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The Musical Language of Marlos Nobre through His Orchestral Works


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1 THE MUSICAL LANGUAGE OF MARLOS NOBRE THROUGH HIS ORCHESTRAL WORKS By ILKA VASCONCELOS ARAJO A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D EGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Ilka Vasconcelos Arajo

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3 To Aleksa and Isabella, for everything they mean to me.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation would not have been possible without the assistance of many people, especially those at the University of Florida. I would like to thank composer Marlos Nobre for his assistance in providing me with information. He made himself available to answer all my questions, allowed me into his home, and shared his ideas and insights. I am very grateful to Dr. David Z. Kushner, a lifelong mentor who has guided me through my studies at the University of Florida. Much appreciation is also felt for the rest of my committee: Dr. Larry Crook, Dr. Paul Richards, Dr. Charles Perrone, and Professor Boaz Sharon. Professor Sharon is responsible for a large portion of my piano training and my decision to come to UF. I also owe much gratitude to all of my professors, who supported me and contributed to my knowledge throughout my studies at UF. I would like to thank Robena Cornwell and Michele Wilbanks Fox for assisting me in many ways and for helping me with the acquisition and handling of Marl Lisa Emmerich was instrumental in the editing of this document. Dr. Chan Ji Kim was of great help in exchanging compositional ideas. I am thankful to Michael Deall for helping me with figures. I am particularly grateful t o Dr. Larry Crook and to the late Dr. Gerard Bhague for helping me develop the interest in and enthusiasm for Marlos Nobre. I am grateful to Dr. Jorge Richter for providing me with his dissertation and recordings as well as pianist Maria Luiza Corker Nobr e for providing me with her dissertation and sharing her knowledge and insights. I would like to thank the whole staff of the University of Florida, who directly or indirectly contributed to my work. Many thanks go to all of my friends who made life in Gai nesville so pleasant. There are many friends I am particularly grateful for everything they did to help me accomplish this document. Among them are Graziela Corra da Costa, Beverly Butts, Mary

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5 McCollum, and Dr. Leandro Britto and his family, especially Pa tricia, and Gabriela, for their friendship, care, and assistance at the final stage of this process. I would like to thank Mrio Binelli and his family, especially Ms. Dinda, for their warm hospitality and guidance while I was in Rio de Janeiro developing my research. Finally, I would like to thank my family. My parents, Jos Mrio and Cleomar, and my grandfather, Francisco Honorato, gave constant love and support. My sisters, Ilnah and Ingrid, offered friendship and admiration. Immeasurable appreciation goes to my husband, Aleksa, for his love, help, patience, encouragement and to our daughter, Isabella, who has taught me a great deal about the wonders of motherhood.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 15 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 17 Need for Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 19 Review of Literature ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 21 Books ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 22 Textbooks ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 26 Theses and Dissertations ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Articles, Reviews, and Interviews ................................ ................................ ................... 28 Biographical Dictionaries and Encyclopedias ................................ ................................ 36 2 MARLOS NOBRE ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 38 Marlos Nobre: The Man ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 38 Marlos Nobre: The Composer ................................ ................................ ................................ 62 3 SEARCH FOR AN IDENTITY ................................ ................................ ............................. 81 Biosfer a Op. 35 (1970) ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 81 Mosaico Op. 36 (1970) ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 95 In Memoriam Op. 39 (1973/76) ................................ ................................ ........................... 106 Convergncias Op. 28 (1968/1977) ................................ ................................ ..................... 115 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 124 4 EARLY MATURE STYLE (1980 1985) ................................ ................................ ............. 125 Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53 (1981) ................................ ................................ .. 126 Abertura Festiva Op. 56 bis ( Festival Overture ) (1983) ................................ ..................... 14 2 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 148 5 LATER MATURE STYLE (1990 2004) ................................ ................................ ............. 150 Saga Marista : Passacaglia for Orchestra Op. 84 (1 997) ................................ .................... 150 Kabbalah Op. 96 (2004) ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 164

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7 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 171 6 RECEPTION AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ .................... 173 ................................ ............................. 173 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 180 APPENDIX. 2004) ................................ ........................ 185 Orchestral works: ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 185 String Orchestra ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 186 Student String Orchestra ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 186 Chamber Orchestra ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 186 Chorus and Orchestra ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 186 Piano and Orchestra ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 186 Solo Instruments and Orchestra ................................ ................................ ............................ 187 Voice and Orchestra ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 187 Ballets ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 188 Voice and Ensemble ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 188 Chamber music ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 189 Guitar ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 190 Voice and Guitar ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 190 Two Guitars ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 191 Piano ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 191 Voice and Piano ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 192 Instrumental Music ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 192 Choral Music (A Cappella) ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 194 Choral Music and Guitar ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 195 Band ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 195 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 196 Selected Bibliography ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 196 Writings of Marlos Nobre ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 198 Scores ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 199 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 200

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Biosfera Op. 35: formal struture ................................ ................................ ...................... 84 3 2 Mosaico Op. 36: formal structure ................................ ................................ .................... 96 3 3 In Memoriam Op. 39: formal structure ................................ ................................ .......... 107 3 4 Convergncias Op. 28: formal structure ................................ ................................ ........ 116 3 5 Pitch diminution in Convergncias ................................ ................................ ................. 118 4 1 Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53: formal structure ................................ ............ 127 4 2 Formal Structure of the first movement. ................................ ................................ ......... 127 4 3 Formal Structure of the second movement. ................................ ................................ .... 132 4 4 Formal Structure o f the third movement. ................................ ................................ ........ 138 4 5 Abertura Festiva Op. 56bis: formal structure ................................ ................................ 143 5 1 Ballet plot of Saga Marista ................................ ................................ ............................ 152 5 2 Passacaglia for Orchestra Op. 84: formal structure ................................ ..................... 154 5 3 Kabbalah Op. 96: formal structure ................................ ................................ ................ 167

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 BACH motive used by Marlos Nobre in several of his pieces ................................ .......... 84 3 2 Opening page for Bios fera, Op. 35, measures 1 through 24 ................................ .............. 86 3 3 Horizontal twelve tone development of Variation I mm. 25 41 (left). Rhythmic diminution at the end of Variation I and beginning of Variation II mm. 5 3 64 (right) ..... 88 3 4 Tremolos and Glissandi around BACH motive of Variation II, mm. 80 91 ..................... 88 3 5 Pizzicato Glissandi from Variati on III mm. 106 114 ................................ ........................ 90 3 6 Variation III mm. 115 through 131 with [01234] motive from measures 117 120 followed by mandolin like section mm. 121 124, followed by string chordal tremolos ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 91 3 7 End of first movement and beginning of second movement, mm. 217 227 ...................... 92 3 8 Viola solo line of the second movement, mm. 228 239 ................................ .................... 92 3 9 Artificial harmonics passage mm. 245 256 ................................ ................................ ....... 93 3 10 Climax section of the second movement, mm. 269 283 ................................ .................... 94 3.11 Three note initial motive in Mosaico Op. 36 ................................ ................................ .... 97 3 12 Full score mm. 1 3 (left). Aleatoric box 1 m. 3 (right top); aleatoric box 2 mm. 4 5 (rig ht middle); and aleatoric box 3 m. 14 15 (right bottom) ................................ .............. 97 3 13 Second section of Mosaico mm. 46 47 with beginning of chromatic motive in the strings (A). Extension of chromatic motives throu gh descending chromatic lines on the strings (B) ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 98 3 14 Melodic lines: Oboe mm. 88 91 (top), trumpet mm. 93 95 (bottom) .............................. 100 3 1 5 Gradual presentation of twelve tones, mm. 107 109 ................................ ....................... 101 3 16 Gradual presentation of twelve notes: Three note initial motive m. 78 (top left), four note development m. 92 (bottom left), and co mplete twelve note motive m. 119 (right) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 102 3 17 Initial [012] motive m. 135 (left). Gradual appearance of twelve tones mm. 154 158 (right) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 103 3 18 Climax of first movement m. 45 (top) and climax of third movement m. 162 (bottom) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 104

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10 3 19 Vertical clusters mm. 173 176 (left), and aleatoric box mm. 181 182 (right) ................. 105 3 20 Broken chord motivic idea and aleatoric boxes, mm. 183 184 (left), mm. 187 188 (right) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 106 3 21 Descending minor second mo tives (left), and tritone (right) ................................ ........... 109 3 22 Aleatoric boxes in In Memoriam mm. 27 28 ................................ ................................ ... 109 3 23 Polyphonic modal lines accompanied by harmonic glissandi in the strings, mm. 34 41 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 111 3 24 Beginning of middle section with open string guitar motive and prolongation of pitches, mm. 84 89 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 112 3 25 Minor second pervasive interval adding to the tension after long pause, mm. 113 118 113 3 26 Sense of agony presented by composer through chaotic timpani in terference mm. 108 112 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 114 3 27 Final section of In Memoriam mm. 179 183 ................................ ................................ ... 115 3 28 Strings part only from Convergncias motive mm. 1 12 ................................ ..... 117 3 29 Section B of Convergncias mm. 31 36 ................................ ................................ ......... 119 3 30 Trumpet melodic motive mm. 50 54 ................................ ................................ ............... 120 3 31 New rhythmic motive in trumpets with chromatic notes on horns and percussion, mm. 97 102 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 121 3 32 Slow melodic section mm. 116 127: first on t he oboe (m. 116), then flute (m. 119), and finally first violin (m. 123) ................................ ................................ ........................ 121 3 33 Canonic melody in winds and strings, mm. 140 147 ................................ ....................... 122 3 34 Grand finale of Convergncias with a sense of resolution in E, mm. 294 299. .............. 123 4 1 Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53 pp. 1 2 mm. 1 29. Theme based on BACH motive presented polyphonically in four voices ................................ .............................. 128 4 2 Variation I: Repetitive development of the BACH motive mm. 31 42 ........................... 129 4 3 Variation III: Ne w motive constructed of minor thirds mm. 58 69 ................................ 130 4 4 Variation VII: Mid point at measure 126 on B natural, mm. 114 132. ........................... 131 4 5 End of first movement in a B natural. ................................ ................................ .............. 131

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11 4 6 First violin twelve tone melody of the second movement, mm. 1 4 ............................... 133 4 7 Second p resentation of twelve tone melody on the first violin, second movement, mm. 5 6. Here the melody is transposed with some of the intervals reversed ................ 133 4 8 Second Movement mm. 1 9: three presen tations of twelve tone melody on the first violin ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 133 4 9 B section of second movement mm. 27 45. ................................ ................................ ..... 134 4 10 End of B section with 63 .......................... 135 4 11 75 ........ 137 4 12 End of second movement emphasizing tonal center in E, mm. 117 139 ......................... 138 4 13 Third movement, BACH motive as introduction to twelve notes, mm. 1 30 .................. 139 4 14 Vertical presentation of Twelve Tones, mm. 43 54 ................................ ........................ 140 4 15 Section C with quartal/quintal harmonies, mm. 81 87 ................................ .................... 141 4 16 End of Concerto II for String Orchestra mm. 137 155 ................................ .................. 142 4 17 Chromatic ascending chords in Abertura Festiva Op. 56 bis, mm. 1 8, woodwind and brass sections only ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 144 4 18 Eleven note melody polyphonic statement on strings, woodwinds and brass, respectively, mm. 30 38 ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 145 4 19 B secti on with eleven note melody in four voices and imitation on the strings, mm. 65 74 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 146 4 20 BACH motive on xylophone and strings mm. 75 81 ................................ ...................... 147 4 21 BACH motive transposed on xylophone and strings, mm. 91 95 ................................ ... 148 4 22 Dominant Tonic cadence in the end of Abertura Festiva mm. 126 130. ....................... 149 5 1 Ostinato Theme mm. 3 7 followed by Main Theme over Ostinato Theme mm. 8 12 .... 155 5 2 Gradual increase of speed and activity mm. 25 28. ................................ ......................... 157 5 3 Samba like rhythm first in the piano and percussion (top), then on the strings (bottom). ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 158 5 4 Northeast melody accompanied by chromatic notes and quartal/quintal harmonies, mm. 76 79 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 160

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12 5 5 Peixe Vivo 87 ................................ ................................ ...................... 161 5 6 Prenda Minha nd strings section mm. 108 111 ............... 162 5 7 Carimb 121. ................................ ............................... 163 5 8 Transformation of Main Theme on the B razilian National Anthem, brass and timpani sections, mm. 204 207. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 163 5 9 Triple meter set by percussion and second pitch set from glockenspiel and vibraphone in the opening of Kabbalah mm. 5 8 ................................ ........................... 168 5 10 Initial pitch sets along with bassoon line mm. 1 15 ................................ ......................... 168 5 11 20 ................................ ................................ ....................... 169 5 12 Horn melody accompanied by chromatic chordal expansion mm. 83 90 ....................... 170 5 13 Rhythmic preparation for the kabbala theme, mm. 102 105 ................................ ........... 171 5 14 The kabbala theme in the trumpets with rhythmic support mm. 106 109 ....................... 172

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13 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE MUSICAL LANGUAGE OF MARLOS NOBRE THROUGH HIS ORCHESTRAL WORKS By Ilka Vasconcelos Arajo May 2007 Chairman: David Z. Kushner Major : Music Marlos Nobre (b. 1939) has achieved enormous respect over the years among the public and musicians all over Brazil and abroad; in fact, in the late 1960s, he had already occupi ed a The development of the musical language of Marlos Nobre combines a series of influences from different periods and styles of music. In his concept, the greatest formal structures are tho se of eighteenth and nineteenth century classical works, which he combines with modern techniques. The multifaceted music of this composer, who has Debussy, Bartk, Stravinsky, and colored with elements drawn from Brazilian folklore and nature, striking sound combinations, and spontaneity. is last three style periods. They display a these works had not been studied and analyzed within and outside academia until now. The orchestral works have been the me dium in which Nobre has had the widest possibilities to

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14 express his musical ideas and thoughts. The works discussed in the present study summarize all his compositional development; they cover the year 1968 through 2004.

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15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Among contemporary composers in Brazil, Marlos Nobre has come to occupy a prominent position within the Brazilian avant garde. He is widely considered by Brazilian musical establishments and the world community to be the successor o f Villa Lobos. 1 On November 29, 2005 in Spain, Nobre won the Toms Luis de Victoria Prize. Earning the sixth edition of the prize, he was the first Brazilian composer to achieve such prestige. Judges voted unanimously for the first time in history, select ing Nobre from among 57 nominated composers from 17 countries. The international jurors said they were impressed by "the excellent trajectory of Nobre, the projection and importance of his works, and the originality of his aesthetic thinking." 2 Essentially a Latin American composer and, more specifically, a Brazilian composer, Nobre maintains the unique personal qualities that connect him with his origins while entering the world stage as a universal composer. His musical language speaks profound sentences of western art music, with a Brazilian accent. from different periods and styles of music. Nobre combines the greatest formal structures of eighteenth and nineteenth centu ry classical works with modern techniques. The result is powerful music which displays a vigorous, distinguished rhythmic vitality, colored by elements from Brazilian folklore and nature, striking sound combinations, and spontaneity. 1 The comparison between Marlos Nobre and Villa Lobos has come from a long tradition. Besides occupying Villa ant position that no other Brazilian composer has since Villa Like Villa the culture of Brazil and Latin America in general. 2 Nobre, Marlos. Personal Website http://marlosnobre.sites.uol.com.br/index1_i.html accessed on November 2006

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16 Although Marlos Nobre is considered one of the most prominent composers of the late twentieth and early twenty first century, there is very limited literature dealing with his works. 3 In the genre of orchestral pieces, in depth studies are basically non existent 4 The orche stral works of Marlos Nobre represent an important achievement in the the primary goal of this author to analyze these works from a musicological point of view. The has been a challenge in the hands of scholars in Brazil and abroad. Each chapter of this document is devoted to a group of orchestral works. The chapters f ollow a chronological order. A historical background of each work is provided, as well as a formal, rhythmical, melodic and harmonic analysis. The works are organized according to their opus number followed by the year of composition. Important achievement and important aspects about the composer are addressed in chapter 2. This chapter also provides a certain look into the twentieth century Brazilian musical scene in order to expose the influences that surround the composer, as well as t o position Nobre vis `a vis his contemporaries. Chapter 3 discusses four major works composed in the 1970s: Biosfera Op. 35; Mosaico Op. 36, which became one of the most important works written by Nobre in the early 1970s; In Memoriam, Op. 39, another im portant work written in 1973, and, finally, Convergncias Op. 28, 3 Marlos Nobre El sonido de l realismo mgico by Toms Marco recently published in 2006 has been the most complete work related to Marlos Nobre and his compositions. output, the book is not an exhaustive or definite analysis or inter achievements. The chapter related to his orchestral works, for instance, only briefly discusses basic compositional aspects of only a few of the compositions. 4 s orchestral works is the D.M.A dissertation An p. 84 by Jorge Richter ( Michigan State University, 2002 ).

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17 a work that had origins in the late 1960s, but evolved into a more mature creation in the late 1970s. Chapter 4 discusses two important works composed in the 1980s, a time when the composer reached maturity and expressed his most important musical concerns. The pieces are Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53 and Abertura Festiva Op. 56bis. Chapter 5 discusses his latest orchestral works, which serve to summarize all of his compositional tendencies. These works were written in the late 1990s and early 2000s. They are Saga Marista: Passacaglia for Orchestra Op. 84 and Kabballah Op. 96. Finally, chapter 6 ical scene and a conclusion detail ing seen throughout his orchestral works. Although eight pieces are discussed in this study, Nobre has several other orchestral compositions still in preparation and therefore are no t included in this document. 5 The inclusion of two compositions for string orchestra, Biofera and Concerto II was necessary, as opposed to simply including works for full orchestra. Aside from containing great, unique value, this author believes the work s for string orchestra that were selected for this study share common characteristics present in the works for full orchestra Methodology Copyrights for the scores and recordings presented in this dissertation belong strictly to Marlos Nobre, who wa s contacted by the author in the beginning of the research process. Besides bibliographical references, much of the information presented was obtained through conversations between the author and the composer, either in person or through the Internet. 5 The pieces are Desafio XXX Op. 31 No. 30, composed in 1968 and revis ed in 1978 Football Op. 50 (1980) and Xingu Op. 75, composed in 1989.

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18 The author contacted the composer through the University of Florida Library System to purchase all the scores and a few recordings of the works discussed. The author also personally acquired several other recordings and books. It was important to have knowledg e of and access http://marlosnobre.sites.uol.com.br/index1_i.html which provided insights and a great deal of information. The methodology included the analysis and the listening of the orchestral scores, the interpreta tion of written material, the exchange of compositional ideas with contemporary composers and scholars in the USA and Brazil, and, especially, interviews and personal conversations with the composer. Several books on music, music encyclopedias and music jo urnals, most of them written in Spanish and Portuguese, along with newspaper and magazine interviews were used as primary and secondary sources. The quotations and sources used in this dissertation that were originally in different languages have been tran slated into English by the author. Furthermore, the author has analyzed all orchestral works used in this study through a musicological perspective. In order trend s, the author studied, and consulted several sources. Among those sources are: Robert Twentieth Century Music and Anthology of Twentieth Century Music The Structure of Atonal Music and Contemporary Tone Structures Tw elve Tone Tonality and Serial Composition and Atonality: An Introduction to the Music of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern Music in Latin America: An Introduction ; Maria Luiza Coker Aspectos Tcnicos e Estticos de Sonnc ias III de Marlos Nobre: uma Introduo `a Problemtica da Intuio versus Cerebralismo dissertation Marlos Nobre: an Analytical Study of Saga Marista: Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op.

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19 84 ; Jos Maria Msica Contempornea Brasil eira ; and, the most recent, Marlos Nobre El sonido del realismo mgico by Toms Marco. The need to know other twentieth century sic. Therefore, the author studied compositional styles and works of Bela Bartk, Igor Stravinsky, Charles Ives, the Second Viennese School, John Cage, Earle Brown, Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Alberto Ginastera, Krzysztof Penderecki, Witold Lutos century Brazilian composers such as Heitor Villa Lobos, Camargo Guarnieri, Csar Guerra Peixe, Claudio Santoro, Hans Joachim Koellreuter, Almeida Prado, Edino Krieger, and Ricardo Tacuchian. It was also important to get familiarized w ith other works composed by Nobre, especially those which involve chamber or string orchestra, and the concertos. This author visited Marlos Nobre at his home in Brazil and several libraries in order to collect the necessary data for this document. Among the libraries visited were the National Library in Rio de Janeiro, the Library of the School of Music of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, the Library of the Brazilian Conservatory of Music in Rio de Janeiro, and the Benson Latin American Collectio n at the University of Texas at Austin. Need for Study The international knowledge of Brazilian art music is mostly concentrated on Villa Lobos. He remains the best known and most representative Brazilian composer of all times. Unfortunately, there a re several other important composers whose lives and works have remained virtually unknown outside Brazil. The consequence is that the bulk of Brazilian music to reach international reputation and acclaim has been mostly characterized by its relationship t o

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20 nationalism and the figure of Villa Lobos 6 This hardly undervalues the achievements of Villa Lobos as a great composer, but simply extends and amplifies openness to other representative aesthetic tendencies in Brazilian musical since the 1930s. Along wi th other composers, Marlos Nobre represents progress in the Brazilian musical scene that goes from post nationalistic works to extremely avant garde collages, without forgetting the variants between these two categories and the achievements of electronic m usic composers. Nobre has enjoyed an increasingly international reputation over the past 40 years through his achievements and commissions, and through theses and dissertations about him and his compositions, recordings, articles, and performances. Among c ontemporary Brazilian composers, he has been the most recognized in the past few decades and has been acknowledged 7 Sadly, he is still known primarily in countries where either Portuguese or Span ish is the primary language, including South America and parts of Europe. Although he has been to the United States several times, and a few doctoral dissertations about him and his music have been defended in American universities, he is still little know n by the majority of international composers and scholars, especially in the United States. The need for this study, therefore, is obvious: to bring attention to different aesthetics present in contemporary Brazilian music through the musical language of Marlos Nobre, as represented in his orchestral works and the knowledge of these great late twentieth and early twenty first century compositions. Although much has been written about him and his music in 6 Even Villa Lobos got into a dilemma when he found himself immersed in a trend between Modernism and Nationalism in the late 1920s. Nevertheless, Nationalism still became a stronger characteristic in his compositions. In the 1930s, he adhered to nationalistic ideas combined with neoclassical tendencies, which gave him the power of populism and at the same time the political support of government authorities. 7 Remi niscncias Op. 83 and Homenagem a Villa Lobos Latin American Music Review Austin: University of Texas Press, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 85 89, 1996.

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21 Portuguese, Spanish, English, German, and French, v ery little of this literature has focused on his literature devoted to Nobre explores his piano works and nationalistic aspects in his music. Very few people have writ ten about his more advanced works. Musical analysis of his orchestral Marlos Nobre: an Analytical Study of Saga Marista: Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op. 84 as mentioned earlier in this chapter. This imposes another need for this study. It is hoped that this dissertation will not only bring attention to this great composer and some of his finest works, but also will further expand knowledge about Brazilian music and its composers, who f ollow aesthetic tendencies other than nationalism and neoclassicism. This author also hopes that the study becomes an additional resource to schools and departments of music, so that it will enhance the study of the history of music and, in particular, com posers in Latin America. Furthermore, it is important to note that the works described in this document are of great value and certainly deserve to be considered for performances by orchestras, conductors, and program organizers. Review of Literature Much has been written regarding twentieth century music. Considerable sources deal with art music written after the 1960s. However, textbooks that exclusively dedicate themselves to twentieth century music are often limited, with only a short examination o f the latest major trends in music history and their most prominent representatives. The problem gets more severe when dealing with living composers, especially those who come from countries other than France, Germany and the United States.

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22 Although most of them remain unknown, Latin American composers have contributed a great deal to the development of the history of western art music. In Latin America, Heitor Villa Lobos (1887 1959), Carlos Chvez (1899 1978), and Alberto Ginastera (1916 1983) are the composers who usually dominate the field. Many important composers remain obscure, and even the few studies dedicated to them are not translated into English. This is the case in the history of art music in Brazil. Most literature regarding the subject is in Portuguese and only native Brazilian scholars or scholars dedicated to Latin American studies gain access to the sources. This generates a restricted group with interest in the topic. Books Useful sources were used in the research process of the presen t document. Music in Latin America: An Introduction by Gerard Bhague, is perhaps the most comprehensive source related to art music in Latin America in the English language. 8 Its only edition was published in 1979, leaving out a great deal of significant updated information. Nevertheless, it contains important information on major figures in Latin America. Several musical examples, with their analysis, make the volume more complete than any other book written on Latin American music and composers, especi ally Brazilian musicians. The sections related to Brazil are somewhat primarily on Villa Lobos. The book is divided into three sections: The Colonial Period; The R ise of Nationalism; and Counter Currents in the Twentieth Century. Marlos Nobre is described with much respect. However, he is mentioned only on one page in the third section. A short 8 Music of Latin America published in 1945. Although Sl volume did not provide substantial information and musical analysis, it was from the publication of his book that interest in and research on the art music traditions of Latin America increased.

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23 biographical description is provided, along with the listing of seven ma jor works written before 1973. A brief analytical description of Ukrinmakrinkrin a piece for soprano, wind instrument, and piano composed in 1964, and of the 1970 orchestral work Mosaico is provided. The Music of Brazil (1983) by David Appleby is one of the few existing sources about Brazilian art music in the English language. The volume, written in six chapters, ranges from instruments is provided. However, they are sometimes incomplete and even misleading. For instance, Appleby describes a cavaquinho as a small guitar. The cavaquinho looks like a small guitar but it has only four strings, a different tuning, and it serves primarily for harmonic and rhythmic funct ions. The book describes the major Brazilian composers along with their works, the post modernismo chapter under post nationalism. Nobre garners four pages in t his book, with three illustrative musical examples. Appleby focuses more on the big names and does not give enough attention to the composers of this new generation. After giving some biographical tional characteristics as exemplified by his piano piece Nazarethiana, Op. 2 (1960) a chromatic piece in duple meter with simple syncopation. The piece suggests the style of Nazareth, a composer whom Nobre deeply admired. The book also describes Beiramar Op. 21 (1966), a set of three songs for voice and piano that displays a traditional style and the use of Afro Brazilian themes, and Sonncias I, Op. 37 (1972), a piece for percussion and piano combining extreme dynamic range, tone clusters and intricate rhythmic techniques. The musical analyses are not very detailed, but the author makes

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24 A number of books have been written in Portuguese by Brazilian scholars who attempt to construct the history of western art musi c in Brazil, along with its important representatives. Nevertheless, few provide in depth information about specific composers and compositions, and almost none show detailed analysis and musical examples. Most of the information relies on historical facts and biographical information along with a few lists of compositions. Msica Contempornea Brasileira by Jos Maria Neves has been by far the most informative source in the Portuguese language. Although it was written in 1981, the study has never been re i ssued and is out of print today. Some libraries dedicated to Latin American Studies hold a copy of the book. Neves elaborates o n the evolution of music in Braz il since the beginning of the twentieth century Although Marlos Nobre is only mentioned later in the book analysis of evolution and influences present in Brazilian music. It is almost as if, from the beginning to the end, Neves was describing the composition al aspects of Marlos Nobre. His description of Nobre is fairly accurate, especially for being written in the early 1980s. Neves mentions how accomplished Nobre is and how big a future awaits him. Hist ria da Msica no Brasil first published in 1981 and now in its fifth edition, which was published in 2000. The book is a good source for a panoramic view of the development of music in Brazil. From the Colonial period until the latest generation of compo sers, Mariz is fair enough to give space to every single composer, independent of how important that composer has been to the development of the compositional trends in Brazil. This is a positive factor, especially in referring to the new, young generation of composers. The book reads more like a novel, and the musical analyses are not very deep. There are no musical excerpts and the few analyses are mostly about vocal works. It

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25 is important to know that Vasco Mariz is a singer himself. Nevertheless, the bo ok does not lose all value. Chapter 22, devoted to the second generation of independent composers, describes the life and works of Marlos Nobre in eight pages. It is a valuable source of knowledge about compositional style. Figuras da Ms ica Contempornea no Brasil (2 nd ed. 1970), also by Vasco Mariz, contains some important information. B ut it is not as updated as the information in the above mentioned book. This book contains 17 chapters and includes most of the contemporary composers wi th a succinct biography as well as an aesthetic stylistic position of their most important works. Unfortunately there are no musical examples, which is characteristic of the writer. Another downside to the book is the lack of information about primary sour ces. However, Mariz provides a list of compositional catalogues of certain composers, followed by their Histria da Msica no Brasil The most important source for Marlos Nobre is the recently published Marlos Nobre El sonido del realismo mgico by Toms Marco. The book is as complete as possible within its limitations and it is an excellent source for all scholars interested in life and works of Marlos Nobre. An English v ersion would increase its reach to a wider audience and it would by genres and devotes a chapter to each group. There are no musical excerpts and little analytical det

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26 compositional techniques are of great value. The book also contains photographs that enrich its text. This source also provides an appendix with an updated list of sixth edition of the Toms Lus de Victoria prize in Spain in the summer of 2006. Textbooks General books o n the history of music such as The Development of Western Music: A History (third edition), by Marie K. Stolba, or A History of Western Music (fifth Edition), by Donald Jay Grout and Claude V. Palisca, place little emphasis on music since the 1960 s Although they are widely used in colleges and universities, these general histories lack information regarding the development of music in a post serial period as well as information on other parts of the world, such as Latin America Latin America, and that refers mostly to nationalism. He mentions Villa Lobos, Revueltas, Chvez, Ginastera and one of each of their pieces. General music a ppreciation textbooks such as, Music: An Appreciation (eighth edition), by Roger Kamien, or Understanding Music (third edition), by Jeremy Yudkin make no mention of Marlos Nobre. Both textbooks mention music in the twentieth century and briefly cover music after the 1960 s music in South America. Music in the Modern Age edited by F. W. Sternfeld (1973), has one chapter devoted to music in Latin America. Written by Robert Stevenson the chapter mainly describes the major figures of Latin America in the twentieth century: Chvez, Vill a Lobos, Ginastera. To those, Stevenson adds Castro in Argentina, Revueltas in Mexico, Soro and Allende in Chile, and Castillo and Delgadillo in Central America. In the section covering Brazil, Stevenson mentions a list of other important and promising com posers of the twentieth century. Marlos Nobre receives

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27 more attention than any other composer in this section, with eight lines of biographical description and information on important festivals. Important books on t wentieth century music such as Modern M usic and After: Directions since 1945 (1995), by Paul Griffiths, and Twentieth Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America by Robert P. Morgan, make no mention of South America. Nevertheless, they remain excellent, fundamental r esources for important stylistic developments in modern and contemporary art music. Theses and Dissertations Marlos Nobre and his works have been the topic of several theses and dissertations in Brazil, Austria, Canada, and the United States over the past ten years. Unfortunately, the majority of these writings are not published, so most people have no access to them. 9 Very few of these works deal with compositions other than piano and topics other than the nationalistic traits in his work. This author was able to find specific dissertations that were very helpful to the development of this document. In order to obtain and study these works, the author had to contact the respective writers and borrow their private copies. Maria Luiza Corker Cardoso Nob re de Almeida Aspectos Tcnicos e Estticos de Sonncias III de Marlos Nobre: Uma Introdu o `a Problemtica da Intui o versus Cerebralismo Janeiro. The thesis contains impor s compos itional process through one of his most valuable compositions, Sonncias III Op. 49 (1980) The thesis starts with an analysis of intuition versus cerebralism and then follows with technical a spects, notation and aesthetic interpretation. An analysis of the piece along with its 9 Ph.D. dissertations are accessed through UMI, h owever most of these documents are D.M.A. dissertations and they are not always found in the system.

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28 entire score is provided. The analysis, however, focuses more on form, rhythm, and aleatoric content in the work. A harmonic analysis based on pitch material would make the approach more complete. In general, the thesis provides useful information. However, the thesis is not published, but one can get a good glance at its content and information by looking at Corker Sonncias III published in 1994 in the Latin American Music Review It is important to note that the article is written in Portuguese. An Analytical Study of hestra, Op. 84 by Jorge Richter This is a D.M.A. dissertation for Michigan State University ( 2002). Unfortunately, the work is not published. analytical information orchestral works. B ut it does not attempt to present deeper insight s into No not situate the work in relation to other works It also does not contextualize the importance of that specif ic and compositional development Richt er divides the chapters into separate aspects of his analytical approach, such as formal, melodic, and harmonic analysis. A list of pitch set material is provided in one of the appendices. or, generating interesting and valuable information. Articles Reviews, and Interviews Articles, interviews and reviews on Marlos Nobre and his works abound. In fact, these are the bulk of references about him. A small portion of this material is relate works and there is some mention of his compositional techniques, especially in interviews. Revista Musical Chilena vol. 42 no. 169, 1988, pp. 95 96, creation as a clear combination of several styles from the avant garde styles of the moment, where he consciously extracts elements that he

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29 needs and, at the same time, unconsciously makes use of other elements from Brazilian national folklore. The author nd experience. The article is helpful to understand the creative process of the composer. Another article Cantata del Chimborazo Op. 56 para was also publish ed by Revista Musical Chilena vol. 38, no. 162, 1984, pp. 154 158. Merino analyzes the three parts of this great piece, which was commissioned for the bicentennial of Simon Bolvar in 1982. The piece was premiered at the Bellas Artes National Theater in M aracaibo, Venezuela. The article explains some musical ideas the composer uses in this piece. The piece was composed in 1982, a period in which the composer had reached maturity and had better defined his musical language and style. The first part is a pas sacaglia and the principal theme is a series of 16 chromatic notes, each with its own chord. These chords represent a harmonic structure in expansion. The composer utilizes tonality, atonality, polytonality, and some serial resources, all with the intentio n of simply expressing the musical ideas behind the work. Interestingly, in the second part the composer uses blocks of tonal chords instead of the usual clusters or ecstatic sound blocks characteristic of the time. The third movement recapitulates the pas sacaglia idea and the piece ends in E major. This article is helpful in understanding the analytical aspect of this cantata, which is the basis for his orchestral piece Abertura Festiva composed a year later. esentada por el compositor brasile o Marlos by Francisco Curt Lange, was published in Revista Musical Chilena no. 142 144, 1978, pp. 126 130. This article is based on a

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30 Lati noamericano de Msica Contempora nea in 1978. It also makes use of additional infor mation in the first edition of Colonial Sacred Music of Venezuela written by composer and musicologist Juan Bau tista Plaza, and an edition of music by contemporary composers from Latin America by Curt Lange publicize their music. He encourages the organization of more music festi vals within Latin America, so that Latin American composers do not need to travel so far to Europe or the United States to have their pieces performed. He also supports exchanging pieces and programs so that performers, ensemble groups, and orchestras of different countries can perform in creating research centers of information and divulgation in order to promote international music. Nobre emphasizes a need to help young composers understand national music in their native countries and appreciate their rich folklore, in hopes that they might use, for example, Ginastera and Villa Lobos as models, instead of Penderecki and Prokofiev. The article demonstrates the k ind of work Nobre developed in his administrative positions, which were comparable to his ideas as a composer. Ukrinmakrinkrin Revista Musical Chilena vol. 22, no. 148, 1979, pp. 48 57, gives a detail ed analysis of Ukrinmakrinkrin Op. 17, which was composed in 1964 for soprano, piano, piccolo, oboe, and French horn. The piece was movements based on indigenous Bra zilian texts using the Xucuru dialect. The work presents logical and strict writing in the first movement, while the second movement is free and indeterminate. The third movement displays a combination of the two ideas and finds a balance

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31 between the stric t and aleatoric, in favor of elements of pure expression. The harmonic structure of the piece is based on the interaction of these three instrumental groups: voice, piano and the three wind instruments. Each has their own musical lines, which follow a hori zontal structure within a Baroque context in this piece, exploring his use of organic development from ornamentations, the effects and glissandi through the ex ploration of colors and the power of the Ma fin est mon commencement et mon commencement ma fin a rondeau that utilizes a complex technique with binary structure and retrogration process. I t is important to remember that Nobre had a strong training in vocal polyphonic masses, and that the medieval modes through northeast Brazilian folklore remain a big influence in his works. This piece is one of the most important works composed by Nobre, a nd it affords insights into his development. published in Latin American Music Review vol. 17, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1996), pp. 85 89, makes the following statement: No other Brazilian composer of his generation has been able to garner such an extraordinary recognition. Indeed, this is due to the sheer creative power and imagination mber works, along with an informative summary of his biography and compositional style. Bhague describes the pieces representative compositions during his second and third periods, from 1963 until 1980. The rhythmic construction. In the musical descriptions, Bhague is more informative when describing Mosaico displays of exceptional command over sophisticated

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32 techniques and a deep sense of engineering. He also supplies good information on Sonncias III In that piece, using powerful, individual, and highly expressive style, Nobre combines several of his previo us compositional techniques with rhythm, harmonic and formal aspects revealing the beginning of a subsequent more mature stage. Paul Earls Ukrinmakrinkrin Op. 17 and Mosaico para Orquestra, Op. published in Anuario de Investigacin M usical vol. 8, 1972, pp. 178 180, is a description of evident success w though the piece is written in the Brazilian indigenous Xucur dialect, the vocal idiom of the piece is closer to that of Luciano Berio ( Circles ) and Pierre Boulez ( pli selon pli ), not necessarily more primitive. Nevertheless, the piece successfully occupies a middle position between regional and international traditions. The piece is accessible and communicative and constructed for successful presentation. Earls presents Mosaico as a p iece of three movements, each derived from a single gestural concept. The piece is much more sophisticated than the previous one, and comments on how quickly Nobr impact his search for a more personal compositional voice. Fanfare vol. 18, no. 1, 1994, pp. 60 66, is one of the very few Englis h language resources regarding this composer. Brown begins with a short introduction, giving a little biographical information and citing a few important works. The interview is very useful because it gives Nobre the chance to explain in his own words how the compositional process happens in his mind, as well as how certain influences

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33 play a role in his musical development. Brown asks Nobre to describe Recife, the place where he was born and grew up, as well as the musical environment of his early years. No bre says he needed to study sociology and anthropology to please his father. The interview concludes with Another useful interview is sicos de Hoy: Marlos Nobre El ad venimiento de la by Jacobo Romano, published in Buenos Aires Musical May 1971. The article develop s through questions posed to Marlos Nobre about the result of the union o f art and technology Nobre gives insights an d describes the importance to the sound when art and science work together. The questions aim to better understand the intercorrelation among art, science, and the desire of mankind to comprehend its own existence. Moreover, Nobre describes his musical ide ologies and his aesthetic thought. The second half of the Revista Musical Chilena vol. 33 no. 148, 1979, is one of the mos t complete interviews done with the composer. Nobre explains the things that influenced him and details developments within his works. He also classifies the periods of his compositional output, which helps scholars understand and analyze his works. Nobre explains the strong influence that northeastern Brazilian folklore represents to his compositional style. He concentrates on the influence of the Maracatu, a carnival procession accompanied by percussive music that is constructed of polyrhythm, large, dyna mic crescendos and irregular accents. Nobre also describes typical Brazilian percussion instruments and how that type of folkloric music became a living memory in his blood and heart. O Globo Revie w in December 2005 is one of the few interviews published in Brazil that affords Internet access. The

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34 article is written in Portuguese, but it gives a great deal of biographical information along with a series of questions, which Nobre answers, referring to his works and influences. Moreover, Brazilian stores. He says he sometimes needs to encourage people to acquire them. Nobre also comments on his then recent winni ng of the 6 th Edition of the Toms Luis de Victoria in Spain, and how much more his music is appreciated in Europe than in Brazil. Nobre explains that he embraces all of the available techniques, and remarks that he believes in plurality, which is clearly translated through his works. Another interview, published in O Globo Review in August, 2006, his earning of the most recent Toms Luis de Victria Prize in Madrid. Nobre was the first Brazilian composer to receive the prize, placing him alongside composers from other countries, such as Harold Gramatges, from Cuba; Celso Garrido Lecca, from Peru; Alfredo del Mnaco, from Venezuela; and Xavier Montsalvatge and Juan Guinjoan, from the Catalan region in Spain. Marques asks Nobre to describe his Piano Sonata on a Theme b y Bla Bartk which was premiered at the prize ceremony in Spain in the summer of 2006. Nobre comments on his major influences s composers he admires, such as Sofia Gubaidulina, Henryk Grecki, Krzysztof Penderecki, Kaija Saariaho among others. Nobre also emphasizes the lack of support and opportunities f or young composers in Brazil, and talks about how this situation could be remedied through governmental initiatives. : 3 Can es Negras, Desafio XXXII, Canto a Garcia Lorca, 3 Can es de Beiramar by Marc Mandel published in F anfare vol. 24 no. 1 ( September/October 2000 ) pp.

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35 303 304, s that involve soprano and cello octet ensemble s Although the review is related to the recording by CHANNEL CCS 15598, Mandel writes a great deal es. He also describes the pieces and the musical techniques used by Nobre. He compares Nobre to Villa Lobos, whose Bachianas Brasileiras No. 1 and No. 5 are also composed for cello octet, the latter with added soprano recorded on the same CD. Mandel acknow ledges the competence of both composers. F anfare vol. 23, no. 3 (November/December 1999), pp. 421 Desafio This time, Nobre is recorded a long with several other Latin American composers such as Chvez, Piazzola, Mignone, Diazmunoz, and Gaito. The version of Desafio discussed here is the series for cello and piano from 1976. Jameson comments on the presence and impact of the piece, and how m uch the work has absorbed the techniques of Messiaen and Penderecki. Jong in American Record Guide vol. 57, no. 5 (September/October 1994), pp. 168 169. The review : In Memoriam, Mosaico, Convergncias, Biofera, O Canto Multiplicado, Ukrinmakrinkrin, Rhythmetron, Divertimento, Concerto Breve, Rhythmic Variations and Sonncias I and III reveals aspects about Nobre as a composer, conductor, and pianist. De Jong desc combinations, spontaneity and roots in Brazilian folklore and nature. De Jong emphasizes F anfare vol. 18, no. 1, 1994, pp. 278 and how they are reflected in his pieces, especially those recorded in this two CD set. The set

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36 r the percussion, which translate into a successful blend of modernist ic techniques with folkloristic opposed to the faceless internationalism that dominated the European avant garde of the 1960s. Biographical Dictionaries and E ncyclopedias In addition to being discussed in articles, Marlos Nobre and his works are also discussed in some biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias. In the 8 th Ed. (1994) Nicholas Sl onimsky finds that Nobre succeeded in forming a strong individual manner of musical self expression despite all the efflux of styles he was exposed to as a student. He believes Nobre is one of the few contemporary Latin American composers who does not disd ain utilizing folkloristic inflections in his music. Slonimsky gives a list of works composed by Nobre and some biographical information. In Music Since 1900 (1971), Nicholas Slonimsky lists major events that happened from 1900 until 1985. 10 It is surprisi ng that Nobre is only mentioned once, in a concert at the Fourth Inter American Music Festival in Washington, D.C. on a program of avant garde music of Latin America in 1967. Nothing about Nobre is mentioned after that. In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2001) Gerard Bhague provides a great deal of biographical information on Nobre followed by a selective list of works, writings and bibliography. Bhague finds that Nobre holds an important position in the contemporary Brazilian music scen 10 The book was first published in 1971 containing material up to 1969. Afterwards, Slonimsky wrote a supplement in another smaller volume that covers up to July 13, 1985.

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37 influences from different periods and styles of music, gives special characteristics to his musical language that go from tonal to modal, polytonal, and atonal. The Cambridge History of Twentieth Century Music edited by Nicholas Cook and Anthony Pople, makes no mention at all of music in Latin America. However, Villa Lobos and ana person listed in the book. Some biographical information on Villa inastera, for instance, is not even listed. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopedia of 20 th Century Music (1986), by Paul Griffths, mentions Latin American composers. But in Brazil, only Villa Lobos gets an entry, offering a biographical description and list of his most significant works. A Twentieth Century Musical Chronicle Events from 1900 1988 (1989), compiled by Charles J. Hall, lists major events around the musical world in the twentieth century. Latin American figures such as Ginastera and Villa Lobos a re included but there is no mention of Marlos Nobre.

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38 CHAPTER 2 MARLOS NOBRE Among contemporary composers in Brazil, Marlos Nobre has come to occupy a prominent position within the Brazilian avant garde. He is widely considered by Brazilian musical establishments and the world community to be the successor o f Villa greatest composers. The following chapter contains two sections: the first provides detailed biographical information, and the second describes important influences and specific characteristics of Most of the biographical information presented in this study is Marlos N obre: The Man Marlos Nobre was born in Recife, Pernambuco, on February 18, 1939. His parents were music lovers and amateur musicians; his father played the guitar and his mother played the teachers. At age five, Nobre began his musical studies at the Music Conservatory of Pernambuco in Recife, first under his cousin Nysia Nobre and then under his other cousin, Hilda Nobre, the latter being a respected pianist in Brazil. Both cousins gave No bre his first insights into piano technique, which he later developed on his own by studying the method of Leimer Gieseking. 1 He graduated from the Conservatory in Piano Performance and Theory in 1955. In 1956, he entered Instituto Ernani Braga in Recife, graduating with distinction in Harmony, Counterpoint, and Composition three years later. He studied there under Padre Jaime Diniz and, one year before his graduation, received a scholarship from the Department of Research and Culture of Recife to participa te at 1 Marco, Toms. Marlos Nobre El sonido del realismo mgico M adrid: Fundacin Autor, 2006.

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39 the National Course of Sacred Music, where he studied under Padre Ren Brighenti. In the same year, Nobre won the first prize in the Concerto Competition organized by the Symphonic Orchestra of Recife. 2 Nobre composed his Concertino for Piano and St ring Orchestra which he considers his Opus 1, in 1959 and received an ho norable m ention in the First National Competition of Music and Musicians of Brazil, organized by the Radio of the Ministry of Culture and Education of Brazil n for piano, Nazarethiana Op. 2, composed in 1960, received first prize at the German Brazilian Society Competition of Recife. Consequently, Nobre received a scholarship to study at the X International Summer Course in Terespolis (Curso Internacional de Frias in Terespolis), Brazil, where he took composition lessons under H. J. Koellreuter. In the late 1950s Koellreuter first introduced Nobre to the dodecaphonic technique, which became Variations for Oboe Solo Op. 3. After the adva nced variations, Nobre went back to Recife and composed his Trio Op. 4, which received first prize in the second annual National Competition of Musicians and Musical Composition of Brazil. A review published in the Dirio de Notcias reads Marlos Nobr e como uma estrela de intensa luminosidade a quem Villa Lobos parece haver entregue o cetro da cria 3 With his First Ciclo Nordestino for Piano Op. 5, Nobre won second prize at the National Composition Competition of the State Com m ission of So Paulo i n the same year. In 1961 as a soloist in his own Concertino for Piano an d String Orchestra Nobre received another scholarship to study under Camargo Guarnieri in So Paulo. Among the works Theme and Variations for Piano Op. 7, 2 Ibid., p. 28 3 Lobo s seems to have passed the power of

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40 16 Variations on a theme by Fructuoso Vianna also for Piano, Op. 8, No. 1, which received First prize at the International Competitio n of New Music of Brazil; and Trs Canes for Voice and Piano Op. other students, Nobre founded the Brazilian Society Pro Music (Sociedade pro Msica Brasileir first secretary. He also obtained an administrative position at the Radio of the Ministry of Culture and Education (Rdio do Ministrio de Educao e Cultura Rdio MEC), a position through which he continues to administer and present programs, although there have been some interruptions in this job throughout the years. Nobre also founded and led the Music Renovation Movement in Brazil (Movimento Musical Renovador), which promoted contemporary Brazilian music. With a scholarship from the Rockefeller Foundation, Nobre began his studies as a graduate student at the Latin American Center of the Torcuato Di Tella in Buenos Aires in 1963. While at the Institute, he studied adva nced compositional techniques with Alberto Ginastera, the director of the center, Olivier Messiaen, Riccardo Malipiero, Aaron Copland, Luigi Dallapiccola and Bruno Maderna. Nobre also received eletronic music lessons from Bozarello and Jos Vincente Asuar. This period became very important to Nobre as he defined a more personal style. This style is demonstrated in works he composed in 1963 and 1964, such as Divertimento for Piano and Orchestra Op. 14, and Ukrinmakrinkrin Op. 17, for soprano, piano, piccol o, oboe and French horn. Divertimento received First Prize at the Ernesto Nazareth Competition organized by

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41 Brazilian Academy of Music. Ukrinmakrinkin became one of the most important works in Returning to Brazil in 1965, Nobre was invited to participate at the First Latin American Composition Seminar at Indiana University. With financial support from the Brazilian government, Nobre traveled to the United States and presented an essay on avant garde musi cal A Problemtica da Notao na Msica Contempornea 4 In the same year, his Varia es Rtmicas Op. 15, and Ukrinmakrinkrin were chosen to represent Brazilian avant garde music at the Fourth Biennale in Paris. In 1966, Nobre went to Europe on a cultural mission, representing Brazilian music for the government (Itamarati Department of State/Foreign Affairs). He audited the Spring Festival in Prague and, with Ukrinmakrinkrin Composi tion Tribune in Paris. In the same year, Nobre received First Prize in the National Composition Competition of the City of Santos with his piece Dengues da Mulata Desinteressada Op. 20, for voice and piano. He was also declared Best Composer of the Year b y the Radio Jornal do Brasil. 5 The young composer participated at the First Inter A merican Festival in Rio de Janeiro in 1967. He performed as the soloist of his Divertimento for Piano and Orchestra under the direction of Eleazar de Carvalho and the Brazi lian Symphonic Orchestra. In the same year, he wrote his String Quartet No. 1 Op. 26, as a commission from Radio MEC. The piece premiered at the Second Festival of America and Spain in Madrid. He founded the New Music Society of Brazil and formed the New Music Ensemble of Rio de Janeiro, which he conducted. 4 roblems in the Notation of Conte 5 His first recording appeared in 1966.

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42 Two commissions by the Brazilian Ballet Company came in 1968. Nobre wrote two ballets: Rhythmetron Op. 27, for 38 percussion instruments, and Convergncias Op. 28, for wind orchestra, piano, and percu ssion. Both ballets premiered in June of that year at the New Theater of Rio de Janeiro under the choreography of Arthur Mitchell from the New York City Ballet. Later that year, Nobre participated at the Fourth Inter American Music Festival in Washington, D.C. with his Canticum I nstrumentale Op. 25, written in 1967. Nobre also made his debut in film music writing for O Drago da Maldade contra o Santo Guerreiro ( The Evil Dragon and the Warrior Saint ) He became a member of the Music Council of the Museu m of Image and Sound of Rio de Janeiro ( Conselho da Msica do Museu da Imagem e Som do Rio de Janeiro ), directed the First Brazilian Congress of Young Performers in Rio de Janeiro and organize d Lulu premiere in Brazil. 6 In 1969 Nobre was invited to participate at the Music Festival in Tanglewood, where his Ludus Instrumentalis Op. 34, for chamber orchestra, was premiered on August 18. While at the Berkshire Music Center in Tanglewood, Nobre met Leonard Bernstein and worked wit h Alexander Goehr and Gunther Schller. Shortly after the festival, Nobre received an invitation to study electronic music for a month with Vladimir Ussachevsky at the Columbia Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York. His Variaes Rtmicas Op. 15, for piano and typical Brazilian percussion, was premiered by the Paul Price Manhattan Percussion Ensemble at the Pan American Week. He also participated at the Avant garde of Americas in Rio de Janeiro with his piece Tropicale Op. 30. Tropicale was also p erformed at the Shakespeare Festival in New York. Nobre composed Concerto Breve Op. 33, for piano and orchestra, which was first played 6 Marco, p. 30.

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43 by the great Brazilian pianist Arnaldo Estrela. The piece received Second Prize at the Guanabara Festival and was perfo rmed later in the same year in Paris at the Sixth Biennale. By the end of the 1960s, the young Brazilian composer had already proved his competence. Support from the Brazilian government enabled Nobre to participate in various important festivals of avant garde music in the United States and Europe during the 1970s, which exposed him to different compositional techniques. His orchestral piece Mosaico Op. 36, received Second Prize at the Guanabara Festival in 1970. In Europe, Nobre participated in a debate by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation of Lisbon and Madrid. He performed as a soloist in his own Concerto Breve in the opening of the Second Festival of America and Spain. Later in 1970, Nobre attended the In ternational Seminar of Music and Theater in Berlin. At the end of the year, he went to Buenos Aires to participate at the First Festival of Contemporary Music with Mosaico He also received the Prize Golfinho de Ouro (Little Golden Dolphin Prize), given to the best composer of the year in Rio de Janeiro. In 1971, Nobre went back to the United States and participated with his Concerto Breve at the Fifth Inter American Festival in Washington, D.C. He went to Europe for the annual meeting of the Brazilian Sect ion of the International Society of Contemporary Music ( ISCM ) in London. In Paris, he presented his Concerto Breve conducting the ORTF Philharmonic Orchestra with pianist Susana Frugone. That performance afforded him an official position as the director o f the National Symphonic Orchestra in Brazil, a job he held until 1976. In 1972, Nobre received a series of commissions. Among them were O Canto Multiplicado Op. 38, commissioned by the Goethe Institute in Munich, and Sonncias I for the Artistic Commit tee of the Olympic Games in Munich. Some of his pieces were performed at the

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44 Casals Festival in Puerto Rico, and Mosaico was chosen for the International Rostrum of Composers of UNESCO in Paris. He participated at a symposium about Problemtica Atual da Gr afia Musical (Current problems in musical notation) and at the Seminar on Msica e Meios Tcnicos do Sculo XX (Music and technical means of the 20 th century) at the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon. He directed the International Villa Lobos Compet ition in Rio de Janeiro and received a prestigious prize: the Order of Rio Branco. In 1973, Nobre participated of the Tenth Diorama of Contemporary Music in Geneva, Switzerland with his orchestral work Biosfera Op. 35 and was nominated to become a memb er of the International Committee of the Arthur Rubinstein Piano Master Competition in Tel Aviv. His O Canto Multiplicado Op. 38, was performed at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C., for the 25 th anniversary of the Organization of the Americas. He was awarded the title of Global Personality of Music by the Brazilian newspaper O Globo, and Citizen of the State by the Estado da Guanabara newspaper. In 1974, Biosfera for s tring o rchestra was selected by the International Rostrum of Composers of UNESCO and Mosaico was presented at the Sixth Inter American Festival of Washington, D.C. Nobre organized a meeting with the Executive Committee of the International Music Council of UNESCO in Rio de Janeiro while the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra went on a brilli ant tour around Europe, performing Mosaico were presented in important festivals. For example, Ludus Instrumentalis was performed at Musik Protokoll in Graz and Biosfera was performed at the Casals Festival in Puer to Rico. In 1975 O Canto Multiplicado was presented at the Campos do Jordo International Festival in So Paulo, Sonncias I Op. 37, and Biosfera was performed at the Festival Tibor Varga in Switzerland. Ukrinmakrinkrin was performed at the Cervantino Fe stival in Mexico, and

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45 the String Quartet I was performed at both the Nineteenth Festival Autumn in Warsa w and the Biennal of Brazilian Contemporary Music. Nominated by Yehudi Menuhin, UNESCO chose Nobre as an individual member of the International Music Co uncil during its assembly held in Toronto. Film director Carlos Frederico made the movie Ukrinmakrinkrin, the Music of Marlos Nobre which was awarded best short movie at the Cine Festival of Braslia. In the same year, Nobre established an editorial contr act with Max Eschig of Paris and arranged a new contract with the publisher Tonos Verlag of Darmstadt. 7 In Memoriam Op 39, was premiered by the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra. From then until 1980, Nobre was a member of the State Counci l of Culture in Rio de Janeiro. Until 1979, he served as the director of FUNARTE (National Foundation of Art). Through the latter position, Nobre was able to promote several events and concerts in order to generally develop music in Brazil. Through several projects, he aimed to improve performances and bands, cultivate the making of instruments, augment courses in general, and improve choirs. The foundation also supported symphonic orchestras and popular music groups, and promoted incentives for composition and musical research. Moreover, Nobre participated as a member of the jury at the 50 th ISCM Festival in New York and organized the Committee for Latin American Cultural Politics for UNESCO in Panama. One of his recordings under Philips, containing pieces for piano and orchestra, received the award of Best Disc of the Year. Alongside concerts all over the world, Nobre also participated at the New Music Festival in Santos with Ukrinmkrinkrin the Festival in Braslia with his String Quartet I and the Kultur Forum in Bonn with his Trio Nobre continued a very active agenda in 1977, participating in several music festivals. He presented his orchestral work, Convergncias Op. 28a, at the First Latin American Festival of 7 Ibid., p. 35.

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46 Contemporary Music of Maraca i bo Venezu ela, and Momentos I Op. 41, No. 1, at World Music Week in Bratislava. He also participated in a tour of the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra around the United States with his In Memoriam While in Bratislava, Nobre was elected member of the Executive Committe e of the International Music Council of UNESCO. In Brazil, Converg ncias was performed at the Second Biennial of Brazilian Contemporary Music in Rio de Janeiro. The Quinteto de s opros Op. 29, was performed at the National Conference of Composers in Brasl ia, and Desafio V Op. 31, No. 5, for six cellos, was performed at the First International Violoncellos Festival at Paraba. Nobre also prepared a lecture recital on his own piano pieces in Porto Alegre and repeated the program in several other places such as Rio Grande, Pelotas, Bag, Recife, Joo Pessoa, Natal, and Florianpolis. In Memoriam was chosen to be performed at the 52 nd ISCM (International Society of Contemporary Music) Festival in Helsinki in 1978. Nobre presented his lecture recital on his pi ano pieces in Milan at the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory and in other places in Brazil such as Petrpolis, Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, Natal, and Joo Pessoa. The Juan March Foundation in Madrid organized a full concert dedicated to Marlos Nobre in which O Ca nto M ultiplicado Ukrinmakrinkrin Tr s Can es Quatro Momentos Op. 44, and Sonata sobre um Tema de Bla Bart k were performed. Nobre was also awarded the Cultural Merit Gold Medal of Pernambuco. In 1979, Nobre participated in the International Congress of the Musicological Society in Adelaide, Australia. He also took part in the Assembly of the International Council of Music in Melbourne, and the Congress of Music of the 1980s, The New Horizons in Sydney. In the same year, he became member of the Inter Homenagem a Villa Lobos Op. 46, was mandatory piece in the final round of the competition. The Musiculture Festival of Holland in Amsterdam, sponsored by the Beinum Foundation,

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47 s R h ythmetron and invited him to lecture on Afro Brazilian music. Several pieces were recorded there under EMI and OEA. In Memoriam was selected by the National Public Radio System Project in the United States to be broadcast over 230 channels. That piece also received several prizes, which will be discussed in the following chapter. Several events occured in 1980. Nominated by the International Music Center of Sdwestfunk of Baden Baden and the Heinrich Strobel Foundation, Nobre was elected Member of the S election Committee of the Cine International Tribune. He participated in a Symposium on Latin American Baroque in Rome, where he lectured on the Sacred Music of Minas Gerais. Several programs were exclusively dedicated to his works in 1980. Among them were the International Festival of Contemporary Music in Turin, where they performed Canticum Instrumentale Ukrinmakrinkrin Quatro Momentos and O Canto Multiplicado and the Suisse Romande, a program of three hours dedicated entirely to Nobre. During the Su isse Romande, Nobre premiered Sonncias III Op. 49. He gave a series of masterclasses at the Real Conservatory in Brussels. In Memoriam was performed at the Piestansky Festival in the former Czechoslovakia, and Trs Can es was performed at the Nordic Mus ic Festival in Stockholm. Nobre was Member of the Jury of the International Competition of Ancona and of the International Guitar Competition at Radio Francia in Paris. He also organized the Second Latin American and the Caribbean Tribune (Trimalca) and th e Symposium on Musical Traditions of Desafio VII Op. 31, No. 7, premiered in Switzerland under his direction with the Young Orchestra of Friburg and pianist Maria Luiza Corker. 8 Alberto and Aurora Ginastera were among the spectators during this occasion. Nobre participated in the 8 for piano solo, with orchestra, and chamber works.

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48 Atelier of Latin American Composers in Buenos Aires and was invited by the Brahms Gesellschaft in Baden Baden to be a Composer in Residence. While in Baden Baden in 1981, Nobre finished his Co ncerto for String Orchestra II Op. 53, as a commission from the University of Indiana. The piece premiered at the University of Indiana as the opening for the Music of Our Time Festival. At the event, Nobre participated in Lukas Foss and Milton Babbit. He also took part in other activities in Europe, such as the premiere of his Yanomani Op. 47, in Friburg, and a full concert of the Suisse Romande Orchestra in which he conducted his own works. This concert featured Convergn cias Musicamera Op. 8, Desafio VII and Concertino featuring Maria Luiza Corker the 20 th president by the Executive Commit tee of the International Music Council of UNESCO for the years 1981 1982. His In Memoriam was performed in France by the Pasdeloup Orchestra under Dimitri Chorafas at the Champs lyses Theater. In the following year, Nobre married pianist Maria Luiza Co rker. 9 Several of his pieces were performed in Europe and he participated at the Workshop of the Gaudeamus Foundation, teaching a masterclass. His Ciclos Nordestinos I, II, and III were selected for the gala concert of the United Nations Day in Paris. Nobr e also participated at the Inter American Music Festival in Washington D.C., with Sonncias I He was member of the International Jury of the Simn Bolvar Composition Competition in Caracas, along with Ginastera and Penderecki. Nobre also participated of the Contemporary Art Festival in Buenos Aires with Desafio VII and received a 9 The couple lives currently in Rio d e Janeiro with their daughter Karina, born in 1992.

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49 commission by Embratel (Brazilian Company of Comunications) to write Abertura Festiva Op. 56bis, for the opening of the Fifteenth National Congress of Technological Communicatio ns in Rio de Janeiro. He was later chosen by DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austausschdienst) to be a composer in residence in Berlin. In 1983, Nobre wrote Cantata de Chimborazo Op. 56, with texts by Simn Bolvar, as a commission. The piece was premiered i n October in Caracas. Nobre participated in some activities in Europe, such as the Assembly of the International Music Council of UNESCO in Stockholm, where he became, once again, an elected member of the institution. He held a position as a member of the International Jury of the Ancona Prize in Italy and wrote two essays: Symposium of Latin American Composers. The second was presented at a congress in Rome, In 1984, Nobre received a commission from FUNARTE to write a flute piece for the National Competition of Interpretation. He also went to Spain and Luxemburg for the International General Assembly of Young Musicians. There, he founded the Young Musicians of Brazil Institute, becoming its director. Nobre participated in the Latin Intercultural Festival at the University of Ca lifornia in San Diego with Sonncias III and at the International Forum of New Music in Mexico City with Momentos I Op. 41, No. 1. He also participated in the First International Festi val of Contemporary Music in Havana, Cuba with In Memoriam and Desafio III Op. 31, No. 3, and at the International Festival of ISCM in Toronto with Tango Op. 61. A concert dedicated to music from Brazil presented Convergncias and Concerto for Piano and String Orchestra Op. 64, in Niza. Also, the Association of Critics of So Paulo selected Cantata

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50 do Chimborazo as Best Chorale Symphonic Piece, and Nobre participated at the Forum on Brazilian Music at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth with Sonncias I From 1985 until 1989, Nobre held several administrative position s and traveled many places performing his works. He was so busy that he was unable to compose new works. Nevertheless, those years were equally active and successful for him. In 1985, Nobre received a Guggenheim Fellowship to be Composer in Residence in Ne w York. He was also elected president of the International Music Council Assembly of UNESCO in Dresden for the years 1986 1987. He participated in the International Festival of the ISCM in Amsterdam with Sonncias I and at the Inter American Festival in W ashington, D.C., with Sonncias III He organized the Trimalca in Rio de Janeiro, participated in the International Guitar Encounter in Sevilla with Prlogo e Toccata Op. 65, and participated in the International Music and Dance Festival in Granada with D esafio III He was also elected president of the Brazilian Academy of Music, taking the first chair, which used to belong to Heitor Villa Lobos. In 1986, Nobre was elected to become a member of the Brazilian Academy of Art, taking the place of Francisco M ignone (1897 1986). The Brazilian president chose Nobre to be President of the Villa events, such as Variaes Rtmicas at the Contemporary Music Festival of McGill University in Mont real; Prlogo e Toccata at the International Guitar Festival in Havana; Desafio II Op. 31, No. 2, and Quinteto de Sopro at the Inter American Music Festival in Washington, D.C.; Sonncias I at the International Forum of N ew Music in Mexico City, and Co ncerto Breve Op. 33, at the New Music Festival in Santos. Nobre also moderated the Symposium on New International Means for the Presentation of Contemporary Music at the MIDEM in Cannes. He

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51 Society of Music Education in Innsbruck, and put on a masterclass for the Gaudeamus Foundation of Holland at the General International Assembly of Young Musicians in Krakow. In 1987, Nobre was named member of the International Honor Committee by the MIDEM of Cannes. He presided there over a symposium on musical commission, the Tribune on Dance Luciano Berio, Mauricio Pollini, Michel Legran d, and Yoko Ono, Nobre was selected by Gorbachev to be a member of the Cultural Commission of the Nuclear Disarmament International Forum through the Union of Soviet Composers. He was Member of the Jury and Vice President for the International Piano Compet ition in Santander, Spain, and presented an the Superior Conservatoy in Madrid. In Brazil, he organized the International Assembly of the International Music Coun cil of UNESCO and the International Conference for the Celebration of the Centenary of Villa Lobos. Afterward, he was elected Executive Director of the Cultural Foundation in Brazil. In 1988, Nobre was awarded the Great Official of the Order of Merit of B ras lia Festival Marlos Nobre was held in London. For that occasion, the following pieces were performed: String Quartet I Quinteto de sopros 4 Momentos Desafio VII O Canto Multiplicado and Ukrinmakrinkrin The Musical Opinion a magazine, published of the Americas in Buenos Aires, with In Memoriam ; the International Festival of Campos do Jordo, with Convergncias and the F estival of Bahia, with Varia es Rtmicas He was also Jury Member of the Paraba Competition.

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52 States. He was also awarded the Official Order of Rio Branco of Itamar aty in Brazil and received a hommage by Senator Marco Maciel at the National Congress of Brazil. The Porto Alegre Orchestra organized a concert dedicated to Nobre with his own pieces. Sala Ceclia Meireles commissioned him to write Concertante do Imaginri o Op. 74, which was performed on its re inauguration along with these other pieces: Convergncias In Memoriam and Cantata do Chimborazo Nobre became a member of the International Jury of the Arthur Rubinstein Master Piano Competition in Israel. He was also a member of the Assessor Committee of the International Competition of Santander and a member of the Jury of the Pilar Bayona de Zaragoza International Competition. Nobre was commissioned by the Bolzano Festival in Italy and the Neuchtel Chamber Orch estra, for whom he wrote Concerto for Trumpet and String Orchestra Op. 73, and Quatro Dan as Latino Americanas Op. 72. In 1990, the Autonomous University Radio in Mexico dedicated two hours each day for a ere invited to perform Desafio VII in honor of While in Mexico, Nobre also participated at the Morelia Festival, presenting Concertante do Imaginrio He presented hi the Latin American Music Encounter. Nobre became then the first Brazilian conductor of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London. The concert he conducted was held at the Purcell Room and w as dedicated exclusively to his works: Biosfera Concerto for String Orchestra II Desafio VII and Concertante do Imaginrio featuring Maria Luiza as pianist.

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53 In 1991, the University of Akron organized the Brazilian Fest 91 and performed Rhythmetron Nob Solo I Op. 60, for solo flute, was included in the program New Musicians at the New York New School. Canticum Instrumentale was performed at the Inter Tango was performed at the International Forum of New Music in Mexico. Concerto for String Orchestra II was performed at the Inter American Festival of New Music in Caracas, and Ciclo Nordestino I was performed at the Butte Montmartre Festival in Paris. Beiramar Op. 21, was perfor med at the Unerhrte Musik Festival in Berlin. Several other performances took place in Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo that year. Desafio III was presented in Rio de Janeiro at the Biennial of Brazilian Contemporary Music, while Ukrinmakrinkrin R h ythmetron Desafio III and Sonncias I were performed in So Paulo during a concert dedicated to Nobre. Nobre went to Yale in 1992, invited as a visiting Professor of Composition. There, he taught a composition seminar at the New Haven Festival, where his works Sonncias I and Concerto for String Orchestra II were performed. Nobre was also part of the jury of the Composition Competition of Yale. His Tango was performed at the Piano Marathon of McGill University at Montreal and Solo I was included at both the New Music Festival for the New World at the Illinois Wesleyan University and at the Brazilian Serenade at Carnegie Hall in New York. Nobre participated at the International Encounter of Contemporary Music in Montevideo with Ukimakrinkrin and at the Internati onal Guitar Seminar with Momentos I He also participated in several festivals in Europe, including Junifestwochen Zurich 92 and Aspekte Festival in Salzburg, both with Desafio III He participated in the International Festival of Contemporary Music in Ali cante, Spain, with Concerto for String Orchestra II He was recognized as Man of the Year in the music field by the Biographical Centre in London. In

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54 Spain, he presented his oratorio, Columbus of ninete enth century Mexican poetry, was a commission by the Ministry of Culture in Spain for the 500 th Anniversary of the Discover y of America, He presented Columbus with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus. In 1993, Nobre composed Am aznia Op. 85a, as a commission from the Paula Duo. The piece was premiered at the Carnegie Hall in New York. He participated as member of the jury of the first edition of the Alberto Ginastera International Composition Competition. He also participated a t the International Forum of New Music in Mexico with Ciclo Nordestino III, and at the Summer Garden Festival of the Juilliard School held at the MoMA (Museum of Modern Art) with Sonncias III The magazine, Classical Guitar dedicated its November issue t o Nobre. In 1994, Nobre became an o fficial of the Order of Arts and Letters of France He participated at the Iberian American Music Congress and at the Society of the 1990s, where he He also participated in the International Festival in Espinhos, Portugal, with Sonncias III and Rhythmetron and presented Desafio II in Berlin. A series of recordings appeared around that time, followed by reviews in specialized magazines all over the w orld. In 1995, Nobre composed Concerto Duplo Op. 82, and participated in another series of recordings. He participated in the Mayo Musical of Murcia in Spain with his Solo II premiered by Dutch clarinetist Henri Bok. The same piece was performed in A lexandria, Italy, along with Desafio XXIII Op. 31, No. 23. Nobre participated in the International Guitar Festival in Erding and in Weikersheim, Germany, both with Reminiscncias Op. 78. That piece was chosen as mandatory for the International Competitio n of Musical Interpretation in Geneva. He also presented Concerto for String Orchestra II at the Lincoln Center in New York. Nobre became

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55 president of the International Guitar Seminar in Porto Alegre. He also became president of the Brazilian Olympic Arts Committee at the General Olympic Arts Assembly, which was held in Paris in 1996. In 1996, Nobre decided to cancel his contract with his publisher, the German company Tonos Verlag. According to Nobre, the company was going through a difficult period of t ime because of the death of its founder. Therefore, Nobre decided to pass everything edited by that publisher to the Marlos Nobre Edition in Brazil, which functioned primarily online. Nobre returned to New York to participate in the Sounds of Americas Fest ival, which was dedicated to Brazil. At Carnegie Hall Dennis Russel Davies conducted the American Composers Orchestra in the performance of In Memoriam A New York Times review called the piece, "the mos t powerful work of the program. 10 The same concert p resented pieces by Brazilian composers Camargo Guarnieri (1907 1993) and Villa Lobos. Nobre became engaged in a series of master classes at the Juilliard School and Yale, where he also participated at the Brazilian Music Today Symposium. He became a member of the jury of the Colcultura Composition Competition in Bogot, a place where later he presented In Memoriam Nobre participated in the Music Festival of Vila Seca in Portugal with Desafio XXXII Op. 31, No. 32, and in London at the Eclectic Fusion Festi val at the Guildhall School with Desafio XXXI Op. 31, No. 31. At the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London, Nobre conducted his Concertante Imaginrio for piano and orchestra with the London Royal Philharmonic orchestra and his wife, pianist Maria Luiza. Great c ritical Music and Musician and The Music Opinion 10 Program Notes for In Memoriam Op. 39 by Marlos Nobre.

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56 covers with the title: "The Brazilian leading composer: Marlos Nobre 11 Invited by the Iberian American Music Council, Nobre also participated in the Iberian American Encounter of Composers. In 1997, Nobre was chosen to become a member of honor of the Werther Benzi Counterbass Competition in Alexandria, where his Desafio IV Op. 31 No. 4 was a mandatory piece. He also became a member of the jury of the International Guitar Competition in the same city. Nobre was a visiting professor at the University of Arizona and the University of Oklahoma. Throughout the year, several th eses and dissertations were written about Marlos Nobre in Brazil and abroad. These works are listed in the bibliography section of this study. In 1998, Rhythmetron was performed in Paris and Montreal for the first time. Nobre Havana. His ballet, Saga Marista which was composed the year before, was performed in Recife. Its orchestral version was presented in Oklahoma under Jorge Richter. Nobre participated at the In ternational Guitar Festival in Zarauz, Spain, with Reminiscncias and at the Twenty second International Gulbenkian Festival of Contemporary Music in Lisbon, with Sonncias III His Concerto Duplo for two guitars, was premiered in So Paulo. Amaznia II Op. 85, for big jazz orchestra, was commissioned by the Carlos Gomes Foundation. The piece premiered at the Festival of Par in Belm. Nobre appeared as a soloist in his Concerto Breve in El Salvador. Sonncias III was performed at the Antidogma Festival of Turin in Italy. In 1999, the composer turned sixty, celebrating forty years of artistic dedication. Several events across the globe memorialized his birthday. Among them were the performance of Desafio XXXII with Teresa Berganza and the Iberian Cello E nsemble in Amsterdam, and the 11 Program Notes for Concertante do Imaginrio Op. 74 by Marlos Nobre.

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57 performance of Divertimento for piano and orchestra with the Philharmonic of Berlin in Paris. The latter was performed at the Development and Culture Forum, sponsored by the Inter American Bank of Development. Nobre particip ated in the Close Encounters series in New York, with String Quartet I He was also awarded the Gold Medal of Merit of the Joaquim Nabuco Foundation of Pernambuco, where Amaznia was performed. The Conservatory of Pernambuco promoted the Marlos Nobre Festi val with his expositions, conferences, competitions, and concerts. There, Rhythmetron Sonncias I Varia es Rtmicas Desafio III Concertino for piano and strings and Concertante do Imaginrio were performed. The University of So Paulo celebrated Nobr sixtieth birthday at the University Encounter of Contemporary Music, where Rhythmetron were performed in Macei, Alagoas. The Latin American and Iberian Music Society offered a concert consisting exclusiv Concertante do Imaginrio and Concerto for String Orchestra II were performed. Sonncias I was performed at both the Ninth International Festival of Contemporary Music in Bucharest, Romania and the Musique du XX`eme S i`ecle in Paris. Musicamera was performed by the National Orchestra of Porto at the 500 th Anniversary of the Discovery of Brazil, in Portugal. In Geneva, the 500 years were celebrated with Varia es Rtmicas and in Rome with the premiere of Concerto for percussion and orchestra Op. 89. Nobre was awarded the T homas Hart Benton Medallion from Indiana University. He was a guest composer at Texas Christian University, where he was awarded the Cecil and Ida Green Honors Professor He particip ated in the Second Latin American Music Festi val held at TCU in Fort Worth, where his Trio Convergncias and Divertimento for piano and orchestra were performed. A guest composer at the University of Georgia in Athens, Nobre

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58 participated in the Internati onal Conference on Latin American Musical Globalization and Symposium on Brazi th anniversary. In 2001, Desafio III was performed in Warsaw at the Chopin Academy with Nada Myesscouhg at the violin and Larisa Giro at the piano. Sonncias III was performed at the Odessa Festival in Ukraine and Cllia Iruzun performed Sonata Brev e in London. He composed Amaznia III Op. 91, as a commission for the Apollon Foundation in Bremen The piece was premiered at the Bayreuth F estival of New Music at the Markgrfliches Operhaus, featuring baritone Renato Mismeti and pianist Maximiliano Bri to. The piece toured Europe, appearing in places like Lucerne, Salzburg, Munich, and Leipzig, among others. The Iberian Cello Ensemble, along with soprano Pilar Jurado, toured Holland, Belgium, Germany, and Poland, performing s. In the United States, pianist Michele Adler performed Ciclo Nordestino I Ciclo Nordestino III and Homage to Arthur Rubinstein Op. 40, at Carnegie Hall. Several other pieces were performed in Brazil and Latin America. Among them was Convergncias per formed at the opening of the Contemporary Music Festival in Havana by the Cuban National Symphonic Orchestra under the direction of Jorge de Elas. In 2002, the Apollon Foundation in Bremen celebrated the centennial of Brazilian poet Carlos Drummond de An drade with the performance of O Canto Multiplicado in Bayreuth, Vienna, Berlin, and London. The piece contains texts written by the poet. Concerto Duplo was performed in a tour of the United States by the Assad Brothers and the Symphonic Orchestra of the S tate of So Paulo, under the direction of John Neschlin. Nobre participated at the Oulo Music Festival in Finland with Tango and at the Sclhleswig Holstein Festival in Germany with

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59 Sonncias I He also performed as a soloist in his Divertimento with the E l Salvador Symphony Orchestra in El Salvador under the direction of Germn Cceres. He premiered Desafio VI Op. 31, No. 6, for string orchestra, with the Stdtische Musikschle Erlenbach Orchestra in Erlenbach, Germany. In 2003, the Bremen Foundation in Germany commissioned Nobre to write Amaznia Ignota Op. 95, for 4 flutes, piano, percussion and baritone. The piece premiered at the Margrave of Bayreuth Opera Theater and toured several cities in Germany, Austria, England and France. Nobre participated at the Guanajuato Festival with O Canto Multiplicado and at the Contemporary Music Festival in Buenos Aires with R h ythmetron He was the principal composer of the 2003 Percussion Day in So Paulo with Concerto for percussion and orchestra and R h ythmetron Chamber Music in Recife with Partita Latina Op. 92, Desafio I Concerto for String Orchestra II and Concertante do Imaginrio In 2004, the Guggenheim Museum in New York or ganized a series of events in February, during which Canto a Garcia Lorca Op. 87, was performed by soprano Serena Benedetti and the New York Philharmonic orchestra under the direction of Roberto Minczuk. Nobre was composer in residence the first in the histor y of the festival at the Campo s do Jordo International Winter Festival He had been invit ed by the director of the festival, Roberto Minczuk, for whom Nobre wrote his orchestral work Kabbal ah, Op. 96 Th at pie ce was premiered and recorded at the f estival in July of that year along with his Fanfarra Campos do Jordo Concertino for piano and orchestra, Nazarethiana 16 Varia es sobre um Tema de Fru c tuoso Vianna Toccatina Pontei o e Final Op. 12, and Tema e Varia es Op. 7. He participated at the Havana

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60 Festival with In Memoriam and Passacaglia conducting the Cuba National Symphony Orchestra. For that occasion, he also gave a series of masterclasses and was awarded the Honor Di ploma of the Art Institute of the University of Havana. Nobre participated in the Guanajuato Festival, presenting Partita Latina with cellist Carlos Pietro and pianist Edison Quintana. He conducted masterclasses at the Simn Bolvar University in Caracas. Also that year, Nobre wrote Concerto Armorial II Op. 98, for flute and orchestra, commissioned by the Brazilian Bach Association. Lamento e Toccata Op. 99, was also composed that year as a commission from the guitar duo Joaquim Freire and Susana Mebes. I Trs Can es de Beiramar Op. 21a, Trs Can es Negras Op. 88, Canto a Garcia Lorca and Desafio XXXII with the Iberian Cello Octet. Nobre was elected to become a member of the Honors Committee of the World Philharmonic Orchestra along with personalities such as Maurice Bjart, Henri Dutilleux, Barbara Hendricks, Seiji Osawa, Lorin Maazel, and Ravi Shankar. He dedicated most of his time to working on Cantorias I Op. 100, an d Cantorias II Op. 101, for solo cello. The first piece was commissioned by the Brazilian Antnio Menezes and the second by the Mexican Carlos Prieto Cantoria I cello. Cantoria II is in C Major. Nobre plans to write a series of Six On November 29, Nobre was declared the winner of the sixth edition of the Toms Luis de Victoria Prize, in Spain history. Nobre was selected among 57 composers from 17 countries to win the prize. The

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61 international jury wrote that its members were impressed by "the excelent trajectory of Nobre, the projection and importance of his works and the originality of his aesthetic thinking". 12 In 2006, Nobre participated in the School of Art Music Composers Festival, where his Sonata Breve was performed by pianist Edison Quintana, and his Momentos I and I I were performed by guitarist Juan Carlos Laguna both at Manuel Ponce Hall in Mexico. In the United States he participated in the East Carolina University New Music Festival where his piece Passacaglia for orchestra was performed by the University Symphony Orchestra under Jorge Cantoria I for solo cello at the Society of Cultural State Council of Pernambuco. The Music Festival of C aracas was dedicated to Nobre, with the Simn Bolvar Symphony Orchestra performing Kabbalah at the opening concert under the direction of Alfredo Rgeles. Later in the Festival his Sonante I for solo marimba was performed by Gustavo Olivar. The composer p articipated in the 2006 Ginastera Festival with his Desafio VII for piano and string orchestra performed by pianist Alberto Portugheis and the Southbank Symphony under Matilda Hofman. Also at the occasion, his Concertante do Imaginrio was performed by the same pianist with the London Schubert Players under Daniel Mazza. Fabio Zanon performed Momentos I and Rememrias for solo guitar. The performances by Fokko Oldnhui Ag Lon for mixed choir in Ultrecht and Amsterdam. In the same year, Nobre received the VI Edition of theThoms Luis de Victoria prize in Madrid and a concert of his pieces presented Trs Can es Negras Canto a Garcia Lorca both by 12 Nobre, Personal Website A ccessed on Nove mber 2006.

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62 s Sonata for Piano on a Theme by Bartk Nobre currently holds many important titles, such as p resident of the National Music Committee of IMC/UNESCO d irector of Cont emporary Music Programs at Radio MEC FM of Brazil president of Jeunesses Musicales of Brazil and p resident of the M arlos Nobre Editions of Brazil. dedicated to contemporary mus music from the Baroque period to the present, exhibiting their important composers and compositions. Both programs are broadcast once a week at Radio MEC FM 98.9 MHz The former plays on Saturda ys at 10 p.m., and the latter on Fridays at 10 p.m. He is constantly composing and receiving commissions from all over the world. As a composition professor, Nobre receives about fifteen students in his home to discuss their composition works on the last S aturday of each month. Marlos Nobre: The Composer Marlos Nobre has earned enormous respect over the years among the public and musicians all over Brazil and abroad. In the late 1960s, he already occupied a prominent position among Brazilian musical scene, it is important to note some of the aspects of the musical division in Brazil and in Latin America during the twentieth century. 13 It was not until 1922, with t he advent of the Semana de Arte Moderna (Week of Modern Art), that the artistic scene in Brazil began criticizing the prevailing academicism and rejecting 13 Even though Brazil developed similar trends as most of the other important musical centers in Latin America, a generalization of all these countries has always been a mistake from a scholastic point of view. Each country or at least area should be treated separately allowin g scholars to be able to study each case in a deeper perspective. Therefore the author of the present document will only briefly mention the most important facts that occurred in other Latin American countries in order to illustrate their relation to Brazi l.

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63 strict obedience to traditional aesthetic schools. Several factors led to the modernist movement in B 14 (1890 1954) futuristic ideas, the premieres of painter Anita Malfatti 15 (1889 1964) and sculptor Victor Brecheret (1894 1955), and especially through the poetry o f Mrio de Andrade 16 (1893 1945). Mrio de Andrade became the most influential figure of the modernist movement in the musical life of the country. The practical results of the modernist movement in Brazil put more emphasis on arts and literature. The most important composer of the movement was Villa Lobos, 17 who had already established a great deal of his compositional vocabulary by 1922 after composing works such as A Prole do Beb vols. 1 and 2, some of the Chros and the ballets Amazonas and Uirapuru T hus, the movement had a minimal influence on music and affected only generations of musicians who came after Villa Lobos. In his Msica Contempornea Brasileira musicologist Jos Maria Neves exposes the goals of the modernist movement and its leader, M rio de Andrade, in reassuring and promoting the work of young Brazilian artists connected to the movement. The movement declare d permanente `a pesquisa esttica atualiza o da inteligncia brasileira, estabelecimento de uma conscincia criadora n acional, pela unnime vontade de canta r a natureza, a alma e as tradi es 14 Oswald de Andrade was one of the founders of Brazilian modernism along with Mrio de Andrade, Anita Malfatti, Tarsila do Amaral and Menotti del Picchia. They formed the so called Group of Five. Oswald de Cannibalism became a way for Brazil to assert itself against the cultural domination of Europe in a post colonial period. 15 The first exhibition of Malfatti was on December 12 of 1917. The artist with her ideas close to cubism shocked the public and received several years of rage and criticism from the most conservative speciali sts. 16 From the twenty volumes that comprise the complete writings of Mrio de Andrade, eight substantial volumes are related to music. The other volumes are dedicated to essays on arts and literature as well as original poems, novels, short stories, a nd literary criticism. 17 Even though Villa Lobos only presented his quasi post romantic works at the first concert of the Semana de Arte Moderna, he suffered the same negative reaction from the traditional public, who was neither prepared nor open to moder n ideas.

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64 18 a permanent righ ts to aesthetic research, updating of the Brazilian intelligentsia, est ablishment of a creative national conscience based on the unanimous desire to sing nature, the soul, and was to awaken national consciousness. Because of this idea, the Brazilian musical scene benefited and suffered dramatic consequences. Unlike other nationalistic figures in Latin America, Mrio de Andrade did not completely reject European techniques. He be lieved that the use of European techniques would In a verse of his Pau licia Desvairada Brasil sem Europa no Brasil no, uma vaga assombra o amerndia, sem entidade nacional, sem psicologia tcnica, sem raz o de ser. 19 ( Brazil without Europe is not Brazil, it is only a vague Amerindian ghost without nation al entity, without technical psy c h ology, without a reason to be .) At the same time, Andrade did not believe in international music and believed less in univ ersal music. He says No h msica internacional muito menos msica universal; o que existe so gnios que se universalizam por demasiado fundamentais, Palestrina, Bach, Beethoven, ou mulheres que a mesmo dentro desta internacionalidade e daquela universalidade, tais msicos e tais mulheres no deixam nunca de ser funcionalmente nacionais. 20 18 Neves, Jos Maria. Msica Contempornea Brasileira So Paulo: Ricordi, 1981 19 Azevedo, Luiz Heitor Corra de. Msicos do Brasil Rio de Janeiro: Casa do Estudante do Brasil, 1950, p. 312. 20 Andrade, Mrio de. Aspectos da Msica Brasileira So Paulo: Livraria Martins Editora, 1965, pp. 28 29.

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65 (There is no international music or even universal music; what exists is a small group of geniuses who become universal for being overly fundamental, as Palestrina, Bach, Nevertheless, even within the internationalization of the latt er and the universalism of the former, such musicians and such female figures never stop being functionally national.) Andrade believed in using European compositional technique s in a reformed way That c ould lead to the birth of a real Brazilian style of music which c ould become universal at some point. He explains particular para o geral, da ra a para a humanidad e, conservando aquelas caracter sticas, que so o contingente com que enriquece a conscincia humana. 21 ...( [one goes] from the part icular to the general, from race to humanity, preserving all the characteristics that enrich the human conscience.) The music composed in Brazil during the first two decades of the twentieth century was domi nated by European influences. Although pre nation alist Brazilian composers searched for a national identity, their styles represented a result from traditional dominating forces from Italy, France, and Germany, with their Romantic and somewhat Impressionistic influences. In the eyes of Andrade, the only true Brazilian composer was Villa Lobos, whom Andrade defended from the attacks of conservatives and traditionalists. Although aware of Villa negative qualities, Andrade believed in and advertised the brilliant future career of the youn g composer. similar reforming characteristics to those of modernism in general, with the same principle of reaffirming Brazilian nationality and carrying the same anti eliti st ideology. These ideas, along with the urge to disassociate Brazilian art from post romantic techniques and adopt 21 Andrade, Mrio de. Msica, doce Msica So Paulo: Livraria Martins Ed., 1963, p. 115.

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66 Latin America, especially the so called Renov acin Musical (Musical renovation) groups in influenced by the Brazilian movement of the 1920s. Nevertheless, the other Latin American ecause they remained extremely connected with the Neo movements in Europe, with particular influence from neoclassicism. 22 In his, Histria da Msica no Brasil Vasco Mariz provides a long list that separates composers and classifies them according to the ir compositional tendencies. This classification, however, presents composers in a chronological order, rather than properly by the compositional and classify t hose composers. However, some composers who directly or indirectly influence From the first generation of nationalist composers who studied under Mrio de Andrade, Mozart Camargo Guarnieri (1907 1993) remains one of the most important figures in the twentieth century Brazilian musical scene. Guarnieri became the most conscious composer in the nationalism movement. His nationalist ideas, although anacronically focused on modalism and polyphony, influenced many other compo sers. These composers studied under Guarnieri and followed the ideas of the so called Guarnieri school, one of the most important in the country. Influenced by Mrio de Andrade, many composers tried to follow their own ways in order to remain connected to the aesthetics related to the search for national identity. After the 1940s, nationalism began to diminish slightly in Brazil, and some composers became more influenced 22 Neoclassicism became a strong compositional tool used by several Brazilian Nationalistic composers after the 1930s Several examples are found in Villa

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67 by European dodecaphonic techniques, which were brought to Brazil by Hans Joachim Koel lreuter 23 (1915 2005). Nobre studied with Koellreuter in 1959. The nationalist school and Koellreuter each played important roles in dividing compositional tendencies in Brazil. Two currents emerged from the 1930s and 1940s. Some composers adhered to the importance of tonality and nationalist features, and others broke from traditional rules and opened doors for the future. Some nationalist composers in Brazil adopted the techniques of certain twentieth century European composers such as Debussy, Bartk, a nd Stravinsky. But more avant garde compositional techniques, such as those found in the music of Schoenberg, would be less compatible with the Brazilian nationalist aesthetic of adopting its folk music, which is rich in modalism and complex, intricate rhy thms. 24 The Second International Congress of Composers and Music Critics, held in Prague in 1948, was an important influence on Brazilian composers, who found themselves between the nationalist school of Guarnieri and the most advanced ideas spread by Koell reuter and the group Msica Viva. The final document published after the Prague Congress urged composers to adhere to their national musical cultures and avoid the failing trends of internationalism. This document was widely debated in Brazil by both natio nalists and the Msica Viva group. It is important to remember that, although the latter group was the only alternative to late nationalism in Brazil, its members never intended to criticize or threaten the aesthetic of nationalism. Koellreutter and his 23 The arrival of Koellreuter in Brazil caused a great impact in the musical s cene. He became the leader of the gr oup Msica Viva which first appeared in 1931. In 1946, the group issued a manifesto against folkloristic nationalism, musical scene. 24 Be zerra, Mrcio. A Unique Brazilian Composer A Study of the Music of Gilberto Mendes through Selected Piano Pieces. Brussels: Alain van Kerckhoven diteur, 2000, p. 15.

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68 gr oup wanted composers to understand that folkloric material held great value, and that its language. 25 The resolutions of the Prague Congress resulted in several composers of the Msica Viva group deciding to review their aesthetic positions. Important names such as Cludio Santoro (1919 1989) and Csar Guerra Peixe (1914 1993) abandoned the twelve tone technique in favor 26 On November 7, 1950, Guarnier i published a direct attack on Koellreutter and the twelve (Open letter to the musicians and music critics of Brazil) combines earlier writings of Mrio de Andra de with ideas from the Prague Congress. Guarnieri also sent the letter to many composers, performers, music critics, conservatories and schools of music in many parts of the country. nder the same title on December 28, 1950. Several prominent Brazilian intellectuals, such as Mennoti del Picchia (1892 1988), Eurico Nogueira Frana (b. 1913), Edino Krieger (b. 1928), and Patrcia Galvo (1910 1962) defended Koellreutter in public. Howeve r, the rift was formed and a strong polarity emerged between the two schools as Brazilian composers were forced to choose between nationalism and internationalism. 27 25 Neves p. 19. 26 Cludio Santoro confessed to have abandoned Koellreutter due to his p olitical convictions. Santoro believed he had to follow the decisions of the Prague Congress due to his link with the Communist Party. Guerra Peixe, on the other hand, had personal convictions to adhere to nationalism once he discovered the folklore of Nor theast Brazil and published his book Maracatus do Recife in 1955. 27 The duality remained active for many decades even in popular music, where Bossa Nova, and, later on, the movement known as Tropiclia were dismissed by many as bourgeois and antinational popular styles. (Bezerra, p. 19)

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69 Nevertheless, some of the most prolific composers fell within both traditions, having some in his Histria da Msica no Brasil these composers belonged to a post nationalist or independent generation. Marlos Nobre fits into the latter classification In the early 1960s, the situation changed. With the death of Villa Lobos in 1959, the aesthetic of nationalism seemed to have reached an end. Other important nationalist composers such as Camargo Guarnieri, Francisco Mignone (1897 1986), and Radams Gn attali (1906 1988) had already composed the best of their nationalistic works, and there was no further reason to insist on such an aesthetic once its best leaders had exhausted the style. It became vital to discover alternative compositional techniques. I t was no longer possible to exclude Brazilian composers and their music from international innovations and advances. The generation of the 1960s was free to produce a creative symbiosis between serialism and national tradition. The results can be seen in t he works of the group of composers from Rio de Janeiro, So Paulo, and Bahia. 28 It is important to note that the result was so necessary that it happened naturally, without the need of any manifesto or imposition. 29 ge combines a series of influences from different periods and styles of music. In his concept, the greatest formal structures are those of the eighteenth and nineteenth century classical works, which he combines with modern d music represents the influence of Debussy, Bartk, Stravinsky, colored by elements 28 All these distinct groups of composers were formed through Koellreutter. He is responsible and takes the credit for the dissemination and formation of these schools in Brazil. 29 Corker Nobre Maria Luiza Aspect os Tcnicos e Estticos de Sonncias III de Marlos Nobre: uma Introduo `a Problemtica da Intuio versus Cerebralismo. Disserta o de Mestrado. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 1995

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70 from Brazilian folklore and nature, striking sound combinations, and spontaneity. Nobre's music ranges from tonal to freely a tonal, and is chromatic and dissonant at times It makes use of serial and sonoristic techniques, yet has references to tonal centers. 30 According to Nobre, the composers he counts as influences were capable of innovation in music without necessarily breaking with tradition. The i nfluence of polyrhythmic structures, rhythmic drive, textual effects and the use of non traditional scales. A works, but because he does not rely on patterns from folk and popular idioms, his music cannot be seen as nationalistic. 31 Afro Brazilian rhythms reference in his wo rks and can be associated with their strong rhythmic freedom. His home town exposed him to all sorts of rhythms derived from traditions, such as those of Maracatu, 32 Frevo, 33 Caboclinhos, 34 Bumba meu boi, 35 Candombl 36 and Cirandas 37 The composer explains 30 American Record Guide v ol. 57 no. 5 ( Sept/Oct. 1994 ) p. 168 169. 31 New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 2 nd ed. (2001), vol. 18, p. 566. 32 Maracatu popular music inspired by a dance characteristic of a popular carnival parad e. The parade follows a woman carrying in her hand a richly adorned doll. The members of the group dance to the rhythm played by percussion instruments. 33 Frevo a carnival dance highly rhythmic and performed by brass, wind, and percussion instruments. I t is popular on the streets and in salons. 34 Caboclinhos also known as c abocolinhos is a carnival procession Most of their parades are represented by dancers who dress like popular native indigenous figures taken from literature. 35 Bumba meu boi com ic dramatic dance in which people along with fantastic animals participate. The whole plot is developed around the death and resurrection of the ox (boi). 36 Candombl Afro Brazilian religion. 37 Cirandas Circle dance songs based on simple tunes which are traditional and passed down orally from generation to generation.

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71 En mi infan cia escuch, danc y vibr con los Maracatus, los Frevos, los Caboclinhos, los Bumba meu boi, la Nau Catarineta. P ero, sobre todo, eran los Maracatus y su percusin alucinante y mstica los que desarrollaron en m un sentido rtmico profundo e inco nsciente que luego alimentaron, hoy y siempre, mi creacin musical. La polirritmia, los grandes crescendi sonoros, los contrastes dinmicos, los acentos irregulares, sometidos siempre a una poderosa pulsacin mtrica constante, los profundos toques graves de enormes ganzs, agogs, bombos, atabaques, son impresiones sobresalientes de mi infancia que estn vivas en mi sangre y en mi corazn, ms que en mi cabeza. 38 (Throughout my childhood I listened to, danced to and cheered with Maracatus, Frevos, Cabocli nhos, Bumba meu boi, and the Nau Catarineta 39 But it was the Maracatu and its incredible and mystic percussion that developed in me this profound and unconscious rhythmic sense that has always been fundamental in my musical creation. The polyrhythm, the big crescendos, the dynamic contrasts, the irregular accents within a powerful constant pulse, the deep low sounds generated from ganzs [maracas], agogs [African iron bells], bombos [low drums], atabaques [afro Brazilian conical shaped, single headed hand d rum similar to a conga drum], are the strongest impressions I have from my childhood. They are very much alive in my blood and my heart, much more than in my head. uage went through several phases from tonal t o modal, polytonal atonal, serial, and aleatoric until he defined his own musical language and style, which became a combination of everything he had learned and filtered be divided into five periods: First Period (1959 1963) Heavy influenced by Villa Lobos and Ernesto Nazareth. Second Period (1963 1968) Combination of serial and aleatoric features with Brazilian traditional rhythms. Third Period (1969 1977) Search for an identity Fourth Period (1980 1985) 40 Early Mature Style 38 Revista Musical Chilena vol. 33, no. 148, 1979, pp. 37 47. 39 Nau Catarineta epic episodes like the odyssey of a ro mantic story of a ship that leaves Recife to go to Lisbon. The story is performed through balls of intricate choreography and dramatic effects. 40 both called Mature Style. However, because of slight differences later mentioned in this study, the Mature Style can be divided into two parts: the first years and the later years.

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72 Fifth Period (1990 present) 41 Later Mature Style The first period clearly spans from his Concertino for piano and orchestra Op. 1 42 until Divertimento for piano and orchestra Op. 14, during the years 1959 through 1963. All of the pieces from this period display the direct influence of Villa Lobos and Ernesto Nazareth (1863 1934). 43 Nobre explains his respect for Nazareth : Ernesto Nazareth es el compositor popular brasile o ms importante, el que cristaliz y dej en el papel nuestras mejores caracterstic as populares. 44 (Ernesto Nazareth is the most important popular Brazilian composer. He materialized and registered on paper our best popular characteristics.) From Concertino until Divertimento one can see the evolutionary line that Nobre followed. Wh ile the Concertino is tonal, with some amplification on its harmonic field through a progressive tonal expansion, the Divertimento is clearly polytonal with some dodecaphonic treatment. 45 This evolution follows a clear line according to the composer: tonal modal polytonal atonal. This progressive line is continuous; however, the composer does not disregard his previous experiences. According to Nobre, his compositional taste and style is a clear mix that results from an evolutionary process. He explains o siento la msica dentro de un sistema predeterminado, dentro de un esquema terico fijo, intelectualmente estudiado. A medida que mi campo de informacin musical esttica y tcnicamente se fue ampliando, mediante la incorporacin de nuevos elementos, s tos fueron sumergindose en mi subconsciente, y all permanecieron expandindose, 41 Even though the characteristics from the later part of the fourth period remain the same up to the present, this dissertation will just focus on characteristics up to 2004, the date of the latest orchestral work included in this study. 42 Marlos Nobre composed many pieces before his formal opus 1. He destroyed all those pieces, however, believing they were immature. Even though he believes his opus 1 represents a work of a young, immature composer, he kept it in his catalogue because he likes the piece. 43 Nazareth was a Brazilian pianist and composer who, according to Villa Lobo s, represented the true incarnation of the Brazilian musical soul. 44 47. 45 Even though the Divertimento falls in a more atonal language, the dodecaphonic section is built on six notes t aken from the Tenebroso tango by Nazareth.

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73 movindose hasta tomar cuerpo en nuevas ideas, una confusin geral, estallando aqu y alli en obras, segn las circunstancias. 46 t feel the music into a pre determ ined system within a n intellectually studied fixed theoretical system As my musical field of information technically and aesthetically got amplified, through the incorporation of new elements, they got immersed in my subconscious expanding and moving unt il they got transformed into new ideas, a general confusion, exploding in works here and there, according to the circumstances.) This continuous line evolves from the Concertino and is followed by Trio Op. 4, composed a year later with the presence of dod ecaphonic ideas within an atonal center. Afterwards, there are works such as Trs Can es Op. 9, where the melody of the third song is completely atonal. The line finally culminates in Divertimento which is polytonal and atonal, with some serial moments. The second phase goes from Variaes Rtmicas Op. 15, until Dia da Gra a Op. 32bis. It starts in 1963, when Nobre is in Buenos Aires studying at the Torcuato di Tella Institute, and lasts until 1968. Although Nobre learned a great deal of dodecaphonic technique under Koellreutter, it was at the Torcuato Di Tella that he got more involved with the technique. The seeds had been planted earlier, but Nobre needed some time to mature the idea. At the same time, his compositional process had bent more in the direction of polytonality rather than tonality from the beginning. Nobre explains that it is important to know that there are two time lines in through some expe riences until he finds his own voice or ponders some ideas to maturity. According to Nobre, if a composer pushes certain things too early in the process, he will not be a good composer and his pieces will sound forced, somehow. He said a composer must be p atient 46 Marlos Nobre in an interview. 47.

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74 and wait for the right time to incorporate certain techniques, otherwise the compositional process cannot be natural. 47 This explains why Nobre did not follow directly to dodecaphony or serial techniques after his lessons with Koellreutter. The techn iques only matured when he was at the Torcuato Di Tella. According to Nobre, his natural direction after the evolution he achieved in his first phase was toward dodecaphony and serialism. Nevertheless, he followed a slightly different path. His evolutionar y line did culminate in dodecaphony, but not the German type of dodecaphony exhausted by Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. Nobre was never convinced that the only way out for a contemporary composer of that time was multi serialism or total serialism. 48 Nobre fo llowed the so called Latin dodecaphony, such as the one seen in Italy, Argentina, and Brazil, which was represented by composers such as Luigi Dallapiccola and Alberto Ginastera. This type of dodecaphony differs from the German version in that it is freer and without extremes, wherein musical expression becomes more important than theory. Variaes R tmicas is the first work in which Nobre combines dodecaphonic or serial techniques along with the use of typical Brazilian rh ythms. His next works also fo llow that evolutionary line: dodecaphony, serialism, multi serialism, then indeterminacy. Nevertheless, none of these techniques are followed strictly, but simply used as a means for possibilities. In Ukrinmakrinkrin Op. 17 (1964), Nobre uses serial techn iques with even more freedom than in Variaes R tmicas He also uses aleatoric procedures in Ukrinmakrinkrin for the first time. 47 Conversations with Marlos Nobre Interview by the author Rio de Janeiro, December 12, 2006. 48 In fact, Polyphonie X by Pierre Boul ez has been the maximum stage of this type of evolution. The piece has just been performed twice. After the performance of the work in Baden Baden in 1951, Boulez declared his disappointment with the piece and explained that although exclusively governed by theoretical rules and those being efficiently explored, the resu lt was not effective and too much artificial. The piece remains unpublished, however there are two recordings of Polyphonie : one of the premiere by the Sinfonieorchester in Baden Baden conducted by Hans Hosbaud, another one of the first movement only by th e symphony orchestra of the RAI conducted by Bruno Maderna ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphonie_X accessed on January 31, 2007).

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75 Subsequently, he makes extensive use of serialism in works such as Canticum Instrumentale Op. 25 (1967) and String Quartet I Op. 26 (1967). String Quartet I later serves as the basis for his orchestral work, Biosfera Op. 35. Although Nobre never planned to strictly follow any aesthetic school, it is interesting to note that his 1968 piece, Tropical Op. 30, for piccolo, clari net, piano, and percussion is completely aleatoric. composer. The result of a combination of serialism, indeterminacy, and eventual polytonal techniques culminates in a creative process that allows the composer to use all means available without distinction or discrimination in order to fulfill his musical expression. While several other composers were fighting to discover something new different theories or new ideas without necessarily paying attention to the musical result, Nobre understood the real need for a composer to find the appropriate means to express his own musical ideas. He then realized that the means were all there ready to be used. He explains Mi ide ologa musical es no tener ninguna ideolog a o esttica preestab lecida. Sin procurar definir muy claramente mi posicin, lo que pienso es muy difcil o impo sible. Me siento como una antena estimulada continuamente por las solicitaciones del mundo exterior, ese mundo ambiente cada vez ms complejo, ms amplio, ms sorprendente. Me siento tironeado por mltiples excitaciones sensoriales tal cual una esponja, yo absorbo y abarco campos sensoriales cada vez ms vastos. El Arte es permanentemente mutable. Cada poca tiene sus lmites propios hasta que llegue un artista que descubre el manto y encuentra nuevos caminos. Yo ejercito mi actividad como si estuviera siempre a punto de levantar el sera ridculo como actitud previa. 49 My musical ideology is to not have any pre established ideology or aesthetic. I try to define my position very clearly but I believe it to be very difficult and perhaps impossible. I feel like an antenna, continuously s timulated by the solicitations of the exterior world, this world each day more complex, wider, and overwhelming. I feel surrounded by multiple sensorial excitements and, just like a sponge, I absorb and embrace these growing sensorial stimulations. Art is constantly changing. It faces its own limitations every time 49 Romano, Jacobo. El advenimiento de la elec Buenos Air es Musical May, 1979.

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76 until the next artist lifts the blanket and finds new ways. I exercise my activity as if I were which would be a ridiculous attitude. Concerto Breve Op. 33, up to Homenagem a Villa Lobos Op. 46, respectively from 1969 until 1977. It is during this phase that Nobre develops his interest in simul taneously using a fixed notation along with a more flexible notation. His process of using a more flexible notation is found through the use of proportional notation and aleatoric notation. It is important to note that even when he uses aleatoric notation, Nobre writes down every single note, and determines the duration of the sequence. This characteristic becomes an important tool for the composer, who is able to combine his musical thought with basic rhythmic memories of his childhood, extracted from the Maracatus of Recife: rhythmic liberty and polyrhythmic structure within a fixed, rigorous pulse. This trend is notable in every piece written during the third phase until his latest works. On the other hand, works such as Concerto Breve Ludus Instrumental is Op. 34, then Mosaico Op. 36, Sonoridades Op. 37, O Cant o Multiplicado Op. 38, and In Memoriam Op. aleatoric techniques alongside static blocks of sound. Still, each work is individually developed Consequently, they become the most 1970s. It was not until the 1980s, though, that Nobre assured himself of a more determined posture related to what the real outcome of his personal and individual musical language and style wo uld be. He began his fourth period having matured after a two year period of silence.

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77 Even though he previously explored all of the characteristics of his more mature period, Nobre was able to develop and extend his musical language and compositional proce ss. From Yanomani Op. 47 (1980) forward, Nobre emerged with a more defined aesthetic Sonncias III scholar Maria Luiza Corker aspects of rhythm, harmony, and form evident in his music as early as the 1970s, gain stronger character in the works that date after 1980. By the 1990s, Nobre began to rely more frequently on tonal formal structures and a combination of traditional and contemporary elements, as one can see in later works such as Passacaglia for Orchestra Op. 84, and Kabbalah almost inexistent in his fifth period. Nobre extended his previous compositional ideas and entered his fourth and fifth periods as a continuation of his earlier development. However, he did so with more focus on important traditional features such as melody, form, and tonality, which were completely abolished by the most experimental aesthetic. From the beginning of the 1980s on, rhythm becomes a stronger characteristic in his works through Brazilian rhythmic manifestations, especially those connected with Northeast Brazil. His harmony becomes more d ense and compact, with a complex texture where tonal elements are not completely excluded. The composer shows preference for polytonal clusters that cannot be defined by traditional harmonic analysis. His polyphonic writing has also grown stronger. Free ha rmonies resulting from the independent lines create a certain conflict that makes perfect sense in the compositional context. Beyond any use of traditional forms, the composer emphasizes the importance of formal structure, making it a strong characteristic of his works. Each piece has its own formal structure, which represents the search for a new structural

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78 conception as a means of realizing new ideas. The principle of development and organic variation of the motives and initial ideas has become the strong est obsession of the composer. It is important to note that, although Nobre makes use of certain traditional compositional tools, his music should not be seen as neoclassical because he does not follow the same tradition as Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Hindemith and other neoclassical composers who followed the classical model more closely Accordi ng to Nobre, he studies the great classical composers through deep attention to their works he extracts the formal, structural, and creative impulses that lie un 50 is necessary to point out that while the composer developed works to follow a logical and progressive evolution, he al so composed works that were completely outside his main stylistic focus. Some of these works, composed in different time periods, can fit within the aesthetic perspective and compositional style of his first period. When asked about this, the composer said : The stylistic exceptions of my progressive, creative process are many, and they belong mostly to ideas that were born earlier but that had no time to grow and mature because I was being exposed to new ideas all the time, which moved me to write something else. However, those early ideas that were left on the side still in their embryonic stage never died, and they reappeared in those works. 51 Some of the works that can be classified as stylistic exceptions are: Ag Lon Op. 16, Praianas Op.18, Trs Coro s de Natal Op. 19, Dengues da Mulata Desinteressada Op. 20, Beiramar Op. 21, Modinha Op. 23, Sonata Breve Op. 24, Rhythmetron Op. 27, Convergncias Op. 28, Quinteto de Sopros Op. 29, the whole series of Desafios Op. 31, and 50 Corker Nobre, Maria Luiza. Sonncias III Latin American Music Review 1994. 51 Conversations with Marlos Nobre.

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79 Dia da Gra a Op. 32. M ost of these compositions were based on folkloric motives from composer affirms that he never worried about being faithful to any stylistic aesthetic. His main objective as a composer is to express his musical ideas. Writing those pieces allowed his mind to rest. Otherwise, he would have been mentally tortured. 52 Other pieces ended up being written anacronistically, and this has become another feature of the com poser: writing pieces based on past ideas or rewriting them in a different context. The composer brings ideas from the past and makes them part of the present as if there were no time separations, thereby making the past a feature of the present. Examples of this include: Homage to Rubinstein Op.40, the basic idea of which is based on the Presto variation of Concerto Breve for piano and orchestra; Momentos I II and III Op. 41, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, for guitar; Quarto Ciclo Nordestino Op. 43, which follows the same idea as the previous three, written eleven years earlier and based on the folklore of northeast Brazil; Quatro Momentos Op. 44; Variaes sobre um tema de B la Bart k Op. 45, and Homenagem a Villa Lobos Op. 46, which takes the initial idea of t he series of Desafios but develops it differently. Two pieces analyzed later in this study, Biosfera Op.35, and Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53, also deserve mention in this section. Biosfera String Quartet I and Conce rto II for String Orchestra contains material from the String Quartet I in its third movement. The String Quartet phases respectively. ng to his third, fourth, and fifth phases. They display a 52 Ibid.

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80 not been studied and analyzed until now. The orchestral works have been the medium through which Nobre has had the widest possibilities to express his musical ideas and thoughts. The works discussed in this study summarize all of his compositional development, ranging from 1968 to 2004.

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81 CHAPTER 3 SEARCH FOR AN IDENTI TY 1960s and the 1970s. They demonstrate how Nobre developed his compositional techniques. g involvement with advanced techniques. The pieces discussed below belong to the third period and were composed after the composer had developed a more personal and definite musical language. All of the characteristics present in these works remain part of his writing style even when he reaches a more mature age in his fourth phase. Unlike the original catalogue, this author decided to put Convergncias Op. 28, after In Memoriam Op. 39. Although Convergncias was written based on a ballet of 1968, the id eas explored by the composer represent developments used more often in the late 1970s, rather than the late 1960s. Thus, there is a discrepancy in the opus number sequence. B iosfera Op. 35 (1970) In 1967, Nobre wrote his String Quartet No. 1 Op. 26, name d Biosfera The work has three movements: I Variantes II Interldio III Postldio It was commissioned by the Broadcasting Music Service of Brazil and premiered on October 23, 1967 by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro String Quartet. The per formance took place at Sala del Instituto de Cultura Hispnica (Hispanic Cultural Institute Hall) in Madrid at the II Festival de Msica de Amrica y Espaa (Second Festival of Music from America and Spain) In 1968, Nobre was commissioned by Teatro Novo to compose a ballet, and he decided to explore ideas from the first and second movements of his String Quartet no. 1 The result was the ballet Biosfera ( Pas de deux ), Op. 26a, in one act and two scenes: I Variantes II Nocturnal It was premiered on O ctober 16, 1968 at Teatro Novo in Rio de Janeiro by the

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82 Brazilian Ballet Company, with choreography by Arthur Michell and Nobre conducting the Msica Nova String Orchestra. Biosfera Op. 35, for String Orchestra was written in 1970. Nobre used the score f rom the first and second movements of his String Quartet No. 1 and added a double bass line. It was premiered on January 27, 1971, at the Auditorium of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, performed by the Gulbenkian Chamber Orchestra under the di rection of Carlos Eduardo Prates. In 1974, the piece received the International Rostrum of Composers Prize/IMC/UNESCO in Paris. Although it used the same music as the String Quartet I the orchestral version of the piece presents some differences. For ins tance, the tempo markings for the first two movements in the string quartet are quarter note equals 80 and quarter note equals 50, respectively, while in the orchestral version the first movement is played slower with quarter note equals 72, and the second movement is slightly faster with quarter note equals 52. Other changes are found when comparing both scores; there are slight modifications in the measure numbers with some addition and subtraction of notes and rhythmic figures. This gives the orchestral version of Biosfera a completely new feeling. Unlike the String Quartet I Biosfera for String Orchestra has two movements: I Variantes II Postldio 1 The composer decided to end the piece on the second movement of the original string quartet, which makes it a completely different piece. According to the composer, the title comes from the Greek b ios (life) and s phaira (sphere), which means life on earth. The main idea in the piece is to represent the birth, development and death of life on earth. This process generates a cyclical idea, where death completes a circle of reintegration into 1 Biosfera for String Orchestra

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83 nature. It is not a surprise that the composer writes a piece thinking of more abstract philosophical allusion even though the piece is far from descriptive. Nobre has always been a devoted student who is proud of his humanistic formation. He explains .. fui sempre um leitor compulsivo, lendo na biblioteca do meu pai, em Recife, todo Dostoeivsky nos meus 14 anos, e Roger Martin du Gard "Os Thibaud" em francs, ou "Narc iso e Goldmundo", de Herman Hesse, que eram meus livros de cabeceira no perodo de formao, ao lado de Mario de Andrade, muito Mario de Andrade, cujas cartas a Manuel Bandeira eram minha fascinao. Estudei e me formei em Sociologia e Economia Poltica co m professores como Gilberto Freyre e Pinto Ferreira na Universidade de Recife, e convivi em minha juventude com Asceno Ferreira e Ariano Suassuna, permanentemente. Como v, sou essencialmente msico e compositor, mas no somente isto. Orgulho me de minha ampla formao humanstica 2 . ...I have always been a compulsive reader. When I was 14 I read everything by Les Thibault by Roger Martin du Gard in French and Narcissus and Goldmund by Herman Hesse used to be my night stand books along with Mrio de Andrade during my growing days. I read much of Mrio de Andrade and I was fascinated by his letters to Manuel Bandeira. I studied and got a degree in Sociology and Political Economy under professors such as Gilbe rto Freyre and Pinto Ferreira at the University of Recife and spent a great deal of my youth together with Asceno Ferreira and Ariano Suassuna. As you see, I am essentially a musician and a composer, but that is not it all. I am very proud of my wide huma nistic education. . The piece was composed from four notes that come from the name BACH, in German (Bb, A, C, B natural). (Figure 3 vocation in confrontation with the harsh realities of life, such as oppression, suffering, and death. It presents transformations on the series derived from the BACH theme and has a strong character in its harmony and rhythm. 3 The second movement presents a more positive attitude of hope through a more melo dious, polyphonic context, where the dramatic climax explores the theme in a polyphonic complexity. This represents the hope carried by mankind that love will prevail over brutality. 4 2 Marques, Clvis. A Msica Forte de Marlos Nobre Rio de Janeiro: O Globo, August 21, 2006. 3 Program Notes for Biosfera Op. 35, by Marlos Nobre. 4 Program Notes for Biosfera Op. 35, by Romain Goldron, Lman Classics.

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84 Figure 3 1 BACH motive used by Marlos Nobre in several of his pieces A lthough the composer gives two subtitles for the continuous movements in the piece, the work is actually one big movement. 5 (Table 3 1) Table 3 1 Biosfera Op. 35: formal struture 1. Variantes 2. Postl dio m.25 m.61 m.106 m. 161 m. 189 m. 222 Intro. Var. I Var.II Var. III Var. IV Var. V The first movement is written in variation form. It be gins with 24 measures of vertical accented chords that first spell Bb, C, A, B natural, Bb from low to high. This BACH motive is addressed by the composer in several different pieces, as one can see in some of the following works presented in this study. I t becomes a personal signature. When asked about this, the composer replied ...No sei exatamente qua ndo e por qu surgiu o meu intere sse pelo tema BACH e sua utilizao em minhas obras. Tenho lembranas claras de, por volta de meus 16 anos, ter cado em minhas mos uma publicao da Revue Musicale de Paris que publicava um anexo de partituras d e compositores vivos. E o que li especificamente, era uma Hommage a Bach, tendo vrios compositores escrito peas para diversos instrumentos sobre o nome BACH. L embro me especificamente de uma pea de Francis Poulenc, para piano, e outra de Alfredo Casella tambm para piano, que na poca me interessaram muito. Depois estudando a Arte da Fuga de Bach, impressiounou me quando na ltima e inacabaca Fuga, o prprio Ba ch cita o tema do seu nome. Bem, a partir da, a semente estava plantada e comeou a germinar em meu subconsciente. A primeira obra em que utilizo o tema BACH foi no Divertimento para piano e orquestra de 1963,escrito em Buenos Aires, sobretudo no 2 movim ento. Posteriormente foram seguindo outras obras, onde o tema era utilizado ocasionalmente no meio da composio, s vezes como ligao temtica de sees distintas. 5 The same division cannot b e used for the String Quartet I There, the first movement is really separated from the second one. The orchestral version contains a held note in the double bass provides continuity.

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85 No Quarteto de Cordas n 1 de 1967 entretanto a primeira vez em que o tema utilizado como germe, como fonte fundamental, como id ia germinal de toda a obra. O 1 movimen to portanto uma srie de variantes sobre o tem a BACH e o 3 movimento inteiramente baseado nele. Depois veio Biosfera que como voc sabe, uma extenso do Quarteto de Cordas (1 e 2movimentos) escrita em 1970. Depois em 1981, escrevi o Concerto para Cordas II cujo 1 movimento inteiramente baseado no tema BACH. O motivo BACH entretanto seria usado esporadicamente e m outras obras como citao de uma fonte, para mim, importante de constante inspirao. 6 I developed the interest in the BACH motive and the use of it in my works. I remember well that when I was around 16 years old, I got acquainted with a publication from Revue Musicale of Paris which published an appendix of scores of living composers. I remember reading specifically some type of Homage to Bach, where several composers wrote pieces for many different media using the BACH motive. I remember specifically two pieces that c aught my attention at the time: a piano piece by Francis Poulenc and another one, also for piano, by Alfredo Casella. Moreover, studying the Art of Fugue theme on the unfinished last Fugue. From that point on, the seed was planted and started germinating in my subconscious. I first used the BACH theme in my Divertimento for Piano and Orchestra especially in the second movement, written in Buenos Aires in 1963. Later, I used it in some other pieces to o, but just occasionally in the middle of the composition or sometimes as a thematic connection between two different sections. The String Quartet of 1967, however, is the first piece in which I use the theme as the basic foundation source for the whole c omposition; the first movement is, therefore, a series of variations on the name BACH and the third movement is entirely based on it. Then, in 1970, came Biosfera, which is an extension of the String Quartet No.1 In 1981, I wrote the Concerto for String O rchestra II in which the first movement is entirely based on the BACH theme. The motive appears in some other works as a source of constant inspiration. Although the structure on the first page is mainly vertical, each instrument plays the twelve tones of the chromatic scale without repetition. The double bass line always doubles another instrumental line and the tone cluster formed by the down bow is always a four note chromatic pitch set. (Figure 3 2) 6 Conversations with Marlos Nobre.

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86 Figure 3 2 Opening page for Biosfera Op. 35, me asures 1 through 24

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87 This introduction part is followed by five variations. Although the first 24 measures state the motive and material to be explored in the variations, it is difficult to call it a theme because the variations do not follow a similar melo own serialism, which in this case explores the use of all twelve tones in a chromatic result from the intervals present in the BACH motive. Variation I (mm. 25 60) develops the twelve note line in a clea rly horizontal way, independently creating a counterpoint. Nobre proves he has mastered polyphonic writing by paying attention to important contrapuntal rules. For instance, while one voice skips in a certain direction, the others either remain on the same notes or move a step in an opposite direction. The composer explores all possibilities of motion: parallel, similar, contrary and oblique. At the end of this section there is rhythmic diminution. This also accelerates the presentation of the twelve pitche s in all voices. While it takes about fourteen measures to introduce all pitches in the beginning of the variation, it takes only two bars toward the end of it. This section demonstrates ting. Nobre uses this technique to create tension in the score, emphasizing the dissonant, uneasy harmonies. The composer continues to use the twelve note motive, each time with more freedom. (Figure 3 3) Variation II (mm. 60 105) continues the polyphonic idea with the inclusion of canonic gestures. The lines develop different rhythmic figures and play nearly independently. The instruments now play a five note chromatic pitch set, which connects it to the first page. The canonic gestures are intercepted by tremolos and glissandi that explore the BACH motive trans posed to different pitches. (Figure 3 4)

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88 Figure 3 3 Horizontal twelve tone development of Variation I mm. 25 41 (left). Rhythmic diminution at the end of Variation I and beginning of Variation II m m. 53 64 (right) Figure 3 4 Tremolos and Glissandi around BACH motive of Variation II, mm. 80 91

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89 Variation III 7 (mm. 106 techniques. Strings play pizzicato glissandi, as indicated in t he score. (Figure 3 5) Measur es 117 through 120 present the five note chromatic pitch set in the eighth notes played pizzicato, which anticipates the idea to be developed. The score indicates that the strings should play in pizzicato as mandolins. This cre ates some special effects that add to the idea of advanced instrumental technique explored earlier in the variation. Then the instruments play chord tremolos. Each instrument, except double bass, gets three notes to play in a chord, forming all together tw elve performers striking the strings with the wooden part of the bow, contains a dry, muffled type of sound that prevents one from he aring any definite pitches. (Figur e 3 6) Variation IV (mm. 161 188) presents twelve tones played in blocks by the instruments, completing all the pitches either vertically or hori zontally. Then they play a five note chromatic pitch set again with tremolo, sul ponticello in measures 167 and 168. This technique of playing at the bridge of the instrument produces a type of eerie sound. When one adds tremolo to it, one gets the most effective sound result. The tremolos use the notes E (Vc), Eb (Vla), D (Vn2), F (Vn1), and F# (Cb), starting i n this ord er, this time moving the five note chromatic pitch set in a parallel direction. In measure 172, there is a change of pitch set to C C# F F#G [01256], going back to [01234] in Eb E F F# G in m. 182 Variation V (m. 189 221) begins with the climax o f the movement. The twelve notes are played within one measure (m. 189). After the climatic moment, the piece follows a continuous diminuendo. The chords change, but preserve the twelve note idea until measure 217, when a set of repeating chords displays t he twelve notes agai n, finalizing the movement. (Figure 3 7) 7 Variation III begins one measure e arlier in the String Quartet I Op. 26 (1967).

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90 Figure 3 5 Pizzicato Glissandi from Variation III mm. 106 114 The first movement merges into the second movement, Postl dio which comes in one section. The strings play in harmonics and set th e atmosphere for the movement, which, as described earlier, represents a more positive attitude of the hope carried by mankind that good will prevail over evil. The atmosphere is slow and peaceful, and it gives birth to a melodic line first played by the v iola and then imitated by the cello. Thi s melody is built using the twelve tones through four note chromatic sets derived from the BACH motive. (Figure 3 8)

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91 Figure 3 6 Variation III mm. 115 through 131 with [01234] motive from measures 117 120 foll owed by mandolin like section mm. 121 124, followed by string chordal tremolos

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92 Figure 3 7 End of first movement and beginning of second movement, mm. 217 227 Figure 3 8 Viola solo line of the second movement, mm. 228 239

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93 After the melody is transp osed and played by the cello, the movement enters in a passage of effects where the instruments play an extension of the harmonics displayed in the beginning of cal led artificial harmonics are produced two octaves higher than the actual note. This effect is noted with a small diamond shape note on the perfect fourth above the real note. Performers then lightly touch these higher perfect fourth notes in orde r to produ ce the harmonics. (Figure 3 9 ) Figure 3 9 Artificial harmonics passage mm. 245 256

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94 The melody comes back again. This time it is more developed and in a contrapuntal format, having all instruments play the melody in a canonic imitation. The counterp oint gets more intense each time until it reaches the climax of the movement in measure 274, when instruments play the BACH motive again in a frenetic, intensive way using tremolos. (Figure 3 10) The piece decreases gradually and the melody comes one more time in the end, played by the viola, the cello, and again by the viola. The piece ends in a slow, static way. Figure 3 10 Climax section of the second movement, mm. 269 283

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95 M osaico Op. 36 (1970) Composed in February of 1970, Mosaico Op. 36, won second prize at the Second Guanabara Music Festival in Rio de Janeiro in May of that year. The work was first played during the festival by the Brazilian Symphonic Orchestra under the direction of Armando Krieger. A year later, on October 22, 1971, a ballet in one act and three scenes based on the music of the three movements of Mosaico was premiered at the Municipal Theater of Rio de Janeiro by the Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Henrique Morelenbaum with choreography by Hector Zaraspe. Alth ough it used Mosaico Autpsia para minha sombra ( Autopsy for my shadow ), Op. 36a, and it was also written in 1970. The ballet is about ten minutes longer than the orchestral piece. Mosaico for orchestra has been under the atten tion of music critics and musicologists as an 8 In this work, Nobre proves his admiration for the new techniques explored by twentieth century Polish composers. Neve sense of engineering that its sophistication takes more from the composer than from the performers. 9 This work is perhaps one of the most avant attachment to tradition and Brazilian roots are still present. He uses a traditional staged format and includes typical Brazilian instruments, such as chocalhos (maracas), bongos, congas, and agogs (cow bells) in the percussion section. 8 The composer writes one page with instructions for the appropriate interpretation of symbols. 9 Earls, Paul. Marlos Nobre: Ukrimakrinkrin and Mosaico Yearbook for International Musical Research vol. 8, Au stin: University of Texas at Austin, Institute of Latin American Studies, pp. 178 180. ( Anuario Interamericano de Inve stigaci n Musical ) 1972.

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96 nd brilliant orchestration puts him in a special position. His way of conveying musical ideas may not be completely new, but it is certainly worthy of observation. As in most of his works, Nobre concentrates on bigger gestures, as opposed to small intellec tual problems and difficulties. 10 The work is written for full orchestra, including three percussionists plus timpani. It contains three highly contrasting movements played without breaks. (Table 3 2) Table 3 2 Mosaico Op. 36: formal structure 1 Densidade s 2 C iclos 3 Jogos m. 46 m.76 m. 102 m. 118 m. 133 m. 173 1 A............1 B .........................2 A............ 2 B.. ............2 A...... ........3 B The first movement, Densidades (Densities), explores texture and sound mass from the various instrumental sections in the orchestra. The use of a large number of instruments contributes to a heavy t exture, while the absence of certain instruments generates a thinner layer. Sometimes the composer uses the contrast between different weight instruments, such as woodwinds and brass, making them attack successively in sonorous blocks 11 The movement has t wo sections, and is built over the twelve notes of the chromatic scale. The initial chord and gesture display all twelve pitches that will later be developed. It is important to note that, while playing all twelve tones spread through the orchestra, the vi braphone plays a three note chromatic motive in the first measure, which is important material for the unification of the whole piece. In the third bar, the composer divides the twelve note structure into three groups of four notes each. The instruments de termined for each group play a certain rhythmic structure in a free way for a certain amount of time. The composer selects the pitches to be used by each instrumental group, and they play the rhythmic figures almost in an 10 Ibid. 11 Program Notes for Mosaico Op. 36, by Marlos Nobre.

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97 improvisational way. Nobre creates three such groups. The first is played by the oboes and the English horn; the second by the clarinets and bass clarinet. The initial group then moves to the piccolo and flutes and the second group moves to the bassoons and counter bassoon. Later, a third group appears in the trumpets. Afterward, some pitches are played individually by certain instruments. It sounds aleatoric, as if it were played randomly. However, every note is written and controlled by the composer, except for some of the rhythms. (Figur es 3 11 and 3 12) Figure 3.11. Three note initial motive in Mosaico Op. 36 Figure 3 12 Full score mm. 1 3 (left). Aleatoric box 1 m. 3 (right top); aleatoric box 2 mm. 4 5 (right middle); and aleatoric box 3 m. 14 15 (right bottom)

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98 Figure 3 13 S econd section of Mosaico mm. 46 47 with beginning of chromatic motive in the strings (A). Extension of chromatic motives through descending chromatic lines on the strings (B) The second section of this movement begins at the climatic point and presents th e strings playing a controlled improvisatory part over the twelve notes. The composer divides the strings into groups, and each has a group of notes to play in a certain order. Afterward, Nobre gives a chromatic descending line to each group of instruments and they play continuously. While the first part ( section A) focuses more on a horizontal sonority through sustained chords, this part ( section B) adds some vertical effects. Above the strings, the other instruments are organized into groups of woodwinds, brass, piano, harp, and percussion. They alternate clusters and rhythmic A B

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99 sections until the end of the movement, which connects to the second one through a held note o n the first flute. (Figure 3 13) The second movement, Ciclos (Cycles), is based on an initial sound and rhythmic structures, which repeats with slight modifications after a certain number of events in the music. This movement presents a more lyrical section. The cyclical idea also applies to the way the solo instruments expose their part icular melodies, where Nobre uses a certain number of sounds that surround each other continuously. 12 measure 118). It presents the same initial three note chromatic motive [012] in the harp. In fact, this movement explores this short motive instead of dividing the twelve notes of the chromatic scale into fragments as the first movement does. It is interesting to note that although the first movement has only two sections (A and B), the contrasting ideas developed there are carried through the second movement. In other words, while the A section in the first movement carries a more horizontal development through a mass of sustained chords, the A section in the second movement keeps this linear idea through melodic motives that pass from one instrument to another. The melodic motives are constructed from the initial pitch material [012]. (Figure 3 14) Similar to the B section of the first movement, the middle section of the seco nd movement presents a more vertical development through accents in the xylophone, piano, piccolo, flute, and percussion. The twelve tones are slowly introduced in this middle section and Nobre increases the tension in the movement when he presents them su btly in measures 107 through 109 until all twelve tones finally meet in the same measure (m. 119), where the third section begins. (Figure 3 15) 12 Ibid.

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100 Figure 3 14 Melodic lines: Oboe mm. 88 91 (top), trumpet mm. 93 95 (bottom) The third section of the se cond movement comes immediately after the climatic moment (measures 114 118). It brings back the initial atmosphere of the movement, this time displaying the twelve note motive twice, played by the vibraphone, harp, and celesta. The three note chromatic mo tive [012] first presented by the harp in this movement gradually adds a note to its structure each time it comes back: First in measure 78 (D, Eb, Db), then in m. 92 (D, Eb, Db, E), and finally in m. 119, with its repetition in m. 129 (D, Eb, Db, E, C), w hen the composer displays the twelve note gesture. (Figure 3 16) According to the composer, the third part Jogos (Games) is a divertimento for the orchestra. The conductor basically plays around with instrumental combinations, which here appear in a fi xed way. The composer uses clearly written sections together with sections of controlled aleatoric passages. even while writing an abstract indeterminate atonal piece wit h some serial characteristics. In measure 135, trumpets play the intervallic gesture [012] in a chord format, which helps to connect the whole piece. Notes are added little by little along with an increase in tension and dynamics. From measures 154 through 159, the twelve notes are presented in a horizontal line.

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101 Just as the first sections of movements one and two had horizontal lines contrasted by more vertical second sections, this movement follows a similar design. (Figure 3 17) Figure 3 15 Gradual pr esentation of twelve tones, mm. 107 109 percussion develops the important role of bringing the movement, as well as the whole piece, to

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102 a chaotic climax, which here is a n expansion of an earlier idea presented in measur e 45 of the first movement. (Figure 3 18) After the climatic moment comes, the B section explores a more vertical attack through clusters and rhythmic accents, similar to previous movements. The composer th en divides the orchestra, givi ng each instrumental group has its own aleatoric box, alternated by broken chords played by the xylophone, the piano and the harp in the form of a complementary dialogue. These broken chords originate a new motivic idea that i ntercalates with the aleatoric boxes and, little by little, adds pitches until the twelve pitches come in measure 188. (Figures 3 19 and 3 20) Figure 3 16 Gradual presentation of twelve notes: Three note initial motive m. 78 (top left), four note development m. 92 (bottom left), and complete twelve note motive m. 119 (right)

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103 The piece ends with the diminution of the timpani motive, alternated with clusters in the other instruments. The composer shows an exploration of materials that later become a n integral part of his more mature musical language, such as free use of chromaticism, rhythmic impulse, a great deal of attention on the percussion, knowledge of instrumentation, and knowledge of how to get the best out of each instrument in the orchestra He displays specific forms, use of sound clusters and sound mass and most important here a personal approach to serialism and indeterminacy. Nobre uses a strict compositional style, such as serialism, but uses it in a special way, free from any aest hetic rule. At the same time, he uses a free, indeterminate style of composition, such as indeterminacy, and uses it in a strict way, by writing down every pitch and determining their duration and dynamic through the use of structured and controlled improv isatory passages. The composer proves to be completely against any kind of restrictive aesthetic school and simply uses the available material to convey his musical ideas in the way that best serves him, the performers and the audience. Figure 3 17 Ini tial [012] motive m. 135 (left). Gradual appearance of twelve tones mm. 154 158 (right)

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104 Figure 3 18 Climax of first movement m. 45 (top) and climax of third movement m. 162 (bottom)

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105 Figure 3 19 Vertical clusters mm. 173 176 (left), and aleatoric box mm. 181 182 (right)

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106 Figure 3 20 Broken chord motivic idea and aleatoric boxes, mm. 183 184 (left), mm. 187 188 (right) In M emoriam Op 39 (1973/76) In Memoriam Op. 39, was commissioned by the Cultural Federal Council (Conselho Federal de Cultura) th rough the Brazilian Symphonic Orchestra in 1973. The work was composed that same year. Nobre asked the Brazilian Symphonic Orchestra to refrain from performing it until he was completely finished with compositional details. The work was released for perfor mance three years later, and the premiere took place on December 18, 1976 at Sala Ceclia Meireles in Rio de Janeiro by the Brazilian Symphonic Orchestra under the direction of David Machado. In 1979, In Memoriam received first prize at the First Latin Am erican and Caribbean Music Rostrum (TRIMALCA), International Music Council of UNESCO, in Bogot, Colombia, and it was recommended at the International Rostrum of Composers of the International Music

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107 Paris. 13 It was considered by the international jury to be one of the most important and creative compositions for orchestra from the 1960s and 1970s. 14 rk is based on the first six melodic notes of Adelita a little waltz (mazurka) for guitar by Francisco Trrega (1852 1909). According to Nobre, his father, an amateur guitar player, loved to play the piece at night. Nobre took the first six melodic notes of Adelita as the basic material for In Memoriam (E, D sharp, B, D natural, C, F sharp) 15 These notes are not clearly heard within the complex notes C and F sharp plays an almost obsessive role throughout the piece. Another obsessive interval is the minor second, originating from the first two notes, E and D sharp. This interval provides a basis for the whole harmonic sonority present in the first section. Nevertheless, the piece, Adelita is indeed in E minor, with a middle section in the parallel E major; it is in ternary form A B A. In Memoriam has five major sec tions, which can be divided into seven subsections. (Table 3 3) Table 3 3 In Memoriam Op. 39: formal structure ........m.25......m.31.........m.46........m.62........... .m.79 .....................m.113 ............... .m.177 13 Nobre Personal Website A ccessed October 2006. 14 Millarch, Aramis Millarch Veculo: Estado do Paran 1990 15 The notes C, D, D sharp, E, and F sha rp are present in the piece. Nevertheless the B is basically replaced by Bb, which is the most important tonal center of the second t heme of the first section.

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108 The first section contains two subsections: the first goes up to measure 25, using tremolos in the strings as the foundation for the colorf ul intervallic explorations played by the woodwinds, piano, and percussion. The tremolos are basically present throughout the piece and the elements in this part derive from the basic six note motive mentioned above. The minor second motives in the tremolo s follow a descending chromatic line from D natural, to D flat (C sharp), to C natural, resolving on D natural. The dramatic character of the piece is set in the first few measures. This dramatic process, emphasized by crescendo in dynamics, culminates in the presentation of the tritone first announced in measure 16. (Figure 3 21) The composer uses an ad libitum section where the strings play their minor second gestures with intensifying speed. They dynamically overlap each other in order to form a stretto. The nex t bars form a bridge to connect the first subsection to the second one. This section uses the ad libitum idea originated a measure earlier in the piece and separates the orchestra into groups of woodwinds, brass, and percussion each one with thei r own aleatoric sequence. E ven when using aleatoric procedures, the composer keeps complete control of the work. These techniques, as well as the quasi improvised sense one gets from the strings part, were explored in Mosaico discuss ed earlier in this chapter. (Figure 3 22) The second subsection presents a melodic line on the first trombone in dialogue with the first clarinet. Both instruments play the same melody, which is constructed first on the Dorian mode transposed to G in the trombone and th en on the Dorian mode transposed to Bb on the clarinet. This setting also emphasizes the use of minor thirds within the section. The solo The composer explains his intimacy with contr apuntal writing:

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109 Figure 3 21 Descending minor second motives (left), and tritone (right) Figure 3 22 Aleatoric boxes in In Memoriam mm. 27 28

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110 ... eu sempre fui um estudio so compulsivo. Trabalhei com o p e. Jaime Diniz o contraponto, a pol ifonia de Palestrina, os modos, muito mais que a tonalidade. Escrevi uma centena de missas modais dos 14 aos 19 anos, estreadas pelo coro da Igreja de So Jos, do padre Jaime. A polifonia sempre foi meu mundo, e no a homofonia, e da vem a riqueza de min ha linguagem orquestral. 16 ...I have always been a compulsive student. I have studied counterpoint, the polyphony of Palestrina, and the modes much more than tonality under Father Jaime Diniz. 17 I wrote about one hundred modal masses from ages 14 to 19, and they were all performed by the Choir of So Jos Church conducted by Father Jaime. Polyphony, not homophony, has always been my world, and that is where the richness of my orchestral language comes from. The modal melodic line is supported by glissandi in the harmonics of the strings, which technique. The aleatoric passages briefly used in this subsection add mystery to the second exposition of the modal melody. Although it is constructed with modal melodies and atonal passages, this section presents a strong sense of tonal center on Bb. This emphasizes the tritone harmonic relationship that is so strong in the work: the first subsection with emphasis on E 18 and th e second subsection with emphasis on Bb. (Figure 3 23) The second section is a short re exposition of the first section, this time with the melodic line of the second subsection transposed to C Dorian and G Dorian, and played by a solo cello and the Englis h horn, respectively, above tremolos in the strings instead of glissandi. This short section helps to establish the dramatic character of the piece. 19 16 Marques, 2006. 17 Born Jayme Cavalcanti Diniz in gua Preta, Pernambuco in 1924, Father Diniz was a conductor, composer, and musicologist. He was the founder of the Music Department at the Federal University of Recife and the Nat ional Competition of Sacred Music. He was professor of Music History and Harmony at the Federal University of Recife. He was also professor of Sacred Music, Gregorian Chant, and the conductor of the Seminrios de Olinda Choir. He suffered a heart attack an d died in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte in 1989. 18 Even though the piece starts on D, the tonal center is gradually shifted to E on the second page of the music. 19 Program notes for In Memoriam Op. 39.

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111 The third section is the most important and it brings the piece to its climax. The composer develops the m otives used in the first two sections and introduces new elements, such as an open string arpeggio played by the guitar. The section explores great tension caused by the prolongation of dissonant harmonies, strong intercalation of the timpani along with th e gradual dynamic crescendo that is so characteristic in the writing of the composer. (Figure 3 24) Figure 3 23 Polyphonic modal lines accompanied by harmonic glissandi in the strings, mm. 34 41 After a long pause in the midst of enormous tension, eleme nts from the initial section come back, this time emphasizing the minor second interval. The dramatic tension played by the strings is emphasized by the timpani interference until the string tremolos join in, creating a strong chaotic yet organized moment of great tension in the score. This tension is increased still by two big pauses (measures 142 and 175). The tritone, originated by C and F sharp in the

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112 beginning of the piece, increases the tension whenever it is intercepted by another obsessive interval of a minor second, which originates from the first two notes of the six note sequence used in the first section: E and D sharp. (Figure 3 25) Figure 3 24 Beginning of middle section with open string guitar motive and prolongation of pitches, mm. 84 89

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113 T of his father. (Figure 3 26) The piece is an important example of the sense of drama that the composer incorporates in his scores. Nobre explains Figure 3 25 Minor second pervasive interval adding to the tension after long pause, mm. 113 118 Uma obra como 'In Memoriam' foi escrita, como muitas minhas, nesse estado de percepo de um drama interno, de uma narrativa abstrata, sem querer com isso aludir a nada especia l. No caso de 'In Memoriam' eu s me dei conta do 'assunto' especfico depois de t la quase completado. Ou seja, a morte do meu pai. A pea fundamentalmente um reflexo do choque profundo, em minha formao mental e fsica, desse fato fundamental. A par tir de umas poucas notas, que meu pai insistentemente tocava nas madrugadas em seu violo (a pecinha Adelita '), eu constru toda a estrutura dramtica da obra. E o drama que se desenvolveu em minha mente, internamente, leva ao ponto culminante do desfecho Mas nada disso tem carter descritivo. Eu no sigo uma linha clara, mas um fato obssessivo, interno, permanente e intransfervel. 20 20 Marques, 2006.

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114 Like many of my works, a composition such as In Memoriam was written under this status of perception of an internal dram a, an abstract narrative without any specific allusion. I In Memoriam after I had already completed it. The work is essentially a reflexion on this profound shock mentally and physically. I constructed the whole dramatic structure of the piece based on a few notes Adelita This drama that was developed in my mind takes the piece to its climax and resolution. However, there is not a descriptive character in the piece because I do not follow an obvious line, but the drama in it is an internal, permanent and obsessive fact. Figure 3 26 Sense of agony presented by composer through chaotic timpani interference mm. 108 112 The fourth and last section brings back the modal theme of the second subsection of the first part, this time played by the bassoon, G Dorian, in its higher range, in a dialogue with the French horn, which plays the melody in Bb Dorian. Sustained notes in the strings and the presence of the open string guitar arpeggio give the work a peaceful ending, which follows into an even slower coda and on to a static calm. (Figure 3 2 7)

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115 Figure 3 27 Final section of In Memoriam mm. 179 183 C onvergncias Op 28 (19 68/1977) Convergncias Op. 28 was first written as a ballet in one act and three scenes in 1968. It was commissioned by the Brazilian Ballet Company of Teatro Novo in Rio de Janeiro. Under the baton of the composer, with choreography by Arthur Mitchell, the first performance of the piece as a ballet took place at Teatro Novo in Rio de Janeiro on June 11, 1968. Convergncias Op.

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116 28a, 21 as a ballet, is for wind symphony, piano, and percussion. Unlike the orchestral piece, it contains three distinctive movem ents. In 1977, the First Latin American Festival of Contemporary Music of the City of Maracaibo in Venezuela commissioned Nobre to write a symphonic work for the festival. The composer decided to use some material from the ballet to compose a new orchestr al piece. The material is mostly taken from the third movement of the ballet, which presents great rhythmic energy. The first performance of this new work, which carried the same name as the ballet, was presented on November 20, 1977, by the Symphony Orche stra of Maracaibo, to whom the score was dedicated. It was performed under the direction of Eduardo Rahn at the Teatro Bella Artes in Maracaibo. 22 The one movement piece contains seven sections followed by a coda. The piece follows a determined rhythmic imp ulse, and the sections do not have interruption, except for a grand pause between the sixth and seventh sections. The seven sections can later be seen as a big A B followed by a coda. For analytical purposes, the formal structure of seven sections p lus coda will be used. (Table 3 4) Table 3 4 Convergncias Op. 28: formal structure A (lento) B (vivo) C (lento) D (veemente) Coda Intro m.30 m.115 m.140 m.183 m.202 m.251 ............. .. Coda Convergncias Op. 28, begins with an introduction (A), presenting a short melodic phrase of eight notes that progresses and accelerates until the second section (B). This short melodic phrase is presented in a canonic arrangement, which builds up from lower registers to higher 21 Several per formances of the ballet b y Teatro Novo Brazilian Ballet Company occurred between 1969 and 1971 Since the extinction of the theater and its ballet company the work has not been performed as a ballet. 22 Program Notes for Convergncias Op. 28 by Marlos Nobre.

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117 ones in the orchestra. It begins with the low strings and tuba and adds instruments lit tle by little until it reaches the piccolo. The phrase gets transposed and it is played with variations throughout the different voices; however, the basic idea is constructed using the intervals of m2, M2, m3, and M3. At the same time, the addition of th e voices in the canonic organization generates vertical intervals of quartal/quintal harmonies. (Figure 3 28) Figure 3 28 Strings part only from Convergncias 12 When the motive reaches the piccolo, it is repeated over and over in a process of diminution until the eight note phrase becomes two notes that repeat insistently, creating tension to connect into the second section (B). Although still in embryonic use, the idea of subtracting and also adding becomes an important charac see in his Sonncias III for two pianos and two percussionists composed in 1980. The idea was first used by Messiaen. Nobre unconsciously integrated the technique into some of his compositions. In Convergn cias the idea is used briefly with pitches. In Sonncias III the composer adds and subtracts rhythmic values. (Table 3 5)

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118 Table 3 5 Pitch diminution in Convergncias W hen it reaches the piccolo the phrase goes as follows: B C Ab Bb Gb F D Eb (initial phr ase) B C Ab Bb Gb F B C Ab Bb B C (repeats constantly under accelerando ) This next section is faster and essentially rhythmic. It is well elaborated and shows the rocess of repetition. The section is based on major second intervals that are transposed to different pitches. The section becomes more intense as the pitches are transposed. The section is built initially from ascending eighth notes using M2 and M3 interv als (C D, C D, C E D F# E) accompanied by M7 intervals in the low strings and bassoon. (Figure 3 29) While the vertical idea of the first section presented quartal/quintal harmonies, this second section emphasizes a more triadic development. For instance, in measure 34, the horns, trombones, and the strings play the motive starting on the notes F A C in a vertical position (C [Hrn1 /Vn1] A [Hrn2/Trb1/Vn2] F [Hrn3/Trb2/Vla]. The motive that initially began on the note C (Hrn2/Vn1) in measure 30 gets trans posed to Eb (Hrn2) in measure 38, and then to Gb (Hrn1/Vln1) in measure 42. A new melodic motive appears in the trumpets in measure 50 followed by an ascending chromatic scale idea in the strings and clarinet, which begins in measure 58 and goes up to measure 114. This new idea functions as a bridge to the next measures, which present the same M2 intervallic idea, this tim e in a descending sequence. (Figure 3 30) The piccolo plays a different rhythmic gesture of a quarter note followed by eighth note: E (m. 62 65) D (m.74 77) C (m.82 85).

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119 Figure 3 29 Section B of Convergncias mm. 31 36 A third new rhythmic idea appears in the trumpet on measure 98. This idea emphasizes the chromatic scale once again with chromatic notes under sforzando (sff) s igns in the horn and percussion, adding tension and preparing the piece fo r the next big section (C). (Figure 3 31)

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120 Figure 3 30 Trumpet melodic motive mm. 50 54 The third section is slower and presents a melodic line in the oboe constructed of m2 an d M7 intervals. The flute and violin repeat the same melodic line, each starting with a different pitch but using a similar intervallic relationship. The chromatic idea continues in an ascending line in the horns (mm.128 132), followed by a descending line in the brass (mm.136 139). At the same time, cello and double bass play the same melody, also constructed from ascending M7 and descending m2 taken from the initi al oboe melody. (Figure 3 32)

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121 Figure 3 31 New rhythmic motive in trumpets with chromatic n otes on horns and percussion, mm. 97 102 Figure 3 32 Slow melodic section mm. 116 127: first on the oboe (m. 116), then flute (m. 119), and finally first violin (m. 123)

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122 The fourth section (D) takes the melodic material first presented by the oboe in t he third section and develops it in the strings. This is imitated by the woodwinds two beats later as a canon. The canonic idea comes from the very beginning of the piece, when the composer presented the eight note phrase canon. In this section, the canoni c melody is also atonal, using different notes of the chromatic scale almost without repetition. This generates great tension. Between each end and beginning of a phrase the timpani plays loud eighth notes, adding to the tension and also connecting this sl ow section to the rhythmic eighth note mo tive of the second section. (Figure 3 33) Figure 3 33 Canonic melody in winds and strings, mm. 140 147 The fifth section is brief. It is perhaps not even necessary to separate it in the analysis but since it brings back the initial idea of the piece, it is worth mentioning it. This initial motivic idea appears with a different melodic line that is almost unrecognizable. It accelerates gradually and connects into the sixth section, which contains a similar rhyt hmic idea to that presented earlier in the second section. This time all the ideas come together. While Nobre separates and introduces new ideas little by little in the second section, here he simply combines everything, except for the

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123 use of tremolo in th e strings. That is a new idea used significantly in the coda. After a grand pause (m. 250), the seventh section begins. It presents materials explored earlier and connects the piece to a grandioso and faster coda. (Figure 3 34) Figure 3 34 Grand finale of Convergncias with a sense of resolution in E, mm. 294 299. Convergncias presents and summarizes the interest of the composer in writing based on intervals, especially seconds, sometimes replaced by sevenths, and thirds. These can basically be seen in almost all his compositions. The seconds are a result of the chromaticism so much explored in his writing.

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124 C onclusion The pieces composed during 1970 and 1977 give a clear idea of the type of composer Nobre became. Although still young, he received acclaim and recognition the promise of a brilliant future. The search for an identity was finally materialized. These works clearly demonstrate his use of a combination of serialism, indeterminacy, polytonal techniques, polyphonic writing, and the use of tradit ional Brazilian influences. These influences are registered through the use of Brazilian percussion instruments along with the polyrhythm, dynamic contrasts, big crescendos, and irregular accents derived from the Maracatu. Nobre also combines the use of a fixed notation with a more flexible notation and aleatoric notation. His instrumentation is well explored in these first works and energy is always a present facto r. All of composer.

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125 CHAPTER 4 EARLY MATURE STYLE (1980 1985) After a two year period of silence, Nobre emerged in 1980 with more defined aesthetic thought. Even though all of his compositional characteristics were well formed in the 1960s and 1970s, the composer received a fe w remarks from critics who were not sure his compositional style had matured. In a 1972 review of Ukri n makrinkrin and Mosaico Paul Earls ends with the following thought: his own voice independently of the international/nationalistic culture. That will require critical self could well be a composer seriously to reckon with. 1 It is affirmed independently of any other aesthetic school, as shown in the second and third chapters the many available influences around him and select from them what is useful for his process of musical communication. Nobre took a break in the late 1970s to rethink his compositional aesthetics, but the result was a reaffirmation of what he had already developed and incorporated at an early age. The pieces that follow this period emphasize three of the most important ideas in his compositions. Rhythm becomes a strong characteristic in his works. He explores Brazilian rhythmic manifestations, especially those connected with Northeast Brazil. Harmony becomes more dense and compact, with a complex texture where tonal elements are not completely excluded. The composer shows preferences for polytonal clusters that cannot be defined by traditional harmonic ana lysis. His polyphonic writing also takes on stronger and more independent harmonies, resulting from the independent lines that create a certain conflict, which, 1 Earls, pp. 178 180.

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126 at the same time, makes perfect sense in the compositional context. Beyond any use of tradition al forms, the composer emphasizes the importance of formal structure, which becomes a strong characteristic in his works. Each piece has its own formal structure, which represents the search for a new structural conception as a means of realization of new prominent obsession becomes the principle of development and organic variation of the motives and initial ideas. 2 This chapter discusses two important works written in the 1980s. These works summarize bine all of the sources he explored in the previous years. Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53 (1981) Commissioned by the Festival of Music of Our Time at Indiana University, Concerto II for String Orchestra was written in 1981. It was premiered at th e Musical Arts Center in Bloomington, Indiana, on August 6, 1981, by the Indiana University Festival Orchestra under Leon Fleisher. Nobre finished the piece while in residence at the Brahms Haus in Baden Baden during January and February of 1981. The piec e has three movements: Decidido Affetuosamente and Vivo Following the same idea as the First String Quartet and Biosfera for String Orchestra the composer explores the BACH theme one more time. The four notes of the name BACH (Bb, A, C, B natural) bec ome the basic material for all three movements of the piece. Although clearly written in three separate movements, the work is constructed based on intervals of m2 and m3 derived from the BACH motive, a four note chromatic set. The first and third movement s are well connected through the use of sixteenth notes in a motoric and virtuosic 2 Corker Nobre, Sonncias III 1994.

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127 driving rhythm, and the BACH intervallic motive. The first movement explores it more horizontally, while the third does so more vertically. Nevertheless, the second movement presents contrasting materials. (Table 4 1) Table 4 1 Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53: formal structure I Decidido II Affetuosame nte III Vivo A The first movement, Decidido has the flexible character of a prelude. However, it explores begins with an introduction, followed by twelve variations of the initial idea. At the same time, the composer adds innovation to the form and presents these variations in retrograde. The twelve variations can be seen as in table 4 2: Table 4 2 Formal Structure o f the first movement Intro A B C D E F G measure: 31 49 55 65 76 88 114 140 166 171 177 189 193 212 The variations ar e continuous. The introduction presents the theme originating from the BACH motive, m2 down, m3 up, and m2 down, in four voices in a canonic form: First on the cello, then viola, and finally second and first violin in stretto (Figure 4 1) The first variat ion (A) presents the four notes of the BACH motive in all five voices, beginning each voice in a different pitch and one after another in a contrapuntal way. The composer uses diminution of rhythm of the motive, going from quarter note to sixteenth note in different points of the meter, creating a repetitive effect. (Figure 4 2) Variation II (B) explores an inversion of the BACH motive m2 up, m3 down and m2 up in descending and ascending sixteenth notes in a virtuosic way, until it gets to the next variat ion. Variation III (C) presents a new motive that is explored in the following variations. This motive is based on the minor third interval from the BACH motive. The variation develops this interval

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128 by repeating it constantly and insistently. The composer develops the phrase, switching the direction of the intervals. (Figure 4 3) Figure 4 1 Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53, pp. 1 2, mm. 1 29. Theme based on BACH motive presented polyphonically in four voices Variations IV and V (D and E) develop the minor third interval using chromatic ascending virtuosic passages intercepted by repeating minor thirds. Variation VI (F) starts with molto marcato in eighth notes, which grow into virtuosic ascending chromatic sixteenth notes, creating more tension th rough abrupt pauses until the next variation.

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129 Figure 4 2 Variation I: Repetitive development of the BACH motive mm. 31 42 The composer creates a gradual crescendo in sound and tension from the i ntroduction up to variation VII (G) The seventh variation, which serves as the center of the first movement, has a slow character. From there, the composer creates the remaining variations using retrograde with some octave displacement. 3 It is important to mention that on measure 126 of variation VII the tied B natural serves as the mid point of the whole movement. From that note on, every note is repeated backwards in its integrity, forming the second half of the first movement. (Figure 4 4) 3 Program Notes for Concerto II f or String Orchestra by Marlos Nobre.

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130 Figure 4 3 Variation III: New motive constructed of minor thirds m m. 58 69 The movement ends with the BACH motive. However, instead of finishing on Bb on the cello as the piece started, it finishes with a B natural, which emphasizes an intervallic relationship of perfect fourth/fifth between the first and second movement s, instead of augmented fourth/diminished fifth, which would be preferable by the composer in his previous period. (Figure 4 5)

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131 Figure 4 4 Variation VII: Mid point at measure 126 on B natural, mm. 114 132. Figure 4 5 End of first movement in a B natura l.

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132 The second movement, Affetuosamente is more lyrical but, at the same time, intercepted by moments of dramatic and serious character. It is built with four sections plus a coda. (Table 4 3) Table 4 3 Formal Structure of the second movement. A B m. 21(22) m. 60 m. 93 m. 124 m, which was explored in earlier pieces, as mentioned in the previous chapter. He uses the technique in the movement, similar to the way he previously applied it to other pieces like Mosaico The second movement presents connections to the first movement t hrough the use of minor second as the main interval and repeating thirds. However, this movement brings a strong contrast by adding intervals of P4/A4/P5, using repeating notes in the second violin and viola in section A, and using pedal tone in section B. The second and fourth sections ( presenting a more melodic character. This melodic character was not explored thoroughly in The first section (A) begins with a lyrical melodic line in the first violin, accompanied by the rest of the orchestra: repeated eighth notes on the second violin an d viola and pizzicato quarter notes on the cello and double bass. All instrumental lines follow a similar pitch relationship. The composer uses all twelve tones in a horizontal way. When the 12 notes are completed, they start again transposed. The end of t he melody on measure nine features an interesting passage of repeating notes forming a major third interval. This feature connects the

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133 second movement to the first, recalling the use of the repeating minor thirds, here replaced by major thirds. (Figures 4 6, 4 7 and 4 8) Figure 4 6 First violin twelve tone melody of the second movement, mm. 1 4 Figure 4 7 Second presentation of twelve tone melody on the first violin, second movement, mm. 5 6. Here the melody is transposed with some of the intervals rev ersed Figure 4 8 Second Movement mm. 1 9: three presentations of twelve tone melody on the first violin

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134 The B section continues the use of the twelve tones in each horizontal line. However, this movement is much slower, adagio and displays notes with l ong duration. For example, it takes the cello twelve bars to complete the twelve note display. The melodic line presented first by the cello in the B section moves to the other voices in a canonic gesture. (Figure 4 9) Figure 4 9 B section of second movement mm. 27 45. Each voice presents the melodic line in a different transposition. The line is constructed in minor seconds or major sevenths. The canon is presented twice: first it goes to viola and second violin while the second time includes the fi rst violin. After presenting the melody in all voices, the section climaxes in measure 51 when all voices present the 12 notes. The chord at the climatic point spells F, Db, Ab, Eb, B, D. After that point, the next section gets diminished and

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135 ends with the first six notes of the melodic line from the cello, now on the double bass. (Figure 4 10) Figure 4 63 Instead of using the repeated eighth notes from the previous section, the co mposer uses a pedal tone on the double bass that moves from C sharp down to F, generating tension. modifications. (Figure 4 11) It changes octaves and elongates at the end of t he section, which brings the movement to its climax (mm. 80 87). There, Nobre emphasizes the use of the twelve notes through dynamics and E saltato tempo marking. fro m D to G, forming a P4/P5 interval. The piece ends with a coda, using the motive of the first

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136 section (A). This motive is presented using octaves, an interesting interval avoided by serial composers. Nobre repeats the use of the interval twice in the first violin. The ending note is E, the same note with which the melodic line began on the violin. As mentioned earlier, this emphasizes the key relationship of a perfect fourth/fifth between the first and second movements. This is interesting for a composer wh o wants to break from tradition but at the same time refrains from all ruptures brought by avant garde movements. It would be natural for the composer to finish the first movement on Bb because that was the first note of the movement, which was composed in retrograde version. Nevertheless, the composer chooses to add an intriguing B natural at the end of the movement, avoiding the augmented fourth/diminished fifth relationship between movements. It is as if ideas of tonality are strong in his mind, but he d oes not really embrace completely tonal resolutions. (Figure 4 12) The third movement, Vivo brings back the initial idea of the BACH theme, using the notes Bb, A, C, and B natural. The movement is continuous and constant in a certain Rondo form. As demons trated in the previous movements, this is a virtuosic passage for the strings. An important fact is that this movement presents the same kind of material earlier explored by the composer in his First String Quartet The composer took the third movement of the quartet, written in 1967, and used it as the third movement of the Concerto II for String Orchestra He added the double bass line and the addition of more instruments a string orchestra as opposed to the string quartet. This gives the piece a differ ent atmosphere. When asked about this, the composer replied perfect complement to the Concerto, I decided to put it there. It is amazing how they complement each other and it was an incredible coincidence that both used the BACH 4 4 Conversations with Marlos Nobre.

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137 Figure 4 75 themes or motives that he finds interesting and feels were not well explored by their original composers. An example of this is Sonata for Piano on a Theme by Bart k Concerto for Orchestra The same way, Nob re also keeps records of residues of his own compositions in order to explore them in the future. According to the composer, the ideas continue to grow in his mind until they surface with such strength that it seems they are asking to be written. Then he n eeds to expel them, otherwise he feels like exploding. 5 5 Ibid.

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138 Figure 4 12 End of second movement emphasizing tonal center in E, mm. 117 139 The third movement is similar to the first movement. Unlike the horizontal display of the first movement, this movement opens with a vertical version of the BACH motive, just like the first movement of Biosfera (also derived from the First String Quartet ). Similar to the first movement, the third is developed on variations and motivic development of the initial idea withou t a contrasting section. The motivic development can be seen as in table 4 4: Table 4 4 Formal Structure of the third movement. m. 41 m. 60 m. 69 m. 81 m. 91 m. 99 m. 115 m. 130 A ( a b) Coda

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139 The first section (A) goes up to measure 40, and completes the use of th e twelve tones in three parts The first one, from the beginning up to measure eight, uses the four notes Bb, A, C, B in all instruments. The second one, up to measure 16, uses the notes C#, D, Ab, G only while the third one goes up to measure 24 us ing the notes Eb, E, F, F#. The composer divides the twelve notes into blocks of four notes, following as variations of the initial BACH motive, which means the use of the same intervals in a four note chromatic set. See (Figure 4 13) Figure 4 13 Third m ovement, BACH motive as introduction to twelve notes, mm. 1 30 It is important to note that the composer uses 7/8 meter, which he divides in the beginning exampl e of his admiration for Bartk. The following section (B) presents new motivic ideas based on m2/M7 chords with rhythmic syncopation in four measure phrases. The composer continues to use twelve tones, but

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140 this time does so vertically within all instrument s. The cello, viola, and both violins display the twelve notes, each instrument playing four notes at a time. The double bass doubles some notes from the other instruments. This is not a surprise, since the movement was originally written as a string quart et. The double bass does not alter the structure first planned by the composer 14 years earlier. (Figure 4 14) Figure 4 14 Vertical presentation of Twelve Tones, mm. 43 54 ndensed form and prepare the new harmonic motive to be explored in the following section (C). In this section, the composer combines the use of m2 with open quartal/quintal intervals (P4/P5/A4). (Figure 4 15)

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141 Figure 4 15 Section C with quartal/quint al harmonies, mm. 81 87 The next sections display previously used material with slight modifications. The sequence resenting a combination of all previously explored motives. It finishes in a frenetic and furious way that resembles Stravinsky and concludes with a chord consisting of the following notes: C, D, E, F#, G, A, B, as in the Lydian mode. (Figure 4 16) The composer tries with this work to break the prejudices that the international avant garde school provoked in the contemporary music scene of the early 1980s. He decides to go back to elements such as melody, harmony, rhythm, the principle of repetition, and the form of variation. These are the most essential points in the piece, along with the use of a constant polyphonic

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142 writing. That is not to deny the moments of tonal centers that are clearly present in the whole composition. Figure 4 16 End of Co ncerto II for String Orchestra mm. 137 155 Abertura Festiva Op. 56 bis ( Festival Overture ) (1983) Commissioned by EMBRATEL ( Empresa Brasileira de Telecomunicao ) 6 for the inauguration of the XV Congresso Brasileiro de Informtica ( Fifteenth National Con gress of Technological Communications) in 1983, the piece was premiered at Centro de Convenes do 6 Brazilian Company of Communications.

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143 Rio Centro (Convention Center of Rio Center) in Rio de Janeiro by the Brazilian Symphon y Orchestra under the direction of Isaac Karabtchevsky. Based on the music of Cantata do Chimborazo Op. 56, composed earlier that year, the Overture unites a chromatic and polytonal language with moments of tonal explosions. This ach a desired level of sound and expression without forcing or imposing any aesthetic view or sectarianism. 7 The piece contains five subsections that form a big A B 5) Table 4 5 Abertura Festiva Op. 56bis: formal structure A a (Giubiloso) (Pi lento) m. 41 m. 64 m. 86 m. 110 The piece is constructed with a tonal center on E. It begins on E and finishes on an E major chord anticipated by a B major chord. Nevertheless, the piece presents a strong atonal/polytonal character. It is based on a sequence of sixteen chords that move chromatically, starting from a perfect fifth and re aching a more complex chord. It moves in an ascendant motion on the higher pitches and a descendent motion on the lower pitches from E to high G on top, forming 16 notes, and from A to low G on the bass. (Figure 4 17) The first part (A) is divided into t built by exploring chromaticism and emphasizing chords that move chromatically but carry a quartal/quintal harmonic character. Measures 32 through 40 present a melodic line that serves as the main mel ody for the B section. This melody is played by woodwinds and also includes French horns, brass, and strings. They play polyphonically with imitation and each group of 7 Program Notes to Abertura Festiva by Marlos Nobre.

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144 instruments begins four beats after the last group. This melody of eleven notes, based o n minor seconds and perfect fifths, begins on F sharp and ends the first subsection on E. It is interesting to notice that the only note left out in the eleven note melody is the Bb. This note represents a tritone from the tonal center E. (Figure 4 18) F igure 4 1 7 Chromatic ascending chords in Abertura Festiva Op. 56 bis, mm. 1 8 woodwind and brass sections only previous subsection. However, the composer uses different rhythm and dynamics: while the motive is played at first with accented loud eighth notes, the next time it comes in pianissimo and in half notes. The B section brings more contrast to the piece. It begins with the eleven note melody from the A section. Thi s time the melody is presented in a more polyphonic context, in four

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145 voices with imitation on the strings alone. It begins on E and is first played by the cello, followed by the viola, second violin, and first violin. (Figure 4 19) Figure 4 18 Eleven not e melody polyphonic statement on strings, woodwinds and brass, respectively, mm. 30 38

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146 Figure 4 19 B section with eleven note melody in four voices and imitation on the strings, mm. 65 74 Measure 77 brings a new motive. The xylophone and harp join the strings in one of followed by m2 down. This is from the BACH motive but is played here with notes Ab, G, Bb,

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147 A. The motive is used in small, repetitive gestures until it reaches the return of the A section. (Figure 4 20) gives an intervallic difference of a minor second. It goes chromatically from F to C #, while the bass goes chrom atically from Bb (a half step from the original A in the beginning of the piece) down to Bb. Measures 92 through 94 present the BACH motive again; xylophone and violins play the motive transposed to Db, C, Eb, D, while viola, cello and bass play the motive with its original pitches. Nevertheless, this motive here is not long enough to change the structural form 21) Figure 4 20 BACH motive on xylophone and strings mm. 75 81 relationship of perfect fourth/fifth. The section ends on C instead of E as in the first section ( Aa).

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148 Figure 4 21 BACH motive transposed on xylophone and strings, mm. 91 95 instead of A. The chromatic chords that ascend in the high pitches and descend in the low p itches complete the sixteen chord series from the piece, which ends on E. (Figure 4 22) Conclusion Concerto II for String Orchestra and Abertura Festiva composed in the first half of the 1980s, that will later be preserved and followed. The works demonstrate more focus on traditional traits such as melody, form, and the search fo r tonal centers. The harmony shows more density within a complex texture of polytonal clusters, use of the twelve tones, free harmonies resulting from a complex polyphonic writing, and the inclusion of tonal elements. The composer emphasizes the importance of the use of traditional forms without limiting them to tonality, and rhythm becomes

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149 an even more important tool for his compositional unification. Unfortunately, due to the many administrative positions the composer assumed from 1985 until 1989, he did not compose during this time. When he returned to composition again in the 1990s, he explored only compositional techniques already initiated in his previous years, and added his more mature voice to them. The next period remains a continuation of the prev ious one with slight modifications and will be explored in the next chapter. Figure 4 22. Dominant Tonic cadence in the end of Abertura Festiva mm. 126 130.

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150 CHAPTER 5 LATER MATURE STYLE ( 1990 2004) ideas developed in the previous chapters, conf simplicity, economy of means with respect to form, and use of available techniques in order to achieve a desired musical result. Saga Marista : Passacaglia for Orchestra Op. 84 (1997) Passacaglia for Orchest ra Op. 84, subtitled Saga Marista was written in 1997 as a commission for the Marist Brothers of Brazil to celebrate the centennary of their arrival in the city of Congonhas do Campo, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was premiered on October 20, 1997, play Teatro Guararapes of Recife. The Marist Brothers group is a Roman Catholic religious institute that evangelizes through education from elementary school through university a cross the world. The group is also called Little Brothers of Mary to highlight the qualities of humility, simplicity, family spirit and affection for Mary, who is their inspiration and guide. Marcellin Joseph Benot Champagnat (1789 1840) founded the schoo l in La Valla, France, in 1817, a time when France was facing crises in the educational system as a result of the Napoleonic wars. St. Marcellin Champagnat wanted Brothers to respond to the spiritual and social needs of the young and poor, especially throu gh education. Thus, he and other brothers spread education throughout the rural areas of France. 1 In 1863, the Marist Brothers institute received approval of the Holy See the territory 1 bsite. www.catholicozvocations.org.au/directory/religious/ maristbrothers .html accessed on April 7, 2006

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151 over which the Pope exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction and bega n their expansion worldwide. Today they exist in more than 74 countries. The Marist Brothers are not clerics; they are devoted solely to educational work. 2 Passacaglia for Orchestra embodies a great deal of symbolic significance relating to the journey und ertaken by the Marist Brothers, who emigrated from France to Brazil at the end of the nineteenth century. Throughout their journey, one can observe the mixing, assimilation, and final transformation of cultures in Brazil. The work not only represents the c ulmination of a journey through time, but the unique capability of the Brazilian people to assimilate and combine foreign cultures and traditions. There is a version of the piece as a ballet in one act and ten scenes, based on a plot written by the compos er. The first performance of the ballet was on April 2, 1998, at the Teatro Orchestra and danced by the Ballet Group of the Marist Brothers Centenary with choreography b y Gilano Andrade. (Table 5 1) The Saga 3 assimilation into the Brazilian culture, a common phenomenon in Brazil. The composer describes this: Brazil is one of the few examples in the world that shows the interpenetration of intercultural influences, like the African and European traditions, in music, in food, in the whole culture. It was in Brazil that the rhythmic traditions of Africa integrated with the 2 Marist Brothers in Brazil website. http://www.maristbr.com accessed on April 7, 2006. 3 The word saga designates Icelandic prose narratives written between 1120 and 1400, telling heroic stories about the families that first settled Iceland and their descendants. It al so describes the histories of the kings of Norway, the myths, and the legends of early Germanic gods and heroes. Today, the term is simply used to refer to any modern prose narrative that resembles a saga (American Heritage Dictionaries on line)

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152 melodic and tonal trad itions of Europe, in one of the richest examples of inter cultural fertilization. 4 Table 5 1 Ballet plot of Saga Marista Saga Marista Ballet in One act and Ten Scenes plot by Marlos Nobre: Departure from France Transatlantic Arrival in Brazil m.60 5 N ostalgia and Reflection m. 68 Procession of the Dead people m. 80 Popular Dances Profane Ritual m. 91 Education and Mastership m. 140 Circle of Fortune m. 155 Glory, Glory m. 183 Final Apotheosis m. 204 This assimilation of European cultu re into Brazilian culture is represented in several ways. The composer chose a traditional European musical form the passacaglia. In a special way, the work combines the form of the passacaglia and the form of a one movement symphony with fifty variation transformation of traditional musical forms. The work has a slow introduction followed by the principal section at a faster tempo. The recapitulation brings back the init ial slow material and ends with a brilliant coda. As a genuine passacaglia, the composition is based on a bass motive, which is initially played by the second trombone. This motive is repeated in the following fifty variations. Nobre explains My princi pal idea was to use the form of Passacaglia. First of all, because I think that the variation form is, for me, the most appropriate way to express my musical ideas, more [so] Of course, I integrate into my variation technique the proced ure of developing variation, the amplification of the variation idea, introduced mainly by Brahms. But I never use to integrate into my music the development of motifs, like Beethoven did. I think that, in my case, it is due to the fact that my music exist s in a certain static way, not really a developing way. 4 Marlos Nobre, E mail conversation from Rio de Janeiro,, Brazil to Jorge Richter, Knoxville, U.S.A., Answering your questions on the Passacaglia. 5 The measure numbers here correspond to the score of the orchestral version.

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153 The static form itself is also a characteristic of Brazilian music, which means that here they love to repeat, repeat and repeat. The repetition was forbidden in the so called avant garde music, sinc e the principle of non repetition becomes the golden principle. In my way of thinking, the principle of repetition is against the very intrinsic existence of musical thinking [sic]. Without repetition there is no possibility of formal structure. And this i s the reason why most dodecaphonic music and serial composers used a text, to help them to construct a work. In this way, we can say that in dodecaphonic and serial music, the best works are vocal, because the text helps to create the fluency, the coherenc e and logic that were made default in the pure instrumental serial and dodecaphonic works. So they are not really pure music, abstract musical constructions, but music sustained by poetry, by the words. To create music itself, without repetition, became im possible to the dodecaphonic and serial composers; and this explains why Webern was obligated to write his miniatures, since his vocabulary, based on non repetition, could not help him to create big forms. So the form of passacaglia has always fascinated m e, ever since the big example of the great Passacaglia for organ by Bach. It was completely a matter of coincidence that this form was, finally in my Passacaglia, combined with the form of symphony in one movement, which is clear by analyzing the work. I c ould say that the form of symphony in one movement was a natural consequence of the construction of the Passacaglia 6 The Passacaglia for orchestra continues a long and truly universal tradition: here, the contrast between mystery, violence, and lyrical id ioms dictates the instrumental style. 7 The piece is composed for large orchestra, including some typical Brazilian percussion instruments such as atabaques (Afro Brazilian conical shaped, single headed hand drum similar to a conga drum), reco reco (Brazili an scraper made of bamboo, wood, or metal), and tamborim (small single headed Brazilian frame drum played with a stick). It contains four sections compressed into a one movement symphonic structure. Each section is a separate kind of d by the composer. The gradual transformation of the musical material can be seen going from a light score in the first section to a heavy orchestration and almost sumptuous style in the subsequent sections, especially towards the end. 6 Answering your questions on the Passac aglia. 7 Program Notes by Marlos Nobre for Passacaglia for Orchestra Op. 84.

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154 As mentioned in chap lines. Here, the texture of the Passacaglia is mostly polyphonic, with each instrument receiving special attention. When asked about this, the composer replied: This is a consequence of my efforts, when I write, not only for the orchestra, but for any ensemble, to write the best individual part for each player. In my opinion, each musician must be happy to play his individual part, rich in ideas, rhythmic fluency, and variation motifs, givi ng the musician a musical pleasure to play. 8 As mentioned above, Passacaglia for Orchestra presents a very special form. It uses theme and variation, a formal aspect present in a passacaglia, combined with the larger symphonic form. The piece has four majo r sections, which are clearly identified through abrupt breaks in the normal flow of the music. Each section contains smaller sets of variations, which are connected either by melodic or rhythmic material. (Table 5 2) Table 5 2 Passacaglia for Orchestra Op. 84: formal structure Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Variations I XIII Variations XIV XXXI Variations XXXII XXXIX Variations XL L The piece is based on two themes: the ostinato theme, which constructs the passacagli a, the work and it consists of a chromatic descending line beginning on the note D. The ostinato theme appears in the third measure of the piece, accompanied by a basic rhythmic/harmonic figure using the notes D and A. This first section is dissonant with a combination of quartal/quintal harmonies and sonorities generated from the ostinato theme along with the main theme. (Figure 5 1) 8 Answering your questions on the Passacaglia.

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155 The main theme is based o n the French National Anthem, La Marseillaise 9 and it is transformed into the Brazilian National Anthem 10 at the end of the work. The main theme appears in measure eight and adds a certain rhythmic richness and texture to the existing harmonic pattern crea ted by the counterpoint. As observed by Jorge Richter in his An Analytical this new rhythmic pattern becomes a rhythmic ostinato that accompanies the main theme throughout the Passaca glia Nobre comments This work was written by commission of the Marist Brothers of Brazil to commemorate their centenary of arrival in Brazil. They were French educators, and I used naturally the La Marseillaise incidence, are the same notes of the Brazilian National Anthem. So, the note D is central to both melodies, and it was a happy coincidence to discover that this note was my first idea for this piece. In fact, the passacaglia was born from the note D. 11 Figure 5 1 Ostinato Theme, mm. 3 7, followed by Main Theme over Ostinato Theme, mm. 8 12 9 French National Anthem composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle on April 24 and re orchestrated by Hector Berlioz in 1830. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/marseill.html accessed on September 21, 2006. 10 Ptria Amada, Brasil! Brazilian National Anthem composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva with words by Joaquim Os rio Duque Estrada in 1822. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hino_Nacional_Brasileiro accessed on September 25, 2006. 11 Ibid.

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156 At this point in Variation II, one can hear a great deal of harmonic tension because of the dissonances created at such short length into the music. The strongest se nsation of release occurs at the beginning of each variation and thereafter through short cadences, resolving on the notes D and A. Each variation lasts about five measures, changing then to three measures each from Variation VIII until the end of this sec tion. The composer coordinates a clear speed in the metronome markings by shortening the number of measures and increasing the melodic activity. The addition of new instruments, along with the passing of the main theme from the strings and woodwinds to the brass and percussion, contributes to a sense of perpetual motion and gradual crescendo in the orchestra. The basic tempo mark initially found at half note equals 42 ends up at half note equals 92 by the time the piece gets to Variation XIII. (Figure 5 2) After a long fermata followed by glissando in the orchestra, the second major section of the piece begins at measure 60 with Variations XIV and XV. These variations serve as preparation for the next section, where the composer uses new melodic motives char acteristic of Brazilian music. The section symbolizes the arrival of the Marist Brothers in Brazil. The score indicates m arcato and the percussion section in these variations present patterns and instruments associated with some types of music of African descent. Here, one can hear a rhythmic pattern especially associated with samba: a simple phrase structure of four measures with isometric rhythmic figures and a great deal of syncopation in the accompaniment. This samba like rhythm is introduced over the basic rhythmic/harmonic figure already present in the piece, forming a strong connection between sections one and two. (Figure 5 3) The next variations, XVI, XVII, and XVIII, each contain a pair of phrases associated with folk melodies found in the northea st region of Brazil, where the composer was born. These

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157 melodies have a modal sound that resembles European medieval scales and they represent one of the strongest traits of music from Northeast Brazil. These modal structures, though, do not follow literal ly their European models. A variety of seven note scales together with six modes created in Northeast Brazil were identified and registered by composer and scholar Guerra Peixe 12 (1914 1993). He spent several years dedicated to learning and absorbing the ch aracteristics present in the music of that region. These scales are called Northeastern Modes ( Modos n ordestinos ). Figure 5 2 Gradual increase of speed and activity, mm. 25 28. 12 Guerra Peixe Csar In A fro brasileiros ed. Roberto Mota, Recife: Fundao Joaquim Nabuco Editora Massangana, pp. 89 104, 1985.

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158 Figure 5 3 Samba like rhythm first in the piano and percussion (top), th en on the strings (bottom). Nobre explains The Modos Nordestinos are a consequence of the Gregorian Modes the Jesuit teachers tried to impose on people, in order to introduce them to church. The people, or Mulattoes (mixing of black and white, that is betw een Africans and Europeans) took those Gregorian modes and by singing them over the time they transformed them by altering the notes in lodic ideas of the Passacaglia. The original Gregorian modes are Dorian and Hypomixolydian modes, that in the northeastern tradition had their third, fourth, and seventh notes altered. This is very typical of the northeastern melodies; most of all characte ristic are the natural seventh and the augmented fourth of the scale. It is clear that this new northeastern mode that I used in this melody is derived from the Dorian and the Hypomixolydian modes. Of course the most interesting thing about this is that th e people sing their melodies in different modes, altering the original modes, without knowing anything about their original forms. It is completely unconscious and completely natural for them. As I have assimilated those forms since I was a child, I use th em also in the Passacaglia half conscious half unconscious. 13 13 Answering your questions on the Passacaglia.

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159 In Passacaglia for Orchestra Nobre uses original northeastern melodies, which are of mixed mode origin: the Mixolydian mode transposed to D and the Lydian mode, also transposed to D. The resul ting northeastern theme appears accompanied by a chromatic counter melody, formed by a descending chromatic scale with a rhythmic counterpoint found in the clarinet and English horn. Under this melodic activity there is an accompaniment in the strings, whi ch is not harmonically related to the modes of the theme. The accompaniment uses all chromatic pitches freely and in contrast to the counter melody forms chromatic ascending triads. As Jorge Richter points out in his analysis, this fact reinforces the importance of the note D, with its resolution and repetition, as the tonal center of the passage. (Figure 5 4) Variation XIX presents a new folk melody, this time from Southeast Brazil. The eight Peixe Vivo pears under a slow tempo mark, Funebre Nobre connects variations XX through XXII with an eight voice canon based on this folk melody. Although the work is mainly centered on the note D, the composer manages to hide the sense of tonality. This folk melody is played in D major. But the basic harmonic sonority, which harkens back to the beginning of the piece and is based on the open fifth D and A, is here replaced with an F sharp pedal point. (Figure 5 5) And the journey continues with a folk song from sout Prenda Minha Peixe Vivo 6) The dense polyphonic texture then abr uptly shifts to a molto marcato section played by the percussion instruments followed by the strings. They play the Afro descent rhythm of Carimb characteristic of the coastal Amazon region in Northern Brazil. The following set of variations

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160 united by th e carimb is homophonic and more harmonic. This means that, for the first time, the piece can be analyzed using conventional roman numerals. (D: I v7 vi7 ivdim7). (Figure 5 7) Figure 5 4 Northeast melody accompanied by chromatic notes and quart al/quintal harmonies, mm. 76 79

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161 Figure 5 5 Peixe Vivo mm 84 87 The homophonic texture, with its intense rhythmic drive, here presents alternation of between these three themes expresses a strong symbolic figuration in the work, which relates to the Marist Brothers as French educators developing their work in Brazil. The northeastern melodies have a strong religious connection with Gregorian modes that were taken to Brazil by Jesuits, and now the situation is repeated by the Marist Brothers. Nobre clearly emphasizes this in this section.

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162 Figure 5 Prenda Minha 111 The final major section of the piece begins on Variation XL. After a long fermata, the slow initial idea comes back followed by gradual tempo and dynamic changes. Some of the melodic motives previously presented in the second section are explored here. Then there is a clear gradual tran sformation of the main theme, based on the French National Anthem, into the Brazilian National Anthem. This transformation happens in Variation XLVI, when the main theme is announced for the last time and finally transformed into the Brazilian National Ant hem, which is played by the brass in Variation XLVII. (Figure 5 8)

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163 Figure 5 Carimb 121. The next three variations form the coda in a majestic presentation of a Grand Finale. Jorge Richter points out the fact that this Gr and Finale presents similar characteristics as Dmitri accompanied by the timpani and in D major, with the same beginning notes and shape of the Brazilian National Anthem. Figure 5 8 Transformation of Main Theme on the Brazilian National Anthem, brass and timpani sections, mm. 204 207

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164 Kabbalah Op. 96 (2004) Written in June and July of 2004, Kabbalah Op. 96, was commissioned for the 35th International Music Festival of Campos do Jordo which took place in July in Campos do Jordo, So Paulo, Brazil. The piece was dedicated to Roberto Minczuk, 14 who premiered the piece, directing the Academic Orchestra of the Festival on July 23, 2004. Nobre was invited by Mr. Minczuk to participate as the first composer in residence in the history of the Festival. Two performances of Kabbalah by the same orchestra and conductor followed the premiere: one on July 24 of the same year on Capivari Square in Campos do Jordo and another one o n July 25 at Sala So Paulo. Successful performances of the work led to more recent performances. One such performance was presented by the Texas Christian University Orchestra under the direction of April 27, 2006. Another was performed by the Simn Bolvar Orchestra under Alfredo Rugeles at the opening concert for the International Music Festival of Caracas, dedicated to Nobre, on May 19, 2006. The Brazilian Symphonic Orchestra also played the piece under the direction of Mr. Minzcuk at the Municipal Theater of Rio de Janeiro on May 27, 2006. 15 This was not the first time the composer wrote a piece based on a Jewish Shadai considered the piece immature and destroyed it. Although not Jewish, Nobre developed admiration and respect for the Jewish people. Nobre acquired stro ng connections with Jewish 14 Roberto Minczuk is a grandson of Russian immigrants in Brazil. He is currently Director of the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra. 15 Program Notes for Kabbalah by Marlos Nobre from performance o f May 27, 2006 by the Brazilian Symphonic Orchestra under Roberto Minzcuk at the Municipal Theater at Rio de Janeiro.

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165 musicians, especially pianists and violinists, as a young composer in Recife. Later in his life, the composer developed friendships with Yehudi Menuhin Catalogue of Works, and the pianist A rthur Rubinstein, who cited Nobre briefly in his own book of memories: My Many Years 16 Nobre reveals a deep respect and admiration for the high intellectual and artistic level of the Jewish people. The attraction to Judaism led him to read and study everyt hing about the science of the kabbala and he used a combination of kabbalistic numbers together with the Hebrew alphabet to compose Kabbalah 17 For many years, the kabbala was thought of as the dark side of the Jewish faith. However, this concept faded, and studious people had recently devoted themselves to study the profound wisdom behind it. 18 Even though the kabbala can be considered more mystical than religious, it contains philosophic elements. Nobre found an interesting way to absorb that knowledge and transform it into music. He explains The wisdom of the k ab b ala teaches a practical method to attain the upper world and the source of our existence. By realizing our true purpose in life, man attains perfection, tranquility, unbounded enjoyment and th e ability to transcend the limitations of time and space while still living in this world. 19 According to studies, the kabbala is the source of energy and knowledge and unveils the ways to superior knowledge. Based on this, the work was conceived with its o rigin in kabbalistic numbers, which defined its rhythmic, formal and melodic structure. In the kabbala, the number three is essential. It is the number of the form: the body cannot exist without its three dimensions 16 Nobre composed his piece Homenagem a Arthur Rubinstein in 1973 for the First Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Competition in Israel and then performed the piece himself to Rubinstein in Paris 17 E mail Conversations with Marlos Nobre. Interview by the author, August 2006. 18 Rav Michael L aitman, Ph.D, On kabbala, http://www.kabbalaonline.org/ accessed on July 15, August 20, and September 21, 2006. 19 E mail Conversations with Marlos Nobre.

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166 length, width and depth. The composer alludes to the trinity as the idea of perfection cultivated by all nations and most religions throughout time. 20 According to the kabbala, humans use only three to four percent of their brain capacity while the other 96 or 97 percent remains unused. The fiv e senses prevent one from seeing through the illusion of time, and one is not conscious that past and present are always combined, and the idea of repetition needs to be assimilated. 21 Nobre explains According to the kabbalistic science, everything we wan t is l ight and e nergy. But for me, as a composer, the most important concept is that imagin ation and inspiration represent the basic truths and unlock the unseen wonders of the u niverse. 22 Kabbalah was conceived in two levels: one rigorously mathematical to organize the micron and macron structure of the piece, and another level of complete freedom, based on any conscious control. 23 Apart from these two levels, the pie ce consists of two sections: the first one, Light, is essentially chromatic, using dynamic and timbre contrasts. The second one, Energy, is essentially rhythmic. 24 The work is guided by two fundamental elements: lyricism and rhythm, the latter being predomi nant. Nobre explains I am always concerned with continuity of the discours e and, in my conception, light is the way from darkness to clarity, from drama to solvency. What I really care about is the work finding it s own pace, its own internal logic, which w ill underwrite the absolute continuity of the work and the intelligibility of its musical language. 20 Program Notes for Kabbalah 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid.

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167 I believe that the chromatic scale has not yet been totally explored and exhausted. It is still possible to discover new and different means of linking and binding harmonies together that lie outside dodecaphonic and serial structures. The practical result of my explorations Kabbalah 25 Both sections explore the number three in various ways. The piece is in triple meter and the quarter notes are strongly emphasized by cow bells and wood blocks throughout the piece. 26 Although the piece is constructed on two sections, it is in ternary form, which can be represented as A (up to measure 24), B (m. 25 122 173). (Table 5 strong example of his idea of simplicity and economy of means. He explains I am constantly exploring the simplest me ans of expressing my ideas and musical thought, convinced as I am that setting out deliberately and voluntarily to write music where difficulty and complexity are ends in themselves is not a good solution. 27 Table 5 3 Kabbalah Op. 96: formal structure m. 25 m. 122 m. 174 Section A represents light, a nd the composer uses the glockenspiel and the vibraphone to open the pitch set that develops through the piece. The set is presented through a small gesture that is repeated three times before its development. The set consists of intervals [0124], [013], a nd [0125] in the glockenspiel and [012], [024], and [012] in the vibraphone. At the same time, a harmonic line is played by the bassoon, exploring the same intervals presented by the melodic lines. The bassoon phrase is D Bb A Ab G D, which makes [01237] p itch set. The piece becomes basically a development of these introductory intervals, especially M2, m3, M3, and P4. (Figures 5 9 and 5 10) 25 Ibid. 26 The only times the quarter notes disappear will be on the second and third climaxes. 27 Nobre, Personal Website. A ccessed on Oct. 24 2006.

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168 Figure 5 9 Triple meter set by percussion and second pitch set from glockenspiel and vibraphone in the opening of K abbalah mm. 5 8 Figure 5 10 Initial pitch sets along with bassoon line, mm. 1 15

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169 The intervals come from a subset present in the bassoon line of the first secti on [02] and [03]. (Figure 5 11) which the intervals of minor thirds follow a crescendo. This creates constant tension until it reaches three culminating points 28 : the firs t one in measures 81 through 93, the second one in measures 114 through 119, and the third one in measures 167 and 168. These culminating moments present the main theme, created and named by composer as the kabbala theme. The kabbala theme is prepared by a melody in the horn that is constructed with the same intervals used earlier, M2, M3, and the use of an A4 now replacing the P4 present throughout the A section. The chordal accompaniment in the orchestra also expands chromatically from a minor second to a major seventh, the latter interval being used for the first time in the piece and creating more dramatic tension. (Figure 5 12) Figure 5 20 28 Before t hese three culminating points, the piece has an important climatic point in measure 23 as section A prepares for section B.

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170 Rite of Sp ring him. The rhythmic chords are followed by the kabbala theme played by the trumpet. The theme is built from M2 and m3 intervals that were explored in the beg inning of the B section. (Figures 5 13 and 5 14) instruments. The six teenth notes played earlier by the woodwind instruments now are played by the strings and the piano, while the eighth notes from the strings and piano are now played by the winds. That is another characteristic of the composer, shifting the instrumentation of the same motivic ideas in order to find new sounds and colors. Figure 5 12 Horn melody accompanied by chromatic chordal expansion mm. 83 90 After the third climax, the piece returns to its beginning, with the use of a Da Capo symbol, where the comp oser alludes to the precise kabbalistic idea that the past is a present Coda which presents all elements used in the composition, with the elements of section A more prevalent.

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171 Figure 5 13 Rhy thmic preparation for the kabbala theme, mm. 102 105 Conclusion latest orchestral compositions summarize the personal voice of the composer, who has constantly searched for better musical expressions without denying ideas developed by past composers and without following any specific aesthetic school. seconds and thirds, some tonal cen ters emphasized by quartal/quintal harmonies, strong rhythmic impulse, use of effects through dynamics and advanced instrumental techniques, and exploration of possibilities in orchestration. All these characteristics can be clearly found in past works, wh same roots while maturing along with the composer.

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172 Figure 5 14 The kabbala theme in the trumpets with rhythmic support, mm. 106 109

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173 CHAPTER 6 RECEPTION AND CONCLU SION mong Contemporaries Composer, conductor, pianist and educator most renowned around this world, Marlos Nobre stands high in the echelons of seminal contemporary music makers. 1 As confirmed by the above testimonial, Marlos Nobre has an enormous advantage over many composers because he is a pianist and a conductor of great respect. He was able to direct the premieres of most of his works, and made a strong effort to have his pieces played all over t he world. A hard working artist, Nobre has been an example of extreme professionalism among contemporary composers and the younger generation. He owes many of his accomplishments to his own efforts, interest, and determination, as one can see in the follow ing testimony: I am familiar with the music of Marlos Nobre and last year invited him to be on a program of new music as part of my series "Cutting Edge Concerts" in New York City. I am very impressed with his work, and believe that he is a passionate advocate of the music of Brazil, being an eloquent spokesman and composer. He is tireless in his efforts to compose, to cond uct and to promote new music 2 the opportun ity to speak on his behalf. In 1981, Yehudi Menuhin wrote the following on the It gives me particular pleasure and even a remote sense of undeserved pride to introduce this catalogue of Marlos Nobres works. It is because three of Marlos Nobres works won prizes at the IMC/UNESCO International Rostrum of Composers with which I was so closely associated that I allow myself such indulgence. May I say however that any pride would be far greater if I had a work of violin of Marlos Nobre which were [sic] my own! 1 George Gaber Disti nguished Professor of Music, Indiana University, USA, July 23, 2000 2 Victoria Bond, Composer and conductor, New York, USA, July 26, 2000

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174 May this catalogue, and through it his music reach the wide audience and the critical acclaim it merit [sic] 3 repertoire and they have been played all over the world, either under his baton or that of other conductors. Because most of his works have been performed, it is possible to know how they have been received throughout the years. Nobre is an extremely well organized man who collects and files almost everything related to his music and his achievements. Therefore, it was possible to include in this study some of the reviews and testimonies regarding his music. In 1970, Mosaico had great impact. Positive revie ws appeared from everywhere. Argentine Alberto Jimenz published in La Nacin Bastaron los momentos iniciales de Mosaico de Marlos Nobre para que la densidad musical se elevara poderosamente. Quien, avezado conocedor de los recursos instrumentales, ha escr ito una obra tan slida y fascinante tiene ante s perspectivas realmente grandes. En Marlos Nobre hay temperamento, imaginacin y materia suficientes como para considerar que el lugar de excepcin de Villa Lobos puede tener al artista singular capaz de ll enarlo en un futuro no muy lejano. 4 It was just necessary to hear the init Mosaico to sense the powerful musical density. Those who know the instrumental resources and are capable of writing something so solid and fascinating h ave great perspectives. In Marlos Nobre, one finds temperament, imagination, and sufficient material in order to consider that he will be able to fill in the exceptional place now held by Villa Lobos in a not too distant future. The same piece caused react ions in several different places. In 1978, The Milwaukee Journal published the following review by Louise Kenngott: Nobre is a rising and major force on the compositional scene today. Hes Brazilian, and his music comes filled with a sense of South Am erican rhythmic drive and a primitive and bold use of color. Mosaico was a bombastic delight of a program opener. It is a stunning work bold and challenging. 5 3 Nobre, Personal Website Accessed on February 03 2007. 4 Alberto Jimenz, La Nacin November 11, 1970. 5 Louise Kenn gott, The Milwaukee Journal October 15, 1978

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175 On the following day, the Lawrence Johnson stated at the Milwaukee Sentinel Nobre figures as th e leading exponent of con temporary Brazilian music. His Mosaico an imaginative and brilliantly scored triptych in one movement, goes far to explain why. The 15 minute piece reveals not only a virtuoso command of the orchestra but confident and purposeful control of avant garde techniques. High powered and compressed, with its surging brasses and crashing timpani strokes, Mosaico makes an explosive impact. But it also abounds in strands of fragile beauty, delicate weavings of winds and strings 6 Biosfera al so garnered positive reception in different parts of the world. In 1972 it received the following review after its performance in Berlin: Das interessanteste Stck des abends was eine zweistzige Komposition fr Streichorchester von Marlos Nobre ( Biosfera ). Das Klanggewebe bleibtstets durchsichtig und l die mathematische kopfarbeit vergessen. 7 as the two movement composition for String Orchestra by Marlos Nobre ( Biosfera ). The movement of the sound is so transparent that there is no need to think of any mental Mathematics. The same piece got good reception in Switzerland the following year: Dentre, Marlos Nobre nous introduit dans le mystre de la cration: cest un Matre! "Biosfera" nous le prouve gardant toujours intacte cette inspiration gnratrice de loeuvre dart veritable. 8 From the outset, Marlos Nobre situates us within the mystery of the creation: he is a Biosfera a true piece of art. A few years later, In Memoriam caused sensation in Canada. According to Lorne Betts: Nobres In Memoriam was the show piece of the evening. The style shows a complete control of orchestral resources, as well as a deeply felt emotion alism. Melodic fragments are of great beauty. Nobre built his work into an impressive and highly dramatic entity. 9 The piece also caused great excitement in New York nineteen years later: 6 Lawrence B. Johnson, Milwaukee Sentinel October 16, 1978. 7 Horst Feige, Berliner Morgenpost Berlin, March 11, 1972 8 Paul Druey, Tribune de Genve May 22, 1973. 9 Lorne Betts, The Spectator Ottawa, November 22, 1977

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176 Indeed the most powerful work on the program, Marlos Nobres In Me moriam ", was also the only piece that kept clear of tropicalism. Using tremolando strings, punctuated first by percussive double bass attacks, then more vehemently by percussion bursts, Mr. Nobre created an intensely ominous atmosphere, agains t which he se t more lyrical elements, including a lovely solo cello melody. A memorial to the composers father, the piece sometimes wore its heart on its sleeve, but it was consistently gripping. 10 A later work, Passacaglia for Orchestra also received favorabl e reviews and a number of testimonials, such as the following one by Jorge Richter: Mr. Nobres extraordinary talent as a composer is well known throughout the world. Performing Mr. Nobre compositions is always an inspiring and unforgettable experience for everyone, musicians and audience alike. I also had the pleasure of having Mr. Nob re present during rehearsals in the U.S. premire of his Passacaglia for Orchestra Opus 84", and I find him to be one of the finest composers I have had the opportunity to collaborate. Marlos Nobres composition technique is perfect in every aspect, and his music always achieves the highest level of performance fr om any group of musicians. 11 by many artists and scholars all over the world. His unique characteristics have been respected in the most diverse musical centers and his brilliant capacity for absorbing and filtering ideas and techniques has afforded him considerable recognition among his contemporaries. Slonimsky stated the following in the : Marlos Nobre succeeded in forming a strongly individual manner of musical self expression, in which sonorous and structural elements are effectively combined with impressionistic, pointi l listic, and serial techniques, supp lemented by restrained aleatoric procedures. He is one of the few contemporary Latin American composers who do not disdain to make use of native melorhythmic inflections, resulting in ingratiating harmoniousness. 12 artistry offer a strong sense of active and dynamic listening for listeners from all over the world: 10 Allan Kozinn, The New York Times April 18, 1996. 11 Jorge Richter Conductor of the University of Tennessee Symphony Orchestra, USA, August 4, 2000. 12 Nicolas Slonimsky, 8 th Edition 1994

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177 Marlos Nobre is unquestionably one of todays important compositional talents of the Americas whose pieces are characterized by extraordinary sonic arrays and consistently demonstrate a powerful aesthetic ideal which requires an active and dynamic composer listener relationship. His creative originality is suc h that it involves listeners regardless of their cultural conditioning or degree of inherent musicality. The fact that a work is peaceful and contemplative one moment and suddenly explosive, while keeping listeners a ttentive and on the edge of their seats, clearly demonstrates the intrinsic value and universality of his musical l a nguage 13 Musicologists have also been able to leave their testimonies. David Appleby is a renowned scholar in the music of Brazil. He explains Marlos Nobre is unquestionably Braz ils foremost contemporary composer. His works represent not only craftsmanship of the highest level but are the product of a highly original creative composer. He recently was invited to come to our university as Composer in Residence for the year 2000 La tin American Music Festival. The perfor mance of Marlos Nobres Convergncias Op. 28 and Divertimento for piano and orchestra Op. 14 were enthusiastically acclaimed by the public and critics and his music stir the imagination 14 Robert Stevenson also states : Marlos Nobre ranks not only as front ranking Brazilian composer, but resides among the elite few creative geniuses in the hemisphere 15 Walker in the following review: Nobres music is a remarkable fusion of a variety of styles. The result is surprisingly individual and distinctive: heady, evocative, sensual at times, yet always controlled within a finely imaginative and experienced framework by a fastidious creativ e mind 16 Ev en though Nobre continues to work for U NESCO, he has already made positive impressions and contributions as registered in the following statement: The achievements of Marlos Nobre are well known to me and I regard it as a considerable priv ilege to have been able to regard him as a close personal colleague. Mr. Nobre is one 13 Robin Julian Heifetz, composer, California, USA, July 24, 2000 14 David P. Appleby, Adjunct Professor, Texas Christian University, Musicologist, Fort Wor t h, Texas, July 3, 2000. 15 Robert Stevenson, Musicologist, Director Department of Music ology, Univers ity of California, July 20, 2000. 16 Robert Mattew Walker, Music and Musicians International London, April 1988

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178 of my successors as President of the International Music Council of UNESCO. In his office Mr. Nobre became a prominent musical figure worldwide. For persons in many coun tries he represents music and musical life of Brazil. As a composer he is certainly seen as a respected successor to the great Villa Lobos and Ginastera 17 Although Nobre got involved in some controversies in Brazil in the early 1990s because of his strong ideas and desire to continue promoting his music among other contemporary composers, his reception in Brazil continues to be as strong as it is abroad. Nevertheless, due to lingering resentment from a certain number of composers especially in Rio de Jane iro, where he lives the composer has enjoyed much better reception in other parts of the country, such as the Northeast, South, and in So Paulo. The following statement by Brazilian composer Amaral contemporary music: Marlos Nobre um dos mais destacados compositores do Brasil e suas obras tm sido executadas sempre com grande xito nas mais importantes salas de concertos internacionais e esto sendo gravadas, cada vez mais, por intrpretes da mais alta qualificao. Este brilhante msico brasileiro vem se dedicando ininterruptamente h mais de 40 anos arte da composio e considerado por muitos como o legtimo sucessor de Heitor Villa Lobos no contexto da Histria da Msica Brasileira. Pelo not vel conjunto de seu trabalho e infatigvel dedicao arte da Msica, Marlos Nobre ocupa um lugar de destaque no cenrio da msica contempornea 18 Marlos Nobre is one of the most distinguished composers in Brazil and his works have been performed with gr eat success in the most important concert halls of the world. These works have also been recorded by artists of the highest caliber. This brilliant Brazilian musician has dedicated more than 4 0 years non stop to the art of composing and it is still considered by many as the well deserved heir of Villa Lobos within the context of the history of the music in Brazil. Marlos Nobre occupies a special place in the contemporary music scene for his noticeable work and restless dedication to the art of music. 17 Sir Frank Callaway Emeritus Professor, Honorable President International Society for Music Education, 26 September 2000 18 Amaral Vieira, Bra zilian Composer and President of the Brazilian Society of Contemporary Music, and Member of the International Society for Contemporary Music, Brazilian Section, June 17 2000.

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179 and respect within the contemporary music scene. The following statement is from Stanley DeRusha: I had the opportunity to be with Maestro Nobre in Texas this past May and to hear his music and to hear him perform his own music. I find words inadequate to describe the arti stry and brilliance of his music and his performance. It was an electrifying experience for me and the large audience who heard the concerts. It is my intent i o n to perform Marlos Nobres music! In addition, Maestro Nobre is an emotional, articulate, knowle dgeable speaker who can relate the history of the music of So uth America and Spain with verve and deep understanding. Marlos Nobre is a complete artist, a great composer and an exciting performer. 19 Finally a testimony by Aurora Ntola Ginastera, who confir among contemporary Latin American composers: Es un hecho concreto en la opinin de musiclogos, intrpretes, directores de orquestra y organizaciones musicales Internacionales, que Marlos NOBRE es hoy, uno de los ms notables c ompositores vivientes en Amrica Latina. Se cumple as, la premonicin de mi esposo Alberto Ginastera de quien NOBRE fue discpulo y que expres y afirm la extraordinaria vocacin de compositor de Nobre destancndole como una gran promesa de la msica en Amrica Latina de la generacin posterior a la suya. Creo sinceramente, que Marlos Nobre es un digno continuador de la linea de talentos creadores de nuestro Continente y de Iberoamrica, junto a sus antecesores Villa Lobos Chvez, Revueltas y Ginastera 20 It is a concret e fact in the opinion of musicologists, performers, orchestra directors, and international music organizers that Marlos Nobre is today one of the most notable composers living in Latin America. The premonition of my husband Alberto Ginaster a, from whom Nobre took lessons, was right. Ginastera expressed and affirmed the extraordinary talent of Nobre as a great promise for the music of Latin America for the following generation. I believe that Nobre deserves the position of follower of the lin e of such creative talents of our continent and Iberoamerica along with Villa Lobos, Chvez, Revueltas, and Ginastera. 19 Maestro Stanley DeRusha, resident Conductor, Indianapolis Chamber Orchestra, A ugust 15, 2000. 20 Aurora Ntola Ginastera, violoncellist, Geneva, July 6, 2000.

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180 Conclusion his complete works. In this study, the author could assume a defined compositional language and aesthetic because the composer acknowledged the importance of his musical beliefs and explorations in his orchestral works. The author felt it essential to also familiarize herself with ther works, even though they were not presented and explored in the present document. The musical language is what distinguishes one composer from another. It is a combination of choices and characteristics that remain particular and individual to each c omposer. Two composers may share common ideas and belong to the same aesthetic group, but their personal musical language will make them distinguishable. The musical language involves a combination of several aspects revolving a musical composition such as harmony, melody, the influences of a certain place or region, among others. d on the tonal system, highlighting influences from Ernesto Nazareth and Villa Lobos. Modal inflections and rhythmic effects from the folklore of Northeast Brazil also contributed to his compositional development. In the mid 1960s, after studying in Argent ina at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella, Nobre better defined his style and demonstrated a strong tendency toward the avant garde techniques of the time. Those techniques emphasized the influence of the Polish school in advanced instrumental techniques as w ell as the use of serial techniques and indeterminacy. In the mid 1960s, Nobre developed the ideas that he later probes in his orchestral works. He explores those ideas in the 1970s, translating them into brilliant works and continuing to use all available material in order to keep up with the music of his time. After investigating the techniques of the avant garde and post serial styles, Nobre chose the techniques most significant

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181 to his musical expression and continued using them. In the 1980s, he reached maturity as a composer, solidifying his compositional views through a combination of avant garde techniques and important traditional elements, without copying the model of the great Classical and Romantic composers. After a long break from composing, Nob synthesis of his previous techniques. translate his powerful trajectory. All of his music deserves further investigation. This study presents It is necessary to mention again that Nobre never used integral serialism. Rather, his serialism is more personal. He uses it to find different ways to express himself musicall y. His use of indeterminacy relates much more to the use of a controlled aleatoric technique, which sometimes he mixes with proportional notation as showed in Mosaico and In Memoriam Most of his pieces contain a combination of formal and aleatoric writing Even when he chooses aleatoric procedures, every note is written down and almost entirely controlled by the composer. structure that varies from consonant to dissonant, as well as the use of clusters. The formal aspect great Classical and Romantic composers. His harmonic language, with its tonal and atonal nuances, serves exclusively to express musical ideas, as opposed to determining a particular structural form.

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182 In his Marlos Nobre: El sonido del realismo mgico 21 This term is perhaps one of the ways to describe a musical garde, but is, rather, modernity to post modernity, Marco writes. And after dominating post modernity, Nobre surpasses even that, resulting in what Marco calls meta avant garde. other com posers. According to Nobre, music should be expressed through simple means, even though the intrinsic ideas remain complex. It is not his objective to restrict the spectator but to clearly communicate his ideas. He uses established techniques, but subjects them to his own process of selection and filtration. It is challenging to define Nobre musically. Some consider him an eclectic composer, while Nobre himself does not; in fact, his music represents carefully constructed synthesis and filtration. This proc ess defines his personal musical expression, making it more fit for pluralism. in the final chapters of his Twentieth Century Music that the music of our time canno t be defined ever existed. 22 He also explains that music from the past is as much a factor as music from the uences the music of our time. Morgan writes that 21 In his Harmony for a New Millennium: An Introduction to Metatonal Music (2002), Sandke identifies and organizes four note chords which lie beyond tonality and which cannot be represented by chord symbols. He uses those chords as basis for form and melodic improvisation. 22 Morgan, Robert. Twentieth Century Music New Yo rk: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991, p. 486.

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183 music), and geographical (music from different parts of the world), it is also historical (different chronological 23 t. Although composers do not seem to have any single assigned room of their own in this house, the building is so designed that they have more or less immediate access to all for whatever they want. Once they have what they want, they can then leave the room, shutting the 24 Marlos Nobre, certainly prefers specific rooms in that building. Nevertheless, Nobre is a plura list who imprints his own voice onto his music. Nobre says his music results from all influences registered in his subconscious world of creativity. He writes I [would] compare the composer to a sponge absorbing all kinds of influences throughout the diff erent periods of his/her life. No composer will have exactly the same auditory experience as any other musician, precisely because those experiences, in the case of the real cr eator, are being absorb ed into the formation of an authentically personal style. My music is therefore a product of my subconscious absorbing and archiving, filtering and selecting a whole series of very different influences. 25 My music finds its inspiration in the source of my unconscious by way of allusions, quotations and impressio ns from the past of present which, at any given moment, have fascinated me. They touch my consciousness in an almost somnambulistic way and inspire me to create. 26 23 Ibid, p. 485 24 Ibid, p. 488 25 Nobre, Personal Website Accessed on Feb. 2007. 26 Ibid.

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184 I am an inventor of music motivated by the desire to create my own language, synthesis of my auditory and intellectual experiences organized in such a way as to achieve written c ompositions of the outmost rigo r. I prefer an "impure" but living languag e to a "pure" dead language. I [would] like to give permanent life to my visions and dreams, my ni ghtmares even. I want them all to become comprehensible, as soon as I think they are worth being exposed and that they have enough energy and emotion in them to enable them to bring something of value to the lives of those who listen to them. 27 As mentioned throughout this study, Marlos Nobre is an active composer who constantly searches for better ways to express his musical thoughts. He believes that it would be possible to discover new harmonic alternatives outside of dodecaphonism, tonality, and traditio nal consonances, because he is convinced that the western chromatic scale has not been exhaustively explored. Nobre asserts that there are other means of linking and binding harmonies together that lie outside traditional tonal and serial structures. He is an intellectual, studious man, who is keenly aware of his surroundings. As a performer and conductor, he has been exposed to several musical environments that enriched his views as a composer. His compositions are clearly Brazilian, although he does not i ntend to use his music as a means of projecting his national identity. His style, therefore, fuses these aspects, translating the power of his energetic music and a vocabulary that represents his most profound musical thoughts. 27 Ibid.

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185 APPENDIX WORKS (1959 2004) It is important to know that Marlos Nobre has worked several different times on the same pieces and sometimes re arranging them for different media. The catalogue should identify these pieces by their opus numbers and respective years. Most of the times they bear the same title and only change letters in their opuses numbers, for instance: Op. 9, Op. 9a, Op. 9b, corresponding to the same piece but arranged for different media. The following list classifies works b y media. Nobre has two other published catalogues, however, not always up to date because Nobre remains active as a composer. The remaining Nobre classify the works in a chronological order and by alphabetical order. Therefore, it is the main goal of this author to list the works by media so that they become of easy comprehension to its readers. Orchestral works: Convergncias Op. 28 (1968/1977) Desafio XXX Op. 31 No. 30 (1968/1978) Mosaico Op. 36 (1970) In Memoriam Op. 39 (1973/1976) Football Op. 50 (1980) Abertura Festiva Op 56 bis (1982) Xingu Op. 75 (1989) Saga Marista: Passacaglia para orquestra Op. 84 (1997) Kabbalah Op. 96 (2004)

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1 86 String Orchestra Biosfera Op. 35 (1970) Desafio VI Op. 31, No. 6 (1968/2002) Concerto I for String Orchestra Op. 42 (1976/2004) Concerto II for String Orchestra Op. 53 (1981) Elegia for String Orchestra Op. 53a (1981) Student String Orchestra Sute Nordestina No. 1 Op. 5c (1 960) Sute Nordestina No. 2 Op. 13b (1963) Sute Nordestina No. 3 Op. 22b (1966) Sute Nordestina No. 4 Op. 43b ( 1977/2004) Chamber Orchestra Musicamera Op. 8, No. 2 (1962) Desafio XXIX Op. 31, No. 29 (1968) Ludus Instrumentalis Op. 34 (1969) Four L atin American Dances Op. 72 (1989) Chorus and Orchestra Cantata do Chimborazo Op. 56 (1982) Columbus Op. 77 (1990) Piano and Orchestra Concertino for Piano and String Orchestra Op. 1 (1959) Divertimento for Piano and Orchestra Op. 14 (1963) Desafio VI I for Piano and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 7 (1968) Concerto Breve for Piano and Orchestra Op. 33 (1969)

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187 Concerto for Piano and String Orchestra Op. 64 (1984) Concertante do Imaginrio for Piano and String Orchestra Op. 74 (1989) Solo Instruments and Orchestra Desafio I for Viola and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 1 (1968) Desafio II for Violoncello and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 2 (1968) Desafio III for Violin and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 3 (1968) Desafio IV for Double Bass and String Orchestr a Op. 31, No. 4 (1968) Desafio VIII for Alto Saxophone and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 3 (1968) Desafio IX for Flute and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 9 (1968) Desafio X for Clarinet and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 10 (1968) Desafio XI for Bassoon and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 12 (1968) Desafio XIII for French Horn and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 13 (1968) Desafio XIV for Trumpet and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 14 (1968) Desafio XV for Trombone and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 15 (1968) Desa fio XVI for Tuba and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 16 (1968) Desafio XVII for Bass Clarinet and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 17 (1968) Desafio XXIII for Two Guitars and String Orchestra Op. 31, No. 23 (1968) Concerto Armorial No. 1 for Flute and Orchestr a Op. 43a (1977/2004) Concerto for Guitar and Orchestra Op. 51 (1980/2004) Double Concerto for Two Guitars and Orchestra Op. 82 (1995) Concerto for Percussion and Orchestra Op. 89 (2000) Concerto Armorial No. 2 for Flute and String Orchestra Op. 98 (2 004) Voice and Orchestra O Canto Multiplicado for Voice and String Orchestra Op. 38 (1972)

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188 Trs Trovas for Soprano and Orchestra Op. 6a (1961) Trs Can es for Soprano and Orchestra Op. 9a (1962) Poemas da Negra for Soprano and Orchestra Op. 10a (1962) Praianas for Soprano and Orchestra Op. 18a (1965) Dengues da Mulata Desinteressada for Soprano and Orchestra Op. 20b (1966) Beiramar for Baritone and Orchestra Op. 21c (1966) Modinha for Soprano and Orchestra Op. 23b (1966) Dia da Gra a for Soprano an d Orchestra Op. 32b (1968) Desafio XVIII (Amaznia II) for Voice and String Orchestra Opus 31, No. 18 (1968/1994) O Canto Multiplicado for Voice and String Orchestra Op. 38 (1972) Monlogo do Tempo for Baritone and Orchestra Op. 56b (1982) Ballets Rhyt hmetron Op. 27a (1968) Convergncias Op. 28a (1968) Sequncia Op. 29a (1968) Biosfera (Pas de deux) Op. 26a (1968) Autpsia para Minha Sombra Op. 36a (1970) Saga Marista Op. 84a (1997) Voice and Ensemble Ukrinmakrinkrin for Soprano, Wind Instruments and Piano Op. 17 (1964) Trs Can es de Beiramar for Soprano and Cello Octet Op. 21a (1966/1988) Canto a Garcia Lorca for Soprano and Cello Octet Op. 87 (1998) Llanto por Igncio Snchez Mejitas for Baritone Wind and Brass Instruments Op. 93 (2001) Ama znia Ignota for Baritone, Flutes, Piano and Percussion Op. 95 (2003)

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189 Chamber music Trio for Piano, Violin and Cello Op. 4 (1960) Varia es Rtmicas for Piano and Typical Brazilian Percussion Op. 15 (1963) Modinha for Voice, Flute and Guitar Op. 23 (19 66) Canticum Instrumentale for Flute, Piccolo, Harp, Piano and Timpani Op. 25 (1967) String Quartet I Op. 26 (1967) Rhythmetron for Percussion Ensemble Op. 27 (1968) Wind Quintet Op. 29 (1968) Tropicale for Piccolo, Clarinet, Piano and Percussion Op. 30 (1968) Sonncias I for Piano and Percussion Op. 37 (1972) Desafio V for Cello Sextet Op. 31, No. 5 (1968/1977) Sonncias II for Flute, Guitar, Piano and Percussion Op. 48 (1980) Sonncias III for Two Pianos and Two Percussions Op. 49 (1980) Desafio XIX for Violin, Guitar and Cello Op. 31, No. 19 (1968/1984) Desafio XX for Flute, Guitar and Cello Op. 31, No. 20 (1968/1984) Desafio XXV for String Quartet Op. 31, No. 25 (1968/1984) Desafio XXVI for Wind Quintet Op. 31 No. 26 (1968/1984) Desafio XXV II for Brass Quintet Op. 31, No. 27 (1968/1984) String Quartet II Op. 68 (1985) Fandango for Guitar Ensemble Op. 69 (1989) Desafio XVII for Bass Clarinet and Marimba Op. 31, No. 17 (1968/1993) Desafio XXXI for Violin and Marimba Op. 31 No. 31 (1968/1 994) Desafio XXXII for Cello Octet Op. 31, No. 32 (1995) Desafio XXIV for Guitar Ensemble Op. 31, No. 24 (1968/2000)

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190 Trio for Piano, Violin, and Viola Op. 4a (2001) Guitar Ciclo Nordestino No. 1 Op. 5b (1960/1982) Momentos I Op. 41, No. 1 (1974) Momen tos II Op. 41, No. 2 (1975) Momentos III Op. 41, No. 3 (1976) Homenagem a Villa Lobos Op. 46 (1977) Momentos IV Op. 54 (1982) Momentos V Op. 55 (1982) Momentos VI Op. 62 (1984) Momentos VII Op. 63 (1984) Prlogo e Toccata Op. 54 (1984) Entrada e Ta ngo Op. 67 (1985) Reminiscncias Op. 78 (1991) Relembrando Op. 78a (1993) Rememrias Op. 79 (1993) Voice and Guitar Dia da Gra a for Soprano and Guitar Op. 32 (1968) Desafio XVIII (Amaznia I) for Soprano and Guitar Op. 31, No. 18 (1968/1994) Trs Tr ovas for Tenor and Guitar Op. 6b (1961/1998) Trs Can es for Voice and Guitar Op. 9b (1962/1998) Poemas da Negra for Voice and Guitar Op. 10b (1962/1998) Praianas for Tenor and Guitar Op. 18b (1965/1998) Dengues da Mulata Desinteressada for Tenor and Guitar Op. 20b (1966/1998)

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191 Beiramar for Voice and Guitar Op. 21d (1966/1998) Modinha for Voice and Guitar Op. 23c (1966/1998) Poema V for Voice and Guitar Op. 94, No. 4a (2002) Two Guitars Ciclo Nordestino No. 1 for Two Guitars Op. 5a (1960/1982) Cicl o Nordestino No. 2 for Two Guitars Op. 13a (1963/1982) Ciclo Nordestino No. 3 for Two Guitars Op. 22a (1966/1982) Trs Danas Bras ileiras for Two Guitars Op. 57 (1983) Desafio XXII for Two Guitars Op. 31 No. 22 (1968/2003) Sonatina for Two Guitars Op 76 (1989/2004) Lamento and Toccata for Two Guitars Op. 99 (2004) Piano Homenagem a Ernesto Nazareth Op. 1a (1959) Nazarethiana Op. 2 (1960) Ciclo Nordestino I Op. 5 (1960) Theme and Variations O p 7 (1961) 16 Variations of a Theme by Fructuoso Vian na Op. 8, No. 1 (1962) Tocatina, Ponteio e Final O p. 12 (1963) Ciclo Nordestino No. 2 Op. 13 (1963) Ciclo Nordestino No. 3 Op. 22 (1966) Sonata Breve Op. 24 (1966/2000) Homenagem a Arthur Rubinstein Op. 40 (1973) Ciclo Nordestino IV Op. 43 (1977) Fo ur Moments Op. 44 (1977)

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192 Sonata on a Theme of Bla Bartk Op. 45 (1977) Tango Op. 61 (1984) Sonatina Op. 66 (1984/2003) Monlogos Op. 37a (1997) Variantes e Toccata Op. 15a (1997) Voice and Piano Trs Trovas for Soprano and Piano Op. 6 (1961) Trs C an es for Soprano and Piano Op. 9 (1962) Poemas da Negra para Soprano and Piano Op. 10 (1962) Praianas for Soprano and Piano Op. 18 (1965) Dengues da Mulata Desinteressada for Soprano and Piano Op. 20 (1966) Beiramar for Bass/Baritone and Piano Op. 2 1 (1966) Modinha for Soprano and Piano Op. 23a (1966) Dia da Gra a for Soprano and Piano Op. 32a (1968) O Canto Multiplicado for Soprano and Piano Op. 38a (1972/2003) O Canto Multiplicado for Baritone and Piano Op. 38b (1972/2002) Monlogo do Tempo for Baritone and Piano Op. 56c (1982) Kleine Gedichte for Baritone and Piano Op. 90 (2000) Amaznia III for Baritone and Piano Op. 91 (2002) Llanto por Igncio Sanchez Mejtas for Baritone and Piano Op. 93a (2002) Poema V (Raio de Luz) for Soprano and Pia no Op. 94, No. 5 (2002) Poema XIII (Raio de Luz) for Baritone and Piano Op. 94, No. 13 (2002) Instrumental Music Variaes for Solo Oboe Op. 3 (1960)

PAGE 193

193 Sonata for Solo Viola Op. 11 (1963) Desafio I for Viola and Piano Op. 31, No. 1a (1968) Desafio II fo r Cello and Piano Op. 31, No. 2a (1968) Desafio III for Violin and Piano Op. 31, No. 3a (1968) Desafio IV for Double Bass and Piano Op. 31, No. 4a (1968) Desafio VIII for Alto Saxophone Op. 31, No. 8a (1968/1982) Desafio IX for Flute and Piano Op. 31 No. 9a (1968/1983) Desafio X for Clarinet and Piano Op. 31 No. 10a (1968/1984) Desafio XI for Oboe and Piano Op. 31, No. 11a (1968/1984) Desafio XII for Bassoon and Piano Op. 31 No. 12a (1968/1984) Desafio XIII for French Horn and Piano Op. 31 No. 13a (1968/1984) Desafio XIV for Trumpet and Piano Op. 31, No. 14a (1968/1984) Desafio XV for Trombone and Piano Op. 31 No. 15a (1968/1984) Desafio XVI for Tuba and Piano Op. 31, No. 16a (1968/1984) Desafio XVII for Clarinet and Piano Op. 31, No. 17a ( 1968/1992) Desafio XXI for Guitar and Harp Op. 31, No. 21 (1968/1992) Desafio XXIII for Guitar and Piano Op. 31, No. 23a (1968.1992) Solo I for Solo Flute Op. 60 (1984) Crculos Mgicos for Bass Clarinet and Percussion Op. 70 (1989) Duo for Guitar and Percussion Op. 71 (1989) Sonante I for Solo Marimba Op. 80 (1994) Solo II for Solo Bass Clarinet Op. 81 (1994) Solo III for Solo Vibraphone Op. 83 (1994)

PAGE 194

194 Desafio XXXI for Violin and Marimba Op. 31 No. 31 (1994) Desafio XXXI for Flute and Marimba Op. 31 No. 31a (1994) Desafio XXXIII for Flute and Guitar Op. 31 No. 33 (1997) Poema I for Violin and Piano Op. 94, N o. 1 (2002) Partita Latina for Cello and Piano Op. 92 (2002) Poema II for Viola and Piano Op. 94, No. 2 (2002) Poema III for Cello and P iano Op. 94, No. 3 (2002) Poema IV for Double Bass and Piano Op. 94, No. 4 (2002) Poema VI for Flute and Piano Op. 94, No. 6 (2002) Poema VII for Oboe and Piano Op. 94, No. 7 (2002) Poema VIII for Clarinet and Piano Op. 94, No. 8 (2002) Poema IX for B assoon and Piano Op. 94, No. 9 (2002) Poema X for French Horn and Piano Op. 94, No. 10 (2002) Poema XI for Trumpet and Piano Op. 94, No. 11 (2002) Poema XII for Trombone and Piano Op. 94, No. 12 (2002) Poema XIV for Alto Saxophone and Piano Op. 94, No 14 (2002) Poema XV for Harmonica and Piano Op. 94, No. 15 (2002) Choral Music (A Cappella) Ag Lon for Mixed Choir Op. 16 (1964) Op. 16a (1964/1970) Trs Coros de Natal for Mixed Choir Op. 19 (1966) Desafio XXVIII for Mixed Choi r Op. 31, No. 28 (1968) Cancioneiro de Lampio Op. 52 (1980) Cancioneiro Natalino for Mixed Choir Op. 58 (1983)

PAGE 195

195 Cancioneiro Junino for Mixed Choir Op. 59 (1984) Choral Music and Guitar Yanomani for Mixed Choir, Solo Tenor and Guitar Op. 47 (1980) Band Chacona Amaznica for Symphonic Band Op. 86 (1998) Amaznia II for Jazz Ensemble Op. 85 (1998) Fanfarra Campos do Jordo for Brass, Timpani and Percussion Op. 97 (2004)

PAGE 196

196 LIST OF REFERENCES Selected Bibliography Trends in Recent Brazilian Piano Music Latin American Music Review vol. 2 no. 1. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977, pp. 91 102. __________ The Music of Brazil Austin: U niversity of T exas Press, 1983. Bhague, Gerard. Music in Latin America: An Introduction Englewoods Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall 19 79 New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians Edited by Stanley Sadie. 2 nd ed. London: Macmillian & Co., 2001, vol. 18, p. 566. __________ Lobos; Marlos Nobre: Orchestral, Vocal, and Chamber In Latin American Music Review vol. 17 no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1996), Austin: University of Texas Press, pp. 85 89. Bezerra, Mrcio. A Unique Brazilian Composer: A Study of the Music of Gilberto Mendes though Selected Piano Pieces Brussels: Alain van Kerckhoven diteur, 2000. Fanfare, vol. 18, n o. 1 (September/October 1994), pp. 278 280. Classical Guitar vol. 12, no. 3 (November 1993), London, pp. 11 14. __________ Ame rican Com posers Orchestra: Marlos No bre Striking Classical Guitar vol. 15, no. 1, London, September 1996. Corker Latin American Music Review vol. 15 no. 2 (Fall/Winter 199 4), Austin: University of Texas Press, pp. 226 243. ___________ Aspectos Tcnicos e Estticos de Sonncias III de Marlos Nobre: uma Introduo `a Problemtica da Intuio versus Cerebralismo. Disserta o de Mestrado. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 1995. Corra de Azevdo, Luis Heitor. Marlos Nobre, a Brazilian Composer, Marlos Nobre Werke Verzeichnis Darmstadt: Tonos Musikverlag, 1980. Curt Lange, Francisco. Weg und Bedeutung von Marlos Nobre Darmstadt: Ton os Musikverlag, 1980.

PAGE 197

197 De Jong, Diederick. Multiplicado; Ukrinmakrinkrin; Rhythmetron; Divertimento; Concerto Breve; Rhythmic In American Record Guide vol. 57 n o. 5 (September/October 1994 ), pp. 168 169. Nobre: Ukrinmakrinkrin; Mosaico. Inter American Institute for Musical Research Yearbook vol. 8. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1972. Revista Musical Chilena vol 22, no. 148, Santiago do Chile 1979, pp. 48 57. ournal of Schoenberg Institute Los Angeles: The Arnold Schoenberg Institute, 1980. Marco, Toms. Marlos Nobre. El sonido del realismo mgico. Madrid: Fundacin Autor, 2006. Mariz, Vasco. Trs Musiclogos Brasileiros: Mrio de Andrade, Renato Almeida, Luiz Heitor Corra de Azevedo Rio de Janeiro: Civiliza o Brasileira, 1983, pp. 82 83. __________. F iguras da Msica Brasileira Contempornea 2nd Ed. Braslia: Universidade de Braslia, 1970. __________ Histria da Msica no Brasil 5th Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Civiliza o Brasileira, 1999. Mathew In Musical Opi nion vol. 113, no. 1335, London, November 1990. Merino Luis. In Revista Musical Chilena vol. 38, no. 162 ( July December 1985 ), Santiago, pp. 154 158. In Buenos Aires Musical Buenos Aires, vol. 42, no. 169 (January Ju ne 1988), Santiago, pp. 95 96. Morgan, Robert. Twentieth Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America New Yor k: Norton & Company, 1991. Neves, Jos Maria. Msica Contempornea Brasileira So Paulo: Ricordi Brasileira, 1981. Richter, Jorge. Op. 84. Lansing: Michigan State University, 2 002. Buenos Aires Musical (May 1971), Buenos Aires Slonimsky, Nicolas. Music s ince 1900 4th edition New York: C. Scrib n

PAGE 198

198 Writings of Marlos Nobre "Insuficincia da notao conv encional em face das novas exi gncias da msica con tempornea," in Music in the Ame ricas, Interamerican Music Monograph Series v ol. I, Bloomington :Indiana Universi ty Publications, 1967, pp. 148 157 "O Servio de Documenta o Musical: o que , o que pode ser ," in Rev ista Ordem dos Msicos do Brasil no.1, Rio de Janeiro 1970, p. 15. "Brazil," in Dictionary of Contemporary Music New York: E. P. Dutton Co, 1971, pp. 99 102 "Msica Brasilea Contempornea," in Revista de Cultura Brasilea n o. 32, Madrid, Espaa: Emba jada de Brasil en Espaa, 1971 pp. 103 110. "Os novos anos de nossa msica ," in Revista Shell no. 25 (August/September 1971 ), pp. 4 11. "A importncia do SDM (Servio de Documentao Musical) administrao e representao de Obras Brasileiras", in Revist a de Msica OMB, N 5 (January/March 1972), pp. 11 12. "Musica Serial", "Msica Dodecafnica", "Msica Atonal", "Msica Aleatria", "Notao", "Msica Eletrnica", "Msica Concreta" and "Msic a de Vanguarda," Enciclopdia Mirador Internacional Rio de Ja neiro: Enciclopdia Britannica do Brasil, 1975 "La Problemtica da Msica Latinoamericana ," in Revista Musical Chilena Year XXXII n o s. 142 144 ( April/December 1978), Santiago de Chile, pp. 125 130. "O Romantismo na Msica: o sculo XIX ," Rio de Janeiro: Museu Naciona l de Belas Artes, 1979, pp. 99 107 "Villa Lobos: Fra vital na Msica Brasileira", in Presena de Villa Lobos vol. 11, 1st t edition, MEC/SEAC/Museu Villa Lobos, 1980, pp. 131 133. "O Ciclo de Ouro do Barroco Musical Brasileiro ," in Simpos io Internazionale sul Barocco Latino Americano Rome: Istituo talo Lat ino Ame ricano, 1984, pp. 317 349. "Tradition in der Musikkulturen Heute und Morgen ," in Round table Gesprch Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag fr Musik, 1985, pp. 67 68 "Os preldios car actersticos de Flausino Vale ," in Flausino Vale, o Paganini Brasileiro Rio de Janeiro: Editor Europa, 1985, pp. 44 45 "Em homenagem aos 40 a nos do desaparecimento de Mrio de Andrade ," in Revista da E scola de Msica e Artes Cnicas da Universidade Feder al da Bahia April, 1985, pp. 47 61. "Nouvelles perspectives de la musique: l nouveau monde du compositeur," in The World of Music vol. 29, no. 1, Berlin, 1987, pp. 118 125. "Villa Lobos e a Msica Contempornea Brasileira ," in Revista do Brasil Year 4, no. 1/88, Rio de Janeiro : Rio Arte, 1988, pp. 36 39

PAGE 199

199 "Anlise do Tango para piano, opus 61 ," in Anlise Musical Cadernos de Estudos no. 4 So Paulo: Ed. Atravez, 1991, pp. 96 120. "A Brazilian Perspective," in Music Education: International Viewpoints edited by Martin Comte, Asme Monograph Series no. 3, A utralia: Australian Society for Music Education Inc., 1994, pp. 127 131. "Tendncias da Criao Musical Contempornea ," in Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Msica Contempornea year 1, no. 1 Gionia 1994, pp. 71 86. "Criao, Descoberta e Inveno ," in Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Msica Contempornea year 4, no. 4, 1997, pp. 115 119 Poesia Sempre year 10, no. 16 (October 2002), Rio de Janeiro : Funda o Biblioteca Nacional, pp. 209 216. Scores Nobre, Marlos. Convergncias para Orquestra Op. 28 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil: Marlos Nobre Edition, 1977. ____________. Biosfera for String Orchestra, Op. 35 Rio de Ja neiro, RJ, Brazil: Marlos Nobre E dition 1970 ____________. Mosaico para Orquestra, Op. 36 Rio de Janeiro: Marlos Nobre Edition, 1970. ____________. In Memoriam, Op. 39 Rio de Janeiro: Marlos Nobre Edition, 1976. ____________. Concerto II para Orquestra de Cordas, Op. 53 Rio de Janeiro : Marlos Nobre Edition, 1981. _____________. Abertura Festiva para Orquestra, Op. 56 bis Rio de Janeiro: Marlos Nobre Edition, 1982. ____________ Passacaglia para orquestra (saga marista) Op. 84 Rio de Janeiro: Marlos Nobre Edition, 1997. ___________ _. Kabbalah para orquestra, Op. 96 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil: Editora Msica Nova do Brasil, 2004.

PAGE 200

200 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ilka Vasconcelos Arajo was born in Brazil. She holds a B.M. in piano performance from the State University of Cear, Brazil, and a M.M. in piano performance and pedagogy under Professor Boaz Sharon from the University of Florida. She i s currently a Ph.D. Candidate in Musicology under Dr. David Kushner at the University of Florida, where she has also worked as a teaching assistant. She has presented lectures before organizations such as College Music Society, International Hawaii Confere nce in Arts and Humanities, and the Musicology Lecture Series. Mrs. Arajo is the winner of first prizes in both First Festival Jovem Instrumentistas, and First Paurillo Barrozo Piano Competition She has performed and taught Piano Masterclasses in several countries including Brazil, the United States, France, Germany, and the Czech Republic. She has been featured at several broadcast programs in Brazil such as Isto the second most important magazine in the country, Programa do J a Public National TV Broadcast at TV Globo, University of Fortaleza Radio, TV Verdes Mares, TV Cultura, and TV Jangadeiro among others. Ilka is the winner of first prize in the 2004 Alec Courtelis International Student Competition a prestige prize given to the best internati onal student at the University of Florida.


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THE MUSICAL LANGUAGE OF MARLOS NOBRE
THROUGH HIS ORCHESTRAL WORKS




















By

ILKA VASCONCELOS ARAUjJO


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007




























O 2007 Ilka Vasconcelos Arauj o



































To Aleksa and Isabella,
for everything they mean to me.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This dissertation would not have been possible without the assistance of many people,

especially those at the University of Florida.

I would like to thank composer Marlos Nobre for his assistance in providing me with

information. He made himself available to answer all my questions, allowed me into his home,

and shared his ideas and insights. I am very grateful to Dr. David Z. Kushner, a lifelong mentor

who has guided me through my studies at the University of Florida. Much appreciation is also

felt for the rest of my committee: Dr. Larry Crook, Dr. Paul Richards, Dr. Charles Perrone, and

Professor Boaz Sharon. Professor Sharon is responsible for a large portion of my piano training

and my decision to come to UF.

I also owe much gratitude to all of my professors, who supported me and contributed to my

knowledge throughout my studies at UF. I would like to thank Robena Cornwell and Michele

Wilbanks-Fox for assisting me in many ways and for helping me with the acquisition and

handling of Marlos Nobre' s scores and recordings.

Lisa Emmerich was instrumental in the editing of this document. Dr. Chan-Ji Kim was of

great help in exchanging compositional ideas. I am thankful to Michael Deall for helping me

with figures. I am particularly grateful to Dr. Larry Crook and to the late Dr. Gerard Behague for

helping me develop the interest in and enthusiasm for Marlos Nobre. I am grateful to Dr. Jorge

Richter for providing me with his dissertation and recordings as well as pianist Maria Luiza

Corker-Nobre for providing me with her dissertation and sharing her knowledge and insights.

I would like to thank the whole staff of the University of Florida, who directly or indirectly

contributed to my work. Many thanks go to all of my friends who made life in Gainesville so

pleasant. There are many friends I am particularly grateful for everything they did to help me

accomplish this document. Among them are Graziela Corr~a da Costa, Beverly Butts, Mary










McCollum, and Dr. Leandro Britto and his family, especially Patricia, and Gabriela, for their

friendship, care, and assistance at the final stage of this process. I would like to thank Mario

Binelli and his family, especially Ms. Dinda, for their warm hospitality and guidance while I was

in Rio de Janeiro developing my research.

Finally, I would like to thank my family. My parents, Jose Mario and Cleomar, and my

grandfather, Francisco Honorato, gave constant love and support. My sisters, Ilnah and Ingrid,

offered friendship and admiration. Immeasurable appreciation goes to my husband, Aleksa, for

his love, help, patience, encouragement and to our daughter, Isabella, who has taught me a great

deal about the wonders of motherhood.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. ...............4.....


LI ST OF T ABLE S ................. ...............8....__.__.....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............9.....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 13...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............15......... .....


Methodology ..........._...__.......... ...............17.....
Need for Study ................. ...............19...............
Review of Literature ..........._..._ ...............21.......__......
Books ..........._...__.......... ...............22.....
Textbooks ................ ...............26...
Theses and Dissertations .............. ...............27....
Articles, Reviews, and Interviews .............. ...............28....
Biographical Dictionaries and Encyclopedias ................. ...............36................

2 MARLOS NOBRE .............. ...............38....


Marlos Nobre: The Man .............. ...............38....
Marlos Nobre: The Composer .............. ...............62....

3 SEARCH FOR AN IDENTITY .............. ...............81....


Biosfera, Op. 3 5 (1970) .............. ...............8 1....
M~osaico, Op. 36 (1970) ........._.._.. ...._... ...............95...
In 2emoriamn, Op. 39 (1973/76) ............ ..... ._ ...............106.
Converg~ncia~s, Op. 28 (1968/1977) ................. ...............115.............
Conclusion ................ ...............124................


4 EARLY MATURE STYLE (1980-1985)............... ..............12


Concerto Ilfor String Orchestra, Op. 53 (198 1)............... ...............126
Abertura Festiva, Op. 56 bis (Festival Overture) (1983) .................... ............... 142
Conclusion ................ ...............148................


5 LATER MATURE STYLE (1990-2004) ................ ...............150........... ..


Saga arista: Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op. 84 (1997). ........._.___..... ._ ..............150
Kabbalah, Op. 96 (2004) ................. ............_........164.... ....













Conclusion ................. ...............171......_ ......


6 RECEPTION AND CONCLUSION ..............._ ........_....._.. ...........17


Marlos Nobre's Reception among Contemporaries .............. ...............173....
Conclusion .........._...._ ...............180......_ ......


APPENDIX. MARLOS NOBRE'S WORKS (1959-2004)............... ..............18


Orchestral works: ....._ ..185.__ .....__ ....

String Orchestra ............. ...... ._ ...............186..
Student String Orchestra............... ...............18
Chamber Orchestra ............. ...... ...............186...
Chorus and Orchestra .............. ...............186....
Piano and Orchestra ................. ...............186.__._ ......
Solo Instruments and Orchestra ................. ...............187...............
Voice and Orchestra .............. ...............187....
Ballets .............. ... ...............188..
Voice and Ensemble .............. ...............188....
Chamber music ................. ...............189......... ......
Guitar ................ ...............190......... ......
Voice and Guitar............... ...............190
Two Guitars .............. ...............191....
Piano .............. ...............191....
Voice and Piano ................. ...............192................
Instrumental Music ................. ...............192......... ......

Choral Music (A Cappella)............... ...............19
Choral Music and Guitar .............. ...............195....
Band ................ ...............195...............


LIST OF REFERENCES ......_. ................ ........_.._.........19


Selected Bibliography ....__. ................. .......__. ..........19
Writings of Marlos Nobre ....__. ................. ........__. ........19
Scores............... ...............199


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............200....











LIST OF TABLES

Table page


3-1 Biosfera, Op. 35: formal structure ................ ...............84..............

3-2 M~osaico, Op. 36: formal structure .............. ...............96...._._._....

3-3 In 2emoriamn, Op. 39: formal structure .......................... ......... ...........0

3-4 Converg~ncia~s, Op. 28: formal structure ................. ...............116........... ..

3-5 Pitch diminution in Converg~ncia~s................. ......... ...............118 ....

4-1 Concerto Ilfor String Orchestra, Op. 53: formal structure ................. ......._.._.. ......127

4-2 Formal Structure of the first movement. ....__. ...._.._.._ ......._.... ...........2

4-3 Formal Structure of the second movement. ............. ...............132....

4-4 Formal Structure of the third movement. ....__. ...._.._.._ ......._.... ...........3

4-5 Abertura Festiva, Op. 56bis: formal structure ........._.. ...._..._... ......... ..._.......14

5-1 Ballet plot of Saga arista .............__..... ...............152

5-2 Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op. 84: formal structure .............. ...............154....

5-3 Kabbalah, Op. 96: formal structure ................ ...............167..............










LIST OF FIGURES


Fiare page

3-1 BACH motive used by Marlos Nobre in several of his pieces ................. .............. .....84

3-2 Opening page for Biosfera, Op. 35, measures 1 through 24............... ...................8

3-3 Horizontal twelve-tone development of Variation I mm. 25-41 (left). Rhythmic
diminution at the end of Variation I and beginning of Variation II mm. 53-64 (right) .....88

3-4 Tremolos and Glissandi around BACH motive of Variation II, mm. 80-91 ........._..........88

3-5 Pizzicato Glissandi from Variation III mm. 106-114 ........._. ...... .. ........._......90

3-6 Variation III mm. 115 through 131 with [01234] motive from measures 117-120
followed by mandolin-like section mm. 121-124, followed by string chordal
tremolos............... ...............91

3-7 End of first movement and beginning of second movement, mm. 217-227 ................... ...92

3-8 Viola solo line of the second movement, mm. 228-239 ................. ...._._ .............92

3-9 Artificial harmonics passage mm. 245-256 .............. ...............93....

3-10 Climax section of the second movement, mm. 269-283 ................. ................ ...._.94

3.11 Three-note initial motive in M~osaico, Op. 36............... ...............97...

3-12 Full score mm. 1-3 (left). Aleatoric box 1 m. 3 (right top); aleatoric box 2 mm. 4-5
(right middle); and aleatoric box 3 m. 14-15 (right bottom)............... ...............97

3-13 Second section of2~osaico, mm. 46-47 with beginning of chromatic motive in the
strings (A). Extension of chromatic motives through descending chromatic lines on
the strings (B)............... ...............98..

3-14 Melodic lines: Oboe mm. 88-91 (top), trumpet mm. 93-95 (bottom) ................... ...........100

3-15 Gradual presentation of twelve tones, mm. 107-109 ....._____ ... ......_ ...............101

3-16 Gradual presentation of twelve notes: Three-note initial motive m. 78 (top left), four-
note development m. 92 (bottom left), and complete twelve-note motive m. 119
(right) .............. ...............102....

3-17 Initial [012] motive m. 135 (left). Gradual appearance of twelve tones mm. 154-158
(right) .............. ...............103....

3-18 Climax of first movement m. 45 (top) and climax of third movement m. 162
(b ottom) ................. ...............104................











3-19 Vertical clusters mm. 173-176 (left), and aleatoric box mm. 181-182 (right) .................1 05

3-20 Broken chord motivic idea and aleatoric boxes, mm. 183-184 (left), mm. 187-188
(right) .............. ...............106....

3-21 Descending minor second motives (left), and tritone (right) ................. ............... .....109

3 -22 Aleatoric boxes in In M~emoriamn mm. 27-28 ...........__...... .__ ......__.......10

3-23 Polyphonic modal lines accompanied by harmonic glissandi in the strings, mm. 34-
4 1............... ...............111..

3 -24 Beginning of middle section with open-string-guitar motive and prolongation of
pitches, mm. 84-89 ........... _.......__ ...............112...

3-25 Minor second pervasive interval adding to the tension after long pause, mm. 113-118 .113

3-26 Sense of agony presented by composer through chaotic timpani interference mm.
108-112 ................. ...............114......... .....

3-27 Final section of In M~emoriamn mm. 1 79-183 ...........__...... ......__......15

3-28 Strings part only from Converg~ncia~s' initial motive mm. 1-12 ................. .................1 17

3-29 Section B of Converg~ncia~s, mm. 3 1-3 6 ................ ...............119............

3-30 Trumpet melodic motive mm. 50-54 .............. ...............120....

3-31 New rhythmic motive in trumpets with chromatic notes on horns and percussion,
mm. 97-102 ................. ...............121...............

3-32 Slow melodic section mm. 116-127: first on the oboe (m. 116), then flute (m. 119),
and finally first violin (m. 123)............... ...............121.

3-33 Canonic melody in winds and strings, mm. 140-147............... ...............122

3-34 Grand Einale of Converg~ncia~s with a sense of resolution in E, mm. 294-299. ..............123

4-1 Concerto II for String Orchestra, Op. 53 pp. 1-2 mm. 1-29. Theme based on BACH
motive presented polyphonically in four voices ................. .............. ......... .....128

4-2 Variation I: Repetitive development of the BACH motive mm. 3 1-42.............._._. ........129

4-3 Variation III: New motive constructed of minor thirds mm. 58-69 ................. ...............130

4-4 Variation VII: Mid-point at measure 126 on B natural, mm. 114-132. ...........................131

4-5 End of first movement in a B natural ................. ...............131........... .











4-6 First violin twelve-tone melody of the second movement, mm. 1-4 .............. ..... ........._.133

4-7 Second presentation of twelve-tone melody on the first violin, second movement,
mm. 5-6. Here the melody is transposed with some of the intervals reversed ................133

4-8 Second Movement mm. 1-9: three presentations of twelve-tone melody on the first
violin ................ ...............133................

4-9 B section of second movement mm. 27-45............... ...............134.

4-10 End of B section with bass line preparation for A' section, mm. 46-63 ................... .......13 5

4-11 Section A' of the second movement; use of inverted chromatic notes, mm. 64-75 ........137

4-12 End of second movement emphasizing tonal center in E, mm. 117-139 ................... ......138

4-13 Third movement, BACH motive as introduction to twelve notes, mm. 1-30..................139

4-14 Vertical presentation of Twelve Tones, mm. 43-54 ................. ................. ........ 140

4-15 Section C with quartal/quintal harmonies, mm. 81-87 .............. ...............141....

4-16 End of Concerto II for String Orchestra, mm. 13 7-155 ..........._... ......_.._............142

4-17 Chromatic ascending chords in Abertura Festiva, Op. 56 bis, mm. 1-8, woodwind
and brass sections only............... ...............144.

4-18 Eleven-note-melody polyphonic statement on strings, woodwinds and brass,
respectively, mm. 30-38............... ...............145.

4-19 B section with eleven-note melody in four voices and imitation on the strings, mm.
65-74 .............. ...............146....

4-20 BACH motive on xylophone and strings mm. 75-81 .............. ...............147....

4-21 BACH motive transposed on xylophone and strings, mm. 91-95 .............. ..................148

4-22 Dominant-Tonic cadence in the end of Abertura Festiva, mm. 126-130. ....................... 149

5-1 Ostinato Theme mm. 3-7 followed by Main Theme over Ostinato Theme mm. 8-12 ....155

5-2 Gradual increase of speed and activity mm. 25-28 ................. ............................157

5-3 Samba-like rhythm first in the piano and percussion (top), then on the strings
(b ottom) ................. ...............158................

5-4 Northeast melody accompanied by chromatic notes and quartal/quintal harmonies,
m m 76-79 ................. ...............160......... ......











5-5 "Peixe Vivo" melody mm 84-87 .............. ...............161....

5-6 "Prenda M~inha" melody, xylophone, piano and strings section mm. 108-111 ..............162

5-7 "Calrimbo" rhythm plus strings, mm. 118-121 .......____ ..... ._ ............16

5-8 Transformation of Main Theme on the Brazilian National Anthem, brass and timpani
sections, mm. 204-207. ............. ...............163....

5-9 Triple meter set by percussion and second pitch set from glockenspiel and
vibraphone in the opening of Kabbalah, mm. 5-8 ........._.__ ..... ._ ........._.......168

5-10 Initial pitch sets along with bassoon line mm. 1-15............... ...............168.

5-11 Section B, "energy,"mm. 13-20 ........... ......__ ...............169

5-12 Horn melody accompanied by chromatic chordal expansion mm. 83-90 .......................170

5-13 Rhythmic preparation for the kabbala theme, mm. 102-105 ................. ............... .....171

5-14 The kabbala theme in the trumpets with rhythmic support mm. 106-109 ................... ....172









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE MUSICAL LANGUAGE OF MARLOS NOBRE
THROUGH HIS ORCHESTRAL WORKS

By

Ilka Vasconcelos Araujo

May 2007

Chairman: David Z. Kushner
Major: Music

Marlos Nobre (b. 1939) has achieved enormous respect over the years among the public

and musicians all over Brazil and abroad; in fact, in the late 1960s, he had already occupied a

prominent position among Brazil's most promising composers.

The development of the musical language of Marlos Nobre combines a series of influences

from different periods and styles of music. In his concept, the greatest formal structures are those

of eighteenth- and nineteenth- century classical works, which he combines with modern

techniques. The multifaceted music of this composer, who has Debussy, Bart6k, Stravinsky, and

Lutoslawski as maj or influences, displays a vigorous, distinguished rhythmic vitality, colored

with elements drawn from Brazilian folklore and nature, striking sound combinations, and

spontaneity.

Marlos Nobre's orchestral works belong to his last three style periods. They display a

much more mature approach, and represent Nobre's strongest characteristics. Unfortunately

these works had not been studied and analyzed within and outside academia until now. The

orchestral works have been the medium in which Nobre has had the widest possibilities to









express his musical ideas and thoughts. The works discussed in the present study summarize all

his compositional development; they cover the year 1968 through 2004.










CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Among contemporary composers in Brazil, Marlos Nobre has come to occupy a prominent

position within the Brazilian avant-garde. He is widely considered by Brazilian musical

establishments and the world community to be the successor of Villa-Lobos.l

On November 29, 2005 in Spain, Nobre won the Tomas Luis de Victoria Prize. Earning

the sixth edition of the prize, he was the first Brazilian composer to achieve such prestige. Judges

voted unanimously for the first time in history, selecting Nobre from among 57 nominated

composers from 17 countries. The international jurors said they were impressed by "the excellent

traj ectory of Nobre, the proj section and importance of his works, and the originality of his

aesthetic thinking."2

Essentially a Latin American composer and, more specifically, a Brazilian composer,

Nobre maintains the unique personal qualities that connect him with his origins while entering

the world stage as a universal composer. His musical language speaks profound sentences of

western art music, with a Brazilian accent.

The development of Marlos Nobre' s musical language combines a series of influences

from different periods and styles of music. Nobre combines the greatest formal structures of

eighteenth- and nineteenth-century classical works with modem techniques. The result is

powerful music which displays a vigorous, distinguished rhythmic vitality, colored by elements

from Brazilian folklore and nature, striking sound combinations, and spontaneity.



SThe comparison between Marlos Nobre and Villa-Lobos has come from a long tradition. Besides occupying Villa-
Lobos' chair at the Brazilian Academy of Music since 1959, Nobre has achieved a significant position that no other
Brazilian composer has since Villa-Lobos. Nobre's music has reached a similar impact in the nation and abroad.
Like Villa-Lobos' music, Nobre's has power, impact, brilliance, and conveys some of the most important features of
the culture of Brazil and Latin America in general.

2 NObre, Marlos. Personal Website. http://marlosnobre.sites.uol.com.br/indexhtl accessed on November 2006.










Although Marlos Nobre is considered one of the most prominent composers of the late

twentieth- and early twenty-first century, there is very limited literature dealing with his works.3

In the genre of orchestral pieces, in-depth studies are basically non-existent.4

The orchestral works of Marlos Nobre represent an important achievement in the

composer' s output but have been neglected by many within and outside academia. Therefore it is

the primary goal of this author to analyze these works from a musicological point of view. The

analysis of such works serves to show the path of Nobre' s musical language trajectory, which

has been a challenge in the hands of scholars in Brazil and abroad.

Each chapter of this document is devoted to a group of orchestral works. The chapters

follow a chronological order. A historical background of each work is provided, as well as a

formal, rhythmical, melodic and harmonic analysis. The works are organized according to their

opus number followed by the year of composition. Important achievements of Nobre's career

and important aspects about the composer are addressed in chapter 2. This chapter also provides

a certain look into the twentieth-century Brazilian musical scene in order to expose the

influences that surround the composer, as well as to position Nobre vis-' a-vis his

contemporaries.

Chapter 3 discusses four major works composed in the 1970s: Biosfera, Op. 35; M~osaico,

Op. 36, which became one of the most important works written by Nobre in the early 1970s; In

M~emoriamn, Op. 39, another important work written in 1973, and, finally, Converg~ncias, Op. 28,


3 Marlos Nobre-El sonido del realismo mrgico by TomIIs Marco recently published in 2006 has been the most
complete work related to Marlos Nobre and his compositions. Nevertheless as a survey of the composer's general
output, the book is not an exhaustive or definite analysis or interpretation of the composer' s life and compositional
achievements. The chapter related to his orchestral works, for instance, only briefly discusses basic compositional
aspects of only a few of the compositions.

SThe only previous study related to Nobre's orchestral works is the D.M.A dissertationAn
Analytical Study of us 1,,. Nobre 's Saga Marista: Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op. 84 by Jorge Richter
(Michigan State University, 2002).










a work that had origins in the late 1960s, but evolved into a more mature creation in the late

1970s. Chapter 4 discusses two important works composed in the 1980s, a time when the

composer reached maturity and expressed his most important musical concerns. The pieces are

Concerto II for String Orchestra, Op. 53 and Abertura Festiva, Op. 56bis. Chapter 5 discusses

his latest orchestral works, which serve to summarize all of his compositional tendencies. These

works were written in the late 1990s and early 2000s. They are Saga Marista: Pa~ssacaglia for

Orchestra, Op. 84 and Kabballahll~~~~~1111~~~~ Op. 96.

Finally, chapter 6 closes with the reception of Nobre in today' s musical scene and a

conclusion detailing important aspects of the composer' s compositional language and style as

seen throughout his orchestral works. Although eight pieces are discussed in this study, Nobre

has several other orchestral compositions still in preparation and, therefore, are not included in

this document.'

The inclusion of two compositions for string orchestra, Biofera and Concerto II, was

necessary, as opposed to simply including works for full orchestra. Aside from containing great,

unique value, this author believes the works for string orchestra that were selected for this study

share common characteristics present in the works for full orchestra.

Methodology

Copyrights for the scores and recordings presented in this dissertation belong strictly to

Marlos Nobre, who was contacted by the author in the beginning of the research process. Besides

bibliographical references, much of the information presented was obtained through

conversations between the author and the composer, either in person or through the Internet.


5 The pieces are Desatio XXX Op. 31, No. 30, composed in 1968 and revised in 1978, Football, Op. 50 (1980) and
Xingu, Op. 75, composed in 1989.









The author contacted the composer through the University of Florida Library System to

purchase all the scores and a few recordings of the works discussed. The author also personally

acquired several other recordings and books. It was important to have knowledge of and access

to Marlos Nobre' s personal website: http://marlosnobre.sites.uol.com.br/indexihtl which

provided insights and a great deal of information.

The methodology included the analysis and the listening of the orchestral scores, the

interpretation of written material, the exchange of compositional ideas with contemporary

composers and scholars in the USA and Brazil, and, especially, interviews and personal

conversations with the composer.

Several books on music, music encyclopedias and music j ournals, most of them written in

Spanish and Portuguese, along with newspaper and magazine interviews were used as primary

and secondary sources. The quotations and sources used in this dissertation that were originally

in different languages have been translated into English by the author. Furthermore, the author

has analyzed all orchestral works used in this study through a musicological perspective. In order

to analyze, understand and compare Nobre' s orchestral works with other current compositional

trends, the author studied, and consulted several sources. Among those sources are: Robert

Morgan' s TE l enil'th-Century Mtusic and Anthology of TE l enil'th-Century Mtusic; Allen Forte's

The Structure ofAtonal Music and Contensporary Tone-Structures; George Perle's Twelve-Tone

Tonality and Serial Composition and Atonality: An hItroduction to the Mtusic of Schoenberg,

Berg, and Webern; Gerard Behague' s Mtusic in Latin America: An hItroduction; Maria Luiza

Coker-Nobre' s dissertation, Aspectos Tecnicos e Esteticos de .Gndne i i I III de Marlos Nobre:

unta hItrodupdo 'a Problentatica da hItuigdo versus Cerebralisnzo Jorge Richter' s D.M.A.

dissertation Marlos Nobre: an Analytical Study of Saga arista: Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op.










84; Jose Maria Neves' Muzsica Contemporcinea Bra~sileira; and, the most recent, Marlos Nobre-

El sonido del realismo magco by Tomas Marco. The need to know other twentieth-century

composers' compositional techniques was of great importance in order to understand the

influences present in Marlos Nobre's music. Therefore, the author studied compositional styles

and works of Bela Bart6k, Igor Stravinsky, Charles Ives, the Second Viennese School, John

Cage, Earle Brown, Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Alberto Ginastera, Krzysztof

Penderecki, Witold Lutoslawski, and twentieth-century Brazilian composers such as Heitor

Villa-Lobos, Camargo Guarnieri, Cesar Guerra-Peixe, Claudio Santoro, Hans-Joachim

Koellreuter, Almeida Prado, Edino Krieger, and Ricardo Tacuchian. It was also important to get

familiarized with other works composed by Nobre, especially those which involve chamber or

string orchestra, and the concertos.

This author visited Marlos Nobre at his home in Brazil and several libraries in order to

collect the necessary data for this document. Among the libraries visited were the National

Library in Rio de Janeiro, the Library of the School of Music of the Federal University of Rio de

Janeiro, the Library of the Brazilian Conservatory of Music in Rio de Janeiro, and the Benson

Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin.

Need for Study

The international knowledge of Brazilian art music is mostly concentrated on Villa-Lobos.

He remains the best known and most representative Brazilian composer of all times.

Unfortunately, there are several other important composers whose lives and works have

remained virtually unknown outside Brazil. The consequence is that the bulk of Brazilian music

to reach international reputation and acclaim has been mostly characterized by its relationship to










nationalism and the figure of Villa-LobOS6. This hardly undervalues the achievements of Villa-

Lobos as a great composer, but simply extends and amplifies openness to other representative

aesthetic tendencies in Brazilian musical since the 1930s. Along with other composers, Marlos

Nobre represents progress in the Brazilian musical scene that goes from post-nationalistic works

to extremely avant-garde collages, without forgetting the variants between these two categories

and the achievements of electronic-music composers.

Nobre has enjoyed an increasingly international reputation over the past 40 years through

his achievements and commissions, and through theses and dissertations about him and his

compositions, recordings, articles, and performances. Among contemporary Brazilian

composers, he has been the most recognized in the past few decades and has been acknowledged

as "one of the most creative personalities since the 1960s."7 Sadly, he is still known primarily in

countries where either Portuguese or Spanish is the primary language, including South America

and parts of Europe. Although he has been to the United States several times, and a few doctoral

dissertations about him and his music have been defended in American universities, he is still

little-known by the majority of international composers and scholars, especially in the United

States.

The need for this study, therefore, is obvious: to bring attention to different aesthetics

present in contemporary Brazilian music through the musical language of Marlos Nobre, as

represented in his orchestral works and the knowledge of these great late twentieth- and early

twenty-first century compositions. Although much has been written about him and his music in


6 Even Villa-Lobos got into a dilemma when he found himself immersed in a trend between Modernism and
Nationalism in the late 1920s. Nevertheless, Nationalism still became a stronger characteristic in his compositions.
In the 1930s, he adhered to nationalistic ideas combined with neoclassical tendencies, which gave him the power of
populism and at the same time the political support of government authorities.

SB~hague, Gerard. "Reminisedncias Op. 83 and Homenagem a Villa-Lobos," in Latin 4merican Music Review.
Austin: University of Texas Press, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 85-89, 1996.










Portuguese, Spanish, English, German, and French, very little of this literature has focused on his

orchestral works and none on their relationship to Nobre' s musical language. Most of the

literature devoted to Nobre explores his piano works and nationalistic aspects in his music. Very

few people have written about his more advanced works. Musical analysis of his orchestral

works does not exist, except for Jorge Richter' s doctoral dissertation, Marlos Nobre: an

Analytical Study ofSaga arista: Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op. 84, as mentioned earlier in

this chapter. This imposes another need for this study.

It is hoped that this dissertation will not only bring attention to this great composer and

some of his finest works, but also will further expand knowledge about Brazilian music and its

composers, who follow aesthetic tendencies other than nationalism and neoclassicism.

This author also hopes that the study becomes an additional resource to schools and

departments of music, so that it will enhance the study of the history of music and, in particular,

composers in Latin America. Furthermore, it is important to note that the works described in this

document are of great value and certainly deserve to be considered for performances by

orchestras, conductors, and program organizers.

Review of Literature

Much has been written regarding twentieth-century music. Considerable sources deal with

art music written after the 1960s. However, textbooks that exclusively dedicate themselves to

twentieth-century music are often limited, with only a short examination of the latest maj or

trends in music history and their most prominent representatives. The problem gets more severe

when dealing with living composers, especially those who come from countries other than

France, Germany and the United States.










Although most of them remain unknown, Latin American composers have contributed a

great deal to the development of the history of western art music. In Latin America, Heitor Villa-

Lobos (1887 1959), Carlos Chavez (1899-1978), and Alberto Ginastera (1916-1 983) are the

composers who usually dominate the field.

Many important composers remain obscure, and even the few studies dedicated to them are

not translated into English. This is the case in the history of art music in Brazil. Most literature

regarding the subject is in Portuguese and only native Brazilian scholars or scholars dedicated to

Latin American studies gain access to the sources. This generates a restricted group with interest

in the topic.

Books

Useful sources were used in the research process of the present document. Music in Latin

America: An Introduction, by Gerard Behague, is perhaps the most comprehensive source related

to art music in Latin America in the English language.8 Its only edition was published in 1979,

leaving out a great deal of significant updated information. Nevertheless, it contains important

information on maj or figures in Latin America. Several musical examples, with their analysis,

make the volume more complete than any other book written on Latin American music and

composers, especially Brazilian musicians. The sections related to Brazil are somewhat

substantial due to the author's connection to the country. However, the attention is focused

primarily on Villa-Lobos. The book is divided into three sections: The Colonial Period; The Rise

of Nationalism; and Counter-Currents in the Twentieth Century. Marlos Nobre is described with

much respect. However, he is mentioned only on one page in the third section. A short



SIt is important to remember Nicolas Slonimsky's Music of Latin 4merica published in 1945. Although Slonimsky's
volume did not provide substantial information and musical analysis, it was from the publication of his book that
interest in and research on the art-music traditions of Latin America increased.










biographical description is provided, along with the listing of seven major works written before

1973. A brief analytical description of Gkrinmakinkrin, a piece for soprano, wind instrument,

and piano composed in 1964, and of the 1970 orchestral work M~osaico is provided.

The M~usic ofBrazil (1983) by David Appleby is one of the few existing sources about

Brazilian art music in the English language. The volume, written in six chapters, ranges from

"Music in the Colony" until "After Modemismo." A glossary of specific Brazilian terms and

instruments is provided. However, they are sometimes incomplete and even misleading. For

instance, Appleby describes a cavaquinho as a small guitar. The cavaquinho looks like a small

guitar but it has only four strings, a different tuning, and it serves primarily for harmonic and

rhythmic functions. The book describes the maj or Brazilian composers along with their works,

and some musical examples with detailed analytical information. Marlos Nobre's section falls in

the post-modemismo chapter under post-nationalism. Nobre garners four pages in this book, with

three illustrative musical examples. Appleby focuses more on the big names and does not give

enough attention to the composers of this new generation. After giving some biographical

information, the author describes Nobre's stylistic compositional characteristics as exemplified

by his piano piece Nazarethiana, Op. 2 (1960) a chromatic piece in duple meter with simple

syncopation. The piece suggests the style of Nazareth, a composer whom Nobre deeply admired.

The book also describes Beirama~r, Op. 21 (1966), a set of three songs for voice and piano that

displays a traditional style and the use of Afro-Brazilian themes, and Sou~ltinc itl\ I, Op. 37

(1972), a piece for percussion and piano combining extreme dynamic range, tone clusters and

intricate rhythmic techniques. The musical analyses are not very detailed, but the author makes

mention of Nobre's compositional phases.









A number of books have been written in Portuguese by Brazilian scholars who attempt to

construct the history of western art music in Brazil, along with its important representatives.

Nevertheless, few provide in-depth information about specific composers and compositions, and

almost none show detailed analysis and musical examples. Most of the information relies on

historical facts and biographical information along with a few lists of compositions.

Muzsica Contemporcinea Bra~sileira by Jose Maria Neves has been by far the most

informative source in the Portuguese language. Although it was written in 1981, the study has

never been re-issued and is out of print today. Some libraries dedicated to Latin American

Studies hold a copy of the book. Neves elaborates on the evolution of music in Brazil since the

beginning of the twentieth century. Although Marlos Nobre is only mentioned later in the book

in a short chapter, it is possible to understand his musical language simply following Neves'

analysis of evolution and influences present in Brazilian music. It is almost as if, from the

beginning to the end, Neves was describing the compositional aspects of Marlos Nobre. His

description of Nobre is fairly accurate, especially for being written in the early 1980s. Neves

mentions how accomplished Nobre is and how big a future awaits him.

Another important source in Portuguese is Vasco Mariz's Historia da Muzsica no Bra~sil,

first published in 1981 and now in its fifth edition, which was published in 2000. The book is a

good source for a panoramic view of the development of music in Brazil. From the Colonial

period until the latest generation of composers, Mariz is fair enough to give space to every single

composer, independent of how important that composer has been to the development of the

compositional trends in Brazil. This is a positive factor, especially in referring to the new, young

generation of composers. The book reads more like a novel, and the musical analyses are not

very deep. There are no musical excerpts and the few analyses are mostly about vocal works. It










is important to know that Vasco Mariz is a singer himself. Nevertheless, the book does not lose

all value. Chapter 22, devoted to the second generation of independent composers, describes the

life and works of Marlos Nobre in eight pages. It is a valuable source of knowledge about

Nobre's main achievements and a fair description of Nobre's compositions. Very little

information is given about the composer' s orchestral works. Mariz lists the maj or works written

by Nobre, divided into compositional periods, and gives a brief comment on Nobre's musical

compositional style.

Figura~s da 2Mzsica Contemporcinea no Bra~sil (2nd ed. 1970), al so by Vasco Mariz,

contains some important information. But it is not as updated as the information in the above-

mentioned book. This book contains 17 chapters and includes most of the contemporary

composers with a succinct biography as well as an aesthetic stylistic position of their most

important works. Unfortunately there are no musical examples, which is characteristic of the

writer. Another downside to the book is the lack of information about primary sources. However,

Mariz provides a list of compositional catalogues of certain composers, followed by their

respective publisher's addresses. It is a useful book, but not as complete as his Historia da

IMzsica no Bra~sil.

The most important source for Marlos Nobre is the recently-published Marlos Nobre-El

sonido del realismo magco, by Tomas Marco. The book is as complete as possible within its

limitations and it is an excellent source for all scholars interested in life and works of Marlos

Nobre. An English version would increase its reach to a wider audience and it would

consequently provide better knowledge of Marlos Nobre. Marco groups Nobre's compositions

by genres and devotes a chapter to each group. There are no musical excerpts and little analytical

detail is given. However, Marco's personal insights in attempting to describe Nobre's style and










compositional techniques are of great value. The book also contains photographs that enrich its

text. This source also provides an appendix with an updated list of works and a list of Nobre' s

writings and discography. The book was written for the celebration of Nobre' s acquisition of the

sixth edition of the Tomas Luis de Victoria prize in Spain in the summer of 2006.

Textbooks

General books on the history of music such as The Development of Western M~usic: A

History (third edition), by Marie K. Stolba, or A History of Western M~usic (fifth Edition), by

Donald Jay Grout and Claude V. Palisca, place little emphasis on music since the 1960s.

Although they are widely used in colleges and universities, these general histories lack

information regarding the development of music in a post-serial period as well as information on

other parts of the world, such as Latin America. Palisca' s book has one paragraph on music in

Latin America, and that refers mostly to nationalism. He mentions Villa-Lobos, Revueltas,

Chavez, Ginastera and one of each of their pieces.

General music appreciation textbooks such as, M~usic: An Appreciation (eighth edition), by

Roger Kamien, or Understanding M~usic (third edition), by Jeremy Yudkin make no mention of

Marlos Nobre. Both textbooks mention music in the twentieth century and briefly cover music

after the 1960s. Kamien' s book is more informative in that sense, but there is no inclusion of

music in South America.

Music in the M~odern Age, edited by F. W. Sternfeld (1973), has one chapter devoted to

music in Latin America. Written by Robert Stevenson, the chapter mainly describes the maj or

figures of Latin America in the twentieth-century: Chavez, Villa-Lobos, Ginastera. To those,

Stevenson adds Castro in Argentina, Revueltas in Mexico, Soro and Allende in Chile, and

Castillo and Delgadillo in Central America. In the section covering Brazil, Stevenson mentions a

list of other important and promising composers of the twentieth-century. Marlos Nobre receives










more attention than any other composer in this section, with eight lines of biographical

description and information on important festivals.

Important books on twentieth-century music such as M~odern M~usic andAfter: Directions

since 1945 (1995), by Paul Griffiths, and TaI I'ntil'th-Century M~usic: A History of2~usical Style in

Modern Europe and America, by Robert P. Morgan, make no mention of South America.

Nevertheless, they remain excellent, fundamental resources for important stylistic developments

in modern and contemporary art music.

Theses and Dissertations

Marlos Nobre and his works have been the topic of several theses and dissertations in

Brazil, Austria, Canada, and the United States over the past ten years. Unfortunately, the

maj ority of these writings are not published, so most people have no access to them.9 Very few

of these works deal with compositions other than piano and topics other than the nationalistic

traits in his work. This author was able to find specific dissertations that were very helpful to the

development of this document. In order to obtain and study these works, the author had to

contact the respective writers and borrow their private copies.

Maria Luiza Corker Cardoso Nobre de Almeida' s Aspectos Ticnicos e Estiticos de

.GII ilu inc ia III de Marlos Nobre: Uma Introdupdo 'a Problema~tica da Intuigdo versus

Cerebralismo, was written in 1995 for a Master' s Degree at the Federal Univeristy of Rio de

Janeiro. The thesis contains important and insightful information regarding the composer' s

compositional process through one of his most valuable compositions, .Cloutinc itl lll, Op. 49

(1980). The thesis starts with an analysis of intuition versus cerebralism and then follows with

technical aspects, notation and aesthetic interpretation. An analysis of the piece along with its


9 Ph.D. dissertations are accessed through UMI, however most of these documents are D.M.A. dissertations and they
are not always found in the system.










entire score is provided. The analysis, however, focuses more on form, rhythm, and aleatoric

content in the work. A harmonic analysis based on pitch material would make the approach more

complete. In general, the thesis provides useful information. However, the thesis is not

published, but one can get a good glance at its content and information by looking at Corker-

Nobre' s article "SoutllincL itl\ III, Op. 49 de Marlos Nobre," published in 1994 in the Latin

American M~usic Review. It is important to note that the article is written in Portuguese.

The only available work related to Nobre' s orchestral works is An Analytical Study of

Marlos Nobre 's Saga arista: Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op. 84, by Jorge Richter. This is a

D.M.A. dissertation for Michigan State University (2002). Unfortunately, the work is not

published. Richter' s document contains deep, analytical information on one of Nobre' s latest

orchestral works. But it does not attempt to present deeper insights into Nobre's music and does

not situate the work in relation to Nobre's other works. It also does not contextualize the

importance of that specific work to Nobre's musical language and compositional development.

Richter divides the chapters into separate aspects of his analytical approach, such as formal,

melodic, and harmonic analysis. A list of pitch set material is provided in one of the appendices.

The document confirms Richter' s knowledge as a theorist and conductor, generating interesting

and valuable information.

Articles, Reviews, and Interviews

Articles, interviews and reviews on Marlos Nobre and his works abound. In fact, these are

the bulk of references about him. A small portion of this material is related to Nobre' s orchestral

works and there is some mention of his compositional techniques, especially in interviews.

"Marlos Nobre en Londres," by Luis Merino published in Revista Musical Chilena vol. 42,

no. 169, 1988, pp. 95-96, describes Nobre's musical creation as a clear combination of several

styles from the avant-garde styles of the moment, where he consciously extracts elements that he










needs and, at the same time, unconsciously makes use of other elements from Brazilian national

folklore. The author emphasizes the personal and characteristic result ofNobre's music, which is

intellectual and at the same time, evocative. He confirms Nobre's use of absolute control over

aleatoric passages and how the effects reflect the composer's creative imagination and

experience. The article is helpful to understand the creative process of the composer.

Another article by Luis Merino "Marlos Nobre, Cantata del Chimborazo, Op. 56 para

Tenor, Baritono, Coro y Orquestra sobre un texto de Simon Bolivar," was also published by

Revista Musical Chilena, vol. 38, no. 162, 1984, pp. 154-158. Merino analyzes the three parts of

this great piece, which was commissioned for the bicentennial of Simon Bolivar in 1982. The

piece was premiered at the Bellas Artes National Theater in Maracaibo, Venezuela. The article

explains some musical ideas the composer uses in this piece. The piece was composed in 1982, a

period in which the composer had reached maturity and had better defined his musical language

and style. The first part is a passacaglia and the principal theme is a series of 16 chromatic notes,

each with its own chord. These chords represent a harmonic structure in expansion. The

composer utilizes tonality, atonality, polytonality, and some serial resources, all with the

intention of simply expressing the musical ideas behind the work. Interestingly, in the second

part the composer uses blocks of tonal chords instead of the usual clusters or ecstatic sound

blocks characteristic of the time. The third movement recapitulates the passacaglia idea and the

piece ends in E maj or. This article is helpful in understanding the analytical aspect of this

cantata, which is the basis for his orchestral piece Abertura Festiva, composed a year later.

"Un discurso de Trascendencia: la ponencia presentada por el compositor brasilefio Marlos

Nobre en el Festival de Maracaibo en noviembre de 1977," by Francisco Curt Lange, was

published in Revista Musical Chilena, no. 142-144, 1978, pp. 126-130. This article is based on a










summary of Nobre' s lecture "La problematica de la Musica Latinoamericana," at the Festival

Latinoamericano de Musica Contemporanea in 1978. It also makes use of additional information

in the first edition of Colonial Sacred Music of Venezuela, written by composer and musicologist

Juan Bautista Plaza, and an edition of music by contemporary composers from Latin America by

Curt Lange. Nobre's lecture addresses the difficulties faced by composers in Latin America to

publicize their music. He encourages the organization of more music festivals within Latin

America, so that Latin American composers do not need to travel so far to Europe or the

United States to have their pieces performed. He also supports exchanging pieces and

programs so that performers, ensemble groups, and orchestras of different countries can perform

one another' s works. He pushes for better communication between composers and shows interest

in creating research centers of information and divulgation in order to promote international

music. Nobre emphasizes a need to help young composers understand national music in their

native countries and appreciate their rich folklore, in hopes that they might use, for example,

Ginastera and Villa-Lobos as models, instead of Penderecki and Prokofiev. The article

demonstrates the kind of work Nobre developed in his administrative positions, which were

comparable to his ideas as a composer.

Gkrinmakrinkrin de Marlos Nobre," by Maria Ester Grebe, published in Revista2~usical

Chilena, vol. 22, no. 148, 1979, pp. 48-57, gives a detailed analysis of Ukrinmakrinkrin, Op. 17,

which was composed in 1964 for soprano, piano, piccolo, oboe, and French horn. The piece was

composed during Nobre' s studies at the Torcuato Di Tella in Buenos Aires and it has three

movements based on indigenous Brazilian texts using the Xucuru dialect. The work presents

logical and strict writing in the first movement, while the second movement is free and

indeterminate. The third movement displays a combination of the two ideas and finds a balance









between the strict and aleatoric, in favor of elements of pure expression. The harmonic structure

of the piece is based on the interaction of these three instrumental groups: voice, piano and the

three wind instruments. Each has their own musical lines, which follow a horizontal structure

while simultaneously interacting vertically. Grebe describes Nobre' s expression of musical ideas

within a Baroque context in this piece, exploring his use of organic development from

ornamentations, the effects and glissandi through the exploration of colors and the power of the

evocation of the human voice. Grebe compares Nobre with Machaut' sa f~in est nzon

conanencentent et nzon conanencentent ma fin, a rondeau that utilizes a complex technique with

binary structure and retrogration process. It is important to remember that Nobre had a strong

training in vocal polyphonic masses, and that the medieval modes through northeast Brazilian

folklore remain a big influence in his works. This piece is one of the most important works

composed by Nobre, and it affords insights into his development.

Gerard Behague's review, entitled "Marlos Nobre: Orchestral Vocal and Chamber Music,"

published in Latin American M~usic Review vol. 17, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1996), pp. 85-89,

makes the following statement:

No other Brazilian composer of his generation has been able to garner such an
extraordinary recognition. Indeed, this is due to the sheer creative power and imagination
that Nobre' s compositions reveal.

The review describes Nobre's orchestral, vocal, and chamber works, along with an

informative summary of his biography and compositional style. Behague describes the pieces

from the Leman Classics Recording, which make up some of Nobre's most characteristic and

representative compositions during his second and third periods, from 1963 until 1980. The

writer describes Nobre' s exuberance through an enormous range of instrumental colors and

rhythmic construction. In the musical descriptions, Behague is more informative when

describing M~osaico, one of Nobre' s first displays of exceptional command over sophisticated










techniques and a deep sense of engineering. He also supplies good information on Sonautill ial\ lll.

In that piece, using powerful, individual, and highly expressive style, Nobre combines several of

his previous compositional techniques with rhythm, harmonic and formal aspects revealing the

beginning of a subsequent more mature stage.

Paul Earls' "Marlos Nobre: Gkrinmakinkrin, Op. 17 and M~osaico para Orquestra, Op.

36," published in Anuario de Investigacion M~usical, vol. 8, 1972, pp. 178-180, is a description of

two of Nobre's most accomplished works. Earls gives a brief biographical description and

explains how the two works belong to two different stages of Nobre's output. Ukrinmakrinkrin's

evident success was fundamental to launching the composer' s career internationally. Even

though the piece is written in the Brazilian indigenous Xucuru dialect, the vocal idiom of the

piece is closer to that of Luciano Berio (Circles) and Pierre Boulez (pli selon pli), not necessarily

more primitive. Nevertheless, the piece successfully occupies a middle position between regional

and international traditions. The piece is accessible and communicative and constructed for

successful presentation. Earls presents Mosaico as a piece of three movements, each derived

from a single gestural concept. The piece is much more sophisticated than the previous one, and

includes use of temporal blocks measured in terms of 'short' and 'normal' breaths. Earls also

comments on how quickly Nobre's music became known internationally, and how that could

impact his search for a more personal compositional voice.

"An Interview with Marlos Nobre," by Royal S. Brown, published in Fanfare, vol. 18, no.

1, 1994, pp. 60-66, is one of the very few English-language resources regarding this composer.

Brown begins with a short introduction, giving a little biographical information and citing a few

important works. The interview is very useful because it gives Nobre the chance to explain in his

own words how the compositional process happens in his mind, as well as how certain influences










play a role in his musical development. Brown asks Nobre to describe Recife, the place where he

was born and grew up, as well as the musical environment of his early years. Nobre says he

needed to study sociology and anthropology to please his father. The interview concludes with

Nobre's comments on his contracts with Leman Classics, EMI, and Deutsche Grammophon.

Another useful interview is "Musicos de Hoy: Marlos Nobre 'El advenimiento de la

electr8nica fue un factor decisivo...,'" by Jacobo Romano, published in Buenos Aires M~usical,

May 1971. The article develops through questions posed to Marlos Nobre about the result of the

union of art and technology. Nobre gives insights and describes the importance to the sound

when art and science work together. The questions aim to better understand the intercorrelation

among art, science, and the desire of mankind to comprehend its own existence. Moreover,

Nobre describes his musical ideologies and his aesthetic thought. The second half of the

interview exposes ideas about Nobre' s musical language and compositional techniques.

"Nueve Preguntas a Marlos Nobre," published by Revista Musical Chilena, vol. 33 no.

148, 1979, is one of the most complete interviews done with the composer. Nobre explains the

things that influenced him and details developments within his works. He also classifies the

periods of his compositional output, which helps scholars understand and analyze his works.

Nobre explains the strong influence that northeastern Brazilian folklore represents to his

compositional style. He concentrates on the influence of the Maracatu, a carnival procession

accompanied by percussive music that is constructed of polyrhythm, large, dynamic crescendos

and irregular accents. Nobre also describes typical Brazilian percussion instruments and how that

type of folkloric music became a living memory in his blood and heart.

"De Ouvidos Bem Abertos" by Eduardo Fradkin, published by O Globo Review in

December 2005, is one of the few interviews published in Brazil that affords Internet access. The









article is written in Portuguese, but it gives a great deal of biographical information along with a

series of questions, which Nobre answers, referring to his works and influences. Moreover,

Nobre comments on the difficulty of making contemporary composers' recordings available in

Brazilian stores. He says he sometimes needs to encourage people to acquire them. Nobre also

comments on his then-recent winning of the 6th Edition of the Tomas Luis de Victoria in Spain,

and how much more his music is appreciated in Europe than in Brazil. Nobre explains that he

embraces all of the available techniques, and remarks that he believes in plurality, which is

clearly translated through his works.

Another interview, published in O Globo Review in August, 2006, is "A Musica Forte de

Marlos Nobre," by Cl6vis Marques. Marques describes Nobre' s success and traj ectory as well as

his earning of the most recent Tomas Luis de Vict6ria Prize in Madrid. Nobre was the first

Brazilian composer to receive the prize, placing him alongside composers from other countries,

such as Harold Gramatges, from Cuba; Celso Garrido-Lecca, from Peru; Alfredo del M6naco,

from Venezuela; and Xavier Montsalvatge and Juan Guinj oan, from the Catalan region in Spain.

Marques asks Nobre to describe his Piano Sonata on a Theme by Bela Bartok, which was

premiered at the prize ceremony in Spain in the summer of 2006. Nobre comments on his maj or

influences such as Debussy, Bart6k, and Lutoslawski. He describes a number of contemporary

composers he admires, such as Sofia Gubaidulina, Henryk G6recki, Krzysztof Penderecki, Kaij a

Saariaho among others. Nobre also emphasizes the lack of support and opportunities for young

composers in Brazil, and talks about how this situation could be remedied through governmental

initiatives.

"Nobre: 3 Cangd~es Negras, Desafio XYXXII, Canto a Garcia Lorca, 3 Cangdes de

Beiramar," by Marc Mandel, published in FanfarFFFFFFFF~~~~~~~~e vol. 24, no. 1 (September/October 2000), pp.










303-304, is a review on Nobre' s works that involve soprano and cello octet ensembles. Although

the review is related to the recording by CHANNEL CCS 15598, Mandel writes a great deal

about Nobre' s origins and major influences. He also describes the pieces and the musical

techniques used by Nobre. He compares Nobre to Villa-Lobos, whose Bachiana~s Bra~sileira~s No.

1 and No. 5 are also composed for cello octet, the latter with added soprano recorded on the same

CD. Mandel acknowledges the competence of both composers.

"Latin-American Masterworks for the Cello," by Michael Jameson, published in Fanfare,

vol. 23, no. 3 (November/December 1999), pp. 421-422, contains another review on Nobre's

Desajio. This time, Nobre is recorded along with several other Latin-American composers such

as Chavez, Piazzola, Mignone, Diazmunoz, and Gaito. The version ofDesaffo discussed here is

the series for cello and piano from 1976. Jameson comments on the presence and impact of the

piece, and how much the work has absorbed the techniques of Messiaen and Penderecki.

A review of one of Nobre' s most important recordings was published by Diederick De

Jong in American Record Guide, vol. 57, no. 5 (September/October 1994), pp. 168-169. The

review, "Nobre:1In 2emoriamn, Mosaico, Converg~ncia~s, Biofera, O Canto 2ultiplicado,

Gkrinmakinkrin, Rhythmetron, Divertimento, Concerto Breve, Rhythmic Variations, and

SadCl~li itl\ l and III," reveals aspects about Nobre as a composer, conductor, and pianist. De Jong

describes peculiar characteristics of Nobre's music such as rhythmic vitality, striking sound

combinations, spontaneity and roots in Brazilian folklore and nature. De Jong emphasizes

Nobre's position as an heir to Villa-Lobos' mantle.

Robert Carl's "Nobre: Orchestral, Vocal and Chamber Works," published in Fanfare, vol.

18, no. 1, 1994, pp. 278-280, is based on the same recording. Carl describes Nobre's influences

and how they are reflected in his pieces, especially those recorded in this two-CD set. The set










represents the bulk of Nobre's best works. Carl comments on the energetic drive present in

Nobre's music, noting that it results from the use of motoric rhythms along with bright colors in

the percussion, which translate into a successful blend of modernistic techniques with folkloristic

materials. Carl explains the importance of Nobre' s utilization of Brazilian musical influences as

opposed to the faceless internationalism that dominated the European avant-garde of the 1960s.

Biographical Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

In addition to being discussed in articles, Marlos Nobre and his works are also discussed in

some biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias.

In the Concise Edition ofBaker 's Biographical Dictionaly of2~usicians, 8th Ed. (1994),

Nicholas Slonimsky finds that Nobre succeeded in forming a strong individual manner of

musical self-expression despite all the efflux of styles he was exposed to as a student. He

believes Nobre is one of the few contemporary Latin-American composers who does not disdain

utilizing folkloristic inflections in his music. Slonimsky gives a list of works composed by Nobre

and some biographical information.

In Music Since 1900 (1971), Nicholas Slonimsky lists maj or events that happened from

1900 until 1985.10 It is surprising that Nobre is only mentioned once, in a concert at the Fourth

Inter-American Music Festival in Washington, D.C. on a program of avant-garde music of Latin

America in 1967. Nothing about Nobre is mentioned after that.

In The New Grove Dictionazy of2~usic and Mtsicians (2001), Gerard Behague provides a

great deal of biographical information on Nobre followed by a selective list of works, writings

and bibliography. Behague finds that Nobre holds an important position in the contemporary

Brazilian music scene. He says that Nobre' s rich, eclectic academic background, mixed with


'o The book was first published in 1971 containing material up to 1969. Afterwards, Slonimsky wrote a supplement
in another smaller volume that covers up to July 13, 1985.









influences from different periods and styles of music, gives special characteristics to his musical

language that go from tonal to modal, polytonal, and atonal.

The Camnbridge History of TE l enil'th-Century M~usic, edited by Nicholas Cook and

Anthony Pople, makes no mention at all of music in Latin America. However, Villa-Lobos and

his Bachianas Brasileiras are cited in the chapter titled "Reclaiming national traditions and the

idea of '-ana' works," by Herman Danuser. At the end, there is a small description of each

person listed in the book. Some biographical information on Villa-Lobos is provided. Chavez'

"Reinventing Traditions," by Michaels Walter, also receives a lot of attention, but Ginastera, for

instance, is not even listed.

The Thzames and Hudson Encyclopedia of20th-Century M~usic (1986), by Paul Griffths,

mentions Latin American composers. But in Brazil, only Villa-Lobos gets an entry, offering a

biographical description and list of his most significant works.

A TP l enil'th-Century M~usical Chronicle-Events from 1900-1988 (1989), compiled by

Charles J. Hall, lists maj or events around the musical world in the twentieth century. Latin

American figures such as Ginastera and Villa-Lobos are included but there is no mention of

Marlos Nobre.









CHAPTER 2
MARLOS NOBRE

Among contemporary composers in Brazil, Marlos Nobre has come to occupy a prominent

position within the Brazilian avant-garde. He is widely considered by Brazilian musical

establishments and the world community to be the successor of Villa-Lobos. Nobre' s enormous

output and strong, individual style are substantial enough to distinguish him as one of today's

greatest composers.

The following chapter contains two sections: the first provides detailed biographical

information, and the second describes important influences and specific characteristics of

Nobre' s compositional style. Most of the biographical information presented in this study is

related to the composer's career, with very few details regarding his personal life.

Marlos Nobre: The Man

Marlos Nobre was born in Recife, Pernambuco, on February 18, 1939. His parents were

music lovers and amateur musicians; his father played the guitar and his mother played the

piano. Two ofNobre's cousins were professional musicians and piano teachers. At age five,

Nobre began his musical studies at the Music Conservatory of Pernambuco in Recife, first under

his cousin Nysia Nobre and then under his other cousin, Hilda Nobre, the latter being a respected

pianist in Brazil. Both cousins gave Nobre his first insights into piano technique, which he later

developed on his own by studying the method of Leimer-Gieseking.l He graduated from the

Conservatory in Piano Performance and Theory in 1955. In 1956, he entered Instituto Ernani

Braga in Recife, graduating with distinction in Harmony, Counterpoint, and Composition three

years later. He studied there under Padre Jaime Diniz and, one year before his graduation,

received a scholarship from the Department of Research and Culture of Recife to participate at


SMarco, Tomis. Marlos Nobre El sonido del realismo mcigico. Madrid: Fundaci6n Autor, 2006.










the National Course of Sacred Music, where he studied under Padre Rene Brighenti. In the same

year, Nobre won the first prize in the Concerto Competition organized by the Symphonic

Orchestra of Recife.2

Nobre composed his Concertino for Piano and String Orchestra, which he considers his

Opus 1, in 1959 and received an honorable mention in the First National Competition of Music

and Musicians of Brazil, organized by the Radio of the Ministry of Culture and Education of

Brazil. Nobre' s first composition for piano, Nazarethiana, Op. 2, composed in 1960, received

first prize at the German-Brazilian Society Competition of Recife. Consequently, Nobre received

a scholarship to study at the X Intemnational Summer Course in Teres6polis (Curso Intemacional

de Ferias in Teres6polis), Brazil, where he took composition lessons under H. J. Koellreuter. In

the late 1950s Koellreuter first introduced Nobre to the dodecaphonic technique, which became

the focus of Nobre' s Variations for Oboe Solo, Op. 3. After the advanced variations, Nobre went

back to Recife and composed his Trio, Op. 4, which received first prize in the second annual

National Competition of Musicians and Musical Composition of Brazil. A review published in

the Diario de Noticias reads: ...Marlos Nobre e como uma estrela de intense luminosidade a

quem Villa-Lobos parece haver entregue o cetro da criaCgo musical brasileira."3 With his First

Ciclo Nordestino for Pianzo, Op. 5, Nobre won second prize at the National Composition

Competition of the State Commission of Sho Paulo in the same year.

In 1961, as a soloist in his own Concertino for Piano and String Orchestra, Nobre received

another scholarship to study under Camargo Guarnieri in Sho Paulo. Among the works

composed under Guamieri's guidance are Nobre's Theme and Variations for Pianzo, Op. 7,


2 Ibid., p. 28

3 "(...Marlos Nobre is like a star of intense luminosity to whom Villa-Lobos seems to have passed the power of
Brazilian musical creation."










which received First Prize at the Young Composer' s Award of BMI in New York; 16 Variations

on a theme by Fructuoso Vianna, also for Piano, Op. 8, No. 1, which received First prize at the

International Competition of New Music of Brazil; and Trds Cangaes for Voice and'Piano, Op.

9, which obtained First Prize at the Second Brazilian Song Competition. Along with Guarnieri's

other students, Nobre founded the Brazilian Society Pro-Music (Sociedade pro Musica

Brasileira) with the obj ective of promoting the New Music of Brazil. Nobre became the group's

first secretary. He also obtained an administrative position at the Radio of the Ministry of Culture

and Education (Radio do Ministerio de EducaCgo e Cultura Radio MEC), a position through

which he continues to administer and present programs, although there have been some

interruptions in this job throughout the years. Nobre also founded and led the Music Renovation

Movement in Brazil (Movimento Musical Renovador), which promoted contemporary Brazilian

music.

With a scholarship from the Rockefeller Foundation, Nobre began his studies as a graduate

student at the Latin American Center of the Torcuato Di Tella in Buenos Aires in 1963. While at

the Institute, he studied advanced compositional techniques with Alberto Ginastera, the director

of the center, Olivier Messiaen, Riccardo Malipiero, Aaron Copland, Luigi Dallapiccola and

Bruno Maderna. Nobre also received electronic music lessons from Bozarello and Jose Vincente

Asuar.

This period became very important to Nobre as he defined a more personal style. This style

is demonstrated in works he composed in 1963 and 1964, such as Divertimento for Piano and'

Orchestra, Op. 14, and Ukrinmakrinkrin, Op. 17, for soprano, piano, piccolo, oboe and French

horn. Divertimento received First Prize at the Ernesto Nazareth Competition organized by









Brazilian Academy of Music. Gkrinmakrinkin became one of the most important works in

Nobre's catalogue. He dedicated it to Ginastera.

Returning to Brazil in 1965, Nobre was invited to participate at the First Latin American

Composition Seminar at Indiana University. With financial support from the Brazilian

government, Nobre traveled to the United States and presented an essay on avant-garde musical

notation: "A Problematica da Notagio na Musica Contemporinea."4 In the same year, his

Variagaes Ritmicas, Op. 15, and Ukrinmakrinkrin, were chosen to represent Brazilian avant-

garde music at the Fourth Biennale in Paris.

In 1966, Nobre went to Europe on a cultural mission, representing Brazilian music for the

government (Itamarati Department of State/Foreign Affairs). He audited the Spring Festival in

Prague and, with Gkrinmakrinkrin, he officially represented Brazil at UNESCO's International

Composition Tribune in Paris. In the same year, Nobre received First Prize in the National

Composition Competition of the City of Santos with his piece Dengues d'a Mulata

Desinteressad'a, Op. 20, for voice and piano. He was also declared Best Composer of the Year by

the Radio Jornal do Brasil.s

The young composer participated at the First Inter-American Festival in Rio de Janeiro in

1967. He performed as the soloist of his Divertimento for Piano and' Orchestra under the

direction of Eleazar de Carvalho and the Brazilian Symphonic Orchestra. In the same year, he

wrote his String Quartet No. 1, Op. 26, as a commission from Radio MEC. The piece premiered

at the Second Festival of America and Spain in Madrid. He founded the New Music Society of

Brazil and formed the New Music Ensemble of Rio de Janeiro, which he conducted.



4"Problems in the Notation of Contemporary Music."

5 His first recording appeared in 1966.










Two commissions by the Brazilian Ballet Company came in 1968. Nobre wrote two

ballets: Rhythmetron, Op. 27, for 38 percussion instruments, and Converg~ncia~s, Op. 28, for

wind orchestra, piano, and percussion. Both ballets premiered in June of that year at the New

Theater of Rio de Janeiro under the choreography of Arthur Mitchell from the New York City

Ballet. Later that year, Nobre participated at the Fourth Inter-American Music Festival in

Washington, D.C. with his Can2ticum Instrumentale, Op. 25, written in 1967. Nobre also made

his debut in film music writing for Glauber Rocha' s O Dragdo da 2aldade contra o Santo

Guerreiro (The Evil Dragon and the Warrior-.a im)r. He became a member of the Music Council

of the Museum of Image and Sound of Rio de Janeiro (Conselho da Musica do Museu da

Imagem e Som do Rio de Janeiro), directed the First Brazilian Congress of Young Performers in

Rio de Janeiro, and organized Alban Berg' s Lulu premiere in Brazil.6

In 1969, Nobre was invited to participate at the Music Festival in Tanglewood, where his

Ludus Instrumentalis, Op. 34, for chamber orchestra, was premiered on August 18. While at the

Berkshire Music Center in Tanglewood, Nobre met Leonard Bernstein and worked with

Alexander Goehr and Gunther Schtiller. Shortly after the festival, Nobre received an invitation to

study electronic music for a month with Vladimir Ussachevsky at the Columbia-Princeton

Electronic Music Center in New York. His Variagaes Ritmica~s, Op. 15, for piano and typical

Brazilian percussion, was premiered by the Paul Price Manhattan Percussion Ensemble at the

Pan American Week. He also participated at the Avant-garde of Americas in Rio de Janeiro with

his piece Tropicale, Op. 30. Tropicale was also performed at the Shakespeare Festival in New

York. Nobre composed Concerto Breve, Op. 33, for piano and orchestra, which was first played





6 Marco, p. 30.










by the great Brazilian pianist Arnaldo Estrela. The piece received Second Prize at the Guanabara

Festival and was performed later in the same year in Paris at the Sixth Biennale.

By the end of the 1960s, the young Brazilian composer had already proved his

competence. Support from the Brazilian government enabled Nobre to participate in various

important festivals of avant-garde music in the United States and Europe during the 1970s,

which exposed him to different compositional techniques.

His orchestral piece M~osaico, Op. 36, received Second Prize at the Guanabara Festival in

1970. In Europe, Nobre participated in a debate called "Composer, Performer, Public," organized

by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation of Lisbon and Madrid. He performed as a soloist in his

own Concerto Breve in the opening of the Second Festival of America and Spain. Later in 1970,

Nobre attended the International Seminar of Music and Theater in Berlin. At the end of the year,

he went to Buenos Aires to participate at the First Festival of Contemporary Music with

M~osaico. He also received the Prize Goltinho de Ouro (Little Golden Dolphin Prize), given to

the best composer of the year in Rio de Janeiro.

In 1971, Nobre went back to the United States and participated with his Concerto Breve at

the Fifth Inter-American Festival in Washington, D.C. He went to Europe for the annual meeting

of the Brazilian Section of the International Society of Contemporary Music (ISCM) in London.

In Paris, he presented his Concerto Breve, conducting the ORTF Philharmonic Orchestra with

pianist Susana Frugone. That performance afforded him an official position as the director of the

National Symphonic Orchestra in Brazil, a job he held until 1976.

In 1972, Nobre received a series of commissions. Among them were O Canto

M~ultiplicado, Op. 38, commissioned by the Goethe Institute in Munich, and Sou~ltinc itl\ I, for the

Artistic Committee of the Olympic Games in Munich. Some of his pieces were performed at the









Casals Festival in Puerto Rico, and M~osaico was chosen for the International Rostrum of

Composers of UNESCO in Paris. He participated at a symposium about Problematica Atual da

Grafia Musical (Current problems in musical notation) and at the Seminar on Musica e Meios

Tecnicos do Seculo XX (Music and technical means of the 20th century) at the Calouste

Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon. He directed the International Villa-Lobos Competition in Rio

de Janeiro and received a prestigious prize: the Order of Rio Branco.

In 1973, Nobre participated of the Tenth Diorama of Contemporary Music in Geneva,

Switzerland, with his orchestral work Biosfera, Op. 35, and was nominated to become a member

of the International Committee of the Arthur Rubinstein Piano Master Competition in Tel Aviv.

His O Canzto M~ultiplicado, Op. 38, was performed at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C.,

for the 25th anniversary of the Organization of the Americas. He was awarded the title of Global

Personality of Music by the Brazilian newspaper O Globo, and Citizen of the State by the Estado

da Guanabara newspaper.

In 1974, Biosfera, for string orchestra, was selected by the International Rostrum of

Composers of UNESCO and M~osaico was presented at the Sixth Inter-American Festival of

Washington, D.C. Nobre organized a meeting with the Executive Committee of the International

Music Council of UNESCO in Rio de Janeiro while the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra went on

a brilliant tour around Europe, performing M~osaico. At the same time, some of Nobre's works

were presented in important festivals. For example, Ludus Instrumentalis was performed at

Musik Protokoll in Graz, and Biosfera was performed at the Casals Festival in Puerto Rico.

In 1975, O Canzto M~ultiplicado was presented at the Campos do Jordio International

Festival in Sho Paulo, Sou~ltinc itl\ I, Op. 37, and Biosfera was performed at the Festival Tibor

Varga in Switzerland. Gkrinmakrinkrin was performed at the Cervantino Festival in Mexico, and









the String Quartet I was performed at both the Nineteenth Festival Autumn in Warsaw and the

Biennal of Brazilian Contemporary Music. Nominated by Yehudi Menuhin, UNESCO chose

Nobre as an individual member of the International Music Council during its assembly held in

Toronto. Film director Carlos Frederico made the movie Ukrinmakinkrin, the M~usic of2arlos

Nobre, which was awarded best short movie at the Cine Festival of Brasilia. In the same year,

Nobre established an editorial contract with Max Eschig of Paris and arranged a new contract

with the publisher Tonos Verlag of Darmstadt.7

In 1976, Nobre' s In M~emoriamn, Op 39, was premiered by the Brazilian Symphony

Orchestra. From then until 1980, Nobre was a member of the State Council of Culture in Rio de

Janeiro. Until 1979, he served as the director of FUNARTE (National Foundation of Art).

Through the latter position, Nobre was able to promote several events and concerts in order to

generally develop music in Brazil. Through several proj ects, he aimed to improve performances

and bands, cultivate the making of instruments, augment courses in general, and improve choirs.

The foundation also supported symphonic orchestras and popular-music groups, and promoted

incentives for composition and musical research. Moreover, Nobre participated as a member of

the jury at the 50th ISCM Festival in New York and organized the Committee for Latin American

Cultural Politics for UNESCO in Panama. One of his recordings under Philips, containing pieces

for piano and orchestra, received the award of Best Disc of the Year. Alongside concerts all over

the world, Nobre also participated at the New Music Festival in Santos with Gkrinmkrinkrin, the

Festival in Brasilia with his String Quartet I, and the Kultur Forum in Bonn with his Trio.

Nobre continued a very active agenda in 1977, participating in several music festivals. He

presented his orchestral work, Converg~ncia~s, Op. 28a, at the First Latin American Festival of


SIbid., p. 35.









Contemporary Music of Maracaibo, Venezuela, and M~omentos I, Op. 41, No. 1, at World Music

Week in Bratislava. He also participated in a tour of the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra around

the United States with his In M~emoriamn. While in Bratislava, Nobre was elected member of the

Executive Committee of the International Music Council of UNESCO. In Brazil, Converg~ncia~s

was performed at the Second Biennial of Brazilian Contemporary Music in Rio de Janeiro. The

Quinteto de sopros, Op. 29, was performed at the National Conference of Composers in Brasilia,

and Desafio V, Op. 31, No. 5, for six cellos, was performed at the First Intemnational Violoncellos

Festival at Paraiba. Nobre also prepared a lecture-recital on his own piano pieces in Porto Alegre

and repeated the program in several other places such as Rio Grande, Pelotas, Bage, Recife, Joho

Pessoa, Natal, and Florian6polis.

In M~emoriamn was chosen to be performed at the 52nd ISCM (Intemational Society of

Contemporary Music) Festival in Helsinki in 1978. Nobre presented his lecture-recital on his

piano pieces in Milan at the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory and in other places in Brazil such as

Petr6polis, Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, Natal, and Joho Pessoa. The Juan March Foundation in

Madrid organized a full concert dedicated to Marlos Nobre in which O Canto M~ultiplicado,

Gkrinmakrinkrin, Trds Cangi~es, Quatro M~omentos, Op. 44, and Sonata sobre um Tema de Bdla

Bartok were performed. Nobre was also awarded the Cultural Merit Gold Medal of Pemnambuco.

In 1979, Nobre participated in the International Congress of the Musicological Society in

Adelaide, Australia. He also took part in the Assembly of the Intemnational Council of Music in

Melboume, and the Congress of Music of the 1980s, The New Horizons, in Sydney. In the same

year, he became member of the International Jury of Guitar at the France Radio in Paris. Nobre' s

Homenagem a Villa-Lobos, Op. 46, was mandatory piece in the final round of the competition.

The Musiculture Festival of Holland in Amsterdam, sponsored by the Beinum Foundation,










performed Nobre' s Rhythnzetron and invited him to lecture on Afro-Brazilian music. Several

pieces were recorded there under EMI and OEA. Dr M~enoria~n was selected by the National

Public Radio System Proj ect in the United States to be broadcast over 230 channels. That piece

also received several prizes, which will be discussed in the following chapter.

Several events occurred in 1980. Nominated by the Intemnational Music Center of

Stidwestfunk of Baden-Baden and the Heinrich Strobel Foundation, Nobre was elected Member

of the Selection Committee of the Cine Intemnational Tribune. He participated in a Symposium

on Latin American Baroque in Rome, where he lectured on the Sacred Music of Minas Gerais.

Several programs were exclusively dedicated to his works in 1980. Among them were the

International Festival of Contemporary Music in Turin, where they performed Can2ticunt

hIstruntentale, Gkrinnzakrinkrin, Quatro M~onentos, and O Canzto M~ultiplicado, and the Suisse

Romande, a program of three hours dedicated entirely to Nobre. During the Suisse Romande,

Nobre premiered Sou~ltinc itl\ III, Op. 49. He gave a series of masterclasses at the Real

Conservatory in Brussels. Dr M~enoria~n was performed at the Piestansky Festival in the former

Czechoslovakia, and Trds Cangi~es was performed at the Nordic Music Festival in Stockholm.

Nobre was Member of the Jury of the Intemnational Competition of Ancona and of the

International Guitar Competition at Radio Francia in Paris. He also organized the Second Latin

American and the Caribbean Tribune (Trimalca) and the Symposium on Musical Traditions of

Latin America in Sho Paulo. Nobre' s Desatio y7I, Op. 31, No. 7, premiered in Switzerland under

his direction with the Young Orchestra of Friburg and pianist Maria Luiza Corker. Alberto and

Aurora Ginastera were among the spectators during this occasion. Nobre participated in the




SMaria Luiza has been considered one of the greatest pianists in Brazil. She has premiered several of Nobre's works
for piano solo, with orchestra, and chamber works.









Atelier of Latin American Composers in Buenos Aires and was invited by the Brahms

Gesellschaft in Baden-Baden to be a Composer in Residence.

While in Baden-Baden in 1981, Nobre finished his Concerto for String Orchestra II, Op.

53, as a commission from the University of Indiana. The piece premiered at the University of

Indiana as the opening for the Music of Our Time Festival. At the event, Nobre participated in

the Composers' Forum along with Lukas Foss and Milton Babbit. He also took part in other

activities in Europe, such as the premiere of his YanomaniY~~YYY~~~YY~~~YY Op. 47, in Friburg, and a full concert

of the Suisse Romande Orchestra in which he conducted his own works. This concert featured

Converg~ncia~s, Musicamnera, Op. 8, Desafio VII, and Concertino, featuring Maria Luiza Corker

as a soloist. Nobre also participated at the celebrated congress in Budapest on "The Composer of

the 20th Century," and was elected as Vice-president by the Executive Committee of the

International Music Council of UNESCO for the years 1981-1982. His In M~emoriamn was

performed in France by the Pasdeloup Orchestra under Dimitri Chorafas at the Champs-Elysees

Theater.

In the following year, Nobre married pianist Maria Luiza Corker.9 Several of his pieces

were performed in Europe and he participated at the Workshop of the Gaudeamus Foundation,

teaching a masterclass. His Ciclos Nordestinos I, II, andlll were selected for the gala concert of

the United Nations Day in Paris. Nobre also participated at the Inter-American Music Festival in

Washington D.C., with Sou~ltinc itl\ L He was member of the International Jury of the Simon

Bolivar Composition Competition in Caracas, along with Ginastera and Penderecki. Nobre also

participated of the Contemporary Art Festival in Buenos Aires with Desafio VIl and received a



9 The couple lives currently in Rio de Janeiro with their daughter Karina, born in 1992.









commission by Embratel (Brazilian Company of Comunications) to write Abertura Festiva, Op.

56bis, for the opening of the Fifteenth National Congress of Technological Communications in

Rio de Janeiro. He was later chosen by DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austausschdienst) to

be a composer in residence in Berlin.

In 1983, Nobre wrote Cantat de Chimborazo, Op. 56, with texts by Simon Bolivar, as a

commission. The piece was premiered in October in Caracas. Nobre participated in some

activities in Europe, such as the Assembly of the International Music Council of UNESCO in

Stockholm, where he became, once again, an elected member of the institution. He held a

position as a member of the International Jury of the Ancona Prize in Italy and wrote two essays:

"Problematica da Musica Latino Americana" (The problem of Latin American music), and

"Technology and the Composer in Today's World." The first was presented in Caracas at a

Symposium of Latin American Composers. The second was presented at a congress in Rome,

sponsored by UNESCO, with the theme "Technology and Culture."

In 1984, Nobre received a commission from FUNARTE to write a flute piece for the

National Competition of Interpretation. He also went to Spain and Luxemburg for the

International General Assembly of Young Musicians. There, he founded the Young Musicians of

Brazil Institute, becoming its director. Nobre participated in the Latin Intercultural Festival at the

University of Califomnia in San Diego with Sou~ltinc itl\ III and at the International Forum of New

Music in Mexico City with M~omentos I, Op. 41, No. 1. He also participated in the First

International Festival of Contemporary Music in Havana, Cuba with In M~emoriamn and Desa/Fo

III, Op. 31, No. 3, and at the International Festival of ISCM in Toronto with Taxngo, Op. 61. A

concert dedicated to music from Brazil presented Converg~ncia~s and Concerto for Piano and

String Orchestra, Op. 64, in Niza. Also, the Association of Critics of Sho Paulo selected Cantat









do Chimborazo as Best Chorale-Symphonic Piece, and Nobre participated at the Forum on

Brazilian Music at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth with .Clutlinc itl\ I.

From 1985 until 1989, Nobre held several administrative positions and traveled many

places performing his works. He was so busy that he was unable to compose new works.

Nevertheless, those years were equally active and successful for him.

In 1985, Nobre received a Guggenheim Fellowship to be Composer in Residence in New

York. He was also elected president of the International Music Council Assembly of UNESCO

in Dresden for the years 1986-1987. He participated in the Intemnational Festival of the ISCM in

Amsterdam with .Cloutinc itl\ I, and at the Inter-American Festival in Washington, D.C., with

.Cloutinc itl\ III. He organized the Trimalca in Rio de Janeiro, participated in the Intemnational

Guitar Encounter in Sevilla with Prologo e Toccata, Op. 65, and participated in the International

Music and Dance Festival in Granada with Desa/Fo III. He was also elected president of the

Brazilian Academy of Music, taking the first chair, which used to belong to Heitor Villa-Lobos.

In 1986, Nobre was elected to become a member of the Brazilian Academy of Art, taking

the place of Francisco Mignone (1897-1986). The Brazilian president chose Nobre to be

President of the Villa-Lobos Centennary. A variety of Nobre's pieces were performed at several

events, such as Variagdes Ritmica~s, at the Contemporary Music Festival of McGill University in

Montreal; Prologo e Toccata, at the Intemnational Guitar Festival in Havana; Desatio II, Op. 31,

No. 2, and Quinteto de Sopro, at the Inter-American Music Festival in Washington, D.C.;

.Cloutinc itl\ I, at the Intemnational Forum of New Music in Mexico City, and Concerto Breve, Op.

33, at the New Music Festival in Santos. Nobre also moderated the Symposium on New

International Means for the Presentation of Contemporary Music at the MIDEM in Cannes. He

presented his article, "The Role and Situation of the Composer Today," at the Intemnational










Society of Music Education in Innsbruck, and put on a masterclass for the Gaudeamus

Foundation of Holland at the General Intemnational Assembly of Young Musicians in Krakow.

In 1987, Nobre was named member of the Intemnational Honor Committee by the MIDEM

of Cannes. He presided there over a symposium on musical commission, the Tribune on Dance

Video, and a symposium on "Traditional Music-Professional Music." Along with Graham Green,

Luciano Berio, Mauricio Pollini, Michel Legrand, and Yoko Ono, Nobre was selected by

Gorbachev to be a member of the Cultural Commission of the Nuclear Disarmament

International Forum through the Union of Soviet Composers. He was Member of the Jury and

Vice-President for the International Piano Competition in Santander, Spain, and presented an

essay entitled, "The Music in Brazil after Villa-Lobos," at Menendez Pelayo University and at

the Superior Conservatoy in Madrid. In Brazil, he organized the International Assembly of the

International Music Council of UNESCO and the International Conference for the Celebration of

the Centenary of Villa-Lobos. Afterward, he was elected Executive Director of the Cultural

Foundation in Brazil.

In 1988, Nobre was awarded the Great Official of the Order of Merit of Brasilia. Festival

Marlos Nobre was held in London. For that occasion, the following pieces were performed:

String Quartet I, Quinteto de sopros, 4 M~omentos, Desafio VII, O Canzto M~ultiplicado, and

Ukrinmakinkrin. The M~usical Opinion, a magazine, published Marlos Nobre's picture on the

cover as Brazil's leading composer. Nobre participated in several Festivals, such as The Festival

of the Americas in Buenos Aires, with In M~emoriamn; the Intemnational Festival of Campos do

Jordio, with Converg~ncia~s, and the Festival of Bahia, with Variagaes Ritmica~s. He was also

Jury Member of the Paraiba Competition.










To celebrate Nobre's fiftieth birthday, several events took place in Brazil and the United

States. He was also awarded the Official Order of Rio Branco of Itamaraty in Brazil and received

a hommage by Senator Marco Maciel at the National Congress of Brazil. The Porto Alegre

Orchestra organized a concert dedicated to Nobre with his own pieces. Sala Cecilia Meireles

commissioned him to write Concertante do Imagindrio, Op. 74, which was performed on its re-

inauguration along with these other pieces: Converg~ncia~s, In M~emoriamn, and Cantata do

Chimborazo. Nobre became a member of the International Jury of the Arthur Rubinstein Master

Piano Competition in Israel. He was also a member of the Assessor Committee of the

International Competition of Santander and a member of the Jury of the Pilar Bayona de

Zaragoza International Competition. Nobre was commissioned by the Bolzano Festival in Italy

and the Neuchittel Chamber Orchestra, for whom he wrote Concerto for Trumpet and String

Orchestra, Op. 73, and Quatro Dangas Latino-America~na;s, Op. 72.

In 1990, the Autonomous University Radio in Mexico dedicated two hours each day for a

month to play Nobre's music. He and his wife were invited to perform Desafio VIl in honor of

Mexican composer Blas Galindo' s eightieth birthday at the Second Festival of Mexico City.

While in Mexico, Nobre also participated at the Morelia Festival, presenting Concertante do

Imagindrio. He presented his essay, "The Situation of the Latin American Composer Today," at

the Latin American Music Encounter. Nobre became then the first Brazilian conductor of the

Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London. The concert he conducted was held at the Purcell

Room and was dedicated exclusively to his works: Biosfera, Concerto for String Orchestra II,

Desaffo VII and Concertante do Imagindrio, featuring Maria Luiza as pianist.









In 1991, the University of Akron organized the Brazilian Fest 91 and performed

Rhythmetron. Nobre's work, Solo l, Op. 60, for solo flute, was included in the program New

Musicians at the New York New School. Can2ticum Instrumentale was performed at the Inter-

American Conference of Music Education in Washington, D.C. Nobre's Tango was performed at

the International Forum of New Music in Mexico. Concerto for String Orchestra II was

performed at the Inter-American Festival of New Music in Caracas, and Ciclo Nordestino I was

performed at the Butte Montmartre Festival in Paris. Beiramar, Op. 21, was performed at the

Unerhoirte Musik Festival in Berlin. Several other performances took place in Rio de Janeiro and

Sho Paulo that year. Desatio III was presented in Rio de Janeiro at the Biennial of Brazilian

Contemporary Music, while Ukrinmakrinkrin, Rhythmetron, Desatio III, and.,I .uincLias I were

performed in Sho Paulo during a concert dedicated to Nobre.

Nobre went to Yale in 1992, invited as a visiting Professor of Composition. There, he

taught a composition seminar at the New Haven Festival, where his works .Cloutinc itl\ land

Concerto for String Orchestra II were performed. Nobre was also part of the jury of the

Composition Competition of Yale. His Tango was performed at the Piano Marathon of McGill

University at Montreal and Solo I was included at both the New Music Festival for the New

World at the Illinois Wesleyan University and at the Brazilian Serenade at Camegie Hall in New

York. Nobre participated at the Intemnational Encounter of Contemporary Music in Montevideo

with Ukimakrinkrin, and at the Intemnational Guitar Seminar with M~omentos I. He also

participated in several festivals in Europe, including Junifestwochen Zurich 92 and Aspekte

Festival in Salzburg, both with Desa/Fo III. He participated in the Intemnational Festival of

Contemporary Music in Alicante, Spain, with Concerto for String Orchestra II. He was

recognized as Man of the Year in the music field by the Biographical Centre in London. In










Spain, he presented his oratorio, Columbus, Op. 77. The work, consisting of Nobre's translations

ofnineteenth-century Mexican poetry, was a commission by the Ministry of Culture in Spain for

the 500th Anniversary of the Discovery of America, He presented Columbus with the Royal

Philharmonic Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus.

In 1993, Nobre composed Amazdnia, Op. 85a, as a commission from the Paula Duo. The

piece was premiered at the Camegie Hall in New York. He participated as member of the jury of

the first edition of the Alberto Ginastera International Composition Competition. He also

participated at the Intemnational Forum of New Music in Mexico with Ciclo Nordestino III, and

at the Summer Garden Festival of the Juilliard School held at the MoMA (Museum of Modem

Art) with .Cloutinc itl\ IHI. The magazine, Classical Guitar, dedicated its November issue to Nobre.

In 1994, Nobre became an official of the Order of Arts and Letters of France. He

participated at the Iberian American Music Congress and at the Society of the 1990s, where he

presented the essay, "Tendencies of the Creation of Contemporary Music." He also participated

in the International Festival in Espinhos, Portugal, with .Cloutinc itl\ III and Rhythmetron, and

presented Desa/fo II in Berlin. A series of recordings appeared around that time, followed by

reviews in specialized magazines all over the world.

In 1995, Nobre composed Concerto Duplo, Op. 82, and participated in another series of

recordings. He participated in the Mayo Musical of Murcia in Spain with his Solo II, premiered

by Dutch clarinetist Henri Bok. The same piece was performed in Alexandria, Italy, along with

Desatio XXIII, Op. 31, No. 23. Nobre participated in the Intemnational Guitar Festival in Erding

and in Weikersheim, Germany, both with Reminisc~ncia~s, Op. 78. That piece was chosen as

mandatory for the Intemnational Competition of Musical Interpretation in Geneva. He also

presented Concerto for String Orchestra II at the Lincoln Center in New York. Nobre became










president of the International Guitar Seminar in Porto Alegre. He also became president of the

Brazilian Olympic Arts Committee at the General Olympic Arts Assembly, which was held in

Paris in 1996.

In 1996, Nobre decided to cancel his contract with his publisher, the German company

Tons Verlag. According to Nobre, the company was going through a difficult period of time

because of the death of its founder. Therefore, Nobre decided to pass everything edited by that

publisher to the Marlos Nobre Edition in Brazil, which functioned primarily online. Nobre

returned to New York to participate in the Sounds of Americas Festival, which was dedicated to

Brazil. At Carnegie Hall, Dennis Russel Davies conducted the American Composers Orchestra in

the performance of In M~emoriamn. A New York Times review called the piece, "the most

powerful work of the program."lo The same concert presented pieces by Brazilian composers

Camargo Guarnieri (1907-1993) and Villa-Lobos. Nobre became engaged in a series of master

classes at the Juilliard School and Yale, where he also participated at the Brazilian Music Today

Symposium. He became a member of the jury of the Colcultura Composition Competition in

Bogota, a place where later he presented In M~emoriamn. Nobre participated in the Music Festival

of Vila Seca in Portugal with Desafio XXXI, Op. 3 1, No. 32, and in London at the Eclectic

Fusion Festival at the Guildhall School with Desafio XXXI, Op. 31, No. 31. At the Queen

Elizabeth Hall in London, Nobre conducted his Concertante Imaginario for piano and orchestra

with the London Royal Philharmonic orchestra and his wife, pianist Maria Luiza. Great critical

and public acceptance confirmed Nobre' s high position in the musical world. Music and

Musician and The M~usic Opinion, two English magazines, published Nobre' s picture on their





'o Program Notes for In Memoriam, Op. 39, by Marlos Nobre.










covers with the title: "The Brazilian leading composer: Marlos Nobre."ll Invited by the Iberian

American Music Council, Nobre also participated in the Iberian American Encounter of

Composers.

In 1997, Nobre was chosen to become a member of honor of the Werther Benzi

Counterbass Competition in Alexandria, where his Desatio IV Op. 31, No. 4, was a mandatory

piece. He also became a member of the jury of the Intemnational Guitar Competition in the same

city. Nobre was a visiting professor at the University of Arizona and the University of

Oklahoma. Throughout the year, several theses and dissertations were written about Marlos

Nobre in Brazil and abroad. These works are listed in the bibliography section of this study.

In 1998, Rhythmetron was performed in Paris and Montreal for the first time. Nobre

presented a lecture "Artistic Teaching" at the Latin America and Caribbean Encounter in

Havana. His ballet, Saga Marista, which was composed the year before, was performed in

Recife. Its orchestral version was presented in Oklahoma under Jorge Richter. Nobre participated

at the Intemnational Guitar Festival in Zarauz, Spain, with Reminiscancia~s, and at the Twenty-

second Intemnational Gulbenkian Festival of Contemporary Music in Lisbon, with .Clutlinc itl\ III.

His Concerto Duplo, for two guitars, was premiered in Sho Paulo. Amazdnia II, Op. 85, for big

jazz orchestra, was commissioned by the Carlos Gomes Foundation. The piece premiered at the

Festival of Para in Belem. Nobre appeared as a soloist in his Concerto Breve in El Salvador.

.GuIinl c ias III was performed at the Antidogma Festival of Turin in Italy.

In 1999, the composer turned sixty, celebrating forty years of artistic dedication. Several

events across the globe memorialized his birthday. Among them were the performance of

Desatio XXXII, with Teresa Berganza and the Iberian Cello Ensemble in Amsterdam, and the


11 Program Notes for Concertante do Imagincirio, Op. 74, by Marlos Nobre.










performance of Divertimento for piano and orchestra, with the Philharmonic of Berlin in Paris.

The latter was performed at the Development and Culture Forum, sponsored by the Inter-

American Bank of Development. Nobre participated in the Close Encounters series in New

York, with String Quartet I. He was also awarded the Gold Medal of Merit of the Joaquim

Nabuco Foundation of Pernambuco, where Amazdnia was performed. The Conservatory of

Pernambuco promoted the Marlos Nobre Festival with his expositions, conferences,

competitions, and concerts. There, Rhythmetron, .CloutincLitl I, Variag~es Ritmica~s, Desa/fo III,

Concertino for piano and strings, and Concertante do Imagindrio were performed. The

University of Sho Paulo celebrated Nobre' s sixtieth birthday at the University Encounter of

Contemporary Music, where Rhythmetron was performed. Nobre's complete works for piano

were performed in Macei6, Alagoas. The Latin American and Iberian Music Society offered a

concert consisting exclusively of Nobre's works in London, where Concertante do Imagindrio

and Concerto for String Orchestra II were performed. .GucincL ias I was performed at both the

Ninth International Festival of Contemporary Music in Bucharest, Romania, and the Musique du

XX' eme Si'ecle in Paris.

In 2000, Nobre' s 2usicamnera was performed by the National Orchestra of Porto at the

500th Anniversary of the Discovery of Brazil, in Portugal. In Geneva, the 500 years were

celebrated with Variag~es Ritmica~s, and in Rome with the premiere of Concerto for percussion

and orchestra, Op. 89. Nobre was awarded the Thomas Hart Benton Medallion from Indiana

University. He was a guest composer at Texas Christian University, where he was awarded the

Cecil and Ida Green Honors Professor. He participated in the Second Latin American Music

Festival held at TCU in Fort Worth, where his Trio, Converg~ncia~s, and Divertimento for piano

and orchestra were performed. A guest composer at the University of Georgia in Athens, Nobre










participated in the International Conference on Latin American Musical Globalization and

Preservation. For the occasion, he presented an essay, "Tradition and Innovation of Latin

American Music: the Point of View of a Composer." The University of Georgia also held a

Symposium on Brazil's 500th anniversary.

In 2001, Desajio III was performed in Warsaw at the Chopin Academy with Nada

Myesscouhg at the violin and Larisa Giro at the piano. Saduc( i i I III was performed at the

Odessa Festival in Ukraine and Clelia Iruzun performed Sonata Breve in London. He composed

Amazdnia III, Op. 91, as a commission for the Apollon Foundation in Bremen. The piece was

premiered at the Bayreuth Festival of New Music at the Markgraffiches Operhaus, featuring

baritone Renato Mismeti and pianist Maximiliano Brito. The piece toured Europe, appearing in

places like Lucerne, Salzburg, Munich, and Leipzig, among others. The Iberian Cello Ensemble,

along with soprano Pilar Jurado, toured Holland, Belgium, Germany, and Poland, performing

several ofNobre's compositions. In the United States, pianist Michele Adler performed Ciclo

Nordestino I, Ciclo Nordestino III, and Homage to Arthur Rubinstein, Op. 40, at Carnegie Hall.

Several other pieces were performed in Brazil and Latin America. Among them was

Converg~ncia~s, performed at the opening of the Contemporary Music Festival in Havana by the

Cuban National Symphonic Orchestra under the direction of Jorge de Elias.

In 2002, the Apollon Foundation in Bremen celebrated the centennial of Brazilian poet

Carlos Drummond de Andrade with the performance of O Canzto M~ultiplicado in Bayreuth,

Vienna, Berlin, and London. The piece contains texts written by the poet. Concerto Duplo was

performed in a tour of the United States by the Assad Brothers and the Symphonic Orchestra of

the State of Sho Paulo, under the direction of John Neschlin. Nobre participated at the Oulo

Music Festival in Finland with Taxngo, and at the Sclhleswig-Holstein Festival in Germany with










Sundneill itl\ I. He also performed as a soloist in his Divertimento with the El Salvador Symphony

Orchestra in El Salvador under the direction of German Caceres. He premiered Desafio VI, Op.

31, No. 6, for string orchestra, with the Stadtische Musikschtile Erlenbach Orchestra in

Erlenbach, Germany.

In 2003, the Bremen Foundation in Germany commissioned Nobre to write Amazdnia

1gnota, Op. 95, for 4 flutes, piano, percussion, and baritone. The piece premiered at the Margrave

of Bayreuth Opera Theater and toured several cities in Germany, Austria, England and France.

Nobre participated at the Guanajuato Festival with O Canto M~ultiplicado, and at the

Contemporary Music Festival in Buenos Aires with Rhythmetron. He was the principal composer

of the 2003 Percussion Day in Sho Paulo with Concerto for percussion and orchestra and

Rhythmetron. A prestigious concert was held in Nobre' s honor at the International Festival of

Chamber Music in Recife with Partita Latina, Op. 92, Desafio I, Concerto for String Orchestra

II, and Concertante do Imaginario.

In 2004, the Guggenheim Museum in New York organized a series of events in February,

during which Canto a Garcia Lorca, Op. 87, was performed by soprano Serena Benedetti and

the New York Philharmonic orchestra under the direction of Roberto Minczuk. Nobre was

composer in residence the first in the history of the festival at the Campos do Jordio

International Winter Festival. He had been invited by the director of the festival, Roberto

Minczuk, for whom Nobre wrote his orchestral work Kabbalah, Op. 96. That piece was

premiered and recorded at the festival in July of that year along with his FanfaFFFFFFFFF~~~~~~~rra Campos do

Jorddo, Op. 97. Several of Nobre's works were performed in Goiinia, including Concertino for

piano and orchestra, Nazarethiana, 16 Variagaes sobre um Tema de Fructuoso Vianna,

Toccatina, Ponteio e Final, Op. 12, and Tema e Variagaes, Op. 7. He participated at the Havana









Festival with In M~emoriamn and Passacaglia, conducting the Cuba National Symphony

Orchestra. For that occasion, he also gave a series of masterclasses and was awarded the Honor

Diploma of the Art Institute of the University of Havana. Nobre participated in the Guanajuato

Festival, presenting Partita~PPP~~~~PPP~~~PPP Latina with cellist Carlos Pietro and pianist Edison Quintana. He

conducted masterclasses at the Sim6n Bolivar University in Caracas. Also that year, Nobre wrote

Concerto Armorial II, Op. 98, for flute and orchestra, commissioned by the Brazilian Bach

Association. Lamnento e Toccata, Op. 99, was also composed that year as a commission from the

guitar duo Joaquim Freire and Susana Mebes.

In 2005, Nobre participated in the Festival de l'ile de France in Paris, presenting Trds

Canga~es de Beiramar, Op. 21a, Trds Cangd~es Negras, Op. 88, Canto a Garcia Lorca, and

Desajio XYXXH with the Iberian Cello Octet. Nobre was elected to become a member of the

Honors Committee of the World Philharmonic Orchestra along with personalities such as

Maurice Bejart, Henri Dutilleux, Barbara Hendricks, Seiji Osawa, Lorin Maazel, and Ravi

Shankar. He dedicated most of his time to working on Cantorias I, Op. 100, and Cantorias II,

Op. 101, for solo cello. The first piece was commissioned by the Brazilian Ant8nio Menezes and

the second by the Mexican Carlos Prieto. Can2torialIreferences Bach's Suite in D minor for solo

cello. Can2toriallIis based on Bach' s Cello Suite in C Maj or. Nobre plans to write a series of Six

Cantorias based on Bach' s Six Cello Suites. Seven CD's were recorded featuring Nobre' s works.

On November 29, Nobre was declared the winner of the sixth edition of the Tomas Luis de

Victoria Prize, in Spain. The decision was achieved unanimously for the first time in the prize's

history. Nobre was selected among 57 composers from 17 countries to win the prize. The









international jury wrote that its members were impressed by "the excellent traj ectory of Nobre,

the proj section and importance of his works and the originality of his aesthetic thinking".12

In 2006, Nobre participated in the School of Art-Music Composers Festival, where his

Sonata Breve was performed by pianist Edison Quintana, and his M~omentos l and H were

performed by guitarist Juan Carlos Laguna both at Manuel Ponce Hall in Mexico. In the United

States he participated in the East Carolina University New Music Festival where his piece

Passacaglia for orchestra was performed by the University Symphony Orchestra under Jorge

Richter. Antonio Meneses performed Nobre' s Can2toria I for solo cello at the Society of

Americas Auditorium in New York. Nobre was awarded the prize "Cultural Roots" by the

Cultural State Council of Pernambuco. The Music Festival of Caracas was dedicated to Nobre,

with the Sim6n Bolivar Symphony Orchestra performing Kabbalah at the opening concert under

the direction of Alfredo Rugeles. Later in the Festival his Sonante I for solo marimba was

performed by Gustavo Olivar. The composer participated in the 2006 Ginastera Festival with his

Desajio VII for piano and string orchestra performed by pianist Alberto Portugheis and the

Southbank Symphony under Matilda Hofman. Also at the occasion, his Concertante do

Imaginario was performed by the same pianist with the London Schubert Players under Daniel

Mazza. Fabio Zanon performed M~omentos I and Rememoria~s for solo guitar. The performances

took place at the St. John' s Smith Square in London. The Hollands Vocal Ensemble conducted

by Fokko Oldnhuis performed Nobre' s Agd-Lond for mixed choir in Ultrecht and Amsterdam.

In the same year, Nobre received the VI Edition of theThomas Luis de Victoria prize in Madrid

and a concert of his pieces presented Trds CangC~es Negras, Canto a Garcia Lorca both by





12NObre, Personal Website. Accessed on November 2006.










soprano Pilar Jurado and pianist Horacio Lavandera along with the world premiere of Nobre' s

Sonata for Piano on a Theme by Bartok.

Nobre currently holds many important titles, such as president of the National Music

Committee of IMC/UNESCO, director of Contemporary Music Programs at Radio MEC-FM of

Brazil, president of Jeunesses Musicales of Brazil, and president of the Marlos Nobre Editions of

Brazil. Since 1986, he has directed two radio programs entitled "Contemporary Music,"

dedicated to contemporary music with commentary, and "Musical Language," where he presents

music from the Baroque period to the present, exhibiting their important composers and

compositions. Both programs are broadcast once a week at Radio MEC FM 98.9 MHz. The

former plays on Saturdays at 10 p.m., and the latter on Fridays at 10 p.m. He is constantly

composing and receiving commissions from all over the world. As a composition professor,

Nobre receives about fifteen students in his home to discuss their composition works on the last

Saturday of each month.

Marlos Nobre: The Composer

Marlos Nobre has earned enormous respect over the years among the public and musicians

all over Brazil and abroad. In the late 1960s, he already occupied a prominent position among

Brazil's most promising composers. In order to understand Marlos Nobre's position in the

Brazilian musical scene, it is important to note some of the aspects of the musical division in

Brazil and in Latin America during the twentieth century. 13

It was not until 1922, with the advent of the Semana de Arte Moderna (Week of Modern

Art), that the artistic scene in Brazil began criticizing the prevailing academicism and rej ecting

13 Even though Brazil developed similar trends as most of the other important musical centers in Latin America, a
generalization of all these countries has always been a mistake from a scholastic point of view. Each country or at
least area should be treated separately allowing scholars to be able to study each case in a deeper perspective.
Therefore the author of the present document will only briefly mention the most important facts that occurred in
other Latin American countries in order to illustrate their relation to Brazil.










strict obedience to traditional aesthetic schools. Several factors led to the modemist movement in

Brazil. The most direct and influential aspects were put forth in poet Oswald de Andrade'S14

(1890-1954) futuristic ideas, the premieres of painter Anita Malfatti 1 (1889-1964) and sculptor

Victor Brecheret (1894-1955), and especially through the poetry of Mario de Andradel6

(1893-1945). Mario de Andrade became the most influential figure of the modemist movement

in the musical life of the country. The practical results of the modernist movement in Brazil put

more emphasis on arts and literature. The most important composer of the movement was Villa-

Lobos,l7 who had already established a great deal of his compositional vocabulary by 1922 after

composing works such as A Prole do Bebb, vols. 1 and 2, some of the Charos, and the ballets

Amazona~s and Uiurapuru. Thus, the movement had a minimal influence on music and affected

only generations of musicians who came after Villa-Lobos.

In his, Muzsica Contemporcinea Bra~sileira, musicologist Jose Maria Neves exposes the

goals of the modemist movement and its leader, Mario de Andrade, in reassuring and promoting

the work of young Brazilian artists connected to the movement. The movement declared "direito

permanent 'a pesquisa estetica, atualizaCgo da intelig~ncia brasileira, estabelecimento de uma

consci~ncia criadora national, pela uninime vontade de cantar a natureza, a alma e as tradiCaes

'4 Oswald de Andrade was one of the founders of Brazilian modernism along with Mgrio de Andrade, Anita
Malfatti, Tarsila do Amaral and Menotti del Picchia. They formed the so -called Group of Five. Oswald de
Andrade's famous "Manifesto Antrop6fago" (Cannibalist Manifesto) was published in 1928. Its iconic line is "Tupi
or not Tupi: that is the question." It describes the cultural strength of Brazil by "cannibalizing" other cultures.
Cannibalism became a way for Brazil to assert itself against the cultural domination of Europe in a post-colonial
period.
15 The first exhibition of Malfatti was on December 12 of 1917. The artist with her ideas close to cubism shocked
the public and received several years of rage and criticism from the most conservative specialists.

16 From the twenty volumes that comprise the complete writings of M~rio de Andrade, eight substantial volumes are
related to music. The other volumes are dedicated to essays on arts and literature as well as original poems, novels,
short stories, and literary criticism.

'7 Even though Villa-Lobos only presented his quasi-post romantic works at the first concert of the Semana de Arte
Moderna, he suffered the same negative reaction from the traditional public, who was neither prepared nor open to
modern ideas.










brasileiras, e dai, banir para sempre os postichess" da ideia europeia." (. .. establishment of a

permanent rights to aesthetic research, updating of the Brazilian intelligentsia, establishment of a

creative national conscience based on the unanimous desire to sing nature, the soul, and

Brazilian traditions, and from there, abolish the "cliches" of European art definitively).

It is important to note that Mario de Andrade's main point was to awaken national

consciousness. Because of this idea, the Brazilian musical scene benefited and suffered dramatic

consequences. Unlike other nationalistic Eigures in Latin America, Mario de Andrade did not

completely rej ect European techniques. He believed that the use of European techniques would

be the only way to integrate Brazil's own race and culture. He believed that it was important to

use sophisticated European techniques to deal with what he called "barbarian mentality." In a

verse of his Pauliceia Desvairada, he defines himself: Sou um tupi tangendo um alautde." "I

am an Amerindian, who herds a lute." Andrade affirmed

Brasil sem Europa nio e Brasil nio, e uma vaga assombraCio amerindia, sem entidade
national, sem psicologia tecnica, sem razio de ser.19

(Brazil without Europe is not Brazil, it is only a vague Amerindian ghost, without national
entity, without technical psychology, without a reason to be.)

At the same time, Andrade did not believe in international music and believed less in

universal music. He says

N~o ha musica international muito menos musica universal; o que existe sho g~nios que se
universalizam por demasiado fundamentals, Palestrina, Bach, Beethoven, ou mulheres que
se internacionalizam por demasiado faceis, a "Traviata", a "Carmem", "Butterfly". Porem,
mesmo dentro desta internacionalidade e daquela universalidade, tais musicos e tais
mulheres nio deixam nunca de ser funcionalmente nacionais.20




's Neves, Jos6 Maria. Ahisica Contemporcinea Brasileira. Sio Paulo: Ricordi, 1981.

19 Azevedo, Luiz Heitor Corr~a de. Ahisicos do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Casa do Estudante do Brasil, 1950, p. 312.

20 Andrade, M~rio de. 4spectos da Ahisica Brasileira. S~io Paulo: Livraria Martins Editora, 1965, pp. 28-29.










(There is no international music or even universal music; what exists is a small group of
geniuses who become universal for being overly fundamental, as Palestrina, Bach,
Beethoven, or women who become international for being overly easy, "Traviata,"
"Carmen," "Butterfly." Nevertheless, even within the internationalization of the latter and
the universalism of the former, such musicians and such female figures never stop being
functionally national.)

Andrade believed in using European compositional techniques in a reformed way. That

could lead to the birth of a real Brazilian style of music, which could become universal at some

point. He explains

...partindo do particular para o geral, da raga para a humanidade, conservando aquelas
caracteristicas, que sho o contingent com que enriquece a consci~ncia humana.21

...([one goes] from the particular to the general, from race to humanity, preserving all the
characteristics that enrich the human conscience.)

The music composed in Brazil during the first two decades of the twentieth century was

dominated by European influences. Although pre-nationalist Brazilian composers searched for a

national identity, their styles represented a result from traditional dominating forces from Italy,

France, and Germany, with their Romantic and somewhat Impressionistic influences. In the eyes

of Andrade, the only true Brazilian composer was Villa-Lobos, whom Andrade defended from

the attacks of conservatives and traditionalists. Although aware of Villa-Lobos' positive and

negative qualities, Andrade believed in and advertised the brilliant future career of the young

composer.

As observed by Jose Maria Neves, Andrade's musical nationalism movement contained

similar reforming characteristics to those of modernism in general, with the same principle of

reaffirming Brazilian nationality and carrying the same anti-elitist ideology. These ideas, along

with the urge to disassociate Brazilian art from post-romantic techniques and adopt

contemporary techniques, placed Brazil's ideas among the trends of other reformation groups in


21 Andrade, M~rio de. Ahisica, doce Ahisica. S~io Paulo: Livraria Martins Ed., 1963, p. 115.










Latin America, especially the so-called Renovacion M~usical (Musical renovation) groups in

Argentina (1930s) and in Cuba (1940s). These movements' supporters were believed to be

influenced by the Brazilian movement of the 1920s. Nevertheless, the other Latin American

movements differed from Brazil's because they remained extremely connected with the Neo-

movements in Europe, with particular influence from neoclassicism.22

In his, Historia da Muzsica no Bra~sil, Vasco Mariz provides a long list that separates

composers and classifies them according to their compositional tendencies. This classification,

however, presents composers in a chronological order, rather than properly by the compositional

aesthetics they followed and their accomplishments. This study's author does not intend to list

and classify those composers. However, some composers who directly or indirectly influence

Nobre's music need to be addressed.

From the first generation of nationalist composers who studied under Mario de Andrade,

Mozart Camargo Guarnieri (1907-1993) remains one of the most important Eigures in the

twentieth-century Brazilian musical scene. Guarnieri became the most conscious composer in the

nationalism movement. His nationalist ideas, although anacronically focused on modalism and

polyphony, influenced many other composers. These composers studied under Guarnieri and

followed the ideas of the so-called Guarnieri school, one of the most important in the country.

Influenced by Mario de Andrade, many composers tried to follow their own ways in order to

remain connected to the aesthetics related to the search for national identity. After the 1940s,

nationalism began to diminish slightly in Brazil, and some composers became more influenced





22Neoclassicism became a strong compositional tool used by several Brazilian Nationalistic composers after the
1930s. Several examples are found in Villa-Lobos's output from the 1930s as well as a new trend followed by
several of M~rio de Andrade's students.










by European dodecaphonic techniques, which were brought to Brazil by Hans-Joachim

Koellreuter23 (1915-2005). Nobre studied with Koellreuter in 1959.

The nationalist school and Koellreuter each played important roles in dividing

compositional tendencies in Brazil. Two currents emerged from the 1930s and 1940s. Some

composers adhered to the importance of tonality and nationalist features, and others broke from

traditional rules and opened doors for the future.

Some nationalist composers in Brazil adopted the techniques of certain twentieth-century

European composers such as Debussy, Bart6k, and Stravinsky. But more avant-garde

compositional techniques, such as those found in the music of Schoenberg, would be less

compatible with the Brazilian nationalist aesthetic of adopting its folk music, which is rich in

modalism and complex, intricate rhythms.24

The Second International Congress of Composers and Music Critics, held in Prague in

1948, was an important influence on Brazilian composers, who found themselves between the

nationalist school of Guarnieri and the most advanced ideas spread by Koellreuter and the group

Musica Viva.

The final document published after the Prague Congress urged composers to adhere to

their national musical cultures and avoid the failing trends of internationalism. This document

was widely debated in Brazil by both nationalists and the Musica Viva group. It is important to

remember that, although the latter group was the only alternative to late nationalism in Brazil, its

members never intended to criticize or threaten the aesthetic of nationalism. Koellreutter and his


23 The arrival of Koellreuter in Brazil caused a great impact in the musical scene. He became the leader of the group
Muisica Viva, which first appeared in 1931. In 1946, the group issued a manifesto against folkloristic nationalism,
which led many composers to see it as a strong disruption of national values and a foreign intrusion in the country's
musical scene.

24 Bezerra, M~rcio. A Unique Brazilian Composer -A Study of the Music of Gilberto Mendes ;i,,. ..,li, Selected
Piano Pieces. Brussels: Alain van Kerckhoven Editeur, 2000, p. 15.










group wanted composers to understand that folkloric material held great value, and that its

elements should be used only when assimilated into each composer's personal musical

language.25

The resolutions of the Prague Congress resulted in several composers of the Musica Viva

group deciding to review their aesthetic positions. Important names such as Claudio Santoro

(1919-1989) and Cesar Guerra-Peixe (1914-1993) abandoned the twelve-tone technique in favor

of Guarnieri's style.26

On November 7, 1950, Guarnieri published a direct attack on Koellreutter and the twelve-

tone system in Brazil's maj or newspapers. His "Carta Aberta aos Musicos e Criticos do Brasil,"

(Open letter to the musicians and music critics of Brazil) combines earlier writings of Mario de

Andrade with ideas from the Prague Congress. Guarnieri also sent the letter to many composers,

performers, music critics, conservatories and schools of music in many parts of the country.

Koellreutter replied to Guarnieri's letter with another open letter under the same title on

December 28, 1950. Several prominent Brazilian intellectuals, such as Mennoti del Picchia

(1892-1988), Eurico Nogueira Franga (b. 1913), Edino Krieger (b. 1928), and Patricia Galvio

(1910-1962) defended Koellreutter in public. However, the rift was formed and a strong polarity

emerged between the two schools as Brazilian composers were forced to choose between

nationalism and internationahism."




25Neves, p. 19.

26 Cl~udio Santoro confessed to have abandoned Koellreutter due to his political convictions. Santoro believed he
had to follow the decisions of the Prague Congress due to his link with the Communist Party. Guerra-Peixe, on the
other hand, had personal convictions to adhere to nationalism once he discovered the folklore of Northeast Brazil
and published his book Maracatus do Recife in 1955.

27 The duality remained active for many decades even in popular music, where Bossa Nova, and, later on, the
movement known as Tropicilia were dismissed by many as bourgeois and antinational popular styles.
(Bezerra, p. 19)










Nevertheless, some of the most prolific composers fell within both traditions, having some

inclination to one or another compositional aesthetic. According to Vasco Mariz's classification

in his Historia da Mazisica no Bra~sil, these composers belonged to a post-nationalist or

independent generation. Marlos Nobre fits into the latter classification.

In the early 1960s, the situation changed. With the death of Villa-Lobos in 1959, the

aesthetic of nationalism seemed to have reached an end. Other important nationalist composers

such as Camargo Guarnieri, Francisco Mignone (1897-1986), and Radames Gnattali (1906-1988)

had already composed the best of their nationalistic works, and there was no further reason to

insist on such an aesthetic once its best leaders had exhausted the style.

It became vital to discover alternative compositional techniques. It was no longer possible

to exclude Brazilian composers and their music from international innovations and advances.

The generation of the 1960s was free to produce a creative symbiosis between serialism and

national tradition. The results can be seen in the works of the group of composers from Rio de

Janeiro, Sho Paulo, and Bahia.28 It is important to note that the result was so necessary that it

happened naturally, without the need of any manifesto or imposition.29

The development of Nobre' s musical language combines a series of influences from

different periods and styles of music. In his concept, the greatest formal structures are those of

the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century classical works, which he combines with modern

techniques. Nobre' s multifaceted music represents the influence of Debussy, Bart6k, Stravinsky,

and Lutoslawski and displays a vigorous, distinguished rhythmic vitality, colored by elements


28 All these distinct groups of composers were formed through Koellreutter. He is responsible and takes the credit
for the dissemination and formation of these schools in Brazil.

29Corker-Nobre, Maria Luiza. Aspectos Ticnicos e Estiticos de Sondncias III de M~arlos Nobre: uma
Introdupdo 'a Problemaitica dalIntuigdo versus Cerebralismo. Dissertag~io de Mestrado. Rio de Janeiro:
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 1995.










from Brazilian folklore and nature, striking sound combinations, and spontaneity. Nobre's music

ranges from tonal to freely-atonal, and is chromatic and dissonant at times. It makes use of serial

and sonoristic techniques, yet has references to tonal centers.30

According to Nobre, the composers he counts as influences were capable of innovation in

music without necessarily breaking with tradition. The influence of Bart6k and Lutoslawski can

be seen in Nobre' s juxtaposition of diatonic folk material with dissonant harmonies,

polyrhythmic structures, rhythmic drive, textual effects and the use of non-traditional scales. A

national identity is evident in all of Nobre's works, but because he does not rely on patterns from

folk and popular idioms, his music cannot be seen as nationalistic.31 Afro-Brazilian rhythms

from Nobre's home town, Recife, highly influenced the regular pulse and metrical points of

reference in his works and can be associated with their strong rhythmic freedom. His home town

exposed him to all sorts of rhythms derived from traditions, such as those of2\a~racatu,32

Frevo," ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .3 Caolno,4ub-e-o, adomble,36 and Ciranda~s.3 The composer

explains


30 De Jong, "Nobre," in 4merican Record Guide, vol. 57, no. 5 (Sept/Oct. 1994), p. 168-169.

31 B~hague, Gerard, "Nobre, Marlos," in the New Grove Dictionary ofihtsic and~htsicians, 2"d ed. (2001), vol. 18,
p. 566.

32Maracatu popular music inspired by a dance characteristic of a popular carnival parade. The parade follows a
woman carrying in her hand a richly adorned doll. The members of the group dance to the rlwthm played by
percussion instruments.

33Frevo a carnival dance highly rhythmic and performed by brass, wind, and percussion instruments. It is popular
on the streets and in salons.

34Caboclinhos also known as cabocolinhos is a carnival procession. Most of their parades are represented by
dancers who dress like popular native indigenous figures taken from literature.

35Bumba-meu-boi comic-dramatic dance in which people along with fantastic animals participate. The whole plot
is developed around the death and resurrection of the ox (boi).

36 Candombl6 Afro-Brazilian religion.

37Cirandas Circle dance songs based on simple tunes which are traditional and passed down orally from
generation to generation.










En mi infancia escuche, dance y vibre con los Maracatus, los Frevos, los Caboclinhos, los
Bumba-meu-boi, la Nau Catarineta. Pero, sobre todo, eran los Maracatus y su percusi6n
alucinante y mistica los que desarrollaron en mi un sentido ritmico profundo e inconsciente
que luego alimentaron, hoy y siempre, mi creaci6n musical. La polirritmia, los grandes
crescendi sonoros, los contrastes dinamicos, los acentos irregulares, sometidos siempre a
una poderosa pulsaci6n metrica constant, los profundos toques graves de enormes ganzas,
agogis, bombs, atabaques, son impresiones sobresalientes de mi infancia que estan vivas
en mi sangre y en mi coraz6n, mas que en mi cabeza.38

(Throughout my childhood, I listened to, danced to, and cheered with Maracatus, Frevos,
Caboclinhos, Bumba-meu-boi, and the Nau Catarineta.39But it was the Maracatu and its
incredible and mystic percussion that developed in me this profound and unconscious
rhythmic sense that has always been fundamental in my musical creation. The polyrhythm,
the big crescendos, the dynamic contrasts, the irregular accents within a powerful constant
pulse, the deep low sounds generated from ganzas [maracas], agogis [African iron bells],
bombs [low drums], atabaques [afro-Brazilian conical-shaped, single-headed hand drmm
similar to a conga drum], are the strongest impressions I have from my childhood. They
are very much alive in my blood and my heart, much more than in my head.

The development of Nobre' s musical language went through several phases, from tonal to

modal, polytonal, atonal, serial, and aleatoric until he defined his own musical language and

style, which became a combination of everything he had learned and filtered. Nobre's output can

be divided into five periods:

First Period (1959-1963) Heavy influenced by Villa-Lobos and Ernesto Nazareth.

Second Period (1963-1968) Combination of serial and aleatoric features with

Brazilian traditional rhythms.

Third Period (1969-1977) Search for an identity

Fourth Period (1980-1985)40 Early Mature Style



38Marlos Nobre in an interview. "Nueve Preguntas a Marlos Nobre" in Revista Ahtsical Chilena, vol. 33, no. 148,
1979, pp. 37-47.

39 Nau Catarineta epic episodes like the odyssey of a romantic story of a ship that leaves Recife to go to Lisbon.
The story is performed through balls of intricate choreography and dramatic effects.

40This author believes that Nobre's fourth and fifth periods share similar characteristics. Therefore, they are both
called Mature Style. However, because of slight differences later mentioned in this study, the Mature Style can be
divided into two parts: the first years and the later years.










*Fifth Period (1990-present)41 Later Mature Style

The first period clearly spans from his Concertino for piano and' orchestra, Op. 142 until

Divertimento for piano and' orchestra, Op. 14, during the years 1959 through 1963. All of the

pieces from this period display the direct influence of Villa-Lobos and Ernesto Nazareth (1863-

1934).43 Nobre explains his respect for Nazareth:

Ernesto Nazareth es el compositor popular brasilefio mas importante, el que cristaliz6 y
dej 6 en el papel nuestras mej ores caracteristicas populares.4

(Ernesto Nazareth is the most important popular Brazilian composer. He materialized and
registered on paper our best popular characteristics.)

From Concertino until Divertimento, one can see the evolutionary line that Nobre

followed. While the Concertino is tonal, with some amplification on its harmonic field through a

progressive tonal expansion, the Divertimento is clearly polytonal with some dodecaphonic

treatment.45 This evolution follows a clear line according to the composer: tonal-modal-

polytonal-atonal. This progressive line is continuous; however, the composer does not disregard

his previous experiences. According to Nobre, his compositional taste and style is a clear mix

that results from an evolutionary process. He explains

...no siento la musica dentro de un sistema predeterminado, dentro de un esquema te6rico
fijo, intelectualmente estudiado. A media que mi campo de informaci6n musical-estetica
y tecnicamente- se fue ampliando, mediante la incorporaci6n de nuevos elements, estos
fueron sumergiendose en mi subconsciente, y alli permanecieron expandiendose,

41 Even though the characteristics from the later part of the fourth period remain the same up to the present, tlus
dissertation will just focus on characteristics up to 2004, the date of the latest orchestral work included in this study.

42Marlos Nobre composed many pieces before his formal opus 1. He destroyed all those pieces, however, believing
they were immature. Even though he believes his opus 1 represents a work of a young, immature composer, he kept
it in his catalogue because he likes the piece.

43Nazareth was a Brazilian pianist and composer who, according to Villa-Lobos, represented the true incarnation of
the Brazilian musical soul.

44Marlos Nobre in an interview. "Nueve Preguntas a Marlos Nobre," pp. 37-47.

45Even though the Divertimento falls in a more atonal language, the dodecaphonic section is built on six notes taken
from the Tenebroso tango by Nazareth.










moviendose hasta tomar cuerpo en nuevas ideas, una confusion geral, estallando aqui y
allia en obras, segitn las circunstancias.46

(...I don't feel the music into a pre-determined system within an intellectually studied
Eixed theoretical system. As my musical field of information-technically and aesthetically-
got amplified, through the incorporation of new elements, they got immersed in my
subconscious expanding and moving until they got transformed into new ideas, a general
confusion, exploding in works here and there, according to the circumstances.)

This continuous line evolves from the Concertino and is followed by Trio, Op. 4,

composed a year later with the presence of dodecaphonic ideas within an atonal center.

Afterwards, there are works such as Trds Cangd~es, Op. 9, where the melody of the third song is

completely atonal. The line Einally culminates in Divertimento, which is polytonal and atonal,

with some serial moments.

The second phase goes from Variag~es Ritmica~s, Op. 15, until Dia da Graga, Op. 32bis. It

starts in 1963, when Nobre is in Buenos Aires studying at the Torcuato di Tella Institute, and

lasts until 1968. Although Nobre learned a great deal of dodecaphonic technique under

Koellreutter, it was at the Torcuato Di Tella that he got more involved with the technique. The

seeds had been planted earlier, but Nobre needed some time to mature the idea. At the same time,

his compositional process had bent more in the direction of polytonality rather than tonality from

the beginning. Nobre explains that it is important to know that there are two time lines in

composition: a historical time line and the composer's own time line. The composer needs to go

through some experiences until he Einds his own voice or ponders some ideas to maturity.

According to Nobre, if a composer pushes certain things too early in the process, he will not be a

good composer and his pieces will sound forced, somehow. He said a composer must be patient






46 Marlos Nobre in an interview. "Nueve Preguntas a Marlos Nobre," pp. 37-47.










and wait for the right time to incorporate certain techniques, otherwise the compositional process

cannot be natural.47

This explains why Nobre did not follow directly to dodecaphony or serial techniques after

his lessons with Koellreutter. The techniques only matured when he was at the Torcuato Di

Tella. According to Nobre, his natural direction after the evolution he achieved in his first phase

was toward dodecaphony- and serialism. Nevertheless, he followed a slightly different path. His

evolutionary line did culminate in dodecaphony, but not the German type of dodecaphony-

exhausted by Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. Nobre was never convinced that the only way out

for a contemporary composer of that time was multi-serialism or total serialism.48 Nobre

followed the so-called Latin dodecaphony, such as the one seen in Italy, Argentina, and Brazil,

which was represented by composers such as Luigi Dallapiccola and Alberto Ginastera. This

type of dodecaphony- differs from the German version in that it is freer and without extremes,

wherein musical expression becomes more important than theory.

Variag~es Ritmica~s is the first work in which Nobre combines dodecaphonic or serial

techniques along with the use of typical Brazilian rhythms. His next works also follow that

evolutionary line: dodecaphony, serialism, multi-serialism, then indeterminacy. Nevertheless,

none of these techniques are followed strictly, but simply used as a means for possibilities. In

Ukrinmakinkrin, Op. 17 (1964), Nobre uses serial techniques with even more freedom than in

Variag~es Ritmica~s. He also uses aleatoric procedures in Ukrinmakinkrin for the first time.


47Conversations with Marlos Nobre Interview by the author. Rio de Janeiro, December 12, 2006.

48In fact, Polvphonie Xby Pierre Boulez has been the maximum stage of this type of evolution. The piece has just
been performed twice. After the performance of the work in Baden-Baden in 1951, Boulez declared his
disappointment with the piece and explained that although exclusively governed by theoretical rules and those being
efficiently explored, the result was not effective and too much artificial. The piece remains unpublished, however
there are two recordings of Polyphonie: one of the premiere by the Sinfonieorchester in Baden-Baden conducted by
Hans Hosbaud, another one of the first movement only by the symphony orchestra of the RAI conducted by Bruno
Maderna. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PolyphonieX accessed on January 31, 2007).










Subsequently, he makes extensive use of serialism in works such as Can2ticum hIstrumentale, Op.

25 (1967), and String QuartetlI, Op. 26 (1967). String Quartet Ilater serves as the basis for his

orchestral work, Biosfera, Op. 35. Although Nobre never planned to strictly follow any aesthetic

school, it is interesting to note that his 1968 piece, Tropical, Op. 30, for piccolo, clarinet, piano,

and percussion is completely aleatoric.

Nobre's third phase is the synthesis and integration of all processes assimilated by the

composer. The result of a combination of serialism, indeterminacy, and eventual polytonal

techniques culminates in a creative process that allows the composer to use all means available

without distinction or discrimination in order to fulfill his musical expression. While several

other composers were fighting to discover something new different theories or new ideas -

without necessarily paying attention to the musical result, Nobre understood the real need for a

composer to find the appropriate means to express his own musical ideas. He then realized that

the means were all there ready to be used. He explains

Mi ideologia musical es no tener ninguna ideologia o estetica preestablecida. Sin procurar
definir muy claramente mi posici6n, lo que pienso es muy dificil o impossible. Me siento
como una antena estimulada continuamente por las solicitaciones del mundo exterior, ese
mundo ambiente cada vez mas complejo, mas amplio, mas sorprendente. Me siento
tironeado por multiples excitaciones sensoriales tal cual una esponj a, yo absorbo y abarco
campos sensoriales cada vez mas vastos. El Arte es permanentemente mutable. Cada epoca
tiene sus limits propios hasta que Ilegue un artist que descubre el manto y encuentra
nuevos caminos. Yo ej ercito mi actividad como si estuviera siempre a punto de levantar el
manto que cubre nuestra epoca. No me preocupo en ser "innovador", 10 que seria ridicule
como actitud previa.4

My musical ideology is to not have any pre-established ideology or aesthetic. I try to
define my position very clearly but I believe it to be very difficult and perhaps impossible.
I feel like an antenna, continuously stimulated by the solicitations of the exterior world,
this world each day more complex, wider, and overwhelming. I feel surrounded by
multiple sensorial excitements and, just like a sponge, I absorb and embrace these growing
sensorial stimulations. Art is constantly changing. It faces its own limitations every time


49 Romano, Jacobo. "Marlos Nobre: El advenimiento de la electrC~nica fue un factor decisivo... Musicos de Hov" in
Buenos 4ires Musical, May, 1979.










until the next artist lifts the blanket and finds new ways. I exercise my activity as if I were
always on the verge of lifting that blanket. However, it is not my goal to be an "innovator,"
which would be a ridiculous attitude.

Nobre's third period contains pieces that range from his Concerto Breve, Op. 33, up to

Homenagem a Villa-Lobos, Op. 46, respectively from 1969 until 1977. It is during this phase that

Nobre develops his interest in simultaneously using a fixed notation along with a more flexible

notation. His process of using a more flexible notation is found through the use of proportional

notation and aleatoric notation. It is important to note that even when he uses aleatoric notation,

Nobre writes down every single note, and determines the duration of the sequence. This

characteristic becomes an important tool for the composer, who is able to combine his musical

thought with basic rhythmic memories of his childhood, extracted from the Maracatus of Recife:

rhythmic liberty and polyrhythmic structure within a fixed, rigorous pulse. This trend is notable

in every piece written during the third phase until his latest works.

On the other hand, works such as Concerto Breve, Ludus Instrumentalis, Op. 34, then

M~osaico, Op. 36, Sonoridadddddesdd~~~~dddd Op. 37, O Canto 2ultiplicado, Op. 38, and In 2emoriam, Op.

39, all present a mixture of combinations extracted from the Nobre's special use of serial and

aleatoric techniques alongside static blocks of sound. Still, each work is individually developed

and, at the same time, connected through Nobre's particular rhythmic impulse. The above

mentioned works are those that follow the composer's evolutionary line most specifically.

Consequently, they become the most significant translation of Nobre' s personal style of the

1970s.

It was not until the 1980s, though, that Nobre assured himself of a more determined

posture related to what the real outcome of his personal and individual musical language and

style would be. He began his fourth period having matured after a two-year period of silence.










Even though he previously explored all of the characteristics of his more mature period, Nobre

was able to develop and extend his musical language and compositional process.

From YanomaniY~~YYY~~~YY~~~YY Op. 47 (1980) forward, Nobre emerged with a more defined aesthetic

thought. In her 1994 article, "SoutllincL ial\ III, Op. 49 de Marlos Nobre," Brazilian pianist and

scholar Maria Luiza Corker-Nobre, the composer's wife, emphasizes how three aspects of

Nobre' s music rhythm, harmony, and form evident in his music as early as the 1970s, gain

stronger character in the works that date after 1980. By the 1990s, Nobre began to rely more

frequently on tonal formal structures and a combination of traditional and contemporary

elements, as one can see in later works such as Passacaglia for Orchestra, Op. 84, and

Kabbalah, Op. 96. The direct use of Nobre' s serialism and the presence of the twelve tones are

almost inexistent in his fifth period.

Nobre extended his previous compositional ideas and entered his fourth and fifth periods

as a continuation of his earlier development. However, he did so with more focus on important

traditional features such as melody, form, and tonality, which were completely abolished by the

most experimental aesthetic. From the beginning of the 1980s on, rhythm becomes a stronger

characteristic in his works through Brazilian rhythmic manifestations, especially those connected

with Northeast Brazil. His harmony becomes more dense and compact, with a complex texture

where tonal elements are not completely excluded. The composer shows preference for polytonal

clusters that cannot be defined by traditional harmonic analysis. His polyphonic writing has also

grown stronger. Free harmonies resulting from the independent lines create a certain conflict that

makes perfect sense in the compositional context. Beyond any use of traditional forms, the

composer emphasizes the importance of formal structure, making it a strong characteristic of his

works. Each piece has its own formal structure, which represents the search for a new structural










conception as a means of realizing new ideas. The principle of development and organic

variation of the motives and initial ideas has become the strongest obsession of the composer.

It is important to note that, although Nobre makes use of certain traditional compositional

tools, his music should not be seen as neoclassical because he does not follow the same tradition

as Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Hindemith, and other neoclassical composers who followed the

classical model more closely. According to Nobre, he studies the great classical composers, "and

through deep attention to their works he extracts the formal, structural, and creative impulses that

lie underneath the great masterpieces of the past."'

Nobre' s compositional traj ectory has followed a continuous evolutionary line. However, it

is necessary to point out that while the composer developed works to follow a logical and

progressive evolution, he also composed works that were completely outside his main stylistic

focus. Some of these works, composed in different time periods, can fit within the aesthetic

perspective and compositional style of his first period. When asked about this, the composer

said:

The stylistic exceptions of my progressive, creative process are many, and they belong
mostly to ideas that were born earlier but that had no time to grow and mature because I
was being exposed to new ideas all the time, which moved me to write something else.
However, those early ideas that were left on the side still in their embryonic stage never
died, and they reappeared in those works. 5

Some of the works that can be classified as stylistic exceptions are: Agd-Lonci, Op. 16,

Praiana~s, Op. 18, Trds Coros de Natal, Op. 19, Dengues da2~ulata Desinteressada, Op. 20,

Beirama~r, Op. 21, M~odinha, Op. 23, Sonata Breve, Op. 24, Rhythmetron, Op. 27,

Convergdncia~s, Op. 28, Quinteto de Sopros, Op. 29, the whole series of Desatios, Op. 31, and



50 Corker-Nobre, Maria Luiza. "Soncincias III, Op. 49 de Marlos Nobre" in Latin 4merican M~usic Review, 1994.
51 Conversations with Marlos Nobre.









Dia da Graga, Op. 32. Most of these compositions were based on folkloric motives from

northeastern Brazil and harmonically belong to Nobre's first stylistic period. Nevertheless, the

composer affirms that he never worried about being faithful to any stylistic aesthetic. His main

obj ective as a composer is to express his musical ideas. Writing those pieces allowed his mind to

rest. Otherwise, he would have been mentally tortured.52

Other pieces ended up being written anacronistically, and this has become another feature

of the composer: writing pieces based on past ideas or rewriting them in a different context. The

composer brings ideas from the past and makes them part of the present as if there were no time

separations, thereby making the past a feature of the present. Examples of this include: H~omage

to Rubinstein, Op.40, the basic idea of which is based on the Presto variation of Concerto Breve

for piano and orchestra; M~omentos I, II, and III, Op. 41, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, for guitar; Quarto Ciclo

Nordestino, Op. 43, which follows the same idea as the previous three, written eleven years

earlier and based on the folklore of northeast Brazil; Quatro M~omentos, Op. 44; Variagaes sobre

um tema de Bdla Bartok, Op. 45, and H~omenagem a Villa-Lobos, Op. 46, which takes the initial

idea of the series of Desafios but develops it differently. Two pieces analyzed later in this study,

Biosfera, Op.35, and Concerto II for String Orchestra, Op. 53, also deserve mention in this

section. Biosfera is an extension of Nobre' s String Quartet I, and Concerto II for String

Orchestra contains material from the String Quartet l in its third movement. The String Quartet

belongs to the second period, while the other two pieces belong to Nobre's third and fourth

phases respectively.

Nobre's orchestral works belong to his third, fourth, and fifth phases. They display a

mature approach and represent Nobre' s strongest characteristics. Unfortunately, these works had


52 Ibid.










not been studied and analyzed until now. The orchestral works have been the medium through

which Nobre has had the widest possibilities to express his musical ideas and thoughts. The

works discussed in this study summarize all of his compositional development, ranging from

1968 to 2004.









CHAPTER 3
SEARCH FOR AN IDENTITY

This chapter discusses Marlos Nobre's orchestral pieces that were composed in the late

1960s and the 1970s. They demonstrate how Nobre developed his compositional techniques.

These pieces represent the composer's increasing involvement with advanced techniques. The

pieces discussed below belong to the third period and were composed after the composer had

developed a more personal and definite musical language. All of the characteristics present in

these works remain part of his writing style even when he reaches a more mature age in his

fourth phase.

Unlike the original catalogue, this author decided to put Converg~ncia~s, Op. 28, after In

M~emoriamn, Op. 39. Although Converg~ncia~s was written based on a ballet of 1968, the ideas

explored by the composer represent developments used more often in the late 1970s, rather than

the late 1960s. Thus, there is a discrepancy in the opus number sequence.

Biosfera, Op. 35 (1970)

In 1967, Nobre wrote his String Quartet No. 1, Op. 26, named Biosfera. The work has

three movements: I Variantes, II -1nterluidio, III -Postluidio. It was commissioned by the

Broadcasting Music Service of Brazil and premiered on October 23, 1967 by the Federal

University of Rio de Janeiro String Quartet. The performance took place at Sala del Instituto de

Cultura Hispinica (Hispanic Cultural Institute Hall) in Madrid at the II Festival de Musica de

America y Espafia (Second Festival of Music from America and Spain).

In 1968, Nobre was commissioned by Teatro Novo to compose a ballet, and he decided to

explore ideas from the first and second movements of his String Quartet no. 1. The result was

the ballet Biosfera (Pas-de-deux), Op. 26a, in one act and two scenes: I Variantes, II -

Nocturnal. It was premiered on October 16, 1968 at Teatro Novo in Rio de Janeiro by the










Brazilian Ballet Company, with choreography by Arthur Michell and Nobre conducting the

Musica Nova String Orchestra.

Biosfera, Op. 35, for String Orchestra was written in 1970. Nobre used the score from the

first and second movements of his String Quartet No. 1 and added a double bass line. It was

premiered on January 27, 1971, at the Auditorium of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in

Lisbon, performed by the Gulbenkian Chamber Orchestra under the direction of Carlos Eduardo

Prates. In 1974, the piece received the International Rostrum of Composers Prize/IMC/UNESCO

in Paris.

Although it used the same music as the String Quartet I, the orchestral version of the piece

presents some differences. For instance, the tempo markings for the first two movements in the

string quartet are quarter note equals 80 and quarter note equals 50, respectively, while in the

orchestral version the first movement is played slower with quarter note equals 72, and the

second movement is slightly faster with quarter note equals 52. Other changes are found when

comparing both scores; there are slight modifications in the measure numbers with some addition

and subtraction of notes and rhythmic figures. This gives the orchestral version of Biosfera a

completely new feeling.

Unlike the String Quartet I, Biosfera for String Orchestra has two movements: I -

Variantes, II Pos\lthlil.l The composer decided to end the piece on the second movement of

the original string quartet, which makes it a completely different piece. According to the

composer, the title comes from the Greek bios (life) and sphaira (sphere), which means life on

earth. The main idea in the piece is to represent the birth, development and death of life on earth.

This process generates a cyclical idea, where death completes a circle of reintegration into


SAlthough the second movement of the string quartet is named "Interluidio," the second movement of Biosfera for
String Orchestra is named "Postluilio."









nature. It is not a surprise that the composer writes a piece thinking of more abstract

philosophical allusion even though the piece is far from descriptive. Nobre has always been a

devoted student who is proud of his humanistic formation. He explains

...fui sempre um leitor compulsive, lendo na biblioteca do meu pai, em Recife, todo
Dostoeivsky nos meus 14 anos, e Roger Martin du Gard "Os Thibaud", em francis, ou
"Narciso e Goldmundo", de Herman Hesse, que eram meus livros de cabeceira no period
de formaCgo, ao lado de Mario de Andrade, muito Mario de Andrade, cuj as cartas a
Manuel Bandeira eram minha fascinaCio. Estudei e me formei em Sociologia e Economia
Political com professors como Gilberto Freyre e Pinto Ferreira na Universidade de Recife,
e convivi em minha juventude com Ascengo Ferreira e Ariano Suassuna,
permanentemente. Como v6, sou essencialmente musico e compositor, mas nio somente
isto. Orgulho-me de minha ampla formaCgo humanistica2 .

...I have always been a compulsive reader. When I was 14 I read everything by
Dostoievsky from my father' s study in Recife. Les Thibardt by Roger Martin du Gard in
French and Narcissus and Goldmund by Herman Hesse used to be my night stand books
along with Mario de Andrade during my growing days. I read much of Mario de Andrade
and I was fascinated by his letters to Manuel Bandeira. I studied and got a degree in
Sociology and Political Economy under professors such as Gilberto Freyre and Pinto
Ferreira at the University of Recife and spent a great deal of my youth together with
Ascengo Ferreira and Ariano Suassuna. As you see, I am essentially a musician and a
composer, but that is not it all. I am very proud of my wide humanistic education. ..

The piece was composed from four notes that come from the name BACH, in German (Bb,

A, C, B natural). (Figure 3-1) In a dramatic way, the first movement depicts mankind's spiritual

vocation in confrontation with the harsh realities of life, such as oppression, suffering, and death.

It presents transformations on the series derived from the BACH theme and has a strong

character in its harmony and rhythm.3

The second movement presents a more positive attitude of hope through a more melodious,

polyphonic context, where the dramatic climax explores the theme in a polyphonic complexity.

This represents the hope carried by mankind that love will prevail over brutality.4


SMarques, Cl6vis. 4 Muisica Forte de Marlos Nobre, Rio de Janeiro: O Globo, August 21, 2006.

SProgram Notes for Biosfera, Op. 35, by Marlos Nobre.

SProgram Notes for Biosfera, Op. 35, by Romain Goldron, L~man Classics.














B A C H


Figure 3-1 BACH motive used by Marlos Nobre in several of his pieces

Although the composer gives two subtitles for the continuous movements in the piece, the

work is actually one big movement. 5 (Table 3-1)

Table 3-1 Biosfera, Op. 35: formal struture
1. Variantes 2. Postluidio
m.25 m.61 m. 106 m. 161 m. 189 m. 222
Intro. Var. I Var.II Var. III Var. IV Var. V



The first movement is written in variation form. It begins with 24 measures of vertical

accented chords that first spell Bb, C, A, B natural, Bb from low to high. This BACH motive is

addressed by the composer in several different pieces, as one can see in some of the following

works presented in this study. It becomes a personal signature. When asked about this, the

composer replied

...N~o sei exatamente quando e por qud surgiu o meu interesse pelo tema BACH e sua
utilizaCio em minhas obras. Tenho lembrangas claras de, por volta de meus 16 anos, ter
caido em minhas m~os uma publicaCgo da Revue M~usicale de Paris,~~~~PPPPP~~~~PPPP que publicava um
anexo de partituras de compositores vivos. E o que li, especifieamente, era uma Hommage
a Bach, tendo varios compositores escrito peas para diversos instrumentos sobre o nome
BACH. Lembro-me especifieamente de uma pega de Francis Poulenc, para piano, e outra
de Alfredo Casella tambem para piano, que na epoca me interessaram muito. Depois
estudando a Arte da Fuga de Bach, impressiounou-me quando na ultima e inacabaca Fuga,
o pr6prio Bach cita o tema do seu nome.
Bem, a partir dai, a semente estava plantada e comegou a germinar em meu subconsciente.
A primeira obra em que utilize o tema BACH foi no Divertimento para piano e orquestra
de 1963,escrito em Buenos Aires, sobretudo no 20 movimento. Posteriormente foram
seguindo outras obras, onde o tema era utilizado ocasionalmente no meio da composiCio,
as vezes como ligagio tematica de seCies distintas.


5 The same division cannot be used for the String QuartetlI. There, the first movement is really separated from the
second one. The orchestral version contains a held note in the double bass provides continuity.










No Quartet de Cordas nolI de 1967 entretanto e a primeira vez em que o tema e utilizado
como germe, como fonte fundamental, como ideia germinal de toda a obra. O lo
movimento e portanto uma serie de variantes sobre o tema BACH e o 3o movimento e
inteiramente baseado nele.
Depois veio Biosfera, que como voc6 sabe, e uma extensio do Quarteto de Cordas (10
20movimentos) escrita em 1970.
Depois em 1981, escrevi o Concerto para Cordas II cuj o lo movimento e inteiramente
baseado no tema BACH. O motive BACH entretanto seria usado esporadicamente em
outras obras, como citaCio de uma fonte, para mim, important de constant inspiraCgo.6

...I don't know exactly when and why I developed the interest in the BACH motive and
the use of it in my works. I remember well that when I was around 16 years old, I got
acquainted with a publication from Revue M~usicale ofParis which published an appendix
of scores of living composers. I remember reading specifically some type of Homage to
Bach, where several composers wrote pieces for many different media using the BACH
motive. I remember specifically two pieces that caught my attention at the time: a piano
piece by Francis Poulenc and another one, also for piano, by Alfredo Casella. Moreover,
studying the Art ofFugue I became really impressed when Bach used his own name's
theme on the unfinished last Fugue.

From that point on, the seed was planted and started germinating in my subconscious. I
first used the BACH theme in my Divertimento for Piano and Orchestra, especially in the
second movement, written in Buenos Aires in 1963. Later, I used it in some other pieces
too, but just occasionally in the middle of the composition or sometimes as a thematic
connection between two different sections.

The String Quartet of 1967, however, is the first piece in which I use the theme as the
basic foundation source for the whole composition; the first movement is, therefore, a
series of variations on the name BACH and the third movement is entirely based on it.

Then, in 1970, came Biosfera, which is an extension of the String Quartet No.1I. In 1981, I
wrote the Concerto for String Orchestra II, in which the first movement is entirely based
on the BACH theme. The motive appears in some other works as a source of constant
inspiration.

Although the str-ucture on the first page is mainly vertical, each instrument plays the twelve

tones of the chromatic scale without repetition. The double bass line always doubles another

instrumental line and the tone cluster formed by the down bow is always a four-note chromatic

pitch set. (Figure 3-2)




6 COnversations with Marlos Nobre.















ViolmtJ = ~t


a "L"






























II


~Mr~brr


Y I


n1


Figure 3-2 Opening page for Biosfera, Op. 35, measures 1 through 24


v.


BIOSFERA









This introduction part is followed by five variations. Although the first 24 measures state

the motive and material to be explored in the variations, it is difficult to call it a theme because

the variations do not follow a similar melodic or harmonic structure. They make use ofNobre's

own serialism, which in this case explores the use of all twelve tones in a chromatic result from

the intervals present in the BACH motive.

Variation I (mm. 25-60) develops the twelve-note line in a clearly horizontal way,

independently creating a counterpoint. Nobre proves he has mastered polyphonic writing by

paying attention to important contrapuntal rules. For instance, while one voice skips in a certain

direction, the others either remain on the same notes or move a step in an opposite direction. The

composer explores all possibilities of motion: parallel, similar, contrary and oblique. At the end

of this section there is rhythmic diminution. This also accelerates the presentation of the twelve

pitches in all voices. While it takes about fourteen measures to introduce all pitches in the

beginning of the variation, it takes only two bars toward the end of it. This section demonstrates

the use of pitch prolongation, a strong characteristic in Nobre's writing. Nobre uses this

technique to create tension in the score, emphasizing the dissonant, uneasy harmonies. The

composer continues to use the twelve-note motive, each time with more freedom. (Figure 3-3)

Variation II (mm. 60-105) continues the polyphonic idea with the inclusion of canonic

gestures. The lines develop different rhythmic figures and play nearly independently. The

instruments now play a five-note chromatic pitch set, which connects it to the first page. The

canonic gestures are intercepted by tremolos and glissandi that explore the BACH motive

transposed to different pitches. (Figure 3-4)











































~-~C~`nc-~n
a

Inv. I I I


nar. I I I Z


)
mr.


ar.
c:

nr


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Figure 3-3 Horizontal twelve-tone development of Variation I mm. 25-41 (left). Rhythmic

diminution at the end of Variation I and beginning of Variation II mm. 53-64 (right)


Figure 3-4 Tremolos and Glissandi around BACH motive of Variation II, mm. 80-91










88









Variation III7 (mm. 106-160) displays the composer' s knowledge of advanced instrumental

techniques. Strings play pizzicato glissandi, as indicated in the score. (Figure 3-5) Measures 117

through 120 present the five-note chromatic pitch set in the eighth notes played pizzicato, which

anticipates the idea to be developed. The score indicates that the strings should play in pizzicato

as mandolins. This creates some special effects that add to the idea of advanced instrumental

technique explored earlier in the variation. Then the instruments play chord tremolos. Each

instrument, except double bass, gets three notes to play in a chord, forming all together twelve

pitches. The section ends with instruments playing "col legno." This effect, produced by

performers striking the strings with the wooden part of the bow, contains a dry, muffled type of

sound that prevents one from hearing any definite pitches. (Figure 3-6)

Variation IV (mm. 161-188) presents twelve tones played in blocks by the instruments,

completing all the pitches either vertically or horizontally. Then they play a five-note chromatic

pitch set again with tremolo, sul ponticello in measures 167 and 168. This technique of playing at

the bridge of the instrument produces a type of eerie sound. When one adds tremolo to it, one

gets the most effective sound result. The tremolos use the notes E (Vc), Eb (Vla), D (Vn2), F

(Vn1), and F# (Cb), starting in this order, this time moving the five-note chromatic pitch set in a

parallel direction. In measure 172, there is a change of pitch set to C-C#-F-F#G [01256], going

back to [01234] in Eb-E-F-F#-G in m.182.

Variation V (m. 189-221) begins with the climax of the movement. The twelve notes are

played within one measure (m. 189). After the climatic moment, the piece follows a continuous

diminuendo. The chords change, but preserve the twelve-note idea until measure 217, when a set

of repeating chords displays the twelve notes again, finalizing the movement. (Figure 3-7)


SVariation III begins one measure earlier in the String QuartetlI, Op. 26 (1967).
















"P

rf~ 1'/
~ 4p~Cs~


r~L I I I *L I~I -ITacP~\


i'" I I I-~c~a


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Figure 3-5 Pizzicato Glissandi from Variation III mm. 106-114

The first movement merges into the second movement, Posthzidio, which comes in one

section. The strings play in harmonics and set the atmosphere for the movement, which, as

described earlier, represents a more positive attitude of the hope carried by mankind that good

will prevail over evil. The atmosphere is slow and peaceful, and it gives birth to a melodic line

first played by the viola and then imitated by the cello. This melody is built using the twelve

tones through four-note chromatic sets derived from the BACH motive. (Figure 3-8)






















W




vrn


I
9~w
vie.




Vc.

d~ ~a~u

pit



a


Y~II~P-~H~ICIP3~P la


W

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d


vc.

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C



L r L
YLI




Mr





n.


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prr


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Figure 3-6 Variation III mm. 115 through 131 with [01234] motive from measures 117-120

followed by mandolin-like section mm. 121-124, followed by string chordal tremolos


III~YC
~L


pd


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PCS.Mig agno eng$5


olo


VL 8





vc.






Figure 3-7 End of first movement and beginning of second movement, mm. 217-227
















Figure 3-8 Viola solo line of the second movement, mm. 228-239


2. POSTLUDIO







































k
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i C**`- R


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rr u- ;. -.I. .. 1, ~, 'h
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1JI f--~-~


After the melody is transposed and played by the cello, the movement enters in a passage


of effects where the instruments play an extension of the harmonics displayed in the beginning of


the movement. The composer uses both "natural harmonics" and artificiall harmonics." The so-


called artificial harmonics are produced two octaves higher than the actual note. This effect is


noted with a small diamond shape note on the perfect fourth above the real note. Performers then



lightly touch these higher perfect fourth notes in order to produce the harmonics. (Figure 3-9)


L

v,

r~
'"
.r!




Cr


Figure 3-9 Artifieial harmonics passage mm. 245-256










The melody comes back again. This time it is more developed and in a contrapuntal

format, having all instruments play the melody in a canonic imitation. The counterpoint gets

more intense each time until it reaches the climax of the movement in measure 274, when

instruments play the BACH motive again in a frenetic, intensive way using tremolos. (Figure 3-

10)

The piece decreases gradually and the melody comes one more time in the end, played by

the viola, the cello, and again by the viola. The piece ends in a slow, static way.


_7!
-~~~`~`~-~-~---~I~---~~ f'~-~,~-~-~i
-;r
'~" c
'i ;-~t~-~-~_l I-~-~.-~_:-~-~-~-~-~;~'
X -- -. ---- ~--~P-- --


Figure 3-10 Climax section of the second movement, mm. 269-283










Mosaico, Op. 36 (1970)

Composed in February of 1970, M~osaico, Op. 36, won second prize at the Second

Guanabara Music Festival in Rio de Janeiro in May of that year. The work was first played

during the festival by the Brazilian Symphonic Orchestra under the direction of Armando

Krieger.

A year later, on October 22, 1971, a ballet in one act and three scenes based on the music

of the three movements of Mosaico was premiered at the Municipal Theater of Rio de Janeiro by

the Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Henrique Morelenbaum with choreography by

Hector Zaraspe. Although it used M~osaico' s music, the ballet is named Autopsia para minha

sombre (Autopsy for my shadow), Op. 36a, and it was also written in 1970. The ballet is about

ten minutes longer than the orchestral piece.

M~osaico for orchestra has been under the attention of music critics and musicologists as an

early display of Nobre' s command of sophisticated techniques in the beginning of the 1970s. In

this work, Nobre proves his admiration for the new techniques explored by twentieth-century

Polish composers. Nevertheless, Nobre' s use of textural music and sound mass involves such a

sense of engineering that its sophistication takes more from the composer than from the

performers.9

This work is perhaps one of the most avant-garde that he composed. However, Nobre' s

attachment to tradition and Brazilian roots are still present. He uses a traditional staged format

and includes typical Brazilian instruments, such as chocalhos (maracas), bongos, congas, and

agogas (cow-bells) in the percussion section.

SThe composer writes one page with instructions for the appropriate interpretation of symbols.

9Earls, Paul. "Marlos Nobre: Ukrimakrinkrin and Mosaico." Yearbook for International Ahtsical Research, vol. 8,
Austin: University of Texas at Austin, Institute of Latin American Studies, pp. 178-180. (4nuario Interamericano de










Nobre's complex and brilliant orchestration puts him in a special position. His way of

conveying musical ideas may not be completely new, but it is certainly worthy of observation.

As in most of his works, Nobre concentrates on bigger gestures, as opposed to small intellectual

problems and difficulties.'o

The work is written for full orchestra, including three percussionists plus timpani. It

contains three highly contrasting movements played without breaks. (Table 3-2)

Table 3-2 M~osaico, Op. 36: formal structure
1-Densidades 2-Ciclos 3-Jogos
m. 46 m.76 m. 102 m. 118 m. 133 m. 173
1-A ............1-B. ................... .....2-A ........... .2-B............. .2-A '....... ..3 A ......3- .

The first movement, Densidaddddd esddddd~~~~~~ (Densities), explores texture and sound mass from the

various instrumental sections in the orchestra. The use of a large number of instruments

contributes to a heavy texture, while the absence of certain instruments generates a thinner layer.

Sometimes the composer uses the contrast between different weight instruments, such as

woodwinds and brass, making them attack successively in sonorous blocks"l

The movement has two sections, and is built over the twelve notes of the chromatic scale.

The initial chord and gesture display all twelve pitches that will later be developed. It is

important to note that, while playing all twelve tones spread through the orchestra, the

vibraphone plays a three-note chromatic motive in the first measure, which is important material

for the unification of the whole piece. In the third bar, the composer divides the twelve-note

str-ucture into three groups of four notes each. The instruments determined for each group play a

certain rhythmic str-ucture in a free way for a certain amount of time. The composer selects the

pitches to be used by each instrumental group, and they play the rhythmic figures almost in an

'o Ibid.

'' Program Notes for Mosaico, Op. 36, by Marlos Nobre.










improvisational way. Nobre creates three such groups. The first is played by the oboes and the

English horn; the second by the clarinets and bass clarinet. The initial group then moves to the

piccolo and flutes and the second group moves to the bassoons and counter bassoon. Later, a

third group appears in the trumpets. Afterward, some pitches are played individually by certain

instruments. It sounds aleatoric, as if it were played randomly. However, every note is written

and controlled by the composer, except for some of the rhythms. (Figures 3-11 and 3-12)








Figure 3.11. Three-note initial motive in M~osaico, Op. 36

1.D~ENSIDADES


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Figure 3-13 Second section of2~osaico, mm. 46-47 with beginning of chromatic motive in the

strings (A). Extension of chromatic motives through descending chromatic lines on

the strings (B)



The second section of this movement begins at the climatic point and presents the strings



playing a controlled improvisatory part over the twelve notes. The composer divides the strings



into groups, and each has a group of notes to play in a certain order. Afterward, Nobre gives a



chromatic descending line to each group of instruments and they play continuously. While the



first part (section A) focuses more on a horizontal sonority through sustained chords, this part



(section B) adds some vertical effects. Above the strings, the other instruments are organized into



groups of woodwinds, brass, piano, harp, and percussion. They alternate clusters and rhythmic









sections until the end of the movement, which connects to the second one through a held note on

the first flute. (Figure 3-13)

The second movement, Ciclos (Cycles), is based on an initial sound and rhythmic

structures, which repeats with slight modifications after a certain number of events in the music.

This movement presents a more lyrical section. The cyclical idea also applies to the way the solo

instruments expose their particular melodies, where Nobre uses a certain number of sounds that

surround each other continuously. 12

The movement has three sections: A, B (starting on measure 102) and A' (starting on

measure 118). It presents the same initial three-note chromatic motive [012] in the harp. In fact,

this movement explores this short motive instead of dividing the twelve notes of the chromatic

scale into fragments as the first movement does. It is interesting to note that although the first

movement has only two sections (A and B), the contrasting ideas developed there are carried

through the second movement. In other words, while the A section in the first movement carries

a more horizontal development through a mass of sustained chords, the A section in the second

movement keeps this linear idea through melodic motives that pass from one instrument to

another. The melodic motives are constructed from the initial pitch material [012]. (Figure 3-14)

Similar to the B section of the first movement, the middle section of the second movement

presents a more vertical development through accents in the xylophone, piano, piccolo, flute, and

percussion. The twelve tones are slowly introduced in this middle section and Nobre increases

the tension in the movement when he presents them subtly in measures 107 through 109 until all

twelve tones finally meet in the same measure (m. 119), where the third section begins. (Figure

3-15)


I2 Ibid.

















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