.QC.jpg
58e82f88963ed5718656fcd440064b31
71d52ebded1572c99cf82696f86a99918453151a
45882 F20101207_AACHJV williams_j_Page_06.pro
7576e4c742ec4dc270e24324ae9e5e83
ec2415463d3f054929996a15949de50d89b10def
39727 F20101207_AACHEY williams_j_Page_50.jpg
e420d5c71ea0ae35265eb568decd719e
c492f65ef0df65b27481fe6fb17f701dc263e7f7
6481 F20101207_AACHOU williams_j_Page_08thm.jpg
fd7acffb42bc35654a53bf2ec2e99949
971f246e0d37e58e5efa6cfb3e7d4ecd626e7986
17604 F20101207_AACHJW williams_j_Page_07.pro
e3f95eb4fb734cced371d4c7cc8f4a6f
efe45396e3f6b60c630a2cf6b6574e3f6fced8fb
44213 F20101207_AACHEZ williams_j_Page_51.jpg
b66705066d0870e75e15e755768d7cd2
45f5c302ccf01fd3eb2fdaa646f9a10fd1430f30



PAGE 1

1 IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON THE SUCCESS OF SMALL RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPERS By JULIA WILLIAMS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

PAGE 2

2 2007 by Julia Williams

PAGE 3

3 To my family: Mom, Dad, and Lilly For their constant encouragement and s upport in all of my academic endeavors.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I want to thank a few important people that ha ve helped me directly and indirectly succeed in completing this thesis. Of course, this woul d not have been possible without the guidance and support of my committee. Many thanks go to Dr Raymond Issa, Dr. Ian Flood, and Dr. Douglas Lucas. Dr. Issa, has been my biggest sponsor since my first day in Grad School at Rinker. He is never one to let me go a couple of days without seeing him and making sure that everything is going okay. The concern never went unnoticed and I appreciate the fact that we have teachers who care as much as he does. Dr. Flood is alwa ys a calm and collected source of supervision, despite just welcoming a new member to his fam ily. Dr Lucas has been a great recent addition to the Rinker Family and I will miss the office visits and his great stories of a wise and experienced war veteran and business man. I want to thank Dottie Beaupied for putting up with my increasingly frequent trips to her office. Her assistance has been integral in the co mpletion of not only this thesis, but also for the entirety of my time in Rinker. I want to thank my roommate, confidant, a nd partner in crime, Courtney. I never would have gotten through this without her and her insatiable desire for coffee. And last but certainly not least, I want to thank the most loving family anyone could ever hope for. Their constant support has given me th e opportunity to become the person that I am today and no words could ever describe how mu ch I appreciate everything they have done for me. I love them: Mom, Daddy, and my little Lilly-Kins!

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11 Statement of Problem........................................................................................................... ..11 Objectives of Study............................................................................................................ .....11 Overview....................................................................................................................... ..........11 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...........................................................................................13 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........13 Basis for Research............................................................................................................. .....13 Data Collection Medium.........................................................................................................13 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........14 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........14 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... .........15 3 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................16 Promoting, Marketing, and Selling.........................................................................................16 Construction, Not a Business of Building: a Business of People...........................................16 Marketing for Residential Builders and Developers..............................................................17 Defining Specialization...................................................................................................17 Developing Client Base...................................................................................................18 Defining Profiles of Target Markets................................................................................18 Defining Best Practices in Reaching Target Clients.......................................................19 Marketing Consulting Firms Specializing in Construction....................................................19 Tools Used to Reach Potential Clients...................................................................................20 General Company Tools..................................................................................................20 Corporate logo development....................................................................................20 Company package....................................................................................................21 Company brochure...................................................................................................22 Web designs.............................................................................................................22 Corporate advertising...............................................................................................23 Newsletters and bulletins.........................................................................................24 Relationship marketing............................................................................................24

PAGE 6

6 Development Specific Tools...........................................................................................25 Development logo....................................................................................................25 Development brochure.............................................................................................26 Sales centers.............................................................................................................27 Signage.....................................................................................................................28 Direct mail................................................................................................................28 Promotional events...................................................................................................29 A Complete Marketing Program............................................................................................30 Defining Profitability of a Marketing Program......................................................................30 4 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......39 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........39 Client Profile................................................................................................................. ..........39 Project Information............................................................................................................ .....40 Analysis and Discussion by Marketing Tool..........................................................................40 Analysis of Marketing System by Client Profile....................................................................41 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................52 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... .........52 Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...53 APPENDIX: BUILDER IN TERVIEW QUESTIONS..................................................................54 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..56 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................58

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Client Profile Information, Builder A................................................................................43 4-2 Client Profile Information, Builder B................................................................................43 4-3 Project Information, Builder A..........................................................................................43 4-4 Project Information, Builder B..........................................................................................43 4-5 Profitability Analysis per T ool: Retirement Client Profile................................................44 4-6 Profitability Analysis per Tool: Young Professional Client Profile..................................44

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 The Construction Business Differentiation Triangle.........................................................32 3-2 Company Logo............................................................................................................... ....32 3-3 Company Package............................................................................................................ ..33 3-4 Company Brochure........................................................................................................... .33 3-5 Typical Cost per Thousand (CPM) of Major Media Buys................................................34 3-6 Company Newsletter......................................................................................................... .35 3-7 Company Logo............................................................................................................... ....36 3-8 Development Brochure......................................................................................................36 3-9 Sales Center............................................................................................................... ........37 3-10 Sales Center Wall Display.................................................................................................37 3-11 Signage................................................................................................................... ............38 3-12 Direct Mail, Die Cut Card................................................................................................. .38 4-1 Corporate Logo Deve lopment Profitability.......................................................................45 4-2 Company Package Profitability.........................................................................................45 4-3 Development Logo Development Profitability..................................................................46 4-4 Web Design Profitability...................................................................................................46 4-5 Newsletter Profitability................................................................................................... ...47 4-6 Relationship Marketing Profitability.................................................................................47 4-7 Company Brochure Profitability........................................................................................48 4-8 Corporate Advertising Profitability...................................................................................48 4-9 Development Brochure Profitability..................................................................................49 4-10 Sales Center Profitability................................................................................................ ...49 4-11 Signage Profitability..................................................................................................... .....50

PAGE 9

9 4-12 Promotional Event Profitability.........................................................................................50 4-13 Monthly Home Sales for Builder A...................................................................................51 4-14 Monthly Home Sales for Builder B...................................................................................51

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Bu ilding Construction PROFIT POTENTIAL IN MARKETING MIXTURES FOR SMALL RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT BUILDERS By Julia Williams May 2007 Chair: Raymond Issa Cochair: Ian Flood Major: Building Construction The residential development industry is a profit able market if in fact the units in the development can be sold and in a timely fashi on. The large residential co nstruction firms of the twenty-first century have realized the importan ce of the promotion of services and defining a target market in which to advertise their serv ices. The smaller residential development builders in todays industry are slowly catching up to the marketing bandwagon. The emergence of these specialized marketing firms is the basis for my study. My study explored the profitability of mark eting mixes developed by marketing consulting firms for small residential builders. These mark eting firms specialize in customizing a set of marketing tools to reach the target market most effectively for each. The pr ofitability of the use of these firms services is i ndisputable, but the extent of ex actly how much profit is being obtained from the services utilized for a partic ular development is in question. The information collected during this study will help other builders to appreciate the profits that are realized from the services of the marketing firm. Interviews conducted with two builders comparing a pair of similar projects with the variab le of the marketing tools were conducted to determine the amount of the added profits and the expeditious retu rns on the initial marketing expenditure.

PAGE 11

11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of Problem In todays construction industr y, there exists a fair amount of residential builders who believe that marketing and sales schemes are not necessary and the capital investment is spending on frivolous items. These are the builders who have to bid work to drive sales volume, who do not have a loyal client base, and who are more than likely to go out of business. Marketing a specialized product in the business world today is at the heart of every company. These nave builders need to realize that a small investment in sales and marketing will generate a big return over time toward [t heir] bottom line (Hedley 2006). Objectives of Study The objective of this study is to determine th e profitability of mark eting tools implemented by a marketing consulting firm for small residen tial development builders. A specific mixture of tools to be used for a particular project can be determined after a thorough assessment of a target market is completed. Only then can a client prof ile be created and analy zed. The profitability of the use of these firms customized tools is indi sputable, but the extent of exactly what profit percentage is being obtained from each tool for a particular development is in question. This information will help other builder s appreciate the profits that are realized from the services of the marketing firm. Overview In Chapter 2 the research met hodology used in this study is de scribed in detail. Chapter 3 contains a literature review pe rtaining to marketing in genera l, relation to the construction industry, client bases, the emer ging trend of specialized marketing consulting firms, marketing tools used in residential devel opment, applying the tools to a sp ecific target market, and profit

PAGE 12

12 potential analysis procedures. Chapter 4 contains an analysis and summary of the data obtained. Finally, Chapter 5 presents conclusions from th e analysis of data as well as makes some recommendations for future areas of study.

PAGE 13

13 CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction Todays small residential deve lopment builders are beginning to realize the importance of defining a target market and adapting a sales syst em to promote the differentiation of their firm in relation to the target markets specialized needs. In efforts to try and recruit potential customers, builders are learning the added bene fits of employing marketing companies which specialize in residential developm ent promotion to ensure that pre-construction sales of homes are realized in full and often in accelerated time periods. Basis for Research The goal for this research study is to determin e the profitability of marketing mixtures for small residential development builders. A ne w trend of firms specializing in marketing consultation for residential devel opment builders has emerged in re cent years. The profitability derived from the use of these firms services is indisputable, but the exte nt of exactly how much profit is being obtained from the services utilized for a particular deve lopment is in question. Data Collection Medium It was decided that the most effective way to determine the profita bility of marketing services was to interview companies who had employed a specialized marketing consulting firm on a development project to create sets of data which will be used in case studies produced for each project. The interviews were conducted over the phone with a builders representative. The two residential builders were chosen from a list acquired from one particul ar consulting firm who offered a wide array of services The questions asked were direct ed toward data for two of the builders projects of relatively the same size and target market, the variable being that one

PAGE 14

14 project (Project B) used the marketing firms se rvices with the project which did not employ the marketing services (Project A) actin g as the control for the research. Data Analysis Two separate sets of data were collected from the builders, one for each of the projects for each builder. After careful review of marketing tools used in the industry and offered by the consultation firm the interview questions were developed (Appendix). The questions were divided into two categories: Cl ient Profile and Development In formation. The objective of the Client Profile questions was to define the targ et market that the development is designed to attract in order to analyze the marketing t echniques planned by the consultation firm. The Development Information questions were intended to highlight the factors used in determining marketing profitability. Th ese factors are (Ba rr 1995)as follows: Marketing tools used The cost associated with each tool An approximation of the number of pr ospective buyers reached by each tool The number of homes sold, total and per month The average price of a home in the development during the specified period The data received from these questions we re constrained by a sp ecific time period, the 18 months of pre-construction. The data from the two sets were analyzed by comparison and also the profitability of each tool relative to the total profitability was determined. Microsoft Excel was used to process the data and to creat e a visual representa tion of the results. Limitations This research focused on builders in one region and does not re present the entire population of residential devel opment builders, but only the data from the participating companies. The other limitation of this study is rooted in the fact that some factors are approximations as the exact number of prospectiv e clients who were exposed to marketing tools

PAGE 15

15 cannot be known. The approximations are discussed in further detail in the literature review portion of this thesis. Conclusions This research was conducted to determine the profitability of marke ting tools customized for a small residential development builder by a specialized marketing consultation firm. This information will help other builders to appreciate th e profits that are realized from the services of the marketing firm. Interviews c onducted with two builders compari ng a pair of similar projects with marketing tools as a variab le were conducted to determine th e extent of the added profits and the expeditious returns on the initial marketing expenditure.

PAGE 16

16 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Promoting, Marketing, and Selling The term marketing was first defined in 1937 by the American Marketing Association as those activities involved in the flow of goods and services from the point of production to the point of consumption. (American Marketing Asso ciation 2007). The definition was modified to read an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing cust omer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders (American Marketing Association 2007). The change in the original version is due to the fact that some believe that the point if production is far too late in a products life to start promoting it, marketi ng should influence the product being made. Conversely the point of consumption is definitely not the time to stop marketing the product in order to retain loyal clients. Developing a marketing scheme leads to using promotional mediums for a firm to elevate and accelerate sales. There is an old adage in sa les that says No sales...no company, in todays increasingly competitive construction industry, no thing sells itself (Smy th 1999). Therefore, a strong sales program, through market research and varied promotional mediums, is fundamental to the life, health and wealth of the company. Construction, Not a Business of Bu ilding: a Business of People The construction industry is driven by the pe ople who have a want for buildings to be erected and is then realized by the individuals who coordinate th e work of others to accomplish the assembly of those buildings. The product be ing marketed in building construction is the service of putting together the efforts of others to achieve a tangible final product, the building. The interactions between contract ors and clients are at the heart of every transaction made to

PAGE 17

17 complete the new building. Mastering the acqui sition and maintenance of the interactions between those two groups of people is what distinguishes a successful builder from an unsuccessful builder. Professional exchanges are only the beginning of co mmunications that are exchanged with the client. A bu ilder must understand that the only way to obtain and retain clients is to develop personal re lationships making this not a bus iness of building, but a business of people. Marketing for Residential Builders and Developers Home building is a specialized market in bu ilding construction. The challenge residential builders and developers face in selling homes is an intangible concept. The use of videos, renderings, and floor plans can help a client visualize the final pr oduct. Builders differ vastly in the size of the company ranging from single-pers on operations to companies with hundreds of employees all over the globe (Barr 1995). The larg er companies have caught on to the trend of market differentiation and have employed marketing professionals or in the best case scenario created an entire marketing department. The sma ller firms are beginning to adopt the new ideas to obtain new clients while maintaining existing clients. Defining Specialization In the residential construction industry, there exists a trilogy of attributes which can be found in most construction companies: superior service, low prices, and high quality (Figure 31). The most profitable companies in the current business world focus on reaching an edge of the triangle while most residential builders aim fo r the middle making themselves known as a jack of all trades and a master of none (Hedley 2006) Home builders are diffe rent than the average company in that all of the attributes are required by most clients and a push in just one direction would be quite detrimental to a company. In or der to create a degree of separation from the average, a builder one must chose a specialization. This can literally be an extra focus on one of

PAGE 18

18 the differentiating attributes, or it can be by selec ting a specific market niche such as waterfront homes with the highest attention to hurricane protection. A differentiation from the general industry allows a company to market themselves as an expert in whiche ver field they chose. Once the specialization of the company has been adopted, the company can focus on delivering the specialization to the best of their ability. A company can also be set apart from the rest of the competition by offering something more or something different. The main objectiv e in differentiation is to make the potential customers aware of why they should only use this particular company. More than one specialization is suitable, and sometimes desira ble, however, completely separate marketing schemes must be developed for each differentia ted business sector within a company (Sobel 2001). The clients for each of the specialized proj ect types are different and must be tended to differently. Developing Client Base To have a successful marketing and sales scheme it is essential to know your target market. The customer for the specialized market which ha s been created should have been the main focus for the differentiation from the rest of the comp etitors in the market. The intended market must be attainable to the company and the needs of the customer should also be familiar to the employees. Defining Profiles of Target Markets The target clients should have a clear pr ofile. In the residential building world, the demographics of the clients in a particular mark et will be similar enabling the marketing tactics to be focused in ways which the clients will intercept the promotional efforts. Demographic factors that should be analyzed are age, income, gender, marital status, family size, and terms of occupancy. These basic characteristics will inform rest of their personality, called their lifestyle

PAGE 19

19 preferences, such as the school system, infrastructure requireme nts, religious facilities, and development amenities for example (Sobel 2003). In residential construction, the client base is basically divi ded into two categories: first time buyers, such as young professionals or young families and move-up buyers, such as emptynesters or retirees (Butera, 1987). The needs and desires of the two groups differ in that the first time buyer is looking for relations to schools, work location, pl aygrounds, and shopping centers along with financing provided while the move -up buyers might be more concerned with proximity to clubhouses, waterfront health care centers, and a co mmunity where gatherings are fostered along with large lots and privacy. The first time buyers are more looking for economical homes and have a short but concise list of needs to be fulfilled. The move-up buyers have a longer list of wants that they are looking for in a home or development. Defining Best Practices in Reaching Target Clients Meeting the needs of a specified client base requires different techniques in marketing. Each individual builders techniqu es should vary in term of the cl ient base. For example, if the client base is retirees it might not be in the best interest of the company to have a strictly Internet-based marketing plan. However, if a company was trying to ta rget young professionals, technology-based promotional strate gies would be more accommodating. Marketing Consulting Firms Spe cializing in Construction With marketing being such an important factor in selling homes, resi dential builders have to stretch limited budgets to make the most profit per dollar spent. In order to achieve the highest profit potential for restricted resources, employ ment of marketing consultating firms specializing in new-home construction and neighborhood devel opments have become an increasing trend (Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007). The ex pertise of these firms can help eliminate less

PAGE 20

20 effective marketing tools and the use of inexperi enced staff members of the builders team in terms of marketing. Most of these specialized firms offer a wide range of products with the builder having the opportunity to utilize the perfect combination of services to meet the needs of their marketing endeavor (Creative Marketing Se rvices, Inc. 2007). The specialized marketing firms understand the demands of the target markets and the best way to promote the services and products the builder is trying to sell. Tools Used to Reach Potential Clients Within the world of marketing techniques, each medium has differing effects on the overall marketing plan. The diverse range of the common tools used to promote in the residential markets is broken into General Company Tool s and Project Specific Tools used to reach potential clients. Within these two narrowed cate gories each tool brings apparent advantages and disadvantages to the complete marketing program. General Company Tools General company tools are used by the company to help the client identify the company and to build a brand in the mind of the client and to emphasize th e specializations offered by the company (Butera 1987). These mediums should be made to be distributed in the short term (six months to a year) and the long te rm (three to five years). The General Company Tools are what sparks initial interest in the company from the potential client. Corporate logo development Design of a logo or logosytle is essential in catchi ng the attention of potential clients and appealing to existing clients. The logo should be a reflection of the indivi duals in the specified target market. For example if the company is trying to market themselves to a stylish, high-end user the logo should resemble that market (F igure 3-2). The use of a tag line should be

PAGE 21

21 incorporated with a logo. The tag line give[s] additional emphasis to a logo or logostyle. They synthesize in a few words the companys missi on, philosophy or professional specialty (Barr 1995). The use of the logo along with the tag line s hould be implemented in all printed materials. The repetition of exposure in the tag line with th e logo gives the symbol or name of the company something to stand for in addition to just the name. The advantages of a company logo are that one can Imprint the brand of the co mpany in the clients mind Create a common thread to be implanted with in all aspects of the companys imaging Instill a sense of pride in employees The disadvantages of logo creation are that it can Be detrimental to the sales of the community if it is completed poorly Become very time consuming, tedious, and stressful Company package The company package is a compilation of materi als to be utilized by a company in day to day business communications. Printed objects to be in cluded in the package include folders, tabs, envelopes, labels, letterhead, re port papers, and marketing papers (Figure3-3). These items are only a limited list of materials that could be includ ed, but that should include at least these items. The advantages of a company package are that it can Create a cohesive set of materials to con tinuously remind the recipient of the brand Enable the user to generate an organized packet of business materials Allow the user to be consistent in presentation The disadvantages of a comp any package are that it can Have a high cost of design Have a high cost of pr inting and re-printing Disable the company from changing anythi ng on the materials until the resources are exhausted

PAGE 22

22 Company brochure The brochure made for the company is a sa les-supportive vehicle th at communicates an idea of [the companys] experience, [the] st aff, [the] work quality, and briefly [the ] organizations underlying philosophy (Barr 1995) The company brochure is the centerpiece of the General Company Tools. The brochure should not only have photos and descriptions of past project history, but it should convey the personali ty of the company and be personalized to the target audience (Figure3-4). The advantages of the brochure are that it can Provide and introduction to new clients Remind clients of total capabilities Become a cross-selling t ool for existing clients Become a source of inspiration and renewed pride for employees The disadvantages of the brochure are that it can Fail to compete with newer electronic formats Become to broad in nature to entice a potential client Prevent relationships from being made in just the exchange of a brochure. Web designs The emergence of the internet has created a form of marke ting that has grown tremendously in the past decade. As a business investment, the establishment of a website is one of the most cost-effective marketing tools ava ilable to a firm in terms of reach and exposure to potential clients when compared to other tr aditional forms of adve rtising, communications, and promotion (Society for Marketing Profe ssional Services 2000). We bsites allow potential clients to gain immediate access to information about a company. The advantages of web designs are that they can Work for the company at all hours of the day and everyday of the year. Give the perception of a contemporary company in todays competitive marketplace

PAGE 23

23 Allow changes to projects and company details to be made quickly The disadvantages of web designs are that Computer literacy is still on th e rise and access is still limited to those who have computer access Complicated graphics of the construction industry are displa yed differently in different systems Maintaining a website can be costly Corporate advertising Corporate advertising is pur chased space or time...it appears when you want it to and exactly how you want it to (Barr 1995). Advertisings most importa nt factors are to build brand recognition, familiarity, customer retention, wh ile maintaining market share, and improving employee morale (Ehrlich 2004). There are many me dia in which advertising can be distributed such as television (cable and broadcast), radi o magazines, newspapers and the internet. The typical cost per thousand is the lowest for daytime broadcast tele vision and the highest for daily newspapers (Figure 3-5). The classic theory of advertis ing is that it is based on aw areness, interest, desire, and action (AIDA). First you have to get the targets atten tion; then you have to provide a reason to listen to your message; the message needs to stimula te the desire for the product; and finally, the target needs to buy whatever it is you are selling (Ehrlich 2004) The most commonly used form of advertising in residential construction is in magazine subscriptions (Barr 1996). The advantages of adver tising are that it can Be tailored to audiences needs Placement is very intentional and deliberate The dis advantages of advertising are that it can Not be very cost effective

PAGE 24

24 Become cluttered (in print) with other ads from competitors so that ads are over looked Trends such as TiVo are eliminating co mmercials on television all together. Newsletters and bulletins A newsletter is defined as a publi cation that is distributed at re gular intervals. The can have any format, focus, or frequency but they must be current and regular. (Floyd 1997). Client newsletters are produced for several reasons some of which include providing valuable information, enhancing the reputation of the co mpany, promoting the services offered by the company, providing continuous communications, de monstrating the capabilities of the firm, rewarding clients by featuring th eir projects, showcasing staff and project awards, to introduce new services or projects, and most importantly to increase sales w ith current clients (Society for Marketing Professional Services 2000). The informa tion contained in the ne wsletter has to have relevance for the perspective reader, must be valuable and timely (Figure 3-6). A good balance of news and features is a good way to pl ease a wide array of readers (Barr 1995). The advantages of newsletters are that they can Update existing clients on company news Allow the company to break into new markets Showcase award and build client trust The disadvantages of newsle tters are that they can Rarely reach potential new customers Seem weak if the company does not have any relevant news at that time Relationship marketing According the theory of Customer Equity, the customer is a financial asset that companies and organizations should measure, manage, and ma ximize just like any othe r asset (Blattenberg et al. 2001). Historically trends in all types of management have shown that the focus has been on the management of costs or the growth of revenues. The management of customer equity

PAGE 25

25 balances the two, carefully evaluating the profit ability and return on investment of marketing investment while creating market based growth (Davis 1999). Customer management, however, can only occur if a company has customers who re peatedly come back to the company to build their buildings. Companies must build relationshi ps with clients through trust. Once a trust is built, the customer can be identified as a loyal customer; and once a loyal customer is determined, the profitability of that loyal cu stomer can be assessed (Hedley 2006). Trust can only begin to be built between two people over time and personal face-to-face interaction. The more time which is invested into a relationship th e more trust is to be built. When a customer finds they can trust a contractor they will have a natural tendency to want to do business with that contractor again and again. The advantages of relationshi p marketing are that it can Be rewarding for employees building relations hips as much as it is for the clients. Build client trust The disadvantages of relations hip marketing are that it can Be very costly Be time comsuming Development Specific Tools Development specific tools are designed to highlight the special characteristics and qualities which set a particular residential development apart from other similar communities. These tools are specific to a partic ular project and entice the client to not only be interested in the company but the product that is the developments homes. Development logo The development logo is very important to the success of the sales of the units within the community. The logo will not only be what people use to identify the development far into the

PAGE 26

26 future, but it will also be used to initially entic e the client to consider the community. The logo should communicate graphically the core objectives th at the development intends to achieve. Creative Marketing Servi ces Inc., in Atlanta, Georgia, cr eated a logo for a development which wanted to promote a natural, rustic expe rience (Figure 3-7) and achieved the goal by incorporating native specimen in a rustic toned logo. The advantages of development logo creation are that it can Become the basis for all other marketing t echniques implemented for the development. Creates a brand image for the development in the clients eyes. There really are no disadvantage s to creating a development logo. It is believed to be the best tool to be implemented in a developments marketing plan. Development brochure The development brochure is similar to the company brochure in that it is used to convey not only visual representation of the product be ing produced, but it also has an underlying tone which is delivered to the potenti al client (Figure3-8). The writi ng and content in the brochure is extremely important. The common wisdom is that a client will spend only a minute or two on your brochure glance at the phot ographs, read the heads and subhead s, scan the client list, or project list, and maybe read a paragraph or two. This may be true in many cases, so make the best use of these elements to give a quick a nd accurate picture of your [project] at a glance (Society for Marketing prof essional Services 2000). The advantages of the developm ent brochure are that one can Easily convey a brief message about the development Give potential clients a tangible medium to take away with them The disadvantages of the developm ent brochures are that one can: Discourage face to face initial in teraction with the sales team Not be updated with new development proceedings at regular intervals

PAGE 27

27 Sales centers The sales center is a very significant portion of the marketing package in promoting the development. Creative Marketing Services Inc. defines specific minimal requirements that a sales center should encompass which give a poten tial buyer the best depiction of how the final product will be built. The minimum re quirement they desire in sale s centers they produce is that a near perfect replica of the st ructure and interior spaces that would be seen in a home in the development be created. The client should get an au thentic feel for the aesth etics of the buildings (Figure 3-9). The furnishings shoul d be pleasing to the touch and nothing should be too sparse or overly decorated either. The leve l of sophistication should warrant the appropriate tone for the development. Scale models of the development as a whole as well as models of the homes should be displayed in a central location. Other visual aids can be helpful as well, su ch as lifestyle pictures of potentially happy residents indulging in all that the development has to offer (Smyth 1999). These should be clear visual renderings or photographs which are accen ted by task lighting (Figure 3-10). A new trend in audiovisual technology called Building Inform ation Modeling (BIM) to give clients a threedimensional tour of a rendering of the mode ls. Through a combination of high-resolution photography, video, technology and ar chitectural and design treatme nts, the sales center will give people a first-hand experience of what it will be like to call the development home (Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007) The advantages of the sa les center are that it can Give the potential client an accurate de piction of the new homes to be built Create space to conduct busin ess for the development Act as a hub for all pre-constr uction / construction services.

PAGE 28

28 Similar to the development logo the sales center does not have any substantial disadvantages. The sales center is the heart of the promotional tools for the development. Signage Similarly to the brochure, the signage for the development has very limited space for content and has to be strategically planned. The sign is meant to identify the property and the key objectives of the development while still maintaining the aesthetic integrity proposed for the overall look for the community (Hedley 2006). The sign has to be particularly placed where it has maximum exposure to potential clients (Figure 3-11). The advantages of the signage are that one can Mark the boundary of the development Catch the attention of drivers passin g by who might not have known about the development The disadvantages of signage are that one can Be vague and not enticing Show prices which may be a deterrent for potential buyers Direct mail Direct mail allows you to target your marketing efforts to se lected prospective clients (Society for Marketing Professional Services 20 00).Not only can a company target exactly who receives this information but it is extremely reliabl e. This is increasingly important to residential developers who have received refe rrals from existing customers. More than any other marketing communicati ons medium, direct mail demands concise, convincing words that communicate in a flash an d sell in no uncertain terms...direct mail is a complex blend of advertising, public rela tions and sales promotion showmanship. It relies on advertisings one-two punch of art and copy to snare a readers attention. It draws from public relations the advantage of conveying information at length and in detail. (Barr 1995)

PAGE 29

29 Direct mail can come in many different formats including, but not limited to, flyers, post cards, newsletters, multi-media, holiday cards, and posters (Figure 3-12) The advantages of the direct mail are that it can Provide enormous options for effects which can be sent Be cost effective due to the relatively low postage costs Be very affordable because production costs are low The disadvantages of dir ect mail are that it can Yield incorrect addresses Annoy older clients on the mailing list who do not have a need for new developments Be hard to come up with lists Promotional events Promotional events can range from open houses, ground breakings, dinners and meetings to seminars, giveaways holidays, and ceremonies. If executed correctly, special events can cast a light on an organizations human side, persona lize the organization and pull off the printed page and out of the office building, and reveal it s character and vitality (Society for Marketing Professional Services 2000). Promotional events are a chance for the client to see that the community they are joining is not only about th e tangible structures but also has a pleasurable face as well. The customer can see that not on ly are they buying a house but an experience. The advantages of promotiona l events are that one can Provide a relaxing casual atmosphere for all involved Reward existing clients while givi ng potential clients perspective The disadvantages of promotional events are that one can Be very time and labor intensive Require a space to hold events Require large production costs

PAGE 30

30 A Complete Marketing Program Deciding on a complete marketing package to us e in promoting the sale of units inside the residential development is the most vital part in reaching the target clients. The specialized marketing firm analyzes all the options and the market to come up with the optimal combination of services. Most companies utilize the sa me Development Specific Tools: logo creation, brochure, sales center, and development signage The use of other mediums, General Company and Development Specific, is specifically tailored to each situation and profitability potential. Defining Profitability of a Marketing Program The profitability of the marketing program utili zed is determined using a six step process: Determine the number of prospects contacted over a fixed time period from a completed acquisition campaign Measure the marketing and servicing costs asso ciated with contacti ng and selling to the prospects Determine the number of prospects who became customers Compute the sales revenue and gross margin fo r the new customers first set of purchases Compute the acquisition equity of the entire pool of customers by subtracting the costs calculated in step 2 from the revenues calculate d in step 4. Note that this equity number can be negative. Divide the total acquisition equity by the num ber of customers to determine the average equity per customer (Blattberg et al. 2001). Some of the numbers used in the previ ous steps are approximations. According to Blattberg et al. (2001), approximations are not desirable by ac countants and financial analysts. The argument is that profitability from customer acquisitions or marketing cannot be measured because highly precise accounting numbers do not exist. The authors claim that Even when exact numbers are absent, it is be tter to be roughly right and to utilize the concept of [profitability] than not to meas ure it and to operate an enterprise using insufficient indicators....Such indicators may be more accurately measured, but they are less relevant managerially a nd strategically. Thus it is of ten necessary to approximate

PAGE 31

31 accounting and financial number s when trying to measure profit levels and marketing expenses for historical cohorts of customers. (Blattberg et al. 2001)

PAGE 32

32 Figure 3-1 The Construction Business Differe ntiation Triangle. Source: George Hedley, Construction Business Best Pr actices Series, Step 8: Ma rketing and Sales Systems, 2006, Construction Business Owner, August 2006, Birmingham, Alabama Figure 3-2 Company Logo. Source: Creat ive Marketing Services, Inc. 2007 http://www.creativemarketingservices.net

PAGE 33

33 Figure 3-3 Company Package. Source: Promotion Strategies for Design and Construction Firms (Barr; 1995) Figure3-4 Company Brochure. Source: Promotion Strategies for Design and Construction Firms (Barr; 1995)

PAGE 34

34 $0$5$10$15$20$25 Daytime Broadcast TV Magazines Primetime Broadcast TV Daily NewspaperTypical Cost per Thousand (CPM) of Major Media Buys Figure 3-5 Typical Cost per Thousand (CPM) of Major Media Buys. Source: Magazine Publishers of America Readership of Advertising by Unit Type, 2003 http://www.magizine.org/Advertisin g_and_PIB/Ad_Trends_and_Magazine_Handboo k/2009.cfm

PAGE 35

35 Figure 3-6 Company Newsletter Source: Promot ion Strategies for Design and Construction Firms (Barr; 1995)

PAGE 36

36 Figure 3-7 Company Logo. Source: Creat ive Marketing Services, Inc. 2007 http://www.creativemarketingservices.net Figure 3-8 Development Broc hure. Source: Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007 http://www.creativemarketingservices.net

PAGE 37

37 Figure 3-9 Sales Center. Source: Cr eative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007 http://www.creativemarketingservices.net Figure 3-10 Sales Center Wall Display. Source: Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007 http://www.creativemarketingservices.net

PAGE 38

38 Figure 3-11 Signage. Source: Creativ e Marketing Services, Inc. 2007 http://www.creativemarketingservices.net Figure 3-12 Direct Mail Die Cut Card. Source: Promo tion Strategies for Design and Construction Firms (Barr; 1995)

PAGE 39

39 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Introduction The results of the interviews conducted with the two reside ntial development builders is presented in four sections: client profiles for e ach of the developments, information pertaining to each project, analysis of each marketing tool used, and finally an analysis of the entire marketing systems in relation to each client profile. Client Profile The client profiles for each development under a particular builder were intended to be similar. The two builders selected for the st udy chose two developments which mirrored each other except for the marketing involved. The first builders (Builder A) client profiles for the developments defined the clients to be over 55 years of age, a married couple with ol der children who did not live with the couple anymore, the clients were retired or near re tirement, and had low mobility or likelihood of moving (Table 4-1). These developments were ta rgeted at elderly persons who were moving for the last time. Community interactions were mean t to be high with a fo cus on recreation. One of the developments has a golf course specially desi gned for the senior golfer while the other was built on a very large lake system with a concentration on boating and fishing. The second builders (Builder B) client prof ile defined a young family or newly married couple looking to start a family. The target ed age group was 25-35 years old, first time new home owners, with at least one member of the family working full time. The mobility of these clients is moderate (Table 4-2). These developm ents were marketed toward the working family with a high level of community interaction also. The developmen ts boasted extensive childrens facilities including playgrounds, club houses, pools and sports fields.

PAGE 40

40 Project Information The projects chosen by Builder A for this study have 944 and 956 total lots available for Development 1 and Development 2, respectivel y. Development 1 was completed in 1999 and construction began in 1995. The 18-month precons truction sales period this study is focusing on stretched from May 1993 to November 1995 duri ng which 546 homes were sold. The average price of a home sold during that time peri od was $179,995. Development 2 was completed in 2006 and construction began in 2001. The 18-mont h preconstruction sales period this study is focusing on stretched from July 1999 to Janua ry 2001 during which 923 homes were sold. The average price of a home sold during that time period was $400,009. The projects chosen by Builder B for this study have 657 and 590 total lots available for Development 1 and Development 2, respectivel y. Development 1 was completed in 1999 and construction began in 1996. The 18-month precons truction sales period this study is focusing on stretched from March 1994 to September 1996duri ng which 389 homes were sold. The average price of a home sold during that time peri od was $153,637. Development 2 was completed in 2003 and construction began in 2001. The 18-mont h preconstruction sales period this study is focusing on stretched from November 1999 to May 2001 during which 590 homes were sold. The average price of a home sold during that time period was $227,895. Analysis and Discussion by Marketing Tool The analysis of the marketing tools produced th ree distinct sets of results: the marketing tools which had similar profitabili ty percentages in both client profiles, the tools which were more profitable for marketing to the younger pr ofile, and the tools which were the most profitable for the project targ eted at the older age group.

PAGE 41

41 The profitability of each tool was calculated using the formula gathered from Blattsberg et al. (2001). The formula gives the pe rcentage that is earned on the in itial investment for each tool for example: Potential Client Exposure for a Particular Tool (Median Home Price Cost of the Tool) ( Number of Homes Sold )X Total Number of Homes in the Development An example of how this formul a is used in this study is: 3600 400009 1000 ( 923 )X = 16.31% Corporate Logo Development Profitability = 956 The tools which produced roughly the same prof itability on both sets of profiles include the Company Logo Development (Figure 4-1) Company Package (Figure 4-2) and the Development Logo (Figure 4-3).The tools which had higher profitability percentages for the younger clientele include: Web Design (Figure 4-4) Newsletters (Figure 4-5), and Relationship Marketing (Figure 4-6). The tools which produced higher profits for the older client base include: Company Brochure (Figure 4-7), Corpor ate Advertising (Figure 4-8), Development Brochure (Figure 4-9), Sales Center (Figure 410), Signage (Figure 4-11), and Promotional Event (Figure 4-12). Analysis of Marketing Sy stem by Client Profile The profitability of the tool s used by Builder A for the older clients are higher overall (Table 4-5) then the tools used by Builder B to market to the younger customers. However the tools had a generally better impact on the homes sales when compared to the sales of the homes in the developments where no marketing tools were implemented by the marketing consultation

PAGE 42

42 firm (Figures 4-13, 4-14). The sale of homes wa s much more consistent on a month to month basis for the developments which had implemented a marketing program.

PAGE 43

43 Table 4-1 Client Profile Information, Builder A Development 1 Development 2 Age 55+ Years Old 55+ Years Old Gender Male / Female Male / Female Marital Status Married Married Household Type Married Couple, Children out of home Married Couple, Kids grown Employment Retirees / About to retire Retirees / About to retire Income Retired, No Requirements Retired, No Requirements Mobility Low Low Table 4-2 Client Profile Information, Builder B Development 1 Development 2 Age 25-35 Years Old 25-35 Years Old Gender Male / Female Male / Female Marital Status Married / Single Married Household Type Young family Newlyweds / Young family Employment At least one member of household fulltime At least one member of household fulltime Income No requirements Combined income over $75,000 Mobility Moderate Moderate Table 4-3 Project Information, Builder A Development 1 Development 2 Construction Start/Finish Date 1995-1999 2001-2006 Preconstruction Sales Period May 1993 November 1995 July 1999 January 2001 Number of Units 944 956 Number of Homes Sold 546 923 Median Cost of Home $179,995 $400,009 Table 4-4 Project Information, Builder B Development 1 Development 2 Construction Start/Finish Date 1996-1999 2001-2003 Preconstruction Sales Period March 1994 September 1996 November 1999 May 2001 Number of Units 657 590 Number of Homes Sold 389 562 Median Cost of Home $153,637 $227,895

PAGE 44

44 Table 4-5 Profitability Analysis pe r Tool: Retirement Client Profile Marketing Tool Potential Client Exposure Cost Profitability Corporate Logo Development 3600 1000 16.31% Company Package 650 1500 2.93% Company Brochure 10000 2500 45.31% Corporate Advertising 20000 18775 90.47% Development Logo 4500 1000 20.39% Development Brochure 3000 2500 13.57% Sales Center 3000 65925 12.91% Signage 3500 4800 15.82% Direct Mail 1000 10000 4.43% Promotional Event 350 15000 1.43% Table 4-6 Profitability Analysis per Tool: Young Professional Client Profile Marketing Tool Potential Client Exposure Cost Profitability Corporate Logo Development 2500 1500 17.16% Company Package 400 1750 2.72% Company Brochure 750 3500 5.10% Web Design 10000 5000 68.65% Newsletter 300 750 2.05% Relationship Marketing 150 20000 0.69% Development Logo 2000 1500 13.72% Development Brochure 1000 3500 6.81% Sales Center 1000 90000 5.35% Signage 1200 7000 8.13% Direct Mail 500 4300 3.36%

PAGE 45

45 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 18 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base typeCorporate Logo Development Figure 4-1 Corporate Logo Development Profitability 2.6 2.65 2.7 2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 2.95 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypeCompany Package Figure 4-2 Company Package Profitability

PAGE 46

46 0 5 10 15 20 25 OlderYounger Client Base TypeDevelopment Logo Figure 4-3 Development Logo Development Profitability 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypeWeb Design Figure 4-4 Web Design Profitability

PAGE 47

47 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypeNewsletter Figure 4-5 Newsletter Profitability 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypeRelationship Marketing Figure 4-6 Relationship Marketing Profitability

PAGE 48

48 0 10 20 30 40 50 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypeCompany Brochure Figure 4-7 Company Brochure Profitability 0 20 40 60 80 100 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypeCorporate Advertising Figure 4-8 Corporate Advertising Profitability

PAGE 49

49 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypeDevelopment Brochure Figure 4-9 Development Brochure Profitability 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base Type Sales Center Figure 4-10 Sales Ce nter Profitability

PAGE 50

50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypeSignage Figure 4-11 Signage Profitability 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Profit Percentage OlderYounger Client Base TypePromotional Event Figure 4-12 Promotional Event Profitability

PAGE 51

51 Monthly Home Sales for Builder A0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1357911131517 MonthNumber of Homes Development 1 Development 2 Figure 4-13 Monthly Home Sales for Builder A Monthly Home Sales for Builder B0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1357911131517 MonthNumber of Homes Development 1 Development 2 Figure 4-14 Monthly Home Sales for Builder B

PAGE 52

52 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The assumption that clients will seek out and fi nd the services and products they need is nave and dated. The findings of this study not only reaffirmed the fact that marketing endeavors for small residential development builders are pr ofitable but it is just not practical to go on competing for work without some promotional effort. Conclusions Upon completion of the analysis of the collected data, it has become evident that defining and truly understanding the needs of the client base being targeted for the development are the most important steps in the marketing plan. The c lient bases in this study impacted the selection of tools that were used to best suit their characteristics. The young professional or young family client ba se was much more suited for marketing tools which incorporated a more modern aspect, for example web design. They also are more stimulated by the marketing tools which instill th eir trust thus creating a loyal customer database such as newsletters which keep them informed of future works of the company and relationship marketing which builds rapport. This will prove to continue to be profitable for the company when these customers plan to build again or upgrade to a new home. The older client base is more stimulated by tangible products and visual aids which can help them see the final picture such as br ochures, advertising, sale s centers, signs, and promotional events. These marketing tools give the clients something to take with them to ponder their decision and persuade them to make the decision to buy a home in the builders development. These tools can also be helpful in referring other similar customers in the same situation who might be in the market. These tools are easily transferrable from one client to the next.

PAGE 53

53 Recommendations As it is shown from the graphs representi ng the monthly sales of homes during the preconstruction sales period (Figures 4-13, 4-14), th e sales of homes in the developments where marketing tools were utilized have much more volume and an accelerated pace. The future of this study I believe would entail re search into the cost of inflation, the state of the housing market at the time of the study peri ods, and the average cost per square foot of the houses to be included in the comparison. These values would give more accurate conclusions into the profitability of each tool compared to the present worth of each tool and its profitability. The need for market research is ongoing. The needs and characteristics of new or changing markets are evolving every day. A continued role in the development of new ways to reach these existing and potential clients is essential in gaining a competitive advantage while maintaining profits on marketing investments.

PAGE 54

54 APPENDIX: BUILDER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Client Profile Age Gender Marital Status Household Type Employment Income Mobility (likelihood of moving) General Information Completion Date Construction Start Date Preconstruction Sales Period (18 month period) Number of units in development or phase Number of homes sold in 18 month pre-construction period Average cost of home Marketing Tools Used Tool 1 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 2 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 3 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 4 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 5 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 6 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 7 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 8 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 9 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost: Tool 10 : Potential Client Exposure: Cost:

PAGE 55

55 Monthly Home Sales Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number of Homes Sold

PAGE 56

56 LIST OF REFERENCES American Marketing Association; n.d. http ://www.marketingpower .com/mg-dictionaryview1862.php accessed March 5, 2007. Barr, Vilma; Promotion Strategies for Design and Construction Firms 1995, Van Nostrand Reinhold, Ne w York, New York. Birgonul, M. Talat; Dikmen, Irem; Ozce nk, Ismail; Marketing Orientation in Construction Firms: Evidence from Tu rkish Contractors, 2004, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. Blattenberg, Robert C.; Getz Gary; Thomas, Jacquelyn S.; Customer Equity: Building and Managing Relationships as Valuable Assets 2001, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts. Brockmann, Christian; Modeling Customer Sa tisfaction for the AEC Industry, 2002, AACE International Transactions, Breman, Germany. Bryde, David J.; Robinson, Lynne; Client Vers us Contractor Perspectives on Project Success Criteria, 2005, International Jour nal of Project Management, 23, 8, 622629. Butera, Karen; Designing Sales: The Builder/ Merchandiser Handbook 1987, National Association of Home Builders of the United States, Washington, D.C. Chinyio, Ezekiel A.; Corbett, Pauline; Ol omoiaiye, Paul O.; Quantification of Construction Clients Needs Through Paired Comparisons, 1998, Journal of Management in Engineering, January/February, 87-92. Creative Marketing Services, Inc; n.d. http://www.creativem arketingservices.net accessed March 5, 2007 Davis, Peter R.; Relationship Marketi ng in the Constructi on Industry, 1999, AACE International Transactions, Perth, Western Australia. Egemen, Mehmedali; Mohamed, Abdulrezak; C lients Needs, Wants and Expectations from Contractors and Approach to th e Concept of Repetitive Works in the Northern Cypress Construction Market , 2005, Building and Environment, 41, 5, 602-614. Ehrlich, Evelyn, The Financial Services Marketing Handbook: Tact ics and Techniques That Produce Results 2004, Bloomberg Press, Princeton, New Jersey Floyd, Elaine, Marketing with Newsletters: How to Boost Sales, Add Members & Raise Funds with a Printed, Faxed or Web Site Newsletter 1997, Newsletter Resources, St. Louis, Missouri.

PAGE 57

57 Hedley, George, Construction Business Best Practices Series, Step 8: Marketing and Sales Systems, 2006, Construction Bu siness Owner, August, Birmingham, Alabama. Henning-Thurau, Thorsten; Hansen, Ursu la; Relationship Marketing: Gaining Competitive Advantage Through Customer Satisfaction and Customer Retention 2000, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany. Maloney, William F.; Construction Product/S ervice and Customer Satisfaction, 2002, Journal of Construction Engi neering and Management, 522-529. Opfer, Neil; Cost Engineering Expertise in Marketing Construction Services, 1990, American Association of Cost Engineers, Las Vegas, NV. Proverbs, David G.; Soetanto, Robby; Intellig ent Models for Predicting Levels of Client Satisfaction, 2004, Journal of C onstruction Research, 5, 2, 233-253. Smyth, Hedley; Marketing and Se lling Construction Services, 1999, Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachsetts. Sobel, Andrew; Making Rain: The Secret s of Building Lifelong Client Loyalty 2003, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Society for Marketing Professional Serv ices; Marketing Handbook for the Design & Construction Professional 2000, BNi Publications, Inc., Los Angeles, California. Walls, Simon; Zahay, Debra L.; Managing Customer Relationships 2000, Report No. 00107, Marketing Science Institut e, Cambridge Massachusetts.

PAGE 58

58 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Julia Williams was born in Santa Cruz, Calif ornia, on August 13, 1982. After a short lived stay in the bay area, Julia moved to the plains of Illinois, also for a shor t couple of years before moving to the Gateway to the West, St. Louis. At the age of nine, Julia moved to the Sunshine State and spent the rest of her childhood leading up to college in the small town of Niceville. Julia received her Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration with a concentration in management from the University of Florida in May 2005. Two years later Julia will receive her Master of Science in Building Constructi on from the M.E. Rinker School of Building Construction at the University of Florid a to complete her academic achievements.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020621/00001

Material Information

Title: Impact of Marketing Strategies on the Success of Small Residential Developers
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020621:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020621/00001

Material Information

Title: Impact of Marketing Strategies on the Success of Small Residential Developers
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020621:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text





IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON THE SUCCESS OF SMALL RESIDENTIAL
DEVELOPERS



















By

JULIA WILLIAMS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE INT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007
































O 2007 by Julia Williams






























To my family: Mom, Dad, and Lilly
For their constant encouragement and support in all of my academic endeavors.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I want to thank a few important people that have helped me directly and indirectly succeed

in completing this thesis. Of course, this would not have been possible without the guidance and

support of my committee. Many thanks go to Dr. Raymond Issa, Dr. Ian Flood, and Dr. Douglas

Lucas. Dr. Issa, has been my biggest sponsor since my first day in Grad School at Rinker. He is

never one to let me go a couple of days without seeing him and making sure that everything is

going okay. The concern never went unnoticed and I appreciate the fact that we have teachers

who care as much as he does. Dr. Flood is always a calm and collected source of supervision,

despite just welcoming a new member to his family. Dr Lucas has been a great recent addition to

the Rinker Family and I will miss the office visits and his great stories of a wise and experienced

war veteran and business man.

I want to thank Dottie Beaupied for putting up with my increasingly frequent trips to her

office. Her assistance has been integral in the completion of not only this thesis, but also for the

entirety of my time in Rinker.

I want to thank my roommate, confidant, and partner in crime, Courtney. I never would

have gotten through this without her and her insatiable desire for coffee.

And last but certainly not least, I want to thank the most loving family anyone could ever

hope for. Their constant support has given me the opportunity to become the person that I am

today and no words could ever describe how much I appreciate everything they have done for

me. I love them: Mom, Daddy, and my little Lilly-Kins!












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ............ ...... ._ ...............7....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............8.....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 10...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............11.......... ......


Statement of Problem ................. ...............11................

Obj ectives of Study ................. ...............11................
Overview ................. ...............11.................


2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .............. ...............13....


Introducti on ................. ...............13.................
Basis for Research .............. ...............13....
Data Collection Medium............... ...............13.
Data Analysis............... ...............14
Limitations ................. ...............14.................
Conclusions............... ..............1


3 LITERATURE REVIEW ................. ...............16................


Promoting, Marketing, and Selling.................. ..................1
Construction, Not a Business of Building: a Business of People ................. ............... .....16
Marketing for Residential Builders and Developers .............. ...............17....
Defining Specialization ................ ...............17......__. .....
Developing Client Base ................... ...............18..............
Defining Profiles of Target Markets .........__. ........... ...............18..
Defining Best Practices in Reaching Target Clients .............. ...............19....
Marketing Consulting Firms Specializing in Construction .............. ...............19....
Tools Used to Reach Potential Clients .............. ...............20....
General Company Tools............... ...............20.
Corporate logo development ................ ...............20........... ....
Company package .............. ...............21....
Company brochure .............. ...............22....
W eb designs .............. ...............22....
Corporate advertising .............. ...............23....
Newsletters and bulletins .............. ...............24....
Relationship marketing .............. ...............24....












Development Specific Tools .............. ...............25....
Development logo .............. ...............25....
Development brochure .............. ...............26....
S al es centers .............. ...............27....

Signage ................. ...............28.................
Direct m ail ................. ...............28.......... ......
Promotional events ................. ...............29.................

A Complete Marketing Program .............. ...............30....
Defining Profitability of a Marketing Program ................ ........ ......... ................30


4 RE SULT S .............. ...............39....


Introducti on ................. ...............39.................
Client Profile............... ...............39

Proj ect Inform ation ................... ........ ...... ... ...............40....
Analysis and Discussion by Marketing Tool ...._ ......_____ .......___ ...........4
Analysis of Marketing System by Client Profile ...._ ......_____ .......___ ..........4


5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............. ...............52....


Conclusions............... ..............5
Recommendations............... ............5


APPENDIX: BUILDER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................. ...............54................


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............56................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............58....










LIST OF TABLES

Table page

4-1 Client Profie Information, Builder A............... ...............43...

4-2 Client Profie Information, Builder B .............. ...............43....

4-3 Proj ect Information, Builder A ................. ...............43..............

4-4 Proj ect Information, Builder B ................. ...............43..............

4-5 Profitability Analysis per Tool: Retirement Client Profile ................. .......................44

4-6 Profitability Analysis per Tool: Young Professional Client Profile ........._..... ..............44











LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

3-1 The Construction Business Differentiation Triangle. ............. ...............32.....

3-2 Company Logo................ ...............32.

3-3 Company Package ................. ...............33........... ....

3-4 Company Brochure. ............. ...............33.....

3-5 Typical Cost per Thousand (CPM) of Maj or Media Buys. ................ ............ .........34

3-6 Company Newsletter............... ...............3

3-7 Company Logo................ ...............36.

3-8 Development Brochure ................ ...............36........... ....

3-9 Sales Center .............. ...............37....


3-10 Sales Center Wall Display .............. ...............37....

3-11 Signage ................. ...............38.................

3-12 Direct Mail, Die Cut Card............... ...............38..

4-1 Corporate Logo Development Profitability .............. ...............45....

4-2 Company Package Profitability .............. ...............45....

4-3 Development Logo Development Profitability ................. ...............46........... ...

4-4 Web Design Profitability .............. ...............46....

4-5 Newsletter Profitability ................. ...............47........... ....

4-6 Relationship Marketing Profitability .............. ...............47....

4-7 Company Brochure Profitability ................. ...............48................

4-8 Corporate Advertising Profitability .............. ...............48....

4-9 Development Brochure Profitability ................. ...............49................

4-10 Sales Center Profitability ................. ...............49.......... ....

4-11 Signage Profitability .............. ...............50....











4-12 Promotional Event Profitability .............. ...............50....

4-13 Monthly Home Sales for Builder A ................. ...............51........... ..

4-14 Monthly Home Sales for Builder B .............. ...............51....









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

PROFIT POTENTIAL INT MARKETING MIXTURES FOR SMALL RESIDENTIAL
DEVELOPMENT BUILDERS


By

Julia Williams

May 2007

Chair: Raymond Issa
Cochair: lan Flood
Major: Building Construction

The residential development industry is a profitable market if in fact the units in the

development can be sold and in a timely fashion. The large residential construction firms of the

twenty-first century have realized the importance of the promotion of services and defining a

target market in which to advertise their services. The smaller residential development builders

in today's industry are slowly catching up to the marketing bandwagon. The emergence of these

specialized marketing firms is the basis for my study.

My study explored the profitability of marketing mixes developed by marketing consulting

firms for small residential builders. These marketing firms specialize in customizing a set of

marketing tools to reach the target market most effectively for each. The profitability of the use

of these firms' services is indisputable, but the extent of exactly how much profit is being

obtained from the services utilized for a particular development is in question. The information

collected during this study will help other builders to appreciate the profits that are realized from

the services of the marketing firm. Interviews conducted with two builders comparing a pair of

similar proj ects with the variable of the marketing tools were conducted to determine the amount

of the added profits and the expeditious returns on the initial marketing expenditure.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Statement of Problem

In today's construction industry, there exists a fair amount of residential builders who

believe that marketing and sales schemes are not necessary and the capital investment is

spending on frivolous items. These are the builders who have to bid work to drive sales volume,

who do not have a loyal client base, and who are more than likely to go out of business.

Marketing a specialized product in the business world today is at the heart of every company.

These naive builders need to realize that "a small investment in sales and marketing will generate

a big return over time toward [their] bottom line" (Hedley 2006).

Objectives of Study

The obj ective of this study is to determine the profitability of marketing tools implemented

by a marketing consulting firm for small residential development builders. A specific mixture of

tools to be used for a particular proj ect can be determined after a thorough assessment of a target

market is completed. Only then can a client profie be created and analyzed. The profitability of

the use of these firms' customized tools is indisputable, but the extent of exactly what profit

percentage is being obtained from each tool for a particular development is in question. This

information will help other builders appreciate the profits that are realized from the services of

the marketing firm.

Overview

In Chapter 2 the research methodology used in this study is described in detail. Chapter 3

contains a literature review pertaining to marketing in general, relation to the construction

industry, client bases, the emerging trend of specialized marketing consulting firms, marketing

tools used in residential development, applying the tools to a specific target market, and profit










potential analysis procedures. Chapter 4 contains an analysis and summary of the data obtained.

Finally, Chapter 5 presents conclusions from the analysis of data as well as makes some

recommendations for future areas of study.









CHAPTER 2
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Today's small residential development builders are beginning to realize the importance of

defining a target market and adapting a sales system to promote the differentiation of their firm

in relation to the target market' s specialized needs. In efforts to try and recruit potential

customers, builders are learning the added benefits of employing marketing companies which

specialize in residential development promotion to ensure that pre-construction sales of homes

are realized in full and often in accelerated time periods.

Basis for Research

The goal for this research study is to determine the profitability of marketing mixtures for

small residential development builders. A new trend of firms specializing in marketing

consultation for residential development builders has emerged in recent years. The profitability

derived from the use of these firms' services is indisputable, but the extent of exactly how much

profit is being obtained from the services utilized for a particular development is in question.

Data Collection Medium

It was decided that the most effective way to determine the profitability of marketing

services was to interview companies who had employed a specialized marketing consulting firm

on a development proj ect to create sets of data which will be used in case studies produced for

each proj ect. The interviews were conducted over the phone with a builder' s representative. The

two residential builders were chosen from a list acquired from one particular consulting firm who

offered a wide array of services. The questions asked were directed toward data for two of the

builder' s proj ects of relatively the same size and target market, the variable being that one










proj ect (Proj ect B) used the marketing firm's services with the proj ect which did not employ the

marketing services (Proj ect A) acting as the control for the research.

Data Analysis

Two separate sets of data were collected from the builders, one for each of the proj ects for

each builder. After careful review of marketing tools used in the industry and offered by the

consultation firm the interview questions were developed (Appendix). The questions were

divided into two categories: Client Profile and Development Information. The obj ective of the

Client Profile questions was to define the target market that the development is designed to

attract in order to analyze the marketing techniques planned by the consultation firm.

The Development Information questions were intended to highlight the factors used in

determining marketing profitability. These factors are (Barr 1995)as follows:

* Marketing tools used
* The cost associated with each tool
* An approximation of the number of prospective buyers reached by each tool
* The number of homes sold, total and per month
* The average price of a home in the development during the specified period

The data received from these questions were constrained by a specific time period, the 18

months of pre-construction. The data from the two sets were analyzed by comparison and also

the profitability of each tool relative to the total profitability was determined. Microsoft Excel

was used to process the data and to create a visual representation of the results.

Limitations

This research focused on builders in one region and does not represent the entire

population of residential development builders, but only the data from the participating

companies. The other limitation of this study is rooted in the fact that some factors are

approximations as the exact number of prospective clients who were exposed to marketing tools










cannot be known. The approximations are discussed in further detail in the literature review

portion of this thesis.

Conclusions

This research was conducted to determine the profitability of marketing tools customized

for a small residential development builder by a specialized marketing consultation firm. This

information will help other builders to appreciate the profits that are realized from the services of

the marketing firm. Interviews conducted with two builders comparing a pair of similar proj ects

with marketing tools as a variable were conducted to determine the extent of the added profits

and the expeditious returns on the initial marketing expenditure.









CHAPTER 3
LITERATURE REVIEW

Promoting, Marketing, and Selling

The term marketing was first defined in 1937 by the American Marketing Association as

"those activities involved in the flow of goods and services from the point of production to the

point of consumption." (American Marketing Association 2007). The definition was modified to

read "an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and

delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the

organization and its stakeholders" (American Marketing Association 2007). The change in the

original version is due to the fact that some believe that the point if production is far too late in a

product' s life to start promoting it, marketing should influence the product being made.

Conversely the point of consumption is definitely not the time to stop marketing the product in

order to retain loyal clients.

Developing a marketing scheme leads to using promotional mediums for a firm to elevate

and accelerate sales. There is an old adage in sales that says "No sales...no company," in today's

increasingly competitive construction industry, nothing sells itself (Smyth 1999). Therefore, a

strong sales program, through market research and varied promotional mediums, is fundamental

to the life, health and wealth of the company.

Construction, Not a Business of Building: a Business of People

The construction industry is driven by the people who have a want for buildings to be

erected and is then realized by the individuals who coordinate the work of others to accomplish

the assembly of those buildings. The product being marketed in building construction is the

service of putting together the efforts of others to achieve a tangible Einal product, the building.

The interactions between contractors and clients are at the heart of every transaction made to










complete the new building. Mastering the acquisition and maintenance of the interactions

between those two groups of people is what distinguishes a successful builder from an

unsuccessful builder. Professional exchanges are only the beginning of communications that are

exchanged with the client. A builder must understand that the only way to obtain and retain

clients is to develop personal relationships making this not a business of building, but a business

of people.

Marketing for Residential Builders and Developers

Home building is a specialized market in building construction. The challenge residential

builders and developers face in selling homes is an intangible concept. The use of videos,

renderings, and floor plans can help a client visualize the final product. Builders differ vastly in

the size of the company ranging from single-person operations to companies with hundreds of

employees all over the globe (Barr 1995). The larger companies have caught on to the trend of

market differentiation and have employed marketing professionals or in the best case scenario

created an entire marketing department. The smaller firms are beginning to adopt the new ideas

to obtain new clients while maintaining existing clients.

Defining Specialization

In the residential construction industry, there exists a trilogy of attributes which can be

found in most construction companies: superior service, low prices, and high quality (Figure 3-

1). The most profitable companies in the current business world focus on reaching an edge of the

triangle while most residential builders aim for the middle making themselves known as a "j ack

of all trades and a master of none" (Hedley 2006). Home builders are different than the average

company in that all of the attributes are required by most clients and a push in just one direction

would be quite detrimental to a company. In order to create a degree of separation from the

average, a builder one must chose a specialization. This can literally be an extra focus on one of









the differentiating attributes, or it can be by selecting a specific market niche such as waterfront

homes with the highest attention to hurricane protection. A differentiation from the general

industry allows a company to market themselves as an expert in whichever field they chose.

Once the specialization of the company has been adopted, the company can focus on delivering

the specialization to the best of their ability.

A company can also be set apart from the rest of the competition by offering something

more or something different. The main obj ective in differentiation is to make the potential

customers aware of why they should only use this particular company. More than one

specialization is suitable, and sometimes desirable, however, completely separate marketing

schemes must be developed for each differentiated business sector within a company (Sobel

2001). The clients for each of the specialized proj ect types are different and must be tended to

differently .

Developing Client Base

To have a successful marketing and sales scheme it is essential to know your target market.

The customer for the specialized market which has been created should have been the main focus

for the differentiation from the rest of the competitors in the market. The intended market must

be attainable to the company and the needs of the customer should also be familiar to the

employees.

Defining Profiles of Target Markets

The target clients should have a clear profile. In the residential building world, the

demographics of the clients in a particular market will be similar enabling the marketing tactics

to be focused in ways which the clients will intercept the promotional efforts. Demographic

factors that should be analyzed are age, income, gender, marital status, family size, and terms of

occupancy. These basic characteristics will inform rest of their personality, called their lifestyle










preferences, such as the school system, infrastructure requirements, religious facilities, and

development amenities for example (Sobel 2003).

In residential construction, the client base is basically divided into two categories: first

time buyers, such as young professionals or young families and move-up buyers, such as empty-

nesters or retirees (Butera, 1987). The needs and desires of the two groups differ in that the first

time buyer is looking for relations to schools, work location, playgrounds, and shopping centers

along with Einancing provided while the move-up buyers might be more concerned with

proximity to clubhouses, waterfront, health care centers, and a community where gatherings are

fostered along with large lots and privacy. The first time buyers are more looking for economical

homes and have a short but concise list of needs to be fulfilled. The move-up bu ers have a

lon er list of wants that they are looking for in a home or develop ment.

Defining Best Practices in Reaching Target Clients

Meeting the needs of a specified client base requires different techniques in marketing.

Each individual builder' s techniques should vary in term of the client base. For example, if the

client base is retirees it might not be in the best interest of the company to have a strictly

Internet-based marketing plan. However, if a company was trying to target young professionals,

technology-based promotional strategies would be more accommodating.

Marketing Consulting Firms Specializing in Construction

With marketing being such an important factor in selling homes, residential builders have

to stretch limited budgets to make the most profit per dollar spent. In order to achieve the highest

profit potential for restricted resources, employment of marketing consultating firms specializing

in new-home construction and neighborhood developments have become an increasing trend

(Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007). The expertise of these firms can help eliminate less









effective marketing tools and the use of inexperienced staff members of the builder' s team in

terms of marketing.

Most of these specialized firms offer a wide range of products with the builder having the

opportunity to utilize the perfect combination of services to meet the needs of their marketing

endeavor (Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007). The specialized marketing firms understand

the demands of the target markets and the best way to promote the services and products the

builder is trying to sell.

Tools Used to Reach Potential Clients

Within the world of marketing techniques, each medium has differing effects on the overall

marketing plan. The diverse range of the common tools used to promote in the residential

markets is broken into General Company Tools and Proj ect Specific Tools used to reach

potential clients. Within these two narrowed categories each tool brings apparent advantages and

disadvantages to the complete marketing program.

General Company Tools

General company tools are used by the company to help the client identify the company

and to build a brand in the mind of the client and to emphasize the specializations offered by the

company (Butera 1987). These mediums should be made to be distributed in the short term (six

months to a year) and the long term (three to five years). The General Company Tools are what

sparks initial interest in the company from the potential client.

Corporate logo development

Design of a logo or logosytle is essential in catching the attention of potential clients and

appealing to existing clients. The logo should be a reflection of the individuals in the specified

target market. For example if the company is trying to market themselves to a stylish, high-end

user the logo should resemble that market (Figure 3-2). The use of a tag line should be









incorporated with a logo. The tag line "give[s] additional emphasis to a logo or logostyle. They

synthesize in a few words the company's mission, philosophy or professional specialty" (Barr

1995). The use of the logo along with the tag line should be implemented in all printed materials.

The repetition of exposure in the tag line with the logo gives the symbol or name of the company

something to stand for in addition to just the name.

The advantages of a company logo are that one can

* Imprint the brand of the company in the clients' mind
* Create a common thread to be implanted within all aspects of the company's imaging
* Instill a sense of pride in employees

The disadvantages of logo creation are that it can

* Be detrimental to the sales of the community if it is completed poorly
* Become very time consuming, tedious, and stressful

Company package

The company package is a compilation of materials to be utilized by a company in day to

day business communications. Printed obj ects to be included in the package include folders, tabs,

envelopes, labels, letterhead, report papers, and marketing papers (Figure3-3). These items are

only a limited list of materials that could be included, but that should include at least these items.

The advantages of a company package are that it can

* Create a cohesive set of materials to continuously remind the recipient of the brand
* Enable the user to generate an organized packet of business materials
* Allow the user to be consistent in presentation

The disadvantages of a company package are that it can

* Have a high cost of design

* Have a high cost of printing and re-printing

* Disable the company from changing anything on the materials until the resources are
exhausted










Company brochure

The brochure made for the company "is a sales-supportive vehicle that communicates an

idea of [the company's] experience, [the] staff, [the] work quality, and briefly [the ]

organization's underlying philosophy" (Barr 1995). The company brochure is the centerpiece of

the General Company Tools. The brochure should not only have photos and descriptions of past

proj ect history, but it should convey the personality of the company and be personalized to the

target audience (Figure3-4).

The advantages of the brochure are that it can

* Provide and introduction to new clients
* Remind clients of total capabilities
* Become a cross-selling tool for existing clients
* Become a source of inspiration and renewed pride for employees


The disadvantages of the brochure are that it can

* Fail to compete with newer electronic formats
* Become to broad in nature to entice a potential client
* Prevent relationships from being made in just the exchange of a brochure.

Web designs

The emergence of the internet has created a form of marketing that has grown

tremendously in the past decade. "As a business investment, the establishment of a website is

one of the most cost-effective marketing tools available to a firm in terms of reach and exposure

to potential clients when compared to other traditional forms of advertising, communications,

and promotion" (Society for Marketing Professional Services 2000). Websites allow potential

clients to gain immediate access to information about a company.

The advantages of web designs are that they can

* Work for the company at all hours of the day and everyday of the year.
* Give the perception of a contemporary company in today's competitive marketplace










* Allow changes to proj ects and company details to be made quickly

The disadvantages of web designs are that

* Computer literacy is still on the rise and access is still limited to those who have computer
access

* Complicated graphics of the construction industry are displayed differently in different
systems

* Maintaining a website can be costly

Corporate advertising

Corporate advertising is "purchased space or time...it appears when you want it to and

exactly how you want it to" (Barr 1995). Advertising's most important factors are to build brand

recognition, familiarity, customer retention, while maintaining market share, and improving

employee morale (Ehrlich 2004). There are many media in which advertising can be distributed

such as television (cable and broadcast), radio magazines, newspapers and the internet. The

typical cost per thousand is the lowest for daytime broadcast television and the highest for daily

newspapers (Figure 3-5).

"The classic theory of advertising is that it is based on awareness, interest, desire, and

action (AIDA). First you have to get the target' s attention; then you have to provide a reason to

listen to your message; the message needs to stimulate the desire for the product; and finally, the

target needs to buy whatever it is you are selling" (Ehrlich 2004). The most commonly used form

of advertising in residential construction is in magazine subscriptions (Barr 1996).

The advantages of advertising are that it can

* Be tailored to audiences needs
* Placement is very intentional and deliberate

The dis advantages of advertising are that it can

* Not be very cost effective










* Become cluttered (in print) with other ads from competitors so that ads are over looked

* Trends such as TiVo are eliminating commercials on television all together.

Newsletters and bulletins

A newsletter is defined as a publication that is distributed at regular intervals. The can have

any format, focus, or frequency but they must be current and regular. (Floyd 1997). Client

newsletters are produced for several reasons some of which include providing valuable

information, enhancing the reputation of the company, promoting the services offered by the

company, providing continuous communications, demonstrating the capabilities of the firm,

rewarding clients by featuring their projects, showcasing staff and proj ect awards, to introduce

new services or proj ects, and most importantly to increase sales with current clients (Society for

Marketing Professional Services 2000). The information contained in the newsletter has to have

relevance for the perspective reader, must be valuable and timely (Figure 3-6). A good balance

of news and features is a good way to please a wide array of readers (Barr 1995).

The advantages of newsletters are that they can

* Update existing clients on company news
* Allow the company to break into new markets
* Showcase award and build client trust

The disadvantages of newsletters are that they can

* Rarely reach potential new customers
* Seem weak if the company does not have any relevant news at that time

Relationship marketing

According the theory of Customer Equity, "the customer is a financial asset that companies

and organizations should measure, manage, and maximize just like any other asset" (Blattenberg

et al. 2001). Historically, trends in all types of management have shown that the focus has been

on the management of costs or the growth of revenues. The management of customer equity









balances the two, carefully evaluating the profitability and return on investment of marketing

investment while creating market based growth (Davis 1999). Customer management, however,

can only occur if a company has customers who repeatedly come back to the company to build

their buildings. Companies must build relationships with clients through trust. Once a trust is

built, the customer can be identified as a loyal customer; and once a loyal customer is

determined, the profitability of that loyal customer can be assessed (Hedley 2006). Trust can

only begin to be built between two people over time and personal face-to-face interaction. The

more time which is invested into a relationship the more trust is to be built. When a customer

finds they can trust a contractor they will have a natural tendency to want to do business with

that contractor again and again.

The advantages of relationship marketing are that it can

* Be rewarding for employees building relationships as much as it is for the clients.
* Build client trust

The disadvantages of relationship marketing are that it can

* Be very costly
* Be time comsuming

Development Specific Tools

Development specific tools are designed to highlight the special characteristics and

qualities which set a particular residential development apart from other similar communities.

These tools are specific to a particular proj ect and entice the client to not only be interested in the

company but the product that is the development' s homes.

Development logo

The development logo is very important to the success of the sales of the units within the

community. The logo will not only be what people use to identify the development far into the









future, but it will also be used to initially entice the client to consider the community. The logo

should communicate graphically the core obj ectives that the development intends to achieve.

Creative Marketing Services Inc., in Atlanta, Georgia, created a logo for a development which

wanted to promote a natural, rustic experience (Figure 3-7) and achieved the goal by

incorporating native specimen in a rustic toned logo.

The advantages of development logo creation are that it can

* Become the basis for all other marketing techniques implemented for the development.
* Creates a brand image for the development in the clients' eyes.

There really are no disadvantages to creating a development logo. It is believed to be the

best tool to be implemented in a development's marketing plan.

Development brochure

The development brochure is similar to the company brochure in that it is used to convey

not only visual representation of the product being produced, but it also has an underlying tone

which is delivered to the potential client (Figure3-8). The writing and content in the brochure is

extremely important. "The common wisdom is that a client will spend only a minute or two on

your brochure glance at the photographs, read the heads and subheads, scan the client list, or

proj ect list, and maybe read a paragraph or two. This may be true in many cases, so make the

best use of these elements to give a quick and accurate picture of your [proj ect] at a glance"

(Society for Marketing professional Services 2000).

The advantages of the development brochure are that one can

* Easily convey a brief message about the development
* Give potential clients a tangible medium to take away with them

The disadvantages of the development brochures are that one can:

* Discourage face to face initial interaction with the sales team
* Not be updated with new development proceedings at regular intervals









Sales centers

The sales center is a very significant portion of the marketing package in promoting the

development. Creative Marketing Services Inc. defines specific minimal requirements that a

sales center should encompass which give a potential buyer the best depiction of how the final

product will be built. The minimum requirement they desire in sales centers they produce is that

a near perfect replica of the structure and interior spaces that would be seen in a home in the

development be created. The client should get an authentic feel for the aesthetics of the buildings

(Figure 3-9). The furnishings should be pleasing to the touch and nothing should be too sparse or

overly decorated either. The level of sophistication should warrant the appropriate tone for the

development. Scale models of the development as a whole as well as models of the homes

should be displayed in a central location.

Other visual aids can be helpful as well, such as lifestyle pictures of potentially happy

residents indulging in all that the development has to offer (Smyth 1999). These should be clear

visual renderings or photographs which are accented by task lighting (Figure 3-10). A new trend

in audiovisual technology called Building Information Modeling (BIM) to give clients a three-

dimensional tour of a rendering of the models. "Through a combination of high-resolution

photography, video, technology and architectural and design treatments, the sales center will

give people a first-hand experience of what it will be like to call the development home"

(Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007)

The advantages of the sales center are that it can

* Give the potential client an accurate depiction of the new homes to be built
* Create space to conduct business for the development
* Act as a hub for all pre-construction / construction services.









Similar to the development logo the sales center does not have any substantial

disadvantages. The sales center is the heart of the promotional tools for the development.

Sign age

Similarly to the brochure, the signage for the development has very limited space for

content and has to be strategically planned. "The sign is meant to identify the property and the

key obj ectives of the development while still maintaining the aesthetic integrity proposed for the

overall look for the community" (Hedley 2006). The sign has to be particularly placed where it

has maximum exposure to potential clients (Figure 3-11).

The advantages of the signage are that one can

* Mark the boundary of the development

* Catch the attention of drivers passing by who might not have known about the
development

The disadvantages of signage are that one can

* Be vague and not enticing
* Show prices which may be a deterrent for potential buyers

Direct mail

"Direct mail allows you to target your marketing efforts to selected prospective clients"

(Society for Marketing Professional Services 2000).Not only can a company target exactly who

receives this information but it is extremely reliable. This is increasingly important to residential

developers who have received referrals from existing customers.

More than any other marketing communications medium, direct mail demands concise,
convincing words that communicate in a flash and sell in no uncertain terms...direct mail is
a complex blend of advertising, public relations and sales promotion showmanship. It
relies on advertising's one-two punch of art and copy to snare a reader' s attention. It draws
from public relations the advantage of conveying information at length and in detail. (Barr
1995)










Direct mail can come in many different formats including, but not limited to, flyers, post cards,

newsletters, multi-media, holiday cards, and posters (Figure 3-12)

The advantages of the direct mail are that it can

* Provide enormous options for effects which can be sent
* Be cost effective due to the relatively low postage costs
* Be very affordable because production costs are low

The disadvantages of direct mail are that it can

* Yield incorrect addresses
* Annoy older clients on the mailing list who do not have a need for new developments
* Be hard to come up with lists

Promotional events

Promotional events can range from open houses, ground breaking, dinners and meetings

to seminars, giveaways holidays, and ceremonies. "If executed correctly, special events can cast

a light on an organization' s human side, personalize the organization and pull off the printed

page and out of the office building, and reveal it' s character and vitality" (Society for Marketing

Professional Services 2000). Promotional events are a chance for the client to see that the

community they are joining is not only about the tangible structures but also has a pleasurable

face as well. The customer can see that not only are they buying a house but an experience.

The advantages of promotional events are that one can

* Provide a relaxing casual atmosphere for all involved
* Reward existing clients while giving potential clients perspective

The disadvantages of promotional events are that one can

* Be very time and labor intensive
* Require a space to hold events
* Require large production costs









A Complete Marketing Program

Deciding on a complete marketing package to use in promoting the sale of units inside the

residential development is the most vital part in reaching the target clients. The specialized

marketing firm analyzes all the options and the market to come up with the optimal combination

of services. Most companies utilize the same Development Specific Tools: logo creation,

brochure, sales center, and development signage. The use of other mediums, General Company

and Development Specific, is specifically tailored to each situation and profitability potential.

Defining Profitability of a Marketing Program

The profitability of the marketing program utilized is determined using a six step process:

* Determine the number of prospects contacted over a fixed time period from a completed
acquisition campaign

* Measure the marketing and servicing costs associated with contacting and selling to the
prospects

* Determine the number of prospects who became customers

* Compute the sales revenue and gross margin for the new customers' first set of purchases

* Compute the acquisition equity of the entire pool of customers by subtracting the costs
calculated in step 2 from the revenues calculated in step 4. Note that this equity number
can be negative.

* Divide the total acquisition equity by the number of customers to determine the average
equity per customer (Blattberg et al. 2001).

Some of the numbers used in the previous steps are approximations. According to

Blattberg et al. (2001), approximations are not desirable by accountants and financial analysts.

The argument is that profitability from customer acquisitions or marketing "cannot be measured

because highly precise accounting numbers do not exist." The authors claim that

Even when exact numbers are absent, it is better to be roughly right and to utilize the
concept of [profitability] than not to measure it and to operate an enterprise using
insufficient indicators....Such indicators may be more accurately measured, but they are
less relevant managerially and strategically. Thus it is often necessary to approximate









accounting and financial numbers when trying to measure profit levels and marketing
expenses for historical cohorts of customers. (Blattberg et al. 2001)










Thle Construction Businless Differentiation Trianglle


Superior Selrvice


Low Prices


High~ Qualityr


Figure 3-1 The Construction Business Differentiation Triangle. Source: George Hedley,
"Construction Business Best Practices Series, Step 8: Marketing and Sales Systems,"
2006, Construction Business Owner, August 2006, Birmingham, Alabama


d


Figure 3-2 Company Logo. Source: Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007
http://www. cre ativemarketi ng servi ce s.net

























..br do




you hav'E
time to
find it?










Figure 3-3 Company Package. Source: Promotion Strategies for Design and Construction Firms
(Barr; 1995)



TR Waltestro~~ntDelpent


Figure3-4 Company Brochure. Source: Promotion Strategies for Design and Construction Firms
(Barr; 1995)





Figure 3-5 Typical Cost per Thousand (CPM) of Maj or Media Buys. Source: Magazine
Publishers of America "Readership of Advertising by Unit Type, 2003"
http ://www. magiztin e.org/Adverti si ng_andPIB /Ad_Trend s_andMagazineHandb oo
k/2009.cfm


Typical Cost per Thousand (CPMI) of Mlajor Mledia
Buys


0


Daily Newspaper

Primetime Broadcast W/

Magazines

Daytime Broadcast W/


$5 $10 $15


$20 $25













assualismars:ma t


aI~~~PIP~llummItanammaraxa


-~~~~ -am 9-na ~ ~ -


PLAN i


RL~fWr COM*I&IIDII~
hn~l~i*u
o~,arv
Undm~lhB
)Kirriure
Iwn~bld-~
c~,~
o,,iui~.
v., 4,iu
u~r


1P" 18


(I"n-r-nll..*
Y.~mmiru


ri
r!'
--t;


r
-'' 1$ J;
s~
rdi


I


I it i \l
1. hI \PI


P~.-;



~~

r
~;:
-~
:~
-

..
.-c.., ..-.
~... ~..* -.


__

ii


~r. I~I..
[S

IG.".:'- '
.~ ..
~ ~.;;
r r~-~ ~ ..~
"'"'" ':~ '"
-1 -~ .....I
,,~.,.,
,..... .~.


Figure 3-6 Company Newsletter Source: Promotion Strategies for Design and Construction
Firms (Barr; 1995)


PROCESS


Amnerican Landscape:

Image and Agendfa


H.:. ..'

.: ~E~a~~-~drr.snu~~
i~d~n~cl~odurrr
Pl~i7(.lliiC I~t6j:.th-rc iFii.) V~h~l ~re :he ilrrcl in rod.lt
I~crd~~i~~jr;nolibua Ir-d~ir~ocdi4rh?


a PI.3,Z A.
INDF**:,

ill.ilR1 ..-






























Figure 3-7 Company Logo. Source: Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007
http://www. cre ativemarketi ng servi ce s.net


Figure 3-8 Development Brochure. Source: Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007
http://www. cre ativemarketi ng servi ce s.net



































Figure 3-9 Sales Center. Source: Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007
http://www. cre ativemarketi ng servi ce s.net


Figure 3-10 Sales Center Wall Display. Source: Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007
http://www. cre ativemarketi ng servi ce s.net


















































1 LI t- r


Figure 3-11 Signage. Source: Creative Marketing Services, Inc. 2007
http://www. cre ativemarketi ng servi ce s.net


Figure 3-12 Direct Mail, Die Cut Card. Source: Promotion Strategies for Design and
Construction Firms (Barr; 1995)









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Introduction

The results of the interviews conducted with the two residential development builders is

presented in four sections: client profiles for each of the developments, information pertaining to

each proj ect, analysis of each marketing tool used, and finally an analysis of the entire marketing

systems in relation to each client profile.

Client Profile

The client profiles for each development under a particular builder were intended to be

similar. The two builders selected for the study chose two developments which mirrored each

other except for the marketing involved.

The first builder' s (Builder A) client profiles for the developments defined the clients to be

over 55 years of age, a married couple with older children who did not live with the couple

anymore, the clients were retired or near retirement, and had low mobility or likelihood of

moving (Table 4-1). These developments were targeted at elderly persons who were moving for

the last time. Community interactions were meant to be high with a focus on recreation. One of

the developments has a golf course specially designed for the senior golfer while the other was

built on a very large lake system with a concentration on boating and fishing.

The second builder' s (Builder B) client profile defined a young family or newly married

couple looking to start a family. The targeted age group was 25-35 years old, first time new

home owners, with at least one member of the family working full time. The mobility of these

clients is moderate (Table 4-2). These developments were marketed toward the working family

with a high level of community interaction also. The developments boasted extensive children's

facilities including playgrounds, clubhouses, pools and sports fields.









Project Information

The proj ects chosen by Builder A for this study have 944 and 956 total lots available for

Development 1 and Development 2, respectively. Development 1 was completed in 1999 and

construction began in 1995. The 18-month preconstruction sales period this study is focusing on

stretched from May 1993 to November 1995 during which 546 homes were sold. The average

price of a home sold during that time period was $179,995. Development 2 was completed in

2006 and construction began in 2001. The 18-month preconstruction sales period this study is

focusing on stretched from July 1999 to January 2001 during which 923 homes were sold. The

average price of a home sold during that time period was $400,009.

The proj ects chosen by Builder B for this study have 657 and 590 total lots available for

Development 1 and Development 2, respectively. Development 1 was completed in 1999 and

construction began in 1996. The 18-month preconstruction sales period this study is focusing on

stretched from March 1994 to September 1996during which 389 homes were sold. The average

price of a home sold during that time period was $153,637. Development 2 was completed in

2003 and construction began in 2001. The 18-month preconstruction sales period this study is

focusing on stretched from November 1999 to May 2001 during which 590 homes were sold.

The average price of a home sold during that time period was $227,895.

Analysis and Discussion by Marketing Tool

The analysis of the marketing tools produced three distinct sets of results: the marketing

tools which had similar profitability percentages in both client profies, the tools which were

more profitable for marketing to the younger profie, and the tools which were the most

profitable for the proj ect targeted at the older age group.










The profitability of each tool was calculated using the formula gathered from Blattsberg et

al. (2001). The formula gives the percentage that is earned on the initial investment for each tool

for example:




( oenil len xpsrefrParticular Tool X (Median Home Price -Cost of the Tool)
Number of Homes Sold
Total Number of Homes in the Development


An example of how this formula is used in this study is:


Corporate
3600 400009 1000
Logo =X
Development 923 = 16.31%
Profitability 956


The tools which produced roughly the same profitability on both sets of profiles include

the Company Logo Development (Figure 4-1), Company Package (Figure 4-2) and the

Development Logo (Figure 4-3).The tools which had higher profitability percentages for the

younger clientele include: Web Design (Figure 4-4), Newsletters (Figure 4-5), and Relationship

Marketing (Figure 4-6). The tools which produced higher profits for the older client base

include: Company Brochure (Figure 4-7), Corporate Advertising (Figure 4-8), Development

Brochure (Figure 4-9), Sales Center (Figure 4-10), Signage (Figure 4-11), and Promotional

Event (Figure 4-12).

Analysis of Marketing System by Client Profile

The profitability of the tools used by Builder A for the older clients are higher overall

(Table 4-5) then the tools used by Builder B to market to the younger customers. However the

tools had a generally better impact on the homes sales when compared to the sales of the homes

in the developments where no marketing tools were implemented by the marketing consultation









firm (Figures 4-13, 4-14). The sale of homes was much more consistent on a month to month

basis for the developments which had implemented a marketing program.
















Gender Mlale Femlell
Marital Status rid
Marriel C'ouple. C'hildlren out of
Household Type iis

Emloyment Retireess AbLout to restires
Income Reti redl. No Reqluir~ements




Table 4-2 Client Profile Information, Builder B


Gender Mlale Femlell
Marital Status Marr~lied nl
Household Type Yuefml
Employment At least one member of householdl
fullltimle
Income No reqauirementslt


c5+ Yeasd' O~ld


Table 4-3 Project Information, Builder A

Construction Start/Finish Date l (-1,c
Preconstruction Sales Period hlai 14,c)3~ Noi ember 1 Number of Units c4
Number of Homes Sold 51


Table 4-1 Client Profile Information, Builder A


Age





Company Package 650 1500 2.93%
Company Brochure 10000 2500 45.31%
Corporate Advertising 20000 18775 90.47%
Development Logo 4500 1000 20.39%
Developmnt Brochure 3000 2500 13.57%
Sales Center 3000 65925 12.91%
Signage 3500 4800 15.82%
Direct Mail 1000 10000 4.43%
Promotional Event 350 15000 1.43%


Compn Package 400 1750 2.72%
Company Brochure 750 3500 5.10%
Web Design 10000 5000 68.65%
Newsletter 300 750 2.05%
Relationship Marketing 150 20000 0.69%
Developmnt Logo 2000 1500 13.72%
Development Brochure 1000 3500 6.81%
Sales Center 1000 90000 5.35%
Signage 1200 7000 8.13%
Direct Mail 500 4300 3.36%


Table 4-5 Profitability Analysis per Tool: Retirement Client Profile


Marketing Tool
Corporate Logo
Development


Cost | Profitability


3600


1000


16.31%


Table 4-6 Profitability Analysis per Tool: Young Professional Client Profie


Marketing Tool
Corporate Logo
Development


Cost | Profitability


2500


1500


17.16%





Corporate Logo Development


18

17.5

Profit17
Percentage 16.5

16


15.5 P


Older Younger
Client Base type


Figure 4-1 Corporate Logo Development Profitability


Company Package


2.95
2.9
2.85
2.8
2.75
2.7
2.65


P rofit
Pe rce ntage


Older Younger
Client Base Type


Figure 4-2 Company Package Profitability





Web Design



70
60
50
Profit 40
Percentage 30
20
10

Older Younger
Client Base Type


Development Logo


25


Older


Younger


Client Base Type


Figure 4-3 Development Logo Development Profitability


Figure 4-4 Web Design Profitability





Relationship Mlarketing



0.7
0.6
0.5
Profit 0.4
Percentage 0.3
0.2
0.1

Older Younger
Client Base Type


Newsletter


Profit '"
Pe rce ntage 1

0.5


Older Younger
Client Base Type


Figure 4-5 Newsletter Profitability


Figure 4-6 Relationship Marketing Profitability





Company Brochure


50

40

Prft 30
Percentage 20

10

0


Older Younger
Client Base Type


Figure 4-7 Company Brochure Profitability


Corporate Advertising


100

80

Profit 6
Percentage 40


20


Older Younger
Client Base Type


Figure 4-8 Corporate Advertising Profitability





Sa les Ce nte r


Development Brochure


14
12
10
Profit 8
Pe rce ntage 6


Older Younger
Client Base Type


Figure 4-9 Development Brochure Profitability


14
12
10
Profit 8
Pe rce ntage 6


Older


Younger


Client Base Type


Figure 4-10 Sales Center Profitability





Sign age


16
14
12
10
P rofit
8
Pe rce ntage
6
4
2
0


Older Younger
Client Base Type


Figure 4-11 Signage Profitability


Promotional Event



1.6
1.4
1.2

P rofit
0.8
Pe rce ntage
0.6
0.4
0.2

Older Younger
Client Base Type


Figure 4-12 Promotional Event Profitability












































I


60

m50

E 40
o
I
o 30

E 20


10


;


-* Development 1
-=- Development 2


1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17
Month


Figure 4-13 Monthly Hiome Sales tor B~uilder A


40
35
Q~30
-
S25 -
o 20 -
-
S10
2 5


-* Development 1
-.- Development i


1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17
Month


Figure 4-14 Monthly Home Sales for Builder B









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The assumption that clients will seek out and find the services and products they need is

naive and dated. The findings of this study not only reaffirmed the fact that marketing endeavors

for small residential development builders are profitable but it is just not practical to go on

competing for work without some promotional effort.

Conclusions

Upon completion of the analysis of the collected data, it has become evident that defining

and truly understanding the needs of the client base being targeted for the development are the

most important steps in the marketing plan. The client bases in this study impacted the selection

of tools that were used to best suit their characteristics.

The young professional or young family client base was much more suited for marketing

tools which incorporated a more modern aspect, for example web design. They also are more

stimulated by the marketing tools which instill their trust thus creating a loyal customer database

such as newsletters which keep them informed of future works of the company and relationship

marketing which builds rapport. This will prove to continue to be profitable for the company

when these customers plan to build again or upgrade to a new home.

The older client base is more stimulated by tangible products and visual aids which can

help them see the final picture such as brochures, advertising, sales centers, signs, and

promotional events. These marketing tools give the clients something to take with them to

ponder their decision and persuade them to make the decision to buy a home in the builder' s

development. These tools can also be helpful in referring other similar customers in the same

situation who might be in the market. These tools are easily transferrable from one client to the

next.









Recommendations

As it is shown from the graphs representing the monthly sales of homes during the pre-

construction sales period (Figures 4-13, 4-14), the sales of homes in the developments where

marketing tools were utilized have much more volume and an accelerated pace.

The future of this study I believe would entail research into the cost of inflation, the state

of the housing market at the time of the study periods, and the average cost per square foot of the

houses to be included in the comparison. These values would give more accurate conclusions

into the profitability of each tool compared to the present worth of each tool and its profitability.

The need for market research is ongoing. The needs and characteristics of new or changing

markets are evolving every day. A continued role in the development of new ways to reach these

existing and potential clients is essential in gaining a competitive advantage while maintaining

profits on marketing investments.









APPENDIX: BUILDER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS


SClient Profile
Age
Gender
Marital Status
Household Type
Employment
Income
Mobility (likelihood of moving)
General Information
Completion Date
Construction Start Date
Preconstruction Sales Period (18 month period)
Number of units in development or phase
Number of homes sold in 18 month pre-construction period
Average cost of home
Marketing Tools Used
Tool 1
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 2
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 3
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 4
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 5
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 6
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 7
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 8
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 9
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:
Tool 10
Potential Client Exposure: Cost:










Monthly Home Sales
Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Number
of
Homes
Sold










LIST OF REFERENCES


American Marketing Association; n.d. http://www.marketingpower. com/mg-dictionary-
viewl862.php accessed March 5, 2007.

Barr, Vilma; Promotion Strategies for Design and Construction Firms, 1995, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York.

Birgonul, M. Talat; Dikmen, Irem; Ozcenk, Ismail; "Marketing Orientation in
Construction Firms: Evidence from Turkish Contractors," 2004, Middle East
Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.

Blattenberg, Robert C.; Getz, Gary; Thomas, Jacquelyn S.; Customer Equity: Building
and Managing Relationships as Valuable Assets, 2001, Harvard Business School
Press, Boston, Massachusetts.

Brockmann, Christian; "Modeling Customer Satisfaction for the AEC Industry," 2002,
AACE International Transactions, Breman, Germany.

Bryde, David J.; Robinson, Lynne; "Client Versus Contractor Perspectives on Proj ect
Success Criteria," 2005, International Journal of Proj ect Management, 23, 8, 622-
629.

Butera, Karen; Desinninn Sales: The Builder/ Merchandiser Handbook, 1987, National
Association of Home Builders of the United States, Washington, D.C.

Chinyio, Ezekiel A.; Corbett, Pauline; Olomoiaiye, Paul O.; "Quantification of
Construction Clients' Needs Through Paired Comparisons," 1998, Journal of
Management in Engineering, January/February, 87-92.

Creative Marketing Services, Inc; n.d. http ://www.creativemarketingservices.net accessed
March 5, 2007

Davis, Peter R.; "Relationship Marketing in the Construction Industry," 1999, AACE
International Transactions, Perth, Western Australia.

Egemen, Mehmedali; Mohamed, Abdulrezak; "Clients' Needs, Wants and Expectations
from Contractors and Approach to the Concept of Repetitive Works in the
Northern Cypress Construction Market," 2005, Building and Environment, 41, 5,
602-614.

Ehrlich, Evelyn, The Financial Services Marketinn Handbook: Tactics and Techniqlues
That Produce Results, 2004, Bloomberg Press, Princeton, New Jersey

Floyd, Elaine, Marketing with Newsletters: How to Boost Sales, Add Members & Raise
Funds with a Printed, Faxed or Web Site Newsletter, 1997, Newsletter Resources,
St. Louis, Missouri.










Hedley, George, "Construction Business Best Practices Series, Step 8: Marketing and
Sales Systems," 2006, Construction Business Owner, August, Birmingham,
Alabama.

Henning-Thurau, Thorsten; Hansen, Ursula; Relationship Marketing: Gaining
Competitive Advantage Through Customer Satisfaction and Customer Retention,
2000, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany.

Maloney, William F.; "Construction Product/Service and Customer Satisfaction," 2002,
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 522-529.

Opfer, Neil; "Cost Engineering Expertise in Marketing Construction Services," 1990,
American Association of Cost Engineers, Las Vegas, NV.

Proverbs, David G.; Soetanto, Robby; "Intelligent Models for Predicting Levels of Client
Satisfaction," 2004, Journal of Construction Research, 5, 2, 233-253.

Smyth, Hedley; Marketinn and Sellinn Construction Services, 1999, Blackwell Science,
Maiden, Massachsetts.

Sobel, Andrew; Makinn Rain: The Secrets of Buildinn Lifelonn Client Lovalty, 2003,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Society for Marketing Professional Services; Marketinn Handbook for the Desinn &
Construction Professional, 2000, BNi Publications, Inc., Los Angeles, California.

Walls, Simon; Zahay, Debra L.; Mananinn Customer Relationships, 2000, Report No. 00-
107, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge Massachusetts.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Julia Williams was born in Santa Cruz, California, on August 13, 1982. After a short lived

stay in the bay area, Julia moved to the plains of Illinois, also for a short couple of years before

moving to the Gateway to the West, St. Louis. At the age of nine, Julia moved to the Sunshine

State and spent the rest of her childhood leading up to college in the small town of Niceville.

Julia received her Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration with a concentration in

management from the University of Florida in May 2005. Two years later Julia will receive her

Master of Science in Building Construction from the M.E. Rinker School of Building

Construction at the University of Florida to complete her academic achievements.