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The Evolution of the architectural ornamentation on the University of Florida Campus, 1906-1956

Center for World Heritage Research & Stewardship at the University of Florida University of Florida
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PAGE 1

1 THE EVOLUTION OF THE ARCHI TECTURAL ORNAMENTATION ON THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS, 1906-1956 By JESSICA MARIE GOLDSMITH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Jessica Marie Goldsmith

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3 To Albert and Arabella.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my supervisory comm ittee members for their unstinting help and guidance during the past two year s. My supervisory committee chair, Professor Susan Tate, has been a source of inspiration since I was a colleg e freshman in her history class. Working as her assistant in graduate school cont ributed greatly to my educationa l experience. I must also thank Professor Tate for introducing me to my ot her committee member, Professor Roy Graham. His thoughts and insights made an invaluable contribution to my education. While conducting my research, I had the plea sure of working with the University of Florida archives staff. Archivist Carl va n Ness located many obscure documents and was instrumental to my research. Harold Barrand of the University Physical Plant Division also assisted my search for drawing and docum ents related to the historic campus. I would also like to thank th e Getty Campus Heritage Ini tiative for providing support for my research and the University of Florida historic campus.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........7 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............11 CHAPTER 1 PARAMETERS OF THE STUDY.........................................................................................13 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........13 Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .14 Assumptions and Hypothesis..................................................................................................16 Significance of the Study...................................................................................................... ..17 Scope of the Study............................................................................................................. .....18 Definitions and Terms.......................................................................................................... ..18 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........20 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................21 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........21 History........................................................................................................................ ............21 Preservation................................................................................................................... .........24 Support........................................................................................................................ ............25 Appreciation................................................................................................................... ........28 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........32 3 SURVEY OF THE HISTORIC ORNAMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS......................................................................................................................... .......34 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........34 William Augustus Edwards and Partners, 1905-1925............................................................34 Rudolph Weaver, 1925-1944..................................................................................................42 Guy Fulton, 1944-1956.......................................................................................................... .57 Integration of Ornament into the Architectural Concept........................................................63 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........65 4 DISCUSSION OF PREVAILING ARCHI TECTURAL AND SOCIAL TRENDS AFFECTING THE DESIGN AND APPLICAT ION OF THE HISTORIC ORNAMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS..............................................................138 Introduction................................................................................................................... ........138 Edwards: The Dawn of a New Century................................................................................138 Edwards and Weaver: The Twenties....................................................................................140

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6 Weaver: The Thirties and the Depression............................................................................144 Fulton: After the Second World War....................................................................................148 Summary........................................................................................................................ .......151 5 CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................................................153 Research Suggestions...........................................................................................................153 Preservation Suggestions......................................................................................................153 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... .......154 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................156 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................159

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Buckman and Thomas Halls: Entrance..............................................................................67 3-2 Thomas Hall: Elves entrance............................................................................................68 3-3 Newell Hall: Floral........................................................................................................ ....68 3-4 GriffinFloyd Hall: Cornucopias.......................................................................................69 3-5 Anderson Hall: Scroll over main entrance.........................................................................70 3-6 Anderson Hall: Main entrance...........................................................................................70 3-7 Peabody Hall: Primary entrance........................................................................................71 3-8 Peabody Hall: Inscribed na me over main entrance............................................................71 3-9 Bryan Hall: Tower entrance...............................................................................................72 3-10 Bryan Hall: Inscribed name over primary entrance...........................................................73 3-11 Bryan Hall: State s eal on main tower................................................................................73 3-12 Bryan Hall: Plaque over 1939 entrance to law library.......................................................74 3-13 Gymnasium: Main facade..................................................................................................75 3-14 University Auditorium: Window.......................................................................................76 3-15 University Auditorium: Corbel..........................................................................................77 3-16 University Auditorium: Interior.........................................................................................78 3-17 University Auditorium: Interior grotesques.......................................................................79 3-18 University Library: Windows with buttresses...................................................................80 3-19 University Library: Original entrance................................................................................81 3-20 University Library: Additional entrance............................................................................82 3-21 Rolfs Hall: Oriel window.................................................................................................. .83 3-22 Rolfs Hall: Floral medallions in quatrefoils in the crenellation.........................................83 3-23 Rolfs Hall: Examples of floral plaques along the cornice line..........................................84

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8 3-24 Rolfs Hall: Beehive....................................................................................................... .....85 3-25 Leigh Hall: Names......................................................................................................... ....85 3-26 Leigh Hall: Gutter detail................................................................................................. ...86 3-27 Leigh Hall: Gargoyles engaged in chemical laboratory experiments................................86 3-28 Leigh Hall: Grape ornament..............................................................................................87 3-29 Leigh Hall: Bracket entrance.............................................................................................87 3-30 Leigh Hall: Entrance with oriel window............................................................................88 3-31 Leigh Hall: Bay window and quoins.................................................................................88 3-32 Sledd Hall: Architectur e and athletics plaque....................................................................89 3-33 Sledd Hall: Eight student gr otesques along the cornice line..............................................90 3-34 Sledd Hall: Details from Spanish discovery tableau..........................................................92 3-35 Sledd Hall: Six seal s from the bay windows.....................................................................93 3-36 Sledd Hall: Doorway life casts..........................................................................................93 3-37 Sledd Hall: Doorway ornaments........................................................................................95 3-38 Sledd Hall: Ornaments from the cornice molding above the fenestration of the bay windows........................................................................................................................ .....97 3-39 Sledd Hall: Layers of ornamentation.................................................................................98 3-40 Sledd Hall: Mucozo tower.................................................................................................99 3-41 Sledd Hall: Mucozo tower details....................................................................................100 3-42 Sledd Hall: Mucozo detail...............................................................................................100 3-43 Sledd Hall: Mucozo tower interior..................................................................................101 3-44 Infirmary: Entrance....................................................................................................... ...102 3-45 Infirmary: Zodiac casts................................................................................................... .103 3-46 Infirmary: Injured student casts.......................................................................................105 3-47 Norman Hall: Entrance tower..........................................................................................105 3-48 Norman Hall: Taunting grotesque...................................................................................106

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9 3-49 Norman Hall: Plaques flanking main tower entrance......................................................107 3-50 Norman Hall: Student corbels on main tower entrance...................................................108 3-51 Norman Hall: Plaque over elementary school door.........................................................108 3-52 Norman Hall: Squirrel co rbels supporting archway........................................................109 3-53 Norman Hall: Entrances with inscriptions.......................................................................109 3-54 Norman Hall: West doorway deta ils, supporting a pointed arch.....................................111 3-55 Norman Hall: P.K. Yonge Laboratory School plaque.....................................................111 3-56 Norman Hall: Bench with inscribed names above...........................................................112 3-57 Dauer Hall: Water spout..................................................................................................112 3-58 Dauer Hall: Lute player plaque........................................................................................113 3-59 Dauer Hall: Stained glass window...................................................................................114 3-60 Dauer Hall: Window details.............................................................................................115 3-61 Dauer Hall: Shield detail................................................................................................. .115 3-62 Dauer Hall: Mural details.................................................................................................116 3-63 Dauer Hall: European red squirrel detail.........................................................................116 3-64 Dairy Science Building: Medallions................................................................................117 3-65 Fletcher Hall: Doorway ornaments..................................................................................118 3-66 Fletcher Hall: Under an oriel...........................................................................................121 3-67 Fletcher Hall: Florida motif and UF Gator shields..........................................................121 3-68 Fletcher Hall: Gator life tableau......................................................................................122 3-69 Murphree Hall: East view................................................................................................123 3-70 Murphree Hall: Doorway.................................................................................................123 3-71 Newell Hall: Rededication plaque...................................................................................124 3-72 Newell Hall: Entranceway ornament...............................................................................124 3-73 University Library: Floo r medallion after renovation, 1948...........................................125

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10 3-74 University Library: Spandr els with UF and 1948 intertwined.........................................125 3-75 University Auditorium: Spandr els with UF and 1949 intertwined..................................126 3-76 Leigh Hall: Plaque over cour tyard entrance on 1949 addition........................................127 3-77 Leigh Hall: Plaque in belt co rnice of tower entrance feature..........................................127 3-78 Florida Gym: Tower entrance feature..............................................................................128 3-79 Florida Gym: Text......................................................................................................... ...128 3-80 Florida Gym: East view...................................................................................................128 3-81 Weil Hall: Bay window detail..........................................................................................129 3-82 Weil Hall: West door...................................................................................................... .129 3-83 Weil Hall: North entrance................................................................................................130 3-84 Weil Hall: Entrance tower...............................................................................................131 3-85 Bryan Hall Addition: Plaques..........................................................................................132 3-86 Tigert Hall: Tower entrance.............................................................................................133 3-87 Tigert Hall: Bay window.................................................................................................133 3-88 Tigert Hall: College seal examples..................................................................................134 3-89 Tigert Hall: Quatrefoils on railing around tower entrance...............................................135 3-90 Century Tower: Orna mentation at belfry.........................................................................135 3-91 Century Tower: Entrance.................................................................................................136 3-92 Matherly Hall: Entrance tower.........................................................................................137 3-93 Matherly Hall: Plaque detail............................................................................................137

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design THE EVOLUTION OF THE ARCHI TECTURAL ORNAMENTATION ON THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS, 1906-1956 By Jessica Marie Goldsmith May 2007 Chair: Susan Tate Major: Interior Design The University of Florida campus historic dist rict is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is significant for its compat ible evolution since its opening in 1906. Rooted in the 1905 Collegiate Gothic plan for the campus the architectural ornamentation evolved with each new era while remaining a character-defin ing feature of the campus. Architectural ornaments, such as cast carvings, bas relief medallions, and fenestration details, can aid in expressing a structures major th emes, develop its architectural language, and provide points of human scale and interest. Across the campus, histor ical architectural ornaments are an integral part of each buildings total design concept. Many pieces aid in wa y-finding, signage, and a fuller expression of the buildings architectural motif. Ornaments mediate between the Collegiate Gothic buildings and life on a twentieth century campus by expressing the design scheme of one and the content of the other. Beginning with the universitys first buildings, Thomas and Buckman Halls, architectural ornamentation was an important aspect of the un iversitys built environment. The evolution of the universitys historic architec tural ornamentation is signifi cant as a manifestation of the changes that occurred in society and architecture during the first half of the twentieth century.

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12 The University of Floridas architectural orna mentation may be seen as a microcosm of the complex forces that shaped American society between 1906 and 1956. Analysis of campus features and related context establishes that arch itectural ornament is a significant and inherent element in the campus history, evolution, and de velopment. The architectural ornaments are products of their time and place, on the University of Florida campus and as a part of the larger national and international context.

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13 CHAPTER 1 PARAMETERS OF THE STUDY Introduction After an architectural competition in 1905, South Carolinian William Augustus Edwards was chosen as Architect to the Board of Control1. Edwards and his partners were given the task of building the new state instit utions of higher learning in Ga inesville, Tallahassee and St. Augustine. Edwards winning design proposed a Collegiate Gothic style for the flagship Gainesville campus. Collegiate Gothic was part of the popular Gothic Revival movement, based on medieval Gothic and English Tudor design, re interpreted for contemporary projects, and was immensely popular in America. Edwards designed all the major buildings on the University of Florida campus for twenty years, until a new arch itect was chosen by the Board of Control. The second architect, Rudolph Weaver, moved to Gainesv ille to become head of the new architecture program and the Architect to the Board of C ontrol until his death in 1944. Weaver inherited Edwards Collegiate Gothic buildings, added to them and brought the campus into the modern era. His associate, Guy Fulton, wa s appointed University System ar chitect after Weavers death; he remained in that post until 1956. He con tinued Weavers work while introducing new directions to the university. Between 1906 and 1956, these three architects bu ilt the University of Florida. Each architect altered the campus while respecting the wo rk of earlier architects. Today, the historic buildings are liste d on the National Register of Hi storic Places, where they are recognized for their individual merit and as a hist oric district. Because each architect remained true to the campus heritage, a nationally a cclaimed and harmonious campus was created while continuing to express each new era. 1 Susan Tate et al., The University of Florida Historic Campus. (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2004).

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14 The University of Floridas National Register Hi storic District status was awarded, in part, because of the outstanding and unique architect ural merit of the historic buildings. The universitys historic buildings make a nationally recogni zed contribution to the nations architectural patrimony. National Re gister status was also recogni zed because the University of Florida campus was shaped by broad events in th e nations history, and the campus reflects the universitys responses to those events. One contributing feature on many of the unive rsitys historic build ings, and one that expresses the individuality of each era, is the architectural ornamentation. For the purposes of this study, architectural ornaments are defined as artistically de signed, content carrying elements on a building. Sculpture, bas relief, and murals are popular media for architectural ornamentation. Architectural orna mentation can aid in expressing a structures major themes, develop its architectural language, and provide points of human scale and interest. In the best examples, the distinct elements of architectural ornamentation should work together to form a coherent language and express a unif ied conceptual id ea on the building. The architectural ornamentation of the Universi ty of Florida campus expresses the heritage and evolution of the campus. This study examines those ornament s and their unique contribution to the history of the unive rsitys built environment. Statement of the Problem Beginning with the universitys first buildings, Thomas and Buckman Halls, architectural ornamentation was an important aspect of the universitys built environment and the architects vision for specific buildings. Thomas and Buckma n Halls were both designed by Edwards firm in a traditional Collegiate Gothic style, with complementary architectural ornament. Later buildings by Edwards exhibited a growing creativity in the design of architectural ornament, as traditional gargoyles were replaced with grotesqu es in the form of football players. When

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15 Weaver began designing buildings for the university, he used a pl ethora of custom architectural ornaments. These ornaments were developed by Weaver and members of his staff, who closely monitored the design of each piece2. Ornaments were fabricated by different firms throughout the southeastern United States, including the Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co. and Arnold Brick Stone and Tile of Jacksonville3. Fultons buildings were all constructed after th e Second World War, when popular architectural styles had almost abandoned ornamentati on, yet many of Fultons works incorporated ornamentation in a modern style. This study focu ses on the themes expre ssed by the architectural ornamentation throughout the tenures of the three early architects4. Architectural ornament, working with its st ructure, can further develop a particular architectural style, but it can also tell users about the buildi ngs function, location, and time in history. A tour of the historic campus reveals a wide variety of themes expressed by the architectural ornamentation. Some pieces are tr aditional Collegiate Gothic elements, but many were inspired by the function of the building, the University of Floridas campus, or its regions natural and social history. 2 Receipts, correspondence, and stampe d photographs of process models, Seri es 75: Architect for the Board of Control building Program Records, 1925-67, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 3 Receipts, correspondence, and stampe d photographs of process models, Seri es 75: Architect for the Board of Control building Program Records, 1925-67, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 4 Dexter Neil Webb, Fifty Years of Building the University of Florida, (Thesis, University of Florida, 1997). William Augustus Edwards was Architect to the State Board of Control from 1905 to 1925. Rudolph Weaver served as Architect to the Board of Control and director of the School of Architecture from 1925 until his death in 1944. Guy Fulton was University System Architect from 1944 until 1953, when he had a stroke and retired. Guy Fultons position was not refilled; lobbying fr om the Florida chapter of the AIA encouraged lawmakers to close the position and begin hiring outside architects for each individual building.

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16 The following investigation into the changing content of the University of Floridas historic architectural orname ntation is guided by this thes is: Between the years 1906 and 1956, the University of Florida Collegiate Gothic arch itectural ornamentation assimilated influences that reflected the unique purpose of the building, historical or ge ographical context, and changes in society and architecture. As a microcosm of changes occurring in the world, the architectural ornamentation is a key to th e significance of the university s architectural heritage. Assumptions and Hypothesis This study assumes that the content of th e University of Floridas architectural ornamentation can be determined by observation of that ornament by the researcher and by analysis of surviving primary sources about the historic campus. The arch itectural ornamentation on the University of Florida cam pus generally falls into two ca tegories: elements that work symbolically to develop the Collegiate Gothic architecture, such as crenellation, finials and balustrades, and pieces that are primarily pictorial in nature. When a pictorial form such as a palm tree is shown, the designer intended for the or nament to be appreciated as a palm tree, not as a discussion about negative space, massing, or another esoter ic architectural concept. Ornament is part of the larg er visual composition of its bu ilding, but its ability to carry independent content information is one of its major features. Historic ally, ornamentation was designed to be understood and a ppreciated by people with a vari ety of backgrounds who would be the users of the dormitories, classroom, and administration buildings at the University of Florida. Because most of the universitys historic buildings still stand a nd the buildings available for study today are representative of each arch itects work on campus, there is an extant representative pool from which to draw examples for the study. The following investigation into the changing content of the University of Floridas historic architectural ornament ation is guided by one research question: The University of

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17 Floridas architectural orname ntation evolved between the years 1906 and 1956 from traditional Collegiate Gothic elements into individualized pieces reflecting the unique function, location, and/or history of the buildings, campus, or ge ographical region, the chan ges in the ornament reflect changes in society and architecture. As a microcosm of changes occurring in the world, the architectural ornamentation contributes to the significance of the universitys unique architectural heritage. Significance of the Study The University of Floridas architectural ornamentation is a significant form of architectural expression that adds value and in terest to the campus context. Architectural ornamentation is a unique form of signage that can allow a building to tell the story of its history or function using easily accessible methods. Sign s and plaques may tell a user the name or function of a building, but they lack the pers onal storytelling quality that architectural ornamentation contributes to a stru cture. Representative sculptural forms can inform the users of a building about many diverse t opics. The artistic storytelli ng function of architectural ornamentation adds value to a building and cont ributes to the unique sense of place felt on the university campus. For example, new freshmen in Sledd Hall can remember that the entrance to their dormitory wing is marked by a lintel of squirrels playing among orange tree branches, rather then a just a sign with a few numbers typed onto it. Orname nt is also significant because of its ability to mediate between disparate elemen ts. For example, exterior ornaments can tell the story of the buildings interior functions while other ornament s tell the story of the regions history. The architectural heritage of the University of Florida campus is also an expression of the regions social history and development. Architect ural ornamentation can reflect larger issues prevalent in society at the tim e of the ornaments design. Or nament, through its application,

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18 design, and content, can tell the st ory of its societys interests a nd values. It also reflects the trends within architecture, sin ce it usually changes in concert with larger architectural design trends. Ornaments ability to illustrate the va lues of its society and track developments in architectural history is one of its significant features. Substantial analysis of how a set of historic ornaments deve loped from traditional Gothic style elements into pieces whose design and cont ent was inspired by local interests and activities contributes to the body of knowledge on architec tural ornamentation. The connection between ornament and its place of application is signifi cant because it illustrates ornaments ability to express and develop a sense of place. In an increasingly global and homogenized world, ornaments ability to create a uni que sense of place is of growing interest to designers, users, and scholars. For the University of Florida, a new examination of the historic architectural ornamentation will contribute to the communitys knowledge of the historic campus and its diverse architectural features. By better unde rstanding their architectural ornamentation, members of the university community may be inspired to appreciate and preserve it. Scope of the Study The scope of this study is limited to exta nt architectural ornamentation on campus. Secondly, only ornament that was an integral part of the architecture will be considered in the study. Finally, artworks on or in buildings will not be included in the study. Definitions and Terms A variety of specialized terms are necessary to discuss and quantify the architectural ornamentation found on the University of Florid a campus. Because the evolution of the campuss architectural ornamentation is espe cially significant in terms of content, most of the following

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19 definitions deal with the content of the ornament rather then its physical function or location on the building. Architectural ornamentation : can include a broad range of bui lding details, but this study primarily focuses on figural architectural orname ntation containing complex content information within its design. For example, a sphere is a geom etric design, but a sphere with rays emanating outward from it represents the sun and contains sun as its content information. More abstract and symbolic architectural ornamentation that is used to develop a design scheme, such as Gothic, is discussed as it relates to the campuss architectural evolution. Traditional Collegiate Gothic ornament : architectural ornament ation whose style and content are clearly inspired by Gothic, English T udor, or a similar historic European style of architecture. For example, linen fold and quatref oils are characteristic of Medieval Gothic, Gothic Revival, and Collegiate Gothic. Transitional Collegiate Gothic ornament : is a term developed for this study, although examples of this type of architectural or namentation can be found on many Gothic Revival buildings. Transitional Collegiate Gothic archit ectural ornamentation is based on traditional Collegiate Gothic forms; however, the design te lls the story of the buildings unique function, time period or geographic location. These pieces i llustrate how historic forms of ornamentation can be slightly modified to create architectur al ornamentation inspired by time and place, while continuing to present a unified Collegiate Gothic concept. Unique architectural ornament : is architectural ornamentati on that tells the story of a buildings function, geographic location or place in history. Inspiration for these ornaments can be derived from the natural or social history of the area, purp ose of the building, recent local events, or the broader social context of the building. Ornament ation that helps to define a

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20 buildings place in history by expressing the passi ons of its contemporary society will also be included in this category. Summary The University of Floridas historic campus was listed on the National Register of Historic Places because of its outstanding historical a nd architectural significance. One aspect of many historic buildings architectural significance is their architectu ral ornamentation. Architectural ornamentation is the designed integration of medall ions, friezes, grotesques and other sculptural forms into a buildings total design concept. Architectural ornamentation is an important element on many buildings; it can aid in wa y-finding, tell the story of a building, develop the buildings design concept, or place in time. This study analyzes the univers itys historic architectural ornamentation. Examination of the University of Floridas historic architectural ornamentation demonstrates an evolution from traditional Collegiate Gothic elements into unique architectural ornament reflecting the purpose of the building, historical or geographical context, and change s in society and architecture. Analysis of the unique architectural ornamentation of the campus will add to the universitys knowledge about its architectural he ritage and contribute to broa der understanding of the role of ornament in architecture.

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21 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Architectural ornamentation has been a popular s ubject of architectural literature since at least ancient Egyptian times, when papyrus bund les inspired architectural ornamentation5. Recent literature on architectural ornamentation typically falls into at least one of four categories: texts on the history of ornamentation; t echnical discussions on the preservation of historic architectural ornament ation; arguments supporting arch itectural ornamentation; and testimonies of appreciation of historic ornament Support for the significance of this study can be found in histories of ornament, along with a grea ter appreciation of the universitys ornament. The growing body of work dedicated to preserving ornament demonstrates that the importance of architectural ornament remained after the rise of Modernism. History Recent histories of ornamentation began af ter the Crystal Palace exhibitions in London fueled an interest among the Vict orians in historic and foreign styles of ornament. These early works were illustrated pattern books, with pages la beled according to historic style and they fed the Victorians love of ornament and the exotic6. Owen Jones influential Grammar of Ornament (1856) and Auguste Racinets Handbook of Ornaments in Color7 (1875 and 1888) were the highlights of this genre, but many black and wh ite texts of line drawi ngs survive from the Victorian era. These works contributed to the wide spread use of exotic and historical ornament 5 Beinecke-Reeves Distinguished Professor Roy Graham, personal communication, January 2007. 6 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003). 7 LOrnement Polychrome

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22 styles during the era8. These pattern anthologies also contri buted to the Modernist disgust with ornament, because the texts encouraged crafts men and patrons to mix and match increasingly bizarre combinations of ornaments. The Germ an publishing company, Taschen, issued a full color 2006 republication of Racinets combined wo rks, illustrating the continuing popularity of these nineteenth century texts. Meanwhile, Dove r Publications many books of copy-right free motif designs demonstrate the continuing popularity of simpler pattern books. After the rise of Modernism, serious research on architectural ornamentation was severely limited for several decades. With the help of British Museum staff, Eva Wilson,9 in Ornament 8,000 years: An Illustrated Handbook of Motifs worked to overcome the flaws of many surviving nineteenth century anthologies of ornament by including explanations on the more obtuse meanings and histories of motifs. The text still relied primaril y on simple line drawings and it remained largely limited to motifs and patterns, taken out of their three dimensional context. Head of the Designs Section in the Department of Prints, Drawings, and Paintings at the Victoria and Albert Museum, Michael Snodin, and University of Sussex Professor of Art History Maurice Howard, wrote Ornament: A Social History10 after curating the European Ornament Gallery at the Victoria and Albert Museum t ogether in 1992. Their work addressed many of the short comings of earlier histor ies by organizing ornament by a pplication, then chronology, and providing photographic examples illustrating orna ments in their intended location. By illustrating ornament in context, Snodin and Howard allo wed specific pieces of ornament to be understood and appreciated in their intende d place. Many ornaments derive much of their meaning and 8 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003). 9 Eva Wilson, Ornament 8,000 Years: An Illustrated Handbook of Motifs. (New York: Abrams, Inc, 1994). 10 Maurice Howard and Michael Snodin, Ornament: A Social History Since 1450. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996).

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23 purpose by working with the larger item that forms their context. By encouraging an understanding of historic ornament within origin al context, Snodin and Howard encouraged their readers to engage ornament more fully a nd appreciate its contributions to design. Former curator of Old World Textiles at the Textile Museum, Washington, D.C., James Trillings, in his 2003 work Ornament: A Modern Perspective11, addressed the history of ornament, types and styles of historic orname nt, and ornaments place in the modern world. Trilling espoused the concept of a language of ornament. Since the Paleolithic era, ornamental motifs have traveled and changed with the spre ad and changing of di verse cultures across the globe. Historic and recent exam ples of ornament continue to demonstrate the care and craftsmanship that designers, pa trons and craftsmen put into ever y ornament. Ornament has been a subject of immense human efforts and intere st for millennia and Trilling encouraged his readers to place unornamented twentieth century trends in their historic context. By examining some of the finest examples of ornament from history, including twentieth century examples by Loos and Matisse, Trilling developed guidelines for ornament viewers to read and understand ornament: well designed orname nts interact with each other, the item they are placed on, and the surrounding spaces. Ornament is also designed to inte ract with its user. Whether by delighting their emoti ons or intellect, ornaments se rve observant users by engaging them more fully with the ornamented design. By teaching the complex, but readable, language of ornament, Trilling prepared readers to engage historic and modern ornament. Trilling12, as well as earlier anthologies and hi stories, defined how to see and read ornament. An ornament has both immediate contex ts, for example the faade of its building, and 11 James Trilling, The Language of Ornament. (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2001). 12 James Trilling, The Language of Ornament. (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2001).

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24 a larger context within the culture that designed and uses it. By reading ornament within its immediate physical environment, and understanding it as a specially designed product of its time and place, Trilling encouraged users to actively engage the ornaments in their space, despite an ornaments age or culture of origin. Preservation Historic ornament may be a ch aracter-defining feature of a hi storic building and key to its preservation. When the University of Floridas College of Liberal Arts and Sciences received major funding in 1998 to restore historic Flin t and Anderson halls, r econstructing Flints complex terra-cotta faade entr ance was an important aspect of the award winning restoration work13. The National Park Service has created a vari ety of bulletins to guide the maintenance, repair and restoration of many t ypes of historic architectural ornamentation. De Teel Patterson Tillers14 bulletin, The Preservation of Historic Glazed Architectural Terra-Cotta, discusses factors involved in terra-cotta restoration, while John Waites The Maintenance and Repair of Architectural Cast Iron15 covers similar issues facing cast iron ornamentation. Richard Piepers The Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement of Historic Cast Stone16 bulletin explains some of the many threats facing this material, a popul ar medium for the campuss architectural ornamentation. Tiller, Waite, and Piepers work instruct preservationists and demonstrate the 13 M. Jane Gibson, $3 Million Gift will Trigger Rest oration of Historic Flint and Anderson Halls, Alumni CLASnotes, Spring 1998, http://clasnews.clas.ufl.edu/clasnotes/alumninotes/98spring/ 14 de Teel Patterson Tiller, Preservation Briefs 7: The Preservation of Historic Glazed Architectural Terra-Cotta. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979). 15 John Waite, Preservation Briefs 27: The Maintenance and Repair of Architectural Cast Iron. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991), http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/briefs/brief27.htm 16 Richard Pieper, Preservation Brief 42: The Maintenance, Repair and Replacement of Historic Cast Stone. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office), http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/briefs/brief42.htm

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25 importance of historic architectural ornament ation to the government and people throughout the nation. Fan17, Grossman18, Martin19, and Prudon20 produced technical bulle tins for the Association for Preservation Technology. Each discussed a case study involving the preservation of architectural ornamentation. They illuminated th e care and interest felt by preservationist and citizens toward their buildings hist oric architectural ornamentation. Support Architectural ornament in the twentieth century was both censored and devalued by proponents of Modernism and the International Style. Any study conducted after the rise of Modernism, concerning architectu ral ornament, must first defend architectural ornament and its relationship with archite cture and human expression. Ornament sculptor and Adjunct Professor of Architecture at Yale, Kent Bloomer examined and rebutted the devalua tion of ornament that occurred during the Modern movement in his seminal work, The Nature of Ornament21. He grappled with a definition fo r ornament that expressed its relationship to design and human expression, its interdependence with architectu re, and its independence from art and decoration. 17 Rene Fan, Terra-Cotta Mosaics at Sea View Hosp ital: Endangered glazed ceramics on Staten Island, APT Bulletin 32 (2001): 37-42. 18 Elizabeth Grossman, Architecture for a public client: The monuments and chapels of the American battle monuments commission, Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 11 (1979): 30-52. 19 Wilson Martin, Oolitic limestone conservation: A case study in conservation and maintenance, governors mansion, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 17 (1985): 24-33. 20 Theodore Purdon, Simulating Stone, 1860-1940: Artificial marble, artificial stone, and cast stone, Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 21 (1989): 79-91. 21 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000).

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26 Furthermore, he explored the natu re of architectural ornament as a natural and universal system of human communication that can presen t a valuable segment of human thought 22. Since this study seeks to reveal the changing content of the architectural ornamentation on the historic campus, it deals with the thoughts of the designers who developed the campuss ornamentation and an understanding and apprecia tion of ornament as a communication tool is vital. Bloomer found that ornament provides pe ople with an avenue for expressing their thoughts. Ornament is important to people because it helps to tell their story and, when in place on a structure, ornament creates human scaled inte rest points. In his final chapter, Bloomer spoke particularly to the significance of this study: By incorporating visions of the world at la rge and convening with ordinary and profane things, ornament can articulate the comple xity and mythology of particular times and placesthe act of ornamenting can be as much the cultural proclaiming of place as the informing of a utilitarian object Ornament gives luster to it s objects and to the event of envelopment. This positive act is also defens ive, in that it shields the object or place from the dreadful anonymity of an existence out of place, from being simply a denoted thing or only a utility or merely a parcel of lan d. Ornament exalts ordinary properties by incorporating extraordinary imag es and individuals memories within patterns that can simultaneously intermingle with a partic ular history and with local flora and fauna.ornament can register place as a living event23. If ornament is an expression of human thought and has the ability to intermingle with a particular history and with local flora and fauna 24 then the moment when the ornament on the university campus began to intermingle and ex press local culture is important because the ornament could then be considered an expres sion of the university community and the local context. 22 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 12. 23 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 231-32. 24 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 232.

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27 Trilling25 continued the defense of ornament from a cross cultural, hi storical viewpoint. Trilling developed the swirling hi story of ornaments developm ent throughout history and its travels through different cultures. Trilling26 and Bloomers27 defense of ornament stems fr om their architecture and art history backgrounds; however, orna ment has attracted a variety of supporters from other fields. Professor of Mathematics at the University of Texas at San Antonio, Nikos Salingaros28 applied principles of mathematics and the evolved pr eferences of the human eye to argue for an evolutionary, psychological need for ornament Architectural ornamentation provides multiscaled detail on building surfaces. A building with smooth, plain facades lacks detail and resembles the drab surfaces seen by suffers of a variety of deb ilitating neurological disorders. Salingaros believed that the blank surfaces of Modernist buildings do not provide enough information to the human eye and contribute to stress among normal viewers. People need buildings that provide them with a variety of visual details a nd architectural ornamentation has been developed to provide those details; its abse nce from modern buildings can be intellectually understood, but it can not be emotionally withstood. Dr. Llewellyn Negrin29 of the University of Tasmania di scussed the role of ornament as a carrier of meaning. She affirmed ornaments ability to carry complex meanings within its designs. She divulged into the recently maligned history of ornament and beli eves that this is an aspect of its association with the feminine qualities of architecture. Negrin called for a renewed 25 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003). 26 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003). 27 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000). 28 Nikos Salingaros, The Sensory Value of Ornament, Communication and Cognition 36 (2003): 331-351. 29 Llewellyn Negrin, Ornament and the Feminine, Feminist Theory 7(2006): 219-235.

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28 appreciation of architectural ornamentation becaus e of its ability to develop and express complex meanings, including feminine ones. As the first century in human history to celeb rate an absence of ornament waned, a variety of authors from different fields began to r eevaluate ornaments place in design. Ornaments ability to express complex meanings gives it a unique place in a designe rs repertoire. Bloomer30 and Trilling,31 along with a variety of authors from diverse fields, have worked to raise awareness about the value of ornamentation an d its unique qualities. This study draws support from these arguments; it highlights ornaments im portant contribution to design and its value to people. The study also capitalizes on ornaments ability to carry complex meanings by studying how those meanings change throughout the Un iversity of Floridas historic campus. Appreciation As academics and architectural historians ex plored the history of ornamentation, many places and individuals across America redisc overed the ornamental legacy of their neighborhoods. Increased awarene ss of local architectural res ources may lead to greater preservation of ornament. In at least one instance, it has l ead to the development of new architectural ornament. P hotographer Robert Flischel32 photographed the architectural ornament of Cincinnatis public schools, documen ting its history and development. Architectural ornament was important to th e people of Cincinnati. School children, teachers and citizens all donated money to pay fo r the ornamentation of these schools. They 30 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000). 31 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003). 32 Robert Flischel, ed., An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture. (Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001).

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29 believed that the architectural ornament could ex press their culture and their pride in the public schools33. Flischel found that the archit ectural ornament of the Cinc innati public schools was loved by residents and, over many decades, had deve loped a complex and thorough lexicon. The architectural ornament could teach by illustra ting history, stories and model student behavior34. It was also inspired by the local community; the th emes explored in the architectural ornament related to the buildings f unction as schools and to the target audience, students35. The architectural ornamentation also taught students about their herita ge by painting idealistic scenes of the Dutch countryside, the orig in of many Cincinnati citizens36. Flischels work is reflected in this study because it demonstrated a peoples love of their local architectural ornament and how they used their architectural ornament to expres s their place and cultural values. The Cincinnati public schools are an excellent example of well-developed ornamentation in an academic setting and the specialization of ornament to the setting. Enthusiast Darleen Crists37 photographic essay of American gargoyles and grotesques, American Gargoyles: Spirits in Stone demonstrated the popularity of historic architectural 33 Beth Sullebarger, Foreword in, An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture ed. Robert Flischel (Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001), 6. 34 Anita Ellis, Ornament and Artistery in the Cincinnati Public Schools in, An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture ed. Robert Flischel (Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001), 9-17. 35 Anita Ellis, Ornament and Artistery in the Cincinnati Public Schools in, An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture ed. Robert Flischel (Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001), 15-17. 36 Anita Ellis, Ornament and Artistery in the Cincinnati Public Schools in, An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture ed. Robert Flischel (Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001), 15. 37 Darleen Crist, American Gargoyles: Spirits in Stone. (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 2001).

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30 ornament and it is an interesting survey of ma ny unique pieces of orname nt. The text organized its collection by content, and provided photographs depicting examples from each content group. President of the Friends of Terra-Cotta, Susan Tunick38 documented the use of terra cotta architectural ornamentation in New York City a nd the history of the architectural terra cotta industry in America. The development of the lan guage of ornament during the first half of the twentieth century is explored in the text, with examples from New York City. Several of the stylistic trends seen in the development of New Yo rk Citys architectural terra cotta can also be found in the ornamentation on the University of Florida campus. For example, there are gargoyles on the New York Life Insurance Compa ny headquarters that ar e very similar to the ones found atop Leigh Hall. The New York Life Insurance building was completed in 1928; only one year after Leigh Hall. Tunick found that orna mental architectural te rra cotta was a thriving industry in the first decades of th e twentieth century and at least one of the companies detailed in the text, the Atlantic Terra Cotta Co, sold products to the University of Florida39. Architect Louis Sullivan created aesthetic unity in the skeleton frame buildings of the early years of the skyscraper. Sullivan used orname nt, not as a superfluous decoration, but to emphasize the structure and the function of hi s buildings. The famous adage form follows function comes from the following statement by Sullivan: It is the pervading law of a ll things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and super huma n, of all true manifestations of the head, 38 Susan Tunick, Terra-Cotta Skyline: New Yo rks Architectural Ornament. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997). 39 Receipts, correspondence, and stampe d photographs of process models, Seri es 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-67, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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31 of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expr ession, that form ever follows function. This is the law40. Architect Ronald Schmitt41 produced an exhaustive look at the ornamentation developed by Sullivan, especially in Chicago. Sullivan is fam ous for his ornament derived from foliage and geometric patterns, and this text chronicled the development of that lexicon throughout Sullivans life. Professor of Art History at Northwestern University, David Van Zanten42 explored the meaning of Sullivans ornament ation, thereby expressing his belief that ornamentation can express particular ideas. Va n Zanten and Schmitts research on Sullivan contributes to this study; it prov ided examples of th e evolution of architectural ornamentation through time. They also provide d further support to Bloomer43 and Trilling44, by developing their theories about Sullivans ornamentation in terms of its ability to express complex thoughts and grow throughout a designers career. Many other writers have also worked to prom ote the architectural or namentation of certain designers or places. Notably, architect Ernest Burdens45 discussion of the Ne braska state capital highlighted its architectural ornamentation a nd illustrated how the buildings architectural ornamentation expounded local culture. The Nebras ka capital building was constructed over a ten year span starting in 1922, while many of the University of Floridas ornamented historic 40 Wikipedia contributors, "Form follows function," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Form_follows_function&oldid=115258832. 41 Ronald Schmitt, Sullivanesque: Urban Architecture and Ornamentation. (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2002). 42 David Van Zanten, Sullivans City: The Meaning of Ornament for Louis Sullivan. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000). 43 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000). 44 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003). 45 Ernest Burden, Building facades: Faces, figures, and ornamental detail. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996).

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32 buildings were being built. On the Nebraska capitol building, stone carvings, murals and mosaics tell the history of democracy, and the natural and social history of Nebraskas Native Americans and settlers46. A nineteen foot sower crowns the dome and proclaims Nebraskas agricultural pride and skill, similar to the football player s on the University of Floridas Sledd Hall. These works illustrate a growing appreciation of historic architectural ornamentation. They support this study by demonstr ating methods to explore specific sets of architectural ornaments. These authors also demonstrate a growing interest in historic architectura l ornamentation and an understanding of the important content informa tion found within the ornamentation. This study will profit from the increased understanding and appreciation of architectural ornamentation created by these works Summary Architectural ornamentation has been a value d, cross-cultural element of architectural design throughout the history of the built environm ent. During the first half of the twentieth century, many architects were actively using or naments in their projects; however, other designers declared a war on ornamentation. Th eir successful campaign caused the use and study of architectural ornamentation to all but cease duri ng the twentieth century. In the last decades of the century, an interest in ornamentation reem erged. First, new histories and anthologies of historic ornament exposed a fresh, post-Modern a udience to the fantastic world of ornament. As Modernisms grip on the design community waned, architects and designers began to explore the value of ornament, its place in a human world an d the unique features th at it can bring to a project. Today, the work of many preservationists to save historic ornament encourages people to examine the historic ornaments in their community and allows them to appreciate the continuing 46 Ernest Burden, Building facades: Faces, figures, and ornamental detail. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996), 56.

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33 relevance that ornament has with its building. Whet her as members of a preservation team or just curious individuals, people across the country have begun to rediscover their communitys architectural ornament. Their efforts to promot e their ornament and arouse new interest in ornament have inspired this study. The existing literature is significant becau se it develops historic architectural ornamentation as a valuable segment of archit ectural design, worthy of individual consideration. The significance of ornamentation is supported by evidence of its ability to further develop an architectural style, carry complex content info rmation, and express the interests of the local community. While many works on ornamentation have been published recen tly, research is still needed to increase understanding on how collections of ornament s develop and work together. Also, considering the interest in creating ornaments that are inspired by the local community, further research in needed to understand how ornament is designed and implemented in an architectural project. This st udy will contribute to the body of knowledge by analyzing how one collection of architectural ornamentati on was created and developed over time.

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34 CHAPTER 3 SURVEY OF THE HISTORIC ORNAMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS Introduction Beginning with the first two buildings built on campus, Thomas and Buckman Halls, and traveling through the tenures of university architects Edwards, W eaver, and Fulton, the universitys historic arch itectural ornamentation can be seen to change. Analysis of the architectural ornamentation on the University of Florida campus s uggests changes from a traditional Collegiate Gothic application into a unique expression of place: geographical, historical, or cultural. By scru tinizing the changes in the ca mpuss historic architectural ornamentation, this idea can be tested. William Augustus Edwards and Partners, 1905-1925 William Augustus Edwards and his partners were commissioned to design the new University of Florida campus after winning a design competition against Henry John Klutho. Edwards, of South Carolina, presented the Stat e Board of Control with a Collegiate Gothic design while Klutho, of Jacksonville FL, submitted a Beaux Arts entry47. The Board of Control chose Edwards and the Collegiate Gothic for their new flagship university. The Collegiate Gothic style architecturally conne cted the university with the gr and, established institutions of England and the Continent, sending the message th at the University of Florida was one member of a collegiate chain stretching back to the early gothic period in Europe. The first two buildings were completed on a university campus of sa ndy wilderness, wetlands and pine hammocks. Thomas and Buckman Halls, completed in 1906, are simple, almost identical Collegiate Gothic buildings. Designed as dormitories, th ey housed the univers itys students, dining, 47 P.K. Yonge, chair, Pay report: $300.00 to H.J. Klutho for Arch itectural Services. Report of the Board of Control of the State Educational Institutions of Florida for the period beginning June 5, 1905 and ending January 1, 1907. (Tallahassee: State Printers, 1907), 120.

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35 lecturing, and administrative faci lities during the opening semester of 1906. These two buildings established the universitys palette of red brick offset by ivory de tails, roofed in terra-cotta tiles. The architectural ornamentation of Thomas and Buckman Halls works to further the Collegiate Gothic design. Lightly colored cast balustrade s, quoins, and delicate water spouts all work together to develop the Gothic architecture. These details are aided by crenellation and heavy stone framing around the major windows, details to symbolically connect the dormitories with Gothic European architecture. The cast concrete face (Figure 3-1) is repeated in the hood mold over almost every doorway to Buckman and Thomas Halls. A male face is a traditional ornamental element in Gothic and Renaissance decorative design48, and the traditional European motif is further developed by the ornament of playing woodland elves (Figure 3-2) on Thomas Hall. Both of these ornaments reflect traditional Collegiate Goth ic content, male faces and elves, but even these ornaments display some sensitivity to the universitys environment. The man (Figure 3-1) is somewhat wild; his wavy, loose hair is crowned with leaves and berries, and his expression is fierce. Meanwhile, the elves are playing in a thic ket of oak branches (Figure 3-2). The Collegiate Gothic style drew from centuries of European tr adition and within that st yle, a plethora of design inspiration was available to Edwards. While the architectural ornaments all work together to develop the traditional Gothic Revival style of th e buildings, Edwards choice of forest elves and wild men may have been a deliberate commen t on the universitys location in the Florida wilderness. Completed in 1909 and designed as the Agricu ltural Experiment Station, Newell Hall continues the Collegiate Gothic design of Thomas and Buckman Halls. The ivory crenellation is 48 Auguste Racinet, Racinets Historic Ornament in Full Color (X: Dover Publications, 1988).

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36 clearly offset by its red bric k and tile background. Combined with the water table and fenestration details, the ornament continues to develop a tradit ional Collegiate Gothic language for the campus. Under the eaves, a small repeating fl oral motif develops the Gothic style in more detail (Figure 3-3). In 1910, Flint Halls ornamentation furthere d the Gothic Revival on campus. Ornamented crenellation along the parapet, a nd detailing around the fenestration emphasis these elements. The entrances are under a gable end and highlight ed by ornamentation similar to the examples from Anderson Hall (Figure 3-5 and 3-6). Transitional architectural orname ntation, as defined in this st udy, is traditionally styled ornament that may reveal the function of the bui lding, or tell about the lo cal area. The University of Florida began making tentative steps toward the development of a language of transitional ornament as early as 1912, with the construc tion of the Agriculture Building, later named Griffin-Floyd Hall. Griffin-Floyd Hall incorporates many traditional Gothic ornaments: detailed window sills and lintels, cornice, and water table masonry. Th e central tower feature, under a gable, on the eastern side divides the faade and marks the main entrance. Tower features were often incorporated in Gothic Revival buildings; they structurally related the building to ancient castles and their towers while accenting entranceways or important windows. Here, the ornamentation works with the tower feature to further deve lop the entrance way. A terra-cotta cornucopia (Figure 3-4) marks the doorway centered in the to wer, while other finials and trim pieces frame the fenestration and detail the tower. The cornuc opias large shape and ivory color stand out against the red brick faade of Griffin-Floyd Hall, facilitating way-finding by clearly indicating the entrances to the building. The cornucopia also tells visitors a bout the greater purpose of the

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37 College of Agriculture, to devel op methods and educate individuals to feed the state of Florida. The overflowing bounty of the terra-co tta cornucopia illustrates that the College of Agriculture is capable of carrying out its mandate and the orna ment graphically expres ses the purpose of the college. This ornament, installed six years afte r the founding of the university, illustrates the ability of traditionally styled ornaments to express the function of the building and the purpose of its users. The cornucopia mediates between a tr aditional architectural style, rooted in ancient precedents, and the contemporary functions of its twentieth century American building by expressing the design style of one and the function of the other. Edwards next building, Language Hall of 1913, now Anderson Hall, has traditional Collegiate Gothic ornaments, and a scroll over the main entrance names the building (Figure 35). Like Griffin-Floyd and Flint Halls, Anders on Halls primary faade is broken by a protruding tower entrance feature. On it, the main entran ces ogee arch is crowned by a finial and emphasized by surrounding ornamentation (Figure 36). Lightly colored masonry window sills and lintels, the water table, and crenellation de tails expand the Collegiate Gothic vocabulary of Anderson Hall. That same year, Peabody Hall was complete d for the Teachers College. Peabody Hall features an even more elaborate tower feature along its main faade. First, the tower steps out to showcase two stories of fenestration encased in light, rusticated masonry with quoin surrounds (Figure 3-7). On the ground floor, the entran ce way projects further and is detailed by ornamental finials, pointed arch es, and detailed masonry. Carved text in a traditional font is arched over the entrance, naming the buildi ng and incorporating the signage into the ornamentation (Figure 3-8). The top of the towe r is outlined in light masonry and crowned by a matching finial and shield motif. The Gothic ornamental language on Peabody Halls tower

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38 feature is supported by coordinati ng water table and cornice cour ses in light colored masonry, and window sills and lintels. Although the arch itectural ornamentation does not pictorially provide information on the function of Peabody Hall, the way the cornucopia on Griffin-Floyd Hall does, the ornamentation does work together to promote the Collegiate Gothic design language. In 1914, Edwards firm again incorporated ornamentation into both a buildings architectural style and modern function. Bryan Hall, constructed for the College of Law, uses both traditional Collegiate Gothic detailing, such as a prominent water table and cornice masonry course, and pieces that specifically relate to th e function of the buildi ng. Bryan Hall has a large projecting tower feature, situated slightly to the s outh along the main faade (Figure 3-9). The primary entrance is through the tower. A limestone masonry frieze above the doorway reads College of Law (Figure 3-10). Below the crene llated top of the tower, a plaque (Figure 3-11) depicts a version of the state seal on a shield held by two vines. On the other side of the tower, another plaque is detailed with the scales of ju stice. On Bryan Hall, the situation of two plaques in the tower places the ornamentation in a prom inent position along the faade and allows it to aid way-finding by highlighting the entrance. It is noteworthy that this method of using ornament would be emulated in an addition to the law school thirty-six years later. For the growing Law Library, Weaver added a sm all, compatible addition to the north side of Bryan Hall in 1939. The additional entrance is sma ller in scale then the original tower, but it also incorporates a plaque below the cornice line (Figure 3-12). This plaque, of a lawyer with a book and scales, continues the work of the earli er ornamentation by telling the story of the buildings function. The style of the plaque is si gnificant as a statement of its own time; it

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39 bridges the gap between the original building s ornamentation and the plaques on Fultons 1950 addition. The universitys first gymnasium was comp leted in 1915 (Figure 3-13). The buildings ornamentation continues the Collegiate Gothic language through severa l cast stone masonry courses, pointed arched lintels over the fene stration and brick buttresses, capped in more masonry. Along the front, a raised faade with stylized crenellation along the parapet and flanking buttresses create a tower entrance with a large centered doorway. United, these architectural elements help to create a Collegiate Goth ic building, integrated with a gymnasium space and its rows of cleresto ry windows along the sides. The last building that Edwards completed as Architect to the Board of Control was the University Auditorium. Built between 1922 and 1925, the Auditoriums architectural ornamentation combines many of the elements already seen throughout th e campus and includes new details. Along the matching eas t and west sides, a water tabl e runs along the building and large Tudor arched windows w ith intertwined tracery arches sit under each projecting gable (Figure 3-14). The building is crowned by a pinnacle with radia ting arched buttresses. Brick buttresses capped in cast st one details visually support the edge s of the building and continue the Gothic language. In addition to th e Tudor arches and finials, the ex terior of the building features four mask corbel casts (Figure 3-15) in a trad itional style, supporting th e Tudor arches for two windows (Figure 3-14). Together th ese details create a Gothic orna mental language that develops the buildings Gothic Revival style and improves to its ability to express that style. This building was the culmination of Edwards career at the university and has one of the best preserved interiors.

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40 The interior continues to de velop the Gothic ornamental design language. Linen fold paneling along the balcony raili ngs, exposed trusses, and Gothic style chandeliers add to the buildings Gothic atmosphere (Figure 3-16). Th e most significant ornaments on the University Auditorium are plaster carvings springing from the hammerbeam trusses (Figure 3-17). These faux-wood painted plaster cast gargoyles speak dire ctly to university life. Like the cornucopias on Griffin-Floyd Hall, these figur es are designed to resemble traditional Gothic Revival ornaments; however, they are clearly inspired by archetypes of university life and relate to the users of the building. This is significant because it illustrates that inspir ation for Gothic styled ornaments could come from the twentieth centu ry campus upon which those ornaments would be used. Edwards designed two more buildings for the Un iversity of Florida after the Auditorium, completed during the term of his successor, Rudolph Weaver. The first of these was the University Library, renamed Smathers Library. Along the west side of the building, a row of clerestory windows (Figure 3-18) light the interior r eading room. These window bays are set in compound pointed brick arches and flanked by bu ttresses, an element of Gothic Revival architecture. Courses of ivory masonry along the water table and cornice combine with matching caps on the buttresses to further convey the Collegiate Gothic symbolism. The greatest concentration of architectural ornamentation is on the original tower entrance feature (Figure 319). As the library expanded, a new, compatible entrance was added (Figure 3-20) by Weaver. This tower entrance features a central door way crowned by a large compound pointed arch leading through a shallow vault to the doors. Brick buttresses cappe d in contrasting light stone masonry flank either side of the opening. A bove the doorway, architectural ornamentation

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41 connects the doorway opening to a small set of wi ndows. Pointed arches, sills and lintels are interconnected to emphasis this sp ace through their contra sting color and detailed texture. On the second story of the towers, a large recesse d window crowned by a compound pointed arch repeats the detail language on the first floor a nd differentiates the towe r windows from the row of clerestory windows along the side. The architec tural ornamentation of the University Library enhances the Gothic language of the protruding tower entrances and fenestration pattern. The ornamental details connect the fenestration, empha sis the entrance, and complete the buildings Collegiate Gothic statement. Completed in 1927, Edwards Horticulture Sc ience Building, renamed Rolfs Hall, uses architectural ornamentation to enhance to Collegi ate Gothic architectural language and tell users the story of the buildings function. First, traditional Gothic Reviva l details such as label molding over the fenestration, quoins, and prominent orie l windows with checkerboard pattern friezes above the cornice line enlarge upon the Horticulture Science Build ings Collegiate Gothic design (Figure 3-21). Then, along the corn ice course and in the indentati ons of the battlement (Figure 322), detailed floral medallions (Figure 3-23) begi n to tell the story of the buildings function. These medallions wrap around the building and thei r story telling ability is enhanced by the inclusion of a bee hive plaque encircled in a wr eath of fruit and flower s (Figure 3-24). Thus, users of the Horticulture Science Building are surrounded by the focus of their studies, flowers, and the means to create more, bees, are al so provided by the buildings architectural ornamentation. This is significant because, like Griffin-Floyd Hall, it is an example of how architectural ornamentation can both compliment its buildings archaic ar chitectural design style and tell users about the buildings function in the twentieth century.

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42 Rudolph Weaver, 1925-1944 In 1925, several gentlemen from the State Board of Control did an exhaustive search for an architect who would reside in Gainesville and wo rk exclusively designing for the State Board of Control, which managed the state s four educational institutions49. They eventually persuaded Rudolph Weaver to take the positi ons of Architect to the Board of Control and head of a new architecture program at the University of Florida. Shortly after Weavers arrival in Gainesville, President Murphree wrote with pride to the state legislature, Under the Boards authority the country was surveyed to find the ablest man, a man not only in love with teaching, with experience as a teacher of archite cture, but one who had also the ability and experience to serve the Board as its architect in a building program. Fortunately, such a man was found. Mr. Rudolph Weaver, who is director of the School of Architecture and Architect to the Board of Contro l, is a man of eminent training in the best schools of the East. He has successful experience as an architect and teacher of architecture in some of the larger institutions of the West. Since coming to the university in late September, 1925, he has organized a force of dr aftsmen, set up the School of Architecture, has equipped it, and has paid sa laries and expenses of these two divisions of his work out of the usual six percent architects fees on buildings for which plans and specifications were committed to his hands.50 Weaver had designed for the State College of Washington, Univers ity of Illinois and University of Idaho51. He invited his colleague from the University of Idaho, Guy Fulton, to accompany him to Gainesville too. The first bui lding Weaver designed and completed for the 49 Albert Murphree, Presidents Report of the University of Florida. Report of the Board of Control of the State Educational Institutions of Florida for the period beginning July 1, 1924 and ending June 30, 1926. chair. P.K. Yonge. (Tallahassee: State Printers, 1926), 12-13. 50 Albert Murphree, Presidents Report of the University of Florida. Report of the Board of Control of the State Educational Institutions of Florida for the period beginning July 1, 1924 and ending June 30, 1926. chair. P.K. Yonge. (Tallahassee: State Printers, 1926), 12-13. 51Photographs and drawings of work from Weavers previous institutions, Rudolph Weaver Architectural Records, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathe rs Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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43 University of Florida was the Chemistry-Pharmacy Building, renamed Leigh Hall in honor of its dean. Leigh Halls original wings were comple ted in 1927. In 1949, a coordinating Collegiate Gothic wing was added on the west side, creating an in terior courtyard. The original wings of Leigh Hall use a plethora of architectural ornament s in a Collegiate Gothic motif to tell the story of the buildings purpose and deve lop the architectural language. A belt course of ivory colored masonry features the names of famous chemis ts and pharmacists throug hout history (Figure 325). These names are carved in a Gothic style font and serve two symbolic purposes. First, they proclaim the function of the bui lding by celebrating famous practit ioners in the field, but they also serve the same symbolic purpose as Collegiate Gothic, they connect the University of Florida with the established institutions of Eur ope. These names unite the universitys chemistry and pharmacy program with iconic European sc ientists and their in stitutions of learning. The chemistry ornamentation is further expounded by chemical symbols on the gutter drains and in masonry along the fa ade (Figure 3-26). Along the co rnice line, four repeating cast stone gargoyles, or grotesques (Figure 3-27), also tell users about the buildings function. Resembling traditional Gothic gargoyles, each on e is engaged in a common laboratory function. These Gothic style grotesques te ll the story of the buildings function and the activities inside; thereby becoming mediators betwee n the interior and exterior of the building, and the buildings traditional architecture and twentieth century function. In addition to these story-telling ornaments, Weaver used a traditional Collegiate Gothic grape ornamentation around an entrance (Figure 3-28). Another entrance displays traditional scroll brackets and text to relate to the Colle giate Gothic design and inspire students (Figure 329). Oriel windows with checkerboard patterns di stinguish the entrances further (Figure 3-30)

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44 and quoins, instead of buttresses, emphasize their protruding edge s (Figure 3-31). Most of the fenestration is detailed by label molding and heavy sills. Along the roof line, balustrades continue the Collegiate Gothic language of the building. The Chemistry-Pharmacy Buildings architectural ornamentation is significant on campus because it combines a variety of traditional Collegiate Gothic ornamentation and detailing with ornaments that tell the story of the buildings function in symbolic and pictorial ways. In 1927, Weaver completed a building for the Co llege of Engineering. The Mechanical and Engineering Building, Walker Hall, was built as a companion to Edwards 1911 Benton Hall. Benton Hall was the colleges first building and was destroyed in the 1960s to make way for Little Hall. Walker Hall is a simpler Colle giate Gothic building, but it does use several traditional details. The entrance is centered in a projecting tower feature, now obscured by vines. Compared to many on campus, this tower is less prom inent because it is the height of the cornice line and does not extend above it, over the r oof. The opening for th e entrance is a compound Tudor arch leading to a shallo w vault before the doorway. The fenestration and cornice line are outlined in contrasting masonry, and quoins emphasize the edges of the building. In 1928, the university built a new, Tudor style building to the south of campus for WRUF Radio Station. It now serves as the Police Bu ilding. The high pitched roof, and half-timber, waddle and daub style, distinguis h it from the large buildings of the main campus. Dark wooden exposed posts and beams outline sections of brick and further reflect the Tudor Gothic Revival. The entrance is sheltered by a pr ojecting gabled roof and is de tailed by a brick semi-circular arched opening, rather then the more typical cont rasting light stone masonr y arches used on other buildings. These details reflect the smaller scale of the radio building while continuing its Gothic Revival architectural language.

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45 The University of Florida continued to gr ow throughout the twentie s and Rudolph Weaver completed an additional dormitory in 1929. T homas and Buckman Halls had been the only dormitories on campus, and the universitys studen ts were overflowing Gainesville in their search for housing. Sledd Hall, first called the New Dormitory, was built between Thomas and Buckman Halls. According to campus legend, togeth er with an additional dormitory, completed in 1939, Thomas and Sledd Hall form the letters UF, naming the campus from the air. Sledd Hall, constructed during the height of the Florida Boom in the late nineteen twenties, features traditional details as well as novel arch itectural ornaments. Sledd Halls builds on the elements used on the first dormitories: a cast stone ornament over every entrance, bay windows, water table, and cornice moldings. Along the south wall, bricks form a large diaper brick pattern, the largest example of this masonry detail on campus and a traditional Gothic element. Like Walker and Leigh Halls, rusticated quoins, ra ther then buttresses, emphasis the edges and projections of the building. Light cast stone mas onry molding draws attenti on to the fenestration. The cornice line and crenellation are also em phasized by masonry moldings. Along some parts of the faade, the indentations in the crenellation are filled wi th cast stone balustrades. The Collegiate Gothic design language is further developed by several two story bay windows. In addition to these traditional details, Sl edd Hall has many custom cast stone ornaments integrated into the facade. One ornament may be the signature plaque of the architect or an advertisement for the architecture program, de picting men with drafting tools and sporting equipment, it seems to promise students that they will have time for both activities (Figure 3-32). This plaque is set over a door in the brick faade, where passing stude nts can easily see it.

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46 Sledd Hall was opened with fanfare in 1929 a nd a brochure publishe d to celebrate the completion of Sledd Hall, The Stone Carvings of the New Dormitory, University of Florida, states that: An attempt has been made in the stone carvi ngs of the new dormitory to portray local interests, activities, and historical events ra ther then use conventional motives ordinarily employed. Aside from the Florida animal, bird, sea a nd plant life largely made use of about the individual entrances, the life of the Florida I ndians at the time of the Spanish discovery is shown above the arcade entrances above the re sidence tower. The Spanish discovery is also shown in the stone panels of one of th e oriel windows. In addition to this, various phases of student activities are demonstrated here and there about the exterior of the building52. Along the cornice of the building, several cast st one sculptures represen t different activities performed by University of Fl orida students (Figure 3-33). A gr aduate, soldier, reader, and athlete are some of the different guises of the student body and these casts. They reflect the lives of the students living inside Sledd Hall and connect the Collegiate Gothic dormitory with its users. The student grotesques are significant beca use they relate to the users of Sledd Hall. Sledd Halls ornamentation te lls the story of Floridas hi story through a scene of early Spanish ships discovering the stat e (Figure 3-34). This tableau celebrates Floridas history and discovery by Spain. The Spanish ships plaques ar e noteworthy because they tell the story of Floridas history. The student cornice figures a nd Spanish discovery ornaments relate Sledd Hall to its location on a university cam pus and to the Florida histor y of Spanish exploration. Sledd Halls architectural ornamentation also promotes the preferences of the founders of the university. When William Augustus Edwards Collegiate Gothic design was chosen as the vision for the new campus, it was because the founde rs wanted the University of Florida to be 52 Brochure, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967 Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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47 architecturally linked with the great historic in stitutions of Europe. While designing Sledd Hall, Weaver contacted many historic universities in Europe, asking for permission to place carved replicas of their seals (Figure 3-35) on Sledd Hall53. The Stone Carvings of the New Dormitory, University of Florida describes these seals as one of the main attractions of Sledd Hall and hopes that [o]n subsequent additions to the buildi ng it is hoped that more of these seals may be obtained, finally using the seals of our own olde r Universities54. Sledd Halls ground level ornamentation depicts a plethora of sea and animal life. Sledd Hall followed the early campus tradition of successi ve entrances to separa te groups of dormitory rooms. Two entrances have several small carvi ngs of plants and animals (Figure 3-36) around the trim. Other entrances have animal life orna ments in their spandrel s and in friezes above (Figure 3-37). Since a different arrangement of architectural ornaments marks each entrance, users of the building can easily remember whic h doorway leads to their wing and the ornaments aid in way finding. Along the lower cornice line of the bay windows, plant carvings (Figure 338) add another level of ornamentation to the multilayered faade (Figure 3-39). Many of the plants and animals found around Sledd Hall can be found in Florida and they augment the buildings sense of place by depicting scenes fro m the regions natural history. These ornaments are significant because they work with traditiona l elements of Collegiate Gothic design, yet their content is inspired by the local environment. Sledd Halls elaborate connecting tower (Fi gure 3-40) to Thomas Hall further develops Sledd Halls Collegiate Gothic de sign and history lesson. It symbo lically depicts the relationship 53 Notes and Letters, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967 Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Librar ies, University of Florid a, Gainesville, Florida. 54 Brochure, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Contro l Building Program Records, 1925-1967 Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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48 between the early Spanish explorer Juan Or tiz and his friend, an important local Native American, Chief Mucozo55. Although the relief carvings on the tower (Figure 3-41) show Plains Nations items and motifs, Mucozo (Figure 3-42) and Ortiz are clearly labeled and the towers designer, University of Florida art professor W.K. Long intended for the towers ornamentation to symbolically represent the local Native Amer icans for which it is named, although he used Plains artifacts as models56. A similar design solution was used fo r the first Seal of the State of Florida. Designed in 1865, the seal depicted a Plains Indian woman s cattering flowers until 1985, when she was replaced with a Florida Seminole woman57. The ornaments on the tower were constructed by the Arnold Stone, Brick a nd Tile Company in Jacksonville, FL58. The Mucozo Tower was the subject of discu ssion and debate among th e university faculty and administration. Architect Rudolph Weaver se nt out letters requesting suggestions from members of the university community59. The tower was originally planned as the first of a pair of towers, with a second intende d for the north side of the dormitory courtyard. Townes R. Leigh, dean of the Chemistry-Pharmacy School, sent a letter to Weaver requesting for the first tower to be named after the famous local Semi nole, Chief Micanopy, and for the second tower to be named for Micanopys wife, Tuscawilla. Leigh s interest in the names and ornamentation 55 Sharon Blansett, A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities, Revised 2nd Edition (Gainesville: University of Florida Department of Housing and Residence Education, 2003), 11. 56 Sharon Blansett, A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities, Revised 2nd Edition (Gainesville: University of Florida Department of Housing and Residence Education, 2003), 11-12. 57 Florida Department of State, The Florida State Seal, Cultural Historical and Information Programs, http://www.flheritage.com/f acts/symbols/seals.cfm 58 Photographs and Receipts, Series 75: Architect for th e Board of Control Building Program Record s, 1925-1967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathe rs Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 59 Letters, notes and memos, Series 75: Architect for th e Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathe rs Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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49 planned for Sledd Halls tower de monstrates the interest members of the university community felt in their architecture and its ornamentation. Leigh wrote, [b] oth of the names, Tuscawilla and Micanopy, are very musical and towers to th eir memory will be found no where else, since they are ancient local celebrities60. Although Leighs suggestion was supplanted in favor of the slightly more famous and less controversial Mucozo and Ortiz61, the dialogue Weaver initiated shows that he wanted to create a Gothic style tower that would commemora te the local history of the area. The Mucozo Tower is one of the most elabor ate examples of architectural ornamentation on the University of Florida campus. Both side s of the tower have or namentation celebrating early Florida history with Mucozo and Ortiz. Walking through the tower, a cast stone ribbed vault (Figure 3-43) and a Gothic pendent lantern continue the Collegiate Gothic language of the tower. On the second and third st ories of the tower, an oriel wi ndow with a diamond pattern cast stone frieze between each storys windows draws more attention to the tower. It is also a full story higher then Thomas and Sledd Halls a nd capped by crenellation. The Mucozo Tower is a traditional Collegiate Gothic feature that illustrates how architectural ornamentation can be used in a traditional manner, but be inspired by the local community. The Infirmary building for the University of Florida was completed in 1931. The entrance is centered along the main faade and most of the buildings architectural ornamentation is used to emphasis this feature. Instead of using a more formidable tower entrance feature, Weaver used 60 Letter, Series 75: Architect for th e Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 61 Micanopy Historical Society, Chief Mica nopy, Micanopy Histor ical Society Museum, http://www.afn.org/~mi canopy/micanopy.html Chief Micanopy was Chief of the Seminole Nation during the Second Seminole War, which lasted seven years. After the war, he was captured and sent to the Okla homa Territory, where he died in 1849. Chief Mucozo, on the other hand, is famous for sheltering Juan Ortiz after he escaped from Chief Ucita.

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50 an oriel window to highlight th e entrance (Figure 3-44). The entrance protrudes slightly from the building, but it is nestled under the windows ove rhang. Infirmary is cast into the masonry above the door in a Gothic font. Small cast stone sculptures of seve ral of the signs of the zodiac (Figure 3-45) wrap around the underside of the oriel window, easily viewable to entering students. Between the second and third story win dows on the oriel, a checkerboard pattern of brick and masonry wraps around the window. Along the higher cornice course on the oriel window, injured cast stone students languish (Fig ure 3-46). These ornaments are significant because they tell the story of the buildings func tion and relate the Collegiate Gothic building to its users, sick and injured university stude nts. Around the Infirmary building, crenellation, cornice and water table courses deve lop the Collegiate Gothic language. The Teachers College was first housed in Peabody Hall, constructed in 1913 across from Griffin-Floyd Hall. In the early nineteen thirti es, the Teachers College received a generous donation from P.K. Yonge, a member of the State Bo ard of Control, and additional private, state, and federal funding to construct a research school, providing hands-on practice for the universitys student teachers62. Weavers Collegiate Gothic P.K. Yonge Laboratory School opened for 470 secondary students in 193463; university classes were also taught in the building. In 1958, the Laboratory School moved to a new location, further away from the university campus. The building was renamed Norman Hall in honor of Dr. James Norman, dean of the College of Education from 62 Letters, notes and memos, Series 75: Architect for th e Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathe rs Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 63 College of Education: University of Florida, College of Education History Highlights. College of Education, http://www.coe.ufl.edu/College/Documents/History.html

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51 1920-1941, and an important fundraiser for the La boratory School. After the move, the College of Education began teaching its univer sity students in Norman Hall. Norman Hall continues the campuss Collegiat e Gothic detail langua ge. Crenellation along the top and a water table establish the Gothic orna mental language. The main entrance is set in a large tower feature with a cloc k and a two story bay window lead ing into the va ulted entrance (Figure 3-47). Around the cornice course of the tower, several gargoyles (Figure 3-48) taunt students. Plaques (Figure 3-49) on either side of the towers entrance are noteworthy; one features an airplane, a source of fascination and inspiration in the nineteen-thirties. The airplane is significant because it marks the buildings pla ce in time. The pointed archway over the door is supported by corbels of dutiful pupils (Figure 3-50). Further west, a wise owl watches over students entering and leaving the building. Across from the tower, a plaque over the ma in door to the elementary school depicts a woman giving a dove, symbolizing peace and k nowledge, to a young girl (Figure 3-51). The pointed archway of that door is supported by two little squirrels (Figure 3-52). The gentleness of these cast stone pieces reflects their location over the main elementary school entrance. Another door to the elementary school bears the inscript ion, Education and the Ob ligation of Youth the Republics Safe Guard (Figure 3-53A). This inscription and a nother over the entrance to the auditorium, That they may have a more abundant life (Figure 3-53B) we re carefully chosen after debate within the College of Education64. The dean wanted to c hoose phrases that would both inspire and awe the young students65. Another doorway, leading to the secondary school, 64 Letters, notes and memos, Series 75: Architect for th e Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathe rs Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 65 Letters, notes and memos, Series 75: Architect for th e Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathe rs Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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52 uses two corbels of students, one an athlet e and the other a reader (Figure 3-54). These ornaments, like the cornice sculpt ures on Sledd Hall, are significant because they relate to the users of the building by depi cting their activities. Under the gable end of the elementary wing, a signature plaque with intertwined flowers gives the name of the school (Fi gure 3-55). Below this plaque, anot her plaque inscribed with the names of famous intellectuals sits over a benc h (Figure 3-56). This ornament is significant because it relates to the function of the school by working to inspire students, and, like the names on Leigh Hall, it symbolically links the school with the great historical institutions and thinkers of Europe. Weavers next project was the Florida Uni on, now Dauer Hall. Constructed slowly over the Depression years, Dauer Hall originally served as a multi-purpose student center66. It has a prominent chimney, pointed doorway arches and ba y windows. Decorative water spouts (Figure 3-57) continue the detailing. One compatible wing was added in 1966 by Guy C. Fulton and Associates. It blending into the original build ing, and is dominated by a long arcade of pointed arched windows. The projecting entrance has a pl aque of a musician (Figure 3-58) over the doorway. Since Dauer Hall was the Student Center, this plaque related to the function of the building as a place for student gathering and recrea tion. The players instrument, a lute, relates to Dauer Halls Collegiate Gothic design, as the lu te is often associated with medieval players Dauer Halls most prominent piece of orname ntation is the stained glass window (Figure 3-59) under a gable end. The window was fabricated by DAscengo Studios of Philadelphia. The windows room was originally intended as a quiet, nonsectarian chap el-like space and the 66 Susan Tate et al., The University of Florida Historic Preservation Plan s and Guidelines, Draft Update April 2006, (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2006), 17. http://www.facilities.ufl.edu/cp/pdf/Edit% 20Copy%20Plan%20Guidelines%20Apr%2006.pdf

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53 window appears to depict six scenes related to the creation of the earth: forming of the seas, creation of the cosmos, sea life, plant life, and animal life (Figure 3-60) Interspersed between the creation medallions are the signs of the zodi ac. The zodiac was a popular theme during this time; Weaver used zodiac carvings on the 1939 Co llegiate Gothic infirmary he designed for the Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee67. Dauer Hall also incorporates Florida inspired shields; one is intertwined in the tracery above the stained glass window (F igure 3-61). A matching shield wa s incorporated into the 1948 addition, and like the lute player (Figure 3-58), may have been moved to the additions when they were added to the original building (Figure 3-61). The shield depicts four popular Florida motifs: sunshine, palm trees, Spanish Galleons, and Na tive Americans. Another Florida inspired ornament (Figure 3-62) is painted under a vau lted ceiling, north of the stained glass window. The mural illustrates several local plants and anim als: blue jays, woodpeck ers, and orange tree branches; however, the squirrel (Figure 3-63) resembles a European Red Squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, with tufted ears and a bushy red tail,68 instead of the local grey squirrel. On the mural, the artist inscribed, Ugo Galluzz i from Florence painted in the year AD 1936, the fourteenth year of the Fascist era.69 The artist painted his local squirrel, amidst the exotic Florida natives. Completed in 1937 for the Dairy Science Depa rtment, the Dairy Science Building is a simplified Collegiate Gothic structure. The build ings main faades, east and west, have a long arcade of windows with a cast stone course along the roof line. Recesse d behind this wall, a higher line of short windows ventil ates the laboratory space inside The gable ends on the other 67 Photographs, Series 75: Architect fo r the Board of Control Building Progra m Records, 1925-1 967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Librar ies, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 68 Olivia L., European Red Squirrel, Blue Planet Biomes ed. Elisabeth Benders-Hyde, (2002). http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/euro_red_squirrel.htm 69 Italian Lecturer Jennifer Testa, personal communication, March 26, 2007.

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54 two sides of the building relate it to the more traditional Gothic buildings on campus. The entrances, on both long sides, are delineated by a projecting wing with a gable roof, reminiscent of the tower features on the campuss more tr aditional buildings. Each projection has a barrel vault leading to the interior doors, and was orig inally highlighted by a round medallion above it, under the gable. The two medallions (Figure 3-64) are more modern in style then the campuss early ornaments, complimenting the simplified st yle of the building, but they are used in a traditional manner, as part of the entrance sequence. The medallions, one of a baby drinking from a bottle and one of an older woman chur ning butter while children enjoy buttered bread, illustrate the products and purpose of the Dairy Science department. The first medallion illustrates milks importance to human consum ption and the second illustrates one of the important products of milk, butter. In 1985, the Dairy Science department moved fr om their historic 1937 building into a new, unornamented building. In a move no w unthinkable on the historic campus70, then department chairman Dr. Roger Natzke climbed a ladder and chiseled out the two medallions. He then had these medallions installed at view er height along an ex terior corridor of th e new building because he felt they would provide continuity for the program and express the departments identity. Although ornamentation (like ar chitectural artifacts worldw ide) should not be removed, Professor Natzkes commitment demonstrates the meaningful relationship that the universitys architectural ornamentation can have with a buildings faculty and staff71. 70 Today, changes occurring on the historic campus are overseen by the Historic Buildings and Sites Committee. 71 Dr. William Thatcher, personal co mmunication, December 19, 2006.

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55 In 1939, Fletcher Hall was completed as an addition to Sledd Hall72. Fletcher Hall continues the Collegiate Gothic language developed for Sledd Hall ten years earlier. Crenellation, quoins, and contrasting belt cour ses carry over from Sledd Hall. Continuing Weavers original goal, more shields from re spected institutions are used to connect the University of Florida with Europe s great historical institutions Like Sledd Hall, Fletcher Hall has many entrances into the dormitories. Each of these is highlighted by a different set of architectural ornaments combining Collegiate Go thic elements, such as Tudor arches and spandrels, with depictions of regional flora a nd fauna (Figure 3-65). Because the combination of Sledd and Fletcher Halls is so large, Fletcher has several vaulted passage s linking the courtyards to each side. These are emphasized by orie l windows above and curving plaques on the underside of the windows illustrate locally inspired scenes from the natural environment (Figure 3-66). In 1929, Weaver had planned a tower for Fl etcher Hall, to compliment Sledd Halls Mucozo tower. When Fletcher Hall was built, a simplified tower was included along the north faade. A statement of its time, Fletcher Halls tower does not include elaborate ornamentation comparable to the Mucozo tower, but it does have tw o shields along the corn ice molding (Figure 3-67). These shields are significant because they distinguish the tower and proclaim its place on the university campus. On the western side of Fletcher Hall, a ta bleau promotes school spirit (Figure 3-68). Wrapped around the bay window of Fletcher Halls reading room, it illustra tes the life of a man, with an alligator on each side. For the univers itys all male student population, the succession of life-stage illustrating medallions, capped by the sc hools mascot, may have indicated that they 72 Sharon Blansett, A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities, Revised 2nd Edition (Gainesville: University of Florida Department of Housing and Residence Education, 2003), 13.

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56 were gators from birth till death. Inside the r eading room, walnut paneling carries the Gothic Revival architecture to the interior. The arch itectural ornamentati on on Fletcher Hall is significant because, like Sledd Hall, it illustrates that ornaments could be used in a traditional manner, but depicts scenes of local interest and inspiration. Completed the same year as Fletcher Hall, another dormitory, Murphree Hall, demonstrates how the Collegiate Gothic style was slowly changing on campus. As a result of increasing student enrollment, the building is la rger and more massive then earlier buildings. Along the outer faades, repeating bay windows a nd entrances wrap around the building (Figure 3-69). The water table along the building also fo rms the pointed arch over each entrance, which is edged in quoin blocks (Fi gure 3-70). Unlike the campuss pr evious dormitories, sculptural details are not used to highlight or differentia te the openings. The openings on the two story bay windows are outlined in thick contrasting ivory masonry, but windows along the main faades are trimmed in brick. Instead of cr enellation or balustrades, dormers are used to extend the height of the top floor and increase livable space, anothe r concession to the growing student population. While the molded water table, pointed arches, and bay windows a ll contribute to the Collegiate Gothic design, and Murphree Hall shares these details with the earlier dormitories, the lack of sculptural details, like those used over the entrances of the previous dormitories, foreshadows some of the changes occurring on campus. After Fletcher and Murphree Halls were co mpleted, the Second World War almost halted new construction on campus. During the war, fe w new projects were started, but Newell Hall underwent a major renovation. Af ter the renovation, it was rede dicated and a wooden plaque (Figure 3-71) was installed in the entrance way. Since the universitys previous plaques were carved stone or cast in metal, the use of painte d wood for this one may ha ve been the result of

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57 wartime shortages. As such, it is significant as an indication of the build ings place in history. A thin metal ornament in the doorway was added w ith the buildings old a nd new names (Figure 372). Rudolph Weaver died in 1944 and his associ ate Guy Fulton was appointed University System Architect. Guy Fulton had come with Weaver to the University of Florida when he was first recruited and had worked in his office th roughout his almost twen ty year tenure. Fulton inherited his position during a tumultuous time. The Second World War was ending, changing everyones lives and flooding the university with thousands of new students. In 1947, the university became co-educational, bringing in more new students and new architectural dilemmas to the campus. In the world of archit ecture, the modern styl es were beginning to consume the nation. Fulton began to experiment w ith more modern designs almost immediately; however, throughout his career he co ntinued to work with the unive rsitys establis hed palette of red brick, with clay tile roofs and lightly colored detailing. Guy Fulton, 1944-1956 After the Second World War, construction on th e University of Florida campus accelerated rapidly. The use of custom architectural or naments decreased, due in part to changing architectural styles and pressure to complete mo re buildings faster. Fult on also began to hire consulting architects to deal w ith the universitys increasing de mand for new buildings. Jefferson Hamilton, an architect from Weavers and Fulto ns office on campus, often filled the role of consulting architect, as well as firms from Florid a. As the pace of campus growth continued to accelerate, consulting architects took greater re sponsibility for new buildings. Among Fultons many building, only a few utilized the architectural ornamentation discussed in this study. In 1948, Fulton renovated the University Li brary. During the renovation, he added a terrazzo floor in the lobby (Figure 3-73) with the lamp of knowledge in the center. He also used

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58 spandrels inside, to date his changes (Figure 374). When Fulton added additional entrances to the University Auditorium in 1949, he used anothe r pair of complimenting spandrels to mark his changes (Figure 3-75). These ornaments are si gnificant because they were designed to compliment the historic building, while inform ing users about the ch anges to the building. Fultons 1949 addition to the Chemistry-Ph armacy building, a west wing, harmoniously blends with the original wings by continuing the belt courses, water table, and fenestration detailing; however, the carved ornaments on the cornice molding, scientis t names, and chemical symbols are not continued. The addition has a to wer like entrance feature leading through the building into the interior courtyard. Over its segmental arched entrance, a cast stone plaque (Figure 3-76) does continue the themes devel oped by the architectural ornamentation on the original wings. A floral wreat h wraps around chemistry laboratory equipment, proclaiming the buildings function. This ornament, and the plaque further above in the to wer (Figure 377) are significant because they continue the orname ntal language developed for the 1927 building: small cast details, in a traditional Collegiate Gothic style. In 1949, Fulton supervised the completion of two new major buildings on campus, the Florida Gymnasium and Weil Hall. The Florid a Gymnasiums architectural ornamentation continues to relate to the Collegiate Gothic buildings on campus, but it also pushes the design toward a more simplified form. The main entrance is part of a tower featur e, similar to earlier ones, but wider (Figure 3-78). The entrance and two stories of windows above are all wrapped in light cast stone masonry, which stan ds out from the brick faade a nd highlights this aspect of the building. At the top of the tower, Florida Gymn asium is spelled out in metal letters in a modern, rather then Gothic, font (Figure 3-79). Al ong the sides of the front faade, a water table,

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59 cornice, and simplified crenellation all connect the building to its more Collegiate Gothic predecessors, but they also emphasis the flat r oof and horizontal width of the structure. Over each set of windows of the east and west elevations, a pointed compound arch connects buttresses running dow n the sides of the building an d capped with cast stone. These buttresses relate the Florida Gymnasium to trad itional Collegiate Gothic architecture and many of Edwardss buildings, such as the University Library, but between each buttress, the windows have brick lintels and simple cast stone sills, in stead of pointed arches (Figure 3-80). Along these facades, the combination of rectangular wi ndows with minimal deta iling and buttresses connected by pointed arches demonstrates si mplification within a Collegiate Gothic design. South of the Florida Gymnasium, the Engin eering and Industries Bu ilding, now Weil Hall was completed in 1949 for the College of Engineer ing. Like the Florida Gymnasium, its massive size was required by the growing population of th e university and its need for space. Along the primary faade, a water table, quoins, and a ba y window contribute to the Collegiate Gothic design scheme. Small ornaments of Gothic motifs are in corporated into the bay window (Figure 3-81) and on the west entrance; a Tudor arch crea tes two spandrels (Figure 3-82) similar to those on the University Auditorium and Library. Each one has a small shield wrapped in oak leaves, a traditional scheme. Oak leaves have been used on several pieces of the ornamentation on the University of Florida campus, including a pl aque on Thomas Hall (Figure 3-2) in 1906. One spandrel on Weil Hall gives the buildings date, 1949, and the other reads UF. Another entrance to Weil Hall is marked by a plaque above the door (Figure 3-83). The plaque shows several engineering tools and is significant because it tells about the buildings function as an engineering school. Furthermore, compared to earlier ornaments such as the

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60 overflowing cornucopia on GriffinFloyd, this plaque is restrained and more contemporary; however, it is used in a traditional manner, highlighting an entrance. The main entrance is part of a tower sequen ce. Nestled in the corner of two wings, the entrance is up several steps and through a comp ound pointed arched vaul t (Figure 3-84). The entrance way is surrounded by rusticated masonr y, which stands out from the brick faade and emphasizes this feature. A cast stone plaque w ith the name, Engineeri ng and Industries Building, sits above the entrance. The outlin e of a gear is cast into the center of the plaque. Above the entrance, a quoin surround highlights each windo w and differentiates them from the other windows along the faade. At the top of the towe r, more small Gothic motifs complete the ornamentation. The ornamentation on the Engine ering and Industries Building is less pronounced and the fenestration introduces a new proportion found in campus buildings of this era of construction. The following year, in 1950, Fulton completed an addition to the law school building, Bryan Hall. The original Bryan Hall building of 1914 already had a small addition on its north and south sides, and Fultons addition connect s to Weavers north addition. On Edwards 1914 building, several Collegiate Goth ic details had been used acro ss the building to develop the Gothic style. Additionally, in the entrance towe r feature, a plaque (Figure 3-11) was placed below the cornice molding. In the 1950 addition, an open arcade along the main faade forms a courtyard with the original building. The two story arcade is punctuat ed by three towers, one at each end and one in the middle. Each of these towers has a plaque relating to the functi on of the building and designed in a late art moderne character (Figure 3-85). These or naments are significant because they are placed on the additions towers; lik e the 1914 plaque was on the original towers

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61 entrance. Also, like the 1914 pla ques, they draw inspiration fro m Florida and the law school, but are designed in the buildings prevalent architectural style. On the Bryan Hall addition, the cornice line indents to hold ea ch plaque, connecting them with the building. The lightly co lored cornice line on the additi on relates to the one on the original building too. Along the arcade, openings are outlined in heavy masonry, contrasting the lightness of the openings and emphasizing this fe ature. The other sides of the addition are simpler, with brick trimmed fenestration. Completed in 1951 with the help of Jefferson Hamilton and Kemp, Bunch and Jackson architects, Fulton supervised the design and construction of Tigert Hall. Tigert Hall became the universitys new administration building and its prominent location and function made it a new gateway to the campus. Tigert Hall is significant as a transitional link in the architectural history of the campus. Like many traditional Collegiate Gothic buildin gs, the entrance to Tigert Hall is through a central tower feature (F igure 3-86). Tigert Halls tower is a massive block, with contrasting masonry outlining an inset rectangular column of glass in the center, replacing the traditional combination of smaller windows wrapped in contra sting masonry. Like the traditional Collegiate Gothic buildings, Tigert Hall em phasizes the entrance by its loca tion in a projection stressed by the use of contrasting materials along its vertical facade. At the top of the tower, modern font metal letters, like those on the Florida Gymnas ium, form Administration Building. Along the roof of the tower, crenellation contin ues the Collegiate Gothic references. Along the sides of the building, crenellation with ba lustrades wrap around the roof, relating the building to Gothic styles. Tigert Hall has se veral bay windows (Figure 3-87), another Gothic element. These windows are outlined in ivory co lored, contrasting masonry and each one has

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62 several incised ornaments. In between each st orys windows, small incised ornaments depict each college on campus in 1950 (Figure 3-88). The ornaments proclaim Tigert Halls role as an administration building for all of the colleges. Additionally, small incised quatrefoils adorn the bay windows and the railings around the raised tower entrance (Figure 3-89). The modified Gothic features demonstrate Fultons respect fo r the campuss early build ings and the founders goal to architecturally connect the University of Florida with the ancient institutions of Europe. Some ornaments also work to te ll the story of the buildings pu rpose, an important function on campus. By tracing its history to a parent institution, the University of Florida was able to celebrate its centennial in 1953Century Tower was erected to mark this momentous event. An ornament to the campus, the tower combines many traditional Collegiate Gothic elements and is capped in a crown of ornamentation (Figure 3-90). Buttresse s run up each side of the tower and terminate in finials. Around the openings for the Carillon be lls, lightly colored masonr y arches are slightly pointed, a Gothic innovation. Above, more arches, finials, and sma ll-scale crenellation all work to express the Collegiate Gothic inspiration for th e tower. Carved text over the entrances at the base of the tower (Figure 3-91) continues th e Gothic design. The ornamentation of Century Tower is significant because it demonstrat es a post-Second World War awareness of the campuss Collegiate Gothic heritage, and a desire to continue drawing inspiration from that architectural heritage. Throughout the post-Second Worl d War period, projects on ca mpus employed traditional Collegiate Gothic details, such as the tower en trance feature, in new ways. Large expanses of glass, with simplified detailing, became a prom inent feature along the faade. Water table and belt courses became smaller and more streamline d, before disappearing. Despite these changes,

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63 the campus maintained a unified, harmonious desi gn by using the brick and tile materials palette set by Edwards in 1906 and details relating the ne w buildings to the Collegiate Gothic ones. Matherly Hall was built in 1953 to house the gr owing College of Business Administration. Hamilton was the consulting architect and Fult on supervised its design and construction. Matherly Hall has a prominent tower entrance fe ature (Figure 3-92), like many Gothic Revival buildings. The towers entrance is recessed under a flat lintel, rather then a traditional arch. Over the lintel, metal letters form College of Busi ness Administration in a simple, modern font. Above it, a several story window lights the inte rior stair. This window is capped in a multisegmented arch, a nod to the campuss traditiona l architecture. Crenella tion on the top of the tower holds a plaque (Figure 3-93). Depicting man driving technology and transportation, it exhibits all of the hope that many people felt during this time: tec hnology, progress, and University of Florida were working to move th e world forward. This ornament is significant because it is used traditionally, to crown a Gothic inspired tower, but its content is inspired by the progress of modern technology. Along the faade of the building, long rows of large windows with running courses of cast stone form the sills and lintels of each expa nsive opening. These running courses also emphasis the large size and horizontality of the building. In this way, the ornamentation draws attention to the modern size and scale of Matherly Ha ll, emphasizing its architectural style. Integration of Ornament into the Architectural Concept Architectural ornamentation was incorporated into the historic campus as part of the overarching visual concept for each building and it often serves a functional purpose as well. Collegiate Gothic utilizes several different types of ornamentation to arch itecturally develop its structures and provide references to European Gothic architectu re. Quoin, like those on GriffinFloyd, Leigh, and Weil Halls, emphasis the protrudi ng edges and corners of the building mass,

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64 and develop the Gothic symbolism. They are also functional; large masonr y blocks are sturdier and less likely to become dislodged. Both the University Library (Figure 3-18) and the Florida Gymnasium (Figure 3-80) use buttresses to segment the faade and highlight th e fenestration pattern. A ll three architects used buttresses around entrances and edges, where they draw attention to these elements and provided an important Gothic reference. Water tables, belt courses, and cornice moldings divide the horizontal surfaces and provide linear continuity around buildings. Wa ter tables are also functional; they help deflect water from the buildings foundation. Cornice moldings on campus have projecting eaves, which keep rain water off the buildings. Starting with Newell Hall in 1909, Edwards and Weaver often placed cast sculptures at regular intervals along the cornice molding. Cornice molding casts provide another layer of detail to buildi ngs and develop the buildings signa ge by telling the story of its function or users. Above the cornice line, crenel lation added another laye r of ornamentation and a niche for cast ornaments; for ex ample, Rolfs Hall (Figure 3-22). Bay and oriel windows serve an important, f unctional purpose in Fl orida. In buildings without air conditioning, like Thomas and Buckman Ha lls, they allow interior spaces to capture extra breezes. These protruding windows breakup the long faade s of massive buildings and provide a symbolic Gothic refe rence. Rolfs Hall was the first building to include sculptural ornaments within the oriel window design, but it became a campus tradition. Leigh, Sledd, Fletcher, Weil, and Tigert Halls all use sculpt ural storytelling orname nt around their projecting windows. Fletcher Halls gator lif e tableau (Figure 3-68) is significant because it occurs between two layers of windows; Tigert Halls small co llege casts are also si tuated between window

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65 stories (Figure 3-87). Windows, especially projecti ng ones, are significant architectural elements and all three architects placed additional detailing and ornamentation around them. Beginning with Thomas and Buckman Halls, entrances are the primary location for sculptural architectural ornament ation. Lightly colored cast stone ornaments aid in way-finding; they are conspicuous against brick facades. On Thomas, Sledd and Fletcher Halls, lighting fixtures were originally integrated into door way ornamentation, as they are on the library entrance (Figure 3-20B). En trances are significant ar chitectural elements; th ey connect the inside and outside of buildings. Proj ecting tower entrance features or flanking buttresses emphasis major entrances and provide a Gothic motif. Architectural or namentation around entrances and projecting entrance towers continues the e ffect and develops the concept further. Edwards designed the campuss first Collegiate Gothic buildings. His use of architectural ornamentation established campus precedents. W eaver built upon Edwardss designs and used a greater variety of sculptural ca st details. Fulton continued to use the ornaments developed by Edwards and Weaver, but he also introduced ne w motifs. The universitys three architects, Edwards, Weaver, and Fulton, each added someth ing to the ornamental lexicon of the campus. Weaver and Fulton both drew from previous wo rk to maintain continuity across campus. Summary During the tenures of the unive rsitys first three architects the historic architectural ornamentation on the University of Florida campus has fulfilled several functions. It has worked to create a more complete expression of its buildings Collegiate Gothic design scheme, furthering the symbolism inherent in that style. It has simultaneously increased the functionalism of many buildings; projecting, ornamented entran ces are easy to find, eaves and water tables deflect rainwater, and bay windows capture cros s breezes. Within this scheme, many ornaments were designed to proclaim the function of their bu ilding. Other pieces have told stories about the

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66 natural and social history of the area around cam pus. Some ornaments have drawn inspiration from university life, depicting students, facu lty and colleges. These ornaments reflect the dynamic forces at work on the campus, helping it to grow into a splendid and harmonious whole73. 73 Susan Tate et al., The University of Florida Historic Preservation Plan s and Guidelines, Draft Update April 2006, (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2006), 4. http://www.facilities.ufl.edu/cp/pdf/Edit% 20Copy%20Plan%20Guidelines%20Apr%2006.pdf Quote taken from the University Record of 1906.

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67 A B Figure 3-1. Buckman and Thomas Halls: Entrance

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68 Figure 3-2. Thomas Hall: Elves entrance Figure 3-3. Newell Hall: Floral

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69 A B Figure 3-4. GriffinFloyd Hall: Co rnucopias. A) Main entrance, east. B) Main entrance, north.

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70 Figure 3-5. Anderson Hall: Scroll over main entrance Figure 3-6. Anderson Hall: Main entrance

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71 A B Figure 3-7. Peabody Hall: Primary entrance A) Tower entrance. B) Finial cap. Figure 3-8. Peabody Hall: Inscribed name over main entrance

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72 Figure 3-9. Bryan Hall: Tower entrance

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73 Figure 3-10. Bryan Hall: Inscribed name over primary entrance Figure 3-11. Bryan Hall: State seal on main tower

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74 Figure 3-12. Bryan Hall: Plaque over 1939 entrance to law library

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75 Figure 3-13. Gymnasium: Main facade

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76 Figure 3-14. University Auditorium: Window

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77 Figure 3-15. University Auditorium: Corbel

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78 Figure 3-16. University Auditorium: Interior

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79 Figure 3-17. University Auditorium: Interior grotes ques. From left to right, musician with lyre, scholar with open book, football player w ith football and engineer with gear.

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80 Figure 3-18. University Libr ary: Windows with buttresses

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81 Figure 3-19. University Library: Original entrance

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82 A B Figure 3-20. University Library: Additional entrance

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83 Figure 3-21. Rolfs Hall: Oriel window Figure 3-22. Rolfs Hall: Floral medallions in quatrefoils in the crenellation

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84 A B C D E F Figure 3-23. Rolfs Hall: Examples of floral plaques along the cornice line. A, D, and E are abstracted floral designs. However, the others show locally growing plants. B) Iris. C) Dogwood flower. F) Oranges on a branch.

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85 Figure 3-24. Rolfs Hall: Beehive A B Figure 3-25. Leigh Hall: Names

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86 Figure 3-26. Leigh Hall: Gutter detail A B C D Figure 3-27. Leigh Hall: Gargoyl es engaged in chemical laborat ory experiments. A) Adding. B) Grinding. C) Heating. D) Mixing.

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87 Figure 3-28. Leigh Hall: Grape ornament Figure 3-29. Leigh Hall: Bracket entrance

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88 Figure 3-30. Leigh Hall: En trance with oriel window Figure 3-31. Leigh Hal l: Bay window and quoins

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89 Figure 3-32. Sledd Hall: Arch itecture and athletics plaque

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90 A B C D E F Figure 3-33. Sledd Hall: Eight student grotesques along the co rnice line. A) Student with backpack. B) Chemistry student. C) Footba ll player. D) Freshman with freshman beanie. E) Graduate. F) Reader. G) Solider. H) Fraternity member.

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91 G H Figure 3-33. Continued

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92 A B Figure 3-34. Sledd Hall: Details from Spanish discovery tableau

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93 A B C D Figure 3-35. Sledd Hall: Si x seals from the bay windows A Figure 3-36. Sledd Hall: Doorway life casts. A) Entrance way. B-H) Plant and animal casts.

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94 B C D E F G H Figure 3-36. Continued

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95 A B C Figure 3-37. Sledd Hall: Doorwa y ornaments. A) Squirrels and mockingbirds in oak branches door. Hole in top plaque held a light fixtur e. B) Detail from door frieze. C) Sea life entrance. D-H) Details from sea life entrance.

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96 D E F G H Figure 3-37. Continued

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97 A B C D E Figure 3-38. Sledd Hall: Orname nts from the cornice molding a bove the fenestration of the bay windows. A) Oranges. B) Grapes. C) Dogwood. D) Bananas. E) Flower.

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98 Figure 3-39. Sledd Hall: Layers of ornamentation

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99 Figure 3-40. Sledd Hall: Mucozo tower

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100 A B Figure 3-41. Sledd Hall: Mucozo tower details Figure 3-42. Sledd Hall: Mucozo detail

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101 Figure 3-43. Sledd Hall: Mucozo tower interior

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102 Figure 3-44. Infirmary: Entrance

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103 A B Figure 3-45. Infirmary: Zodiac casts. A) Pi sces. B) Scorpion. C) Crab. D) Ram.

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104 C D Figure 3-45. Continued

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105 A B Figure 3-46. Infirmary: Injured student casts Figure 3-47. Norman Hall: Entrance tower

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106 Figure 3-48. Norman Hall: Taunting grotesque

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107 A B Figure 3-49. Norman Hall: Plaques flanking main tower entrance

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108 A B Figure 3-50. Norman Hall: Student corbels on main tower entrance Figure 3-51. Norman Hall: Plaque over elementary school door

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109 A B Figure 3-52. Norman Hall: Squi rrel corbels supporting archway A Figure 3-53. Norman Hall: Entr ances with inscriptions. A) E ducation and the obligation of youth the Republics safeguard, over an elem entary school entrance. B) That they may have the more abundant life, over the auditorium. C) Detail from A featuring American eagle

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110 B C Figure 3-53. Continued.

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111 A B Figure 3-54. Norman Hall: West doorwa y details, supporting a pointed arch Figure 3-55. Norman Hall: P.K. Yonge Laboratory School plaque

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112 Figure 3-56. Norman Hall: Bench with inscribed names above Figure 3-57. Dauer Hall: Water spout

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113 Figure 3-58. Dauer Hall: Lute player plaque

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114 A B Figure 3-59. Dauer Hall: Stained glass window

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115 A B C Figure 3-60. Dauer Hall: Window details. A) Animal life. B) Birds. C) Sea life. A B Figure 3-61. Dauer Hall: Shield detail. A) Shield in stained glass window. B) Shield on addition, west.

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116 A B C Figure 3-62. Dauer Hall: Mural details Figure 3-63. Dauer Hall: Eur opean red squirrel detail

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117 A B Figure 3-64. Dairy Science Building: Medallions

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118 A B Figure 3-65. Fletcher Hall: Doorway ornament s. A) Abstract floral doorway. B) Owl and squirrel doorway with details C and D. E) River life doorway with details F-H. These ornaments have integrated openings for li ght fixtures, an important feature for dormitory entrances.

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119 C D E F Figure 3-65. Continued

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120 G H Figure 3-65. Continued

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121 Figure 3-66. Fletcher Hall: Under an oriel A B Figure 3-67. Fletcher Hall: Flor ida motif and UF Gator shields

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122 A B C D Figure 3-68. Fletcher Hall: Ga tor life tableau. A) Bay window. B-C) Tableau detail, wrapping around the window.

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123 Figure 3-69. Murphree Hall: East view Figure 3-70. Murphree Hall: Doorway

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124 Figure 3-71. Newell Hall: Rededication plaque Figure 3-72. Newell Hall: Entranceway ornament

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125 Figure 3-73. University Library: Floor medallion after renovation, 1948 A B Figure 3-74. University Library: Sp andrels with UF and 1948 intertwined

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126 A B Figure 3-75. University Auditorium: Spandrels with UF and 1949 intertwined

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127 Figure 3-76. Leigh Hall: Plaque over courtyard entrance on 1949 addition Figure 3-77. Leigh Hall: Plaque in belt cornice of tower entrance feature

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128 Figure 3-78. Florida Gym: Tower entrance feature Figure 3-79. Florida Gym: Text Figure 3-80. Florida Gym: East view

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129 Figure 3-81. Weil Hall: Bay window detail A B C Figure 3-82. Weil Hall: West door

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130 A B Figure 3-83. Weil Hall: North entrance

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131 A B C D E Figure 3-84. Weil Hall: Entrance tower. The en trance tower has a combination of Collegiate Gothic elements, C, D, and E, which help the massive building relate to the Collegiate Gothic campus. Note the gear behind the text in E.

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132 A B C Figure 3-85. Bryan Hall Addition: Plaques

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133 Figure 3-86. Tigert Hall: Tower entrance Figure 3-87. Tigert Hall: Bay window

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134 A B C D E F Figure 3-88. Tigert Hall : College seal examples

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135 Figure 3-89. Tigert Hall: Quatrefo ils on railing around tower entrance Figure 3-90. Century Tower: Ornamentation at belfry

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136 Figure 3-91. Century Tower: Entrance

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137 Figure 3-92. Matherly Hall: Entrance tower Figure 3-93. Matherly Hall: Plaque detail

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138 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION OF PREVAILING ARCHITECTU RAL AND SOCIAL TR ENDS AFFECTING THE DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF TH E HISTORIC ORNAMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS Introduction The University of Florida campus is part of a larger world, affected by trends in society and architectural design. The architectural orna mentation on campus illustrates how architectural design trends and society can affect the de sign and implementation of ornamentation. By examining how these forces may have affected the architectural ornamentation on campus, a more through understanding of both its uniqu eness and its commonality with other design solutions will place the ornaments within the br oader course of architectural history. The architectural ornamentation on the University of Florida campus can be seen as a minute expression of the greater fo rces at work around it. Edwards: The Dawn of a New Century The University of Florida wa s created in 1905, after the Buck man Act passed in the state legislature74. The state had been funding several sma ll institutions of higher learning, but the Buckman Act consolidated support, creating three state schools. The University of Florida, for white males, was placed in Gainesville and became the flagship institution. Florida was an impoverished state in 1905, w ith the population predominately settled along the northern border and rural. Pe ninsular Florida was the last frontier east of the Mississippi; where farmers and ranchers were scattered throughout a mixture of pine hammocks and wetlands. Transportation was difficult and town s in the interior were hard to access75. 74 Samuel Proctor, Prelude to the new Florida, 1877-1919, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 280. 75 Samuel Proctor, Prelude to the new Florida, 1877-1919, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996).

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139 Since they were being built in an impoverished frontier state, the legislature wanted the new institutions of higher learning to have le gitimacy, immediately. Even among other southern states, Floridas educational system was lacking; the University of Georgia had graduated its first class over one hundred years earlier76. The State Board of Control was created by the legislature to oversee the growth and development of the new institutions of highe r learning. After a design competition, they chose the firm of William Augustus Edwards and the Collegiate Gothic design he proposed. Despite many other influences, the choice of a Collegiate Go thic design for the University of Florida has had the greatest impact on the schoo ls architecture and ornamentation. Collegiate Gothic was an accepted design motif on many American campu ses at the turn of the century. An alternative to Classical styles, it linked new American universities with the great institutions of Christian Europe, particularly England, allowing American institutions to share in their heritage. Boston College, the University of Pittsburgh, Princeton, and Yale had many Gothic buildings built throughout the late nineteenth century th rough the nineteen-thirties. For the founders of the University of Florida, a Co llegiate Gothic design would have given their school the legitimacy it needed, with a heritage stretching back to the first universities. While looking to the past for inspiration, Co llegiate Gothic provided a new direction for the state of Florida, giving it an architectural style with a sense of timeless heritage and permanence. In 1905, this would have contrast ed favorably with the predominantly wooden vernacular buildings in north central Florida77. 76 University of Georgia, A brief history of the University of Georgia, University of Georgia, http://www.uga.edu/profile/history.html 77 Samuel Proctor, Prelude to the new Florida, 1877-1919, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996).

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140 The architectural ornamentation of Edwards s early buildings reflected the tenets of Collegiate Gothic design. Most of the ornament s worked to further the Gothic design of the buildings, and some also began to tell the stor y of the buildings func tion while developing the Collegiate Gothic faade. Story telling ornament ation was an important part of Gothic and Gothic Revival design. Original Gothic ornaments on cathedrals in Europe told Biblical stories through sculpture and stained gla ss. Across American campuses, ot her architects were also using Collegiate Gothic architectural ornamentation to proclaim a buildings function and develop its design style. Crist chronicled several exam ples from the University of Pennsylvania78; and the Cincinnati public schools used ornamentation ex tensively to educate an d inspire their students79. Edwardss use of architectural ornamentat ion on the University of Florida campus developed the Collegiate Gothic language a nd helped distinguish individual buildings on campus, differentiating the College of Agriculture from the College of Law. Edwardss method of using architectural ornaments, both traditional pieces and ones telling the story of a buildings function, was rooted in the Gothic style, but reinterpreted on many Colle giate Gothic campuses. The campuss early architectural ornaments are significant because they espouse the Collegiate Gothic architectural style chosen for the Univers ity of Florida, helping the campus relate to the ancient institutions of Europe as it gr ew with other universities in America. Edwards and Weaver: The Twenties The architectural ornamentation on the Univ ersity of Florida campus profited from Floridas boom in the nineteen twenties. Through out the twenties, land pri ces in Florida soared, bringing more money to the state. Industry, agricu lture and tourism grew as well. The state and 78 Darleen Crist, American Gargoyles: Spirits in Stone. (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 2001). 79 Robert Flischel, ed., An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture. (Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001).

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141 its politicians were optimistic about the future and the atmosphere was giddy80. Campus buildings built during this time have more elabor ate ornamentation schemes, probably as a result of increased funding from the state. Edwards later buildings for the University of Florida campus: the University Library, University Auditorium and Rolfs Hall, the Horticulture Science Building, used more ornamentation and details then earlier projects. The University Library has a long arcade of windows with Gothic arches and buttresses; insi de the reading room, the exposed truss ceiling compliments the exterior ornamentation. Co mpared to Griffin-Floyds 1912 gable tower entrance, the University Librar ys original tower is more outgoing, with larger buttresses, contrasting ornaments and carvings. The Horticulture Science Building was the fi rst building on campus with an oriel window. Additionally, it has many repeating floral motifs and a beehive plaque to tell about the buildings function. Compared to Newell Hall, opposite, Rolf s Hall is significantly more elaborate and ornamented. The University Auditorium, co mpleted in 1925, uses ornament ation extensively around the exterior and its many large Gothic arched window s. Inside, plaster casts of campus figures spring from the vaulted ceilings hammerbeam tr usses. These ornaments develop the buildings Collegiate Gothic design, but they are significan t because they were inspired by archetypical characters on campus. The detailed architectural ornamentation on these three buildings may have been possible because of the states improving financial s ituation and ability to fund the school. 80 William Rogers, Fortune and misfortune: The paradoxical twenties, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996).

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142 The states optimism and monetary gains in the nineteen twenties were further demonstrated by the Boards decision to hire a permanent architect for the school system. While working on Floridas schools, Edwards had ma intained his practice, but by 1925, the board could justify a dedicated Architect to the Board of Control. Rudolph Weaver was hired as Architect to th e Board of Control and as head of a new architecture program at the University of Flor ida. He brought several staff members with him, including his successor, Guy Fult on. Weavers first two major buildings, Leigh and Sledd Hall, were both designed at the height of the Florid a boom and their architectural ornamentation demonstrates a wider variety and more thr ough use of ornaments then previously found on campus. When it was built, Leigh Hall had one of the widest varieties of architectural ornaments on campus: decorated copper gutter do wn spouts, cornice gargoyle fi gures, names, floral casts, and a series of different entrances. Projecting orie l windows, hood molding, cornice, and crenellation are embellished with the names of famous scien tists, chemist gargoyles, and chemical symbols. Like Rolfs Hall, Leigh Halls ornamentation devel ops both its Collegiate Gothic faade and the signage of the building, proclaim ing its purpose as home to the Chemistry-Pharmacy department. The variety and complexity of Leigh Halls arch itectural ornamentation is significant as a testament to the prosperity of the late nineteen twenties. Sledd Hall was completed in 1929, but it was designed during the boom, and in 1929 most Floridians were optimistic that the market would rebound81. Sledd Halls varies architectural ornaments develop the Collegiate Gothic langua ge and reveal the buildings function as a dormitory; its cornice is crowded with students. In addition, an interest in Floridas history and 81 William Rogers, Fortune and misfortune: The paradoxical twenties, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 296-7.

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143 natural environment is depicted over the entran ces. Using Florida history and culture as a source of inspiration for architectural ornaments wa s a significant development in the campuss architectural history. Its occurr ence during the Florida Boom may be the resu lt of the states prosperity; Florida was becoming a more le gitimate source of design inspiration. Sledd Halls large number of different, custom ornaments is also an indication of the states success. Buckman and Thomas Halls, w ith one exception, have the same ornament over every doorway, but Sledd Hall as a different or nament for each entrance, demonstrating the states improved ability to fund the building pr ogram and the channeling of those funds into architectural ornamentation. The Mucozo Tower celebrates Florida hist ory and was specially built for the university. The tower itself is an ornamental feature, drawn from Gothic architecture, and its ornamentation is the most concentrated application on campus. In addition to the elaborate tower ornamenta tion and the variety of pieces along the faade, perhaps the most symbolically optimistic gesture on Sledd Hall was the inclusion, with permission, of seals from the great institutions of Europe. These architectural ornaments are significant because they display the eras pride in the University of Florida and its future. Combined with the Mucozo Tower and the multitude of custom pieces over every entrance and around the cornice line, Sledd Halls architec tural ornamentation ove rshadows the earlier dormitories and is significant as an architect ural expression of the decades characteristic optimism, prosperity and exuberance. The University of Florida s Leigh and Sledd Halls use a wide variety of custom architectural ornaments to tell users about the buildings functions. Gargoyl es and relief carvings related to a buildings purpose, but in a Gothic style, were popular ornaments throughout the twenties and thirties. Yales Sterling Law Bu ilding was completed in 1931 by James Gamble

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144 Rogers, and was modeled after Go thic English Inns of Court82. It exhibits gar goyles of a killer, thief, police officer and judge along the cornice83. These gargoyles, like the chemist on Leigh Hall and the students on Sledd Hall, tell the story of the buildings function and are stylistically within Collegiate Gothic parameters. Edward s and Weaver used many custom ornaments on campus in the nineteen-twenties, but the use of similar ornaments wa s a popular trend among Collegiate Gothic architects84. Campus architects developed unique ornaments for the campus, but in doing so they followed the architectural and social trends. Weaver: The Thirties and the Depression During the early years of the Depression, cons truction slowed on the University of Florida campus. The Infirmary, built in 1931, had been de signed with two wings flanking the main building, but they were not built85. The Infirmary continued to maintain the Collegiate Gothic campus, but it has less ornamentation then Leigh and Sledd Halls. However, the Infirmary does present a harmonious Collegiate Go thic design, which may have b een important to demonstrate optimism. In 1932, Floridians elected Franklin Roosevelt with 74.9 percent of the popular vote86. Roosevelts New Deal helped th e university continue to grow throughout the Depression years. Throughout the thirties, Floridas Democrat senators went to Washington to secure federal funding for Florida. Floridas popu lar senator, Claude Pepper, wa s elected twice on a New Deal 82 Yale Law School, Facilities: Sterlin g Law Building, Yale Law School, http://www.law.yale.ed u/about/facilities.asp 83 Henry Trotter, Yale Law School Ornamentation, Henry Trotter: Virtual Journeys with a Scholar Traveler, http://www.henrytrotter.com/scholars hip/yale-law-school-sculpture.html 84 Darleen Crist, American Gargoyles: Spirits in Stone. (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 2001). 85 Susan Tate et al., The University of Florida Historic Preservation Plan s and Guidelines: Draft Update April 2006, (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2006), 17. http://www.facilities.ufl.edu/cp/pdf/Edit% 20Copy%20Plan%20Guidelines%20Apr%2006.pdf 86 William Rogers, The Great Depression, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 306.

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145 platform87. While in Washington, he communicated frequently w ith Rudolph Weaver and university president John J. Tigert, who would o ccasionally join him in the capitol to plead the universitys case88. With help from federal programs, such as the Works Progress Administration, construction co ntinued during the Depression89. The P.K. Yonge Laboratory School, Norman Hall, was completed in 1934 and funded through a combination of government funding an d private donations. Its ornamentation and clock tower entrance would probabl y not have been possible wit hout outside financial support. Many of the ornaments on the laboratory school are familiar, comforting, or reassuring, a quality needed at that time, especially for young st udents. The inscriptions over two entrances, Education and the Obligation of Youth the Repub lics Safeguard and That they may have the more Abundant life, are particularly potent co nsidering the harsh fina ncial situation most Floridians and the republic were facing in 1934. The emphasis on education as a way to a more abundant life stresses both the higher purpose of education and is signifi cant as a product of its time, when greater abundance was needed. The Florida Union, Dauer Hall, was completed with aid from the YMCA, in addition to federal funding. Its most notable ornament, the stained glass window, was installed two years later. Dauer Hall has a Florida themed shield over the stained glass, and the shield demonstrates a modest faith in the state of Florida; it was the first Florida inspired ornament created after Sledd Hall and the end of the Florida Boom. The creation of an all-inclusive chapel space in 87 William Rogers, The Great Depression, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 307. 88 Letters and telegraphs, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathe rs Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 89 Applications, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Prog ram Records, 1925-1 967, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Librar ies, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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146 Dauer Hall, and the stained-glass window designed for it, illustra tes broader changes in Florida society in the nineteen-thirties. Floridians were making tentative steps toward a more inclusive society. Floridas governor from 1933-1937, David Sholtz, was Jewish90. During the nineteen-thirties, agriculture conti nued to sustain the state and dairy production increased five-fold in Florida91. The Dairy Science Department at the University of Florida became an increasing important department, de veloping uses for extra milk. Their building, completed in 1937, is a product of its time a nd place. The main facades are a simplified Collegiate Gothic, justifiable because of the bu ildings distance from the main campus and influenced by changing trends in architecture. Co llegiate Gothic and other historical styles were slowly being augmented by modern trends in design. The Dairy Science Building is significant as an example of this evolution. Its two medallio ns, celebrating the products of milk, were carved in a more modern, rather th en Gothic, style and the lack of other ornaments around the fenestration foreshadows the new directions in architecture. By the end of the thirties, Floridas financial situation had begun to stabilize. The states population had continued to grow throughout the last decade, and in 1939 Weaver completed two dormitories for the University of Florida. Fl etcher Hall was intended as an addition to Sledd Hall, and its architectural ornaments help it blend seamlessly into the older building. The university seals, custom doorway entrances, and the playful tableau along the bay window are significant because they demonstrate Weavers re spect for the older building and its design. They 90 William Rogers, The Great Depression, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 307. 91 William Rogers, The Great Depression, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 315.

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147 are also significant as indicators of the ending of the Great Depression, because of the additional funds necessary to include them on Fletcher Hall. Across from Thomas Hall, Murphree Halls Collegiate Gothic design is compatible with the other dormitories, but without carved orname nts. Bay windows, and the lines of the water table and cornice develop the bui ldings design, but it was the fi rst dormitory built on campus without carvings over th e entrances. Since a belt course fo rms the pointed arch over each entrance, instead of carved ornaments, the faade is more uniform then Sledd and Fletcher Halls. Murphree Hall is also a more massive dormitory. Its size and lack of cu stom ornamentation is significant. The slight shift in the design, away from custom carvings, is an important indication of architectural trends. By the la te nineteen-thirties, as the Da iry Science Building demonstrated in 1937, buildings were becoming simpler, yet rema ining compatible with the Collegiate Gothic campus. Like most buildings completed in the th irties, Murphree Hall utilized Works Progress Administration Funds; a cast WPA plaque on the bu ilding is significant as a testament to the funding and a product of the time. Shortly after Murphree Hall was completed, th e United States entered the Second World War. Murphree Hall was used to house soldie rs, not students, thr oughout the war. Student enrollment dwindled to 682, but the ca mpus was filled with training soldiers92. Major construction on campus ceased, as the state s resources went toward the war. One of the few large projects completed on campus, Newell Hall was restored to facilitate continued research of the states agricultural re sources, an important war resource as well. The Newell Hall restoration included a slight ir on detail in the main doorways arch and a rededication plaque. This plaque is significant because it is pain ted wood, instead of cast bronze 92 Gary Mormino, World War II, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 333.

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148 or carved stone, like the univers itys other plaques. Newell Ha lls rededication plaque was a product of war time shortages, and is si gnificant as a statement about its time. Fulton: After the Second World War During the Second World War, Florida gr ew rapidly. 2,122,100 service men and women were trained in bases across the state93. Nearby, Camp Blanding, a training camp for the Florida National Guard, became an army mega complex a nd Floridas fourth largest city during the war94. Floridas resort hotels were also filled with trainees and new industries opened to fuel the war. Floridas economy prospere d throughout the war, and new j obs and permanent residents pushed the state forward. Massive changes were also occurring in archite cture. Architects from war ravaged Europe, like Walter Gropius, Marcel Breu er, and Ludwig Mies van de Rohe, came to America, where they accelerated the shift toward new, modern designs. Revival and historical styles slowly waned in popularity, as new and modern be came desired archit ectural expressions. Improvements in technology encouraged architects to use expanses of glass. Americas increased urbanization and the population boom following the war necessitated even larger buildings too. During the Second World War, populations shifte d and people were exposed to new ideas in architecture. After the war, society be gan to rebuild on th ese modern ideals. The University of Florida was a microcosm of America after the war. The campus was overwhelmed with new students, married stude nts, and female students. The university responded with an accelerated building program, and temporary buildings were moved to the campus from Camp Blanding. New campus buildi ngs often embraced modern styles, while 93 Gary Mormino, World War II, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 335. 94 Gary Mormino, World War II, The New History of Florida ed. Michael Gannon, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996), 324.

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149 remaining compatible with the Collegiate Gothic campus. Guy Fulton inherited Weavers position, renamed University System Architect, in 1944. He had experience in Weavers office; they both came to Gainesville together in 1925. The most immediate effect on the campus was the size and number of buildi ngs: construction increased rapidly and new buildings were designed and built at a larger scale. In concert w ith increases in size, Fulton began to experiment with modern architectural developments. When Weaver came to the University of Flor ida, he was respectful of Edwards work and tried to harmonize with his projects95. Fulton showed this same respect to Weavers buildings. His 1947 addition to the Infirmary and 1949 additi on to Leigh Hall are continuations of the original designs and they incorporate traditional Co llegiate Gothic ornamentation to relate to the main building. His remodel of the library entrance was also a sensitive change. However, as new buildings moved further away from the Collegi ate Gothic core, Fulton began to design, and allow consulting architects to build, more modern buildings. Throughout this period, harmony was maintained on campus by a consistent use of red brick with light masonry detailing: the palette set by Edwards in 1906. Completed in 1949, the Florida Gymnasium and Weil Hall were built south-west of the Infirmary and main campus. These two buildings are large and more massive then the first gymnasium and engineering buildings but their design and ornamenta tion help them relate to the Gothic campus. The ornamentation on these bu ildings is significant because it provides Collegiate Gothic references for the buildings, while demonstrating a shift in campus architecture. After the Second World War, colle ge campuses across America began the transition 95 Susan Tate et al., The University of Florida Historic Preservation Plan s and Guidelines: Draft Update April 2006, (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2006), 15. http://www.facilities.ufl.edu/cp/pdf/Edit% 20Copy%20Plan%20Guidelines%20Apr%2006.pdf

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150 away from revival architectural styles toward modern styles with plainer facades and larger expanses of glass. Weil Hall and the Florida Gymnasium are the universitys moves in the migration. Fultons desire to use modern architectural designs on campus and his sensitivity to the historic Collegiate Gothic campus can be dem onstrated by the location of Rhines Hall. A strikingly modern building finished in 1947, it is buffered from the main campus by the Florida Gymnasium and Weil Hall. These two buildings provide a transition sp ace for the campus, shielding the Collegiate Gothic buildings from conspicuously m odern ones. This demonstrates respect for the revival buildings and their ar chitecture. Fulton ofte n placed more modern buildings further away from the core campus. Wh en he built womens dor mitories in 1950, their modern design was offset by their distance from the main campus. The 1950 addition to the College of Law, Bryan Hall, uses architectural ornamentation to proclaim the buildings place in time and link it to the original structure. On the 1914 building, a tower marks the two entrances and near the top of the tower, a pl aque highlights the entrance. On the addition, Fulton designed three towers al ong an open covered passage space. The plaques over each tower function like the carvings on th e original building and are designed in the buildings prevalent style. The three 1950 plaque s have a streamlined, modern design and their content celebrates the law school and recent ev ents: co-education, and technological progress. They are significant ornaments because their de sign and content make them a product of their time, and their application helps the addition relate to the original Collegiate Gothic building. The new Administration Building, Tigert Hall, reflects the gr owing demands of increasing enrollment and modern architect ural styles. Its massive size, large openings, and rectangular geometry were common attributes in 1950s build ings. The architectural ornamentation on Tigert

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151 Hall is important because it provides the relationsh ip between the large, modern building and the Collegiate Gothic campus. The small quatrefoils are an immediately recognizable Gothic design and they encourage visitors to appreciate the other Gothic details, even though they are in a modern style, such as th e tower entrance feature. The architectural ornamentation made for th e University of Florida in 1953 shows the campus at a crossroads. Incorporating modified Gothic features along with a new massiveness and expansive glass, the plaque at the tower en trance to Matherly Hall shows a human pushing a gear forward, driving technology and transportation. The State of Florida was facing conflicting choices in 1953, whether to hold th e state to traditional values, so me of them painfully bigoted and outdated, or push Florida toward a modern future. These 1953 orna ments are significant because they express the questions of the age, wh ether to cling to the past or move forward, and if so, how far. Summary The evolution of the architectural ornament ation on the University of Florida campus mirrors changes in architecture and society. Wh en Florida was a young and poor state, ornaments were used to bring legitimacy to the campus th rough their symbolic asso ciations with ancient institutions, but complex custom work was cu rtailed. As the state prospered, more custom ornaments were used to express the function of the bu ilding and its place in Florida. Floridas heritage first became a source of ornament insp iration during the boom. After the exuberance of the twenties, the nineteen-thirties might have experienced a decrease in ornamentation, but federal and private funding maintained an approp riate level of detail for the Collegiate Gothic campus and encouraged new types of ornamentation. The Second World War drastically altered American society and the campus. The University of Florida transitioned to new desi gns, and ornaments were used to tie modern

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152 buildings with their Collegiate Gothic forerunne rs. The last major ornaments for the historic campus reveal the complex world Floridians live d in as they honored the past and pushed the state forward. The historic architectural ornament ation on campus is signif icant because it is an architectural expression of the dynamic forces affecting the state and its citizens.

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153 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Research Suggestions Architectural ornamentation has been scant ily studied and can generate a variety of research topics. After analyzing the prevalent li terature, the lack of doc umentation and analysis into sets of ornamentation was one of the most apparent gaps. The University of Floridas architectural ornamentation was built over fifty y ears by at least three different architects, but together the pieces form a collection. Furt her documentation of se ts of architectural ornamentation would broaden the knowledge ba se and allow for comparative studies. For example, this study could be expanded and th e universitys collec tion of ornamentation compared to the ornamentation at Florida Stat e University, designed fo r women, and the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, a histori cally African-American co llege. An analysis of the affects of race and gender on the ornamentation of Floridas three schools, all designed by the same architects, and could offer a basis for research. Preservation Suggestions The University of Florida has a valuable colle ction of historic arch itectural ornaments on campus. Although copies of original ornaments can be made, the original ornaments should be preserved. Currently, Bryan Hall has two plaques hidden by vines and Walker Hall is thickly covered as well. These vines should be remove d before they grow into the ornaments and surrounding brickwork, where they ca n cause considerable damage. The University of Floridas ornaments are t ypically made of either cast-concrete, terracotta, or carved limestone. The terra-cotta and ca st stone were designed to convey the character of limestone carvings, but at a lower cost. Each of these materials succumbs to environment factors such as wind, water, vandalism, and harsh chemicals. The university should work with its

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154 Physical Plant and Housing Divisions to allocat e funding to establish a routine cleaning and maintenance program for these materials. Meanwh ile, casts of existing ornaments could be made on site. In the future, replacement ornaments could be fabricated from these casts as needed. A website with pictures of the arch itectural ornaments could be prepar ed to generate interest in the project. The University of Florida is one of many American universities with a collection of historic architectural ornaments; however, while most of the cam puss historic buildings have been documented and photographed, the ornamentat ion has not. This is a common situation. For example, the online source for pictures of Yales Law Schools ornaments is a doctoral students personal website and a librarians presentation paper. Yales official site has a history page for each of its historic buildings, but photographs do not show the ornamentation. The University of Florida, like many institutions, would benefit fr om an accessible online photographic collection of its ornamentation. This collection would aid scholars, allowing them to easily include the universitys ornament in their research. Conclusions This study investigated the hi storic architectural ornament ation on the University of Florida campus because the ornaments appeared to evolve from traditional Collegiate Gothic elements into individualized pieces reflecting the unique function, location, and/or history of the buildings, campus, or geographical region ar ound campus. The evolution of architectural ornamentation from typical examples into uniqu e pieces inspired by the local community is a focus of ornament research today96. Proponents of architectural orname ntation stress its ability to express and create a unique sense of place, an important attribute in todays increasingly 96 Robert Flischel, ed., An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture. (Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001).

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155 homogenous world97. Therefore, this study examined the campuss ornamentation for evidence that it drew increasing insp iration from the local environment for inspiration. By examining the history of the universitys ornamentation and the pervading architectural trends and social conditions duri ng the first half of the twenti eth century, this study found that the universitys historic architec tural ornamentation is a product of the larger and more complex forces at work in society. As such, the Univer sity of Floridas archit ectural ornamentation is noteworthy as a reflection of the changes that oc curred in society and arch itecture during the first half of the twentieth centur y. This is significant because it indicates that the campuss architectural ornamentation can be seen as a mi crocosm of early twentieth century America; its design and application was affected by many of th e complex forces that also shaped American society during the period of study. This is signi ficant because it indicate s that the universitys architectural ornamentation is a product of its greater community. Th is study has provided substantial analysis of campus features and the related context in order to establish that the campus architectural ornaments are significant an d inherent elements in the campus history, evolution, and ongoing function. Furthe r, these ornaments reflect th e continuity that makes the campus visually significant. Finall y, these ornaments are products of their time and place, on the University of Florida campus and as a part of the larger national and international context. 97 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003). Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000). E. Burden, Building facades: Faces, figures, and ornamental detail. (New York: McGr aw-Hill, 1996).

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156 LIST OF REFERENCES Blansett, Sharon. A History of University of Flori da Residence Facilities, Revised 2nd Edition. Gainesville: University of Florida Departme nt of Housing and Residence Education, 2003. Bloomer, Kent. The Nature of Ornament: Rhyt hm and Metamorphosis in Architecture. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000. Burden, Ernest. Building Facades: Faces, Figures and Ornamental Detail. New York: McGraw Hill, 1996. Crist, Darlene Trew. American Gargoyles: Spirits in Stone. New York: Clarkson Potter Publishers, 2001. Ellis, Anita. Ornament and Artistry in the Cinc innati Public Schools. In An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture, edited by Robert Flischel, 9-17. Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001. Howard, Maurice, and Michael Snodin. Ornament: A Social History since 1450. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. Fan, Rene. Terra-Cotta Tile Mosaics at S ea View Hospital: Endangered Glazed Ceramics on Staten Island. APT Bulletin 34 (2001): 37-42. Flischel, Robert, ed. An Expre ssion of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture. Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001. Florida Department of State. The Florida Stat e Seal. Cultural Hist orical and Information Programs. http://www.flheritage.com/facts/symbols/seals.cfm Gibson, M. Jane. $3 Million Gift will Trigger Restoration of Historic Flint and Anderson Halls, Alumni CLASnotes, Spring, 1998, http://clasnews.clas.ufl.edu/cl asnotes/alumninotes/98spring/ Gillespie, Ann. Early Development of the Ar tistic Concrete Block: The Case of the Boyd Brothers. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 11 (1979): 30-52. Grossman, Elizabeth. Architecture for the Publ ic Client: The Monuments and Chapels of the American Battle Monuments Commission. The Journal of the Socie ty of Architectural Historians 43 (1984): 119-143. L., Olivia. European Red Squirrel. Blue Planet Biomes Edited by Elisabeth Benders-Hyde. http://www.blueplanetbiomes .org/euro_red_squirrel.htm Martin, Wilson. Oolitic Limestone Conser vation: A Case Study in Conservation and Maintenance, Governors Mans ion, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 17 (1985): 24-33.

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157 Micanopy Historical Society. Chief Mica nopy. Micanopy Historical Society Museum. http://www.afn.org/~micanopy/micanopy.html Mormino, Gary. World War II. In The New History of Florida edited by Michael Gannon, 323-343. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996. Murphree, Albert. Presidents Re port of the University of Fl orida. Report of the Board of Control of the State Educational Institutions of Florida for the period beginning July 1, 1924 and ending June 30, 1926. chaired by P.K. Yonge. Tallahassee: State Printers, 1926. Negrin, Llewellyn. Ornament and the Feminine. Feminist Theory 7 (2006): 219-235. Pieper, Richard. Preservation Brief 42: The Maintenance, Repair and Replacement of Historic Cast Stone. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/briefs/brief42.htm Also available in print form. Proctor, Samuel. Prelude to the New Florida, 1877-1919. In The New History of Florida edited by Michael Gannon, 266-286. Gainesville : University of Florida Press, 1996. Prudon, Theodore. Simulating Stone, 1860-1940: Artif icial Marble, Artifici al Stone, and Cast Stone. APT Bulletin 21 (1989): 79-91. Rogers, William. Fortune and Misfor tune: The Paradoxical Twenties. In The New History of Florida edited by Michael Gannon, 287-303. Gainesvi lle: University of Florida Press, 1996. Rogers, William. The Great Depression. In The New History of Florida edited by Michael Gannon, 304-322. Gainesville: Univer sity of Florida Press, 1996. Rudolph Weaver Architectural Records, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Salingaros, Nikos. The Sens ory Value of Ornament. Communication and Cognition 36 (2003): 331-351. Schmitt, Ronald. Sullivanesque: Urban Architecture and ornamentation. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2002. Series 75: Architect for the Board of Contro l Building Program Records, 1925-67, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathe rs Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Sullebarger, Beth. Foreward. In An Expression of the Commun ity: Cincinnati Public Schools Legacy of Art and Architecture, edited by Robert Flischel, 6. Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001.

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158 Tate, Susan, Jenn Garrett, Abde llatif Qamhaieh, Linda Dixon, Ha rold Barrand, and Carl Van Ness. The University of Florida Historic Campus. Gainesville: University of Florida, 2004. Tate, Susan, Linda Dixon, and Harold Barrand. The University of Flori da Historic Preservation Plans and Guidelines, Draft Update April 2006. Gainesville: Universi ty of Florida, 2006. http://www.facilities.ufl.edu/cp/pdf/E dit%20Copy%20Plan%20Guidelines%20Apr%2006. pdf Tiller, de Teel Patterson. Preservation Brie fs 7: The Preservation of Historic Glazed Architectural Terra-Cotta. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979. Trilling, James. Ornament: A Modern Perspective. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003. Trilling, James. The Language of Ornament. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2001. Trotter, Henry. Yale Law School Ornamentation. Henry Trotter: Virtual Journeys with a Scholar Traveler. http://www.henrytrotter.com/scholarship/yale-law-school-sculpture.html Tunick, Susan. Terra-Cotta Skyline: New Yorks Architectural Ornament. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997. University of Georgia. A Brief History of the University of Georgia. University of Georgia. http://www.uga.edu/profile/history.html Van Zanten, David. Sullivans City: The Meanin g of Ornament for Louis Sullivan. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000. Waite, John. Preservation Briefs 27: The Maintenan ce and Repair of Architectural Cast Iron. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991. http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/briefs/brief27.htm Also available in print form. Webb, Dexter Neil. Fifty years of Building the University of Fl orida. Thesis, University of Florida, 1997. Wikipedia contributors. "Form follows function." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org /w/index.php?title=Form_follows_function&oldid=115258832. Wilson, Eva. Ornament 8,000 Years: An Illustrated Handbook. New York: Harry Abrams, Inc., 1994. Yale Law School. Facilities: Ster ling Law Building. Yale Law School. http://www.law.yale.e du/about/facilities.asp Yonge, P.K., chair. Report of the Board of Cont rol of the State Educational Institutions of Florida for the period beginning June 5, 1905 and ending January 1, 1907. Tallahassee: State Printers, 1907.

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159 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jessica Goldsmith was born in 1983 in Lafayette, LA. She came to Florida with her parents in 1991. At the University of Florida she complete d the Bachelor of Desi gn with a specialization in interior design. While pursuing her bachelors degree, she enroll ed in the Master of Interior Design program in 2005. She hopes to continue her research as a student in the College of Design, Construction, and Plannings doctoral program in August 2007.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020562/00001

Material Information

Title: The Evolution of the architectural ornamentation on the University of Florida Campus, 1906-1956
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Goldsmith, Jessica Marie ( Dissertant )
Tate, Susan ( Thesis advisor )
Graham, Roy ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007
Copyright Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Dissertations, Academic -- Interior Design -- UF
Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
Decoration and ornament -- Architecture
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Gainesville

Notes

Abstract: The University of Florida campus historic district is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is significant for its compatible evolution since its opening in 1906. Rooted in the 1905 Collegiate Gothic plan for the campus, the architectural ornamentation evolved with each new era while remaining a character-defining feature of the campus. Architectural ornaments, such as cast carvings, bas relief medallions, and fenestration details, can aid in expressing a structure’s major themes, develop its architectural language, and provide points of human scale and interest. Across the campus, historical architectural ornaments are an integral part of each building’s total design concept. Many pieces aid in way-finding, signage, and a fuller expression of the building’s architectural motif. Ornaments mediate between the Collegiate Gothic buildings and life on a twentieth century campus by expressing the design scheme of one and the content of the other. Beginning with the university’s first buildings, Thomas and Buckman Halls, architectural ornamentation was an important aspect of the university’s built environment. The evolution of the university’s historic architectural ornamentation is significant as a manifestation of the changes that occurred in society and architecture during the first half of the twentieth century. The University of Florida’s architectural ornamentation may be seen as a microcosm of the complex forces that shaped American society between 1906 and 1956. Analysis of campus features and related context establishes that architectural ornament is a significant and inherent element in the campus history, evolution, and development. The architectural ornaments are products of their time and place, on the University of Florida campus and as a part of the larger national and international context.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographic references (leaves 156-158).
General Note: Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020562:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020562/00001

Material Information

Title: The Evolution of the architectural ornamentation on the University of Florida Campus, 1906-1956
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Goldsmith, Jessica Marie ( Dissertant )
Tate, Susan ( Thesis advisor )
Graham, Roy ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007
Copyright Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Dissertations, Academic -- Interior Design -- UF
Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
Decoration and ornament -- Architecture
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Gainesville

Notes

Abstract: The University of Florida campus historic district is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is significant for its compatible evolution since its opening in 1906. Rooted in the 1905 Collegiate Gothic plan for the campus, the architectural ornamentation evolved with each new era while remaining a character-defining feature of the campus. Architectural ornaments, such as cast carvings, bas relief medallions, and fenestration details, can aid in expressing a structure’s major themes, develop its architectural language, and provide points of human scale and interest. Across the campus, historical architectural ornaments are an integral part of each building’s total design concept. Many pieces aid in way-finding, signage, and a fuller expression of the building’s architectural motif. Ornaments mediate between the Collegiate Gothic buildings and life on a twentieth century campus by expressing the design scheme of one and the content of the other. Beginning with the university’s first buildings, Thomas and Buckman Halls, architectural ornamentation was an important aspect of the university’s built environment. The evolution of the university’s historic architectural ornamentation is significant as a manifestation of the changes that occurred in society and architecture during the first half of the twentieth century. The University of Florida’s architectural ornamentation may be seen as a microcosm of the complex forces that shaped American society between 1906 and 1956. Analysis of campus features and related context establishes that architectural ornament is a significant and inherent element in the campus history, evolution, and development. The architectural ornaments are products of their time and place, on the University of Florida campus and as a part of the larger national and international context.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographic references (leaves 156-158).
General Note: Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0020562:00001


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THE EVOLUTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENTATION ON THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS, 1906-1956



















By

JESSICA MARIE GOLDSMITH


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007
































2007 Jessica Marie Goldsmith

































To Albert and Arabella.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my supervisory committee members for their unstinting help and

guidance during the past two years. My supervisory committee chair, Professor Susan Tate, has

been a source of inspiration since I was a college freshman in her history class. Working as her

assistant in graduate school contributed greatly to my educational experience. I must also thank

Professor Tate for introducing me to my other committee member, Professor Roy Graham. His

thoughts and insights made an invaluable contribution to my education.

While conducting my research, I had the pleasure of working with the University of

Florida archives staff. Archivist Carl van Ness located many obscure documents and was

instrumental to my research. Harold Barrand of the University Physical Plant Division also

assisted my search for drawing and documents related to the historic campus.

I would also like to thank the Getty Campus Heritage Initiative for providing support for

my research and the University of Florida historic campus.










TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .7

A B S T R A C T ......... ....................... ............................................................ 1 1

CHAPTER

1 PA R A M ETER S O F TH E STU D Y .............................................................. .....................13

Introduction............... ................................ ... ........................... ................ 13
State ent of the Problem ......................................... ..................... 14
A ssum options and H hypothesis ................................................................... ............ 16
Significance of the Study ............ .......... ...... .......................................... ............. .......17
Scope of the Study .............................18.............................................
Definitions and Term s ................................. .. ........... ............18
S u m m a ry ................. ............... .................................................................................................2 0

2 L IT E R A TU R E R E V IE W ............................................................................... ..................2 1

In tro d u c tio n ....................................................................................................................... 2 1
H isto ry ............................................................................2 1
P re serve atio n .........................................................................2 4
Su pp ort............... ...........................................................2 5
A p p re c iatio n ..................................................................................................................... 2 8
S u m m a ry ................. ............... .................................................................................................3 2

3 SURVEY OF THE HISTORIC ORNAMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
C A M P U S ................. ............... .......................................................................................... 3 4

Introduction ................................ ..... ......... .................... 34
W illiam Augustus Edwards and Partners, 1905-1925 ........................................ ........... 34
Rudolph W ever, 1925-1944 ................................ ....................... ................42
Guy Fulton, 1944-1956........................................ ......... 57
Integration of Ornament into the Architectural Concept .............. ................ 63
S u m m ary .................. ....... .. .. .................................................................................................6 5

4 DISCUSSION OF PREVAILING ARCHITECTURAL AND SOCIAL TRENDS
AFFECTING THE DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF THE HISTORIC ORNAMENT
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS ............................................................138

In tro du ctio n .......................... ........................................................................................... 13 8
Edwards: The Dawn of a New Century ............................................................. ......138
Edw ards and W eaver: The Tw enties ........................................................................ ... ...... 140









Weaver: The Thirties and the Depression ........................................ ........................ 144
Fulton: After the Second World War ...................................................... ...................148
S u m m ary ................... ...................1...................5.........1

5 C O N C L U SIO N S ................. ......................................... .......... ........ .. ............... .. 153

Research Suggestions ...................................... .......... ....... ..... 153
P reservation Suggestion s ........................................................................... .......... ........... 153
C onclusions.....................................................................154

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ..................................................................................... ..................156

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ......................................................................... .. ...................... 159









































6









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

3-1 Buckm an and Thom as H alls: Entrance.................................... ........................... ......... 67

3-2 Thom as H all: E lives' entrance ............................................................................. ...... 68

3-3 Newell Hall: Floral ................................ .. ... ..... .................. 68

3-4 Griffin- Floyd H all: Cornucopias........................................................................ 69

3-5 Anderson Hall: Scroll over main entrance................................ ................................. 70

3-6 A nderson H all: M ain entrance ..................................................................................70

3-7 Peabody H all: Prim ary entrance. .............................................. ............................. 71

3-8 Peabody Hall: Inscribed name over main entrance.......... .......................................71

3-9 B ryan H all: T ow er entrance.............................................................................. ........ 72

3-10 Bryan Hall: Inscribed name over primary entrance ............. ..........................................73

3-11 Bryan Hall: State seal on m ain tower ................................................... ..................73

3-12 Bryan Hall: Plaque over 1939 entrance to law library.....................................................74

3-13 G ym nasium : M ain facade ................................................................................ ...... ...75

3-14 University Auditorium : W indow ......................................................... .............. 76

3-15 U university Auditorium : Corbel .......................................................... ............... 77

3-16 U university A auditorium : Interior........................................................................... .... ... 78

3-17 University Auditorium : Interior grotesques................................... ........................ 79

3-18 University Library: Windows with buttresses ....................................... ............... 80

3-19 U university Library: O original entrance..................................................................... .....81

3-20 University Library: Additional entrance................................................................. 82

3-2 1 R olfs H all: O riel w window ................................................................................. .... ..... 83

3-22 Rolfs Hall: Floral medallions in quatrefoils in the crenellation ........... ...............83

3-23 Rolfs Hall: Examples of floral plaques along the cornice line ........................................84









3-24 Rolfs H all: Beehive .................................................... ............ .. ............ 85

3-25 Leigh Hall: Names ....................................................... ........... ......... .... 85

3-26 L eight H all: G utter detail .................................................................... .... ......................86

3-27 Leigh Hall: Gargoyles engaged in chemical laboratory experiments.............................86

3-28 L eight H all: G rape ornam ent .............................................................. ...... .................... 87

3-29 Leigh H all: Bracket entrance ................................................... ............................... 87

3-30 Leigh Hall: Entrance with oriel window...................................................................... 88

3-31 Leigh Hall: Bay window and quoins .....................................................................88

3-32 Sledd Hall: Architecture and athletics plaque ........................................... ...............89

3-33 Sledd Hall: Eight student grotesques along the cornice line............................................90

3-34 Sledd Hall: Details from Spanish discovery tableau............................... ...............92

3-35 Sledd Hall: Six seals from the bay windows ..................................................................93

3-36 Sledd Hall: Doorway life casts ................................................... ............................. 93

3-37 Sledd H all: D oorw ay ornam ents.......................................................................... ....... 95

3-38 Sledd Hall: Ornaments from the cornice molding above the fenestration of the bay
w in d o w s ............................................................................... 9 7

3-39 Sledd Hall: Layers of ornamentation ...................................................... ..................98

3-40 Sledd H all: M ucozo tow er ............................................................ ............. ..................99

3-41 Sledd H all: M ucozo tow er details ....................................................................... 100

3-42 Sledd H all: M ucozo detail ....................................................................... ..................100

3-43 Sledd H all: M ucozo tow er interior ..................................................... ...................101

3-44 Infirmary: Entrance .................................................... ........... ............... 102

3-45 Infirm ary : Z odiac casts ........................... ................ ...................... ...........................103

3-46 Infirm ary: Injured student casts ............................................... ............................ 105

3-47 N orm an H all: Entrance tow er .................................................................................... 105

3-48 Norman Hall: Taunting grotesque ..................................................... ...................106









3-49 Norman Hall: Plaques flanking main tower entrance......................................................107

3-50 Norman Hall: Student corbels on main tower entrance...........................108

3-51 Norman Hall: Plaque over elementary school door....................................................... 108

3-52 Norman Hall: Squirrel corbels supporting archway ....................................................... 109

3-53 Norman Hall: Entrances with inscriptions....................................................................109

3-54 Norman Hall: West doorway details, supporting a pointed arch............... ..................11

3-55 Norman Hall: P.K. Yonge Laboratory School plaque................... ................................111

3-56 Norman Hall: Bench with inscribed names above................. ....................................112

3-57 D auer H all: W after spout ................................................................... ......................... 112

3-58 D auer H all: Lute player plaque................................................. ............................... 113

3-59 D auer H all: Stained glass w window ........................................................... ................. 114

3-60 D auer H all: W window details............................................ ........ .................................. 115

3-6 1 D auer H all: Shield detail................................................................................ .......... 115

3-62 D auer H all: M ural details........................................................................ ...................116

3-63 Dauer Hall: European red squirrel detail .............. ..................................116

3-64 D airy Science Building: M edallions ..................... ........................... .... ........... 117

3-65 Fletcher H all: D oorw ay ornam ents........................................ ................. ............... 118

3-66 Fletcher H all: U under an oriel ................................... ..................................... 121

3-67 Fletcher Hall: Florida motif and UF Gator shields ........................................................121

3-68 Fletcher H all: Gator life tableau ................................................. ........................... 122

3-69 M urphree H all: E ast view ..................................................................... ..................... 123

3-70 M urphree H all: D oorw ay ........................................................... .. ............... 123

3-71 N ew ell H all: Rededication plaque ..................................................... ................... 124

3-72 N ew ell H all: Entrancew ay ornam ent.........................................................................124

3-73 University Library: Floor medallion after renovation, 1948 .......................................125









3-74 University Library: Spandrels with UF and 1948 intertwined.............. ............ 125

3-75 University Auditorium: Spandrels with UF and 1949 intertwined...............................126

3-76 Leigh Hall: Plaque over courtyard entrance on 1949 addition ............ ... ..................127

3-77 Leigh Hall: Plaque in belt cornice of tower entrance feature ............... ................. 127

3-78 Florida Gym : Tower entrance feature ..................................................... ............ 128

3-79 Florida Gym: Text............. .......................................... .. 128

3-80 F lorida G ym : E ast view ........................................ ......... ............................................128

3-81 W eil Hall: Bay window detail ...................................................................... 129

3-82 W eil H all: W est door .......................... .. ................ ......... .. ............ 129

3-83 W eil H all: N north entrance .............. ............ ........................................ ............... 130

3-84 W eil H all: E entrance tow er ....................................... ......... .........................................13 1

3-85 B ryan H all A addition: Plaques ........................................................................... ...... 132

3-86 Tigert H all: T ow er entrance............................................................................. ............133

3-87 T igert H all: B ay w window .................................................................. .........................133

3-88 Tigert H all: College seal exam ples ..................................................... ................... 134

3-89 Tigert Hall: Quatrefoils on railing around tower entrance ..............................................135

3-90 Century Tower: Ornamentation at belfry.................................................................135

3-91 Century Tow er: Entrance ........................................................... .. ............... 136

3-92 M atherly Hall: Entrance tower ...................................................................... 137

3-93 M atherly H all: P laque detail ............................................................... ......................137









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design

THE EVOLUTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENTATION ON THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS, 1906-1956

By

Jessica Marie Goldsmith

May 2007

Chair: Susan Tate
Major: Interior Design

The University of Florida campus historic district is listed on the National Register of

Historic Places and is significant for its compatible evolution since its opening in 1906. Rooted

in the 1905 Collegiate Gothic plan for the campus, the architectural ornamentation evolved with

each new era while remaining a character-defining feature of the campus. Architectural

ornaments, such as cast carvings, bas relief medallions, and fenestration details, can aid in

expressing a structure's major themes, develop its architectural language, and provide points of

human scale and interest. Across the campus, historical architectural ornaments are an integral

part of each building's total design concept. Many pieces aid in way-finding, signage, and a

fuller expression of the building's architectural motif. Ornaments mediate between the Collegiate

Gothic buildings and life on a twentieth century campus by expressing the design scheme of one

and the content of the other.

Beginning with the university's first buildings, Thomas and Buckman Halls, architectural

ornamentation was an important aspect of the university's built environment. The evolution of

the university's historic architectural ornamentation is significant as a manifestation of the

changes that occurred in society and architecture during the first half of the twentieth century.









The University of Florida's architectural ornamentation may be seen as a microcosm of the

complex forces that shaped American society between 1906 and 1956. Analysis of campus

features and related context establishes that architectural ornament is a significant and inherent

element in the campus history, evolution, and development. The architectural ornaments are

products of their time and place, on the University of Florida campus and as a part of the larger

national and international context.









CHAPTER 1
PARAMETERS OF THE STUDY

Introduction

After an architectural competition in 1905, South Carolinian William Augustus Edwards

was chosen as Architect to the Board of Control1. Edwards and his partners were given the task

of building the new state institutions of higher learning in Gainesville, Tallahassee and St.

Augustine. Edwards' winning design proposed a Collegiate Gothic style for the flagship

Gainesville campus. Collegiate Gothic was part of the popular Gothic Revival movement, based

on medieval Gothic and English Tudor design, reinterpreted for contemporary projects, and was

immensely popular in America. Edwards designed all the major buildings on the University of

Florida campus for twenty years, until a new architect was chosen by the Board of Control. The

second architect, Rudolph Weaver, moved to Gainesville to become head of the new architecture

program and the Architect to the Board of Control until his death in 1944. Weaver inherited

Edwards' Collegiate Gothic buildings, added to them and brought the campus into the modern

era. His associate, Guy Fulton, was appointed University System architect after Weaver's death;

he remained in that post until 1956. He continued Weaver's work while introducing new

directions to the university. Between 1906 and 1956, these three architects built the University of

Florida. Each architect altered the campus while respecting the work of earlier architects. Today,

the historic buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, where they are

recognized for their individual merit and as a historic district. Because each architect remained

true to the campus heritage, a nationally acclaimed and harmonious campus was created while

continuing to express each new era.




1 Susan Tate et al., The University of Florida Historic Campus. (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2004).









The University of Florida's National Register Historic District status was awarded, in part,

because of the outstanding and unique architectural merit of the historic buildings. The

university's historic buildings make a nationally recognized contribution to the nation's

architectural patrimony. National Register status was also recognized because the University of

Florida campus was shaped by broad events in the nation's history, and the campus reflects the

university's responses to those events.

One contributing feature on many of the university's historic buildings, and one that

expresses the individuality of each era, is the architectural ornamentation. For the purposes of

this study, architectural ornaments are defined as artistically designed, content carrying elements

on a building. Sculpture, bas relief, and murals are popular media for architectural

ornamentation. Architectural ornamentation can aid in expressing a structure's major themes,

develop its architectural language, and provide points of human scale and interest. In the best

examples, the distinct elements of architectural ornamentation should work together to form a

coherent language and express a unified conceptual idea on the building.

The architectural ornamentation of the University of Florida campus expresses the heritage

and evolution of the campus. This study examines those ornaments and their unique contribution

to the history of the university's built environment.

Statement of the Problem

Beginning with the university's first buildings, Thomas and Buckman Halls, architectural

ornamentation was an important aspect of the university's built environment and the architect's

vision for specific buildings. Thomas and Buckman Halls were both designed by Edwards' firm

in a traditional Collegiate Gothic style, with complementary architectural ornament. Later

buildings by Edwards exhibited a growing creativity in the design of architectural ornament, as

traditional gargoyles were replaced with grotesques in the form of football players. When










Weaver began designing buildings for the university, he used a plethora of custom architectural

ornaments. These ornaments were developed by Weaver and members of his staff, who closely

monitored the design of each piece2

Ornaments were fabricated by different firms throughout the southeastern United States,

including the Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co. and Arnold Brick Stone and Tile of Jacksonville3

Fulton's buildings were all constructed after the Second World War, when popular architectural

styles had almost abandoned ornamentation, yet many of Fulton's works incorporated

ornamentation in a modern style. This study focuses on the themes expressed by the architectural

ornamentation throughout the tenures of the three early architects4.

Architectural ornament, working with its structure, can further develop a particular

architectural style, but it can also tell users about the building's function, location, and time in

history. A tour of the historic campus reveals a wide variety of themes expressed by the

architectural ornamentation. Some pieces are traditional Collegiate Gothic elements, but many

were inspired by the function of the building, the University of Florida's campus, or its region's

natural and social history.



2 Receipts, correspondence, and stamped photographs of process models, Series 75: Architect for the Board of
Control building Program Records, 1925-67, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers
Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

3 Receipts, correspondence, and stamped photographs of process models, Series 75: Architect for the Board of
Control building Program Records, 1925-67, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers
Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

4 Dexter Neil Webb, "Fifty Years of Building the University of Florida," (Thesis, University of Florida, 1997).

William Augustus Edwards was Architect to the State Board of Control from 1905 to 1925. Rudolph Weaver served
as Architect to the Board of Control and director of the School of Architecture from 1925 until his death in
1944. Guy Fulton was University System Architect from 1944 until 1953, when he had a stroke and retired.
Guy Fulton's position was not refilled; lobbying from the Florida chapter of the AIA encouraged
lawmakers to close the position and begin hiring outside architects for each individual building.









The following investigation into the changing content of the University of Florida's

historic architectural ornamentation is guided by this thesis: Between the years 1906 and 1956,

the University of Florida Collegiate Gothic architectural ornamentation assimilated influences

that reflected the unique purpose of the building, historical or geographical context, and changes

in society and architecture. As a microcosm of changes occurring in the world, the architectural

ornamentation is a key to the significance of the university's architectural heritage.

Assumptions and Hypothesis

This study assumes that the content of the University of Florida's architectural

ornamentation can be determined by observation of that ornament by the researcher and by

analysis of surviving primary sources about the historic campus. The architectural ornamentation

on the University of Florida campus generally falls into two categories: elements that work

symbolically to develop the Collegiate Gothic architecture, such as crenellation, finials and

balustrades, and pieces that are primarily pictorial in nature. When a pictorial form such as a

palm tree is shown, the designer intended for the ornament to be appreciated as a palm tree, not

as a discussion about negative space, massing, or another esoteric architectural concept.

Ornament is part of the larger visual composition of its building, but its ability to carry

independent content information is one of its major features. Historically, ornamentation was

designed to be understood and appreciated by people with a variety of backgrounds who would

be the users of the dormitories, classroom, and administration buildings at the University of

Florida. Because most of the university's historic buildings still stand and the buildings available

for study today are representative of each architect's work on campus, there is an extant

representative pool from which to draw examples for the study.

The following investigation into the changing content of the University of Florida's

historic architectural ornamentation is guided by one research question: The University of









Florida's architectural ornamentation evolved between the years 1906 and 1956 from traditional

Collegiate Gothic elements into individualized pieces reflecting the unique function, location,

and/or history of the buildings, campus, or geographical region, the changes in the ornament

reflect changes in society and architecture. As a microcosm of changes occurring in the world,

the architectural ornamentation contributes to the significance of the university's unique

architectural heritage.

Significance of the Study

The University of Florida's architectural ornamentation is a significant form of

architectural expression that adds value and interest to the campus context. Architectural

ornamentation is a unique form of signage that can allow a building to tell the story of its history

or function using easily accessible methods. Signs and plaques may tell a user the name or

function of a building, but they lack the personal storytelling quality that architectural

ornamentation contributes to a structure. Representative sculptural forms can inform the users of

a building about many diverse topics. The artistic storytelling function of architectural

ornamentation adds value to a building and contributes to the unique sense of place felt on the

university campus. For example, new freshmen in Sledd Hall can remember that the entrance to

their dormitory wing is marked by a lintel of squirrels playing among orange tree branches,

rather then a just a sign with a few numbers typed onto it. Ornament is also significant because

of its ability to mediate between disparate elements. For example, exterior ornaments can tell the

story of the building's interior functions while other ornaments tell the story of the region's

history.

The architectural heritage of the University of Florida campus is also an expression of the

region's social history and development. Architectural ornamentation can reflect larger issues

prevalent in society at the time of the ornament's design. Ornament, through its application,









design, and content, can tell the story of its society's interests and values. It also reflects the

trends within architecture, since it usually changes in concert with larger architectural design

trends. Ornament's ability to illustrate the values of its society and track developments in

architectural history is one of its significant features.

Substantial analysis of how a set of historic ornaments developed from traditional Gothic

style elements into pieces whose design and content was inspired by local interests and activities

contributes to the body of knowledge on architectural ornamentation. The connection between

ornament and its place of application is significant because it illustrates ornament's ability to

express and develop a sense of place. In an increasingly global and homogenized world,

ornament's ability to create a unique sense of place is of growing interest to designers, users, and

scholars.

For the University of Florida, a new examination of the historic architectural

ornamentation will contribute to the community's knowledge of the historic campus and its

diverse architectural features. By better understanding their architectural ornamentation,

members of the university community may be inspired to appreciate and preserve it.

Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to extant architectural ornamentation on campus.

Secondly, only ornament that was an integral part of the architecture will be considered in the

study. Finally, artworks on or in buildings will not be included in the study.

Definitions and Terms

A variety of specialized terms are necessary to discuss and quantify the architectural

ornamentation found on the University of Florida campus. Because the evolution of the campus's

architectural ornamentation is especially significant in terms of content, most of the following









definitions deal with the content of the ornament, rather then its physical function or location on

the building.

Architectural ornamentation: can include a broad range of building details, but this study

primarily focuses on figural architectural ornamentation containing complex content information

within its design. For example, a sphere is a geometric design, but a sphere with rays emanating

outward from it represents the sun and contains 'sun' as its content information. More abstract

and symbolic architectural ornamentation that is used to develop a design scheme, such as

Gothic, is discussed as it relates to the campus's architectural evolution.

Traditional Collegiate Gothic ornament: architectural ornamentation whose style and

content are clearly inspired by Gothic, English Tudor, or a similar historic European style of

architecture. For example, linen fold and quatrefoils are characteristic of Medieval Gothic,

Gothic Revival, and Collegiate Gothic.

Transitional Collegiate Gothic ornament: is a term developed for this study, although

examples of this type of architectural ornamentation can be found on many Gothic Revival

buildings. Transitional Collegiate Gothic architectural ornamentation is based on traditional

Collegiate Gothic forms; however, the design tells the story of the building's unique function,

time period or geographic location. These pieces illustrate how historic forms of ornamentation

can be slightly modified to create architectural ornamentation inspired by time and place, while

continuing to present a unified Collegiate Gothic concept.

Unique architectural ornament: is architectural ornamentation that tells the story of a

building's function, geographic location or place in history. Inspiration for these ornaments can

be derived from the natural or social history of the area, purpose of the building, recent local

events, or the broader social context of the building. Ornamentation that helps to define a









building's place in history by expressing the passions of its contemporary society will also be

included in this category.

Summary

The University of Florida's historic campus was listed on the National Register of Historic

Places because of its outstanding historical and architectural significance. One aspect of many

historic building's architectural significance is their architectural ornamentation. Architectural

ornamentation is the designed integration of medallions, friezes, grotesques and other sculptural

forms into a building's total design concept. Architectural ornamentation is an important element

on many buildings; it can aid in way-finding, tell the story of a building, develop the building's

design concept, or place in time.

This study analyzes the university's historic architectural ornamentation. Examination of

the University of Florida's historic architectural ornamentation demonstrates an evolution from

traditional Collegiate Gothic elements into unique architectural ornament reflecting the purpose

of the building, historical or geographical context, and changes in society and architecture.

Analysis of the unique architectural ornamentation of the campus will add to the university's

knowledge about its architectural heritage and contribute to broader understanding of the role of

ornament in architecture.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

Architectural ornamentation has been a popular subject of architectural literature since at

least ancient Egyptian times, when papyrus bundles inspired architectural ornamentation5.

Recent literature on architectural ornamentation typically falls into at least one of four

categories: texts on the history of ornamentation; technical discussions on the preservation of

historic architectural ornamentation; arguments supporting architectural ornamentation; and

testimonies of appreciation of historic ornament. Support for the significance of this study can be

found in histories of ornament, along with a greater appreciation of the university's ornament.

The growing body of work dedicated to preserving ornament demonstrates that the importance of

architectural ornament remained after the rise of Modernism.

History

Recent histories of ornamentation began after the Crystal Palace exhibitions in London

fueled an interest among the Victorians in historic and foreign styles of ornament. These early

works were illustrated pattern books, with pages labeled according to historic style and they fed

the Victorian's love of ornament and the exotic6. Owen Jones' influential Grammar of Ornament

(1856) and Auguste Racinet's Handbook of Ornaments in Color (1875 and 1888) were the

highlights of this genre, but many black and white texts of line drawings survive from the

Victorian era. These works contributed to the widespread use of exotic and historical ornament




5 Beinecke-Reeves Distinguished Professor Roy Graham, personal communication, January 2007.

6 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003).

SL 'Ornement Polychrome









styles during the era8. These pattern anthologies also contributed to the Modernist disgust with

ornament, because the texts encouraged craftsmen and patrons to mix and match increasingly

bizarre combinations of ornaments. The German publishing company, Taschen, issued a full

color 2006 republication of Racinet's combined works, illustrating the continuing popularity of

these nineteenth century texts. Meanwhile, Dover Publication's many books of copy-right free

motif designs demonstrate the continuing popularity of simpler pattern books.

After the rise of Modernism, serious research on architectural ornamentation was severely

limited for several decades. With the help of British Museum staff, Eva Wilson,9 in Ornament

8, 000 years. An Illustrated Handbook ofMotifs worked to overcome the flaws of many surviving

nineteenth century anthologies of ornament by including explanations on the more obtuse

meanings and histories of motifs. The text still relied primarily on simple line drawings and it

remained largely limited to motifs and patterns, taken out of their three dimensional context.

Head of the Designs Section in the Department of Prints, Drawings, and Paintings at the

Victoria and Albert Museum, Michael Snodin, and University of Sussex Professor of Art History

Maurice Howard, wrote Ornament. A Social Historyo1 after curating the European Ornament

Gallery at the Victoria and Albert Museum together in 1992. Their work addressed many of the

short comings of earlier histories by organizing ornament by application, then chronology, and

providing photographic examples illustrating ornaments in their intended location. By illustrating

ornament in context, Snodin and Howard allowed specific pieces of ornament to be understood

and appreciated in their intended place. Many ornaments derive much of their meaning and


8 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003).

9 Eva Wilson, Ornament 8,000 Years: An Illustrated Handbook of Motifs. (New York: Abrams, Inc, 1994).

10 Maurice Howard and Michael Snodin, Ornament: A Social History Since 1450. (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1996).









purpose by working with the larger item that forms their context. By encouraging an

understanding of historic ornament within original context, Snodin and Howard encouraged their

readers to engage ornament more fully and appreciate its contributions to design.

Former curator of Old World Textiles at the Textile Museum, Washington, D.C., James

Trilling's, in his 2003 work Ornament: A Modern Perspective11, addressed the history of

ornament, types and styles of historic ornament, and ornament's place in the modern world.

Trilling espoused the concept of a language of ornament. Since the Paleolithic era, ornamental

motifs have traveled and changed with the spread and changing of diverse cultures across the

globe. Historic and recent examples of ornament continue to demonstrate the care and

craftsmanship that designers, patrons and craftsmen put into every ornament. Ornament has been

a subject of immense human efforts and interest for millennia and Trilling encouraged his

readers to place unornamented twentieth century trends in their historic context.

By examining some of the finest examples of ornament from history, including twentieth

century examples by Loos and Matisse, Trilling developed guidelines for ornament viewers to

read and understand ornament: well designed ornaments interact with each other, the item they

are placed on, and the surrounding spaces. Ornament is also designed to interact with its user.

Whether by delighting their emotions or intellect, ornaments serve observant users by engaging

them more fully with the ornamented design. By teaching the complex, but readable, language of

ornament, Trilling prepared readers to engage historic and modern ornament.

Trilling12, as well as earlier anthologies and histories, defined how to see and read

ornament. An ornament has both immediate contexts, for example the facade of its building, and



1 James Trilling, The Language of Ornament. (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2001).

12 James Trilling, The Language of Ornament. (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2001).









a larger context within the culture that designed and uses it. By reading ornament within its

immediate physical environment, and understanding it as a specially designed product of its time

and place, Trilling encouraged users to actively engage the ornaments in their space, despite an

ornament's age or culture of origin.

Preservation

Historic ornament may be a character-defining feature of a historic building and key to its

preservation. When the University of Florida's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences received

major funding in 1998 to restore historic Flint and Anderson halls, reconstructing Flint's

complex terra-cotta facade entrance was an important aspect of the award winning restoration

work3.

The National Park Service has created a variety of bulletins to guide the maintenance,

repair and restoration of many types of historic architectural ornamentation. De Teel Patterson

Tiller' s14 bulletin, The Preservation of Historic Glazed Architectural Terra-Cotta, discusses

factors involved in terra-cotta restoration, while John Waite's The Maintenance andRepair of

Architectural Cast Iron15 covers similar issues facing cast iron ornamentation. Richard Pieper's

The Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement of Historic Cast Stone16 bulletin explains some of

the many threats facing this material, a popular medium for the campus's architectural

ornamentation. Tiller, Waite, and Pieper's work instruct preservationists and demonstrate the


13 M. Jane Gibson, "$3 Million Gift will Trigger Restoration of Historic Flint and Anderson Halls," Alumni
CLASnotes, Spring 1998, http://clasnews.clas.ufl.edu/clasnotes/alumninotes/98spring/.
14 de Teel Patterson Tiller, Preservation Briefs 7: The Preservation ofHistoric GlazedArchitectural Terra-Cotta.
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979).

15 John Waite, Preservation Briefs 27: The Maintenance and Repair ofArchitectural Cast Iron. (Washington, D.C.:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991), hltp \\ \\ \ .cr.nps.gov/hps/tp efsriefs/brief27.htm.

16 Richard Pieper, Preservation Brief42: The Maintenance, Repair and Replacement ofHistoric Cast Stone.
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office), http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/briefs/brief42.htm.










importance of historic architectural ornamentation to the government and people throughout the

nation.

Fan17, Grossman 18, Martin19, and Prudon20 produced technical bulletins for the Association

for Preservation Technology. Each discussed a case study involving the preservation of

architectural ornamentation. They illuminated the care and interest felt by preservationist and

citizens toward their building's historic architectural ornamentation.

Support

Architectural ornament in the twentieth century was both censored and devalued by

proponents of Modernism and the International Style. Any study conducted after the rise of

Modernism, concerning architectural ornament, must first defend architectural ornament and its

relationship with architecture and human expression. Ornament sculptor and Adjunct Professor

of Architecture at Yale, Kent Bloomer examined and rebutted the devaluation of ornament that

occurred during the Modern movement in his seminal work, The Nature of Ornament21. He

grappled with a definition for ornament that expressed its relationship to design and human

expression, its interdependence with architecture, and its independence from art and decoration.







17 Rene Fan, "Terra-Cotta Mosaics at Sea View Hospital: Endangered glazed ceramics on Staten Island," APT
Bulletin 32 (2001): 37-42.

18 Elizabeth Grossman, "Architecture for a public client: The monuments and chapels of the American battle
monuments commission," Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 11 (1979): 30-52.

19 Wilson Martin, "Oolitic limestone conservation: A case study in conservation and maintenance, governor's
mansion, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bulletin of the Associationfor Preservation Technology 17 (1985): 24-33.

20 Theodore Purdon, "Simulating Stone, 1860-1940: Artificial marble, artificial stone, and cast stone," Bulletin of the
Association for Preservation Technology 21 (1989): 79-91.

21 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000).









Furthermore, he explored the nature of architectural ornament as "a natural and universal system

of human communication that can present a valuable segment of human thought" 22

Since this study seeks to reveal the changing content of the architectural ornamentation on

the historic campus, it deals with the thoughts of the designers who developed the campus's

ornamentation and an understanding and appreciation of ornament as a communication tool is

vital. Bloomer found that ornament provides people with an avenue for expressing their

thoughts. Ornament is important to people because it helps to tell their story and, when in place

on a structure, ornament creates human scaled interest points. In his final chapter, Bloomer spoke

particularly to the significance of this study:

By incorporating visions of the world at large and convening with ordinary and profane
things, ornament can articulate the complexity and mythology of particular times and
places...the act of ornamenting can be as much the cultural proclaiming of place as the
informing of a utilitarian object. Ornament gives luster to its objects and to the event of
envelopment. This positive act is also defensive, in that it shields the object or place from
the dreadful anonymity of an existence out of place, from being simply a denoted thing or
only a utility or merely a parcel of land. Ornament exalts ordinary properties by
incorporating extraordinary images and individuals' memories within patterns that can
simultaneously intermingle with a particular history and with local flora and
fauna....ornament can register place as a living event23.

If ornament is an expression of human thought and has the ability to "intermingle with a

particular history and with local flora and fauna" 24 then the moment when the ornament on the

university campus began to intermingle and express local culture is important because the

ornament could then be considered an expression of the university community and the local

context.




22 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 12.

23 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 231-32.

24 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 232.









Trilling25 continued the defense of ornament from a cross cultural, historical viewpoint.

Trilling developed the swirling history of ornament's development throughout history and its

travels through different cultures.

Trilling26 and Bloomer' s27 defense of ornament stems from their architecture and art

history backgrounds; however, ornament has attracted a variety of supporters from other fields.

Professor of Mathematics at the University of Texas at San Antonio, Nikos Salingaros28 applied

principles of mathematics and the evolved preferences of the human eye to argue for an

evolutionary, psychological need for ornament. Architectural ornamentation provides multi-

scaled detail on building surfaces. A building with smooth, plain facades lacks detail and

resembles the drab surfaces seen by suffers of a variety of debilitating neurological disorders.

Salingaros believed that the blank surfaces of Modernist buildings do not provide enough

information to the human eye and contribute to stress among normal viewers. People need

buildings that provide them with a variety of visual details and architectural ornamentation has

been developed to provide those details; its absence from modem buildings can be intellectually

understood, but it can not be emotionally withstood.

Dr. Llewellyn Negrin29 of the University of Tasmania discussed the role of ornament as a

carrier of meaning. She affirmed ornaments ability to carry complex meanings within its designs.

She divulged into the recently maligned history of ornament and believes that this is an aspect of

its association with the feminine qualities of architecture. Negrin called for a renewed

25 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003).

26 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003).

27 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000).

28 Nikos Salingaros, "The Sensory Value of Ornament," Communication and C. ',,iii 'a, 36 (2003): 331-351.

29 Llewellyn Negrin, "Ornament and the Feminine," Feminist Theory 7(2006): 219-235.









appreciation of architectural ornamentation because of its ability to develop and express complex

meanings, including feminine ones.

As the first century in human history to celebrate an absence of ornament waned, a variety

of authors from different fields began to reevaluate ornament's place in design. Ornament's

ability to express complex meanings gives it a unique place in a designer's repertoire. Bloomer30

and Trilling,31 along with a variety of authors from diverse fields, have worked to raise

awareness about the value of ornamentation and its unique qualities. This study draws support

from these arguments; it highlights ornament's important contribution to design and its value to

people. The study also capitalizes on ornament's ability to carry complex meanings by studying

how those meanings change throughout the University of Florida's historic campus.

Appreciation

As academics and architectural historians explored the history of ornamentation, many

places and individuals across America rediscovered the ornamental legacy of their

neighborhoods. Increased awareness of local architectural resources may lead to greater

preservation of ornament. In at least one instance, it has lead to the development of new

architectural ornament. Photographer Robert Flischel32 photographed the architectural ornament

of Cincinnati's public schools, documenting its history and development.

Architectural ornament was important to the people of Cincinnati. School children,

teachers and citizens all donated money to pay for the ornamentation of these schools. They




30 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000).

31 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003).
32 Robert Flischel, ed., An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools' Legacy ofArt and Architecture.
(Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001).










believed that the architectural ornament could express their culture and their pride in the public

schools33.

Flischel found that the architectural ornament of the Cincinnati public schools was loved

by residents and, over many decades, had developed a complex and thorough lexicon. The

architectural ornament could teach by illustrating history, stories and model student behavior34. It

was also inspired by the local community; the themes explored in the architectural ornament

related to the buildings' function as schools and to the target audience, students35. The

architectural ornamentation also taught students about their heritage by painting idealistic scenes

of the Dutch countryside, the origin of many Cincinnati citizens36. Flischel's work is reflected in

this study because it demonstrated a people's love of their local architectural ornament and how

they used their architectural ornament to express their place and cultural values. The Cincinnati

public schools are an excellent example of well-developed ornamentation in an academic setting

and the specialization of ornament to the setting.

Enthusiast Darleen Crist's37 photographic essay of American gargoyles and grotesques,

American Gargoyles: Spirits in Stone, demonstrated the popularity of historic architectural




33 Beth Sullebarger, "Foreword" in, An Expression of the Community: Cincinnati Public Schools' Legacy ofArt and
Architecture, ed. Robert Flischel (Cincinnati: The Art League Press, 2001), 6.

34 Anita Ellis, "Ornament and Artistery in the Cincinnati Public Schools" in, An Expression of the Community:
Cincinnati Public Schools' Legacy ofArt and Architecture, ed. Robert Flischel (Cincinnati: The Art League
Press, 2001), 9-17.

35 Anita Ellis, "Ornament and Artistery in the Cincinnati Public Schools" in, An Expression of the Community:
Cincinnati Public Schools' Legacy ofArt and Architecture, ed. Robert Flischel (Cincinnati: The Art League
Press, 2001), 15-17.

36 Anita Ellis, "Ornament and Artistery in the Cincinnati Public Schools" in, An Expression of the Community:
Cincinnati Public Schools' Legacy ofArt and Architecture, ed. Robert Flischel (Cincinnati: The Art League
Press, 2001), 15.

37 Darleen Crist, American Gargoyles: Spirits in Stone. (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 2001).









ornament and it is an interesting survey of many unique pieces of ornament. The text organized

its collection by content, and provided photographs depicting examples from each content group.

President of the Friends of Terra-Cotta, Susan Tunick38 documented the use of terra cotta

architectural ornamentation in New York City and the history of the architectural terra cotta

industry in America. The development of the language of ornament during the first half of the

twentieth century is explored in the text, with examples from New York City. Several of the

stylistic trends seen in the development of New York City's architectural terra cotta can also be

found in the ornamentation on the University of Florida campus. For example, there are

gargoyles on the New York Life Insurance Company headquarters that are very similar to the

ones found atop Leigh Hall. The New York Life Insurance building was completed in 1928; only

one year after Leigh Hall. Tunick found that ornamental architectural terra cotta was a thriving

industry in the first decades of the twentieth century and at least one of the companies detailed in

the text, the Atlantic Terra Cotta Co, sold products to the University of Florida39

Architect Louis Sullivan created aesthetic unity in the skeleton frame buildings of the early

years of the skyscraper. Sullivan used ornament, not as a superfluous decoration, but to

emphasize the structure and the function of his buildings. The famous adage "form follows

function" comes from the following statement by Sullivan:

It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and
metaphysical, of all things human and super human, of all true manifestations of the head,





38 Susan Tunick, Terra-Cotta Skyline: New York's Architectural Ornament. (New York: Princeton Architectural
Press, 1997).

39 Receipts, correspondence, and stamped photographs of process models, Series 75: Architect for the Board of
Control Building Program Records, 1925-67, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers
Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.









of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever
follows function. This is the law40

Architect Ronald Schmitt41 produced an exhaustive look at the ornamentation developed

by Sullivan, especially in Chicago. Sullivan is famous for his ornament derived from foliage and

geometric patterns, and this text chronicled the development of that lexicon throughout

Sullivan's life. Professor of Art History at Northwestern University, David Van Zanten42

explored the meaning of Sullivan's ornamentation, thereby expressing his belief that

ornamentation can express particular ideas. Van Zanten and Schmitt's research on Sullivan

contributes to this study; it provided examples of the evolution of architectural ornamentation

through time. They also provided further support to Bloomer43 and Trilling44, by developing

their theories about Sullivan's ornamentation in terms of its ability to express complex thoughts

and grow throughout a designer's career.

Many other writers have also worked to promote the architectural ornamentation of certain

designers or places. Notably, architect Ernest Burden's45 discussion of the Nebraska state capital

highlighted its architectural ornamentation and illustrated how the buildings' architectural

ornamentation expounded local culture. The Nebraska capital building was constructed over a

ten year span starting in 1922, while many of the University of Florida's ornamented historic


40 Wikipedia contributors, "Form follows function," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Form follows function&oldid=l15258832.

41 Ronald Schmitt, Sullivanesque: Urban Architecture and Ornamentation. (Chicago: University of Illinois Press,
2002).

42 David Van Zanten, Sullivan's City: The Meaning of Ornament for Louis Sullivan. (New York: W.W. Norton,
2000).

43 Kent Bloomer, The Nature of Ornament. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000).

44 James Trilling, Ornament: A Modern Perspective. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003).

45 Ernest Burden, Building facades: Faces, figures, and ornamental detail. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996).









buildings were being built. On the Nebraska capitol building, stone carvings, murals and mosaics

tell the history of democracy, and the natural and social history of Nebraska's Native Americans

and settlers46. A nineteen foot sower crowns the dome and proclaims Nebraska's agricultural

pride and skill, similar to the football players on the University of Florida's Sledd Hall.

These works illustrate a growing appreciation of historic architectural ornamentation. They

support this study by demonstrating methods to explore specific sets of architectural ornaments.

These authors also demonstrate a growing interest in historic architectural ornamentation and an

understanding of the important content information found within the ornamentation. This study

will profit from the increased understanding and appreciation of architectural ornamentation

created by these works

Summary

Architectural ornamentation has been a valued, cross-cultural element of architectural

design throughout the history of the built environment. During the first half of the twentieth

century, many architects were actively using ornaments in their projects; however, other

designers declared a war on ornamentation. Their successful campaign caused the use and study

of architectural ornamentation to all but cease during the twentieth century. In the last decades of

the century, an interest in ornamentation reemerged. First, new histories and anthologies of

historic ornament exposed a fresh, post-Modem audience to the fantastic world of ornament. As

Modernism's grip on the design community waned, architects and designers began to explore the

value of ornament, its place in a human world and the unique features that it can bring to a

project. Today, the work of many preservationists to save historic ornament encourages people to

examine the historic ornaments in their community and allows them to appreciate the continuing


46 Ernest Burden, Building facades: Faces, figures, and ornamental detail. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996), 56.









relevance that ornament has with its building. Whether as members of a preservation team or just

curious individuals, people across the country have begun to rediscover their community's

architectural ornament. Their efforts to promote their ornament and arouse new interest in

ornament have inspired this study.

The existing literature is significant because it develops historic architectural

ornamentation as a valuable segment of architectural design, worthy of individual consideration.

The significance of ornamentation is supported by evidence of its ability to further develop an

architectural style, carry complex content information, and express the interests of the local

community. While many works on ornamentation have been published recently, research is still

needed to increase understanding on how collections of ornaments develop and work together.

Also, considering the interest in creating ornaments that are inspired by the local community,

further research in needed to understand how ornament is designed and implemented in an

architectural project. This study will contribute to the body of knowledge by analyzing how one

collection of architectural ornamentation was created and developed over time.









CHAPTER 3
SURVEY OF THE HISTORIC ORNAMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS

Introduction

Beginning with the first two buildings built on campus, Thomas and Buckman Halls, and

traveling through the tenures of university architects Edwards, Weaver, and Fulton, the

university's historic architectural ornamentation can be seen to change. Analysis of the

architectural ornamentation on the University of Florida campus suggests changes from a

traditional Collegiate Gothic application into a unique expression of place: geographical,

historical, or cultural. By scrutinizing the changes in the campus's historic architectural

ornamentation, this idea can be tested.

William Augustus Edwards and Partners, 1905-1925

William Augustus Edwards and his partners were commissioned to design the new

University of Florida campus after winning a design competition against Henry John Klutho.

Edwards, of South Carolina, presented the State Board of Control with a Collegiate Gothic

design while Klutho, of Jacksonville FL, submitted a Beaux Arts entry47. The Board of Control

chose Edwards and the Collegiate Gothic for their new flagship university. The Collegiate

Gothic style architecturally connected the university with the grand, established institutions of

England and the Continent, sending the message that the University of Florida was one member

of a collegiate chain stretching back to the early gothic period in Europe. The first two buildings

were completed on a university campus of sandy wilderness, wetlands and pine hammocks.

Thomas and Buckman Halls, completed in 1906, are simple, almost identical Collegiate

Gothic buildings. Designed as dormitories, they housed the university's students, dining,


47 P.K. Yonge, chair, "Pay report: $300.00 to H.J. Klutho for Architectural Services." Report of the Board of Control
of the State Educational Institutions ofFlorida for the period beginning June 5, 1905 and ending January
1, 1907. (Tallahassee: State Printers, 1907), 120.









lecturing, and administrative facilities during the opening semester of 1906. These two building's

established the university's palette of red brick offset by ivory details, roofed in terra-cotta tiles.

The architectural ornamentation of Thomas and Buckman Halls works to further the Collegiate

Gothic design. Lightly colored cast balustrades, quoins, and delicate water spouts all work

together to develop the Gothic architecture. These details are aided by crenellation and heavy

stone framing around the major windows, details to symbolically connect the dormitories with

Gothic European architecture.

The cast concrete face (Figure 3-1) is repeated in the hood mold over almost every

doorway to Buckman and Thomas Halls. A male face is a traditional ornamental element in

Gothic and Renaissance decorative design48, and the traditional European motif is further

developed by the ornament of playing woodland elves (Figure 3-2) on Thomas Hall. Both of

these ornaments reflect traditional Collegiate Gothic content, male faces and elves, but even

these ornaments display some sensitivity to the university's environment. The man (Figure 3-1)

is somewhat wild; his wavy, loose hair is crowned with leaves and berries, and his expression is

fierce. Meanwhile, the elves are playing in a thicket of oak branches (Figure 3-2). The Collegiate

Gothic style drew from centuries of European tradition and within that style, a plethora of design

inspiration was available to Edwards. While the architectural ornaments all work together to

develop the traditional Gothic Revival style of the buildings, Edwards' choice of forest elves and

wild men may have been a deliberate comment on the university's location in the Florida

wilderness.

Completed in 1909 and designed as the Agricultural Experiment Station, Newell Hall

continues the Collegiate Gothic design of Thomas and Buckman Halls. The ivory crenellation is


48 Auguste Racinet, Racinet's Historic Ornament in Full Color (X: Dover Publications, 1988).









clearly offset by its red brick and tile background. Combined with the water table and

fenestration details, the ornament continues to develop a traditional Collegiate Gothic language

for the campus. Under the eaves, a small repeating floral motif develops the Gothic style in more

detail (Figure 3-3).

In 1910, Flint Hall's ornamentation furthered the Gothic Revival on campus. Ornamented

crenellation along the parapet, and detailing around the fenestration emphasis these elements.

The entrances are under a gable end and highlighted by ornamentation similar to the examples

from Anderson Hall (Figure 3-5 and 3-6).

Transitional architectural ornamentation, as defined in this study, is traditionally styled

ornament that may reveal the function of the building, or tell about the local area. The University

of Florida began making tentative steps toward the development of a language of transitional

ornament as early as 1912, with the construction of the Agriculture Building, later named

Griffin-Floyd Hall.

Griffin-Floyd Hall incorporates many traditional Gothic ornaments: detailed window sills

and lintels, cornice, and water table masonry. The central tower feature, under a gable, on the

eastern side divides the facade and marks the main entrance. Tower features were often

incorporated in Gothic Revival buildings; they structurally related the building to ancient castles

and their towers while accenting entranceways or important windows. Here, the ornamentation

works with the tower feature to further develop the entrance way. A terra-cotta cornucopia

(Figure 3-4) marks the doorway centered in the tower, while other finials and trim pieces frame

the fenestration and detail the tower. The cornucopia's large shape and ivory color stand out

against the red brick facade of Griffin-Floyd Hall, facilitating way-finding by clearly indicating

the entrances to the building. The cornucopia also tells visitors about the greater purpose of the









College of Agriculture, to develop methods and educate individuals to feed the state of Florida.

The overflowing bounty of the terra-cotta cornucopia illustrates that the College of Agriculture is

capable of carrying out its mandate and the ornament graphically expresses the purpose of the

college. This ornament, installed six years after the founding of the university, illustrates the

ability of traditionally styled ornaments to express the function of the building and the purpose of

its users. The cornucopia mediates between a traditional architectural style, rooted in ancient

precedents, and the contemporary functions of its twentieth century American building by

expressing the design style of one and the function of the other.

Edwards' next building, Language Hall of 1913, now Anderson Hall, has traditional

Collegiate Gothic ornaments, and a scroll over the main entrance names the building (Figure 3-

5). Like Griffin-Floyd and Flint Halls, Anderson Hall's primary facade is broken by a protruding

tower entrance feature. On it, the main entrance's ogee arch is crowned by a finial and

emphasized by surrounding ornamentation (Figure 3-6). Lightly colored masonry window sills

and lintels, the water table, and crenellation details expand the Collegiate Gothic vocabulary of

Anderson Hall.

That same year, Peabody Hall was completed for the Teacher's College. Peabody Hall

features an even more elaborate tower feature along its main facade. First, the tower steps out to

showcase two stories of fenestration encased in light, rusticated masonry with quoin surrounds

(Figure 3-7). On the ground floor, the entrance way projects further and is detailed by

ornamental finials, pointed arches, and detailed masonry. Carved text in a traditional font is

arched over the entrance, naming the building and incorporating the signage into the

ornamentation (Figure 3-8). The top of the tower is outlined in light masonry and crowned by a

matching finial and shield motif. The Gothic ornamental language on Peabody Hall's tower









feature is supported by coordinating water table and cornice courses in light colored masonry,

and window sills and lintels. Although the architectural ornamentation does not pictorially

provide information on the function of Peabody Hall, the way the cornucopia on Griffin-Floyd

Hall does, the ornamentation does work together to promote the Collegiate Gothic design

language.

In 1914, Edwards' firm again incorporated ornamentation into both a building's

architectural style and modern function. Bryan Hall, constructed for the College of Law, uses

both traditional Collegiate Gothic detailing, such as a prominent water table and cornice masonry

course, and pieces that specifically relate to the function of the building. Bryan Hall has a large

projecting tower feature, situated slightly to the south along the main facade (Figure 3-9). The

primary entrance is through the tower. A limestone masonry frieze above the doorway reads

"College of Law" (Figure 3-10). Below the crenellated top of the tower, a plaque (Figure 3-11)

depicts a version of the state seal on a shield held by two vines. On the other side of the tower,

another plaque is detailed with the scales of justice. On Bryan Hall, the situation of two plaques

in the tower places the ornamentation in a prominent position along the facade and allows it to

aid way-finding by highlighting the entrance. It is noteworthy that this method of using ornament

would be emulated in an addition to the law school thirty-six years later.

For the growing Law Library, Weaver added a small, compatible addition to the north side

of Bryan Hall in 1939. The additional entrance is smaller in scale then the original tower, but it

also incorporates a plaque below the cornice line (Figure 3-12). This plaque, of a lawyer with a

book and scales, continues the work of the earlier ornamentation by telling the story of the

building's function. The style of the plaque is significant as a statement of its own time; it









bridges the gap between the original building's ornamentation and the plaques on Fulton's 1950

addition.

The university's first gymnasium was completed in 1915 (Figure 3-13). The building's

ornamentation continues the Collegiate Gothic language through several cast stone masonry

courses, pointed arched lintels over the fenestration and brick buttresses, capped in more

masonry. Along the front, a raised facade with stylized crenellation along the parapet and

flanking buttresses create a tower entrance with a large centered doorway. United, these

architectural elements help to create a Collegiate Gothic building, integrated with a gymnasium

space and its rows of clerestory windows along the sides.

The last building that Edwards completed as Architect to the Board of Control was the

University Auditorium. Built between 1922 and 1925, the Auditorium's architectural

ornamentation combines many of the elements already seen throughout the campus and includes

new details. Along the matching east and west sides, a water table runs along the building and

large Tudor arched windows with intertwined tracery arches sit under each projecting gable

(Figure 3-14). The building is crowned by a pinnacle with radiating arched buttresses. Brick

buttresses capped in cast stone details visually support the edges of the building and continue the

Gothic language. In addition to the Tudor arches and finials, the exterior of the building features

four mask corbel casts (Figure 3-15) in a traditional style, supporting the Tudor arches for two

windows (Figure 3-14). Together these details create a Gothic ornamental language that develops

the building's Gothic Revival style and improves to its ability to express that style. This building

was the culmination of Edwards' career at the university and has one of the best preserved

interiors.









The interior continues to develop the Gothic ornamental design language. Linen fold

paneling along the balcony railings, exposed trusses, and Gothic style chandeliers add to the

building's Gothic atmosphere (Figure 3-16). The most significant ornaments on the University

Auditorium are plaster carvings springing from the hammerbeam trusses (Figure 3-17). These

faux-wood painted plaster cast gargoyles speak directly to university life. Like the cornucopias

on Griffin-Floyd Hall, these figures are designed to resemble traditional Gothic Revival

ornaments; however, they are clearly inspired by archetypes of university life and relate to the

users of the building. This is significant because it illustrates that inspiration for Gothic styled

ornaments could come from the twentieth century campus upon which those ornaments would be

used.

Edwards designed two more buildings for the University of Florida after the Auditorium,

completed during the term of his successor, Rudolph Weaver. The first of these was the

University Library, renamed Smathers Library. Along the west side of the building, a row of

clerestory windows (Figure 3-18) light the interior reading room. These window bays are set in

compound pointed brick arches and flanked by buttresses, an element of Gothic Revival

architecture. Courses of ivory masonry along the water table and cornice combine with matching

caps on the buttresses to further convey the Collegiate Gothic symbolism. The greatest

concentration of architectural ornamentation is on the original tower entrance feature (Figure 3-

19).

As the library expanded, a new, compatible entrance was added (Figure 3-20) by Weaver.

This tower entrance features a central doorway crowned by a large compound pointed arch

leading through a shallow vault to the doors. Brick buttresses capped in contrasting light stone

masonry flank either side of the opening. Above the doorway, architectural ornamentation









connects the doorway opening to a small set of windows. Pointed arches, sills and lintels are

interconnected to emphasis this space through their contrasting color and detailed texture. On the

second story of the towers, a large recessed window crowned by a compound pointed arch

repeats the detail language on the first floor and differentiates the tower windows from the row

of clerestory windows along the side. The architectural ornamentation of the University Library

enhances the Gothic language of the protruding tower entrances and fenestration pattern. The

ornamental details connect the fenestration, emphasis the entrance, and complete the building's

Collegiate Gothic statement.

Completed in 1927, Edwards' Horticulture Science Building, renamed Rolfs Hall, uses

architectural ornamentation to enhance to Collegiate Gothic architectural language and tell users

the story of the building's function. First, traditional Gothic Revival details such as label molding

over the fenestration, quoins, and prominent oriel windows with checkerboard pattern friezes

above the cornice line enlarge upon the Horticulture Science Building's Collegiate Gothic design

(Figure 3-21). Then, along the cornice course and in the indentations of the battlement (Figure 3-

22), detailed floral medallions (Figure 3-23) begin to tell the story of the building's function.

These medallions wrap around the building and their story telling ability is enhanced by the

inclusion of a bee hive plaque encircled in a wreath of fruit and flowers (Figure 3-24). Thus,

users of the Horticulture Science Building are surrounded by the focus of their studies, flowers,

and the means to create more, bees, are also provided by the building's architectural

ornamentation. This is significant because, like Griffin-Floyd Hall, it is an example of how

architectural ornamentation can both compliment its building's archaic architectural design style

and tell users about the building's function in the twentieth century.









Rudolph Weaver, 1925-1944


In 1925, several gentlemen from the State Board of Control did an exhaustive search for an

architect who would reside in Gainesville and work exclusively designing for the State Board of

Control, which managed the state's four educational institutions49. They eventually persuaded

Rudolph Weaver to take the positions of Architect to the Board of Control and head of a new

architecture program at the University of Florida.

Shortly after Weaver's arrival in Gainesville, President Murphree wrote with pride to the

state legislature,

Under the Board's authority the country was surveyed to find the ablest man, a man not
only in love with teaching, with experience as a teacher of architecture, but one who had
also the ability and experience to serve the Board as its architect in a building program.
Fortunately, such a man was found. Mr. Rudolph Weaver, who is director of the School of
Architecture and Architect to the Board of Control, is a man of eminent training in the best
schools of the East. He has successful experience as an architect and teacher of architecture
in some of the larger institutions of the West. Since coming to the university in late
September, 1925, he has organized a force of draftsmen, set up the School of Architecture,
has equipped it, and has paid salaries and expenses of these two divisions of his work out
of the usual six percent architect's fees on buildings for which plans and specifications
were committed to his hands.50

Weaver had designed for the State College of Washington, University of Illinois and

University of Idaho51. He invited his colleague from the University of Idaho, Guy Fulton, to

accompany him to Gainesville too. The first building Weaver designed and completed for the




49 Albert Murphree, "President's Report of the University of Florida." Report of the Board of Control of the State
Educational Institutions ofFlorida for the period beginning July 1, 1924 and ending June 30, 1926. chair.
P.K. Yonge. (Tallahassee: State Printers, 1926), 12-13.

50 Albert Murphree, "President's Report of the University of Florida." Report of the Board of Control of the State
Educational Institutions ofFlorida for the period beginning July 1, 1924 and ending June 30, 1926. chair.
P.K. Yonge. (Tallahassee: State Printers, 1926), 12-13.

51Photographs and drawings of work from Weaver's previous institutions, Rudolph Weaver Architectural Records,
Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.









University of Florida was the Chemistry-Pharmacy Building, renamed Leigh Hall in honor of its

dean.

Leigh Hall's original wings were completed in 1927. In 1949, a coordinating Collegiate

Gothic wing was added on the west side, creating an interior courtyard. The original wings of

Leigh Hall use a plethora of architectural ornaments in a Collegiate Gothic motif to tell the story

of the building's purpose and develop the architectural language. A belt course of ivory colored

masonry features the names of famous chemists and pharmacists throughout history (Figure 3-

25). These names are carved in a Gothic style font and serve two symbolic purposes. First, they

proclaim the function of the building by celebrating famous practitioners in the field, but they

also serve the same symbolic purpose as Collegiate Gothic, they connect the University of

Florida with the established institutions of Europe. These names unite the university's chemistry

and pharmacy program with iconic European scientists and their institutions of learning.

The chemistry ornamentation is further expounded by chemical symbols on the gutter

drains and in masonry along the facade (Figure 3-26). Along the cornice line, four repeating cast

stone gargoyles, or grotesques (Figure 3-27), also tell users about the building's function.

Resembling traditional Gothic gargoyles, each one is engaged in a common laboratory function.

These Gothic style grotesques tell the story of the building's function and the activities inside;

thereby becoming mediators between the interior and exterior of the building, and the building's

traditional architecture and twentieth century function.

In addition to these story-telling ornaments, Weaver used a traditional Collegiate Gothic

grape ornamentation around an entrance (Figure 3-28). Another entrance displays traditional

scroll brackets and text to relate to the Collegiate Gothic design and inspire students (Figure 3-

29). Oriel windows with checkerboard patterns distinguish the entrances further (Figure 3-30)









and quoins, instead of buttresses, emphasize their protruding edges (Figure 3-31). Most of the

fenestration is detailed by label molding and heavy sills. Along the roof line, balustrades

continue the Collegiate Gothic language of the building. The Chemistry-Pharmacy Building's

architectural ornamentation is significant on campus because it combines a variety of traditional

Collegiate Gothic ornamentation and detailing with ornaments that tell the story of the building's

function in symbolic and pictorial ways.

In 1927, Weaver completed a building for the College of Engineering. The Mechanical and

Engineering Building, Walker Hall, was built as a companion to Edwards' 1911 Benton Hall.

Benton Hall was the college's first building and was destroyed in the 1960s to make way for

Little Hall. Walker Hall is a simpler Collegiate Gothic building, but it does use several

traditional details. The entrance is centered in a projecting tower feature, now obscured by vines.

Compared to many on campus, this tower is less prominent because it is the height of the cornice

line and does not extend above it, over the roof. The opening for the entrance is a compound

Tudor arch leading to a shallow vault before the doorway. The fenestration and cornice line are

outlined in contrasting masonry, and quoins emphasize the edges of the building.

In 1928, the university built a new, Tudor style building to the south of campus for WRUF

Radio Station. It now serves as the Police Building. The high pitched roof, and half-timber,

waddle and daub style, distinguish it from the large buildings of the main campus. Dark wooden

exposed posts and beams outline sections of brick and further reflect the Tudor Gothic Revival.

The entrance is sheltered by a projecting gabled roof and is detailed by a brick semi-circular

arched opening, rather then the more typical contrasting light stone masonry arches used on other

buildings. These details reflect the smaller scale of the radio building while continuing its Gothic

Revival architectural language.









The University of Florida continued to grow throughout the twenties and Rudolph Weaver

completed an additional dormitory in 1929. Thomas and Buckman Halls had been the only

dormitories on campus, and the university's students were overflowing Gainesville in their

search for housing. Sledd Hall, first called the New Dormitory, was built between Thomas and

Buckman Halls. According to campus legend, together with an additional dormitory, completed

in 1939, Thomas and Sledd Hall form the letters UF, naming the campus from the air.

Sledd Hall, constructed during the height of the Florida Boom in the late nineteen twenties,

features traditional details as well as novel architectural ornaments. Sledd Hall's builds on the

elements used on the first dormitories: a cast stone ornament over every entrance, bay windows,

water table, and cornice moldings. Along the south wall, bricks form a large diaper brick pattern,

the largest example of this masonry detail on campus and a traditional Gothic element. Like

Walker and Leigh Halls, rusticated quoins, rather then buttresses, emphasis the edges and

projections of the building. Light cast stone masonry molding draws attention to the fenestration.

The cornice line and crenellation are also emphasized by masonry moldings. Along some parts

of the facade, the indentations in the crenellation are filled with cast stone balustrades. The

Collegiate Gothic design language is further developed by several two story bay windows.

In addition to these traditional details, Sledd Hall has many custom cast stone ornaments

integrated into the facade. One ornament may be the signature plaque of the architect or an

advertisement for the architecture program, depicting men with drafting tools and sporting

equipment, it seems to promise students that they will have time for both activities (Figure 3-32).

This plaque is set over a door in the brick facade, where passing students can easily see it.









Sledd Hall was opened with fanfare in 1929 and a brochure published to celebrate the

completion of Sledd Hall, "The Stone Carvings of the New Dormitory, University of Florida",

states that:

An attempt has been made in the stone carvings of the new dormitory to portray local
interests, activities, and historical events rather then use conventional motives ordinarily
employed.

Aside from the Florida animal, bird, sea and plant life largely made use of about the
individual entrances, the life of the Florida Indians at the time of the Spanish discovery is
shown above the arcade entrances above the residence tower. The Spanish discovery is
also shown in the stone panels of one of the oriel windows. In addition to this, various
phases of student activities are demonstrated here and there about the exterior of the
building2.

Along the cornice of the building, several cast stone sculptures represent different activities

performed by University of Florida students (Figure 3-33). A graduate, soldier, reader, and

athlete are some of the different guises of the student body and these casts. They reflect the lives

of the student's living inside Sledd Hall and connect the Collegiate Gothic dormitory with its

users. The student grotesques are significant because they relate to the users of Sledd Hall.

Sledd Hall's ornamentation tells the story of Florida's history through a scene of early

Spanish ships discovering the state (Figure 3-34). This tableau celebrates Florida's history and

discovery by Spain. The Spanish ships plaques are noteworthy because they tell the story of

Florida's history. The student cornice figures and Spanish discovery ornaments relate Sledd Hall

to its location on a university campus and to the Florida history of Spanish exploration.

Sledd Hall's architectural ornamentation also promotes the preferences of the founders of

the university. When William Augustus Edwards' Collegiate Gothic design was chosen as the

vision for the new campus, it was because the founders wanted the University of Florida to be


52 Brochure, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area
Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.









architecturally linked with the great historic institutions of Europe. While designing Sledd Hall,

Weaver contacted many historic universities in Europe, asking for permission to place carved

replicas of their seals (Figure 3-35) on Sledd Hall53. "The Stone Carvings of the New Dormitory,

University of Florida" describes these seals as one of the main attractions of Sledd Hall and

hopes that "[o]n subsequent additions to the building it is hoped that more of these seals may be

obtained, finally using the seals of our own older Universities54'.

Sledd Hall's ground level ornamentation depicts a plethora of sea and animal life. Sledd

Hall followed the early campus tradition of successive entrances to separate groups of dormitory

rooms. Two entrances have several small carvings of plants and animals (Figure 3-36) around

the trim. Other entrances have animal life ornaments in their spandrels and in friezes above

(Figure 3-37). Since a different arrangement of architectural ornaments marks each entrance,

users of the building can easily remember which doorway leads to their wing and the ornaments

aid in way finding. Along the lower cornice line of the bay windows, plant carvings (Figure 3-

38) add another level of ornamentation to the multilayered facade (Figure 3-39). Many of the

plants and animals found around Sledd Hall can be found in Florida and they augment the

building's sense of place by depicting scenes from the region's natural history. These ornaments

are significant because they work with traditional elements of Collegiate Gothic design, yet their

content is inspired by the local environment.

Sledd Hall's elaborate connecting tower (Figure 3-40) to Thomas Hall further develops

Sledd Hall's Collegiate Gothic design and history lesson. It symbolically depicts the relationship



53 Notes and Letters, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967 Special
and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

54 Brochure, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area
Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.










between the early Spanish explorer Juan Ortiz and his friend, an important local Native

American, Chief Mucozo55. Although the relief carvings on the tower (Figure 3-41) show Plains

Nations items and motifs, Mucozo (Figure 3-42) and Ortiz are clearly labeled and the tower's

designer, University of Florida art professor W.K. Long intended for the tower's ornamentation

to symbolically represent the local Native Americans for which it is named, although he used

Plains artifacts as models56. A similar design solution was used for the first Seal of the State of

Florida. Designed in 1865, the seal depicted a Plains Indian woman scattering flowers until 1985,

when she was replaced with a Florida Seminole woman57. The ornaments on the tower were

constructed by the Arnold Stone, Brick and Tile Company in Jacksonville, FL5

The Mucozo Tower was the subject of discussion and debate among the university faculty

and administration. Architect Rudolph Weaver sent out letters requesting suggestions from

members of the university community59. The tower was originally planned as the first of a pair

of towers, with a second intended for the north side of the dormitory courtyard. Townes R.

Leigh, dean of the Chemistry-Pharmacy School, sent a letter to Weaver requesting for the first

tower to be named after the famous local Seminole, Chief Micanopy, and for the second tower to

be named for Micanopy's wife, Tuscawilla. Leigh's interest in the names and ornamentation

55 Sharon Blansett, A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities, Revised 2nd Edition (Gainesville:
University of Florida Department of Housing and Residence Education, 2003), 11.

56 Sharon Blansett, A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities, Revised 2nd Edition (Gainesville:
University of Florida Department of Housing and Residence Education, 2003), 11-12.

57 Florida Department of State, "The Florida State Seal," Cultural Historical and Information Programs,
Ihp in %\\ .flheritage.com/facts/symbols/seals.cfm.

58 Photographs and Receipts, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967,
Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.

59 Letters, notes and memos, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967,
Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.









planned for Sledd Hall's tower demonstrates the interest members of the university community

felt in their architecture and its ornamentation. Leigh wrote, "[b]oth of the names, Tuscawilla

and Micanopy, are very musical and towers to their memory will be found no where else, since

they are ancient local celebrities"60. Although Leigh's suggestion was supplanted in favor of the

slightly more famous and less controversial Mucozo and Ortiz61, the dialogue Weaver initiated

shows that he wanted to create a Gothic style tower that would commemorate the local history of

the area.

The Mucozo Tower is one of the most elaborate examples of architectural ornamentation

on the University of Florida campus. Both sides of the tower have ornamentation celebrating

early Florida history with Mucozo and Ortiz. Walking through the tower, a cast stone ribbed

vault (Figure 3-43) and a Gothic pendent lantern continue the Collegiate Gothic language of the

tower. On the second and third stories of the tower, an oriel window with a diamond pattern cast

stone frieze between each story's windows draws more attention to the tower. It is also a full

story higher then Thomas and Sledd Halls and capped by crenellation. The Mucozo Tower is a

traditional Collegiate Gothic feature that illustrates how architectural ornamentation can be used

in a traditional manner, but be inspired by the local community.

The Infirmary building for the University of Florida was completed in 1931. The entrance

is centered along the main facade and most of the building's architectural ornamentation is used

to emphasis this feature. Instead of using a more formidable tower entrance feature, Weaver used

60 Letter, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and Area
Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

61 Micanopy Historical Society, "Chief Micanopy," Micanopy Historical Society Museum,
ihp \ \\ .afn.org/~micanopy/micanopy.html.

Chief Micanopy was Chief of the Seminole Nation during the Second Seminole War, which lasted seven years.
After the war, he was captured and sent to the Oklahoma Territory, where he died in 1849. Chief Mucozo,
on the other hand, is famous for sheltering Juan Ortiz after he escaped from Chief Ucita.









an oriel window to highlight the entrance (Figure 3-44). The entrance protrudes slightly from the

building, but it is nestled under the window's overhang. 'Infirmary' is cast into the masonry

above the door in a Gothic font. Small cast stone sculptures of several of the signs of the zodiac

(Figure 3-45) wrap around the underside of the oriel window, easily viewable to entering

students. Between the second and third story windows on the oriel, a checkerboard pattern of

brick and masonry wraps around the window. Along the higher cornice course on the oriel

window, injured cast stone students languish (Figure 3-46). These ornaments are significant

because they tell the story of the building's function and relate the Collegiate Gothic building to

its users, sick and injured university students. Around the Infirmary building, crenellation,

cornice and water table courses develop the Collegiate Gothic language.

The Teacher's College was first housed in Peabody Hall, constructed in 1913 across from

Griffin-Floyd Hall. In the early nineteen thirties, the Teacher's College received a generous

donation from P.K. Yonge, a member of the State Board of Control, and additional private, state,

and federal funding to construct a research school, providing hands-on practice for the

university's student teachers62

Weaver's Collegiate Gothic P.K. Yonge Laboratory School opened for 470 secondary

students in 193463; university classes were also taught in the building. In 1958, the Laboratory

School moved to a new location, further away from the university campus. The building was

renamed Norman Hall in honor of Dr. James Norman, dean of the College of Education from




62 Letters, notes and memos, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967,
Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.
63 College of Education: University of Florida, "College of Education History Highlights." College of Education,
hillp \ \ .coe.ufl.edu/College/Documents/Historv.html.









1920-1941, and an important fundraiser for the Laboratory School. After the move, the College

of Education began teaching its university students in Norman Hall.

Norman Hall continues the campus's Collegiate Gothic detail language. Crenellation along

the top and a water table establish the Gothic ornamental language. The main entrance is set in a

large tower feature with a clock and a two story bay window leading into the vaulted entrance

(Figure 3-47). Around the cornice course of the tower, several gargoyles (Figure 3-48) taunt

students. Plaques (Figure 3-49) on either side of the tower's entrance are noteworthy; one

features an airplane, a source of fascination and inspiration in the nineteen-thirties. The airplane

is significant because it marks the building's place in time. The pointed archway over the door is

supported by corbels of dutiful pupils (Figure 3-50). Further west, a wise owl watches over

students entering and leaving the building.

Across from the tower, a plaque over the main door to the elementary school depicts a

woman giving a dove, symbolizing peace and knowledge, to a young girl (Figure 3-51). The

pointed archway of that door is supported by two little squirrels (Figure 3-52). The gentleness of

these cast stone pieces reflects their location over the main elementary school entrance. Another

door to the elementary school bears the inscription, "Education and the Obligation of Youth the

Republic's Safe Guard" (Figure 3-53A). This inscription and another over the entrance to the

auditorium, "That they may have a more abundant life" (Figure 3-53B) were carefully chosen

after debate within the College of Education64. The dean wanted to choose phrases that would

both inspire and awe the young students65. Another doorway, leading to the secondary school,


64 Letters, notes and memos, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967,
Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.
65 Letters, notes and memos, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967,
Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.









uses two corbels of students, one an athlete and the other a reader (Figure 3-54). These

ornaments, like the cornice sculptures on Sledd Hall, are significant because they relate to the

users of the building by depicting their activities.

Under the gable end of the elementary wing, a signature plaque with intertwined flowers

gives the name of the school (Figure 3-55). Below this plaque, another plaque inscribed with the

names of famous intellectuals sits over a bench (Figure 3-56). This ornament is significant

because it relates to the function of the school by working to inspire students, and, like the names

on Leigh Hall, it symbolically links the school with the great historical institutions and thinkers

of Europe.

Weaver's next project was the Florida Union, now Dauer Hall. Constructed slowly over

the Depression years, Dauer Hall originally served as a multi-purpose student center66. It has a

prominent chimney, pointed doorway arches and bay windows. Decorative water spouts (Figure

3-57) continue the detailing. One compatible wing was added in 1966 by Guy C. Fulton and

Associates. It blending into the original building, and is dominated by a long arcade of pointed

arched windows. The projecting entrance has a plaque of a musician (Figure 3-58) over the

doorway. Since Dauer Hall was the Student Center, this plaque related to the function of the

building as a place for student gathering and recreation. The player's instrument, a lute, relates to

Dauer Hall's Collegiate Gothic design, as the lute is often associated with medieval players

Dauer Hall's most prominent piece of ornamentation is the stained glass window (Figure

3-59) under a gable end. The window was fabricated by D'Ascengo Studios of Philadelphia. The

window's room was originally intended as a quiet, nonsectarian chapel-like space and the


66 Susan Tate et al., "The University of Florida Historic Preservation Plans and Guidelines, Draft Update April
2006," (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2006), 17.
hlp ~\ w\ .facilities.ufl.edu/cpD/df/Edit%020CoDv%20Plan%20Guidelines%20ADr% 2006.pdf.









window appears to depict six scenes related to the creation of the earth: forming of the seas,

creation of the cosmos, sea life, plant life, and animal life (Figure 3-60). Interspersed between

the creation medallions are the signs of the zodiac. The zodiac was a popular theme during this

time; Weaver used zodiac carvings on the 1939 Collegiate Gothic infirmary he designed for the

Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee67

Dauer Hall also incorporates Florida inspired shields; one is intertwined in the tracery

above the stained glass window (Figure 3-61). A matching shield was incorporated into the 1948

addition, and like the lute player (Figure 3-58), may have been moved to the additions when they

were added to the original building (Figure 3-61). The shield depicts four popular Florida motifs:

sunshine, palm trees, Spanish Galleons, and Native Americans. Another Florida inspired

ornament (Figure 3-62) is painted under a vaulted ceiling, north of the stained glass window. The

mural illustrates several local plants and animals: blue jays, woodpeckers, and orange tree

branches; however, the squirrel (Figure 3-63) resembles a European Red Squirrel, Sciurus

vulgaris, with tufted ears and a bushy red tail,68 instead of the local grey squirrel. On the mural,

the artist inscribed, "Ugo Galluzzi from Florence painted in the year AD 1936, the fourteenth

year of the Fascist era."69 The artist painted his local squirrel, amidst the exotic Florida natives.

Completed in 1937 for the Dairy Science Department, the Dairy Science Building is a

simplified Collegiate Gothic structure. The building's main facades, east and west, have a long

arcade of windows with a cast stone course along the roof line. Recessed behind this wall, a

higher line of short windows ventilates the laboratory space inside. The gable ends on the other

67 Photographs, Series 75: Architect for the Board of Control Building Program Records, 1925-1967, Special and
Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
68 Olivia L., "European Red Squirrel," Blue Planet Biomes, ed. Elisabeth Benders-Hyde, (2002).
hup \ \ "\ .blueplanetbiomes.org/euro red squirrel.htm.
69 Italian Lecturer Jennifer Testa, personal communication, March 26, 2007.









two sides of the building relate it to the more traditional Gothic buildings on campus. The

entrances, on both long sides, are delineated by a projecting wing with a gable roof, reminiscent

of the tower features on the campus's more traditional buildings. Each projection has a barrel

vault leading to the interior doors, and was originally highlighted by a round medallion above it,

under the gable. The two medallions (Figure 3-64) are more modern in style then the campus's

early ornaments, complimenting the simplified style of the building, but they are used in a

traditional manner, as part of the entrance sequence. The medallions, one of a baby drinking

from a bottle and one of an older woman churning butter while children enjoy buttered bread,

illustrate the products and purpose of the Dairy Science department. The first medallion

illustrates milk's importance to human consumption and the second illustrates one of the

important products of milk, butter.

In 1985, the Dairy Science department moved from their historic 1937 building into a new,

unornamented building. In a move now unthinkable on the historic campus70, then department

chairman Dr. Roger Natzke climbed a ladder and chiseled out the two medallions. He then had

these medallions installed at viewer height along an exterior corridor of the new building because

he felt they would provide continuity for the program and express the department's identity.

Although ornamentation (like architectural artifacts worldwide) should not be removed,

Professor Natzke's commitment demonstrates the meaningful relationship that the university's

architectural ornamentation can have with a building's faculty and staff1.




70 Today, changes occurring on the historic campus are overseen by the Historic Buildings and Sites Committee.
1 Dr. William Thatcher, personal communication, December 19, 2006.









In 1939, Fletcher Hall was completed as an addition to Sledd Hall72. Fletcher Hall

continues the Collegiate Gothic language developed for Sledd Hall ten years earlier.

Crenellation, quoins, and contrasting belt courses carry over from Sledd Hall. Continuing

Weaver's original goal, more shields from respected institutions are used to connect the

University of Florida with Europe's great historical institutions. Like Sledd Hall, Fletcher Hall

has many entrances into the dormitories. Each of these is highlighted by a different set of

architectural ornaments combining Collegiate Gothic elements, such as Tudor arches and

spandrels, with depictions of regional flora and fauna (Figure 3-65). Because the combination of

Sledd and Fletcher Halls is so large, Fletcher has several vaulted passages linking the courtyards

to each side. These are emphasized by oriel windows above and curving plaques on the

underside of the windows illustrate locally inspired scenes from the natural environment (Figure

3-66).

In 1929, Weaver had planned a tower for Fletcher Hall, to compliment Sledd Hall's

Mucozo tower. When Fletcher Hall was built, a simplified tower was included along the north

facade. A statement of its time, Fletcher Hall's tower does not include elaborate ornamentation

comparable to the Mucozo tower, but it does have two shields along the cornice molding (Figure

3-67). These shields are significant because they distinguish the tower and proclaim its place on

the university campus.

On the western side of Fletcher Hall, a tableau promotes school spirit (Figure 3-68).

Wrapped around the bay window of Fletcher Hall's reading room, it illustrates the life of a man,

with an alligator on each side. For the university's all male student population, the succession of

life-stage illustrating medallions, capped by the school's mascot, may have indicated that they

72 Sharon Blansett, A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities, Revised 2nd Edition (Gainesville:
University of Florida Department of Housing and Residence Education, 2003), 13.









were gators from birth till death. Inside the reading room, walnut paneling carries the Gothic

Revival architecture to the interior. The architectural ornamentation on Fletcher Hall is

significant because, like Sledd Hall, it illustrates that ornaments could be used in a traditional

manner, but depicts scenes of local interest and inspiration.

Completed the same year as Fletcher Hall, another dormitory, Murphree Hall,

demonstrates how the Collegiate Gothic style was slowly changing on campus. As a result of

increasing student enrollment, the building is larger and more massive then earlier buildings.

Along the outer facades, repeating bay windows and entrances wrap around the building (Figure

3-69). The water table along the building also forms the pointed arch over each entrance, which

is edged in quoin blocks (Figure 3-70). Unlike the campus's previous dormitories, sculptural

details are not used to highlight or differentiate the openings. The openings on the two story bay

windows are outlined in thick contrasting ivory masonry, but windows along the main facades

are trimmed in brick. Instead of crenellation or balustrades, dormers are used to extend the height

of the top floor and increase livable space, another concession to the growing student population.

While the molded water table, pointed arches, and bay windows all contribute to the Collegiate

Gothic design, and Murphree Hall shares these details with the earlier dormitories, the lack of

sculptural details, like those used over the entrances of the previous dormitories, foreshadows

some of the changes occurring on campus.

After Fletcher and Murphree Halls were completed, the Second World War almost halted

new construction on campus. During the war, few new projects were started, but Newell Hall

underwent a major renovation. After the renovation, it was rededicated and a wooden plaque

(Figure 3-71) was installed in the entrance way. Since the university's previous plaques were

carved stone or cast in metal, the use of painted wood for this one may have been the result of









wartime shortages. As such, it is significant as an indication of the building's place in history. A

thin metal ornament in the doorway was added with the building's old and new names (Figure 3-

72).

Rudolph Weaver died in 1944 and his associate Guy Fulton was appointed University

System Architect. Guy Fulton had come with Weaver to the University of Florida when he was

first recruited and had worked in his office throughout his almost twenty year tenure. Fulton

inherited his position during a tumultuous time. The Second World War was ending, changing

everyone's lives and flooding the university with thousands of new students. In 1947, the

university became co-educational, bringing in more new students and new architectural

dilemmas to the campus. In the world of architecture, the modern styles were beginning to

consume the nation. Fulton began to experiment with more modern designs almost immediately;

however, throughout his career he continued to work with the university's established palette of

red brick, with clay tile roofs and lightly colored detailing.

Guy Fulton, 1944-1956

After the Second World War, construction on the University of Florida campus accelerated

rapidly. The use of custom architectural ornaments decreased, due in part to changing

architectural styles and pressure to complete more buildings faster. Fulton also began to hire

consulting architects to deal with the university's increasing demand for new buildings. Jefferson

Hamilton, an architect from Weaver's and Fulton's office on campus, often filled the role of

consulting architect, as well as firms from Florida. As the pace of campus growth continued to

accelerate, consulting architects took greater responsibility for new buildings. Among Fulton's

many building, only a few utilized the architectural ornamentation discussed in this study.

In 1948, Fulton renovated the University Library. During the renovation, he added a

terrazzo floor in the lobby (Figure 3-73) with the lamp of knowledge in the center. He also used









spandrels inside, to date his changes (Figure 3-74). When Fulton added additional entrances to

the University Auditorium in 1949, he used another pair of complimenting spandrels to mark his

changes (Figure 3-75). These ornaments are significant because they were designed to

compliment the historic building, while informing users about the changes to the building.

Fulton's 1949 addition to the Chemistry-Pharmacy building, a west wing, harmoniously

blends with the original wings by continuing the belt courses, water table, and fenestration

detailing; however, the carved ornaments on the cornice molding, scientist names, and chemical

symbols are not continued. The addition has a tower like entrance feature leading through the

building into the interior courtyard. Over its segmental arched entrance, a cast stone plaque

(Figure 3-76) does continue the themes developed by the architectural ornamentation on the

original wings. A floral wreath wraps around chemistry laboratory equipment, proclaiming the

building's function. This ornament, and the plaque further above in the tower (Figure 3- 77) are

significant because they continue the ornamental language developed for the 1927 building:

small cast details, in a traditional Collegiate Gothic style.

In 1949, Fulton supervised the completion of two new major buildings on campus, the

Florida Gymnasium and Weil Hall. The Florida Gymnasium's architectural ornamentation

continues to relate to the Collegiate Gothic buildings on campus, but it also pushes the design

toward a more simplified form. The main entrance is part of a tower feature, similar to earlier

ones, but wider (Figure 3-78). The entrance and two stories of windows above are all wrapped in

light cast stone masonry, which stands out from the brick facade and highlights this aspect of the

building. At the top of the tower, 'Florida Gymnasium' is spelled out in metal letters in a

modern, rather then Gothic, font (Figure 3-79). Along the sides of the front facade, a water table,









cornice, and simplified crenellation all connect the building to its more Collegiate Gothic

predecessors, but they also emphasis the flat roof and horizontal width of the structure.

Over each set of windows of the east and west elevations, a pointed compound arch

connects buttresses running down the sides of the building and capped with cast stone. These

buttresses relate the Florida Gymnasium to traditional Collegiate Gothic architecture and many

of Edwards's buildings, such as the University Library, but between each buttress, the windows

have brick lintels and simple cast stone sills, instead of pointed arches (Figure 3-80). Along these

facades, the combination of rectangular windows with minimal detailing and buttresses

connected by pointed arches demonstrates simplification within a Collegiate Gothic design.

South of the Florida Gymnasium, the Engineering and Industries Building, now Weil Hall

was completed in 1949 for the College of Engineering. Like the Florida Gymnasium, its massive

size was required by the growing population of the university and its need for space. Along the

primary facade, a water table, quoins, and a bay window contribute to the Collegiate Gothic

design scheme. Small ornaments of Gothic motifs are incorporated into the bay window (Figure

3-81) and on the west entrance; a Tudor arch creates two spandrels (Figure 3-82) similar to those

on the University Auditorium and Library. Each one has a small shield wrapped in oak leaves, a

traditional scheme. Oak leaves have been used on several pieces of the ornamentation on the

University of Florida campus, including a plaque on Thomas Hall (Figure 3-2) in 1906. One

spandrel on Weil Hall gives the building's date, 1949, and the other reads 'UF'.

Another entrance to Weil Hall is marked by a plaque above the door (Figure 3-83). The

plaque shows several engineering tools and is significant because it tells about the building's

function as an engineering school. Furthermore, compared to earlier ornaments such as the









overflowing cornucopia on Griffin-Floyd, this plaque is restrained and more contemporary;

however, it is used in a traditional manner, highlighting an entrance.

The main entrance is part of a tower sequence. Nestled in the corner of two wings, the

entrance is up several steps and through a compound pointed arched vault (Figure 3-84). The

entrance way is surrounded by rusticated masonry, which stands out from the brick facade and

emphasizes this feature. A cast stone plaque with the name, Engineering and Industries Building,

sits above the entrance. The outline of a gear is cast into the center of the plaque. Above the

entrance, a quoin surround highlights each window and differentiates them from the other

windows along the facade. At the top of the tower, more small Gothic motifs complete the

ornamentation. The ornamentation on the Engineering and Industries Building is less pronounced

and the fenestration introduces a new proportion found in campus buildings of this era of

construction.

The following year, in 1950, Fulton completed an addition to the law school building,

Bryan Hall. The original Bryan Hall building of 1914 already had a small addition on its north

and south sides, and Fulton's addition connects to Weaver's north addition. On Edwards' 1914

building, several Collegiate Gothic details had been used across the building to develop the

Gothic style. Additionally, in the entrance tower feature, a plaque (Figure 3-11) was placed

below the cornice molding.

In the 1950 addition, an open arcade along the main facade forms a courtyard with the

original building. The two story arcade is punctuated by three towers, one at each end and one in

the middle. Each of these towers has a plaque relating to the function of the building and

designed in a late art moderne character (Figure 3-85). These ornaments are significant because

they are placed on the addition's towers; like the 1914 plaque was on the original towers









entrance. Also, like the 1914 plaques, they draw inspiration from Florida and the law school, but

are designed in the building's prevalent architectural style.

On the Bryan Hall addition, the cornice line indents to hold each plaque, connecting them

with the building. The lightly colored cornice line on the addition relates to the one on the

original building too. Along the arcade, openings are outlined in heavy masonry, contrasting the

lightness of the openings and emphasizing this feature. The other sides of the addition are

simpler, with brick trimmed fenestration.

Completed in 1951 with the help of Jefferson Hamilton and Kemp, Bunch and Jackson

architects, Fulton supervised the design and construction of Tigert Hall. Tigert Hall became the

university's new administration building and its prominent location and function made it a new

gateway to the campus. Tigert Hall is significant as a transitional link in the architectural history

of the campus.

Like many traditional Collegiate Gothic buildings, the entrance to Tigert Hall is through a

central tower feature (Figure 3-86). Tigert Hall's tower is a massive block, with contrasting

masonry outlining an inset rectangular column of glass in the center, replacing the traditional

combination of smaller windows wrapped in contrasting masonry. Like the traditional Collegiate

Gothic buildings, Tigert Hall emphasizes the entrance by its location in a projection stressed by

the use of contrasting materials along its vertical facade. At the top of the tower, modern font

metal letters, like those on the Florida Gymnasium, form 'Administration Building'. Along the

roof of the tower, crenellation continues the Collegiate Gothic references.

Along the sides of the building, crenellation with balustrades wrap around the roof, relating

the building to Gothic styles. Tigert Hall has several bay windows (Figure 3-87), another Gothic

element. These windows are outlined in ivory colored, contrasting masonry and each one has









several incised ornaments. In between each story's windows, small incised ornaments depict

each college on campus in 1950 (Figure 3-88). The ornaments proclaim Tigert Hall's role as an

administration building for all of the colleges. Additionally, small incised quatrefoils adorn the

bay windows and the railings around the raised tower entrance (Figure 3-89). The modified

Gothic features demonstrate Fulton's respect for the campus's early buildings and the founders'

goal to architecturally connect the University of Florida with the ancient institutions of Europe.

Some ornaments also work to tell the story of the building's purpose, an important function on

campus.

By tracing its history to a parent institution, the University of Florida was able to celebrate

its centennial in 1953- Century Tower was erected to mark this momentous event. An ornament

to the campus, the tower combines many traditional Collegiate Gothic elements and is capped in

a crown of ornamentation (Figure 3-90). Buttresses run up each side of the tower and terminate

in finials. Around the openings for the Carillon bells, lightly colored masonry arches are slightly

pointed, a Gothic innovation. Above, more arches, finials, and small-scale crenellation all work

to express the Collegiate Gothic inspiration for the tower. Carved text over the entrances at the

base of the tower (Figure 3-91) continues the Gothic design. The ornamentation of Century

Tower is significant because it demonstrates a post-Second World War awareness of the

campus's Collegiate Gothic heritage, and a desire to continue drawing inspiration from that

architectural heritage.

Throughout the post-Second World War period, projects on campus employed traditional

Collegiate Gothic details, such as the tower entrance feature, in new ways. Large expanses of

glass, with simplified detailing, became a prominent feature along the facade. Water table and

belt courses became smaller and more streamlined, before disappearing. Despite these changes,









the campus maintained a unified, harmonious design by using the brick and tile materials palette

set by Edwards in 1906 and details relating the new buildings to the Collegiate Gothic ones.

Matherly Hall was built in 1953 to house the growing College of Business Administration.

Hamilton was the consulting architect and Fulton supervised its design and construction.

Matherly Hall has a prominent tower entrance feature (Figure 3-92), like many Gothic Revival

buildings. The tower's entrance is recessed under a flat lintel, rather then a traditional arch. Over

the lintel, metal letters form 'College of Business Administration' in a simple, modern font.

Above it, a several story window lights the interior stair. This window is capped in a multi-

segmented arch, a nod to the campus's traditional architecture. Crenellation on the top of the

tower holds a plaque (Figure 3-93). Depicting man driving technology and transportation, it

exhibits all of the hope that many people felt during this time: technology, progress, and

University of Florida were working to move the world forward. This ornament is significant

because it is used traditionally, to crown a Gothic inspired tower, but its content is inspired by

the progress of modern technology.

Along the facade of the building, long rows of large windows with running courses of cast

stone form the sills and lintels of each expansive opening. These running courses also emphasis

the large size and horizontality of the building. In this way, the ornamentation draws attention to

the modern size and scale of Matherly Hall, emphasizing its architectural style.

Integration of Ornament into the Architectural Concept

Architectural ornamentation was incorporated into the historic campus as part of the

overarching visual concept for each building and it often serves a functional purpose as well.

Collegiate Gothic utilizes several different types of ornamentation to architecturally develop its

structures and provide references to European Gothic architecture. Quoin, like those on Griffin-

Floyd, Leigh, and Weil Halls, emphasis the protruding edges and corners of the building mass,









and develop the Gothic symbolism. They are also functional; large masonry blocks are sturdier

and less likely to become dislodged.

Both the University Library (Figure 3-18) and the Florida Gymnasium (Figure 3-80) use

buttresses to segment the facade and highlight the fenestration pattern. All three architects used

buttresses around entrances and edges, where they draw attention to these elements and provided

an important Gothic reference.

Water tables, belt courses, and cornice moldings divide the horizontal surfaces and provide

linear continuity around buildings. Water tables are also functional; they help deflect water from

the building's foundation. Cornice moldings on campus have projecting eaves, which keep rain

water off the buildings. Starting with Newell Hall in 1909, Edwards and Weaver often placed

cast sculptures at regular intervals along the cornice molding. Cornice molding casts provide

another layer of detail to buildings and develop the building's signage by telling the story of its

function or users. Above the cornice line, crenellation added another layer of ornamentation and

a niche for cast ornaments; for example, Rolfs Hall (Figure 3-22).

Bay and oriel windows serve an important, functional purpose in Florida. In buildings

without air conditioning, like Thomas and Buckman Halls, they allow interior spaces to capture

extra breezes. These protruding windows breakup the long facades of massive buildings and

provide a symbolic Gothic reference. Rolfs Hall was the first building to include sculptural

ornaments within the oriel window design, but it became a campus tradition. Leigh, Sledd,

Fletcher, Weil, and Tigert Halls all use sculptural storytelling ornament around their projecting

windows. Fletcher Hall's gator life tableau (Figure 3-68) is significant because it occurs between

two layers of windows; Tigert Hall's small college casts are also situated between window









stories (Figure 3-87). Windows, especially projecting ones, are significant architectural elements

and all three architects placed additional detailing and ornamentation around them.

Beginning with Thomas and Buckman Halls, entrances are the primary location for

sculptural architectural ornamentation. Lightly colored cast stone ornaments aid in way-finding;

they are conspicuous against brick facades. On Thomas, Sledd and Fletcher Halls, lighting

fixtures were originally integrated into doorway ornamentation, as they are on the library

entrance (Figure 3-20B). Entrances are significant architectural elements; they connect the inside

and outside of buildings. Projecting tower entrance features or flanking buttresses emphasis

major entrances and provide a Gothic motif. Architectural ornamentation around entrances and

projecting entrance towers continues the effect and develops the concept further.

Edwards designed the campus's first Collegiate Gothic buildings. His use of architectural

ornamentation established campus precedents. Weaver built upon Edwards's designs and used a

greater variety of sculptural cast details. Fulton continued to use the ornaments developed by

Edwards and Weaver, but he also introduced new motifs. The university's three architects,

Edwards, Weaver, and Fulton, each added something to the ornamental lexicon of the campus.

Weaver and Fulton both drew from previous work to maintain continuity across campus.

Summary

During the tenures of the university's first three architects, the historic architectural

ornamentation on the University of Florida campus has fulfilled several functions. It has worked

to create a more complete expression of its building's Collegiate Gothic design scheme,

furthering the symbolism inherent in that style. It has simultaneously increased the functionalism

of many buildings; projecting, ornamented entrances are easy to find, eaves and water tables

deflect rainwater, and bay windows capture cross breezes. Within this scheme, many ornaments

were designed to proclaim the function of their building. Other pieces have told stories about the










natural and social history of the area around campus. Some ornaments have drawn inspiration

from university life, depicting students, faculty and colleges. These ornaments reflect the

dynamic forces at work on the campus, helping it to grow into "a splendid and harmonious

whole73."











































73 Susan Tate et al., "The University of Florida Historic Preservation Plans and Guidelines, Draft Update April
2006," (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2006), 4.
hup \ \ \ .facilities.ufl.edu/cp/pdf/Edito20Copy%20Plan%20Guidelines%20Apro2006.pdf. Quote taken
from the University Record of 1906.




























AFigure 3-1. Buckman and Thomas Halls: Entrance

























B

Figure 3-1. Buckman and Thomas Halls: Entrance










































Figure 3-2. Thomas Hall: Elves' entrance


Figure 3-3. Newell Hall: Floral









-'EN '11I III1
____ 4


A
















B

Figure 3-4. Griffin- Floyd Hall: Comucopias. A) Main entrance, east. B) Main entrance, north.




















Figure 3-5. Anderson Hall: Scroll over main entrance


Figure 3-6. Anderson Hall: Main entrance
































Figure 3-7. Peabody Hall: Primary entrance A) Tower entrance B) Finial cap
Figure 3-7. Peabody Hall: Primary entrance. A) Tower entrance. B) Finial cap.


il l


Figure 3-8. Peabody Hall: Inscribed name over main entrance


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Figure 3-9. Bryan Hall: Tower entrance

























Figure 3-10. Bryan Hall: Inscribed name over primary entrance


Figure 3-11. Bryan Hall: State seal on main tower






































Figure 3-12. Bryan Hall: Plaque over 1939 entrance to law library











































Figure 3-13. Gymnasium: Main facade




































Figure 3-14. University Auditorium: Window































Figure 3-15. University Auditorium: Corbel














































Figure 3-16. University Auditorium: Interior


r~ T~S
























I
.J


ki


Figure 3-17. University Auditorium: Interior grotesques. From left to right, musician with lyre,
scholar with open book, football player with football and engineer with gear.


.:?V. I






























Figure 3-18. University Library: Windows with buttresses

















































Figure 3-19. University Library: Original entrance













81



























A J VF ",BM
























B

Figure 3-20. University Library: Additional entrance




























Figure 3-21. Rolfs Hall: Oriel window


r WYs AM
''liW"~ <^i~~' ^ I


Figure 3-22. Rolfs Hall: Floral medallions in quatrefoils in the crenellation























A ".... ......" B












C D













E F

Figure 3-23. Rolfs Hall: Examples of floral plaques along the cornice line. A, D, and E are
abstracted floral designs. However, the others show locally growing plants. B) Iris. C)
Dogwood flower. F) Oranges on a branch.









n m m --- --


Figure 3-24. Rolfs Hall: Beehive


A









B

Figure 3-25. Leigh Hall: Names




















Figure 3-26. Leigh Hall: Gutter detail


Figure 3-27. Leigh Hall: Gargoyles engaged in chemical laboratory experiments. A) Adding. B)
Grinding. C) Heating. D) Mixing.

































Figure 3-28. Leigh Hall: Grape ornament


Figure 3-29. Leigh Hall: Bracket entrance


P-F~







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El II'"


Figure 3-30. Leigh Hall: Entrance with oriel window


Figure 3-31. Leigh Hall: Bay window and quoins






























Figure 3-32. Sledd Hall: Architecture and athletics plaque



















































E F

Figure 3-33. Sledd Hall: Eight student grotesques along the cornice line. A) Student with
backpack. B) Chemistry student. C) Football player. D) Freshman with freshman
beanie. E) Graduate. F) Reader. G) Solider. H) Fraternity member.


r .......... ............. .

























G H

Figure 3-33. Continued
























































Figure 3-34. Sledd Hall: Details from Spanish discovery tableau




















A B















C D

Figure 3-35. Sledd Hall: Six seals from the bay windows





7Fi me mm as.)mm n












A

Figure 3-36. Sledd Hall: Doorway life casts. A) Entrance way. B-H) Plant and animal casts.




















BC










D E
























H

Figure 3-36. Continued








Smm-i mI


B
wmW mm, ,mm m a
iimam. m immmii













Figure 3-37. Sledd Hall: Doorway ornaments. A) Squirrels and mockingbirds in oak branches
door. Hole in top plaque held a light fixture. B) Detail from door frieze. C) Sea life
entrance. D-H) Details from sea life entrance.





























F
















Figure 3-37. Continued



















A B











C D












E

Figure 3-38. Sledd Hall: Ornaments from the cornice molding above the fenestration of the bay
windows. A) Oranges. B) Grapes. C) Dogwood. D) Bananas. E) Flower.







































Figure 3-39. Sledd Hall: Layers of ornamentation














































Figure 3-40. Sledd Hall: Mucozo tower

















99






















A 3

Figure 3-41. Sledd Hall: Mucozo tower details


Figure 3-42. Sledd Hall: Mucozo detail