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Connection to Nature

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020098/00001

Material Information

Title: Connection to Nature Developing a Measurement Scale
Physical Description: 1 online resource (172 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Pennisi, Lisa A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: behavior, connectedness, connection, conservation, development, outdoor, recreation, scale
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Time spent outside in outdoor recreation is in decline for both children and adults. Only 36% of Americans have visited a national park in the past ten years. Children spend an average of just 50 minutes each week in outdoor recreation. This lack of time spent outside could lead to a lack of connection to nature and in turn a decline in support for park and wilderness areas and the environment in general. The connection to nature construct bridges social identity theory, identity theory and value theory as an aspect of personal identity. Connection to nature is related to the values that guide behavior, role identities and group identities. Hence it may be a significant motivator of behavior, including park visitation and environmentally responsible behaviors. Connection to nature can also be seen as a 'hard to define' benefit of outdoor recreation experiences and as such is related to other benefits such as restoration and psychological well-being. To better understand, define and measure a person's level of relationship or connection to nature a mixed methods approach was used for this study. This approach facilitated a more thorough understanding of people's relationship to nature and aided in developing a scale that reflected this understanding. Interviews were conducted to explore how people felt about nature. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed nine themes (appreciation, awe, caring behaviors, fear, identity, oneness, restoration, sorrow and spirituality) that describe different aspects of how people feel about the natural world. Items were developed for each theme based on the analysis and the interviews themselves. The initial pool of 220 items were analyzed through a series of tests until a final survey instrument was developed. The final scale consists of 26 items across six dimensions (awe, fear, identity, restoration, sorrow and spirituality). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the fit of the model to the data. Theoretical and practical implications of the connection to nature scale and construct are discussed, including the implications for promoting environmentally responsible behavior. Limitations of this project and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lisa A Pennisi.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Holland, Stephen.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0020098:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0020098/00001

Material Information

Title: Connection to Nature Developing a Measurement Scale
Physical Description: 1 online resource (172 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Pennisi, Lisa A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: behavior, connectedness, connection, conservation, development, outdoor, recreation, scale
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Time spent outside in outdoor recreation is in decline for both children and adults. Only 36% of Americans have visited a national park in the past ten years. Children spend an average of just 50 minutes each week in outdoor recreation. This lack of time spent outside could lead to a lack of connection to nature and in turn a decline in support for park and wilderness areas and the environment in general. The connection to nature construct bridges social identity theory, identity theory and value theory as an aspect of personal identity. Connection to nature is related to the values that guide behavior, role identities and group identities. Hence it may be a significant motivator of behavior, including park visitation and environmentally responsible behaviors. Connection to nature can also be seen as a 'hard to define' benefit of outdoor recreation experiences and as such is related to other benefits such as restoration and psychological well-being. To better understand, define and measure a person's level of relationship or connection to nature a mixed methods approach was used for this study. This approach facilitated a more thorough understanding of people's relationship to nature and aided in developing a scale that reflected this understanding. Interviews were conducted to explore how people felt about nature. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed nine themes (appreciation, awe, caring behaviors, fear, identity, oneness, restoration, sorrow and spirituality) that describe different aspects of how people feel about the natural world. Items were developed for each theme based on the analysis and the interviews themselves. The initial pool of 220 items were analyzed through a series of tests until a final survey instrument was developed. The final scale consists of 26 items across six dimensions (awe, fear, identity, restoration, sorrow and spirituality). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the fit of the model to the data. Theoretical and practical implications of the connection to nature scale and construct are discussed, including the implications for promoting environmentally responsible behavior. Limitations of this project and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lisa A Pennisi.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Holland, Stephen.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0020098:00001


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CONNECTION TO NATURE: DEVELOPING A MEASUREMENT SCALE By LISA PENNISI A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007 1

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2007 Lisa Pennisi 2

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To Laura Pennisi and to Lori Love 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study could not have been completed without the assistance and support of many individuals. My heartfelt gratit ude is extended to all those who helped along the way. I am very thankful for all their sup port during this journey. In particular I would like to thank my committee Steve Holland, Lori Pennington-Gray, David Miller and Brij Thapa for all of their help and support throughout this process. Their support through all of the st ages, trials and tribula tions of this work and all of the vast knowledge and expertise imparted has and will always be deeply appreciated. Also, I would like to thank Carol Saunders and Jackie Ogde n, two members of the American Zoological Association for supporting the research from the beginning. Their financial and profession al support made this research possible. I must also mention the support of James Algina, Heather Gibson, Galen Trail, Debbie Treise for their invaluable consultations; Yong J ae Ko for his gracious expert help with the final analysis; and to Martha Monroe and Taylor Stein for past support in the init ial stages of graduate work. Finally I would like to thank Betty Dunckel for allowing me to conduct a preliminary study at the Florida Museum of Natural History. I would like to thank my cohort of gradua te students Seohee Chang, Chenchen Huang, John Jett, Jung-Eun Kim, Charles Lane and Luis Suau for their support and friendship. I must give special mention to Charlie Lane for his support, encouragement and assistance throughout the data collection and writing process. I could no t have finished without the gracious help and support of these wonderful colleagues. I must also thank my family and friends, especially David Pennisi and Paul Beacom, for all of their suppor t and encouragement in helping me attain my goals. I would also like to make special mention of friends Sally Ann Giess, Nikole Kadel, and Kathy Malone for friendship and support. And fi nally to Lori Love, although she was unable to finish her dissertation with us, she joins us in spirit. 4

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I am also very appreciative of those who help ed in the data collection process, from those who helped facilitate collection, to the many survey respondents at all stages of the research and to those who allowed me to interview them and share in their experien ces. Finally, I would like to thank the support staff in our department. Not only were they always there to help with anything I needed, but I am honored to call th em friends. Thank you Nancy Gullic, Judy Hopper and Donna Walker. 5

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................9 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................11 DEFINTION OF TERM S AND ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................12 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .17 Connection to Nature ..............................................................................................................18 Theoretical Framework ...................................................................................................20 Predicting Environmentally Responsible Behavior .........................................................21 Statement of the Problem ................................................................................................22 Purpose of the Study ...............................................................................................................25 Research Questions .........................................................................................................25 Qualitative methods were used to answer the following: ........................................25 Quantitative methods were used to answer the following: ......................................26 Delimitations ...................................................................................................................26 Limitations .......................................................................................................................26 Summary ..........................................................................................................................27 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................29 Value Theory ..........................................................................................................................29 Identity Theory .......................................................................................................................34 Implications of CTN to Envir onmentally Responsible Behavior ...........................................40 Connection Summary ......................................................................................................43 Measuring Environmentall y Responsible Behavior ........................................................45 Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................46 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................5 0 Research Design .....................................................................................................................50 Research Questions and Methods Used to Answer Questions: ..............................................50 Qualitative questions ................................................................................................50 Quantitative questions ..............................................................................................50 Overview of Scale Development Process ...............................................................................52 Step 1: Define the Construct ............................................................................................52 Step 2: Define Domains and Develop Test Items ...........................................................53 6

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Step 3: Item Scaling .........................................................................................................53 Step 4: Pilot Testing the Survey ......................................................................................54 Step 5: Pilot Testing the Survey to Sel ect and Revise Items Based on Item Analysis ....54 Step 6: Assess Reliability and Dimensionality ................................................................55 Step 7: Conduct Validation Studies (pre diction, convergent a nd divergent validity)....57 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........59 Results from Step 1: Define the Co nnection to Nature (CTN) Construct ..............................59 Tranquility/Restoration Theme .......................................................................................59 Awe/Marvel Theme.........................................................................................................62 Appreciation Theme ........................................................................................................66 Oneness Theme ...............................................................................................................68 Sorrow/Regret Theme .....................................................................................................73 Caring behaviors/Reciprocity Theme ..............................................................................76 Spirituality Theme ...........................................................................................................81 Identity Theme .................................................................................................................86 Fear Theme ......................................................................................................................90 Results for Steps 2 and 3: Develop a nd Test Items for Each Defined Domain ......................93 Results from Step 4: Pilot Testing the Survey: Selecting and Revising Items Based on Respondents ........................................................................................................................94 Results from Step 5: Pilot Testing the Survey: Selecting and Revising Items Based on Item Analysis ......................................................................................................................94 Results from Step 6: Assess Reliability and Internal Structure or Dimensionality ................95 Test One ...........................................................................................................................95 Test Two ..........................................................................................................................96 Participants ...............................................................................................................96 Item analysis .............................................................................................................97 Exploring, cleaning and splitting the data ................................................................97 Internal structure/dimensionality ..............................................................................98 Reliability ...............................................................................................................100 Convergent validity of th e internal structure ..........................................................100 Discriminant validity of the internal structure .......................................................100 Results from Step 7: Construct Validity Studies ..................................................................101 Convergent Validity ......................................................................................................101 Discriminant Validity ....................................................................................................102 Predictive Validity .........................................................................................................102 5 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................... ....131 Scale Development ...............................................................................................................134 Connection to Nature and Envir onmentally Responsible Behaviors ...................................136 Connection to Nature: A Six-dimensional Construct ...........................................................138 Implications ...................................................................................................................141 Limitations .....................................................................................................................143 Suggestions for Future Research ...................................................................................144 7

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APPENDIX A INTERVIEW LIST............................................................................................................... 146 B INTERVIEW GUIDE...........................................................................................................149 C ITEM SCALING................................................................................................................. .151 D SURVEY SECTIONS..........................................................................................................158 E LIST OF SURVEYS WITH SECTIONS.............................................................................159 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................160 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................172 8

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1 Scales for CTN and similar constructs ...............................................................................28 2-1 Common themes found in seven qualitative studies. .........................................................49 3-1 Scale development process ................................................................................................58 4-1 Item analysis for tranquility items ...................................................................................105 4-2 Item analysis for remaining tranquility items ..................................................................105 4-3 Item analysis for awe items ..............................................................................................106 4-4 Item analysis for remaining awe items ............................................................................107 4-5 Item analysis for appreciation items ................................................................................107 4-6 Item analysis for remaining appreciation items ...............................................................108 4-7 Item analysis for caring items ..........................................................................................109 4-8 Item analysis for remaining caring items .........................................................................110 4-9 Item analysis for fear items ..............................................................................................111 4-10 Item analysis for remaining fear items .............................................................................111 4-11 Item analysis for spirituality items ...................................................................................112 4-12 Item analysis for sorrow/grief items ................................................................................113 4-13 Item analysis for remaining sorrow/grief items ...............................................................113 4-14 Item analysis for oneness items .......................................................................................114 4-15 Item analysis for remaining oneness items ......................................................................115 4-16 Item analysis for identity items ........................................................................................116 4-17 Item analysis for remaining identity items .......................................................................117 4-18 Participant demographics .................................................................................................117 4-19 Outdoor recreation participation ......................................................................................118 4-20 Self-reported average ho urs participation in outd oor recreation per month ....................118 9

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4-21 Political party ...................................................................................................................118 4-22 Degree of conservatism ....................................................................................................118 4-23 Data set A: Mean scores, standard deviations, and skewness and kurtosis values for 47 CTN scale items (n=248) ............................................................................................119 4-24 Data set B: Mean scores, standard deviations, and skewness and kurtosis values for 47 CTN scale items ..........................................................................................................121 4-25 Exploratory factor analysis results: Factor, Cronbachs al pha and factor loadings for CTN items ........................................................................................................................123 4-26 Confirmatory factor analysis results: Factor loadings, cri tical ratios (C.R.), Cronbachs alpha and AVE for CTN Items .....................................................................124 4-27 Results of the most parsimonious measurement and structural model test .....................125 4-28 Results of the measurement and structural model test .....................................................125 4-29 Correlations matrix for the 6 dimensions .........................................................................126 4-30 Correlations for conve rgent validity and CTN ................................................................126 4-31 Correlations for discriminant validity and CTN dimensions ...........................................126 4-32 Correlations between CTN dimensions and forms of environmental concern ................127 4-33 Exploratory factor analysis results: Factor, Cronbachs al pha and factor loadings for ERB items ........................................................................................................................127 4-34 Stepwise regression for pred icting the 3Rs ERB from CTN ..........................................128 4-35 Hierarchical regression for predicting civic ERB from CTN ..........................................128 4-36 Hierarchical regression for predic ting the committed ERBs from CTN ........................128 5-1 Connection to nature themes ............................................................................................145 A-1 Males interviewed ............................................................................................................147 A-2 Females interviewed ........................................................................................................148 10

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Model of chapter organization: The rela tionship of values to identity and CTN ..............47 2-2 Value-attitude hierarchy .....................................................................................................47 2-3 Value belief norm theory ...................................................................................................48 2-4 Group and role identities revolving around the core self ...................................................48 2-5 Hypothetical model of identity relationships .....................................................................48 4-1 Second-order factor model ...............................................................................................129 4-2 The measurement model ..................................................................................................130 11

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DEFINTION OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Affect Affect implies emotions, moods, and sentiment (Myers, Saunders, & Birjulin, 2004). In the tripartite theory of attitudes, affect is the emotional, non-cognitive, aspects of attitudes (P etty, Fabrigar, & Wegener, 2002). Altruistic Altruistic refers to other human centered views and value orientations. Altruism is an act of helping ot hers, while ignori ng self-interest. Attitudes Attitudes are an evaluation of an object as positive or negative. Attitudes include cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects. As constructs, attitudes are not directly observabl e, but inferred through responses. Attitudes are dispositional tendencies that can be temporary or longstanding (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993) pp. 1-4). Beliefs Beliefs are cognitively based associations about the characteristics and qualities of an object. People have many beliefs about objects and these beliefs can be temporary or long lasting. (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) pp.6263). Beliefs mediate between attitudes and values (Stern & Dietz, 1994). Stable beliefs form values and represen t the core of ones belief system or value orientations (Vaske & Donnelly, 1999). Biospheric Nature centered views and value orientations. An ecological centered view of the world in line with Leopolds land ethic wher eas ecosystems and all of their natural components are highly valued as essential. CNS Connectedness to Nature Scale (M ayers & Frantz, 2004). Unidimensional scale developed to measure CTN. CTN Connection to nature was define d by Mayers & Frantz (2004b) as a unidimensional construct that is emo tional in nature relating to feeling oneness with nature. Schultz (2002) ha s described CTN as a tripartite structure with affective, cognitive an d behavioral aspects. Connection to nature is likely related to identity (Clayton, 2003). Egoistic Self centered views or self-interest. Environmental concern The expression of value orie ntations and refers to the affective concerns about environmental issues (S chultz, 2000, 2001, 2002). Schultz (2002) found three concerns related to the va lue orientations in Sterns ValueBelief-Norm Theory: egoistic, altrui stic, and biospheric (Stern, 2000; Stern & Dietz, 1994; Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, & Kalof, 1999). 12

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Environmental identity Define d by Clayton & Opotow (2003) as the way in which we define the environment, the degree of simila rity we perceive between ourselves and other components of the natural world, and whether we consider nature and nonhuman natural entiti es to have standing as valued components of our social and moral community (p. 8). Furthermore they propose that environmental identity has multiple meanings, is dynamic in nature and occurring along a dimens ion of varying levels of social influence (Clayton & Opotow, 2003). EEB Environmentally responsible behaviors. Behaviors that benefit the environment such as recycling, composting, conservation and reducing consumption. Norms Beliefs about what most people, whether your in-group, significant others, family or society, does and expects in regards to attitudes and behaviors. Norms affect behavior if people ar e motivated to comply and conform accordingly. Personal identity The core aspect of self. This is the aspect of self-concept that defines who we are our values, goals, the groups we belong to, roles we play and our behavior. Personal identity provides c onsistency in self-concept across situations. Personal identity is not well defined by either Social Identity Theory (where it is defined by the groups we join) or Identity Theory (where it is defined by the roles we play) (Hitlin, 2003; Stets & Biga, 2003; Stets & Burke, 2000; Zavestoski, 2003). Subjective norms Beliefs that significant others think you should or should not perform the behavior. Values Values are associated with relative ly abstract concepts such as equality, spirituality and peace (Eagly & Chaiken, p. 5). Rokeach (1973) defined values as beliefs that are intimately linked with self and organized into relatively enduring hierarchies of importance. According to Rokeach (1973), there are two types of values: 1) terminal values which are general goals or end-states of existence, a nd 2) instrumental values which are modes of conduct. In other words, a value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of co nduct or end-state of existence (Rokeach, 1973, 5). Therefore th ey are life goals or principles (Schultz, Shriver, Tabanico, & Khaz ian, 2004). Values are thought to be relatively low in number compared to attitudes, which can number in the thousands. Rokeach (1973) identified 36 values (18 instrumental values and 18 terminal values) (Vaske & Donnely, 1999). 13

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VBN Value-Belief-Norm Theory. A synthesi s theory developed to predict ERB. It is a synthesis of nor m activation theory, value theory and an ecological worldview or encompassing belief (t he New Environmental Paradigm or NEP) (Stern, 2000). Worldview The pattern of beliefs or va lue orientation. The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) is an example of a worldview. Since a worldview is a belief system it is primarily cognitive in nature and it infl uences attitudes. 14

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Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CONNECTION TO NATURE: DEVELOPING A MEASUREMENT SCALE By Lisa Pennisi December 2007 Chair: Stephen Holland Major: Health and Human Performance Time spent outside in outdoor recreation is in decline for bot h children and adults. Only 36% of Americans have visited a national park in the past ten y ears. Children spend an average of just 50 minutes each week in outdoor recreation. This lack of time spent outside could lead to a lack of connection to nature a nd in turn a decline in support for park and wilderness areas and the environment in general. The connection to nature construct bridges soci al identity theory, identity theory and value theory as an aspect of personal identity. Connection to nature is related to the values that guide behavior, role identities and group identities. Hence it may be a significant motivator of behavior, including park visitati on and environmentally responsib le behaviors. Connection to nature can also be seen as a hard to defin e benefit of outdoor recrea tion experiences and as such is related to other benefits such as restoration and psychological well-being. To better understand, define and measure a pers ons level of relationship or connection to nature a mixed methods approach was used for this study. This approach facilitated a more thorough understanding of peoples relationship to nature and aide d in developing a scale that reflected this understanding. Interviews were c onducted to explore how pe ople felt about nature. 15

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Thematic analysis of the interv iews revealed nine themes (appreciation, awe, caring behaviors, fear, identity, oneness, restoration, sorrow and spiritu ality) that desc ribe different aspects of how people feel about the natural world. Items were developed for each theme based on the analysis and the interviews themselves. The initial pool of 220 items were analyzed through a series of tests until a final survey instrument was develope d. The final scale consists of 26 items across six dimensions (awe, fear, identity, restoration, so rrow and spirituality). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the fit of the model to the data. Theoretical and practical implications of the connection to nature scale and construct are di scussed, including the implications for promoting environmentally responsible behavior. Limitati ons of this project and recommendations for future research are also discussed. 16

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Most people in modern western society have little contact with nature. The typical American spends just five minutes per day in outside recreation (Robinson & Godbey, 1997). While modern children grow up in a manner pr actically devoid of na tural experiences (Louv, 2005), less than 16% of Americans have visite d a wilderness area (R oggenbuck & Driver, 2000). This shift in visitation has come at a tim e when children are spending less and less time recreating outdoors in nature (Juster, Ono & Stafford, 2004; Louv, 2005). Time spent in outdoor activities has been cut in half since the early eighties, with children now spending an average of just 50 minutes per week in out door activities (Juster, Ono & Stafford, 2004). Todays children, our next generation of potential park visitors, are said to be suffering from both videophilia and nature deficit disorder (Louv, 2005; Pergams & Za radic, 2006). Nature has become scary and disgusting for many of todays youth (Bixler & Floyd, 1997). Visitation to national parks ha s been declining over the la st ten years. Only 36% of Americans surveyed had visited a national park in the past two years, and this percentage decreases for minorities (Cordell, Green, & Betz, 2002; Driver & Ajzen, 1996; Roggenbuck & Driver, 2000). The decline in park visitation is associated with an increase in videophilia or electronic media use (e.g., televisi on, video games, surfing the in ternet and movies) (Pergams & Zaradic, 2006). While Pergrams and Zaradic (2006) warn that this trend may signal a move away from appreciating nature, more encourag ing trends are also taking shape. There is a rise in popularity of wildlife tourism, ecotourism, and wildlife watc hing. In fact, wildlife watching has become the fastest growing recreational activity in the United States (Cordell & Overdevest, 2001). According to the biophilia hypothesis, humans have an innate attraction to nature and other 17

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species (Wilson, 1984). The natural world elic its positive emotional responses such as fascination, attraction, inspira tion, self-confidence, peace, rela xation, aesthetics, and meaning (Kellert & Wilson, 1993). Perhaps a lack of sufficient contact with nature motivates many people to seek natures restorativ e qualities and rediscover th eir connection with nature. Without outdoor recreation experiences, people will likely lose interest in preserving wilderness and will be missing an aspect of human experience that can greatly enrich their lives (Driver & Ajzen, 1996; Roggenbuck & Driver, 2000). Having nature-based experiences can lead to a connection to nature (CTN) as well as sp iritual and psychological well-being (Kaplan, 1995; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Kaplan & Tal bot, 1983; Ulrich, 1983; Wohlwill, 1983). Connection to Nature Connection to nature is often de scribed as a sense of oneness with nature. It can be both an experience as well as a construct ti ed to personal identity. As an experience, connection to nature is often experienced as an epiphany, deep experience, optimal experience or even spiritual experience. It can be a self-transcendent peak ex perience that is self-act ualizing, such as those described by Maslow (1970) or an experience that includes Cs ikszentimihalyis (1975) concept of flow (Dowdall, 1998; Snyder, 1989). During encounters with wildlife and stays in the wilderness, people often repor t parallel experiences. According to DeMares and Krycka (1998), powerfully transcendent or peak experiences have resulted from experiences with wildlife. Th ese authors reported that peak experiences with whales and dolphins often involved eye-to-eye contact or perceive d intention on the part of the animal to make contact with the human, a sens e of harmony, connection and aliveness. These experiences with cetaceans allowe d those individuals to rediscove r a part of themselves through an elevation of consciousness. 18

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Wilderness excursions, especially solo experien ces, have also inspired peak experiences. These powerful experiences not only lead to rest oration, but also to feelings of oneness with nature that can lead to a change in values a nd attitudes (Driver & Ajze n, 1996; Kaplan & Talbot, 1983; Mannell, 1996; Roberts, 1996; Roggenbuck & Driver, 2000; Schreyer, Williams, & Haggard, 1987; Schroeder, 1996). For example, natu re can increase confidence in our abilities and encourage a strong, positive sense of self (C layton, 2003). Pohl, Borrie, and Patterson (2000) found that wilderness experiences increased womens feelings of self-sufficiency, self-worth, confidence, connection and openness with others, mental clarit y, and provided a change in perspective. Changes in perspective include r eevaluating societal norms, establishing a deep connection with nature, changi ng priorities and forming a ne w world-view (Pohl, Borrie, & Patterson, 2000). For these women, wilderness e xperiences allowed them to fulfill innate psychological needs that lead to optimal self-motivation: autonomy (self-direction), competence and relatedness (connecti on) (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Optimal experiences in nature or with wildlife of ten lead to a deep attachment to nature or to a prevailing connection to nature (CTN). Studies of environmenta lists revealed that significant life experiences in nature during childhood have led to enviro nmental commitment (Chawla, 1998, 1999, 2001). Having a deep attachment to nature or sense of oneness with nature, would result in identifying with nature or nature beco ming an important part of self-concept or identity. This deep attachment or CTN is likely similar to place attachment but more generalized as it relates to all of nature rather than a specific pl ace. Connection to nature is also similar to place attachment in that it is relate d to self-concept (Ha ggard & Williams, 1992) or more precisely to personal identity. 19

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As a construct tied to personal identity, connectio n to nature is tied to the values that guide behavior. Personal identities are maintained and fostered through self-affirmation and experiences. In particular, authentic leisure e xperiences which are consistent with identity strengthen personal identity (Haggard & Williams, 1992; Hitlin, 2003; Kelly, 1983; Stets & Burke, 2000). This type of prevailing connection to nature that is part of self-identity may be related to a sense of place, as it is associat ed with extended stays in wilderness and a deep connection to the land (Borrie & Birzell, 2001 ; Schreyer et al., 1987; Williams, Haggard, & Schreyer, 1989). Theoretical Framework Personal identity is incorporated in both Social Identity Theory and Identity Theory. Identity Theory is generally focused on role ident ities that help define and categorize the self. Social Identity Theory is concerned with how grou ps we belong to influence and form identities (Hitlin, 2003; Hogg, Terry & White, 1995; Stets & Bu rke, 2000). Personal id entity is concerned with more than the roles we play and the groups we belong to, as it is th e core aspect of self. Personal identity is the view of the self as a uni que and distinct individual consisting of values, goals and meanings that define the self. Persona l identity influences and operates across both role and group identities as the core-self shapes what roles we take on and groups we join (Stets & Biga, 2003; Stets & Burke, 2000). By defining values and in fluencing both role and group identities, personal identity influences beha vior (Hitlin, 2003; Zavestoski, 2003). Personal identity provides us with a sense of continuity, a cross-situational sense of consistency that integrates as well as differentiat es us from society (Hitlin, 2003). Identity theories are us ed to better understand CTN. However, one goal of this study is to test the effect of CTN on envi ronmentally responsible behaviors (ERB). Therefore, a synthesis 20

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theory of ERB, Value-Belief-Norm Theory, wi ll be used to understa nd the relationship of connection to nature to environm entally responsible behaviors. Predicting Environmentally Responsible Behavior First, as a preface to the following discussion, it must be noted that research in predicting environmentally responsible behavior often uses asks for either th e intention to perform a future behavior or a self-report of pa st behavior as the outcome meas ure. A concern in measuring ERB is the validity of using self-reported behavior and behavioral intenti ons. Studies that have measured both self-reports and observed behavi or have found a lack of correspondence. People often overestimate self-reported behavior (Vin ing & Ebreo, 2002). The adva ntage of using selfreports is that some behaviors ar e not observable and self-reports are easy to obtain especially in terms of a list of behaviors fo r survey research (Ajzen & Fishbe in, 1980). Certainly in terms of a list of ERBs self-reports or in tentions make more sense. However, it is always better to measure an observed behavior rather than re ly on self-reports (Vining & Ebreo, 2002), but observational and experimental research are difficult to incorporate in scale development. Regardless of outcome measure (intentions or self-report), research in predicting environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) often focuses on values and attitudes while ignoring personal identity. But as influencers of va lues, attitudes and behaviors, personal identity may well add significantly to the prediction of ERB. Identity theory holds considerable promise for research in ERB. Measures of identity incr ease prediction in two attitude models. A measure of blood donor role identity incr eased prediction of intentions and behavior of blood donation using the Theory of Reasoned Action. (Char ng, Piliavin, & Callero, 1988). Whereas, a measure of identity as a green consumer was a significant independent predictor of intentions to purchase organic produce using the Theory of Pla nned Behavior (Sparks & Shepherd, 1992). 21

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Value-Belief Norm Theory (VBN), a model de veloped to predict ERB, is a synthesis of norm activation theory, value theory and an eco logical worldview or en compassing belief (i.e., the NEP or new environmental paradigm). Five variables sequentially and causally link the theories together in a chain leading to behavior (Figure 2-3). The five variables are: personal values (altruistic, egoistic and biospheric), an environmental worldview (the NEP), awareness of adverse consequences (AC) to something valued, an ascription of responsibil ity (AR) to avert the consequences, and personal moral norms fo r positive action (Gardne r & Stern, 1996; Stern, 2000; Stern et al., 1999). The chain operates under the assumption that more stable values affect worldview. Worldview then affects perceived co nsequences and responsibility, which leads to personal moral norms or a sense of obligation and a decision to take action (Stern, 2000). In this study, the predictive validity of CTN will be ascertained by testing the relationship between CTN and ERB. Ideally this should be done by adding CTN to both the VBN and TRA models. However, adding CTN to the models is beyond the scope of the current study. Furthermore, to determine the pr edictive value of identity and CTN, an appropriate measure of CTN must be used, that is a measure that both properly defines the construct and addresses personal identity. Therefore, th e purpose of this study is to develop such a measure. Statement of the Problem Although neither the deep, optimal and spiritua l experience or the sense of connection to nature that is tied to identity have been inves tigated sufficiently, several authors have written about various aspects of connection (Roberts, 199 6; Schroeder, 1996). Authors in the field of outdoor recreation have discussed th e concept of feeling connected to nature, but research that includes the concept is limited (Borrie & Roggenbuck, 2001; Driv er & Ajzen, 1996; McIntyre & Roggenbuck, 1998; Roggenbuck & Driver, 2000). Driver and Ajzen (1996) call for the need to 22

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study this phenomenon and develop a scale that meas ures it, as well as stud y the benefits related to having a CTN or nature identity. Connection to nature (CTN) research has not reached a consensus in terms of defining CTN. Qualitative work done specifically on CTN was not found. Therefore a review of qualitative research that studied peak experiences or profound em otional experiences in nature was conducted. Five common themes were found in this research: awe, appreciation, restoration, oneness and a desire to care for nature (Bey er, 1999; Doran, 2002; Dowdall, 1998; Dufrechou, 2002; Dunkerly-Kolb, 1999; Snyder, 1989). Pennisi, Pennington-Gray, 2007b) developed and tested items based on these themes and four factors emerged. Although this was preliminary research, it does suggest that connection to nature is a multi-dimensional construct. Moreover, a consensus definition for connection to nature does not ex ist in the quantitative work on CTN, thus there are several scales measuring CTN and similar constructs (see Table 11). These scales include the e xperiential Connectedness to Nature Scale (CNS) (Mayer & Frantz, 2004a), single-item Venn diagram measure of Inclusiven ess of Self (Schultz 2002), a computer dependent Implicit Association test (Schultz et al., 2004), and a measure of environmental identity (Clayton, 2003). The Mayer & Frantz (2004a) CNS scale items were developed based on the writings of Aldo Leopold and are assumed to represent a si ngle experiential dimension. When factor analyzed, results indicated that some of the items do not fit. (Mayer & Frantz, 2004b; Pennisi, Pennington-Gray, 2007b). The scale also assumes th e construct of CTN is unidimensional, a likely limitation. Claytons Environmental Identity Scale (2003) also assumes a single dimension and several of the items in this scale focus on the gr oup identity of environm entalist. Connection to 23

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nature is concerned with pe rsonal, not group identity (a lthough the two can overlap). Identification as an environmenta list may be resisted and even t hought of as negative by some. Even those who may feel strongly attached to nature may resist being labeled an environmentalist because of the negative connotations sometimes associated with environmentalists (Clayton, 2003; Clayton & Opotow, 2003). Schultzs (2002) measure of Inclus iveness of Self is a single item measur e; therefore, there is a mono-method bias. Respondents also find the item difficult to interpret. Schultzs (2004) implicit association test is a computer dependent m easure that flashes words that subjects rate as me or not me. This measure has the inhere nt problem of being computer dependent and results in very low correlations (Schultz et al., 2004). A similar method, Q-sort methodology was used by Reist (2004) to assess ecological identity. Although not computer dependent, subject s were asked to stat e whether a list of 105 items were either part of me or not part of me. The Q-sort clusters people, not items and relies solely on one-word items such as tree or he art. Therefore, it also may not capture all of the aspects of CTN. The study was explorat ory and a scale was not developed. The identity literature does not provide a clea r way to measure personal identity. Personal identity has not been studied or discussed ex tensively (Stets & Burk e, 2000). Studies that incorporated identity measures into their research typically used group or role identity measures, not personal identity. Often these studies used two or three items asking, for example, if a role such as sports fan identifie s the respondent. Stets and Biga (2003) measured environmental identity using 11 bipolar statemen ts asking how participants view themselves in relation to the environment. 24

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Hitlin (2002) measured volunteer identity usi ng a three-item scale measuring identity importance and a seven item scale measuring per ceived expectations of others. The perceived expectations were actually items developed as subjective norms (Charng et al., 1988). Although all of the scales discussed above measur e constructs similar to CTN, they are all missing some probable aspects of CTN. Many of the items may represent some aspect of the CTN construct well such as identity or oneness and can therefore be used in the development of a comprehensive CTN measure. Although affective dimensions discussed in other research, such as awe or restoration, are likely missing. However, si nce there is little agr eement as to what CTN is, scale development must begin with a qualitati ve approach that examin es what a relationship with nature means to people. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to first define a connection to nature construct and then develop a scal e to measure the construct. The decision to use both qualitative and quantitative methods was made in order to pr ovide a better definition of the CTN construct and to ensure the development of an instrume nt that best reflects an empirically derived definition, reflecting all relevant as pects of the construct. Also, the relationship of CTN to values and ERB is tested. Research Questions In order to accomplish the goals of this study, a mixed methods study was conducted with several data collection phases. The research answered the following questions, which are grouped by qualitative a nd quantitative method. Qualitative methods were used to answer the following: 1. How do people define connection to nature ? That is what themes are common when people describe their relationship with nature? 25

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2. What items can be derived from the themes that emerged from the descriptions of connection to nature? 3. Are the items and survey understand able to the intended audience? Quantitative methods were used to answer the following: 4. Do the items show good psychometric qualities? 5. When the items are tested in a survey, do different components to connection to nature result? 6. Is there a relationship between connection to nature and environmentally responsible behavior (as self-re ported behavior)? 7. Are values related to connection to nature? 8. What is the relationship of connection to nature and other variables that indicate convergent and discriminant validity? Delimitations This study has a number of delimitations and limitations that should be kept in mind when considering the generalizab ility of the results. The study was delimited to narrow the scope and feasibility of the study. The delimitations are listed below. Qualitative investigation was delimited to a th ematic analysis without further pursuing a grounded theory analysis as to how such relationships with nature form. The study was delimited to only interviewing and surveying adults between18 years-old and 59 years-old. This study was delimited to using a convenien ce sample of University students for pretesting the survey instrument. Internet surveys were no n-random convenience samples where participation was voluntary. Limitations In addition to the delimitations listed above, this study has the following limitations listed below, which should be used to consid er the generalizability of the results. 26

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Several samples were generated by contacting groups via e-mail and asking them to volunteer to take an online survey via the internet. Therefore, these results are not generalizable to a population. Results from samples of University of Flor ida college students canno t be generalized to other populations of college students or even to the student body at the University of Florida. Results taken from the internet survey cannot be generalized to any population. Summary This chapter provided the foundation for this investigation that incl udes a description of the research problem, the purpose of the study, sign ificance of the research, research questions, delimitations, limitations and definition of terms. Th e lack of contact with nature and decline in park and wilderness area visitation signals a need to better understand ou r connection to nature. The purpose of this study was to better understand peoples relationship w ith nature, define the connection to nature construct and develop a scal e that measures all aspects of connection to nature. This research also pr ovides a means for measuring the relationship of connection to nature in environmentally re sponsible behavior models. In Chapter 2, a review of related literature is presented to provide theoretical and empirical support for the role of identity theory in defining connection to nature and the relationship of connection to nature and environmentally respon sible behavior. An ove rview of the methods used in this study to answer the research questions is provided in Chapter 3. The results from the study are presented in Chapter 4. Finally, in Chapter 5, the implications of the results for defining and measuring connection to nature, and the role of conn ection to nature in predicting environmentally responsible behaviors are pres ented, along with recommendations for future research. 27

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Table 1-1. Scales for CTN and similar constructs Author Year Scale name Constructs measures Mayer & Frantz 2004 CNS (connectedness to nature scale Single experiential dimension of CTN Schultz 2002 Inclusiveness of Self CTN single item Schultz, et al 2004 Implicit-Association Test (computer-generated) Identification with Nature Clayton 2003 Environmental Identity Environmental Identity Stets & Biga 2003 Environmental Identity Environmental Identity 28

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, a review of related litera ture is presented to provide theoretical and empirical support for the role of identity theo ry in defining connection to nature and the relationship of connection to na ture (CTN) to environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Since ERB is most often researched in the context of attitudes or values and personal identity is related to values, this chapter will begin with a discussion of Value Theory. Next, the literature related to self theories, that is identity theor y, social identity theory and their relationship to personal identity and values and behavior will be reviewed. Finally, CTN will be explored including how it is a form of identity and th e potential relationshi p of CTN to ERB. This progression of the literature review illumi nates a conceptual picture of relationships between CTN, identity and values. Connection to nature is a form of iden tity and identities are made up of values among other things. If the reader thinks of the relationship of CTN to identity and to values as layers of an onion, then this may aid in following this line of reasoning. Since CTN is an identity made up of values, then in or der to understand CTN, it is best to begin with an understanding of values, then identity and arri ve at CTN as depicted in Figure 2-1. Beginning at the top, with values, layers will be peeled back until we arrive at CTN. Value Theory Values are attitudes associated with relatively abstract goals such as equality, spirituality and peace (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993 p. 5). Attitudes are an evaluation of an object as positive or negative. Structurally, attitude s include cognitive, affective a nd behavioral aspects. Although values have been classified as cogniti ons by some (Fulton, 1997; Fulton, Manfredo, & Lipscomb, 1996; Vaske & Donnel y, 1999; Vaske, Donnely, Williams, & Jonker, 2001), theorists now believe they also have st rong affective and behavioral aspects (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993; 29

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Schwartz, 2005). Some view the aff ective aspect of attitudes as dealing solely with the evaluative component of attitudes. However, affect is the emotional, non-cognitive, aspect (Petty et al., 2002); the feelings, emotions and sentiment (Myers et al., 2004) associated with the attitude object. Beliefs are the most one dimensional cons truct in the hierarchy, consisting of cognitive thoughts and ideas associat ed with the attitude object (Eag ly & Chaiken, 1993). However, due to the relatively recent popularity and dominance of cognitive theory in social psychology, the cognitive aspect of attitudes were emphasized despite research supporti ng a tripartit e structure (see Eagley & Chaiken, 1993 pp. 10-20 for a more detailed discussion). As constructs; attitudes, beliefs and values are not directly observa ble, but inferred through responses. Organized hierarchically (Figure 2.2), values are at the bottom of the hierarchy and thought to form value orientations or belief syst ems that influence attitudes, which influence behavior (Vaske & Donnelly, 1999). Beliefs me diate between attitudes and values (Stern & Dietz, 1994). Values are also considered to be relatively stable, representing the core of someones belief system (Rokeach, 1973; Sc hwartz, 1992; Stern & Dietz, 1994; Vaske & Donnely, 1999). Attitudes and beliefs are dispositi onal tendencies that can be temporary or longstanding (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). Rokeach (1973) defined values as beliefs that are intimately linked w ith self and organized into relatively enduring hierarchies of importance. According to Rokeach (1973), there are two types of values: 1) terminal values which are ge neral goals or end-states of existence, and 2) instrumental values which are modes of conduct. In other words, a valu e is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence (Rokeach, 1973, 5). Values then, are life goals or principles (Schultz et al., 2004). Values are thought to be relatively low in 30

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number compared to attitudes, which can numbe r in the thousands. Rokeach (1973) identified 36 values (18 instrumental values and 18 terminal values). Shalom Schwartz has worked cross-culturally to refine value theory and develop a model for addressing and measuring values (Schwartz, 1992, 1994). Values primarily represent goals or motivational targets and have five main criteria or features: 1) values are beliefs that are inextricably tied to emotion, not objective cold ideas (Schwartz, 2005); 2) values are motivational goals; 3) values are abstract, tran scending specific situations; 4) values guide behavior and evaluation by servi ng as criteria; and 5) values are ordered by importance and prioritized hierarchically (Sch wartz, 1992, 2005). Since there are re latively few values, and since values are often culturally defi ned, their hierarchical arrangement defines individuals judgment frameworks (Schwartz, 1992, 2005). Schwartz condensed Rokeachs 36 values to 10 core values arranged across two orthogonal dimensions. These dimensions are openness to change and its opposite conservatism; and self-enhancement versus self-transcendence. Openness to change includes the values selfdirection (creativity, fr eedom, choosing, creating, exploring) and stimulation (excitement, novelty and challenge). Conservation includes th e values security (safety, stability of relationships, self and society), conformity (restraint, obedience, sticking with social norms) and tradition (respect, humility, devoutness commitment, acceptance of religious or cultural customs and ideas). Self-enhancement represents the values of achievement (competence, success, ambition) and power (authority, wealth, prestige, social status, control, dominance of people or resources). Self-transcendence c onsists of universalism (social justice, equality, understanding, appreciation, tolerance, prot ection of people and nature) and benevolence (helpfulness, preserving and enhancing ones in-group, altruism). The tenth value, hedonism, has qualities of 31

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both openness to change and self-enhancement as th e hedonistic goals here are personal pleasure and sensuous gratificatio n (Schwartz, 1992, 2005). Do values predict environmentally responsible behaviors? Research in environmental psychology has looked to values to build theory predicting environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Values related to self-transcendence, and more specifically, benevolence have been used. One aspect of benevolence, altruism, has been studied extensively when trying to explain ERB and ERB intentions. Theories based on altrui sm include Moral Norm Activation Theory (Schwartz, 1977) and the Actively Caring Hypothe sis (Geller, 1995). In te rms of environmental behavior, however, researchers ha ve noted two types of altruism : altruism toward other humans and altruism toward other species and nature. People, however, can act on the behalf of the environment purely for self-interest and not for any altruistic reasons whatso ever. Therefore, it is believed that three value orientations relate to environmental behavior: Se lf-interest or egotism, altruism toward other people or socio-altruism, a nd altruism toward other species or biocentrism (Merchant, 1992; Schultz, 2001; Schultz & Zel ezny, 1999; Stern & Dietz, 1994; Stern et al., 1999). Although Schwartzs self-transce ndent value orientation includes measures of caring for others and nature, there is not a clear separation of values to protect human life (altruism) and a value to protect the earth (bio centrism). Therefore, Stern and Dietz (1994) added several items (preventing pollution and respecti ng the earth) that reflected bi ospheric concerns to a value survey. Altruistic and biospheric items failed to factor separatel y. Rather than add values to Schwartzs scale, Wesley Schultz tested for a difference in the three value orientations and altruism by measuring concern. Schultz found ev idence for egoistic, socio-altruistic and biospheric concern for the environment (Schultz, 2000, 2001). 32

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A direct link between values and environmen talism has also been found. Self-transcendent values have been linked to environmental att itudes and behaviors (Stern, 2000; Stern & Dietz, 1994). Universalism was positively related to ecocentrism and an environmental worldview (using the New Environmental Paradigm or NEP). Benevolence was negatively related to anthropocentrism (Schultz & Ze lezny, 1999). Schultz and Zelezny (1999) also found the value power to predict lower NEP scores, lower eco centrism and higher anthropocentrism scores. Those motivated toward environmental conc ern by self-interest, who scored high on anthropocentrism, had values related to power, tradition, and security (Schultz & Zelezny, 1999). Schultz and Zelezny concluded that a self-enhanc ement value orientation has a less inclusive definition of self that does not include others. However, those who have a self-transcendent value orientation have a more expansive definition of se lf that includes other people and other living beings (Schultz & Zelezny, 1999). These three value orientations, egoistic, socio-altruistic and biospheric, are found in ValueBelief Norm Theory. Value-Belief Norm theory (V BN) is a synthesis of norm activation theory, value theory and an ecological worldview or encompassing belief (i.e., the NEP) to explain environmentally responsible beha vior. Five variables sequentially and causally link the theories together in a chain leading to behavior (Figure 2-3). The five variable s are: personal values (altruistic, egoistic and biosphe ric), an environmental worldview (NEP), awareness of adverse consequences (AC) to something valued and ascription of responsibility (AR) to avert the consequences, and personal moral norms fo r positive action. (Gardne r & Stern, 1996; Stern, 2000; Stern et al., 1999). The chain operates in that order with the more stab le values affecting worldview, which affects perceive d consequences and responsibi lity, which leads to personal moral norms or a sense of obligation a nd a decision to take action (Stern, 2000). 33

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Schwartzs norm activation model predicts that altruism results from the activation of a personal moral norm or obligation. The moral nor m is activated when the person experiences both an awareness of the consequences (AC) to another or to something they value and personally feel responsible for (ascription of resp onsibility AR). The theory has been applied to research in ERB by predicting that people will act on behalf of the environment when aware of the negative consequences of their actions a nd when they feel res ponsible (Allen & Ferrand, 1999; Stern & Dietz, 1994). For example, at Shiloh National Military Park in Tennessee, interpretive messages describing dama ge to the parks resources and asking for visitors to help protect park resources by being an example to othe rs. Other visitors were also asked to check for damage using a Heritage Guardian form (a comb ination of AC and AR). Both conditions were found equally effective in reducing cultural re source damage (i.e. vandalism to monuments, statues and cannons) in the park (Gra mann, 2000; Vander Stoep & Gramann, 1987). VBN is related to connection to nature and the sense of self through the three value orientations. First, as the sense of self expands beyond egoistic values to other people, concerns become altruistic. Second, when the sense of self expands beyond other humans to include animals, plants and other aspects of the natura l world, biospheric concerns develop. Therefore, CTN which encompasses biospheric values is the foundation for developing value-based concerns and hence the motivation for environmen tally responsible behaviors (Schultz et al., 2004). Since egoistic, socio-altruistic and biospheric value orient ations involve se lf-concept, they are related to ones sense of identity. Identity Theory Social identity theory from so cial psychology and identity theory from sociology are both concerned with how people define and categor ize themselves (Hogg et al., 1995; Stets & Biga, 2003). Social identity is concerned with the groups a person belongs to, such as American, 34

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Floridian, Sierra Club member or Gator fa n, and how group membership both identifies similarities with the group and dissimilarities with those outside of the group. Identity Theory is concerned with the roles people use to define themselves such as husband, son, gardener, or astronomer. Both role and group categorizations can exist simultaneously such as serving the role of treasurer as a member of a club or the role of cook as member in the family. Furthermore, people have both multiple group identities and mu ltiple role identities (Stets & Burke, 2000). Role identities, as implied, are related to behavior Role-related behavior is a prescribed set of expectations associated with th e role (Hogg et al., 1995). For exam ple, the role of teacher or gardener implies a certa in set of behaviors. As stated in Chapter 1, personal identity, althoug h related to role and group associations, is more a core aspect of self. Personal identity is made of all the variables of personality, such as idiosyncrasies, values, goals and meanings that define the self as a uni que individual. Personal identity or the core self shapes behavior by de fining values and influenc ing the roles we take on and groups we join (Stets & Biga, 2003; Stets & Burke, 2000); (Hitlin, 20 03; Zavestoski, 2003). Hitlin (2003) found values to be predictors of personal identities. Like values, personal identities are relatively stable; however, they ar e not static. Personal identity can change with behavioral feedback and reflection. For example, a certain behavior, such as riding the bus to work, can cause us to reflect on our values and such self-reflection can shift values and alter personal identity. Therefore, there is a cycle or feedback loop wh ereby personal identity shapes behavior and other identities, yet behavior and group and role identities shap e our personal identity (Hitlin, 2003). For example, cognitive consistency, cognitive dissonance, experience and emotions can reshape identity when we do something to help another. 35

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Although personal identity permeates role and gr oup identities, all ar e interrelated and intertwined (Hitlin, 2003). Howeve r, not all identities are sali ent at once (Clayton, 2003). No matter the salient identity, we are motivated to act in accordance with our personal identity. This allows for authenticity and a feeling of being in -touch with and in keepin g with our true self. This is important because our personal identity, like our values, our inextricably tied to emotions (Hitlin, 2003; Schwartz, 2005). Hitlin (2003) beli eves identities, like values, are ordered by importance in such a way that role and group id entities revolve dynamically around the core-self. This author likens that to an atom surrounded by the path of electrons, where each path represents an identity (Figure 2-4). The various identities fit together just much like molecules do (Figure 2-5). An important aspect of identity is salience. Behavior is influenced by the salient identity. The likelihood that a given identity is salient is a function of the st rength of that identity or the persons commitment to it (Zavesto ski, 2003). A person may have a connection to nature, but the centrality of that identity to self will de termine how much it influences their behavior. Environmental values deemed cen tral to self were found to le ad to ERB (Verplanken & Holland, 2002). The following may help to further illustrate th is point. There are identities that include occupation, group memberships, et hnicity, gender, geography, a nd individual interests and characteristics. However, someone does not always operate in one mode such as student mode or child mode. Different identities may lead an i ndividual to act or at least respond differently among different groups, making identity context-de pendent. Personal identities, social identities and role identities categorize these different identities. 36

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These identities are also culturally and histor ically defined. For example, an American woman in the year 2000 has a much different identity than a woman from an undeveloped country in 2000 or an American woman in 1800. Furthermore, these multiple and culturally defined identities are in a dynamic fluctuating st ate. Which identity is operating at a given moment depends on salience and th e triggers that make that identity salient. (Clayton, 2003; Twigger-Ross, Bonaiuto and Breakwell, 2003; Cu shman, 1990). Therefore, one may have both environmentalist, trendy and social as identities. However, if one is getting ready for a big party, the trendy and social identities may win out causing a multitude of purchases, including disposable party items and the la test fashions. But if the person al identity is one of being connected to nature, purchases a nd partying will be influenced by this core identity. The core identity then is prominent and the more prominent or central an identity the more likely it will become salient and influence behavior (Stets & Biga, 2003). The study of identity is significant because issues that are personally relevant grab attention, arouse emotions and motivate behavi or (Bator & Cialdini 2000; Petty & Cacioppo, 1981; Petty et al., 2002). Identity influences who we associate wit h, what we value, how we act toward what is considered inside and outside of our scope of self (it is related to prejudice), and our beliefs of fairness and justice and moral cons ideration (it is made of values) (Clayton, 2003; Clayton & Opotow, 2003; Twigger-Ross, Bonaiu to and Breakwell, 2003; Hogg, et al 1995; Hitlin, 2003). Identity is both a product and a force: an assortment of beliefs about the self and a motivator of particular ways of interacting with the world (Clayton, 2003, p. 46). Identity predicts behavior by defining valu es and attitude strength and by providing authenticity of our true self. (Hitlin, 2003 ). Environmental issues ar e not seen then as mere costs and benefits as in 37

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the economic man model, but rather as how they relate to self-concep t and group memberships. This motivation comes from within; it is in trinsic (Clayton, 2003; Cl ayton & Opotow, 2003). Examples of people who have strong environm ental identities and a strong connection to nature that was a motivating force in their lives, includes activists Julia Butterfly-Hill (protested logging by living in a redwood wood tree for two year s) and Rachel Carson (author of Silent Spring which led to the beginning of the m odern environmental movement in the 1960s eventually leading to the crea tion of the EPA, the banning of DDT and other environmental protection acts such as the Clean Water Act). Thos e with a strong place ident ity or attachment to place which motivated protective ac tion include John Muir who had a strong attachment to Sierra Nevada mountains, Henry David Thoreau who wr ote about Walden Pond and a more simplified, connected and joyous life, and Aldo Leopold who wrote about the restoration of a Wisconsin sand farm and in so doing, gave us his land ethic. Connection to nature, as a concep t related to inclusiveness of self and the self-transcendent value orientations, is a form of personal id entity. As such, connection may influence group memberships (e.g. environmental, outdoor recreation, wildlife or gardening groups) and role identities, as someone who is very connected will nurture other species or perhaps be a naturalist, gardener, environmental lawyer or activist. As a personal iden tity, connection should influence values. When salient, connection will motivate E RB, and if central, conn ection should be a large motivator of behavior, in cluding general behavior. Self as part of nature is not purely a matter of identifying se lf as nature, as humans are obviously different from what is not human (Holmes, 2003). Therefore, others have called for a more relational view to the expa nsion of a sense of self (Holme s, 2003). In other words, through our relationships, actions and reactions we begin to know who we are (Holmes, 2003). An 38

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overlapping of selves, or including others in the representation of se lf, is a characteristic of close relationships (Aron, Aron, Tudor, & Nelson, 1991; Cialdini, Brown, Lewi s, Luce, & Neuberg, 1997). Just like our relationships to our family members and peers provide a connection to them, our relationship with nature provides a connection or a sense of being a part of something larger than self (Clayton, 2003). The opposite of connection would be a feeling of being separate from nature or alienated from nature. This view is consistent with mode rn Western views of huma ns relationship to the natural world. Cushman (1990) states that the modern era (beginning in the 16 th century) marked a shift from agriculture to indus try, rural to urban, community to individual and to an emphasis on science. This shift accelerat ed in America after World War II, resulting in what Cushman (1990) calls the empty self. This is a self that has specific psychological boundaries, an internal locus of control, and a wish to manipulate the ex ternal world for its own personal ends (p. 600). Cushman (1990) deems this sense of self as empt y because it exits in an absence of community, tradition, and shared meaning. Thus, this empty self experiences a lack of personal conviction and worth and a a chronic, undifferentiated em otional hunger. The post-Wo rld War II self thus yearns to acquire and consume as an unconscious way of compensati ng for what has been lost: It is empty. (Cushman, 1990). The emptier the indi vidual feels, the deeper the desire to be soothed. The soothing manifests itself in an addi ction; seeking things to fill the emptiness whether by buying goods perceived as needed, in consuming calories, or seeking diet-cures, self help and self-improvement. However, the empt y self cannot be satisfied by short-term fixes, with an empty self people always need (Cushman, 1990, p. 604). Modern consumerism is often seen as the opposite of an environmental ethic. Materialism is defined as placing importance on and being a ttached to consuming and material possessions. 39

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Self-enhancement values such as power, security and hedonism are associated with materialism. In line with the empty self hypot hesis, materialism was also ne gatively related to satisfaction with life (Sharpe, 1999). In contrast, environmen talism is associated with self-transcendent values which are opposed to self-enhancement values (Schultz & Zelezny, 1999; Schwartz, 1992; Stern, 2000; Stern & Dietz, 1994). Implications of CTN to Environmentally Responsible Behavior As a personal identity, interc onnectedness with nature is viewed as a central principle of life (Shepard, 1995). An individual s relationship with nature is believed to be the key to peoples psychological health as well as the heal th of the planet (Beyer, 1999). Deep ecologists feel that the crux of environmenta l ills is the anthropocentric view that humans are separate or above nature, having dominion over nature. Theref ore, deep ecologists feel that focusing on education, policy change and/or technology is a waste of time. Fu rthermore, the environmental movements focus supports the status quo by stre ssing a more efficient and less consequential domination of nature. Behavior change strate gies unwittingly refer to dominion by stressing the instrumental value of nature, moral norms and technological fixes such as efficiency (Beyer, 1999). Deep ecologists believe these tr aditional appeals to environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) have been largely ineffective because they ignore the root of the problem our lack of connection. Shaming or scaring people into act ion, through ethical appeals and gloom and doom, is ineffective. Such tactics lead to helplessne ss and shame. This backfires into resentment and avoidance of environmental appeals and news. E RBs then become viewed as compromise and sacrifice, or worse the undermining of a pers ons very well-being such as protecting spotted owls while cutting jobs (Beyer, 1999; Dowdall, 1998; Kaplan, 2000; Rozzak, 1992). These views 40

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are in line with what Kaplan (1991, 2000) had to say about the negative effects of stressing sacrifice and incurring helplessness, as well as cognitive dissonance theory. If there is to be change, it must deal with the problem: humans relationship with nature. A problem cannot be fixed by only addressing the sy mptoms. However, when people are connected to nature, they instinctively care for it and act to protect and preserve it When we feel at one with nature, protecting nature is as natural as protecting ourse lves or loved ones (Naess, 1995). The requisite care flows naturally if the self is widened and deepened so that protection of free nature is felt and conceived as protection of ourselves (Naess, 1995, p. 236). Experiences related to feeling connected to nature were explored in the qualitative analysis of several dissertations (Beyer, 1999; Dora n, 2002; Dowdall, 1998; Dufrechou, 2002; Martin, 2002; Reist, 2004; Snyder, 1989). Different themes and interpretations were found for each study. That is, there was not a complete overlap in findings. For example, Dufrechous (2002) primary interpretation was that the experiences were transformational as people experienced grief and healing through nature. Secondary in terpretations included feelings of unconditional love when in sensory contact with nature, a re storative experience; a need to live in harmony with nature and a deep connecti on with nature that can be felt as a spiritual experience. In contrast, Beyers looked at how people arrived at and traveled through peak experiences in nature. Despite different findings common themes did exist among the seven studies which are: 1) peaceful and restorative feelings; 2) a deep co nnection with nature, expansiveness of self and feelings of oneness; 3) an appreciation for nature; 4) awe; 5) a desire to reciprocate or care for nature (Beyer, 1999; Doran, 2002; Dowdall, 199 8; Dufrechou, 2002; Martin, 2002; Reist, 2004; Snyder, 1989). These five themes are detailed in Table 2-1. 41

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The qualitative studies revealed a pattern of pr ogression in relationships with nature. With little experience with nature, peopl e did not relate to nature, had utilitarian views of nature and natural resources and had a marked fear or aversion to nature (B eyer, 1999; Martin, 2002; Reist, 2004). Fear and disgust for nature was found for those with little preference for wildland environments and recreation (B ixler, 1994; Bixler & Floyd, 1997) Reist (2004) also found more fear and disgust for those high in materialism. As people gain experien ce with nature and are more comfortable with nature they begin to care for nature. With more experience, especially emotional or quiet reflective time in nature, car e deepens. Finally as care continues to deepen, one becomes integrated with natu re, feeling truly connected to na ture as nature becomes a core aspect of self (Beyer, 1999; Martin, 2002; Reist, 2004). Martin (2002) calls these stages alienated from nature, traveling through nature, caring for nature and integrated with nature. These results are similar to what Kaplan and Talbot (1983) found with Outward Bound participants and the findings of a qualitative study of wild anim al triggered peak experiences (DeMares & Krycka, 1998). Kaplan and Talbot found a change in perspective, tranquility, enjoyment, fascination and sensory awarene ss. DeMares and Krycka found five themes: harmony and flow, connectedness, intention on th e part of the animal to seek the human, reciprocity of process or a bond, and a sense of destiny. There is also awe, joy, unconditional love and other feelings of being truly alive. Pa ssive activities in forest s (non-wilderness) were found to produce transcendent and other positiv e emotional experiences. These included the diminutive (humility, insignificance, awe) and deep flow (effortless attention, timelessness, oneness, tranquility) transcendent experiences, aesthetic experien ces and restorative experiences (Williams & Harvey, 2001). 42

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The accounts of feeling connected with nature from the seven qualitative studies detailed in Table 2-1 included descriptions of an expa nsion of self-concept almost as though a new identity was forming. Beyer described it as an experience of transcendence, connectedness and identification (1999, p. 269). The experiences included an expa nding sense of self, a self without barriers, the melding of th e sense of self with nature a nd an identification with nature and the universe (Beyer, 1999). The e xperience of feeling connected to nature also seemed to be profound, emotional and lifealtering (Keltner & Haidt, 2003; S nyder, 1989). This is also in line with emotional aspects of personal identity (Hitlin, 2003). Connection Summary CTN is related to the three value orientations in VBN theory that are representative of the inclusiveness of a person s self-concept. Connecti on to nature represents a core aspect of selfconcept as it is a personal identity. Personal identity influences values, which influence attitudes, and intrinsically motivates our behavior as we tr y to remain authentic to our true self (Clayton, 2003; Clayton & Opotow, 2003; Hitlin, 2003; St ets & Biga, 2003; Stets & Burke, 2000; Twigger-Ross, Bonaiuto, & Breakwell, 2003). CTN s influence on behavior depends on identity salience and centrality (Stets & Biga, 2003; St ets & Burke, 2000; Stryker & Serpe, 1994). Furthermore, connection can be seen as having va rious levels or stages such as a continuum from low to high, as there would be varying levels of inclusiveness to self and affective strength beginning at a fear of nature (no connection) to inclusion with nature (Beyer, 1999; Martin, 2002; Mayer & Frantz, 2004b; Reist, 2004; Schultz, 2002). An identity of CTN would motivate people to want to protect the environment in many situations and lead to generalizable behaviors. This is especially the case if connection becomes a core identit y, as it should have a large and widespread effect on behavior. Of course, ERB can be likened to other behavioral continuums 43

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such as health behavior. The more you value it or the more central it is, the more behaviors you will pursue. Of course, a lack of ecological understanding could limit the generali zability of connection for those not completely integrated with nature. There still may be an aversion to some life forms and ecosystems. For example, one may love deer and feel a connection with them but may not understand population and ecosystem dynamics leading to unfavorable attitudes toward managing a population with predat ors, hunting and other wildlife management methods (Myers & Saunders, 2002; Vining, 2003). Or one may experi ence close relationships with animals and nature but view some species a nd ecosystems such as snakes, pr edators, bats, bogs and swamps as bad, unneeded or disgusting (Bixler & Floyd, 1997) Ecology is often not a required course in high school or college and a lack of ecological knowledge often leads to misunderstanding and misconceptions (Munson, 1994). There is also the danger that connection coupl ed with a perception of dire issues or empathy may cause people to become overwhelm ed and lead to despair (Vining, 2003). Fear, sadness, pain, anger, guilt and helplessness coul d lead to psychological defense mechanisms such as denial, rational dist ancing, apathy, resignation and de legation, not action (Kollmus & Agyeman, 2002). Even the most c onnected individual can feel nega tive emotions at the direness and vastness of environmental problems. Ways to avoid negative emotions and their psychological defense mechanisms are needed fo r behavior change models. Possible solutions include a focus on individual solutions rather than overwhelming global problems, a more positive presentation of issues not just gloom and doom (Finger, 1994), and to provide the type of information that may serve to in crease efficacy and reduce helplessness. 44

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Measuring Environmentally Responsible Behavior One hypothesized dimension of CTN is behavi oral, representing a commitment to (or the strength of) the relationship (Sc hultz et al., 2004). ERB is often measured as a target outcome variable in studies, that is a specific target behavior such as the amount of water used in a household in a given month. Studies that look at the relationship between specific attitudes and their corresponding specific behavi ors, rather than either genera l attitudes or general behaviors are more predictive of behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; De Young, 2000; McKenzie-Mohr, 2000). Research has found little evidence for spillover effects or one type of ERB leading to another and people who performed one type of ERB often did not perform any other proenvironmental actions (McKenzie-Mohr, Ne miroff, Beers, & Desmarais, 1995; Vining & Ebreo, 2002). Several scales that include a variety of envi ronmentally responsible behaviors have been developed and tested. These include the Envi ronmentally Responsible Behavior Inventory (ERBI) (Smith-Sebasto & D'Acos ta, 1995) which was developed for college students and the General Ecological Behavior scal e (GEB) (Kaiser & Biel, 2000) de veloped in Europe. The GEB is unique in that it takes into account the level of difficulty of performing a behavior using a procedure called Rasch modeling. Many times a single, yet difficult behavior such as installing a tankless water heater or riding a bike to work adds up to more benefit for the environment than many small behaviors such as bringing your own mug and grocery bags and recycling. When scales take difficulty into account, difficult items are weighted more so that effort rather than the number of items on the scale reflects an i ndividuals score (Kaise r & Biel, 2000; Kaiser, Wolfing, & Fuhrer, 1999; Schultz et al., 2004; Vining & Ebreo, 2002). However, no scales have been found that take into account the amount of environmental impact of the behaviors. 45

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Another concern in measuring ERB is the va lidity of using self-reported behavior and behavioral intentions. Studies that have measured both self-reports and observed behavior have found a lack of correspondence. People often ov erestimate self-reported behavior (Vining & Ebreo, 2002). The advantage of usin g self-reports is that some be haviors are not observable and self-reports are easy to obtain especially in terms of a list of behaviors (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Certainly in terms of a list of ERBs self-reports or intenti ons make more sense. However, it is always better to measure an observed behavi or rather than rely on self-reports (Vining & Ebreo, 2002). Some studies have used both self-r eports and measures of observed behavior. Swanagans (2000) study at Zoo Atlanta used a survey, signing a peti tion and returning an opinion solicitation card to measure ERB. If connection leads to a desire to care for and protect nature, then those who feel connected to nature would be concerned w ith increasing their positive imp act and decreasing their negative impact on the environment. These desires should lead to a higher number of ERBs, including more difficult behaviors. Therefore, it makes sense to use a general measure of behaviors when studying connection to nature. Conclusion Connection to nature shows gr eat promise in encouraging environmentally responsible behavior. Connection is related to self-concept as it is a personal identity, has affective, cognitive, conative and behavior al components, and is often formed by direct experience. Personal identity influences values and intrinsi cally motivates behavior. Therefore, connection has a potentially large effect on shaping behavior. Schultz (2002) maintains that three components of inclusion with nature (cognitive or connection, affectiv e component, caring, and the behavioral component, commitment) have a li near relationship where connection is the core element that leads to car ing and caring in turn leads to commitment.. 46

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Values Identity CTN Figure 2-1: Model of chapter organization: The relationship of values to identity and CTN Beliefs Values Value Orientations General Attitudes Specific A ttit udes ( towards a b e h a v i o r ) Behaviors Behavioral Intentions Specific attitudes (toward a behavior) Figure 2-2: Value-a ttitude hierarchy (adapted from the cognitive hierarchy model of human behavior from Vaske & Donnelly, 1999 and Fulton, Manfredo and Lipscomb, 1996) 47

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Figure 2-3: Value belief norm theory Values Biospheric Altruistic Egoistic Proenv. Person. Norms Sense of obligation to take action Behaviors Beliefs NEP AC AR Activism Non-act. Public Private Behavior in orgs Group identities Per s onal Role identities Identity Figure 2-4: Group and role identi ties revolving around the core self Personal Identity Gr ou p Ro le Ro le Gr ou p Ro le Ro le Gr ou p Ro le Figure 2-5: Hypothetical m odel of i d entity relationships 48

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Table 2-1. Common themes f ound in seven qualitative studies (Beyer 1999; Doran, 2002; Dowdall, 1998; Dufrechou, 2002; Marti n, 2002; Reist, 2004; Snyder, 1989). Oneness Appreciation Awe Reci procity Restoration Fear -Fear -Safety -Desire to make a difference -Caring increases for people, animals, nature -Desire to give back -Stewardship -Part of something bigger -Awe -Wonder -Feel small -Indescribable feelings -Miraculous -Respect -Truth -Cathedral like -Ground shifted -Feel insignificant -Gratitude -Humility -Sensory awareness -Enjoyment -Desire to touch -Desire to embrace -Beauty -Love -Nature is a friend -Elation -Cycle of life -Maintenance of life -Fascination -Value -Educational -Delight -Joy -Happy -Boundaries disappear Harmony Self is expansive Self is inclusive Feel immersed Intimacy Wholeness Spiritual experience Timeless Closeness Connected Part of Energy moves through you Inclusion Engulfed -Anxiety -Nasty -Smells -Snakes, bugs, spiders -Get lost -Dirty -Hostile -Unfriendly -Abusive -Dangerous -Repulsive -Abrasive -Peaceful -Stress-released -Relax -Feel free -Letting go -Feel nurtured -Feel at ease -Calm -Contentment -Reflection -Soothing -Serenity -Need fulfillment -Security -Comfort -Rejuvenating -Energizing -Centered -Balanced -Restoration of nature -Sacred -Greater sense of power or being -Feel at home -Clarity, illumination -Epiphany Union -Inspirational -Feel blessed or healed -Feel the power of nature -Aversion 49

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter provides an explanation of th e data collection methods employed in this study. A description of the research design, research variables, study population, instrumentation, participants, item development, data collection procedures, and data analyses will be provided. Research Design The research design is a mixed-methods study that includes a seven-st ep process for scale development. The research questions answered by th is study are also embedded in the scale development process. A detailed list of research questions and correspon ding analysis is given below. The questions are grouped by qualitative and quantitative methods. Research Questions and Methods Used to Answer Questions: Qualitative questions 1. How do people define connection to natu re? What themes are common when people describe their relationship with nature? Method: Interviews were conducted with purposef ul sampling and snowballing to study a diverse group of people that have a relati onship with nature. This includes hunters, fishers, backpackers, environmentalists a nd those of different races and religions. Analysis: Thematic analysis of interviews looked for common themes. This was done through constant comparison using a metaphor ical approach. A focused summary of themes and explanations including examples of each theme is the result of the analysis. 2. What items can be derived from the themes that emerged from the descriptions of connection to nature? Analysis: All possible items were rated by a gr oup of 15 graduate students at the University of Florida using Thurstone scali ng to determine if the items represent the construct. Items were kept or discarded based on mean scores. 3. Are the items and survey understandable? Method: A small pilot study was conducted with 5 people using a think aloud. Items were modified accordingly. Quantitative questions 4. Do the items show good psychometric qualities? Analysis: Item analysis was conducted on all ite ms that tests item variability, item discrimination, response location, item correlations and item covariances. 50

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5. a) When the items are tested in a survey, do different components of connection to nature result? Ho5: CTN will be unidimensional Ha5: CTN will have five dimensions base d on previous work (awe. appreciation, tranquility, caring, oneness). Analysis: Exploratory factor anal ysis was run using SPSS on half of the data. b) Are the dimensions found in the EFA in Step 5a confirmed with a confirmatory factor analysis? Analysis: CFA was run using AMOS on the othe r half of the data. Maximum likelihood estimates from the covariance matrix was used to analyze the independence of the models, their goodness of fit a nd root mean square error approximations and TuckerLewis index. 6. Are values related to connection to nature? Ha6a: There will be a positive relationship between self-transcendent values and connection. Ha6b : There will be a negative relationship between connection and self-enhancement values. Analysis: Correlation analysis assessed the strength of relationships among the variables. 7. What is the relationship of connection to nature and othe r variables that indicate convergent and discriminant validity? Ha7a: There will be a positive re lationship between connection and Mayers and Frantzs CNS scale. Ha7b : There will be a positive relationship between connection and identity. Analysis: Correlation analysis was used to assess the strength of relationships among the variables. 8. Is there a relationship between CTN and ERB? Ha8a: There is a positive relatio nship between connection to nature and environmental behaviors. Analysis: Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between CTN and ERB composite scores. Each research question was answered by a step in the scale development process. Table 31 depicts the scale development process with corresponding research que stions. The first two steps in the scale development process involve conducting and analyzing qua litative interviews and the development of items that represent the themes that came from the qualitative data. The next five steps involve quantita tive methods that were taken to develop the scale and establish 51

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reliability and validity data on the scale. All aspects of the methods used; the research variables, instrumentation, participants, da ta collection and anal ysis are described in that process. Overview of Scale Development Process A seven-step process was used to develop and validate a connection to nature scale for use in nature-based tourism venues. This scale de velopment process follows suggested psychometric procedures (DeVellis, 1991; Netemeyer, Bear den, & Sharma, 2003; Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994; Spector, 1992). This process is outlined in Table 3-1. Several distinct samples of people were used at different steps in the process. Therefore, as each step is explained, the sampling for that step will be described. Operat ionalization of variables are also described in each step. Step 1: Define the Construct Although the literature on concepts related to connection to nature has been thoroughly examined, most exploratory, qualitative work on the construct has been concerned with the experience of feeling connected in terms of peak or optimal e xperiences. There is a void of literature exploring connection to na ture as an aspect of personal identity or as an encompassing value. Therefore, this research will begin with an exploration of th e connection to nature construct as a value-based aspect of personal identity. Interviews were conducted with 25 people (11 males and 14 females) from July of 2006 until September, 2006. The average age for males was 34.7 and the average age for females was 36.7. These 25 people included undergraduate and gr aduate natural resource majors at the University of Florida, people who work in park s and natural history museums, hunters, fishers, birders, backpackers, gardeners and others who are nature-orien ted people. Care was taken to represent types of nature orie ntation and different user group s such as hunters, fishers, environmentalists and those re presenting different ethnic a nd racial groups and religious 52

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orientations. Participants were located through th e researchers contacts and snowballing from those contacted. A list of those inte rviewed is included in Appendix A. The interviews were semi-structured (see Appendix B for the interview guide) with the interviewer asking questions and elaborating and probing when necessary in order to stimulate the conversation or clarify issu es. However, the conversation was not highly structured or controlled by the interviewer in order to allow for a free flow of ideas and interaction. The individual interviews were audi o taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts of each interview were analyzed for themes using constant comp arison and a search for common themes among all interviews. Member checks were employed to ensu re the validity of the data. This was done by summarizing responses for each participant and checking for agreement. Summaries were given at the end of each interview. Transcripts, if re quested by participants, were sent via e-mail or postal mail, according to each participants preference. Step 2: Define Domains and Develop Test Items Potential items for the connection to nature scale were developed for each of the nine domains identified from the qua litative study in step one (a we, restoration, caring, fear, appreciation, oneness, sorrow, spirituality and identity). Twenty-five to 40 items were developed for each domain. Step 3: Item Scaling A sample of 25 graduate students interested in outdoor recreation or natural resources from the University of Florida assessed the connecti on items providing Thurston e-type judgments for each. Items were rated on a 7-point scale for the degree that each item is a good example of its corresponding domain. Participants did not be rate items base d on the amount they personally disagree or agree with the item; rather they rate d items based on their perception as to whether or not the items represent the domain. This step is similar to having a panel of experts judge items 53

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for face validity, only, scaling items allows for more systematic measurement. Items that did not receive a mean score of at least 4 were not considered representati ve of the corresponding domain and were deleted from the item pool. This step was completed during a two-week period in October, 2006. Step 4: Pilot Testing the Survey The survey was pilot tested in October of 2006 with a small group of five adults using a think-aloud. A think-aloud means th at participants r ead the survey while making any and all comments about the instructions and items audibly for the researcher to note. The purpose of this think-aloud was to ensure that participants unde rstood the survey instructions and all items. Areas designated as having potential problems in the pilot were modified accordingly. Step 5: Pilot Testing the Survey to Select and Revise Items Base d on Item Analysis A convenience sample of 113 students in an in troductory course in the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management at th e University of Florid a took a survey that included 90 test items. Items were measured on a five-point Like rt scale with responses ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. An item analysis was conducted using SPSS 12.0 that examined item variability, item discrimina tion, response location, item correlations and item covariances. The results of this analysis were us ed to discard items that did not perform well. Item variability assesses an items ability to measure individual differences on a facet. This is simply looking at the amount of vari ability on an item among individuals to ensure individuals respond at different levels. An item where everyone gives the same response is not measuring individual differences. This was don e using the variance. On a 5-point scale, variability for items should have st andard deviations from .5 to 1.0. Response location refers to the location of the distribution of the responses to an item by looking at where the majority of individuals lie on the scale. Response location can be measured 54

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by using the mean of the item responses. For goo d item location, the mean should fall near the center of the item scale, which would be 3 on a fi ve-point scale. Response location is used to ascertain whether an item is de tecting individual differences. Ho wever, the variance, of the item is more important for Likert items. Item discrimination determines if indivi dual responses to a particular scale item corresponds to the individuals overall ratings on the construct. Therefor e, an item that discriminates well effectively differentiates be tween those who are high on the construct and those who are low. Although the be st measure of discrimination is the mean-difference index, the item-total correlation index will be used that can be calculated with SPSS. The item-total correlation measures the correlation between item scores with the total scale score. The limitations of the item-total correlation index are that the results may be compromised if the level of measurement of the item differs from interv al. Although Likert items are ordinal, they are often regarded as interval for statistical purposes. Item correlations are used to measure item discrimination by estimating the degree of relationship between the items or an item and th e total test score. For Likert items, Pearson Product Moment Correlation is the best correl ation method to use. SPSS provides a table of inter-item correlations. For item covariances, Cronbachs alpha was used as it is based on item covariances, such that the higher the covariance the higher alpha. Items that are highly co rrelated allow for higher covariances. SPSS provides a table of summary statistics for inter-item covariances. Step 6: Assess Reliability and Dimensionality Data was collected twice in this step. Firs t, 234 members of two environmental listservs (approximately four groups based in both north central Florida and the panhandl e of Florida) in Florida took one of four test surveys from December, 2006 to January, 2006. However, this data 55

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proved to have several items that did not wor k. These items were negatively worded and they failed to perform well psychometrically in this st ep or the previous steps. The problem items were replaced with items from the item pool th at had initially perf ormed better. Next, 532 students in an introductory leisure course in the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management at the University of Florida took one of four versi ons of the test surveys during March, 2007. A large number of scales and consequently items were tested in this step. Therefore, four versions of the survey were used to minimize re spondent burden. All four versions of the survey contained the following three scales: 1) 41 conne ction to nature items measured on the same five-point Likert scale as the pretested items; 2) Crowne-Marlowe (1960) short social desirability scale; and 3) demographic items. A list of survey sections or scales is found in Appendix D. The other scales and items found in the survey includ ed Schwartzs (1992) self -transcendent and selfenhancement value scales, Mayers and Frantz s (2004) Connection to Nature Scale, the Environmental Identity Scale (Clayton, 2003), th e NEP (Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig, & Jones, 2000), norms from VBN (Stern et al., 1999), adapted measures of identity with nature, identity salience and items asking about environmentally responsible behavior. These additional scales were used for the validation study in the next step For a list detailing the sections or scales found in each version of the survey see Appendix E. An item analysis was conducted to examine item variability, item discrimination, response location, item correlations and item covariances. The results of this analysis were used to discard items that did not perform well. Item analysis included item variability, response location, item discrimination, item correlations and item covari ances as described a bove in step 5. An 56

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exploratory factor analysis was run to asse ss the dimensionality of the scale. Principal components analysis with direct oblimin rotation was used. Step 7: Conduct Validation Studies (prediction, convergent and divergent validity) Concurrent validity was assessed using Mayers and Frantzs (2004) Connection to Nature Scale. Convergent validity was assessed using the revised NEP (Dunlap et al., 2000), and an adapted measure of role identity used by Char ng et al.(1988) and Schwartzs self-transcendent values. Discriminant validity was tested using Schwartzs self-enhancement values (Schwartz, 1992). Predictive validity was tested using a modified (updated) ERBI (Smith-Sebasto & D'Acosta, 1995). 57

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Table 3-1. Scale de velopment process Step Research questions Purpose Method & analysis 1 1 Define construct A. Qualitative interviews B. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews 2 2 Generate items Develop 25-40 items per theme Item scaling A. 25 people rate how well items represent the corresponding themes using 7-point Likert scales. 3 2 (similar to face validity) B. Means used to obtain a set of 10-12 items per theme based on scaling results. 4 3 Pilot test A small pilot study conducted with 5 people using a think aloud. The purpose is to find out if the items and directions make sense to people. 5 4 Item analysis A. Pretest the items chosen from the scaling with 100 people. B. Conduct item analysis of the pretest items. C. Throw out items with lit tle variability, extreme means and low item discrimination (item total correlations). The goal is to have a parsimonious group of items for each domain. D. Choose items for scale based on pretest results. 6 5 & 6 Assess reliability and internal structure or dimensionality A. Reliability analysis B. EFA C.CFA 7 7-9 Validity tests A. Test convergent, discriminant and predictive validity of scale by te sting relationships with the scales of other constructs. 58

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter reports the results from each st ep in the process of investigating CTN and developing the CTN scale. Therefore, this chapter is segmented into sections associated with the steps outlined in the previous chapter. Results from Step 1: Define the Connection to Nature (CTN) Construct Twenty-five adults were interviewed, 11 male s and 14 females as noted in Chapter 3. The interviews were semi-structured (see Appendix B for the interview guide). The thematic analysis resulted in nine themes detailed below. Tranquility/Restoration Theme This theme is characterized by feeling p eaceful and calm when in nature. Many people seek out nature and natural areas for tranquility as well as the me ntal and physical effects derived from being in tranquil settings. Af ter spending time in nature they feel rejuvenated, restored and refreshed, as if much of the anxiety and tension that characterizes their lives is washed away. Some felt that water, either he aring water or being in water, was the most tranquil and relaxing of natural settings. Nature is seen as an escape from a fast-pace d, busy and stressful life. For example its like an escape from everything else thats around me (Miguel); its a way to get away from the daily grind. (Emma); an absence of anxiety (Luke); youre away from all the hustle and bustle of everyday life (Hannah); and youre away from all the stress and you know and the, the chaos in everyda y life (Rosella). Many people found certain aspects of nature pa rticularly relaxing. Fo r many this aspect had to do with sound, either the lack of noise or certain sounds found in nature. You get to listen to all the sounds Hannah; if you listen to the wind going through the trees than it helps to 59

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calm your mind Joe; just kind of taking everything in and enj oying the quiet Joe; or its really peaceful. You know that you dont hear the cars like you do here or the sirens, its so quiet. (Lucy). Eva explained the effect of sound well when sh e said, I think its a sense of um calm for me to come out and sit in the area and just list en. Its um you go inside and of course we dont have television as you probably know and that to me I go to work and I h ear the television and I hear things and its um makes my mind unclear. Its so much going on and I come home and I can be outside and if we go for walks. And we dont even talk we just walk out in it and its quiet and it, it clears my mind. And it helps me, he lps me relax and I guess for me its kind of umhelps me clear work and its just an outle t for me, being outside. I guess. Even for young people who arent yet in the st ressful world of work, whom a dults think of as enjoying loud music and noisy, busy atmospheres, quiet in nature is still importa nt as Amanda explains, real peaceful and just, I was able to let go of what was bothering me. Um able to think, I was able to clear my head and really think about things. Cuz its quiet and there isn t a bunch of added extra noise or people. Others mentioned that they found water partic ularly relaxing. Water was relaxing whether listening to running water such as a stream or fo untain, looking at a body of water, swimming or being in a hot springs. Allen stated, Swimming or just sitting in water. The water is very rejuvenating. And if its water with a flow like a river, its incredibly rejuvenating, incredibly relaxing. Just being near waterfal ls I think is relaxing. I think wa ter has a relaxing way about it. Breanne found, spending time in the natural hot springs and just decompressing and letting the water uh purify and um and you know wash away tens ion um that is really amazing. One person 60

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described how nature and in particular one experience sitting under a wa terfall felt rejuvenating, as if his energies were being recharged, kind of um decompress and recharge energy and stuff. Nature was also sought out when stressed, tense, sad or depressed as a way to feel restored or to feel happier. Sitting in my back porch wa tching birds eat suet for me is uh you know very relaxing, its very restorative. Rosella said, when Im depressed I think that the, that there is a way to reconnect back to that feeling just by being out in natu re again. And that would help you a fight youre your sad feelings or depression. Ni kki whos from Eastern Europe told me, Well what we uh we used to do when we were kids, I dont know if people do it here. Like if you feel really upset and stressed you go to the tree, usually its a birch tree and you just hug it. And you stay like this for a while and it he lps you, you feel better after that. People also reported using past nature experien ces as a way to feel peaceful or even to relax during a stressful situation. For example, Jack, I don t know but um if youve spent much time underwater, snorkeling or scuba diving, you' ve only to close your eyes, and you can go there again and feel like that. A nd I do that everyday for months after I've been snorkeling or scuba diving. I just kind of relive it. And that helps out in your everyday life because its complete stress relief. Breanne expressed some thing similar in saying, I can very easily imagine myself in some of my favorite places in nature and it immediately helps me to relax or focus um if you know stressful situ ations are around me. I mean, so its not just in the moment, its also something that carries with me t oo. So its something that never goes away. Finally, several people felt that without nature they would be more tense and in a negative mood more often. Eva said, if I didnt have this around I think I would be a lot more stressful. I think I would have, it really re laxes me. So I guess it does change who I am. Id be more tense and um probably not so nice of a person. Debbie says without nature time You do get stressed 61

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and then you start snapping at people . a nd Carlos thinks hed, p robably get a lot more moody though. Id find it a lot more difficult to just get through my day to day. Awe/Marvel Theme Many reported feeling a sense of awe when vi ewing aspects of nature. Many times this involved great beauty, grandeur or power such as thunderstorms. But for many people this also involved everyday aspects of nature such as watching insects, lizards, birds and other wildlife. This dimension involves a sense of wonder when enjoying nature and even a childlike curiosity. Feelings of awe were often intense and described as emotional and even overwhelming by several people. A sense of humility at how little we know, feeling small in a large universe, feeling fragile and vulnerable were also part of this theme. Emma described awe inspiring beauty when driving home from work, When Im coming home, and I come up over the hill and I see the vall ey of Simi Valley before me. And it, its like, and the sun is starting to set or just set and theres all these di fferent beautiful colors that you kind of associate with the desert. You know the purples and oranges and you know the sun reflecting off the rocks, or the colors in the sky. Its just amazing. Truly amazing. Beauty in nature not only inspired awe but deep emotions If Im in nature, the deep emotions just can be sometimes the beauty. (A llen). Miguel described the emotion he felt from driving through the desert, And I got a chance to just drive a nd just, just go through you know, just see sceneries that I had never seen before. A nd I think that really, really, really affected me in the sense that something, you know things we ha d something that, that, that beautiful in our country. It was just breathe taking. Its just stuff that you cant, I mean every picture that I would take looked like it was a postcar d. I mean it just looks fake. The emotion inspired by natura l beauty was described as overwhelming, Rosella said she was often so overwhelmed by the beauty and grandeur of nature that, I cr y from emotions from 62

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happiness when I see something that is really uh striking in beauty. When I first saw the Grand Canyon I cried. And when I was in the Himalayas, I cried. I cry, I cried when I was in Arches National Park, Bryce Canyon. I mean this were a ll very, very I feel the massive, majestic presence of a, a something higher than us. And it just a, Im just like overwhelmed and I cry with joy. Yes. Awe was also felt when looking at animals, it s amazing. Theres actually critters like that out there that you actually see. However, even animals people see everyday inspire awe when observing and noticing certain thin gs about them, for example Alle n said Even today I saw two lizards run out and eat insects and I thought that was pretty amazing. And I saw a cowbird eat a lizard. A cattle egret. I think thats nature and an amazing experience. And Joe said, Almost on a daily basis. Um, I dont know I just get excited over seeing, out where I live I see deer all the time and every time I see them I get, I get you know, Im in awe of how they jump. Its just amazing and um I dont know I just see beauty in a lo t of things in nature and Im always in awe of different aspects or quality, or qualities. Awe was felt as a type of bewilderment or astonishment as Miguel describes, Yea. Its like this feeling of awe that youre just like, I just cant believ e it! So yea I got that with uh, with the Grand Canyon I got that. Um I just, I just couldnt believe it. I had no words to explain it other than just take pictures and hopefully laugh. I never get that experience in the city. Theres nothing that you know you can even see a car chase and ther es no awe in that, its just, OK, theres car chase. You know. Hannah also expresses bewilderment from s eeing springs, OK, the coolest thing about nature that Ive seen is right he re in north Central Florida. I we nt to High Springs and they have these springs. And that to me is the most amazing thing because its all natural. Have you been 63

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there? And you look at it. The water is so amazingly blue and then theres caves and stuff! Its so awesome! Its so awesome to me, how, how th at happens. Like, how does that even happen? And theyre all like connected to each other. And the water is just its beautiful. Its, its the most beautiful thing I think Ive almost seen in my whole entire life. It just blows my mind every time I see it. Im like, it amazes me And then Im like, How did this even become? I mean you know what Im saying? I mean how did this even happen? Its just so awesome. Although this type of astonishment happens often with the Grand Canyon, just seeing something different will cause these feelings as Amanda describes. Um, most of the times in awe of what Im seeing. Going from Tallahassee to even Appalachian Mount ains is a big jump. So then I guess going to the Rockies out west, it s like I, or the Grand, places like the Grand Canyon or Bryce youre just kind of like where did this come from? How could it be this different here? How could things be so differe nt even if you just drive like 5 miles? Hmm. A sense of wonder was often described. This included a sense of how simple and yet complicated nature is all the same time. This type of awe was even felt when reading about nature. For example, Its just really, really im pressive and simple at the same time. And in those moments fast & louder Ill also notice how complex things like, how complex the environment is. How like every or a lot of thi ngs depend on one another and just kind of like eye-open, eye-opening experience. A nd Theres just, uh like, experiencing the like complexity and simplicity behind like some of the things in nature is very like um filling you with wonder and awe. Many people said they felt humility in nature. Humility was described as feeling like a very small cog in a big machine. For example, Don said, like human, myself, or even the whole human society just a small piece of the something very big. This was often felt when stargazing, 64

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for example Joe described, When I look at the sk y and the stars and I th ink of how small the earth is and I think of how, how small I am on the earth, you know you feel very insignificant. Feeling small also meant feeling vulnerable as de scribed here by Allen, Yes, you can feel small. You can feel vulnerable. Certainly just like the ra instorm that I said ther e was awe, there was an experience where you feel awe a nd you feel vulnerable and frag ile. Anything can happen. Ive crossed water, Ive crossed rivers on logs, you always feel, you can easil y feel fragile. But perhaps Amanda described the vastness of th e universe well when she was standing on a mountain, Well, I took this hike one time to the top of this mountain a nd you get to the top and you can see like miles and miles in like every di rection. And at that mo ment you stand there and you think this is just, Im like this big ( hand gestures) and Im standing on top of this mountain and this mountain is just one mountain in this enti re range, in this entire country, in this entire world. And if you think about it, like that youre pretty damn small and it makes you feel kind of insignificant to like the rest of whats going on. Or you can never even imagine what all is going on, every single thing th ats going on, I dont know. Humility was also often felt when thinking about the enormous amount humans do not even yet know about nature and how little we really understand. This is illustrated by Luke when he said, Every time I go outside I, its very humbling and its you know and it fills me with uh a sense of humility and, and the fact that theres so much that we dont know. Just from a science standpoint and from a, you know kind of metaphysic al standpoint and, and theres so much we dont know and theres so much to learn. Thunderstorms, and the natural power they repr esent were also found to be awe-inspiring and several people reported enjoying watching th understorms. Liz felt awe from thunderstorms, 65

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even tornados, which Ive never actually been in one but I like to go outside and watch cuz its pretty awesome. One person even desc ribed thunderstorms as a show. Finally, the miracle of everything that transpires before us and what makes life possible, as well as the miracle of birth, insp ires awe. For example, Pedro felt a great deal of awe when he witnessed a manatee giving birth, even though he had seen manatees before and animals giving birth before. Pedro, But um never, never like that. I never, ever it was like you know like Dont you know like get away from her cuz it happened so fast you know then suddenly you know you see the, the, the aperture start opening and vroom and you got another manatee there! Right there are two you know you re like yyeeaa. That was cool, that was very cool. Luke stated, Ah you know every time I go out side I feel awe. You know when the wind blows I feel awe. When the sun comes up and goe s down its like you know this is uh, this is the real deal, this, this is life, it doesnt get any better than this, you better enjoy it and, and you know always fills me with awe. It fills me w ith awe to know that all these little insects are cruising around, all thes e little animals are cruising around which essentially we know nothing about and theyre in our own backyard. And you know even when Im doing this interview, Im watching these little flies book around these plants and theyre in teracting with one another. I have no idea what theyre doing. But you know its obviously something really important in their life cycle and uh and how could that not fill you with awe. Appreciation Theme A sense of appreciation for nature ranged from those who understood and appreciated our need and dependence on nature to respect and admiration, to those who felt a profound reverence for nature. Nature is appreciat ed for providing leisure opportuniti es, interest, learning, beauty, sensory stimulation and joy. For example, appreciating nature for providing an opportunity for 66

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learning is noted in these statements, the opportu nity for discovery. Some cool bug that I hadnt seen before or some bird that I hadnt seen before. (Emma) seeing the birds interact. Nature is appreciated for bei ng a great source of joy and beauty..(Breanne), that just makes me happy (Nola). This appreciation for na ture was also felt to have a positive influence on the person, for example It makes me have a gr eater appreciation for life, makes me more of a positive person, when I can be around it (Lou). Appreciation was also tied to sensory experi ences and for many meant a way to be more appreciative and happy with life. Pa rticipants stated that time in nature made them appreciate a much uh a much larger picture than just my little life, and appreciate a life more. (Rosella). Ned said, you know I guess it would have to be appreciation of, you know, waking up in the morningyou just wake up in the morning and you re just like, phew, breath in, you know fresh air, its trees, ya know you look at the sky, you listen to th e birds. Ned also stated, You just have to really take the time, like I said be fore, to want to stop and look at it and actually appreciate it. But its there, its for all of us to admire and l ook at, you know to commune with if you will. But if you dont take the time to do it, how can you appreciate it? Similarly, Hannah stated, I appreciate it more I think than others. You know some people really dont appreciate nature like they should. Like I lo ve going out to UF and watching the bats fly out and stuff like that. A deeper appreciation was described as havi ng gratitude and reverence for nature and seeing nature as ideal. For example, one s ubject Breanne expresse d her gratefulness and reverence directly in the following statements, (I) receive so many things from nature that Im very grateful you know feel privileged if I see a bird fly by me (Brean ne). She feels a deep reverence and um, really profound uh gratefulness that there is, there are th ese beautiful places 67

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and creatures and things to be e xperienced. (Breanne). Two partic ipants described nature as the ideal way to live life when Im uh you know having a natura l experience when Im out snorkeling or something and in another world. I al ways think the same thing. This is what life is supposed to be like (Jack). Oneness Theme A connection to nature implies a bond with nature and a relationship. This was often described as feeling that they were part of nature or nature was part of self. Some described nature as a friend and others described it as a personal and hopefully mutual relationship. The more connected to nature a person feels the more dependent they also feel That is they must have nature in their lives in a signific ant and prominent way in order to be happy. There seemed to be levels of feeling connect ed to nature. It seemed hard for people who like nature, but dont have a deep relationship to say they are one with nature. It was easier to describe feeling part of nature and yet even ea sier to describe feeling connected to nature. Perhaps this deals with a tendenc y we have to place ourselves se parate from and above nature. That is, it is one thing to admit that you like na ture and therefore have a connection to it, but quite another to say that humans are a part of it. And yet anot her still to say that humans and nature are the same, that we are one, even t hough humans are mammals and cannot be separated from the world we live in. These degrees of separation were described and/or illustrated by participants. For example, when asked if she has ever felt one with natu re, Debbie laughed and asked, Did you make these up? Jack said, Well I feel part of nature in the grand scheme. I dont feel like I'm at one with nature, you know like the crying Indian in the commercial, Im not at that level. But when asked if he felt connected, Jack said, Yes, I feel connected to it. 68

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Those who feel one with nature, had examined the pervasiveness of f eeling separated from nature. Allen, I feel part of I dont know if and to some exta nt I feel one with nature, you know not as one as I should be. There is certai nly a separation between human life and nature but we are a part of nature. Joe said, But uh also hu man things are nature too. I mean we may think that these buildings and things ar ent nature but we came from na ture and were part of nature we just in our society say that we are uh separate a lot of the times so. Luke, Uh but I, I think that our artificial existence you know we live in air conditioned homes and we drive air conditioned cars, and, and uh it ma kes it difficult to be you know truly intimate, intimately reliant on or a part of the whole scene as maybe Native Americans were uh or something. I mean even just down to the very fact that we always wear shoes around, right? So were, were literally disconnected; we dont even touch the ground. Uh we have a rubber sole between us and, and the earth. So, you know all thos e things kind of play into it. Some described feeling part of nature as fundamental or i nnate. Breanne, Um, sometimes its hard for me to understand how ot her people cant see it that way laugh. You know, because to me its one of the most simple, fundamental th ings. Is that we are pa rt of nature. Theres no way you can separate humans from nature. Um a nd that really, the, the process of separating humans from nature is one of the most destruct ive things that human do. And its not healthy for nature or for humans in my opinion. Laugh Allen, Besides providing us with us the resources of life, it also provides us with an outlet for something that is you know somewhere deep within us, its a presence. You know, back in time we we re certainly one with nature years ago and I think its still deep within you, you want to be a part of it not just as a relaxation, as a spiritual release, besides the fact that it provides life and resources. 69

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Having a connection to nature often meant havi ng a desire for daily contact with nature. For some this means living in the country and co mmuting to work and for others this meant daily nature time such as sitting outside during lunch or taking daily walks, communing with nature in some way or even in the way they start their da y. For example, Wilma, wh o lives in the country, said simply, I always want to be close to it. Several people also described that work or the locale where they find themselves, such as in an urban area, keeps them from experienci ng as much nature as they would like. Emma, Right now Im living in an area th at I wish was more natural, th at I wish had more trees, more wilderness. But someday Ill go back to that. Um Im not as interconnected with nature now as I have been in the past, especially when I was a young you know child or you know or even a young adult and unfortunately you know life happens so you kinda have to do what you have to do but I plan on returning to a natural way of living later on in my life. Allen, But unfortunately with work you dont experience as much as you like. But I think its beyond duties beyond as family, its what Id like to be doi ng number 2, being involved in nature. Some report needing to be away from the city and everyone to feel connected. For example Nola said she feels connected to nature when shes around it, Oh you know if Im in an environment, if Im in the redwoods, if Im at Yosemite, if Im skiing; when Im, when Im involved in an activity that puts me in the cent er of nature. Amanda said, Um when youre away from the city or a majority of people and you re out in nature um ju st listening to different sounds or looking at different things makes you feel connected or makes you kind of gives you like this full feeling of theres something special here. And Eva said, I think I tend to more when Im away from like city lif e. When youre out in it and youre just alone out in the middle of nowhere and you havent seen pe ople in a couple of days. I thi nk Ive experienced it then. Its 70

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you know just um being completely removed from society. Thats probably the only time that Ive felt that way. However, others, especially those who feel more of a natural connection to nature, seem to find a way to experience nature even in very ur ban areas. Ned for example, who lives in a large city, connects through his senses everyday. Love honeysuckle, love fragrant viburnum, love tulips. You know theres so many different sme lls and it just. Right there Id say thats connection with nature you know. When we sme ll things, when taste things, when we see things Breanne also describe d feeling connected to everyday nature through her senses, And where I can really feel connected to each of the things that Im experiencing; each of the things through my senses, through my sight You know I can feel connected to the wind that I feel, I can feel connected to something through smell. You know its all um through my senses as well that, that theres the connection. For those with a deep connec tion, even small and seemingly insignificant events can relay a connection to nature as Luke described here But um you know last night, I sat in my backyard and I watched a snail in teract with its environment fo r probably twenty minutes and it was very interesting. And you know I really enjo y those types of intimate uh moments where I can really kind of become a part of a greater understanding. Although feeling connected to nature was described as an overa ll relationship with nature, several people described situa tions where they experienced f eeling one with nature. These experiences were often described as very meaningful; in fact they were often described as their most meaningful nature experiences. The expe riences were often unique, powerful and even overwhelming emotionally, as Allen relays, and it can be overwhelming that way almost a love or definitely a love. 71

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Nikki described a connection experience she ha d, When I was um, we have uh family, we have relatives in the they live near the Vulga River right in the bank of the Vulga River. And they have like gorgeous like this a they call them mountains but they not really high mountains theyre covered with trees. And they have a like a part of lik e one rock that stands out and we used to climb you know up there ri ght to the top. And just sit over there and watch you know all the whats going on down. And uh that was am azing experience and you felt like you were part of nature, like all the trees and you are the same as they are, yea. Laugh. These moments where a deep and profound connection to nature or oneness with nature is felt were described as losing a sense of self. Jo e explained how he feels this way, how would I put that into a feeling? Sometime I guess commune, um communing with nature. I guess you kind of feel um as though you lose your sense of self because you are y ou see all, all of the energy interaction going on around you and, and you ju st. If, if you really get into a state where you can sit in the woods and, you really start to view everything around you as, as living and being of um spirit. Some cultures seem to have described this phenomenon of feeling one with nature. Don said, Umm, I, I dont know ma ybe but from my cultural bac kground in Chinese we describe something if youre nature you feel lost yourself? but lost the feeling the sense of yourself. Don describes such an experience that he had hi mself, Um, one spring a friend and I went to a kind of national or state park. We together and we um kind of lost in those mountains. Thats uh yea, a large piece of forest a nd mountains and uh it was quite dangerous because suddenly it began to like lightening and rain ing. And we, we have to decide whether we should go ahead to, to the peak we want go or we should back. And I, I think um and suddenly it began to rain very heavily. And then I realized that I kind of lost control of myself. I n, in that, that situation I lost 72

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track of time, lost track of myself and in the rain we, we climbing up and down to, to the peak. I think thats the, yea thats the most meaningful time for me. Yea, I, I, I f eel part of the nature, I lost track of time, I didn t realize Im there (Don). Carlos, who has studied peoples relationships with nature, f ound that the way the Japanese culture describes feeling one with nature fits how he feels. Carlos explains it here, Its just saying when youve been able to become in harmony with all the elements of nature, youre able to kind of um destroy all the walls youve put up that separates you from living things. And its just kind of this state of being ab le to just kind of connect with ev erything; this feeling of part of everything. Sorrow/Regret Theme Those who appreciated nature and especially those who felt a connecti on with nature often experienced sorrow and grief at th e plight of our natural world. Some described how destruction of nature was depressing, made them cry or i nduced anger and frustrat ion. Often those who felt sorrow for the wild often also felt some remorse over their own impact, wishing that they could live in ways to lessen their impact and be more in harmony with nature. Seeing natural areas cleared for developmen t was often a source of sadness. You know you hate to see them cut all the trees down out there, (Lucy). Th is sadness was often felt deeply as sorrow and grief like described by Breanne, a deep emotion that I have about nature is great grief for what I see that happens to nature a nd what humans and you know, have done to nature. Emma also expressed sorrow directly when she said, I feel sorrow, because of the rate that were destroying it at. And the majority, I would say the majority of pe oples attitudes toward nature, they just dont really seem to care or know how import ant it really is to us. One participant, Pedro, was involved in the cleanup from an oil sp ill along the Puerto Rican coast. Pedro described it this way, That, you know that was kind of sad. I was kind of as 73

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close to traumatic as can get for me you know because you know. It shouldnt happen, never. When speaking of the spill Pedro mentioned that it was just a small spill, nothing nearly as big as a much larger disastrous spill like the Exxon Valdez. The Valdez spill said Pedro, Oh, that was amazing, if I had been there I probably cry all day. Like Emma who was quoted above, many expre ssed how they felt about other peoples lack of caring as they found th e attitudes of people who dont care upsetting and even shocking. For example, Jack said, my shock at other pe ople's nonchalant attitudes about everything that destroys nature. Although at times participan ts seemed to think ot her peoples attitudes stemmed from a lack of knowledge, many times it was attributed more to greed and or a lack of caring. For example, Miguel spoke of the exploita tion of resources, whenever I start to hear things of people wanting to dest roy nature just for its resources and theyre not thinking of the long term impacts of it, it, it upsets me. Jack seemed to think people just dont care, where others don't, or they want them resolved a different way or they want them ignored like global warming or anything else. Or you know some people just want to not, sweep it under the rug like it's not happening. Fingers were not just pointed at others, several participants said they were concerned about their own impact, feeling guilt a nd wishing to do more to lessen their impact. This makes sense in terms of any connected or loving relationship. You want to protect the loved one from harm and you want to contribute to their betterment. Breanne sai d, And even sometimes thinking about how my own impact on the environment is somewhat, somewhat unavoidable, you know I dont just live off the land, and so I have regrets and I have sorrow for that. Miguel expressed regret also and acknowledged how Americans share a larger part of the blame than others. I think it was more of uh an understanding that I can actually damage nature. 74

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I probably do it at a much greater degree than ther e are a lot of individuals so I have to slow down. So uh in the world you have to at least work with it at least a little bit. So um I realize our lifestyle generally as Americans um or people that live in Amer ica, is one that damages the environment much greater extent th an you know most other countries. Anger was also felt and directed at specific situations and people. Pedro expressed such anger here, But if its uh somebody that di d something you know like that Exxon Valdez or something like that, yea I get angry. I get upset, very. When I hear that Pombo whatever idiot guy, who want to put signs in Yello wstone to help the economy what ever right. Sell Alaska, half of Alaska for oil drilling. You know to me that make me mad. I want, a, you know 5 minute with him. For Luke, sorrow was so deeply felt that it characterized his relations hip with nature and was one of the primary feelings he had toward nature. Here Luke describes the heartache he feels, but it is also, I w ould say, a very sad relationship. Uh, you know when I look around and see all of the development and you know I see de ad animals on the road, its, a, its very heartbreaking for me. And it digs at my very existence and my s oul. And, and so my relationship is a sad one um because I think natures is in major, major trouble, uh globally speaking and locally speaking. Unfortunately for some their sorrow and anger is turning into or has turned into despair and hopelessness. It seems to be going that way fo r Luke as noted here when he talks about one of his two major feelings about na ture, One is just utter sadne ss at whats going on. Just I cant even believe that humans are involved with what theyre doing, it to the pl anet and to the, the animals. I mean you know you look at for exampl e, lowland gorillas and chimpanzees; these guys are just like us. Theyre just like usvery, very little diff, few differences in terms of their 75

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social make-up and their interacti ons with each other. And were killing them left and right. So it doesnt really give us much hope for you know saving the uh yellow you know spotted toad in some obscure forest. Uh you know we cant even sa ve the critters close to ourselves. So thats what makes me very sad. Lou has reached such a point of hopelessness that he has stopped doing most caring or conservation behaviors because as he explai ns, Its pointless. Beyond hopeless, its just pointless. Its beat because its sad and irritating and tragic that were fucked. We can go through the motions and even if some pe ople try to change it, its too la te. We just devour everything. So we can either live in a rice paddy or live in th e city and devour. Not everyone cares about the consequences and so much is just gone forever. Finally, having interests different from the ma instream of society, especially if those feelings seem to relate to sorrow for what so ciety is doing, can also l ead to inner conflict. Breanne pointed out how her feelin gs toward nature even make he r feel different from others, And Im still learning about what it means to be in this relationship w ith nature. And I think there are still things I can do better. Theres still things I wish that I did differently um or theres circumstances in our society that I wish were different that fa cilitate me umleading a more quote unquote natural laugh lifestyle. And that ca n mean many things. Um its just it seems as though a lot of times the greater society is goi ng in the opposite direction of being more connected with nature. And so its a real struggl e wanting to be, in th e world, but also having feelings that are different than a lot of people. Laugh. Um, yea um you know I dont think that I would solve anything running to the forest and just abandoning the rest of the world. Caring behaviors/Reciprocity Theme People often mentioned a desire to care for or help nature and to lessen their impact on nature. Specific caring behaviors were often me ntioned. These ranged from feeding and helping 76

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wildlife to energy conservation behaviors, green purchasing, voti ng, recycling, reduced consumption and other conservation behaviors. The more connected people were with nature, the more of these behaviors they performed and th e more conservation was in the front of their minds. Furthermore, it seemed that those with more education, and especially those who had taken an ecology course, performed a wider range of behaviors associated with helping nature. The most common behaviors mentioned as reflec ting participants relationship with nature were recycling, energy conservation and littering. For those who had not had ecology; not littering, recycling and feeding or helping wildlife in some way was the majority of the behaviors mentioned. Examples include, Well we dont thro w trash out the windows. (Lucy); I mean I would never litter in a, in a, the nature or do anyt hing that is harmful. (Ni kki); I mean there are things like I dont kill the spider s. I let them out. (Liz); and like if the hummingbird feeder doesnt have food before I l eave, I really, I make time laughing to go get them something because they are very upset. Laughing still. Things like that. (Debbie). Littering and feeding or helping wildlife were the only activities mentioned more by those who had never had ecology than those who had. However, people were not prompted by asking specific activities and respondents likely did not recall every activity that they perform. For example, when exploring my own thoughts and feelings, I did not recall every behavior at that time. Furthermore, some of the interviewees ha d been observed performing more behaviors than recalled in the interviews. It also could be a difference in perception. For example, several participants who feed birds did not mention this. It could be that feeding birds by the ecologically minded is not considered a helping activity. Rather it is an activity that benefits the self more than nature by bringing wildlife into view. Littering is another activity that was not mentioned by many who listed a range of behaviors and who feel connected to nature. This could 77

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be because not littering is so f undamental, that it would not come to mind. Rather behaviors that are more of an effort or more conscious ly thought of as helping were discussed. When asked if any behaviors were influenced by their feelings towa rd nature, several of those who had a firm grounding in ecology and who felt connected to nature went through a list of conservation behaviors. For example, Luke, Yes, it does. I would say to a fairly large degree. Uh, you know, Im kind of a freak about um ener gy conservation, uh turni ng light bulbs off, using compact fluorescent bulbs. I try to ride my bicycle as much as possible or a high mile per gallon motorcycle. Um, uh I compost. I recycle. Im adamant about those things. I try to buy fruits and vegetables that are grown in the Unite d States if not locally. Um I try to buy organic um fruits and vegetables. I am a vegetarian whic h is largely due to ecol ogical reasons and, uh so all those things kind of play into it. The motivator for conservation behaviors was th e relationship with nature and the feelings toward nature. Jack, Because I care about it; I know what, about a lot of the issues and care about how they're resolved. Allen said, I thi nk if youre concerned abou t nature thats why you would conserve, thats why you would look at nature thats why youd have feelings for it, like I said the fragility and the expanse and the greatnes s of nature, if I didnt have these feelings I wouldnt feel that way and I wouldnt act this way. Joe who is Native American religion is Earth-based, described his motivation in this way, when Im praying or if Im making an offering to the earth I make a pledge that I will um do all that I can to protect, to protect her. This motivation can be so strong that people wi ll take recyclables to places where they are acceptedeither to other buildings or Bringing things home from work in bags to recycle it (Eva). 78

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Breannes relationship inspires not only conservation behavior s but a desire to learn and teach others, That I have that um desire to give back to nature as in any loving relationship theres a give and a take and a le arning and a growing together and I feel that um I tried to learn as much as I can about nature from nature so that I can than teach others. Carlos, spoke of this desire to give back and to educate others as well, Um so again symbiotic because I try to actually give back because its something I dont just kind of s it there and you know recharge my energies without ever trying to put anything back. I actually put in a lot of effort in trying to um again do environmental education, uh make peopl e more aware of things that they do that impacts nature. Um try to see if theres any way to be able to um remedy them to mitigate the impact. The desire to inspire and teach others about nature was seen in others who feel a connection to nature. Rosella, w ho is not involved in education for her career said, And a in my own world my own little way in a, in a try to influence other people . Ned also talked about influencing others, I do. I would, well I would say small things. I recycle. I try to tell people, Hey, you know turn the water off you know click your lights off. You know things like that. You know Im not thinking as far as much as you know you got to pay that bill, but Im like hey, you know think of that water, think of that electricity. Please dont litter. You know Im a big advocate of Laughs this may sound silly but any six-pa ck ring holder that comes through the house Im the one who cuts it up and pitc hes it. You know Im just like that. Several people spoke of how they hoped to have more of a positive impact for the environment in the future. Pedro whos a Ph.D. student said), I know I can be more active or more advocating that. But right now is not the moment for that. When Im done and I finish and I be a professor than I will have a more powerful voice hopefully. I maybe you know go to (where 79

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I am from) and OK this is wrong, this is right . Others just said that they wished they could do more. For example Eva said, Um, I wish that we could be out in it more. I wish we had, I think (my husband) and I probably bo th wish we could have a job where that was our 24-hour job and we could do something more. I, I know by teach ing I think thats his, his thing. I, I wish I had a job where I could be out and, and work more close, um God this is a hard question too. Um, I wish I could do more. I wish I had the background or the education to do something different and to this field. But as it stands now, I mean working more with the, the human side of it. Um, theres really not. I wish I could do more, I wish did more. Many who were connected to nature and who had an understanding of ecology described having an environmental mindset. Allen said, You know daily I think of conservation. If its water, if its paper goods, um el ectricity. Conservation is always in my hea d. Breanne, I think it shapes my decision making in my daily life as far as trying to be, uh having an environmental mindset and purchase things that are more enviro nmentally friendly and, and um cut down on waste as best I can. This mindset influences daily decision-making, Luke, and everything that I do uh I really make decisions based on how its going to impact the planet. Uh and I, Ive always prided myself in doing just that. I make decisions uh in terms of purchasing; I make decisions in terms of activities and behaviors uh and try to assess the ramificat ions of uh, of those things. However, many people also spoke of limits to their actions. Some people said they dont do enough, for example they dont volunteer. This may come from the desire to do more and perhaps guilt over feeling that th ey should do more. For example, A llen said (285), I may not be a good environmentalist or as good as Id like to be Emma, I probab ly really dont do all that much. I mean I recycle and turn off lights an d stuff like that. Im not part of an organization and I dont go to beach clean-ups, um. And Eva, Um, I try to do the little part that I can do. 80

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But I dont, I dont think we really go out of our way; neither of us goes out of our way in like community groups or anything like that. We dont go out and do, you know potato round-ups and all that. So I think we should go the extr a mile but at this point we really dont. For some the limits of their conservation behaviors may be due to convenience. For example, Joe mentioned recycling only where it is offered, its not offered out where I live so but at work Im a fanatic about recycling ever ything I can because they do it here. Others assumed the lack of further activities meant it wa s not that important to them. Debbie described her activities and lack of activitie s this way, not a, like a hardco re, I do my recycling and things like that. But Im not, I think about it and I agree with people that get out there and do things to clean up the rivers and things lik e that. But I dont do it myself, I mean outside of picking up my own trash laugh I dont you know go help them do it or anyt hing like that which I think if I was really firm belief like that I would get out and do, do something to help but. Others werent sure what was stopping them. Miguel said, Um, but at the same time, I think the, I dont take it nearly to the extent that I c ould. I dont know whats stopping me. Um I dont know what it is. Either it could be uh competing needs; um it could be a variety of things. Spirituality Theme Although spirituality was not sp ecifically addressed, it did em erge in the interviews. One participant stated, I think its (nature) very im portant more than recreat ion, spiritually (Allen). Some reported a nature-based spirit uality and others said that their feelings toward nature led them away from their religious backgrounds. They fe lt that religions that we re anthropocentric in orientation led people away from connecting with and caring for nature. Others felt that although their religion did not discuss natu re, they still felt nature re presented Gods creation and we should be caretakers and stewards rather than simply users. Nature-based spirituality ranged 81

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from worshipping in nature, worshipping nature itself feeling the divine in nature to feeling that nature represented all of Gods creation. This is a topic that warrants fu rther investigation. People who were raised Christia n had different opinions as to how Christianity taught them about nature. These different opinions ranged from a lack of attention, to negative, to positive. Pedro, spoke of the lack of attent ion to nature, I dont know being Catholic, they have not, that I can remember, promoted for me to go out and be e xposed to nature and care about nature. Eva, on the other hand, talked about the negative influence and opi nions her Christian background taught, they teach that were the ce nter of the universe and that pretty much. And that um nature and animals are for our use. Looking back it makes me kind of sad that I spent so many years with that kind of brainwashing. I guess I, I, you know because thats well I grew up in an Abeca. The program I did was an Abecan Christian and all the science classes and everything was, thats what you learned; that we were the center of the universe and we were to use nature as for whatever we needed it for. And its an inte resting way to look back at things Eva. A more positive Christian influence on feelings toward nature was relayed by several people. For example Hannah said, Because I belie ve that God created everything down to the little ants that crawl on the ground. And you know in Gods world its you know everything that he creates is beautiful. And you know he created everything for a purpose. Everything has a purpose like frikin dumbass bumblebees even ha ve a purpose. You know and even though youre annoyed by mosquitoes that are so annoying, they se rve as a purpose. Every single thing serves as a purpose right down to a flower you know. So I guess yea, I think that has, you know, that has changed the way that I look at nature because I know that God created it. It makes it a lot, you know, more beautiful to me. Wilma expressed similar feelings, Mmm yes because a part of well, nature to me is everything that God made was nature, I mean everything that he made. So I 82

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believe in God and I believe that hes part of everything we see and do and you know every animal, every you know, theres a, theres part of him in every part of it. Emma on the other hand spoke about how she feels differently from many Christians because she believes in conservation, You know th ats a great question and I love talking about it. UmI am a Christian. In my view, is that Go d put us here to be caretakers of his creation. That means that we should not abuse but take car e of. That means, that means conservation. That means making sure we have clean air and clean water and everything else So it sort of goes against what the sort of right-wing, you know, fundamentalist Christian right, laughs stands for in my opinion. So I think that yes, I think that yes, my religious beli efs do. But Emma also talked about how there are some Christians who are coming around to the importance of protecting nature. Anyways, they are really trying to push more of the kind of view that I have that were here to take care of it and conservation and to take car e of nature as our responsibility as Christians. And this new development make s her happy as noted here, Im so happy! I get all happy whenever I think about it. Some people said their feelings for nature infl uenced their spirituality and religious beliefs, in these cases, these individuals had steered aw ay from their Christian background. Luke stated, and you know it probably clears throat my, a, my interests in, in my uh you know affection for nature has influenced my religion. For example, you know Christianity is very uh egocentric and I hate that about Christ ianity. Man is not at the center of the universe. And thats one of the problems with, with our planet. Its a, its a, its an, its an anthropocentric, egocentric uh existence for most people. Luke now describe s himself as agnostic. However, of the three others who said their switch was definitely or li kely influenced by their feelings toward nature, one said they may have a more Eastern leaning, Rosella switched from Ch ristianity to Buddhism, 83

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and Carlos described his spirituality as I have studied shamanism and earth-centered religions. I am, if any label would fit, a pa ntheist. Nature is godor goddess. Like Carlos, Breanne had also researched other religions for more nature-based orientations. I wouldnt subscr ibe to any one religi on. Ive studied a lot of religions and Ive studied a lot of cultures that have deep reverence for nature. And so I would say that my study of those cultures and of those religions have um Ive found different meditative practices and different exercises such as tai chi um and other ceremonies and things that you can do in nature that I even though Im not part of those cultur es or those religions I can appreciate those ceremonies and use those ideas as a way for me to um spend in time in nature with that. So I think theres a lot to learn from some of the cultures and the religions that are more earth-based spirituality and um (Breanne). One participant was raised to have a nature-based spiritualit y. Hes a Native American that practices Handsome Lake or Longhouse religion, I focus my spirituality on nature and on, and on the Earth Mother. And uh I pray, its very important to me. For instance, last night there was a big storm and I went outside and I prayed to the beings that bring the storm and in our language their kind of their kind of the thunderers I guess. And um, and I make offerings to nature in my prayer. But thats part of a tr adition I was brought up in. So it hol ds, holds, I see I guess, I guess it would be kind of a form of animism (Joe). Joes nature-based religion and sp irituality is reflected both in how he regards nature and his everyday activities. Joe sees life in all things in nature and spirit so, so (thats) very important. Daily rituals include pr aying and giving thanks, for exampl e, I usually pray in the morning and my prayers involve nature and honori ng different aspects of nature, and, when I eat I give thanks to the beings that gave themse lves so I could live. Also, his relationship with 84

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nature is not just about taking a nd asking. Joe describes giving back in this way, Yea, I, well I, I believe there always has to be an energy exchange so if, if Im asking for something spiritually (pause) if Im asking for something spiritually I will give something back. So if Im praying, Ill leave an offering of tobacco or cornmeal or something like that. Um or whatever I have available. If I just have water I ll just explain that thats something valuable to me right now and Ill leave it. Um if somethings given to me lik e a feather, um if its placed there and its something that I was meant to find, Ill leave so mething in place of it you know. But his giving back is not just situational, or one-time gifts ba sed on what hes asking for at the moment as he said, when Im praying or if Im making an offeri ng to the earth I make a pledge that I will um do all that I can to protect, to protect her. And for me thats e ducation so I work um to try to educate people to value natu re especially kids so. Joe also believes there is a form of communicat ion with nature. In fact I believe that, that Creator gives people messages thro ugh nature and this is anothe r tradition I was taught. For instance, if I see an owl I know that, that means a certain things. Or if a crow comes and stands over me and starts cawing over and over again I know that means something else. So every, every, I guess through nature I feel like I can communicate with Spirit so (Joe). Finally, spiritual feelings and experiences were described. Spiritual fe elings were described by Amanda as, Um its peaceful when Im out in nature I feel relaxed and connected. UmI guess since Im not religious thats the closest I get to religion is the spiritual feeling I get when Im in nature. Some specific spiritual experien ces that were discusse d included revelations, a mystical experience, and communication or communing with non-human species. Luke who described three different spiritua l experiences describe d one such experience as, Id say just a clears throat like uh, uh, uh kind of simultaneous ex you know, widely expansive uh realization 85

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that theres a lot of things out there that we dont understand and that the world is a very large place and that natures you know just complete ly amazing, as we are, uh, as you know, machines essentially. And so I guess spiritually what doe s that mean? I guess it ju st means that you know at that moment I just had this rush of realization that nature was uh just completely amazing and uh totally large in scope and beyond and mostly beyond comprehension. Identity Theme This theme has to do with how much a person id entifies with nature or how much of their identity is tied to nature and the impact na ture has on their life. Although it is related to connection, there were connected people who did not have lives centered around nature and people who were not as connected who could not live without nature. There were those whose identities were tied to nature or the environment. Nature influenced career, behaviors, purchasing, leisure, vacations, and often came firs t in someones life or second to family. The more influence nature has, the more it influences identity and the more profound the connection. In this sense it seems that a deep connection to nature can provide personal identity. Personal identity is not as well defined in the in the literature as Social Identity Theory or Identity Theory. While all identity theories describe how people define and categorize themselves, group categories such as Hispanic, Ga tor fan, or Floridian is described as social identity. Categorizing oneself into roles such as occupation, mother or husband is described by Identity Theory. Whereas personal id entity consists of the values, goals and meanings that define a unique and core self, therefore influencing bot h role and group ident ities. Many of the people interviewed valued nature, they had goals to protect and care for nature, and nature gave meaning to their lives. Furthermore nature ofte n provided role identities such as gardener, environmental educator, activist, and advocate. Group identities such as environmentalist, treehugger, nature-lover and animal lover were also influenced by connection to nature. 86

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Connection to nature influenced a number of respondents careers. For example, Joe describes why he chose the field of environmental education as his career, I make a pledge that I will um do all that I can to prot ect, to protect her. And for me th ats education so I work um to try to educate people to value na ture, especially kids so. Brea nne said, Yea, um I always knew that I wanted to work with nature in one way or the other. And I didn t exactly know how that was going to shape up and so um my degree wa s on an interdisciplinary level, it was interdisciplinary ecology so I coul d learn a lot about a lo t of things. I dont have really a focus except for you know I decided that education wa s a good avenue to teach other people about nature and thats why Im focusing on that ri ght now. Carlos said, Nature has directly impacted the person that I am today. I have always had an affinity for natural settings and this has resulted in my desire to work in conserva tion and environmental education Career was a common avenue for influence. Seven interviewees have or want to work in zoos, three are working on advanced degrees in natural resources and one is working on a Bachelors degree in natural resources. Anothe r interviewee has worked in Natio nal Parks and several have done volunteer work for NGOs. Having a connection to nature al so influences where people liv e. Wilma said, Id say yes because um I live you know out away from town. I live in the woods so I can be closer to that kind of thing because thats so much a part of me. Lucy who commutes an hour to work so that she can live in the country sai d, Ah well I love it. Thats wh y I live in the country. Cause you know youre out and dont have somebody sitting ne xt to you. And now I get to sit and watch the squirrels and I have um goats and donkeys s o. Mm watch hummingbirds, thats nice now. You get older you sit on the rocking chair and watch nature. 87

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Nature influences choice of vacation as it serv es as a prime interest and motivator. Miguel said, it affects where I go when I do vacation. It affects where Im gonna go. If uh the places that Im gonna visit do not have a ny nature areas that I can visit, I dont go. Generally, I just dont visit those areas. So uh they have to have some form of wildlife to a gr eater extent than just a zoo or something like that. Don, Allen and Rosella also discussed or mentioned the National Parks theyve visited. For example, Rosella said, Ive been to most of the National Parks in the United States, more than any average American Im sure. Having a connection to nature also influences what people are motivated to do and learn and who they are motivated to socialize with. For example Pedro described what a large influence his connection has had on him, Well I mean you, if youre exposed to nature and you get to love it, you tend to respect it. And if you respect nature, youll learn to respect you everything else. Youre work, you re people next to you, you know um laws, rules, etc. because you know um with everything that been happening in the you know in the last 100 years um in terms of green areas. Um like I have friends th at you know theyre not too nature-based, theyre more city type you know and then you are supposed to either gangs or do nothing or play station all day long and I dont know. I dont see myself doing that or getting that limited you know. Nature kind of opens also your mind and, and the possibilities are endless because I dont see only all of nature what is you know every time I see a program in TV Oh, wheres this place? You know I want to go, I want to see it. Or Nati onal Parks, I want to see all of them. Oh you know and this, it keep making you want to learn more and visit more places. So it making you want to travel, want to meet other places, other pe ople. At least to me, its very, like I said, very, very important. And I think it make me want to socialize and, and like at least you know another point of view. You know may you s ee nature some other way than I see nature you know. Like, 88

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like when the discussion I have with Luke, like hes but I dont know if youre vegetarian, but hes vegetarian, Im not. We discuss stuff like that you know so thats. Breanne (65-67) discusses how nature influen ces not only her social interactions but who she is, And I think the time that I spend in nature also shapes um how I interact with people and how I interact with the world becau se I learn a lot from spending time in nature. So I think that it forms who I am. For Don nature reinforces aspe cts of self identity, B ut maybe only reinforce who I think I am. If I view like I view myself as really pro envir onment, so I go there I, I maybe I will, I will see like what I have did is right. Of course thats a rewarding experience. Um nature experience to the future to who I am. Nature also influenced or reflected how pe ople viewed their personality. For example, Amanda felt that (40-41), I think nature has a tendency to give pe ople kind of a laid back feel. Um also, relating to the earth. Like I tend to be laid-back, earthy, um, treehugger. Naomi said, Um in a way because its peaceful, its quiet, its kind of relaxing and thats usually how I see myself as. And Nola felt natu re reflected the, Uh freedomt he freedom peaceful side of myself. Nature allows those who feel connected to be their true self, to feel free to just be themselves. Wilma described this by saying, Id say that it lets you just be you. Um you know you dont have to be something that you arent when youre with nature because you are that, nature is the real you! Rosella also feels nature lets her express her true self, Yes, yes, when I go out in nature I feel like a I can pray more freely. I feel like I can talk to a to a even the tree or a plant and you know it help me to express my own inner self, to bring it out. Yes. Nature is where several people said they not onl y feel most like their true selves, but also the most comfortable. Breanne de scribed her comfort in nature th is way, I think that when Im 89

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spending more time in nature, for example if Im out camping for 2 weeks and Ive been out in nature I start feeling more like who I really am then when Im in a city or when Im in a lot of buildings. I, I feel like um when Im out there it reminds me that, th at is the most natural of ways to be uh you know. When I come back it feels totally foreign. Whereas, I know you know with some people when they go out in nature it feels foreign. For me, coming back with buildings and cars and roads feels less natural, feels more uncomfortable and so you know Id say that being in nature um reminds me that I am a part of nature and that is the most comfortable and rewarding feeling. Several people find that their relationship with nature defines themselves or is one of the most significant aspects of thei r self. For example Breanne desc ribes herself as, connected or earth-connected um I, I would choose that over natural because Im not sure exactly what you know natural or natura listic, I would, I would use that um to describe you know that I acknowledge my relationship with nature. Nature also provided meaning in life for people. Meaning was felt through moving experiences such as the spiritual experiences that were discussed. Me aning is provided through career choice and through hobbies and interests. Hannah descri bed how caring for an orphaned owlet provided her with mean ing, Like you know how people go throughout their lives every day and they go to work and yada yada yada but they dont really have a meaning and stuff like that and, and I felt like with him I just. It was awesome because I could help him but yet he was helping me to all at the same time like we we re kinda helping each ot her. You know what Im saying? Fear Theme Fear and other negative feelings were expresse d for certain aspects of nature often snakes and/or insects or storms. Discom fort in nature or feelings of alienation were also expressed. 90

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Often these negative reactions were more common with those who had less of a connection and/or less experience w ith nature. However, people who felt a deeply profound connection with nature also expressed some fear for nature in the same way. Perhaps some fear of nature and the power of nature is a natural survival instinct. In other cases, it may be remnants from influences that are not so connected (such as parents), a time when the pers on was not as connected or even from various traumatic experiences. Jennifer who is not very connected to nature, sa id that she associates nature with, Gross, disgusting, um bugs, dirt, no shower, um, I dont know, just being outside, humidity, cuz I live in Florida. Miguel who began participating in nature-based activities as an adult and within the past decade, enjoys nature and looks forward to tim e in nature, still does not feel completely comfortable in nature Um, so a lot of times ev en though I really enjoy goi ng to it, I still feel alienated a lot of times. I dont, I cant think b ecause I dont understand natu re that well. Um, so I, I feel a lot of times a lack of control in nature which I dont f eel necessarily lik e in the city, I feel a lot more control. Fear for certain animals or forces in nature were described. Several pe ople relayed a fear of animals such as snakes, spiders, frogs, bugs, b ears and alligators. Ned described a time when he was canoeing and was hanging on to a branch over hanging the water when, all of a sudden this spider, HUGE, hairy just ugly, gray spider. And I use the word ugly for insects because I dont like insects. This spider came down and climbed on my arm. And I screamed like a girl. I let go and I just let the river take me. And finally we we re able to get our stuff and get the canoe back on land. And everybody met us around to the other si de. It was quite traumatic for me. I had to have a beer. It was so ridiculous laughing. 91

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Fear of certain animals or aspects of nature can result from bad experiences and the fear can be overcome as Eva describes, It was actuall y we were in a park and my mother came into the bathroom and I was little. I was little, little And she had let me go in the bathroom stall by myself as a little girl probably 4 years ol d. And shes like, Are you OK? And she opens the door and she tosses a tree frog at my face like as a joke. My mom was young; she was probably 23 when this happened. And it, you know, sucked ont o my face and so ever since then I was like nervous about little animals but Ive overcome that since. However, other traumatic experiences lead to avoidance. For example, Miguel cannot go camping for fear of bears and a possible cl ose encounter when camping, Um, camping, ( l aughing) which maybe why I dont like camping. Um I ju st um bear noises that were relatively close. I never saw a bear um may not even have been a bear. But the growling affected me and since then any single time I go camping and I k now there are bears close by I, I have trouble relaxing. So I would much rather prefer staying in a hotel or some sort of accommodation thats something like that like a cabin or something th en, then camp. Eva had a traumatic experience in the ocean and even though she finds water very relaxing, she will not go in the ocean, I was stung by a um, um, man-o-war. So I dont get in the ocean anymore, um-mm. No, so I dont and Im, Im nervous. Ive stepped on things and been bit in the ocean. So I dont get in the ocean anymore. Fear of the power of nature was also noted. D on said simply, I fear the power of nature. Liz said, Sometimes when nature gets out of control its kind of scaryYea, hurricanes and forest fires and tornados and. Th is fear of certain aspects of na ture also exists among the most connected people. For example, Joe, who is extrem ely connected to nature, also fears aspects of nature. He relayed a story of bei ng afraid of an alligator when he was young and even recently he 92

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himself was affected by natures power and has so me fear from that as described here, But uh, yesterday when I went out and prayed there wa s a really bad thundersto rm that went by my house and I went outside to ask to give thanks fo r the rain but to ask to spare the beings on my property the trees and the my wolves and horses. I had a hors e get struck by lightning a few years ago. So Im always very fearful of that so thats why I go outside a nd pray please protect us and, and um. And this fear can exist in people who work with dangerous animals for a living. Ned works with bears and other large mamma ls. One of the bears he works with even severely injured a keeper years ago, yet Ned does not like insects and even related a fear of them, as described in the story above. When asked about th is disparity he said, Yes, I mean to me thats fine because she was not and, and this is my opinion. This is only my opinion. But she was not giving that animal the respect that it needed. So if you respect the animal, you know and thats where Im saying you know you have to be on the same level as the animal or as nature and you respect that particular animal then that animal is going to respect you. But know insects they just willy-nilly just bite you and fly on your mashed potatoes or potato salad and take of again. You know the bear wont do that ( l aughs). Results for Steps 2 and 3: Develop and Test Items for Each Defined Domain Twenty-four to 34 items were de veloped per each of the nine dimensions (see Appendix C) for a total of 261 items. A sample of 25 people interested in outdoor recreation or natural resources from the University of Florida Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management assessed the connection items pr oviding Thurstone-type judgments for each. Items were rated on a 7-point scale fo r the degree that each item represents its corresponding domain. Participants were continually in structed not to rate items ba sed on the amount they personally disagree or agree with the item; rather they rate d items based on their perception as to whether or 93

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not the items represent the domain. Items that did not receive a mean score of at least 4 were not considered to be representative of the corr esponding domain and were deleted from the item pool. For each theme or dimension, 10 to 16 items with the highest mean scores were chosen to be pretested. This resu lted in a pool of items. Results from Step 4: Pilot Testing the Surve y: Selecting and Revising Items Based on Respondents An item pool of 111 items were pilot tested with a small group of five adults using a thinkaloud. The purpose was to ensure that participan ts understand the survey instructions and all items. Areas designated as having potential problem s in the pilot were modified accordingly. No items were eliminated at this stage. Results from Step 5: Pilot Testing the Survey: Selecting and Revising Items Based on Item Analysis A convenience sample of 113 students in an in troductory course in the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management at th e University of Florid a took a survey that included 111 test items. An item analysis was conducted that examined item variability, item discrimination, response location, item correlations and item covariances. The results of this analysis were used to discard it ems that did not perform well. Tables 4-1 through 4-17 show the results of the item analysis for each domain. The item analysis consisted of the item variability, item discrimination, response location, item correlations and item covariances which were explai ned in Chapter 3. The results of the analysis are depicted in two sets of ta bles per domain. The first table depicts the results for the items tested. The second table depicts t hose items that qualified for the next stage of testing based on the items analyses. The results for each domain are depicted in the corresponding tables and summarized here. The restoration /tranquility domain, ten items were tested and based on item analysis four items were discarded for not pe rforming well. For example, item P9 has a high 94

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mean or response location and low variability, and item P8 had low item discrimination as the item-total correlation was low. For the awe domain thirteen items were tested and six were discarded. The appreciation domain began with tw elve items and ended in six. The caring items were trimmed from thirteen to six. Thirteen items were tested in the fear domain and eight were dropped. The twelve spiritual item s all performed well, therefore, none were discarded. Of the ten sorrow/grief items that were tested, four were dropped. The oneness domain began with fifteen items and resulted in ni ne that performed well. And fi nally, the identity domain began with twelve items and item anal ysis trimmed the number of acceptable items to nine. This stage eliminated 45 items, leaving 66 that performed acceptably well at this stage. Results from Step 6: Assess Reliability a nd Internal Structure or Dimensionality Test One From the pool of 66 items that performed we ll in step 5, three to five items from each domain were chosen for the next round of te sting. These items were chosen based on a face validity review by several profe ssors in natural res ources-based tourism and recreation. The survey included a total of three to six items each for all 9 domains. Six of the domains also had at least one negative item each. A tota l of forty-one items were tested with two separate samples that consisted of 234 members of green groups and 532 members of an introductory leisure course. The surveys were conducted online usin g SurveyMonkey software. The groups were contacted via an e-mail sent out by their orga nization. The introductory pages of the survey explained the purpose of the study as well as the voluntary and confid ential nature of the survey and gave contact information. Data were analyzed separately for each sample using SPSS 12.0. The item analysis revealed that all of the negativ e items performed poorly. Inter-it em correlations for these items were too low. This left three or four items per domain to run factor analysis and test 95

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dimensionality. However, the factor analysis failed to reveal a stable factor structure. Factor structures are often found to be unstable with too few items per domain and become more stable as the number of items per domain increases (Marsh, Hau, & Balla, 1995). Therefore, it was decided to abandon this data set and run another test of the items. Test Two Since the negative items have consistently fail ed to perform well on all item tests thus far, only positive items were included in this test. Furt hermore, four to six items were tested for each of the domains for a total of forty-seven items. These items were the strongest psychometrically (from the item analysis in step 5) of the 66 items that made it into the item pool. A sample of 529 students from an introductory le isure course took this test. The surveys were conducted online using SurveyMonkey software. Participants A total of 529 students in an in troductory leisure course at the University of Florida took this version of the survey. Thirty three percent of the participants were male and 67% were females. The majority of participants, 77%, we re Caucasian and nine percent were African American and eight percent were Hispanic/Latino. Seventy-two per cent of the sample grew-up in urban areas. Ages ranged from 38 to 18, with 83% aged 23 to 19 (see Table 4-18). In terms of political affiliation, 42% were c onservative and 38% were liberal while 40% of the sample were democrats and 41% republicans (see Table 4-21 and Table 4-22). In terms of time spent in outdoor recreation (see Table 4-19 ) the most frequent activities were camping and fishing followed by kayaking/canoeing, motor boating, nature appreciation and day hi king, in that order (see table 4-20). Frequency of participation in outdoor recreation ranged from a low of an average of zero hours per month (4.1% of re spondents) to a high of 100-200 hours (0.6% of respondents) and a mode of one to five hours per month (41.4% of respondents). 96

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Item analysis Item analysis revealed that all items performe d well. Therefore, all items were entered into exploratory factor analysis to test dimensionality. Exploring, cleaning and splitting the data The data was first examined for outliers and missing values. Few missing values were found, so no adjustments were made. To look fo r outliers, boxplots of each variable were examined. Data from eighteen respondents were re moved because their responses were identified as outliers for at least 10 of the CTN items (this is based on conventionality). Next, the data was randomly split into two data sets to reduce Type 1 error (Hair, et al, 1998). Data set A, with a sample size of 249, was used to fi rst perform exploratory factor analysis. Data set B, with a sample size of 262, was used to confirm the dimensionality using confirma tory factor analysis. This sample size is adequate for factor analysis as it allows for at least five participants per item (Bollen, 1989); which would be 235 participants for 47 items. The sample also meets the minimum total sample size of 200 recommende d for structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1998). To check for normality, skewness and kurtosis valu es were computed for each data set (Set A: Table 4-23 and Set B: Table 4-24). In a normal distribution, skew ness and kurtosis values should be zero. Although these valu es should be converted to z-scor es for small samples, in large samples (data sets larger than 200) the values are inflated and so the significance of the standardized values is of little value. Therefore, the shape of th e distributions were examined for each variable as well as looking at the unstanda rdized skewness and kurtosis values (Field, 2005). Several of the appreciation items were skewed and/or kurtotic as was item Awe10. Therefore, these items could cause problems in later analyses. 97

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Internal structure/dimensionality The internal structure or dimensionality was firs t tested with a series of exploratory factor analyses (EFA) performed on data set A us ing SPSS 12.0. Factors were extracted using maximum likelihood extraction and direct oblim in rotation. Maximum likelihood extraction was chosen as recommended in a study of factor analysis (Costello & Osborne, 2005). Oblique rotation was chosen to allow for the correlation of all constructs. All fact ors should be correlated since they are dimensions of the same construct. Two further checks were used to see if the data should be analyzed using oblique rotation. First, the correlations between the factors were in the moderate range, indicating a relationship. Second, when an orthogonal rotation was tested it did not provide an identical solution, indicating that the constructs are not independent (Field, 2005). The analyses revealed six factors (Table 4-25): awe, identity (which consisted of both oneness and identity items), spiritualit y, sorrow, fear and restoration. Ne ither caring or appreciation items factored. To confirm the factor structure and esta blish the efficacy of the overall model for connection to nature, both the measurement m odel and the overall model were tested. The analyses were conducting using AMOS 7.0. The overall conceptual model, or second-order factor model depicted in figure 4-1, shows the rela tionship of the first order latent variables (the dimensions measured indirectly by the manifest or observed variables) and the second order latent variable the overall construct, CTN. To test the measurement model, the six dimens ions that factored in the EFA were entered into a confirmatory factor analysis using data set B. The six factor model fit the data with acceptable fit indices (Table 4-27). Next, modifica tion indices for the items were examined to determine if any items should be removed. Items that were identified by the modification indices as poor fitting were also examined in term s of conceptual need for the dimension. Two 98

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spirituality items (spir8 and spir12), two sorrow items (sor1 and sor7), one awe item (awe8) and one identity item (Id9) were removed one at a time. Each items removal resulted in an improvement in fit (see Table 4-27 for fit indices for this parsimonious model and Table 4-28 for fit indices for the model with only spir8 removed). The final model is depict ed in figure 4-2 and depicts a six factor model with 26 items (4 ite ms each for spirituality, awe and sorrow, and 5 items each for identity and restoration). The final measurement model fit statistics are depicted in Table 4-27 and are as follows: Chi-square/df ratios (556.89, df=284, 1.96, p=.000) were lower than the suggested threshold of 3.0 (Carmines & McIver, 1981; Kline, 1998). The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value (.061) was lower than .08, indicating adequate f it (Brown & Cudeck, 1993; Hu & Bentler, 1999). The Comparativ e Fit Index (CFI) was .93 and th e Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) was .94; both greater than the recommended .90 (Brown & Cudeck, 1993; Kline, 1998). In addition, the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) was .053, less than .08 which is considered good fit (H u & Bentler, 1999). Since the measurement model performed well, th e next step was to conduct a second-order confirmatory factor analysis to test the fit of th e dimensions to the CTN construct. This model is depicted in figure 4.1 and the fit indices are in Table 4-26. Chi-square /df ratios (630.98, df=293, 2.15, p=.000) were lower than the suggested thres hold of 3.0 (Carmines & McIver, 1981; Kline, 1998). The root mean square error of approxi mation (RMSEA) value (.066) was lower than .08, indicating adequate fit (Brown & Cudeck, 1993; Hu & Bentler, 1999). The Comparative Fit Index (CFI) was .91 and the Tucker-Lewis Inde x (TLI) was .92; both greater than the recommended .90 (Brown & Cudeck, 1993; Kline, 1998). In addition, the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) was .073, less th an .08 which is considered good fit (Hu & 99

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Bentler, 1999). The fit of this model to the data indicates that the CTN construct consists of these five dimensions. Reliability Reliability was measured using Cronbachs coefficient alpha ( ) for internal consistency and average variance extracted (AVE) for each factor (Table 4-26). Cronbachs alpha ranged from .86 to .91 for the CFA exceeding the .70 minimum (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). AVE scores, indicating the overall am ount of variance in the indicators accounted for by the latent construct (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1998), ranged from .56 to .70. All were greater than .50 as recommended (Hair et al., 1998). Convergent validity of the internal structure Evidence of convergent validity for the scale is provided by the items loadings on their respective constructs. The standa rdized regression weights from the measurement model for all items ranged from .71 to .90, which are greater than the 0.70 conservative th reshold (Hair et al., 1998; Litwin, 1995). The second-order factor model also further supports convergent validity of the scale as the relationships among all six dimensi ons are significant, and the relationship of the overall construct (CTN) and the dimensions are significant at the .05 level as indicated by the critical ratios (Anders on & Gerbing, 1988). Discriminant validity of the internal structure Evidence of discriminant validity is provided when the correlation between the dimensions or factors is not markedly hi gh (i.e., > .85) as to indicate that the dimensions overlap conceptually (Kline, 1998). Ta ble 4-29 shows the correlation among the dimensions all fall below this threshold, ranging from -.268 to .77, indicating discriminant validity. 100

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Results from Step 7: Construct Validity Studies Evidence of convergent and discriminant vali dity for the CTN construct was assessed by correlations with similar and dissimilar constr ucts (Crocker & Algina 1986; DeVellis, 1991). Evidence of predictive validity of the CTN construct was appraised by test ing the relationship of CTN to environmentally responsib le behavioral intentions. Convergent Validity Evidence for convergent validity of the CTN construct is provided by positive correlations to similar constructs (Spector, 1992 ). Five measures of similar constructs were correlated with the subdimensions of CTN. One-tailed significance tests were used since all relationships were hypothesized to be positive. Pearson correlations ar e shown in Table 4-30. Mayers and Frantzs Connectedness to Nature (CNS) scale is meant to measure the same construct, therefore correlations should be high between it and CTN, except for fear. All correlations between the CNS and CTN subdimensions (except for fear whic h is negatively correlated as it should be) were positive and significant at the .01 level. However, two of the three subdimensions had moderate correlations, and the highest, .75, was w ith the identity dimension. This dimension is likely the most similar to the CNS scale which is meant to be unidimensional. Since CTN is hypothesized to be an aspect of pe rsonal identity, it should correlate highly with measures of self identity and role identity. The highest correlations were with the identity subdimension, .69 and .77 for role identity and self-identity respectivel y. Finally, there should be a positive relationship between CTN and the self-transcendence values of benevolence and universalism. However, in this case although all correlations between CTN subdimensions and universalism were significant at the .01 level, all were moderate Correlations with benevolence and all CTN subdimensions were low and only on e was significant (sorrow at p<.05). 101

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Discriminant Validity Evidence for discriminant validity of th e CTN construct is provided by a lack of correlation between CTN subdimensions and diss imilar constructs. Here, it was hypothesized that the correlation between self-enhancement va lues of power and achievement and CTN would be low. All of these correlations did, in fact, prov e to be low with this sample (Table 4-31). Only one correlation was significant the correlation between awe and achievement (r=.17, p<.05). In addition, the CTN constructs should not be related to social desirability which was measured by the short form (Strahan and Gerbasi, 1972) of the Marlow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. These correlations were low and although one was significant it was less th an -.1 (Table 4-31). Egoisitic concerns, which should also be very di fferent from CTN, were measured and found to have low and non-significant corr elations with all CTN subdi mensions (Table 4-32). Predictive Validity Evidence for predictive validity of the CTN construct will be provided by how well the CTN subdimensions predict environmentally responsible behaviors (ERB). A modified Environmentally Responsible Behavior Index (ERBI) (Smith-Sebasto, 1995) was used containing 18 questions asking a bout the frequency of environm entally responsible behaviors (these are self-reported behaviors, not behavioral intentions). Ho wever, before the regression of CTN on ERB was conducted, a factor analysis of the ERB scale was conducted to divide the scale into potential subscales to pr ovide more accurate measurement. Exploratory factor analysis using maximum likelihood extraction and direct oblimin rotation of the ERB items revealed three factor s (Table 4-33). The factors were 1) civic, consisting of five items including voting, being informed and discussing issues, boycotting and supporting groups and causes; 2) the 3 Rs consis ting of five items including reducing, reusing, buying recycled, buying less packaging and using CFL bulbs; 3) committed, consisting of four 102

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items including writing letters, composting, re ducing the use of pes ticides and buying shadegrown coffee. Indices of each dimension were ma de for the purposes of regression analysis. To see if CTN is a predictor of ERB, th e relationship of the CTN dimensions were regressed on the ERB dimensions. Since this study is exploratory, stepwi se regression was used. First diagnostic statistics were run on the data for each analysis to check for normality, influential cases, independence of errors, multicollinearity and homoscedasticity. The DurbinWatsin statistic fell within 1 and 3 and were close to 2, indicating the as sumption of independent errors is met. To check for multicollinearity, VIF and tolerance were checked. VIF values were all well below 10 and tolerance were above .2, therefore there the assumption of no multicollinearity is met. Casewise diagnostics, in cluding standardized residuals, Cooks distance, average leverage, DFbeta and Ma halanobis distance, did not indi cate any influential cases. Residual plots were examined for linearity and homoscscedasticity and histograms and normal PP plots were examined for normality. Here, the data seems to again meet assumptions except for the values for the committed ERB scores. For the committed ERB scores the data seems skewed and have heteroscedasticity, meaning the assumpti ons of normality and homogeneity of variance may be violated. Therefore results with this de pendent variable should be taken with caution. Stepwise regression for predic ting the effect of CTN on th e 3Rs ERBs shows only two dimensions of CTN, and identity (F (1, 103) = 20.16, R= .41, beta = .41, p<.001) and restoration (F (1, 103) = 13.32, R= .46, beta = .26, p<.05), had a si gnificant effect (Table 4-34). This means that for the 3Rs identity, CTN explained 17% of the variance and restoration explained an additional .5%. Correlation and stepwise regression was used to detect significant predictors on the civic dimension of ERB. Two dimensions were entered into a hierarchi cal regression; sorrow (F (1, 103) = 58.90, R= .61, beta = .61, p<.001) a nd identity F (2, 103) = 35.57, R= .64, beta = 103

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.25, p<.001) (see Table 4-35). Therefore, for civi c types of ERB, 37% of the variance was explained by sorrow CTN and additional .5% was explained by identity CTN. Stepwise regression was used to detect significant pred ictors for committed ERBs. Two dimensions of were entered into a hierarch ical regression F (1, 103) = 12.1 5, R= .33, beta = .25, p<.001) (see Table 4-36). F (2, 103) = 10.30, R= .41, beta = 29, p<.001). So for committed types of ERB, the CTN dimension of identity explains 11% of th e variance and awe explains an additional .6%. 104

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Table 4-1. Item analysis for tranquility items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted P1 When I need to relax, I spend time in nature 3.44 1.044 .624 .823 P2 Nature is a way to escape all the cars, phones and noise. 4.06 .915 .658 .821 P3 I love how tranquil nature can be. 4.05 .766 .653 .824 P4 Time in nature breaks down all the stress until I feel completely refreshed. 3.36 1.098 .741 .811 P5 When I'm alone in nature, I have this feeling of complete calm. 3.62 .904 .667 .821 P6 Listening to the wind going through the trees calms my mind. 3.55 1.017 .690 .817 P7 When surrounded by nature, I feel at peace. 3.76 .926 .766 .811 P8 I'm not comfortable in nature. 2.04 1.084 -.398 .915 P9 I enjoy just sitting at a lake or stream and looking out on the water. 4.11 .777 .636 .826 P10 Without nature in my life, I would be much more stressed and tense. 3.68 .992 .771 .809 Note: Restoration/tranquility items (a = 0.846, n=108) Table 4-2. Item analysis for remaining tranquility items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted P1 When I need to relax, I spend time in nature 3.44 1.044 .643 .891 P4 Time in nature breaks down all the stress until I feel completely refreshed. 3.36 1.098 .772 .870 P5 When I'm alone in nature, I have this feeling of complete calm. 3.62 .904 .683 .884 P6 Listening to the wind going through the trees calms my mind. 3.55 1.017 .688 .883 P7 When surrounded by nature, I feel at peace. 3.76 .926 .776 .870 P10 Without nature in my life, I would be much more stressed and tense. 3.68 .992 .776 .869 Note: Tranquility items (a = 0.896, n=108) 105

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Table 4-3. Item analysis for awe items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Awe1 Sometimes when I look at the stars I feel really small. 3.57 1.108 .311 .915 Awe2 The beauty of nature can be overwhelming. 4.02 .961 .588 .901 Awe3 I have seen things in nature that are just so amazing I can't believe they exist. 4.15 .928 .633 .899 Awe4 I have felt such awe in nature that I was at a loss for words. 3.58 1.215 .723 .895 Awe5 I have been mesmerized by aspects of nature. 4.04 .808 .729 .896 Awe6 Watching wildlife fills me with awe. 3.62 1.086 .717 .895 Awe7 The magnitude of nature is awe inspiring. 3.93 .912 .760 .893 Awe8 Seeing majestic scenery has overwhelmed me with emotion. 3.50 1.048 .707 .895 Awe9 Nature can be breathtakingly beautiful. 4.37 .624 .613 .901 Awe10 I have seen things in nature that were so amazing; they just filled me with awe. 4.04 .898 .753 .894 Awe11 Nature has filled me with wonder. 3.87 .889 .669 .897 Awe12 Humans are just a small part of something big. 4.03 .945 .278 .913 Awe13 The power of nature is just incredible. 3.97 .814 .767 .894 Note: Awe items (a = 0.906, n=105) 106

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Table 4-4. Item analysis for remaining awe items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Awe4 I have felt such awe in nature that I was at a loss for words. 3.58 1.215 .724 .888 Awe5 I have been mesmerized by aspects of nature. 4.04 .808 .704 .889 Awe6 Watching wildlife fills me with awe. 3.62 1.086 .748 .882 Awe7 The magnitude of nature is awe inspiring. 3.93 .912 .754 .882 Awe8 Seeing majestic scenery has overwhelmed me with emotion. 3.50 1.048 .719 .886 Awe10 I have seen things in nature that were so amazing; they just filled me with awe. 4.04 .898 .723 .886 Awe11 Nature has filled me with wonder. 3.87 .889 .642 .894 Note: Appreciation items (a = 0.901, n=105) Table 4-5. Item analysis for appreciation items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Ap1 I have a respect for nature. 4.41 .615 .716 .898 Ap2 I am grateful for nature's gifts. 4.31 .725 .711 .897 Ap3 I appreciate nature. 4.02 .940 .668 .899 Ap4 Spending time in nature makes me appreciate life more. 4.36 .557 .770 .898 Ap5 I appreciate all forms of life. 3.91 .900 .481 .908 Ap6 I appreciate the experiences I have out in nature. 4.01 .826 .793 .892 Ap7 Nature is like a great gift. 4.00 .877 .654 .899 Ap8 Nature should be cherished. 4.25 .676 .675 .899 Ap9 I admire the beauty of nature. 4.27 .697 .646 .900 Ap10 I try to honor nature. 3.81 .833 .594 .902 Ap11 Nature is the most impor tant thing all humans have in common with one another. 3.03 1.122 .534 .909 Ap12 I take the time to stop and appreciate nature. 3.74 .888 .668 .899 Note: Appreciation items ( a = 0.908, n=105) 107

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Table 4-6. Item analysis for remaining appreciation items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Ap4 Spending time in nature makes me appreciate life more. 4.01 .940 .693 .810 Ap6 I appreciate the experiences I have out in nature. 4.01 .826 .725 .807 Ap7 Nature is like a great gift. 4.00 .877 .619 .825 Ap10 I try to honor nature. 3.81 .833 .488 .847 Ap11 Nature is the most impor tant thing all humans have in common with one another. 3.03 1.122 .570 .841 Ap12 I take the time to stop and appreciate nature. 3.74 .888 .729 .804 Note: Appreciation items ( a = 0.848, n=105) 108

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Table 4-7. Item analysis for caring items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Car1 I recycle as much as I can 3.49 1.088 .488 .866 Car2 I try hard to cut down on waste. 3.58 .932 .585 .861 Car3 I really want to try to protect nature as best as I can. 3.88 .832 .670 .858 Car4 My daily decision making is shaped by my environmental mindset. 2.72 1.110 .594 .860 Car5 I have a strong desire to give back to nature. 3.52 .892 .698 .856 Car6 I try to influence others to love and care for nature. 3.05 1.092 .742 .851 Car7 I buy organic food to lessen my impact on the environment. 2.52 1.351 .499 .868 Car8 recode I only recycle when it is available. 2.88 1.086 .244 .880 Car9 Many of my consumer or purchasing decisions are made with the environment in mind. 2.85 .973 .668 .856 Car10 I have volunteered for nature, animal or environmental organizations. 3.15 1.221 .458 .869 Car11 I have many routine activities that I do to lesson my impact on nature. 2.87 1.015 .583 .861 Car12 It really feels good to he lp nature and wildlife. 3.86 .841 .561 .863 Car13 I am careful not to litter in nature. 4.15 .810 .478 .867 Note: Caring items ( a = 0.872, n=104) 109

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Table 4-8. Item analysis for remaining caring items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Car3 I really want to try to protect nature as best as I can. 3.88 .832 .587 .851 Car4 My daily decision making is shaped by my environmental mindset. 2.72 1.110 .661 .839 Car5 I have a strong desire to give back to nature. 3.52 .892 .695 .833 Car6 I try to influence others to love and care for nature. 3.05 1.092 .732 .824 Car9 Many of my consumer or purchasing decisions are made with the environment in mind. 2.85 .973 .628 .844 Car11 I have many routine activities that I do to lesson my impact on nature. 2.87 1.015 .646 .841 Note: Caring items ( a = 0.862, n=104) 110

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Table 4-9. Item analysis for fear items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted F1 I feel a lack of control when out in nature. 2.68 .958 .297 .925 F2 I am fearful of many aspects of nature. 2.85 1.077 .486 .916 F3 I have too much fear of nature to go camping. 2.07 1.134 .772 .904 F4 I do not want any wild animal to come near me. 2.53 1.214 .739 .905 F5 A lot of nature just scares me. 2.28 1.092 .806 .903 F6 Hiking in the woods would make me nervous. 2.33 1.136 .784 .904 F7 If I went hiking, I would be too afraid of all the bugs and snakes to enjoy myself. 2.34 1.187 .784 .903 F8 Nature is not my cup of tea. 2.30 1.140 .700 .907 F9 Nature is just disgusting. 1.69 1.015 .724 .907 F10 I can live without nature just fine. 2.16 1.158 .487 .916 F11 I have had traumatic nature experiences that make me uncomfortable in certain natural areas. 2.10 1.075 .706 .907 F12 Some aspects of nature, like snakes, really freak me out. 3.03 1.303 .466 .918 F13 I am afraid of wildlife. 2.25 1.113 .792 .903 Note: Fear items ( a = 0.916, n=104) Table 4-10. Item analysis for remaining fear items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted F4 I do not want any wild animal to come near me. 2.53 1.214 .542 .886 F5 A lot of nature just scares me. 2.28 1.092 .582 .880 F6 Hiking in the woods would make me nervous. 2.33 1.136 .684 .872 F7 If I went hiking, I would be too afraid of all the bugs and snakes to enjoy myself. 2.34 1.187 .710 .864 F8 Nature is not my cup of tea. 2.30 1.1440 .464 .897 Note: Fear items ( a = 0.902, n=104) 111

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Table 4-11. Item analysis for spirituality items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Spir1 I have had spiritually moving experiences in nature. 3.29 1.121 .583 .945 Spir2 I have spiritual feelings that are nature-based. 2.95 1.109 .766 .939 Spir3 I have had spiritual revelations in nature. 2.97 1.127 .755 .939 Spir4 I see all things in na ture as having spirit. 3.13 1.172 .670 .942 Spir5 Through nature, I feel I can communicate with Spirit or God. 3.12 1.201 .750 .939 Spir6 Nature provides me with a spiritual connection. 3.03 1.161 .837 .936 Spir7 Feeling part of nature is a spiritual experience. 2.95 1.186 .864 .935 Spir8 Communing with nature is a great form of spirituality. 3.02 1.115 .764 .939 Spir9 There are natural areas th at feel sacred to me. 3.29 1.155 .590 .944 Spir10 My feelings for nature have influenced my spiritual beliefs. 2.67 1.161 .814 .937 Spir11 I have had amazing mystical experiences in nature. 2.89 1.214 .748 .939 Spir12 Without nature I would feel a spiritual void. 2.82 1.205 .763 .939 Note: Spirituality items ( a = 0.944, n=104) 112

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Table 4-12. Item analysis for sorrow/grief items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Sor1 I regret the negative im pacts I have on nature. 3.65 .963 .524 .855 Sor2 reverse I don't think there's any impact on nature from what I do. 4.01 1.000 .200 .881 Sor3 Seeing dead wildlife in the road is really heartbreaking. 3.74 1.043 .457 .861 Sor4 I think the environment is in major trouble. 3.87 .946 .568 .852 Sor5 Seeing how much nature is being destroyed is very upsetting. 3.50 1.024 .741 .837 Sor6 I get really upset when I see people hurt nature. 3.63 .916 .559 .852 Sor7 The rate at which people are devouring nature is tragic. 3.80 .960 .690 .842 Sor8 It is upsetting when people want to sweep environmental problems under the rug. 3.75 .943 .646 .846 Sor9 When people don't think about the long term impacts of their actions on nature it upsets me. 3.62 .988 .725 .838 Sor10 I feel sorrow because of the rate we're destroying nature. 3.81 1.006 .691 .841 Note: Sorrow/grief items ( a = 0.864, n=104) Table 4-13. Item analysis for remaining sorrow/grief items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Sor5 Seeing how much nature is being destroyed is very upsetting. 3.50 1.024 .696 .846 Sor6 I get really upset when I see people hurt nature. 3.63 .916 .575 .866 Sor7 The rate at which people are devouring nature is tragic. 3.80 .959 .669 .851 Sor8 It is upsetting when people want to sweep environmental problems under the rug. 3.75 .943 .686 .848 Sor9 When people don't think about the long term impacts of their actions on nature it upsets me. 3.62 .988 .764 .834 Sor10 I feel sorrow because of the rate we're destroying nature. 3.81 1.006 .648 .855 Note: Sorrow/grief items ( a = 0.872, n=104) 113

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Table 4-14. Item analysis for oneness items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted One1 I consider myself to be part of nature. 3.72 .966 .750 .910 One2 Smelling flowers, hearing animal sounds, and feeling the wind makes me feel connected to nature. 3.92381 .948 .737 .911 One3 recode Humans are separate from nature. 3.42857 1.046 .272 .924 One4 To me nature is a friend who's always there. 3.29524 .980 .752 .910 One5 I feel a deep connect ion toward nature. 3.41905 1.026 .774 .909 One6 I am connected to nature much like I'm connected to my family. 2.67619 1.156 .691 .911 One7 recode I do not feel connected to nature. 3.76190 1.131 .658 .913 One8 I would be very unhappy without nature in my life. 3.70476 1.134 .486 .918 One9 recode I have never felt like I truly belong in nature. 3.68571 1.077 .433 .920 One10 recode Spending time in nature is not my idea of fun. 3.64762 1.083 .666 .912 One12 I feel all inhabitants of Earth, human and non-human, share a common 'life force. 3.23810 1.173 .703 .911 One13 I have had really peaceful, merging experiences where I felt one with nature. 3.35238 1.143 .727 .910 One14 I often feel a sense of oneness with the natural world around me. 3.29524 1.028 .741 .910 One15 recode Humans are more important than animals. 3.15238 1.207 .521 .918 One16 I think of the natural world as a community to which I belong. 3.57143 .929 .588 .915 Note: Oneness items ( a = 0.919, n=104) 114

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Table 4-15. Item analysis for remaining oneness items Item # Mean Std Dev Corrected ItemTotal Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted One4 To me nature is a friend who's always there. 3.30 .980 .748 .900 One5 I feel a deep connect ion toward nature. 3.42 1.026 .776 .898 One6 I am connected to nature much like I'm connected to my family. 2.68 1.156 .729 .901 One7 recode I do not feel connected to nature. 3.76 1.131 .579 .912 One10 recode Spending time in nature is not my idea of fun. 3.65 1.083 .581 .911 One12 I feel all inhabitants of Earth, human and non-human, share a common 'life force. 3.24 1.173 .709 .903 One13 I have had really peaceful, merging experiences where I felt one with nature. 3.36 1.143 .788 .897 One14 I often feel a sense of oneness with the natural world around me. 3.30 1.028 .794 .897 One16 I think of the natural world as a community to which I belong. 3.57 .929 .606 .909 Note: Oneness items ( a = 0.913, n=104) 115

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Table 4-16: Item analys is for identity items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Id1 When I'm out in nature, I feel like I can be my true self. 3.47 .955 .660 .946 Id2 I am a nature-lover. 3.39 1.118 .798 .942 Id3 I want nature to be a part of my everyday life. 3.66 .951 .726 .944 Id4 My feelings toward nature have influenced my career choice. 2.62 1.233 .655 .947 Id5 Nature helps me find meaning in my life. 3.10 1.048 .737 .944 Id6 I am an environmentalist. 2.81 1.115 .728 .944 Id7 My feelings toward nature form a big part o f my identity. 2.80 1.092 .849 .940 Id8 Nature is a huge part of who I am. 2.83 1.242 .879 .939 Id9 I feel this call or need to be around nature as much as possible. 2.77 1.072 .820 .941 Id10 I couldn't live somewhere where I had little contact with nature. 3.47 1.114 .675 .946 Id11 My love for nature is a big influence in my life. 3.00 1.174 .877 .939 Id12 I am more comfortable in nature than in a city. 3.18 1.113 .658 .946 Note: Identity items ( a = 0.948, n=104) 116

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Table 4-17: Item analysis for remaining identity items Item # Item Mean Std Dev Corrected Item-Total Correlation Alpha if Item Deleted Id2 I am a nature-lover. 3.39 1.118 .755 .935 Id4 My feelings toward nature have influenced my career choice. 2.62 1.233 .680 .940 Id5 Nature helps me find meaning in my life. 3.10 1.047 .718 .937 Id6 I am an environmentalist. 2.81 1.115 .744 .936 Id7 My feelings toward nature form a big part of my identity. 2.80 1.091 .857 .930 Id8 Nature is a huge part of who I am. 2.83 1.242 .882 .928 Id9 I feel this call or need to be around nature as much as possible. 2.77 1.072 .813 .932 Id11 My love for nature is a big influence in my life. 3.00 1.174 .869 .929 Id12 I am more comfortable in nature than in a city. 3.18 1.113 .655 .941 Note: Identity items ( a = 0.941, n=104) Table 4-18. Participant demographics Frequency Percent Gender Male 174 32.9 Female 355 67.1 Ethnicity African American 45 8.5 Asian 12 2.3 Caucasian 405 76.6 Hispanic 42 7.9 Mix 19 3.6 Age 18-20 135 25.6 21-22 286 54.1 23-25 76 14.3 Over 25 25 4.9 Area grew-up Urban 383 71.7 Rural 137 25.7 117

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Table 4-19. Outdoor recr eation participation Activity Frequency Percent Wildlife watching 128 24 birding 14 2.6 Nature appreciation 204 38.2 gardening 114 21.3 Day hiking 202 37.8 backpacking 106 19.9 camping 271 50.7 Kayaking/canoeing 230 43.1 hunting 52 9.7 fishing 258 48.3 ORVs 20 3.7 Motor boating 212 39.7 Table 4-20. Self-reported averag e hours participation in ou tdoor recreation per month Number of hours Frequency percent 0 22 4.1 1-5 221 41.4 6-10 130 24.3 11-15 55 10.4 16-20 34 6.4 21-30 24 4.4 31-50 14 2.7 51-100 13 2.4 101-200 3 0.6 Table 4-21. Political party Party Frequency Percent constitution 2 .4 Democrat 210 39.3 Green 3 .6 Independent 74 13.9 Libertarian 18 3.4 republican 214 40.1 Table 4-22. Degree of conservatism Response Frequency Percent Very conservative 55 10.3 Somewhat conservative 167 31.3 Neutral/independent 109 20.4 Somewhat liberal 140 26.5 Very liberal 58 11 118

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Table 4-23. Data set A: Mean sc ores, standard deviations, and skewness and kurtosis values for 47 CTN scale items (n=248) Item M SD Skewness Kurtosis Awe4 3.63 .93 -.44 -.26 Awe6 3.55 .83 -.34 -.24 Awe7 3.60 .86 -.52 .13 Awe8 3.10 .94 -.12 -.46 Awe10 3.79 .78 -.92 1.56 Awe13 3.75 .84 -.49 -.03 Ap2 3.92 .73 -.57 .88 Ap4 3.86 .75 -.51 .24 Ap6 3.93 .64 -.60 1.25 Ap7 3.83 .82 -.56 .02 Ap12 3.54 .78 -.64 .00 Car3 3.73 .76 -.34 -.09 Car4 2.50 .82 .55 .12 Car5 3.15 .86 .16 -.31 Car6 3.06 .94 .12 -.65 Car9 2.82 .90 .10 -.39 Fear3 2.07 .97 .89 .26 Fear5 2.21 .95 .78 .20 Fear6 2.35 1.03 .52 -.66 Fear7 2.29 1.07 .67 -.31 ID7 2.52 .97 .60 -.23 ID8 2.73 .94 .39 -.07 ID9 2.71 .94 .40 -.24 ID11 2.79 .91 .55 -.14 One4 2.88 .96 .17 -.56 One5 3.19 .87 -.06 -.26 One6 2.43 .97 .44 -.39 One13 3.01 .98 -.02 -.70 One14 2.91 .90 .05 -.45 P1 3.27 .83 -.20 -.55 P4 3.54 .81 -.49 -.16 P5 3.50 .77 -.49 -.08 P6 3.49 .87 -.53 -.18 P7 3.56 .80 -.63 .24 P10 3.28 .93 -.34 -.46 Sor1 3.68 .81 -.59 .63 Sor5 2.97 .92 .03 -.36 Sor7 3.82 .86 -.42 -.18 Sor8 3.60 .89 -.42 -.07 Sor9 3.47 .91 -.41 -.26 Sor10 3.50 .96 -.10 -.69 119

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Table 4-23. Continued Item M SD Skewness Kurtosis Spirit2 2.65 1.09 .27 -.69 Spirit6 2.70 1.06 .11 -.81 Spirit7 2.94 1.03 -.12 -.64 Spirit8 2.83 1.05 .13 -.58 Spirit10 2.53 1.06 .31 -.76 Spirit12 2.73 1.06 .14 -.67 120

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Table 4-24. Data set B: Mean scores, standard deviations, and skewness and kurtosis values for 47 CTN scale items Item M SD Skewness Kurtosis Awe4 3.43 .95 -.46 -.36 Awe6 3.4 .91 -.36 -.26 Awe7 3.50 .93 -.52 -.13 Awe8 2.93 .99 -.07 -.81 Awe10 3.61 .88 -.77 .47 Awe13 3.68 .92 -.70 .37 Ap2 3.77 .83 -1.07 1.77 Ap4 3.69 .85 -.76 .88 Ap6 3.78 .82 -1.17 1.88 Ap7 3.70 .86 -.74 .96 Ap12 3.42 .85 -.67 .04 Car3 3.63 .84 -.69 .59 Car4 2.53 .94 .36 -.34 Car5 3.07 .85 -.17 -.25 Car6 2.87 .95 -.07 -.66 Car9 2.74 .92 .18 -.46 Fear3 2.30 1.06 .80 .05 Fear5 2.44 1.09 .48 -.65 Fear6 2.48 1.16 .59 -.50 Fear7 2.55 1.21 .53 -.71 ID7 2.51 .94 .28 -.44 ID8 2.66 .95 .30 -.39 ID9 2.62 .94 .33 -.39 ID11 2.67 .92 .38 -.14 One4 2.88 .95 -.01 -.40 One5 3.06 .88 -.06 -.34 One6 2.42 .95 .40 -.32 One13 3.04 .99 -.35 -.60 One14 2.90 .93 -.10 -.54 P1 3.16 .89 -.26 -.39 P4 3.38 .88 -.77 .22 P5 3.44 .90 -.54 -.19 P6 3.36 .95 -.59 -.19 P7 3.46 .89 -.82 .66 P10 3.09 .99 -.26 -.64 Sor1 3.47 .92 -.56 .15 Sor5 2.94 .96 -.11 -.52 Sor7 3.60 .93 -.70 .45 Sor8 3.53 .92 -.51 .07 Sor9 3.40 .95 -.28 -.36 Sor10 3.37 1.01 -.34 -.49 121

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Table 4-24. Continued Item M SD Skewness Kurtosis Spirit2 2.60 1.00 .19 -.68 Spirit6 2.59 .98 .12 -.79 Spirit7 2.87 1.02 -.20 -.78 Spirit8 2.66 1.00 .02 -.67 Spirit10 2.48 1.01 .32 -.60 Spirit12 2.56 .98 .24 -.54 122

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Table 4-25. Exploratory f actor analysis results: Factor, Cronb achs alpha and factor loadings for CTN items Factor Item Item Description Loading Factor 1: .93 Spir6 Nature provides me with a spiritual connection. .947 Spirituality Spir8 Communing with nature is a great form of spirituality. .919 Spir2 I have spiritual feelings that are nature-based. .760 Spir10 My feelings for nature have influenced my spiritual beliefs. .713 Spir12 Without nature I would feel a spiritual void. .672 Spir7 Feeling part of nature is a spiritual experience. .664 Factor 2: .88 Fear6 Hiking in the wilderness would make me nervous. .820 Fear Fear5 A lot of nature just scares me. .807 Fear3 I have too much fear of nature to go camping. .793 Fear7 If I went hiking, I would be too afraid of all the bugs and snakes to enjoy myself. .787 Factor 3: .84 Awe13 The power of nature is just incredible. .751 Awe Awe7 The magnitude of nature is awe inspiring. .751 Ap7 Nature is like a great gift. .646 Awe10 I have seen things in nature that were so amazing; they just filled me with awe. .510 Awe8 Aspects of nature have overwhelmed me with emotion. .421 Awe6 Watching wildlife fills me with awe. .412 Factor 4: Sor7 The rate at which people are devouring nature is tragic. -.808 Sorrow .86 Sor10 I feel sorrow because were destroying too much nature. -.766 Sor8 It is upsetting when people want to sweep environmental problems under the rug. -.698 Sor9 When people don't think about the long term impacts of their actions on nature it upsets me. -.590 Sor5 Seeing how much nature is being destroyed affects me emotionally. -.528 Sor1 I regret the negative impacts I have on nature. -.516 Factor 5: .91 Id7 My feelings toward nature form a big part of my identity. .775 Identity One6 I am connected to nature mu ch like I'm connected to my family. .613 Id11 My love for nature is a big influence in my life. .603 Id8 Nature is a huge part of who I am. .561 Id9 I feel this call or need to be around nature as much as possible. .528 One14 I often feel a sense of oneness with the natural world around me. .402 Factor 6: .80 P5 When I'm alone in a natural area, I have this feeling of complete calm. .748 Restoration P7 When surrounded by nature, I feel at peace. .648 P6 Listening to the wind go through the trees calms my mind. .490 P4 Time in natural areas breaks down all the stress until I feel completely refreshed. .437 Notes: Extraction method: Maximum likelihood Rotation method: Oblimin with Kaiser normalization. Items P1 and Car9 had cross lo adings and items One4, One5, P10 and Ap10 did not load and were left out of the table. 123

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Table 4-26. Confirmatory factor analysis results: Factor load ings, critical ratios (C.R.), Cronbachs alpha and AVE for CTN Items Factor Item Description (item number) Loading CR AVE Factor 1: I have spiritual feelings that are nature-based. (Spir2) .80 .91 .70 Spirituality Nature provides me with a spiritual connection. (Spir6) .86 Feeling part of nature is a spiritual experience. (Spir7) .85 My feelings for nature have influenced my spiritual beliefs. (Spir10) .84 Factor 2: Watching wildlife fills me with awe. (Awe6) .76 .87 .63 Awe The magnitude of nature is awe inspiring. (Awe7) .86 I have seen things in nature that were so amazing; they just filled me with awe. (Awe10) .77 The power of nature is just incredible. (Awe13) .78 Factor 3: Sorrow Seeing how much nature is being destroyed affects me emotionally. (Sor5) .75 .86 .61 It is upsetting when people want to sweep environmental problems under the rug. (Sor8) .77 When people don't think about the long term impacts of their actions on nature it upsets me. (Sor9) .82 I feel sorrow because were destroying too much nature. (Sor10) .78 Factor 4: Identity My feelings toward nature form a big part of my identity. (Id7) .76 .89 .56 Nature is a huge part of who I am. (Id8) .86 My love for nature is a big influence in my life. (Id11) .82 I am connected to nature much like I'm connected to my family. (One6) .73 I often feel a sense of oneness with the natural world around me. (One14) .75 Factor 5: When I need to relax, I spend time in nature. (P1) .72 .86 .56 Restoration Time in natural areas breaks down all the stress until I feel completely refreshed. (P4) .71 When I'm alone in a natural area, I have this feeling of complete calm. (P5) .73 Listening to the wind go through the trees calms my mind. (P6) .73 When surrounded by nature, I feel at peace. (P7) .83 Factor 6 Fear Hiking in the wilderness would make me nervous. (F6) .89 .89 A lot of nature just scares me.(F5) .74 I have too much fear of nature to go camping.(F3) .76 If I went hiking, I would be too afraid of all the bugs and snakes to enjoy myself. (F7) .90 124

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Table 4-27. Results of the most parsimonious measurement and structural model test (minus four items) Model 2 df 2 / df P RMSEA (90% CI) SRMR TLI CFI Measurement model Test of the items 556.89 284 1.96 .000 .061 (.053-.068) .053 .93 .94 2 nd Order Model Test of the overall model 630.98 293 2.15 .000 .066 (.059-.074) .073 .91 .92 Note. RMSEA = root mean square error of approximation; NFI = normed fit index; TLI = Tucker-Lewis Index; CFI = comparative fit index p < .00 Table 4-28. Results of the measurement and structural model test Model 2 df 2 / df P RMSEA (90% CI) SRMR TLI CFI Measurement model Test of the items 800.3 390 2.05 .000 .063 (.057-.070) .057 .91 .92 2 nd Order Model Test of the overall model 884.49 399 2.22 .000 .068 (.062-.074) .076 .90 .91 Note. RMSEA = root mean square error of approximation; NFI = normed fit index; TLI = Tucker-Lewis Index; CFI = comparative fit index p < .00 125

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Table 4-29. Correlations matrix for the 6 dimensions Spirituality Awe Sorrow Identity Restoration Spirituality 1.000 Awe .530 1.000 Sorrow .476 .666 1.000 Identity .749 .607 .600 1.000 Restoration .592 .774 .625 .767 1.000 Fear .012 -.268 -.143 -.195 .323 Table 4-30. Correlations for c onvergent validity and CTN CNS Role Identity Self Identity Universalism Benevolence Identity .752** .689** .770** .295** -.092 Awe .535** .555** .429** .413** .111 Restoration .568** .652** .513** .289** .066 Spirituality .583** .451** .611** .305** -.015 Sorrow .627** .545** .627** .516** .173* Fear -.099 -.304** -.174 -.043 -.057 Note: **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 leve l (1-tailed).*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). Table 4-31. Correlations for discrimina nt validity and CTN dimensions Power Achievement Social Desirability Egoistic Concerns Identity -.137 .136 -.088* -.083 Awe -.070 .167* -.010 .024 Restoration -.157 -.009 -.037 .074 Spirituality -.129 -.119 -.059 -.035 Sorrow .023 .062 .027 .091 Fear .084 -.050 .032 .120 Note: *Correlation is signifi cant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). 126

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Table 4-32. Correlations between CTN dimens ions and forms of environmental concern Biospheric Socioaltruistic Egoistic NEP Identity .437** .070 -.083 .221* Awe .362** .200* .024 .231** Restoration .355** .164* .074 .209* Spirituality .306** .122 -.035 .144 Sorrow .425** .235** .091 .643** Fear -.023 .068 .120 -.136 Note: **Correlation is significan t at the 0.01 level (1-tailed). *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). Table 4-33. Exploratory f actor analysis results: Factor, Cronb achs alpha and factor loadings for ERB items Factor Item Description Loading Factor 1: .90 1. Discuss environmental issues with others. .914 civic 2. Stay informed about environmental issues. .923 3. Support wildlife and or other environmental groups and causes .801 4. Voted for a politician ba sed on their record for protecting the environment. .743 5. Stop buying from a company that shows a disregard for the environment .510 Factor 2: .79 6. Reduce buying unnecessary goods. .648 3 Rs 7. Buy recycled paper products such as paper towels, toilet tissu e, and printer paper. .612 8. Purchase items that have less packaging. .679 10. Reuse items such as plastic bags. .569 11. Replace incandescent light bulbs with florescent bulbs .419 Factor .76 12. Buy shade-grown coffee. .872 committed 13. Write letters to legisl ators urging them to support environmental issues. .861 14. Stop using pesticides in my yard or home. .550 15. Compost food scraps. .488 Notes: Extraction method: Maximum likelihood Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser normalization. 127

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Table 4-34. Stepwise regression for predicting the 3Rs ERB from CTN B SE B Step 1 Constant .98 .43 Restoration .56 .12 .41** Step 2 Constant .94 .42 Restoration .35 .15 .26* Identity .27 .12 .25* Note: R 2 = .17** for step1; R 2 = .04* for step 2. ** p < .001, p < .05 Table 4-35. Hierarchical regression fo r predicting civic ERB from CTN B SE B Step 1 Constant -.62 .39 Sorrow .84 .11 .61** Step 2 Constant -.94 .39 Sorrow .68 .12 .49** Identity .32 .11 .25* Note: R 2 = .37** for step1; R 2 = .05* for step 2. ** p < .001, p < .05 Table 4-36. Hierarchical regression for pr edicting the committed ERBs from CTN B SE B Step 1 Constant .73 .25 Identity .30 .09 .33* Step 2 Constant 1.51 .37 Identity .43 .10 .46** Awe .31 .11 .29* Note: R 2 = .33* for Step1; R 2 = .06* for Step 2. ** p < .001, p < .05 128

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Sprituality SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 Awe AW4 AW3 AW2 AW1 Sorrow SO4 SO3 SO2 SO1 Identity ID4 ID3 ID2 ID1 Restoration RE4 RE3 RE2 RE1 RE5 ID5 Connection Fear F4 F3 F2 F1 Figure 4-1. Second-order factor model 129

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Sprituality SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 Awe AW4 AW3 AW2 AW1 Sorrow SO4 SO3 SO2 SO1 Identity ID4 ID3 ID2 ID1 Restoration RE4 RE3 RE2 RE1 RE5 ID5 Fear F4 F3 F2 F1 Figure 4-2. The measurement model 130

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to define the connection to nature c onstruct and develop a representative scale. The qualita tive study conducted to define the construct, revealed nine themes (Table 5-1) that describe peoples connection to nature. These nine themes are related to the five that were found in common from the di ssertations detailed in chapter 2 (Beyer, 1999; Doran, 2002; Dowdall, 1998; Dufrechou, 2002; Mart in, 2002; Reist, 2004; Snyder, 1989). The five themes discussed in chapter 2 were: awe, appreciation, reciprocity, restoration and oneness. These themes were found along with an additional four themes including an identity theme, fear, spirituality and sorrow. Additiona l themes were likely found because of the nature and purpose of the interview questions. In this study, unlike others, specific questi ons were designed to uncover the various aspects and rang e of feelings associated with a personal relationship with nature. Many of the these nine themes had been found in previous studies investigating outdoor recreation experiences including tr anquility and fascination (Kap lan & Talbot, 1983); connection and awe (DeMares & Krycka, 1998); diminutive (e .g. humility, insignificance, awe), deep flow (e.g. effortless attention, timelessness, oneness, tra nquility), transcendent experiences (similar to oneness and spirituality), aesthetic experiences (similar to appreciation) and restorative experiences (similar to tranquility). Like the qualitative works previ ously discussed, this study also found evidence of a pattern of progression toward a relati onship with nature. Although a grounded theory analysis was not the intent of the qualita tive research in this study and furthe r analysis and more data would be needed to use these results for grounded theory, findings were in line with previous work. The less experience people had with na ture, the less they could relate to nature. Their views were 131

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more utilitarian and they had a ma rked fear or aversion to nature. These results are similar to the qualitative works of Beyer (1999) Martin (2002) and Reist (2004) discussed in Chapter 2. Just as Bixler and colleagues (Bixler, 1994; Bi xler & Floyd, 1997) found those who felt fear and disgust for nature had had little preference for wildland environments a nd recreation, this study also found that low levels of experien ce and preferences were tied to fear. Although, this study did not ask a bout materialism and consumerism, findings were were similar to Reists (2004), who found those high in fear and disgust to be more materialistic. For example, interviews showed those high in fear preferred to shop or get a manicure when they needed to relax. As people gain ed experience with nature and felt more comfortable in nature, a caring for nature and desire to reciprocate and live more in harmony with the environment emerged. With more experience, especially emo tional or quiet reflective time in nature, care deepens Beyer, 1999, Martin, 2002). Finally as care continues to deepen, one becomes integrated with nature and feels truly connect ed to nature as natu re becomes a core asp ect of self (Beyer, 1999; Martin, 2002; Reist, 2004). Ma rtin (2002) calls these stag es alienated from nature, traveling through nature, caring for nature and integrated with nature. However, unlike Chawla and others, this study di d not find that a connection to nature or a caring attitude toward the environment necessari ly resulted from experiences in natural areas during childhood and family role models dur ing childhood (Chawla, 1998, 1999; Finger, 1994; Kals, Schumacher, & Montada, 1999; Sia, H ungerford, & Tomera, 1986; Sivek & Hungerford, 1989; Wells & Lekies, 2006). The interviews found a number of people whose interest developed in adulthood. Women in pa rticular often did not have an interest in outd oor pursuits or the environment until a partner or spouse influenced them. Others became inspired from a new leisure activity, such as mount ain biking. And even for those whose interest stemmed from 132

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childhood, several described it as an innate calling that was alwa ys felt, despite the lack of interest from family, friends or nature-based experiences. Several participants also credited books or nature television. These results, although in contradiction with much of the literature (Chawla, 1998 and 1999; Swan, 1992), are some of the most promisi ng. As environmental education research often focuses on youth education (e.g. camps, fieldtrips, formal and informal educational programs) (Chawla, 1998, 1999; Palmberg & Kuru, 2000; Sobel, 1996) in part because of the research mentioned above stating that people need si gnificant experiences in youth to form a commitment. Yet, as environmental issues and th e loss of natural areas become more acute, it is important to not only to focus on youth and those who are already comm itted to natural area visitation and conservation, but to get others connect ed to nature as well. After all, nature-based experiences have many benefits, both psychol ogical and physical (D river & Ajzen, 1996; Herzog, Black, Fountaine, & Knotts, 1997; Kapla n, 1995; Kaplan & Talbot, 1983; Muloin, 1998; Roggenbuck & Driver, 2000; Roggenbuck, Loom is, & Dagostino, 1990; Schroeder, 1996; Ulrich, 1983; Wohlwill, 1983). The fact that adults can be inspired to care for nature and the environment is good news for nature-based touris m venues, organizations concerned with natural history education and environmental educations such as parks, zoos, museums and nature centers. Further encouragement for introducing nature at a later life stage and even teaching a connection to nature comes from several ot her studies. Barrie (2002) found interpretive experiences in parks and museums were very me aningful, some of which are remembered many years later. Doran (2002) successfully fostered a connection to the earth for 11-14 year-olds during a 7-week after-school program. Feelings of connection were described while gardening, 133

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driving out of a storm, floating in the ocean, watching a songbird in the backyard, playing music in a backyard and gazing at a houseplant (Beyer 1999; Dowdall, 1998). En counters in nature and with animals were felt as peak connecting experiences (Dowdall, 1998; Vining, 2003; Williams & Harvey, 2001). Scale Development The nine themes from the qualitative results we re used to create a scale. Items for these themes were created and tested. E xploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a final scale containing six dimensions (see Table 5-1). All six dimensi ons had reliable scales and the internal structure of the scale demonstrated c onvergent and discrimina nt validity. This work shows that unlike previously developed scales by Meyers and Frantz ( 2004) and Clayton (2004), Connection to Nature (CTN) is a multi-dimensional construct. This work concurs with previous qualitative work exploring aspect s of connection experiences sim ilar to CTN. It is also in agreement with preliminary scale work by Pennisi and Pennington-Gray (2007b). Several of the initial nine th emes did not factor during th e exploratory analyses. These were appreciation and caring. It was felt that appreciation was a general feeling toward nature that even people with little regard or connection would feel. After all, we all appreciate the food, water, air and shelter that nature provides. Also, most will enjoy the beauty of scenery such as sunsets. The caring theme was much about beha vior and likely would not achieve significant results with a college student sample. However, th ese types of questions are likely better asked by a separate scale that asks a bout behavior such as the ERBI that was modified for use here. The identity and oneness themes merged which ma de conceptual sense. The fear theme had a negative correlation with the other themes as being fearful from nature is expected to be opposite a connection to nature. However, fear was left in for several reasons: 1) fear helps to provide a range of how a persons level of connection, 2) fear helps to balance the many positive items on 134

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the scale. Leaving the fear theme also did not significantly alter model fit. Eliminating appreciation, caring, fear and combining identity and oneness resulted in six themes or a sixdimensional construct. Evidence of convergent, dive rgent and predictiv e validity was obtained. In terms of convergent validity, CTN was found to be highly correla ted with Mayers and Frantzs similar connectedness to nature (CNS) scale (Mayer & Frantz, 2004b) and measure of role identity and self-identity as expect ed. However, it was not found to be correlated with universalism and benevolence values as hypothesized. This could be due to the nature of the sample. The sample was young, consisting mainly of freshman or sophomore University students, and values are generally not set until the mid to late twenties (S chwartz, 1992). Rather, college is a time when values, and therefore self-identity, become more established (Hitlin, 2003). Values were tested with other samples at the same university a nd the students were found to be low in selftranscendence and high in hedonism (Lee & Trail, 2006). In this sample, hedonism was not measured, however, the highest ratings were for benevolence ( x = 7.39), followed by achievement ( x = 7.22), then universalism ( x = 6.52) and power had the lowest mean at 5.15. For this sample, the value items related to nature were rated low. Among the nine items measuring universalism, Unity with Nature (fi tting into nature) had the lowest mean, followed by protecting the environment and a world of beauty (beauty of nature) respectively. The means for identity/oneness items were also low in comp arison with the other domains. Therefore this sample is low in nature-related values and iden tity/oneness with nature. Since this sample all comes from the millennial generation, this could be a characteristic of this cohort. The millennial generation is said to be heroic, collegial and to lerant with core values related to community, technology and affluence (Lancaster & Stillm an, 2003; Strauss & Howe, 1991). The self135

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transcendent values of benevolence and universalism and the self-enhancement value of achievement generally fit with the generational de scription. But in terms of low scores on values related to nature, this generations defining mome nts include the rapid expansion of the internet and safety concerns over violence (Strauss & Howe, 1991). They are the first generation, characterized by spending little free-time play ing outdoors. Rather, this generations childhood was dominated by video games and computers, making them likely to suffer from nature-deficit disorder (Louv, 2005). Finally, in terms of discri minant validity, CTN had low correlations with the self-enhancement values of power and achieveme nt, social desirability and egoistic concerns as expected. The CTN scale demonstrated evidence of di scriminant validity. There was a lack of correlation between CTN dimensions and the dissi milar self-enhancement values of power and achievement. Correlations between CTN dimensions and egoistic concerns and social desirability were all low as hypothesized. Connection to Nature and Environm entally Responsible Behaviors Connection to nature (CTN) also showed evidence of pr edictive validity, as CTN successfully predicted three dimensions of environmentally responsible behaviors (ERB). However, here the results were not that simple. The identity dimension was a significant predictor (17% of variance) of the 3Rs such as reducing, reus ing and buying recycled products. This was expected because a person al identity tied to nature shoul d result in protective behaviors (this will be explained fu rther). Restoration was also a significa nt predictor of the 3Rs but to a much lesser degree (.5%). Restoration as a pred ictor is not as readily apparent as identity. However, if you receive benefits from a nature -based activity, it should follow that you would want to protect nature, especially if it is a nonconsumptive activity that would promote 136

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restoration (Dunlap & Heffernan, 1975; Palmberg & Kuru, 2000; Tarrant & Green, 1999; Thapa & Graeffe, 2003; Theodori, Luloff, & Willits, 1998). For supportive ERBs such as voting and stay ing informed about issues, sorrow was the most significant predictor and id entity, although significan t, did not predict much variation in supportive ERBs (37% and .5% respectively). For committed ERBs, such as writing letters and composting, identity was the most significant predictor and awe showed a significant but negligible effect (11% and .6%, respectively). Ther efore, for this data set, four of the five dimensions showed predictive ability for ERB. Spirituality did not show predictive validity for the ERB questions asked. This may be indicative of this samples low spirituality scores. Although, spirituality may be a better predictor of other behaviors, partic ularly seeking solitude in nature or in wilderness (Fredrickson & Anderson, 1999; Heintzman, 2003). Identity was the most important predictive dime nsion for two of the three types of behavior looked at in this study: the 3Rs and committed be haviors; whereas sorrow predicted more of the supportive behaviors. This makes sense since both the 3Rs and committed behaviors were actual behaviors that may be performed regularly. If a behavior is performe d regularly, it is likely that it is associated with identity; either role identity (such as a behavior associated with a central role such as parent), or with personal identity (suc h as music lover or sports fan). In previous research, identity increased the prediction of behavioral intentions, including green consumerism, regardless of attitudes (Charng et al., 1988; Sparks & Sh epherd, 1992). Identitys predictive power was thought to be related to the strength of the role iden tity in terms of an established behavior (Charng et al., 1988). That is, an established role as a volunteer would make identity a stronger predicto r than a new role as volunteer for a first time volunteer (Charng et al., 1988). However, Sparks and Shepard (1992) found that self-identitys power of prediction 137

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remains when past behavior is taken into acc ount. The strength of prediction for identity independent of attitudes may be due to the valuebased or ethical component of self-identity and the affective component of self-identity and values (Hitlin, 2003; Sparks & Shepherd, 1992). This certainly should apply to the identity aspect of CTN. The supportive behaviors, including voting, discussing, staying informed, not buying from companies that show a disregard for the environment (boycotting) and supporting groups and causes, are inline with many of the polls indicating people express concern about the environment but actually do little in terms of environmentally responsible behaviors. Also, environmental knowledge is also shown to be lo w in these polls, indicating that perhaps people are at least superficially aware and concerned, but their concern equals little more than small gestures or tokenism (Jurin & Fortner, 2002). This is a rather cynical view, however, and there are other possible explanations including that gloom and doo m messages often portrayed by environmentalists induce helple ssness (Kaplan, 2000; Vasi & Macy, 2003). When people feel like they cannot make a difference and the situation is hopeless, they are less likely to participate in ERB (Kaplan, 2000), but they may still express concern. Connection to Nature: A Six-dimensional Construct The validity evidence shows st rong support for the scale that was developed. Therefore, the evidence of a six-factor definition of the CTN construc t is also supported. These six dimensions which are awe, tranquility, identity, f ear, sorrow and spirituality, illustrate a range of aspects related to having a relationship with nature Appreciation did not factor in any of the tests of the items. This is likely due to appreciation be ing a very general concept. That is most people, even those who fear nature, have some apprecia tion for it. The appreciation for the beauty of a sunset or certain landscapes is nearly universal (Kellert & Wilson, 1993) and most people can appreciate our dependence on nature or at least aspects of it such as clean air and water. Caring 138

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or reciprocity also did not factor. This may be due to the fact that there is such a variety of ways to give back or care that it is hard to measure in a few questions This dimension is likely better covered by separate behavioral questions, such as the ERBI scale which was modified for use in this study. Finally, the oneness and identity dimensions converged which makes sense. These two themes are related. Feelings of onene ss result in a connect ed self-identity. Tranquility is characterized by feelings of peace and calm experienced in nature. People may spend time in natural areas for the calmi ng, refreshing and rejuvenating effects it has on them both physically and mentally. When stre ssed, people may seek nature as a way to decompress, ease anxiety and tension and feel restored. When tranqu ility in nature is experienced, especially during periods of solitude, it seems to facilitate spiritual, mystical or transcendent experiences (Fredrickson & A nderson, 1999; Heintzman, 2003). Restoration is an important aspect of nature-based experiences necessary for psychological well being. True restoration is more likely to occur in nature, as time for reflection is a necessary for leisure activities to lead to restorat ion (Kaplan, 1995; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Kaplan & Talbot, 1983). Awe describes powerful emotions of amazeme nt and wonder. Awe was felt when viewing wildlife, contemplating or experiencing the power or magnitude of nature. Awe is related to connection because it can facilitate humility and oneness experiences. Also, those who were highly connected experienced awe in everyday or urban nature experiences such as watching insects or birds or contemplating the life of a plant. Experiences of awe are commonly found in wilderness and in wildlife encounters (DeMares & Krycka, 1998; Heintzman, 2003; Vining, 2003). Awe may also lead to powerfully emotional and transcendent experiences (DeMares & Krycka, 1998; Keltner & Haidt, 2003; Vining, 2003). 139

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Identity describes how much self-identity is tied to nature and if a person feels oneness with nature. In this case, the at tachment to nature is like attach ment to family. Nature forms a large part of the self and is a large influence on life influencing group and role identities. This aspect of connection to nature is most closely related to deep ecologys concept of nature as a part of self (Naess, 1995). This is supported by Clayton (2003), who found identity to be tied to relationships with nature and connection to nature. Sorrow describes the emotions of sadness and grief felt when thinking about the plight of nature. These feelings apply to both the regret of self-infli cted negative impact to the environment and to societys imp act. It is also related to the frustration felt when environmental issues are not properly addressed. Sorrow is lik ely tied to helplessness and too much sorrow may negatively correlate with behaviors. Sorrow may also be induced not ju st by seeing the harm done, but also to how issues are depicted in the media. Again, the gloom and doom messages portrayed by environmentalists a nd in the media is likely to s tir these feelings. When seeing pictures of oil-soaked and stricken wildlife on the news, sorrow could even be overwhelming and although it is hoped that action will follow, if the negative feelings are too strong, helplessness may be the more likely response. Spirituality describes both nature-based spiritu ality and spiritual feeling that are inspired by spending time in nature. Spirituality is also re lated to experiences of oneness or mystical or self-transcendent experiences, as these experiences are felt as spiritual and inspire spirituality. Spiritual experiences in nature were found in othe r studies to be related to solitude and being in true wilderness areas likely because wilderness, being intrinsically remote, offers more tranquility and the likelihood of solitude (Fredrickson & Anderson, 1999; Heintzman, 2003). 140

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However, in this study and in Snyders (1989) those connected to na ture were able to achieve spiritual experiences in everyday envi ronments, such as home. Wilderness likely facilitates such experiences by providing an e nvironment where the tranquility and solitude needed for some to achieve such states is availa ble, and even to an extent, unavoidable. Consider that other than wilderness and solitude, the othe r aspect thought of as contributing to spiritual experiences in nature is being in a group (Fredrickson & Anderson, 1999; Stringer & McAvoy, 1992). This is likely because being in a group incr eases or speeds the feel ing of comfort in the wilderness, whereas it would be uncomfortable to go into the wilderness alone even though periods of solitude influence spirituality. Group camaraderie also leads to a spiritual connection among the participants and people in general (Fredrickson & Anderson, 1999; St ringer & McAvoy, 1992). Take the analogy of church-goers for example, some may need the ex perience of being in the temple to facilitate spiritual feelings, others the camaraderie of fellow worshippers and yet others, may be so connected to their beliefs, that they feel spirituality in everyd ay situations outside of church. Although, this study did not find a correlation between spirituality and ERB, the Spiritual Experience Funnel model (Fox, 1999) proposes that spiritually transcen dent experiences in wilderness lead to attitude and behavior change. Sp irituality is considered to be a hard to define value or benefit of wilderness that needs mo re study (Driver & Ajze n, 1996; Mannell, 1996). Implications There are several broad implications to outdoor recreation and tourism and to conservation psychology from this body of work. In terms of outdoor recreation, CTN is likely a hard to define benefit of wilderness and other nature-based experiences. CTN could be a benefit people seek for nature-based experiences. As such it ma y benefit managers to evaluate this potential benefit when managing and providing for benefi ts sought. As a benef it people receive from 141

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nature-based experiences, there are implications to how it is related to other benefits such as the psychological benefits of restor ation. Managers could also use the CTN scale to measure the quality of wilderness experiences CTN is also likely related to sense of place and as such may motivate protective behaviors. In terms of motivation, the sense of oneness and other aspects associated with CTN may also proof to be a significant motivator of ERB as discussed earlier. This has implications to managers who wish to address visitor behavior issues such as depreciative behavior and who wish to encourage ERB whether on site or at home. Managers can encourage CTN by providing quality wilderness opportunities such as extended stays or even brief experiences. As illust rated in the qualitative works of relationships with nature conducted and discussed here, experi ence with nature are important in forming a relationship with nature and this relationship leads to a connecti on. Experience with nature and animals were found to be important in other resear ch in leading to enviro nmentalism. This is not surprising as attitudes formed by direct experience are better predictors of behavior than those formed by indirect experience. In addition, attitu des formed by direct expe rience are affectively based, while attitudes formed by indirect expe rience are cognitively ba sed (Millar & Millar, 1996). Indeed, it was found that emotional affinity to nature can often be traced to present and past experiences in nature (Kals et al., 1999). If managers can facilita te CTN experiences and identities than this would be important to th e work of informal education and nature-based tourism. In terms of conservation psychology, models fo r encouraging environmentally responsible behavior. CTN offers a potentially powerful motiv ator that is general in nature. Developing and 142

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encouraging CTN at nature based tourism sites th at are available to people in urban areas, especially those without access to wilderne ss may proof very useful. After all, the mission of many of these sites includes encouraging nature appreciation and environmentally responsible behavi or both on-site and in general. Behaviors that extend outside of the borders of parks and zoos include recyc ling at home and at work, composting, using less fuel, purchasing green products and consuming fe wer non-green goods. Zoos in particular, have encouraging conservation behavior as an essential aspect of th eir missions (AZA, 2004; Stoinski, Allen, Bloomsmith, Forthman, & Maple, 2002). However, the effectiveness of zoos in encouraging conservation behavior has not been well documented (Dierking, Burtnyk, Buchner, & Falk, 2002; Stoinski et al., 2002). The use of this scale may facilitate such documentation. Limitations The purpose of the qualitative study was a thematic analysis to better define connection to nature. Although the results revealed that nature affiliation can begin in adulthood, contrary to many other studies, especially those of Chawla (1998, 1999, 2001), a thorough understanding of this phenomenon was not achieved by this study. The quantitative work in this study that resu lted in the CTN scale, was limited to a convenience sample of university students, theref ore results with other populations, especially older populations may differ. And although the pa rticipant response rate was over 90%, the sample population had so little diversity; it likely is not a good representati on of students at that particular university. In other words, the results are not gene ralizable to other populations. The scale refinement also resulted in deleti ng several items from the final five themes based on this sample. In replication work, it would be advantageous and strongly recommended to keep these items in the study in itially. Factor structure is more readily test ed, as it is more stable, with a larger number of items. 143

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Suggestions for Future Research Suggestions for future research would be to replicate the results of this study to further establish reliability and validity with other samples and populations. Putting the CTN scale in other models of ERB such as Value-Belief Norm Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action is also needed to establish further predictive valid ity. However, if CTN is found to increase the predictive variance in these models, to hold real promise for encouraging ERB, precursors of CTN need to be found through grounded theory that reveals how these rela tionships with nature form. Further quantitative work should also be conducted on the triggers of CTN. One possible precursor or tri gger of CTN is empathy. Empat hy makes inclusiv e identities salient. Triggering self -other inclusion through empathy was found to trigger prosocial behavior or altruism (Cialdini et al., 1997). Schultz (2000) induced feelings of empathy by asking participants to take the perspe ctive of a distressed animal and found that empathy increased biospheric concern. Although identity and fee lings of oneness were not measured, taking perspective and feeling empathy may have made salient participants interconnectedness with nature, by expanding their inclusiven ess of self. Scholars should ex amine if connection to nature can be inspired or triggered by empathy. Therefore, a suggestion for future research would be to trigger empathy and measure whether empathy does make CTN salient. Also, does making CTN salient by triggering empathy result in a corresponding increase in c oncern and intentions to act. One possibility for such research is through em pathy inducing interpretiv e messages at naturebased tourism venues such as parks, zoos and museums. Practical implications for the use of this sc ale would be to see what activities have the possibility to increase connecti on. Do direct experiences with wildlife during educational or tourism experiences lead to an increase in connection? And does this potential increase in connection inspire environmentally responsible behavior? In preliminary research by Pennisi and 144

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Pennington-Gray (2007a), experiences in a walk -through butterfly aviary did result in an increase in connection and an in crease in ERB intentions. This is very promising for naturebased tourism and educational organizations such as parks, zoos, museums and nature centers. In addition, the degree of CTN inspired by differe nt types of exhibits and settings such as planetariums; whale/dolphin watching expeditions, safaris, birding outings, ecotourism lodges, as well as formal and informal environmental ed ucation activities in schools and summer camps. CTN can be used to form a more comprehensive model of ERB. Res earch adding identity to the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior showed a substantial and independent effect for identity. Identity had ne arly the same predictive variance as attitudes (Charng et al., 1988; Sparks & Sh epherd, 1992). Therefore, possibili ties of integrating attitudes and identity measures offer potential (Sparks & Shepherd, 1992). In terms of a model for ERB, a more specific identity measure, such as that contained in the CTN scale as well as the other components of CTN, integrated wi th a specific attitude measures could result in a much more predictive model for ERB. Perhaps, direct experi ences in nature or even instructional messages at nature-based tourism venues can utilize this model and succe ssfully enhance both a persons experience in the natural world, their psyc hological well-being and the environment by increasing environmentally responsible behavior. Table 5-1. Connection to nature themes Initial themes (qualitative) Themes for final scale Appreciation Awe Awe Identity/oneness Caring Restoration Fear Sorrow Identity Spirituality Oneness Fear Restoration Sorrow Spirituality 145

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146 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW LIST

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Table A-1. Males interviewed Name Age S Race/ ethnicity Religion Hunt Fish Occupation Ed Ecology class Urban/ rural Jack 56 M Caucasian 1st generation None N N Grad student BS, MS Y Urban Miami Joe 29 M Native American Longhous e Pagan N Y Environ. Educator BA Rural Allen 41 M Latino Agnostic N Past Sales BS Y Urban Pedro 34 M Hispanic Catholic Past Avid Grad student BS, MS Y Urban Don 31 M Asian None Eastern Influence N N Grad Student B, M Urban Carlos 29 M Hispanic Pantheist N Past Conserv. BS Y Urban Miami Luke 39 M Caucasian Agnostic N N Grad student BS MS Y urban Ned 31 M Black None N N Zoo keeper and Hotel Desk HS Y Inner city Miguel 28 M Hispanic Christian N Y Professor PhD N Urban Miami Lou 31 M Caucasian None N Past Surveyor HS Y Urban Atlanta Vinnie 33 M Caucasian Christian N N Mechanic HS N NY city 147

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148 Table A-2. Females interviewed Name Age S Race/ ethnicity Religion Hunt Fish Occupation Ed Ecology class Urban/ rural Emma 31 F Caucasian Christian N N Notary BS Y Rural Nikki 24 F Caucasian Christian N Y Grad Student BS N Rural Hannah 26 F Caucasian Christian N Y Vet tech HS N Rural farm Jennifer 21 F Caucasian Jewish N Pa st student in coll N Urban Jax Amanda 21 F Caucasian None N N student in coll N Suburban Naomi 19 F Black None N Yes Avid student in coll N Rural Nola 46 F Black Christian N N Sells granola at farmers markets BA N Urban LA Eva 33 F Hispanic None N Past Nurse BS Y Urban Orlando Liz 56 F Caucasian None Once N Special ed teacher BS MA N Urban Breanne 28 F Caucasian Eastern influence N N Environ educator BS MS Y Urban Rosella 46 F Latino Buddhist N N Waitress, yoga instructor M Y Rural Debbie 48 F Caucasian Christian Past Y Secretary HS N Rural Lucy 49 F Caucasian Christian Y Y Secretary HS N Rural Wilma 59 F Caucasian Christian Past Yes Secretary HS N Rural

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APPENDIX B INTERVIEW GUIDE Overall research question: What is your relationship with nature? /* 1. What nature activities do you now and have you participated in? a. Hunting or fishing? b. Backpacking? c. Camping? d. Hiking? e. Gardening? f. Activities like wildlife watching? g. Canoeing/kayaking? h. Swimming in natural settings? i. Walking to enjoy nature? 2. How much time do you spend in nature activities or natural settings in an average month? 3. What does nature mean to you and your life? a. Does nature shape who you are? If so, how? b. Does it remind you of some aspect of who you are? c. Does it change the wa y you live your life? 4. How did you first become interested in nature? a. When was this? How old were you? 5. How would you describe your re lationship with nature? a. Do you feel part of or one with nature and if yes, how so? b. Do you feel connected to na ture and if yes, how so? 6. How does your ethnicity, race or cultural background affect how you feel about nature or your interactions with nature? 7. How do your religious beliefs affect how you feel about nature or your interactions with nature? 8. Can you give me some examples of how your behavior (or daily activities) reflects you relationship/feelings toward nature? 9. Does nature let you express certain behavior s that are important to you and your life? a. Do nature experiences change the way you act in everyday life? b. Are these changes long-lasting? 10. Weve been using the term nature thr oughout our conversation. What does the term nature mean to you? A definition. a. Can you give some examples of things you would and would not consider nature? What is the difference? 149

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11. Describe your most meaningful e xperiences in or with nature? a. What was it like? b. What is about this experience that makes it stand out? 12. Have you had any traumatic nature experi ences? Explain. How di d that affect you? 13. When you think of spending time in natu re, what feelings come to mind? a. Do you spend time in nature to feel peacef ul, relaxed or restored? Please explain. b. When you feel the need to get really re laxed and to rejuvenate yourself what activities come to mind? 14. Do you ever feel deep emotions for nature? a. Describe b. Do these feelings include awe or humility (i .e. feeling part of something larger or feeling small)? c. Do you feel appreciation ? If so, please explain. d. Are these feelings confined to special moments or do they occur every day? 15. Do you consider yourself an environmentalist? a. How so? Or please explain. 16. Throughout this conversation, Ive been tr ying to understand your relationship with nature. Given what weve talked about, is th ere anything else youd like to add to help me understand the importance of nature to who you are? 17. Is there anything else I should have as ked you? Could you answer that question? 150

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APPENDIX C ITEM SCALING Potential Items by Dimension Restoration/Tranquility 1. When I need to relax, I often imagine myself out in nature. 2. Nature is a way to escape all the cars, phones and noise. 3. Spending time in nature gives me a ch ance to reflect and process everything. 4. Listening, being near or being in water is particularly relaxing. 5. I look forward to getting away from the hus tle and bustle and spending time in nature. 6. Its complete stress relief to close my eyes and imagine being in my favorite natural area. 7. I love how tranquil nature can be. 8. Natural areas are a great escape. 9. Spending time in nature is a great way to decompress. 10. My source of rejuvenation is nature. 11. I look to nature when I need to relax. 12. Water is very relaxing and rejuvenating. 13. Time in nature allows all the stress to breaks down, until youre completely at peace. 14. When Im alone in nature, I have this feeling of complete calm. 15. Listening to the wind going thr ough the trees calms your mind. 16. I enjoy taking nature walks to enjoy the quiet. 17. Nature allows me to lose the co mplications Im carrying through life. 18. When surrounded by nature, I feel at peace. 19. Being out in nature, allows me to forget about my worries. 20. When Im upset it helps to commune with nature. 21. Spending time in nature allows me to leave my anxieties behind. 22. Just watching the birds is so relaxing. 23. Watching wildlife helps me clear my mind. 24. Without nature in my life, I would be much more stressed and tense. 25. Listening to the birds is really peaceful. 26. Im not comfortable in nature. 27. When Im hiking I feel carefree, no worries just me and the world. 28. Being in nature is really th e best way for me to relax. 29. Nature is a source for me to decompress and recharge my energies. 30. I enjoy just sitting at a lake or stream and looking out on the water. 31. If I couldnt experience natural areas, Id probably be a lot more moody. Awe/Marvel 1. I have seen sunsets where the colors are truly amazing. 2. When a wild animal allows me to get close or approaches me, its really like a blessing. 3. Sometimes when I look at the stars I feel really small. 4. I have felt like a small part of a really large world. 5. I have had such memorable experiences in nature. 6. Nature is fascinating. 151

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7. The beauty of nature can be overwhelming. 8. I have seen things in nature that are ju st so amazing I cant believe they exist. 9. I feel like theres so little we know about nature and so much we need to learn. 10. I have such awe in nature th at I was at a loss for words. 11. Even everyday nature experiences fill me with awe. 12. Nature has filled me with wonder. 13. Humans are just a small part of something big. 14. I have been mesmerized by aspects of nature. 15. When I look at the stars I think about how sm all the earth is and how small I am on the earth. 16. I am often in awe of animals. 17. Hummingbirds are really amazing. 18. Interaction with nature is humbling. 19. Watching wildlife fills me with awe. 20. The magnitude of nature is awe inspiring. 21. Its such an incredible feeling to be close to wildlife. 22. Seeing majestic scenery has overwhelmed me with emotion. 23. The power of nature is just incredible. 24. I find thunderstorms so amazing that I enjoy watching them. 25. Nature can be breathtakingly beautiful. 26. Nature inspires me to think of things bigger than myself. 27. I have been in awe at both how complex and ye t simple nature is all at the same time. 28. The grandeur of nature has made me feel insignificant at times. 29. I have seen things in nature that were so amazing; they just filled me with awe. Appreciation 1. Nature provides me with an opportunity for discovery. 2. I have a respect for nature. 3. I enjoy watching insects. 4. I am grateful for natures gifts. 5. I appreciate nature. 6. When I look at nature the world makes sense. 7. Nature makes allows me to appreciate a much bigger picture. 8. Without nature, we wouldnt be here. 9. Spending time in nature makes me appreciate life more. 10. I feel a reverence for nature. 11. I appreciate all forms of life. 12. All life forms are an integral part of the web of life. 13. I look forward to spending time in nature. 14. I appreciate the experiences I have out in nature. 15. I am in tough with the values nature provides. 16. I enjoy spending time in nature. 17. I really appreciate just listening to the birds sing. 18. Nature is life a great gift. 19. Nature is really special. 152

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20. Nature should be cherished. 21. I love the simplicity of the outdoors. 22. Being immersed in nature is such a great feeling. 23. I am really attracted to natural settings. 24. I enjoy watching wildlife. 25. I take the time to stop and smell the roses. 26. I admire the beauty of nature. 27. I welcome time spent in nature. 28. The variety in nature is wonderful. 29. I just enjoy experiencing nature. 30. I try to honor nature. 31. Nature brings me great joy. 32. Being out in nature makes me happy. 33. Without nature, there would be no life. 34. Nature is the most important thing all hu mans have in common with one another. Oneness 1. I would like to one day live in a natural area, surrounded by nature. 2. I consider myself to be part of nature. 3. One of the things I look forward to th e most is spending time in nature. 4. You cannot separate humans from nature. 5. Smelling flowers, hearing animal sounds, and feeling the wind make s me feel connected to nature. 6. To me nature is a friend whos always there. 7. Ive had experiences in nature wh ere Ive lost my sense of self. 8. Humans are separate from nature. 9. I try to spend time in nature every day. 10. I have been overwhelmed with emotions when in nature. 11. Nature is part of who I am. 12. People are completely dependent on nature. 13. I feel a deep connect ion toward nature. 14. I am connected to nature much like Im connected to my family. 15. I have things in my office to remind me of nature. 16. I would have a hard time livi ng in a city where nature wa s not part of my life. 17. Ive had amazing experiences where I felt like part of the trees and everything around me. 18. I feel I have an intimate relationship with nature. 19. I do not feel connected to nature. 20. Spending time in nature is not my idea of fun. 21. I have never felt like I truly belong in nature. 22. I would be very unhappy without nature in my life. 23. People are part of the web of life. 24. I like to commune with animals and plants. 25. I have had really peaceful, merging expe riences where I feel one with nature. 153

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Sorrow 1. I feel sorrow because of the rate were destroying nature. 2. I regret the impacts I have on nature. 3. I wish I could have less of a negative impact on nature. 4. Other peoples nonchalant attitudes toward th e destruction of nature bothers me. 5. Seeing people destroying nature disturbs me. 6. It is upsetting when people want to sw eep environmental problems under the rug. 7. When people dont think about the long term im pacts of their actions on nature it upsets me. 8. Sometimes I think I need to do more to help nature. 9. I dont think theres any impact on nature from what I do. 10. I hate to see when theyve cut a bunch of trees down to build something. 11. Seeing dead animals in the road is really heartbreaking. 12. In some ways, I have a really sad relationship with nature. 13. Seeing how much nature is being de stroyed kind of digs at my soul. 14. It is so depressing to see all the deve lopment and realize what weve lost. 15. Seeing the animals suffer from an oil spill is really very sad. 16. The thought of tearing up Alaska to drill oil makes me upset. 17. I get really upset when I see people hurt nature. 18. Sometimes, I think our environmental problems are so vast that its just hopeless. 19. The rate at which people are devouring nature is tragic. 20. When I think about how much of the w ild is gone forever, I get depressed. 21. I wish I could live more in harmony with nature. 22. I wish I could substantially reduce my impact on the environment. 23. I hate to see trash out in nature. 24. Its sad when people dont even make the effort to recycle. Caring Behaviors 1. I recycle as much as I can. 2. I am very conscious about trying to re duce the amount of electricity I use. 3. I really want to try to prot ect nature as best as I can. 4. My daily decision making is shaped by my environmental mindset. 5. I try hard to cut down on waste. 6. I have a strong desire to give back to nature. 7. I try to influence others to love and care for nature. 8. I buy organic food to lessen my impact on the environment. 9. Many of my consumer or purchasing decisions are made with the environment in mind. 10. I am careful not to litter in nature. 11. I compost all of my organic waste. 12. I have many routine activities that I do to lesson my impact on nature. 13. I love of nature influences my political views. 14. My concern for the environment influences how I vote. 15. I care about how environmental issues are handled. 16. I try to curb how much I drive. 154

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17. I feel I have a responsibil ity to care for nature. 18. I support environmental policies. 19. I am careful to properly dispose of hazardous waste. 20. I have been using compact fluorescent bulbs to cut down on energy use. 21. I only recycle when it is available. 22. I think reducing my consumption is one of th e most important things I can do to help nature. 23. I try not to waste water. 24. I have volunteered for nature, animal or environmental organizations. 25. I have participated in cleanups or exotic plant round-ups. 26. It really feels good to help nature and wildlife. 27. Conservation is always on my mind. 28. I am careful not to trash nature. 29. I am an advocate for nature. 30. I really want to make a positive impact for nature. 31. I try to reduce the amount of chemicals I use. 32. I try to never use pesticides. 33. I buy local produce when available. 34. I think we really need to support re newable energy like solar and wind. Spirituality 1. I have had spiritual moving experiences in nature. 2. Nature is a great place to worship. 3. Nature is from the divine. 4. I honor the earth. 5. I have spiritual feelings that are nature-based. 6. I have had spiritual revelations in nature. 7. Knowing nature is of creation makes it more beautiful to me. 8. I focus my spirituality on nature. 9. I see all things in na ture as having spirit. 10. Through nature I feel I can communicate with Spirit or God. 11. Nature provides me with a spiritual connection. 12. There are natural areas th at I feel are sacred. 13. Nature is a gift from God. 14. My feelings for nature have influenced my religion. 15. I do not believe that God put natu re here for us to destroy. 16. I have had amazing mystical in nature. 17. Nature is it; it is the source of all life. 18. Nature provides a way to connect with God or Spirit. 19. I can see the divine in all life. 20. Nature provides a way to c onnect with all of life. 21. Feeling part of nature is a spiritual experience. 22. Nature is God. 23. Without nature I would feel a spiritual void. 24. Nature helps me to find peace and reach peace and a higher understanding. 25. Communing with nature is a gr eat form of spirituality. 155

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Identity 1. I am more comfortable in nature than in a city. 2. When Im out in nature, I feel like I can be my true self. 3. Its such a comforting fee ling to be out in nature. 4. I would describe myself as earth-connected. 5. I am a nature-lover. 6. My relationship with nature is very important to me. 7. Nature is a big part of me. 8. Nature helps me express myself more freely. 9. Spending time in nature helps to bring out my inner self. 10. Nature is peaceful and calm and thats how I see myself. 11. Nature helps bring out aspects of my personality. 12. My core being is someone who really loves nature. 13. Nature helps form who I am. 14. My feelings for nature influence my interactions with others. 15. I want nature to be a pa rt of my everyday life. 16. I couldnt live somewhere where I had little contact with nature. 17. I feel this call or need to be around nature as much as possible. 18. Nature inspires many aspects of my life. 19. My feelings toward nature have influenced my career choice. 20. Nature helps me find meaning in my life. 21. I am an environmentalist. 22. I feed the birds to bring th em into my daily life. 23. I like to experience nature daily. 24. My feelings toward nature form a big part of my identity. 25. My love for nature is a big influence in my life. 26. Most of my hobbies are nature-based. 27. Nature is a huge part of who I am. Fear/alienation 1. I feel a lack of control when out in nature. 2. I am fearful of many aspects of nature. 3. I do not understand nature that well. 4. I dont want to be out in nature because of the bugs. 5. Nature is dirty and gross. 6. I have trouble relaxing when in the wilderness. 7. Some aspects of nature, like snakes, really freak me out. 8. I have too much fear of nature to go camping. 9. Im nervous about wildlife. 10. I have had traumatic nature experiences that make me uncomfortable in certain natural areas. 11. I avoid certain areas or aspects of nature. 12. Nature to me is Motel 6. 13. I dont enjoy being out in nature. 156

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14. Nature is just not my cup of tea. 15. I would rather go shopping than spend time in nature. 16. Spending time in nature is boring. 17. I think spending days backpacking in the wilderness would be awful. 18. I do not want any wild animal to come near me. 19. I am afraid of wildlife. 20. Nature is just disgusting. 21. Bugs serve no purpose. 22. I would rather live in the city than in a rural area. 23. I cant imagine living in the country. 24. I am a city person. 25. I would rather play videos or watch TV than be out in nature. 26. I would never enjoy walking in the rain. 27. I dont understand those natu ral types who spend all their time in nature. 28. People are much more important that animals. 29. I can live without nature just fine. 30. A lot of nature just scares me. 31. Hiking in the woods would make me nervous. 32. If I went hiking, I would be too afraid of all the bugs and snakes to enjoy myself. 157

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APPENDIX D SURVEY SECTIONS Section 1: Mayer & Frantz (2004) Connectedness to Nature Scale; Section 2: Sample items that will be devel oped to form the new scale (therefore these items will change based on interviews); Section 3: Schwartz's (1992) self-enhancement and self-transcendent value domains; Section 4: Identity measures taken from various studies previously mentioned (Charng et al., 1988; Hitlin, 2003; Stets & Biga, 2003); Section 5: A modified ERBI from Smith-Seb asto (1995) (these it ems may change based on the interviews); Section 6: Crowne-Marlowe (1960) s hort social desira bility scale; Section 7: Stern's (1999, 2000) VBN incl uding the items used from NEP. 158

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APPENDIX E LIST OF SURVEYS WITH SECTIONS Survey B : Survey with behavioral items Survey Sections: Section 2: Sample items that will be deve loped to form the new scale (therefore these items will change based on interviews); Section 6: Crowne-Marlowe (1960) short social desi rability scale; Section 5: A modified ERBI from Smith-S ebasto (1995) (these items may change based on the interviews); Survey V : Survey with value items Survey Sections: Section 2: Sample items that will be deve loped to form the new scale (therefore these items will change based on interviews); Section 6: Crowne-Marlowe (1960) short social desi rability scale; Section 3: Schwartz's (1992) self-enh ancement and self-transcendent value domains; Survey I : Survey with identity items Survey Sections: Section 2: Sample items that will be deve loped to form the new scale (therefore these items will change based on interviews); Section 6: Crowne-Marlowe (1960) short social desi rability scale; Section 4: Identity measures taken from various studies previously mentioned (Charng et al., 1988; Hitli n, 2003; Stets & Biga, 2003); Survey C : Survey with CNS items Survey Sections: Section 2: Sample items that will be deve loped to form the new scale (therefore these items will change based on interviews); Section 6: Crowne-Marlowe (1960) short social desi rability scale; Section 1: Mayer & Frantz (2004 ) Connectedness to Nature Scale; 159

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lisa Pennisi received her bachelors degr ee in psychology (with an emphasis in social psychology) from the University of Central Florida in Orlando. She went on to do graduate work in social psychology at Miami University, Ohio At that time an interest in conservation psychology emerged. Her research interests focused on self and collective efficacy and their role in behavior change. However, she suspended a career in academia to learn about natural resources and environmental science and pursue work in applied settings. Lisa received a Master of Environmental Science degree with in em phasis on public information/mass communication and education from Miami University. Social psychology became a minor. After working in the field as a naturalist, educator and nature center manager, Lisa returned to graduate school to pursue further education in the human dimens ions of natural resource management and sustainable tourism. 172